Science.gov

Sample records for additional analyses suggest

  1. Suggestions for presenting the results of data analyses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, D.R.; Link, W.A.; Johnson, D.H.; Burnham, K.P.

    2001-01-01

    We give suggestions for the presentation of research results from frequentist, information-theoretic, and Bayesian analysis paradigms, followed by several general suggestions. The information-theoretic and Bayesian methods offer alternative approaches to data analysis and inference compared to traditionally used methods. Guidance is lacking on the presentation of results under these alternative procedures and on nontesting aspects of classical frequentist methods of statistical analysis. Null hypothesis testing has come under intense criticism. We recommend less reporting of the results of statistical tests of null hypotheses in cases where the null is surely false anyway, or where the null hypothesis is of little interest to science or management.

  2. Suggestions for presenting the results of data analyses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, D.R.; Link, W.A.; Johnson, D.H.; Burnham, K.P.

    2001-01-01

    We give suggestions for the presentation of research results from frequentist, information-theoretic, and Bayesian analysis paradigms, followed by several general suggestions. The information-theoretic and Bayesian methods offer alternative approaches to data analysis and inference compared to traditionally used methods. Guidance is lacking on the presentation of results under these alternative procedures and on nontesting aspects of classical frequentists methods of statistical analysis. Null hypothesis testing has come under intense criticism. We recommend less reporting of the results of statistical tests of null hypotheses in cases where the null is surely false anyway, or where the null hypothesis is of little interest to science or management.

  3. Cucumis monosomic alien addition lines: morphological, cytological, and genotypic analyses.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jin-Feng; Luo, Xiang-Dong; Qian, Chun-Tao; Jahn, Molly M; Staub, Jack E; Zhuang, Fei-Yun; Lou, Qun-Feng; Ren, Gang

    2004-05-01

    Cucumis hystrix Chakr. (HH, 2n=24), a wild relative of the cultivated cucumber, possesses several potentially valuable disease-resistance and abiotic stress-tolerance traits for cucumber ( C. sativus L., CC, 2n=14) improvement. Numerous attempts have been made to transfer desirable traits since the successful interspecific hybridization between C. hystrix and C. sativus, one of which resulted in the production of an allotriploid (HCC, 2n=26: one genome of C. hystrix and two of C. sativus). When this genotype was treated with colchicine to induce polyploidy, two monosomic alien addition lines (MAALs) (plant nos. 87 and 517: 14 CC+1 H, 2n=15) were recovered among 252 viable plants. Each of these plants was morphologically distinct from allotriploids and cultivated cucumbers. Cytogenetic and molecular marker analyses were performed to confirm the genetic constitution and further characterize these two MAALs. Chromosome counts made from at least 30 meristematic cells from each plant confirmed 15 nuclear chromosomes. In pollen mother cells of plant nos. 87 and 517, seven bivalents and one univalent were observed at diakinesis and metaphase I; the frequency of trivalent formation was low (about 4-5%). At anaphase I and II, stochastic and asymmetric division led to the formation of two gamete classes: n=7 and n=8; however, pollen fertility was relatively high. Pollen stainability in plant no. 87 was 86.7% and in plant no. 517 was 93.2%. Random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis was performed using 100 random 10-base primers. Genotypes obtained with eight primers (A-9, A-11, AH-13, AI-19, AJ-18, AJ-20, E-19, and N-20) showed a band common to the two MAAL plants and C. hystrix that was absent in C. sativus, confirming that the alien chromosomes present in the MAALs were derived from C. hystrix. Morphological differences and differences in banding patterns were also observed between plant nos. 87 and 517 after amplification with primers AI-5, AJ-13, N-12, and N-20

  4. Phylogenetic analyses of endoparasitic Acanthocephala based on mitochondrial genomes suggest secondary loss of sensory organs.

    PubMed

    Weber, Mathias; Wey-Fabrizius, Alexandra R; Podsiadlowski, Lars; Witek, Alexander; Schill, Ralph O; Sugár, László; Herlyn, Holger; Hankeln, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    The metazoan taxon Syndermata (Monogononta, Bdelloidea, Seisonidea, Acanthocephala) comprises species with vastly different lifestyles. The focus of this study is on the phylogeny within the syndermatan subtaxon Acanthocephala (thorny-headed worms, obligate endoparasites). In order to investigate the controversially discussed phylogenetic relationships of acanthocephalan subtaxa we have sequenced the mitochondrial (mt) genomes of Echinorhynchus truttae (Palaeacanthocephala), Paratenuisentis ambiguus (Eoacanthocephala), Macracanthorhynchus hirudinaceus (Archiacanthocephala), and Philodina citrina (Bdelloidea). In doing so, we present the largest molecular phylogenetic dataset so far for this question comprising all major subgroups of Acanthocephala. Alongside with publicly available mt genome data of four additional syndermatans as well as 18 other lophotrochozoan (spiralian) taxa and one outgroup representative, the derived protein-coding sequences were used for Maximum Likelihood as well as Bayesian phylogenetic analyses. We achieved entirely congruent results, whereupon monophyletic Archiacanthocephala represent the sister taxon of a clade comprising Eoacanthocephala and monophyletic Palaeacanthocephala (Echinorhynchida). This topology suggests the secondary loss of lateral sensory organs (sensory pores) within Palaeacanthocephala and is further in line with the emergence of apical sensory organs in the stem lineage of Archiacanthocephala.

  5. Fine-scale genetic structure analyses suggest further male than female dispersal in mountain gorillas

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Molecular studies in social mammals rarely compare the inferences gained from genetic analyses with field information, especially in the context of dispersal. In this study, we used genetic data to elucidate sex-specific dispersal dynamics in the Virunga Massif mountain gorilla population (Gorilla beringei beringei), a primate species characterized by routine male and female dispersal from stable mixed-sex social groups. Specifically, we conducted spatial genetic structure analyses for each sex and linked our genetically-based observations with some key demographic and behavioural data from this population. Results To investigate the spatial genetic structure of mountain gorillas, we analysed the genotypes of 193 mature individuals at 11 microsatellite loci by means of isolation-by-distance and spatial autocorrelation analyses. Although not all males and females disperse, female gorillas displayed an isolation-by-distance pattern among groups and a signal of dispersal at short distances from their natal group based on spatial autocorrelation analyses. In contrast, male genotypes were not correlated with spatial distance, thus suggesting a larger mean dispersal distance for males as compared to females. Both within sex and mixed-sex pairs were on average genetically more related within groups than among groups. Conclusions Our study provides evidence for an intersexual difference in dispersal distance in the mountain gorilla. Overall, it stresses the importance of investigating spatial genetic structure patterns on a sex-specific basis to better understand the dispersal dynamics of the species under investigation. It is currently poorly understood why some male and female gorillas disperse while others remain in the natal group. Our results on average relatedness within and across groups confirm that groups often contain close relatives. While inbreeding avoidance may play a role in driving female dispersal, we note that more detailed dyadic genetic

  6. Mitochondrial Genome Analyses Suggest Multiple Trichuris Species in Humans, Baboons, and Pigs from Different Geographical Regions

    PubMed Central

    Hawash, Mohamed B. F.; Andersen, Lee O.; Gasser, Robin B.; Stensvold, Christen Rune; Nejsum, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Background The whipworms Trichuris trichiura and Trichuris suis are two parasitic nematodes of humans and pigs, respectively. Although whipworms in human and non-human primates historically have been referred to as T. trichiura, recent reports suggest that several Trichuris spp. are found in primates. Methods and Findings We sequenced and annotated complete mitochondrial genomes of Trichuris recovered from a human in Uganda, an olive baboon in the US, a hamadryas baboon in Denmark, and two pigs from Denmark and Uganda. Comparative analyses using other published mitochondrial genomes of Trichuris recovered from a human and a porcine host in China and from a françois’ leaf-monkey (China) were performed, including phylogenetic analyses and pairwise genetic and amino acid distances. Genetic and protein distances between human Trichuris in Uganda and China were high (~19% and 15%, respectively) suggesting that they represented different species. Trichuris from the olive baboon in US was genetically related to human Trichuris in China, while the other from the hamadryas baboon in Denmark was nearly identical to human Trichuris from Uganda. Baboon-derived Trichuris was genetically distinct from Trichuris from françois’ leaf monkey, suggesting multiple whipworm species circulating among non-human primates. The genetic and protein distances between pig Trichuris from Denmark and other regions were roughly 9% and 6%, respectively, while Chinese and Ugandan whipworms were more closely related. Conclusion and Significance Our results indicate that Trichuris species infecting humans and pigs are phylogenetically distinct across geographical regions, which might have important implications for the implementation of suitable and effective control strategies in different regions. Moreover, we provide support for the hypothesis that Trichuris infecting primates represents a complex of cryptic species with some species being able to infect both humans and non-human primates

  7. Stable isotope and signature fatty acid analyses suggest reef manta rays feed on demersal zooplankton.

    PubMed

    Couturier, Lydie I E; Rohner, Christoph A; Richardson, Anthony J; Marshall, Andrea D; Jaine, Fabrice R A; Bennett, Michael B; Townsend, Kathy A; Weeks, Scarla J; Nichols, Peter D

    2013-01-01

    Assessing the trophic role and interaction of an animal is key to understanding its general ecology and dynamics. Conventional techniques used to elucidate diet, such as stomach content analysis, are not suitable for large threatened marine species. Non-lethal sampling combined with biochemical methods provides a practical alternative for investigating the feeding ecology of these species. Stable isotope and signature fatty acid analyses of muscle tissue were used for the first time to examine assimilated diet of the reef manta ray Manta alfredi, and were compared with different zooplankton functional groups (i.e. near-surface zooplankton collected during manta ray feeding events and non-feeding periods, epipelagic zooplankton, demersal zooplankton and several different zooplankton taxa). Stable isotope δ(15)N values confirmed that the reef manta ray is a secondary consumer. This species had relatively high levels of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) indicating a flagellate-based food source in the diet, which likely reflects feeding on DHA-rich near-surface and epipelagic zooplankton. However, high levels of ω6 polyunsaturated fatty acids and slightly enriched δ(13)C values in reef manta ray tissue suggest that they do not feed solely on pelagic zooplankton, but rather obtain part of their diet from another origin. The closest match was with demersal zooplankton, suggesting it is an important component of the reef manta ray diet. The ability to feed on demersal zooplankton is likely linked to the horizontal and vertical movement patterns of this giant planktivore. These new insights into the habitat use and feeding ecology of the reef manta ray will assist in the effective evaluation of its conservation needs.

  8. Stable Isotope and Signature Fatty Acid Analyses Suggest Reef Manta Rays Feed on Demersal Zooplankton

    PubMed Central

    Couturier, Lydie I. E.; Rohner, Christoph A.; Richardson, Anthony J.; Marshall, Andrea D.; Jaine, Fabrice R. A.; Bennett, Michael B.; Townsend, Kathy A.; Weeks, Scarla J.; Nichols, Peter D.

    2013-01-01

    Assessing the trophic role and interaction of an animal is key to understanding its general ecology and dynamics. Conventional techniques used to elucidate diet, such as stomach content analysis, are not suitable for large threatened marine species. Non-lethal sampling combined with biochemical methods provides a practical alternative for investigating the feeding ecology of these species. Stable isotope and signature fatty acid analyses of muscle tissue were used for the first time to examine assimilated diet of the reef manta ray Manta alfredi, and were compared with different zooplankton functional groups (i.e. near-surface zooplankton collected during manta ray feeding events and non-feeding periods, epipelagic zooplankton, demersal zooplankton and several different zooplankton taxa). Stable isotope δ15N values confirmed that the reef manta ray is a secondary consumer. This species had relatively high levels of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) indicating a flagellate-based food source in the diet, which likely reflects feeding on DHA-rich near-surface and epipelagic zooplankton. However, high levels of ω6 polyunsaturated fatty acids and slightly enriched δ13C values in reef manta ray tissue suggest that they do not feed solely on pelagic zooplankton, but rather obtain part of their diet from another origin. The closest match was with demersal zooplankton, suggesting it is an important component of the reef manta ray diet. The ability to feed on demersal zooplankton is likely linked to the horizontal and vertical movement patterns of this giant planktivore. These new insights into the habitat use and feeding ecology of the reef manta ray will assist in the effective evaluation of its conservation needs. PMID:24167562

  9. Morphological analyses suggest a new taxonomic circumscription for Hymenaea courbaril L. (Leguminosae, Caesalpinioideae).

    PubMed

    Souza, Isys Mascarenhas; Funch, Ligia Silveira; de Queiroz, Luciano Paganucci

    2014-01-01

    Hymenaea is a genus of the Resin-producing Clade of the tribe Detarieae (Leguminosae: Caesalpinioideae) with 14 species. Hymenaea courbaril is the most widespread species of the genus, ranging from southern Mexico to southeastern Brazil. As currently circumscribed, Hymenaea courbaril is a polytypic species with six varieties: var. altissima, var. courbaril, var. longifolia, var. stilbocarpa, var. subsessilis, and var. villosa. These varieties are distinguishable mostly by traits related to leaflet shape and indumentation, and calyx indumentation. We carried out morphometric analyses of 14 quantitative (continuous) leaf characters in order to assess the taxonomy of Hymenaea courbaril under the Unified Species Concept framework. Cluster analysis used the Unweighted Pair Group Method with Arithmetic Mean (UPGMA) based on Bray-Curtis dissimilarity matrices. Principal Component Analyses (PCA) were carried out based on the same morphometric matrix. Two sets of Analyses of Similarity and Non Parametric Multivariate Analysis of Variance were carried out to evaluate statistical support (1) for the major groups recovered using UPGMA and PCA, and (2) for the varieties. All analyses recovered three major groups coincident with (1) var. altissima, (2) var. longifolia, and (3) all other varieties. These results, together with geographical and habitat information, were taken as evidence of three separate metapopulation lineages recognized here as three distinct species. Nomenclatural adjustments, including reclassifying formerly misapplied types, are proposed.

  10. Morphological analyses suggest a new taxonomic circumscription for Hymenaea courbaril L. (Leguminosae, Caesalpinioideae)

    PubMed Central

    Souza, Isys Mascarenhas; Funch, Ligia Silveira; de Queiroz, Luciano Paganucci

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Hymenaea is a genus of the Resin-producing Clade of the tribe Detarieae (Leguminosae: Caesalpinioideae) with 14 species. Hymenaea courbaril is the most widespread species of the genus, ranging from southern Mexico to southeastern Brazil. As currently circumscribed, Hymenaea courbaril is a polytypic species with six varieties: var. altissima, var. courbaril, var. longifolia, var. stilbocarpa, var. subsessilis, and var. villosa. These varieties are distinguishable mostly by traits related to leaflet shape and indumentation, and calyx indumentation. We carried out morphometric analyses of 14 quantitative (continuous) leaf characters in order to assess the taxonomy of Hymenaea courbaril under the Unified Species Concept framework. Cluster analysis used the Unweighted Pair Group Method with Arithmetic Mean (UPGMA) based on Bray-Curtis dissimilarity matrices. Principal Component Analyses (PCA) were carried out based on the same morphometric matrix. Two sets of Analyses of Similarity and Non Parametric Multivariate Analysis of Variance were carried out to evaluate statistical support (1) for the major groups recovered using UPGMA and PCA, and (2) for the varieties. All analyses recovered three major groups coincident with (1) var. altissima, (2) var. longifolia, and (3) all other varieties. These results, together with geographical and habitat information, were taken as evidence of three separate metapopulation lineages recognized here as three distinct species. Nomenclatural adjustments, including reclassifying formerly misapplied types, are proposed. PMID:25009440

  11. Evolutionary Analyses Suggest a Function of MxB Immunity Proteins Beyond Lentivirus Restriction

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Patrick S.; Young, Janet M.; Emerman, Michael; Malik, Harmit S.

    2015-01-01

    Viruses impose diverse and dynamic challenges on host defenses. Diversifying selection of codons and gene copy number variation are two hallmarks of genetic innovation in antiviral genes engaged in host-virus genetic conflicts. The myxovirus resistance (Mx) genes encode interferon-inducible GTPases that constitute a major arm of the cell-autonomous defense against viral infection. Unlike the broad antiviral activity of MxA, primate MxB was recently shown to specifically inhibit lentiviruses including HIV-1. We carried out detailed evolutionary analyses to investigate whether genetic conflict with lentiviruses has shaped MxB evolution in primates. We found strong evidence for diversifying selection in the MxB N-terminal tail, which contains molecular determinants of MxB anti-lentivirus specificity. However, we found no overlap between previously-mapped residues that dictate lentiviral restriction and those that have evolved under diversifying selection. Instead, our findings are consistent with MxB having a long-standing and important role in the interferon response to viral infection against a broader range of pathogens than is currently appreciated. Despite its critical role in host innate immunity, we also uncovered multiple functional losses of MxB during mammalian evolution, either by pseudogenization or by gene conversion from MxA genes. Thus, although the majority of mammalian genomes encode two Mx genes, this apparent stasis masks the dramatic effects that recombination and diversifying selection have played in shaping the evolutionary history of Mx genes. Discrepancies between our study and previous publications highlight the need to account for recombination in analyses of positive selection, as well as the importance of using sequence datasets with appropriate depth of divergence. Our study also illustrates that evolutionary analyses of antiviral gene families are critical towards understanding molecular principles that govern host-virus interactions and

  12. Evolutionary Analyses Suggest a Function of MxB Immunity Proteins Beyond Lentivirus Restriction.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Patrick S; Young, Janet M; Emerman, Michael; Malik, Harmit S

    2015-12-01

    Viruses impose diverse and dynamic challenges on host defenses. Diversifying selection of codons and gene copy number variation are two hallmarks of genetic innovation in antiviral genes engaged in host-virus genetic conflicts. The myxovirus resistance (Mx) genes encode interferon-inducible GTPases that constitute a major arm of the cell-autonomous defense against viral infection. Unlike the broad antiviral activity of MxA, primate MxB was recently shown to specifically inhibit lentiviruses including HIV-1. We carried out detailed evolutionary analyses to investigate whether genetic conflict with lentiviruses has shaped MxB evolution in primates. We found strong evidence for diversifying selection in the MxB N-terminal tail, which contains molecular determinants of MxB anti-lentivirus specificity. However, we found no overlap between previously-mapped residues that dictate lentiviral restriction and those that have evolved under diversifying selection. Instead, our findings are consistent with MxB having a long-standing and important role in the interferon response to viral infection against a broader range of pathogens than is currently appreciated. Despite its critical role in host innate immunity, we also uncovered multiple functional losses of MxB during mammalian evolution, either by pseudogenization or by gene conversion from MxA genes. Thus, although the majority of mammalian genomes encode two Mx genes, this apparent stasis masks the dramatic effects that recombination and diversifying selection have played in shaping the evolutionary history of Mx genes. Discrepancies between our study and previous publications highlight the need to account for recombination in analyses of positive selection, as well as the importance of using sequence datasets with appropriate depth of divergence. Our study also illustrates that evolutionary analyses of antiviral gene families are critical towards understanding molecular principles that govern host-virus interactions and

  13. Analyses of soft tissue from Tyrannosaurus rex suggest the presence of protein.

    PubMed

    Schweitzer, Mary Higby; Suo, Zhiyong; Avci, Recep; Asara, John M; Allen, Mark A; Arce, Fernando Teran; Horner, John R

    2007-04-13

    We performed multiple analyses of Tyrannosaurus rex (specimen MOR 1125) fibrous cortical and medullary tissues remaining after demineralization. The results indicate that collagen I, the main organic component of bone, has been preserved in low concentrations in these tissues. The findings were independently confirmed by mass spectrometry. We propose a possible chemical pathway that may contribute to this preservation. The presence of endogenous protein in dinosaur bone may validate hypotheses about evolutionary relationships, rates, and patterns of molecular change and degradation, as well as the chemical stability of molecules over time.

  14. Evolutionary Genomics Suggests That CheV Is an Additional Adaptor for Accommodating Specific Chemoreceptors within the Chemotaxis Signaling Complex.

    PubMed

    Ortega, Davi R; Zhulin, Igor B

    2016-02-01

    Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica are models for many experiments in molecular biology including chemotaxis, and most of the results obtained with one organism have been generalized to another. While most components of the chemotaxis pathway are strongly conserved between the two species, Salmonella genomes contain some chemoreceptors and an additional protein, CheV, that are not found in E. coli. The role of CheV was examined in distantly related species Bacillus subtilis and Helicobacter pylori, but its role in bacterial chemotaxis is still not well understood. We tested a hypothesis that in enterobacteria CheV functions as an additional adaptor linking the CheA kinase to certain types of chemoreceptors that cannot be effectively accommodated by the universal adaptor CheW. Phylogenetic profiling, genomic context and comparative protein sequence analyses suggested that CheV interacts with specific domains of CheA and chemoreceptors from an orthologous group exemplified by the Salmonella McpC protein. Structural consideration of the conservation patterns suggests that CheV and CheW share the same binding spot on the chemoreceptor structure, but have some affinity bias towards chemoreceptors from different orthologous groups. Finally, published experimental results and data newly obtained via comparative genomics support the idea that CheV functions as a "phosphate sink" possibly to off-set the over-stimulation of the kinase by certain types of chemoreceptors. Overall, our results strongly suggest that CheV is an additional adaptor for accommodating specific chemoreceptors within the chemotaxis signaling complex.

  15. Evolutionary genomics suggests that CheV is an additional adaptor for accommodating specific chemoreceptors within the chemotaxis signaling complex

    DOE PAGES

    Ortega, Davi R.; Zhulin, Igor B.; Punta, Marco

    2016-02-04

    Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica are models for many experiments in molecular biology including chemotaxis, and most of the results obtained with one organism have been generalized to another. While most components of the chemotaxis pathway are strongly conserved between the two species, Salmonella genomes contain some chemoreceptors and an additional protein, CheV, that are not found in E. coli. The role of CheV was examined in distantly related species Bacillus subtilis and Helicobacter pylori, but its role in bacterial chemotaxis is still not well understood. We tested a hypothesis that in enterobacteria CheV functions as an additional adaptor linkingmore » the CheA kinase to certain types of chemoreceptors that cannot be effectively accommodated by the universal adaptor CheW. Phylogenetic profiling, genomic context and comparative protein sequence analyses suggested that CheV interacts with specific domains of CheA and chemoreceptors from an orthologous group exemplified by the Salmonella McpC protein. Structural consideration of the conservation patterns suggests that CheV and CheW share the same binding spot on the chemoreceptor structure, but have some affinity bias towards chemoreceptors from different orthologous groups. Finally, published experimental results and data newly obtained via comparative genomics support the idea that CheV functions as a "phosphate sink" possibly to off-set the over-stimulation of the kinase by certain types of chemoreceptors. Altogether, our results strongly suggest that CheV is an additional adaptor for accommodating specific chemoreceptors within the chemotaxis signaling complex.« less

  16. Microarray and bioinformatic analyses suggest models for carbon metabolism in the autotroph Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans

    SciTech Connect

    C. Appia-ayme; R. Quatrini; Y. Denis; F. Denizot; S. Silver; F. Roberto; F. Veloso; J. Valdes; J. P. Cardenas; M. Esparza; O. Orellana; E. Jedlicki; V. Bonnefoy; D. Holmes

    2006-09-01

    Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans is a chemolithoautotrophic bacterium that uses iron or sulfur as an energy and electron source. Bioinformatic analysis was used to identify putative genes and potential metabolic pathways involved in CO2 fixation, 2P-glycolate detoxification, carboxysome formation and glycogen utilization in At. ferrooxidans. Microarray transcript profiling was carried out to compare the relative expression of the predicted genes of these pathways when the microorganism was grown in the presence of iron versus sulfur. Several gene expression patterns were confirmed by real-time PCR. Genes for each of the above predicted pathways were found to be organized into discrete clusters. Clusters exhibited differential gene expression depending on the presence of iron or sulfur in the medium. Concordance of gene expression within each cluster, suggested that they are operons Most notably, clusters of genes predicted to be involved in CO2 fixation, carboxysome formation, 2P-glycolate detoxification and glycogen biosynthesis were up-regulated in sulfur medium, whereas genes involved in glycogen utilization were preferentially expressed in iron medium. These results can be explained in terms of models of gene regulation that suggest how A. ferrooxidans can adjust its central carbon management to respond to changing environmental conditions.

  17. Comparative analyses suggest that information transfer promoted sociality in male bats in the temperate zone.

    PubMed

    Safi, Kamran; Kerth, Gerald

    2007-09-01

    The evolution of sociality is a central theme in evolutionary biology. The vast majority of bats are social, which has been explained in terms of the benefits of communal breeding. However, the causes for segregated male groups remain unknown. In a comparative study, we tested whether diet and morphological adaptations to specific foraging styles, two factors known to influence the occurrence of information transfer, can predict male sociality. Our results suggest that the species most likely to benefit from information transfer--namely, those preying on ephemeral insects and with morphological adaptations to feeding in open habitat--are more likely to form male groups. Our findings also indicate that solitary life was the ancestral state of males and sociality evolved in several lineages. Beyond their significance for explaining the existence of male groups in bats, our findings highlight the importance of information transfer in the evolution of animal sociality.

  18. Sequence analyses of herpesviral enzymes suggest an ancient origin for human sexual behavior.

    PubMed Central

    Gentry, G A; Lowe, M; Alford, G; Nevins, R

    1988-01-01

    Comparison of the amino acid sequences of the deoxythymidine kinases of herpes simplex (HSV) and of marmoset herpes viruses (MHV) suggests a divergence time of 8 to 10 million years ago for HSV-1 and -2. Like MHV, HSV-1 and -2 cause local infections in their natural hosts, and direct contact between two individuals during the brief period of infectivity is needed for transmission. Because B virus, a nearer relative of HSV, depends on both oral and genital routes of transmission, we postulate that ancestral HSV (aHSV) was similar, and that for HSV-1 and -2 to diverge, genital and oral sites had to become microbiologically somewhat isolated from each other, while oral--oral and genital--genital contact had to be facilitated to maintain both aHSV strains. We propose that acquisition of continual sexual attractiveness by the ancestral human female and the adoption of close face-to-face mating, two hallmarks of human sexual behavior, provided the conditions for the divergence. PMID:3128793

  19. Autosomal STR analyses in native Amazonian tribes suggest a population structure driven by isolation by distance.

    PubMed

    Dos Santos, Sidney E B; Ribeiro-Rodrigues, Elzemar M; Ribeiro-Dos-Santos, Andrea K C; Hutz, Mara H; Tovo-Rodrigues, Luciana; Salzano, Francisco M; Callegari-Jacques, Sidia M

    2009-02-01

    Eleven short tandem repeat loci (CSF1PO, D3S1358, D5S818, D7S820, D8S1179, D13S317, D16S539, D18S51, D21S11, TH01, and TPOX) were investigated in 232 individuals from 6 Amazonian native tribes (Tiriyó, Waiãpi, Zoé, Urubu-Kaapor, Awa-Guajá, and Parakanã). We added the new data to a database that included five previously typed native populations from the same area (Wai Wai, Gavião, Zoró, Suruí, and Xavante). The results presented here concern this new data set, which accounts for 526 individuals in total. We tested whether major geographic or linguistic barriers to gene flow exist among such human groups and tried to find a possible anthropological or ethnological explanation for such patterns. We measured the average heterozygosity (H) and the number of alleles (N(A) ) and found that both are lower than values observed in populations of different ethnic backgrounds, such as European or African descendants. Despite such a result, we found high between-population variation; lower H and/or N(A) values were obtained from four isolated tribes that came into contact with external nonnative populations in recent times (1921-1989). By applying analysis of molecular variance, generalized hierarchical modeling, and the Structure Bayesian analysis, we were not able to detect any significant geographic or linguistic barrier to gene flow. Geographic autocorrelation analysis suggests that the genetic structure of native Amazonian tribes is better explained by isolation by distance because the level of genetic similarity decreases according to linear geographic distance, reaching null or negative values at a scale of 300 km.

  20. Multiplex cytokine analyses in dogs with pyometra suggest involvement of KC-like chemokine in canine bacterial sepsis.

    PubMed

    Karlsson, Iulia; Hagman, Ragnvi; Johannisson, Anders; Wang, Liya; Södersten, Fredrik; Wernersson, Sara

    2016-02-01

    Clinical diagnostic criteria for sepsis (systemic inflammatory response syndrome caused by infection) are unspecific and, therefore, biomarkers for sepsis diagnosis are needed for appropriate treatment and patient survival. Pyometra, a common disease caused by bacterial infection of the uterus, results in sepsis in nearly 60% of cases in dogs. We used dogs with pyometra as a natural model for sepsis and collected serum samples from 39 dogs, of which 22 with pyometra and 17 healthy controls. Dogs with pyometra were further grouped into dogs with sepsis (n=18) and without sepsis (n=4). Serum concentrations of a panel of cytokines, including keratinocyte-derived chemokine (KC)-like, granulocyte-macrophages colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF), interleukin (IL)-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-7, IL-8, IL-10, IL-15, IL-18, chemokine C-X-C motif ligand (CXCL)10 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, were measured using multiplex analyses. Serum C-reactive protein (CRP) levels were determined using an automated immunoturbidimetric assay. In addition to physical examination hematological and serum biochemical analyses were performed to evaluate the overall status of the dogs. Significantly higher concentrations of KC-like (757 vs 304 pg/ml) were detected in dogs with pyometra as compared to healthy dogs. Within the pyometra group, dogs with sepsis compared to dogs without sepsis had a higher KC-like concentration (873 vs 300 pg/ml). Hemoglobin levels were significantly lower in dogs with pyometra compared to healthy dogs, regardless of the presence or absence of sepsis, and correlated negatively with KC-like. KC-like concentrations correlated positively with CRP, number of hospitalization days, number of monocytes, concentrations of IL-8, and percentage band neutrophils. Our data suggest that bacterial infection triggers the expression of KC-like and further studies are warranted of KC-like as a possible biomarker for diagnosing sepsis and uterine bacterial infection in dogs. PMID:26837616

  1. Carbon isotope ratios suggest no additional methane from boreal wetlands during the rapid Greenland Interstadial 21.2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sperlich, Peter; Schaefer, Hinrich; Mikaloff Fletcher, Sara E.; Guillevic, Myriam; Lassey, Keith; Sapart, Célia J.; Röckmann, Thomas; Blunier, Thomas

    2015-11-01

    Samples from two Greenland ice cores (NEEM and NGRIP) have been measured for methane carbon isotope ratios (δ13C-CH4) to investigate the CH4 mixing ratio anomaly during Greenland Interstadial (GI) 21.2 (85,000 years before present). This extraordinarily rapid event occurred within 150 years, comprising a CH4 mixing ratio pulse of 150 ppb (˜25%). Our new measurements disclose a concomitant shift in δ13C-CH4 of 1‰. Keeling plot analyses reveal the δ13C of the additional CH4 source constituting the CH4 anomaly as -56.8 ± 2.8‰, which we confirm by means of a previously published box model. We propose tropical wetlands as the most probable additional CH4 source during GI-21.2 and present independent evidence that suggests that tropical wetlands in South America and Asia have played a key role. We find no evidence that boreal CH4 sources, such as permafrost degradation, contributed significantly to the atmospheric CH4 increase, despite the pronounced warming in the Northern Hemisphere during GI-21.2.

  2. Genetic Analyses of the Internal Transcribed Spacer Sequences Suggest Introgression and Duplication in the Medicinal Mushroom Agaricus subrufescens.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jie; Moinard, Magalie; Xu, Jianping; Wang, Shouxian; Foulongne-Oriol, Marie; Zhao, Ruilin; Hyde, Kevin D; Callac, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    The internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of the nuclear ribosomal RNA gene cluster is widely used in fungal taxonomy and phylogeographic studies. The medicinal and edible mushroom Agaricus subrufescens has a worldwide distribution with a high level of polymorphism in the ITS region. A previous analysis suggested notable ITS sequence heterogeneity within the wild French isolate CA487. The objective of this study was to investigate the pattern and potential mechanism of ITS sequence heterogeneity within this strain. Using PCR, cloning, and sequencing, we identified three types of ITS sequences, A, B, and C with a balanced distribution, which differed from each other at 13 polymorphic positions. The phylogenetic comparisons with samples from different continents revealed that the type C sequence was similar to those found in Oceanian and Asian specimens of A. subrufescens while types A and B sequences were close to those found in the Americas or in Europe. We further investigated the inheritance of these three ITS sequence types by analyzing their distribution among single-spore isolates from CA487. In this analysis, three co-dominant markers were used firstly to distinguish the homokaryotic offspring from the heterokaryotic offspring. The homokaryotic offspring were then analyzed for their ITS types. Our genetic analyses revealed that types A and B were two alleles segregating at one locus ITSI, while type C was not allelic with types A and B but was located at another unlinked locus ITSII. Furthermore, type C was present in only one of the two constitutive haploid nuclei (n) of the heterokaryotic (n+n) parent CA487. These data suggest that there was a relatively recent introduction of the type C sequence and a duplication of the ITS locus in this strain. Whether other genes were also transferred and duplicated and their impacts on genome structure and stability remain to be investigated. PMID:27228131

  3. Genetic Analyses of the Internal Transcribed Spacer Sequences Suggest Introgression and Duplication in the Medicinal Mushroom Agaricus subrufescens

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jie; Moinard, Magalie; Xu, Jianping; Wang, Shouxian; Foulongne-Oriol, Marie; Zhao, Ruilin; Hyde, Kevin D.; Callac, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    The internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of the nuclear ribosomal RNA gene cluster is widely used in fungal taxonomy and phylogeographic studies. The medicinal and edible mushroom Agaricus subrufescens has a worldwide distribution with a high level of polymorphism in the ITS region. A previous analysis suggested notable ITS sequence heterogeneity within the wild French isolate CA487. The objective of this study was to investigate the pattern and potential mechanism of ITS sequence heterogeneity within this strain. Using PCR, cloning, and sequencing, we identified three types of ITS sequences, A, B, and C with a balanced distribution, which differed from each other at 13 polymorphic positions. The phylogenetic comparisons with samples from different continents revealed that the type C sequence was similar to those found in Oceanian and Asian specimens of A. subrufescens while types A and B sequences were close to those found in the Americas or in Europe. We further investigated the inheritance of these three ITS sequence types by analyzing their distribution among single-spore isolates from CA487. In this analysis, three co-dominant markers were used firstly to distinguish the homokaryotic offspring from the heterokaryotic offspring. The homokaryotic offspring were then analyzed for their ITS types. Our genetic analyses revealed that types A and B were two alleles segregating at one locus ITSI, while type C was not allelic with types A and B but was located at another unlinked locus ITSII. Furthermore, type C was present in only one of the two constitutive haploid nuclei (n) of the heterokaryotic (n+n) parent CA487. These data suggest that there was a relatively recent introduction of the type C sequence and a duplication of the ITS locus in this strain. Whether other genes were also transferred and duplicated and their impacts on genome structure and stability remain to be investigated. PMID:27228131

  4. Genome-Wide Analyses Suggest Mechanisms Involving Early B-Cell Development in Canine IgA Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Frankowiack, Marcel; Kierczak, Marcin; Bergvall, Kerstin; Axelsson, Erik; Tintle, Linda; Marti, Eliane; Roosje, Petra; Leeb, Tosso; Hedhammar, Åke; Hammarström, Lennart; Lindblad-Toh, Kerstin

    2015-01-01

    Immunoglobulin A deficiency (IgAD) is the most common primary immune deficiency disorder in both humans and dogs, characterized by recurrent mucosal tract infections and a predisposition for allergic and other immune mediated diseases. In several dog breeds, low IgA levels have been observed at a high frequency and with a clinical resemblance to human IgAD. In this study, we used genome-wide association studies (GWAS) to identify genomic regions associated with low IgA levels in dogs as a comparative model for human IgAD. We used a novel percentile groups-approach to establish breed-specific cut-offs and to perform analyses in a close to continuous manner. GWAS performed in four breeds prone to low IgA levels (German shepherd, Golden retriever, Labrador retriever and Shar-Pei) identified 35 genomic loci suggestively associated (p <0.0005) to IgA levels. In German shepherd, three genomic regions (candidate genes include KIRREL3 and SERPINA9) were genome-wide significantly associated (p <0.0002) with IgA levels. A ~20kb long haplotype on CFA28, significantly associated (p = 0.0005) to IgA levels in Shar-Pei, was positioned within the first intron of the gene SLIT1. Both KIRREL3 and SLIT1 are highly expressed in the central nervous system and in bone marrow and are potentially important during B-cell development. SERPINA9 expression is restricted to B-cells and peaks at the time-point when B-cells proliferate into antibody-producing plasma cells. The suggestively associated regions were enriched for genes in Gene Ontology gene sets involving inflammation and early immune cell development. PMID:26225558

  5. Cross-Disorder Genome-Wide Analyses Suggest a Complex Genetic Relationship Between Tourette Syndrome and Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Dongmei; Mathews, Carol A.; Scharf, Jeremiah M.; Neale, Benjamin M.; Davis, Lea K.; Gamazon, Eric R.; Derks, Eske M.; Evans, Patrick; Edlund, Christopher K.; Crane, Jacquelyn; Fagerness, Jesen A.; Osiecki, Lisa; Gallagher, Patience; Gerber, Gloria; Haddad, Stephen; Illmann, Cornelia; McGrath, Lauren M.; Mayerfeld, Catherine; Arepalli, Sampath; Barlassina, Cristina; Barr, Cathy L.; Bellodi, Laura; Benarroch, Fortu; Berrió, Gabriel Bedoya; Bienvenu, O. Joseph; Black, Donald; Bloch, Michael H.; Brentani, Helena; Bruun, Ruth D.; Budman, Cathy L.; Camarena, Beatriz; Campbell, Desmond D.; Cappi, Carolina; Cardona Silgado, Julio C.; Cavallini, Maria C.; Chavira, Denise A.; Chouinard, Sylvain; Cook, Edwin H.; Cookson, M. R.; Coric, Vladimir; Cullen, Bernadette; Cusi, Daniele; Delorme, Richard; Denys, Damiaan; Dion, Yves; Eapen, Valsama; Egberts, Karin; Falkai, Peter; Fernandez, Thomas; Fournier, Eduardo; Garrido, Helena; Geller, Daniel; Gilbert, Donald; Girard, Simon L.; Grabe, Hans J.; Grados, Marco A.; Greenberg, Benjamin D.; Gross-Tsur, Varda; Grünblatt, Edna; Hardy, John; Heiman, Gary A.; Hemmings, Sian M.J.; Herrera, Luis D.; Hezel, Dianne M.; Hoekstra, Pieter J.; Jankovic, Joseph; Kennedy, James L.; King, Robert A.; Konkashbaev, Anuar I.; Kremeyer, Barbara; Kurlan, Roger; Lanzagorta, Nuria; Leboyer, Marion; Leckman, James F.; Lennertz, Leonhard; Liu, Chunyu; Lochner, Christine; Lowe, Thomas L.; Lupoli, Sara; Macciardi, Fabio; Maier, Wolfgang; Manunta, Paolo; Marconi, Maurizio; McCracken, James T.; Mesa Restrepo, Sandra C.; Moessner, Rainald; Moorjani, Priya; Morgan, Jubel; Muller, Heike; Murphy, Dennis L.; Naarden, Allan L.; Ochoa, William Cornejo; Ophoff, Roel A.; Pakstis, Andrew J.; Pato, Michele T.; Pato, Carlos N.; Piacentini, John; Pittenger, Christopher; Pollak, Yehuda; Rauch, Scott L.; Renner, Tobias; Reus, Victor I.; Richter, Margaret A.; Riddle, Mark A.; Robertson, Mary M.; Romero, Roxana; Rosário, Maria C.; Rosenberg, David; Ruhrmann, Stephan; Sabatti, Chiara; Salvi, Erika; Sampaio, Aline S.; Samuels, Jack; Sandor, Paul; Service, Susan K.; Sheppard, Brooke; Singer, Harvey S.; Smit, Jan H.; Stein, Dan J.; Strengman, Eric; Tischfield, Jay A.; Turiel, Maurizio; Valencia Duarte, Ana V.; Vallada, Homero; Veenstra-VanderWeele, Jeremy; Walitza, Susanne; Walkup, John; Wang, Ying; Weale, Mike; Weiss, Robert; Wendland, Jens R.; Westenberg, Herman G.M.; Yao, Yin; Hounie, Ana G.; Miguel, Euripedes C.; Nicolini, Humberto; Wagner, Michael; Ruiz-Linares, Andres; Cath, Danielle C.; McMahon, William; Posthuma, Danielle; Oostra, Ben A.; Nestadt, Gerald; Rouleau, Guy A.; Purcell, Shaun; Jenike, Michael A.; Heutink, Peter; Hanna, Gregory L.; Conti, David V.; Arnold, Paul D.; Freimer, Nelson; Stewart, S. Evelyn; Knowles, James A.; Cox, Nancy J.; Pauls, David L.

    2014-01-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and Tourette Syndrome (TS) are highly heritable neurodevelopmental disorders that are thought to share genetic risk factors. However, the identification of definitive susceptibility genes for these etiologically complex disorders remains elusive. Here, we report a combined genome-wide association study (GWAS) of TS and OCD in 2723 cases (1310 with OCD, 834 with TS, 579 with OCD plus TS/chronic tics (CT)), 5667 ancestry-matched controls, and 290 OCD parent-child trios. Although no individual single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) achieved genome-wide significance, the GWAS signals were enriched for SNPs strongly associated with variations in brain gene expression levels, i.e. expression quantitative loci (eQTLs), suggesting the presence of true functional variants that contribute to risk of these disorders. Polygenic score analyses identified a significant polygenic component for OCD (p=2×10−4), predicting 3.2% of the phenotypic variance in an independent data set. In contrast, TS had a smaller, non-significant polygenic component, predicting only 0.6% of the phenotypic variance (p=0.06). No significant polygenic signal was detected across the two disorders, although the sample is likely underpowered to detect a modest shared signal. Furthermore, the OCD polygenic signal was significantly attenuated when cases with both OCD and TS/CT were included in the analysis (p=0.01). Previous work has shown that TS and OCD have some degree of shared genetic variation. However, the data from this study suggest that there are also distinct components to the genetic architectures of TS and OCD. Furthermore, OCD with co-occurring TS/CT may have different underlying genetic susceptibility compared to OCD alone. PMID:25158072

  6. Comparative Transcriptome Analyses Reveal Core Parasitism Genes and Suggest Gene Duplication and Repurposing as Sources of Structural Novelty

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Zhenzhen; Wafula, Eric K.; Honaas, Loren A.; Zhang, Huiting; Das, Malay; Fernandez-Aparicio, Monica; Huang, Kan; Bandaranayake, Pradeepa C.G.; Wu, Biao; Der, Joshua P.; Clarke, Christopher R.; Ralph, Paula E.; Landherr, Lena; Altman, Naomi S.; Timko, Michael P.; Yoder, John I.; Westwood, James H.; dePamphilis, Claude W.

    2015-01-01

    The origin of novel traits is recognized as an important process underlying many major evolutionary radiations. We studied the genetic basis for the evolution of haustoria, the novel feeding organs of parasitic flowering plants, using comparative transcriptome sequencing in three species of Orobanchaceae. Around 180 genes are upregulated during haustorial development following host attachment in at least two species, and these are enriched in proteases, cell wall modifying enzymes, and extracellular secretion proteins. Additionally, about 100 shared genes are upregulated in response to haustorium inducing factors prior to host attachment. Collectively, we refer to these newly identified genes as putative “parasitism genes.” Most of these parasitism genes are derived from gene duplications in a common ancestor of Orobanchaceae and Mimulus guttatus, a related nonparasitic plant. Additionally, the signature of relaxed purifying selection and/or adaptive evolution at specific sites was detected in many haustorial genes, and may play an important role in parasite evolution. Comparative analysis of gene expression patterns in parasitic and nonparasitic angiosperms suggests that parasitism genes are derived primarily from root and floral tissues, but with some genes co-opted from other tissues. Gene duplication, often taking place in a nonparasitic ancestor of Orobanchaceae, followed by regulatory neofunctionalization, was an important process in the origin of parasitic haustoria. PMID:25534030

  7. Comparative transcriptome analyses reveal core parasitism genes and suggest gene duplication and repurposing as sources of structural novelty.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhenzhen; Wafula, Eric K; Honaas, Loren A; Zhang, Huiting; Das, Malay; Fernandez-Aparicio, Monica; Huang, Kan; Bandaranayake, Pradeepa C G; Wu, Biao; Der, Joshua P; Clarke, Christopher R; Ralph, Paula E; Landherr, Lena; Altman, Naomi S; Timko, Michael P; Yoder, John I; Westwood, James H; dePamphilis, Claude W

    2015-03-01

    The origin of novel traits is recognized as an important process underlying many major evolutionary radiations. We studied the genetic basis for the evolution of haustoria, the novel feeding organs of parasitic flowering plants, using comparative transcriptome sequencing in three species of Orobanchaceae. Around 180 genes are upregulated during haustorial development following host attachment in at least two species, and these are enriched in proteases, cell wall modifying enzymes, and extracellular secretion proteins. Additionally, about 100 shared genes are upregulated in response to haustorium inducing factors prior to host attachment. Collectively, we refer to these newly identified genes as putative "parasitism genes." Most of these parasitism genes are derived from gene duplications in a common ancestor of Orobanchaceae and Mimulus guttatus, a related nonparasitic plant. Additionally, the signature of relaxed purifying selection and/or adaptive evolution at specific sites was detected in many haustorial genes, and may play an important role in parasite evolution. Comparative analysis of gene expression patterns in parasitic and nonparasitic angiosperms suggests that parasitism genes are derived primarily from root and floral tissues, but with some genes co-opted from other tissues. Gene duplication, often taking place in a nonparasitic ancestor of Orobanchaceae, followed by regulatory neofunctionalization, was an important process in the origin of parasitic haustoria.

  8. Metagenome-based diversity analyses suggest a significant contribution of non-cyanobacterial lineages to carbonate precipitation in modern microbialites.

    PubMed

    Saghaï, Aurélien; Zivanovic, Yvan; Zeyen, Nina; Moreira, David; Benzerara, Karim; Deschamps, Philippe; Bertolino, Paola; Ragon, Marie; Tavera, Rosaluz; López-Archilla, Ana I; López-García, Purificación

    2015-01-01

    Cyanobacteria are thought to play a key role in carbonate formation due to their metabolic activity, but other organisms carrying out oxygenic photosynthesis (photosynthetic eukaryotes) or other metabolisms (e.g., anoxygenic photosynthesis, sulfate reduction), may also contribute to carbonate formation. To obtain more quantitative information than that provided by more classical PCR-dependent methods, we studied the microbial diversity of microbialites from the Alchichica crater lake (Mexico) by mining for 16S/18S rRNA genes in metagenomes obtained by direct sequencing of environmental DNA. We studied samples collected at the Western (AL-W) and Northern (AL-N) shores of the lake and, at the latter site, along a depth gradient (1, 5, 10, and 15 m depth). The associated microbial communities were mainly composed of bacteria, most of which seemed heterotrophic, whereas archaea were negligible. Eukaryotes composed a relatively minor fraction dominated by photosynthetic lineages, diatoms in AL-W, influenced by Si-rich seepage waters, and green algae in AL-N samples. Members of the Gammaproteobacteria and Alphaproteobacteria classes of Proteobacteria, Cyanobacteria, and Bacteroidetes were the most abundant bacterial taxa, followed by Planctomycetes, Deltaproteobacteria (Proteobacteria), Verrucomicrobia, Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, and Chloroflexi. Community composition varied among sites and with depth. Although cyanobacteria were the most important bacterial group contributing to the carbonate precipitation potential, photosynthetic eukaryotes, anoxygenic photosynthesizers and sulfate reducers were also very abundant. Cyanobacteria affiliated to Pleurocapsales largely increased with depth. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observations showed considerable areas of aragonite-encrusted Pleurocapsa-like cyanobacteria at microscale. Multivariate statistical analyses showed a strong positive correlation of Pleurocapsales and Chroococcales with aragonite formation at

  9. Genome-wide analyses suggest parallel selection for universal traits may eclipse local environmental selection in a highly mobile carnivore.

    PubMed

    Stronen, Astrid Vik; Jędrzejewska, Bogumiła; Pertoldi, Cino; Demontis, Ditte; Randi, Ettore; Niedziałkowska, Magdalena; Borowik, Tomasz; Sidorovich, Vadim E; Kusak, Josip; Kojola, Ilpo; Karamanlidis, Alexandros A; Ozolins, Janis; Dumenko, Vitalii; Czarnomska, Sylwia D

    2015-10-01

    Ecological and environmental heterogeneity can produce genetic differentiation in highly mobile species. Accordingly, local adaptation may be expected across comparatively short distances in the presence of marked environmental gradients. Within the European continent, wolves (Canis lupus) exhibit distinct north-south population differentiation. We investigated more than 67-K single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) loci for signatures of local adaptation in 59 unrelated wolves from four previously identified population clusters (northcentral Europe n = 32, Carpathian Mountains n = 7, Dinaric-Balkan n = 9, Ukrainian Steppe n = 11). Our analyses combined identification of outlier loci with findings from genome-wide association study of individual genomic profiles and 12 environmental variables. We identified 353 candidate SNP loci. We examined the SNP position and neighboring megabase (1 Mb, one million bases) regions in the dog (C. lupus familiaris) genome for genes potentially under selection, including homologue genes in other vertebrates. These regions included functional genes for, for example, temperature regulation that may indicate local adaptation and genes controlling for functions universally important for wolves, including olfaction, hearing, vision, and cognitive functions. We also observed strong outliers not associated with any of the investigated variables, which could suggest selective pressures associated with other unmeasured environmental variables and/or demographic factors. These patterns are further supported by the examination of spatial distributions of the SNPs associated with universally important traits, which typically show marked differences in allele frequencies among population clusters. Accordingly, parallel selection for features important to all wolves may eclipse local environmental selection and implies long-term separation among population clusters. PMID:26664688

  10. Metagenome-based diversity analyses suggest a significant contribution of non-cyanobacterial lineages to carbonate precipitation in modern microbialites

    PubMed Central

    Saghaï, Aurélien; Zivanovic, Yvan; Zeyen, Nina; Moreira, David; Benzerara, Karim; Deschamps, Philippe; Bertolino, Paola; Ragon, Marie; Tavera, Rosaluz; López-Archilla, Ana I.; López-García, Purificación

    2015-01-01

    Cyanobacteria are thought to play a key role in carbonate formation due to their metabolic activity, but other organisms carrying out oxygenic photosynthesis (photosynthetic eukaryotes) or other metabolisms (e.g., anoxygenic photosynthesis, sulfate reduction), may also contribute to carbonate formation. To obtain more quantitative information than that provided by more classical PCR-dependent methods, we studied the microbial diversity of microbialites from the Alchichica crater lake (Mexico) by mining for 16S/18S rRNA genes in metagenomes obtained by direct sequencing of environmental DNA. We studied samples collected at the Western (AL-W) and Northern (AL-N) shores of the lake and, at the latter site, along a depth gradient (1, 5, 10, and 15 m depth). The associated microbial communities were mainly composed of bacteria, most of which seemed heterotrophic, whereas archaea were negligible. Eukaryotes composed a relatively minor fraction dominated by photosynthetic lineages, diatoms in AL-W, influenced by Si-rich seepage waters, and green algae in AL-N samples. Members of the Gammaproteobacteria and Alphaproteobacteria classes of Proteobacteria, Cyanobacteria, and Bacteroidetes were the most abundant bacterial taxa, followed by Planctomycetes, Deltaproteobacteria (Proteobacteria), Verrucomicrobia, Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, and Chloroflexi. Community composition varied among sites and with depth. Although cyanobacteria were the most important bacterial group contributing to the carbonate precipitation potential, photosynthetic eukaryotes, anoxygenic photosynthesizers and sulfate reducers were also very abundant. Cyanobacteria affiliated to Pleurocapsales largely increased with depth. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observations showed considerable areas of aragonite-encrusted Pleurocapsa-like cyanobacteria at microscale. Multivariate statistical analyses showed a strong positive correlation of Pleurocapsales and Chroococcales with aragonite formation at

  11. ADDITIONAL STRESS AND FRACTURE MECHANICS ANALYSES OF PRESSURIZED WATER REACTOR PRESSURE VESSEL NOZZLES

    SciTech Connect

    Walter, Matthew; Yin, Shengjun; Stevens, Gary; Sommerville, Daniel; Palm, Nathan; Heinecke, Carol

    2012-01-01

    In past years, the authors have undertaken various studies of nozzles in both boiling water reactors (BWRs) and pressurized water reactors (PWRs) located in the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) adjacent to the core beltline region. Those studies described stress and fracture mechanics analyses performed to assess various RPV nozzle geometries, which were selected based on their proximity to the core beltline region, i.e., those nozzle configurations that are located close enough to the core region such that they may receive sufficient fluence prior to end-of-life (EOL) to require evaluation of embrittlement as part of the RPV analyses associated with pressure-temperature (P-T) limits. In this paper, additional stress and fracture analyses are summarized that were performed for additional PWR nozzles with the following objectives: To expand the population of PWR nozzle configurations evaluated, which was limited in the previous work to just two nozzles (one inlet and one outlet nozzle). To model and understand differences in stress results obtained for an internal pressure load case using a two-dimensional (2-D) axi-symmetric finite element model (FEM) vs. a three-dimensional (3-D) FEM for these PWR nozzles. In particular, the ovalization (stress concentration) effect of two intersecting cylinders, which is typical of RPV nozzle configurations, was investigated. To investigate the applicability of previously recommended linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM) hand solutions for calculating the Mode I stress intensity factor for a postulated nozzle corner crack for pressure loading for these PWR nozzles. These analyses were performed to further expand earlier work completed to support potential revision and refinement of Title 10 to the U.S. Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Part 50, Appendix G, Fracture Toughness Requirements, and are intended to supplement similar evaluation of nozzles presented at the 2008, 2009, and 2011 Pressure Vessels and Piping (PVP

  12. Multilocus analyses of seven candidate genes suggest interacting pathways for obesity-related traits in Brazilian populations.

    PubMed

    Angeli, Cláudia B; Kimura, Lilian; Auricchio, Maria T; Vicente, João P; Mattevi, Vanessa S; Zembrzuski, Verônica M; Hutz, Mara H; Pereira, Alexandre C; Pereira, Tiago V; Mingroni-Netto, Regina C

    2011-06-01

    We investigated whether variants in major candidate genes for food intake and body weight regulation contribute to obesity-related traits under a multilocus perspective. We studied 375 Brazilian subjects from partially isolated African-derived populations (quilombos). Seven variants displaying conflicting results in previous reports and supposedly implicated in the susceptibility of obesity-related phenotypes were investigated: β2-adrenergic receptor (ADRB2) (Arg16Gly), insulin induced gene 2 (INSIG2) (rs7566605), leptin (LEP) (A19G), LEP receptor (LEPR) (Gln223Arg), perilipin (PLIN) (6209T > C), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARG) (Pro12Ala), and resistin (RETN) (-420 C > G). Regression models as well as generalized multifactor dimensionality reduction (GMDR) were employed to test the contribution of individual effects and higher-order interactions to BMI and waist-hip ratio (WHR) variation and risk of overweight/obesity. The best multilocus association signal identified in the quilombos was further examined in an independent sample of 334 Brazilian subjects of European ancestry. In quilombos, only the PPARG polymorphism displayed significant individual effects (WHR variation, P = 0.028). No association was observed either with the risk of overweight/obesity (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2), risk of obesity alone (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2) or BMI variation. However, GMDR analyses revealed an interaction between the LEPR and ADRB2 polymorphisms (P = 0.009) as well as a third-order effect involving the latter two variants plus INSIG2 (P = 0.034) with overweight/obesity. Assessment of the LEPR-ADRB2 interaction in the second sample indicated a marginally significant association (P = 0.0724), which was further verified to be limited to men (P = 0.0118). Together, our findings suggest evidence for a two-locus interaction between the LEPR Gln223Arg and ADRB2 Arg16Gly variants in the risk of overweight/obesity, and highlight further the importance of multilocus effects in

  13. Additional Measurements and Analyses of H217O and H218O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearson, John; Yu, Shanshan; Walters, Adam; Daly, Adam M.

    2015-06-01

    Historically the analysis of the spectrum of water has been a balance between the quality of the data set and the applicability of the Hamiltonian to a highly non-rigid molecule. Recently, a number of different non-rigid analysis approaches have successfully been applied to 16O water resulting in a self-consistent set of transitions and energy levels to high J which allowed the spectrum to be modeled to experimental precision. The data set for 17O and 18O water was previously reviewed and many of the problematic measurements identified, but Hamiltonian modeling of the remaining data resulted in significantly poorer quality fits than that for the 16O parent. As a result, we have made additional microwave measurements and modeled the existing 17O and 18O data sets with an Euler series model. This effort has illuminated a number of additional problematic measurements in the previous data sets and has resulted in analyses of 17O and 18O water that are of similar quality to the 16O analysis. We report the new lines, the analyses and make recommendations on the quality of the experimental data sets. SS. Yu, J.C. Pearson, B.J. Drouin et al. J. Mol. Spectrosc. 279,~16-25 (2012) J. Tennyson, P.F. Bernath, L.R. Brown et al. J. Quant. Spectrosc. Rad. Trans. 117, 29-58 (2013) J. Tennyson, P.F. Bernath, L.R. Brown et al. J. Quant. Spectrosc. Rad. Trans. 110, 573-596 (2009) H.M. Pickett, J.C. Pearson, C.E. Miller J. Mol. Spectrosc. 233, 174-179 (2005)

  14. Phylogeographic Analyses of American Black Bears (Ursus americanus) Suggest Four Glacial Refugia and Complex Patterns of Postglacial Admixture.

    PubMed

    Puckett, Emily E; Etter, Paul D; Johnson, Eric A; Eggert, Lori S

    2015-09-01

    Studies of species with continental distributions continue to identify intraspecific lineages despite continuous habitat. Lineages may form due to isolation by distance, adaptation, divergence across barriers, or genetic drift following range expansion. We investigated lineage diversification and admixture within American black bears (Ursus americanus) across their range using 22 k single nucleotide polymorphisms and mitochondrial DNA sequences. We identified three subcontinental nuclear clusters which we further divided into nine geographic regions: Alaskan (Alaska-East), eastern (Central Interior Highlands, Great Lakes, Northeast, Southeast), and western (Alaska-West, West, Pacific Coast, Southwest). We estimated that the western cluster diverged 67 ka, before eastern and Alaskan divergence 31 ka; these divergence dates contrasted with those from the mitochondrial genome where clades A and B diverged 1.07 Ma, and clades A-east and A-west diverged 169 ka. We combined estimates of divergence timing with hindcast species distribution models to infer glacial refugia for the species in Beringia, Pacific Northwest, Southwest, and Southeast. Our results show a complex arrangement of admixture due to expansion out of multiple refugia. The delineation of the genomic population clusters was inconsistent with the ranges for 16 previously described subspecies. Ranges for U. a. pugnax and U. a. cinnamomum were concordant with admixed clusters, calling into question how to order taxa below the species level. Additionally, our finding that U. a. floridanus has not diverged from U. a. americanus also suggests that morphology and genetics should be reanalyzed to assess taxonomic designations relevant to the conservation management of the species. PMID:25989983

  15. Phylogeographic Analyses of American Black Bears (Ursus americanus) Suggest Four Glacial Refugia and Complex Patterns of Postglacial Admixture.

    PubMed

    Puckett, Emily E; Etter, Paul D; Johnson, Eric A; Eggert, Lori S

    2015-09-01

    Studies of species with continental distributions continue to identify intraspecific lineages despite continuous habitat. Lineages may form due to isolation by distance, adaptation, divergence across barriers, or genetic drift following range expansion. We investigated lineage diversification and admixture within American black bears (Ursus americanus) across their range using 22 k single nucleotide polymorphisms and mitochondrial DNA sequences. We identified three subcontinental nuclear clusters which we further divided into nine geographic regions: Alaskan (Alaska-East), eastern (Central Interior Highlands, Great Lakes, Northeast, Southeast), and western (Alaska-West, West, Pacific Coast, Southwest). We estimated that the western cluster diverged 67 ka, before eastern and Alaskan divergence 31 ka; these divergence dates contrasted with those from the mitochondrial genome where clades A and B diverged 1.07 Ma, and clades A-east and A-west diverged 169 ka. We combined estimates of divergence timing with hindcast species distribution models to infer glacial refugia for the species in Beringia, Pacific Northwest, Southwest, and Southeast. Our results show a complex arrangement of admixture due to expansion out of multiple refugia. The delineation of the genomic population clusters was inconsistent with the ranges for 16 previously described subspecies. Ranges for U. a. pugnax and U. a. cinnamomum were concordant with admixed clusters, calling into question how to order taxa below the species level. Additionally, our finding that U. a. floridanus has not diverged from U. a. americanus also suggests that morphology and genetics should be reanalyzed to assess taxonomic designations relevant to the conservation management of the species.

  16. Suggested protocol for collecting, handling and preparing peat cores and peat samples for physical, chemical, mineralogical and isotopic analyses.

