Science.gov

Sample records for additional analysis showed

  1. 19. WINDOW DETAIL, NORTH WALL OF GARAGE ADDITION. VIEW SHOWS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. WINDOW DETAIL, NORTH WALL OF GARAGE ADDITION. VIEW SHOWS CONCRETE BLOCK CONSTRUCTION OF ADDITION. - Chollas Heights Naval Radio Transmitting Facility, Transmitter Building, 6410 Zero Road, San Diego, San Diego County, CA

  2. View of building 11050, showing metal clad addition on east ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of building 11050, showing metal clad addition on east elevation, looking southwest. - Naval Ordnance Test Station Inyokern, China Lake Pilot Plant, Machine Shop, C Street, China Lake, Kern County, CA

  3. View of building 11050 showing south side with modern addition ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of building 11050 showing south side with modern addition on the left and freestanding structure in the center. - Naval Ordnance Test Station Inyokern, China Lake Pilot Plant, Maintenance Shop, C Street, China Lake, Kern County, CA

  4. View of building 11050, showing two additions on east and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of building 11050, showing two additions on east and north side. Looking southwest. - Naval Ordnance Test Station Inyokern, China Lake Pilot Plant, Machine Shop, C Street, China Lake, Kern County, CA

  5. 6. SIDE ELEVATION, DETAIL SHOWING ORIGINAL LOG CONSTRUCTION, CLAPBOARD ADDITION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. SIDE ELEVATION, DETAIL SHOWING ORIGINAL LOG CONSTRUCTION, CLAPBOARD ADDITION AND CHIMNEY STACK - Shinn-Curtis Log Cabin, 23 Washington Street (moved from Rancocas Boulevard), Mount Holly, Burlington County, NJ

  6. 10. DETAIL OF KITCHEN ADDITION, SHOWING SIDING COPED TO FIT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. DETAIL OF KITCHEN ADDITION, SHOWING SIDING COPED TO FIT LOG WALL OF MAIN HOUSE - Whitcomb Cabin, BZ Corners, Glenwood County Road (Conboy Lake National Wildlife Refuge), Glenwood, Klickitat County, WA

  7. Interior view of addition pharmacy showing dutch door and security ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view of addition pharmacy showing dutch door and security ceiling grate, facing north. - Albrook Air Force Station, Dispensary, East side of Canfield Avenue, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  8. 1. WEST SIDE, NORTH END OF BUILDING 1. SHOWS ADDITIONAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. WEST SIDE, NORTH END OF BUILDING 1. SHOWS ADDITIONAL ANGLES IN BUILDING AT SOUTHERN END. - Chollas Heights Naval Radio Transmitting Facility, Transmitter Building, 6410 Zero Road, San Diego, San Diego County, CA

  9. Side elevation of Building 477 showing the shed roof addition ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Side elevation of Building 477 showing the shed roof addition and horizontal siding at the ends, view facing northwest - U.S. Marine Corps Base Hawaii, Kaneohe Bay, Golf Course Equipment & Repair Shop, Reeves & Moffett Roads, Kaneohe, Honolulu County, HI

  10. 4. WEST SIDE OF CANNERY In addition to showing the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. WEST SIDE OF CANNERY In addition to showing the on-going deterioration of the buildings, this view shows the variety of types of construction used as the numerous additions were being made. The wooden covered conveyor system, which transported empty cans from the can storage area to the canning floor can be seen at the base of the smoke stack to the right. - Hovden Cannery, 886 Cannery Row, Monterey, Monterey County, CA

  11. 15. MAP OF ALAMEDA SHIPYARD SHOWING PROPOSED ADDITIONAL FACILITIES. United ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. MAP OF ALAMEDA SHIPYARD SHOWING PROPOSED ADDITIONAL FACILITIES. United Engineering Company Ltd., Alameda Shipyard. A site map with all existing structures keyed to an identification legend. Also shows proposed new structures. No architect noted. Drawn by "J.B.H." (John Hudspeth?). Sheet 2. Plan no. 10,528. Scale one inch to 100 feet. November 12, 1943, last revised 1/18/44. pencil on vellum - United Engineering Company Shipyard, 2900 Main Street, Alameda, Alameda County, CA

  12. 4. DETAIL VIEW OF EAST CORNER, SHOWING RECENT ADDITION OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. DETAIL VIEW OF EAST CORNER, SHOWING RECENT ADDITION OF WINDOWS TO SOUTHEAST SIDE AND RECENT CLADDING IN CONTRAST TO ORIGINAL SHIPLAP SIDING INTACT ON NORTHEAST SIDE - Oakland Army Base, Transit Shed, East of Dunkirk Street & South of Burma Road, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  13. Oblique view from southwest showing newer (1966) addition with taller ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Oblique view from southwest showing newer (1966) addition with taller original structure, view facing east-northeast - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Industrial X-Ray Building, Off Sixth Street, adjacent to and south of Facility No. 11, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  14. 32. INTERIOR OF STORM PORCH ADDITION SHOWING FLUSH SIDEEXIT DOOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. INTERIOR OF STORM PORCH ADDITION SHOWING FLUSH SIDEEXIT DOOR AT PHOTO LEFT CENTER AND 1-LIGHT OVER 1LIGHT SASH WINDOW THROUGH WEST WALL AT PHOTO RIGHT. VIEW TO SOUTH. - Rush Creek Hydroelectric System, Clubhouse Cottage, Rush Creek, June Lake, Mono County, CA

  15. 8. MACHINERY SHED STORAGE ROOM ADDITION DETAIL SHOWING MATRIX OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. MACHINERY SHED STORAGE ROOM ADDITION DETAIL SHOWING MATRIX OF NAILS USED TO ADHERE PORTLAND CEMENT PLASTER, SOUTH ADOBE WALL ADJACENT TO WINDOW Note: Photographs Nos. AZ-159-A-9 through AZ-159-A-10 are photocopies of photographs. The original prints and negatives are located in the SCS Tucson Plant Materials Center, Tucson, Arizona. Photographer Ted F. Spaller. - Tucson Plant Material Center, Machinery Shed, 3241 North Romero Road, Tucson, Pima County, AZ

  16. 51. VIEW OF CRUSHER ADDITION FROM EAST. SHOWS BAKER COOLER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    51. VIEW OF CRUSHER ADDITION FROM EAST. SHOWS BAKER COOLER AT LOWER LEFT, AND FOUNDATIONS FOR ROD MILL BETWEEN COOLER AND STEPHENS-ADAMSON INCLINED BUCKET ELEVATOR. THE BELT CONVEYOR TO RIGHT OF ELEVATOR FED ELEVATOR FROM ROD MILL. 100-TON ORE BIN AND DUST COLLECTOR IS BEHIND FRAMING BENT. NOTE CONVEYOR EMERGING FROM BOTTOM OF ORE BIN, THIS AND THE INCLINED ELEVATOR FED THE SYMONS SCREEN (MISSING). - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

  17. 12. Interior view of the 1930's leant0 addition, showing the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Interior view of the 1930's lean-t0 addition, showing the commercial storage and space and the addition's roof framing; looking north - Horsepasture Store, U.S. Route 58 & State Route 687, Horse Pasture, Henry County, VA

  18. Seismic Electric Signals: An additional fact showing their physical interconnection with seismicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varotsos, P. A.; Sarlis, N. V.; Skordas, E. S.; Lazaridou, M. S.

    2013-03-01

    Natural time analysis reveals novel dynamical features hidden behind time series in complex systems. By applying it to the time series of earthquakes, we find that the order parameter of seismicity exhibits a unique change approximately at the date(s) at which Seismic Electric Signals (SES) activities have been reported to initiate. In particular, we show that the fluctuations of the order parameter of seismicity in Japan exhibits a clearly detectable minimum approximately at the time of the initiation of the SES activity observed by Uyeda and coworkers almost two months before the onset of the volcanic-seismic swarm activity in 2000 in the Izu Island region, Japan. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that, well before the occurrence of major earthquakes, anomalous changes are found to appear almost simultaneously in two independent datasets of different geophysical observables (geoelectrical measurements, seismicity). In addition, we show that these two phenomena are also linked closely in space.

  19. No-Show Analysis. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalsbeek, William D.; And Others

    The National Assessment of Educational Progress; Second Science Assessment No-Show Study assessed the magnitude and causation of nonresponse biases. A No-Show is defined as an individual who was selected as a sample respondent but failed to be present for regular assessment of the 17-year-old group. The procedure whereby a sample of eligible…

  20. Analysis shows revamp route to naphtha feed

    SciTech Connect

    Aguilar, E.; Ortiz, C.H.; Arzate, E. )

    1988-11-21

    An existing ethylene plant was studied, using a computer-simulated flexibility analysis, to determine the changes required to convert one of the cracking furnaces from ethane feed to naphtha feed. The simulation determined the changes in flow rate, operating temperature, and steam/hydrocarbon ratio that would result from the liquid feed.

  1. 54. VIEW OF ROASTER ADDITION FROM SOUTHEAST. SHOWS ELEVATOR/ORE BIN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    54. VIEW OF ROASTER ADDITION FROM SOUTHEAST. SHOWS ELEVATOR/ORE BIN ADDITION ON LEFT WITH BASE OF EXHAUST STACK, PORTION OF TOPPLED STACK ON LOWER RIGHT IN VIEW, AND UPPER TAILINGS POND BEYOND. - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

  2. 3. View of south side of HiattStricklin House showing addition ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. View of south side of Hiatt-Stricklin House showing addition and rock wall, facing north. - Hiatt Property, House, West bank of Woof Creek, 400 feet northwest of intersection of U.S.F.S. Roads 651 & 349, Placerville, Boise County, ID

  3. News Note: Addition of drug to standard chemo for prostate cancer shows no benefit

    Cancer.gov

    Prostate cancer patients in a phase 3 trial who were non-responsive to hormone therapy and received the investigational agent atrasentan in addition to a standard chemotherapy regimen, did not have longer survival or longer progression-free survival compared to the patients on the same chemotherapy regimen and a placebo. This determination was made by the trial’s Data and Safety Monitoring Committee (DSMC) based on a planned interim analysis of the trial.

  4. 50. VIEW OF CRUSHER ADDITION FROM EAST. SHOWS 100TON STEEL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    50. VIEW OF CRUSHER ADDITION FROM EAST. SHOWS 100-TON STEEL UNOXIDIZED ORE BIN, STEPHENS-ADAMSON 15 TON/HR INCLINED BUCKET ELEVATOR, AND DUST COLLECTION BIN IN UPPER RIGHT QUADRANT. THE ROD MILL CIRCUIT STOOD IN FRONT OF THE BUCKET ELEVATOR AND BEHIND THE BAKER COOLER (LEFT CENTER). MILL SOLUTION TANKS WERE IN FRONT OF THE CRUSHED OXIDIZED ORE BIN (CENTER), AND THE MILL FLOOR WAS THE NEXT LEVEL DOWN (RIGHT). - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

  5. Combined cetuximab and genistein treatment shows additive anti-cancer effect on oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Park, Sung-Jin; Kim, Myung-Jin; Kim, Yu-Kyoung; Kim, Soung-Min; Park, Ju-Yong; Myoung, Hoon

    2010-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potency of EGFR pathway inhibition achieved by combining cetuximab, an anti-EGFR monoclonal antibody, and genistein, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor, which target extracellular and intracellular domains of the receptor, respectively, in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) in vitro and in vivo. Two OSCC cell lines, HSC3 and KB, were treated with cetuximab (C, 0-400mug/ml), genistein (G, 0-80muM), or a combination of both at a range of concentrations. Downstream protein expression of EGFR, p-EGFR, and p-Akt were evaluated by Western blot. Cell proliferation and apoptosis indices were calculated to assess anti-cancer effects in vitro. The in vivo effects of cetuximab and genistein on tumor cell growth were examined using an OSCC xenografted nude mouse model and immunohistochemical analyses of proliferation (PCNA) and microvessel density (CD31). Treatment of cells with dual anti-EGFR agents reduced the expressions of p-EGFR, and p-Akt in HSC3 cell line, but there was no significant difference in downregulation between cetuximab alone and in combination with genistein in KB cells. Both HSC3 and KB cells showed a dose-dependent decrease in cell proliferation significantly with single agent treatment and combination (p<0.05). In low concentration, combined cetuximab and genistein therapy resulted in additive growth inhibition and more apoptosis compared to that achieved with single-agent exposure in both cell lines. A combination of cetuximab and genistein significantly inhibited tumor growth and caused a substantial growth delay in in vivo models of both cell lines while each single-agent exposure caused no delay of tumor growth. Immunohistochemical staining with PCNA revealed that the group receiving combined cetuximab and genistein exhibited the lowest number of proliferating cells and microvessel density (p<0.05). Combined therapy with genistein and cetuximab can add the potency of EGFR signaling inhibition. Because not all

  6. Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smalheer, C. V.

    1973-01-01

    The chemistry of lubricant additives is discussed to show what the additives are chemically and what functions they perform in the lubrication of various kinds of equipment. Current theories regarding the mode of action of lubricant additives are presented. The additive groups discussed include the following: (1) detergents and dispersants, (2) corrosion inhibitors, (3) antioxidants, (4) viscosity index improvers, (5) pour point depressants, and (6) antifouling agents.

  7. Snacking on Television: A Content Analysis of Adolescents’ Favorite Shows

    PubMed Central

    Larson, Nicole I.; Gollust, Sarah E.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Snacking is a complex behavior that may be influenced by entertainment media. Research suggests that snacking and unhealthy foods are commonly shown in programming that targets young audiences, but shows selected for study have been limited. We conducted a content analysis on shows that were named as favorites by adolescents to characterize portrayals of snacking on popular television. Methods A diverse sample of 2,130 adolescents (mean age, 14.3 y) listed 3 favorite television shows in a 2010 school-based survey. Three episodes each of the 25 most popular shows were coded for food-related content, including healthfulness, portion size, screen time use, setting, and social context. We also analyzed the characteristics of characters involved in eating incidents, the show type, and the show rating. We used χ2 tests, binomial tests, and multilevel regression models to compare incidence of snacks versus meals, the characteristics of those involved, and snacking across show characteristics. Results Almost half of food incidents on television shows were snacks. Snacks were significantly more likely than meals to be “mostly unhealthy” (69.3% vs 22.6%, P < .001) and were more likely to include screen time use (25.0% of snacking incidents vs 4.0% of meals, P < .001). Young characters and those coded as being of low socioeconomic status or overweight were overrepresented in snacking incidents. Sitcoms and shows rated for a youth audience were significantly more likely to portray snacking than were shows for adult audiences. Conclusion Media awareness and literacy programs should include foods and snacking behaviors among the issues they address. More healthful portrayals of food and dietary intake in entertainment shows’ content would create a healthier media environment for youth. PMID:27197079

  8. Additional EIPC Study Analysis. Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Hadley, Stanton W; Gotham, Douglas J.; Luciani, Ralph L.

    2014-12-01

    Between 2010 and 2012 the Eastern Interconnection Planning Collaborative (EIPC) conducted a major long-term resource and transmission study of the Eastern Interconnection (EI). With guidance from a Stakeholder Steering Committee (SSC) that included representatives from the Eastern Interconnection States Planning Council (EISPC) among others, the project was conducted in two phases. Phase 1 involved a long-term capacity expansion analysis that involved creation of eight major futures plus 72 sensitivities. Three scenarios were selected for more extensive transmission- focused evaluation in Phase 2. Five power flow analyses, nine production cost model runs (including six sensitivities), and three capital cost estimations were developed during this second phase. The results from Phase 1 and 2 provided a wealth of data that could be examined further to address energy-related questions. A list of 14 topics was developed for further analysis. This paper brings together the earlier interim reports of the first 13 topics plus one additional topic into a single final report.

  9. Hourly analysis of cerebrospinal fluid glucose shows large diurnal fluctuations.

    PubMed

    Verbeek, Marcel M; Leen, Wilhelmina G; Willemsen, Michèl A; Slats, Diane; Claassen, Jurgen A

    2016-05-01

    Cerebrospinal fluid analysis is important in the diagnostics of many neurological disorders. Since the influence of food intake on the cerebrospinal fluid glucose concentration and the cerebrospinal fluid/plasma glucose ratio is largely unknown, we studied fluctuations in these parameters in healthy adult volunteers during a period of 36 h. Our observations show large physiological fluctuations of cerebrospinal fluid glucose and the cerebrospinal fluid/plasma glucose ratio, and their relation to food intake. These findings provide novel insights into the physiology of cerebral processes dependent on glucose levels such as energy formation (e.g. glycolysis), enzymatic reactions (e.g. glycosylation), and non-enzymatic reactions (e.g. advanced endproduct glycation). PMID:26945018

  10. Acid Rain Analysis by Standard Addition Titration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ophardt, Charles E.

    1985-01-01

    The standard addition titration is a precise and rapid method for the determination of the acidity in rain or snow samples. The method requires use of a standard buret, a pH meter, and Gran's plot to determine the equivalence point. Experimental procedures used and typical results obtained are presented. (JN)

  11. Authenticity and TV Shows: A Multidimensional Analysis Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Surmi, Mansoor

    2012-01-01

    Television shows, especially soap operas and sitcoms, are usually considered by English as a second language practitioners as a source of authentic spoken conversational materials presumably because they reflect the linguistic features of natural conversation. However, practitioners are faced with the dilemma of how to assess whether such…

  12. Analysis and Evaluation of Supersonic Underwing Heat Addition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luidens, Roger W.; Flaherty, Richard J.

    1959-01-01

    The linearized theory for heat addition under a wing has been developed to optimize wing geometry, heat addition, and angle of attack. The optimum wing has all of the thickness on the underside of the airfoil, with maximum-thickness point well downstream, has a moderate thickness ratio, and operates at an optimum angle of attack. The heat addition is confined between the fore Mach waves from under the trailing surface of the wing. By linearized theory, a wing at optimum angle of attack may have a range efficiency about twice that of a wing at zero angle of attack. More rigorous calculations using the method of characteristics for particular flow models were made for heating under a flat-plate wing and for several wings with thickness, both with heat additions concentrated near the wing. The more rigorous calculations yield in practical cases efficiencies about half those estimated by linear theory. An analysis indicates that distributing the heat addition between the fore waves from the undertrailing portion of the wing is a way of improving the performance, and further calculations appear desirable. A comparison of the conventional ramjet-plus wing with underwing heat addition when the heat addition is concentrated near the wing shows the ramjet to be superior on a range basis up to Mach number of about B. The heat distribution under the wing and the assumed ramjet and airframe performance may have a marked effect on this conclusion. Underwing heat addition can be useful in providing high-altitude maneuver capability at high flight Mach numbers for an airplane powered by conventional ramjets during cruise.

  13. Sensitivity analysis of geometric errors in additive manufacturing medical models.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Jose Miguel; Arrieta, Cristobal; Andia, Marcelo E; Uribe, Sergio; Ramos-Grez, Jorge; Vargas, Alex; Irarrazaval, Pablo; Tejos, Cristian

    2015-03-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) models are used in medical applications for surgical planning, prosthesis design and teaching. For these applications, the accuracy of the AM models is essential. Unfortunately, this accuracy is compromised due to errors introduced by each of the building steps: image acquisition, segmentation, triangulation, printing and infiltration. However, the contribution of each step to the final error remains unclear. We performed a sensitivity analysis comparing errors obtained from a reference with those obtained modifying parameters of each building step. Our analysis considered global indexes to evaluate the overall error, and local indexes to show how this error is distributed along the surface of the AM models. Our results show that the standard building process tends to overestimate the AM models, i.e. models are larger than the original structures. They also show that the triangulation resolution and the segmentation threshold are critical factors, and that the errors are concentrated at regions with high curvatures. Errors could be reduced choosing better triangulation and printing resolutions, but there is an important need for modifying some of the standard building processes, particularly the segmentation algorithms. PMID:25649961

  14. Computed Tomography Inspection and Analysis for Additive Manufacturing Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beshears, Ronald D.

    2016-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) inspection was performed on test articles additively manufactured from metallic materials. Metallic AM and machined wrought alloy test articles with programmed flaws were inspected using a 2MeV linear accelerator based CT system. Performance of CT inspection on identically configured wrought and AM components and programmed flaws was assessed using standard image analysis techniques to determine the impact of additive manufacturing on inspectability of objects with complex geometries.

  15. Optimal Multicomponent Analysis Using the Generalized Standard Addition Method.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raymond, Margaret; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Describes an experiment on the simultaneous determination of chromium and magnesium by spectophotometry modified to include the Generalized Standard Addition Method computer program, a multivariate calibration method that provides optimal multicomponent analysis in the presence of interference and matrix effects. Provides instructions for…

  16. Precessing rotating flows with additional shear: Stability analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salhi, A.; Cambon, C.

    2009-03-01

    We consider unbounded precessing rotating flows in which vertical or horizontal shear is induced by the interaction between the solid-body rotation (with angular velocity Ω0 ) and the additional “precessing” Coriolis force (with angular velocity -ɛΩ0 ), normal to it. A “weak” shear flow, with rate 2ɛ of the same order of the Poincaré “small” ratio ɛ , is needed for balancing the gyroscopic torque, so that the whole flow satisfies Euler’s equations in the precessing frame (the so-called admissibility conditions). The base flow case with vertical shear (its cross-gradient direction is aligned with the main angular velocity) corresponds to Mahalov’s [Phys. Fluids A 5, 891 (1993)] precessing infinite cylinder base flow (ignoring boundary conditions), while the base flow case with horizontal shear (its cross-gradient direction is normal to both main and precessing angular velocities) corresponds to the unbounded precessing rotating shear flow considered by Kerswell [Geophys. Astrophys. Fluid Dyn. 72, 107 (1993)]. We show that both these base flows satisfy the admissibility conditions and can support disturbances in terms of advected Fourier modes. Because the admissibility conditions cannot select one case with respect to the other, a more physical derivation is sought: Both flows are deduced from Poincaré’s [Bull. Astron. 27, 321 (1910)] basic state of a precessing spheroidal container, in the limit of small ɛ . A Rapid distortion theory (RDT) type of stability analysis is then performed for the previously mentioned disturbances, for both base flows. The stability analysis of the Kerswell base flow, using Floquet’s theory, is recovered, and its counterpart for the Mahalov base flow is presented. Typical growth rates are found to be the same for both flows at very small ɛ , but significant differences are obtained regarding growth rates and widths of instability bands, if larger ɛ values, up to 0.2, are considered. Finally, both flow cases

  17. ANALYSIS OF MPC ACCESS REQUIREMENTS FOR ADDITION OF FILLER MATERIALS

    SciTech Connect

    W. Wallin

    1996-09-03

    This analysis is prepared by the Mined Geologic Disposal System (MGDS) Waste Package Development Department (WPDD) in response to a request received via a QAP-3-12 Design Input Data Request (Ref. 5.1) from WAST Design (formerly MRSMPC Design). The request is to provide: Specific MPC access requirements for the addition of filler materials at the MGDS (i.e., location and size of access required). The objective of this analysis is to provide a response to the foregoing request. The purpose of this analysis is to provide a documented record of the basis for the response. The response is stated in Section 8 herein. The response is based upon requirements from an MGDS perspective.

  18. Transcriptional and functional analysis shows sodium houttuyfonate-mediated inhibition of autolysis in Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Liu, Guoxing; Xiang, Hua; Tang, Xudong; Zhang, Kaiyu; Wu, Xiuping; Wang, Xuelin; Guo, Na; Feng, Haihua; Wang, Guangming; Liu, Lihui; Shi, Qiyun; Shen, Fengge; Xing, Mingxun; Yuan, Peng; Liu, Mingyuan; Yu, Lu

    2011-01-01

    Sodium houttuyfonate (SH), an addition compound of sodium bisulfite and houttuynin, showed in vitro antibacterial activity against 21 Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) strains grown in planktonic cultures. Microarray results showed decreased levels of autolysin atl, sle1, cidA and lytN transcripts in the SH-treated strain as compared to the control strain, consistent with the induction of the autolytic repressors lrgAB and sarA and with the downregulation of the positive regulators agrA and RNAIII. Triton X-100-induced autolysis was significantly decreased by SH in S. aureus ATCC 25923, and quantitative bacteriolytic assays and zymographic analysis demonstrated SH-mediated reduction of extracellular murein hydrolase activity in these cells. Anti-biofilm assay showed that SH is poorly active against S. aureus grown in biofilm cultures, whereas SH diminished the amounts of extracellular DNA (eDNA) of S. aureus in a dose-dependent manner, which suggested that SH may impede biofilm formation by reducing the expression of cidA to inhibit autolysis and eDNA release in the early phase. Some of the microarray results were confirmed by real-time RT-PCR. PMID:22019573

  19. Spectral Envelopes and Additive + Residual Analysis/Synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodet, Xavier; Schwarz, Diemo

    The subject of this chapter is the estimation, representation, modification, and use of spectral envelopes in the context of sinusoidal-additive-plus-residual analysis/synthesis. A spectral envelope is an amplitude-vs-frequency function, which may be obtained from the envelope of a short-time spectrum (Rodet et al., 1987; Schwarz, 1998). [Precise definitions of such an envelope and short-time spectrum (STS) are given in Section 2.] The additive-plus-residual analysis/synthesis method is based on a representation of signals in terms of a sum of time-varying sinusoids and of a non-sinusoidal residual signal [e.g., see Serra (1989), Laroche et al. (1993), McAulay and Quatieri (1995), and Ding and Qian (1997)]. Many musical sound signals may be described as a combination of a nearly periodic waveform and colored noise. The nearly periodic part of the signal can be viewed as a sum of sinusoidal components, called partials, with time-varying frequency and amplitude. Such sinusoidal components are easily observed on a spectral analysis display (Fig. 5.1) as obtained, for instance, from a discrete Fourier transform.

  20. Phylogenomic analysis shows that ‘Bacillus vanillea’ is a later heterotypic synonym of Bacillus siamensis.

    PubMed

    Dunlap, Christopher A

    2015-10-01

    ‘Bacillus vanillea’ XY18 ( = CGMCC 8629 = NCCB 100507) was isolated from cured vanilla beans and involved in the formation of vanilla aroma compounds. A draft genome of this strain was assembled and yielded a length of 3.71 Mbp with a DNA G+C content of 46.3 mol%. Comparative genomic analysis with its nearest relatives showed only minor differences between this strain and the genome of the Bacillus siamensis KCTC 13613T ( = BCC 22614T = KACC 16244T), with a calculated DNA–DNA hybridization (DDH) value of 91.2 % and an average nucleotide identity (ANI) of 98.9 %. This DDH value is well above the recommended 70 % threshold for species delineation, as well as the ANI threshold of 95 %. In addition, the results of morphological, physiological, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic analyses indicate that the type strains of these two taxa are highly similar with phenotype coherence. A core genome multi-locus sequencing analysis was conducted for the strains and the results show that ‘Bacillus vanillea’ XY18 clusters closely to the type strain of Bacillus siamensis. Therefore, it is proposed that the species ‘Bacillus vanillea’ XY18 ( = CGMCC 8629 = NCCB 100507) should be reclassified as a later heterotypic synonym of Bacillus siamensis KCTC 13613T ( = BCC 22614T = KACC 16244T). An emended description of Bacillus siamensis is provided. PMID:26296875

  1. Analysis of Saccharides by the Addition of Amino Acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozdemir, Abdil; Lin, Jung-Lee; Gillig, Kent J.; Gulfen, Mustafa; Chen, Chung-Hsuan

    2016-06-01

    In this work, we present the detection sensitivity improvement of electrospray ionization (ESI) mass spectrometry of neutral saccharides in a positive ion mode by the addition of various amino acids. Saccharides of a broad molecular weight range were chosen as the model compounds in the present study. Saccharides provide strong noncovalent interactions with amino acids, and the complex formation enhances the signal intensity and simplifies the mass spectra of saccharides. Polysaccharides provide a polymer-like ESI spectrum with a basic subunit difference between multiply charged chains. The protonated spectra of saccharides are not well identified because of different charge state distributions produced by the same molecules. Depending on the solvent used and other ions or molecules present in the solution, noncovalent interactions with saccharides may occur. These interactions are affected by the addition of amino acids. Amino acids with polar side groups show a strong tendency to interact with saccharides. In particular, serine shows a high tendency to interact with saccharides and significantly improves the detection sensitivity of saccharide compounds.