    PubMed

    Givelet, Nicolas; Le Roux, Gaël; Cheburkin, Andriy; Chen, Bin; Frank, Jutta; Goodsite, Michael E; Kempter, Heike; Krachler, Michael; Noernberg, Tommy; Rausch, Nicole; Rheinberger, Stefan; Roos-Barraclough, Fiona; Sapkota, Atindra; Scholz, Christian; Shotyk, William

    2004-05-01

    For detailed reconstructions of atmospheric metal deposition using peat cores from bogs, a comprehensive protocol for working with peat cores is proposed. The first step is to locate and determine suitable sampling sites in accordance with the principal goal of the study, the period of time of interest and the precision required. Using the state of the art procedures and field equipment, peat cores are collected in such a way as to provide high quality records for paleoenvironmental study. Pertinent field observations gathered during the fieldwork are recorded in a field report. Cores are kept frozen at -18 degree C until they can be prepared in the laboratory. Frozen peat cores are precisely cut into 1 cm slices using a stainless steel band saw with stainless steel blades. The outside edges of each slice are removed using a titanium knife to avoid any possible contamination which might have occurred during the sampling and handling stage. Each slice is split, with one-half kept frozen for future studies (archived), and the other half further subdivided for physical, chemical, and mineralogical analyses. Physical parameters such as ash and water contents, the bulk density and the degree of decomposition of the peat are determined using established methods. A subsample is dried overnight at 105 degree C in a drying oven and milled in a centrifugal mill with titanium sieve. Prior to any expensive and time consuming chemical procedures and analyses, the resulting powdered samples, after manual homogenisation, are measured for more than twenty-two major and trace elements using non-destructive X-Ray fluorescence (XRF) methods. This approach provides lots of valuable geochemical data which documents the natural geochemical processes which occur in the peat profiles and their possible effect on the trace metal profiles. The development, evaluation and use of peat cores from bogs as archives of high-resolution records of atmospheric deposition of mineral dust and trace

  17. Suggested protocol for collecting, handling and preparing peat cores and peat samples for physical, chemical, mineralogical and isotopic analyses.

    PubMed

    Givelet, Nicolas; Le Roux, Gaël; Cheburkin, Andriy; Chen, Bin; Frank, Jutta; Goodsite, Michael E; Kempter, Heike; Krachler, Michael; Noernberg, Tommy; Rausch, Nicole; Rheinberger, Stefan; Roos-Barraclough, Fiona; Sapkota, Atindra; Scholz, Christian; Shotyk, William

    2004-05-01

    For detailed reconstructions of atmospheric metal deposition using peat cores from bogs, a comprehensive protocol for working with peat cores is proposed. The first step is to locate and determine suitable sampling sites in accordance with the principal goal of the study, the period of time of interest and the precision required. Using the state of the art procedures and field equipment, peat cores are collected in such a way as to provide high quality records for paleoenvironmental study. Pertinent field observations gathered during the fieldwork are recorded in a field report. Cores are kept frozen at -18 degree C until they can be prepared in the laboratory. Frozen peat cores are precisely cut into 1 cm slices using a stainless steel band saw with stainless steel blades. The outside edges of each slice are removed using a titanium knife to avoid any possible contamination which might have occurred during the sampling and handling stage. Each slice is split, with one-half kept frozen for future studies (archived), and the other half further subdivided for physical, chemical, and mineralogical analyses. Physical parameters such as ash and water contents, the bulk density and the degree of decomposition of the peat are determined using established methods. A subsample is dried overnight at 105 degree C in a drying oven and milled in a centrifugal mill with titanium sieve. Prior to any expensive and time consuming chemical procedures and analyses, the resulting powdered samples, after manual homogenisation, are measured for more than twenty-two major and trace elements using non-destructive X-Ray fluorescence (XRF) methods. This approach provides lots of valuable geochemical data which documents the natural geochemical processes which occur in the peat profiles and their possible effect on the trace metal profiles. The development, evaluation and use of peat cores from bogs as archives of high-resolution records of atmospheric deposition of mineral dust and trace

  18. Expression and Functional Analyses of the Plastid Lipid-Associated Protein CHRC Suggest Its Role in Chromoplastogenesis and Stress1

    PubMed Central

    Leitner-Dagan, Yael; Ovadis, Marianna; Shklarman, Elena; Elad, Yigal; Rav David, Dalia; Vainstein, Alexander

    2006-01-01

    Chromoplastogenesis during flower development and fruit ripening involves the dramatic overaccumulation of carotenoids sequestered into structures containing lipids and proteins called plastid lipid-associated proteins (PAPs). CHRC, a cucumber (Cucumis sativus) PAP, has been suggested to be transcriptionally activated in carotenoid-accumulating flowers by gibberellin (GA). Mybys, a MYB-like trans-activator identified here, may represent a chromoplastogenesis-related factor: Its expression is flower specific and parallels that of ChrC during flower development; moreover, as revealed by stable ectopic and transient-expression assays, it specifically trans-activates ChrC promoter in flowers accumulating carotenoids and flavonoids. A detailed dissection of ChrC promoter revealed a GA-responsive element, gacCTCcaa, the mutation of which abolished ChrC activation by GA. This cis-element is different from the GARE motif and is involved in ChrC activation probably via negative regulation, similar to other GA-responsive systems. The GA responsiveness and MYBYS floral activation of the ChrC promoter do not overlap with respect to cis-elements. To study the functionality of CHRC, which is activated in vegetative tissues similar to other PAPs by various biotic and abiotic stresses, we employed a tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) plant system and generated RNAi-transgenic lines with suppressed LeCHRC. Transgenic flowers accumulated approximately 30% less carotenoids per unit protein than controls, indicating an interrelationship between PAPs and flower-specific carotenoid accumulation in chromoplasts. Moreover, the transgenic LeCHRC-suppressed plants were significantly more susceptible to Botrytis cinerea infection, suggesting CHRC's involvement in plant protection under stress conditions and supporting the general, evolutionarily preserved role of PAPs. PMID:16815957

  19. Mutational analyses of HAMP helices suggest a dynamic bundle model of input-output signalling in chemoreceptors.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Qin; Ames, Peter; Parkinson, John S

    2009-09-01

    To test the gearbox model of HAMP signalling in the Escherichia coli serine receptor, Tsr, we generated a series of amino acid replacements at each residue of the AS1 and AS2 helices. The residues most critical for Tsr function defined hydrophobic packing faces consistent with a four-helix bundle. Suppression patterns of helix lesions conformed to the predicted packing layers in the bundle. Although the properties and patterns of most AS1 and AS2 lesions were consistent with both proposed gearbox structures, some mutational features specifically indicate the functional importance of an x-da bundle over an alternative a-d bundle. These genetic data suggest that HAMP signalling could simply involve changes in the stability of its x-da bundle. We propose that Tsr HAMP controls output signals by modulating destabilizing phase clashes between the AS2 helices and the adjoining kinase control helices. Our model further proposes that chemoeffectors regulate HAMP bundle stability through a control cable connection between the transmembrane segments and AS1 helices. Attractant stimuli, which cause inward piston displacements in chemoreceptors, should reduce cable tension, thereby stabilizing the HAMP bundle. This study shows how transmembrane signalling and HAMP input-output control could occur without the helix rotations central to the gearbox model.

  20. A new mechanism to ensure integration during LINE retrotransposition: a suggestion from analyses of the 5' extra nucleotides.

    PubMed

    Kajikawa, Masaki; Yamaguchi, Katsumi; Okada, Norihiro

    2012-09-01

    Long interspersed elements (LINEs) are transposable elements that exist in the chromosomal DNA of most eukaryotes; as such, they have a large impact on the genome evolution of their hosts. LINEs mobilize by a mechanism called retrotransposition in which the LINE RNA is reverse-transcribed into DNA and then integrated into the host chromosome. The integration of the 3' end of the LINE element simultaneously occurs with the initiation of reverse transcription; this process is called target-primed reverse transcription and is one of the important characteristics of LINEs. However, the molecular mechanism of the integration of the 5' end is not well understood. Here, we show that, in cultured cells, the integrants of the zebrafish ZfL2-2 LINE produce extra nucleotides at their 5' ends, and the extra nucleotides originate from their flanking sequences. We also found that, in cultured cells, some integrants of the human L1 LINE and, in their native hosts, some endogenous elements of two other LINEs also contain 5' extra nucleotides of similar origin, suggesting that the mechanism for generation of the 5' extra nucleotides is universal among various LINEs. From these data, we propose a general mechanism for 5' integration in LINE retrotransposition.

  1. A new mechanism to ensure integration during LINE retrotransposition: a suggestion from analyses of the 5' extra nucleotides.

    PubMed

    Kajikawa, Masaki; Yamaguchi, Katsumi; Okada, Norihiro

    2012-09-01

    Long interspersed elements (LINEs) are transposable elements that exist in the chromosomal DNA of most eukaryotes; as such, they have a large impact on the genome evolution of their hosts. LINEs mobilize by a mechanism called retrotransposition in which the LINE RNA is reverse-transcribed into DNA and then integrated into the host chromosome. The integration of the 3' end of the LINE element simultaneously occurs with the initiation of reverse transcription; this process is called target-primed reverse transcription and is one of the important characteristics of LINEs. However, the molecular mechanism of the integration of the 5' end is not well understood. Here, we show that, in cultured cells, the integrants of the zebrafish ZfL2-2 LINE produce extra nucleotides at their 5' ends, and the extra nucleotides originate from their flanking sequences. We also found that, in cultured cells, some integrants of the human L1 LINE and, in their native hosts, some endogenous elements of two other LINEs also contain 5' extra nucleotides of similar origin, suggesting that the mechanism for generation of the 5' extra nucleotides is universal among various LINEs. From these data, we propose a general mechanism for 5' integration in LINE retrotransposition. PMID:22405943

  2. Structure-function analyses involving palindromic analogs of tritrypticin suggest autonomy of anti-endotoxin and antibacterial activities.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Kanwal J; Sarkar, Pampi; Nagpal, Sushma; Khan, Tarique; Salunke, Dinakar M

    2008-03-01

    Neutralization of invading pathogens by gene-encoded peptide antibiotics has been suggested to manifest in a variety of different modes. Some of these modes require internalization of the peptide through a pathway that involves LPS-mediated uptake of the peptide antibiotics. Many proline/tryptophan-rich cationic peptides for which this mode has been invoked do, indeed, show LPS (endotoxin) binding. If the mechanism of antibiotic action involves the LPS-mediated pathway, a positive correlation ought to manifest between the binding to LPS, its neutralization, and the bacterial killing. No such correlation was evident based on our studies involving minimal active analogs of tritrypticin. The anti-endotoxin activities of these analogs appear not to relate directly to their antibiotic potential. The two palindromic analogs of tritrypticin, NT7 (RRFPWWW) and CT7 (WWWPFRR), showed comparable antibacterial activities. However, while NT7 exhibited anti-endotoxin activity, CT7 did not. The LPS binding of two tritrypticin analogs correlated with their corresponding structures, but the antibacterial activities did not. Further structure-function analysis indicated specific structural implications of the antibacterial activity at the molecular level. Studies involving designed analogs of NT7 incorporating either rigid or flexible linkers between the specifically distanced hydrophobic and cationic clusters modulate the LPS binding. On the other hand, not knowing the target receptor for antibacterial activity is a drawback since the precise epitope for antibacterial activity is not definable. It is apparent that the anti-endotoxin and antibacterial activities represent two independent functions of tritrypticin, consistent with the emerging multifunctionality in the nature of cathelicidins.

  3. Introducing embedded indigenous psychological support teams: a suggested addition to psychological first aid in an international context.

    PubMed

    Edwards-Stewart, Amanda; Ahmad, Zeba S; Thoburn, John W; Furman, Rich; Lambert, Ashly J; Shelly, Lauren; Gunn, Ginger

    2012-01-01

    The current article introduces Embedded Indigenous Psychological Support Teams (IPST) as a possible addition to current disaster relief efforts. This article highlights psychological first aid in an international context by drawing on mainstream disaster relief models such as The American Red Cross, Critical Incident Stress Management, and Flexible Psychological First Aid. IPST are explained as teams utilizing techniques from both CISM and FPFA with a focus on resiliency. It is currently theorized that in utilizing IPST existing disaster relief models may be more effective in mitigating negative physical or mental health consequences post-disaster.

  4. Using Additional Analyses to Clarify the Functions of Problem Behavior: An Analysis of Two Cases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Payne, Steven W.; Dozier, Claudia L.; Neidert, Pamela L.; Jowett, Erica S.; Newquist, Matthew H.

    2014-01-01

    Functional analyses (FA) have proven useful for identifying contingencies that influence problem behavior. Research has shown that some problem behavior may only occur in specific contexts or be influenced by multiple or idiosyncratic variables. When these contexts or sources of influence are not assessed in an FA, further assessment may be…

  5. Gene expression suggests conserved aspects of Hox gene regulation in arthropods and provides additional support for monophyletic Myriapoda.

    PubMed

    Janssen, Ralf; Budd, Graham E

    2010-01-01

    Antisense transcripts of Ultrabithorax (aUbx) in the millipede Glomeris and the centipede Lithobius are expressed in patterns complementary to that of the Ubx sense transcripts. A similar complementary expression pattern has been described for non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) of the bithoraxoid (bxd) locus in Drosophila, in which the transcription of bxd ncRNAs represses Ubx via transcriptional interference. We discuss our findings in the context of possibly conserved mechanisms of Ubx regulation in myriapods and the fly.Bicistronic transcription of Ubx and Antennapedia (Antp) has been reported previously for a myriapod and a number of crustaceans. In this paper, we show that Ubx/Antp bicistronic transcripts also occur in Glomeris and an onychophoran, suggesting further conserved mechanisms of Hox gene regulation in arthropods.Myriapod monophyly is supported by the expression of aUbx in all investigated myriapods, whereas in other arthropod classes, including the Onychophora, aUbx is not expressed. Of the two splice variants of Ubx/Antp only one could be isolated from myriapods, representing a possible further synapomorphy of the Myriapoda. PMID:20849647

  6. Are Dietary Restraint Scales Valid Measures of Dietary Restriction? Additional Objective Behavioral and Biological Data Suggest Not

    PubMed Central

    Stice, Eric; Sysko, Robyn; Roberto, Christina A.; Allison, Shelley

    2009-01-01

    Prospective studies find that individuals with elevated dietary restraint scores are at increased risk for bulimic symptom onset, yet experiments find that assignment to energy-deficit diet interventions reduce bulimic symptoms. One explanation for the conflicting findings is that the dietary restraint scales used in the former studies do not actually identify individuals who are restraining their caloric intake. Thus, we tested whether dietary restraint scales showed inverse relations to objectively measured caloric intake in three studies. Four dietary restraint scales did not correlate with doubly labeled water estimates of caloric intake over a 2-week period (M r = .01). One scale showed a significant inverse correlation with objectively measured caloric intake during a regular meal ordered from an ecologically valid menu (M r = −.30), but a significant positive relation that was qualified by a significant quadratic effect, to objectively measured caloric intake during multiple eating episodes in the lab (M r = .32). In balance, results suggest that dietary restraint scales are not valid measures of dietary restriction, replicating findings from prior studies that examined objective measures of caloric intake. PMID:20006662

  7. Towards a phylogenetic generic classification of Thelypteridaceae: Additional sampling suggests alterations of neotropical taxa and further study of paleotropical genera.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Thaís Elias; Hennequin, Sabine; Schneider, Harald; Smith, Alan R; Batista, João Aguiar Nogueira; Ramalho, Aline Joseph; Proite, Karina; Salino, Alexandre

    2016-01-01

    Thelypteridaceae is one of the largest fern families, having about 950 species and a cosmopolitan distribution but with most species occurring in tropical and subtropical regions. Its generic classification remains controversial, with different authors recognizing from one up to 32 genera. Phylogenetic relationships within the family have not been exhaustively studied, but previous studies have confirmed the monophyly of the lineage. Thus far, sampling has been inadequate for establishing a robust hypothesis of infrafamilial relationships within the family. In order to understand phylogenetic relationships within Thelypteridaceae and thus to improve generic reclassification, we expand the molecular sampling, including new samples of Old World taxa and, especially, many additional neotropical representatives. We also explore the monophyly of exclusively or mostly neotropical genera Amauropelta, Goniopteris, Meniscium, and Steiropteris. Our sampling includes 68 taxa and 134 newly generated sequences from two plastid genomic regions (rps4-trnS and trnL-trnF), plus 73 rps4 and 72 trnL-trnF sequences from GenBank. These data resulted in a concatenated matrix of 1980 molecular characters for 149 taxa. The combined data set was analyzed using maximum parsimony and bayesian inference of phylogeny. Our results are consistent with the general topological structure found in previous studies, including two main lineages within the family: phegopteroid and thelypteroid. The thelypteroid lineage comprises two clades; one of these included the segregates Metathelypteris, Coryphopteris, and Amauropelta (including part of Parathelypteris), whereas the other comprises all segregates of Cyclosorus s.l., such as Goniopteris, Meniscium, and Steiropteris (including Thelypteris polypodioides, previously incertae sedis). The three mainly neotropical segregates were found to be monophyletic but nested in a broadly defined Cyclosorus. The fourth mainly neotropical segregate, Amauropelta

  8. Towards a phylogenetic generic classification of Thelypteridaceae: Additional sampling suggests alterations of neotropical taxa and further study of paleotropical genera.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Thaís Elias; Hennequin, Sabine; Schneider, Harald; Smith, Alan R; Batista, João Aguiar Nogueira; Ramalho, Aline Joseph; Proite, Karina; Salino, Alexandre

    2016-01-01

    Thelypteridaceae is one of the largest fern families, having about 950 species and a cosmopolitan distribution but with most species occurring in tropical and subtropical regions. Its generic classification remains controversial, with different authors recognizing from one up to 32 genera. Phylogenetic relationships within the family have not been exhaustively studied, but previous studies have confirmed the monophyly of the lineage. Thus far, sampling has been inadequate for establishing a robust hypothesis of infrafamilial relationships within the family. In order to understand phylogenetic relationships within Thelypteridaceae and thus to improve generic reclassification, we expand the molecular sampling, including new samples of Old World taxa and, especially, many additional neotropical representatives. We also explore the monophyly of exclusively or mostly neotropical genera Amauropelta, Goniopteris, Meniscium, and Steiropteris. Our sampling includes 68 taxa and 134 newly generated sequences from two plastid genomic regions (rps4-trnS and trnL-trnF), plus 73 rps4 and 72 trnL-trnF sequences from GenBank. These data resulted in a concatenated matrix of 1980 molecular characters for 149 taxa. The combined data set was analyzed using maximum parsimony and bayesian inference of phylogeny. Our results are consistent with the general topological structure found in previous studies, including two main lineages within the family: phegopteroid and thelypteroid. The thelypteroid lineage comprises two clades; one of these included the segregates Metathelypteris, Coryphopteris, and Amauropelta (including part of Parathelypteris), whereas the other comprises all segregates of Cyclosorus s.l., such as Goniopteris, Meniscium, and Steiropteris (including Thelypteris polypodioides, previously incertae sedis). The three mainly neotropical segregates were found to be monophyletic but nested in a broadly defined Cyclosorus. The fourth mainly neotropical segregate, Amauropelta

  9. Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smalheer, C. V.

    1973-01-01

    The chemistry of lubricant additives is discussed to show what the additives are chemically and what functions they perform in the lubrication of various kinds of equipment. Current theories regarding the mode of action of lubricant additives are presented. The additive groups discussed include the following: (1) detergents and dispersants, (2) corrosion inhibitors, (3) antioxidants, (4) viscosity index improvers, (5) pour point depressants, and (6) antifouling agents.

  10. Moelcular Phylogenetic Analyses of G1P Dehydrogenase and G3P Dehydrogenase Suggest the Late Origin of Archaea-Type Membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokobori, S.; Nakajima, Y.; Akanuma, S.; Yamagishi, A.

    2013-11-01

    Phylogenetic analyses of G1PDH and G3PDH suggested that the common ancestor of Bacteria/Archaea had cellular membrane with G3P formed by G3PDH. The archaeal ancestry acquired G1PDH, and then the membrane with G3P was replaced with that with G1P.

  11. Metagenomic analyses of the late Pleistocene permafrost - additional tools for reconstruction of environmental conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivkina, Elizaveta; Petrovskaya, Lada; Vishnivetskaya, Tatiana; Krivushin, Kirill; Shmakova, Lyubov; Tutukina, Maria; Meyers, Arthur; Kondrashov, Fyodor

    2016-04-01

    A comparative analysis of the metagenomes from two 30 000-year-old permafrost samples, one of lake-alluvial origin and the other from late Pleistocene Ice Complex sediments, revealed significant differences within microbial communities. The late Pleistocene Ice Complex sediments (which have been characterized by the absence of methane with lower values of redox potential and Fe2+ content) showed a low abundance of methanogenic archaea and enzymes from both the carbon and nitrogen cycles, but a higher abundance of enzymes associated with the sulfur cycle. The metagenomic and geochemical analyses described in the paper provide evidence that the formation of the sampled late Pleistocene Ice Complex sediments likely took place under much more aerobic conditions than lake-alluvial sediments.

  12. Additional Development and Systems Analyses of Pneumatic Technology for High Speed Civil Transport Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Englar, Robert J.; Willie, F. Scott; Lee, Warren J.

    1999-01-01

    In the Task I portion of this NASA research grant, configuration development and experimental investigations have been conducted on a series of pneumatic high-lift and control surface devices applied to a generic High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) model configuration to determine their potential for improved aerodynamic performance, plus stability and control of higher performance aircraft. These investigations were intended to optimize pneumatic lift and drag performance; provide adequate control and longitudinal stability; reduce separation flowfields at high angle of attack; increase takeoff/climbout lift-to-drag ratios; and reduce system complexity and weight. Experimental aerodynamic evaluations were performed on a semi-span HSCT generic model with improved fuselage fineness ratio and with interchangeable plain flaps, blown flaps, pneumatic Circulation Control Wing (CCW) high-lift configurations, plain and blown canards, a novel Circulation Control (CC) cylinder blown canard, and a clean cruise wing for reference. Conventional tail power was also investigated for longitudinal trim capability. Also evaluated was unsteady pulsed blowing of the wing high-lift system to determine if reduced pulsed mass flow rates and blowing requirements could be made to yield the same lift as that resulting from steady-state blowing. Depending on the pulsing frequency applied, reduced mass flow rates were indeed found able to provide lift augmentation at lesser blowing values than for the steady conditions. Significant improvements in the aerodynamic characteristics leading to improved performance and stability/control were identified, and the various components were compared to evaluate the pneumatic potential of each. Aerodynamic results were provided to the Georgia Tech Aerospace System Design Lab. to conduct the companion system analyses and feasibility study (Task 2) of theses concepts applied to an operational advanced HSCT aircraft. Results and conclusions from these

  13. Reprocessing the Southern Hemisphere ADditional OZonesondes (SHADOZ) Database for Long-Term Trend Analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witte, J. C.; Thompson, A. M.; Coetzee, G.; Fujiwara, M.; Johnson, B. J.; Sterling, C. W.; Cullis, P.; Ashburn, C. E.; Jordan, A. F.

    2015-12-01

    SHADOZ is a large archive of tropical balloon-bone ozonesonde data at NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center with data from 14 tropical and subtropical stations provided by collaborators in Europe, Asia, Latin America and Africa . The SHADOZ time series began in 1998, using electrochemical concentration cell (ECC) ozonesondes. Like many long-term sounding stations, SHADOZ is characterized by variations in operating procedures, launch protocols, and data processing such that biases within a data record and among sites appear. In addition, over time, the radiosonde and ozonesonde instruments and data processing protocols have changed, adding to the measurement uncertainties at individual stations and limiting the reliability of ozone profile trends and continuous satellite validation. Currently, the ozonesonde community is engaged in reprocessing ECC data, with an emphasis on homogenization of the records to compensate for the variations in instrumentation and technique. The goals are to improve the information and integrity of each measurement record and to support calculation of more reliable trends. We illustrate the reprocessing activity of SHADOZ with selected stations. We will (1) show reprocessing steps based on the recent WMO report that provides post-processing guidelines for ozonesondes; (2) characterize uncertainties in various parts of the ECC conditioning process; and (3) compare original and reprocessed data to co-located ground and satellite measurements of column ozone.

  14. Proteomics computational analyses suggest that hepatitis C virus E1 and pestivirus E2 envelope glycoproteins are truncated class II fusion proteins.

    PubMed

    Garry, Robert F; Dash, Srikanta

    2003-03-15

    Class II fusion proteins encoded by tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV), dengue virus, and Semliki Forest virus have a fusion peptide located at the end of a rod-like molecule comprised of three antiparallel beta sheet domains. Proteomics computational analyses suggest that hepatitis C virus (HCV) envelope glycoprotein E1 and pestivirus envelope glycoprotein E2 are truncated class II fusion proteins. Similarities were also detected between the receptor-binding portion of TBEV E and HCV E2, and between TBEV small membrane protein precursor prM and pestivirus E1. The proposed models of Flaviviridae envelope proteins can facilitate drug and vaccine development.

  15. Genome analyses suggest the presence of polyploidy and recent human-driven expansions in eight global populations of the honeybee pathogen Nosema ceranae.

    PubMed

    Pelin, Adrian; Selman, Mohammed; Aris-Brosou, Stéphane; Farinelli, Laurent; Corradi, Nicolas

    2015-11-01

    Nosema ceranae is a microsporidian pathogen whose infections have been associated with recent global declines in the populations of western honeybees (Apis mellifera). Despite the outstanding economic and ecological threat that N. ceranae may represent for honeybees worldwide, many aspects of its biology, including its mode of reproduction, propagation and ploidy, are either very unclear or unknown. In the present study, we set to gain knowledge in these biological aspects by re-sequencing the genome of eight isolates (i.e. a population of spores isolated from one single beehive) of this species harvested from eight geographically distant beehives, and by investigating their level of polymorphism. Consistent with previous analyses performed using single gene sequences, our analyses uncovered the presence of very high genetic diversity within each isolate, but also very little hive-specific polymorphism. Surprisingly, the nature, location and distribution of this genetic variation suggest that beehives around the globe are infected by a population of N. ceranae cells that may be polyploid (4n or more), and possibly clonal. Lastly, phylogenetic analyses based on genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphism data extracted from these parasites and mitochondrial sequences from their hosts all failed to support the current geographical structure of our isolates.

  16. Integrated network-diversity analyses suggest suppressive effect of Hodgkin’s lymphoma and slightly relieving effect of chemotherapy on human milk microbiome

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Zhanshan (Sam); Li, Lianwei; Li, Wendy; Li, Jie; Chen, Hongju

    2016-01-01

    We aim to investigate the effects of Hodgkin’s lymphoma and the chemotherapy for treating the disease on the human milk microbiome through integrated network and community diversity analyses. Our analyses suggest that Hodgkin’s lymphoma seems to have a suppressing effect on the milk microbiome by lowering the milk microbial community diversity, as measured by the Hill numbers profiles. Although the diversity analysis did not reveal an effect of chemotherapy on community diversity, bacterial species interaction network analysis shows that chemotherapy may help to slightly restore the milk microbiome impacted by Hodgkin’s lymphoma through its influence on the interactions among species (or OTUs). We further constructed diversity-metabolites network, which suggests that the milk microbial diversity is positively correlated with some beneficial milk metabolites such as DHA (DocosaHexaenoic Acid), and that the diversity is negatively correlated with some potentially harmful metabolites such as Butanal. We hence postulate that higher milk microbial diversity should be a signature of healthy mothers and beneficial to infants. Finally, we constructed metabolites OTU correlation networks, from which we identified some special OTUs. These OTUs deserve further investigations given their apparent involvements in regulating the levels of critical milk metabolites such as DHA, Inositol and Butanal. PMID:27386954

  17. Geologic Insights and Suggestions on Mineral Potential Based on Analyses of Geophysical Data of the Southern Toquima Range, Nye County, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shawe, D.R.; Kucks, R.P.; Hildenbrand, T.G.

    2004-01-01

    Aeromagnetic and gravity data provide confirmation of major structural and lithologic units in the southern Toquima Range, Nevada. These units include Cretaceous granite plutons and Tertiary calderas. In addition, the geophysical maps pinpoint numerous faults and lesser intrusions, and they suggest locations of several inferred subsurface intrusions. They also corroborate a system of northwesterly and northeasterly conjugate structures that probably are fundamental to the structural framework of the Toquima Range. A combination of geophysical, geochemical, and geologic data available for the widely mineralized and productive area suggests additional mineral resource potential, especially in and (or) adjacent to the Round Mountain, Jefferson, Manhattan, and Belmont mining districts. Also, evidence for mineral potential exists for areas near the Flower mercury mine south of Mount Jefferson caldera, and in the Bald Mountain Canyon belt of gold-quartz veins in the Manhattan caldera. A few other areas also show potential for mineral resources. The various geologic environments indicated within the map area suggest base- and precious-metal potential in porphyry deposits as well as in quartz-vein and skarn deposits associated with intrusive stocks.

  18. Gene expression suggests double-segmental and single-segmental patterning mechanisms during posterior segment addition in the beetle Tribolium castaneum.

    PubMed

    Janssen, Ralf

    2014-01-01

    In the model arthropod Drosophila, all segments are patterned simultaneously in the blastoderm. In most other arthropods, however, posterior segments are added sequentially from a posterior segment addition zone. Posterior addition of single segments likely represents the ancestral mode of arthropod segmentation, although in Drosophila, segments are patterned in pairs by the pair-rule genes. It has been shown that in the new model insect, the beetle Tribolium, a segmentation clock operates that apparently patterns all segments in pairs as well. Here, I report on the expression of the segment polarity gene H15/midline in Tribolium. In the anterior embryo, segmental stripes of H15 appear in pairs, but in the posterior of the embryo stripes appear in a single-segmental periodicity. This implies that either two completely different segmentation-mechanisms may act in the germ band of Tribolium, that the segmentation clock changes its periodicity during development, or that the speed in which posterior segments are patterned changes. In any case, the data suggest the presence of another (or modified), yet undiscovered, mechanism of posterior segment addition in one of the best-understood arthropod models. The finding of a hitherto unrecognized segmentation mechanism in Tribolium may have major implications for the understanding of the origin of segmentation mechanisms, including the origin of pair rule patterning. It also calls for (re)-investigation of posterior segment addition in Tribolium and other previously studied arthropod models.

  19. Disentangling the complex evolutionary history of the Western Palearctic blue tits (Cyanistes spp.) - phylogenomic analyses suggest radiation by multiple colonization events and subsequent isolation.

    PubMed

    Stervander, Martin; Illera, Juan Carlos; Kvist, Laura; Barbosa, Pedro; Keehnen, Naomi P; Pruisscher, Peter; Bensch, Staffan; Hansson, Bengt

    2015-05-01

    Isolated islands and their often unique biota continue to play key roles for understanding the importance of drift, genetic variation and adaptation in the process of population differentiation and speciation. One island system that has inspired and intrigued evolutionary biologists is the blue tit complex (Cyanistes spp.) in Europe and Africa, in particular the complex evolutionary history of the multiple genetically distinct taxa of the Canary Islands. Understanding Afrocanarian colonization events is of particular importance because of recent unconventional suggestions that these island populations acted as source of the widespread population in mainland Africa. We investigated the relationship between mainland and island blue tits using a combination of Sanger sequencing at a population level (20 loci; 12 500 nucleotides) and next-generation sequencing of single population representatives (>3 200 000 nucleotides), analysed in coalescence and phylogenetic frameworks. We found (i) that Afrocanarian blue tits are monophyletic and represent four major clades, (ii) that the blue tit complex has a continental origin and that the Canary Islands were colonized three times, (iii) that all island populations have low genetic variation, indicating low long-term effective population sizes and (iv) that populations on La Palma and in Libya represent relicts of an ancestral North African population. Further, demographic reconstructions revealed (v) that the Canary Islands, conforming to traditional views, hold sink populations, which have not served as source for back colonization of the African mainland. Our study demonstrates the importance of complete taxon sampling and an extensive multimarker study design to obtain robust phylogeographical inferences.

  20. Disentangling the complex evolutionary history of the Western Palearctic blue tits (Cyanistes spp.) - phylogenomic analyses suggest radiation by multiple colonization events and subsequent isolation.

    PubMed

    Stervander, Martin; Illera, Juan Carlos; Kvist, Laura; Barbosa, Pedro; Keehnen, Naomi P; Pruisscher, Peter; Bensch, Staffan; Hansson, Bengt

    2015-05-01

    Isolated islands and their often unique biota continue to play key roles for understanding the importance of drift, genetic variation and adaptation in the process of population differentiation and speciation. One island system that has inspired and intrigued evolutionary biologists is the blue tit complex (Cyanistes spp.) in Europe and Africa, in particular the complex evolutionary history of the multiple genetically distinct taxa of the Canary Islands. Understanding Afrocanarian colonization events is of particular importance because of recent unconventional suggestions that these island populations acted as source of the widespread population in mainland Africa. We investigated the relationship between mainland and island blue tits using a combination of Sanger sequencing at a population level (20 loci; 12 500 nucleotides) and next-generation sequencing of single population representatives (>3 200 000 nucleotides), analysed in coalescence and phylogenetic frameworks. We found (i) that Afrocanarian blue tits are monophyletic and represent four major clades, (ii) that the blue tit complex has a continental origin and that the Canary Islands were colonized three times, (iii) that all island populations have low genetic variation, indicating low long-term effective population sizes and (iv) that populations on La Palma and in Libya represent relicts of an ancestral North African population. Further, demographic reconstructions revealed (v) that the Canary Islands, conforming to traditional views, hold sink populations, which have not served as source for back colonization of the African mainland. Our study demonstrates the importance of complete taxon sampling and an extensive multimarker study design to obtain robust phylogeographical inferences. PMID:25753616

  1. Analyses of the Distribution Patterns of Burkholderia pseudomallei and Associated Phages in Soil Samples in Thailand Suggest That Phage Presence Reduces the Frequency of Bacterial Isolation

    PubMed Central

    Withatanung, Patoo; Chantratita, Narisara; Muangsombut, Veerachat; Saiprom, Natnaree; Lertmemongkolchai, Ganjana; Klumpp, Jochen; Clokie, Martha R. J.; Galyov, Edouard E.

    2016-01-01

    Background Burkholderia pseudomallei is a soil saprophytic bacterium that causes melioidosis. The infection occurs through cutaneous inoculation, inhalation or ingestion. Bacteriophages (phages) in the same ecosystem may significantly impact the biology of this bacterium in the environment, and in their culturability in the laboratory. Methods/Principal Findings The soil samples were analysed for the presence of bacteria using culture methods, and for phages using plaque assays on B. pseudomallei strain 1106a lawns. Of the 86 soil samples collected from northeastern Thailand, B. pseudomallei was cultured from 23 (26.7%) samples; no phage capable of infecting B. pseudomallei was detected in these samples. In contrast, phages capable of infecting B. pseudomallei, but no bacteria, were present in 10 (11.6%) samples. B. pseudomallei and their phages were co-isolated from only 3 (3.5%) of soil samples. Since phage capable of infecting B. pseudomallei could not have appeared in the samples without the prior presence of bacteria, or exposure to bacteria nearby, our data suggest that all phage-positive/bacteria-negative samples have had B. pseudomallei in or in a close proximity to them. Taken together, these findings indicate that the presence of phages may influence the success of B. pseudomallei isolation. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that the isolated phages are podoviruses. The temperate phages residing in soil-isolated strains of B. pseudomallei that were resistant to the dominant soil borne phages could be induced by mitomycin C. These induced-temperate phages were closely related, but not identical, to the more dominant soil-isolated phage type. Conclusion/Significance The presence of podoviruses capable of infecting B. pseudomallei may affect the success of the pathogen isolation from the soil. The currently used culture-based methods of B. pseudomallei isolation appear to under-estimate the bacterial abundance. The detection of phage capable of

  2. Analyses of microbial community within a composter operated using household garbage with special reference to the addition of soybean oil.

    PubMed

    Aoshima, M; Pedro, M S; Haruta, S; Ding, L; Fukada, T; Kigawa, A; Kodama, T; Ishii, M; Igarashi, Y

    2001-01-01

    A commercially available composter was operated using fixed composition of garbage with or without the addition of soybean oil. The composter was operated without adding seed microorganisms or bulking materials. Microflora within the composter were analyzed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) in the case of oil addition, or by 16/18 S rRNA gene sequencing of the isolated microorganisms in the case of no oil addition. The results showed that, irrespective of the addition of oil, the bacteria identified were all gram positive, and that lactobacilli seemed to be the key microorganisms. Based on the results, suitable microflora for use in a household composter are discussed.

  3. Phylogenetic analyses of a combined data set suggest that the Attheya lineage is the closest living relative of the pennate diatoms (Bacillariophyceae).

    PubMed

    Sorhannus, Ulf; Fox, Martin G

    2012-03-01

    A Bayesian analysis of a seven gene data set was conducted to reconstruct phylogenetic relationships among a sample of centric and pennate diatoms and to test alternative hypotheses about the closest living relative of Bacillariophyceae. A lineage, composed of two Attheya species, was inferred to share the most recent common ancestor with Bacillariophyceae--a relationship that was also corroborated by the combined parsimony analysis. All competing hypotheses about the closest living relative of Bacillariophyceae were rejected because 100% of the trees in the post-burn-in sample in the Bayesian analysis supported the Attheya-Bacillariophyceae clade. According to a partitioned Bremer support analysis, the majority of the genes in the combined data matrix supported the Attheya--Bacillariophyceae relationship. The global topology of the phylogenetic tree indicated that a monophyletic group consisting of Thalassiosirales and Toxarium undulatum formed the deepest branch followed by a node uniting a clade composed of Bacillariophyceae/Attheya species and a lineage made up of Eucampia zoodiacus, Chaetocerotales, Lithodesmiales, Triceratiales, Biddulphiales and Cymatosirales. Except for the phylogenetic positions of Lithodesmiales, Thalassiosira sp and Skeletonema costatum, the optimal tree obtained from the combined parsimony analysis showed the same branching order of taxa as those seen in the consensus tree inferred from three independent Markov chain Monte Carlo analyses. Noteworthy findings are that Toxarium undulatum shares a strongly supported node with Thalassiosirales and that the genus Attheya is not a member of the Chaetocerotales lineage. PMID:21723193

  4. Biochemical analyses of the antioxidative activity and chemical ingredients in eight different Allium alien monosomic addition lines.

    PubMed

    Yaguchi, Shigenori; Matsumoto, Misato; Date, Rie; Harada, Kazuki; Maeda, Toshimichi; Yamauchi, Naoki; Shigyo, Masayoshi

    2013-01-01

    We measured the antioxidant contents and antioxidative activities in eight Allium fistulosum-shallot monosomic addition lines (MAL; FF+1A-FF+8A). The high antioxidative activity lines (FF+2A and FF+6A) showed high polyphenol accumulation. These additional chromosomes (2A and 6A) would therefore have anonymous genes related to the upregulation of polyphenol production, the antioxidative activities consequently being increased in these MALs. PMID:24317054

  5. Analyses of MbtB, MbtE, and MbtF Suggest Revisions to the Mycobactin Biosynthesis Pathway in Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    McMahon, Matthew D.; Rush, Jason S.

    2012-01-01

    The production of mycobactin (MBT) by Mycobacterium tuberculosis is essential for this bacterium to access iron when it is in an infected host. Due to this essential function, there is considerable interest in deciphering the mechanism of MBT assembly, with the goal of targeting select biosynthetic steps for antituberculosis drug development. The proposed scheme for MBT biosynthesis involves assembly of the MBT backbone by a hybrid nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS)/polyketide synthase (PKS) megasynthase followed by the tailoring of this backbone by N6 acylation of the central l-Lys residue and subsequent N6-hydroxylation of the central N6-acyl-l-Lys and the terminal caprolactam. A complete testing of this hypothesis has been hindered by the inability to heterologously produce soluble megasynthase components. Here we show that soluble forms of the NRPS components MbtB, MbtE, and MbtF are obtained when these enzymes are coproduced with MbtH. Using these soluble enzymes we determined the amino acid specificity of each adenylation (A) domain. These results suggest that the proposed tailoring enzymes are actually involved in precursor biosynthesis since the A domains of MbtE and MbtF are specific for N6-acyl-N6-hydroxy-l-Lys and N6-hydroxy-l-Lys, respectively. Furthermore, the preference of the A domain of MbtB for l-Thr over l-Ser suggests that the megasynthase produces MBT derivatives with β-methyl oxazoline rings. Since the most prominent form of MBT produced by M. tuberculosis lacks this β-methyl group, a mechanism for demethylation remains to be discovered. These results suggest revisions to the MBT biosynthesis pathway while also identifying new targets for antituberculosis drug development. PMID:22447909

  6. Analyses of MbtB, MbtE, and MbtF suggest revisions to the mycobactin biosynthesis pathway in Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    McMahon, Matthew D; Rush, Jason S; Thomas, Michael G

    2012-06-01

    The production of mycobactin (MBT) by Mycobacterium tuberculosis is essential for this bacterium to access iron when it is in an infected host. Due to this essential function, there is considerable interest in deciphering the mechanism of MBT assembly, with the goal of targeting select biosynthetic steps for antituberculosis drug development. The proposed scheme for MBT biosynthesis involves assembly of the MBT backbone by a hybrid nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS)/polyketide synthase (PKS) megasynthase followed by the tailoring of this backbone by N(6) acylation of the central l-Lys residue and subsequent N(6)-hydroxylation of the central N(6)-acyl-l-Lys and the terminal caprolactam. A complete testing of this hypothesis has been hindered by the inability to heterologously produce soluble megasynthase components. Here we show that soluble forms of the NRPS components MbtB, MbtE, and MbtF are obtained when these enzymes are coproduced with MbtH. Using these soluble enzymes we determined the amino acid specificity of each adenylation (A) domain. These results suggest that the proposed tailoring enzymes are actually involved in precursor biosynthesis since the A domains of MbtE and MbtF are specific for N(6)-acyl-N(6)-hydroxy-l-Lys and N(6)-hydroxy-l-Lys, respectively. Furthermore, the preference of the A domain of MbtB for l-Thr over l-Ser suggests that the megasynthase produces MBT derivatives with β-methyl oxazoline rings. Since the most prominent form of MBT produced by M. tuberculosis lacks this β-methyl group, a mechanism for demethylation remains to be discovered. These results suggest revisions to the MBT biosynthesis pathway while also identifying new targets for antituberculosis drug development.

  7. Biophysical and Functional Analyses Suggest That Adenovirus E4-ORF3 Protein Requires Higher-order Multimerization to Function against Promyelocytic Leukemia Protein Nuclear Bodies*

    PubMed Central

    Patsalo, Vadim; Yondola, Mark A.; Luan, Bowu; Shoshani, Ilana; Kisker, Caroline; Green, David F.; Raleigh, Daniel P.; Hearing, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    The early region 4 open reading frame 3 protein (E4-ORF3; UniProt ID P04489) is the most highly conserved of all adenovirus-encoded gene products at the amino acid level. A conserved attribute of the E4-ORF3 proteins of different human adenoviruses is the ability to disrupt PML nuclear bodies from their normally punctate appearance into heterogeneous filamentous structures. This E4-ORF3 activity correlates with the inhibition of PML-mediated antiviral activity. The mechanism of E4-ORF3-mediated reorganization of PML nuclear bodies is unknown. Biophysical analysis of the purified WT E4-ORF3 protein revealed an ordered secondary/tertiary structure and the ability to form heterogeneous higher-order multimers in solution. Importantly, a nonfunctional E4-ORF3 mutant protein, L103A, forms a stable dimer with WT secondary structure content. Because the L103A mutant is incapable of PML reorganization, this result suggests that higher-order multimerization of E4-ORF3 may be required for the activity of the protein. In support of this hypothesis, we demonstrate that the E4-ORF3 L103A mutant protein acts as a dominant-negative effector when coexpressed with the WT E4-ORF3 in mammalian cells. It prevents WT E4-ORF3-mediated PML track formation presumably by binding to the WT protein and inhibiting the formation of higher-order multimers. In vitro protein binding studies support this conclusion as demonstrated by copurification of coexpressed WT and L103A proteins in Escherichia coli and coimmunoprecipitation of WT·L103A E4-ORF3 complexes in mammalian cells. These results provide new insight into the properties of the Ad E4-ORF3 protein and suggest that higher-order protein multimerization is essential for E4-ORF3 activity. PMID:22573317

  8. Analyses of GA20ox- and GID1-over-expressing aspen suggest that gibberellins play two distinct roles in wood formation.

    PubMed

    Mauriat, Mélanie; Moritz, Thomas

    2009-06-01

    Gibberellins (GAs) are involved in many aspects of plant development, including shoot growth, flowering and wood formation. Increased levels of bioactive GAs are known to induce xylogenesis and xylem fiber elongation in aspen. However, there is currently little information on the response pathway(s) that mediate GA effects on wood formation. Here we characterize an important element of the GA pathway in hybrid aspen: the GA receptor, GID1. Four orthologs of GID1 were identified in Populus tremula x P. tremuloides (PttGID1.1-1.4). These were functional when expressed in Arabidopsis thaliana, and appear to present a degree of sub-functionalization in hybrid aspen. PttGID1.1 and PttGID1.3 were over-expressed in independent lines of hybrid aspen using either the 35S promoter or a xylem-specific promoter (LMX5). The 35S:PttGID1 over-expressors shared several phenotypic traits previously described in 35S:AtGA20ox1 over-expressors, including rapid growth, increased elongation, and increased xylogenesis. However, their xylem fibers were not elongated, unlike those of 35S:AtGA20ox1 plants. Similar differences in the xylem fiber phenotype were observed when PttGID1.1, PttGID1.3 or AtGA20ox1 were expressed under the control of the LMX5 promoter, suggesting either that PttGID1.1 and PttGID1.3 play no role in fiber elongation or that GA homeostasis is strongly controlled when GA signaling is altered. Our data suggest that GAs are required in two distinct wood-formation processes that have tissue-specific signaling pathways: xylogenesis, as mediated by GA signaling in the cambium, and fiber elongation in the developing xylem.

  9. MeV-ion microprobe analyses of whole Drosophila suggest that zinc and copper accumulation is regulated storage not deposit excretion.

    PubMed

    Schofield, R M; Postlethwait, J H; Lefevre, H W

    1997-12-01

    We examined Drosophila spp. using a penetrative ion microprobe technique that allows us to quantify element contents in whole organs and organisms. Comparatively non-penetrative techniques, such as electron microscopy, could not have been used to make many of these measurements because material is lost during sectioning. We found that zinc was accumulated predominantly within a single organ: in the main segments of both the anterior and posterior Malpighian tubules. In contrast to zinc, iron and copper were more generally distributed throughout the body. Zinc concentrations as high as 2.8 % of dry mass were measured in cell-sized volumes of the Malpighian tubules. The large quantities of zinc (approximately 2x10(-8) g in 8-day-old male adults) were sequestered by an unidentified mechanism. We found less than 1 % of the estimated amount of consumed zinc and copper in the abdomen of flies fed food containing several hundred parts per million dry mass of these metals. Our results are inconsistent with the detoxification hypothesis that predicts that a large proportion of the heavy metals passing through the gut are absorbed and stored permanently. We found for both zinc and copper that the quantity in the abdomen was not proportional to the concentration of these metals in the consumed food but was, instead, relatively invariant. For these reasons, we suggest that regulated biological availability, not detoxification, may be the primary benefit of zinc and copper storage.

  10. MeV-ion microprobe analyses of whole Drosophila suggest that zinc and copper accumulation is regulated storage not deposit excretion.

    PubMed

    Schofield, R M; Postlethwait, J H; Lefevre, H W

    1997-12-01

    We examined Drosophila spp. using a penetrative ion microprobe technique that allows us to quantify element contents in whole organs and organisms. Comparatively non-penetrative techniques, such as electron microscopy, could not have been used to make many of these measurements because material is lost during sectioning. We found that zinc was accumulated predominantly within a single organ: in the main segments of both the anterior and posterior Malpighian tubules. In contrast to zinc, iron and copper were more generally distributed throughout the body. Zinc concentrations as high as 2.8 % of dry mass were measured in cell-sized volumes of the Malpighian tubules. The large quantities of zinc (approximately 2x10(-8) g in 8-day-old male adults) were sequestered by an unidentified mechanism. We found less than 1 % of the estimated amount of consumed zinc and copper in the abdomen of flies fed food containing several hundred parts per million dry mass of these metals. Our results are inconsistent with the detoxification hypothesis that predicts that a large proportion of the heavy metals passing through the gut are absorbed and stored permanently. We found for both zinc and copper that the quantity in the abdomen was not proportional to the concentration of these metals in the consumed food but was, instead, relatively invariant. For these reasons, we suggest that regulated biological availability, not detoxification, may be the primary benefit of zinc and copper storage. PMID:9364029

  11. Analyses of loss-of-function mutations of the MITF gene suggest that haploinsufficiency is a cause of Waardenburg syndrome type 2A

    SciTech Connect

    Nobukuni, Yoshitaka; Watanabe, A.; Takeda, Kazushisa; Skarka, Hana; Tachibana, Masayoshi

    1996-07-01

    Waardenburg syndrome type 2 (WS2) is a dominantly inherited disorder characterized by a pigmentation anomaly and hearing impairment due to lack of melanocyte. Previous work has linked a subset of families with WS2 (WS2A) to the MITF gene that encodes a transcription factor with a basic-helix-loop-helix-leucine zipper (bHLH-Zip) motif and that is involved in melanocyte differentiation. Several splice-site and missense mutations have been reported in individuals affected with WS2A. In this report, we have identified two novel point mutations in the MITF gene in affected individuals from two different families with WS2A. The two mutations (C760{r_arrow}T and C895{r_arrow}T) create stop codons in exons 7 and 8, respectively. Corresponding mutant alleles predict the truncated proteins lacking HLH-Zip or Zip structure. To understand how these mutations cause WS2 in heterozygotes, we generated mutant MITF cDNAs and used them for DNA-binding and luciferase reporter assays. The mutated MITF proteins lose the DNA-binding activity and fail to transactivate the promoter of tyrosinase, a melanocyte-specific enzyme. However, these mutated proteins do not appear to interfere with the activity of wild-type MITF protein in these assays, indicating that they do not show a dominant-negative effect. These findings suggest that the phenotypes of the two families with WS2A in the present study are caused by loss-of-function mutations in one of the two alleles of the MITF gene, resulting in haploinsufficiency of the MITF protein, the protein necessary for normal development of melanocytes. 37 refs., 4 figs.

  12. Structural mapping of the coiled-coil domain of a bacterial condensin and comparative analyses across all domains of life suggest conserved features of SMC proteins.

    PubMed

    Waldman, Vincent M; Stanage, Tyler H; Mims, Alexandra; Norden, Ian S; Oakley, Martha G

    2015-06-01

    The structural maintenance of chromosomes (SMC) proteins form the cores of multisubunit complexes that are required for the segregation and global organization of chromosomes in all domains of life. These proteins share a common domain structure in which N- and C- terminal regions pack against one another to form a globular ATPase domain. This "head" domain is connected to a central, globular, "hinge" or dimerization domain by a long, antiparallel coiled coil. To date, most efforts for structural characterization of SMC proteins have focused on the globular domains. Recently, however, we developed a method to map interstrand interactions in the 50-nm coiled-coil domain of MukB, the divergent SMC protein found in γ-proteobacteria. Here, we apply that technique to map the structure of the Bacillus subtilis SMC (BsSMC) coiled-coil domain. We find that, in contrast to the relatively complicated coiled-coil domain of MukB, the BsSMC domain is nearly continuous, with only two detectable coiled-coil interruptions. Near the middle of the domain is a break in coiled-coil structure in which there are three more residues on the C-terminal strand than on the N-terminal strand. Close to the head domain, there is a second break with a significantly longer insertion on the same strand. These results provide an experience base that allows an informed interpretation of the output of coiled-coil prediction algorithms for this family of proteins. A comparison of such predictions suggests that these coiled-coil deviations are highly conserved across SMC types in a wide variety of organisms, including humans.

  13. Comparative Transcriptome Analyses between a Spontaneous Late-Ripening Sweet Orange Mutant and Its Wild Type Suggest the Functions of ABA, Sucrose and JA during Citrus Fruit Ripening

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ya-Jian; Wang, Xing-Jian; Wu, Ju-Xun; Chen, Shan-Yan; Chen, Hong; Chai, Li-Jun; Yi, Hua-Lin

    2014-01-01

    A spontaneous late-ripening mutant of ‘Jincheng’ (C. sinensis L. Osbeck) sweet orange exhibited a delay of fruit pigmentation and harvesting. In this work, we studied the processes of orange fruit ripening through the comparative analysis between the Jincheng mutant and its wild type. This study revealed that the fruit quality began to differ on 166th days after anthesis. At this stage, fruits were subjected to transcriptome analysis by RNA sequencing. 13,412 differentially expressed unigenes (DEGs) were found. Of these unigenes, 75.8% were down-regulated in the wild type, suggesting that the transcription level of wild type was lower than that of the mutant during this stage. These DEGs were mainly clustered into five pathways: metabolic pathways, plant-pathogen interaction, spliceosome, biosynthesis of plant hormones and biosynthesis of phenylpropanoids. Therefore, the expression profiles of the genes that are involved in abscisic acid, sucrose, and jasmonic acid metabolism and signal transduction pathways were analyzed during the six fruit ripening stages. The results revealed the regulation mechanism of sweet orange fruit ripening metabolism in the following four aspects: First, the more mature orange fruits were, the lower the transcription levels were. Second, the expression level of PME boosted with the maturity of the citrus fruit. Therefore, the expression level of PME might represent the degree of the orange fruit ripeness. Third, the interaction of PP2C, PYR/PYL, and SnRK2 was peculiar to the orange fruit ripening process. Fourth, abscisic acid, sucrose, and jasmonic acid all took part in orange fruit ripening process and might interact with each other. These findings provide an insight into the intricate process of sweet orange fruit ripening. PMID:25551568

  14. Structure-function analyses of isochorismate-pyruvate lyase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa suggest differing catalytic mechanisms for the two pericyclic reactions of this bifunctional enzyme.

    PubMed

    Luo, Qianyi; Olucha, Jose; Lamb, Audrey L

    2009-06-16

    The isochorismate-pyruvate lyase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PchB) catalyzes two pericyclic reactions in a single active site. PchB physiologically produces salicylate and pyruvate from isochorismate for ultimate incorporation of the salicylate into the siderophore pyochelin. PchB also produces prephenate from chorismate, most likely due to structural homology to the Escherchia coli chorismate mutase. The molecular basis of catalysis among enzymatic pericyclic reactions is a matter of debate, one view holding that catalysis may be derived from electrostatic transition state stabilization and the opposing view that catalysis is derived from the generation of a reactive substrate conformation. Mutant forms of PchB were generated by site-directed mutagenesis at the site (K42) hypothesized to be key for electrostatic transition state stabilization (K42A, K42Q, K42E, and K42H). The loop containing K42 is mobile, and a mutant to slow loop dynamics was also designed (A43P). Finally, a previously characterized mutation (I87T) was also produced. Circular dichroism was used to assess the overall effect on secondary structure as a result of the mutations, and X-ray crystallographic structures are reported for K42A with salicylate and pyruvate bound and for apo-I87T. The data illustrate that the active site architecture is maintained in K42A-PchB, which indicates that differences in activity are not caused by secondary structural changes or by differences in active site loop conformation but rather by the chemical nature of this key residue. In contrast, the I87T structure demonstrates considerable mobility, suggesting that loop dynamics and conformational plasticity may be important for efficient catalysis. Finally, the mutational effects on k(cat) provide evidence that the two activities of PchB are not covariant and that a single hypothesis may not provide a sufficient explanation for catalysis. PMID:19432488

  15. Additive-dominance genetic model analyses for late-maturity alpha-amylase activity in a bread wheat factorial crossing population.

    PubMed

    Rasul, Golam; Glover, Karl D; Krishnan, Padmanaban G; Wu, Jixiang; Berzonsky, William A; Ibrahim, Amir M H

    2015-12-01

    Elevated level of late maturity α-amylase activity (LMAA) can result in low falling number scores, reduced grain quality, and downgrade of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) class. A mating population was developed by crossing parents with different levels of LMAA. The F2 and F3 hybrids and their parents were evaluated for LMAA, and data were analyzed using the R software package 'qgtools' integrated with an additive-dominance genetic model and a mixed linear model approach. Simulated results showed high testing powers for additive and additive × environment variances, and comparatively low powers for dominance and dominance × environment variances. All variance components and their proportions to the phenotypic variance for the parents and hybrids were significant except for the dominance × environment variance. The estimated narrow-sense heritability and broad-sense heritability for LMAA were 14 and 54%, respectively. High significant negative additive effects for parents suggest that spring wheat cultivars 'Lancer' and 'Chester' can serve as good general combiners, and that 'Kinsman' and 'Seri-82' had negative specific combining ability in some hybrids despite of their own significant positive additive effects, suggesting they can be used as parents to reduce LMAA levels. Seri-82 showed very good general combining ability effect when used as a male parent, indicating the importance of reciprocal effects. High significant negative dominance effects and high-parent heterosis for hybrids demonstrated that the specific hybrid combinations; Chester × Kinsman, 'Lerma52' × Lancer, Lerma52 × 'LoSprout' and 'Janz' × Seri-82 could be generated to produce cultivars with significantly reduced LMAA level.

  16. Analysing spatio-temporal patterns of the global NO2-distribution retrieved from GOME satellite observations using a generalized additive model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayn, M.; Beirle, S.; Hamprecht, F. A.; Platt, U.; Menze, B. H.; Wagner, T.

    2009-09-01

    With the increasing availability of observational data from different sources at a global level, joint analysis of these data is becoming especially attractive. For such an analysis - oftentimes with little prior knowledge about local and global interactions between the different observational variables at hand - an exploratory, data-driven analysis of the data may be of particular relevance. In the present work we used generalized additive models (GAM) in an exemplary study of spatio-temporal patterns in the tropospheric NO2-distribution derived from GOME satellite observations (1996 to 2001) at global scale. We focused on identifying correlations between NO2 and local wind fields, a quantity which is of particular interest in the analysis of spatio-temporal interactions. Formulating general functional, parametric relationships between the observed NO2 distribution and local wind fields, however, is difficult - if not impossible. So, rather than following a model-based analysis testing the data for predefined hypotheses (assuming, for example, sinusoidal seasonal trends), we used a GAM with non-parametric model terms to learn this functional relationship between NO2 and wind directly from the data. The NO2 observations showed to be affected by wind-dominated processes over large areas. We estimated the extent of areas affected by specific NO2 emission sources, and were able to highlight likely atmospheric transport "pathways". General temporal trends which were also part of our model - weekly, seasonal and linear changes - showed to be in good agreement with previous studies and alternative ways of analysing the time series. Overall, using a non-parametric model provided favorable means for a rapid inspection of this large spatio-temporal NO2 data set, with less bias than parametric approaches, and allowing to visualize dynamical processes of the NO2 distribution at a global scale.

  17. Impact of enzalutamide on quality of life in men with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer after chemotherapy: additional analyses from the AFFIRM randomized clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Cella, D.; Ivanescu, C.; Holmstrom, S.; Bui, C. N.; Spalding, J.; Fizazi, K.

    2015-01-01

    Background To present longitudinal changes in Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Prostate (FACT-P) scores during 25-week treatment with enzalutamide or placebo in men with progressive metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) after chemotherapy in the AFFIRM trial. Patients and methods Patients were randomly assigned to enzalutamide 160 mg/day or placebo. FACT-P was completed before randomization, at weeks 13, 17, 21, and 25, and every 12 weeks thereafter while on study treatment. Longitudinal changes in FACT-P scores from baseline to 25 weeks were analyzed using a mixed effects model for repeated measures (MMRM), with a pattern mixture model (PMM) applied as secondary analysis to address non-ignorable missing data. Cumulative distribution function (CDF) plots were generated and different methodological approaches and models for handling missing data were applied. Due to the exploratory nature of the analyses, adjustments for multiple comparisons were not made. AFFIRM is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00974311. Results The intention-to-treat FACT-P population included 938 patients (enzalutamide, n = 674; placebo n = 264) with evaluable FACT-P assessments at baseline and ≥1 post-baseline assessment. After 25 weeks, the mean FACT-P total score decreased by 1.52 points with enzalutamide compared with 13.73 points with placebo (P < 0.001). In addition, significant treatment differences at week 25 favoring enzalutamide were evident for all FACT-P subscales and indices, whether analyzed by MMRM or PMM. CDF plots revealed differences favoring enzalutamide compared with placebo across the full range of possible response levels for FACT-P total and all disease- and symptom-specific subscales/indices. Conclusion In men with progressive mCRPC after docetaxel-based chemotherapy, enzalutamide is superior to placebo in health-related quality-of-life outcomes, regardless of analysis model or threshold selected for meaningful response. Clinical

  18. Birth of Archaeal Cells: Molecular Phylogenetic Analyses of G1P Dehydrogenase, G3P Dehydrogenases, and Glycerol Kinase Suggest Derived Features of Archaeal Membranes Having G1P Polar Lipids

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Bacteria and Eukarya have cell membranes with sn-glycerol-3-phosphate (G3P), whereas archaeal membranes contain sn-glycerol-1-phosphate (G1P). Determining the time at which cells with either G3P-lipid membranes or G1P-lipid membranes appeared is important for understanding the early evolution of terrestrial life. To clarify this issue, we reconstructed molecular phylogenetic trees of G1PDH (G1P dehydrogenase; EgsA/AraM) which is responsible for G1P synthesis and G3PDHs (G3P dehydrogenase; GpsA and GlpA/GlpD) and glycerol kinase (GlpK) which is responsible for G3P synthesis. Together with the distribution of these protein-encoding genes among archaeal and bacterial groups, our phylogenetic analyses suggested that GlpA/GlpD in the Commonote (the last universal common ancestor of all extant life with a cellular form, Commonote commonote) acquired EgsA (G1PDH) from the archaeal common ancestor (Commonote archaea) and acquired GpsA and GlpK from a bacterial common ancestor (Commonote bacteria). In our scenario based on this study, the Commonote probably possessed a G3P-lipid membrane synthesized enzymatically, after which the archaeal lineage acquired G1PDH followed by the replacement of a G3P-lipid membrane with a G1P-lipid membrane. PMID:27774041

  19. Characterizations and expression analyses of NF-κB and Rel genes in the Yesso scallop (Patinopecten yessoensis) suggest specific response patterns against Gram-negative infection in bivalves.

    PubMed

    Li, Ruojiao; Zhang, Ru; Zhang, Lu; Zou, Jiajun; Xing, Qiang; Dou, Huaiqian; Hu, Xiaoli; Zhang, Lingling; Wang, Ruijia; Bao, Zhenmin

    2015-06-01

    Rel/NF-κB (nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells) genes are evolutionarily conserved and play a pivotal role in several physiological events. They have been extensively studied from various species, including both vertebrates and invertebrates. However, the Rel/NF-κB genes have not been systematically characterized in bivalves. In this study, we identified and characterized PyNF-κB and PyRel in the Yesso scallop (Patinopecten yessoensis). Phylogenetic and protein structural analyses were conducted to determine the identities and evolutionary relationships of Rel/NF-κB genes in Yesso scallop. Compared with the Rel/NF-κB genes from vertebrate species, the PyNF-κB and PyRel are relatively conserved in their structural features, but there were no paralogs found in P. yessoensis or other invertebrates. To gain insights into the roles of Rel/NF-κB genes during the innate immune response in scallop, quantitative real-time PCR was used to investigate the expression profiles of these genes at different developmental stages, in healthy adult tissues and in the hemolymph after bacterial infection with Micrococcus luteus and Vibrio anguillarum. The real-time PCR results indicated the abundance of PyNF-κB in the first four embryonic stages, including oocytes, fertilized eggs, morulae and blastulae. By contrast, PyRel was abundantly expressed in blastulae, trochophores and D-shaped larvae. In adult scallops, PyNF-κB and PyRel were ubiquitously expressed in most healthy tissues and highly expressed in most of the immune related tissues. Both genes were significantly up-regulated during the acute phase (3 h) after infection with Gram-positive (M. luteus) and negative (V. anguillarum) bacteria, while the much higher expression level of PyNF-κB suggested the involvement of the extra immune deficiency (IMD)-like pathway against the Gram-negative bacterial infection. The complex pattern of Rel/NF-κB induced expression suggested that PyNF-κB and

  20. Novel Flow Cytometry Analyses of Boar Sperm Viability: Can the Addition of Whole Sperm-Rich Fraction Seminal Plasma to Frozen-Thawed Boar Sperm Affect It?

    PubMed Central

    Díaz, Rommy; Boguen, Rodrigo; Martins, Simone Maria Massami Kitamura; Ravagnani, Gisele Mouro; Leal, Diego Feitosa; Oliveira, Melissa de Lima; Muro, Bruno Bracco Donatelli; Parra, Beatriz Martins; Meirelles, Flávio Vieira; Papa, Frederico Ozanan; Dell’Aqua, José Antônio; Alvarenga, Marco Antônio; Moretti, Aníbal de Sant’Anna; Sepúlveda, Néstor

    2016-01-01

    Boar semen cryopreservation remains a challenge due to the extension of cold shock damage. Thus, many alternatives have emerged to improve the quality of frozen-thawed boar sperm. Although the use of seminal plasma arising from boar sperm-rich fraction (SP-SRF) has shown good efficacy; however, the majority of actual sperm evaluation techniques include a single or dual sperm parameter analysis, which overrates the real sperm viability. Within this context, this work was performed to introduce a sperm flow cytometry fourfold stain technique for simultaneous evaluation of plasma and acrosomal membrane integrity and mitochondrial membrane potential. We then used the sperm flow cytometry fourfold stain technique to study the effect of SP-SRF on frozen-thawed boar sperm and further evaluated the effect of this treatment on sperm movement, tyrosine phosphorylation and fertility rate (FR). The sperm fourfold stain technique is accurate (R2 = 0.9356, p > 0.01) for simultaneous evaluation of plasma and acrosomal membrane integrity and mitochondrial membrane potential (IPIAH cells). Centrifugation pre-cryopreservation was not deleterious (p > 0.05) for any analyzed variables. Addition of SP-SRF after cryopreservation was able to improve total and progressive motility (p < 0.05) when boar semen was cryopreserved without SP-SRF; however, it was not able to decrease tyrosine phosphorylation (p > 0.05) or improve IPIAH cells (p > 0.05). FR was not (p > 0.05) statistically increased by the addition of seminal plasma, though females inseminated with frozen-thawed boar semen plus SP-SRF did perform better than those inseminated with sperm lacking seminal plasma. Thus, we conclude that sperm fourfold stain can be used to simultaneously evaluate plasma and acrosomal membrane integrity and mitochondrial membrane potential, and the addition of SP-SRF at thawed boar semen cryopreserved in absence of SP-SRF improve its total and progressive motility. PMID:27529819

  1. Analysing spatio-temporal patterns of the global NO2-distribution retrieved from GOME satellite observations using a generalized additive model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayn, M.; Beirle, S.; Hamprecht, F. A.; Platt, U.; Menze, B. H.; Wagner, T.

    2009-04-01

    With the increasing availability of observations from different space-borne sensors, the joint analysis of observational data from multiple sources becomes more and more attractive. For such an analysis - oftentimes with little prior knowledge about local and global interactions between the different observational variables available - an explorative data-driven analysis of the remote sensing data may be of particular relevance. In the present work we used generalized additive models (GAM) in this task, in an exemplary study of spatio-temporal patterns in the tropospheric NO2-distribution derived from GOME satellite observations (1996 to 2001) at global scale. We modelled different temporal trends in the time series of the observed NO2, but focused on identifying correlations between NO2 and local wind fields. Here, our nonparametric modelling approach had several advantages over standard parametric models: While the model-based analysis allowed to test predefined hypotheses (assuming, for example, sinusoidal seasonal trends) only, the GAM allowed to learn functional relations between different observational variables directly from the data. This was of particular interest in the present task, as little was known about relations between the observed NO2 distribution and transport processes by local wind fields, and the formulation of general functional relationships to be tested remained difficult. We found the observed temporal trends - weekly, seasonal and linear changes - to be in overall good agreement with previous studies and alternative ways of data analysis. However, NO2 observations showed to be affected by wind-dominated processes over several areas, world wide. Here we were able to estimate the extent of areas affected by specific NO2 emission sources, and to highlight likely atmospheric transport pathways. Overall, using a nonparametric model provided favourable means for a rapid inspection of this large spatio-temporal data set,with less bias than

  2. Molecular modeling and computational analyses suggests that the Sinorhizobium meliloti periplasmic regulator protein ExoR adopts a superhelical fold and is controlled by a unique mechanism of proteolysis

    PubMed Central

    Wiech, Eliza M; Cheng, Hai-Ping; Singh, Shaneen M

    2015-01-01

    The Sinorhizobium meliloti periplasmic ExoR protein and the ExoS/ChvI two-component system form a regulatory mechanism that directly controls the transformation of free-living to host-invading cells. In the absence of crystal structures, understanding the molecular mechanism of interaction between ExoR and the ExoS sensor, which is believed to drive the key regulatory step in the invasion process, remains a major challenge. In this study, we present a theoretical structural model of the active form of ExoR protein, ExoRm, generated using computational methods. Our model suggests that ExoR possesses a super-helical fold comprising 12 α-helices forming six Sel1-like repeats, including two that were unidentified in previous studies. This fold is highly conducive to mediating protein–protein interactions and this is corroborated by the identification of putative protein binding sites on the surface of the ExoRm protein. Our studies reveal two novel insights: (a) an extended conformation of the third Sel1-like repeat that might be important for ExoR regulatory function and (b) a buried proteolytic site that implies a unique proteolytic mechanism. This study provides new and interesting insights into the structure of S. meliloti ExoR, lays the groundwork for elaborating the molecular mechanism of ExoRm cleavage, ExoRm–ExoS interactions, and studies of ExoR homologs in other bacterial host interactions. PMID:25492513

  3. Hypnosis, suggestion, and suggestibility: an integrative model.

    PubMed

    Lynn, Steven Jay; Laurence, Jean-Roch; Kirsch, Irving

    2015-01-01

    This article elucidates an integrative model of hypnosis that integrates social, cultural, cognitive, and neurophysiological variables at play both in and out of hypnosis and considers their dynamic interaction as determinants of the multifaceted experience of hypnosis. The roles of these variables are examined in the induction and suggestion stages of hypnosis, including how they are related to the experience of involuntariness, one of the hallmarks of hypnosis. It is suggested that studies of the modification of hypnotic suggestibility; cognitive flexibility; response sets and expectancies; the default-mode network; and the search for the neurophysiological correlates of hypnosis, more broadly, in conjunction with research on social psychological variables, hold much promise to further understanding of hypnosis.

  4. Addition of docetaxel or bisphosphonates to standard of care in men with localised or metastatic, hormone-sensitive prostate cancer: a systematic review and meta-analyses of aggregate data

    PubMed Central

    Vale, Claire L; Burdett, Sarah; Rydzewska, Larysa H M; Albiges, Laurence; Clarke, Noel W; Fisher, David; Fizazi, Karim; Gravis, Gwenaelle; James, Nicholas D; Mason, Malcolm D; Parmar, Mahesh K B; Sweeney, Christopher J; Sydes, Matthew R; Tombal, Bertrand; Tierney, Jayne F

    2016-01-01

    docetaxel for men with locally advanced disease (M0). Survival results from three (GETUG-12, RTOG 0521, STAMPEDE) of these trials (2121 [53%] of 3978 men) showed no evidence of a benefit from the addition of docetaxel (HR 0·87 [95% CI 0·69–1·09]; p=0·218), whereas failure-free survival data from four (GETUG-12, RTOG 0521, STAMPEDE, TAX 3501) of these trials (2348 [59%] of 3978 men) showed that docetaxel improved failure-free survival (0·70 [0·61–0·81]; p<0·0001), which translates into a reduced absolute 4-year failure rate of 8% (5–10). We identified seven eligible randomised controlled trials of bisphosphonates for men with M1 disease. Survival results from three of these trials (2740 [88%] of 3109 men) showed that addition of bisphosphonates improved survival (0·88 [0·79–0·98]; p=0·025), which translates to 5% (1–8) absolute improvement, but this result was influenced by the positive result of one trial of sodium clodronate, and we found no evidence of a benefit from the addition of zoledronic acid (0·94 [0·83–1·07]; p=0·323), which translates to an absolute improvement in survival of 2% (−3 to 7). Of 17 trials of bisphosphonates for men with M0 disease, survival results from four trials (4079 [66%] of 6220 men) showed no evidence of benefit from the addition of bisphosphonates (1·03 [0·89–1·18]; p=0·724) or zoledronic acid (0·98 [0·82–1·16]; p=0·782). Failure-free survival definitions were too inconsistent for formal meta-analyses for the bisphosphonate trials. Interpretation The addition of docetaxel to standard of care should be considered standard care for men with M1 hormone-sensitive prostate cancer who are starting treatment for the first time. More evidence on the effects of docetaxel on survival is needed in the M0 disease setting. No evidence exists to suggest that zoledronic acid improves survival in men with

  5. Addition of docetaxel or bisphosphonates to standard of care in men with localised or metastatic, hormone-sensitive prostate cancer: a systematic review and meta-analyses of aggregate data

    PubMed Central

    Vale, Claire L; Burdett, Sarah; Rydzewska, Larysa H M; Albiges, Laurence; Clarke, Noel W; Fisher, David; Fizazi, Karim; Gravis, Gwenaelle; James, Nicholas D; Mason, Malcolm D; Parmar, Mahesh K B; Sweeney, Christopher J; Sydes, Matthew R; Tombal, Bertrand; Tierney, Jayne F

    2016-01-01

    docetaxel for men with locally advanced disease (M0). Survival results from three (GETUG-12, RTOG 0521, STAMPEDE) of these trials (2121 [53%] of 3978 men) showed no evidence of a benefit from the addition of docetaxel (HR 0·87 [95% CI 0·69–1·09]; p=0·218), whereas failure-free survival data from four (GETUG-12, RTOG 0521, STAMPEDE, TAX 3501) of these trials (2348 [59%] of 3978 men) showed that docetaxel improved failure-free survival (0·70 [0·61–0·81]; p<0·0001), which translates into a reduced absolute 4-year failure rate of 8% (5–10). We identified seven eligible randomised controlled trials of bisphosphonates for men with M1 disease. Survival results from three of these trials (2740 [88%] of 3109 men) showed that addition of bisphosphonates improved survival (0·88 [0·79–0·98]; p=0·025), which translates to 5% (1–8) absolute improvement, but this result was influenced by the positive result of one trial of sodium clodronate, and we found no evidence of a benefit from the addition of zoledronic acid (0·94 [0·83–1·07]; p=0·323), which translates to an absolute improvement in survival of 2% (−3 to 7). Of 17 trials of bisphosphonates for men with M0 disease, survival results from four trials (4079 [66%] of 6220 men) showed no evidence of benefit from the addition of bisphosphonates (1·03 [0·89–1·18]; p=0·724) or zoledronic acid (0·98 [0·82–1·16]; p=0·782). Failure-free survival definitions were too inconsistent for formal meta-analyses for the bisphosphonate trials. Interpretation The addition of docetaxel to standard of care should be considered standard care for men with M1 hormone-sensitive prostate cancer who are starting treatment for the first time. More evidence on the effects of docetaxel on survival is needed in the M0 disease setting. No evidence exists to suggest that zoledronic acid improves survival in men with M1 or M0 disease, and any potential benefit is probably small. Funding Medical Research Council UK. PMID

  6. Open to Suggestion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Reading, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Offers (1) suggestions for improving college students' study skills; (2) a system for keeping track of parent, teacher, and community contacts; (3) suggestions for motivating students using tic tac toe; (4) suggestions for using etymology to improve word retention; (5) a word search grid; and (6) suggestions for using postcards in remedial reading…

  7. Legal Education Reform: Modest Suggestions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Alan

    2001-01-01

    Based on harsh criticism of legal education by students, offers suggestions for improvement that do not require additional time for law studies, will increase the exposure of students both to law as practice and to law as an intellectual discipline, and involve no greater burden on law schools. A main suggestion involves elimination of teaching…

  8. The Life of Suggestions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearce, Cathie

    2010-01-01

    Using the notion of a suggestion, or rather charting the life of suggestions, this article considers the happenings of chance and embodiment as the "problems that got away." The life of suggestions helps us to ask how connectivities are made, how desire functions, and how "immanence" rather than "transcendence" can open up the politics and ethics…

  9. Chemistry Curricula. Course Suggestions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Chemical Society, Washington, DC.

    Listings of suggested topics aimed at helping university and college faculties plan courses in the main areas of the chemistry curricula are provided. The suggestions were originally offered as appendices to the American Chemical Society's (ACS) Committee on Professional Training's 1983 guidelines for ACS-approved schools. The course data included…

  10. Open to Suggestion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Reading, 1984

    1984-01-01

    Contributors offer suggestions concerning parents as reading stimulators, book discussions, a test bank for the secondary school/college reading lab, standardized reading tests, television reading, plagiarism, vocabulary development, and book reports. (FL)

  11. [Therapy and suggestion].

    PubMed

    Barrucand, D; Paille, F

    1986-12-01

    Therapy and suggestion are closely related. That is clear for the ancient time: primitive medicine gives a good place to the Word. In plant, animal or mineral remedies, the suggestion is clearly preponderant. Towards the end of the 19th century, the "Ecole de Nancy" sets up a real theory of the suggestion, and Bernheim, its leader, bases hypnosis, then psychotherapy on this concept. Thereafter Coué will bring up the "conscious autosuggestion". Today, despite the progress of scientific medicine, the part of suggestion is still very important in medical therapy (with or without drugs), or in chirurgical therapy; this part is also very important in psychotherapies, whatever has been said in this field. This has to be known and used consciously in the doctor-patient relation, which is always essential in the therapeutic effectiveness.

  12. Deepening Sleep by Hypnotic Suggestion

    PubMed Central

    Cordi, Maren J.; Schlarb, Angelika A.; Rasch, Björn

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: Slow wave sleep (SWS) plays a critical role in body restoration and promotes brain plasticity; however, it markedly declines across the lifespan. Despite its importance, effective tools to increase SWS are rare. Here we tested whether a hypnotic suggestion to “sleep deeper” extends the amount of SWS. Design: Within-subject, placebo-controlled crossover design. Setting: Sleep laboratory at the University of Zurich, Switzerland. Participants: Seventy healthy females 23.27 ± 3.17 y. Intervention: Participants listened to an auditory text with hypnotic suggestions or a control tape before napping for 90 min while high-density electroencephalography was recorded. Measurements and Results: After participants listened to the hypnotic suggestion to “sleep deeper” subsequent SWS was increased by 81% and time spent awake was reduced by 67% (with the amount of SWS or wake in the control condition set to 100%). Other sleep stages remained unaffected. Additionally, slow wave activity was significantly enhanced after hypnotic suggestions. During the hypnotic tape, parietal theta power increases predicted the hypnosis-induced extension of SWS. Additional experiments confirmed that the beneficial effect of hypnotic suggestions on SWS was specific to the hypnotic suggestion and did not occur in low suggestible participants. Conclusions: Our results demonstrate the effectiveness of hypnotic suggestions to specifically increase the amount and duration of slow wave sleep (SWS) in a midday nap using objective measures of sleep in young, healthy, suggestible females. Hypnotic suggestions might be a successful tool with a lower risk of adverse side effects than pharmacological treatments to extend SWS also in clinical and elderly populations. Citation: Cordi MJ, Schlarb AA, Rasch B. Deepening sleep by hypnotic suggestion. SLEEP 2014;37(6):1143-1152. PMID:24882909

  13. A few minor suggestions.

    PubMed

    Michael, J; Clark, J W

    2001-05-01

    We agree with almost all of the analysis in this excellent presentation of the molecular view of avoidance behavior. A few suggestions are made as follows: Referring to response-generated stimuli as ''readily observable" seems not quite right for the kinesthetic components of such stimuli, although their scientific legitimacy is not questioned. Interpreting response-generated stimuli as a form of positive reinforcement is contested, and an alternative interpretation is offered. A possibly simpler interpretation of the Sidman (1962) two-lever experiment is suggested. We question Dinsmoor's (2001) explanation for warning stimuli not being avoided, except for the reference to the weakness of third-order conditioning effects. A final question is raised regarding the nature of the variables that are responsible for the momentary evocation of the avoidance response.

  14. In situ sulfur isotopes (δ(34)S and δ(33)S) analyses in sulfides and elemental sulfur using high sensitivity cones combined with the addition of nitrogen by laser ablation MC-ICP-MS.

    PubMed

    Fu, Jiali; Hu, Zhaochu; Zhang, Wen; Yang, Lu; Liu, Yongsheng; Li, Ming; Zong, Keqing; Gao, Shan; Hu, Shenghong

    2016-03-10

    The sulfur isotope is an important geochemical tracer in diverse fields of geosciences. In this study, the effects of three different cone combinations with the addition of N2 on the performance of in situ S isotope analyses were investigated in detail. The signal intensities of S isotopes were improved by a factor of 2.3 and 3.6 using the X skimmer cone combined with the standard sample cone or the Jet sample cone, respectively, compared with the standard arrangement (H skimmer cone combined with the standard sample cone). This signal enhancement is important for the improvement of the precision and accuracy of in situ S isotope analysis at high spatial resolution. Different cone combinations have a significant effect on the mass bias and mass bias stability for S isotopes. Poor precisions of S isotope ratios were obtained using the Jet and X cones combination at their corresponding optimum makeup gas flow when using Ar plasma only. The addition of 4-8 ml min(-1) nitrogen to the central gas flow in laser ablation MC-ICP-MS was found to significantly enlarge the mass bias stability zone at their corresponding optimum makeup gas flow in these three different cone combinations. The polyatomic interferences of OO, SH, OOH were also significantly reduced, and the interference free plateaus of sulfur isotopes became broader and flatter in the nitrogen mode (N2 = 4 ml min(-1)). However, the signal intensity of S was not increased by the addition of nitrogen in this study. The laser fluence and ablation mode had significant effects on sulfur isotope fractionation during the analysis of sulfides and elemental sulfur by laser ablation MC-ICP-MS. The matrix effect among different sulfides and elemental sulfur was observed, but could be significantly reduced by line scan ablation in preference to single spot ablation under the optimized fluence. It is recommended that the d90 values of the particles in pressed powder pellets for accurate and precise S isotope analysis

  15. In situ sulfur isotopes (δ(34)S and δ(33)S) analyses in sulfides and elemental sulfur using high sensitivity cones combined with the addition of nitrogen by laser ablation MC-ICP-MS.

    PubMed

    Fu, Jiali; Hu, Zhaochu; Zhang, Wen; Yang, Lu; Liu, Yongsheng; Li, Ming; Zong, Keqing; Gao, Shan; Hu, Shenghong

    2016-03-10

    The sulfur isotope is an important geochemical tracer in diverse fields of geosciences. In this study, the effects of three different cone combinations with the addition of N2 on the performance of in situ S isotope analyses were investigated in detail. The signal intensities of S isotopes were improved by a factor of 2.3 and 3.6 using the X skimmer cone combined with the standard sample cone or the Jet sample cone, respectively, compared with the standard arrangement (H skimmer cone combined with the standard sample cone). This signal enhancement is important for the improvement of the precision and accuracy of in situ S isotope analysis at high spatial resolution. Different cone combinations have a significant effect on the mass bias and mass bias stability for S isotopes. Poor precisions of S isotope ratios were obtained using the Jet and X cones combination at their corresponding optimum makeup gas flow when using Ar plasma only. The addition of 4-8 ml min(-1) nitrogen to the central gas flow in laser ablation MC-ICP-MS was found to significantly enlarge the mass bias stability zone at their corresponding optimum makeup gas flow in these three different cone combinations. The polyatomic interferences of OO, SH, OOH were also significantly reduced, and the interference free plateaus of sulfur isotopes became broader and flatter in the nitrogen mode (N2 = 4 ml min(-1)). However, the signal intensity of S was not increased by the addition of nitrogen in this study. The laser fluence and ablation mode had significant effects on sulfur isotope fractionation during the analysis of sulfides and elemental sulfur by laser ablation MC-ICP-MS. The matrix effect among different sulfides and elemental sulfur was observed, but could be significantly reduced by line scan ablation in preference to single spot ablation under the optimized fluence. It is recommended that the d90 values of the particles in pressed powder pellets for accurate and precise S isotope analysis

  16. Sociopolitical Analyses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Galen, Jane, Ed.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    This theme issue of the serial "Educational Foundations" contains four articles devoted to the topic of "Sociopolitical Analyses." In "An Interview with Peter L. McLaren," Mary Leach presented the views of Peter L. McLaren on topics of local and national discourses, values, and the politics of difference. Landon E. Beyer's "Educational Studies and…

  17. Food additives

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Michael

    1974-01-01

    Food additives are discussed from the food technology point of view. The reasons for their use are summarized: (1) to protect food from chemical and microbiological attack; (2) to even out seasonal supplies; (3) to improve their eating quality; (4) to improve their nutritional value. The various types of food additives are considered, e.g. colours, flavours, emulsifiers, bread and flour additives, preservatives, and nutritional additives. The paper concludes with consideration of those circumstances in which the use of additives is (a) justified and (b) unjustified. PMID:4467857

  18. SNS shielding analyses overview

    SciTech Connect

    Popova, Irina; Gallmeier, Franz; Iverson, Erik B; Lu, Wei; Remec, Igor

    2015-01-01

    This paper gives an overview on on-going shielding analyses for Spallation Neutron Source. Presently, the most of the shielding work is concentrated on the beam lines and instrument enclosures to prepare for commissioning, save operation and adequate radiation background in the future. There is on-going work for the accelerator facility. This includes radiation-protection analyses for radiation monitors placement, designing shielding for additional facilities to test accelerator structures, redesigning some parts of the facility, and designing test facilities to the main accelerator structure for component testing. Neutronics analyses are required as well to support spent structure management, including waste characterisation analyses, choice of proper transport/storage package and shielding enhancement for the package if required.

  19. Lidar Analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spiers, Gary D.

    1995-01-01

    A brief description of enhancements made to the NASA MSFC coherent lidar model is provided. Notable improvements are the addition of routines to automatically determine the 3 dB misalignment loss angle and the backscatter value at which the probability of a good estimate (for a maximum likelihood estimator) falls to 50%. The ability to automatically generate energy/aperture parametrization (EAP) plots which include the effects of angular misalignment has been added. These EAP plots make it very easy to see that for any practical system where there is some degree of misalignment then there is an optimum telescope diameter for which the laser pulse energy required to achieve a particular sensitivity is minimized. Increasing the telescope diameter above this will result in a reduction of sensitivity. These parameterizations also clearly show that the alignment tolerances at shorter wavelengths are much stricter than those at longer wavelengths. A brief outline of the NASA MSFC AEOLUS program is given and a summary of the lidar designs considered during the program is presented. A discussion of some of the design trades is performed both in the text and in a conference publication attached as an appendix.

  20. Spacelab Charcoal Analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slivon, L. E.; Hernon-Kenny, L. A.; Katona, V. R.; Dejarme, L. E.

    1995-01-01

    This report describes analytical methods and results obtained from chemical analysis of 31 charcoal samples in five sets. Each set was obtained from a single scrubber used to filter ambient air on board a Spacelab mission. Analysis of the charcoal samples was conducted by thermal desorption followed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). All samples were analyzed using identical methods. The method used for these analyses was able to detect compounds independent of their polarity or volatility. In addition to the charcoal samples, analyses of three Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) water samples were conducted specifically for trimethylamine.

  1. Phosphazene additives

    DOEpatents

    Harrup, Mason K; Rollins, Harry W

    2013-11-26

    An additive comprising a phosphazene compound that has at least two reactive functional groups and at least one capping functional group bonded to phosphorus atoms of the phosphazene compound. One of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with cellulose and the other of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with a resin, such as an amine resin of a polycarboxylic acid resin. The at least one capping functional group is selected from the group consisting of a short chain ether group, an alkoxy group, or an aryloxy group. Also disclosed are an additive-resin admixture, a method of treating a wood product, and a wood product.

  2. Potlining Additives

    SciTech Connect

    Rudolf Keller

    2004-08-10

    In this project, a concept to improve the performance of aluminum production cells by introducing potlining additives was examined and tested. Boron oxide was added to cathode blocks, and titanium was dissolved in the metal pool; this resulted in the formation of titanium diboride and caused the molten aluminum to wet the carbonaceous cathode surface. Such wetting reportedly leads to operational improvements and extended cell life. In addition, boron oxide suppresses cyanide formation. This final report presents and discusses the results of this project. Substantial economic benefits for the practical implementation of the technology are projected, especially for modern cells with graphitized blocks. For example, with an energy savings of about 5% and an increase in pot life from 1500 to 2500 days, a cost savings of $ 0.023 per pound of aluminum produced is projected for a 200 kA pot.

  3. Epidemiology of Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus in Korea through an Investigation of the National Registration Project of Type 1 Diabetes for the Reimbursement of Glucometer Strips with Additional Analyses Using Claims Data

    PubMed Central

    Song, Sun Ok; Nam, Joo Young; Park, Kyeong Hye; Yoon, Ji-Hae; Son, Kyung-Mi; Ko, Young; Lim, Dong-Ha

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence and incidence of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) in Korea. In addition, we planned to do a performance analysis of the Registration Project of Type 1 diabetes for the reimbursement of consumable materials. Methods To obtain nationwide data on the incidence and prevalence of T1DM, we extracted claims data from July 2011 to August 2013 from the Registration Project of Type 1 diabetes on the reimbursement of consumable materials in the National Health Insurance (NHI) Database. For a more detailed analysis of the T1DM population in Korea, stratification by gender, age, and area was performed, and prevalence and incidence were calculated. Results Of the 8,256 subjects enrolled over the 26 months, the male to female ratio was 1 to 1.12, the median age was 37.1 years, and an average of 136 new T1DM patients were registered to the T1DM registry each month, resulting in 1,632 newly diagnosed T1DM patients each year. We found that the incidence rate of new T1DM cases was 3.28 per 100,000 people. The average proportion of T1DM patients compared with each region's population was 0.0125%. The total number of insurance subscribers under the universal compulsory NHI in Korea was 49,662,097, and the total number of diabetes patients, excluding duplication, was 3,762,332. Conclusion The prevalence of T1DM over the course of the study was approximately 0.017% to 0.021% of the entire population of Korea, and the annual incidence of T1DM was 3.28:100,000 overall and 3.25:100,000 for Koreans under 20 years old. PMID:26912154

  4. Information Omitted From Analyses.

    PubMed

    2015-08-01

    In the Original Article titled “Higher- Order Genetic and Environmental Structure of Prevalent Forms of Child and Adolescent Psychopathology” published in the February 2011 issue of JAMA Psychiatry (then Archives of General Psychiatry) (2011;68[2]:181-189), there were 2 errors. Although the article stated that the dimensions of psychopathology were measured using parent informants for inattention, hyperactivity-impulsivity, and oppositional defiant disorder, and a combination of parent and youth informants for conduct disorder, major depression, generalized anxiety disorder, separation anxiety disorder, social phobia, specific phobia, agoraphobia, and obsessive-compulsive disorder, all dimensional scores used in the reported analyses were actually based on parent reports of symptoms; youth reports were not used. In addition, whereas the article stated that each symptom dimension was residualized on age, sex, age-squared, and age by sex, the dimensions actually were only residualized on age, sex, and age-squared. All analyses were repeated using parent informants for inattention, hyperactivity-impulsivity, and oppositional defiant disorder, and a combination of parent and youth informants for conduct disorder,major depression, generalized anxiety disorder, separation anxiety disorder, social phobia, specific phobia, agoraphobia, and obsessive-compulsive disorder; these dimensional scores were residualized on age, age-squared, sex, sex by age, and sex by age-squared. The results of the new analyses were qualitatively the same as those reported in the article, with no substantial changes in conclusions. The only notable small difference was that major depression and generalized anxiety disorder dimensions had small but significant loadings on the internalizing factor in addition to their substantial loadings on the general factor in the analyses of both genetic and non-shared covariances in the selected models in the new analyses. Corrections were made to the

  5. 10 Suggestions for Enhancing Lecturing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heitzmann, Ray

    2010-01-01

    Criticism of the lecture method remains a staple of discussion and writing in academia--and most of the time it's deserved! Those interested in improving this aspect of their teaching might wish to consider some or all of the following suggestions for enhancing lectures. These include: (1) Lectures must start with a "grabber"; (2) Lectures must be…

  6. Models: Caveats, Reflections, and Suggestions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirschling, Wayne R.

    1976-01-01

    Noting that mathematical modeling is a relatively new phenomenon in higher education and that much can be learned from the misdirections and mistakes that characterize modeling in general, the author describes major criticisms of modeling and suggests improvements, particularly in communication between modelers and potential model users. (JT)

  7. Evidence suggesting possible SCA1 gene involvement in schizophrenia

    SciTech Connect

    Diehl, S.R.; Wange, S.; Sun, C.

    1994-09-01

    Several findings suggest a possible role for the SCA1 gene on chromosome 6p in some cases of schizophrenia. First, linkage analyses in Irish pedigrees provided LOD scores up to 3.0 for one model tested using microsatellites closely linked to SCA1. Reanalysis of these data using affected sibpair methods yielded a significant result (p = 0.01) for one marker. An attempt to replicate this linkage finding was made using 44 NIMH families (206 individuals, 80 affected) and 12 Utah families (120 individuals, 49 affected). LOD scores were negative in these new families, even allowing for heterogeneity, as were results using affected sibpair methods. However, one Utah family provided a LOD score of 1.3. We also screened the SCA1 trinucleotide repeat to search for expansions characteristic of this disorder in these families and in 38 additional unrelated schizophrenics. We found 1 schizophrenic with 41 repeats, which is substantially larger than the maximum size of 36 repeats observed in previous studies of several hundred controls. We are now assessing whether the distribution of SCA1 repeats differs significantly in schizophrenia versus controls. Recent reports suggest possible anticipation in schizophrenia (also characteristic of SCA1) and a few cases of psychiatric symptoms suggesting schizophrenia have been observed in the highly related disorder DRPLA (SCA2), which is also based on trinucleotide repeat expansion. These findings suggest that further investigations of this gene and chromosome region may be a priority.

  8. Neurogenesis suggests independent evolution of opercula in serpulid polychaetes

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background The internal phylogenetic relationships of Annelida, one of the key lophotrochozoan lineages, are still heavily debated. Recent molecular analyses suggest that morphologically distinct groups, such as the polychaetes, are paraphyletic assemblages, thus questioning the homology of a number of polychaete morphological characters. Serpulid polychaetes are typically recognized by having fused anterior ends bearing a tentacular crown and an operculum. The latter is commonly viewed as a modified tentacle (= radiole) and is often used as an important diagnostic character in serpulid systematics. Results By reconstructing the developmental neuroanatomy of the serpulid polychaete Spirorbis cf. spirorbis (Spirorbinae), we found striking differences in the overall neural architecture, the innervation pattern, and the ontogenetic establishment of the nervous supply of the operculum and the radioles in this species. Accordingly, the spirorbin operculum might not be homologous to the radioles or to the opercula of other serpulid taxa such as Serpula and Pomatoceros and is thus probably not a part of the tentacular crown. Conclusion We demonstrate that common morphological traits such as the prostomial appendages may have evolved independently in respective serpulid sublineages and therefore require reassessment before being used in phylogenetic analyses. Our findings corroborate recent molecular studies that argue for a revision of serpulid systematics. In addition, our data on Spirorbis neurogenesis provide a novel set of characters that highlight the developmental plasticity of the segmented annelid nervous system. PMID:19930667

  9. Measuring Children's Suggestibility in Forensic Interviews.

    PubMed

    Volpini, Laura; Melis, Manuela; Petralia, Stefania; Rosenberg, Melina D

    2016-01-01

    According to the scientific literature, childrens' cognitive development is not complete until adolescence. Therefore, the problems inherent in children serving as witnesses are crucial. In preschool-aged children, false memories may be identified because of misinformation and insight bias. Additionally, they are susceptible of suggestions. The aim of this study was to verify the levels of suggestibility in children between three and 5 years of age. Ninety-two children were examined (44 male, 48 female; M = 4.5 years, SD = 9.62). We used the correlation coefficient (Pearson's r) and the averages variance by SPSS statistical program. The results concluded that: younger children are almost always more susceptible to suggestibility. The dimension of immediate recall was negatively correlates with that of total suggestibility (r = -0.357 p < 0.001). Social compliance and source monitoring errors contribute to patterns of suggestibility, because older children shift their answers more often (r = 0.394 p < 0.001). Younger children change their answers more times (r = -0.395 p < 0.001). PMID:27404406

  10. Evidence from phylogenetic and genome fingerprinting analyses suggests rapidly changing variation in Halorubrum and Haloarcula populations

    PubMed Central

    Ram Mohan, Nikhil; Fullmer, Matthew S.; Makkay, Andrea M.; Wheeler, Ryan; Ventosa, Antonio; Naor, Adit; Gogarten, J. Peter; Papke, R. Thane

    2014-01-01

    Halobacteria require high NaCl concentrations for growth and are the dominant inhabitants of hypersaline environments above 15% NaCl. They are well-documented to be highly recombinogenic, both in frequency and in the range of exchange partners. In this study, we examine the genetic and genomic variation of cultured, naturally co-occurring environmental populations of Halobacteria. Sequence data from multiple loci (~2500 bp) identified many closely and more distantly related strains belonging to the genera Halorubrum and Haloarcula. Genome fingerprinting using a random priming PCR amplification method to analyze these isolates revealed diverse banding patterns across each of the genera and surprisingly even for isolates that are identical at the nucleotide level for five protein coding sequenced loci. This variance in genome structure even between identical multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) haplotypes indicates that accumulation of genomic variation is rapid: faster than the rate of third codon substitutions. PMID:24782838

  11. Guidelines and Suggestions for Balloon Gondola Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Franco, Hugo

    2016-01-01

    The Columbia Scientific Balloon Facility is responsible for ensuring that science payloads meet the appropriate design requirements. The ultimate goal is to ensure that payloads stay within the allowable launch limits as well as survive the termination event. The purpose of this presentation is to provide some general guidelines for Gondola Design. These include rules and reasons on why CSBF has a certain preference and location for certain components within the gondola as well as other suggestions. Additionally, some recommendations are given on how to avoid common pitfalls.

  12. The Video Suggestibility Scale for Children: how generalizable is children's performance to other measures of suggestibility?

    PubMed

    McFarlane, Felicity; Powell, Martine B

    2002-01-01

    This study explored the generalizability of the Video Suggestibility Scale for Children (VSSC), which was developed by Scullin and colleagues (Scullin & Ceci, 2001; Scullin & Hembrooke, 1998) as a tool for discriminating among children (aged three to five years) who have different levels of suggestibility. The VSSC consists of two subscales; Yield (a measure of children's willingness to acquiesce to misleading questions) and Shift (a measure of children's tendency to change their responses after feedback from the interviewer). Children's (N = 77) performance on each of the subscales was compared with their performance using several other measures of suggestibility. These measures included children's willingness to assent to a false event as well as the number of false interviewer suggestions and false new details that the children provided when responding to cued-recall questions about an independent true-biased and an independent false (non-experienced) event. An independent samples t-test revealed that those children who assented to the false event generated higher scores on the Yield measure. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that Yield was a significant predictor of the number of false details reported about the false activity, but not the true-biased activity. There was no significant relationship between the Shift subscale and any of the dependent variables. The potential contribution of the VSSC for forensic researchers and practitioners is discussed.

  13. Bayesian inference analyses of the polygenic architecture of rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Stahl, Eli A; Wegmann, Daniel; Trynka, Gosia; Gutierrez-Achury, Javier; Do, Ron; Voight, Benjamin F; Kraft, Peter; Chen, Robert; Kallberg, Henrik J; Kurreeman, Fina A S; Kathiresan, Sekar; Wijmenga, Cisca; Gregersen, Peter K; Alfredsson, Lars; Siminovitch, Katherine A; Worthington, Jane; de Bakker, Paul I W; Raychaudhuri, Soumya; Plenge, Robert M

    2012-05-01

    The genetic architectures of common, complex diseases are largely uncharacterized. We modeled the genetic architecture underlying genome-wide association study (GWAS) data for rheumatoid arthritis and developed a new method using polygenic risk-score analyses to infer the total liability-scale variance explained by associated GWAS SNPs. Using this method, we estimated that, together, thousands of SNPs from rheumatoid arthritis GWAS explain an additional 20% of disease risk (excluding known associated loci). We further tested this method on datasets for three additional diseases and obtained comparable estimates for celiac disease (43% excluding the major histocompatibility complex), myocardial infarction and coronary artery disease (48%) and type 2 diabetes (49%). Our results are consistent with simulated genetic models in which hundreds of associated loci harbor common causal variants and a smaller number of loci harbor multiple rare causal variants. These analyses suggest that GWAS will continue to be highly productive for the discovery of additional susceptibility loci for common diseases. PMID:22446960

  14. Seasonal Survival Probabilities Suggest Low Migration Mortality in Migrating Bats

    PubMed Central

    Giavi, Simone; Moretti, Marco; Bontadina, Fabio; Zambelli, Nicola; Schaub, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Migration is adaptive if survival benefits are larger than costs of residency. Many aspects of bat migration ecology such as migratory costs, stopover site use and fidelity are largely unknown. Since many migrating bats are endangered, such information is urgently needed to promote conservation. We selected the migrating Leisler's bat (Nyctalus leisleri) as model species and collected capture-recapture data in southern Switzerland year round during 6 years. We estimated seasonal survival and site fidelity with Cormack-Jolly-Seber models that accounted for the presence of transients fitted with Bayesian methods and assessed differences between sexes and seasons. Activity peaked in autumn and spring, whereas very few individuals were caught during summer. We hypothesize that the study site is a migratory stopover site used during fall and spring migration for most individuals, but there is also evidence for wintering. Additionally, we found strong clues for mating during fall. Summer survival that included two major migratory journeys was identical to winter survival in males and slightly higher in females, suggesting that the migratory journeys did not bear significant costs in terms of survival. Transience probability was in both seasons higher in males than in females. Our results suggest that, similarly to birds, Leisler's bat also use stopover sites during migration with high site fidelity. In contrast to most birds, the stopover site was also used for mating and migratory costs in terms of survival seemed to be low. Transients' analyses highlighted strong individual variation in site use which makes particularly challenging the study and modelling of their populations as well as their conservation. PMID:24454906

  15. Seasonal survival probabilities suggest low migration mortality in migrating bats.

    PubMed

    Giavi, Simone; Moretti, Marco; Bontadina, Fabio; Zambelli, Nicola; Schaub, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Migration is adaptive if survival benefits are larger than costs of residency. Many aspects of bat migration ecology such as migratory costs, stopover site use and fidelity are largely unknown. Since many migrating bats are endangered, such information is urgently needed to promote conservation. We selected the migrating Leisler's bat (Nyctalus leisleri) as model species and collected capture-recapture data in southern Switzerland year round during 6 years. We estimated seasonal survival and site fidelity with Cormack-Jolly-Seber models that accounted for the presence of transients fitted with Bayesian methods and assessed differences between sexes and seasons. Activity peaked in autumn and spring, whereas very few individuals were caught during summer. We hypothesize that the study site is a migratory stopover site used during fall and spring migration for most individuals, but there is also evidence for wintering. Additionally, we found strong clues for mating during fall. Summer survival that included two major migratory journeys was identical to winter survival in males and slightly higher in females, suggesting that the migratory journeys did not bear significant costs in terms of survival. Transience probability was in both seasons higher in males than in females. Our results suggest that, similarly to birds, Leisler's bat also use stopover sites during migration with high site fidelity. In contrast to most birds, the stopover site was also used for mating and migratory costs in terms of survival seemed to be low. Transients' analyses highlighted strong individual variation in site use which makes particularly challenging the study and modelling of their populations as well as their conservation.

  16. 10 CFR 436.24 - Uncertainty analyses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION FEDERAL ENERGY MANAGEMENT AND PLANNING PROGRAMS Methodology and... by conducting additional analyses using any standard engineering economics method such as sensitivity... energy or water system alternative....

  17. 10 CFR 436.24 - Uncertainty analyses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION FEDERAL ENERGY MANAGEMENT AND PLANNING PROGRAMS Methodology and... by conducting additional analyses using any standard engineering economics method such as sensitivity... energy or water system alternative....

  18. 10 CFR 436.24 - Uncertainty analyses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Procedures for Life Cycle Cost Analyses § 436.24 Uncertainty analyses. If particular items of cost data or... impact of uncertainty on the calculation of life cycle cost effectiveness or the assignment of rank order... and probabilistic analysis. If additional analysis casts substantial doubt on the life cycle...

  19. 10 CFR 436.24 - Uncertainty analyses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Procedures for Life Cycle Cost Analyses § 436.24 Uncertainty analyses. If particular items of cost data or... impact of uncertainty on the calculation of life cycle cost effectiveness or the assignment of rank order... and probabilistic analysis. If additional analysis casts substantial doubt on the life cycle...

  20. 10 CFR 436.24 - Uncertainty analyses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Procedures for Life Cycle Cost Analyses § 436.24 Uncertainty analyses. If particular items of cost data or... impact of uncertainty on the calculation of life cycle cost effectiveness or the assignment of rank order... and probabilistic analysis. If additional analysis casts substantial doubt on the life cycle...

  1. Suggestibility and negative priming: two replication studies.

    PubMed

    David, Daniel; Brown, Richard J

    2002-07-01

    Research suggests that inhibiting the effect of irrelevant stimuli on subsequent thought and action (cognitive inhibition) may be an important component of suggestibility. Two small correlation studies were conducted to address the relationship between different aspects of suggestibility and individual differences in cognitive inhibition, operationalized as the degree of negative priming generated by to-be-ignored stimuli in a semantic categorization task. The first study found significant positive correlations between negative priming, hypnotic suggestibility, and creative imagination; a significant negative correlation was obtained between negative priming and interrogative suggestibility, demonstrating the discriminant validity of the study results. The second study replicated the correlation between negative priming and hypnotic suggestibility, using a different suggestibility measurement procedure that assessed subjective experience and hypnotic involuntariness as well as objective responses to suggestions. These studies support the notion that the ability to engage in cognitive inhibition may be an important component of hypnotic responsivity and maybe of other forms of suggestibility.

  2. Genomic and archaeological evidence suggest a dual origin of domestic dogs.

    PubMed

    Frantz, Laurent A F; Mullin, Victoria E; Pionnier-Capitan, Maud; Lebrasseur, Ophélie; Ollivier, Morgane; Perri, Angela; Linderholm, Anna; Mattiangeli, Valeria; Teasdale, Matthew D; Dimopoulos, Evangelos A; Tresset, Anne; Duffraisse, Marilyne; McCormick, Finbar; Bartosiewicz, László; Gál, Erika; Nyerges, Éva A; Sablin, Mikhail V; Bréhard, Stéphanie; Mashkour, Marjan; Bălăşescu, Adrian; Gillet, Benjamin; Hughes, Sandrine; Chassaing, Olivier; Hitte, Christophe; Vigne, Jean-Denis; Dobney, Keith; Hänni, Catherine; Bradley, Daniel G; Larson, Greger

    2016-06-01

    The geographic and temporal origins of dogs remain controversial. We generated genetic sequences from 59 ancient dogs and a complete (28x) genome of a late Neolithic dog (dated to ~4800 calendar years before the present) from Ireland. Our analyses revealed a deep split separating modern East Asian and Western Eurasian dogs. Surprisingly, the date of this divergence (~14,000 to 6400 years ago) occurs commensurate with, or several millennia after, the first appearance of dogs in Europe and East Asia. Additional analyses of ancient and modern mitochondrial DNA revealed a sharp discontinuity in haplotype frequencies in Europe. Combined, these results suggest that dogs may have been domesticated independently in Eastern and Western Eurasia from distinct wolf populations. East Eurasian dogs were then possibly transported to Europe with people, where they partially replaced European Paleolithic dogs.

  3. Genomic and archaeological evidence suggest a dual origin of domestic dogs.

    PubMed

    Frantz, Laurent A F; Mullin, Victoria E; Pionnier-Capitan, Maud; Lebrasseur, Ophélie; Ollivier, Morgane; Perri, Angela; Linderholm, Anna; Mattiangeli, Valeria; Teasdale, Matthew D; Dimopoulos, Evangelos A; Tresset, Anne; Duffraisse, Marilyne; McCormick, Finbar; Bartosiewicz, László; Gál, Erika; Nyerges, Éva A; Sablin, Mikhail V; Bréhard, Stéphanie; Mashkour, Marjan; Bălăşescu, Adrian; Gillet, Benjamin; Hughes, Sandrine; Chassaing, Olivier; Hitte, Christophe; Vigne, Jean-Denis; Dobney, Keith; Hänni, Catherine; Bradley, Daniel G; Larson, Greger

    2016-06-01

    The geographic and temporal origins of dogs remain controversial. We generated genetic sequences from 59 ancient dogs and a complete (28x) genome of a late Neolithic dog (dated to ~4800 calendar years before the present) from Ireland. Our analyses revealed a deep split separating modern East Asian and Western Eurasian dogs. Surprisingly, the date of this divergence (~14,000 to 6400 years ago) occurs commensurate with, or several millennia after, the first appearance of dogs in Europe and East Asia. Additional analyses of ancient and modern mitochondrial DNA revealed a sharp discontinuity in haplotype frequencies in Europe. Combined, these results suggest that dogs may have been domesticated independently in Eastern and Western Eurasia from distinct wolf populations. East Eurasian dogs were then possibly transported to Europe with people, where they partially replaced European Paleolithic dogs. PMID:27257259

  4. 29 CFR 785.45 - Suggestion systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY OR..., Medical Attention, Civic and Charitable Work, and Suggestion Systems § 785.45 Suggestion systems... general suggestion system is not working time, but if employees are permitted to work on...

  5. A suggested mode of inheritance for wool shedding in sheep.

    PubMed

    Pollott, G E

    2011-08-01

    The ability of a sheep to shed its own wool has an attraction in scenarios where the costs of harvesting wool outweigh its value. Certain breeds and composites have the ability to shed their wool in the spring, and these are investigated in this work in an attempt to outline the genetics of wool shedding. One flock from a breeding group in Southern England (UK) containing sheep with wool-shedding characteristics provided shedding scores (1 to 5 scale; no shedding to complete shedding) that were used in a range of genetic analyses. The particular nature of wool shedding suggested that there may be a major gene segregating in these populations that facilitates wool shedding. In addition, there was clearly variation among wool shedders in the speed and extent of shedding, so a polygenic trait was also investigated. The breeding group used a range of shedding breeds and composites in a regular program to introduce wool-shedding genes into their flocks. This allowed the testing of Mendelian ratios for shedders:nonshedders in both first-cross and first-backcross animals. Four modes of inheritance were tested: autosomal recessive, sex-linked recessive, autosomal dominant, and sex-linked dominant. The most likely mode of inheritance was autosomal dominant (P < 0.05), with a low level of incomplete penetrance. In first back-cross animals, this mode of inheritance was confirmed but with complete penetrance. Approximately 11% of shedders did not exhibit the trait as lambs. Mixed-model analyses of shedding scores allowed an investigation of factors that affected wool shedding and also the extent of any genetic and permanent animal variance. Shedding score was found to have a heritability of 0.54 ± 0.07 in lambs and 0.26 ± 0.06 in animals of all ages in one flock using Easycare, Wiltshire Horn, Katahdin, and Dorper shedding animals. Shedding score as a lamb had a genetic correlation of 0.94 ± 0.08 with shedding score as a 2 yr old, but at the phenotypic level this

  6. Analyses of Transistor Punchthrough Failures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicolas, David P.

    1999-01-01

    The failure of two transistors in the Altitude Switch Assembly for the Solid Rocket Booster followed by two additional failures a year later presented a challenge to failure analysts. These devices had successfully worked for many years on numerous missions. There was no history of failures with this type of device. Extensive checks of the test procedures gave no indication for a source of the cause. The devices were manufactured more than twenty years ago and failure information on this lot date code was not readily available. External visual exam, radiography, PEID, and leak testing were performed with nominal results Electrical testing indicated nearly identical base-emitter and base-collector characteristics (both forward and reverse) with a low resistance short emitter to collector. These characteristics are indicative of a classic failure mechanism called punchthrough. In failure analysis punchthrough refers to an condition where a relatively low voltage pulse causes the device to conduct very hard producing localized areas of thermal runaway or "hot spots". At one or more of these hot spots, the excessive currents melt the silicon. Heavily doped emitter material diffuses through the base region to the collector forming a diffusion pipe shorting the emitter to base to collector. Upon cooling, an alloy junction forms between the pipe and the base region. Generally, the hot spot (punch-through site) is under the bond and no surface artifact is visible. The devices were delidded and the internal structures were examined microscopically. The gold emitter lead was melted on one device, but others had anomalies in the metallization around the in-tact emitter bonds. The SEM examination confirmed some anomalies to be cosmetic defects while other anomalies were artifacts of the punchthrough site. Subsequent to these analyses, the contractor determined that some irregular testing procedures occurred at the time of the failures heretofore unreported. These testing

  7. Suggestive techniques connected to medical interventions

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The paper introduces a series of articles where several detailed clinical examples will be presented on the effectiveness of using suggestive techniques in various fields of interventional medicine. The aim of this series is to raise the attention to the patients heightened openness to suggestions. By recognizing the unavoidable nature of suggestive effects on one hand we can eliminate unfavourable, negative suggestions and on the other hand go on and consciously apply positive, helpful variations. Research materials, reviews and case study will describe the way suggestions can reduce anxiety and stress connected to medical intervention, improve subjective well-being and cooperation, and increase efficiency by reducing treatment costs. PMID:24265898

  8. The influence of suggestibility on memory.

    PubMed

    Nicolas, Serge; Collins, Thérèse; Gounden, Yannick; Roediger, Henry L

    2011-06-01

    We provide a translation of Binet and Henri's pioneering 1894 paper on the influence of suggestibility on memory. Alfred Binet (1857-1911) is famous as the author who created the IQ test that bears his name, but he is almost unknown as the psychological investigator who generated numerous original experiments and fascinating results in the study of memory. His experiments published in 1894 manipulated suggestibility in several ways to determine effects on remembering. Three particular modes of suggestion were employed to induce false recognitions: (1) indirect suggestion by a preconceived idea; (2) direct suggestion; and (3) collective suggestion. In the commentary we suggest that Binet and Henri's (1894) paper written over 115 years ago is still highly relevant even today. In particular, Binet's legacy lives on in modern research on misinformation effects in memory, in studies of conformity, and in experiments on the social contagion of memory.

  9. NOAA's National Snow Analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carroll, T. R.; Cline, D. W.; Olheiser, C. M.; Rost, A. A.; Nilsson, A. O.; Fall, G. M.; Li, L.; Bovitz, C. T.

    2005-12-01

    NOAA's National Operational Hydrologic Remote Sensing Center (NOHRSC) routinely ingests all of the electronically available, real-time, ground-based, snow data; airborne snow water equivalent data; satellite areal extent of snow cover information; and numerical weather prediction (NWP) model forcings for the coterminous U.S. The NWP model forcings are physically downscaled from their native 13 km2 spatial resolution to a 1 km2 resolution for the CONUS. The downscaled NWP forcings drive an energy-and-mass-balance snow accumulation and ablation model at a 1 km2 spatial resolution and at a 1 hour temporal resolution for the country. The ground-based, airborne, and satellite snow observations are assimilated into the snow model's simulated state variables using a Newtonian nudging technique. The principle advantages of the assimilation technique are: (1) approximate balance is maintained in the snow model, (2) physical processes are easily accommodated in the model, and (3) asynoptic data are incorporated at the appropriate times. The snow model is reinitialized with the assimilated snow observations to generate a variety of snow products that combine to form NOAA's NOHRSC National Snow Analyses (NSA). The NOHRSC NSA incorporate all of the available information necessary and available to produce a "best estimate" of real-time snow cover conditions at 1 km2 spatial resolution and 1 hour temporal resolution for the country. The NOHRSC NSA consist of a variety of daily, operational, products that characterize real-time snowpack conditions including: snow water equivalent, snow depth, surface and internal snowpack temperatures, surface and blowing snow sublimation, and snowmelt for the CONUS. The products are generated and distributed in a variety of formats including: interactive maps, time-series, alphanumeric products (e.g., mean areal snow water equivalent on a hydrologic basin-by-basin basis), text and map discussions, map animations, and quantitative gridded products

  10. Using suggestion to model different types of automatic writing.

    PubMed

    Walsh, E; Mehta, M A; Oakley, D A; Guilmette, D N; Gabay, A; Halligan, P W; Deeley, Q

    2014-05-01

    Our sense of self includes awareness of our thoughts and movements, and our control over them. This feeling can be altered or lost in neuropsychiatric disorders as well as in phenomena such as "automatic writing" whereby writing is attributed to an external source. Here, we employed suggestion in highly hypnotically suggestible participants to model various experiences of automatic writing during a sentence completion task. Results showed that the induction of hypnosis, without additional suggestion, was associated with a small but significant reduction of control, ownership, and awareness for writing. Targeted suggestions produced a double dissociation between thought and movement components of writing, for both feelings of control and ownership, and additionally, reduced awareness of writing. Overall, suggestion produced selective alterations in the control, ownership, and awareness of thought and motor components of writing, thus enabling key aspects of automatic writing, observed across different clinical and cultural settings, to be modelled.

  11. Wavelet Analyses and Applications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bordeianu, Cristian C.; Landau, Rubin H.; Paez, Manuel J.

    2009-01-01

    It is shown how a modern extension of Fourier analysis known as wavelet analysis is applied to signals containing multiscale information. First, a continuous wavelet transform is used to analyse the spectrum of a nonstationary signal (one whose form changes in time). The spectral analysis of such a signal gives the strength of the signal in each…

  12. Apollo 14 microbial analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, G. R.

    1972-01-01

    Extensive microbiological analyses that were performed on the Apollo 14 prime and backup crewmembers and ancillary personnel are discussed. The crewmembers were subjected to four separate and quite different environments during the 137-day monitoring period. The relation between each of these environments and observed changes in the microflora of each astronaut are presented.

  13. Suggested guidelines for anti-islanding screening.

    SciTech Connect

    Ellis, Abraham; Ropp, Michael

    2012-02-01

    As increasing numbers of photovoltaic (PV) systems are connected to utility systems, distribution engineers are becoming increasingly concerned about the risk of formation of unintentional islands. Utilities desire to keep their systems secure, while not imposing unreasonable burdens on users wishing to connect PV. However, utility experience with these systems is still relatively sparse, so distribution engineers often are uncertain as to when additional protective measures, such as direct transfer trip, are needed to avoid unintentional island formation. In the absence of such certainty, utilities must err on the side of caution, which in some cases may lead to the unnecessary requirement of additional protection. The purpose of this document is to provide distribution engineers and decision makers with guidance on when additional measures or additional study may be prudent, and also on certain cases in which utilities may allow PV installations to proceed without additional study because the risk of an unintentional island is extremely low. The goal is to reduce the number of cases of unnecessary application of additional protection, while giving utilities a basis on which to request additional study in cases where it is warranted.

  14. Maltreated Children's Memory: Accuracy, Suggestibility, and Psychopathology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisen, Mitchell L.; Goodman, Gail S.; Qin, Jianjian; Davis, Suzanne; Crayton, John

    2007-01-01

    Memory, suggestibility, stress arousal, and trauma-related psychopathology were examined in 328 3- to 16-year-olds involved in forensic investigations of abuse and neglect. Children's memory and suggestibility were assessed for a medical examination and venipuncture. Being older and scoring higher in cognitive functioning were related to fewer…

  15. Induction Technique: Beyond Simple Response to Suggestion.

    PubMed

    Barabasz, Arreed; Barabasz, Marianne

    2016-10-01

    The hypnotic induction is intended to induce hypnosis. This implies that what is sought is intended to go beyond what might be wrought by mere suggestion, expectancy, and social influence. The experimentally controlled research showing that the induction makes a difference and how small changes in wording of suggestions can produce orthogonal responses is briefly reviewed. This article explains the principles of induction and three critical phases of hypnotic induction in detail. An arm levitation scripted protocol demonstrating how to respond to the patient using the three phases to maximize responses to hypnotic suggestions is presented. PMID:27586048

  16. Suggested Minimum Cataloging Standards for Arizona.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Sharon

    1979-01-01

    Notes problems with cataloging library materials in the small and medium sized public library and suggests interpretations of the Anglo-American cataloging rules, with recommendations for their adaptation to smaller libraries. (CWM)

  17. Additional Financial Resources for Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubbard, Ben C.

    This paper discusses the continuing need for additional educational funds and suggests that the only way to gain these funds is through concerted and persistent political efforts by supporters of education at both the federal and state levels. The author first points out that for many reasons declining enrollment may not decrease operating costs…

  18. Regulating professional behavior: codes of ethics or law? Suggested criteria.

    PubMed

    Libman, Liron A

    2013-09-01

    This paper suggests considering a few parameters when making policy decisions as to the proper "tool" to regulate professional behavior: law or professional ethics. This is done on the background of understanding the place of codes of professional ethics between "pure" ethics and law. Suggested criteria are then illustrated using a few examples. Further discourse may reveal additional factors to support a more rational process of decision-making in this field.

  19. [Food additives and healthiness].

    PubMed

    Heinonen, Marina

    2014-01-01

    Additives are used for improving food structure or preventing its spoilage, for example. Many substances used as additives are also naturally present in food. The safety of additives is evaluated according to commonly agreed principles. If high concentrations of an additive cause adverse health effects for humans, a limit of acceptable daily intake (ADI) is set for it. An additive is a risk only when ADI is exceeded. The healthiness of food is measured on the basis of nutrient density and scientifically proven effects.

  20. LDEF Satellite Radiation Analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armstrong, T. W.; Colborn, B. L.

    1996-01-01

    Model calculations and analyses have been carried out to compare with several sets of data (dose, induced radioactivity in various experiment samples and spacecraft components, fission foil measurements, and LET spectra) from passive radiation dosimetry on the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) satellite, which was recovered after almost six years in space. The calculations and data comparisons are used to estimate the accuracy of current models and methods for predicting the ionizing radiation environment in low earth orbit. The emphasis is on checking the accuracy of trapped proton flux and anisotropy models.

  1. Food additives and preschool children.

    PubMed

    Martyn, Danika M; McNulty, Breige A; Nugent, Anne P; Gibney, Michael J

    2013-02-01

    Food additives have been used throughout history to perform specific functions in foods. A comprehensive framework of legislation is in place within Europe to control the use of additives in the food supply and ensure they pose no risk to human health. Further to this, exposure assessments are regularly carried out to monitor population intakes and verify that intakes are not above acceptable levels (acceptable daily intakes). Young children may have a higher dietary exposure to chemicals than adults due to a combination of rapid growth rates and distinct food intake patterns. For this reason, exposure assessments are particularly important in this age group. The paper will review the use of additives and exposure assessment methods and examine factors that affect dietary exposure by young children. One of the most widely investigated unfavourable health effects associated with food additive intake in preschool-aged children are suggested adverse behavioural effects. Research that has examined this relationship has reported a variety of responses, with many noting an increase in hyperactivity as reported by parents but not when assessed using objective examiners. This review has examined the experimental approaches used in such studies and suggests that efforts are needed to standardise objective methods of measuring behaviour in preschool children. Further to this, a more holistic approach to examining food additive intakes by preschool children is advisable, where overall exposure is considered rather than focusing solely on behavioural effects and possibly examining intakes of food additives other than food colours.