  2. Additional analysis of dendrochemical data of Fallon, Nevada.

    PubMed

    Sheppard, Paul R; Helsel, Dennis R; Speakman, Robert J; Ridenour, Gary; Witten, Mark L

    2012-04-01

    Previously reported dendrochemical data showed temporal variability in concentration of tungsten (W) and cobalt (Co) in tree rings of Fallon, Nevada, US. Criticism of this work questioned the use of the Mann-Whitney test for determining change in element concentrations. Here, we demonstrate that Mann-Whitney is appropriate for comparing background element concentrations to possibly elevated concentrations in environmental media. Given that Mann-Whitney tests for differences in shapes of distributions, inter-tree variability (e.g., "coefficient of median variation") was calculated for each measured element across trees within subsites and time periods. For W and Co, the metals of highest interest in Fallon, inter-tree variability was always higher within versus outside of Fallon. For calibration purposes, this entire analysis was repeated at a different town, Sweet Home, Oregon, which has a known tungsten-powder facility, and inter-tree variability of W in tree rings confirmed the establishment date of that facility. Mann-Whitney testing of simulated data also confirmed its appropriateness for analysis of data affected by point-source contamination. This research adds important new dimensions to dendrochemistry of point-source contamination by adding analysis of inter-tree variability to analysis of central tendency. Fallon remains distinctive by a temporal increase in W beginning by the mid 1990s and by elevated Co since at least the early 1990s, as well as by high inter-tree variability for W and Co relative to comparison towns. PMID:22227064

  3. Proteomic analysis of rice leaves shows the different regulations to osmotic stress and stress signals.

    PubMed

    Shu, Lie-Bo; Ding, Wei; Wu, Jin-Hong; Feng, Fang-Jun; Luo, Li-Jun; Mei, Han-Wei

    2010-11-01

    Following the idea of partial root-zone drying (PRD) in crop cultivation, the morphological and physiological responses to partial root osmotic stress (PROS) and whole root osmotic stress (WROS) were investigated in rice. WROS caused stress symptoms like leaf rolling and membrane leakage. PROS stimulated stress signals, but did not cause severe leaf damage. By proteomic analysis, a total of 58 proteins showed differential expression after one or both treatments, and functional classification of these proteins suggests that stress signals regulate photosynthesis, carbohydrate and energy metabolism. Two other proteins (anthranilate synthase and submergence-induced nickel-binding protein) were upregulated only in the PROS plants, indicating their important roles in stress resistance. Additionally, more enzymes were involved in stress defense, redox homeostasis, lignin and ethylene synthesis in WROS leaves, suggesting a more comprehensive regulatory mechanism induced by osmotic stress. This study provides new insights into the complex molecular networks within plant leaves involved in the adaptation to osmotic stress and stress signals. PMID:20977656

  4. Nonparametric survival analysis using Bayesian Additive Regression Trees (BART).

    PubMed

    Sparapani, Rodney A; Logan, Brent R; McCulloch, Robert E; Laud, Purushottam W

    2016-07-20

    Bayesian additive regression trees (BART) provide a framework for flexible nonparametric modeling of relationships of covariates to outcomes. Recently, BART models have been shown to provide excellent predictive performance, for both continuous and binary outcomes, and exceeding that of its competitors. Software is also readily available for such outcomes. In this article, we introduce modeling that extends the usefulness of BART in medical applications by addressing needs arising in survival analysis. Simulation studies of one-sample and two-sample scenarios, in comparison with long-standing traditional methods, establish face validity of the new approach. We then demonstrate the model's ability to accommodate data from complex regression models with a simulation study of a nonproportional hazards scenario with crossing survival functions and survival function estimation in a scenario where hazards are multiplicatively modified by a highly nonlinear function of the covariates. Using data from a recently published study of patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, we illustrate the use and some advantages of the proposed method in medical investigations. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26854022

  5. Aortic arch calcification on chest X-ray combined with coronary calcium score show additional benefit for diagnosis and outcome in patients with angina

    PubMed Central

    Woo, Jong Shin; Kim, Weon; Kwon, Se Hwan; Youn, Hyo Chul; Kim, Hyun Soo; Kim, Jin Bae; Kim, Soo Joong; Kim, Woo-Shik; Kim, Kwon Sam

    2016-01-01

    Background The coronary artery calcium (CAC) and aortic arch calcification (AoAC) are individually associated with cardiovascular disease and outcome. This study investigated the predictive value of AoAC combined with CAC for cardiovascular diagnosis and outcome in patients with angina. Methods A total of 2018 stable angina patients who underwent chest X-ray and cardiac multi-detector computed tomography were followed up for four years to assess adverse events, which were categorized as cardiac death, stroke, myocardial infarction, or repeated revascularization. The extent of AoAC on chest X-ray was graded on a scale from 0 to 3. Results During the four years of follow-up, 620 patients were treated by coronary stenting and 153 (7%) adverse events occurred. A higher grade of AoAC was associated with a higher CAC score. Cox regression showed that the CAC score, but not AoAC, were associated with adverse events. In patients with CAC score < 400, AoAC showed an additive predictive value in detecting significant coronary artery disease (CAD). A gradual increases in the risk of adverse events were noted if AoAC was present in patients with similar CAC score. Conclusions As AoAC is strongly correlated with the CAC score regardless of age or gender, careful evaluation of CAD would be required in patients with AoAC on conventional chest X-rays. PMID:27103916

  6. Stimulation of terrestrial ecosystem carbon storage by nitrogen addition: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Yue, Kai; Peng, Yan; Peng, Changhui; Yang, Wanqin; Peng, Xin; Wu, Fuzhong

    2016-01-01

    Elevated nitrogen (N) deposition alters the terrestrial carbon (C) cycle, which is likely to feed back to further climate change. However, how the overall terrestrial ecosystem C pools and fluxes respond to N addition remains unclear. By synthesizing data from multiple terrestrial ecosystems, we quantified the response of C pools and fluxes to experimental N addition using a comprehensive meta-analysis method. Our results showed that N addition significantly stimulated soil total C storage by 5.82% ([2.47%, 9.27%], 95% CI, the same below) and increased the C contents of the above- and below-ground parts of plants by 25.65% [11.07%, 42.12%] and 15.93% [6.80%, 25.85%], respectively. Furthermore, N addition significantly increased aboveground net primary production by 52.38% [40.58%, 65.19%] and litterfall by 14.67% [9.24%, 20.38%] at a global scale. However, the C influx from the plant litter to the soil through litter decomposition and the efflux from the soil due to microbial respiration and soil respiration showed insignificant responses to N addition. Overall, our meta-analysis suggested that N addition will increase soil C storage and plant C in both above- and below-ground parts, indicating that terrestrial ecosystems might act to strengthen as a C sink under increasing N deposition. PMID:26813078

  7. Stimulation of terrestrial ecosystem carbon storage by nitrogen addition: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Yue, Kai; Peng, Yan; Peng, Changhui; Yang, Wanqin; Peng, Xin; Wu, Fuzhong

    2016-01-01

    Elevated nitrogen (N) deposition alters the terrestrial carbon (C) cycle, which is likely to feed back to further climate change. However, how the overall terrestrial ecosystem C pools and fluxes respond to N addition remains unclear. By synthesizing data from multiple terrestrial ecosystems, we quantified the response of C pools and fluxes to experimental N addition using a comprehensive meta-analysis method. Our results showed that N addition significantly stimulated soil total C storage by 5.82% ([2.47%, 9.27%], 95% CI, the same below) and increased the C contents of the above- and below-ground parts of plants by 25.65% [11.07%, 42.12%] and 15.93% [6.80%, 25.85%], respectively. Furthermore, N addition significantly increased aboveground net primary production by 52.38% [40.58%, 65.19%] and litterfall by 14.67% [9.24%, 20.38%] at a global scale. However, the C influx from the plant litter to the soil through litter decomposition and the efflux from the soil due to microbial respiration and soil respiration showed insignificant responses to N addition. Overall, our meta-analysis suggested that N addition will increase soil C storage and plant C in both above- and below-ground parts, indicating that terrestrial ecosystems might act to strengthen as a C sink under increasing N deposition. PMID:26813078

  8. Stimulation of terrestrial ecosystem carbon storage by nitrogen addition: a meta-analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yue, Kai; Peng, Yan; Peng, Changhui; Yang, Wanqin; Peng, Xin; Wu, Fuzhong

    2016-01-01

    Elevated nitrogen (N) deposition alters the terrestrial carbon (C) cycle, which is likely to feed back to further climate change. However, how the overall terrestrial ecosystem C pools and fluxes respond to N addition remains unclear. By synthesizing data from multiple terrestrial ecosystems, we quantified the response of C pools and fluxes to experimental N addition using a comprehensive meta-analysis method. Our results showed that N addition significantly stimulated soil total C storage by 5.82% ([2.47%, 9.27%], 95% CI, the same below) and increased the C contents of the above- and below-ground parts of plants by 25.65% [11.07%, 42.12%] and 15.93% [6.80%, 25.85%], respectively. Furthermore, N addition significantly increased aboveground net primary production by 52.38% [40.58%, 65.19%] and litterfall by 14.67% [9.24%, 20.38%] at a global scale. However, the C influx from the plant litter to the soil through litter decomposition and the efflux from the soil due to microbial respiration and soil respiration showed insignificant responses to N addition. Overall, our meta-analysis suggested that N addition will increase soil C storage and plant C in both above- and below-ground parts, indicating that terrestrial ecosystems might act to strengthen as a C sink under increasing N deposition.

  9. Porosity Measurements and Analysis for Metal Additive Manufacturing Process Control

    PubMed Central

    Slotwinski, John A; Garboczi, Edward J; Hebenstreit, Keith M

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing techniques can produce complex, high-value metal parts, with potential applications as critical metal components such as those found in aerospace engines and as customized biomedical implants. Material porosity in these parts is undesirable for aerospace parts - since porosity could lead to premature failure - and desirable for some biomedical implants - since surface-breaking pores allows for better integration with biological tissue. Changes in a part’s porosity during an additive manufacturing build may also be an indication of an undesired change in the build process. Here, we present efforts to develop an ultrasonic sensor for monitoring changes in the porosity in metal parts during fabrication on a metal powder bed fusion system. The development of well-characterized reference samples, measurements of the porosity of these samples with multiple techniques, and correlation of ultrasonic measurements with the degree of porosity are presented. A proposed sensor design, measurement strategy, and future experimental plans on a metal powder bed fusion system are also presented. PMID:26601041

  10. Porosity Measurements and Analysis for Metal Additive Manufacturing Process Control.

    PubMed

    Slotwinski, John A; Garboczi, Edward J; Hebenstreit, Keith M

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing techniques can produce complex, high-value metal parts, with potential applications as critical metal components such as those found in aerospace engines and as customized biomedical implants. Material porosity in these parts is undesirable for aerospace parts - since porosity could lead to premature failure - and desirable for some biomedical implants - since surface-breaking pores allows for better integration with biological tissue. Changes in a part's porosity during an additive manufacturing build may also be an indication of an undesired change in the build process. Here, we present efforts to develop an ultrasonic sensor for monitoring changes in the porosity in metal parts during fabrication on a metal powder bed fusion system. The development of well-characterized reference samples, measurements of the porosity of these samples with multiple techniques, and correlation of ultrasonic measurements with the degree of porosity are presented. A proposed sensor design, measurement strategy, and future experimental plans on a metal powder bed fusion system are also presented. PMID:26601041

  11. Additional EIPC Study Analysis: Interim Report on High Priority Topics

    SciTech Connect

    Hadley, Stanton W

    2013-11-01

    Between 2010 and 2012 the Eastern Interconnection Planning Collaborative (EIPC) conducted a major long-term resource and transmission study of the Eastern Interconnection (EI). With guidance from a Stakeholder Steering Committee (SSC) that included representatives from the Eastern Interconnection States Planning Council (EISPC) among others, the project was conducted in two phases. Phase 1 involved a long-term capacity expansion analysis that involved creation of eight major futures plus 72 sensitivities. Three scenarios were selected for more extensive transmission- focused evaluation in Phase 2. Five power flow analyses, nine production cost model runs (including six sensitivities), and three capital cost estimations were developed during this second phase. The results from Phase 1 and 2 provided a wealth of data that could be examined further to address energy-related questions. A list of 13 topics was developed for further analysis; this paper discusses the first five.

  12. Disclosure of hydraulic fracturing fluid chemical additives: analysis of regulations.

    PubMed

    Maule, Alexis L; Makey, Colleen M; Benson, Eugene B; Burrows, Isaac J; Scammell, Madeleine K

    2013-01-01

    Hydraulic fracturing is used to extract natural gas from shale formations. The process involves injecting into the ground fracturing fluids that contain thousands of gallons of chemical additives. Companies are not mandated by federal regulations to disclose the identities or quantities of chemicals used during hydraulic fracturing operations on private or public lands. States have begun to regulate hydraulic fracturing fluids by mandating chemical disclosure. These laws have shortcomings including nondisclosure of proprietary or "trade secret" mixtures, insufficient penalties for reporting inaccurate or incomplete information, and timelines that allow for after-the-fact reporting. These limitations leave lawmakers, regulators, public safety officers, and the public uninformed and ill-prepared to anticipate and respond to possible environmental and human health hazards associated with hydraulic fracturing fluids. We explore hydraulic fracturing exemptions from federal regulations, as well as current and future efforts to mandate chemical disclosure at the federal and state level. PMID:23552653

  13. Network Analysis Shows Novel Molecular Mechanisms of Action for Copper-Based Chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Espinal-Enríquez, Jesús; Hernández-Lemus, Enrique; Mejía, Carmen; Ruiz-Azuara, Lena

    2016-01-01

    The understanding of the mechanisms associated with the action of chemotherapeutic agents is fundamental to assess and account for possible side-effects of such treatments. Casiopeínas have demonstrated a cytotoxic effect by activation of pro-apoptotic processes in malignant cells. Such processes have been proved to activate the apoptotic intrinsic route, as well as cell cycle arrest. Despite this knowledge, the whole mechanism of action of Casiopeínas is yet to be completely understood. In this work we implement a systems biology approach based on two pathway analysis tools (Over-Representation Analysis and Causal Network Analysis) to observe changes in some hallmarks of cancer, induced by this copper-based chemotherapeutic agent in HeLa cell lines. We find that the metabolism of metal ions is exacerbated, as well as cell division processes being globally diminished. We also show that cellular migration and proliferation events are decreased. Moreover, the molecular mechanisms of liver protection are increased in the cell cultures under the actions of Casiopeínas, unlike the case in many other cytotoxic drugs. We argue that this chemotherapeutic agent may be promising, given its protective hepatic function, concomitant with its cytotoxic participation in the onset of apoptotic processes in malignant cells. PMID:26793116

  14. Meta-analysis of aspirin use and risk of lung cancer shows notable results.

    PubMed

    Hochmuth, Friederike; Jochem, Maximilian; Schlattmann, Peter

    2016-07-01

    Aspirin is a promising agent for chemoprevention of lung cancer. We assessed the association of aspirin use and the development of lung cancer, with a focus on heterogeneity between studies. Databases were searched for relevant studies until September 2014. Studies evaluating the relationship of aspirin use and incidence of lung cancer were considered. Relative risks (RR) were extracted and a pooled estimate was calculated. Heterogeneity was assessed by the I measure, random-effects models, and finite-mixture models. Sources of heterogeneity were investigated using a meta-regression. A decreased risk of lung cancer was found including 20 studies [RR=0.87, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.79-0.95] on the basis of a random-effects model. Strong heterogeneity was observed (τ=0.0258, I=74.4%). As a result, two subpopulations of studies were identified on the basis of a mixture model. The first subpopulation (42%) has an average RR of 0.64. The remaining subpopulation (58%) shows an RR of 1.04. Different results were found for case-control (RR=0.74, 95% CI: 0.60-0.90) and cohort studies (RR=0.99, 95% CI: 0.93-1.06) in a stratified analysis. In a subgroup analysis, use of aspirin was associated with a decreased risk of non-small-cell lung cancer in case-control studies (RR=0.74; 95% CI: 0.58-0.94). At first glance, our meta-analysis shows an average protective effect. A second glance indicates that there is strong heterogeneity. This leads to a subpopulation with considerable benefit and another subpopulation with no benefit. For further investigations, it is important to identify populations that benefit from aspirin use. PMID:26067033

  15. Maps showing mines, quarries, oil and gas activity, and sample localities in and near the Sipsey Wilderness and additions, Lawrence and Winston Counties, Alabama

    SciTech Connect

    Mory, P.C.; Behum, P.T.; Ross, R.B. Jr.

    1982-01-01

    This report presents the results of a mineral survey of the Sipsey Wilderness and additions, William B. Bankhead National Forest, Lawrence and Winston Counties, Alabama. The survey includes: limestone quarrying, coal mining, and oil and gas activity. 7 references, 5 figures, 2 tables.

  16. Preliminary analysis showed country-specific gut resistome based on 1,267 feces samples.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhenyu; Guo, Zhirong; Qiu, Chuangzhao; Li, Yinhu; Feng, Xin; Liu, Yanhong; Zhang, Yanlin; Pang, Pengyu; Wang, Ping; Zhou, Qian; Han, Lijuan; Dai, Wenkui

    2016-05-01

    Gut microbiota (GM) plays an important role in drug metabolism and absorption. Ever-increasing antibiotic use could result in high accumulation of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in GM, which will reduce the recovery rate of many infectious diseases. The foci of this study is to unravel ARG distribution in GM of 1267 subjects from four countries in three continents, by annotation with ARDB (Antibiotic Resistance Genes Database) and ARG-ANNOT database. Analysis results showed that all three continents had similar ARG composition, but Chinese had the highest ARG relative abundance, followed by American and European. This is possibly attributed to delayed policies on antibiotic use in China, and restrict legislation in Europe. Delivery time and application scope are proportional to ARG enrichment in GM. Findings in this study indicate that ARG accumulation could be associated with government policies on antibiotic use, and corresponding delivery time and application scope, which will be a significant reference to control antibiotic abuse. PMID:26827794

  17. Additional challenges for uncertainty analysis in river engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berends, Koen; Warmink, Jord; Hulscher, Suzanne

    2016-04-01

    the proposed intervention. The implicit assumption underlying such analysis is that both models are commensurable. We hypothesize that they are commensurable only to a certain extent. In an idealised study we have demonstrated that prediction performance loss should be expected with increasingly large engineering works. When accounting for parametric uncertainty of floodplain roughness in model identification, we see uncertainty bounds for predicted effects of interventions increase with increasing intervention scale. Calibration of these types of models therefore seems to have a shelf-life, beyond which calibration does not longer improves prediction. Therefore a qualification scheme for model use is required that can be linked to model validity. In this study, we characterize model use along three dimensions: extrapolation (using the model with different external drivers), extension (using the model for different output or indicators) and modification (using modified models). Such use of models is expected to have implications for the applicability of surrogating modelling for efficient uncertainty analysis as well, which is recommended for future research. Warmink, J. J.; Straatsma, M. W.; Huthoff, F.; Booij, M. J. & Hulscher, S. J. M. H. 2013. Uncertainty of design water levels due to combined bed form and vegetation roughness in the Dutch river Waal. Journal of Flood Risk Management 6, 302-318 . DOI: 10.1111/jfr3.12014

  18. Genome-wide methylation analysis shows similar patterns in Barrett’s esophagus and esophageal adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Jian; Ajani, Jaffer; Wu, Xifeng

    2013-01-01

    Barrett’s esophagus (BE) is a precursor of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC). To identify novel tumor suppressors involved in esophageal carcinogenesis and potential biomarkers for the malignant progression of BE, we performed a genome-wide methylation profiling of BE and EAC tissues. Using Illumina’s Infinium HumanMethylation27 BeadChip microarray, we examined the methylation status of 27 578 CpG sites in 94 normal esophageal (NE), 77 BE and 117 EAC tissue samples. The overall methylation of CpG sites within the CpG islands was higher, but outside of the CpG islands was lower in BE and EAC tissues than in NE tissues. Hierarchical clustering analysis showed an excellent separation of NE tissues from BE and EAC tissues; however, the clustering of BE and EAC tissues was less clear, suggesting that methylation occurs early during the progression of EAC. We confirmed many previously reported hypermethylated genes and identified a large number of novel hypermethylated genes in BE and EAC tissues, particularly genes encoding ADAM (A Disintegrin And Metalloproteinase) peptidase proteins, cadherins and protocadherins, and potassium voltage-gated channels. Pathway analysis showed that a number of channel and transporter activities were enriched for hypermethylated genes. We used pyrosequencing to validate selected candidate genes and found high correlations between the array and pyrosequencing data (rho > 0.8 for each validated gene). The differentially methylated genes and pathways may provide biological insights into the development and progression of BE and become potential biomarkers for the prediction and early detection of EAC. PMID:23996928

  19. Performance analysis of flexible DSSC with binder addition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muliani, Lia; Hidayat, Jojo; Anggraini, Putri Nur

    2016-04-01

    Flexible DSSC is one of modification of DSSC based on its substrate. Operating at low temperature, flexible DSSC requires a binder to improve particles interconnection. This research was done to compare the morphology and performance of flexible DSSC that was produced with binder-added and binder-free. TiO2 powder, butanol, and HCl were mixed for preparation of TiO2 paste. Small amount of titanium isopropoxide as binder was added into the mixture. TiO2 paste was deposited on ITO-PET plastic substrate with area of 1x1 cm2 by doctor blade method. Furthermore, SEM, XRD, and BET characterization were done to analyze morphology and surface area of the TiO2 photoelectrode microstructures. Dyed TiO2 photoelectrode and platinum counter electrode were assembled and injected by electrolyte. In the last process, flexible DSSCs were illuminated by sun simulator to do J-V measurement. As a result, flexible DSSC containing binder showed higher performance with photoconversion efficiency of 0.31%.

  20. Transcriptome analysis shows differential gene expression in the saprotrophic to parasitic transition of Pochonia chlamydosporia.

    PubMed

    Rosso, Laura C; Finetti-Sialer, Mariella M; Hirsch, Penny R; Ciancio, Aurelio; Kerry, Brian R; Clark, Ian M

    2011-06-01

    Expression profiles were identified in the fungus Pochonia chlamydosporia, a biological control agent of plant parasitic nematodes, through a cDNA-amplified fragment length polymorphism approach. Two isolates with different host ranges, IMI 380407 and IMI 331547, were assayed in conditions of saprotrophic-to-parasitic transition, through in vitro assays. Gene expression profiles from three different nutritional conditions and four sampling times were generated, with eggs of host nematodes Globodera pallida and Meloidogyne incognita. Expression of transcripts changed in RNA fingerprints obtained under different nutritional stresses (starvation in presence/absence of eggs, or rich growth media). Transcript derived fragments (TDFs) obtained from the expression profiles corresponded to 6,800 products. A subset was sequenced and their expression profile confirmed through RT PCR. A total of 57 TDFs were selected for further analysis, based on similarities to translated or annotated sequences. Genes expressed during egg parasitism for both IMI 380407 and IMI 331547 were involved in metabolic functions, cellular signal regulation, cellular transport, regulation of gene expression, DNA repair, and other unknown functions. Multivariate analysis of TDF expression showed three groups for IMI 380407 and one for IMI 331547, each characterized by expression of genes related to eggs parasitism. Common amplification profiles among TDF clusters from both isolates also reflected a pool of constitutive genes, not affected by the nutritional conditions and nematode associations, related to general metabolic functions. The differential expression of parasitism related genes suggest a network of induced/repressed products, playing a role in fungal signaling and infection, with partial overlaps in host infection and parasitism traits. PMID:21541788

  1. Mass cytometry analysis shows that a novel memory phenotype B cell is expanded in multiple myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Hansmann, Leo; Blum, Lisa; Ju, Chia-Hsin; Liedtke, Michaela; Robinson, William H.; Davis, Mark M.

    2015-01-01

    It would be very beneficial if the status of cancers could be determined from a blood specimen. However, peripheral blood leukocytes are very heterogeneous between individuals and thus high resolution technologies are likely required. We used cytometry by time-of-flight (CyTOF) and next generation sequencing to ask whether a plasma cell cancer (multiple myeloma) and related pre-cancerous states had any consistent effect on the peripheral blood mononuclear cell phenotypes of patients. Analysis of peripheral blood samples from 13 cancer patients, 9 pre-cancer patients, and 9 healthy individuals revealed significant differences in the frequencies of the T, B, and natural killer cell compartments. Most strikingly, we identified a novel B-cell population that normally accounts for 4.0±0.7% (mean±SD) of total B cells and is up to 13-fold expanded in multiple myeloma patients with active disease. This population expressed markers previously associated with both memory (CD27+) and naïve (CD24loCD38+) phenotypes. Single-cell immunoglobulin gene sequencing showed polyclonality, indicating that these cells are not precursors to the myeloma, and somatic mutations, a characteristic of memory cells. SYK, ERK, and p38 phosphorylation responses, and the fact that most of these cells expressed isotypes other than IgM or IgD, confirmed the memory character of this population, defining it as a novel type of memory B cells. PMID:25711758

  2. In-Depth Analysis Shows Synergy between Erlotinib and miR-34a

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jane; Kelnar, Kevin; Bader, Andreas G.

    2014-01-01

    Tyrosine kinase inhibitors directed against epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR-TKI), such as erlotinib, are effective in a limited fraction of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, the majority of NSCLC and other cancer types remain resistant. Therapeutic miRNA mimics modeled after endogenous tumor suppressor miRNAs inhibit tumor growth by repressing multiple oncogenes at once and, therefore, may be used to augment drug sensitivity. Here, we investigated the relationship of miR-34a and erlotinib and determined the therapeutic activity of the combination in NSCLC cells with primary and acquired erlotinib resistance. The drug combination was also tested in a panel of hepatocellular carcinoma cells (HCC), a cancer type known to be refractory to erlotinib. Using multiple analytical approaches, drug-induced inhibition of cancer cell proliferation was determined to reveal additive, antagonistic or synergistic effects. Our data show a strong synergistic interaction between erlotinib and miR-34a mimics in all cancer cells tested. Synergy was observed across a range of different dose levels and drug ratios, reducing IC50 dose requirements for erlotinib and miR-34a by up to 46-fold and 13-fold, respectively. Maximal synergy was detected at dosages that provide a high level of cancer cell inhibition beyond the one that is induced by the single agents alone and, thus, is of clinical relevance. The data suggest that a majority of NSCLC and other cancers previously not suited for erlotinib may prove sensitive to the drug when used in combination with a miR-34a-based therapy. PMID:24551227

  3. Axl Inhibition Primes Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia B-Cells to Apoptosis and Show Synergistic/Additive Effects in Combination with BTK inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Sinha, Sutapa; Boysen, Justin; Nelson, Michael; Secreto, Charla; Warner, Steven L.; Bearss, David J.; Lesnick, Connie; Shanafelt, Tait D.; Kay, Neil E.; Ghosh, Asish K.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is an incurable disease despite aggressive therapeutic approaches. We previously found that Axl receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) plays a critical role in CLL B-cell survival. Here, we explored the possibility of using a high-affinity Axl inhibitor as a single agent or in combination with Bruton’s tyrosine kinase (BTK) inhibitors for future clinical trial to treat CLL patients. Experimental Design Expression/activation status of other members of the TAM (Tyro3, Axl, MER) family of RTKs in CLL B-cells was evaluated. Cells were treated with a high-affinity orally bioavailable Axl inhibitor TP-0903 with or without presence of CLL bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs). Inhibitory effects of TP-0903 on Axl signaling pathway was also evaluated in CLL B-cells. Finally, cells were exposed to TP-0903 in combination with BTK inhibitors to determine any synergistic/additive effects of the combination. Results CLL B-cells overexpress Tyro3, but not MER. Of interest, Tyro3 remains as constitutively phosphorylated and form a complex with Axl in CLL B-cells. TP-0903 induces massive apoptosis in CLL B-cells with LD50 values of nanomolar ranges. Importantly, CLL BMSCs could not protect the leukemic B-cells from TP-0903 induced apoptosis. A marked reduction of the anti-apoptotic proteins Mcl-1, Bcl-2, XIAP and upregulation of the pro-apoptotic protein BIM in CLL B-cells were detected as a result of Axl inhibition. Finally, combination of TP-0903 with BTK inhibitors augments CLL B-cell apoptosis. Conclusion Administration of TP-0903 either as a single agent or in combination with BTK inhibitors may be effective in treating CLL patients. PMID:25673699

  4. Proteomic analysis of human adipose tissue after rosiglitazone treatment shows coordinated changes to promote glucose uptake.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Meftun; Neville, Matt J; Edelmann, Mariola J; Kessler, Benedikt M; Karpe, Fredrik

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify potential protein targets for insulin sensitization in human adipose tissue using unbiased proteomic approaches. Ten moderately obese, but otherwise healthy, subjects were treated with rosiglitazone 4 mg b.i.d. for 14 days and global protein and gene expression changes were monitored. Proteomic analysis revealed distinct up- or downregulation (greater than twofold) in 187 protein spots on the two-dimensional (2-D) gel images between day 0 and day 1 adipose tissue samples. When comparing the protein spots on the gels from day 0 with that of 14-day-treated samples, 122 spots showed differential expression. There was a striking increase in the expression of proteins involved in glucose transporter-4 (GLUT4) granule transport and fusion (actin, myosin-9, tubulin, vimentin, annexins, moesin, LIM, and SH3 domain protein-1), signaling (calmodulin, guanine nucleotide-binding proteins), redox regulation (superoxide dismutase, catalase, ferritin, transferrin, heat shock proteins), and adipogenesis (collagens, galectin-1, nidogen-1, laminin, lamin A/C). However, there was an intriguing absence of correlated changes in mRNA expression, suggesting adaptation at a post-transcriptional level in response to rosiglitazone. Thus, the major changes observed were among proteins involved in cytoskeletal rearrangement, insulin and calcium signaling, and inflammatory and redox signals that decisively upregulate GLUT4 granule trafficking in human adipose tissue. Such orchestrated changes in expression of multiple proteins provide insights into the mechanism underlying the increased efficiency in glucose uptake and improvement of insulin sensitivity in response to rosiglitazone treatment. PMID:19556978

  5. Proteomic analysis shows that individual Listeria monocytogenes strains use different strategies in response to gastric stress.

    PubMed

    Melo, Jessie; Schrama, Denise; Andrew, Peter W; Faleiro, M Leonor

    2013-02-01

    Ingestion of contaminated dairy products, in particular soft cheese, is one of the major routes of infection by the human pathogen Listeria monocytogenes. During cheese processing, this foodborne pathogen is exposed to sublethal acid and osmotic stress conditions, which may induce tolerance responses and influence subsequent survival in the gastric tract. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the impact on a L. monocytogenes cheese isolate (serotype 4b) and two cheese dairy isolates (T8, serotype 4b, isolated from vat; and A9, serotype 1/2b or 3b, isolated from shelf stand) of exposure to sublethal conditions of pH and salt (5.5 and 3.5% [w/v] NaCl) in a cheese-simulated medium and further challenge with gastric stress. The bacterial cells exposed to pH 7.0 and no added salt were considered non-adapted. Via two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE), the proteomes of cheese-simulated medium and gastric challenged Listeria cells were compared. All L. monocytogenes isolates were able to survive the high acidity of gastric fluid (pH 2.5), and no significant differences were observed between adapted and non-adapted cells. However, the analysis of the intracellular proteome profiles revealed a significant intra-strain variation in the protein arsenal used to respond to the adaptation in the cheese-based medium and to the gastric stress. In cheese-based medium, the three strains produced different stress proteins. All three strains showed a higher abundance of carbohydrate proteins, but there was no overlap between them. Exposure to the gastric fluid induced the production of a group of proteins in T8 adapted and non-adapted cells that had not been detected previously in the cheese-based proteome. No such response was shown by A9 and C882 strains. Taken together, this study evidences the proteome tools used by adapted and non-adapted cells to cope with the hostile microenvironment of the stomach. PMID:23441912

  6. More than Meets the Ear: A Factor Analysis of Student Impressions of Television Talk Show Hosts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, James R.

    To identify the descriptors most frequently associated with four popular television talk show hosts and to isolate the fundamental dimensions of the images of those talk show hosts, a study surveyed 209 students from Memphis State University and the University of Arkansas (Little Rock) about their impressions of Johnny Carson, David Letterman,…

  7. Re-analysis of survival data of cancer patients utilizing additive homeopathy.

    PubMed

    Gleiss, Andreas; Frass, Michael; Gaertner, Katharina

    2016-08-01

    In this short communication we present a re-analysis of homeopathic patient data in comparison to control patient data from the same Outpatient´s Unit "Homeopathy in malignant diseases" of the Medical University of Vienna. In this analysis we took account of a probable immortal time bias. For patients suffering from advanced stages of cancer and surviving the first 6 or 12 months after diagnosis, respectively, the results show that utilizing homeopathy gives a statistically significant (p<0.001) advantage over control patients regarding survival time. In conclusion, bearing in mind all limitations, the results of this retrospective study suggest that patients with advanced stages of cancer might benefit from additional homeopathic treatment until a survival time of up to 12 months after diagnosis. PMID:27515878

  8. MOLECULAR ANALYSIS OF BOVINE RHINOVIRUS TYPE 2 SHOWS A CLOSE RELATIONSHIP TO THE APHTHOVIRUSES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine rhinovirus 2 (BRV-2) the causative agent of respiratory disease in cattle is currently an unclassified species tentatively assigned to the genus Rhinovirus in the family Picornaviridae. However, previous analysis of the sequence from partial amplicons in the 3D and P1 regions of the genome su...

  9. Phylogenomic analysis shows that ‘Bacillus vanillea’ is a later heterotypic synonym of Bacillus siamensis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘Bacillus vanillea’ XY18T (=CGMCC 8629 T =NCCB 100507 T) was isolated from cured vanilla beans and involved in the formation of vanilla aroma compounds. A draft genome of this type strain was assembled and yielded a length of 3.72 Mbp and a GC content of 46.3%. Comparative genomic analysis with its ...

  10. The Coordination of Verbal and Nonverbal Interaction towards Three Parties: The Analysis of a Talk Show.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    von Raffler-Engel, Walburga

    A study of randomly selected "Donahue" shows revealed how host Phil Donahue interacts with several parties at one time and how he subordinates various interactions to suit the hierarchy of importance he attributes to each party, with the television viewer being the most important. Donahue organizes his body movement mainly for television viewers.…

  11. Social network analysis shows direct evidence for social transmission of tool use in wild chimpanzees.

    PubMed

    Hobaiter, Catherine; Poisot, Timothée; Zuberbühler, Klaus; Hoppitt, William; Gruber, Thibaud

    2014-09-01

    Social network analysis methods have made it possible to test whether novel behaviors in animals spread through individual or social learning. To date, however, social network analysis of wild populations has been limited to static models that cannot precisely reflect the dynamics of learning, for instance, the impact of multiple observations across time. Here, we present a novel dynamic version of network analysis that is capable of capturing temporal aspects of acquisition--that is, how successive observations by an individual influence its acquisition of the novel behavior. We apply this model to studying the spread of two novel tool-use variants, "moss-sponging" and "leaf-sponge re-use," in the Sonso chimpanzee community of Budongo Forest, Uganda. Chimpanzees are widely considered the most "cultural" of all animal species, with 39 behaviors suspected as socially acquired, most of them in the domain of tool-use. The cultural hypothesis is supported by experimental data from captive chimpanzees and a range of observational data. However, for wild groups, there is still no direct experimental evidence for social learning, nor has there been any direct observation of social diffusion of behavioral innovations. Here, we tested both a static and a dynamic network model and found strong evidence that diffusion patterns of moss-sponging, but not leaf-sponge re-use, were significantly better explained by social than individual learning. The most conservative estimate of social transmission accounted for 85% of observed events, with an estimated 15-fold increase in learning rate for each time a novice observed an informed individual moss-sponging. We conclude that group-specific behavioral variants in wild chimpanzees can be socially learned, adding to the evidence that this prerequisite for culture originated in a common ancestor of great apes and humans, long before the advent of modern humans. PMID:25268798

  12. Image analysis shows that variations in actin crossover spacings are random, not compensatory.

    PubMed Central

    Egelman, E H; DeRosier, D J

    1992-01-01

    A recent paper by Bremer et al. (1991. J. Cell Biol. 115:689-703) has argued that the random angular disorder model for actin is wrong, and that the variations in crossover spacing observed in electron micrographs of F-actin filaments can be best explained by a compensatory disorder caused by the lateral slipping of the twin (or two-start) strands which comprise the actin filament. We have analyzed the images of F-actin presented in Bremer et al. and show that their data argues against compensatory disorder and in favor of random disorder, independent of the cause of the disorder. We also revise our estimate of the angular component and show that the magnitude of this disorder is about 5-6 degrees per subunit, which is less than the 10-12 degrees that we originally proposed. PMID:1477281

  13. SR-FTIR Coupled with Principal Component Analysis Shows Evidence for the Cellular Bystander Effect.

    PubMed

    Lipiec, E; Bambery, K R; Lekki, J; Tobin, M J; Vogel, C; Whelan, D R; Wood, B R; Kwiatek, W M

    2015-07-01

    Synchrotron radiation-Fourier transform infrared (SR-FTIR) microscopy coupled with multivariate data analysis was used as an independent modality to monitor the cellular bystander effect. Single, living prostate cancer PC-3 cells were irradiated with various numbers of protons, ranging from 50-2,000, with an energy of either 1 or 2 MeV using a proton microprobe. SR-FTIR spectra of cells, fixed after exposure to protons and nonirradiated neighboring cells (bystander cells), were recorded. Spectral differences were observed in both the directly targeted and bystander cells and included changes in the DNA backbone and nucleic bases, along with changes in the protein secondary structure. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to investigate the variance in the entire data set. The percentage of bystander cells relative to the applied number of protons with two different energies was calculated. Of all the applied quantities, the dose of 400 protons at 2 MeV was found to be the most effective for causing significant macromolecular perturbation in bystander PC-3 cells. PMID:26121225

  14. A micro-epidemiological analysis of febrile malaria in Coastal Kenya showing hotspots within hotspots

    PubMed Central

    Bejon, Philip; Williams, Thomas N; Nyundo, Christopher; Hay, Simon I; Benz, David; Gething, Peter W; Otiende, Mark; Peshu, Judy; Bashraheil, Mahfudh; Greenhouse, Bryan; Bousema, Teun; Bauni, Evasius; Marsh, Kevin; Smith, David L; Borrmann, Steffen

    2014-01-01

    Malaria transmission is spatially heterogeneous. This reduces the efficacy of control strategies, but focusing control strategies on clusters or ‘hotspots’ of transmission may be highly effective. Among 1500 homesteads in coastal Kenya we calculated (a) the fraction of febrile children with positive malaria smears per homestead, and (b) the mean age of children with malaria per homestead. These two measures were inversely correlated, indicating that children in homesteads at higher transmission acquire immunity more rapidly. This inverse correlation increased gradually with increasing spatial scale of analysis, and hotspots of febrile malaria were identified at every scale. We found hotspots within hotspots, down to the level of an individual homestead. Febrile malaria hotspots were temporally unstable, but 4 km radius hotspots could be targeted for 1 month following 1 month periods of surveillance. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02130.001 PMID:24843017

  15. Genome-wide microarray analysis of tomato roots showed defined responses to iron deficiency

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Plants react to iron deficiency stress adopting different kind of adaptive responses. Tomato, a Strategy I plant, improves iron uptake through acidification of rhizosphere, reduction of Fe3+ to Fe2+ and transport of Fe2+ into the cells. Large-scale transcriptional analyses of roots under iron deficiency are only available for a very limited number of plant species with particular emphasis for Arabidopsis thaliana. Regarding tomato, an interesting model species for Strategy I plants and an economically important crop, physiological responses to Fe-deficiency have been thoroughly described and molecular analyses have provided evidence for genes involved in iron uptake mechanisms and their regulation. However, no detailed transcriptome analysis has been described so far. Results A genome-wide transcriptional analysis, performed with a chip that allows to monitor the expression of more than 25,000 tomato transcripts, identified 97 differentially expressed transcripts by comparing roots of Fe-deficient and Fe-sufficient tomato plants. These transcripts are related to the physiological responses of tomato roots to the nutrient stress resulting in an improved iron uptake, including regulatory aspects, translocation, root morphological modification and adaptation in primary metabolic pathways, such as glycolysis and TCA cycle. Other genes play a role in flavonoid biosynthesis and hormonal metabolism. Conclusions The transcriptional characterization confirmed the presence of the previously described mechanisms to adapt to iron starvation in tomato, but also allowed to identify other genes potentially playing a role in this process, thus opening new research perspectives to improve the knowledge on the tomato root response to the nutrient deficiency. PMID:22433273

  16. Changes of pore systems and infiltration analysis in two degraded soils after rock fragment addition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gargiulo, Laura; Coppola, Antonio; De Mascellis, Roberto; Basile, Angelo; Mele, Giacomo; Terribile, Fabio

    2015-04-01

    Many soils in arid and semi-arid environments contain high amounts of rock fragments as a result of both natural soil forming processes and human activities. The amount, dimension and shape of rock fragment strongly influence soil structure development and therefore many soil processes (e.g. infiltration, water storage, solute transport, etc.). The aim of this work was to test the effects on both infiltration process and soil pore formation following an addition of rock fragments. The test was performed on two different soils: a clayey soil (Alfisol) and a clay loamy soil (Entisol) showing both a natural compact structure and water stagnation problems in field. Three concentrations of 4-8mm rock fragments (15%, 25% and 35%) were added to air-dried soils and the repacked samples have been subject to nine wet/dry cycles in order to induce soil structure formation and its stabilization. The process of infiltration was monitored at -12 cm of pressure heads imposed at the soil surface and kept constant for a certain time by a tension infiltrometer. Moreover, k(h) was determined imposing -9, -6,-3 and -1 cm at soil surface and applying a steady-state solution. After the hydrological measurements the soil samples were resin-impregnated and images of vertical sections of the samples, acquired at 20µm resolution, were analyzed in order to quantify the pore size distribution. This latter was calculated using the "successive opening" approach. The Entisol samples showed similar infiltration curves I(t) among the 4 treatments, with higher percentage of stones (i.e. 25 and 35%) showing a faster rising in the early-time (< 2 min) infiltration; the Alfisol samples are spread, showing a higher variability: limiting the analysis to the first three, despite they show a similar shape, the higher the stones content the lower the cumulated infiltration. The behavior of the 35% sample diverges from the others: it shows a fast rising step at the very early time (< 2 min) followed by a

  17. Molecular epidemiological analysis of Mycoplasma bovis isolates from the Pennsylvania Animal Diagnostic Laboratory showing genetic diversity.

    PubMed

    Soehnlen, M K; Kariyawasam, S; Lumadue, J A; Pierre, T A; Wolfgang, D R; Jayarao, B M

    2011-04-01

    We have examined the genetic variability of Mycoplasma bovis strains submitted to the Pennsylvania Animal Diagnostics Laboratory, University Park (PA-ADL), between December 2007 and December 2008. Of 4,868 total samples submitted for Mycoplasma testing, 302 were determined to be culture positive. Mycoplasma bovis (63.6%), Mycoplasma californicum (7.3%), Mycoplasma bovirhinis (2.7%), Mycoplasma bovigenitalium (0.7%), Mycoplasma alkalescens (4.9%), Mycoplasma putrefaciens (0.3%), and Mycoplasma dispar (1.3%) and unidentified Mycoplasma sp. (19.2%) were identified using PCR. Mycoplasma bovis represented the largest portion of the positive samples submitted. Each of the 192 M. bovis isolates was examined for variations in the BglII and MfeI restriction sites of the DNA using amplified fragment length polymorphism fingerprinting and subsequently compared with the M. bovis type strain PG45 (ATCC 25523). Similarity between strains was calculated using the Dice similarity coefficient, which ranged from approximately 0.7 to 1.0. When clustering the isolates at greater than 95% similarity, it was determined that 11 distinct clusters were present. The results are consistent with the existence of at least 2 clonally distinct groups. No clear geographical, month of isolation, or source origination relationship was identified, indicating that a currently unclassified characteristic is responsible for the strain heterogeneity. These data indicate strong heterogeneity of M. bovis isolates submitted to PA-ADL. Additionally, multiple sites throughout Pennsylvania had isolates of separate clonal lineages present concomitantly, indicating the ability of multiple overlapping outbreaks to occur at a single location. Mycoplasma bovis represents the largest portion of Mycoplasma species isolated from PA-ADL samples. We propose that amplified fragment length polymorphism may serve as a valuable tool for molecular characterization of M. bovis strains from the United States. PMID:21426978

  18. Analysis of Cylinder-pressure-indicator Diagrams Showing Effects of Mixture Strength and Spark Timing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerrish, Harold C; Voss, Fred

    1940-01-01

    An investigation was made to determine the effect of mixture strength and of normal as well as optimum spark timing on the combustion, on the cylinder temperature, and on the performance characteristics of an engine. A single-cylinder test unit utilizing an air-cooled cylinder and a carburetor and operating with gasoline having an octane rating of 92 was used. The investigation covered a range of fuel-air ratios from 0.053 to 0.118. Indicator diagrams and engine-performance data were taken for each change in engine conditions. Examination of the indicator shows that for fuel-air ratios less than and greater than 0.082 the rate and the amount of effective fuel burned decreased. For a fuel-air ratio of 0.118 the combustion efficiency was only 58 percent. Advancing the spark timing increased the rate of pressure rise. This effect was more pronounced with leaner mixtures.

  19. Retrospective analysis showing the water method increased adenoma detection rate - a hypothesis generating observation.

    PubMed

    Leung, Joseph W; Do, Lynne D; Siao-Salera, Rodelei M; Ngo, Catherine; Parikh, Dhavan A; Mann, Surinder K; Leung, Felix W

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A water method developed to attenuate discomfort during colonoscopy enhanced cecal intubation in unsedated patients. Serendipitously a numerically increased adenoma detection rate (ADR) was noted. OBJECTIVE: To explore databases of sedated patients examined by the air and water methods to identify hypothesis-generating findings. DESIGN: Retrospective analysis. SETTING: VA endoscopy center. PATIENTS: creening colonoscopy. INTERVENTIONS: From 1/2000-6/2006 the air method was used - judicious air insufflation to permit visualization of the lumen to aid colonoscope insertion and water spray for washing mucosal surfaces. From 6/2006-11/2009 the water method was adopted - warm water infusion in lieu of air insufflation and suction removal of residual air to aid colonoscope insertion. During colonoscope withdrawal adequate air was insufflated to distend the colonic lumen for inspection, biopsy and polypectomy in a similar fashion in both periods. Main outcome measurements: ADR. RESULTS: The air (n=683) vs. water (n=495) method comparisons revealed significant differences in overall ADR 26.8% (183 of 683) vs. 34.9% (173 of 495) and ADR of adenomas >9 mm, 7.2% vs. 13.7%, respectively (both P<0.05, Fisher's exact test). LIMITATIONS: Non-randomized data susceptible to bias by unmeasured parameters unrelated to the methods. CONCLUSION: Confirmation of the serendipitous observation of an impact of the water method on ADR provides impetus to call for randomized controlled trials to test hypotheses related to the water method as an approach to improving adenoma detection. Because of recent concerns over missed lesions during colonoscopy, the provocative hypothesis-generating observations warrant presentation. PMID:21686105

  20. Transcriptome analysis of Bifidobacterium longum strains that show a differential response to hydrogen peroxide stress.

    PubMed

    Oberg, Taylor S; Ward, Robert E; Steele, James L; Broadbent, Jeff R

    2015-10-20

    Consumer and commercial interest in foods containing probiotic bifidobacteria is increasing. However, because bifidobacteria are anaerobic, oxidative stress can diminish cell viability during production and storage of bioactive foods. We previously found Bifidobacterium longum strain NCC2705 had significantly greater intrinsic and inducible resistance to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) than strain D2957. Here, we explored the basis for these differences by examining the transcriptional responses of both strains to sub-lethal H2O2 exposure for 5- or 60-min. Strain NCC2705 had 288 genes that were differentially expressed after the 5-min treatment and 114 differentially expressed genes after the 60-min treatment. In contrast, strain D2957 had only 21 and 90 differentially expressed genes after the 5- and 60-min treatments, respectively. Both strains showed up-regulation of genes coding enzymes implicated in oxidative stress resistance, such as thioredoxin, thioredoxin reductase, peroxiredoxin, ferredoxin, glutaredoxin, and anaerobic ribonucleotide reductase, but induction levels were typically highest in NCC2705. Compared to D2957, NCC2705 also had more up-regulated genes involved in transcriptional regulation and more down-regulated genes involved in sugar transport and metabolism. These results provide a greater understanding of the molecular basis for oxidative stress resistance in B. longum and the factors that contribute to strain-to-strain variability in survival in bioactive food products. PMID:26299205

  1. Computational analysis shows why transcranial alternating current stimulation induces retinal phosphenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laakso, Ilkka; Hirata, Akimasa

    2013-08-01

    Objective. Transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS), which is a novel technique for the manipulation of cortical oscillations, can generate subjective visual sensations (phosphenes). In this work, we computationally investigate the current that reaches the eyes from tACS electrodes in order to show that phosphenes induced by tACS are retinal in origin. Approach. The finite-element method is used for modelling the path of the current in an anatomically realistic model of the head for various electrode montages. The computational results are used for analysing previous experimental data to investigate the sensitivity of the eye to electrical stimulation. Main results. Depending on the locations of both the stimulating and reference electrodes, a small portion of the stimulation current chooses a path that goes through the eyes. Due to the sensitivity of the retina to electrical stimulation, even distant electrodes can produce a sufficiently strong current at the eyes for inducing retinal phosphenes. Significance. The interference from retinal phosphenes needs to be considered in the design of tACS experiments. The occurrence of phosphenes can be reduced by optimizing the locations of the electrodes, or potentially increasing the number of reference electrodes to two or more. Computational modelling is an effective tool for guiding the electrode positioning.

  2. Genome-Wide Expression Analysis of Soybean MADS Genes Showing Potential Function in the Seed Development

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Rui-Bo; Zhang, Xiao-Mei; Chen, Jian-Xin; Fu, Yong-Fu

    2013-01-01

    The MADS family is an ancient and best-studied transcription factor and plays fundamental roles in almost every developmental process in plants. In the plant evolutionary history, the whole genome duplication (WGD) events are important not only to the plant species evolution, but to expansion of members of the gene families. Soybean as a model legume crop has experience three rounds of WGD events. Members of some MIKCC subfamilies, such as SOC, AGL6, SQUA, SVP, AGL17 and DEF/GLO, were expanded after soybean three rounds of WGD events. And some MIKCC subfamilies, MIKC* and type I MADS families had experienced faster birth-and-death evolution and their traces before the Glycine WGD event were not found. Transposed duplication played important roles in tandem arrangements among the members of different subfamilies. According to the expression profiles of type I and MIKC paralog pair genes, the fates of MIKC paralog gene pairs were subfunctionalization, and the fates of type I MADS paralog gene pairs were nonfunctionalization. 137 out of 163 MADS genes were close to 186 loci within 2 Mb genomic regions associated with seed-relative QTLs, among which 115 genes expressed during the seed development. Although MIKCC genes kept the important and conserved functions of the flower development, most MIKCC genes showed potentially essential roles in the seed development as well as the type I MADS. PMID:23638026

  3. Diversity of copper(I) complexes showing thermally activated delayed fluorescence: basic photophysical analysis.

    PubMed

    Czerwieniec, Rafał; Yersin, Hartmut

    2015-05-01

    A comparison of three copper(I) compounds [1, Cu(dppb)(pz2Bph2); 2, Cu(pop)(pz2Bph2); 3, Cu(dmp)(phanephos)(+)] that show pronounced thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) at ambient temperature demonstrates a wide diversity of emission behavior. In this study, we focus on compound 1. A computational density functional theory (DFT)/time-dependent DFT approach allows us to predict detailed photophysical properties, while experimental emission studies over a wide temperature range down to T = 1.5 K lead to better insight into the electronic structures even with respect to spin-orbit coupling efficiencies, radiative rates, and zero-field splitting of the triplet state. All three compounds, with emission quantum yields higher than ϕPL = 70%, are potentially well suited as emitters for organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) based on the singlet-harvesting mechanism. Interestingly, compound 1 is by far the most attractive one because of a very small energy separation between the lowest excited singlet S1 and triplet T1 state of ΔE(S1-T1) = 370 cm(-1) (46 meV). Such a small value has not been reported so far. It is responsible for the very short decay time of τ(TADF, 300 K) = 3.3 μs. Hence, if focused on the requirements of a short TADF decay time for reduction of the saturation effects in OLEDs, copper(I) complexes are well comparable or even slightly better than the best purely organic TADF emitters. PMID:25894718

  4. Analysis methods for the determination of anthropogenic additions of P to agricultural soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phosphorus additions and measurement in soil is of concern on lands where biosolids have been applied. Colorimetric analysis for plant-available P may be inadequate for the accurate assessment of soil P. Phosphate additions in a regulatory environment need to be accurately assessed as the reported...

  5. Analysis of CNT additives in porous layered thin film lubrication with electric double layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, T. V. V. L. N.; Rani, A. M. A.; Sufian, S.; Mohamed, N. M.

    2015-07-01

    This paper presents an analysis of thin film lubrication of porous layered carbon nanotubes (CNTs) additive slider bearing with electric double layer. The CNTs additive lubricant flow in the thin fluid film and porous layers are governed by Stokes and Brinkman equations respectively, including electro-kinetic force. The apparent viscosity and nondimensional pressure expression are derived. The nondimensional load capacity increases under the influence of electro-viscosity, CNT additives volume fraction, permeability and thickness of porous layer. A CNTs additive lubricated porous thin film slider bearing with electric double layer provides higher load capacity.