  2. Overseas Programs: Suggestions for a Director.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldin, David

    1984-01-01

    Offers insights and advice for anyone contemplating a director's position in an overseas study program. In addition to stressing that the goals of the program be well-defined and well-planned, the importance of offering the exchange students a complete, integrated exposure to the language and culture of the host country is stressed. (SL)

  3. Animal Rights: Selected Resources and Suggestions for Further Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidoff, Donald J.

    1989-01-01

    Presents an annotated list of selected resources intended to serve as a guide to the growing amount of material on animal rights. Suggestions to aid in additional research include subject headings used to find books, indexes used to locate periodical articles, sources for locating organizations, and a selected list of animal rights organizations.…

  4. Suggestions for Structuring a Research Article

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, James D.; Reiser, Robert A.

    2014-01-01

    Researchers often experience difficulty as they attempt to prepare journal articles that describe their work. The purpose of this article is to provide researchers in the field of education with a series of suggestions as to how to clearly structure each section of a research manuscript that they intend to submit for publication in a scholarly…

  5. Technology Is Power: Suggestions for Beginning Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shanklin, Nancy

    2010-01-01

    Shanklin knows it can be hard for new teachers to incorporate all they know about technology with the realities of a classroom. She suggests setting incremental, monthly technology goals; investing in equipment; assessing students' grasp of the technology at their disposal and their use of it in classroom projects; searching purposefully for…

  6. Physics Courses--Some Suggested Case Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swetman, T. P.

    1972-01-01

    To communicate the relevance and excitement of science activity to students, the use of more imaginative, and even openly speculative, case studies in physics courses is suggested. Some useful examples are Magnetic Monopoles, Constants, Black Holes, Antimatter, Zero Mass Particles, Tachyons, and the Bootstrap Hypothesis. (DF)

  7. Seven Salutary Suggestions for Counselor Stamina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osborn, Cynthia J.

    2004-01-01

    Counselor stamina is deemed essential in the midst of a consistently challenging, complex, and changing mental health care environment. Rather than perpetuating conversations about "burnout" and "burnout prevention," this article provides a salutary or health-promoting perspective. Seven suggestions for counselor stamina are presented and…

  8. Integrating Composition and Literature: Some Practical Suggestions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daiker, Donald A.

    This paper suggests that it is possible to construct a course that integrates the teaching of composition with the teaching of literature without allowing the secondary goal of heightened literary understanding to overwhelm the primary goal of improved expository writing. It presents a syllabus for a four-week unit on Ernest Hemingway's "The Sun…

  9. Current Research: 2013 Summer Reading Suggestions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of College Science Teaching, 2013

    2013-01-01

    To supplement the summer reading of National Science Teachers Association (NSTA) members, the NSTA Committee on Research in Science Education suggested a list of science education research articles that were published in the journals of NSTA's affiliates in 2012. These articles covered a variety of topics that include learning about…

  10. Accounting: Suggested Content for Postsecondary Tax Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Patricia H.; Morgan, Samuel D.

    1978-01-01

    Surveys of community college graduates and of certified public accountants were made to determine employment relevance of the accounting curriculum. The article suggests topics from the study data which should be included in taxation courses, e.g., income tax accounting, corporate taxation accounting, and tax law. (MF)

  11. Minimum Competency Program, Citizenship: Suggestions for Implementation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virginia State Dept. of Education, Richmond.

    This monograph explains the need for graduating high school seniors to demonstrate minimum competence in citizenship and suggests performance-related assessment tasks to help school authorities determine whether these competency requirements have been met. Minimum citizenship competencies are interpreted to include essential skills and concepts…

  12. Family Living: Suggestions for Effective Parenting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Lilian G.; And Others

    Suggestions for effective parenting of preschool children are provided in 33 brief articles on children's feelings concerning self-esteem; fear; adopted children; the birth of a sibling; death; depression; and coping with stress, trauma, and divorce. Children's behavior is discussed in articles on toddlers' eating habits, punishment and…

  13. Precis Writing: Suggestions for Instruction in Summarizing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bromley, Karen D'Angelo; McKeveny, Laurie

    1986-01-01

    Offers suggestions for successful instruction in precis writing--a paraphrase or abstract that condenses an original composition but retains its information, essence, and point of view. Observes that this is a strategy that develops vocabulary, promotes critical reading and comprehension, and improves learning in general. (HOD)

  14. Leadership Theories--Managing Practices, Challenges, Suggestions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, Cheryl

    2009-01-01

    A shortage of community college executives due to the number of retirements occurring among current leaders is predicted. An examination of three leadership theories--servant-leadership, business leadership and transformational leadership--suggests techniques for potential community college leaders. Servant-leaders focus on the needs of their…

  15. Qualitative Research Articles: Guidelines, Suggestions and Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crescentini, Alberto; Mainardi, Giuditta

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to give ideas and suggestions to avoid some typical problems of qualitative articles. The aim is not to debate quality in qualitative research but to indicate some practical solutions. Design/methodology/approach: The paper discusses the design of qualitative research and the structure of a qualitative article…

  16. Youth Physical Fitness. Suggestions for School Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    President's Council on Physical Fitness and Sports, Washington, DC.

    This book, divided into three main parts--basic, advanced, and comprehensive programs--suggests (a) basic physical education programs designed to assist classroom teachers inexperienced in physical education to develop activities that will make a contribution to the physical fitness of the children in their charge and (b) advanced activities…

  17. Stakeholder Involvement in Evaluation: Suggestions for Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reineke, Robert A.

    1991-01-01

    Based on experiences in working with school district staff, suggestions for enhancing evaluation use through stakeholder involvement are discussed in terms of who should be involved, when involvement should occur, and how stakeholders should be involved via a dialogue-dependent process. (SLD)

  18. Studies and Suggestions on Prewriting Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zheng, Shigao; Dai, Weiping

    2012-01-01

    This paper studies and suggests the need for writing instruction by which students can experience writing as a creative process in exploring and communicating meaning. The prewriting activities generate ideas which can encourage a free flow of thoughts and help students discover both what they want to say and how to say it on paper. Through the…

  19. Suggestions for Teaching the Migratory Pupil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanton, Dolly; And Others

    Suggestions for teachers of migrant children are offered in seven individual teaching guides which were developed as part of a research and curriculum development project to improve the teaching of migratory pupils. Levels of study include grades four, five, six, and seven, and one general unit deals with providing an effective learning…

  20. LDEF Satellite Radiation Analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armstrong, T. W.; Colborn, B. L.

    1996-01-01

    This report covers work performed by Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) under contract NAS8-39386 from the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center entitled LDEF Satellite Radiation Analyses. The basic objective of the study was to evaluate the accuracy of present models and computational methods for defining the ionizing radiation environment for spacecraft in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) by making comparisons with radiation measurements made on the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) satellite, which was recovered after almost six years in space. The emphasis of the work here is on predictions and comparisons with LDEF measurements of induced radioactivity and Linear Energy Transfer (LET) measurements. These model/data comparisons have been used to evaluate the accuracy of current models for predicting the flux and directionality of trapped protons for LEO missions.

  1. EEG analyses with SOBI.

    SciTech Connect

    Glickman, Matthew R.; Tang, Akaysha

    2009-02-01

    The motivating vision behind Sandia's MENTOR/PAL LDRD project has been that of systems which use real-time psychophysiological data to support and enhance human performance, both individually and of groups. Relevant and significant psychophysiological data being a necessary prerequisite to such systems, this LDRD has focused on identifying and refining such signals. The project has focused in particular on EEG (electroencephalogram) data as a promising candidate signal because it (potentially) provides a broad window on brain activity with relatively low cost and logistical constraints. We report here on two analyses performed on EEG data collected in this project using the SOBI (Second Order Blind Identification) algorithm to identify two independent sources of brain activity: one in the frontal lobe and one in the occipital. The first study looks at directional influences between the two components, while the second study looks at inferring gender based upon the frontal component.

  2. Network Class Superposition Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Pearson, Carl A. B.; Zeng, Chen; Simha, Rahul

    2013-01-01

    Networks are often used to understand a whole system by modeling the interactions among its pieces. Examples include biomolecules in a cell interacting to provide some primary function, or species in an environment forming a stable community. However, these interactions are often unknown; instead, the pieces' dynamic states are known, and network structure must be inferred. Because observed function may be explained by many different networks (e.g., for the yeast cell cycle process [1]), considering dynamics beyond this primary function means picking a single network or suitable sample: measuring over all networks exhibiting the primary function is computationally infeasible. We circumvent that obstacle by calculating the network class ensemble. We represent the ensemble by a stochastic matrix , which is a transition-by-transition superposition of the system dynamics for each member of the class. We present concrete results for derived from Boolean time series dynamics on networks obeying the Strong Inhibition rule, by applying to several traditional questions about network dynamics. We show that the distribution of the number of point attractors can be accurately estimated with . We show how to generate Derrida plots based on . We show that -based Shannon entropy outperforms other methods at selecting experiments to further narrow the network structure. We also outline an experimental test of predictions based on . We motivate all of these results in terms of a popular molecular biology Boolean network model for the yeast cell cycle, but the methods and analyses we introduce are general. We conclude with open questions for , for example, application to other models, computational considerations when scaling up to larger systems, and other potential analyses. PMID:23565141

  3. Network class superposition analyses.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Carl A B; Zeng, Chen; Simha, Rahul

    2013-01-01

    Networks are often used to understand a whole system by modeling the interactions among its pieces. Examples include biomolecules in a cell interacting to provide some primary function, or species in an environment forming a stable community. However, these interactions are often unknown; instead, the pieces' dynamic states are known, and network structure must be inferred. Because observed function may be explained by many different networks (e.g., ≈ 10(30) for the yeast cell cycle process), considering dynamics beyond this primary function means picking a single network or suitable sample: measuring over all networks exhibiting the primary function is computationally infeasible. We circumvent that obstacle by calculating the network class ensemble. We represent the ensemble by a stochastic matrix T, which is a transition-by-transition superposition of the system dynamics for each member of the class. We present concrete results for T derived from boolean time series dynamics on networks obeying the Strong Inhibition rule, by applying T to several traditional questions about network dynamics. We show that the distribution of the number of point attractors can be accurately estimated with T. We show how to generate Derrida plots based on T. We show that T-based Shannon entropy outperforms other methods at selecting experiments to further narrow the network structure. We also outline an experimental test of predictions based on T. We motivate all of these results in terms of a popular molecular biology boolean network model for the yeast cell cycle, but the methods and analyses we introduce are general. We conclude with open questions for T, for example, application to other models, computational considerations when scaling up to larger systems, and other potential analyses. PMID:23565141

  4. Uncertainty and Sensitivity Analyses Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, J.C.; Ramsdell, J.V. Jr.

    1993-04-01

    Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project staff are developing mathematical models to be used to estimate the radiation dose that individuals may have received as a result of emissions since 1944 from the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. An uncertainty and sensitivity analyses plan is essential to understand and interpret the predictions from these mathematical models. This is especially true in the case of the HEDR models where the values of many parameters are unknown. This plan gives a thorough documentation of the uncertainty and hierarchical sensitivity analysis methods recommended for use on all HEDR mathematical models. The documentation includes both technical definitions and examples. In addition, an extensive demonstration of the uncertainty and sensitivity analysis process is provided using actual results from the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Integrated Codes (HEDRIC). This demonstration shows how the approaches used in the recommended plan can be adapted for all dose predictions in the HEDR Project.

  5. Functional analyses and treatment of precursor behavior.

    PubMed

    Najdowski, Adel C; Wallace, Michele D; Ellsworth, Carrie L; MacAleese, Alicia N; Cleveland, Jackie M

    2008-01-01

    Functional analysis has been demonstrated to be an effective method to identify environmental variables that maintain problem behavior. However, there are cases when conducting functional analyses of severe problem behavior may be contraindicated. The current study applied functional analysis procedures to a class of behavior that preceded severe problem behavior (precursor behavior) and evaluated treatments based on the outcomes of the functional analyses of precursor behavior. Responding for all participants was differentiated during the functional analyses, and individualized treatments eliminated precursor behavior. These results suggest that functional analysis of precursor behavior may offer an alternative, indirect method to assess the operant function of severe problem behavior. PMID:18468282

  6. Functional Analyses and Treatment of Precursor Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Najdowski, Adel C; Wallace, Michele D; Ellsworth, Carrie L; MacAleese, Alicia N; Cleveland, Jackie M

    2008-01-01

    Functional analysis has been demonstrated to be an effective method to identify environmental variables that maintain problem behavior. However, there are cases when conducting functional analyses of severe problem behavior may be contraindicated. The current study applied functional analysis procedures to a class of behavior that preceded severe problem behavior (precursor behavior) and evaluated treatments based on the outcomes of the functional analyses of precursor behavior. Responding for all participants was differentiated during the functional analyses, and individualized treatments eliminated precursor behavior. These results suggest that functional analysis of precursor behavior may offer an alternative, indirect method to assess the operant function of severe problem behavior. PMID:18468282

  7. Simple nonlinear models suggest variable star universality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindner, John F.; Kohar, Vivek; Kia, Behnam; Hippke, Michael; Learned, John G.; Ditto, William L.

    2016-02-01

    Dramatically improved data from observatories like the CoRoT and Kepler spacecraft have recently facilitated nonlinear time series analysis and phenomenological modeling of variable stars, including the search for strange (aka fractal) or chaotic dynamics. We recently argued [Lindner et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 114 (2015) 054101] that the Kepler data includes "golden" stars, whose luminosities vary quasiperiodically with two frequencies nearly in the golden ratio, and whose secondary frequencies exhibit power-law scaling with exponent near -1.5, suggesting strange nonchaotic dynamics and singular spectra. Here we use a series of phenomenological models to make plausible the connection between golden stars and fractal spectra. We thereby suggest that at least some features of variable star dynamics reflect universal nonlinear phenomena common to even simple systems.

  8. Cajal's brief experimentation with hypnotic suggestion.

    PubMed

    Stefanidou, Maria; Solà, Carme; Kouvelas, Elias; del Cerro, Manuel; Triarhou, Lazaros C

    2007-01-01

    Spanish histologist Santiago Ramón y Cajal, one of the most notable figures in Neuroscience, and winner, along with Camillo Golgi, of the 1906 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for his discoveries on the structure of the nervous system, did not escape experimenting with some of the psychiatric techniques available at the time, mainly hypnotic suggestion, albeit briefly. While a physician in his thirties, Cajal published a short article under the title, "Pains of labour considerably attenuated by hypnotic suggestion" in Gaceta Médica Catalana. That study may be Cajal's only documented case in the field of experimental psychology. We here provide an English translation of the original Spanish text, placing it historically within Cajal's involvement with some of the key scientific and philosophical issues at the time.

  9. [Suggestions to improve dentist-endodontist collaboration].

    PubMed

    Zabalegui, B; Zabalegui, I; Flores, L

    1989-01-01

    Referrals from the general dentist to the endodontist are in some occasions complicated with lack of proper communication among dentist-patient-specialist, resulting in the loss of confidence or even the patient. Suggestions to improve this communication are discussed, which will provide the patient a higher confidence in the indicated endodontic treatment and a better dental service. It will also enhance the prestige of the general dentists' and specialists' practice.

  10. [Suggestions to improve dentist-endodontist collaboration].

    PubMed

    Zabalegui, B; Zabalegui, I; Flores, L

    1989-01-01

    Referrals from the general dentist to the endodontist are in some occasions complicated with lack of proper communication among dentist-patient-specialist, resulting in the loss of confidence or even the patient. Suggestions to improve this communication are discussed, which will provide the patient a higher confidence in the indicated endodontic treatment and a better dental service. It will also enhance the prestige of the general dentists' and specialists' practice. PMID:2640034

  11. Polyimide processing additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fletcher, James C. (Inventor); Pratt, J. Richard (Inventor); St.clair, Terry L. (Inventor); Stoakley, Diane M. (Inventor); Burks, Harold D. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A process for preparing polyimides having enhanced melt flow properties is described. The process consists of heating a mixture of a high molecular weight poly-(amic acid) or polyimide with a low molecular weight amic acid or imide additive in the range of 0.05 to 15 percent by weight of additive. The polyimide powders so obtained show improved processability, as evidenced by lower melt viscosity by capillary rheometry. Likewise, films prepared from mixtures of polymers with additives show improved processability with earlier onset of stretching by TMA.

  12. Polyimide processing additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pratt, J. Richard (Inventor); St.clair, Terry L. (Inventor); Stoakley, Diane M. (Inventor); Burks, Harold D. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A process for preparing polyimides having enhanced melt flow properties is described. The process consists of heating a mixture of a high molecular weight poly-(amic acid) or polyimide with a low molecular weight amic acid or imide additive in the range of 0.05 to 15 percent by weight of the additive. The polyimide powders so obtained show improved processability, as evidenced by lower melt viscosity by capillary rheometry. Likewise, films prepared from mixtures of polymers with additives show improved processability with earlier onset of stretching by TMA.

  13. Enhancing Business Intelligence by Means of Suggestive Reviews

    PubMed Central

    Qazi, Atika

    2014-01-01

    Appropriate identification and classification of online reviews to satisfy the needs of current and potential users pose a critical challenge for the business environment. This paper focuses on a specific kind of reviews: the suggestive type. Suggestions have a significant influence on both consumers' choices and designers' understanding and, hence, they are key for tasks such as brand positioning and social media marketing. The proposed approach consists of three main steps: (1) classify comparative and suggestive sentences; (2) categorize suggestive sentences into different types, either explicit or implicit locutions; (3) perform sentiment analysis on the classified reviews. A range of supervised machine learning approaches and feature sets are evaluated to tackle the problem of suggestive opinion mining. Experimental results for all three tasks are obtained on a dataset of mobile phone reviews and demonstrate that extending a bag-of-words representation with suggestive and comparative patterns is ideal for distinguishing suggestive sentences. In particular, it is observed that classifying suggestive sentences into implicit and explicit locutions works best when using a mixed sequential rule feature representation. Sentiment analysis achieves maximum performance when employing additional preprocessing in the form of negation handling and target masking, combined with sentiment lexicons. PMID:25054188

  14. Enhancing business intelligence by means of suggestive reviews.

    PubMed

    Qazi, Atika; Raj, Ram Gopal; Tahir, Muhammad; Cambria, Erik; Syed, Karim Bux Shah

    2014-01-01

    Appropriate identification and classification of online reviews to satisfy the needs of current and potential users pose a critical challenge for the business environment. This paper focuses on a specific kind of reviews: the suggestive type. Suggestions have a significant influence on both consumers' choices and designers' understanding and, hence, they are key for tasks such as brand positioning and social media marketing. The proposed approach consists of three main steps: (1) classify comparative and suggestive sentences; (2) categorize suggestive sentences into different types, either explicit or implicit locutions; (3) perform sentiment analysis on the classified reviews. A range of supervised machine learning approaches and feature sets are evaluated to tackle the problem of suggestive opinion mining. Experimental results for all three tasks are obtained on a dataset of mobile phone reviews and demonstrate that extending a bag-of-words representation with suggestive and comparative patterns is ideal for distinguishing suggestive sentences. In particular, it is observed that classifying suggestive sentences into implicit and explicit locutions works best when using a mixed sequential rule feature representation. Sentiment analysis achieves maximum performance when employing additional preprocessing in the form of negation handling and target masking, combined with sentiment lexicons.

  15. Enhancing business intelligence by means of suggestive reviews.

    PubMed

    Qazi, Atika; Raj, Ram Gopal; Tahir, Muhammad; Cambria, Erik; Syed, Karim Bux Shah

    2014-01-01

    Appropriate identification and classification of online reviews to satisfy the needs of current and potential users pose a critical challenge for the business environment. This paper focuses on a specific kind of reviews: the suggestive type. Suggestions have a significant influence on both consumers' choices and designers' understanding and, hence, they are key for tasks such as brand positioning and social media marketing. The proposed approach consists of three main steps: (1) classify comparative and suggestive sentences; (2) categorize suggestive sentences into different types, either explicit or implicit locutions; (3) perform sentiment analysis on the classified reviews. A range of supervised machine learning approaches and feature sets are evaluated to tackle the problem of suggestive opinion mining. Experimental results for all three tasks are obtained on a dataset of mobile phone reviews and demonstrate that extending a bag-of-words representation with suggestive and comparative patterns is ideal for distinguishing suggestive sentences. In particular, it is observed that classifying suggestive sentences into implicit and explicit locutions works best when using a mixed sequential rule feature representation. Sentiment analysis achieves maximum performance when employing additional preprocessing in the form of negation handling and target masking, combined with sentiment lexicons. PMID:25054188

  16. Diagnostic inflation: causes and a suggested cure.

    PubMed

    Batstra, Laura; Frances, Allen

    2012-06-01

    There have been a striking diagnostic inflation and a corresponding increase in the use of psychotropic drugs during the past 30 years. DSM-5, scheduled to appear in May 2013, proposes another grand expansion of mental illness. In this article, we will review the causes of diagnostic exuberance and associated medical treatment. We will then suggest a method of stepped care combined with stepped diagnosis, which may reduce overdiagnosis without risking undertreatment of those who really need help. The goal is to control diagnostic inflation, to reduce the harms and costs of unnecessary treatment, and to save psychiatry from overdiagnosis and ridicule.

  17. CFD analyses of coolant channel flowfields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yagley, Jennifer A.; Feng, Jinzhang; Merkle, Charles L.

    1993-01-01

    The flowfield characteristics in rocket engine coolant channels are analyzed by means of a numerical model. The channels are characterized by large length to diameter ratios, high Reynolds numbers, and asymmetrical heating. At representative flow conditions, the channel length is approximately twice the hydraulic entrance length so that fully developed conditions would be reached for a constant property fluid. For the supercritical hydrogen that is used as the coolant, the strong property variations create significant secondary flows in the cross-plane which have a major influence on the flow and the resulting heat transfer. Comparison of constant and variable property solutions show substantial differences. In addition, the property variations prevent fully developed flow. The density variation accelerates the fluid in the channels increasing the pressure drop without an accompanying increase in heat flux. Analyses of the inlet configuration suggest that side entry from a manifold can affect the development of the velocity profile because of vortices generated as the flow enters the channel. Current work is focused on studying the effects of channel bifurcation on the flow field and the heat transfer characteristics.

  18. Informative prior distributions for ELISA analyses.

    PubMed

    Klauenberg, Katy; Walzel, Monika; Ebert, Bernd; Elster, Clemens

    2015-07-01

    Immunoassays are capable of measuring very small concentrations of substances in solutions and have an immense range of application. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) tests in particular can detect the presence of an infection, of drugs, or hormones (as in the home pregnancy test). Inference of an unknown concentration via ELISA usually involves a non-linear heteroscedastic regression and subsequent prediction, which can be carried out in a Bayesian framework. For such a Bayesian inference, we are developing informative prior distributions based on extensive historical ELISA tests as well as theoretical considerations. One consideration regards the quality of the immunoassay leading to two practical requirements for the applicability of the priors. Simulations show that the additional prior information can lead to inferences which are robust to reasonable perturbations of the model and changes in the design of the data. On real data, the applicability is demonstrated across different laboratories, for different analytes and laboratory equipment as well as for previous and current ELISAs with sigmoid regression function. Consistency checks on real data (similar to cross-validation) underpin the adequacy of the suggested priors. Altogether, the new priors may improve concentration estimation for ELISAs that fulfill certain design conditions, by extending the range of the analyses, decreasing the uncertainty, or giving more robust estimates. Future use of these priors is straightforward because explicit, closed-form expressions are provided. This work encourages development and application of informative, yet general, prior distributions for other types of immunoassays.

  19. Additional Types of Neuropathy

    MedlinePlus

    ... A A Listen En Español Additional Types of Neuropathy Charcot's Joint Charcot's Joint, also called neuropathic arthropathy, ... can stop bone destruction and aid healing. Cranial Neuropathy Cranial neuropathy affects the 12 pairs of nerves ...

  20. Food Additives and Hyperkinesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wender, Ester H.

    1977-01-01

    The hypothesis that food additives are causally associated with hyperkinesis and learning disabilities in children is reviewed, and available data are summarized. Available from: American Medical Association 535 North Dearborn Street Chicago, Illinois 60610. (JG)

  1. Smog control fuel additives

    SciTech Connect

    Lundby, W.

    1993-06-29

    A method is described of controlling, reducing or eliminating, ozone and related smog resulting from photochemical reactions between ozone and automotive or industrial gases comprising the addition of iodine or compounds of iodine to hydrocarbon-base fuels prior to or during combustion in an amount of about 1 part iodine per 240 to 10,000,000 parts fuel, by weight, to be accomplished by: (a) the addition of these inhibitors during or after the refining or manufacturing process of liquid fuels; (b) the production of these inhibitors for addition into fuel tanks, such as automotive or industrial tanks; or (c) the addition of these inhibitors into combustion chambers of equipment utilizing solid fuels for the purpose of reducing ozone.

  2. Dinosaur Peptides Suggest Mechanisms of Protein Survival

    SciTech Connect

    San Antonio, James D.; Schweitzer, Mary H.; Jensen, Shane T.; Kalluri, Raghu; Buckley, Michael; Orgel, Joseph P.R.O.

    2011-09-16

    Eleven collagen peptide sequences recovered from chemical extracts of dinosaur bones were mapped onto molecular models of the vertebrate collagen fibril derived from extant taxa. The dinosaur peptides localized to fibril regions protected by the close packing of collagen molecules, and contained few acidic amino acids. Four peptides mapped to collagen regions crucial for cell-collagen interactions and tissue development. Dinosaur peptides were not represented in more exposed parts of the collagen fibril or regions mediating intermolecular cross-linking. Thus functionally significant regions of collagen fibrils that are physically shielded within the fibril may be preferentially preserved in fossils. These results show empirically that structure-function relationships at the molecular level could contribute to selective preservation in fossilized vertebrate remains across geological time, suggest a 'preservation motif', and bolster current concepts linking collagen structure to biological function. This non-random distribution supports the hypothesis that the peptides are produced by the extinct organisms and suggests a chemical mechanism for survival.

  3. Analysing surnames as geographic data.

    PubMed

    Cheshire, James

    2014-01-01

    With most surname research undertaken within the fields of anthropology and population genetics, geographers have overlooked surnames as a credible data source. In addition to providing a review of recent developments in surname analysis, this paper highlights areas where geographers can make important contributions to advancing surname research, both in terms of its quality and also its applications. The review discusses the emerging applications for surname research, not least in the mining of online data, and ends by suggesting three future research themes to ensure the building momentum of surname research continues to grow across disciplines. PMID:25020015

  4. Bacterial survival strategies suggest rethinking cancer cooperativity.

    PubMed

    Ben-Jacob, Eshel; Coffey, Donald S; Levine, Herbert

    2012-09-01

    Despite decades of a much improved understanding of cancer biology, we are still baffled by questions regarding the deadliest traits of malignancy: metastatic colonization, dormancy and relapse, and the rapid evolution of multiple drug and immune resistance. New ideas are needed to resolve these critical issues. Relying on finding and demonstrating parallels between collective behavior capabilities of cancer cells and that of bacteria, we suggest communal behaviors of bacteria as a valuable model system for new perspectives and research directions. Understanding the ways in which bacteria thrive in competitive habitats and their cooperative strategies for surviving extreme stress can shed light on cooperativity in tumorigenesis and portray tumors as societies of smart communicating cells. This may translate into progress in fathoming cancer pathogenesis. We outline new experiments to test the cancer cooperativity hypothesis and reason that cancer may be outsmarted through its own 'social intelligence'. PMID:22750098

  5. Proactive and retroactive effects of negative suggestion.

    PubMed

    Brown, Alan S; Brown, Christine M; Mosbacher, Joy L; Dryden, W Erich

    2006-11-01

    The negative effects of false information presented either prior to (proactive interference; PI) or following (retroactive interference; RI) true information was examined with word definitions (Experiment 1) and trivia facts (Experiment 2). Participants were explicitly aware of which information was true and false when shown, and true-false discrimination was evaluated via multiple-choice tests. Negative suggestion, defined as poorer performance on interference items than noninterference (control) items, consistently occurred when the wrong information followed the correct information (RI) but not when it preceded the correct information (PI). These effects did not change as a function of retention interval (immediate, 1 week, or 3 weeks) or number of incorrect alternatives (1 or 3). Implications of this outcome for experiencing incorrect information in both academic and nonacademic situations are considered.

  6. Chest magnetic resonance imaging: a protocol suggestion*

    PubMed Central

    Hochhegger, Bruno; de Souza, Vinícius Valério Silveira; Marchiori, Edson; Irion, Klaus Loureiro; Souza Jr., Arthur Soares; Elias Junior, Jorge; Rodrigues, Rosana Souza; Barreto, Miriam Menna; Escuissato, Dante Luiz; Mançano, Alexandre Dias; Araujo Neto, César Augusto; Guimarães, Marcos Duarte; Nin, Carlos Schuler; Santos, Marcel Koenigkam; Silva, Jorge Luiz Pereira e

    2015-01-01

    In the recent years, with the development of ultrafast sequences, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been established as a valuable diagnostic modality in body imaging. Because of improvements in speed and image quality, MRI is now ready for routine clinical use also in the study of pulmonary diseases. The main advantage of MRI of the lungs is its unique combination of morphological and functional assessment in a single imaging session. In this article, the authors review most technical aspects and suggest a protocol for performing chest MRI. The authors also describe the three major clinical indications for MRI of the lungs: staging of lung tumors; evaluation of pulmonary vascular diseases; and investigation of pulmonary abnormalities in patients who should not be exposed to radiation. PMID:26811555

  7. Some Additional Proposals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gans, Herbert J.

    1978-01-01

    Expands Elihu Katz's proposals for social research on broadcasting with suggestions for "decentering" the media, studying the effects of society on the media, and looking at what researchers do to, for, and against television and its viewers. (JMF)

  8. Consumer hypnotic-like suggestibility: possible mechanism in compulsive purchasing.

    PubMed

    Prete, M Irene; Guido, Gianluigi; Pichierri, Marco

    2013-08-01

    The authors hypothesize a concept, Consumer Hypnotic-Like Suggestibility (CHLS), defined as an altered state of consciousness, as a state causing a tendency to respond positively to messages aimed at inducing consumers to make unplanned purchases. This study aims to investigate the associations of CHLS with interpersonal variables and compulsive purchasing--a frequent and uncontrollable preoccupation with buying or impulses to buy. A study was conducted on a sample of 232 subjects (n = 111 men; M age = 41 yr.), through the administration of a questionnaire, which measured: CHLS, compulsive purchasing, consumer susceptibility to interpersonal influence (the necessity to enhance one's image in the opinion of others through the consumption of products), and consumer atmospherics, i.e., environmental stimuli known to influence purchasing decisions. Modeling and mediation analyses suggested that internal and external drivers--Consumer Susceptibility to Interpersonal Influence and atmospherics--are positively related to CHLS which affects compulsive purchasing.

  9. Consumer hypnotic-like suggestibility: possible mechanism in compulsive purchasing.

    PubMed

    Prete, M Irene; Guido, Gianluigi; Pichierri, Marco

    2013-08-01

    The authors hypothesize a concept, Consumer Hypnotic-Like Suggestibility (CHLS), defined as an altered state of consciousness, as a state causing a tendency to respond positively to messages aimed at inducing consumers to make unplanned purchases. This study aims to investigate the associations of CHLS with interpersonal variables and compulsive purchasing--a frequent and uncontrollable preoccupation with buying or impulses to buy. A study was conducted on a sample of 232 subjects (n = 111 men; M age = 41 yr.), through the administration of a questionnaire, which measured: CHLS, compulsive purchasing, consumer susceptibility to interpersonal influence (the necessity to enhance one's image in the opinion of others through the consumption of products), and consumer atmospherics, i.e., environmental stimuli known to influence purchasing decisions. Modeling and mediation analyses suggested that internal and external drivers--Consumer Susceptibility to Interpersonal Influence and atmospherics--are positively related to CHLS which affects compulsive purchasing. PMID:24340808

  10. 49 CFR 1180.7 - Market analyses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... identify and address relevant markets and issues, and provide additional information as requested by the...). (b) For major transactions, applicants shall submit “full system” impact analyses (incorporating any... (including inter- and intramodal competition, product competition, and geographic competition) and...

  11. Additive Manufacturing Infrared Inspection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaddy, Darrell

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing is a rapid prototyping technology that allows parts to be built in a series of thin layers from plastic, ceramics, and metallics. Metallic additive manufacturing is an emerging form of rapid prototyping that allows complex structures to be built using various metallic powders. Significant time and cost savings have also been observed using the metallic additive manufacturing compared with traditional techniques. Development of the metallic additive manufacturing technology has advanced significantly over the last decade, although many of the techniques to inspect parts made from these processes have not advanced significantly or have limitations. Several external geometry inspection techniques exist such as Coordinate Measurement Machines (CMM), Laser Scanners, Structured Light Scanning Systems, or even traditional calipers and gages. All of the aforementioned techniques are limited to external geometry and contours or must use a contact probe to inspect limited internal dimensions. This presentation will document the development of a process for real-time dimensional inspection technique and digital quality record of the additive manufacturing process using Infrared camera imaging and processing techniques.

  12. Descriptive and Experimental Analyses of Potential Precursors to Problem Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borrero, Carrie S. W.; Borrero, John C.

    2008-01-01

    We conducted descriptive observations of severe problem behavior for 2 individuals with autism to identify precursors to problem behavior. Several comparative probability analyses were conducted in addition to lag-sequential analyses using the descriptive data. Results of the descriptive analyses showed that the probability of the potential…

  13. Phenylethynyl Containing Reactive Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John W. (Inventor); Smith, Joseph G., Jr. (Inventor); Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Phenylethynyl containing reactive additives were prepared from aromatic diamine, containing phenylethvnvl groups and various ratios of phthalic anhydride and 4-phenylethynviphthalic anhydride in glacial acetic acid to form the imide in one step or in N-methyl-2-pvrrolidinone to form the amide acid intermediate. The reactive additives were mixed in various amounts (10% to 90%) with oligomers containing either terminal or pendent phenylethynyl groups (or both) to reduce the melt viscosity and thereby enhance processability. Upon thermal cure, the additives react and become chemically incorporated into the matrix and effect an increase in crosslink density relative to that of the host resin. This resultant increase in crosslink density has advantageous consequences on the cured resin properties such as higher glass transition temperature and higher modulus as compared to that of the host resin.

  14. Pattern Genes Suggest Functional Connectivity of Organs.

    PubMed

    Qin, Yangmei; Pan, Jianbo; Cai, Meichun; Yao, Lixia; Ji, Zhiliang

    2016-05-26

    Human organ, as the basic structural and functional unit in human body, is made of a large community of different cell types that organically bound together. Each organ usually exerts highly specified physiological function; while several related organs work smartly together to perform complicated body functions. In this study, we present a computational effort to understand the roles of genes in building functional connection between organs. More specifically, we mined multiple transcriptome datasets sampled from 36 human organs and tissues, and quantitatively identified 3,149 genes whose expressions showed consensus modularly patterns: specific to one organ/tissue, selectively expressed in several functionally related tissues and ubiquitously expressed. These pattern genes imply intrinsic connections between organs. According to the expression abundance of the 766 selective genes, we consistently cluster the 36 human organs/tissues into seven functional groups: adipose &gland, brain, muscle, immune, metabolism, mucoid and nerve conduction. The organs and tissues in each group either work together to form organ systems or coordinate to perform particular body functions. The particular roles of specific genes and selective genes suggest that they could not only be used to mechanistically explore organ functions, but also be designed for selective biomarkers and therapeutic targets.

  15. [Evidence that suggest the reality of reincarnation].

    PubMed

    Bonilla, Ernesto

    2015-06-01

    Worldwide, children can be found who reported that they have memories of a previous life. More than 2,500 cases have been studied and their specifications have been published and preserved in the archives of the Division of Perceptual Studies at the University of Virginia (United States). Many of those children come from countries where the majority of the inhabitants believe in reincarnation, but others come from countries with different cultures and religions that reject it. In many cases, the revelations of the children have been verified and have corresponded to a particular individual, already dead. A good number of these children have marks and birth defects corresponding to wounds on the body of his previous personality. Many have behaviors related to their claims to their former life: phobias, philias, and attachments. Others seem to recognize people and places of his supposed previous life, and some of their assertions have been made under controlled conditions. The hypothesis of reincarnation is controversial. We can never say that it does not occur, or will obtain conclusive evidence that it happens. The cases that have been described so far, isolated or combined, do not provide irrefutable proof of reincarnation, but they supply evidence that suggest its reality.

  16. Arsenic and bladder cancer: observations and suggestions.

    PubMed

    Radosavljević, Vladan; Jakovljević, Branko

    2008-10-01

    Arsenic from drinking water is a well-known risk factor for bladder cancer. The purpose of this paper is to systematize some important yet often overlooked facts considering the relationship between arsenic exposure and the occurrence of bladder cancer. Since the exposure to inorganic arsenic from food, inhaled air, and skin absorption as well as arsenic methylation ability are not fully investigated, our assumption is that the exposure of arsenic only from drinking water is underestimated and its role as a risk factor is highly overestimated. This paper proposes some qualitative and quantitative parameters of arsenic as a risk factor for bladder cancer. The recommended qualitative parameters of arsenic intake are first, pathways of exposure, and second, toxicity and metabolism. The suggested quantitative parameters of arsenic intake include amounts of arsenic absorbed in the body, duration of arsenic exposure, and duration of arsenic presence in the urinary bladder. This approach can be implemented in a systematic classification and explanation of various risk factors and their mutual interactions for other types of cancer or diseases in general.

  17. Pattern Genes Suggest Functional Connectivity of Organs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Yangmei; Pan, Jianbo; Cai, Meichun; Yao, Lixia; Ji, Zhiliang

    2016-05-01

    Human organ, as the basic structural and functional unit in human body, is made of a large community of different cell types that organically bound together. Each organ usually exerts highly specified physiological function; while several related organs work smartly together to perform complicated body functions. In this study, we present a computational effort to understand the roles of genes in building functional connection between organs. More specifically, we mined multiple transcriptome datasets sampled from 36 human organs and tissues, and quantitatively identified 3,149 genes whose expressions showed consensus modularly patterns: specific to one organ/tissue, selectively expressed in several functionally related tissues and ubiquitously expressed. These pattern genes imply intrinsic connections between organs. According to the expression abundance of the 766 selective genes, we consistently cluster the 36 human organs/tissues into seven functional groups: adipose & gland, brain, muscle, immune, metabolism, mucoid and nerve conduction. The organs and tissues in each group either work together to form organ systems or coordinate to perform particular body functions. The particular roles of specific genes and selective genes suggest that they could not only be used to mechanistically explore organ functions, but also be designed for selective biomarkers and therapeutic targets.

  18. Analysing health outcomes.

    PubMed

    Dowie, J

    2001-08-01

    If we cross-classify the absolutist-consequentialist distinction with an intuitive-analytical one we can see that economists probably attract the hostility of those in the other three cells as a result of being analytical consequentialists, as much as because of their concern with "costs". Suggesting that some sources of utility (either "outcome" or "process" in origin) are to be regarded as rights cannot, says the analytical consequentialist, overcome the fact that fulfilling and respecting rights is a resource-consuming activity, one that will inevitably have consequences, in resource-constrained situations, for the fulfillment of the rights of others. Within the analytical consequentialist framework QALY-type measures of health outcome have the unique advantage of allowing technical and allocative efficiency to be addressed simultaneously, while differential weighting of QALYs accruing to different groups means that efficiency and equity can be merged into the necessary single maximand. But what if such key concepts of the analytical consequentialist are not part of the discursive equipment of others? Are they to be disqualified from using them on this ground? Is it ethical for intuition to be privileged in ethical discourse, or is the analyst entitled to "equal opportunities" in the face of "analysisism", the cognitive equivalent of "racism" and "sexism"?

  19. Multifunctional fuel additives

    SciTech Connect

    Baillargeon, D.J.; Cardis, A.B.; Heck, D.B.

    1991-03-26

    This paper discusses a composition comprising a major amount of a liquid hydrocarbyl fuel and a minor low-temperature flow properties improving amount of an additive product of the reaction of a suitable diol and product of a benzophenone tetracarboxylic dianhydride and a long-chain hydrocarbyl aminoalcohol.

  20. Biobased lubricant additives

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fully biobased lubricants are those formulated using all biobased ingredients, i.e. biobased base oils and biobased additives. Such formulations provide the maximum environmental, safety, and economic benefits expected from a biobased product. Currently, there are a number of biobased base oils that...

  1. Cosmetology: Task Analyses. Competency-Based Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henrico County Public Schools, Glen Allen, VA. Virginia Vocational Curriculum Center.

    These task analyses are designed to be used in combination with the "Trade and Industrial Education Service Area Resource" in order to implement competency-based education in the cosmetology program in Virginia. The task analysis document contains the task inventory, suggested task sequence lists, and content outlines for the secondary courses…

  2. Analysing Simple Electric Motors in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yap, Jeff; MacIsaac, Dan

    2006-01-01

    Electromagnetic phenomena and devices such as motors are typically unfamiliar to both teachers and students. To better visualize and illustrate the abstract concepts (such as magnetic fields) underlying electricity and magnetism, we suggest that students construct and analyse the operation of a simply constructed Johnson electric motor. In this…

  3. Employee suggestion programs: the rewards of involvement.

    PubMed

    Mishra, J M; McKendall, M

    1993-09-01

    Successful ESPs are the products of a great deal of effort by managers, administrators, teams, individuals, and reviewers, who are all striving to achieve the goals of increased profitability and enhanced employee involvement. A review of the literature indicates that there are several prescriptions that will increase the likelihood of a successful ESP (see the box). Today's American business prophets sound ceaseless calls to arms in the name of "world class performance," "global competitiveness," "total quality management," and a variety of other buzz terms. A burgeoning industry has evolved that promises, through speeches, teleconferences, seminars, and consulting contracts, to teach American organizations how to achieve excellence. In the face of a sputtering economy and unrelenting competitive pressure, today's managers must translate these laudatory ideals into hands-on reality without sacrificing the firm's profit margin to experimentation. If any idea can help an organization achieve improvement through a workable program, then that idea and that program deserve real consideration. An ESP represents an opportunity to tap the intelligence and resourcefulness of an organization's employees, and by doing so, reap significant cost savings. Those companies and managers that have an ESP program uniformly list economic advantages first when describing the benefits of their employee suggestion programs. But there is another deeper and longer term benefit inherent in an ESP. These programs allow employees to become involved in their organization; they drive deaccession to lower levels, they give employees more responsibility, they foster creative approaches to work, and they encourage creativity in pursuit of company goals.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:10127910

  4. Employee suggestion programs: the rewards of involvement.

    PubMed

    Mishra, J M; McKendall, M

    1993-09-01

    Successful ESPs are the products of a great deal of effort by managers, administrators, teams, individuals, and reviewers, who are all striving to achieve the goals of increased profitability and enhanced employee involvement. A review of the literature indicates that there are several prescriptions that will increase the likelihood of a successful ESP (see the box). Today's American business prophets sound ceaseless calls to arms in the name of "world class performance," "global competitiveness," "total quality management," and a variety of other buzz terms. A burgeoning industry has evolved that promises, through speeches, teleconferences, seminars, and consulting contracts, to teach American organizations how to achieve excellence. In the face of a sputtering economy and unrelenting competitive pressure, today's managers must translate these laudatory ideals into hands-on reality without sacrificing the firm's profit margin to experimentation. If any idea can help an organization achieve improvement through a workable program, then that idea and that program deserve real consideration. An ESP represents an opportunity to tap the intelligence and resourcefulness of an organization's employees, and by doing so, reap significant cost savings. Those companies and managers that have an ESP program uniformly list economic advantages first when describing the benefits of their employee suggestion programs. But there is another deeper and longer term benefit inherent in an ESP. These programs allow employees to become involved in their organization; they drive deaccession to lower levels, they give employees more responsibility, they foster creative approaches to work, and they encourage creativity in pursuit of company goals.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  5. Tomato transcriptome and mutant analyses suggest a role for plant stress hormones in the interaction between fruit and Botrytis cinerea

    PubMed Central

    Blanco-Ulate, Barbara; Vincenti, Estefania; Powell, Ann L. T.; Cantu, Dario

    2013-01-01

    Fruit–pathogen interactions are a valuable biological system to study the role of plant development in the transition from resistance to susceptibility. In general, unripe fruit are resistant to pathogen infection but become increasingly more susceptible as they ripen. During ripening, fruit undergo significant physiological and biochemical changes that are coordinated by complex regulatory and hormonal signaling networks. The interplay between multiple plant stress hormones in the interaction between plant vegetative tissues and microbial pathogens has been documented extensively, but the relevance of these hormones during infections of fruit is unclear. In this work, we analyzed a transcriptome study of tomato fruit infected with Botrytis cinerea in order to profile the expression of genes for the biosynthesis, modification and signal transduction of ethylene (ET), salicylic acid (SA), jasmonic acid (JA), and abscisic acid (ABA), hormones that may be not only involved in ripening, but also in fruit interactions with pathogens. The changes in relative expression of key genes during infection and assays of susceptibility of fruit with impaired synthesis or perception of these hormones were used to formulate hypotheses regarding the involvement of these regulators in the outcome of the tomato fruit–B. cinerea interaction. PMID:23717322

  6. Genetic and Functional Analyses of SHANK2 Mutations Suggest a Multiple Hit Model of Autism Spectrum Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Leblond, Claire S.; Heinrich, Jutta; Delorme, Richard; Proepper, Christian; Betancur, Catalina; Huguet, Guillaume; Konyukh, Marina; Chaste, Pauline; Ey, Elodie; Rastam, Maria; Anckarsäter, Henrik; Nygren, Gudrun; Gillberg, I. Carina; Melke, Jonas; Toro, Roberto; Regnault, Beatrice; Fauchereau, Fabien; Mercati, Oriane; Lemière, Nathalie; Skuse, David; Poot, Martin; Holt, Richard; Monaco, Anthony P.; Järvelä, Irma; Kantojärvi, Katri; Vanhala, Raija; Curran, Sarah; Collier, David A.; Bolton, Patrick; Chiocchetti, Andreas; Klauck, Sabine M.; Poustka, Fritz; Freitag, Christine M.; Waltes, Regina; Kopp, Marnie; Duketis, Eftichia; Bacchelli, Elena; Minopoli, Fiorella; Ruta, Liliana; Battaglia, Agatino; Mazzone, Luigi; Maestrini, Elena; Sequeira, Ana F.; Oliveira, Barbara; Vicente, Astrid; Oliveira, Guiomar; Pinto, Dalila; Scherer, Stephen W.; Zelenika, Diana; Delepine, Marc; Lathrop, Mark; Bonneau, Dominique; Guinchat, Vincent; Devillard, Françoise; Assouline, Brigitte; Mouren, Marie-Christine; Leboyer, Marion; Gillberg, Christopher; Boeckers, Tobias M.; Bourgeron, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are a heterogeneous group of neurodevelopmental disorders with a complex inheritance pattern. While many rare variants in synaptic proteins have been identified in patients with ASD, little is known about their effects at the synapse and their interactions with other genetic variations. Here, following the discovery of two de novo SHANK2 deletions by the Autism Genome Project, we identified a novel 421 kb de novo SHANK2 deletion in a patient with autism. We then sequenced SHANK2 in 455 patients with ASD and 431 controls and integrated these results with those reported by Berkel et al. 2010 (n = 396 patients and n = 659 controls). We observed a significant enrichment of variants affecting conserved amino acids in 29 of 851 (3.4%) patients and in 16 of 1,090 (1.5%) controls (P = 0.004, OR = 2.37, 95% CI = 1.23–4.70). In neuronal cell cultures, the variants identified in patients were associated with a reduced synaptic density at dendrites compared to the variants only detected in controls (P = 0.0013). Interestingly, the three patients with de novo SHANK2 deletions also carried inherited CNVs at 15q11–q13 previously associated with neuropsychiatric disorders. In two cases, the nicotinic receptor CHRNA7 was duplicated and in one case the synaptic translation repressor CYFIP1 was deleted. These results strengthen the role of synaptic gene dysfunction in ASD but also highlight the presence of putative modifier genes, which is in keeping with the “multiple hit model” for ASD. A better knowledge of these genetic interactions will be necessary to understand the complex inheritance pattern of ASD. PMID:22346768

  7. Historical data analyses and scientific knowledge suggest complete removal of the abnormal toxicity test as a quality control test.

    PubMed

    Garbe, Joerg H O; Ausborn, Susanne; Beggs, Claire; Bopst, Martin; Joos, Angelika; Kitashova, Alexandra A; Kovbasenco, Olga; Schiller, Claus-Dieter; Schwinger, Martina; Semenova, Natalia; Smirnova, Lilia; Stodart, Fraser; Visalli, Thomas; Vromans, Lisette

    2014-11-01

    In the early 1900s, the abnormal toxicity test (ATT) was developed as an auxiliary means to ensure safe and consistent antiserum production. Today, the ATT is utilized as a quality control (QC) release test according to pharmacopoeial or other regulatory requirements. The study design has not been changed since around 1940. The evidence of abnormal toxicity testing as a prediction for harmful batches is highly questionable and lacks a scientific rationale. Numerous reviews of historical ATT results have revealed that no reliable conclusions can be drawn from this QC measure. Modern pharmaceutical manufacturers have thorough control of the manufacturing process and comply with good manufacturing practice rules. Contaminants are appropriately controlled by complying with the validated manufacturing processes and strict QC batch release confirming batch-to-batch consistency. Recognizing that product safety, efficacy, and stability can be ensured with strict QC measures, nowadays most regulatory authorities do not require the ATT for most product classes. In line with the replacement, reduction, and refinement (3Rs) initiative, the test requirement has been deleted from approximately 80 monographs of the European Pharmacopoeia and for the majority of product classes in the United States. For these reasons, it is recommended that the ATT should be consistently omitted world-wide and be removed from pharmacopoeias and other regulatory requirements.

  8. The players may change but the game remains: network analyses of ruminal microbiomes suggest taxonomic differences mask functional similarity

    PubMed Central

    Taxis, Tasia M.; Wolff, Sara; Gregg, Sarah J.; Minton, Nicholas O.; Zhang, Chiqian; Dai, Jingjing; Schnabel, Robert D.; Taylor, Jeremy F.; Kerley, Monty S.; Pires, J. Chris; Lamberson, William R.; Conant, Gavin C.

    2015-01-01

    By mapping translated metagenomic reads to a microbial metabolic network, we show that ruminal ecosystems that are rather dissimilar in their taxonomy can be considerably more similar at the metabolic network level. Using a new network bi-partition approach for linking the microbial network to a bovine metabolic network, we observe that these ruminal metabolic networks exhibit properties consistent with distinct metabolic communities producing similar outputs from common inputs. For instance, the closer in network space that a microbial reaction is to a reaction found in the host, the lower will be the variability of its enzyme copy number across hosts. Similarly, these microbial enzymes that are nearby to host nodes are also higher in copy number than are more distant enzymes. Collectively, these results demonstrate a widely expected pattern that, to our knowledge, has not been explicitly demonstrated in microbial communities: namely that there can exist different community metabolic networks that have the same metabolic inputs and outputs but differ in their internal structure. PMID:26420832

  9. The players may change but the game remains: network analyses of ruminal microbiomes suggest taxonomic differences mask functional similarity.

    PubMed

    Taxis, Tasia M; Wolff, Sara; Gregg, Sarah J; Minton, Nicholas O; Zhang, Chiqian; Dai, Jingjing; Schnabel, Robert D; Taylor, Jeremy F; Kerley, Monty S; Pires, J Chris; Lamberson, William R; Conant, Gavin C

    2015-11-16

    By mapping translated metagenomic reads to a microbial metabolic network, we show that ruminal ecosystems that are rather dissimilar in their taxonomy can be considerably more similar at the metabolic network level. Using a new network bi-partition approach for linking the microbial network to a bovine metabolic network, we observe that these ruminal metabolic networks exhibit properties consistent with distinct metabolic communities producing similar outputs from common inputs. For instance, the closer in network space that a microbial reaction is to a reaction found in the host, the lower will be the variability of its enzyme copy number across hosts. Similarly, these microbial enzymes that are nearby to host nodes are also higher in copy number than are more distant enzymes. Collectively, these results demonstrate a widely expected pattern that, to our knowledge, has not been explicitly demonstrated in microbial communities: namely that there can exist different community metabolic networks that have the same metabolic inputs and outputs but differ in their internal structure. PMID:26420832

  10. Combined analyses of kinship and FST suggest potential drivers of chaotic genetic patchiness in high gene-flow populations

    PubMed Central

    Iacchei, Matthew; Ben-Horin, Tal; Selkoe, Kimberly A; Bird, Christopher E; García-Rodríguez, Francisco J; Toonen, Robert J

    2013-01-01

    We combine kinship estimates with traditional F-statistics to explain contemporary drivers of population genetic differentiation despite high gene flow. We investigate range-wide population genetic structure of the California spiny (or red rock) lobster (Panulirus interruptus) and find slight, but significant global population differentiation in mtDNA (ΦST = 0.006, P = 0.001; Dest_Chao = 0.025) and seven nuclear microsatellites (FST = 0.004, P < 0.001; Dest_Chao = 0.03), despite the species’ 240- to 330-day pelagic larval duration. Significant population structure does not correlate with distance between sampling locations, and pairwise FST between adjacent sites often exceeds that among geographically distant locations. This result would typically be interpreted as unexplainable, chaotic genetic patchiness. However, kinship levels differ significantly among sites (pseudo-F16,988 = 1.39, P = 0.001), and ten of 17 sample sites have significantly greater numbers of kin than expected by chance (P < 0.05). Moreover, a higher proportion of kin within sites strongly correlates with greater genetic differentiation among sites (Dest_Chao, R2 = 0.66, P < 0.005). Sites with elevated mean kinship were geographically proximate to regions of high upwelling intensity (R2 = 0.41, P = 0.0009). These results indicate that P. interruptus does not maintain a single homogenous population, despite extreme dispersal potential. Instead, these lobsters appear to either have substantial localized recruitment or maintain planktonic larval cohesiveness whereby siblings more likely settle together than disperse across sites. More broadly, our results contribute to a growing number of studies showing that low FST and high family structure across populations can coexist, illuminating the foundations of cryptic genetic patterns and the nature of marine dispersal. PMID:23802550

  11. Suggestibility under Pressure: Theory of Mind, Executive Function, and Suggestibility in Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karpinski, Aryn C.; Scullin, Matthew H.

    2009-01-01

    Eighty preschoolers, ages 3 to 5 years old, completed a 4-phase study in which they experienced a live event and received a pressured, suggestive interview about the event a week later. Children were also administered batteries of theory of mind and executive function tasks, as well as the Video Suggestibility Scale for Children (VSSC), which…

  12. Indian Ocean analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyers, Gary

    1992-01-01

    The background and goals of Indian Ocean thermal sampling are discussed from the perspective of a national project which has research goals relevant to variation of climate in Australia. The critical areas of SST variation are identified. The first goal of thermal sampling at this stage is to develop a climatology of thermal structure in the areas and a description of the annual variation of major currents. The sampling strategy is reviewed. Dense XBT sampling is required to achieve accurate, monthly maps of isotherm-depth because of the high level of noise in the measurements caused by aliasing of small scale variation. In the Indian Ocean ship routes dictate where adequate sampling can be achieved. An efficient sampling rate on available routes is determined based on objective analysis. The statistical structure required for objective analysis is described and compared at 95 locations in the tropical Pacific and 107 in the tropical Indian Oceans. XBT data management and quality control methods at CSIRO are reviewed. Results on the mean and annual variation of temperature and baroclinic structure in the South Equatorial Current and Pacific/Indian Ocean Throughflow are presented for the region between northwest Australia and Java-Timor. The mean relative geostrophic transport (0/400 db) of Throughflow is approximately 5 x 106 m3/sec. A nearly equal volume transport is associated with the reference velocity at 400 db. The Throughflow feeds the South Equatorial Current, which has maximum westward flow in August/September, at the end of the southeasterly Monsoon season. A strong semiannual oscillation in the South Java Current is documented. The results are in good agreement with the Semtner and Chervin (1988) ocean general circulation model. The talk concludes with comments on data inadequacies (insufficient coverage, timeliness) particular to the Indian Ocean and suggestions on the future role that can be played by Data Centers, particularly with regard to quality

  13. 14 CFR 437.77 - Additional safety requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING EXPERIMENTAL PERMITS Safety Requirements § 437.77 Additional safety... solid propellants. The FAA may also require the permittee to conduct additional analyses of the cause...

  14. Vinyl capped addition polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vannucci, Raymond D. (Inventor); Malarik, Diane C. (Inventor); Delvigs, Peter (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    Polyimide resins (PMR) are generally useful where high strength and temperature capabilities are required (at temperatures up to about 700 F). Polyimide resins are particularly useful in applications such as jet engine compressor components, for example, blades, vanes, air seals, air splitters, and engine casing parts. Aromatic vinyl capped addition polyimides are obtained by reacting a diamine, an ester of tetracarboxylic acid, and an aromatic vinyl compound. Low void materials with improved oxidative stability when exposed to 700 F air may be fabricated as fiber reinforced high molecular weight capped polyimide composites. The aromatic vinyl capped polyimides are provided with a more aromatic nature and are more thermally stable than highly aliphatic, norbornenyl-type end-capped polyimides employed in PMR resins. The substitution of aromatic vinyl end-caps for norbornenyl end-caps in addition polyimides results in polymers with improved oxidative stability.

  15. Tackifier for addition polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, J. M.; St.clair, T. L.

    1980-01-01

    A modification to the addition polyimide, LaRC-160, was prepared to improve tack and drape and increase prepeg out-time. The essentially solventless, high viscosity laminating resin is synthesized from low cost liquid monomers. The modified version takes advantage of a reactive, liquid plasticizer which is used in place of solvent and helps solve a major problem of maintaining good prepeg tack and drape, or the ability of the prepeg to adhere to adjacent plies and conform to a desired shape during the lay up process. This alternate solventless approach allows both longer life of the polymer prepeg and the processing of low void laminates. This approach appears to be applicable to all addition polyimide systems.

  16. Electrophilic addition of astatine

    SciTech Connect

    Norseev, Yu.V.; Vasaros, L.; Nhan, D.D.; Huan, N.K.

    1988-03-01

    It has been shown for the first time that astatine is capable of undergoing addition reactions to unsaturated hydrocarbons. A new compound of astatine, viz., ethylene astatohydrin, has been obtained, and its retention numbers of squalane, Apiezon, and tricresyl phosphate have been found. The influence of various factors on the formation of ethylene astatohydrin has been studied. It has been concluded on the basis of the results obtained that the univalent cations of astatine in an acidic medium is protonated hypoastatous acid.

  17. Functional Generalized Additive Models.

    PubMed

    McLean, Mathew W; Hooker, Giles; Staicu, Ana-Maria; Scheipl, Fabian; Ruppert, David

    2014-01-01

    We introduce the functional generalized additive model (FGAM), a novel regression model for association studies between a scalar response and a functional predictor. We model the link-transformed mean response as the integral with respect to t of F{X(t), t} where F(·,·) is an unknown regression function and X(t) is a functional covariate. Rather than having an additive model in a finite number of principal components as in Müller and Yao (2008), our model incorporates the functional predictor directly and thus our model can be viewed as the natural functional extension of generalized additive models. We estimate F(·,·) using tensor-product B-splines with roughness penalties. A pointwise quantile transformation of the functional predictor is also considered to ensure each tensor-product B-spline has observed data on its support. The methods are evaluated using simulated data and their predictive performance is compared with other competing scalar-on-function regression alternatives. We illustrate the usefulness of our approach through an application to brain tractography, where X(t) is a signal from diffusion tensor imaging at position, t, along a tract in the brain. In one example, the response is disease-status (case or control) and in a second example, it is the score on a cognitive test. R code for performing the simulations and fitting the FGAM can be found in supplemental materials available online.

  18. Micromechanical Analyses of Sturzstroms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imre, Bernd; Laue, Jan; Springman, Sarah M.

    2010-05-01

    have been made observable and reproducible within a physical and a distinct element numerical modelling environment (DEM). As link between field evidence gained from the deposits of natural sturzstroms, the physical model within the ETH Geotechnical Drum Centrifuge (Springman et al., 2001) and the numerical model PFC-3D (Cundall and Strack, 1979; Itasca, 2005), serves a deterministic fractal analytical comminution model (Sammis et al., 1987; Steacy and Sammis, 1991). This approach allowed studying the effects of dynamic fragmentation within sturzstroms at true (macro) scale within the distinct element model, by allowing for a micro-mechanical, distinct particle based, and cyclic description of fragmentation at the same time, without losing significant computational efficiency. Theses experiments indicate rock mass and boundary conditions, which allow an alternating fragmenting and dilating dispersive regime to evolve and to be sustained long enough to replicate the spreading and run out of sturzstroms. The fragmenting spreading model supported here is able to explain the run out of a dry granular flow, beyond the travel distance predicted by a Coulomb frictional sliding model, without resorting to explanations by mechanics that can only be valid for certain, specific of the boundary conditions. The implications derived suggest that a sturzstrom, because of its strong relation to internal fractal fragmentation and other inertial effects, constitutes a landslide category of its own. Its mechanics differ significantly from all other gravity driven mass flows. This proposition does not exclude the possible appearance of frictionites, Toma hills or suspension flows etc., but it considers them as secondary features. The application of a fractal comminution model to describe natural and experimental sturzstrom deposits turned out to be a useful tool for sturzstrom research. Implemented within the DEM, it allows simulating the key features of sturzstrom successfully and

  19. Micromechanical Analyses of Sturzstroms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imre, Bernd; Laue, Jan; Springman, Sarah M.