  6. Failure location prediction by finite element analysis for an additive manufactured mandible implant.

    PubMed

    Huo, Jinxing; Dérand, Per; Rännar, Lars-Erik; Hirsch, Jan-Michaél; Gamstedt, E Kristofer

    2015-09-01

    In order to reconstruct a patient with a bone defect in the mandible, a porous scaffold attached to a plate, both in a titanium alloy, was designed and manufactured using additive manufacturing. Regrettably, the implant fractured in vivo several months after surgery. The aim of this study was to investigate the failure of the implant and show a way of predicting the mechanical properties of the implant before surgery. All computed tomography data of the patient were preprocessed to remove metallic artefacts with metal deletion technique before mandible geometry reconstruction. The three-dimensional geometry of the patient's mandible was also reconstructed, and the implant was fixed to the bone model with screws in Mimics medical imaging software. A finite element model was established from the assembly of the mandible and the implant to study stresses developed during mastication. The stress distribution in the load-bearing plate was computed, and the location of main stress concentration in the plate was determined. Comparison between the fracture region and the location of the stress concentration shows that finite element analysis could serve as a tool for optimizing the design of mandible implants. PMID:26227805

  7. Analysis of chill-cast NiAl intermetallic compound with copper additions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colin, J.; Gonzalez, C.; Herrera, R.; Juarez-Islas, J. A.

    2002-10-01

    This study carried out a characterization of chill-cast NiAl alloys with copper additions, which were added to NiAl, such that the resulting alloy composition occurred in the β-field of the ternary NiAlCu phase diagram. The alloys were vacuum induction melted and casted in copper chill molds to produce ingots 0.002 m thick, 0.020 m wide, and 0.050 m long. X-ray diffractometry (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) performed in chill-cast ingots identified mainly the presence of the β-(Ni,Cu)Al phase. As-cast ingots showed essentially no ductility at room temperature except for the Ni50Al40Cu10 alloy, which showed 1.79% of elongation at room temperature. Ingots with this alloy composition were then heat treated under a high-purity argon atmosphere at 550 °C (24 h) and cooled either in the furnace or in air, until room temperature was reached. β-(Ni,Cu)Al and γ'(Ni,Cu)3Al were present in specimens cooled in the furnace and β-(Ni,Cu)Al, γ'(Ni,Cu)3Al plus martensite-(Ni,Cu)Al were present in specimens cooled in air. Thermogravimetric analysis indicated that martensite transformation was the result of a solid-state reaction with M s ˜ 470 and M f ˜ 430 °C. Tensile tests performed on bulk heat-treated ingots showed room-temperature ductility between 3 and 6%, depending on the cooling media.

  8. "The Show"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gehring, John

    2004-01-01

    For the past 16 years, the blue-collar city of Huntington, West Virginia, has rolled out the red carpet to welcome young wrestlers and their families as old friends. They have come to town chasing the same dream for a spot in what many of them call "The Show". For three days, under the lights of an arena packed with 5,000 fans, the state's best…

  9. Methane flux in non-wetland soils in response to nitrogen addition: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Aronson, E L; Helliker, B R

    2010-11-01

    The controls on methane (CH4) flux into and out of soils are not well understood. Environmental variables including temperature, precipitation, and nitrogen (N) status can have strong effects on the magnitude and direction (e.g., uptake vs. release) of CH4 flux. To better understand the interactions between CH4-cycling microorganisms and N in the non-wetland soil system, a meta-analysis was performed on published literature comparing CH4 flux in N amended and matched control plots. An appropriate study index was developed for this purpose. It was found that smaller amounts of N tended to stimulate CH4 uptake while larger amounts tended to inhibit uptake by the soil. When all other variables were accounted for, the switch occurred at 100 kg N x ha(-1) x yr(-1). Managed land and land with a longer duration of fertilization showed greater inhibition of CH4 uptake with added N. These results support the hypotheses that large amounts of available N can inhibit methanotrophy, but also that methanotrophs in upland soils can be N limited in their consumption of CH4 from the atmosphere. There were interactions between other variables and N addition on the CH4 flux response: lower temperature and, to a lesser extent, higher precipitation magnified the inhibition of CH4 uptake due to N addition. Several mechanisms that may cause these trends are discussed, but none could be conclusively supported with this approach. Further controlled and in situ study should be undertaken to isolate the correct mechanism(s) responsible and to model upland CH4 flux. PMID:21141185

  10. A comparative analysis of British and Taiwanese students' conceptual and procedural knowledge of fraction addition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hui-Chuan

    2014-10-01

    This study examines students' procedural and conceptual achievement in fraction addition in England and Taiwan. A total of 1209 participants (561 British students and 648 Taiwanese students) at ages 12 and 13 were recruited from England and Taiwan to take part in the study. A quantitative design by means of a self-designed written test is adopted as central to the methodological considerations. The test has two major parts: the concept part and the skill part. The former is concerned with students' conceptual knowledge of fraction addition and the latter is interested in students' procedural competence when adding fractions. There were statistically significant differences both in concept and skill parts between the British and Taiwanese groups with the latter having a higher score. The analysis of the students' responses to the skill section indicates that the superiority of Taiwanese students' procedural achievements over those of their British peers is because most of the former are able to apply algorithms to adding fractions far more successfully than the latter. Earlier, Hart [1] reported that around 30% of the British students in their study used an erroneous strategy (adding tops and bottoms, for example, 2/3 + 1/7 = 3/10) while adding fractions. This study also finds that nearly the same percentage of the British group remained using this erroneous strategy to add fractions as Hart found in 1981. The study also provides evidence to show that students' understanding of fractions is confused and incomplete, even those who are successfully able to perform operations. More research is needed to be done to help students make sense of the operations and eventually attain computational competence with meaningful grounding in the domain of fractions.

  11. In-cloud sulfate addition to single particles resolved with sulfur isotope analysis during HCCT-2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, E.; Sinha, B.; van Pinxteren, D.; Schneider, J.; Poulain, L.; Collett, J.; D'Anna, B.; Fahlbusch, B.; Foley, S.; Fomba, K. W.; George, C.; Gnauk, T.; Henning, S.; Lee, T.; Mertes, S.; Roth, A.; Stratmann, F.; Borrmann, S.; Hoppe, P.; Herrmann, H.

    2014-01-01

    In-cloud production of sulfate modifies the aerosol size distribution, with important implications for the magnitude of indirect and direct aerosol cooling and the impact of SO2 emissions on the environment. We investigate which sulfate sources dominate the in-cloud addition of sulfate to different particle classes as an air parcel passes through an orographic cloud. Sulfate aerosol, SO2 and H2SO4 were collected upwind, in-cloud and downwind of an orographic cloud for three cloud measurement events during the Hill Cap Cloud Thuringia campaign in Autumn, 2010 (HCCT-2010). Combined SEM and NanoSIMS analysis of single particles allowed the δ34S of particulate sulfate to be resolved for particle size and type. The most important in-cloud SO2 oxidation pathway at HCCT-2010 was aqueous oxidation catalysed by transition metal ions (TMI catalysis), which was shown with single particle isotope analyses to occur primarily in cloud droplets nucleated on coarse mineral dust. In contrast, direct uptake of H2SO4(g) and ultrafine particulate were the most important sources modifying fine mineral dust, increasing its hygroscopicity and facilitating activation. Sulfate addition to "mixed" particles (secondary organic and inorganic aerosol) and coated soot was dominated by in-cloud aqueous SO2 oxidation by H2O2 and direct uptake of H2SO4(g) and ultrafine particle sulfate, depending on particle size mode and time of day. These results provide new insight into in-cloud sulfate production mechanisms, and show the importance of single particle measurements and models to accurately assess the environmental effects of cloud processing.

  12. In-cloud sulfate addition to single particles resolved with sulfur isotope analysis during HCCT-2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, E.; Sinha, B.; van Pinxteren, D.; Schneider, J.; Poulain, L.; Collett, J.; D'Anna, B.; Fahlbusch, B.; Foley, S.; Fomba, K. W.; George, C.; Gnauk, T.; Henning, S.; Lee, T.; Mertes, S.; Roth, A.; Stratmann, F.; Borrmann, S.; Hoppe, P.; Herrmann, H.

    2014-04-01

    In-cloud production of sulfate modifies aerosol size distribution, with important implications for the magnitude of indirect and direct aerosol cooling and the impact of SO2 emissions on the environment. We investigate which sulfate sources dominate the in-cloud addition of sulfate to different particle classes as an air parcel passes through an orographic cloud. Sulfate aerosol, SO2 and H2SO4 were collected upwind, in-cloud and downwind of an orographic cloud for three cloud measurement events during the Hill Cap Cloud Thuringia campaign in autumn 2010 (HCCT-2010). Combined SEM and NanoSIMS analysis of single particles allowed the δ34S of particulate sulfate to be resolved for particle size and type. The most important in-cloud SO2 oxidation pathway at HCCT-2010 was aqueous oxidation catalysed by transition metal ions (TMI catalysis), which was shown with single particle isotope analyses to occur primarily in cloud droplets nucleated on coarse mineral dust. In contrast, direct uptake of H2SO4 (g) and ultrafine particulate were the most important sources modifying fine mineral dust, increasing its hygroscopicity and facilitating activation. Sulfate addition to "mixed" particles (secondary organic and inorganic aerosol) and coated soot was dominated by in-cloud aqueous SO2 oxidation by H2O2 and direct uptake of H2SO4 (g) and ultrafine particle sulfate, depending on particle size mode and time of day. These results provide new insight into in-cloud sulfate production mechanisms, and show the importance of single particle measurements and models to accurately assess the environmental effects of cloud processing.

  13. Validation analysis of probabilistic models of dietary exposure to food additives.

    PubMed

    Gilsenan, M B; Thompson, R L; Lambe, J; Gibney, M J

    2003-10-01

    The validity of a range of simple conceptual models designed specifically for the estimation of food additive intakes using probabilistic analysis was assessed. Modelled intake estimates that fell below traditional conservative point estimates of intake and above 'true' additive intakes (calculated from a reference database at brand level) were considered to be in a valid region. Models were developed for 10 food additives by combining food intake data, the probability of an additive being present in a food group and additive concentration data. Food intake and additive concentration data were entered as raw data or as a lognormal distribution, and the probability of an additive being present was entered based on the per cent brands or the per cent eating occasions within a food group that contained an additive. Since the three model components assumed two possible modes of input, the validity of eight (2(3)) model combinations was assessed. All model inputs were derived from the reference database. An iterative approach was employed in which the validity of individual model components was assessed first, followed by validation of full conceptual models. While the distribution of intake estimates from models fell below conservative intakes, which assume that the additive is present at maximum permitted levels (MPLs) in all foods in which it is permitted, intake estimates were not consistently above 'true' intakes. These analyses indicate the need for more complex models for the estimation of food additive intakes using probabilistic analysis. Such models should incorporate information on market share and/or brand loyalty. PMID:14555358

  14. River catchment rainfall series analysis using additive Holt-Winters method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puah, Yan Jun; Huang, Yuk Feng; Chua, Kuan Chin; Lee, Teang Shui

    2016-03-01

    Climate change is receiving more attention from researchers as the frequency of occurrence of severe natural disasters is getting higher. Tropical countries like Malaysia have no distinct four seasons; rainfall has become the popular parameter to assess climate change. Conventional ways that determine rainfall trends can only provide a general result in single direction for the whole study period. In this study, rainfall series were modelled using additive Holt-Winters method to examine the rainfall pattern in Langat River Basin, Malaysia. Nine homogeneous series of more than 25 years data and less than 10% missing data were selected. Goodness of fit of the forecasted models was measured. It was found that seasonal rainfall model forecasts are generally better than the monthly rainfall model forecasts. Three stations in the western region exhibited increasing trend. Rainfall in southern region showed fluctuation. Increasing trends were discovered at stations in the south-eastern region except the seasonal analysis at station 45253. Decreasing trend was found at station 2818110 in the east, while increasing trend was shown at station 44320 that represents the north-eastern region. The accuracies of both rainfall model forecasts were tested using the recorded data of years 2010-2012. Most of the forecasts are acceptable.

  15. Multivariate qualitative analysis of banned additives in food safety using surface enhanced Raman scattering spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Shixuan; Xie, Wanyi; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Liqun; Wang, Yunxia; Liu, Xiaoling; Liu, Yulong; Du, Chunlei

    2015-02-01

    A novel strategy which combines iteratively cubic spline fitting baseline correction method with discriminant partial least squares qualitative analysis is employed to analyze the surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy of banned food additives, such as Sudan I dye and Rhodamine B in food, Malachite green residues in aquaculture fish. Multivariate qualitative analysis methods, using the combination of spectra preprocessing iteratively cubic spline fitting (ICSF) baseline correction with principal component analysis (PCA) and discriminant partial least squares (DPLS) classification respectively, are applied to investigate the effectiveness of SERS spectroscopy for predicting the class assignments of unknown banned food additives. PCA cannot be used to predict the class assignments of unknown samples. However, the DPLS classification can discriminate the class assignment of unknown banned additives using the information of differences in relative intensities. The results demonstrate that SERS spectroscopy combined with ICSF baseline correction method and exploratory analysis methodology DPLS classification can be potentially used for distinguishing the banned food additives in field of food safety.

  16. Multivariate qualitative analysis of banned additives in food safety using surface enhanced Raman scattering spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    He, Shixuan; Xie, Wanyi; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Liqun; Wang, Yunxia; Liu, Xiaoling; Liu, Yulong; Du, Chunlei

    2015-02-25

    A novel strategy which combines iteratively cubic spline fitting baseline correction method with discriminant partial least squares qualitative analysis is employed to analyze the surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy of banned food additives, such as Sudan I dye and Rhodamine B in food, Malachite green residues in aquaculture fish. Multivariate qualitative analysis methods, using the combination of spectra preprocessing iteratively cubic spline fitting (ICSF) baseline correction with principal component analysis (PCA) and discriminant partial least squares (DPLS) classification respectively, are applied to investigate the effectiveness of SERS spectroscopy for predicting the class assignments of unknown banned food additives. PCA cannot be used to predict the class assignments of unknown samples. However, the DPLS classification can discriminate the class assignment of unknown banned additives using the information of differences in relative intensities. The results demonstrate that SERS spectroscopy combined with ICSF baseline correction method and exploratory analysis methodology DPLS classification can be potentially used for distinguishing the banned food additives in field of food safety. PMID:25300041

  17. 7 CFR 91.38 - Additional fees for appeal of analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Additional fees for appeal of analysis. 91.38 Section 91.38 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING... for laboratory service that appears in this paragraph. The new fiscal year for Science and...

  18. 7 CFR 91.38 - Additional fees for appeal of analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Additional fees for appeal of analysis. 91.38 Section 91.38 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING... for laboratory service that appears in this paragraph. The new fiscal year for Science and...

  19. Different responses of soil respiration and its components to nitrogen addition among biomes: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Lingyan; Zhou, Xuhui; Zhang, Baocheng; Lu, Meng; Luo, Yiqi; Liu, Lingli; Li, Bo

    2014-07-01

    Anthropogenic activities have increased nitrogen (N) deposition by threefold to fivefold over the last century, which may considerably affect soil respiration (Rs). Although numerous individual studies and a few meta-analyses have been conducted, it remains controversial as to how N addition affects Rs and its components [i.e., autotrophic (Ra) and heterotrophic respiration (Rh)]. To reconcile the difference, we conducted a comprehensive meta-analysis of 295 published studies to examine the responses of Rs and its components to N addition in terrestrial ecosystems. We also assessed variations in their responses in relation to ecosystem types, environmental conditions, and experimental duration (DUR). Our results show that N addition significantly increased Rs by 2.0% across all biomes but decreased by 1.44% in forests and increased by 7.84% and 12.4% in grasslands and croplands, respectively (P < 0.05). The differences may largely result from diverse responses of Ra to N addition among biomes with more stimulation of Ra in croplands and grasslands compared with no significant change in forests. Rh exhibited a similar negative response to N addition among biomes except that in croplands, tropical and boreal forests. Methods of partitioning Rs did not induce significant differences in the responses of Ra or Rh to N addition, except that Ra from root exclusion and component integration methods exhibited the opposite responses in temperate forests. The response ratios (RR) of Rs to N addition were positively correlated with mean annual temperature (MAT), with being more significant when MAT was less than 15 °C, but negatively with DUR. In addition, the responses of Rs and its components to N addition largely resulted from the changes in root and microbial biomass and soil C content as indicated by correlation analysis. The response patterns of Rs to N addition as revealed in this study can be benchmarks for future modeling and experimental studies. PMID:24323545

  20. On an Additive Semigraphoid Model for Statistical Networks With Application to Pathway Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Bing; Chun, Hyonho; Zhao, Hongyu

    2014-01-01

    We introduce a nonparametric method for estimating non-gaussian graphical models based on a new statistical relation called additive conditional independence, which is a three-way relation among random vectors that resembles the logical structure of conditional independence. Additive conditional independence allows us to use one-dimensional kernel regardless of the dimension of the graph, which not only avoids the curse of dimensionality but also simplifies computation. It also gives rise to a parallel structure to the gaussian graphical model that replaces the precision matrix by an additive precision operator. The estimators derived from additive conditional independence cover the recently introduced nonparanormal graphical model as a special case, but outperform it when the gaussian copula assumption is violated. We compare the new method with existing ones by simulations and in genetic pathway analysis. PMID:26401064

  1. Analysis of occupational accidents: prevention through the use of additional technical safety measures for machinery

    PubMed Central

    Dźwiarek, Marek; Latała, Agata

    2016-01-01

    This article presents an analysis of results of 1035 serious and 341 minor accidents recorded by Poland's National Labour Inspectorate (PIP) in 2005–2011, in view of their prevention by means of additional safety measures applied by machinery users. Since the analysis aimed at formulating principles for the application of technical safety measures, the analysed accidents should bear additional attributes: the type of machine operation, technical safety measures and the type of events causing injuries. The analysis proved that the executed tasks and injury-causing events were closely connected and there was a relation between casualty events and technical safety measures. In the case of tasks consisting of manual feeding and collecting materials, the injuries usually occur because of the rotating motion of tools or crushing due to a closing motion. Numerous accidents also happened in the course of supporting actions, like removing pollutants, correcting material position, cleaning, etc. PMID:26652689

  2. Reducing the matrix effects in chemical analysis: fusion of isotope dilution and standard addition methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pagliano, Enea; Meija, Juris

    2016-04-01

    The combination of isotope dilution and mass spectrometry has become an ubiquitous tool of chemical analysis. Often perceived as one of the most accurate methods of chemical analysis, it is not without shortcomings. Current isotope dilution equations are not capable of fully addressing one of the key problems encountered in chemical analysis: the possible effect of sample matrix on measured isotope ratios. The method of standard addition does compensate for the effect of sample matrix by making sure that all measured solutions have identical composition. While it is impossible to attain such condition in traditional isotope dilution, we present equations which allow for matrix-matching between all measured solutions by fusion of isotope dilution and standard addition methods.

  3. Analysis of occupational accidents: prevention through the use of additional technical safety measures for machinery.

    PubMed

    Dźwiarek, Marek; Latała, Agata

    2016-01-01

    This article presents an analysis of results of 1035 serious and 341 minor accidents recorded by Poland's National Labour Inspectorate (PIP) in 2005-2011, in view of their prevention by means of additional safety measures applied by machinery users. Since the analysis aimed at formulating principles for the application of technical safety measures, the analysed accidents should bear additional attributes: the type of machine operation, technical safety measures and the type of events causing injuries. The analysis proved that the executed tasks and injury-causing events were closely connected and there was a relation between casualty events and technical safety measures. In the case of tasks consisting of manual feeding and collecting materials, the injuries usually occur because of the rotating motion of tools or crushing due to a closing motion. Numerous accidents also happened in the course of supporting actions, like removing pollutants, correcting material position, cleaning, etc. PMID:26652689

  4. Nucleotide sequence analysis of Aleutian mink disease parvovirus shows that multiple virus types are present in infected mink.

    PubMed Central

    Gottschalck, E; Alexandersen, S; Cohn, A; Poulsen, L A; Bloom, M E; Aasted, B

    1991-01-01

    Different isolates of Aleutian mink disease parvovirus (ADV) were cloned and nucleotide sequenced. Analysis of individual clones from two in vivo-derived isolates of high virulence indicated that more than one type of ADV DNA were present in each of these isolates. Analysis of several clones from two preparations of a cell culture-adapted isolate of low virulence showed the presence of only one type of ADV DNA. We also describe the nucleotide sequence from map units 44 to 88 of a new type of ADV DNA. The new type of ADV DNA is compared with the previously published ADV sequences, to which it shows 95% homology. These findings indicate that ADV, a single-stranded DNA virus, has a considerable degree of variability and that several virus types can be present simultaneously in an infected animal. PMID:1649336

  5. Recruitment Methods and Show Rates to a Prostate Cancer Early Detection Program for High-Risk Men: A Comprehensive Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Giri, Veda N.; Coups, Elliot J.; Ruth, Karen; Goplerud, Julia; Raysor, Susan; Kim, Taylor Y.; Bagden, Loretta; Mastalski, Kathleen; Zakrzewski, Debra; Leimkuhler, Suzanne; Watkins-Bruner, Deborah

    2009-01-01

    Purpose Men with a family history (FH) of prostate cancer (PCA) and African American (AA) men are at higher risk for PCA. Recruitment and retention of these high-risk men into early detection programs has been challenging. We report a comprehensive analysis on recruitment methods, show rates, and participant factors from the Prostate Cancer Risk Assessment Program (PRAP), which is a prospective, longitudinal PCA screening study. Materials and Methods Men 35–69 years are eligible if they have a FH of PCA, are AA, or have a BRCA1/2 mutation. Recruitment methods were analyzed with respect to participant demographics and show to the first PRAP appointment using standard statistical methods Results Out of 707 men recruited, 64.9% showed to the initial PRAP appointment. More individuals were recruited via radio than from referral or other methods (χ2 = 298.13, p < .0001). Men recruited via radio were more likely to be AA (p<0.001), less educated (p=0.003), not married or partnered (p=0.007), and have no FH of PCA (p<0.001). Men recruited via referrals had higher incomes (p=0.007). Men recruited via referral were more likely to attend their initial PRAP visit than those recruited by radio or other methods (χ2 = 27.08, p < .0001). Conclusions This comprehensive analysis finds that radio leads to higher recruitment of AA men with lower socioeconomic status. However, these are the high-risk men that have lower show rates for PCA screening. Targeted motivational measures need to be studied to improve show rates for PCA risk assessment for these high-risk men. PMID:19758657

  6. Neutron-activation analysis by standard addition and solvent extraction Determination of traces of antimony.

    PubMed

    Alian, A; Shabana, R; Sanad, W; Allam, B; Khalifa, K

    1968-02-01

    The application of neutron activation analysis by standard addition and solvent extraction to the determination of traces of antimony in aluminium and rocks is reported. Three simple extraction procedures, using isopropyl ether, hexone, and tributyl phosphate, are described for the selective separation of radioantimony from interfering radionuclides. Antimony concentration is measured by counting the activities of the (122)Sb and (124)Sb photopeaks at 0.564 and 0.603 MeV. PMID:18960289

  7. Quantitative Analysis of Estrogen Receptor Expression Shows SP1 antibody is more sensitive than 1D5

    PubMed Central

    Welsh, Allison W.; Harigopal, Malini; Wimberly, Hallie; Prasad, Manju; Rimm, David L.

    2012-01-01

    Studies comparing rabbit monoclonal SP1 antibody to 1D5 for ER immunohistochemical (IHC) testing show conflicting results. Here we use a standardized quantitative immunofluorescent (QIF) ER assay to determine the level and significance of discordance between antibodies. Both antibodies are assessed by QIF on our Index TMA of cell lines and case controls, followed by QIF and IHC on two retrospective cohorts from Yale. On the Index TMA, SP1 displayed stronger signal-to-noise than 1D5. On the patient cohorts, the range of discrepancy between the two antibodies is 8% to 16.9%, with the majority of discrepant cases being SP1-positive/1D5-negative. Kaplan Meier analysis of the discrepant cases shows outcome comparable to double positive cases, suggesting that SP1 is more sensitive than 1D5. A series of cases with high levels of ER-beta shows that neither antibody cross-reacts, suggesting equivalent specificity. Future efforts are needed to determine if response to endocrine therapies show superiority of either antibody as a companion diagnostic test. PMID:22820659

  8. ANALYSIS OF DISTRIBUTION FEEDER LOSSES DUE TO ADDITION OF DISTRIBUTED PHOTOVOLTAIC GENERATORS

    SciTech Connect

    Tuffner, Francis K.; Singh, Ruchi

    2011-08-09

    Distributed generators (DG) are small scale power supplying sources owned by customers or utilities and scattered throughout the power system distribution network. Distributed generation can be both renewable and non-renewable. Addition of distributed generation is primarily to increase feeder capacity and to provide peak load reduction. However, this addition comes with several impacts on the distribution feeder. Several studies have shown that addition of DG leads to reduction of feeder loss. However, most of these studies have considered lumped load and distributed load models to analyze the effects on system losses, where the dynamic variation of load due to seasonal changes is ignored. It is very important for utilities to minimize the losses under all scenarios to decrease revenue losses, promote efficient asset utilization, and therefore, increase feeder capacity. This paper will investigate an IEEE 13-node feeder populated with photovoltaic generators on detailed residential houses with water heater, Heating Ventilation and Air conditioning (HVAC) units, lights, and other plug and convenience loads. An analysis of losses for different power system components, such as transformers, underground and overhead lines, and triplex lines, will be performed. The analysis will utilize different seasons and different solar penetration levels (15%, 30%).

  9. Analysis of redox additive-based overcharge protection for rechargeable lithium batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Narayanan, S. R.; Surampudi, S.; Attia, A. I.; Bankston, C. P.

    1991-01-01

    The overcharge condition in secondary lithium batteries employing redox additives for overcharge protection, has been theoretically analyzed in terms of a finite linear diffusion model. The analysis leads to expressions relating the steady-state overcharge current density and cell voltage to the concentration, diffusion coefficient, standard reduction potential of the redox couple, and interelectrode distance. The model permits the estimation of the maximum permissible overcharge rate for any chosen set of system conditions. Digital simulation of the overcharge experiment leads to numerical representation of the potential transients, and estimate of the influence of diffusion coefficient and interelectrode distance on the transient attainment of the steady state during overcharge. The model has been experimentally verified using 1,1-prime-dimethyl ferrocene as a redox additive. The analysis of the experimental results in terms of the theory allows the calculation of the diffusion coefficient and the formal potential of the redox couple. The model and the theoretical results may be exploited in the design and optimization of overcharge protection by the redox additive approach.

  10. Analysis of error-prone survival data under additive hazards models: measurement error effects and adjustments.

    PubMed

    Yan, Ying; Yi, Grace Y

    2016-07-01

    Covariate measurement error occurs commonly in survival analysis. Under the proportional hazards model, measurement error effects have been well studied, and various inference methods have been developed to correct for error effects under such a model. In contrast, error-contaminated survival data under the additive hazards model have received relatively less attention. In this paper, we investigate this problem by exploring measurement error effects on parameter estimation and the change of the hazard function. New insights of measurement error effects are revealed, as opposed to well-documented results for the Cox proportional hazards model. We propose a class of bias correction estimators that embraces certain existing estimators as special cases. In addition, we exploit the regression calibration method to reduce measurement error effects. Theoretical results for the developed methods are established, and numerical assessments are conducted to illustrate the finite sample performance of our methods. PMID:26328545

  11. In-line image analysis on the effects of additives in batch cooling crystallization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, Haiyan; Louhi-Kultanen, Marjatta; Kallas, Juha

    2006-03-01

    The effects of two potassium salt additives, ethylene diamine tetra acetic acid dipotassium salt (EDTA) and potassium pyrophosphate (KPY), on the batch cooling crystallization of potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP) were investigated. The crystal growth rates of certain crystal faces were determined from in-line images taken with a MTS particle image analysis (PIA) video microscope. An in-line image processing method was developed to characterize the size and shape of the crystals. The nucleation kinetics was studied by measurement of the metastable zone width and induction time. A significant promotion effect on both nucleation and growth of KDP was observed when EDTA was used as an additive. KPY, however, exhibited strong inhibiting impacts. The mechanism underlying the EDTA promotion effect on crystal growth was further studied with the 2-dimension nucleation model. It is shown that the presence of EDTA increased the density of adsorbed molecules of the crystallizing solute on the surface of the crystal.

  12. Linkage analysis in a Dutch population isolate shows no major gene for left-handedness or atypical language lateralization.

    PubMed

    Somers, Metten; Ophoff, Roel A; Aukes, Maartje F; Cantor, Rita M; Boks, Marco P; Dauwan, Meenakshi; de Visser, Kees L; Kahn, René S; Sommer, Iris E

    2015-06-10

    Cerebral dominance of language function and hand preference are suggested to be heritable traits with possible shared genetic background. However, joined genetic studies of these traits have never been conducted. We performed a genetic linkage study in 37 multigenerational human pedigrees of both sexes (consisting of 355 subjects) enriched with left-handedness in which we also measured language lateralization. Hand preference was measured with the Edinburgh Handedness Inventory, and language lateralization was measured with functional transcranial Doppler during language production. The estimated heritability of left-handedness and language lateralization in these pedigrees is 0.24 and 0.31, respectively. A parametric major gene model was tested for left-handedness. Nonparametric analyses were performed for left-handedness, atypical lateralization, and degree of language lateralization. We did not observe genome-wide evidence for linkage in the parametric or nonparametric analyses for any of the phenotypes tested. However, multiple regions showed suggestive evidence of linkage. The parametric model showed suggestive linkage for left-handedness in the 22q13 region [heterogeneity logarithm of odds (HLOD) = 2.18]. Nonparametric multipoint analysis of left-handedness showed suggestive linkage in the same region [logarithm of odds (LOD) = 2.80]. Atypical language lateralization showed suggestive linkage in the 7q34 region (LODMax = 2.35). For strength of language lateralization, we observed suggestive linkage in the 6p22 (LODMax = 2.54), 7q32 (LODMax = 1.93), and 9q33 (LODMax = 2.10) regions. We did not observe any overlap of suggestive genetic signal between handedness and the extent of language lateralization. The absence of significant linkage argues against the presence of a major gene coding for both traits; rather, our results are suggestive of these traits being two independent polygenic complex traits. PMID:26063907

  13. Linkage Analysis in a Dutch Population Isolate Shows No Major Gene for Left-Handedness or Atypical Language Lateralization

    PubMed Central

    Ophoff, Roel A.; Aukes, Maartje F.; Cantor, Rita M.; Boks, Marco P.; Dauwan, Meenakshi; de Visser, Kees L.; Kahn, René S.; Sommer, Iris E.

    2015-01-01

    Cerebral dominance of language function and hand preference are suggested to be heritable traits with possible shared genetic background. However, joined genetic studies of these traits have never been conducted. We performed a genetic linkage study in 37 multigenerational human pedigrees of both sexes (consisting of 355 subjects) enriched with left-handedness in which we also measured language lateralization. Hand preference was measured with the Edinburgh Handedness Inventory, and language lateralization was measured with functional transcranial Doppler during language production. The estimated heritability of left-handedness and language lateralization in these pedigrees is 0.24 and 0.31, respectively. A parametric major gene model was tested for left-handedness. Nonparametric analyses were performed for left-handedness, atypical lateralization, and degree of language lateralization. We did not observe genome-wide evidence for linkage in the parametric or nonparametric analyses for any of the phenotypes tested. However, multiple regions showed suggestive evidence of linkage. The parametric model showed suggestive linkage for left-handedness in the 22q13 region [heterogeneity logarithm of odds (HLOD) = 2.18]. Nonparametric multipoint analysis of left-handedness showed suggestive linkage in the same region [logarithm of odds (LOD) = 2.80]. Atypical language lateralization showed suggestive linkage in the 7q34 region (LODMax = 2.35). For strength of language lateralization, we observed suggestive linkage in the 6p22 (LODMax = 2.54), 7q32 (LODMax = 1.93), and 9q33 (LODMax = 2.10) regions. We did not observe any overlap of suggestive genetic signal between handedness and the extent of language lateralization. The absence of significant linkage argues against the presence of a major gene coding for both traits; rather, our results are suggestive of these traits being two independent polygenic complex traits. PMID:26063907

  14. Neutron activation analysis by standard addition and solvent extraction: Determination of impurities in aluminium.

    PubMed

    Alian, A; Haggag, A

    1967-09-01

    A separation scheme based on selective extraction in conjunction with the standard addition technique has been developed for the determination of impurities in aluminium by neutron activation. Preliminary investigations have been carried out on the extractability of Sc, Co, Hf, Fe, Sn, Cd, Zn, Ag, Cr, Ce, Cs and Rb by TDA and TBP from acidic media. The best conditions are predicted for the separation of these elements into fractions suitable for analysis by gamma-ray spectrometry. Recovery values of approximately 90% were obtained for all the elements. PMID:18960206

  15. A near-infrared spectroscopic study of young field ultracool dwarfs: additional analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allers, K. N.; Liu, M. C.

    We present additional analysis of the classification system presented in \\citet{allers13}. We refer the reader to \\citet{allers13} for a detailed discussion of our near-IR spectral type and gravity classification system. Here, we address questions and comments from participants of the Brown Dwarfs Come of Age meeting. In particular, we examine the effects of binarity and metallicity on our classification system. We also present our classification of Pleiades brown dwarfs using published spectra. Lastly, we determine SpTs and calculate gravity-sensitive indices for the BT-Settl atmospheric models and compare them to observations.

  16. Addition of three-dimensional isoparametric elements to NASA structural analysis program (NASTRAN)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Field, E. I.; Johnson, S. E.

    1973-01-01

    Implementation is made of the three-dimensional family of linear, quadratic and cubic isoparametric solid elements into the NASA Structural Analysis program, NASTRAN. This work included program development, installation, testing, and documentation. The addition of these elements to NASTRAN provides a significant increase in modeling capability particularly for structures requiring specification of temperatures, material properties, displacements, and stresses which vary throughout each individual element. Complete program documentation is presented in the form of new sections and updates for direct insertion to the three NASTRAN manuals. The results of demonstration test problems are summarized. Excellent results are obtained with the isoparametric elements for static, normal mode, and buckling analyses.

  17. Analysis of a large dataset of mycorrhiza inoculation field trials on potato shows highly significant increases in yield.

    PubMed

    Hijri, Mohamed

    2016-04-01

    An increasing human population requires more food production in nutrient-efficient systems in order to simultaneously meet global food needs while reducing the environmental footprint of agriculture. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) have the potential to enhance crop yield, but their efficiency has yet to be demonstrated in large-scale crop production systems. This study reports an analysis of a dataset consisting of 231 field trials in which the same AMF inoculant (Rhizophagus irregularis DAOM 197198) was applied to potato over a 4-year period in North America and Europe under authentic field conditions. The inoculation was performed using a liquid suspension of AMF spores that was sprayed onto potato seed pieces, yielding a calculated 71 spores per seed piece. Statistical analysis showed a highly significant increase in marketable potato yield (ANOVA, P < 0.0001) for inoculated fields (42.2 tons/ha) compared with non-inoculated controls (38.3 tons/ha), irrespective of trial year. The average yield increase was 3.9 tons/ha, representing 9.5 % of total crop yield. Inoculation was profitable with a 0.67-tons/ha increase in yield, a threshold reached in almost 79 % of all trials. This finding clearly demonstrates the benefits of mycorrhizal-based inoculation on crop yield, using potato as a case study. Further improvements of these beneficial inoculants will help compensate for crop production deficits, both now and in the future. PMID:26403242

  18. Chemometric analysis of chromatographic fingerprints shows potential of Cyclopia maculata (Andrews) Kies for production of standardized extracts with high xanthone content.

    PubMed

    Schulze, Alexandra E; de Beer, Dalene; de Villiers, André; Manley, Marena; Joubert, Elizabeth

    2014-10-29

    Cyclopia species are used for the production of honeybush tea and food ingredient extracts associated with many health benefits. A species-specific high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method for Cyclopia maculata, developed and validated, allowed quantification of the major compounds in extracts from "unfermented" and fermented C. maculata. Two xanthones were tentatively identified for the first time in a Cyclopia species, whereas an additional four compounds were tentatively identified for the first time in C. maculata. "Fermentation" (oxidation) decreased the content of all compounds, with the exception of vicenin-2. Similarity analysis of the chromatographic fingerprints of unfermented C. maculata aqueous extracts showed extremely low variation (r ≥ 0.97) between samples. Some differences between wild-harvested and cultivated seedling plants were, however, demonstrated using principal component analysis. Quantitative data of selected compounds confirmed the low level of variation, making this Cyclopia species ideal for the production of standardized food ingredient extracts. PMID:25329526

  19. Vector generalized additive models for extreme rainfall data analysis (study case rainfall data in Indramayu)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Utami, Eka Putri Nur; Wigena, Aji Hamim; Djuraidah, Anik

    2016-02-01

    Rainfall pattern are good indicators for potential disasters. Global Circulation Model (GCM) contains global scale information that can be used to predict the rainfall data. Statistical downscaling (SD) utilizes the global scale information to make inferences in the local scale. Essentially, SD can be used to predict local scale variables based on global scale variables. SD requires a method to accommodate non linear effects and extreme values. Extreme value Theory (EVT) can be used to analyze the extreme value. One of methods to identify the extreme events is peak over threshold that follows Generalized Pareto Distribution (GPD). The vector generalized additive model (VGAM) is an extension of the generalized additive model. It is able to accommodate linear or nonlinear effects by involving more than one additive predictors. The advantage of VGAM is to handle multi response models. The key idea of VGAM are iteratively reweighted least square for maximum likelihood estimation, penalized smoothing, fisher scoring and additive models. This works aims to analyze extreme rainfall data in Indramayu using VGAM. The results show that the VGAM with GPD is able to predict extreme rainfall data accurately. The prediction in February is very close to the actual value at quantile 75.

  20. Geochemical analysis of potash mine seep oils, collapsed breccia pipe oil shows and selected crude oils, Eddy County, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Palacas, J.G.; Snyder, R.P.; Baysinger, J.P.; Threlkeld, C.N.

    1982-01-01

    Oil shows, in the form of oil stains and bleeding oil, in core samples from two breccia pipes, Hills A and C, Eddy County, New Mexico, and seepage oils in a potash mine near Hill C breccia pipe are geochemically similar. The geochemical similarities strongly suggest that they belong to the same family of oils and were derived from similar sources. The oils are relatively high in sulfur (0.89 to 1.23 percent), rich in hydrocarbons (average 82 percent), relatively high in saturated hydrocarbon/aromatic hydrocarbon ratios (average 2.9), and based on analysis of seep oils alone, have a low API gravity (average 19.4?). The oils are for the most part severely biodegraded as attested by the loss of n-paraffin molecules. Geochemical comparison of seven crude oils collected in the vicinity of the breccia pipes indicates that the Yates oils are the likely source of the above family of oils. Six barrels of crude oil that were dumped into a potash exploration borehole near Hill C breccia pipe, to release stuck casing, are considered an unlikely source of the breccia pipe and mine seep oils. Volumetric and hydrodynamic constraints make it highly improbable that such a small volume of 'dumped' oil could migrate over distances ranging from about 600 feet to 2.5 miles to the sites of the oil shows.

  1. Global morphological analysis of marine viruses shows minimal regional variation and dominance of non-tailed viruses

    PubMed Central

    Brum, Jennifer R; Schenck, Ryan O; Sullivan, Matthew B

    2013-01-01

    Viruses influence oceanic ecosystems by causing mortality of microorganisms, altering nutrient and organic matter flux via lysis and auxiliary metabolic gene expression and changing the trajectory of microbial evolution through horizontal gene transfer. Limited host range and differing genetic potential of individual virus types mean that investigations into the types of viruses that exist in the ocean and their spatial distribution throughout the world's oceans are critical to understanding the global impacts of marine viruses. Here we evaluate viral morphological characteristics (morphotype, capsid diameter and tail length) using a quantitative transmission electron microscopy (qTEM) method across six of the world's oceans and seas sampled through the Tara Oceans Expedition. Extensive experimental validation of the qTEM method shows that neither sample preservation nor preparation significantly alters natural viral morphological characteristics. The global sampling analysis demonstrated that morphological characteristics did not vary consistently with depth (surface versus deep chlorophyll maximum waters) or oceanic region. Instead, temperature, salinity and oxygen concentration, but not chlorophyll a concentration, were more explanatory in evaluating differences in viral assemblage morphological characteristics. Surprisingly, given that the majority of cultivated bacterial viruses are tailed, non-tailed viruses appear to numerically dominate the upper oceans as they comprised 51–92% of the viral particles observed. Together, these results document global marine viral morphological characteristics, show that their minimal variability is more explained by environmental conditions than geography and suggest that non-tailed viruses might represent the most ecologically important targets for future research. PMID:23635867

  2. Immunohistochemical Analysis of Brainstem Lesions in the Autopsy Cases with Severe Motor and Intellectual Disabilities Showing Sudden Unexplained Death

    PubMed Central

    Hayashi, Masaharu; Sakuma, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    It is known that patients with severe motor and intellectual disabilities (SMID) showed sudden unexplained death (SUD), in which autopsy failed to identify causes of death. Although the involvement of brainstem dysfunction is speculated, the detailed neuropathological analysis still remains to be performed. In order to clarify pathogenesis, we investigated the brainstem functions in autopsy cases of SMID showing SUD. We immunohistochemically examined expressions of tyrosine hydroxylase, tryptophan hydroxylase, substance P, methionine-enkephalin, and c-fos in the serial sections of the midbrain, pons, and medulla oblongata in eight SUD cases and seven controls, having neither unexplained death nor pathological changes in the brain. Expressions of tyrosine hydroxylase and tryptophan hydroxylase were reduced in two of eight cases, and those of substance P and/or methionine-enkephalin were augmented in the pons and medulla oblongata in seven of eight cases, including the aforementioned two cases, when compared with those in controls. The hypoglossal nucleus and/or the dorsal vagal nucleus demonstrated increased neuronal immunoreactivity for c-fos in seven of eight cases, although there was no neuronal loss or gliosis in both the nuclei. Controls rarely showed immunoreactivity for c-fos in the medulla oblongata. These data suggest the possible involvement of brainstem dysfunction in SUD in patients with SMID, and consecutive neurophysiological evaluation of brainstem functions, such as all-night polysomnography and blink reflex, may be useful for the prevention of SUD, because some parameters in the neurophysiological examination are known to be related to the brainstem catecholamine neurons and the spinal tract nucleus of trigeminal nerve. PMID:27445960

  3. Mutational analysis of sclerostin shows importance of the flexible loop and the cystine-knot for Wnt-signaling inhibition.

    PubMed

    Boschert, Verena; van Dinther, Maarten; Weidauer, Stella; van Pee, Katharina; Muth, Eva-Maria; Ten Dijke, Peter; Mueller, Thomas D

    2013-01-01

    The cystine-knot containing protein Sclerostin is an important negative regulator of bone growth and therefore represents a promising therapeutic target. It exerts its biological task by inhibiting the Wnt (wingless and int1) signaling pathway, which participates in bone formation by promoting the differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells to osteoblasts. The core structure of Sclerostin consists of three loops with the first and third loop (Finger 1 and Finger 2) forming a structured β-sheet and the second loop being unstructured and highly flexible. Biochemical data showed that the flexible loop is important for binding of Sclerostin to Wnt co-receptors of the low-density lipoprotein related-protein family (LRP), by interacting with the Wnt co-receptors LRP5 or -6 it inhibits Wnt signaling. To further examine the structural requirements for Wnt inhibition, we performed an extensive mutational study within all three loops of the Sclerostin core domain involving single and multiple mutations as well as truncation of important regions. By this approach we could confirm the importance of the second loop and especially of amino acids Asn92 and Ile94 for binding to LRP6. Based on a Sclerostin variant found in a Turkish family suffering from Sclerosteosis we generated a Sclerostin mutant with cysteines 84 and 142 exchanged thereby removing the third disulfide bond of the cystine-knot. This mutant binds to LRP6 with reduced binding affinity and also exhibits a strongly reduced inhibitory activity against Wnt1 thereby showing that also elements outside the flexible loop are important for inhibition of Wnt by Sclerostin. Additionally, we examined the effect of the mutations on the inhibition of two different Wnt proteins, Wnt3a and Wnt1. We could detect clear differences in the inhibition of these proteins, suggesting that the mechanism by which Sclerostin antagonizes Wnt1 and Wnt3a is fundamentally different. PMID:24312339

  4. [Analysis of constituents of ester-type gum bases used as natural food additives].

    PubMed

    Tada, Atsuko; Masuda, Aino; Sugimoto, Naoki; Yamagata, Kazuo; Yamazaki, Takeshi; Tanamoto, Kenichi

    2007-12-01

    The differences in the constituents of ten ester-type gum bases used as natural food additives in Japan (urushi wax, carnauba wax, candelilla wax, rice bran wax, shellac wax, jojoba wax, bees wax, Japan wax, montan wax, and lanolin) were investigated. Several kinds of gum bases showed characteristic TLC patterns of lipids. In addition, compositions of fatty acid and alcohol moieties of esters in the gum bases were analyzed by GC/MS after methanolysis and hydrolysis, respectively. The results indicated that the varieties of fatty acids and alcohols and their compositions were characteristic for each gum base. These results will be useful for identification and discrimination of the ester-type gum bases. PMID:18203503

  5. X-ray survival characteristics and genetic analysis for nine saccharomyces deletion mutants that show altered radiation sensitivity

    SciTech Connect

    Game, John C.; Williamson, Marsha S.; Baccari, Clelia

    2004-01-07

    The availability of a genome-wide set of Saccharomyces deletion mutants provides a chance to identify all the yeast genes involved in DNA repair. Using X-rays, we are screening these mutants to identify additional genes that show increased sensitivity to the lethal effects of ionizing radiation. For each mutant identified as sensitive, we are confirming that the sensitivity phenotype co-segregates with the deletion allele and are obtaining multipoint survival-versus-dose assays in at least two haploid and one homozygous diploid strains. We present data for deletion mutants involving the genes DOT1, MDM20, NAT3, SPT7, SPT20, GCN5, HFI1, DCC1 and VID21/EAF1, and discuss their potential roles in repair. Eight of these genes have a clear radiation-sensitive phenotype when deleted, but the ninth, GCN5, has at most a borderline phenotype. None of the deletions confer substantial sensitivity to ultra-violet radiation, although one or two may confer marginal sensitivity. The DOT1 gene is of interest because its only known function is to methylate one lysine residue in the core of the histone H3 protein. We find that histone H3 mutants (supplied by K. Struhl) in which this residue is replaced by other amino-acids are also X-ray sensitive, seeming to confirm that methylation of the lysine-79 residue is required for effective repair of radiation damage.

  6. Selection Indices and Multivariate Analysis Show Similar Results in the Evaluation of Growth and Carcass Traits in Beef Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Brito Lopes, Fernando; da Silva, Marcelo Corrêa; Magnabosco, Cláudio Ulhôa; Goncalves Narciso, Marcelo; Sainz, Roberto Daniel

    2016-01-01

    This research evaluated a multivariate approach as an alternative tool for the purpose of selection regarding expected progeny differences (EPDs). Data were fitted using a multi-trait model and consisted of growth traits (birth weight and weights at 120, 210, 365 and 450 days of age) and carcass traits (longissimus muscle area (LMA), back-fat thickness (BF), and rump fat thickness (RF)), registered over 21 years in extensive breeding systems of Polled Nellore cattle in Brazil. Multivariate analyses were performed using standardized (zero mean and unit variance) EPDs. The k mean method revealed that the best fit of data occurred using three clusters (k = 3) (P < 0.001). Estimates of genetic correlation among growth and carcass traits and the estimates of heritability were moderate to high, suggesting that a correlated response approach is suitable for practical decision making. Estimates of correlation between selection indices and the multivariate index (LD1) were moderate to high, ranging from 0.48 to 0.97. This reveals that both types of indices give similar results and that the multivariate approach is reliable for the purpose of selection. The alternative tool seems very handy when economic weights are not available or in cases where more rapid identification of the best animals is desired. Interestingly, multivariate analysis allowed forecasting information based on the relationships among breeding values (EPDs). Also, it enabled fine discrimination, rapid data summarization after genetic evaluation, and permitted accounting for maternal ability and the genetic direct potential of the animals. In addition, we recommend the use of longissimus muscle area and subcutaneous fat thickness as selection criteria, to allow estimation of breeding values before the first mating season in order to accelerate the response to individual selection. PMID:26789008

  7. Selection Indices and Multivariate Analysis Show Similar Results in the Evaluation of Growth and Carcass Traits in Beef Cattle.

    PubMed

    Brito Lopes, Fernando; da Silva, Marcelo Corrêa; Magnabosco, Cláudio Ulhôa; Goncalves Narciso, Marcelo; Sainz, Roberto Daniel

    2016-01-01

    This research evaluated a multivariate approach as an alternative tool for the purpose of selection regarding expected progeny differences (EPDs). Data were fitted using a multi-trait model and consisted of growth traits (birth weight and weights at 120, 210, 365 and 450 days of age) and carcass traits (longissimus muscle area (LMA), back-fat thickness (BF), and rump fat thickness (RF)), registered over 21 years in extensive breeding systems of Polled Nellore cattle in Brazil. Multivariate analyses were performed using standardized (zero mean and unit variance) EPDs. The k mean method revealed that the best fit of data occurred using three clusters (k = 3) (P < 0.001). Estimates of genetic correlation among growth and carcass traits and the estimates of heritability were moderate to high, suggesting that a correlated response approach is suitable for practical decision making. Estimates of correlation between selection indices and the multivariate index (LD1) were moderate to high, ranging from 0.48 to 0.97. This reveals that both types of indices give similar results and that the multivariate approach is reliable for the purpose of selection. The alternative tool seems very handy when economic weights are not available or in cases where more rapid identification of the best animals is desired. Interestingly, multivariate analysis allowed forecasting information based on the relationships among breeding values (EPDs). Also, it enabled fine discrimination, rapid data summarization after genetic evaluation, and permitted accounting for maternal ability and the genetic direct potential of the animals. In addition, we recommend the use of longissimus muscle area and subcutaneous fat thickness as selection criteria, to allow estimation of breeding values before the first mating season in order to accelerate the response to individual selection. PMID:26789008

  8. A Fully Non-Metallic Gas Turbine Engine Enabled by Additive Manufacturing Part I: System Analysis, Component Identification, Additive Manufacturing, and Testing of Polymer Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grady, Joseph E.; Haller, William J.; Poinsatte, Philip E.; Halbig, Michael C.; Schnulo, Sydney L.; Singh, Mrityunjay; Weir, Don; Wali, Natalie; Vinup, Michael; Jones, Michael G.; Patterson, Clark; Santelle, Tom; Mehl, Jeremy

    2015-01-01

    The research and development activities reported in this publication were carried out under NASA Aeronautics Research Institute (NARI) funded project entitled "A Fully Nonmetallic Gas Turbine Engine Enabled by Additive Manufacturing." The objective of the project was to conduct evaluation of emerging materials and manufacturing technologies that will enable fully nonmetallic gas turbine engines. The results of the activities are described in three part report. The first part of the report contains the data and analysis of engine system trade studies, which were carried out to estimate reduction in engine emissions and fuel burn enabled due to advanced materials and manufacturing processes. A number of key engine components were identified in which advanced materials and additive manufacturing processes would provide the most significant benefits to engine operation. The technical scope of activities included an assessment of the feasibility of using additive manufacturing technologies to fabricate gas turbine engine components from polymer and ceramic matrix composites, which were accomplished by fabricating prototype engine components and testing them in simulated engine operating conditions. The manufacturing process parameters were developed and optimized for polymer and ceramic composites (described in detail in the second and third part of the report). A number of prototype components (inlet guide vane (IGV), acoustic liners, engine access door) were additively manufactured using high temperature polymer materials. Ceramic matrix composite components included turbine nozzle components. In addition, IGVs and acoustic liners were tested in simulated engine conditions in test rigs. The test results are reported and discussed in detail.

  9. MOST light-curve analysis of the γ Doradus pulsator HR 8799, showing resonances and amplitude variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sódor, Á.; Chené, A.-N.; De Cat, P.; Bognár, Zs.; Wright, D. J.; Marois, C.; Walker, G. A. H.; Matthews, J. M.; Kallinger, T.; Rowe, J. F.; Kuschnig, R.; Guenther, D. B.; Moffat, A. F. J.; Rucinski, S. M.; Sasselov, D.; Weiss, W. W.

    2014-08-01

    Context. The central star of the HR 8799 system is a γ Doradus-type pulsator. The system harbours four planetary-mass companions detected by direct imaging, and is a good solar system analogue. The masses of the companions are not accurately known because the estimation depends greatly on the age of the system, which is also not known with sufficient accuracy. Asteroseismic studies of the star might help to better constrain the age of HR 8799. We organized an extensive photometric and multi-site spectroscopic observing campaign to study the pulsations of the central star. Aims: The aim of the present study is to investigate the pulsation properties of HR 8799 in detail via the ultra-precise 47 d nearly continuous photometry obtained with the Microvariability and Oscillations in STars (MOST) space telescope, and to find as many independent pulsation modes as possible, which is the prerequisite for an asteroseismic age determination. Methods: We carried out Fourier analysis of the wide-band photometric time series. Results: We find that resonance and sudden amplitude changes characterize the pulsation of HR 8799. The dominant frequency is always at f1 = 1.978 d-1.Many multiples of one-ninth of the dominant frequency appear in the Fourier spectrum of the MOST data: n/9 f1, where n = {1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,13,14,17,18}. Our analysis also reveals that many of these peaks show strong amplitude decrease and phase variations even on the 47 d time scale. The dependencies between the pulsation frequencies of HR 8799 make the planned subsequent asteroseismic analysis rather difficult. We point out some resemblance between the light curve of HR 8799 and the modulated pulsation light curves of Blazhko RR Lyrae stars. Based on data from the MOST satellite, a Canadian Space Agency mission, jointly operated by Dynacon Inc., the University of Toronto Institute for Aerospace Studies and the University of British Columbia, with the assistance of the University of Vienna.

  10. Genotypic analysis of β-tubulin in Onchocerca volvulus from communities and individuals showing poor parasitological response to ivermectin treatment.