    2010-05-01

    have been made observable and reproducible within a physical and a distinct element numerical modelling environment (DEM). As link between field evidence gained from the deposits of natural sturzstroms, the physical model within the ETH Geotechnical Drum Centrifuge (Springman et al., 2001) and the numerical model PFC-3D (Cundall and Strack, 1979; Itasca, 2005), serves a deterministic fractal analytical comminution model (Sammis et al., 1987; Steacy and Sammis, 1991). This approach allowed studying the effects of dynamic fragmentation within sturzstroms at true (macro) scale within the distinct element model, by allowing for a micro-mechanical, distinct particle based, and cyclic description of fragmentation at the same time, without losing significant computational efficiency. Theses experiments indicate rock mass and boundary conditions, which allow an alternating fragmenting and dilating dispersive regime to evolve and to be sustained long enough to replicate the spreading and run out of sturzstroms. The fragmenting spreading model supported here is able to explain the run out of a dry granular flow, beyond the travel distance predicted by a Coulomb frictional sliding model, without resorting to explanations by mechanics that can only be valid for certain, specific of the boundary conditions. The implications derived suggest that a sturzstrom, because of its strong relation to internal fractal fragmentation and other inertial effects, constitutes a landslide category of its own. Its mechanics differ significantly from all other gravity driven mass flows. This proposition does not exclude the possible appearance of frictionites, Toma hills or suspension flows etc., but it considers them as secondary features. The application of a fractal comminution model to describe natural and experimental sturzstrom deposits turned out to be a useful tool for sturzstrom research. Implemented within the DEM, it allows simulating the key features of sturzstrom successfully and

  20. Imprecise probabilities in engineering analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beer, Michael; Ferson, Scott; Kreinovich, Vladik

    2013-05-01

    Probabilistic uncertainty and imprecision in structural parameters and in environmental conditions and loads are challenging phenomena in engineering analyses. They require appropriate mathematical modeling and quantification to obtain realistic results when predicting the behavior and reliability of engineering structures and systems. But the modeling and quantification is complicated by the characteristics of the available information, which involves, for example, sparse data, poor measurements and subjective information. This raises the question whether the available information is sufficient for probabilistic modeling or rather suggests a set-theoretical approach. The framework of imprecise probabilities provides a mathematical basis to deal with these problems which involve both probabilistic and non-probabilistic information. A common feature of the various concepts of imprecise probabilities is the consideration of an entire set of probabilistic models in one analysis. The theoretical differences between the concepts mainly concern the mathematical description of the set of probabilistic models and the connection to the probabilistic models involved. This paper provides an overview on developments which involve imprecise probabilities for the solution of engineering problems. Evidence theory, probability bounds analysis with p-boxes, and fuzzy probabilities are discussed with emphasis on their key features and on their relationships to one another. This paper was especially prepared for this special issue and reflects, in various ways, the thinking and presentation preferences of the authors, who are also the guest editors for this special issue.

  1. Network analyses in systems pharmacology

    PubMed Central

    Berger, Seth I.; Iyengar, Ravi

    2009-01-01

    Systems pharmacology is an emerging area of pharmacology which utilizes network analysis of drug action as one of its approaches. By considering drug actions and side effects in the context of the regulatory networks within which the drug targets and disease gene products function, network analysis promises to greatly increase our knowledge of the mechanisms underlying the multiple actions of drugs. Systems pharmacology can provide new approaches for drug discovery for complex diseases. The integrated approach used in systems pharmacology can allow for drug action to be considered in the context of the whole genome. Network-based studies are becoming an increasingly important tool in understanding the relationships between drug action and disease susceptibility genes. This review discusses how analysis of biological networks has contributed to the genesis of systems pharmacology and how these studies have improved global understanding of drug targets, suggested new targets and approaches for therapeutics, and provided a deeper understanding of the effects of drugs. Taken together, these types of analyses can lead to new therapeutic options while improving the safety and efficacy of existing medications. Contact: ravi.iyengar@mssm.edu PMID:19648136

  2. 'It's still bending': verbal suggestion and alleged psychokinetic ability.

    PubMed

    Wiseman, Richard; Greening, Emma

    2005-02-01

    Some alleged psychics appear to be able to deform metallic objects, such as keys and cutlery, by thought alone. This paper describes two studies that examined whether one aspect of these demonstrations could be created by verbal suggestion. In the first study, participants were shown a videotape in which a fake psychic placed a bent key on a table. Participants in one condition heard the fake psychic suggest that the key was continuing to bend, whilst those in the other condition did not. Participants in the suggestion condition were significantly more likely to report that the key continued to bend. These findings were replicated in the second study. In addition, participants who reported that the key continued to bend displayed a significantly higher level of confidence in their testimony than others, and were significantly less likely to recall that the fake psychic had suggested the continued bending of the key. Neither experiment revealed any differences between participants who expressed a prior belief in the paranormal compared with those who did not. The paper discusses the implications of these results for the psychology of suggestion and the assessment of eyewitness testimony for anomalous events.

  3. 'It's still bending': verbal suggestion and alleged psychokinetic ability.

    PubMed

    Wiseman, Richard; Greening, Emma

    2005-02-01

    Some alleged psychics appear to be able to deform metallic objects, such as keys and cutlery, by thought alone. This paper describes two studies that examined whether one aspect of these demonstrations could be created by verbal suggestion. In the first study, participants were shown a videotape in which a fake psychic placed a bent key on a table. Participants in one condition heard the fake psychic suggest that the key was continuing to bend, whilst those in the other condition did not. Participants in the suggestion condition were significantly more likely to report that the key continued to bend. These findings were replicated in the second study. In addition, participants who reported that the key continued to bend displayed a significantly higher level of confidence in their testimony than others, and were significantly less likely to recall that the fake psychic had suggested the continued bending of the key. Neither experiment revealed any differences between participants who expressed a prior belief in the paranormal compared with those who did not. The paper discusses the implications of these results for the psychology of suggestion and the assessment of eyewitness testimony for anomalous events. PMID:15826327

  4. Classification of additives for organic photovoltaic devices.

    PubMed

    Machui, Florian; Maisch, Philipp; Burgués-Ceballos, Ignasi; Langner, Stefan; Krantz, Johannes; Ameri, Tayebeh; Brabec, Christoph J

    2015-04-27

    The use of additives to improve the performance of organic photovoltaic cells has been intensely researched in recent years. However, so far, no system has been reported for the classification of additives and their functions. In this report, a system for classifying additives according to the fundamental mechanism by which they influence microstructure formation for P3HT:PCBM is suggested. The major parameters used for their classification are solubility and drying kinetics. Both are discussed in detail and their consequences on processing are analyzed. Furthermore, a general mechanism to classify the impact of additives on structure formation is suggested and discussed for different materials relevant to organic photovoltaic devices.

  5. Improved Phylogenetic Analyses Corroborate a Plausible Position of Martialis heureka in the Ant Tree of Life

    PubMed Central

    Kück, Patrick; Hita Garcia, Francisco; Misof, Bernhard; Meusemann, Karen

    2011-01-01

    Martialinae are pale, eyeless and probably hypogaeic predatory ants. Morphological character sets suggest a close relationship to the ant subfamily Leptanillinae. Recent analyses based on molecular sequence data suggest that Martialinae are the sister group to all extant ants. However, by comparing molecular studies and different reconstruction methods, the position of Martialinae remains ambiguous. While this sister group relationship was well supported by Bayesian partitioned analyses, Maximum Likelihood approaches could not unequivocally resolve the position of Martialinae. By re-analysing a previous published molecular data set, we show that the Maximum Likelihood approach is highly appropriate to resolve deep ant relationships, especially between Leptanillinae, Martialinae and the remaining ant subfamilies. Based on improved alignments, alignment masking, and tree reconstructions with a sufficient number of bootstrap replicates, our results strongly reject a placement of Martialinae at the first split within the ant tree of life. Instead, we suggest that Leptanillinae are a sister group to all other extant ant subfamilies, whereas Martialinae branch off as a second lineage. This assumption is backed by approximately unbiased (AU) tests, additional Bayesian analyses and split networks. Our results demonstrate clear effects of improved alignment approaches, alignment masking and data partitioning. We hope that our study illustrates the importance of thorough, comprehensible phylogenetic analyses using the example of ant relationships. PMID:21731644

  6. Improved phylogenetic analyses corroborate a plausible position of Martialis heureka in the ant tree of life.

    PubMed

    Kück, Patrick; Hita Garcia, Francisco; Misof, Bernhard; Meusemann, Karen

    2011-01-01

    Martialinae are pale, eyeless and probably hypogaeic predatory ants. Morphological character sets suggest a close relationship to the ant subfamily Leptanillinae. Recent analyses based on molecular sequence data suggest that Martialinae are the sister group to all extant ants. However, by comparing molecular studies and different reconstruction methods, the position of Martialinae remains ambiguous. While this sister group relationship was well supported by Bayesian partitioned analyses, Maximum Likelihood approaches could not unequivocally resolve the position of Martialinae. By re-analysing a previous published molecular data set, we show that the Maximum Likelihood approach is highly appropriate to resolve deep ant relationships, especially between Leptanillinae, Martialinae and the remaining ant subfamilies. Based on improved alignments, alignment masking, and tree reconstructions with a sufficient number of bootstrap replicates, our results strongly reject a placement of Martialinae at the first split within the ant tree of life. Instead, we suggest that Leptanillinae are a sister group to all other extant ant subfamilies, whereas Martialinae branch off as a second lineage. This assumption is backed by approximately unbiased (AU) tests, additional Bayesian analyses and split networks. Our results demonstrate clear effects of improved alignment approaches, alignment masking and data partitioning. We hope that our study illustrates the importance of thorough, comprehensible phylogenetic analyses using the example of ant relationships.

  7. Known and suggested quaternary faulting in the midcontinent United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wheeler, R.L.; Crone, A.J.

    2001-01-01

    The midcontinent United States between the Appalachian and Rocky Mountains contains 40 known faults or other potentially tectonic features for which published geologic information shows or suggests Quaternary tectonic faulting. We report results of a systematic evaluation of published and other publicly available geologic evidence of Quaternary faulting. These results benefit seismic-hazard assessments by (1) providing some constraints on the recurrence intervals and magnitudes of large, prehistoric earthquakes, and (2) identifying features that warrant additional study. For some features, suggested Quaternary tectonic faulting has been disproved, whereas, for others, the suggested faulting remains questionable. Of the 40 features, nine have clear geologic evidence of Quaternary tectonic faulting associated with prehistoric earthquakes, and another six features have evidence of nontectonic origins. An additional 12 faults, uplifts, or historical seismic zones lack reported paleoseismological evidence of large. Quaternary earthquakes. The remaining 13 features require further paleoseismological study to determine if they have had Quaternary earthquakes that were larger than any known from local historical records; seven of these 13 features are in or near urbanized areas where their study could affect urban hazard estimates. These seven are: (1) the belt of normal faults that rings the Gulf of Mexico from Florida to Texas. (2) the Northeast Ohio seismic zone, (3) the Valmont and (4) Goodpasture faults of Colorado. (5) the Champlain lowlands normal faults of New York State and Vermont, and (6) the Lexington and (7) Kentucky River fault systems of eastern Kentucky. Published by Elsevier Science B.V.

  8. Health Workforce Planning: An overview and suggested approach in Oman.

    PubMed

    Al-Sawai, Abdulaziz; Al-Shishtawy, Moeness M

    2015-02-01

    In most countries, the lack of explicit health workforce planning has resulted in imbalances that threaten the capacity of healthcare systems to attain their objectives. This has directed attention towards the prospect of developing healthcare systems that are more responsive to the needs and expectations of the population by providing health planners with a systematic method to effectively manage human resources in this sector. This review analyses various approaches to health workforce planning and presents the Six-Step Methodology to Integrated Workforce Planning which highlights essential elements in workforce planning to ensure the quality of services. The purpose, scope and ownership of the approach is defined. Furthermore, developing an action plan for managing a health workforce is emphasised and a reviewing and monitoring process to guide corrective actions is suggested.

  9. Performance Boosting Additive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Mainstream Engineering Corporation was awarded Phase I and Phase II contracts from Goddard Space Flight Center's Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program in early 1990. With support from the SBIR program, Mainstream Engineering Corporation has developed a unique low cost additive, QwikBoost (TM), that increases the performance of air conditioners, heat pumps, refrigerators, and freezers. Because of the energy and environmental benefits of QwikBoost, Mainstream received the Tibbetts Award at a White House Ceremony on October 16, 1997. QwikBoost was introduced at the 1998 International Air Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration Exposition. QwikBoost is packaged in a handy 3-ounce can (pressurized with R-134a) and will be available for automotive air conditioning systems in summer 1998.

  10. Sewage sludge additive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalvinskas, J. J.; Mueller, W. A.; Ingham, J. D. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    The additive is for a raw sewage treatment process of the type where settling tanks are used for the purpose of permitting the suspended matter in the raw sewage to be settled as well as to permit adsorption of the dissolved contaminants in the water of the sewage. The sludge, which settles down to the bottom of the settling tank is extracted, pyrolyzed and activated to form activated carbon and ash which is mixed with the sewage prior to its introduction into the settling tank. The sludge does not provide all of the activated carbon and ash required for adequate treatment of the raw sewage. It is necessary to add carbon to the process and instead of expensive commercial carbon, coal is used to provide the carbon supplement.

  11. Perspectives on Additive Manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourell, David L.

    2016-07-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) has skyrocketed in visibility commercially and in the public sector. This article describes the development of this field from early layered manufacturing approaches of photosculpture, topography, and material deposition. Certain precursors to modern AM processes are also briefly described. The growth of the field over the last 30 years is presented. Included is the standard delineation of AM technologies into seven broad categories. The economics of AM part generation is considered, and the impacts of the economics on application sectors are described. On the basis of current trends, the future outlook will include a convergence of AM fabricators, mass-produced AM fabricators, enabling of topology optimization designs, and specialization in the AM legal arena. Long-term developments with huge impact are organ printing and volume-based printing.

  12. Sarks as additional fermions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agrawal, Jyoti; Frampton, Paul H.; Jack Ng, Y.; Nishino, Hitoshi; Yasuda, Osamu

    1991-03-01

    An extension of the standard model is proposed. The gauge group is SU(2) X ⊗ SU(3) C ⊗ SU(2) S ⊗ U(1) Q, where all gauge symmetries are unbroken. The colour and electric charge are combined with SU(2) S which becomes strongly coupled at approximately 500 GeV and binds preons to form fermionic and vector bound states. The usual quarks and leptons are singlets under SU(2) X but additional fermions, called sarks. transform under it and the electroweak group. The present model explains why no more than three light quark-lepton families can exist. Neutral sark baryons, called narks, are candidates for the cosmological dark matter having the characteristics designed for WIMPS. Further phenomenological implications of sarks are analyzed i including electron-positron annihilation. Z 0 decay, flavor-changing neutral currents. baryon-number non-conservation, sarkonium and the neutron electric dipole moment.

  13. NOx analyser interefence from alkenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bloss, W. J.; Alam, M. S.; Lee, J. D.; Vazquez, M.; Munoz, A.; Rodenas, M.

    2012-04-01

    Nitrogen oxides (NO and NO2, collectively NOx) are critical intermediates in atmospheric chemistry. NOx abundance controls the levels of the primary atmospheric oxidants OH, NO3 and O3, and regulates the ozone production which results from the degradation of volatile organic compounds. NOx are also atmospheric pollutants in their own right, and NO2 is commonly included in air quality objectives and regulations. In addition to their role in controlling ozone formation, NOx levels affect the production of other pollutants such as the lachrymator PAN, and the nitrate component of secondary aerosol particles. Consequently, accurate measurement of nitrogen oxides in the atmosphere is of major importance for understanding our atmosphere. The most widely employed approach for the measurement of NOx is chemiluminescent detection of NO2* from the NO + O3 reaction, combined with NO2 reduction by either a heated catalyst or photoconvertor. The reaction between alkenes and ozone is also chemiluminescent; therefore alkenes may contribute to the measured NOx signal, depending upon the instrumental background subtraction cycle employed. This interference has been noted previously, and indeed the effect has been used to measure both alkenes and ozone in the atmosphere. Here we report the results of a systematic investigation of the response of a selection of NOx analysers, ranging from systems used for routine air quality monitoring to atmospheric research instrumentation, to a series of alkenes ranging from ethene to the biogenic monoterpenes, as a function of conditions (co-reactants, humidity). Experiments were performed in the European Photoreactor (EUPHORE) to ensure common calibration, a common sample for the monitors, and to unequivocally confirm the alkene (via FTIR) and NO2 (via DOAS) levels present. The instrument responses ranged from negligible levels up to 10 % depending upon the alkene present and conditions used. Such interferences may be of substantial importance

  14. Additive lattice kirigami

    PubMed Central

    Castle, Toen; Sussman, Daniel M.; Tanis, Michael; Kamien, Randall D.

    2016-01-01

    Kirigami uses bending, folding, cutting, and pasting to create complex three-dimensional (3D) structures from a flat sheet. In the case of lattice kirigami, this cutting and rejoining introduces defects into an underlying 2D lattice in the form of points of nonzero Gaussian curvature. A set of simple rules was previously used to generate a wide variety of stepped structures; we now pare back these rules to their minimum. This allows us to describe a set of techniques that unify a wide variety of cut-and-paste actions under the rubric of lattice kirigami, including adding new material and rejoining material across arbitrary cuts in the sheet. We also explore the use of more complex lattices and the different structures that consequently arise. Regardless of the choice of lattice, creating complex structures may require multiple overlapping kirigami cuts, where subsequent cuts are not performed on a locally flat lattice. Our additive kirigami method describes such cuts, providing a simple methodology and a set of techniques to build a huge variety of complex 3D shapes. PMID:27679822

  15. Additive lattice kirigami

    PubMed Central

    Castle, Toen; Sussman, Daniel M.; Tanis, Michael; Kamien, Randall D.

    2016-01-01

    Kirigami uses bending, folding, cutting, and pasting to create complex three-dimensional (3D) structures from a flat sheet. In the case of lattice kirigami, this cutting and rejoining introduces defects into an underlying 2D lattice in the form of points of nonzero Gaussian curvature. A set of simple rules was previously used to generate a wide variety of stepped structures; we now pare back these rules to their minimum. This allows us to describe a set of techniques that unify a wide variety of cut-and-paste actions under the rubric of lattice kirigami, including adding new material and rejoining material across arbitrary cuts in the sheet. We also explore the use of more complex lattices and the different structures that consequently arise. Regardless of the choice of lattice, creating complex structures may require multiple overlapping kirigami cuts, where subsequent cuts are not performed on a locally flat lattice. Our additive kirigami method describes such cuts, providing a simple methodology and a set of techniques to build a huge variety of complex 3D shapes.

  16. Nuclear localization of DMP1 proteins suggests a role in intracellular signaling.

    PubMed

    Siyam, Arwa; Wang, Suzhen; Qin, Chunlin; Mues, Gabriele; Stevens, Roy; D'Souza, Rena N; Lu, Yongbo

    2012-08-01

    Dentin matrix protein 1 (DMP1) is highly expressed in odontoblasts and osteoblasts/osteocytes and plays an essential role in tooth and bone mineralization and phosphate homeostasis. It is debatable whether DMP1, in addition to its function in the extracellular matrix, can enter the nucleus and function as a transcription factor. To better understand its function, we examined the nuclear localization of endogenous and exogenous DMP1 in C3H10T1/2 mesenchymal cells, MC3T3-E1 preosteoblast cells and 17IIA11 odontoblast-like cells. RT-PCR analyses showed the expression of endogenous Dmp1 in all three cell lines, while Western-blot analysis detected a major DMP1 protein band corresponding to the 57 kDa C-terminal fragment generated by proteolytic processing of the secreted full-length DMP1. Immunofluorescent staining demonstrated that non-synchronized cells presented two subpopulations with either nuclear or cytoplasmic localization of endogenous DMP1. In addition, cells transfected with a construct expressing HA-tagged full-length DMP1 also showed either nuclear or cytoplasmic localization of the exogenous DMP1 when examined with an antibody against the HA tag. Furthermore, nuclear DMP1 was restricted to the nucleoplasm but was absent in the nucleolus. In conclusion, these findings suggest that, apart from its role as a constituent of dentin and bone matrix, DMP1 might play a regulatory role in the nucleus.

  17. Nuclear Localization of DMP1 Proteins Suggests a Role in Intracellular Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Siyam, Arwa; Wang, Suzhen; Qin, Chunlin; Mues, Gabriele; Stevens, Roy; D’Souza, Rena N.; Lu, Yongbo

    2012-01-01

    Dentin matrix protein 1 (DMP1) is highly expressed in odontoblasts and osteoblasts/osteocytes and plays an essential role in tooth and bone mineralization and phosphate homeostasis. It is debatable whether DMP1, in addition to its function in the extracellular matrix, can enter the nucleus and function as a transcription factor. To better understand its function, we examined the nuclear localization of endogenous and exogenous DMP1 in C3H10T1/2 mesenchymal cells, MC3T3-E1 preosteoblast cells and 17IIA11 odontoblast-like cells. RT-PCR analyses showed the expression of endogenous Dmp1 in all three cell lines, while Western-blot analysis detected a major DMP1 protein band corresponding to the 57 kDa C-terminal fragment generated by proteolytic processing of the secreted full-length DMP1. Immunofluorescent staining demonstrated that non-synchronized cells presented two subpopulations with either nuclear or cytoplasmic localization of endogenous DMP1. In addition, cells transfected with a construct expressing HA-tagged full-length DMP1 also showed either nuclear or cytoplasmic localization of the exogenous DMP1 when examined with an antibody against the HA tag. Furthermore, nuclear DMP1 was restricted to the nucleoplasm but was absent in the nucleolus. In conclusion, these findings suggest that, apart from its role as a constituent of dentin and bone matrix, DMP1 might play a regulatory role in the nucleus. PMID:22813642

  18. EEO Implications of Job Analyses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lacy, D. Patrick, Jr.

    1979-01-01

    Discusses job analyses as they relate to the requirements of Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Equal Pay Act of 1963, and the Rehabilitation Act of 1973. Argues that job analyses can establish the job-relatedness of entrance requirements and aid in defenses against charges of discrimination. Journal availability: see EA 511 615.

  19. Dissociation between exact and approximate addition in developmental dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiujie; Meng, Xiangzhi

    2016-09-01

    Previous research has suggested that number sense and language are involved in number representation and calculation, in which number sense supports approximate arithmetic, and language permits exact enumeration and calculation. Meanwhile, individuals with dyslexia have a core deficit in phonological processing. Based on these findings, we thus hypothesized that children with dyslexia may exhibit exact calculation impairment while doing mental arithmetic. The reaction time and accuracy while doing exact and approximate addition with symbolic Arabic digits and non-symbolic visual arrays of dots were compared between typically developing children and children with dyslexia. Reaction time analyses did not reveal any differences across two groups of children, the accuracies, interestingly, revealed a distinction of approximation and exact addition across two groups of children. Specifically, two groups of children had no differences in approximation. Children with dyslexia, however, had significantly lower accuracy in exact addition in both symbolic and non-symbolic tasks than that of typically developing children. Moreover, linguistic performances were selectively associated with exact calculation across individuals. These results suggested that children with dyslexia have a mental arithmetic deficit specifically in the realm of exact calculation, while their approximation ability is relatively intact. PMID:27310366

  20. Children's Memory for Their Mother's Murder: Accuracy, Suggestibility, and Resistance to Suggestion.

    PubMed

    McWilliams, Kelly; Narr, Rachel; Goodman, Gail S; Ruiz, Sandra; Mendoza, Macaria

    2013-01-31

    From its inception, child eyewitness memory research has been guided by dramatic legal cases that turn on the testimony of children. Decades of scientific research reveal that, under many conditions, children can provide veracious accounts of traumatic experiences. Scientific studies also document factors that lead children to make false statements. In this paper we describe a legal case in which children testified about their mother's murder. We discuss factors that may have influenced the accuracy of the children's eyewitness memory. Children's suggestibility and resistance to suggestion are illustrated. Expert testimony, based on scientific research, can aid the trier of fact when children provide crucial evidence in criminal investigations and courtroom trials about tragic events. PMID:23362807

  1. Identification, Expression, and Evolutionary Analyses of Plant Lipocalins1[W

    PubMed Central

    Frenette Charron, Jean-Benoit; Ouellet, François; Pelletier, Mélanie; Danyluk, Jean; Chauve, Cédric; Sarhan, Fathey

    2005-01-01

    Lipocalins are a group of proteins that have been characterized in bacteria, invertebrate, and vertebrate animals. However, very little is known about plant lipocalins. We have previously reported the cloning of the first true plant lipocalins. Here we report the identification and characterization of plant lipocalins and lipocalin-like proteins using an integrated approach of data mining, expression studies, cellular localization, and phylogenetic analyses. Plant lipocalins can be classified into two groups, temperature-induced lipocalins (TILs) and chloroplastic lipocalins (CHLs). In addition, violaxanthin de-epoxidases (VDEs) and zeaxanthin epoxidases (ZEPs) can be classified as lipocalin-like proteins. CHLs, VDEs, and ZEPs possess transit peptides that target them to the chloroplast. On the other hand, TILs do not show any targeting peptide, but localization studies revealed that the proteins are found at the plasma membrane. Expression analyses by quantitative real-time PCR showed that expression of the wheat (Triticum aestivum) lipocalins and lipocalin-like proteins is associated with abiotic stress response and is correlated with the plant's capacity to develop freezing tolerance. In support of this correlation, data mining revealed that lipocalins are present in the desiccation-tolerant red algae Porphyra yezoensis and the cryotolerant marine yeast Debaryomyces hansenii, suggesting a possible association with stress-tolerant organisms. Considering the plant lipocalin properties, tissue specificity, response to temperature stress, and their association with chloroplasts and plasma membranes of green leaves, we hypothesize a protective function of the photosynthetic system against temperature stress. Phylogenetic analyses suggest that TIL lipocalin members in higher plants were probably inherited from a bacterial gene present in a primitive unicellular eukaryote. On the other hand, CHLs, VDEs, and ZEPs may have evolved from a cyanobacterial ancestral gene

  2. Feed analyses and their interpretation.

    PubMed

    Hall, Mary Beth

    2014-11-01

    Compositional analysis is central to determining the nutritional value of feedstuffs for use in ration formulation. The utility of the values and how they should be used depends on how representative the feed subsample is, the nutritional relevance and analytical variability of the assays, and whether an analysis is suitable to be applied to a particular feedstuff. Commercial analyses presently available for carbohydrates, protein, and fats have improved nutritionally pertinent description of feed fractions. Factors affecting interpretation of feed analyses and the nutritional relevance and application of currently available analyses are discussed.

  3. Enhancement of ethylenethiourea recoveries in food analyses by addition of cysteine hydrochloride.

    PubMed

    Sack, C A

    1995-01-01

    The effectiveness of cysteine hydrochloride (Cys-HCl) as a preservative of ethylenethiourea (ETU) in product matrixes and during analysis was studied. ETU recoveries were adversely affected by certain product matrixes when fortified directly into the product. Recoveries in 8 selected food items were 0-92% when analyzed 30 min after fortification and 0-51% when analyzed after 24 h. When Cys-HCl was added to product prior to fortification, recoveries increased to 71-95% even after frozen storage for 2-4 weeks. Cys-HCl was added during analysis of 53 untreated items. Recoveries improved an average of 15% with Cys-HCl. Without Cys-HCl, recoveries were erratic (20-98%), but with Cys-HCl, recoveries were 68-113%. Other antioxidants (sodium sulfite, butylated hydroxyanisole, butylated hydroxytoluene, and vitamins A and C) also were evaluated as ETU preservatives. When lettuce was treated first with sodium sulfite and then fortified with ETU, recoveries averaged 86%; without sodium sulfite, they averaged 1%. The other antioxidants were less effective for preserving ETU in lettuce, giving only 8-46% recoveries. The effect of oxidizers (potassium bromate, sodium hypochlorite, and hydrogen peroxide) on ETU recovery was also determined. Recovery of ETU from a baby food product (pears and pineapple) was 82%; with oxidizers, recoveries were 0-8%.

  4. Assessment of the impact of scheduled postmarketing safety summary analyses on regulatory actions.

    PubMed

    Sekine, S; Pinnow, E E; Wu, E; Kurtzig, R; Hall, M; Dal Pan, G J

    2016-07-01

    In addition to standard postmarketing drug safety monitoring, Section 915 of the Food and Drug Administration Amendments Act of 2007 (FDAAA) requires the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to conduct a summary analysis of adverse event reports to identify risks of a drug or biologic product 18 months after product approval, or after 10,000 patients have used the product, whichever is later. We assessed the extent to which these analyses identified new safety signals and resultant safety-related label changes. Among 458 newly approved products, 300 were the subjects of a scheduled analysis; a new safety signal that resulted in a safety-related label change was found for 11 of these products. Less than 2% of 713 safety-related label changes were based on the scheduled analyses. Our study suggests that the safety summary analyses provide only marginal value over other pharmacovigilance activities.

  5. Eye injury in migrant farm workers and suggested hazard controls.

    PubMed

    Lacey, S E; Forst, L S; Petrea, R E; Conroy, L M

    2007-07-01

    The eyes are a common site of injury in agricultural operations. Identification of the cause of injury is important to inform preventive interventions. The objective of this study was to describe the hazards and mechanisms of acute traumatic injury to the eyes of agricultural workers who are hired in farming operations on a seasonal basis. A review of the literature was performed to summarize the mechanisms of eye injuries in agriculture. Field observations and informal interviews were performed to verify the literature and to determine whether there are eye hazards for farm workers that have not been reported in the literature. Additional mechanisms of injury were elicited, and suggested methods of injury prevention are presented here. PMID:17892069

  6. Recombination events suggest potential sites for the Huntington's disease gene.

    PubMed

    MacDonald, M E; Haines, J L; Zimmer, M; Cheng, S V; Youngman, S; Whaley, W L; Wexler, N; Bucan, M; Allitto, B A; Smith, B

    1989-08-01

    The Huntington's disease gene (HD) maps distal to the D4S10 marker in the terminal 4p16.3 subband of chromosome 4. Directed cloning has provided several DNA segments that have been grouped into three clusters on a physical map of approximately 5 X 10(6) bp in 4p16.3. We have typed RFLPs in both reference and HD pedigrees to produce a fine-structure genetic map that establishes the relative order of the clusters and further narrows the target area containing the HD gene. Despite the large number of meiotic events examined, the HD gene cannot be positioned relative to the most distal cluster. One recombination event with HD suggests that the terminal-most markers flank the disease gene; two others favor a telomeric location for the defect. Efforts to isolate the HD gene must be divided between these two distinct intervals until additional genetic data resolve the apparent contradiction in localization.

  7. Thyroid disrupting chemicals in plastic additives and thyroid health.

    PubMed

    Andra, Syam S; Makris, Konstantinos C

    2012-01-01

    The globally escalating thyroid nodule incidence rates may be only partially ascribed to better diagnostics, allowing for the assessment of environmental risk factors on thyroid disease. Endocrine disruptors or thyroid-disrupting chemicals (TDC) like bisphenol A, phthalates, and polybrominated diphenyl ethers are widely used as plastic additives in consumer products. This comprehensive review studied the magnitude and uncertainty of TDC exposures and their effects on thyroid hormones for sensitive subpopulation groups like pregnant women, infants, and children. Our findings qualitatively suggest the mixed, significant (α = 0.05) TDC associations with natural thyroid hormones (positive or negative sign). Future studies should undertake systematic meta-analyses to elucidate pooled TDC effect estimates on thyroid health indicators and outcomes. PMID:22690712

  8. Training Residential Staff to Conduct Trial-Based Functional Analyses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert, Joseph M.; Bloom, Sarah E.; Kunnavatana, S. Shanun; Collins, Shawnee D.; Clay, Casey J.

    2013-01-01

    We taught 6 supervisors of a residential service provider for adults with developmental disabilities to train 9 house managers to conduct trial-based functional analyses. Effects of the training were evaluated with a nonconcurrent multiple baseline. Results suggest that house managers can be trained to conduct trial-based functional analyses with…

  9. Neuronal network analyses: premises, promises and uncertainties

    PubMed Central

    Parker, David

    2010-01-01

    Neuronal networks assemble the cellular components needed for sensory, motor and cognitive functions. Any rational intervention in the nervous system will thus require an understanding of network function. Obtaining this understanding is widely considered to be one of the major tasks facing neuroscience today. Network analyses have been performed for some years in relatively simple systems. In addition to the direct insights these systems have provided, they also illustrate some of the difficulties of understanding network function. Nevertheless, in more complex systems (including human), claims are made that the cellular bases of behaviour are, or will shortly be, understood. While the discussion is necessarily limited, this issue will examine these claims and highlight some traditional and novel aspects of network analyses and their difficulties. This introduction discusses the criteria that need to be satisfied for network understanding, and how they relate to traditional and novel approaches being applied to addressing network function. PMID:20603354

  10. Consumer brand choice: individual and group analyses of demand elasticity.

    PubMed

    Oliveira-Castro, Jorge M; Foxall, Gordon R; Schrezenmaier, Teresa C

    2006-03-01

    Following the behavior-analytic tradition of analyzing individual behavior, the present research investigated demand elasticity of individual consumers purchasing supermarket products, and compared individual and group analyses of elasticity. Panel data from 80 UK consumers purchasing 9 product categories (i.e., baked beans, biscuits, breakfast cereals, butter, cheese, fruit juice, instant coffee, margarine and tea) during a 16-week period were used. Elasticity coefficients were calculated for individual consumers with data from all or only 1 product category (intra-consumer elasticities), and for each product category using all data points from all consumers (overall product elasticity) or 1 average data point per consumer (interconsumer elasticity). In addition to this, split-sample elasticity coefficients were obtained for each individual with data from all product categories purchased during weeks 1 to 8 and 9 to 16. The results suggest that: 1) demand elasticity coefficients calculated for individual consumers purchasing supermarket food products are compatible with predictions from economic theory and behavioral economics; 2) overall product elasticities, typically employed in marketing and econometric research, include effects of interconsumer and intraconsumer elasticities; 3) when comparing demand elasticities of different product categories, group and individual analyses yield similar trends; and 4) individual differences in demand elasticity are relatively consistent across time, but do not seem to be consistent across products. These results demonstrate the theoretical, methodological, and managerial relevance of investigating the behavior of individual consumers.

  11. Space sickness predictors suggest fluid shift involvement and possible countermeasures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simanonok, K. E.; Moseley, E. C.; Charles, J. B.

    1992-01-01

    Preflight data from 64 first time Shuttle crew members were examined retrospectively to predict space sickness severity (NONE, MILD, MODERATE, or SEVERE) by discriminant analysis. From 9 input variables relating to fluid, electrolyte, and cardiovascular status, 8 variables were chosen by discriminant analysis that correctly predicted space sickness severity with 59 pct. success by one method of cross validation on the original sample and 67 pct. by another method. The 8 variables in order of their importance for predicting space sickness severity are sitting systolic blood pressure, serum uric acid, calculated blood volume, serum phosphate, urine osmolality, environmental temperature at the launch site, red cell count, and serum chloride. These results suggest the presence of predisposing physiologic factors to space sickness that implicate a fluid shift etiology. Addition of a 10th input variable, hours spent in the Weightless Environment Training Facility (WETF), improved the prediction of space sickness severity to 66 pct. success by the first method of cross validation on the original sample and to 71 pct. by the second method. The data suggest that WETF training may reduce space sickness severity.

  12. Pawnee Nation Energy Option Analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Matlock, M.; Kersey, K.; Riding In, C.

    2009-07-21

    Pawnee Nation of Oklahoma Energy Option Analyses In 2003, the Pawnee Nation leadership identified the need for the tribe to comprehensively address its energy issues. During a strategic energy planning workshop a general framework was laid out and the Pawnee Nation Energy Task Force was created to work toward further development of the tribe’s energy vision. The overarching goals of the “first steps” project were to identify the most appropriate focus for its strategic energy initiatives going forward, and to provide information necessary to take the next steps in pursuit of the “best fit” energy options. Description of Activities Performed The research team reviewed existing data pertaining to the availability of biomass (focusing on woody biomass, agricultural biomass/bio-energy crops, and methane capture), solar, wind and hydropower resources on the Pawnee-owned lands. Using these data, combined with assumptions about costs and revenue streams, the research team performed preliminary feasibility assessments for each resource category. The research team also reviewed available funding resources and made recommendations to Pawnee Nation highlighting those resources with the greatest potential for financially-viable development, both in the near-term and over a longer time horizon. Findings and Recommendations Due to a lack of financial incentives for renewable energy, particularly at the state level, combined mediocre renewable energy resources, renewable energy development opportunities are limited for Pawnee Nation. However, near-term potential exists for development of solar hot water at the gym, and an exterior wood-fired boiler system at the tribe’s main administrative building. Pawnee Nation should also explore options for developing LFGTE resources in collaboration with the City of Pawnee. Significant potential may also exist for development of bio-energy resources within the next decade. Pawnee Nation representatives should closely monitor

  13. Local analyses of Planck maps with Minkowski functionals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novaes, C. P.; Bernui, A.; Marques, G. A.; Ferreira, I. S.

    2016-09-01

    Minkowski functionals (MF) are excellent tools to investigate the statistical properties of the cosmic background radiation (CMB) maps. Between their notorious advantages is the possibility to use them efficiently in patches of the CMB sphere, which allow studies in masked skies, inclusive analyses of small sky regions. Then, possible deviations from Gaussianity are investigated by comparison with MF obtained from a set of Gaussian isotropic simulated CMB maps to which are applied the same cut-sky masks. These analyses are sensitive enough to detect contaminations of small intensity like primary and secondary CMB anisotropies. Our methodology uses the MF, widely employed to study non-Gaussianities in CMB data, and asserts Gaussian deviations only when all of them points out an exceptional χ2 value, at more than 2.2σ confidence level, in a given sky patch. Following this rigorous procedure, we find 13 regions in the foreground-cleaned Planck maps that evince such high levels of non-Gaussian deviations. According to our results, these non-Gaussian contributions show signatures that can be associated to the presence of hot or cold spots in such regions. Moreover, some of these non-Gaussian deviations signals suggest the presence of foreground residuals in those regions located near the Galactic plane. Additionally, we confirm that most of the regions revealed in our analyses, but not all, have been recently reported in studies done by the Planck collaboration. Furthermore, we also investigate whether these non-Gaussian deviations can be possibly sourced by systematics, like inhomogeneous noise and beam effect in the released Planck data, or perhaps due to residual Galactic foregrounds.

  14. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that sociality is associated with reduced effectiveness of selection.

    PubMed

    Settepani, Virginia; Bechsgaard, Jesper; Bilde, Trine

    2016-01-01

    The evolution of sociality in spiders is associated with female bias, reproductive skew and an inbreeding mating system, factors that cause a reduction in effective population size and increase effects of genetic drift. These factors act to decrease the effectiveness of selection, thereby increasing the fixation probability of deleterious mutations. Comparative studies of closely related species with contrasting social traits and mating systems provide the opportunity to test consequences of low effective population size on the effectiveness of selection empirically. We used phylogenetic analyses of three inbred social spider species and seven outcrossing subsocial species of the genus Stegodyphus, and compared dN/dS ratios and codon usage bias between social Inbreeding and subsocial outcrossing mating systems to assess the effectiveness of selection. The overall results do not differ significantly between the social inbreeding and outcrossing species, but suggest a tendency for lower codon usage bias and higher dN/dS ratios in the social inbreeding species compared with their outcrossing congeners. The differences in dN/dS ratio and codon usage bias between social and subsocial species are modest but consistent with theoretical expectations of reduced effectiveness of selection in species with relatively low effective population size. The modest differences are consistent with relatively recent evolution of social mating systems. Additionally, the short terminal branches and lack of speciation of the social lineages, together with low genetic diversity lend support for the transient state of permanent sociality in spiders. PMID:26843931

  15. Feed analyses and their interpretation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Compositional analysis is central to determining the nutritional value of feedstuffs. The utility of the values and how they should be used depends on how representative the feed subsample is, the nutritional relevance of the assays, analytical variability of the analyses, and whether a feed is suit...

  16. Mitogenomic analyses of caniform relationships.

    PubMed

    Arnason, Ulfur; Gullberg, Anette; Janke, Axel; Kullberg, Morgan

    2007-12-01

    Extant members of the order Carnivora split into two basal groups, Caniformia (dog-like carnivorans) and Feliformia (cat-like carnivorans). In this study we address phylogenetic relationships within Caniformia applying various methodological approaches to analyses of complete mitochondrial genomes. Pinnipeds are currently well represented with respect to mitogenomic data and here we add seven mt genomes to the non-pinniped caniform collection. The analyses identified a basal caniform divergence between Cynoidea and Arctoidea. Arctoidea split into three primary groups, Ursidae (including the giant panda), Pinnipedia, and a branch, Musteloidea, which encompassed Ailuridae (red panda), Mephitidae (skunks), Procyonidae (raccoons) and Mustelidae (mustelids). The analyses favored a basal arctoid split between Ursidae and a branch containing Pinnipedia and Musteloidea. Within the Musteloidea there was a preference for a basal divergence between Ailuridae and remaining families. Among the latter, the analyses identified a sister group relationship between Mephitidae and a branch that contained Procyonidae and Mustelidae. The mitogenomic distance between the wolf and the dog was shown to be at the same level as that of basal human divergences. The wolf and the dog are commonly considered as separate species in the popular literature. The mitogenomic result is inconsistent with that understanding at the same time as it provides insight into the time of the domestication of the dog relative to basal human mitogenomic divergences.

  17. Introduction to Project Materials Analyses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haley, Frances

    1972-01-01

    The author introduces twenty-six analyses, describes the method of analysis, includes a selection policy for this issue, and lists ten analysts. Each project, analyzed by the combined criteria of the CMAS and the NCSS Guidelines, is examined for background information, product characteristics, rationale and objectives, content, methodology,…

  18. Analysing Children's Drawings: Applied Imagination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bland, Derek

    2012-01-01

    This article centres on a research project in which freehand drawings provided a richly creative and colourful data source of children's imagined, ideal learning environments. Issues concerning the analysis of the visual data are discussed, in particular, how imaginative content was analysed and how the analytical process was dependent on an…

  19. [Detection of food additives by enzyme immunoassay].

    PubMed

    Yoshida, A; Takagaki, Y

    1995-09-01

    The analysis of synthesized food additives is generally performed by chromatography or spectrophotometry. However, the analytical procedures for natural food additives have been little reported so far because they are difficult to analyse chemically. We have attempted to apply enzyme immunoassay (EIA) to the analysis of natural food additives. Hen egg white lysozyme, as a food preservative, was determined by the competitive EIA, using mouse anti-HEL ascites. Carminic acid (CA), which is the main component of cochineal color, was determined by the competitive EIA, using monoclonal anti-CA antibody. Phycocyanin, which is the main component of spirulina color, was determined by the avidin-biotin sandwich EIA, using double monoclonal anti-phycocyanin antibodies. PMID:7474399

  20. Does finger sense predict addition performance?

    PubMed

    Newman, Sharlene D

    2016-05-01

    The impact of fingers on numerical and mathematical cognition has received a great deal of attention recently. However, the precise role that fingers play in numerical cognition is unknown. The current study explores the relationship between finger sense, arithmetic and general cognitive ability. Seventy-six children between the ages of 5 and 12 participated in the study. The results of stepwise multiple regression analyses demonstrated that while general cognitive ability including language processing was a predictor of addition performance, finger sense was not. The impact of age on the relationship between finger sense, and addition was further examined. The participants were separated into two groups based on age. The results showed that finger gnosia score impacted addition performance in the older group but not the younger group. These results appear to support the hypothesis that fingers provide a scaffold for calculation and that if that scaffold is not properly built, it has continued differential consequences to mathematical cognition. PMID:26993292

  1. Opsin clines in butterflies suggest novel roles for insect photopigments.

    PubMed

    Frentiu, Francesca D; Yuan, Furong; Savage, Wesley K; Bernard, Gary D; Mullen, Sean P; Briscoe, Adriana D

    2015-02-01

    Opsins are ancient molecules that enable animal vision by coupling to a vitamin-derived chromophore to form light-sensitive photopigments. The primary drivers of evolutionary diversification in opsins are thought to be visual tasks related to spectral sensitivity and color vision. Typically, only a few opsin amino acid sites affect photopigment spectral sensitivity. We show that opsin genes of the North American butterfly Limenitis arthemis have diversified along a latitudinal cline, consistent with natural selection due to environmental factors. We sequenced single nucleotide (SNP) polymorphisms in the coding regions of the ultraviolet (UVRh), blue (BRh), and long-wavelength (LWRh) opsin genes from ten butterfly populations along the eastern United States and found that a majority of opsin SNPs showed significant clinal variation. Outlier detection and analysis of molecular variance indicated that many SNPs are under balancing selection and show significant population structure. This contrasts with what we found by analysing SNPs in the wingless and EF-1 alpha loci, and from neutral amplified fragment length polymorphisms, which show no evidence of significant locus-specific or genome-wide structure among populations. Using a combination of functional genetic and physiological approaches, including expression in cell culture, transgenic Drosophila, UV-visible spectroscopy, and optophysiology, we show that key BRh opsin SNPs that vary clinally have almost no effect on spectral sensitivity. Our results suggest that opsin diversification in this butterfly is more consistent with natural selection unrelated to spectral tuning. Some of the clinally varying SNPs may instead play a role in regulating opsin gene expression levels or the thermostability of the opsin protein. Lastly, we discuss the possibility that insect opsins might have important, yet-to-be elucidated, adaptive functions in mediating animal responses to abiotic factors, such as temperature or photoperiod.

  2. Opsin clines in butterflies suggest novel roles for insect photopigments.

    PubMed

    Frentiu, Francesca D; Yuan, Furong; Savage, Wesley K; Bernard, Gary D; Mullen, Sean P; Briscoe, Adriana D

    2015-02-01

    Opsins are ancient molecules that enable animal vision by coupling to a vitamin-derived chromophore to form light-sensitive photopigments. The primary drivers of evolutionary diversification in opsins are thought to be visual tasks related to spectral sensitivity and color vision. Typically, only a few opsin amino acid sites affect photopigment spectral sensitivity. We show that opsin genes of the North American butterfly Limenitis arthemis have diversified along a latitudinal cline, consistent with natural selection due to environmental factors. We sequenced single nucleotide (SNP) polymorphisms in the coding regions of the ultraviolet (UVRh), blue (BRh), and long-wavelength (LWRh) opsin genes from ten butterfly populations along the eastern United States and found that a majority of opsin SNPs showed significant clinal variation. Outlier detection and analysis of molecular variance indicated that many SNPs are under balancing selection and show significant population structure. This contrasts with what we found by analysing SNPs in the wingless and EF-1 alpha loci, and from neutral amplified fragment length polymorphisms, which show no evidence of significant locus-specific or genome-wide structure among populations. Using a combination of functional genetic and physiological approaches, including expression in cell culture, transgenic Drosophila, UV-visible spectroscopy, and optophysiology, we show that key BRh opsin SNPs that vary clinally have almost no effect on spectral sensitivity. Our results suggest that opsin diversification in this butterfly is more consistent with natural selection unrelated to spectral tuning. Some of the clinally varying SNPs may instead play a role in regulating opsin gene expression levels or the thermostability of the opsin protein. Lastly, we discuss the possibility that insect opsins might have important, yet-to-be elucidated, adaptive functions in mediating animal responses to abiotic factors, such as temperature or photoperiod

  3. Nuclear localization of DMP1 proteins suggests a role in intracellular signaling

    SciTech Connect

    Siyam, Arwa; Wang, Suzhen; Qin, Chunlin; Mues, Gabriele; Stevens, Roy; D'Souza, Rena N.; Lu, Yongbo

    2012-08-03

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nuclear localization of DMP1 in various cell lines. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Non-synchronized cells show either nuclear or cytoplasmic localization of DMP1. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nuclear DMP1 is restricted to the nucleoplasm but absent in the nucleolus. -- Abstract: Dentin matrix protein 1 (DMP1) is highly expressed in odontoblasts and osteoblasts/osteocytes and plays an essential role in tooth and bone mineralization and phosphate homeostasis. It is debatable whether DMP1, in addition to its function in the extracellular matrix, can enter the nucleus and function as a transcription factor. To better understand its function, we examined the nuclear localization of endogenous and exogenous DMP1 in C3H10T1/2 mesenchymal cells, MC3T3-E1 preosteoblast cells and 17IIA11 odontoblast-like cells. RT-PCR analyses showed the expression of endogenous Dmp1 in all three cell lines, while Western-blot analysis detected a major DMP1 protein band corresponding to the 57 kDa C-terminal fragment generated by proteolytic processing of the secreted full-length DMP1. Immunofluorescent staining demonstrated that non-synchronized cells presented two subpopulations with either nuclear or cytoplasmic localization of endogenous DMP1. In addition, cells transfected with a construct expressing HA-tagged full-length DMP1 also showed either nuclear or cytoplasmic localization of the exogenous DMP1 when examined with an antibody against the HA tag. Furthermore, nuclear DMP1 was restricted to the nucleoplasm but was absent in the nucleolus. In conclusion, these findings suggest that, apart from its role as a constituent of dentin and bone matrix, DMP1 might play a regulatory role in the nucleus.

  4. The Influence of Orthographic Neighborhood Density and Word Frequency on Visual Word Recognition: Insights from RT Distributional Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Stephen Wee Hun

    2016-01-01

    The effects of orthographic neighborhood density and word frequency in visual word recognition were investigated using distributional analyses of response latencies in visual lexical decision. Main effects of density and frequency were observed in mean latencies. Distributional analyses additionally revealed a density × frequency interaction: for low-frequency words, density effects were mediated predominantly by distributional shifting whereas for high-frequency words, density effects were absent except at the slower RTs, implicating distributional skewing. The present findings suggest that density effects in low-frequency words reflect processes involved in early lexical access, while the effects observed in high-frequency words reflect late postlexical checking processes. PMID:27065902

  5. Single-Trial Analysis of V1 Responses Suggests Two Transmission States

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shah, A. S.; Knuth, K. H.; Truccolo, W. A.; Mehta, A. D.; McGinnis, T.; OConnell, N.; Ding, M.; Bressler, S. L.; Schroeder, C. E.

    2002-01-01

    Sensory processing in the visual, auditory, and somatosensory systems is often studied by recording electrical activity in response to a stimulus of interest. Typically, multiple trial responses to the stimulus are averaged to isolate the stereotypic response from noise. However, averaging ignores dynamic variability in the neuronal response, which is potentially critical to understanding stimulus-processing schemes. Thus, we developed the multiple component, Event-Related Potential (mcERP) model. This model asserts that multiple components, defined as stereotypic waveforms, comprise the stimulus-evoked response and that these components may vary in amplitude and latency from trial to trial. Application of this model to data recorded simultaneously from all six laminae of V1 in an awake, behaving monkey performing a visual discrimination yielded three components. The first component localized to granular V1, the second was located in supragranular V1, and the final component displayed a multi-laminar distribution. These modeling results, which take into account single-trial response dynamics, illustrated that the initial activation of VI occurs in the granular layer followed by activation in the supragranular layers. This finding is expected because the average response in those layers demonstrates the same progression and because anatomical evidence suggests that the feedforward input in V1 enters the granular layer and progresses to supragranular layers. In addition to these findings, the granular component of the model displayed several interesting trial-to-trial characteristics including (1) a bimodal latency distribution, (2) a latency-related variation in response amplitude, (3) a latency correlation with the supragranular component, and (4) an amplitude and latency association with the multi-laminar component. Direct analyses of the single-trial data were consistent with these model predictions. These findings suggest that V1 has at least 2 transmission

  6. Fatty acid analyses may provide insight into the progression of starvation among squamate reptiles.

    PubMed

    McCue, Marshall D

    2008-10-01

    Fasting-induced changes in fatty acid composition have been reported to occur within the body lipids of several types of animals; however, little is known about the changes in fatty acid profiles exhibited by reptiles subjected to prolonged fasting. This study characterizes the fatty acid profiles of six reptile species subjected to sublethal periods of fasting lasting 0, 56, 112, and 168 days. Analyses of fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) conducted on the total body lipids of rattlesnakes (Crotalus atrox), ratsnakes (Elaphe obsoleta), pythons (Python regius), boas (Boa constrictor), true vipers (Bitis gabonica), and monitor lizards (Varanus exanthematicus) revealed that all of the species exhibited similar characteristic changes in their fatty acid profiles during starvation stress. According to ANOVAs, the four most effective indicators of the onset of starvation were significant increases in the [1] fatty acid unsaturation index as well as ratios of [2] linoleic to palmitoleic acid, [3] oleic to palmitic, and [4] arachidonic to total fatty acid concentrations. The results of this study suggest that FAME analyses might be useful for identifying nutritional stress and/or starvation among squamate reptiles; however, forthcoming studies will be required to validate the generality of these responses. I also review the potential limitations of this approach, and suggest experiments that will be important for future applications of FAME analyses. Ultimately, it is hoped that FAME analyses can be used in conjunction with current practices as an additional tool to characterize the prevalence of starvation experienced by free-living reptiles.

  7. Cross Fostering Experiments Suggest That Mice Songs Are Innate

    PubMed Central

    Kikusui, Takefumi; Nakanishi, Kaori; Nakagawa, Ryoko; Nagasawa, Miho; Mogi, Kazutaka; Okanoya, Kazuo

    2011-01-01

    Background Vocal learning is a central functional constituent of human speech, and recent studies showing that adult male mice emit ultrasonic sound sequences characterized as “songs” have suggested that the ultrasonic courtship sounds of mice provide a mammalian model of vocal learning. Objectives We tested whether mouse songs are learned, by examining the relative role of rearing environment in a cross-fostering experiment. Methods and Findings We found that C57BL/6 and BALB/c males emit a clearly different pattern of songs with different frequency and syllable compositions; C57BL/6 males showed a higher peak frequency of syllables, shorter intervals between syllables, and more upward frequency modulations with jumps, whereas BALB/c males produced more “chevron” and “harmonics” syllables. To establish the degree of environmental influences in mouse song development, sons of these two strains were cross-fostered to another strain of parents. Songs were recorded when these cross-fostered pups were fully developed and their songs were compared with those of male mice reared by the genetic parents. The cross-fostered animals sang songs with acoustic characteristics - including syllable interval, peak frequency, and modulation patterns - similar to those of their genetic parents. In addition their song elements retained sequential characteristics similar to those of their genetic parents' songs. Conclusion These results do not support the hypothesis that mouse “song” is learned; we found no evidence for vocal learning of any sort under the conditions of this experiment. Our observation that the strain-specific character of the song profile persisted even after changing the developmental auditory environment suggests that the structure of these courtship sound sequences is under strong genetic control. Thus, the usefulness of mouse “song” as a model of mammalian vocal learning is limited, but mouse song has the potential to be an indispensable model

  8. Abdominal-B expression in a spider suggests a general role for Abdominal-B in specifying the genital structure.

    PubMed

    Damen, W G; Tautz, D

    1999-04-15

    We have cloned an Abdominal-B (Abd-B) orthologue from the spider Cupiennius salei and have analysed its expression pattern during embryogenesis. An early expression domain is seen in the posterior part of the embryo, with an initial border in the third opisthosomal segment and later in the fifth opisthosomal segment. During mid-stage of germ band extension, two additional spots of expression appear in the posterior parts of the limb buds on the second opisthosomal segment. These coincide with the position of the future genital opening and Cs-Abd-B remains expressed in these regions until the openings are formed. In view of the fact that Abd-B and its orthologous genes are also required for specifying the genitalia in Drosophila and vertebrates, we suggest that this function may constitute an independent and ancestral role of Abd-B that can be separated from its role in specifying the posterior part of the body region. PMID:10327654

  9. Analysing the connectivity and communication of suicidal users on twitter

    PubMed Central

    Colombo, Gualtiero B.; Burnap, Pete; Hodorog, Andrei; Scourfield, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we aim to understand the connectivity and communication characteristics of Twitter users who post content subsequently classified by human annotators as containing possible suicidal intent or thinking, commonly referred to as suicidal ideation. We achieve this understanding by analysing the characteristics of their social networks. Starting from a set of human annotated Tweets we retrieved the authors’ followers and friends lists, and identified users who retweeted the suicidal content. We subsequently built the social network graphs. Our results show a high degree of reciprocal connectivity between the authors of suicidal content when compared to other studies of Twitter users, suggesting a tightly-coupled virtual community. In addition, an analysis of the retweet graph has identified bridge nodes and hub nodes connecting users posting suicidal ideation with users who were not, thus suggesting a potential for information cascade and risk of a possible contagion effect. This is particularly emphasised by considering the combined graph merging friendship and retweeting links. PMID:26973360

  10. Workload analyse of assembling process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghenghea, L. D.

    2015-11-01

    The workload is the most important indicator for managers responsible of industrial technological processes no matter if these are automated, mechanized or simply manual in each case, machines or workers will be in the focus of workload measurements. The paper deals with workload analyses made to a most part manual assembling technology for roller bearings assembling process, executed in a big company, with integrated bearings manufacturing processes. In this analyses the delay sample technique have been used to identify and divide all bearing assemblers activities, to get information about time parts from 480 minutes day work time that workers allow to each activity. The developed study shows some ways to increase the process productivity without supplementary investments and also indicated the process automation could be the solution to gain maximum productivity.

  11. Mitogenomic analyses of eutherian relationships.

    PubMed

    Arnason, U; Janke, A

    2002-01-01

    Reasonably correct phylogenies are fundamental to the testing of evolutionary hypotheses. Here, we present phylogenetic findings based on analyses of 67 complete mammalian mitochondrial (mt) genomes. The analyses, irrespective of whether they were performed at the amino acid (aa) level or on nucleotides (nt) of first and second codon positions, placed Erinaceomorpha (hedgehogs and their kin) as the sister group of remaining eutherians. Thus, the analyses separated Erinaceomorpha from other traditional lipotyphlans (e.g., tenrecs, moles, and shrews), making traditional Lipotyphla polyphyletic. Both the aa and nt data sets identified the two order-rich eutherian clades, the Cetferungulata (comprising Pholidota, Carnivora, Perissodactyla, Artiodactyla, and Cetacea) and the African clade (Tenrecomorpha, Macroscelidea, Tubulidentata, Hyracoidea, Proboscidea, and Sirenia). The study corroborated recent findings that have identified a sister-group relationship between Anthropoidea and Dermoptera (flying lemurs), thereby making our own order, Primates, a paraphyletic assembly. Molecular estimates using paleontologically well-established calibration points, placed the origin of most eutherian orders in Cretaceous times, 70-100 million years before present (MYBP). The same estimates place all primate divergences much earlier than traditionally believed. For example, the divergence between Homo and Pan is estimated to have taken place approximately 10 MYBP, a dating consistent with recent findings in primate paleontology.

  12. Biological aerosol warner and analyser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlemmer, Harry; Kürbitz, Gunther; Miethe, Peter; Spieweck, Michael

    2006-05-01

    The development of an integrated sensor device BiSAM (Biological Sampling and Analysing Module) is presented which is designed for rapid detection of aerosol or dust particles potentially loaded with biological warfare agents. All functional steps from aerosol collection via immuno analysis to display of results are fully automated. The core component of the sensor device is an ultra sensitive rapid analyser PBA (Portable Benchtop Analyser) based on a 3 dimensional immuno filtration column of large internal area, Poly HRP marker technology and kinetic optical detection. High sensitivity despite of the short measuring time, high chemical stability of the micro column and robustness against interferents make the PBA an ideal tool for fielded sensor devices. It is especially favourable to combine the PBA with a bio collector because virtually no sample preparation is necessary. Overall, the BiSAM device is capable to detect and identify living micro organisms (bacteria, spores, viruses) as well as toxins in a measuring cycle of typically half an hour duration. In each batch up to 12 different tests can be run in parallel together with positive and negative controls to keep the false alarm rate low.

  13. Addition of Fractions--The Unrecognized Problem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Arthur C.

    1991-01-01

    Discussed is why students have the tendency to apply an "add the numerators and add the denominators" approach to adding fractions. Suggested is providing examples exemplifying this intuitive approach from ratio, concentration, and distance problems to demonstrate under what conditions it is applicable in contrast to the addition algorithm. (MDH)

  14. Why Additional Presentations Help Identify a Stimulus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guest, Duncan; Kent, Christopher; Adelman, James S.

    2010-01-01

    Nosofsky (1983) reported that additional stimulus presentations within a trial increase discriminability in absolute identification, suggesting that each presentation creates an independent stimulus representation, but it remains unclear whether exposure duration or the formation of independent representations improves discrimination in such…

  15. Priming Addition Facts with Semantic Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bassok, Miriam; Pedigo, Samuel F.; Oskarsson, An T.

    2008-01-01

    Results from 2 relational-priming experiments suggest the existence of an automatic analogical coordination between semantic and arithmetic relations. Word pairs denoting object sets served as primes in a task that elicits "obligatory" activation of addition facts (5 + 3 activates 8; J. LeFevre, J. Bisanz, & L. Mrkonjic, 1988). Semantic relations…

  16. Transcriptome Variability in Keratocystic Odontogenic Tumor Suggests Distinct Molecular Subtypes.

    PubMed

    Hu, Shijia; Divaris, Kimon; Parker, Joel; Padilla, Ricardo; Murrah, Valerie; Wright, John Timothy

    2016-01-01

    Keratocystic Odontogenic Tumor (KCOT) is a locally aggressive developmental cystic neoplasm thought to arise from the odontogenic epithelium. A high recurrence rate of up to 30% has been found following conservative treatment. Aggressive tumor resection can lead to the need for extensive reconstructive surgery, resulting in significant morbidity and impacting quality of life. Most research has focused on candidate-genes with a handful of studies employing whole transcriptome approaches. There is also the question of which reference tissue is most biologically-relevant. This study characterizes the transcriptome of KCOT using whole genome microarray and compare it with gene expression of different odontogenic tissues ("dentome"). Laser capture microdissection was used to isolate the neoplastic epithelial tissue in 20 cases. KCOT gene expression was compared with the "dentome" and relevant pathways were examined. Cluster analysis revealed 2 distinct molecular subtypes of KCOT. Several inflammatory pathways were activated in both subtypes. The AKT pathway was activated in one subtype while MAP kinase pathway was activated in the other. Additionally, PTCH1 expression was downregulated in both clusters suggesting involvement in KCOT tumorigenesis. In conclusion, this study provides new insights into the transcriptome of KCOT and highlights pathways that could be of diagnostic and prognostic value. PMID:27066764

  17. A mutational signature in gastric cancer suggests therapeutic strategies

    PubMed Central

    Alexandrov, Ludmil B.; Nik-Zainal, Serena; Siu, Hoi Cheong; Leung, Suet Yi; Stratton, Michael R

    2015-01-01

    Targeting defects in the DNA repair machinery of neoplastic cells, for example, those due to inactivating BRCA1 and/or BRCA2 mutations, has been used for developing new therapies in certain types of breast, ovarian and pancreatic cancers. Recently, a mutational signature was associated with failure of double-strand DNA break repair by homologous recombination based on its high mutational burden in samples harbouring BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations. In pancreatic cancer, all responders to platinum therapy exhibit this mutational signature including a sample that lacked any defects in BRCA1 or BRCA2. Here, we examine 10,250 cancer genomes across 36 types of cancer and demonstrate that, in addition to breast, ovarian and pancreatic cancers, gastric cancer is another cancer type that exhibits this mutational signature. Our results suggest that 7–12% of gastric cancers have defective double-strand DNA break repair by homologous recombination and may benefit from either platinum therapy or PARP inhibitors. PMID:26511885

  18. Transcriptome Variability in Keratocystic Odontogenic Tumor Suggests Distinct Molecular Subtypes

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Shijia; Divaris, Kimon; Parker, Joel; Padilla, Ricardo; Murrah, Valerie; Wright, John Timothy

    2016-01-01

    Keratocystic Odontogenic Tumor (KCOT) is a locally aggressive developmental cystic neoplasm thought to arise from the odontogenic epithelium. A high recurrence rate of up to 30% has been found following conservative treatment. Aggressive tumor resection can lead to the need for extensive reconstructive surgery, resulting in significant morbidity and impacting quality of life. Most research has focused on candidate-genes with a handful of studies employing whole transcriptome approaches. There is also the question of which reference tissue is most biologically-relevant. This study characterizes the transcriptome of KCOT using whole genome microarray and compare it with gene expression of different odontogenic tissues (“dentome”). Laser capture microdissection was used to isolate the neoplastic epithelial tissue in 20 cases. KCOT gene expression was compared with the “dentome” and relevant pathways were examined. Cluster analysis revealed 2 distinct molecular subtypes of KCOT. Several inflammatory pathways were activated in both subtypes. The AKT pathway was activated in one subtype while MAP kinase pathway was activated in the other. Additionally, PTCH1 expression was downregulated in both clusters suggesting involvement in KCOT tumorigenesis. In conclusion, this study provides new insights into the transcriptome of KCOT and highlights pathways that could be of diagnostic and prognostic value. PMID:27066764

  19. Transposable element evolution in Heliconius suggests genome diversity within Lepidoptera

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Transposable elements (TEs) have the potential to impact genome structure, function and evolution in profound ways. In order to understand the contribution of transposable elements (TEs) to Heliconius melpomene, we queried the H. melpomene draft sequence to identify repetitive sequences. Results We determined that TEs comprise ~25% of the genome. The predominant class of TEs (~12% of the genome) was the non-long terminal repeat (non-LTR) retrotransposons, including a novel SINE family. However, this was only slightly higher than content derived from DNA transposons, which are diverse, with several families having mobilized in the recent past. Compared to the only other well-studied lepidopteran genome, Bombyx mori, H. melpomene exhibits a higher DNA transposon content and a distinct repertoire of retrotransposons. We also found that H. melpomene exhibits a high rate of TE turnover with few older elements accumulating in the genome. Conclusions Our analysis represents the first complete, de novo characterization of TE content in a butterfly genome and suggests that, while TEs are able to invade and multiply, TEs have an overall deleterious effect and/or that maintaining a small genome is advantageous. Our results also hint that analysis of additional lepidopteran genomes will reveal substantial TE diversity within the group. PMID:24088337

  20. A mutational signature in gastric cancer suggests therapeutic strategies

    DOE PAGES

    Alexandrov, Ludmil B.; Nik-Zainal, Serena; Siu, Hoi Cheong; Leung, Suet Yi; Stratton, Michael R.

    2015-10-29

    Targeting defects in the DNA repair machinery of neoplastic cells, for example, those due to inactivating BRCA1 and/or BRCA2 mutations, has been used for developing new therapies in certain types of breast, ovarian and pancreatic cancers. Recently, a mutational signature was associated with failure of double-strand DNA break repair by homologous recombination based on its high mutational burden in samples harbouring BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations. In pancreatic cancer, all responders to platinum therapy exhibit this mutational signature including a sample that lacked any defects in BRCA1 or BRCA2. Here, we examine 10,250 cancer genomes across 36 types of cancer andmore » demonstrate that, in addition to breast, ovarian and pancreatic cancers, gastric cancer is another cancer type that exhibits this mutational signature. Furthermore, our results suggest that 7–12% of gastric cancers have defective double-strand DNA break repair by homologous recombination and may benefit from either platinum therapy or PARP inhibitors.« less

  1. A mutational signature in gastric cancer suggests therapeutic strategies

    SciTech Connect

    Alexandrov, Ludmil B.; Nik-Zainal, Serena; Siu, Hoi Cheong; Leung, Suet Yi; Stratton, Michael R.

    2015-10-29

    Targeting defects in the DNA repair machinery of neoplastic cells, for example, those due to inactivating BRCA1 and/or BRCA2 mutations, has been used for developing new therapies in certain types of breast, ovarian and pancreatic cancers. Recently, a mutational signature was associated with failure of double-strand DNA break repair by homologous recombination based on its high mutational burden in samples harbouring BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations. In pancreatic cancer, all responders to platinum therapy exhibit this mutational signature including a sample that lacked any defects in BRCA1 or BRCA2. Here, we examine 10,250 cancer genomes across 36 types of cancer and demonstrate that, in addition to breast, ovarian and pancreatic cancers, gastric cancer is another cancer type that exhibits this mutational signature. Furthermore, our results suggest that 7–12% of gastric cancers have defective double-strand DNA break repair by homologous recombination and may benefit from either platinum therapy or PARP inhibitors.

  2. Incorporation of additives into polymers

    DOEpatents

    McCleskey, T. Mark; Yates, Matthew Z.

    2003-07-29

    There has been invented a method for incorporating additives into polymers comprising: (a) forming an aqueous or alcohol-based colloidal system of the polymer; (b) emulsifying the colloidal system with a compressed fluid; and (c) contacting the colloidal polymer with the additive in the presence of the compressed fluid. The colloidal polymer can be contacted with the additive by having the additive in the compressed fluid used for emulsification or by adding the additive to the colloidal system before or after emulsification with the compressed fluid. The invention process can be carried out either as a batch process or as a continuous on-line process.

  3. [Patch-testing methods: additional specialised or additional series].

    PubMed

    Cleenewerck, M-B

    2009-01-01

    The tests in the European standard battery must occasionally be supplemented by specialised or additional batteries, particularly where the contact allergy is thought to be of occupational origin. These additional batteries cover all allergens associated with various professional activities (hairdressing, baking, dentistry, printing, etc.) and with different classes of materials and chemical products (glue, plastic, rubber...). These additional tests may also include personal items used by patients on a daily basis such as cosmetics, shoes, plants, textiles and so on.

  4. Additive manufacturing of optical components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinrich, Andreas; Rank, Manuel; Maillard, Philippe; Suckow, Anne; Bauckhage, Yannick; Rößler, Patrick; Lang, Johannes; Shariff, Fatin; Pekrul, Sven

    2016-08-01

    The development of additive manufacturing methods has enlarged rapidly in recent years. Thereby, the work mainly focuses on the realization of mechanical components, but the additive manufacturing technology offers a high potential in the field of optics as well. Owing to new design possibilities, completely new solutions are possible. This article briefly reviews and compares the most important additive manufacturing methods for polymer optics. Additionally, it points out the characteristics of additive manufactured polymer optics. Thereby, surface quality is of crucial importance. In order to improve it, appropriate post-processing steps are necessary (e.g. robot polishing or coating), which will be discussed. An essential part of this paper deals with various additive manufactured optical components and their use, especially in optical systems for shape metrology (e.g. borehole sensor, tilt sensor, freeform surface sensor, fisheye lens). The examples should demonstrate the potentials and limitations of optical components produced by additive manufacturing.

  5. The Western Tradition of Suggestion and Lozanov's Suggestology/Suggestopedia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bancroft, W. Jane

    It is argued that while Georgi Lozanov's suggestology and suggestopedic methods are informed by work in the field of suggestion in the former Soviet bloc, his work has also been influenced by work on suggestion in the west, particularly in France, where suggestion is a more controversial technique. For Lozanov, suggestion is a normal phenomenon…

  6. Fuel and Additive Characterization for HCCI Combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Aceves, S M; Flowers, D; Martinez-Frias, J; Espinosa-Loza, F; Pitz, W J; Dibble, R

    2003-02-12

    This paper shows a numerical evaluation of fuels and additives for HCCl combustion. First, a long list of candidate HCCl fuels is selected. For all the fuels in the list, operating conditions (compression ratio, equivalence ratio and intake temperature) are determined that result in optimum performance under typical operation for a heavy-duty engine. Fuels are also characterized by presenting Log(p)-Log(T) maps for multiple fuels under HCCl conditions. Log(p)-Log(T) maps illustrate important processes during HCCl engine operation, including compression, low temperature heat release and ignition. Log(p)-Log(T) diagrams can be used for visualizing these processes and can be used as a tool for detailed analysis of HCCl combustion. The paper also includes a ranking of many potential additives. Experiments and analyses have indicated that small amounts (a few parts per million) of secondary fuels (additives) may considerably affect HCCl combustion and may play a significant role in controlling HCCl combustion. Additives are ranked according to their capability to advance HCCl ignition. The best additives are listed and an explanation of their effect on HCCl combustion is included.

  7. Analysing photonic structures in plants

    PubMed Central

    Vignolini, Silvia; Moyroud, Edwige; Glover, Beverley J.; Steiner, Ullrich

    2013-01-01

    The outer layers of a range of plant tissues, including flower petals, leaves and fruits, exhibit an intriguing variation of microscopic structures. Some of these structures include ordered periodic multilayers and diffraction gratings that give rise to interesting optical appearances. The colour arising from such structures is generally brighter than pigment-based colour. Here, we describe the main types of photonic structures found in plants and discuss the experimental approaches that can be used to analyse them. These experimental approaches allow identification of the physical mechanisms producing structural colours with a high degree of confidence. PMID:23883949

  8. Patterns of genetic diversity of the cryptogenic red alga Polysiphonia morrowii (Ceramiales, Rhodophyta) suggest multiple origins of the Atlantic populations.

    PubMed

    Geoffroy, Alexandre; Destombe, Christophe; Kim, Byeongseok; Mauger, Stéphane; Raffo, María Paula; Kim, Myung Sook; Le Gall, Line

    2016-08-01

    The red alga Polysiphonia morrowii, native to the North Pacific (Northeast Asia), has recently been reported worldwide. To determine the origin of the French and Argentine populations of this introduced species, we compared samples from these two areas with samples collected in Korea and at Hakodate, Japan, the type locality of the species. Combined analyses of chloroplastic (rbcL) and mitochondrial (cox1) DNA revealed that the French and Argentine populations are closely related and differ substantially from the Korean and Japanese populations. The genetic structure of P. morrowii populations from South Atlantic and North Atlantic, which showed high haplotype diversity compared with populations from the North Pacific, suggested the occurrence of multiple introduction events from areas outside of the so-called native regions. Although similar, the French and Argentine populations are not genetically identical. Thus, the genetic structure of these two introduced areas may have been modified by cryptic and recurrent introduction events directly from Asia or from other introduced areas that act as introduction relays. In addition, the large number of private cytoplasmic types identified in the two introduced regions strongly suggests that local populations of P. morrowii existed before the recent detection of these invasions. Our results suggest that the most likely scenario is that the source population(s) of the French and Argentine populations was not located only in the North Pacific and/or that P. morrowii is a cryptogenic species. PMID:27547343

  9. Patterns of genetic diversity of the cryptogenic red alga Polysiphonia morrowii (Ceramiales, Rhodophyta) suggest multiple origins of the Atlantic populations.

    PubMed

    Geoffroy, Alexandre; Destombe, Christophe; Kim, Byeongseok; Mauger, Stéphane; Raffo, María Paula; Kim, Myung Sook; Le Gall, Line

    2016-08-01

    The red alga Polysiphonia morrowii, native to the North Pacific (Northeast Asia), has recently been reported worldwide. To determine the origin of the French and Argentine populations of this introduced species, we compared samples from these two areas with samples collected in Korea and at Hakodate, Japan, the type locality of the species. Combined analyses of chloroplastic (rbcL) and mitochondrial (cox1) DNA revealed that the French and Argentine populations are closely related and differ substantially from the Korean and Japanese populations. The genetic structure of P. morrowii populations from South Atlantic and North Atlantic, which showed high haplotype diversity compared with populations from the North Pacific, suggested the occurrence of multiple introduction events from areas outside of the so-called native regions. Although similar, the French and Argentine populations are not genetically identical. Thus, the genetic structure of these two introduced areas may have been modified by cryptic and recurrent introduction events directly from Asia or from other introduced areas that act as introduction relays. In addition, the large number of private cytoplasmic types identified in the two introduced regions strongly suggests that local populations of P. morrowii existed before the recent detection of these invasions. Our results suggest that the most likely scenario is that the source population(s) of the French and Argentine populations was not located only in the North Pacific and/or that P. morrowii is a cryptogenic species.

  10. THOR Turbulence Electron Analyser: TEA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fazakerley, Andrew; Moore, Tom; Owen, Chris; Pollock, Craig; Wicks, Rob; Samara, Marilia; Rae, Jonny; Hancock, Barry; Kataria, Dhiren; Rust, Duncan

    2016-04-01

    Turbulence Heating ObserveR (THOR) is the first mission ever flown in space dedicated to plasma turbulence. The Turbulence Electron Analyser (TEA) will measure the plasma electron populations in the mission's Regions of Interest. It will collect a 3D electron velocity distribution with cadences as short as 5 ms. The instrument will be capable of measuring energies up to 30 keV. TEA consists of multiple electrostatic analyser heads arranged so as to measure electrons arriving from look directions covering the full sky, i.e. 4 pi solid angle. The baseline concept is similar to the successful FPI-DES instrument currently operating on the MMS mission. TEA is intended to have a similar angular resolution, but a larger geometric factor. In comparison to earlier missions, TEA improves on the measurement cadence. For example, MMS FPI-DES routinely operates at 30 ms cadence. The objective of measuring distributions at rates as fast as 5 ms is driven by the mission's scientific requirements to resolve electron gyroscale size structures, where plasma heating and fluctuation dissipation is predicted to occur. TEA will therefore be capable of making measurements of the evolution of distribution functions across thin (a few km) current sheets travelling past the spacecraft at up to 600 km/s, of the Power Spectral Density of fluctuations of electron moments and of distributions fast enough to match frequencies with waves expected to be dissipating turbulence (e.g. with 100 Hz whistler waves).

  11. [Network analyses in neuroimaging studies].

    PubMed

    Hirano, Shigeki; Yamada, Makiko

    2013-06-01

    Neurons are anatomically and physiologically connected to each other, and these connections are involved in various neuronal functions. Multiple important neural networks involved in neurodegenerative diseases can be detected using network analyses in functional neuroimaging. First, the basic methods and theories of voxel-based network analyses, such as principal component analysis, independent component analysis, and seed-based analysis, are described. Disease- and symptom-specific brain networks have been identified using glucose metabolism images in patients with Parkinson's disease. These networks enable us to objectively evaluate individual patients and serve as diagnostic tools as well as biomarkers for therapeutic interventions. Many functional MRI studies have shown that "hub" brain regions, such as the posterior cingulate cortex and medial prefrontal cortex, are deactivated by externally driven cognitive tasks; such brain regions form the "default mode network." Recent studies have shown that this default mode network is disrupted from the preclinical phase of Alzheimer's disease and is associated with amyloid deposition in the brain. Some recent studies have shown that the default mode network is also impaired in Parkinson's disease, whereas other studies have shown inconsistent results. These incongruent results could be due to the heterogeneous pharmacological status, differences in mesocortical dopaminergic impairment status, and concomitant amyloid deposition. Future neuroimaging network analysis studies will reveal novel and interesting findings that will uncover the pathomechanisms of neurological and psychiatric disorders. PMID:23735528

  12. Enantioselective Michael Addition of Water

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Bi-Shuang; Resch, Verena; Otten, Linda G; Hanefeld, Ulf

    2015-01-01

    The enantioselective Michael addition using water as both nucleophile and solvent has to date proved beyond the ability of synthetic chemists. Herein, the direct, enantioselective Michael addition of water in water to prepare important β-hydroxy carbonyl compounds using whole cells of Rhodococcus strains is described. Good yields and excellent enantioselectivities were achieved with this method. Deuterium labeling studies demonstrate that a Michael hydratase catalyzes the water addition exclusively with anti-stereochemistry. PMID:25529526

  13. Enantioselective Michael addition of water.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bi-Shuang; Resch, Verena; Otten, Linda G; Hanefeld, Ulf

    2015-02-01

    The enantioselective Michael addition using water as both nucleophile and solvent has to date proved beyond the ability of synthetic chemists. Herein, the direct, enantioselective Michael addition of water in water to prepare important β-hydroxy carbonyl compounds using whole cells of Rhodococcus strains is described. Good yields and excellent enantioselectivities were achieved with this method. Deuterium labeling studies demonstrate that a Michael hydratase catalyzes the water addition exclusively with anti-stereochemistry.

  14. Gasoline additives, emissions, and performance

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    The papers included in this publication deal with the influence of fuel, additive, and hardware changes on a variety of vehicle performance characteristics. Advanced techniques for measuring these performance parameters are also described. Contents include: Fleet test evaluation of gasoline additives for intake valve and combustion chamber deposit clean up; A technique for evaluating octane requirement additives in modern engines on dynamometer test stands; A fleet test of two additive technologies comparing their effects on tailpipe emissions; Investigation into the vehicle exhaust emissions of high percentage ethanol blends; Variability in hydrocarbon speciation measurements at low emission (ULEV) levels; and more.

  15. Climatology of Dry Layers in the Tropical Troposphere Derived from CONTRAST Observations and GFS Analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Randel, W. J.; Rivoire, L.; Pan, L.; Honomichl, S.

    2015-12-01

    A recent airborne field experiment in the remote tropical western Pacific, CONTRAST (CONvective Transport of Active Species in the Tropics), obtained over 80 vertical profiles of water vapor, ozone and numerous trace species from the surface to above 14 km during January-February 2014. These observations showed the frequent occurrence of extreme dry layers (relative humidity < 20%) co-located with enhanced ozone, occurring primarily over altitudes ~4-10 km. We compare these water vapor measurements with analyses from the NCEP Global Forecast System (GFS), and find good overall agreement. We then use the GFS analyses to quantify the climatological variability of extreme dry layers in the tropical troposphere, finding frequent occurrence in the subtropics of both hemispheres during winter-spring. The space-time structure of the dry layers, in addition to the strong anti-correlation between water vapor and ozone, suggests frequent transport to the tropics from the extratropical upper troposphere - lower stratosphere (UTLS).

  16. Shielding Analyses for VISION Beam Line at SNS

    SciTech Connect

    Popova, Irina; Gallmeier, Franz X

    2014-01-01

    Full-scale neutron and gamma transport analyses were performed to design shielding around the VISION beam line, instrument shielding enclosure, beam stop, secondary shutter including a temporary beam stop for the still closed neighboring beam line to meet requirement is to achieve dose rates below 0.25 mrem/h at 30 cm from the shielding surface. The beam stop and the temporary beam stop analyses were performed with the discrete ordinate code DORT additionally to Monte Carlo analyses with the MCNPX code. Comparison of the results is presented.

  17. NMC stratospheric analyses during the 1987 Antarctic expedition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gelman, Melvyn E.; Newman, Paul A.

    1988-01-01

    Stratospheric constant pressure analyses of geopotential height and temperature, produced as part of regular operations at the National Meteorological Center (NMC), were used by several participants of the Antarctic Ozone Expedition. A brief decription is given of the NMC stratospheric analyses and the data that are used to derive them. In addition, comparisons of the analysis values at the locations of radiosonde and aircraft data are presented to provide indications for assessing the representativeness of the NMC stratospheric analyses during the 1987 Antarctic winter-spring period.

  18. Hantaviruses in Finnish soricomorphs: evidence for two distinct hantaviruses carried by Sorex araneus suggesting ancient host-switch.

    PubMed

    Ling, Jiaxin; Sironen, Tarja; Voutilainen, Liina; Hepojoki, Satu; Niemimaa, Jukka; Isoviita, Veli-Matti; Vaheri, Antti; Henttonen, Heikki; Vapalahti, Olli

    2014-10-01

    Hantaviruses are emerging viruses carried by rodents, soricomorphs (shrews and moles) and bats. In Finland, Puumala virus (PUUV) was for years the only hantavirus detected. In 2009, however, Seewis virus (SWSV) was reported from archival common shrew (Sorex araneus) samples collected in 1982 in Finland. To elucidate the diversity of hantaviruses in soricomorphs in Finland, 180 individuals were screened, representing seven species captured from 2001 to 2012: hantavirus RNA was screened using RT-PCR, and hantaviral antigen using immunoblotting with polyclonal antibodies raised against truncated SWSV nucleocapsid protein. The overall hantavirus RNA prevalence was 14% (26/180), antigen could be demonstrated in 9 of 20 SWSV RT-PCR positive common shrews. Genetic analyses revealed that four soricomorph-borne hantaviruses circulate in Finland, including Boginia virus (BOGV) in water shrew (Neomys fodiens) and Asikkala virus (ASIV) in pygmy shrew (Sorex minutus). Interestingly, on two study sites, common shrews harbored strains of two different hantaviruses: Seewis virus and a new distinct, genetically distant (identity 57% at amino acid level) virus (Altai-like virus) which clusters together with viruses in the basal phylogroup I of hantaviruses with 62-67% identity at amino acid level. This is the first evidence of coexistence of two clearly distinct hantavirus species circulating simultaneously in one host species population. The findings suggest an ancient host-switching event from a yet unknown host to S. araneus. In addition, phylogenetic analyses of partial S and M segment sequences showed that SWSV in Finland represents a unique genotype in Europe.

  19. Perturbation analyses of intermolecular interactions.

    PubMed

    Koyama, Yohei M; Kobayashi, Tetsuya J; Ueda, Hiroki R

    2011-08-01

    Conformational fluctuations of a protein molecule are important to its function, and it is known that environmental molecules, such as water molecules, ions, and ligand molecules, significantly affect the function by changing the conformational fluctuations. However, it is difficult to systematically understand the role of environmental molecules because intermolecular interactions related to the conformational fluctuations are complicated. To identify important intermolecular interactions with regard to the conformational fluctuations, we develop herein (i) distance-independent and (ii) distance-dependent perturbation analyses of the intermolecular interactions. We show that these perturbation analyses can be realized by performing (i) a principal component analysis using conditional expectations of truncated and shifted intermolecular potential energy terms and (ii) a functional principal component analysis using products of intermolecular forces and conditional cumulative densities. We refer to these analyses as intermolecular perturbation analysis (IPA) and distance-dependent intermolecular perturbation analysis (DIPA), respectively. For comparison of the IPA and the DIPA, we apply them to the alanine dipeptide isomerization in explicit water. Although the first IPA principal components discriminate two states (the α state and PPII (polyproline II) + β states) for larger cutoff length, the separation between the PPII state and the β state is unclear in the second IPA principal components. On the other hand, in the large cutoff value, DIPA eigenvalues converge faster than that for IPA and the top two DIPA principal components clearly identify the three states. By using the DIPA biplot, the contributions of the dipeptide-water interactions to each state are analyzed systematically. Since the DIPA improves the state identification and the convergence rate with retaining distance information, we conclude that the DIPA is a more practical method compared with the

  20. Perturbation analyses of intermolecular interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koyama, Yohei M.; Kobayashi, Tetsuya J.; Ueda, Hiroki R.

    2011-08-01

    Conformational fluctuations of a protein molecule are important to its function, and it is known that environmental molecules, such as water molecules, ions, and ligand molecules, significantly affect the function by changing the conformational fluctuations. However, it is difficult to systematically understand the role of environmental molecules because intermolecular interactions related to the conformational fluctuations are complicated. To identify important intermolecular interactions with regard to the conformational fluctuations, we develop herein (i) distance-independent and (ii) distance-dependent perturbation analyses of the intermolecular interactions. We show that these perturbation analyses can be realized by performing (i) a principal component analysis using conditional expectations of truncated and shifted intermolecular potential energy terms and (ii) a functional principal component analysis using products of intermolecular forces and conditional cumulative densities. We refer to these analyses as intermolecular perturbation analysis (IPA) and distance-dependent intermolecular perturbation analysis (DIPA), respectively. For comparison of the IPA and the DIPA, we apply them to the alanine dipeptide isomerization in explicit water. Although the first IPA principal components discriminate two states (the α state and PPII (polyproline II) + β states) for larger cutoff length, the separation between the PPII state and the β state is unclear in the second IPA principal components. On the other hand, in the large cutoff value, DIPA eigenvalues converge faster than that for IPA and the top two DIPA principal components clearly identify the three states. By using the DIPA biplot, the contributions of the dipeptide-water interactions to each state are analyzed systematically. Since the DIPA improves the state identification and the convergence rate with retaining distance information, we conclude that the DIPA is a more practical method compared with the

  1. Too Much Red Meat Might Harm Kidneys, Study Suggests

    MedlinePlus

    ... Might Harm Kidneys, Study Suggests Substituting poultry for pork in Chinese diet seemed to reduce risk To ... suggests. Red meat intake -- in this case, mostly pork -- was strongly associated with an increased risk of ...

  2. Religion a Buffer Against Suicide for Women, Study Suggests

    MedlinePlus

    ... html Religion a Buffer Against Suicide for Women, Study Suggests Going to services at least once a ... suicide than those who don't, a new study suggests. U.S. researchers reviewed data on nearly 90, ...

  3. Color Addition and Subtraction Apps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruiz, Frances; Ruiz, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Color addition and subtraction apps in HTML5 have been developed for students as an online hands-on experience so that they can more easily master principles introduced through traditional classroom demonstrations. The evolution of the additive RGB color model is traced through the early IBM color adapters so that students can proceed step by step…

  4. Analyses to improve operational flexibility

    SciTech Connect

    Trikouros, N.G.

    1986-01-01

    Operational flexibility is greatly enhanced if the technical bases for plant limits and design margins are fully understood, and the analyses necessary to evaluate the effect of plant modifications or changes in operating modes on these parameters can be performed as required. If a condition should arise that might jeopardize a plant limit or reduce operational flexibility, it would be necessary to understand the basis for the limit or the specific condition limiting operational flexibility and be capable of performing a reanalysis to either demonstrate that the limit will not be violated or to change the limit. This paper provides examples of GPU Nuclear efforts in this regard. Examples of Oyster Creek and Three Mile Island operating experiences are discussed.

  5. Chemical analyses of provided samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Becker, Christopher H.

    1993-01-01

    Two batches of samples were received and chemical analysis was performed of the surface and near surface regions of the samples by the surface analysis by laser ionization (SALI) method. The samples included four one-inch optics and several paint samples. The analyses emphasized surface contamination or modification. In these studies, pulsed sputtering by 7 keV Ar+ and primarily single-photon ionization (SPI) by coherent 118 nm radiation (at approximately 5 x 10(exp 5) W/cm(sup 2) were used. For two of the samples, also multiphoton ionization (MPI) at 266 nm (approximately 5 x 10(exp 11) W/cm(sup 2) was used. Most notable among the results was the silicone contamination on Mg2 mirror 28-92, and that the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) paint sample had been enriched in K and Na and depleted in Zn, Si, B, and organic compounds relative to the control paint.

  6. A Consumer-Driven Approach To Increase Suggestive Selling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohn, Don; Austin, John; Sanford, Alison

    2003-01-01

    Discussion of the effectiveness of behavioral interventions in improving suggestive selling behavior of sales staff focuses on a study that examined the efficacy of a consumer-driven approach to improve suggestive selling behavior of three employees of a fast food franchise. Reports that consumer-driven intervention increased suggestive selling…

  7. Clarification of the Memory Artefact in the Assessment of Suggestibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willner, P.

    2008-01-01

    Aim: The Gudjonsson Suggestibility Scale (GSS) assesses suggestibility by asking respondents to recall a short story, followed by exposure to leading questions and pressure to change their responses. Suggestibility, as assessed by the GSS, appears to be elevated in people with intellectual disabilities (ID). This has been shown to reflect to some…

  8. 21 CFR 1402.7 - Suggestions and complaints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Suggestions and complaints. 1402.7 Section 1402.7 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY MANDATORY DECLASSIFICATION REVIEW § 1402.7 Suggestions and complaints. Suggestions and complaints regarding the information security program of...

  9. 21 CFR 1402.7 - Suggestions and complaints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Suggestions and complaints. 1402.7 Section 1402.7 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY MANDATORY DECLASSIFICATION REVIEW § 1402.7 Suggestions and complaints. Suggestions and complaints regarding the information security program of...

  10. 21 CFR 1402.7 - Suggestions and complaints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Suggestions and complaints. 1402.7 Section 1402.7 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY MANDATORY DECLASSIFICATION REVIEW § 1402.7 Suggestions and complaints. Suggestions and complaints regarding the information security program of...

  11. Isotopic signatures by bulk analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Efurd, D.W.; Rokop, D.J.

    1997-12-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory has developed a series of measurement techniques for identification of nuclear signatures by analyzing bulk samples. Two specific applications for isotopic fingerprinting to identify the origin of anthropogenic radioactivity in bulk samples are presented. The first example is the analyses of environmental samples collected in the US Arctic to determine the impact of dumping of radionuclides in this polar region. Analyses of sediment and biota samples indicate that for the areas sampled the anthropogenic radionuclide content of sediments was predominantly the result of the deposition of global fallout. The anthropogenic radionuclide concentrations in fish, birds and mammals were very low. It can be surmised that marine food chains are presently not significantly affected. The second example is isotopic fingerprinting of water and sediment samples from the Rocky Flats Facility (RFP). The largest source of anthropogenic radioactivity presently affecting surface-waters at RFP is the sediments that are currently residing in the holding ponds. One gram of sediment from a holding pond contains approximately 50 times more plutonium than 1 liter of water from the pond. Essentially 100% of the uranium in Ponds A-1 and A-2 originated as depleted uranium. The largest source of radioactivity in the terminal Ponds A-4, B-5 and C-2 was naturally occurring uranium and its decay product radium. The uranium concentrations in the waters collected from the terminal ponds contained 0.05% or less of the interim standard calculated derived concentration guide for uranium in waters available to the public. All of the radioactivity observed in soil, sediment and water samples collected at RFP was naturally occurring, the result of processes at RFP or the result of global fallout. No extraneous anthropogenic alpha, beta or gamma activities were detected. The plutonium concentrations in Pond C-2 appear to vary seasonally.

  12. Precise Chemical Analyses of Planetary Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kring, David; Schweitzer, Jeffrey; Meyer, Charles; Trombka, Jacob; Freund, Friedemann; Economou, Thanasis; Yen, Albert; Kim, Soon Sam; Treiman, Allan H.; Blake, David; Lisse, Carey

    1996-01-01

    We identify the chemical elements and element ratios that should be analyzed to address many of the issues identified by the Committee on Planetary and Lunar Exploration (COMPLEX). We determined that most of these issues require two sensitive instruments to analyze the necessary complement of elements. In addition, it is useful in many cases to use one instrument to analyze the outermost planetary surface (e.g. to determine weathering effects), while a second is used to analyze a subsurface volume of material (e.g., to determine the composition of unaltered planetary surface material). This dual approach to chemical analyses will also facilitate the calibration of orbital and/or Earth-based spectral observations of the planetary body. We determined that in many cases the scientific issues defined by COMPLEX can only be fully addressed with combined packages of instruments that would supplement the chemical data with mineralogic or visual information.

  13. Bioinformatics tools for analysing viral genomic data.

    PubMed

    Orton, R J; Gu, Q; Hughes, J; Maabar, M; Modha, S; Vattipally, S B; Wilkie, G S; Davison, A J

    2016-04-01

    The field of viral genomics and bioinformatics is experiencing a strong resurgence due to high-throughput sequencing (HTS) technology, which enables the rapid and cost-effective sequencing and subsequent assembly of large numbers of viral genomes. In addition, the unprecedented power of HTS technologies has enabled the analysis of intra-host viral diversity and quasispecies dynamics in relation to important biological questions on viral transmission, vaccine resistance and host jumping. HTS also enables the rapid identification of both known and potentially new viruses from field and clinical samples, thus adding new tools to the fields of viral discovery and metagenomics. Bioinformatics has been central to the rise of HTS applications because new algorithms and software tools are continually needed to process and analyse the large, complex datasets generated in this rapidly evolving area. In this paper, the authors give a brief overview of the main bioinformatics tools available for viral genomic research, with a particular emphasis on HTS technologies and their main applications. They summarise the major steps in various HTS analyses, starting with quality control of raw reads and encompassing activities ranging from consensus and de novo genome assembly to variant calling and metagenomics, as well as RNA sequencing.

  14. ISFSI site boundary radiation dose rate analyses.

    PubMed

    Hagler, R J; Fero, A H

    2005-01-01

    Across the globe nuclear utilities are in the process of designing and analysing Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installations (ISFSI) for the purpose of above ground spent-fuel storage primarily to mitigate the filling of spent-fuel pools. Using a conjoining of discrete ordinates transport theory (DORT) and Monte Carlo (MCNP) techniques, an ISFSI was analysed to determine neutron and photon dose rates for a generic overpack, and ISFSI pad configuration and design at distances ranging from 1 to -1700 m from the ISFSI array. The calculated dose rates are used to address the requirements of 10CFR72.104, which provides limits to be enforced for the protection of the public by the NRC in regard to ISFSI facilities. For this overpack, dose rates decrease by three orders of magnitude through the first 200 m moving away from the ISFSI. In addition, the contributions from different source terms changes over distance. It can be observed that although side photons provide the majority of dose rate in this calculation, scattered photons and side neutrons take on more importance as the distance from the ISFSI is increased. PMID:16604670

  15. Modification of chemical additives to elastomeric compositions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukhutdinov, A. A.; Grishin, B. S.

    1994-08-01

    The physicochemical principles of the modification of crystalline chemical additives to elastomeric compositions are examined. A classification of various types of modifications based on scientific principles is given. The modifications are subdivided into physical and physicochemical depending on the configuration of the molecules in the crystals, the defectiveness and dispersity of the crystalline particles, the melting points of the crystals, and the presence of necleophilic and electrophylic centres in the molecules of the components of binary and complex eutectic mixtures. The effectiveness of the modification of the chemical additives is determined by the manifestation in binary systems of these components in elastomeric compositions of physical and chemical synergism due to the occurrence of the relevant processes in such systems. A relation has been discovered between the physical and chemical phenomena accompanying the modification of the chemical additives in binary and complex eutectic mixtures, their influence on the properties of the elastomeric composition is examined, the ecological problems associated with the processing of such materials are discussed, and the relation between the structure and properties of the molecules of the additives is analysed using quantum-chemical calculations. The bibliography includes 92 references.

  16. Nonlinear structural and life analyses of a combustor liner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moreno, V.; Meyers, G. J.; Kaufman, A.; Halford, G. R.

    1982-01-01

    Three dimensional, nonlinear finite element structural analyses were performed for a simulated combustor liner specimen to assess the capability of nonlinear analyses using classical inelastic material models to represent the thermoplastic creep response of the one half scale component. Results indicate continued cyclic hardening and ratcheting while experimental data suggested a stable stress strain response after only a few loading cycles. The computed stress strain history at the critical location was put into two life prediction methods, strainrange partitioning and a Pratt and Whitney combustor life prediction method to evaluate their ability to predict cyclic crack initiation. It is found that the life prediction analyses over predicted the observed cyclic crack initiation life.

  17. Some alkali and titania analyses of tektites before and after G-1 precision monitoring

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tatlock, D.B.

    1966-01-01

    A comparison of 55 older analyses of Australasian tektites with 110 modern precisely monitored analyses suggests that more than half of the older alkali and titania determinations are decidedly inaccurate and misleading. Deviations of the older analyses from the restricted values of the modern analyses are comparable to the imprecisions shown by early analyses of G-1 granite and W-1 diabase. This suggests that a high percentage of older alkali and titania analyses, such as those of Washington's tables, are of questionable quality. ?? 1966.

  18. Genomic Survey, Gene Expression Analysis and Structural Modeling Suggest Diverse Roles of DNA Methyltransferases in Legumes

    PubMed Central

    Garg, Rohini; Kumari, Romika; Tiwari, Sneha; Goyal, Shweta

    2014-01-01

    DNA methylation plays a crucial role in development through inheritable gene silencing. Plants possess three types of DNA methyltransferases (MTases), namely Methyltransferase (MET), Chromomethylase (CMT) and Domains Rearranged Methyltransferase (DRM), which maintain methylation at CG, CHG and CHH sites. DNA MTases have not been studied in legumes so far. Here, we report the identification and analysis of putative DNA MTases in five legumes, including chickpea, soybean, pigeonpea, Medicago and Lotus. MTases in legumes could be classified in known MET, CMT, DRM and DNA nucleotide methyltransferases (DNMT2) subfamilies based on their domain organization. First three MTases represent DNA MTases, whereas DNMT2 represents a transfer RNA (tRNA) MTase. Structural comparison of all the MTases in plants with known MTases in mammalian and plant systems have been reported to assign structural features in context of biological functions of these proteins. The structure analysis clearly specified regions crucial for protein-protein interactions and regions important for nucleosome binding in various domains of CMT and MET proteins. In addition, structural model of DRM suggested that circular permutation of motifs does not have any effect on overall structure of DNA methyltransferase domain. These results provide valuable insights into role of various domains in molecular recognition and should facilitate mechanistic understanding of their function in mediating specific methylation patterns. Further, the comprehensive gene expression analyses of MTases in legumes provided evidence of their role in various developmental processes throughout the plant life cycle and response to various abiotic stresses. Overall, our study will be very helpful in establishing the specific functions of DNA MTases in legumes. PMID:24586452

  19. Widespread Divergence of the CEACAM/PSG Genes in Vertebrates and Humans Suggests Sensitivity to Selection

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Chia Lin; Semyonov, Jenia; Cheng, Po Jen; Huang, Shang Yu; Park, Jae Il; Tsai, Huai-Jen; Lin, Cheng-Yung; Grützner, Frank; Soong, Yung Kuei; Cai, James J.; Hsu, Sheau Yu Teddy

    2013-01-01

    In mammals, carcinoembryonic antigen cell adhesion molecules (CEACAMs) and pregnancy-specific glycoproteins (PSGs) play important roles in the regulation of pathogen transmission, tumorigenesis, insulin signaling turnover, and fetal–maternal interactions. However, how these genes evolved and to what extent they diverged in humans remain to be investigated specifically. Based on syntenic mapping of chordate genomes, we reveal that diverging homologs with a prototypic CEACAM architecture–including an extracellular domain with immunoglobulin variable and constant domain-like regions, and an intracellular domain containing ITAM motif–are present from cartilaginous fish to humans, but are absent in sea lamprey, cephalochordate or urochordate. Interestingly, the CEACAM/PSG gene inventory underwent radical divergence in various vertebrate lineages: from zero in avian species to dozens in therian mammals. In addition, analyses of genetic variations in human populations showed the presence of various types of copy number variations (CNVs) at the CEACAM/PSG locus. These copy number polymorphisms have 3–80% frequency in select populations, and encompass single to more than six PSG genes. Furthermore, we found that CEACAM/PSG genes contain a significantly higher density of nonsynonymous single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) compared to the chromosome average, and many CEACAM/PSG SNPs exhibit high population differentiation. Taken together, our study suggested that CEACAM/PSG genes have had a more dynamic evolutionary history in vertebrates than previously thought. Given that CEACAM/PSGs play important roles in maternal–fetal interaction and pathogen recognition, these data have laid the groundwork for future analysis of adaptive CEACAM/PSG genotype-phenotypic relationships in normal and complicated pregnancies as well as other etiologies. PMID:23613906

  20. Medical waste management in Trachea region of Turkey: suggested remedial action.

    PubMed

    Uysal, Füsun; Tinmaz, Esra

    2004-10-01

    The main objective of this paper was to analyse the present status of medical waste management in the Trachea region of Turkey and subsequently to draw up a policy regarded with generation, collection, on-site handling, storage, processing, recycling, transportation and safe disposal of medical wastes. This paper also presents the results of study about awareness on how to handle expired drugs. Initially all health-care establishments in Tekirdağ, Edirne and Kýrklareli provinces in Trachea region were identified and the amounts of hospital wastes generated by each of them were determined. Current medical waste-management practices, including storage, collection, transportation and disposal, in surveyed establishments were identified. Finally, according to results, remedial measurements for medical waste management in these establishments were suggested. Unfortunately, medical wastes are not given proper attention and these wastes are disposed of together with municipal and industrial solid wastes. The current disposal method is both a public health and environmental hazard. When landfill sites are visited, many scavengers can be seen sorting for recyclable materials, a practice which is dangerous for the scavengers. In addition, it was found that some staff in health-care establishments are unaware of the hazard of medical wastes. It is concluded that a new management system, which consists of segregation, material substitution, minimization, sanitary landfilling and alternative medical waste treatment methods should be carried out. For the best appropriate medical waste management system, health-care establishment employers, managers and especially the members of house- keeping divisions should be involved in medical waste management practice. PMID:15560445

  1. Desert grassland responses to climate and soil moisture suggest divergent vulnerabilities across the southwestern United States.

    PubMed

    Gremer, Jennifer R; Bradford, John B; Munson, Seth M; Duniway, Michael C

    2015-11-01

    Climate change predictions include warming and drying trends, which are expected to be particularly pronounced in the southwestern United States. In this region, grassland dynamics are tightly linked to available moisture, yet it has proven difficult to resolve what aspects of climate drive vegetation change. In part, this is because it is unclear how heterogeneity in soils affects plant responses to climate. Here, we combine climate and soil properties with a mechanistic soil water model to explain temporal fluctuations in perennial grass cover, quantify where and the degree to which incorporating soil water dynamics enhances our ability to understand temporal patterns, and explore the potential consequences of climate change by assessing future trajectories of important climate and soil water variables. Our analyses focused on long-term (20-56 years) perennial grass dynamics across the Colorado Plateau, Sonoran, and Chihuahuan Desert regions. Our results suggest that climate variability has negative effects on grass cover, and that precipitation subsidies that extend growing seasons are beneficial. Soil water metrics, including the number of dry days and availability of water from deeper (>30 cm) soil layers, explained additional grass cover variability. While individual climate variables were ranked as more important in explaining grass cover, collectively soil water accounted for 40-60% of the total explained variance. Soil water conditions were more useful for understanding the responses of C3 than C4 grass species. Projections of water balance variables under climate change indicate that conditions that currently support perennial grasses will be less common in the future, and these altered conditions will be more pronounced in the Chihuahuan Desert and Colorado Plateau. We conclude that incorporating multiple aspects of climate and accounting for soil variability can improve our ability to understand patterns, identify areas of vulnerability, and predict

  2. Desert grassland responses to climate and soil moisture suggest divergent vulnerabilities across the southwestern US

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gremer, Jennifer; Bradford, John B.; Munson, Seth M.; Duniway, Michael C.

    2015-01-01

    Climate change predictions include warming and drying trends, which are expected to be particularly pronounced in the southwestern United States. In this region, grassland dynamics are tightly linked to available moisture, yet it has proven difficult to resolve what aspects of climate drive vegetation change. In part, this is because it is unclear how heterogeneity in soils affects plant responses to climate. Here, we combine climate and soil properties with a mechanistic soil water model to explain temporal fluctuations in perennial grass cover, quantify where and the degree to which incorporating soil water dynamics enhances our ability to understand temporal patterns, and explore the potential consequences of climate change by assessing future trajectories of important climate and soil water variables. Our analyses focused on long-term (20 to 56 years) perennial grass dynamics across the Colorado Plateau, Sonoran, and Chihuahuan Desert regions. Our results suggest that climate variability has negative effects on grass cover, and that precipitation subsidies that extend growing seasons are beneficial. Soil water metrics, including the number of dry days and availability of water from deeper (>30 cm) soil layers, explained additional grass cover variability. While individual climate variables were ranked as more important in explaining grass cover, collectively soil water accounted for 40 to 60% of the total explained variance. Soil water conditions were more useful for understanding the responses of C3 than C4 grass species. Projections of water balance variables under climate change indicate that conditions that currently support perennial grasses will be less common in the future, and these altered conditions will be more pronounced in the Chihuahuan Desert and Colorado Plateau. We conclude that incorporating multiple aspects of climate and accounting for soil variability can improve our ability to understand patterns, identify areas of vulnerability, and

  3. Desert grassland responses to climate and soil moisture suggest divergent vulnerabilities across the southwestern United States.

    PubMed

    Gremer, Jennifer R; Bradford, John B; Munson, Seth M; Duniway, Michael C

    2015-11-01

    Climate change predictions include warming and drying trends, which are expected to be particularly pronounced in the southwestern United States. In this region, grassland dynamics are tightly linked to available moisture, yet it has proven difficult to resolve what aspects of climate drive vegetation change. In part, this is because it is unclear how heterogeneity in soils affects plant responses to climate. Here, we combine climate and soil properties with a mechanistic soil water model to explain temporal fluctuations in perennial grass cover, quantify where and the degree to which incorporating soil water dynamics enhances our ability to understand temporal patterns, and explore the potential consequences of climate change by assessing future trajectories of important climate and soil water variables. Our analyses focused on long-term (20-56 years) perennial grass dynamics across the Colorado Plateau, Sonoran, and Chihuahuan Desert regions. Our results suggest that climate variability has negative effects on grass cover, and that precipitation subsidies that extend growing seasons are beneficial. Soil water metrics, including the number of dry days and availability of water from deeper (>30 cm) soil layers, explained additional grass cover variability. While individual climate variables were ranked as more important in explaining grass cover, collectively soil water accounted for 40-60% of the total explained variance. Soil water conditions were more useful for understanding the responses of C3 than C4 grass species. Projections of water balance variables under climate change indicate that conditions that currently support perennial grasses will be less common in the future, and these altered conditions will be more pronounced in the Chihuahuan Desert and Colorado Plateau. We conclude that incorporating multiple aspects of climate and accounting for soil variability can improve our ability to understand patterns, identify areas of vulnerability, and predict

  4. A uniform nonlinearity criterion for rational functions applied to calibration curve and standard addition methods.

    PubMed

    Michałowska-Kaczmarczyk, Anna Maria; Asuero, Agustin G; Martin, Julia; Alonso, Esteban; Jurado, Jose Marcos; Michałowski, Tadeusz

    2014-12-01

    Rational functions of the Padé type are used for the calibration curve (CCM), and standard addition (SAM) methods purposes. In this paper, the related functions were applied to results obtained from the analyses of (a) nickel with use of FAAS method, (b) potassium according to FAES method, and (c) salicylic acid according to HPLC-MS/MS method. A uniform, integral criterion of nonlinearity of the curves, obtained according to CCM and SAM, is suggested. This uniformity is based on normalization of the approximating functions within the frames of a unit area.

  5. How Big of a Problem is Analytic Error in Secondary Analyses of Survey Data?

    PubMed Central

    West, Brady T.; Sakshaug, Joseph W.; Aurelien, Guy Alain S.

    2016-01-01

    Secondary analyses of survey data collected from large probability samples of persons or establishments further scientific progress in many fields. The complex design features of these samples improve data collection efficiency, but also require analysts to account for these features when conducting analysis. Unfortunately, many secondary analysts from fields outside of statistics, biostatistics, and survey methodology do not have adequate training in this area, and as a result may apply incorrect statistical methods when analyzing these survey data sets. This in turn could lead to the publication of incorrect inferences based on the survey data that effectively negate the resources dedicated to these surveys. In this article, we build on the results of a preliminary meta-analysis of 100 peer-reviewed journal articles presenting analyses of data from a variety of national health surveys, which suggested that analytic errors may be extremely prevalent in these types of investigations. We first perform a meta-analysis of a stratified random sample of 145 additional research products analyzing survey data from the Scientists and Engineers Statistical Data System (SESTAT), which describes features of the U.S. Science and Engineering workforce, and examine trends in the prevalence of analytic error across the decades used to stratify the sample. We once again find that analytic errors appear to be quite prevalent in these studies. Next, we present several example analyses of real SESTAT data, and demonstrate that a failure to perform these analyses correctly can result in substantially biased estimates with standard errors that do not adequately reflect complex sample design features. Collectively, the results of this investigation suggest that reviewers of this type of research need to pay much closer attention to the analytic methods employed by researchers attempting to publish or present secondary analyses of survey data. PMID:27355817

  6. Color Addition and Subtraction Apps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz, Frances; Ruiz, Michael J.

    2015-10-01

    Color addition and subtraction apps in HTML5 have been developed for students as an online hands-on experience so that they can more easily master principles introduced through traditional classroom demonstrations. The evolution of the additive RGB color model is traced through the early IBM color adapters so that students can proceed step by step in understanding mathematical representations of RGB color. Finally, color addition and subtraction are presented for the X11 colors from web design to illustrate yet another real-life application of color mixing.

  7. Gene expression analyses in maize inbreds and hybrids with varying levels of heterosis

    PubMed Central

    Stupar, Robert M; Gardiner, Jack M; Oldre, Aaron G; Haun, William J; Chandler, Vicki L; Springer, Nathan M

    2008-01-01

    Background Heterosis is the superior performance of F1 hybrid progeny relative to the parental phenotypes. Maize exhibits heterosis for a wide range of traits, however the magnitude of heterosis is highly variable depending on the choice of parents and the trait(s) measured. We have used expression profiling to determine whether the level, or types, of non-additive gene expression vary in maize hybrids with different levels of genetic diversity or heterosis. Results We observed that the distributions of better parent heterosis among a series of 25 maize hybrids generally do not exhibit significant correlations between different traits. Expression profiling analyses for six of these hybrids, chosen to represent diversity in genotypes and heterosis responses, revealed a correlation between genetic diversity and transcriptional variation. The majority of differentially expressed genes in each of the six different hybrids exhibited additive expression patterns, and ~25% exhibited statistically significant non-additive expression profiles. Among the non-additive profiles, ~80% exhibited hybrid expression levels between the parental levels, ~20% exhibited hybrid expression levels at the parental levels and ~1% exhibited hybrid levels outside the parental range. Conclusion We have found that maize inbred genetic diversity is correlated with transcriptional variation. However, sampling of seedling tissues indicated that the frequencies of additive and non-additive expression patterns are very similar across a range of hybrid lines. These findings suggest that heterosis is probably not a consequence of higher levels of additive or non-additive expression, but may be related to transcriptional variation between parents. The lack of correlation between better parent heterosis levels for different traits suggests that transcriptional diversity at specific sets of genes may influence heterosis for different traits. PMID:18402703

  8. ChemCam analyses of the Pahrump Hills sediments in the context of other sediments analysed by the Curiosity rover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mangold, N.; Forni, O.; Blaney, D. L.; Milliken, R.; Nachon, M.; Le Deit, L.; Gasnault, O.; Clegg, S.; Fisk, M.; Grotzinger, J.; Hurowitz, J.; Kah, L. C.; Le Mouélic, S.; McLennan, S.; Maurice, S.; Stack, K.; Sumner, D. Y.; Wiens, R. C.; MSL Team

    2015-10-01

    We report the results of ChemCam observations at the location of Pahrump Hills, analysed by the rover during the end of 2014 and beginning of 2015. Although Pahrump Hills sediment compositions are overall close to that of the coarser conglomerates analysed earlier by the rover, these observations show a strong variability in texture and composition, suggesting variations in source material and a complex aqueous history.

  9. Genetic analyses of captive Alala (Corvus hawaiiensis) using AFLP analyses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jarvi, Susan I.; Bianchi, Kiara R.

    2006-01-01

    affected by the mutation rate at microsatellite loci, thus introducing a bias. Also, the number of loci that can be studied is frequently limited to fewer than 10. This theoretically represents a maximum of one marker for each of 10 chromosomes. Dominant markers like AFLP allow a larger fraction of the genome to be screened. Large numbers of loci can be screened by AFLP to resolve very small individual differences that can be used for identification of individuals, estimates of pairwise relatedness and, in some cases, for parentage analyses. Since AFLP is a dominant marker (can not distinguish between +/+ homozygote versus +/- heterozygote), it has limitations for parentage analyses. Only when both parents are homozygous for the absence of alleles (-/-) and offspring show a presence (+/+ or +/-) can the parents be excluded. In this case, microsatellites become preferable as they have the potential to exclude individual parents when the other parent is unknown. Another limitation of AFLP is that the loci are generally less polymorphic (only two alleles/locus) than microsatellite loci (often >10 alleles/locus). While generally fewer than 10 highly polymorphic microsatellite loci are enough to exclude and assign parentage, it might require up to 100 or more AFLP loci. While there are pros and cons to different methodologies, the total number of loci evaluated by AFLP generally offsets the limitations imposed due to the dominant nature of this approach and end results between methods are generally comparable. Overall objectives of this study were to evaluate the level of genetic diversity in the captive population of Alala, to compare genetic data with currently available pedigree information, and to determine the extent of relatedness of mating pairs and among founding individuals.

  10. Teebi hypertelorism syndrome: additional cases.

    PubMed

    Machado-Paula, Ligiane Alves; Guion-Almeida, Maria Leine

    2003-03-01

    We report on two unrelated Brazilian boys who have craniofacial and digital anomalies resembling those reported with Teebi hypertelorism syndrome. Additional features such as cleft lip and palate, large uvula, atypical chin and abnormal scapulae were observed.

  11. Additional renal arteries: incidence and morphometry.

    PubMed

    Satyapal, K S; Haffejee, A A; Singh, B; Ramsaroop, L; Robbs, J V; Kalideen, J M

    2001-01-01

    Advances in surgical and uro-radiological techniques dictate a reappraisal and definition of renal arterial variations. This retrospective study aimed at establishing the incidence of additional renal arteries. Two subsets were analysed viz.: a) Clinical series--130 renal angiograms performed on renal transplant donors, 32 cadaver kidneys used in renal transplantation b) Cadaveric series--74 en-bloc morphologically normal kidney pairs. The sex and race distribution was: males 140, females 96; African 84, Indian 91, White 43 and "Coloured" 18, respectively. Incidence of first and second additional arteries were respectively, 23.2% (R: 18.6%; L: 27.6%) and 4.5% (R: 4.7%; L: 4.4%). Additional arteries occurred more frequently on the left (L: 32.0%; R: 23.3%). The incidence bilaterally was 10.2% (first additional arteries, only). The sex and race incidence (first and second additional) was: males, 28.0%, 5.1%; females, 16.4%, 3.8% and African 31.1%, 5.4%; Indian 13.5%, 4.5%; White 30.9%, 4.4% and "Coloured" 18.5%, 0%; respectively. Significant differences in the incidence of first additional arteries were noted between sex and race. The morphometry of additional renal arteries were lengths (cm) of first and second additional renal arteries: 4.5 and 3.8 (right), 4.9 and 3.7 (left); diameters: 0.4 and 0.3 (right), 0.3 and 0.3 (left). Detailed morphometry of sex and race were also recorded. No statistically significant differences were noted. Our results of the incidence of additional renal arteries of 27.7% compared favourably to that reported in the literature (weighted mean 28.1%). The study is unique in recording detailed morphometry of these vessels. Careful techniques in the identification of this anatomical variation is important since it impacts on renal transplantation surgery, vascular operations for renal artery stenosis, reno-vascular hypertension, Takayasu's disease, renal trauma and uro-radiological procedures.

  12. Polyolefins as additives in plastics

    SciTech Connect

    Deanin, R.D.

    1993-12-31

    Polyolefins are not only major commodity plastics - they are also very useful as additives, both in other polyolefins and also in other types of plastics. This review covers ethylene, propylene, butylene and isobutylene polymers, in blends with each other, and as additives to natural rubber, styrene/butadiene rubber, polystyrene, polyvinyl chloride, polymethyl methacrylate, polyphenylene oxide, polycarbonate, thermoplastic polyesters, polyurethanes, polyamides, and mixed automotive plastics recycling.

  13. Analyse von Unterrichtsmaterialien der Menschenrechtsbildung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lenhart, Volker

    2002-07-01

    This article surveys five manuals on human rights education, examining and comparing them according to a set of basic categories such as the educational level of the target audience, the learning objectives and the educational content. This approach is used to establish the overall curricular orientation of the manuals. In addition, one teaching unit from each manual is selected for special analysis. Based on the results of this survey, the author argues that the tradition of moral education elaborated by Lawrence Kohlberg should be integrated into our concept of human rights teaching and learning.

  14. Wide area microprobe analyser (WAMPA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogoyski, A.; Skidmore, B.; Maheswaran, V.; Wright, I.; Zarnecki, J.; Pillinger, C.

    2006-10-01

    Wide area microprobe analyser (WAMPA) represents a new scientific instrument concept for planetary exploration. WAMPA builds on recently published research such as sensor webs and distributed microsensors [The sensor web: a new instrument concept, SPIE Symposium on Integrated Optics, 20 26 January 2001, San Jose, CA; Design considerations for distributed microsensor systems, Proceedings of the IEEE 1999 Custom Integrated Circuits Conference (CICC ’99), May 1999, pp. 279 286] but adds new sensor and localisation concepts. WAMPA is driven by the recurrent theme in spacecraft and sensor design to achieve smaller, lighter and lower cost systems. The essential characteristics of the WAMPA design that differentiates it from other space science instruments are that WAMPA is both a wide area instrument, consisting of a distributed set of sensors, and that each probe is designed to use little, if any, power. It achieves the former by being utilised in large numbers (>10), requiring that the individual probes be low mass (<100g) and low volume (<10cm). It is envisaged that the probes would be dispersed by landers or rovers as mission support instruments rather than primary science instruments and would be used in hostile environments and rugged terrains where the lander/rover could not be risked (see Fig. 1).

  15. Comparison between Inbreeding Analyses Methodologies.

    PubMed

    Esparza, Mireia; Martínez-Abadías, Neus; Sjøvold, Torstein; González-José, Rolando; Hernández, Miquel

    2015-12-01

    Surnames are widely used in inbreeding analysis, but the validity of results has often been questioned due to the failure to comply with the prerequisites of the method. Here we analyze inbreeding in Hallstatt (Austria) between the 17th and the 19th centuries both using genealogies and surnames. The high and significant correlation of the results obtained by both methods demonstrates the validity of the use of surnames in this kind of studies. On the other hand, the inbreeding values obtained (0.24 x 10⁻³ in the genealogies analysis and 2.66 x 10⁻³ in the surnames analysis) are lower than those observed in Europe for this period and for this kind of population, demonstrating the falseness of the apparent isolation of Hallstatt's population. The temporal trend of inbreeding in both analyses does not follow the European general pattern, but shows a maximum in 1850 with a later decrease along the second half of the 19th century. This is probably due to the high migration rate that is implied by the construction of transport infrastructures around the 1870's. PMID:26987150

  16. The consequences of suggesting false childhood food events.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, Daniel M; Scoboria, Alan; Arnold, Robert

    2015-03-01

    We combined data across eight published experiments (N=1369) to examine the formation and consequences of false autobiographical beliefs and memories. Our path models revealed that the formation of false autobiographical belief fully mediated the pathway between suggesting to people that they had experienced a positive or negative food-related event in the past and current preference for that food. Suggestion indirectly affected intention to eat the food via change in autobiographical belief. The development of belief with and without memory produced similar changes in food preferences and behavior intention, indicating that belief in the event drives changes in suggestion-related attitudes. Finally, positive suggestions (e.g., "you loved asparagus the first time you tried it") yielded stronger effects than negative suggestions (e.g., "you got sick eating egg salad"). These findings show that false autobiographical suggestions lead to the development of autobiographical beliefs, which in turn, have consequences for one's attitudes and behaviors. PMID:25613303

  17. Autonomic responses to suggestions for cold and warmth in hypnosis.

    PubMed

    Kistler, A; Mariauzouls, C; Wyler, F; Bircher, A J; Wyler-Harper, J

    1999-02-01

    The goal of the present study was to investigate whether suggestions for cold or warmth during hypnosis affect fingertip skin temperature. Hypnosis without specific suggestions for cold or warmth ('neutral hypnosis') caused a drop in respiration frequency, however, pulse rate, fingertip skin temperature, and electrodermal activity were not affected. The cold and warmth suggestions decreased and increased fingertip skin temperature, respectively. Compared with the neutral trance phase, the other three autonomic variables measured were also affected by suggestions for cold. However, there was no association between the changes in autonomic variables induced by suggestions and hypnotizability scores measured by the 'Stanford Hypnotic Clinical Scale for Adults'. Fingertip skin temperature was mostly affected when the images used for the cold and warmth suggestions during hypnosis included experiences of physical temperature and psychological stress or relaxation, indicating that the psychological content of the imagery amplified the autonomic response.