    PubMed

    Osei-Atweneboana, Mike Y; Boakye, Daniel A; Awadzi, Kwablah; Gyapong, John O; Prichard, Roger K

    2012-12-01

    Ivermectin (IVM) has been in operational use for the control of onchocerciasis for two decades and remains the only drug of choice. To investigate the parasitological responses and genetic profile of Onchocerca volvulus, we carried out a 21 month epidemiological study to determine the response of the parasite to IVM in 10 Ghanaian endemic communities. Onchocerca nodules were surgically removed from patients in three IVM response categories (good, intermediate and poor) and one IVM naïve community. DNA from adult worms was analyzed to determine any association between genotype and IVM response phenotypic. Embryogramme analysis showed significantly higher reproductive activity in worms from poor response communities, which had up to 41% of females with live stretched microfilaria (mf) in utero, despite IVM treatment, compared with good response communities, which had no intra-uterine stretched mf. β-tubulin isotype 1 gene has been shown to be linked to IVM selection in O. volvulus and also known to be associated with IVM resistance in veterinary nematodes. We have genotyped the full length genomic DNA sequence of the β-tubulin gene from 127 adult worms obtained from the four community categories. We found SNPs at 24 sites over the entire 3696 bp. Eight of the SNPs occurred at significantly higher (p < 0.05) frequencies in the poor response communities compared with the good response communities and the IVM naïve community. Phenotypic and genotypic analyses show that IVM resistance has been selected and the genotype (1183GG/1188CC/1308TT/1545GG) was strongly associated with the resistance phenotype. Since the region in the β-tubulin gene where these four SNPs occur is within 362 bp, it is feasible to develop a genetic marker for the early detection of IVM resistance. PMID:24533268

  11. Genotypic analysis of β-tubulin in Onchocerca volvulus from communities and individuals showing poor parasitological response to ivermectin treatment

    PubMed Central

    Osei-Atweneboana, Mike Y.; Boakye, Daniel A.; Awadzi, Kwablah; Gyapong, John O.; Prichard, Roger K.

    2012-01-01

    Ivermectin (IVM) has been in operational use for the control of onchocerciasis for two decades and remains the only drug of choice. To investigate the parasitological responses and genetic profile of Onchocerca volvulus, we carried out a 21 month epidemiological study to determine the response of the parasite to IVM in 10 Ghanaian endemic communities. Onchocerca nodules were surgically removed from patients in three IVM response categories (good, intermediate and poor) and one IVM naïve community. DNA from adult worms was analyzed to determine any association between genotype and IVM response phenotypic. Embryogramme analysis showed significantly higher reproductive activity in worms from poor response communities, which had up to 41% of females with live stretched microfilaria (mf) in utero, despite IVM treatment, compared with good response communities, which had no intra-uterine stretched mf. β-tubulin isotype 1 gene has been shown to be linked to IVM selection in O. volvulus and also known to be associated with IVM resistance in veterinary nematodes. We have genotyped the full length genomic DNA sequence of the β-tubulin gene from 127 adult worms obtained from the four community categories. We found SNPs at 24 sites over the entire 3696 bp. Eight of the SNPs occurred at significantly higher (p < 0.05) frequencies in the poor response communities compared with the good response communities and the IVM naïve community. Phenotypic and genotypic analyses show that IVM resistance has been selected and the genotype (1183GG/1188CC/1308TT/1545GG) was strongly associated with the resistance phenotype. Since the region in the β-tubulin gene where these four SNPs occur is within 362 bp, it is feasible to develop a genetic marker for the early detection of IVM resistance. PMID:24533268

  12. Immunophenotypic and gene expression analysis of monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis shows biologic characteristics associated with good prognosis CLL.

    PubMed

    Lanasa, M C; Allgood, S D; Slager, S L; Dave, S S; Love, C; Marti, G E; Kay, N E; Hanson, C A; Rabe, K G; Achenbach, S J; Goldin, L R; Camp, N J; Goodman, B K; Vachon, C M; Spector, L G; Rassenti, L Z; Leis, J F; Gockerman, J P; Strom, S S; Call, T G; Glenn, M; Cerhan, J R; Levesque, M C; Weinberg, J B; Caporaso, N E

    2011-09-01

    Monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis (MBL) is a hematologic condition wherein small B-cell clones can be detected in the blood of asymptomatic individuals. Most MBL have an immunophenotype similar to chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), and 'CLL-like' MBL is a precursor to CLL. We used flow cytometry to identify MBL from unaffected members of CLL kindreds. We identified 101 MBL cases from 622 study subjects; of these, 82 individuals with MBL were further characterized. In all, 91 unique MBL clones were detected: 73 CLL-like MBL (CD5(+)CD20(dim)sIg(dim)), 11 atypical MBL (CD5(+)CD20(+)sIg(+)) and 7 CD5(neg) MBL (CD5(neg)CD20(+)sIg(neg)). Extended immunophenotypic characterization of these MBL subtypes was performed, and significant differences in cell surface expression of CD23, CD49d, CD79b and FMC-7 were observed among the groups. Markers of risk in CLL such as CD38, ZAP70 and CD49d were infrequently expressed in CLL-like MBL, but were expressed in the majority of atypical MBL. Interphase cytogenetics was performed in 35 MBL cases, and del 13q14 was most common (22/30 CLL-like MBL cases). Gene expression analysis using oligonucleotide arrays was performed on seven CLL-like MBL, and showed activation of B-cell receptor associated pathways. Our findings underscore the diversity of MBL subtypes and further clarify the relationship between MBL and other lymphoproliferative disorders. PMID:21617698

  13. Enhanced photo-fermentative H2 production using Rhodobacter sphaeroides by ethanol addition and analysis of soluble microbial products

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Biological fermentation routes can provide an environmentally friendly way of producing H2 since they use renewable biomass as feedstock and proceed under ambient temperature and pressure. In particular, photo-fermentation has superior properties in terms of achieving high H2 yield through complete degradation of substrates. However, long-term H2 production data with stable performance is limited, and this data is essential for practical applications. In the present work, continuous photo-fermentative H2 production from lactate was attempted using the purple non-sulfur bacterium, Rhodobacter sphaeroides KD131. As a gradual drop in H2 production was observed, we attempted to add ethanol (0.2% v/v) to the medium. Results As continuous operation went on, H2 production was not sustained and showed a negligible H2 yield (< 0.5 mol H2/mol lactateadded) within two weeks. Electron balance analysis showed that the reason for the gradual drop in H2 production was ascribed to the increase in production of soluble microbial products (SMPs). To see the possible effect of ethanol addition, a batch test was first conducted. The presence of ethanol significantly increased the H2 yield from 1.15 to 2.20 mol H2/mol lactateadded, by suppressing the production of SMPs. The analysis of SMPs by size exclusion chromatography showed that, in the later period of fermentation, more than half of the low molecular weight SMPs (< 1 kDa) were consumed and used for H2 production when ethanol had been added, while the concentration of SMPs continuously increased in the absence of ethanol. It was found that the addition of ethanol facilitated the utilization of reducing power, resulting in an increase in the cellular levels of NAD+ and NADP+. In continuous operation, ethanol addition was effective, such that stable H2 production was attained with an H2 yield of 2.5 mol H2/mol lactateadded. Less than 15% of substrate electrons were used for SMP production, whereas 35% were used in

  14. Warming and drying of the eastern Mediterranean: Additional evidence from trend analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shohami, David; Dayan, Uri; Morin, Efrat

    2011-11-01

    The climate of the eastern Mediterranean (EM), at the transition zone between the Mediterranean climate and the semi-arid/arid climate, has been studied for a 39-year period to determine whether climate changes have taken place. A thorough trend analysis using the nonparametric Mann-Kendall test with Sen's slope estimator has been applied to ground station measurements, atmospheric reanalysis data, synoptic classification data and global data sets for the years 1964-2003. In addition, changes in atmospheric regional patterns between the first and last twenty years were determined by visual comparisons of their composite mean. The main findings of the analysis are: 1) changes of atmospheric conditions during summer and the transitional seasons (mainly autumn) support a warmer climate over the EM and this change is already statistically evident in surface temperatures having exhibited positive trends of 0.2-1°C/decade; 2) changes of atmospheric conditions during winter and the transitional seasons support drier conditions due to reduction in cyclogenesis and specific humidity over the EM, but this change is not yet statistically evident in surface station rain data, presumably because of the high natural precipitation variance masking such a change. The overall conclusion of this study is that the EM region is under climate change leading to warmer and drier conditions.

  15. Analysis of Time to Event Outcomes in Randomized Controlled Trials by Generalized Additive Models

    PubMed Central

    Argyropoulos, Christos; Unruh, Mark L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Randomized Controlled Trials almost invariably utilize the hazard ratio calculated with a Cox proportional hazard model as a treatment efficacy measure. Despite the widespread adoption of HRs, these provide a limited understanding of the treatment effect and may even provide a biased estimate when the assumption of proportional hazards in the Cox model is not verified by the trial data. Additional treatment effect measures on the survival probability or the time scale may be used to supplement HRs but a framework for the simultaneous generation of these measures is lacking. Methods By splitting follow-up time at the nodes of a Gauss Lobatto numerical quadrature rule, techniques for Poisson Generalized Additive Models (PGAM) can be adopted for flexible hazard modeling. Straightforward simulation post-estimation transforms PGAM estimates for the log hazard into estimates of the survival function. These in turn were used to calculate relative and absolute risks or even differences in restricted mean survival time between treatment arms. We illustrate our approach with extensive simulations and in two trials: IPASS (in which the proportionality of hazards was violated) and HEMO a long duration study conducted under evolving standards of care on a heterogeneous patient population. Findings PGAM can generate estimates of the survival function and the hazard ratio that are essentially identical to those obtained by Kaplan Meier curve analysis and the Cox model. PGAMs can simultaneously provide multiple measures of treatment efficacy after a single data pass. Furthermore, supported unadjusted (overall treatment effect) but also subgroup and adjusted analyses, while incorporating multiple time scales and accounting for non-proportional hazards in survival data. Conclusions By augmenting the HR conventionally reported, PGAMs have the potential to support the inferential goals of multiple stakeholders involved in the evaluation and appraisal of clinical trial

  16. Can Additional Homeopathic Treatment Save Costs? A Retrospective Cost-Analysis Based on 44500 Insured Persons

    PubMed Central

    Ostermann, Julia K.; Reinhold, Thomas; Witt, Claudia M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to compare the health care costs for patients using additional homeopathic treatment (homeopathy group) with the costs for those receiving usual care (control group). Methods Cost data provided by a large German statutory health insurance company were retrospectively analysed from the societal perspective (primary outcome) and from the statutory health insurance perspective. Patients in both groups were matched using a propensity score matching procedure based on socio-demographic variables as well as costs, number of hospital stays and sick leave days in the previous 12 months. Total cumulative costs over 18 months were compared between the groups with an analysis of covariance (adjusted for baseline costs) across diagnoses and for six specific diagnoses (depression, migraine, allergic rhinitis, asthma, atopic dermatitis, and headache). Results Data from 44,550 patients (67.3% females) were available for analysis. From the societal perspective, total costs after 18 months were higher in the homeopathy group (adj. mean: EUR 7,207.72 [95% CI 7,001.14–7,414.29]) than in the control group (EUR 5,857.56 [5,650.98–6,064.13]; p<0.0001) with the largest differences between groups for productivity loss (homeopathy EUR 3,698.00 [3,586.48–3,809.53] vs. control EUR 3,092.84 [2,981.31–3,204.37]) and outpatient care costs (homeopathy EUR 1,088.25 [1,073.90–1,102.59] vs. control EUR 867.87 [853.52–882.21]). Group differences decreased over time. For all diagnoses, costs were higher in the homeopathy group than in the control group, although this difference was not always statistically significant. Conclusion Compared with usual care, additional homeopathic treatment was associated with significantly higher costs. These analyses did not confirm previously observed cost savings resulting from the use of homeopathy in the health care system. PMID:26230412

  17. Characterization and analysis of surface notches on Ti-alloy plates fabricated by additive manufacturing techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Kwai S.

    2015-12-01

    Rectangular plates of Ti-6Al-4V with extra low interstitial (ELI) were fabricated by layer-by-layer deposition techniques that included electron beam melting (EBM) and laser beam melting (LBM). The surface conditions of these plates were characterized using x-ray micro-computed tomography. The depth and radius of surface notch-like features on the LBM and EBM plates were measured from sectional images of individual virtual slices of the rectangular plates. The stress concentration factors of individual surface notches were computed and analyzed statistically to determine the appropriate distributions for the notch depth, notch radius, and stress concentration factor. These results were correlated with the fatigue life of the Ti-6Al-4V ELI alloys from an earlier investigation. A surface notch analysis was performed to assess the debit in the fatigue strength due to the surface notches. The assessment revealed that the fatigue lives of the additively manufactured plates with rough surface topographies and notch-like features are dominated by the fatigue crack growth of large cracks for both the LBM and EBM materials. The fatigue strength reduction due to the surface notches can be as large as 60%-75%. It is concluded that for better fatigue performance, the surface notches on EBM and LBM materials need to be removed by machining and the surface roughness be improved to a surface finish of about 1 μm.

  18. Loophole-free Bell test using electron spins in diamond: second experiment and additional analysis.

    PubMed

    Hensen, B; Kalb, N; Blok, M S; Dréau, A E; Reiserer, A; Vermeulen, R F L; Schouten, R N; Markham, M; Twitchen, D J; Goodenough, K; Elkouss, D; Wehner, S; Taminiau, T H; Hanson, R

    2016-01-01

    The recently reported violation of a Bell inequality using entangled electronic spins in diamonds (Hensen et al., Nature 526, 682-686) provided the first loophole-free evidence against local-realist theories of nature. Here we report on data from a second Bell experiment using the same experimental setup with minor modifications. We find a violation of the CHSH-Bell inequality of 2.35 ± 0.18, in agreement with the first run, yielding an overall value of S = 2.38 ± 0.14. We calculate the resulting P-values of the second experiment and of the combined Bell tests. We provide an additional analysis of the distribution of settings choices recorded during the two tests, finding that the observed distributions are consistent with uniform settings for both tests. Finally, we analytically study the effect of particular models of random number generator (RNG) imperfection on our hypothesis test. We find that the winning probability per trial in the CHSH game can be bounded knowing only the mean of the RNG bias. This implies that our experimental result is robust for any model underlying the estimated average RNG bias, for random bits produced up to 690 ns too early by the random number generator. PMID:27509823

  19. Loophole-free Bell test using electron spins in diamond: second experiment and additional analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hensen, B.; Kalb, N.; Blok, M. S.; Dréau, A. E.; Reiserer, A.; Vermeulen, R. F. L.; Schouten, R. N.; Markham, M.; Twitchen, D. J.; Goodenough, K.; Elkouss, D.; Wehner, S.; Taminiau, T. H.; Hanson, R.

    2016-01-01

    The recently reported violation of a Bell inequality using entangled electronic spins in diamonds (Hensen et al., Nature 526, 682–686) provided the first loophole-free evidence against local-realist theories of nature. Here we report on data from a second Bell experiment using the same experimental setup with minor modifications. We find a violation of the CHSH-Bell inequality of 2.35 ± 0.18, in agreement with the first run, yielding an overall value of S = 2.38 ± 0.14. We calculate the resulting P-values of the second experiment and of the combined Bell tests. We provide an additional analysis of the distribution of settings choices recorded during the two tests, finding that the observed distributions are consistent with uniform settings for both tests. Finally, we analytically study the effect of particular models of random number generator (RNG) imperfection on our hypothesis test. We find that the winning probability per trial in the CHSH game can be bounded knowing only the mean of the RNG bias. This implies that our experimental result is robust for any model underlying the estimated average RNG bias, for random bits produced up to 690 ns too early by the random number generator. PMID:27509823

  20. Analysis of Two-Component Systems in Group B Streptococcus Shows That RgfAC and the Novel FspSR Modulate Virulence and Bacterial Fitness

    PubMed Central

    Faralla, Cristina; Metruccio, Matteo M.; De Chiara, Matteo; Mu, Rong; Patras, Kathryn A.; Muzzi, Alessandro; Grandi, Guido; Margarit, Immaculada; Doran, Kelly S.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Group B Streptococcus (GBS), in the transition from commensal organisms to pathogens, will encounter diverse host environments and, thus, require coordinated control of the transcriptional responses to these changes. This work was aimed at better understanding the role of two-component signal transduction systems (TCS) in GBS pathophysiology through a systematic screening procedure. We first performed a complete inventory and sensory mechanism classification of all putative GBS TCS by genomic analysis. Five TCS were further investigated by the generation of knockout strains, and in vitro transcriptome analysis identified genes regulated by these systems, ranging from 0.1% to 3% of the genome. Interestingly, two sugar phosphotransferase systems appeared to be differentially regulated in the TCS-16 knockout strain (TCS loci were numbered in order of their appearance on the chromosome), suggesting an involvement in monitoring carbon source availability. High-throughput analysis of bacterial growth on different carbon sources showed that TCS-16 was necessary for the growth of GBS on fructose-6-phosphate. Additional transcriptional analysis provided further evidence for a stimulus-response circuit where extracellular fructose-6-phosphate leads to autoinduction of TCS-16, with concomitant dramatic upregulation of the adjacent operon, which encodes a phosphotransferase system. The TCS-16-deficient strain exhibited decreased persistence in a model of vaginal colonization. All mutant strains were also characterized in a murine model of systemic infection, and inactivation of TCS-17 (also known as RgfAC) resulted in hypervirulence. Our data suggest a role for the previously unknown TCS-16, here named FspSR, in bacterial fitness and carbon metabolism during host colonization, and the data also provide experimental evidence for TCS-17/RgfAC involvement in virulence. PMID:24846378

  1. Kinetic analysis shows that vitamin A disposal rate in humans is positively correlated with vitamin A stores

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vitamin A (VA) kinetics, storage, and utilization were determined in well-nourished Chinese and American (US) adults using model-based compartmental analysis. [2H8]Retinyl acetate was orally administered to US (n = 12; 59 +/- 9 y; mean +/- SD) and Chinese adults (n = 14; 54 +/- 4 y), and serum trace...

  2. A new analysis of the WASP-3 system: no evidence for an additional companion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montalto, M.; Gregorio, J.; Boué, G.; Mortier, A.; Boisse, I.; Oshagh, M.; Maturi, M.; Figueira, P.; Sousa, S.; Santos, N. C.

    2012-12-01

    In this work, we investigate the problem concerning the presence of additional bodies gravitationally bound with the WASP-3 system. We present eight new transits of this planet gathered between 2009 May and 2011 September by using the 30-cm telescope at the Crow Observatory-Portalegre, and analyse all the photometric and radial velocity data published so far. We did not observe significant periodicities in the Fourier spectrum of the observed minus calculated (O - C) transit timing and radial velocity diagrams (the highest peak having false-alarm probabilities of 56 and 31 per cent, respectively) or long-term trends. Combining all the available information, we conclude that the radial velocity and transit timing techniques exclude, at 99 per cent confidence limit, any perturber more massive than M ≳ 100 Mearth with periods up to 10 times the period of the inner planet. We also investigate the possible presence of an exomoon in this system and determine that considering the scatter of the O - C transit timing residuals a coplanar exomoon would likely produce detectable transits. This hypothesis is however apparently ruled out by observations conducted by other researchers. In the case where the orbit of the moon is not coplanar, the accuracy of our transit timing and transit duration measurements prevents any significant statement. Interestingly, on the basis of our reanalysis of SOPHIE data we noted that WASP-3 passed from a less active (logR HK '=-4.95) to a more active (logR HK '=-4.8) state during the 3 yr monitoring period spanned by the observations. Despite the fact that no clear spot crossing has been reported for this system, this analysis suggests a more intensive monitoring of the activity level of this star in order to understand its impact on photometric and radial velocity measurements.

  3. Analysis of synthetic motor oils for additive elements by ICP-AES

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, M.C.; Salmon, S.G.

    1995-12-31

    Standard motor oils are made by blending paraffinic or naphthenic mineral oil base stocks with additive packages containing anti-wear agents, dispersants, corrosion inhibitors, and viscosity index improvers. The blender can monitor the correct addition of the additives by determining the additive elements in samples dissolved in a solvent by ICP-AES. Internal standardization is required to control sample transport interferences due to differences in viscosity between samples and standards. Synthetic motor oils, made with poly-alpha-olefins and trimethylol propane esters, instead of mineral oils, pose an additional challenge since these compounds affect the plasma as well as having sample transport interference considerations. The synthetic lubricant base stocks add significant oxygen to the sample matrix, which makes the samples behave differently than standards prepared in mineral oil. Determination of additive elements in synthetic motor oils will be discussed.

  4. A Propensity Score Analysis Shows that Empirical Treatment with Linezolid Does Not Increase the Thirty-Day Mortality Rate in Patients with Gram-Negative Bacteremia

    PubMed Central

    Ternavasio-de la Vega, Hugo-Guillermo; Mateos-Díaz, Ana-María; Martinez, Jose-Antonio; Almela, Manel; Cobos-Trigueros, Nazaret; Morata, Laura; De-la-Calle, Cristina; Sala, Marta; Mensa, Josep; Soriano, Alex

    2014-01-01

    The role of linezolid in empirical therapy of suspected bacteremia remains unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of empirical use of linezolid or glycopeptides in addition to other antibiotics on the 30-day mortality rates in patients with Gram-negative bacteremia. For this purpose, 1,126 patients with Gram-negative bacteremia in the Hospital Clinic of Barcelona from 2000 to 2012 were included in this study. In order to compare the mortality rates between patients who received linezolid or glycopeptides, the propensity scores on baseline variables were used to balance the treatment groups, and both propensity score matching and propensity-adjusted logistic regression were used to compare the 30-day mortality rates between the groups. The overall 30-day mortality rate was 16.0% during the study period. Sixty-eight patients received empirical treatment with linezolid, and 1,058 received glycopeptides. The propensity score matching included 64 patients in each treatment group. After matching, the mortality rates were 14.1% (9/64) in patients who received glycopeptides and 21.9% (14/64) in those who received linezolid, and a nonsignificant association between empirical linezolid treatment and mortality rate (odds ratio [OR], 1.63; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.69 to 3.82; P = 0.275, McNemar's test) was found. This association remained nonsignificant when variables that remained unbalanced after matching were included in a conditional logistic regression model. Further, the stratified propensity score analysis did not show any significant relationship between empirical linezolid treatment and the mortality rate after adjustment by propensity score quintiles or other variables potentially associated with mortality. In conclusion, the propensity score analysis showed that empirical treatment with linezolid compared with that with glycopeptides was not associated with 30-day mortality rates in patients with Gram-negative bacteremia. PMID:25199780

  5. Growth and analysis of C nanotubes on ceramic polymer-additives.

    PubMed

    Santangelo, S; Piperopoulos, E; Lanza, M; Milone, C

    2012-06-01

    C nanotubes are synthesized by catalytic route on ceramic supports (Al2O3, MgO and CaO), usually utilized for polymer reinforcing/flame-retardancy, aiming at nanotube-based hybrid preparation. Chemical vapor deposition is carried out in i-C4H10+H2 atmosphere over 17 wt% Fe-catalysts upon different conditions. In order to clarify the influence of support material, calcination (450 degrees C or 750 degrees C) and reduction temperature (500 degrees C or 600 degrees C) of the catalysts, and synthesis temperature (600 degrees C or 700 degrees C), catalysts utilized and nanotubes obtained are systematically investigated by the use of several analysis techniques (electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, thermo-gravimetry and Raman spectroscopy). The results obtained show that, in the considered range of variation, support material is the most influential parameter. The most catalytically active alumina supports allow achieving higher yields, but involve larger metallic inclusions and lower crystalline quality. Remaining supports behave oppositely. The reasons for such differences are discussed in the light of the current assessments on the nanotube growth and the results obtained are compared with those available in literature for similar catalysts. PMID:22905531

  6. Possibilities of CT Scanning as Analysis Method in Laser Additive Manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karme, Aleksis; Kallonen, Aki; Matilainen, Ville-Pekka; Piili, Heidi; Salminen, Antti

    Laser additive manufacturing is an established and constantly developing technique. Structural assessment should be a key component to ensure directed evolution towards higher level of manufacturing. The macroscopic properties of metallic structures are determined by their internal microscopic features, which are difficult to assess using conventional surface measuring methodologies. X-ray microtomography (CT) is a promising technique for three-dimensional non-destructive probing of internal composition and build of various materials. Aim of this study is to define the possibilities of using CT scanning as quality control method in LAM fabricated parts. Since the parts fabricated with LAM are very often used in high quality and accuracy demanding applications in various industries such as medical and aerospace, it is important to be able to define the accuracy of the build parts. The tubular stainless steel test specimens were 3D modelled, manufactured with a modified research AM equipment and imaged after manufacturing with a high-power, high-resolution CT scanner. 3D properties, such as surface texture and the amount and distribution of internal pores, were also evaluated in this study. Surface roughness was higher on the interior wall of the tube, and deviation from the model was systematically directed towards the central axis. Pore distribution showed clear organization and divided into two populations; one following the polygon model seams along both rims, and the other being associated with the concentric and equidistant movement path of the laser. Assessment of samples can enhance the fabrication by guiding the improvement of both modelling and manufacturing process.

  7. X-ray survival characteristics and genetic analysis for nine Saccharomyces deletion mutants that show altered radiation sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Game, John C; Williamson, Marsha S; Baccari, Clelia

    2005-01-01

    The availability of a genome-wide set of Saccharomyces deletion mutants provides a chance to identify all the yeast genes involved in DNA repair. Using X rays, we are screening these mutants to identify additional genes that cause increased sensitivity to the lethal effects of ionizing radiation. For each mutant identified as sensitive, we are confirming that the sensitivity phenotype cosegregates with the deletion allele and are obtaining multipoint survival-vs.-dose assays in at least one homozygous diploid and two haploid strains. We present data for deletion mutants involving the genes DOT1, MDM20, NAT3, SPT7, SPT20, GCN5, HFI1, DCC1, and VID21/EAF1 and discuss their potential roles in repair. Eight of these genes cause a clear radiation-sensitive phenotype when deleted, but the ninth, GCN5, results in at most a borderline phenotype. None of the deletions confer substantial sensitivity to ultraviolet radiation, although one or two may confer marginal sensitivity. The DOT1 gene is of interest because its only known function is to methylate one lysine residue in the core of the histone H3 protein. We find that histone H3 mutants (supplied by K. Struhl) in which this residue is replaced by other amino acids are also X-ray sensitive, which confirms that methylation of the lysine-79 residue is required for effective repair of radiation damage. PMID:15371366

  8. Photosynthetic metabolism of C3 plants shows highly cooperative regulation under changing environments: A systems biological analysis

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Ruoyu; Wei, Haibin; Ye, Lin; Wang, Kankan; Chen, Fan; Luo, Lijun; Liu, Lei; Li, Yuanyuan; Crabbe, M. James C.; Jin, Li; Li, Yixue; Zhong, Yang

    2009-01-01

    We studied the robustness of photosynthetic metabolism in the chloroplasts of C3 plants under drought stress and at high CO2 concentration conditions by using a method called Minimization of Metabolic Adjustment Dynamic Flux Balance Analysis (M_DFBA). Photosynthetic metabolism in the chloroplasts of C3 plants applies highly cooperative regulation to minimize the fluctuation of metabolite concentration profiles in the face of transient perturbations. Our work suggests that highly cooperative regulation assures the robustness of the biological system and that there is closer cooperation under perturbation conditions than under normal conditions. This results in minimizing fluctuations in the profiles of metabolite concentrations, which is the key to maintaining a system's function. Our methods help in understanding such phenomena and the mechanisms of robustness for complex metabolic networks in dynamic processes. PMID:19129487

  9. Transcriptomic and metabolomic analysis of Yukon Thellungiella plants grown in cabinets and their natural habitat show phenotypic plasticity

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Thellungiella salsuginea is an important model plant due to its natural tolerance to abiotic stresses including salt, cold, and water deficits. Microarray and metabolite profiling have shown that Thellungiella undergoes stress-responsive changes in transcript and organic solute abundance when grown under controlled environmental conditions. However, few reports assess the capacity of plants to display stress-responsive traits in natural habitats where concurrent stresses are the norm. Results To determine whether stress-responsive changes observed in cabinet-grown plants are recapitulated in the field, we analyzed leaf transcript and metabolic profiles of Thellungiella growing in its native Yukon habitat during two years of contrasting meteorological conditions. We found 673 genes showing differential expression between field and unstressed, chamber-grown plants. There were comparatively few overlaps between genes expressed under field and cabinet treatment-specific conditions. Only 20 of 99 drought-responsive genes were expressed both in the field during a year of low precipitation and in plants subjected to drought treatments in cabinets. There was also a general pattern of lower abundance among metabolites found in field plants relative to control or stress-treated plants in growth cabinets. Nutrient availability may explain some of the observed differences. For example, proline accumulated to high levels in cold and salt-stressed cabinet-grown plants but proline content was, by comparison, negligible in plants at a saline Yukon field site. We show that proline accumulated in a stress-responsive manner in Thellungiella plants salinized in growth cabinets and in salt-stressed seedlings when nitrogen was provided at 1.0 mM. In seedlings grown on 0.1 mM nitrogen medium, the proline content was low while carbohydrates increased. The relatively higher content of sugar-like compounds in field plants and seedlings on low nitrogen media suggests that

  10. Analysis of the constituents in jojoba wax used as a food additive by LC/MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Tada, Atsuko; Jin, Zhe-Long; Sugimoto, Naoki; Sato, Kyoko; Yamazaki, Takeshi; Tanamoto, Kenichi

    2005-10-01

    Jojoba wax is a natural gum base used as a food additive in Japan, and is obtained from jojoba oil with a characteristically high melting point. Although the constituents of jojoba oil have been reported, the quality of jojoba wax used as a food additive has not yet been clarified. In order to evaluate its quality as a food additive and to obtain basic information useful for setting official standards, we investigated the constituents and their concentrations in jojoba wax. LC/MS analysis of the jojoba wax showed six peaks with [M+H]+ ions in the range from m/z 533.6 to 673.7 at intervals of m/z 28. After isolation of the components of the four main peaks by preparative LC/MS, the fatty acid and long chain alcohol moieties of the wax esters were analyzed by methanolysis and hydrolysis, followed by GC/MS. The results indicated that the main constituents in jojoba wax were various kinds of wax esters, namely eicosenyl octadecenoate (C20:1-C18:1) (1), eicosenyl eicosenoate (C20:1-C20:1) (II), docosenyl eicosenoate (C22:1-C20:1) (III), eicosenyl docosenoate (C20:1-C22:1) (IV) and tetracosenyl eiosenoate (C24:1-C20:1) (V). To confirm and quantify the wax esters in jojoba wax directly, LC/MS/MS analysis was performed. The product ions corresponding to the fatty acid moieties of the wax esters were observed, and by using the product ions derived from the protonated molecular ions of wax esters the fatty acid moieties were identified by MRM analysis. The concentrations of the wax esters I, II and III, in jojoba wax were 5.5, 21.4 and 37.8%, respectively. In summary, we clarified the main constituents of jojoba wax and quantified the molecular species of the wax esters without hydrolysis by monitoring their product ions, using a LC/MS/MS system. PMID:16305174

  11. Analysis of diverse regulatory networks in a hierarchical context shows consistent tendencies for collaboration in the middle levels.

    PubMed

    Bhardwaj, Nitin; Yan, Koon-Kiu; Gerstein, Mark B

    2010-04-13

    Gene regulatory networks have been shown to share some common aspects with commonplace social governance structures. Thus, we can get some intuition into their organization by arranging them into well-known hierarchical layouts. These hierarchies, in turn, can be placed between the extremes of autocracies, with well-defined levels and clear chains of command, and democracies, without such defined levels and with more co-regulatory partnerships between regulators. In general, the presence of partnerships decreases the variation in information flow amongst nodes within a level, more evenly distributing stress. Here we study various regulatory networks (transcriptional, modification, and phosphorylation) for five diverse species, Escherichia coli to human. We specify three levels of regulators--top, middle, and bottom--which collectively govern the non-regulator targets lying in the lowest fourth level. We define quantities for nodes, levels, and entire networks that measure their degree of collaboration and autocratic vs. democratic character. We show individual regulators have a range of partnership tendencies: Some regulate their targets in combination with other regulators in local instantiations of democratic structure, whereas others regulate mostly in isolation, in more autocratic fashion. Overall, we show that in all networks studied the middle level has the highest collaborative propensity and coregulatory partnerships occur most frequently amongst midlevel regulators, an observation that has parallels in corporate settings where middle managers must interact most to ensure organizational effectiveness. There is, however, one notable difference between networks in different species: The amount of collaborative regulation and democratic character increases markedly with overall genomic complexity. PMID:20351254

  12. Factor analysis shows that female rat behaviour is characterized primarily by activity, male rats are driven by sex and anxiety.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, C; González, M I; Wilson, C A; File, S E

    1999-12-01

    This experiment explored sex differences in behaviour using factor analysis to describe the relationship between different behavioral variables. A principal component solution with an orthogonal rotation of the factor matrix was used, ensuring that the extracted factors are independent of one another, and thus reflect separate processes. In the elevated plus-maze test of anxiety, in male rats factor 1 accounted for 75% of the variance and reflected anxiety, factor 2 represented activity, and accounted for 24% of the variance. This contrasted with the finding in female rats in which factor 1 was activity, accounting for 57% of the variance, with the anxiety factor accounting for only 34% of the variance. When behaviour in both the plus-maze and holeboard were analysed, a similar sex difference was found with anxiety emerging as factor 1 in males and holeboard activity as factor 1 in females. Locomotor activity in the inner portion of the holeboard loaded on the anxiety factor for males, but on activity for females. When behaviours in the plus-maze and sexual orientation tests were analysed, anxiety emerged as factor 1 in males, sexual preferences factor 2, and activity factor 3. In females, activity was factor 1, sexual preference factor 2, anxiety factor 3, and social interest factor 4. These results suggest caution should be exercised in interpreting the results from female rats in tests validated on males because the primary controlling factor may be different. PMID:10593196

  13. Anatomical Network Analysis Shows Decoupling of Modular Lability and Complexity in the Evolution of the Primate Skull

    PubMed Central

    Esteve-Altava, Borja; Boughner, Julia C.; Diogo, Rui; Villmoare, Brian A.; Rasskin-Gutman, Diego

    2015-01-01

    Modularity and complexity go hand in hand in the evolution of the skull of primates. Because analyses of these two parameters often use different approaches, we do not know yet how modularity evolves within, or as a consequence of, an also-evolving complex organization. Here we use a novel network theory-based approach (Anatomical Network Analysis) to assess how the organization of skull bones constrains the co-evolution of modularity and complexity among primates. We used the pattern of bone contacts modeled as networks to identify connectivity modules and quantify morphological complexity. We analyzed whether modularity and complexity evolved coordinately in the skull of primates. Specifically, we tested Herbert Simon’s general theory of near-decomposability, which states that modularity promotes the evolution of complexity. We found that the skulls of extant primates divide into one conserved cranial module and up to three labile facial modules, whose composition varies among primates. Despite changes in modularity, statistical analyses reject a positive feedback between modularity and complexity. Our results suggest a decoupling of complexity and modularity that translates to varying levels of constraint on the morphological evolvability of the primate skull. This study has methodological and conceptual implications for grasping the constraints that underlie the developmental and functional integration of the skull of humans and other primates. PMID:25992690

  14. Phylogenetic Analysis Shows That Neolithic Slate Plaques from the Southwestern Iberian Peninsula Are Not Genealogical Recording Systems

    PubMed Central

    García Rivero, Daniel; O'Brien, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Prehistoric material culture proposed to be symbolic in nature has been the object of considerable archaeological work from diverse theoretical perspectives, yet rarely are methodological tools used to test the interpretations. The lack of testing is often justified by invoking the opinion that the slippery nature of past human symbolism cannot easily be tackled by the scientific method. One such case, from the southwestern Iberian Peninsula, involves engraved stone plaques from megalithic funerary monuments dating ca. 3,500–2,750 B.C. (calibrated age). One widely accepted proposal is that the plaques are ancient mnemonic devices that record genealogies. The analysis reported here demonstrates that this is not the case, even when the most supportive data and techniques are used. Rather, we suspect there was a common ideological background to the use of plaques that overlay the southwestern Iberian Peninsula, with little or no geographic patterning. This would entail a cultural system in which plaque design was based on a fundamental core idea, with a number of mutable and variable elements surrounding it. PMID:24558384

  15. Phylogenetic analysis shows that Neolithic slate plaques from the southwestern Iberian Peninsula are not genealogical recording systems.

    PubMed

    García Rivero, Daniel; O'Brien, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    Prehistoric material culture proposed to be symbolic in nature has been the object of considerable archaeological work from diverse theoretical perspectives, yet rarely are methodological tools used to test the interpretations. The lack of testing is often justified by invoking the opinion that the slippery nature of past human symbolism cannot easily be tackled by the scientific method. One such case, from the southwestern Iberian Peninsula, involves engraved stone plaques from megalithic funerary monuments dating ca. 3,500-2,750 B.C. (calibrated age). One widely accepted proposal is that the plaques are ancient mnemonic devices that record genealogies. The analysis reported here demonstrates that this is not the case, even when the most supportive data and techniques are used. Rather, we suspect there was a common ideological background to the use of plaques that overlay the southwestern Iberian Peninsula, with little or no geographic patterning. This would entail a cultural system in which plaque design was based on a fundamental core idea, with a number of mutable and variable elements surrounding it. PMID:24558384

  16. Analysis of beta-globin mutations shows stable mixed chimerism in patients with thalassemia after bone marrow transplantation.

    PubMed

    Kapelushnik, J; Or, R; Filon, D; Nagler, A; Cividalli, G; Aker, M; Naparstek, E; Slavin, S; Oppenheim, A

    1995-10-15

    Beta-thalassemia major (TM) is caused by any of approximately 150 mutations within the beta-globin gene. To establish the degree of chimerism after bone marrow transplantation (BMT), we have performed molecular analysis of beta-globin mutations in 14 patients with TM over a period of 10 years. All patients underwent T cell-depleted allogeneic BMT from HLA-identical related donors, using either in vitro T-cell depletion with CAMPATH 1M and complement or in vivo depletion using CAMPATH 1G in the bone marrow collection bag. To date, at different time periods after BMT, seven patients have some degree of chimerism; six of these patients, all blood transfusion-independent, have donor cells in the range of 70% to 95%, with stable mixed chimerism (MC). The seventh patient has less than 10% donor cells with, surprisingly, only minimal transfusion requirements. The detection of beta-globin gene point mutation, as used here, is a highly specific and sensitive marker for engraftment and MC in patients with thalassemia. In light of its specificity, the method is applicable in all cases of TM, as it is independent of sex and other non-globin-related DNA markers. The high incidence of MC found in our patients may be a consequence of the pre-BMT T-cell depletion. Because MC was associated with transfusion independence, complete eradication of residual host cells for effective treatment of TM and possibly other genetic diseases may prove not to be essential. PMID:7579421

  17. Comprehensive analysis of oculocutaneous albinism among non-Hispanic caucasians shows that OCA1 is the most prevalent OCA type.

    PubMed

    Hutton, Saunie M; Spritz, Richard A

    2008-10-01

    Oculocutaneous albinism (OCA) is a genetically heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by absent or reduced pigmentation of the skin, hair, and eyes. In humans, four genes have been associated with "classical" OCA and another 12 genes with syndromic forms of OCA. To assess the prevalence of different forms of OCA and different gene mutations among non-Hispanic Caucasian patients, we performed DNA sequence analysis of the four genes associated with "classical" OCA (TYR, OCA2, TYRP1, SLC45A2), the two principal genes associated with syndromic OCA (HPS1, HPS4), and a candidate OCA gene (SILV), in 121 unrelated, unselected non-Hispanic/Latino Caucasian patients carrying the clinical diagnosis of OCA. We identified apparent pathologic TYR gene mutations in 69% of patients, OCA2 mutations in 18%, SLC45A2 mutations in 6%, and no apparent pathological mutations in 7% of patients. We found no mutations of TYRP1, HPS1, HPS4, or SILV in any patients. Although we observed a diversity of mutations for each gene, a relatively small number of different mutant alleles account for a majority of the total. This study demonstrates that, contrary to long-held clinical lore, OCA1, not OCA2, is by far the most frequent cause of OCA among Caucasian patients. PMID:18463683

  18. Design-around biotechnology patents: an analysis of US Federal Circuit decisions shows the possibility of designing around biotechnology patents.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shyh-Jen

    2011-01-01

    In order to demonstrate the possibility of design-around for patents, we reviewed 40 no-infringement cases out of all 4,760 Federal Circuit Court of Appeals (CAFC) cases decided from 2001 to 2009. Based on this analysis, designing around a biotechnology patent first requires a thorough reading of the patent specification and prosecution history. These written descriptions offer explicit directions about claim meanings or the scope being disclaimed. By statute, claims recite and define the structure or acts of an invention, and serve as tools to determine whether or not a patent is infringed. The next procedure would include omitting a part or property from the claim, reversing the action used in the claim, or changing the claim's structure or range to prevent the new design from falling within the scope of the claim. However, cases where patent infringement was found demonstrated that changing the structure or range not recited in the claim, such as enlarging the diameter, reducing concentration or alerting the shape, still falls within the scope of the patent. Although the 40 cases analyzed in this study were not related to vaccines, the thought process can serve as a guideline for patents related to vaccine development. PMID:21263222

  19. Multifractal analysis of the irregular set for almost-additive sequences via large deviations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bomfim, Thiago; Varandas, Paulo

    2015-10-01

    In this paper we introduce a notion of free energy and large deviations rate function for asymptotically additive sequences of potentials via an approximation method by families of continuous potentials. We provide estimates for the topological pressure of the set of points whose non-additive sequences are far from the limit described through Kingman’s sub-additive ergodic theorem and give some applications in the context of Lyapunov exponents for diffeomorphisms and cocycles, and the Shannon-McMillan-Breiman theorem for Gibbs measures.

  20. Analysis of the mouse mutant Cloth-ears shows a role for the voltage-gated sodium channel Scn8a in peripheral neural hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Mackenzie, F E; Parker, A; Parkinson, N J; Oliver, P L; Brooker, D; Underhill, P; Lukashkina, V A; Lukashkin, A N; Holmes, C; Brown, S D M

    2009-10-01

    Deafness is the most common sensory disorder in humans and the aetiology of genetic deafness is complex. Mouse mutants have been crucial in identifying genes involved in hearing. However, many deafness genes remain unidentified. Using N-ethyl N-nitrosourea (ENU) mutagenesis to generate new mouse models of deafness, we identified a novel semi-dominant mouse mutant, Cloth-ears (Clth). Cloth-ears mice show reduced acoustic startle response and mild hearing loss from approximately 30 days old. Auditory-evoked brainstem response (ABR) and distortion product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE) analyses indicate that the peripheral neural auditory pathway is impaired in Cloth-ears mice, but that cochlear function is normal. In addition, both Clth/Clth and Clth/+ mice display paroxysmal tremor episodes with behavioural arrest. Clth/Clth mice also show a milder continuous tremor during movement and rest. Longitudinal phenotypic analysis showed that Clth/+ and Clth/Clth mice also have complex defects in behaviour, growth, neurological and motor function. Positional cloning of Cloth-ears identified a point mutation in the neuronal voltage-gated sodium channel alpha-subunit gene, Scn8a, causing an aspartic acid to valine (D981V) change six amino acids downstream of the sixth transmembrane segment of the second domain (D2S6). Complementation testing with a known Scn8a mouse mutant confirmed that this mutation is responsible for the Cloth-ears phenotype. Our findings suggest a novel role for Scn8a in peripheral neural hearing loss and paroxysmal motor dysfunction. PMID:19737145

  1. Combined analysis of passive and active seismic measurements using additional geologic data for the determination of shallow subsurface structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horstmann, Tobias; Brüstle, Andrea; Spies, Thomas; Schlittenhardt, Jörg; Schmidt, Bernd

    2016-04-01

    A detailed knowledge of subsurface structure is essential for geotechnical projects and local seismic hazard analyses. Passive seismic methods like microtremor measurements are widely used in geotechnical practice, but limitations and developments are still in focus of scientific discussion. The presentation outlines microtremor measurements in the context of microzonation in the scale of districts or small communities. H/V measurements are used to identify zones with similar underground properties. Subsequently a shear wave velocity (Vs) depth profile for each zone is determined by array measurements at selected sites. To reduce possible uncertainties in dispersion curve analyses of passive array measurements and ambiguities within the inversion process, we conducted an additional active seismic experiment and included available geological information. The presented work is realized in the framework of the research project MAGS2 ("Microseismic Activity of Geothermal Systems") and deals with the determination of seismic hazard analysis at sites near deep geothermal power plants in Germany. The measurements were conducted in the Upper Rhine Graben (URG) and the Bavarian molasses, where geothermal power plants are in operation. The results of the H/V- and array-measurements in the region of Landau (URG) are presented and compared to known geological-tectonic structures. The H/V measurements show several zones with similar H/V-curves which indicate homogenous underground properties. Additionally to the passive seismic measurements an active refraction experiment was performed and evaluated using the MASW method („Multichannel Analysis of Surface Waves") to strengthen the determination of shear-wave-velocity depth profile. The dispersion curves for Rayleigh-waves of the active experiment support the Rayleigh-dispersion curves from passive measurements and therefore provide a valuable supplement. Furthermore, the Rayleigh-wave ellipticity was calculated to reduce

  2. Morphometric analysis of molars in a Middle Pleistocene population shows a mosaic of 'modern' and Neanderthal features.

    PubMed

    Martinón-Torres, María; Spěváčková, Petra; Gracia-Téllez, Ana; Martínez, Ignacio; Bruner, Emiliano; Arsuaga, Juan Luis; Bermúdez de Castro, José María

    2013-10-01

    Previous studies of upper first molar (M1) crown shape have shown significant differences between Homo sapiens and Homo neanderthalensis that were already present in the European Middle Pleistocene populations, including the large dental sample from Atapuerca-Sima de los Huesos (SH). Analysis of other M1 features such as the total crown base area, cusp proportions, cusp angles and occlusal polygon have confirmed the differences between both lineages, becoming a useful tool for the taxonomic assignment of isolated teeth from Late Pleistocene sites. However, until now the pattern of expression of these variables has not been known for the SH sample. This fossil sample, the largest collection from the European Middle Pleistocene, is generally interpreted as being from the direct ancestors of Neanderthals, and thus is a reference sample for assessing the origin of the Neanderthal morphologies. Surprisingly, our study reveals that SH M(1) s present a unique mosaic of H. neanderthalensis and H. sapiens features. Regarding the cusp angles and the relative occlusal polygon area, SH matches the H. neanderthalensis pattern. However, regarding the total crown base area and relative cusps size, SH M(1) s are similar to H. sapiens, with a small crown area, a strong hypocone reduction and a protocone enlargement, although the protocone expansion in SH is significantly larger than in any other group studied. The SH dental sample calls into question the uniqueness of some so-called modern traits. Our study also sounds a note of caution on the use of M(1) occlusal morphology for the alpha taxonomy of isolated M(1) s. PMID:23914934

  3. Mitochondrial DNA analysis shows a Near Eastern Neolithic origin for domestic cattle and no indication of domestication of European aurochs

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Ceiridwen J; Bollongino, Ruth; Scheu, Amelie; Chamberlain, Andrew; Tresset, Anne; Vigne, Jean-Denis; Baird, Jillian F; Larson, Greger; Ho, Simon Y.W; Heupink, Tim H; Shapiro, Beth; Freeman, Abigail R; Thomas, Mark G; Arbogast, Rose-Marie; Arndt, Betty; Bartosiewicz, László; Benecke, Norbert; Budja, Mihael; Chaix, Louis; Choyke, Alice M; Coqueugniot, Eric; Döhle, Hans-Jürgen; Göldner, Holger; Hartz, Sönke; Helmer, Daniel; Herzig, Barabara; Hongo, Hitomi; Mashkour, Marjan; Özdogan, Mehmet; Pucher, Erich; Roth, Georg; Schade-Lindig, Sabine; Schmölcke, Ulrich; Schulting, Rick J; Stephan, Elisabeth; Uerpmann, Hans-Peter; Vörös, István; Voytek, Barbara; Bradley, Daniel G; Burger, Joachim

    2007-01-01

    The extinct aurochs (Bos primigenius primigenius) was a large type of cattle that ranged over almost the whole Eurasian continent. The aurochs is the wild progenitor of modern cattle, but it is unclear whether European aurochs contributed to this process. To provide new insights into the demographic history of aurochs and domestic cattle, we have generated high-confidence mitochondrial DNA sequences from 59 archaeological skeletal finds, which were attributed to wild European cattle populations based on their chronological date and/or morphology. All pre-Neolithic aurochs belonged to the previously designated P haplogroup, indicating that this represents the Late Glacial Central European signature. We also report one new and highly divergent haplotype in a Neolithic aurochs sample from Germany, which points to greater variability during the Pleistocene. Furthermore, the Neolithic and Bronze Age samples that were classified with confidence as European aurochs using morphological criteria all carry P haplotype mitochondrial DNA, suggesting continuity of Late Glacial and Early Holocene aurochs populations in Europe. Bayesian analysis indicates that recent population growth gives a significantly better fit to our data than a constant-sized population, an observation consistent with a postglacial expansion scenario, possibly from a single European refugial population. Previous work has shown that most ancient and modern European domestic cattle carry haplotypes previously designated T. This, in combination with our new finding of a T haplotype in a very Early Neolithic site in Syria, lends persuasive support to a scenario whereby gracile Near Eastern domestic populations, carrying predominantly T haplotypes, replaced P haplotype-carrying robust autochthonous aurochs populations in Europe, from the Early Neolithic onward. During the period of coexistence, it appears that domestic cattle were kept separate from wild aurochs and introgression was extremely rare. PMID

  4. Morphometric analysis of molars in a Middle Pleistocene population shows a mosaic of ‘modern’ and Neanderthal features

    PubMed Central

    Martinón-Torres, María; Spěváčková, Petra; Gracia-Téllez, Ana; Martínez, Ignacio; Bruner, Emiliano; Arsuaga, Juan Luis; Bermúdez de Castro, José María

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies of upper first molar (M1) crown shape have shown significant differences between Homo sapiens and Homo neanderthalensis that were already present in the European Middle Pleistocene populations, including the large dental sample from Atapuerca-Sima de los Huesos (SH). Analysis of other M1 features such as the total crown base area, cusp proportions, cusp angles and occlusal polygon have confirmed the differences between both lineages, becoming a useful tool for the taxonomic assignment of isolated teeth from Late Pleistocene sites. However, until now the pattern of expression of these variables has not been known for the SH sample. This fossil sample, the largest collection from the European Middle Pleistocene, is generally interpreted as being from the direct ancestors of Neanderthals, and thus is a reference sample for assessing the origin of the Neanderthal morphologies. Surprisingly, our study reveals that SH M1s present a unique mosaic of H. neanderthalensis and H. sapiens features. Regarding the cusp angles and the relative occlusal polygon area, SH matches the H. neanderthalensis pattern. However, regarding the total crown base area and relative cusps size, SH M1s are similar to H. sapiens, with a small crown area, a strong hypocone reduction and a protocone enlargement, although the protocone expansion in SH is significantly larger than in any other group studied. The SH dental sample calls into question the uniqueness of some so-called modern traits. Our study also sounds a note of caution on the use of M1 occlusal morphology for the alpha taxonomy of isolated M1s. PMID:23914934

  5. Comparative analysis of zygotic developmental genes in Rhodnius prolixus genome shows conserved features on the tracheal developmental pathway.

    PubMed

    Lavore, A; Pascual, A; Salinas, F M; Esponda-Behrens, N; Martinez-Barnetche, J; Rodriguez, M; Rivera-Pomar, R

    2015-09-01

    Most of the in-depth studies on insect developmental genetic have been carried out in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, an holometabolous insect, so much more still remains to be studied in hemimetabolous insects. Having Rhodnius prolixus sequenced genome available, we search for orthologue genes of zygotic signaling pathways, segmentation, and tracheogenesis in the R. prolixus genome and in three species of Triatoma genus transcriptomes, concluding that there is a high level of gene conservation. We also study the function of two genes required for tracheal system development in D. melanogaster - R. prolixus orthologues: trachealess (Rp-trh) and empty spiracles (Rp-ems). From that we see that Rp-trh is required for early tracheal development since Rp-trh RNAi shows that the primary tracheal branches fail to form. On the other hand, Rp-ems is implied in the proper formation of the posterior tracheal branches, in a similar way to D. melanogaster. These results represent the initial characterization of the genes involved in the tracheal development of an hemimetabolous insect building a bridge between the current genomic era and V. Wigglesworth's classical studies on insects' respiratory system physiology. PMID:26187251

  6. Comparative analysis of extractable proteins from Clostridium perfringens type A and type C strains showing varying degree of virulence.

    PubMed

    Dwivedi, Pratistha; Alam, Syed Imteyaz; Kumar, Om; Kumar, Ravi Bhushan

    2015-10-01

    The prevailing scenario of bioterrorism warrants development of medical countermeasures with expanded coverage of select agents. Clostridium perfringens is a pathogen of medical, veterinary and military importance, and has been listed as Validated Biological Agent. We employed 2DE-MS approach to identify a total of 134 unique proteins (529 protein spot features) from the extractable proteome of four type A and type C strains. Proteins showing altered expression under host-simulated conditions from virulent type A strain (ATCC13124) were also elucidated. Significant among the differentially expressed proteins were elongation factor, molecular chaperones, ribosomal proteins, carbamoyl phosphate synthase, clpB protein, choloylglycine hydrolase, phosphopyruvate hydratase, and trigger factor. Predictive elucidation, of putative virulence associated proteins and sequence conservation pattern of selected candidates, was carried out using homologous proteins from other bacterial select agents to screen for the commonality of putative antigenic determinants. Pathogens (17 select agents) were observed to form three discrete clusters; composition of I and II being consistent in most of the phylogenetic reconstructions. This work provides a basis for further validation of putative candidate proteins as prophylactic agents and for their ability to provide protection against clusters of pathogenic select bacterial agents; aimed at mitigating the shadows of biothreat. PMID:26238688

  7. Transcriptome Analysis of Enterococcus faecalis during Mammalian Infection Shows Cells Undergo Adaptation and Exist in a Stringent Response State

    PubMed Central

    Frank, Kristi L.; Colomer-Winter, Cristina; Grindle, Suzanne M.; Lemos, José A.; Schlievert, Patrick M.; Dunny, Gary M.