  18. Assessments of feline plasma biochemistry reference intervals for three in-house analysers and a commercial laboratory analyser.

    PubMed

    Baral, Randolph M; Dhand, Navneet K; Krockenberger, Mark B; Govendir, Merran

    2015-08-01

    For each species, the manufacturers of in-house analysers (and commercial laboratories) provide standard reference intervals (RIs) that do not account for any differences such as geographical population differences and do not overtly state the potential for variation between results obtained from serum or plasma. Additionally, biases have been demonstrated for in-house analysers which result in different RIs for each different type of analyser. The objective of this study was to calculate RIs (with 90% confidence intervals [CIs]) for 13 biochemistry analytes when tested on three commonly used in-house veterinary analysers, as well as a commercial laboratory analyser. The calculated RIs were then compared with those provided by the in-house analyser manufacturers and the commercial laboratory. Plasma samples were collected from 53 clinically normal cats. After centrifugation, plasma was divided into four aliquots; one aliquot was sent to the commercial laboratory and the remaining three were tested using the in-house biochemistry analysers. The distribution of results was used to choose the appropriate statistical technique for each analyte from each analyser to calculate RIs. Provided reference limits were deemed appropriate if they fell within the 90% CIs of the calculated reference limits. Transference validation was performed on provided and calculated RIs. Twenty-nine of a possible 102 provided reference limits (28%) were within the calculated 90% CIs. To ensure proper interpretation of laboratory results, practitioners should determine RIs for their practice populations and/or use reference change values when assessing their patients' clinical chemistry results.

  19. Influence of bio-additives on combustion of liquid fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patsch, Marek; Durčanský, Peter

    2016-06-01

    In this contribution there are analyses of the course of the pressure curves, which were measured in the diesel engine MD UR IV, which is often used in cogeneration units. The results of the analyses confront the properties and quality of fuels. The measuring was realized with a constant rotation speed of the engine and by using different fuels. The fuels were pure diesel fuels and diesel fuel with bio-additives of hydrogenate RO (rape oil), FAME, and bioethanol.

  20. Comparative sequence analyses of sixteen reptilian paramyxoviruses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ahne, W.; Batts, W.N.; Kurath, G.; Winton, J.R.

    1999-01-01

    Viral genomic RNA of Fer-de-Lance virus (FDLV), a paramyxovirus highly pathogenic for reptiles, was reverse transcribed and cloned. Plasmids with significant sequence similarities to the hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) and polymerase (L) genes of mammalian paramyxoviruses were identified by BLAST search. Partial sequences of the FDLV genes were used to design primers for amplification by nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing of 518-bp L gene and 352-bp HN gene fragments from a collection of 15 previously uncharacterized reptilian paramyxoviruses. Phylogenetic analyses of the partial L and HN sequences produced similar trees in which there were two distinct subgroups of isolates that were supported with maximum bootstrap values, and several intermediate isolates. Within each subgroup the nucleotide divergence values were less than 2.5%, while the divergence between the two subgroups was 20-22%. This indicated that the two subgroups represent distinct virus species containing multiple virus strains. The five intermediate isolates had nucleotide divergence values of 11-20% and may represent additional distinct species. In addition to establishing diversity among reptilian paramyxoviruses, the phylogenetic groupings showed some correlation with geographic location, and clearly demonstrated a low level of host species-specificity within these viruses. Copyright (C) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V.

  1. The Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium--Some Helpful Suggestions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ortiz, Mary T.; Taras, Loretta; Stavroulakis, Anthea M.

    2000-01-01

    Describes an approach that provides mathematical tips and helpful suggestions for presenting the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium to predict allele frequencies, phenotypes, and genotypes in populations. (ASK)

  2. Placebo-Suggestion Modulates Conflict Resolution in the Stroop Task

    PubMed Central

    Caspar, Emilie A.; Gevers, Wim; Cleeremans, Axel

    2013-01-01

    Here, we ask whether placebo-suggestion (without any form of hypnotic induction) can modulate the resolution of cognitive conflict. Naïve participants performed a Stroop Task while wearing an EEG cap described as a “brain wave” machine. In Experiment 1, participants were made to believe that the EEG cap would either enhance or decrease their color perception and performance on the Stroop task. In Experiment 2, participants were explicitly asked to imagine that their color perception and performance would be enhanced or decreased (non-hypnotic imaginative suggestion). We observed effects of placebo-suggestion on Stroop interference on accuracy: interference was decreased with positive suggestion and increased with negative suggestion compared to baseline. Intra-individual variability was also increased under negative suggestion compared to baseline. Compliance with the instruction to imagine a modulation of performance, on the other hand, did not influence accuracy and only had a negative impact on response latencies and on intra-individual variability, especially in the congruent condition of the Stroop Task. Taken together, these results demonstrate that expectations induced by a placebo-suggestion can modulate our ability to resolve cognitive conflict, either facilitating or impairing response accuracy depending on the suggestion’s contents. Our results also demonstrate a dissociation between placebo-suggestion and non-hypnotic imaginative suggestion. PMID:24130735

  3. The grays of medical device color additives.

    PubMed

    Seidman, Brenda

    2014-01-01

    The United States' medical device color additive regulations are unknown to some, and confusing to many. This article reviews statutory language on color additives in the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FFDCA), as amended, including the Delaney Clause on carcinogenicity; color additive regulatory language as it relates to medical devices in Title 21 of the Code of Federal Regulations (C.F.R.), Parts 70-82; reports on the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) likely current and historical practices in dealing with color additives in medical devices; and speculates on what may have given rise to decades of seemingly ad hoc color additives practices, which may now be difficult to reconstruct and satisfactorily modify. Also addressed is the Center for Devices and Radiological Health's (CDRH's) recent publicly-vetted approach to color additives in Section 7 of its April 2013 draft guidance, Use of International Standard ISO-10993, "Biological Evaluation of Medical Devices Part 1: Evaluation and Testing," which the author concludes is a change in the right direction, but which, at least in its current draft form, is not a fix to the CDRH's color additives dilemma. Lastly, the article suggests what the CDRH might consider in further developing a new approach to color additives. Such an approach would treat color additives as if they were any other potentially toxic group of chemicals, and could be fashioned in such a way that the CDRH could still satisfy the broad aspects of Congressional color additives mandates, and.yet be consistent with ISO 10993. In doing this, the CDRH would need to recommend a more directed use of its Quality System Regulation, 21 C.F.R. Part 820, for material and vendor qualification and validation in general; approach Congress for needed statutory changes; or make administrative changes. In order for any approach to be successful, whether it is a new twist on past practices, or an entirely new path forward, the FDA must, to the best of its

  4. Genome-Wide Association of Body Fat Distribution in African Ancestry Populations Suggests New Loci

    PubMed Central

    Lange, Leslie; Demerath, Ellen W.; Palmas, Walter; Wojczynski, Mary K.; Ellis, Jaclyn C.; Vitolins, Mara Z.; Liu, Simin; Papanicolaou, George J.; Irvin, Marguerite R.; Xue, Luting; Griffin, Paula J.; Nalls, Michael A.; Adeyemo, Adebowale; Liu, Jiankang; Li, Guo; Ruiz-Narvaez, Edward A.; Chen, Wei-Min; Chen, Fang; Henderson, Brian E.; Millikan, Robert C.; Ambrosone, Christine B.; Strom, Sara S.; Guo, Xiuqing; Andrews, Jeanette S.; Sun, Yan V.; Mosley, Thomas H.; Yanek, Lisa R.; Shriner, Daniel; Haritunians, Talin; Rotter, Jerome I.; Speliotes, Elizabeth K.; Smith, Megan; Rosenberg, Lynn; Mychaleckyj, Josyf; Nayak, Uma; Spruill, Ida; Garvey, W. Timothy; Pettaway, Curtis; Nyante, Sarah; Bandera, Elisa V.; Britton, Angela F.; Zonderman, Alan B.; Rasmussen-Torvik, Laura J.; Chen, Yii-Der Ida; Ding, Jingzhong; Lohman, Kurt; Kritchevsky, Stephen B.; Zhao, Wei; Peyser, Patricia A.; Kardia, Sharon L. R.; Kabagambe, Edmond; Broeckel, Ulrich; Chen, Guanjie; Zhou, Jie; Wassertheil-Smoller, Sylvia; Neuhouser, Marian L.; Rampersaud, Evadnie; Psaty, Bruce; Kooperberg, Charles; Manson, JoAnn E.; Kuller, Lewis H.; Ochs-Balcom, Heather M.; Johnson, Karen C.; Sucheston, Lara; Ordovas, Jose M.; Palmer, Julie R.; Haiman, Christopher A.; McKnight, Barbara; Howard, Barbara V.; Becker, Diane M.; Bielak, Lawrence F.; Liu, Yongmei; Allison, Matthew A.; Grant, Struan F. A.; Burke, Gregory L.; Patel, Sanjay R.; Schreiner, Pamela J.; Borecki, Ingrid B.; Evans, Michele K.; Taylor, Herman; Sale, Michele M.; Howard, Virginia; Carlson, Christopher S.; Rotimi, Charles N.; Cushman, Mary; Harris, Tamara B.; Reiner, Alexander P.; Cupples, L. Adrienne; North, Kari E.; Fox, Caroline S.

    2013-01-01

    Central obesity, measured by waist circumference (WC) or waist-hip ratio (WHR), is a marker of body fat distribution. Although obesity disproportionately affects minority populations, few studies have conducted genome-wide association study (GWAS) of fat distribution among those of predominantly African ancestry (AA). We performed GWAS of WC and WHR, adjusted and unadjusted for BMI, in up to 33,591 and 27,350 AA individuals, respectively. We identified loci associated with fat distribution in AA individuals using meta-analyses of GWA results for WC and WHR (stage 1). Overall, 25 SNPs with single genomic control (GC)-corrected p-values<5.0×10−6 were followed-up (stage 2) in AA with WC and with WHR. Additionally, we interrogated genomic regions of previously identified European ancestry (EA) WHR loci among AA. In joint analysis of association results including both Stage 1 and 2 cohorts, 2 SNPs demonstrated association, rs2075064 at LHX2, p = 2.24×10−8 for WC-adjusted-for-BMI, and rs6931262 at RREB1, p = 2.48×10−8 for WHR-adjusted-for-BMI. However, neither signal was genome-wide significant after double GC-correction (LHX2: p = 6.5×10−8; RREB1: p = 5.7×10−8). Six of fourteen previously reported loci for waist in EA populations were significant (p<0.05 divided by the number of independent SNPs within the region) in AA studied here (TBX15-WARS2, GRB14, ADAMTS9, LY86, RSPO3, ITPR2-SSPN). Further, we observed associations with metabolic traits: rs13389219 at GRB14 associated with HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, and fasting insulin, and rs13060013 at ADAMTS9 with HDL-cholesterol and fasting insulin. Finally, we observed nominal evidence for sexual dimorphism, with stronger results in AA women at the GRB14 locus (p for interaction = 0.02). In conclusion, we identified two suggestive loci associated with fat distribution in AA populations in addition to confirming 6 loci previously identified in populations of EA. These findings reinforce

  5. Genome-wide association of body fat distribution in African ancestry populations suggests new loci.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ching-Ti; Monda, Keri L; Taylor, Kira C; Lange, Leslie; Demerath, Ellen W; Palmas, Walter; Wojczynski, Mary K; Ellis, Jaclyn C; Vitolins, Mara Z; Liu, Simin; Papanicolaou, George J; Irvin, Marguerite R; Xue, Luting; Griffin, Paula J; Nalls, Michael A; Adeyemo, Adebowale; Liu, Jiankang; Li, Guo; Ruiz-Narvaez, Edward A; Chen, Wei-Min; Chen, Fang; Henderson, Brian E; Millikan, Robert C; Ambrosone, Christine B; Strom, Sara S; Guo, Xiuqing; Andrews, Jeanette S; Sun, Yan V; Mosley, Thomas H; Yanek, Lisa R; Shriner, Daniel; Haritunians, Talin; Rotter, Jerome I; Speliotes, Elizabeth K; Smith, Megan; Rosenberg, Lynn; Mychaleckyj, Josyf; Nayak, Uma; Spruill, Ida; Garvey, W Timothy; Pettaway, Curtis; Nyante, Sarah; Bandera, Elisa V; Britton, Angela F; Zonderman, Alan B; Rasmussen-Torvik, Laura J; Chen, Yii-Der Ida; Ding, Jingzhong; Lohman, Kurt; Kritchevsky, Stephen B; Zhao, Wei; Peyser, Patricia A; Kardia, Sharon L R; Kabagambe, Edmond; Broeckel, Ulrich; Chen, Guanjie; Zhou, Jie; Wassertheil-Smoller, Sylvia; Neuhouser, Marian L; Rampersaud, Evadnie; Psaty, Bruce; Kooperberg, Charles; Manson, Joann E; Kuller, Lewis H; Ochs-Balcom, Heather M; Johnson, Karen C; Sucheston, Lara; Ordovas, Jose M; Palmer, Julie R; Haiman, Christopher A; McKnight, Barbara; Howard, Barbara V; Becker, Diane M; Bielak, Lawrence F; Liu, Yongmei; Allison, Matthew A; Grant, Struan F A; Burke, Gregory L; Patel, Sanjay R; Schreiner, Pamela J; Borecki, Ingrid B; Evans, Michele K; Taylor, Herman; Sale, Michele M; Howard, Virginia; Carlson, Christopher S; Rotimi, Charles N; Cushman, Mary; Harris, Tamara B; Reiner, Alexander P; Cupples, L Adrienne; North, Kari E; Fox, Caroline S

    2013-01-01

    Central obesity, measured by waist circumference (WC) or waist-hip ratio (WHR), is a marker of body fat distribution. Although obesity disproportionately affects minority populations, few studies have conducted genome-wide association study (GWAS) of fat distribution among those of predominantly African ancestry (AA). We performed GWAS of WC and WHR, adjusted and unadjusted for BMI, in up to 33,591 and 27,350 AA individuals, respectively. We identified loci associated with fat distribution in AA individuals using meta-analyses of GWA results for WC and WHR (stage 1). Overall, 25 SNPs with single genomic control (GC)-corrected p-values<5.0 × 10(-6) were followed-up (stage 2) in AA with WC and with WHR. Additionally, we interrogated genomic regions of previously identified European ancestry (EA) WHR loci among AA. In joint analysis of association results including both Stage 1 and 2 cohorts, 2 SNPs demonstrated association, rs2075064 at LHX2, p = 2.24×10(-8) for WC-adjusted-for-BMI, and rs6931262 at RREB1, p = 2.48×10(-8) for WHR-adjusted-for-BMI. However, neither signal was genome-wide significant after double GC-correction (LHX2: p = 6.5 × 10(-8); RREB1: p = 5.7 × 10(-8)). Six of fourteen previously reported loci for waist in EA populations were significant (p<0.05 divided by the number of independent SNPs within the region) in AA studied here (TBX15-WARS2, GRB14, ADAMTS9, LY86, RSPO3, ITPR2-SSPN). Further, we observed associations with metabolic traits: rs13389219 at GRB14 associated with HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, and fasting insulin, and rs13060013 at ADAMTS9 with HDL-cholesterol and fasting insulin. Finally, we observed nominal evidence for sexual dimorphism, with stronger results in AA women at the GRB14 locus (p for interaction = 0.02). In conclusion, we identified two suggestive loci associated with fat distribution in AA populations in addition to confirming 6 loci previously identified in populations of EA. These findings reinforce the concept

  6. Extension of the standard addition method by blank addition.

    PubMed

    Steliopoulos, Panagiotis

    2015-01-01

    Standard addition involves adding varying amounts of the analyte to sample portions of fixed mass or fixed volume and submitting those portions to the sample preparation procedure. After measuring the final extract solutions, the observed signals are linearly regressed on the spiked amounts. The original unknown amount is estimated by the opposite of the abscissa intercept of the fitted straight line [1]. A limitation of this method is that only data points with abscissa values equal to and greater than zero are available so that there is no information on whether linearity holds below the spiking level zero. An approach to overcome this limitation is introduced.•Standard addition is combined with blank addition.•Blank addition means that defined mixtures of blank matrix and sample material are subjected to sample preparation to give final extract solutions.•Equations are presented to estimate the original unknown amount and to calculate the 1-2α confidence interval about this estimate using the combined data set.

  7. ADDITIVITY ASSESSMENT OF TRIHALOMETHANE MIXTURES BY PROPORTIONAL RESPONSE ADDITION

    EPA Science Inventory

    If additivity is known or assumed, the toxicity of a chemical mixture may be predicted from the dose response curves of the individual chemicals comprising the mixture. As single chemical data are abundant and mixture data sparse, mixture risk methods that utilize single chemical...

  8. Extension of the standard addition method by blank addition

    PubMed Central

    Steliopoulos, Panagiotis

    2015-01-01

    Standard addition involves adding varying amounts of the analyte to sample portions of fixed mass or fixed volume and submitting those portions to the sample preparation procedure. After measuring the final extract solutions, the observed signals are linearly regressed on the spiked amounts. The original unknown amount is estimated by the opposite of the abscissa intercept of the fitted straight line [1]. A limitation of this method is that only data points with abscissa values equal to and greater than zero are available so that there is no information on whether linearity holds below the spiking level zero. An approach to overcome this limitation is introduced.•Standard addition is combined with blank addition.•Blank addition means that defined mixtures of blank matrix and sample material are subjected to sample preparation to give final extract solutions.•Equations are presented to estimate the original unknown amount and to calculate the 1-2α confidence interval about this estimate using the combined data set. PMID:26844210

  9. Ergonomic analyses of downhill skiing.

    PubMed

    Clarys, J P; Publie, J; Zinzen, E

    1994-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to provide electromyographic feedback for (1) pedagogical advice in motor learning, (2) the ergonomics of materials choice and (3) competition. For these purposes: (1) EMG data were collected for the Stem Christie, the Stem Turn and the Parallel Christie (three basic ski initiation drills) and verified for the complexity of patterns; (2) integrated EMG (iEMG) and linear envelopes (LEs) were analysed from standardized positions, motions and slopes using compact, soft and competition skis; (3) in a simulated 'parallel special slalom', the muscular activity pattern and intensity of excavated and flat snow conditions were compared. The EMG data from the three studies were collected on location in the French Alps (Tignes). The analog raw EMG was recorded on the slopes with a portable seven-channel FM recorder (TEAC MR30) and with pre-amplified bipolar surface electrodes supplied with a precision instrumentation amplifier (AD 524, Analog Devices, Norwood, USA). The raw signal was full-wave rectified and enveloped using a moving average principle. This linear envelope was normalized according to the highest peak amplitude procedure per subject and was integrated in order to obtain a reference of muscular intensity. In the three studies and for all subjects (elite skiers: n = 25 in studies 1 and 2, n = 6 in study 3), we found a high level of co-contractions in the lower limb extensors and flexors, especially during the extension phase of the ski movement. The Stem Christie and the Parallel Christie showed higher levels of rhythmic movement (92 and 84%, respectively).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8064970

  10. ITER Safety Analyses with ISAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gulden, W.; Nisan, S.; Porfiri, M.-T.; Toumi, I.; de Gramont, T. Boubée

    1997-06-01

    Detailed analyses of accident sequences for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), from an initiating event to the environmental release of activity, have involved in the past the use of different types of computer codes in a sequential manner. Since these codes were developed at different time scales in different countries, there is no common computing structure to enable automatic data transfer from one code to the other, and no possibility exists to model or to quantify the effect of coupled physical phenomena. To solve this problem, the Integrated Safety Analysis System of codes (ISAS) is being developed, which allows users to integrate existing computer codes in a coherent manner. This approach is based on the utilization of a command language (GIBIANE) acting as a “glue” to integrate the various codes as modules of a common environment. The present version of ISAS allows comprehensive (coupled) calculations of a chain of codes such as ATHENA (thermal-hydraulic analysis of transients and accidents), INTRA (analysis of in-vessel chemical reactions, pressure built-up, and distribution of reaction products inside the vacuum vessel and adjacent rooms), and NAUA (transport of radiological species within buildings and to the environment). In the near future, the integration of S AFALY (simultaneous analysis of plasma dynamics and thermal behavior of in-vessel components) is also foreseen. The paper briefly describes the essential features of ISAS development and the associated software architecture. It gives first results of a typical ITER accident sequence, a loss of coolant accident (LOCA) in the divertor cooling loop inside the vacuum vessel, amply demonstrating ISAS capabilities.

  11. [INVITED] Lasers in additive manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinkerton, Andrew J.

    2016-04-01

    Additive manufacturing is a topic of considerable ongoing interest, with forecasts predicting it to have major impact on industry in the future. This paper focusses on the current status and potential future development of the technology, with particular reference to the role of lasers within it. It begins by making clear the types and roles of lasers in the different categories of additive manufacturing. This is followed by concise reviews of the economic benefits and disadvantages of the technology, current state of the market and use of additive manufacturing in different industries. Details of these fields are referenced rather than expanded in detail. The paper continues, focusing on current indicators to the future of additive manufacturing. Barriers to its development, trends and opportunities in major industrial sectors, and wider opportunities for its development are covered. Evidence indicates that additive manufacturing may not become the dominant manufacturing technology in all industries, but represents an excellent opportunity for lasers to increase their influence in manufacturing as a whole.

  12. Evaluation of certain food additives.

    PubMed

    2015-01-01

    This report represents the conclusions of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee convened to evaluate the safety of various food additives, including flavouring agents, and to prepare specifications for identity and purity. The first part of the report contains a general discussion of the principles governing the toxicological evaluation of and assessment of dietary exposure to food additives, including flavouring agents. A summary follows of the Committee's evaluations of technical, toxicological and dietary exposure data for eight food additives (Benzoe tonkinensis; carrageenan; citric and fatty acid esters of glycerol; gardenia yellow; lutein esters from Tagetes erecta; octenyl succinic acid-modified gum arabic; octenyl succinic acid-modified starch; paprika extract; and pectin) and eight groups of flavouring agents (aliphatic and alicyclic hydrocarbons; aliphatic and aromatic ethers; ionones and structurally related substances; miscellaneous nitrogen-containing substances; monocyclic and bicyclic secondary alcohols, ketones and related esters; phenol and phenol derivatives; phenyl-substituted aliphatic alcohols and related aldehydes and esters; and sulfur-containing heterocyclic compounds). Specifications for the following food additives were revised: citric acid; gellan gum; polyoxyethylene (20) sorbitan monostearate; potassium aluminium silicate; and Quillaia extract (Type 2). Annexed to the report are tables summarizing the Committee's recommendations for dietary exposures to and toxicological evaluations of all of the food additives and flavouring agents considered at this meeting.

  13. Clinical effects of sulphite additives.

    PubMed

    Vally, H; Misso, N L A; Madan, V

    2009-11-01

    Sulphites are widely used as preservative and antioxidant additives in the food and pharmaceutical industries. Topical, oral or parenteral exposure to sulphites has been reported to induce a range of adverse clinical effects in sensitive individuals, ranging from dermatitis, urticaria, flushing, hypotension, abdominal pain and diarrhoea to life-threatening anaphylactic and asthmatic reactions. Exposure to the sulphites arises mainly from the consumption of foods and drinks that contain these additives; however, exposure may also occur through the use of pharmaceutical products, as well as in occupational settings. While contact sensitivity to sulphite additives in topical medications is increasingly being recognized, skin reactions also occur after ingestion of or parenteral exposure to sulphites. Most studies report a 3-10% prevalence of sulphite sensitivity among asthmatic subjects following ingestion of these additives. However, the severity of these reactions varies, and steroid-dependent asthmatics, those with marked airway hyperresponsiveness, and children with chronic asthma, appear to be at greater risk. In addition to episodic and acute symptoms, sulphites may also contribute to chronic skin and respiratory symptoms. To date, the mechanisms underlying sulphite sensitivity remain unclear, although a number of potential mechanisms have been proposed. Physicians should be aware of the range of clinical manifestations of sulphite sensitivity, as well as the potential sources of exposure. Minor modifications to diet or behaviour lead to excellent clinical outcomes for sulphite-sensitive individuals.

  14. 32 CFR 1900.04 - Suggestions and complaints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ....04 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY PUBLIC... complaints. The Agency welcomes suggestions or complaints with regard to its administration of the Freedom of... suggestion or complaint should identify the specific purpose and the issues for consideration. The...

  15. 32 CFR 1907.04 - Suggestions and complaints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ....04 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY... General § 1907.04 Suggestions and complaints. The Agency welcomes suggestions or complaints with regard to... specific purpose and the issues for consideration. The Agency will respond to all...

  16. 32 CFR 1900.04 - Suggestions and complaints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ....04 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY PUBLIC... complaints. The Agency welcomes suggestions or complaints with regard to its administration of the Freedom of... suggestion or complaint should identify the specific purpose and the issues for consideration. The...

  17. 32 CFR 1900.04 - Suggestions and complaints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ....04 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY PUBLIC... complaints. The Agency welcomes suggestions or complaints with regard to its administration of the Freedom of... suggestion or complaint should identify the specific purpose and the issues for consideration. The...

  18. 32 CFR 1907.04 - Suggestions and complaints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ....04 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY... General § 1907.04 Suggestions and complaints. The Agency welcomes suggestions or complaints with regard to... specific purpose and the issues for consideration. The Agency will respond to all...

  19. 32 CFR 1907.04 - Suggestions and complaints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ....04 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY... General § 1907.04 Suggestions and complaints. The Agency welcomes suggestions or complaints with regard to... specific purpose and the issues for consideration. The Agency will respond to all...

  20. 32 CFR 1900.04 - Suggestions and complaints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ....04 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY PUBLIC... complaints. The Agency welcomes suggestions or complaints with regard to its administration of the Freedom of... suggestion or complaint should identify the specific purpose and the issues for consideration. The...

  1. The Effects of Repeated Experience on Children's Suggestibility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Martine B.; Roberts, Kim P.; Ceci, Stephen J.; Hembrooke, Helene

    1999-01-01

    Examined effect of suggestive questions on 3- to 5-year-olds' and 6- to 8-year-olds' recall of the final occurrence of repeated event. Found that relative to reports of children experiencing single occurrence, reports about fixed items of repeated events were less contaminated by false suggestions. Children's age and delay of interview were…

  2. Health Instruction Suggestions for Teachers. Revised Edition 1969.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oberteuffer, Delbert, Ed.

    1969-01-01

    This report on health instruction offers suggestions to stimulate the development of other activities tailored to specific situations. Content outlines suggesting concepts, learning activities, and discussion questions for evaluation are presented for each of the five sections that include preschool through senior high school levels. Topics…

  3. World War II Commemoration Committee: Fact Sheet and Suggested Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Defense, Washington, DC.

    This packet suggests activities and events that school districts, schools, classes, and educational organizations can conduct to commemorate World War II. Suggestions are made to include local veterans, including those in veteran's and nursing homes and hospitals, and youth at every possible opportunity. Recognition can take the form of military…

  4. 10 CFR 1045.7 - Suggestions or complaints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Suggestions or complaints. 1045.7 Section 1045.7 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) NUCLEAR CLASSIFICATION AND DECLASSIFICATION Program Management of the Restricted Data and Formerly Restricted Data Classification System § 1045.7 Suggestions...

  5. 10 CFR 1045.7 - Suggestions or complaints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Suggestions or complaints. 1045.7 Section 1045.7 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) NUCLEAR CLASSIFICATION AND DECLASSIFICATION Program Management of the Restricted Data and Formerly Restricted Data Classification System § 1045.7 Suggestions...

  6. 10 CFR 1045.7 - Suggestions or complaints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Suggestions or complaints. 1045.7 Section 1045.7 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) NUCLEAR CLASSIFICATION AND DECLASSIFICATION Program Management of the Restricted Data and Formerly Restricted Data Classification System § 1045.7 Suggestions...

  7. 10 CFR 1045.7 - Suggestions or complaints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Suggestions or complaints. 1045.7 Section 1045.7 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) NUCLEAR CLASSIFICATION AND DECLASSIFICATION Program Management of the Restricted Data and Formerly Restricted Data Classification System § 1045.7 Suggestions...

  8. 10 CFR 1045.7 - Suggestions or complaints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Suggestions or complaints. 1045.7 Section 1045.7 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) NUCLEAR CLASSIFICATION AND DECLASSIFICATION Program Management of the Restricted Data and Formerly Restricted Data Classification System § 1045.7 Suggestions...

  9. Theory-of-Mind Development Influences Suggestibility and Source Monitoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bright-Paul, Alexandra; Jarrold, Christopher; Wright, Daniel B.

    2008-01-01

    According to the mental-state reasoning model of suggestibility, 2 components of theory of mind mediate reductions in suggestibility across the preschool years. The authors examined whether theory-of-mind performance may be legitimately separated into 2 components and explored the memory processes underlying the associations between theory of mind…

  10. 32 CFR Enclosure - Suggested Format, Affidavit of Service by Mail

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Suggested Format, Affidavit of Service by Mail Enclosure National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE PERSONNEL, MILITARY AND CIVILIAN UNSATISFACTORY PERFORMANCE OF READY RESERVE OBLIGATION Definitions. Pt. 100, Encl. Enclosure—Suggested Format, Affidavit of Service...

  11. 32 CFR Enclosure - Suggested Format, Affidavit of Service by Mail

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Suggested Format, Affidavit of Service by Mail Enclosure National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE PERSONNEL, MILITARY AND CIVILIAN UNSATISFACTORY PERFORMANCE OF READY RESERVE OBLIGATION Definitions. Pt. 100, Encl. Enclosure—Suggested Format, Affidavit of Service...

  12. Suggested Subjects of Composition for Lower-Division Technical Writing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henson, Leigh

    Intended for use with students in lower division technical writing courses, this list of over 800 suggested composition subjects is drawn from surveys of technical writing teachers as well as from teachers of science and technology. The suggested subjects pertain to 16 types of papers commonly presented in textbooks and articles dealing with…

  13. A Suggested Management System for Secondary Migrant Counselors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vela, Jesus, Jr.

    A suggested management system for secondary migrant counselors is the second part of a guide to help migrant counselors meet the special needs of migrant students. It includes a list of counselors' competencies and suggested calendars of academic, vocational, and social activities. Competencies include organizing pre-registration and registration…

  14. Suggestive-Accelerative Learning and Teaching in Foreign Languages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herr, Kay U.

    The suggestive-accelerative approach to foreign language instruction is described. This method, first used in Bulgaria by Georgi Lozanov, emphasizes bringing the imagination to bear on the learning task, in a relaxed classroom environment. After establishing a calm atmosphere through direct and indirect suggestion, the teacher proceeds to…

  15. Students' Suggestions for Eliminating Bullying at a University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meriläinen, Matti; Puhakka, Helena; Sinkkonen, Hanna-Maija

    2015-01-01

    Students' suggestions for how to eliminate bullying at universities were gathered as part of an e-questionnaire sent to each university student (N = 10,551) at a Finnish university. The suggestions (n = 2804) regarding how to address bullying at universities were divided into the following four classes: support (944), punishment (78), support and…

  16. Moral Education in the Schools. Some Practical Suggestions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, Clive

    This document contains practical suggestions for moral education which, although tentative, are based to a considerable extent on classroom experimentation. There are three main sections. The first suggests a series of mini-courses to be incorporated in the school curriculum. It deals with personal and social values in general, human relations,…

  17. 32 CFR Enclosure - Suggested Format, Affidavit of Service by Mail

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Suggested Format, Affidavit of Service by Mail Enclosure National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE PERSONNEL, MILITARY AND CIVILIAN UNSATISFACTORY PERFORMANCE OF READY RESERVE OBLIGATION Definitions. Pt. 100, Encl. Enclosure—Suggested Format, Affidavit of Service...

  18. 32 CFR 1900.04 - Suggestions and complaints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Suggestions and complaints. 1900.04 Section 1900.04 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY PUBLIC ACCESS TO CIA RECORDS UNDER THE FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT (FOIA) General § 1900.04 Suggestions...

  19. Reconstruction of cyclooxygenase evolution in animals suggests variable, lineage-specific duplications, and homologs with low sequence identity.

    PubMed

    Havird, Justin C; Kocot, Kevin M; Brannock, Pamela M; Cannon, Johanna T; Waits, Damien S; Weese, David A; Santos, Scott R; Halanych, Kenneth M

    2015-04-01

    Cyclooxygenase (COX) enzymatically converts arachidonic acid into prostaglandin G/H in animals and has importance during pregnancy, digestion, and other physiological functions in mammals. COX genes have mainly been described from vertebrates, where gene duplications are common, but few studies have examined COX in invertebrates. Given the increasing ease in generating genomic data, as well as recent, although incomplete descriptions of potential COX sequences in Mollusca, Crustacea, and Insecta, assessing COX evolution across Metazoa is now possible. Here, we recover 40 putative COX orthologs by searching publicly available genomic resources as well as ~250 novel invertebrate transcriptomic datasets. Results suggest the common ancestor of Cnidaria and Bilateria possessed a COX homolog similar to those of vertebrates, although such homologs were not found in poriferan and ctenophore genomes. COX was found in most crustaceans and the majority of molluscs examined, but only specific taxa/lineages within Cnidaria and Annelida. For example, all octocorallians appear to have COX, while no COX homologs were found in hexacorallian datasets. Most species examined had a single homolog, although species-specific COX duplications were found in members of Annelida, Mollusca, and Cnidaria. Additionally, COX genes were not found in Hemichordata, Echinodermata, or Platyhelminthes, and the few previously described COX genes in Insecta lacked appreciable sequence homology (although structural analyses suggest these may still be functional COX enzymes). This analysis provides a benchmark for identifying COX homologs in future genomic and transcriptomic datasets, and identifies lineages for future studies of COX. PMID:25758350

  20. Reconstruction of cyclooxygenase evolution in animals suggests variable, lineage-specific duplications, and homologs with low sequence identity.

    PubMed

    Havird, Justin C; Kocot, Kevin M; Brannock, Pamela M; Cannon, Johanna T; Waits, Damien S; Weese, David A; Santos, Scott R; Halanych, Kenneth M

    2015-04-01

    Cyclooxygenase (COX) enzymatically converts arachidonic acid into prostaglandin G/H in animals and has importance during pregnancy, digestion, and other physiological functions in mammals. COX genes have mainly been described from vertebrates, where gene duplications are common, but few studies have examined COX in invertebrates. Given the increasing ease in generating genomic data, as well as recent, although incomplete descriptions of potential COX sequences in Mollusca, Crustacea, and Insecta, assessing COX evolution across Metazoa is now possible. Here, we recover 40 putative COX orthologs by searching publicly available genomic resources as well as ~250 novel invertebrate transcriptomic datasets. Results suggest the common ancestor of Cnidaria and Bilateria possessed a COX homolog similar to those of vertebrates, although such homologs were not found in poriferan and ctenophore genomes. COX was found in most crustaceans and the majority of molluscs examined, but only specific taxa/lineages within Cnidaria and Annelida. For example, all octocorallians appear to have COX, while no COX homologs were found in hexacorallian datasets. Most species examined had a single homolog, although species-specific COX duplications were found in members of Annelida, Mollusca, and Cnidaria. Additionally, COX genes were not found in Hemichordata, Echinodermata, or Platyhelminthes, and the few previously described COX genes in Insecta lacked appreciable sequence homology (although structural analyses suggest these may still be functional COX enzymes). This analysis provides a benchmark for identifying COX homologs in future genomic and transcriptomic datasets, and identifies lineages for future studies of COX.

  1. Large-scale association analyses identify new loci influencing glycemic traits and provide insight into the underlying biological pathways

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Robert A; Lagou, Vasiliki; Welch, Ryan P; Wheeler, Eleanor; Montasser, May E; Luan, Jian’an; Mägi, Reedik; Strawbridge, Rona J; Rehnberg, Emil; Gustafsson, Stefan; Kanoni, Stavroula; Rasmussen-Torvik, Laura J; Yengo, Loïc; Lecoeur, Cecile; Shungin, Dmitry; Sanna, Serena; Sidore, Carlo; Johnson, Paul C D; Jukema, J Wouter; Johnson, Toby; Mahajan, Anubha; Verweij, Niek; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Shah, Sonia; Smith, Albert V; Sennblad, Bengt; Gieger, Christian; Salo, Perttu; Perola, Markus; Timpson, Nicholas J; Evans, David M; Pourcain, Beate St; Wu, Ying; Andrews, Jeanette S; Hui, Jennie; Bielak, Lawrence F; Zhao, Wei; Horikoshi, Momoko; Navarro, Pau; Isaacs, Aaron; O’Connell, Jeffrey R; Stirrups, Kathleen; Vitart, Veronique; Hayward, Caroline; Esko, Tönu; Mihailov, Evelin; Fraser, Ross M; Fall, Tove; Voight, Benjamin F; Raychaudhuri, Soumya; Chen, Han; Lindgren, Cecilia M; Morris, Andrew P; Rayner, Nigel W; Robertson, Neil; Rybin, Denis; Liu, Ching-Ti; Beckmann, Jacques S; Willems, Sara M; Chines, Peter S; Jackson, Anne U; Kang, Hyun Min; Stringham, Heather M; Song, Kijoung; Tanaka, Toshiko; Peden, John F; Goel, Anuj; Hicks, Andrew A; An, Ping; Müller-Nurasyid, Martina; Franco-Cereceda, Anders; Folkersen, Lasse; Marullo, Letizia; Jansen, Hanneke; Oldehinkel, Albertine J; Bruinenberg, Marcel; Pankow, James S; North, Kari E; Forouhi, Nita G; Loos, Ruth J F; Edkins, Sarah; Varga, Tibor V; Hallmans, Göran; Oksa, Heikki; Antonella, Mulas; Nagaraja, Ramaiah; Trompet, Stella; Ford, Ian; Bakker, Stephan J L; Kong, Augustine; Kumari, Meena; Gigante, Bruna; Herder, Christian; Munroe, Patricia B; Caulfield, Mark; Antti, Jula; Mangino, Massimo; Small, Kerrin; Miljkovic, Iva; Liu, Yongmei; Atalay, Mustafa; Kiess, Wieland; James, Alan L; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Uitterlinden, Andre G; Palmer, Colin N A; Doney, Alex S F; Willemsen, Gonneke; Smit, Johannes H; Campbell, Susan; Polasek, Ozren; Bonnycastle, Lori L; Hercberg, Serge; Dimitriou, Maria; Bolton, Jennifer L; Fowkes, Gerard R; Kovacs, Peter; Lindström, Jaana; Zemunik, Tatijana; Bandinelli, Stefania; Wild, Sarah H; Basart, Hanneke V; Rathmann, Wolfgang; Grallert, Harald; Maerz, Winfried; Kleber, Marcus E; Boehm, Bernhard O; Peters, Annette; Pramstaller, Peter P; Province, Michael A; Borecki, Ingrid B; Hastie, Nicholas D; Rudan, Igor; Campbell, Harry; Watkins, Hugh; Farrall, Martin; Stumvoll, Michael; Ferrucci, Luigi; Waterworth, Dawn M; Bergman, Richard N; Collins, Francis S; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Watanabe, Richard M; de Geus, Eco J C; Penninx, Brenda W; Hofman, Albert; Oostra, Ben A; Psaty, Bruce M; Vollenweider, Peter; Wilson, James F; Wright, Alan F; Hovingh, G Kees; Metspalu, Andres; Uusitupa, Matti; Magnusson, Patrik K E; Kyvik, Kirsten O; Kaprio, Jaakko; Price, Jackie F; Dedoussis, George V; Deloukas, Panos; Meneton, Pierre; Lind, Lars; Boehnke, Michael; Shuldiner, Alan R; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Morris, Andrew D; Toenjes, Anke; Peyser, Patricia A; Beilby, John P; Körner, Antje; Kuusisto, Johanna; Laakso, Markku; Bornstein, Stefan R; Schwarz, Peter E H; Lakka, Timo A; Rauramaa, Rainer; Adair, Linda S; Smith, George Davey; Spector, Tim D; Illig, Thomas; de Faire, Ulf; Hamsten, Anders; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Kivimaki, Mika; Hingorani, Aroon; Keinanen-Kiukaanniemi, Sirkka M; Saaristo, Timo E; Boomsma, Dorret I; Stefansson, Kari; van der Harst, Pim; Dupuis, Josée; Pedersen, Nancy L; Sattar, Naveed; Harris, Tamara B; Cucca, Francesco; Ripatti, Samuli; Salomaa, Veikko; Mohlke, Karen L; Balkau, Beverley; Froguel, Philippe; Pouta, Anneli; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Wareham, Nicholas J; Bouatia-Naji, Nabila; McCarthy, Mark I; Franks, Paul W; Meigs, James B; Teslovich, Tanya M; Florez, Jose C; Langenberg, Claudia; Ingelsson, Erik; Prokopenko, Inga; Barroso, Inês

    2012-01-01

    Through genome-wide association meta-analyses of up to 133,010 individuals of European ancestry without diabetes, including individuals newly genotyped using the Metabochip, we have raised the number of confirmed loci influencing glycemic traits to 53, of which 33 also increase type 2 diabetes risk (q < 0.05). Loci influencing fasting insulin showed association with lipid levels and fat distribution, suggesting impact on insulin resistance. Gene-based analyses identified further biologically plausible loci, suggesting that additional loci beyond those reaching genome-wide significance are likely to represent real associations. This conclusion is supported by an excess of directionally consistent and nominally significant signals between discovery and follow-up studies. Functional follow-up of these newly discovered loci will further improve our understanding of glycemic control. PMID:22885924

  2. Large-scale association analyses identify new loci influencing glycemic traits and provide insight into the underlying biological pathways.

    PubMed

    Scott, Robert A; Lagou, Vasiliki; Welch, Ryan P; Wheeler, Eleanor; Montasser, May E; Luan, Jian'an; Mägi, Reedik; Strawbridge, Rona J; Rehnberg, Emil; Gustafsson, Stefan; Kanoni, Stavroula; Rasmussen-Torvik, Laura J; Yengo, Loïc; Lecoeur, Cecile; Shungin, Dmitry; Sanna, Serena; Sidore, Carlo; Johnson, Paul C D; Jukema, J Wouter; Johnson, Toby; Mahajan, Anubha; Verweij, Niek; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Shah, Sonia; Smith, Albert V; Sennblad, Bengt; Gieger, Christian; Salo, Perttu; Perola, Markus; Timpson, Nicholas J; Evans, David M; Pourcain, Beate St; Wu, Ying; Andrews, Jeanette S; Hui, Jennie; Bielak, Lawrence F; Zhao, Wei; Horikoshi, Momoko; Navarro, Pau; Isaacs, Aaron; O'Connell, Jeffrey R; Stirrups, Kathleen; Vitart, Veronique; Hayward, Caroline; Esko, Tõnu; Mihailov, Evelin; Fraser, Ross M; Fall, Tove; Voight, Benjamin F; Raychaudhuri, Soumya; Chen, Han; Lindgren, Cecilia M; Morris, Andrew P; Rayner, Nigel W; Robertson, Neil; Rybin, Denis; Liu, Ching-Ti; Beckmann, Jacques S; Willems, Sara M; Chines, Peter S; Jackson, Anne U; Kang, Hyun Min; Stringham, Heather M; Song, Kijoung; Tanaka, Toshiko; Peden, John F; Goel, Anuj; Hicks, Andrew A; An, Ping; Müller-Nurasyid, Martina; Franco-Cereceda, Anders; Folkersen, Lasse; Marullo, Letizia; Jansen, Hanneke; Oldehinkel, Albertine J; Bruinenberg, Marcel; Pankow, James S; North, Kari E; Forouhi, Nita G; Loos, Ruth J F; Edkins, Sarah; Varga, Tibor V; Hallmans, Göran; Oksa, Heikki; Antonella, Mulas; Nagaraja, Ramaiah; Trompet, Stella; Ford, Ian; Bakker, Stephan J L; Kong, Augustine; Kumari, Meena; Gigante, Bruna; Herder, Christian; Munroe, Patricia B; Caulfield, Mark; Antti, Jula; Mangino, Massimo; Small, Kerrin; Miljkovic, Iva; Liu, Yongmei; Atalay, Mustafa; Kiess, Wieland; James, Alan L; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Uitterlinden, Andre G; Palmer, Colin N A; Doney, Alex S F; Willemsen, Gonneke; Smit, Johannes H; Campbell, Susan; Polasek, Ozren; Bonnycastle, Lori L; Hercberg, Serge; Dimitriou, Maria; Bolton, Jennifer L; Fowkes, Gerard R; Kovacs, Peter; Lindström, Jaana; Zemunik, Tatijana; Bandinelli, Stefania; Wild, Sarah H; Basart, Hanneke V; Rathmann, Wolfgang; Grallert, Harald; Maerz, Winfried; Kleber, Marcus E; Boehm, Bernhard O; Peters, Annette; Pramstaller, Peter P; Province, Michael A; Borecki, Ingrid B; Hastie, Nicholas D; Rudan, Igor; Campbell, Harry; Watkins, Hugh; Farrall, Martin; Stumvoll, Michael; Ferrucci, Luigi; Waterworth, Dawn M; Bergman, Richard N; Collins, Francis S; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Watanabe, Richard M; de Geus, Eco J C; Penninx, Brenda W; Hofman, Albert; Oostra, Ben A; Psaty, Bruce M; Vollenweider, Peter; Wilson, James F; Wright, Alan F; Hovingh, G Kees; Metspalu, Andres; Uusitupa, Matti; Magnusson, Patrik K E; Kyvik, Kirsten O; Kaprio, Jaakko; Price, Jackie F; Dedoussis, George V; Deloukas, Panos; Meneton, Pierre; Lind, Lars; Boehnke, Michael; Shuldiner, Alan R; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Morris, Andrew D; Toenjes, Anke; Peyser, Patricia A; Beilby, John P; Körner, Antje; Kuusisto, Johanna; Laakso, Markku; Bornstein, Stefan R; Schwarz, Peter E H; Lakka, Timo A; Rauramaa, Rainer; Adair, Linda S; Smith, George Davey; Spector, Tim D; Illig, Thomas; de Faire, Ulf; Hamsten, Anders; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Kivimaki, Mika; Hingorani, Aroon; Keinanen-Kiukaanniemi, Sirkka M; Saaristo, Timo E; Boomsma, Dorret I; Stefansson, Kari; van der Harst, Pim; Dupuis, Josée; Pedersen, Nancy L; Sattar, Naveed; Harris, Tamara B; Cucca, Francesco; Ripatti, Samuli; Salomaa, Veikko; Mohlke, Karen L; Balkau, Beverley; Froguel, Philippe; Pouta, Anneli; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Wareham, Nicholas J; Bouatia-Naji, Nabila; McCarthy, Mark I; Franks, Paul W; Meigs, James B; Teslovich, Tanya M; Florez, Jose C; Langenberg, Claudia; Ingelsson, Erik; Prokopenko, Inga; Barroso, Inês

    2012-09-01

    Through genome-wide association meta-analyses of up to 133,010 individuals of European ancestry without diabetes, including individuals newly genotyped using the Metabochip, we have increased the number of confirmed loci influencing glycemic traits to 53, of which 33 also increase type 2 diabetes risk (q < 0.05). Loci influencing fasting insulin concentration showed association with lipid levels and fat distribution, suggesting impact on insulin resistance. Gene-based analyses identified further biologically plausible loci, suggesting that additional loci beyond those reaching genome-wide significance are likely to represent real associations. This conclusion is supported by an excess of directionally consistent and nominally significant signals between discovery and follow-up studies. Functional analysis of these newly discovered loci will further improve our understanding of glycemic control. PMID:22885924

  3. Automated nutrient analyses in seawater

    SciTech Connect

    Whitledge, T.E.; Malloy, S.C.; Patton, C.J.; Wirick, C.D.

    1981-02-01

    This manual was assembled for use as a guide for analyzing the nutrient content of seawater samples collected in the marine coastal zone of the Northeast United States and the Bering Sea. Some modifications (changes in dilution or sample pump tube sizes) may be necessary to achieve optimum measurements in very pronounced oligotrophic, eutrophic or brackish areas. Information is presented under the following section headings: theory and mechanics of automated analysis; continuous flow system description; operation of autoanalyzer system; cookbook of current nutrient methods; automated analyzer and data analysis software; computer interfacing and hardware modifications; and trouble shooting. The three appendixes are entitled: references and additional reading; manifold components and chemicals; and software listings. (JGB)

  4. The Disgust Scale: Item Analysis, Factor Structure, and Suggestions for Refinement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olatunji, Bunmi O.; Williams, Nathan L.; Tolin, David F.; Abramowitz, Jonathan S.; Sawchuk, Craig N.; Lohr, Jeffrey M.; Elwood, Lisa S.

    2007-01-01

    In the 4 studies presented (N = 1,939), a converging set of analyses was conducted to evaluate the item adequacy, factor structure, reliability, and validity of the Disgust Scale (DS; J. Haidt, C. McCauley, & P. Rozin, 1994). The results suggest that 7 items (i.e., Items 2, 7, 8, 21, 23, 24, and 25) should be considered for removal from the DS.…

  5. Additive Manufacturing of Hybrid Circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarobol, Pylin; Cook, Adam; Clem, Paul G.; Keicher, David; Hirschfeld, Deidre; Hall, Aaron C.; Bell, Nelson S.

    2016-07-01

    There is a rising interest in developing functional electronics using additively manufactured components. Considerations in materials selection and pathways to forming hybrid circuits and devices must demonstrate useful electronic function; must enable integration; and must complement the complex shape, low cost, high volume, and high functionality of structural but generally electronically passive additively manufactured components. This article reviews several emerging technologies being used in industry and research/development to provide integration advantages of fabricating multilayer hybrid circuits or devices. First, we review a maskless, noncontact, direct write (DW) technology that excels in the deposition of metallic colloid inks for electrical interconnects. Second, we review a complementary technology, aerosol deposition (AD), which excels in the deposition of metallic and ceramic powder as consolidated, thick conformal coatings and is additionally patternable through masking. Finally, we show examples of hybrid circuits/devices integrated beyond 2-D planes, using combinations of DW or AD processes and conventional, established processes.

  6. Postmarketing surveillance of food additives.

    PubMed

    Butchko, H H; Tschanz, C; Kotsonis, F N

    1994-08-01

    Postmarketing surveillance of consumption and of anecdotal reports of adverse health effects has been recognized by a number of regulatory authorities as a potentially useful method to provide further assurance of the safety of new food additives. Surveillance of consumption is used to estimate more reliably actual consumption levels relative to the acceptable daily intake of a food additive. Surveillance of anecdotal reports of adverse health effects is used to determine the presence of infrequent idiosyncratic responses that may not be predictable from premarket evaluations. The high-intensity sweetner, aspartame, is a food additive that has been the subject of extensive evaluation during the postmarketing period and is thus used as an example to discuss postmarketing surveillance.

  7. Analysing intracellular deformation of polymer capsules using structured illumination microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xi; Cui, Jiwei; Sun, Huanli; Müllner, Markus; Yan, Yan; Noi, Ka Fung; Ping, Yuan; Caruso, Frank

    2016-06-01

    Understanding the behaviour of therapeutic carriers is important in elucidating their mechanism of action and how they are processed inside cells. Herein we examine the intracellular deformation of layer-by-layer assembled polymer capsules using super-resolution structured illumination microscopy (SIM). Spherical- and cylindrical-shaped capsules were studied in three different cell lines, namely HeLa (human epithelial cell line), RAW264.7 (mouse macrophage cell line) and differentiated THP-1 (human monocyte-derived macrophage cell line). We observed that the deformation of capsules was dependent on cell line, but independent of capsule shape. This suggests that the mechanical forces, which induce capsule deformation during cell uptake, vary between cell lines, indicating that the capsules are exposed to higher mechanical forces in HeLa cells, followed by RAW264.7 and then differentiated THP-1 cells. Our study demonstrates the use of super-resolution SIM in analysing intracellular capsule deformation, offering important insights into the cellular processing of drug carriers in cells and providing fundamental knowledge of intracellular mechanobiology. Furthermore, this study may aid in the design of novel drug carriers that are sensitive to deformation for enhanced drug release properties.Understanding the behaviour of therapeutic carriers is important in elucidating their mechanism of action and how they are processed inside cells. Herein we examine the intracellular deformation of layer-by-layer assembled polymer capsules using super-resolution structured illumination microscopy (SIM). Spherical- and cylindrical-shaped capsules were studied in three different cell lines, namely HeLa (human epithelial cell line), RAW264.7 (mouse macrophage cell line) and differentiated THP-1 (human monocyte-derived macrophage cell line). We observed that the deformation of capsules was dependent on cell line, but independent of capsule shape. This suggests that the mechanical forces

  8. "Analysing Genre: Language Use in Professional Settings." A Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drury, Helen

    1995-01-01

    "Analysing Genre," by Vijay K. Bhatia, is a timely addition to the literature on genre analysis in English for specific purposes. It is divided into three parts: the first provides theoretical background; the second explains how genre analysis works in different academic and professional settings; and the third exemplifies the application of genre…

  9. Tougher Addition Polyimides Containing Siloxane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    St. Clair, T. L.; Maudgal, S.

    1986-01-01

    Laminates show increased impact resistances and other desirable mechanical properties. Bismaleamic acid extended by reaction of diaminosiloxane with maleic anhydride in 1:1 molar ratio, followed by reaction with half this molar ratio of aromatic dianhydride. Bismaleamic acid also extended by reaction of diaminosiloxane with maleic anhydride in 1:2 molar ratio, followed by reaction with half this molar ratio of aromatic diamine (Michael-addition reaction). Impact resistances improved over those of unmodified bismaleimide, showing significant increase in toughness. Aromatic addition polyimides developed as both matrix and adhesive resins for applications on future aircraft and spacecraft.

  10. Priming addition facts with semantic relations.

    PubMed

    Bassok, Miriam; Pedigo, Samuel F; Oskarsson, An T

    2008-03-01

    Results from 2 relational-priming experiments suggest the existence of an automatic analogical coordination between semantic and arithmetic relations. Word pairs denoting object sets served as primes in a task that elicits "obligatory" activation of addition facts (5 + 3 activates 8; J. LeFevre, J. Bisanz, & L. Mrkonjic, 1988). Semantic relations between the priming words were either aligned or misaligned with the structure of addition (M. Bassok, V. M. Chase, & S. A. Martin, 1998). Obligatory activation of addition facts occurred when the digits were primed by categorically related words (tulips-daisies), which are aligned with addition, but did not occur when the digits were primed by unrelated words (hens-radios, Experiment 1) or by functionally related words (records-songs, Experiment 2), which are misaligned with addition. These findings lend support to the viability of automatic analogical priming (B. A. Spellman, K. J. Holyoak, & R. G. Morrison, 2001) and highlight the relevance of arithmetic applications to theoretical accounts of mental arithmetic. PMID:18315410

  11. Lubricating additive for drilling muds

    SciTech Connect

    Gutierrez, A.; Brois, S. J.; Brownawell, D. W.; Walker, T. O.

    1985-01-01

    Aqueous drilling fluids containing a minor amount of an additive composition featuring oxazolines of C/sub 1/-C/sub 30/ alkylthioglycolic acid. Such fluids are especially useful where reduced torque drilling fluids are needed. Another embodiment of this invention relates to a method of drilling utilizing the above-described fluids.

  12. Tetrasulfide extreme pressure lubricant additives

    SciTech Connect

    Gast, L.E.; Kenney, H.E.; Schwab, A.W.

    1980-08-19

    A novel class of compounds has been prepared comprising the tetrasulfides of /sup 18/C hydrocarbons, /sup 18/C fatty acids, and /sup 18/C fatty and alkyl and triglyceride esters. These tetrasulfides are useful as extreme pressure lubricant additives and show potential as replacements for sulfurized sperm whale oil.

  13. Promoting Additive Acculturation in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, Margaret A.

    1995-01-01

    A study focusing on 113 ninth graders of Mexican descent indicates that most students and their parents adhere to a strategy of additive acculturation (incorporating skills of the new culture and language), but that the school curriculum and general school climate devalue Mexican culture. (SLD)

  14. Individualized Additional Instruction for Calculus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takata, Ken

    2010-01-01

    College students enrolling in the calculus sequence have a wide variance in their preparation and abilities, yet they are usually taught from the same lecture. We describe another pedagogical model of Individualized Additional Instruction (IAI) that assesses each student frequently and prescribes further instruction and homework based on the…

  15. Out of bounds additive manufacturing

    DOE PAGES

    Holshouser, Chris; Newell, Clint; Palas, Sid; Love, Lonnie J.; Kunc, Vlastimil; Lind, Randall F.; Lloyd, Peter D.; Rowe, John C.; Blue, Craig A.; Duty, Chad E.; et al

    2013-03-01

    Lockheed Martin and Oak Ridge National Laboratory are working on an additive manufacturing system capable of manufacturing components measured not in terms of inches or feet, but multiple yards in all dimensions with the potential to manufacture parts that are completely unbounded in size.

  16. Tinkertoy Color-Addition Device.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Joe L.

    1995-01-01

    Describes construction and use of a simple home-built device, using an overhead projector, for use in demonstrations of the addition of various combinations of red, green, and blue light. Useful in connection with discussions of color, color vision, or color television. (JRH)

  17. Nucleophilic Addition of Thiols to Deoxynivalenol.

    PubMed

    Stanic, Ana; Uhlig, Silvio; Solhaug, Anita; Rise, Frode; Wilkins, Alistair L; Miles, Christopher O

    2015-09-01

    Conjugation of deoxynivalenol (DON) with sulfur compounds is recognized as a significant reaction pathway, and putative DON-glutathione (DON-GSH) conjugates have been reported in planta. To understand and control the reaction of trichothecenes with biologically important thiols, we studied the reaction of DON, T-2 tetraol, and de-epoxy-DON with a range of model thiols. Reaction conditions were optimized for DON with 2-mercaptoethanol. Major reaction products were identified using HRMS and NMR spectroscopy. The results indicate that thiols react reversibly with the double bond (Michael addition) and irreversibly with the epoxide group in trichothecenes. These reactions occurred at different rates, and multiple isomers were produced including diconjugated forms. LC-MS analyses indicated that glutathione and cysteine reacted with DON in a similar manner to the model thiols. In contrast to DON, none of the tested mercaptoethanol adducts displayed toxicity in human monocytes or induced pro-inflammatory cytokines in human macrophages.

  18. Evaluation of certain food additives.

    PubMed

    2012-01-01

    This report represents the conclusions of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee convened to evaluate the safety of various food additives, including flavouring agents, with a view to concluding as to safety concerns and to preparing specifications for identity and purity. The first part of the report contains a general discussion of the principles governing the toxicological evaluation of and assessment of dietary exposure to food additives, including flavouring agents. A summary follows of the Committee's evaluations of technical, toxicological and dietary exposure data for five food additives (magnesium dihydrogen diphosphate; mineral oil (medium and low viscosity) classes II and III; 3-phytase from Aspergillus niger expressed in Aspergillus niger; serine protease (chymotrypsin) from Nocardiopsis prasina expressed in Bacillus licheniformis; and serine protease (trypsin) from Fusarium oxysporum expressed in Fusarium venenatum) and 16 groups of flavouring agents (aliphatic and aromatic amines and amides; aliphatic and aromatic ethers; aliphatic hydrocarbons, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids and related esters, sulfides, disulfides and ethers containing furan substitution; aliphatic linear alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes, acids and related alcohols, acetals and esters; amino acids and related substances; epoxides; furfuryl alcohol and related substances; linear and branched-chain aliphatic, unsaturated, unconjugated alcohols, aldehydes, acids and related esters; miscellaneous nitrogen-containing substances; phenol and phenol derivatives; pyrazine derivatives; pyridine, pyrrole and quinoline derivatives; saturated aliphatic acyclic branched-chain primary alcohols, aldehydes and acids; simple aliphatic and aromatic sulfides and thiols; sulfur-containing heterocyclic compounds; and sulfur-substituted furan derivatives). Specifications for the following food additives were revised: ethyl cellulose, mineral oil (medium viscosity), modified starches and titanium

  19. Evaluation of certain food additives.

    PubMed

    2012-01-01

    This report represents the conclusions of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee convened to evaluate the safety of various food additives, including flavouring agents, with a view to concluding as to safety concerns and to preparing specifications for identity and purity. The first part of the report contains a general discussion of the principles governing the toxicological evaluation of and assessment of dietary exposure to food additives, including flavouring agents. A summary follows of the Committee's evaluations of technical, toxicological and dietary exposure data for five food additives (magnesium dihydrogen diphosphate; mineral oil (medium and low viscosity) classes II and III; 3-phytase from Aspergillus niger expressed in Aspergillus niger; serine protease (chymotrypsin) from Nocardiopsis prasina expressed in Bacillus licheniformis; and serine protease (trypsin) from Fusarium oxysporum expressed in Fusarium venenatum) and 16 groups of flavouring agents (aliphatic and aromatic amines and amides; aliphatic and aromatic ethers; aliphatic hydrocarbons, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids and related esters, sulfides, disulfides and ethers containing furan substitution; aliphatic linear alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes, acids and related alcohols, acetals and esters; amino acids and related substances; epoxides; furfuryl alcohol and related substances; linear and branched-chain aliphatic, unsaturated, unconjugated alcohols, aldehydes, acids and related esters; miscellaneous nitrogen-containing substances; phenol and phenol derivatives; pyrazine derivatives; pyridine, pyrrole and quinoline derivatives; saturated aliphatic acyclic branched-chain primary alcohols, aldehydes and acids; simple aliphatic and aromatic sulfides and thiols; sulfur-containing heterocyclic compounds; and sulfur-substituted furan derivatives). Specifications for the following food additives were revised: ethyl cellulose, mineral oil (medium viscosity), modified starches and titanium

  20. Effects of exercise on anxiety and depression disorders: review of meta- analyses and neurobiological mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Wegner, Mirko; Helmich, Ingo; Machado, Sergio; Nardi, Antonio E; Arias-Carrion, Oscar; Budde, Henning

    2014-01-01

    Anxiety and depression are the most frequently diagnosed psychological diseases showing a high co-morbidity. They have a severe impact on the lives of the persons concerned. Many meta-analytical studies suggested a positive anxiolytic and depression-reducing effect of exercise programs. The aim of the present article is to synthesize metaanalyses on the effects of exercise on anxiety and depression and to describe average effect sizes. For this purpose 37 meta-analyses were included reporting 50 effect sizes for anxiety scores of 42,264 participants and depression scores of 48,207 persons. The average documented anxiolytic effect of exercise in these reviews was small, 0.34. In contrast, the effect of exercise on depression was significantly higher and at a moderate level, 0.56. Data of randomized controlled trials suggest higher sizes for the effect of exercise on anxiety and depression leading to increases up to moderate and large effects, respectively. Additionally, exercise seems to be more beneficial for patients compared to participants within a non-clinical, normal range of psychological disease. Especially for the effect of exercise on anxiety, more high quality meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials are needed. Finally, possible neurobiological explanations are suggested for the positive effect of exercise on psychological disorders like anxiety and depression.

  1. Suggested Activities for a Unit on the Middle East.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    1983-01-01

    Student activities that focus on the different cultures and the history of the Middle East from Biblical times to the present are suggested. These include debates, art projects, slide shows, maps, and research problems. (IS)

  2. VIEW OF BASE END STATION LEARY SHOWING THE SUGGESTED APPEARANCE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF BASE END STATION LEARY SHOWING THE SUGGESTED APPEARANCE DURING USE, FACING NORTH, VIEW IS OF THE FRONT - White's Point Reservation, Base End Stations, B"3, Bounded by Voyager Circle & Mariner Drive, San Pedro, Los Angeles County, CA

  3. VIEW OF BASE END STATION OSGOOD SHOWING THE SUGGESTED APPEARANCE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF BASE END STATION OSGOOD SHOWING THE SUGGESTED APPEARANCE DURING USE, FACING NORTH, VIEW IS OF THE FRONT - White's Point Reservation, Base End Stations, B"5, Bounded by Voyager Circle & Mariner Drive, San Pedro, Los Angeles County, CA

  4. 1. VIEW OF BASE END STATION PARLEY SHOWING THE SUGGESTED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW OF BASE END STATION PARLEY SHOWING THE SUGGESTED APPEARANCE DURING USE, FACING NORTH. VIEW IS OF THE FRONT. - White's Point Reservation, Base End Stations, B"6, Bounded by Voyager Circle & Mariner Drive, San Pedro, Los Angeles County, CA

  5. VIEW OF BASE END STATION SAXTON SHOWING THE SUGGESTED APPEARANCE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF BASE END STATION SAXTON SHOWING THE SUGGESTED APPEARANCE DURING USE, FACING NORTH, VIEW IS OF THE FRONT - White's Point Reservation, Base End Stations, B"2, Bounded by Voyager Circle & Mariner Drive, San Pedro, Los Angeles County, CA

  6. Using Neurolinguistic Programming: Some Suggestions for the Remedial Teacher.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burton, Grace M.

    1986-01-01

    The use of neurolinguistic programming techniques is suggested as a means of enhancing rapport with students. Mirroring, digital mirroring, analog mirroring, metaphors, knowing persons, and how these aid in presenting content are each discussed. (MNS)

  7. Review Suggests Safe, Effective Ways to Relieve Pain Without Meds

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160744.html Review Suggests Safe, Effective Ways to Relieve Pain Without ... appear to be effective, according to a new review. Millions of Americans seek pain relief through such ...

  8. Study Suggests Genetic Link to Middle Ear Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_161378.html Study Suggests Genetic Link to Middle Ear Infections They're the ... News) -- Researchers say they've found a potential genetic link to a child's higher risk of middle ...

  9. Basaltic Cone Suggests Constructional Origin of Some Guyots.

    PubMed

    Christensen, M N; Gilbert, C M

    1964-01-17

    A basaltic cinder cone was built beneath the waters of Mono Lake in Pleistocene time. This cone is now exposed. Its internal structure, external form, and petrography suggest that it was constructed with a flat top.

  10. Basaltic Cone Suggests Constructional Origin of Some Guyots.

    PubMed

    Christensen, M N; Gilbert, C M

    1964-01-17

    A basaltic cinder cone was built beneath the waters of Mono Lake in Pleistocene time. This cone is now exposed. Its internal structure, external form, and petrography suggest that it was constructed with a flat top. PMID:17753148

  11. Impotence Drugs Won't Raise Melanoma Risk, Study Suggests

    MedlinePlus

    ... in these patients is likely due to more sun exposure To use the sharing features on this page, ... in some cases. In particular, they suggested that sun exposure may play a big role. The study was ...

  12. Study Suggests Type 2 Diabetes-Cancer Link

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159814.html Study Suggests Type 2 Diabetes-Cancer Link It hints ... screening tests following a diagnosis of diabetes," said study author Dr. Iliana Lega, of the University of ...

  13. Sociomoral Development: Research Suggestions from a Twenty-Year Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbs, John C.

    1995-01-01

    Critiques 20 years of moral education research, briefly commenting on major developments and theories. Discusses the link between cognitive distortion and antisocial behavior in adolescents. Includes a list of theoretical suggestions for future research. (MJP)

  14. Reporting guidelines for population pharmacokinetic analyses.

    PubMed

    Dykstra, Kevin; Mehrotra, Nitin; Tornøe, Christoffer Wenzel; Kastrissios, Helen; Patel, Bela; Al-Huniti, Nidal; Jadhav, Pravin; Wang, Yaning; Byon, Wonkyung

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this work was to develop a consolidated set of guiding principles for reporting of population pharmacokinetic (PK) analyses based on input from a survey of practitioners as well as discussions between industry, consulting and regulatory scientists. The survey found that identification of population covariate effects on drug exposure and support for dose selection (where population PK frequently serves as preparatory analysis to exposure-response modeling) are the main areas of influence for population PK analysis. The proposed guidelines consider two main purposes of population PK reports (1) to present key analysis findings and their impact on drug development decisions, and (2) as documentation of the analysis methods for the dual purpose of enabling review of the analysis and facilitating future use of the models. This work also identified two main audiences for the reports: (1) a technically competent group responsible for in-depth review of the data, methodology, and results, and (2) a scientifically literate, but not technically adept group, whose main interest is in the implications of the analysis for the broader drug development program. We recommend a generalized question-based approach with six questions that need to be addressed throughout the report. We recommend eight sections (Synopsis, Introduction, Data, Methods, Results, Discussion, Conclusions, Appendix) with suggestions for the target audience and level of detail for each section. A section providing general expectations regarding population PK reporting from a regulatory perspective is also included. We consider this an important step towards industrialization of the field of pharmacometrics such that non-technical audience also understands the role of pharmacometrics analyses in decision making. Population PK reports were chosen as representative reports to derive these recommendations; however, the guiding principles presented here are applicable for all pharmacometric reports

  15. Reporting guidelines for population pharmacokinetic analyses.

    PubMed

    Dykstra, Kevin; Mehrotra, Nitin; Tornøe, Christoffer Wenzel; Kastrissios, Helen; Patel, Bela; Al-Huniti, Nidal; Jadhav, Pravin; Wang, Yaning; Byon, Wonkyung

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this work was to develop a consolidated set of guiding principles for the reporting of population pharmacokinetic (PK) analyses based on input from a survey of practitioners as well as discussions between industry, consulting, and regulatory scientists. The survey found that identification of population covariate effects on drug exposure and support for dose selection (in which population PK frequently serves as preparatory analysis for exposure-response modeling) are the main areas of influence for population PK analysis. The proposed guidelines consider 2 main purposes of population PK reports: (1) to present key analysis findings and their impact on drug development decisions, and (2) as documentation of the analysis methods for the dual purpose of enabling review of the analysis and facilitating future use of the models. This work also identified 2 main audiences for the reports: (1) a technically competent group responsible for in-depth review of the data, methodology, and results; and (2) a scientifically literate but not technically adept group, whose main interest is in the implications of the analysis for the broader drug development program. We recommend a generalized question-based approach with 6 questions that need to be addressed throughout the report. We recommend 8 sections (Synopsis, Introduction, Data, Methods, Results, Discussion, Conclusions, Appendix) with suggestions for the target audience and level of detail for each section. A section providing general expectations regarding population PK reporting from a regulatory perspective is also included. We consider this an important step toward industrialization of the field of pharmacometrics such that a nontechnical audience also understands the role of pharmacometric analyses in decision making. Population PK reports were chosen as representative reports to derive these recommendations; however, the guiding principles presented here are applicable for all pharmacometric reports

  16. Reporting guidelines for population pharmacokinetic analyses.

    PubMed

    Dykstra, Kevin; Mehrotra, Nitin; Tornøe, Christoffer Wenzel; Kastrissios, Helen; Patel, Bela; Al-Huniti, Nidal; Jadhav, Pravin; Wang, Yaning; Byon, Wonkyung

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this work was to develop a consolidated set of guiding principles for reporting of population pharmacokinetic (PK) analyses based on input from a survey of practitioners as well as discussions between industry, consulting and regulatory scientists. The survey found that identification of population covariate effects on drug exposure and support for dose selection (where population PK frequently serves as preparatory analysis to exposure-response modeling) are the main areas of influence for population PK analysis. The proposed guidelines consider two main purposes of population PK reports (1) to present key analysis findings and their impact on drug development decisions, and (2) as documentation of the analysis methods for the dual purpose of enabling review of the analysis and facilitating future use of the models. This work also identified two main audiences for the reports: (1) a technically competent group responsible for in-depth review of the data, methodology, and results, and (2) a scientifically literate, but not technically adept group, whose main interest is in the implications of the analysis for the broader drug development program. We recommend a generalized question-based approach with six questions that need to be addressed throughout the report. We recommend eight sections (Synopsis, Introduction, Data, Methods, Results, Discussion, Conclusions, Appendix) with suggestions for the target audience and level of detail for each section. A section providing general expectations regarding population PK reporting from a regulatory perspective is also included. We consider this an important step towards industrialization of the field of pharmacometrics such that non-technical audience also understands the role of pharmacometrics analyses in decision making. Population PK reports were chosen as representative reports to derive these recommendations; however, the guiding principles presented here are applicable for all pharmacometric reports

  17. Photocopy of photograph. Photographer unknown. Typical suggestion award photograph from ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of photograph. Photographer unknown. Typical suggestion award photograph from the World War II period. Useful suggestions were awarded a $ 50 bond and usually a photo in the shipyard newspaper, the beacon. This photo shows an improved bilge block template layout table left to right: Stuart S. Sanders, Rosalie Moschella, Eddie Ormond, Lt. CDR. J.M. Ballinger, and A.A. Goldman. - Naval Base Philadelphia-Philadelphia Naval Shipyard, League Island, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  18. [A technical suggestion for laboratory tests in cases of rape].

    PubMed

    Fazio Pellacchio, M C; Celli, R

    1994-01-01

    The paper suggests completing the clinical tests carried out in cases of rape by collecting material not only from the fornix of the vagina but also from the cervical canal using cotton-wool buds, and examining any spermatozoa adhering to the cotton filaments by staining with Baecchi's method. Alternatively, the paper suggests carrying out these tests in anticipation of their possible use as forensic evidence if requested by the court.

  19. Commercial Photography: Task Analyses. Competency-Based Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Endo, Paula; Morrell, Linda

    These task analyses are designed to be used in combination with the "Trade and Industrial Education Service Area Resource" in order to implement competency-based education in the commercial photography program in Virginia. The task analysis document contains the task inventory, suggested task sequence lists, and content outlines for the courses in…

  20. The Importance of Structure Coefficients in Parametric Analyses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedrich, Katherine R.

    The recognition that all parametric methods are interrelated, coupled with the notion that structure coefficients are often vital in factor and canonical analyses, suggests that structure coefficients may be important in univariate analysis as well. Using a small, heuristic data set, this paper discusses the importance of structure coefficients…

  1. Aerothermodynamic Analyses of Towed Ballutes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gnoffo, Peter A.; Buck, Greg; Moss, James N.; Nielsen, Eric; Berger, Karen; Jones, William T.; Rudavsky, Rena

    2006-01-01

    A ballute (balloon-parachute) is an inflatable, aerodynamic drag device for application to planetary entry vehicles. Two challenging aspects of aerothermal simulation of towed ballutes are considered. The first challenge, simulation of a complete system including inflatable tethers and a trailing toroidal ballute, is addressed using the unstructured-grid, Navier-Stokes solver FUN3D. Auxiliary simulations of a semi-infinite cylinder using the rarefied flow, Direct Simulation Monte Carlo solver, DSV2, provide additional insight into limiting behavior of the aerothermal environment around tethers directly exposed to the free stream. Simulations reveal pressures higher than stagnation and corresponding large heating rates on the tether as it emerges from the spacecraft base flow and passes through the spacecraft bow shock. The footprint of the tether shock on the toroidal ballute is also subject to heating amplification. Design options to accommodate or reduce these environments are discussed. The second challenge addresses time-accurate simulation to detect the onset of unsteady flow interactions as a function of geometry and Reynolds number. Video of unsteady interactions measured in the Langley Aerothermodynamic Laboratory 20-Inch Mach 6 Air Tunnel and CFD simulations using the structured grid, Navier-Stokes solver LAURA are compared for flow over a rigid spacecraft-sting-toroid system. The experimental data provides qualitative information on the amplitude and onset of unsteady motion which is captured in the numerical simulations. The presence of severe unsteady fluid - structure interactions is undesirable and numerical simulation must be able to predict the onset of such motion.

  2. Decontamination formulation with sorbent additive

    DOEpatents

    Tucker; Mark D. , Comstock; Robert H.

    2007-10-16

    A decontamination formulation and method of making that neutralizes the adverse health effects of both chemical and biological compounds, especially chemical warfare (CW) and biological warfare (BW) agents, and toxic industrial chemicals. The formulation provides solubilizing compounds that serve to effectively render the chemical and biological compounds, particularly CW and BW compounds, susceptible to attack, and at least one reactive compound that serves to attack (and detoxify or kill) the compound. The formulation includes at least one solubilizing agent, a reactive compound, a bleaching activator, a sorbent additive, and water. The highly adsorbent, water-soluble sorbent additive (e.g., sorbitol or mannitol) is used to "dry out" one or more liquid ingredients, such as the liquid bleaching activator (e.g., propylene glycol diacetate or glycerol diacetate) and convert the activator into a dry, free-flowing powder that has an extended shelf life, and is more convenient to handle and mix in the field.

  3. Additive-free digital microfluidics.

    PubMed

    Freire, Sergio L S; Tanner, Brendan

    2013-07-16

    Digital microfluidics, a technique for manipulation of droplets, is becoming increasingly important for the development of miniaturized platforms for laboratory processes. Despite the enthusiasm, droplet motion is frequently hindered by the desorption of proteins or other analytes to surfaces. Current approaches to minimize this unwanted surface fouling involve the addition of extra species to the droplet or its surroundings, which might be problematic depending on the droplet content. Here, a new strategy is introduced to move droplets containing cells and other analytes on solid substrates, without extra moieties; in particular, droplets with bovine serum albumin could be moved at a concentration 2000 times higher than previously reported (without additives). This capability is achieved by using a soot-based superamphiphobic surface combined with a new device geometry, which favors droplet rolling. Contrasting with electrowetting, wetting forces are not required for droplet motion.

  4. Additive concentrates for distillate fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Rossi, A.; Lewtas, K.

    1985-08-27

    An additive concentrate for incorporation into wax containing petroleum fuel oil compositions to improve low temperature flow properties comprising an oil solution containing: 3% to 90 wt. % of a C30-C300 oil-soluble nitrogen compound wax crystal growth inhibitor having at least one straight C8-C40 alkyl chain and partial esters, and at least one mole per mole of an organic acid capable of hydrogen bonding to improve the solubility in the oil.

  5. Additive manufacturing of hybrid circuits

    DOE PAGES

    Bell, Nelson S.; Sarobol, Pylin; Cook, Adam; Clem, Paul G.; Keicher, David M.; Hirschfeld, Deidre; Hall, Aaron Christopher

    2016-03-26

    There is a rising interest in developing functional electronics using additively manufactured components. Considerations in materials selection and pathways to forming hybrid circuits and devices must demonstrate useful electronic function; must enable integration; and must complement the complex shape, low cost, high volume, and high functionality of structural but generally electronically passive additively manufactured components. This article reviews several emerging technologies being used in industry and research/development to provide integration advantages of fabricating multilayer hybrid circuits or devices. First, we review a maskless, noncontact, direct write (DW) technology that excels in the deposition of metallic colloid inks for electrical interconnects.more » Second, we review a complementary technology, aerosol deposition (AD), which excels in the deposition of metallic and ceramic powder as consolidated, thick conformal coatings and is additionally patternable through masking. As a result, we show examples of hybrid circuits/devices integrated beyond 2-D planes, using combinations of DW or AD processes and conventional, established processes.« less

  6. 49 CFR 1180.7 - Market analyses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Market analyses. 1180.7 Section 1180.7..., TRACKAGE RIGHTS, AND LEASE PROCEDURES General Acquisition Procedures § 1180.7 Market analyses. (a) For major and significant transactions, applicants shall submit impact analyses (exhibit 12) describing...

  7. 49 CFR 1180.7 - Market analyses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Market analyses. 1180.7 Section 1180.7..., TRACKAGE RIGHTS, AND LEASE PROCEDURES General Acquisition Procedures § 1180.7 Market analyses. (a) For major and significant transactions, applicants shall submit impact analyses (exhibit 12) describing...

  8. Impaired inter-hemispheric integration in bipolar disorder revealed using brain network analyses

    PubMed Central

    Leow, Alex; Ajilore, Olusola; Zhan, Liang; Arienzo, Donatello; GadElkarim, Johnson; Zhang, Aifeng; Moody, Teena; Van Horn, John; Feusner, Jamie; Kumar, Anand; Thompson, Paul; Altshuler, Lori

    2014-01-01

    Background This represents the first graph theory based brain network analysis study in bipolar disorder, a chronic and disabling psychiatric disorder characterized by severe mood swings. Many imaging studies have investigated white matter in bipolar disorder with results suggesting abnormal white matter structural integrity, particularly in the fronto-limbic and callosal systems. However, many inconsistencies remain in the literature, and no study to-date has conducted brain network analyses using a graph-theoretic approach. Methods We acquired 64-direction diffusion-weighted MRI on 25 euthymic bipolar I disorder subjects and 24 gender and age equivalent healthy subjects. White matter integrity measures including fractional anisotropy and mean diffusivity were compared in the whole brain. Additionally, structural connectivity matrices based on whole brain deterministic tractography were constructed followed by the computation of both global and local brain network measures. We also designed novel metrics to further probe inter-hemispheric integration. Results Network analyses revealed that the bipolar brain networks exhibited significantly longer characteristic path length, lower clustering coefficient, and lower global efficiency relative to those of controls. Further analyses revealed impaired inter-hemispheric but relatively preserved intra-hemispheric integration. These findings were supported by whole brain white matter analyses that revealed significantly lower integrity in the corpus callosum in bipolar subjects. There were also abnormalities in nodal network measures in structures within the limbic system, especially the left hippocampus, the left lateral orbito-frontal cortex, and the bilateral isthmus cingulate. Conclusions These results suggest abnormalities in structural network organization in bipolar disorder, particularly in inter-hemispheric integration and within the limbic system. PMID:23122540

  9. Identifying neural correlates of visual consciousness with ALE meta-analyses.

    PubMed

    Bisenius, Sandrine; Trapp, Sabrina; Neumann, Jane; Schroeter, Matthias L

    2015-11-15

    Neural correlates of consciousness (NCC) have been a topic of study for nearly two decades. In functional imaging studies, several regions have been proposed to constitute possible candidates for NCC, but as of yet, no quantitative summary of the literature on NCC has been done. The question whether single (striate or extrastriate) regions or a network consisting of extrastriate areas that project directly to fronto-parietal regions are necessary and sufficient neural correlates for visual consciousness is still highly debated [e.g., Rees et al., 2002, Nat Rev. Neurosci 3, 261-270; Tong, 2003, Nat Rev. Neurosci 4, 219-229]. The aim of this work was to elucidate this issue and give a synopsis of the present state of the art by conducting systematic and quantitative meta-analyses across functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies using several standard paradigms for conscious visual perception. In these paradigms, consciousness is operationalized via perceptual changes, while the visual stimulus remains invariant. An activation likelihood estimation (ALE) meta-analysis was performed, representing the best approach for voxel-wise meta-analyses to date. In addition to computing a meta-analysis across all paradigms, separate meta-analyses on bistable perception and masking paradigms were conducted to assess whether these paradigms show common or different NCC. For the overall meta-analysis, we found significant clusters of activation in inferior and middle occipital gyrus; fusiform gyrus; inferior temporal gyrus; caudate nucleus; insula; inferior, middle, and superior frontal gyri; precuneus; as well as in inferior and superior parietal lobules. These results suggest a subcortical-extrastriate-fronto-parietal network rather than a single region that constitutes the necessary NCC. The results of our exploratory paradigm-specific meta-analyses suggest that this subcortical-extrastriate-fronto-parietal network might be differentially activated as a function of the

  10. Identifying neural correlates of visual consciousness with ALE meta-analyses.

    PubMed

    Bisenius, Sandrine; Trapp, Sabrina; Neumann, Jane; Schroeter, Matthias L

    2015-11-15

    Neural correlates of consciousness (NCC) have been a topic of study for nearly two decades. In functional imaging studies, several regions have been proposed to constitute possible candidates for NCC, but as of yet, no quantitative summary of the literature on NCC has been done. The question whether single (striate or extrastriate) regions or a network consisting of extrastriate areas that project directly to fronto-parietal regions are necessary and sufficient neural correlates for visual consciousness is still highly debated [e.g., Rees et al., 2002, Nat Rev. Neurosci 3, 261-270; Tong, 2003, Nat Rev. Neurosci 4, 219-229]. The aim of this work was to elucidate this issue and give a synopsis of the present state of the art by conducting systematic and quantitative meta-analyses across functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies using several standard paradigms for conscious visual perception. In these paradigms, consciousness is operationalized via perceptual changes, while the visual stimulus remains invariant. An activation likelihood estimation (ALE) meta-analysis was performed, representing the best approach for voxel-wise meta-analyses to date. In addition to computing a meta-analysis across all paradigms, separate meta-analyses on bistable perception and masking paradigms were conducted to assess whether these paradigms show common or different NCC. For the overall meta-analysis, we found significant clusters of activation in inferior and middle occipital gyrus; fusiform gyrus; inferior temporal gyrus; caudate nucleus; insula; inferior, middle, and superior frontal gyri; precuneus; as well as in inferior and superior parietal lobules. These results suggest a subcortical-extrastriate-fronto-parietal network rather than a single region that constitutes the necessary NCC. The results of our exploratory paradigm-specific meta-analyses suggest that this subcortical-extrastriate-fronto-parietal network might be differentially activated as a function of the

  11. Interactions between organic additives and active powders in water-based lithium iron phosphate electrode slurries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chia-Chen; Lin, Yu-Sheng

    2012-12-01

    The interactions of organic additives with active powders are investigated and are found to have great influence on the determination of the mixing process for preparing electrode slurries with good dispersion and electrochemical properties of lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4) electrodes. Based on the analyses of zeta potential, sedimentation, and rheology, it is shown that LiFePO4 prefers to interact with styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) relative to other organic additives such as sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (SCMC), and thus shows preferential adsorption by SBR, whereas SBR has much lower efficiency than SCMC in dispersing LiFePO4. Therefore, for SCMC to interact with and disperse LiFePO4 before the interaction of LiFePO4 with SBR, it is suggested to mix SCMC with LiFePO4 prior to the addition of SBR during the slurry preparation process. For the electrode prepared via the suggested process, i.e., the sequenced adding process in which SCMC is mixed with active powders prior to the addition of SBR, a much better electrochemical performance is obtained than that of the one prepared via the process referred as the simultaneous adding process, in which mixing of SCMC and SBR with active powders in simultaneous.

  12. Evaluation of certain food additives.

    PubMed

    2009-01-01

    This report represents the conclusions of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee convened to evaluate the safety of various food additives, including flavouring agents, with a view to recommending acceptable daily intakes (ADIs) and to preparing specifications for identity and purity. The first part of the report contains a general discussion of the principles governing the toxicological evaluation and assessment of intake of food additives (in particular, flavouring agents). A summary follows of the Committee's evaluations of technical, toxicological and intake data for certain food additives (asparaginase from Aspergillus niger expressed in A. niger, calcium lignosulfonate (40-65), ethyl lauroyl arginate, paprika extract, phospholipase C expressed in Pichia pastoris, phytosterols, phytostanols and their esters, polydimethylsiloxane, steviol glycosides and sulfites [assessment of dietary exposure]) and 10 groups of related flavouring agents (aliphatic branched-chain saturated and unsaturated alcohols, aldehydes, acids and related esters; aliphatic linear alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes, acids and related alcohols, acetals and esters; aliphatic secondary alcohols, ketones and related esters; alkoxy-substituted allylbenzenes present in foods and essential oils and used as flavouring agents; esters of aliphatic acyclic primary alcohols with aliphatic linear saturated carboxylic acids; furan-substituted aliphatic hydrocarbons, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids and related esters, sulfides, disulfides and ethers; miscellaneous nitrogen-containing substances; monocyclic and bicyclic secondary alcohols, ketones and related esters; hydroxy- and alkoxy-substituted benzyl derivatives; and substances structurally related to menthol). Specifications for the following food additives were revised: canthaxanthin; carob bean gum and carob bean gum (clarified); chlorophyllin copper complexes, sodium and potassium salts; Fast Green FCF; guar gum and guar gum (clarified

  13. Fire-Retardant Polymeric Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Martha K.; Smith, Trent M.

    2011-01-01

    Polyhydroxyamide (PHA) and polymethoxyamide (PMeOA) are fire-retardant (FR) thermoplastic polymers and have been found to be useful as an additive for imparting fire retardant properties to other compatible, thermoplastic polymers (including some elastomers). Examples of compatible flammable polymers include nylons, polyesters, and acrylics. Unlike most prior additives, PHA and PMeOA do not appreciably degrade the mechanical properties of the matrix polymer; indeed, in some cases, mechanical properties are enhanced. Also, unlike some prior additives, PHA and PMeOA do not decompose into large amounts of corrosive or toxic compounds during combustion and can be processed at elevated temperatures. PMeOA derivative formulations were synthesized and used as an FR additive in the fabrication of polyamide (PA) and polystyrene (PS) composites with notable reduction (>30 percent for PS) in peak heat release rates compared to the neat polymer as measured by a Cone Calorimeter (ASTM E1354). Synergistic effects were noted with nanosilica composites. These nanosilica composites had more than 50-percent reduction in peak heat release rates. In a typical application, a flammable thermoplastic, thermoplastic blend, or elastomer that one seeks to render flame-retardant is first dry-mixed with PHA or PMeOA or derivative thereof. The proportion of PHA or PMeOA or derivative in the mixture is typically chosen to lie between 1 and 20 weight percent. The dry blend can then be melt-extruded. The extruded polymer blend can further be extruded and/or molded into fibers, pipes, or any other of a variety of objects that may be required to be fire-retardant. The physical and chemical mechanisms which impart flame retardancy of the additive include inhibiting free-radical oxidation in the vapor phase, preventing vaporization of fuel (the polymer), and cooling through the formation of chemical bonds in either the vapor or the condensed phase. Under thermal stress, the cyclic hydroxyl/ methoxy

  14. Hypnosis, hypnotic suggestibility, memory, and involvement in films.

    PubMed

    Maxwell, Reed; Lynn, Steven Jay; Condon, Liam

    2015-05-01

    Our research extends studies that have examined the relation between hypnotic suggestibility and experiential involvement and the role of an hypnotic induction in enhancing experiential involvement (e.g., absorption) in engaging tasks. Researchers have reported increased involvement in reading (Baum & Lynn, 1981) and music-listening (Snodgrass & Lynn, 1989) tasks during hypnosis. We predicted a similar effect for film viewing: greater experiential involvement in an emotional (The Champ) versus a non-emotional (Scenes of Toronto) film. We tested 121 participants who completed measures of absorption and trait dissociation and the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility and then viewed the two films after either an hypnotic induction or a non-hypnotic task (i.e., anagrams). Experiential involvement varied as a function of hypnotic suggestibility and film clip. Highly suggestible participants reported more state depersonalization than less suggestible participants, and depersonalization was associated with negative affect; however, we observed no significant correlation between hypnotic suggestibility and trait dissociation. Although hypnosis had no effect on memory commission or omission errors, contrary to the hypothesis that hypnosis facilitates absorption in emotionally engaging tasks, the emotional film was associated with more commission and omission errors compared with the non-emotional film.

  15. Suggested Interactivity: Seeking Perceived Affordances for Information Visualization.

    PubMed

    Boy, Jeremy; Eveillard, Louis; Detienne, Françoise; Fekete, Jean-Daniel

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we investigate methods for suggesting the interactivity of online visualizations embedded with text. We first assess the need for such methods by conducting three initial experiments on Amazon's Mechanical Turk. We then present a design space for Suggested Interactivity (i. e., visual cues used as perceived affordances-SI), based on a survey of 382 HTML5 and visualization websites. Finally, we assess the effectiveness of three SI cues we designed for suggesting the interactivity of bar charts embedded with text. Our results show that only one cue (SI3) was successful in inciting participants to interact with the visualizations, and we hypothesize this is because this particular cue provided feedforward. PMID:26390473

  16. Acute skin reaction suggestive of pembrolizumab-induced radiosensitization.

    PubMed

    Sibaud, Vincent; David, Isabelle; Lamant, Laurence; Resseguier, Sarah; Radut, Roxana; Attal, Justine; Meyer, Nicolas; Delord, Jean-Pierre

    2015-12-01

    The combination of localized radiotherapy and immune checkpoint inhibitors represents a promising therapeutic strategy for various cancers, including metastatic melanoma. Radiation therapy may enhance tumor antigen presentation and cytokine release, which may optimize the systemic antitumor immune response induced by these immunotherapeutic antibodies, with a potential delayed abscopal effect. However, clinical experience of using immune checkpoint inhibitors with concurrent radiotherapy remains scarce. We report here for the first time a case suggestive of acute skin radiosensitization induced by pembrolizumab, with a suggestive time relationship between the completion of ionizing radiation, drug administration, and rapid onset of the skin reaction. This suggests that radiation therapy may also interact rapidly with anti-programmed-death 1 antibodies. Therefore, caution should be exercised when prescribing this combination therapy in advanced cancers.

  17. Career Path Suggestion using String Matching and Decision Trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagpal, Akshay; P. Panda, Supriya

    2015-05-01

    High school and college graduates seemingly are often battling for the courses they should major in order to achieve their target career. In this paper, we worked on suggesting a career path to a graduate to reach his/her dream career given the current educational status. Firstly, we collected the career data of professionals and academicians from various career fields and compiled the data set by using the necessary information from the data. Further, this was used as the basis to suggest the most appropriate career path for the person given his/her current educational status. Decision trees and string matching algorithms were employed to suggest the appropriate career path for a person. Finally, an analysis of the result has been done directing to further improvements in the model.

  18. Pawnee Nation Energy Option Analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Matlock, M.; Kersey, K.; Riding In, C.

    2009-07-31

    introduced two model energy codes Pawnee Nation should consider for adoption. Summary of Current and Expected Future Electricity Usage The research team provided a summary overview of electricity usage patterns in current buildings and included discussion of known plans for new construction. Utility Options Review Pawnee Nation electric utility options were analyzed through a four-phase process, which included: 1) summarizing the relevant utility background information; 2) gathering relevant utility assessment data; 3) developing a set of realistic Pawnee electric utility service options, and 4) analyzing the various Pawnee electric utility service options for the Pawnee Energy Team’s consideration. III. Findings and Recommendations Due to a lack of financial incentives for renewable energy, particularly at the state level, combined mediocre renewable energy resources, renewable energy development opportunities are limited for Pawnee Nation. However, near-term potential exists for development of solar hot water at the gym, and an exterior wood-fired boiler system at the tribe’s main administrative building. Pawnee Nation should also explore options for developing LFGTE resources in collaboration with the City of Pawnee. Significant potential may also exist for development of bio-energy resources within the next decade. Pawnee Nation representatives should closely monitor market developments in the bio-energy industry, establish contacts with research institutions with which the tribe could potentially partner in grant-funded research initiatives. In addition, a substantial effort by the Kaw and Cherokee tribes is underway to pursue wind development at the Chilocco School Site in northern Oklahoma where Pawnee is a joint landowner. Pawnee Nation representatives should become actively involved in these development discussions and should explore the potential for joint investment in wind development at the Chilocco site.

  19. Ornamental Horticulture Technology; Suggested 2-Year Post High School Curriculums.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Adult, Vocational, and Technical Education (DHEW/OE), Washington, DC. Div. of Vocational and Technical Education.

    Developed by a technical education specialist, this guide is designed to aid school administrators in planning and developing 2-year post-high school programs or evaluating existing programs in ornamental horticulture technology. In addition to general information on the program, contents include course outlines with examples of tests and…

  20. Suggested Activities for Teaching Reading through the Newspaper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henney, Maribeth

    The 101 activities using the newspaper for teaching reading listed in this document range from such simple tasks as having children write captions for photos from the newspaper to the more advanced and complicated assignments of learning the use of propaganda devices or the five kinds of news stories. In addition, definitions for newspaper terms…

  1. Therapeutic suggestion has not effect on postoperative morphine requirements.

    PubMed

    van der Laan, W H; van Leeuwen, B L; Sebel, P S; Winograd, E; Baumann, P; Bonke, B

    1996-01-01

    This study was designed to confirm the effect of therapeutic intraoperative auditory suggestion on recovery from anesthesia, to establish the effect of preoperative suggestion, and to assess implicit memory for intraoperative information using an indirect memory task. Sixty consenting unpremedicated patients scheduled for elective gynecologic surgery were randomly divided into three equal groups: Group 1 received a tape of therapeutic suggestions preoperatively, and the story of Robinson Crusoe intraoperatively; Group 2 heard the story of Peter Pan preoperatively and therapeutic suggestions intraoperatively; Group 3 heard the Crusoe story preoperatively and the Peter Pan story intraoperatively. A standardized anesthetic technique was used with fentanyl, propofol, isoflurane, and nitrous oxide. After surgery, all patients received patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) with a standardized regimen. In the 24 h postsurgery, morphine use was recorded every 6 h and at 24 h an indirect memory test (free association) was used to test for memory of the stories. Anxiety scores were measured before surgery and at 6 and 24 h postsurgery. There were no significant differences between groups for postoperative morphine use, pain or nausea scores, anxiety scores, or days spent in hospital after surgery. Seven of 20 patients who heard the Pan story intraoperative gave a positive association with the word "Hook," whereas 2 of 20 who did not hear the story gave such an association. Indirect memory for the Pan story was established using confidence interval (CI) analysis. (The 95% CI for difference in proportion did not include zero). No indirect memory for the Crusoe story could be demonstrated. This study did not confirm previous work which suggested that positive therapeutic auditory suggestions, played intraoperatively, reduced PCA morphine requirements. In contrast, a positive implicit memory effect was found for a story presented intraoperatively.

  2. DEVELOPMENT OF CHINESE HEALTH LAW: OVERVIEW AND SUGGESTIONS.

    PubMed

    Liu, Kai; Tang, Daolu

    2014-07-01

    Health law is a rapidly developing law specialty in China. This article examines the current overall framework and evolution of Chinese health law, as a background to an analysis of the advantages and disadvantages of this legal regime. Research suggests that: 1) The independent status of Chinese health law as jurisprudence and a specialty ought to be assured altogether; 2) The convergence between health law and other laws should be strengthened; 3) The current Chinese health law framework ought to be completed. This suggests the necessity to find ways to improve the independence of health law in China by eliminating the convergence and completing the legal framework.

  3. The use of music as a hypnotic suggestion.

    PubMed

    Kelly, S F

    1993-10-01

    We have known of the interaction between music and mood for many years. In this paper, I present a series of case vignettes to illustrate a method using music to affect mood. In hypnosis, I suggested that subjects imagine hearing a piece of music appropriate to a desired emotion, rather like a sound track for a movie. I suggested that the patients vividly recall this music and the accompanying feelings outside of trance when it would be desirable to help them to change their behavior by influencing their emotional state. In this way, music can be used to shape emotion.

  4. Metal Additive Manufacturing: A Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frazier, William E.

    2014-06-01

    This paper reviews the state-of-the-art of an important, rapidly emerging, manufacturing technology that is alternatively called additive manufacturing (AM), direct digital manufacturing, free form fabrication, or 3D printing, etc. A broad contextual overview of metallic AM is provided. AM has the potential to revolutionize the global parts manufacturing and logistics landscape. It enables distributed manufacturing and the productions of parts-on-demand while offering the potential to reduce cost, energy consumption, and carbon footprint. This paper explores the material science, processes, and business consideration associated with achieving these performance gains. It is concluded that a paradigm shift is required in order to fully exploit AM potential.

  5. Individualized additional instruction for calculus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takata, Ken

    2010-10-01

    College students enrolling in the calculus sequence have a wide variance in their preparation and abilities, yet they are usually taught from the same lecture. We describe another pedagogical model of Individualized Additional Instruction (IAI) that assesses each student frequently and prescribes further instruction and homework based on the student's performance. Our study compares two calculus classes, one taught with mandatory remedial IAI and the other without. The class with mandatory remedial IAI did significantly better on comprehensive multiple-choice exams, participated more frequently in classroom discussion and showed greater interest in theorem-proving and other advanced topics.

  6. The Mozart Effect: Additional Data.

    PubMed

    Hughes, John R.

    2002-04-01

    After the review of the Mozart effect was published in this journal (Hughes JR. Epilepsy Behav 2001;2:369-417), additional data from the music of Haydn and Liszt have been analyzed that may account for the decrease in seizure activity originally reported during Mozart music. Even with these added data Mozart music continued to score significantly higher than the selections from the other six composers in one of the important characteristics of this music, namely, the repetition of the melody. However Haydn's values were second highest among Mozart, J. S. Bach, Wagner, Beethoven, Chopin, and Liszt.

  7. Computational Aeroelastic Analyses of a Low-Boom Supersonic Configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silva, Walter A.; Sanetrik, Mark D.; Chwalowski, Pawel; Connolly, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    An overview of NASA's Commercial Supersonic Technology (CST) Aeroservoelasticity (ASE) element is provided with a focus on recent computational aeroelastic analyses of a low-boom supersonic configuration developed by Lockheed-Martin and referred to as the N+2 configuration. The overview includes details of the computational models developed to date including a linear finite element model (FEM), linear unsteady aerodynamic models, unstructured CFD grids, and CFD-based aeroelastic analyses. In addition, a summary of the work involving the development of aeroelastic reduced-order models (ROMs) and the development of an aero-propulso-servo-elastic (APSE) model is provided.

  8. Energy and Water: Conservation Suggestions for California's Elementary and Secondary Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento.

    This publication contains conservation suggestions for schools in California to save water and energy. Contents include: (1) a list of sources of additional energy education assistance and materials; (2) a discussion of energy conservation in schools including HVAC system operations, lighting and building design; (3) a summary outline of actions…

  9. Suggested Materials and Themes for a Study of Population in Secondary Social Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beer, Diana Darnall

    The main objective of this thesis is to suggest materials for use in secondary social studies classrooms for improvement of instruction on population and world geography. The thesis provides background information on population, a listing of sources where additional information can be found, and major generalizations, discussion questions, and…

  10. In-Class Collaborative Learning: Practical Suggestions from the Teaching Trenches.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giordano, Peter J.; Hammer, Elizabeth Yost

    1999-01-01

    Supplements Steven A.Meyers's article (Teaching Psychology, 1997) on the use of collaborative-learning groups. Provides additional suggestions on starting in-class groups, maintaining their effectiveness, and anticipating common problems. Argues that with careful attention, in-class groups can effectively complement lectures. (DSK)

  11. [Suggestion of an improved technique of general anaesthesia for ophthalmological experiments on rabbits (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Holtmann, H W; Stein, H J

    1975-02-01

    The potentiated general anaesthesia with ethyl urethane and propionylpromazine for long-time ophthalmological experiments on rabbits is not adequate. It is suggested to apply additional ketamin (i.v. and i.m.). With this procedure a satisfactory position of rest is obtained for more than two hours.

  12. 82. ROOSEVELT POWER CANAL, SUGGESTED ARRANGEMENT FOR ELECTRICAL OPERATION OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    82. ROOSEVELT POWER CANAL, SUGGESTED ARRANGEMENT FOR ELECTRICAL OPERATION OF SLUICE GATES AND CANAL INTAKE GATES AT DIVERSION DAM Courtesy of Dept. of the Interior, Bureau of Reclamation, Salt River Project, Arizona - Roosevelt Power Canal & Diversion Dam, Parallels Salt River, Roosevelt, Gila County, AZ

  13. Site Supervisors of Professional School Counseling Interns: Suggested Guidelines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Walter B., Jr.; Morotti, Allan A.

    2001-01-01

    Professional school counselors operate under a myriad of working conditions, some more conducive to hosting interns than others. Potential site supervisors must have some framework from which to operate in order to provide optimum internship experiences. Guidelines are suggested that address expectations; training; mentoring; and communication…

  14. The Gifted Child in Connecticut; Practical Suggestions for Program Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vassar, William G., Ed.; Renzulli, Joseph S., Ed.

    Materials are presented to assist local school personnel in the adoption of successful programs and services for gifted and talented pupils. Articles offering solutions to problems in, or suggesting ideas and guidelines for, educational programing include the broadening concepts of giftedness, by E. Paul Torrance; justification for special…

  15. VIEW OF BASE END STATION BARLOW SHOWING THE SUGGESTED APPEARANCE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF BASE END STATION BARLOW SHOWING THE SUGGESTED APPEARANCE DURING USE (TOP IS NOT EXTANT INDICATING POST-USE DAMAGE), PACING NORTHWEST, VIEW IS OF THE FRONT, WITH THE RIGHT FRONT CORNER EXPOSED - White's Point Reservation, Base End Stations, B"1, Bounded by Voyager Circle & Mariner Drive, San Pedro, Los Angeles County, CA

  16. 32 CFR 1907.04 - Suggestions and complaints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ....04 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY CHALLENGES TO CLASSIFICATION OF DOCUMENTS BY AUTHORIZED HOLDERS PURSUANT TO § 1.9 OF EXECUTIVE ORDER 12958... its administration of the Executive Order. Letters of suggestion or complaint should identify...

  17. 32 CFR 1907.04 - Suggestions and complaints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ....04 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY CHALLENGES TO CLASSIFICATION OF DOCUMENTS BY AUTHORIZED HOLDERS PURSUANT TO § 1.9 OF EXECUTIVE ORDER 12958... its administration of the Executive Order. Letters of suggestion or complaint should identify...

  18. Toilet Habits: Suggestions for Training a Child Who Is Blind.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moor, Pauline M.

    Intended for parents, the pamphlet provides suggestions for toilet training a blind child. Among the 12 tips presented are to establish a regular and convenient toileting schedule, provide a comfortable toilet arrangement, and give the child something to play with. Common problems in toilet training blind children are reported as fear of sitting…

  19. 32 CFR 1901.04 - Suggestions and complaints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ....04 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY PUBLIC RIGHTS UNDER THE PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 General § 1901.04 Suggestions and complaints. The Agency welcomes... specific purpose and the issues for consideration. The Agency will respond to all...

  20. 32 CFR 1901.04 - Suggestions and complaints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ....04 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY PUBLIC RIGHTS UNDER THE PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 General § 1901.04 Suggestions and complaints. The Agency welcomes... specific purpose and the issues for consideration. The Agency will respond to all...

  1. 32 CFR 1901.04 - Suggestions and complaints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ....04 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY PUBLIC RIGHTS UNDER THE PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 General § 1901.04 Suggestions and complaints. The Agency welcomes... specific purpose and the issues for consideration. The Agency will respond to all...

  2. 32 CFR 1901.04 - Suggestions and complaints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ....04 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY PUBLIC RIGHTS UNDER THE PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 General § 1901.04 Suggestions and complaints. The Agency welcomes... specific purpose and the issues for consideration. The Agency will respond to all...

  3. 32 CFR 1901.04 - Suggestions and complaints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ....04 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY PUBLIC RIGHTS UNDER THE PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 General § 1901.04 Suggestions and complaints. The Agency welcomes... specific purpose and the issues for consideration. The Agency will respond to all...

  4. Tuck in Your Shirt, You Squid: Suggestions in ESL.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banerjee, Janet; Carrell, Patricia L.

    1988-01-01

    An English discourse completion questionnaire consisting of 60 situations designed to elicit suggestions in English was administered to 28 native speakers of Chinese or Malay and to 12 native speakers of American English. Non-native speakers of English were more direct in their responses. Native and non-native speakers significantly differed in…

  5. Modifying Behavior: Suggestions for Teachers of the Handicapped.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa Univ., Iowa City. Special Education Curriculum Development Center.

    Behavior modification from the teacher's point of view is explored. Means of identifying pupils with special needs are discussed (observation, records, family contact, tests, resource personnel). Needs of children influencing their behavior are examined. Suggestions for working with behavior problems cover children who are aggressive, withdrawn,…

  6. A Suggested Computer Aided Drafting Curriculum (Dacum Based).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedras, Melvin J.; Hoggard, David

    Computer-aided drawing can bring new technology into the drafting classroom. One approach to computer-aided drafting (CAD) involves use of a personal computer and purchased software. Existing school computers could be shared to reduce costs. Following this narrative introduction, a suggested curriculum for the teaching of CAD is presented in…

  7. Suggesting a General ESP Model for Adult Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Jumaily, Samir

    2011-01-01

    The study suggests a general model that could guarantee the cooperation between teachers and their students to overcome the difficulties encountered in ESP learning. It tries to join together different perspectives in the research of adult education, specifically in the teaching of English for Specific Purposes. It also provides some sort of trust…

  8. FILING AND RELATED OCCUPATIONS, A SUGGESTED CURRICULUM GUIDE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Education (DHEW), Washington, DC.

    SUGGESTED CURRICULUMS PROVIDE A GUIDE FOR TRAINING QUALIFIED WORKERS IN HANDLING BUSINESS PAPERS, PERFORMING FILING AND RETRIEVAL OPERATIONS, AND PREPARING REPORTS. THE GUIDE SHOULD BE OF ASSISTANCE TO ADMINISTRATORS, SUPERVISORS, AND TEACHERS IN DEVELOPING AND ORGANIZING TRAINING PROGRAMS. THE MATERIALS WERE PREPARED BY THE STAFF OF SOUTH-WESTERN…

  9. Information Skills: Library Media. Suggested Learner Outcomes: Grades K-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Education, Oklahoma City.

    Designed to aid local districts in implementing local school improvement plans, this three-part curriculum guide begins by addressing the long-range planning of library media programs. The first part suggests a 10-step process for planning and provides an example of a 5-year improvement plan for library media programs, a checklist for evaluating a…

  10. Suggestions for the Classical Shelves of a School Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colebourn, R., Comp.; Cleeve, Marigold, Comp.

    This bibliography is suggested for use by students and teachers of Latin, Greek and ancient civilizations. Entries are compiled under the headings of: (1) bibliographies and journals including booklists, periodicals, and books for teachers; (2) reference works in literature, mythology, history and antiquities, and language; (3) texts and…

  11. Teaching Nurses Group Concepts: Some Issues and Suggestions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Carolyn Chambers

    1978-01-01

    In the face of increasing enrollment and competition for group clinical experiences, the author examines and makes suggestions for the following issues: What group theory and skills are important for all nurses? How can large numbers of students be taught group skills effectively? How can a clinical experience in group dynamics be developed? and…

  12. Resisting Suggestive Questions: Can Theory of Mind Help?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Lisa; Okamoto, Yukari

    2006-01-01

    Children's credibility as witnesses in court cases has become an important issue in recent years. When testifying, younger children are considered to be more susceptible to suggestion than are older children. The present study examined the possibility that knowledge of an interviewer's mental states (intention and false belief, in this study)…

  13. Suggested Steps for Planning and Building a New School Building.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon State Dept. of Education, Salem.

    A listing and short descriptions of eleven steps that should be observed in the planning and building of a new school plant. This step-by-step approach was prepared with the inexperienced school board member in mind, and attempts to offer suggestions and advice for each step in the planning, bonding, and building stages. Steps covered are--(1)…

  14. Pedagogical Suggestions for Teaching Business and Economics in Vietnam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCornac, Dennis C.; Chi, Phan Thuy

    2005-01-01

    Given the overwhelming need for foreign faculty to assist Vietnam in its transition to a market economy, there will be opportunities for economics and business educators to teach at various institutions in that country. In this article, the authors provide a top-10 list of suggestions regarding pedagogical approaches and techniques for teaching in…

  15. Hotel Employees' Japanese Language Experiences: Implications and Suggestions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makita-Discekici, Yasuko

    1998-01-01

    Analyzes the Japanese language learning experiences of 13 hotel employees in Guam. Results of the study present implications and suggestions for a Japanese language program for the hotel industry. The project began as a result of hotel employees frustrations when they were unable to communicate effectively with their Japanese guests. (Auth/JL)

  16. Technological Specialisation Courses in Portugal: Description and Suggested Improvements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    da Costa, Nilza Maria Vilhena Nunes; Simoes, Ana Raquel; Pereira, Giselia Antunes; Pombo, Lucia

    2009-01-01

    This study is a part of the "Post-secondary Vocational Training in Portugal Project: from a description through to suggestions to improve training quality", which ran from 2003 to 2006. This article, which makes use of data obtained from interviews with Directors of Schools which offer technological specialisation courses (CETs) and from…

  17. Studies and Suggestions on English Vocabulary Teaching and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zheng, Shigao

    2012-01-01

    To improve vocabulary learning and teaching in ELT settings, two questionnaires are designed and directed to more than 100 students and teachers in one of China's key universities. The findings suggest that an enhanced awareness of cultural difference, metaphorical competence, and learners' autonomy in vocabulary acquisition will effectively…

  18. Effect of preoperative suggestion on postoperative gastrointestinal motility.

    PubMed Central

    Disbrow, E A; Bennett, H L; Owings, J T

    1993-01-01

    Autonomic behavior is subject to direct suggestion. We found that patients undergoing major operations benefit more from instruction than from information and reassurance. We compared the return of intestinal function after intra-abdominal operations in 2 groups of patients: the suggestion group received specific instructions for the early return of gastrointestinal motility, and the control group received an equal-length interview offering reassurance and nonspecific instructions. The suggestion group had a significantly shorter average time to the return of intestinal motility, 2.6 versus 4.1 days. Time to discharge was 6.5 versus 8.1 days. Covariates including duration of operation, amount of intraoperative bowel manipulation, and amount of postoperative narcotics were also examined using the statistical model analysis of covariance. An average savings of $1,200 per patient resulted from this simple 5-minute intervention. In summary, the use of specific physiologically active suggestions given preoperatively in a beleivable manner can reduce the morbidity associated with an intra-abdominal operation by reducing the duration of ileus. PMID:8342264

  19. [Ute Unit with History, Suggested Activities, and Teachers' Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montelores Studies Center, Cortez, CO.

    This curriculum unit for fourth grade students, developed by the Montelores Studies Center, Cortez, Colorado, which is funded by the Elementary and Secondary Education Act, Title III, presents a history of the Ute Indians, suggested activities for students, and a teachers' guide. The history section outlines the historical development of the Ute…

  20. Firo-B Interpersonal Compatibility: A Suggested Modification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malloy, Thomas E.; Copeland, Ellis P.

    1980-01-01

    The Fundamental Interpersonal Relations Orientation Behavior (FIRO-B) scale is a measure of inclusion, control and affection. Examination of the component algorithms which yield its global compatibility score suggest an inconsistent use of absolute values and real numbers. A modification of Schutz's original mathematical schema is presented.…

  1. Barriers to Policy Change and a Suggested Path for Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jing, Yijia

    2013-01-01

    China's one-child policy has been an unprecedented policy experiment in human history. Despite its significant achievements, the policy has induced equally significant potential problems. As problems of the one-child policy have been widely noticed and suggestions for adjustments are available, the leadership transition of China in 2012 and 2013…

  2. A Suggested Journalism Curriculum for California Junior Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Margosian, Arthur

    The purpose of this study was to develop a suggested journalism curriculum for California junior colleges, based upon the functions and content of journalism programs as they should be, as perceived by a representative group of junior college instructrs and editors of daily and weekly newspapers in California. Data were collected from…

  3. Reactivation of Memory by Hypnosis and Suggestion. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    London, Perry; Cooper, Leslie M.

    This study tested the hypothesis that the memory of meaningful material can be reactivated without relearning by means of hypnotic suggestion. Very susceptible (T) and non-susceptible (UT) subjects were sought from among those who volunteered for the experiment. Two forms of a memory test for connected meaningful material were developed. Each form…

  4. Suggestion in Education: The Historical Path of Suggestopedia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindeman, Mary L.

    Although techniques of autosuggestion in personal development have a long history in some Eastern cultures, suggestibility as a character trait first came into focus in the West with the "animal magnetism" of Franz Mesmer. The uncovering of the nature and phenomena of hypnosis resulted in a steady and enduring interest in this state of heightened…

  5. Teaching the Holocaust: Some Suggestions for Comparative Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldman, Martin S.

    1977-01-01

    In light of the movement to heighten moral sensitivity in the classroom, the Nazi holocaust is being discussed in many parts of the country. In this article comparisons are suggested of this aspect of Jewish history with black slavery and American Indian experiences. (Author/GC)

  6. The Effects of Prior Knowledge on Children's Memory and Suggestibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elischberger, Holger B.

    2005-01-01

    In this study, 5- and 6-year-olds were read a story and asked to recall its details. Two independent factors-prestory knowledge and poststory suggestions-were crossed to examine the effects on children's story recall. The results indicated that prestory social knowledge about the story protagonist as well as academic knowledge relating to the…

  7. SOS II: Suggestions for Time Management in the 1990s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rees, Ruth

    1994-01-01

    Examines the latest generation of time management strategies for persons within an organization, and focuses on enhancing relationships and improving effectiveness rather than efficiency. Suggests that our lives should be structured such that we spend time on activities that are important but not urgent (long-range planning, preventative…

  8. Suggested posthypnotic amnesia in psychiatric patients and normals.

    PubMed

    Frischholz, Edward J; Lipman, Laurie S; Braun, Bennett G; Sachs, Roberta

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined both quantitative and qualitative hypnotizability differences among four psychiatric patient groups (dissociative disorder (n = 17), schizophrenic (n = 13), mood disorder (n = 14), and anxiety disorder (n = 14) patients), and normals (college students (n = 63)). Dissociative disorder patients earned significantly higher corrected total scores on the Stanford Hypnotic Susceptibility Scale, Form C (mean = 7.94), than all other groups. Likewise, dissociative disorder patients initially recalled significantly fewer items when the posthypnotic amnesia suggestion was in effect (mean = .41) and reversed significantly more items when the suggestion was canceled (mean = 3.82) than all other groups. In contrast, schizophrenic patients recalled significantly fewer items when the amnesia suggestion was in effect (mean = 1.85) and reversed significantly fewer items when it was canceled (mean = .77) than the remaining groups. This qualitative difference between schizophrenic patients and the other groups on the suggested posthypnotic amnesia item was observed even though there were no significant quantitative differences between groups in overall hypnotic responsivity.

  9. Halloween Costumes May Suggest Influence of Violent Models on Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owen, John W.; Sterling, Bruce S.

    Halloween costumes may be used to examine the influence violent models have on children. On Halloween evening observers recorded the frequency of violent and nonviolent costumes worn by children. When all of the data are inspected they suggest that children confronted with several aggressive models may be more likely to identify with the "good…

  10. Suggestions for Responding to the Dilemma of Grading Students' Writing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Rebecca S.; Speck, Bruce W.

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the four-week summer Memphis (Tennessee) Urban Writing Institute, during which a furor erupted over the dilemma of grading. Provide a number of approaches to grading students' writing, including minimalist grading, cassette grading, collaborative grading, and portfolio grading. Suggests that teachers consider the grading dilemma and…

  11. Youth Camp Safety & Health. Suggested State Statute & Regulations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Disease Control (DHEW/PHS), Atlanta, GA.

    To assist state regulatory agencies in development of comprehensive youth camp safety programs, this publication contains a brief suggested statute that could be used for initiation or modification of any state's youth camp safety programs and it outlines minimal regulations. Various categories of camps are covered--day, primitive, residential,…

  12. Suggested Guide for Fire Service Standard Operating Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillett, Merl; Hertzler, Simon L.

    Suggested guidelines for the development of fire service standard operating procedures are presented in this document. Section topics are as follow: chain of command; communications; emergency response; apparatus; fire service training; disaster response; aircraft fire safety; mutual aid; national reporting system (example reporting forms);…

  13. Health Problems of the Navajo Area and Suggested Interventions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaltenbach, Charles

    Analysis of morbidity, mortality, and demographic data on Navajo people was undertaken to identify leading health problems in the Navajo area and to suggest intervention activities. Comparisons with total U.S. population were made to provide perspective. Data on Navajo mortality showed: a ratio of male to female deaths of 2:1, more than 50 percent…

  14. Suggestions for Working with Fat Children in the Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loewy, Michael I.

    1998-01-01

    Discusses prejudice toward fat children and its effect on their lives; critiques prevailing efforts to control children's eating habits and weight. Suggestions and resource materials to enhance students' self-esteem and good health through self-acceptance and embracing the diversity of body types are presented. (EMK)

  15. Assessment of Competitive Anxiety: Practical Suggestions for the Coach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorentzen, Deana

    The proper assessment of anxiety-causing behaviors will help the athlete and coach choose coping strategies which are most compatible with the particular problem and personality type of the individual. Suggestions most often include practical methods of describing and evaluating behaviors that differ from the norm so that cues signalling anxiety…

  16. 29 CFR 778.333 - Suggestion system awards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Suggestion system awards. 778.333 Section 778.333 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY OR INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS OVERTIME COMPENSATION Special...

  17. SALES PROMOTION, A SUGGESTED ADULT DISTRIBUTIVE EDUCATION COURSE OUTLINE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    RUBIN, ALAN J.; AND OTHERS

    THIS SUGGESTED OUTLINE FOR A BASIC COURSE IN SALES PROMOTION IS DESIGNED FOR NOT LESS THAN FIVE 2-HOUR SESSIONS ON (1) ASPECTS OF SALES PROMOTION, (2) SALES PROMOTION TECHNIQUES, (3) NEWSPAPER ADVERTISING, (4) WINDOW AND INTERIOR DISPLAY PRINCIPLES, AND (5) SELECTED PROMOTIONAL MEDIA AND DEVICES. POSSIBLE TEACHERS INCLUDE A SALES PROMOTION…

  18. Small Business Management. Part I, A Suggested Course Outline.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Continuing Education Curriculum Development.

    In this curriculum guide on small business management, lessons (including specific course content and teaching suggestions) are developed around general traits and practices conducive to success in small businesses, loans and other sources of capital, budgeting and planning, recordkeeping, marketing and selling, advertising and sales promotion,…

  19. An Instructional Method Suggestion: Conveying Stories through Origami (Storigami)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oguz, Aysegul

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to elucidate how to convey stories through origami and suggest its use in education with the help of pre-service elementary teachers' opinions. The participants of the study were 103 elementary teacher candidates from a state university in the 2014-2015 academic year. In this qualitative study, the data were collected…

  20. A suggestion for planning cover crop mixtures: zones of occupancy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Producers may be able to improve the competitiveness of cover crop mixtures by selecting species to occupy zones in the cover crop canopy. This suggestion is based on a study where we compared four cover crop treatments, 1, 3, 6, and 9 species mixtures, for biomass production. Treatments were est...