    2014-01-01

    As both a commensal and a major cause of healthcare-associated infections in humans, Enterococcus faecalis is a remarkably adaptable organism. We investigated how E. faecalis adapts in a mammalian host as a pathogen by characterizing changes in the transcriptome during infection in a rabbit model of subdermal abscess formation using transcriptional microarrays. The microarray experiments detected 222 and 291 differentially regulated genes in E. faecalis OG1RF at two and eight hours after subdermal chamber inoculation, respectively. The profile of significantly regulated genes at two hours post-inoculation included genes involved in stress response, metabolism, nutrient acquisition, and cell surface components, suggesting genome-wide adaptation to growth in an altered environment. At eight hours post-inoculation, 88% of the differentially expressed genes were down-regulated and matched a transcriptional profile consistent with a (p)ppGpp-mediated stringent response. Subsequent subdermal abscess infections with E. faecalis mutants lacking the (p)ppGpp synthetase/hydrolase RSH, the small synthetase RelQ, or both enzymes, suggest that intracellular (p)ppGpp levels, but not stringent response activation, influence persistence in the model. The ability of cells to synthesize (p)ppGpp was also found to be important for growth in human serum and whole blood. The data presented in this report provide the first genome-wide insights on E. faecalis in vivo gene expression and regulation measured by transcriptional profiling during infection in a mammalian host and show that (p)ppGpp levels affect viability of E. faecalis in multiple conditions relevant to mammalian infection. The subdermal abscess model can serve as a novel experimental system for studying the E. faecalis stringent response in the context of the mammalian immune system. PMID:25545155

  8. A Nationwide Analysis of Outcomes of Weekend Admissions for Intracerebral Hemorrhage Shows Disparities Based on Hospital Teaching Status

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Achint A.; Benjo, Alexandre; Pathak, Ambarish; Kar, Jitesh; Jani, Vishal B.; Annapureddy, Narender; Agarwal, Shiv Kumar; Sabharwal, Manpreet S.; Simoes, Priya K.; Konstantinidis, Ioannis; Yacoub, Rabi; Javed, Fahad; El Hayek, Georges; Menon, Madhav C.; Nadkarni, Girish N.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose: With the “weekend effect” being well described, the Brain Attack Coalition released a set of “best practice” guidelines in 2005, with the goal to uniformly provide standard of care to patients with stroke. We attempted to define a “weekend effect” in outcomes among patients with intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) over the last decade, utilizing the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) data. We also attempted to analyze the trend of such an effect. Materials and Methods: We determined the association of ICH weekend admissions with hospital outcomes including mortality, adverse discharge, length of stay, and cost compared to weekday admissions using multivariable logistic regression. We extracted our study cohort from the NIS, the largest all-payer data set in the United States. Results: Of 485 329 ICH admissions from 2002 to 2011, 27.5% were weekend admissions. Overall, weekend admissions were associated with 11% higher odds of in-hospital mortality. When analyzed in 3-year groups, excess mortality of weekend admissions showed temporal decline. There was higher mortality with weekend admissions in nonteaching hospitals persisted (odds ratios 1.16, 1.13, and 1.09, respectively, for 3-year subgroups). Patients admitted during weekends were also 9% more likely to have an adverse discharge (odds ratio 1.09; 95% confidence interval: 1.07-1.11; P < .001) with no variation by hospital status. There was no effect of a weekend admission on either length of stay or cost of care. Conclusion: Nontraumatic ICH admissions on weekends have higher in-hospital mortality and adverse discharge. This demonstrates need for in-depth review for elucidating this discrepancy and stricter adherence to standard-of-care guidelines to ensure uniform care. PMID:27053981

  9. Does Cognitive Behavior Therapy for psychosis (CBTp) show a sustainable effect on delusions? A meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Mehl, Stephanie; Werner, Dirk; Lincoln, Tania M.

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive Behavior Therapy for psychosis (CBTp) is an effective treatment resulting in small to medium effect sizes with regard to changes in positive symptoms and psychopathology. As a consequence, CBTp is recommended by national guidelines for all patients with schizophrenia. However, although CBTp was originally developed as a means to improve delusions, meta-analyses have generally integrated effects for positive symptoms rather than for delusions. Thus, it is still an open question whether CBTp is more effective with regard to change in delusions compared to treatment as usual (TAU) and to other interventions, and whether this effect remains stable over a follow-up period. Moreover, it would be interesting to explore whether newer studies that focus on specific factors involved in the formation and maintenance of delusions (causal-interventionist approach) are more effective than the first generation of CBTp studies. A systematic search of the trial literature identified 19 RCTs that compared CBTp with TAU and/or other interventions and reported delusions as an outcome measure. Meta-analytic integration resulted in a significant small to medium effect size for CBTp in comparison to TAU at end-of-therapy (k = 13; d¯= 0.27) and after an average follow-up period of 47 weeks (k = 12; d¯= 0.25). When compared with other interventions, there was no significant effect of CBTp at end-of-therapy (k = 8; d¯= 0.16) and after a follow-up period (k = 5; d¯=-0.04). Comparison between newer studies taking a causal-interventionist approach (k = 4) and first-generation studies showed a difference of 0.33 in mean effect sizes in favor of newer studies at end-of-therapy. The findings suggest that CBTp is superior to TAU, but is not superior to other interventions, in bringing about a change in delusions, and that this superiority is maintained over the follow-up period. Moreover, interventions that focus on causal factors of delusions seem to be a promising approach to

  10. Effects of additives on the co-pyrolysis of municipal solid waste and paper sludge by using thermogravimetric analysis.

    PubMed

    Fang, Shiwen; Yu, Zhaosheng; Lin, Yan; Lin, Yousheng; Fan, Yunlong; Liao, Yanfen; Ma, Xiaoqian

    2016-06-01

    By using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), the effects of different additives (MgO, Al2O3 and ZnO) on the pyrolysis characteristics and activation energy of municipal solid waste (MSW), paper sludge (PS) and their blends in N2 atmosphere had been investigated in this study. The experiments resulted that these additives were effective in reducing the initial temperature and activation energy. However, not all the additives were beneficial to reduce the residue mass and enhance the index D. For the different ratios of MSW and PS, the same additive even had the different influences. The catalytic effects of additives were not obvious and the pyrolysis became difficult with the increase of the proportion of PS. Based on all the contrast of the pyrolysis characteristics, MgO was the best additive and 70M30P was the best ratio, respectively. PMID:26985626

  11. Analysis of economics of a TV broadcasting satellite for additional nationwide TV programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Becker, D.; Mertens, G.; Rappold, A.; Seith, W.

    1977-01-01

    The influence of a TV broadcasting satellite, transmitting four additional TV networks was analyzed. It is assumed that the cost of the satellite systems will be financed by the cable TV system operators. The additional TV programs increase income by attracting additional subscribers. Two economic models were established: (1) each local network is regarded as an independent economic unit with individual fees (cost price model) and (2) all networks are part of one public cable TV company with uniform fees (uniform price model). Assumptions are made for penetration as a function of subscription rates. Main results of the study are: the installation of a TV broadcasting satellite improves the economics of CTV-networks in both models; the overall coverage achievable by the uniform price model is significantly higher than that achievable by the cost price model.

  12. Application of Translational Addition Theorems to Electrostatic and Magnetostatic Field Analysis for Systems of Circular Cylinders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machynia, Adam

    Analytic solutions to the static and stationary boundary value field problems relative to an arbitrary configuration of parallel cylinders are obtained by using translational addition theorems for scalar Laplacian polar functions, to express the field due to one cylinder in terms of the polar coordinates of the other cylinders such that the boundary conditions can be imposed at all the cylinder surfaces. The constants of integration in the field expressions of all the cylinders are obtained from a truncated infinite matrix equation. Translational addition theorems are available for scalar cylindrical and spherical wave functions but such theorems are not directly available for the general solution of the Laplace equation in polar coordinates. The purpose of deriving these addition theorems and applying them to field problems involving systems of cylinders is to obtain exact analytic solutions with controllable accuracies, thereby, yielding benchmark solutions to validate other approximate numerical methods.

  13. Analysis of Glass-Filled Nylon in Laser Powder Bed Fusion Additive Manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slotwinski, John; LaBarre, Erin; Forrest, Ryan; Crane, Emily

    2016-03-01

    At the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (APL), glass bead-filled polyamide (a.k.a. nylon) (GFN) is being used frequently for functional parts and systems, built using a laser-based powder bed fusion (PBF) additive manufacturing (AM) system. Since these parts have performance requirements, it is important to understand the mechanical properties of the additively-made GFN as a function of build orientation and build parameters. In addition, the performance of the AM system used to manufacture these parts must be evaluated in order to understand its capabilities, especially in order to determine the dimensional precision and repeatability of features built with this system. This paper summarizes recent APL efforts to characterize the GFN powder, the mechanical properties of parts made with GFN, and the performance of the laser PBF machine while running GFN using an AM test artifact.

  14. Whole genome association analysis shows that ACE is a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease and fails to replicate most candidates from Meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Webster, Jennifer; Reiman, Eric M; Zismann, Victoria L; Joshipura, Keta D; Pearson, John V; Hu-Lince, Diane; Huentelman, Matthew J; Craig, David W; Coon, Keith D; Beach, Thomas; Rohrer, Kristen C; Zhao, Alice S; Leung, Doris; Bryden, Leslie; Marlowe, Lauren; Kaleem, Mona; Mastroeni, Diego; Grover, Andrew; Rogers, Joseph; Heun, Reinhard; Jessen, Frank; Kölsch, Heike; Heward, Christopher B; Ravid, Rivka; Hutton, Michael L; Melquist, Stacey; Petersen, Ron C; Caselli, Richard J; Papassotiropoulos, Andreas; Stephan, Dietrich A; Hardy, John; Myers, Amanda

    2010-01-01

    For late onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD), the only confirmed, genetic association is with the apolipoprotein E (APOE) locus on chromosome 19. Meta-analysis is often employed to sort the true associations from the false positives. LOAD research has the advantage of a continuously updated meta-analysis of candidate gene association studies in the web-based AlzGene database. The top 30 AlzGene loci on May 1(st), 2007 were investigated in our whole genome association data set consisting of 1411 LOAD cases and neuropathoiogicaiiy verified controls genotyped at 312,316 SNPs using the Affymetrix 500K Mapping Platform. Of the 30 "top AlzGenes", 32 SNPs in 24 genes had odds ratios (OR) whose 95% confidence intervals that did not include 1. Of these 32 SNPs, six were part of the Affymetrix 500K Mapping panel and another ten had proxies on the Affymetrix array that had >80% power to detect an association with α=0.001. Two of these 16 SNPs showed significant association with LOAD in our sample series. One was rs4420638 at the APOE locus (uncorrected p-value=4.58E-37) and the other was rs4293, located in the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) locus (uncorrected p-value=0.014). Since this result was nominally significant, but did not survive multiple testing correction for 16 independent tests, this association at rs4293 was verified in a geographically distinct German cohort (p-value=0.03). We present the results of our ACE replication aiongwith a discussion of the statistical limitations of multiple test corrections in whole genome studies. PMID:21537449

  15. Consequence analysis of an unmitigated NaOH solution spray release during addition to waste tank

    SciTech Connect

    Himes, D.A., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-08-21

    Toxicological consequences were calculated for a postulated maximum caustic soda (NaOH) solution spray leak during addition to a waste tank to adjust tank pH. Although onsite risk guidelines were exceeded for the unmitigated release, site boundary consequences were below the level of concern. Means of mitigating the release so as to greatly reduce the onsite consequences were recommended.

  16. HUMAN HEALTH DAMAGES FROM MOBILE SOURCE AIR POLLUTION: ADDITIONAL DELPHI DATA ANALYSIS. VOLUME II

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report contains the results of additional analyses of the data generated by a panel of medical experts for a study of Human Health Damages from Mobile Source Air Pollution (hereafter referred to as HHD) conducted by the California Air Resources Board in 1973-75 for the U.S. E...

  17. An Analysis of Word Problems in School Mathematics Texts: Operation of Addition and Subtraction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Parmjit

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses the types of word problems represented in Malaysia's primary one, primary two and primary three mathematics texts based on Van De Walle's model (1998) in the operations of addition and subtraction. A test was constructed to measure students' success based on this model. The data from this study indicates that the Malaysian…

  18. A risk haplotype of STAT4 for systemic lupus erythematosus is over-expressed, correlates with anti-dsDNA and shows additive effects with two risk alleles of IRF5

    PubMed Central

    Sigurdsson, Snaevar; Nordmark, Gunnel; Garnier, Sophie; Grundberg, Elin; Kwan, Tony; Nilsson, Olof; Eloranta, Maija-Leena; Gunnarsson, Iva; Svenungsson, Elisabet; Sturfelt, Gunnar; Bengtsson, Anders A.; Jönsen, Andreas; Truedsson, Lennart; Rantapää-Dahlqvist, Solbritt; Eriksson, Catharina; Alm, Gunnar; Göring, Harald H.H.; Pastinen, Tomi; Syvänen, Ann-Christine; Rönnblom, Lars

    2008-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is the prototype autoimmune disease where genes regulated by type I interferon (IFN) are over-expressed and contribute to the disease pathogenesis. Because signal transducer and activator of transcription 4 (STAT4) plays a key role in the type I IFN receptor signaling, we performed a candidate gene study of a comprehensive set of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) in STAT4 in Swedish patients with SLE. We found that 10 out of 53 analyzed SNPs in STAT4 were associated with SLE, with the strongest signal of association (P = 7.1 × 10−8) for two perfectly linked SNPs rs10181656 and rs7582694. The risk alleles of these 10 SNPs form a common risk haplotype for SLE (P = 1.7 × 10−5). According to conditional logistic regression analysis the SNP rs10181656 or rs7582694 accounts for all of the observed association signal. By quantitative analysis of the allelic expression of STAT4 we found that the risk allele of STAT4 was over-expressed in primary human cells of mesenchymal origin, but not in B-cells, and that the risk allele of STAT4 was over-expressed (P = 8.4 × 10−5) in cells carrying the risk haplotype for SLE compared with cells with a non-risk haplotype. The risk allele of the SNP rs7582694 in STAT4 correlated to production of anti-dsDNA (double-stranded DNA) antibodies and displayed a multiplicatively increased, 1.82-fold risk of SLE with two independent risk alleles of the IRF5 (interferon regulatory factor 5) gene. PMID:18579578

  19. EBSD analysis of magnesium addition on inclusion formation in SS400 structural steel

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, Sin-Jie; Su, Yen-Hao Frank; Lu, Muh-Jung; Kuo, Jui-Chao

    2013-08-15

    In this study, the effect of magnesium addition on the inclusion formation in SS400 steel was investigated. The experimental specimens with and without Mg addition treatment were compared. The microstructure was observed using optical microscopy after etching with 3% nital. The morphology and chemical composition of the inclusions were analyzed via scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectrometry. The lattice structure and orientation of the inclusions were identified by electron backscattering diffraction. The average size of inclusions in SS400 was between 0.67 and 0.75 μm, and between 0.65 and 0.68 μm in SS400 + Mg. The 2 ppm Mg addition resulted in the oxide formation change from Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} to MgO·Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and in the inclusion formation change from Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}–MnS to MgO·Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}–MnS. Moreover, a simple-phase MnS with an average grain size of 1 μm to 2 μm was observed in rod-like, globular, and polyhedron forms. - Highlights: • The effect of magnesium addition was investigated for SS400 steel. • 2 ppm Mg addition changes the inclusion formation from Al2O3-MnS to MgO·Al2O3-MnS. • MnS observed in inclusions exhibits rod-like, globular, and polyhedron forms.

  20. Additive Synergism between Asbestos and Smoking in Lung Cancer Risk: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ngamwong, Yuwadee; Tangamornsuksan, Wimonchat; Lohitnavy, Ornrat; Chaiyakunapruk, Nathorn; Scholfield, C. Norman; Reisfeld, Brad; Lohitnavy, Manupat

    2015-01-01

    Smoking and asbestos exposure are important risks for lung cancer. Several epidemiological studies have linked asbestos exposure and smoking to lung cancer. To reconcile and unify these results, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to provide a quantitative estimate of the increased risk of lung cancer associated with asbestos exposure and cigarette smoking and to classify their interaction. Five electronic databases were searched from inception to May, 2015 for observational studies on lung cancer. All case-control (N = 10) and cohort (N = 7) studies were included in the analysis. We calculated pooled odds ratios (ORs), relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using a random-effects model for the association of asbestos exposure and smoking with lung cancer. Lung cancer patients who were not exposed to asbestos and non-smoking (A-S-) were compared with; (i) asbestos-exposed and non-smoking (A+S-), (ii) non-exposure to asbestos and smoking (A-S+), and (iii) asbestos-exposed and smoking (A+S+). Our meta-analysis showed a significant difference in risk of developing lung cancer among asbestos exposed and/or smoking workers compared to controls (A-S-), odds ratios for the disease (95% CI) were (i) 1.70 (A+S-, 1.31–2.21), (ii) 5.65; (A-S+, 3.38–9.42), (iii) 8.70 (A+S+, 5.8–13.10). The additive interaction index of synergy was 1.44 (95% CI = 1.26–1.77) and the multiplicative index = 0.91 (95% CI = 0.63–1.30). Corresponding values for cohort studies were 1.11 (95% CI = 1.00–1.28) and 0.51 (95% CI = 0.31–0.85). Our results point to an additive synergism for lung cancer with co-exposure of asbestos and cigarette smoking. Assessments of industrial health risks should take smoking and other airborne health risks when setting occupational asbestos exposure limits. PMID:26274395

  1. One-dimensional analysis of thermal choking in case of heat addition in ducts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyazato, Yoshiaki; Masuda, Mitsuharu; Matsuo, Kazuyasu; Kashitani, Masashi; Yamaguchi, Yutaka

    2000-09-01

    The thermal choking phenomenon is of great importance in an inlet isolator in dual-mode ram jet/scramjet combustor. In some cases the choked flow creates a pseudo-shock wave including a shock train in it at the engine inlet and causes large amounts of drag and radically reduces the performance of the engine at high flight Mach numbers. The present paper describes a one-dimensional flow model taking account of the upstream boundary-layer as well as heat addition by using a mass-weighted averaging technique. The simple relationships for the flow field in a constant area duct in which the effect of the upstream boundary-layer is considered but the effect of the wall friction in the duct can be neglected are presented. The results of the calculation such as the maximum heat addition when the thermal choking occurs, the downstream Mach number and the static pressure ratio are presented and examined in detail.

  2. Analysis and Modeling of soil hydrology under different soil additives in artificial runoff plots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruidisch, M.; Arnhold, S.; Kettering, J.; Huwe, B.; Kuzyakov, Y.; Ok, Y.; Tenhunen, J. D.

    2009-12-01

    The impact of monsoon events during June and July in the Korean project region Haean Basin, which is located in the northeastern part of South Korea plays a key role for erosion, leaching and groundwater pollution risk by agrochemicals. Therefore, the project investigates the main hydrological processes in agricultural soils under field and laboratory conditions on different scales (plot, hillslope and catchment). Soil hydrological parameters were analysed depending on different soil additives, which are known for prevention of soil erosion and nutrient loss as well as increasing of water infiltration, aggregate stability and soil fertility. Hence, synthetic water-soluble Polyacrylamides (PAM), Biochar (Black Carbon mixed with organic fertilizer), both PAM and Biochar were applied in runoff plots at three agricultural field sites. Additionally, as control a subplot was set up without any additives. The field sites were selected in areas with similar hillslope gradients and with emphasis on the dominant land management form of dryland farming in Haean, which is characterised by row planting and row covering by foil. Hydrological parameters like satured water conductivity, matrix potential and water content were analysed by infiltration experiments, continuous tensiometer measurements, time domain reflectometry as well as pressure plates to indentify characteristic water retention curves of each horizon. Weather data were observed by three weather stations next to the runoff plots. Measured data also provide the input data for modeling water transport in the unsatured zone in runoff plots with HYDRUS 1D/2D/3D and SWAT (Soil & Water Assessment Tool).

  3. Analysis of hydraulic fracturing additives by LC/Q-TOF-MS.

    PubMed

    Ferrer, Imma; Thurman, E Michael

    2015-08-01

    The chemical additives used in fracturing fluids can be used as tracers of water contamination caused by hydraulic fracturing operations. For this purpose, a complete chemical characterization is necessary using advanced analytical techniques. Liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC/Q-TOF-MS) was used to identify chemical additives present in flowback and produced waters. Accurate mass measurements of main ions and fragments were used to characterize the major components of fracking fluids. Sodium adducts turned out to be the main molecular adduct ions detected for some additives due to oxygen-rich structures. Among the classes of chemical components analyzed by mass spectrometry include gels (guar gum), biocides (glutaraldehyde and alkyl dimethyl benzyl ammonium chloride), and surfactants (cocamidopropyl dimethylamines, cocamidopropyl hydroxysultaines, and cocamidopropyl derivatives). The capabilities of accurate mass and MS-MS fragmentation are explored for the unequivocal identification of these compounds. A special emphasis is given to the mass spectrometry elucidation approaches used to identify a major class of hydraulic fracturing compounds, surfactants. PMID:26044738

  4. Subsonic flutter analysis addition to NASTRAN. [for use with CDC 6000 series digital computers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doggett, R. V., Jr.; Harder, R. L.

    1973-01-01

    A subsonic flutter analysis capability has been developed for NASTRAN, and a developmental version of the program has been installed on the CDC 6000 series digital computers at the Langley Research Center. The flutter analysis is of the modal type, uses doublet lattice unsteady aerodynamic forces, and solves the flutter equations by using the k-method. Surface and one-dimensional spline functions are used to transform from the aerodynamic degrees of freedom to the structural degrees of freedom. Some preliminary applications of the method to a beamlike wing, a platelike wing, and a platelike wing with a folded tip are compared with existing experimental and analytical results.

  5. Lifetime effectiveness of mifamurtide addition to chemotherapy in nonmetastatic and metastatic osteosarcoma: a Markov process model analysis.

    PubMed

    Song, Hyun Jin; Lee, Jun Ah; Han, Euna; Lee, Eui-Kyung

    2015-09-01

    The mortality and progression rates in osteosarcoma differ depending on the presence of metastasis. A decision model would be useful for estimating long-term effectiveness of treatment with limited clinical trial data. The aim of this study was to explore the lifetime effectiveness of the addition of mifamurtide to chemotherapy for patients with metastatic and nonmetastatic osteosarcoma. The target population was osteosarcoma patients with or without metastasis. A Markov process model was used, whose time horizon was lifetime with a starting age of 13 years. There were five health states: disease-free (DF), recurrence, post-recurrence disease-free, post-recurrence disease-progression, and death. Transition probabilities of the starting state, DF, were calculated from the INT-0133 clinical trials for chemotherapy with and without mifamurtide. Quality-adjusted life-years (QALY) increased upon addition of mifamurtide to chemotherapy by 10.5 % (10.13 and 9.17 QALY with and without mifamurtide, respectively) and 45.2 % (7.23 and 4.98 QALY with and without mifamurtide, respectively) relative to the lifetime effectiveness of chemotherapy in nonmetastatic and metastatic osteosarcoma, respectively. Life-years gained (LYG) increased by 10.1 % (13.10 LYG with mifamurtide and 11.90 LYG without mifamurtide) in nonmetastatic patients and 42.2 % (9.43 LYG with mifamurtide and 6.63 LYG without mifamurtide) in metastatic osteosarcoma patients. The Markov model analysis showed that chemotherapy with mifamurtide improved the lifetime effectiveness compared to chemotherapy alone in both nonmetastatic and metastatic osteosarcoma. Relative effectiveness of the therapy was higher in metastatic than nonmetastatic osteosarcoma over lifetime. However, absolute lifetime effectiveness was higher in nonmetastatic than metastatic osteosarcoma. PMID:25835978

  6. An Alkaline Protease from Bacillus pumilus MP 27: Functional Analysis of Its Binding Model toward Its Applications As Detergent Additive

    PubMed Central

    Baweja, Mehak; Tiwari, Rameshwar; Singh, Puneet K.; Nain, Lata; Shukla, Pratyoosh

    2016-01-01

    A proteolytic strain of Bacillus pumilus MP 27 was isolated from water samples of Southern ocean produced alkaline protease. Since protease production need expensive ingredients, an economically viable process was developed by using low cost carbon source, wheat straw, supplemented with peptone. This protease was active within temperature ranges 10–70°C at pH 9. This process was optimized by response surface methodology using a Box Bekhman design by Design Expert 7.0 software that increased the protease activity to 776.5 U/ml. Moreover, the enzyme was extremely stable at a broad range of temperature and pH retaining 69% of its activity at 50°C and 70% at pH 11. The enzyme exhibited excellent compatibility with surfactants and commercial detergents, showing 87% stability with triton X-100 and 100% stability with Tide commercial detergent. The results of the wash performance analysis demonstrated considerably good de-staining at 50 and 4°C with low supplementation (109 U/ml). Molecular modeling of the protease revealed the presence of serine proteases, subtilase family and serine active site and further docking supported the association of catalytic site with the various substrates. Certainly, such protease can be considered as a good detergent additive in detergent industry with a possibility to remove the stains effectively even in a cold wash. PMID:27536284

  7. An Alkaline Protease from Bacillus pumilus MP 27: Functional Analysis of Its Binding Model toward Its Applications As Detergent Additive.

    PubMed

    Baweja, Mehak; Tiwari, Rameshwar; Singh, Puneet K; Nain, Lata; Shukla, Pratyoosh

    2016-01-01

    A proteolytic strain of Bacillus pumilus MP 27 was isolated from water samples of Southern ocean produced alkaline protease. Since protease production need expensive ingredients, an economically viable process was developed by using low cost carbon source, wheat straw, supplemented with peptone. This protease was active within temperature ranges 10-70°C at pH 9. This process was optimized by response surface methodology using a Box Bekhman design by Design Expert 7.0 software that increased the protease activity to 776.5 U/ml. Moreover, the enzyme was extremely stable at a broad range of temperature and pH retaining 69% of its activity at 50°C and 70% at pH 11. The enzyme exhibited excellent compatibility with surfactants and commercial detergents, showing 87% stability with triton X-100 and 100% stability with Tide commercial detergent. The results of the wash performance analysis demonstrated considerably good de-staining at 50 and 4°C with low supplementation (109 U/ml). Molecular modeling of the protease revealed the presence of serine proteases, subtilase family and serine active site and further docking supported the association of catalytic site with the various substrates. Certainly, such protease can be considered as a good detergent additive in detergent industry with a possibility to remove the stains effectively even in a cold wash. PMID:27536284

  8. Exergy Analysis and Second Law Efficiency of a Regenerative Brayton Cycle with Isothermal Heat Addition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jubeh, Naser M.

    2005-09-01

    The effect of two heat additions, rather than one, in a gas turbine engine is analyzed from the second law of thermodynamics point of view. A regenerative Brayton cycle model is used for this study, and compared with other models of Brayton cycle. All fluid friction losses in the compressor and turbine are quantified by an isentropic efficiency term. The effect of pressure ratio, turbine inlet temperature, ambient temperature, altitude, and altitude with variable ambient temperature on irreversibility "exergy destroyed" and second law efficiency was investigated and compared for all models. The results are given graphically with the appropriate discussion and conclusion.

  9. Understanding Child Stunting in India: A Comprehensive Analysis of Socio-Economic, Nutritional and Environmental Determinants Using Additive Quantile Regression

    PubMed Central

    Fenske, Nora; Burns, Jacob; Hothorn, Torsten; Rehfuess, Eva A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Most attempts to address undernutrition, responsible for one third of global child deaths, have fallen behind expectations. This suggests that the assumptions underlying current modelling and intervention practices should be revisited. Objective We undertook a comprehensive analysis of the determinants of child stunting in India, and explored whether the established focus on linear effects of single risks is appropriate. Design Using cross-sectional data for children aged 0–24 months from the Indian National Family Health Survey for 2005/2006, we populated an evidence-based diagram of immediate, intermediate and underlying determinants of stunting. We modelled linear, non-linear, spatial and age-varying effects of these determinants using additive quantile regression for four quantiles of the Z-score of standardized height-for-age and logistic regression for stunting and severe stunting. Results At least one variable within each of eleven groups of determinants was significantly associated with height-for-age in the 35% Z-score quantile regression. The non-modifiable risk factors child age and sex, and the protective factors household wealth, maternal education and BMI showed the largest effects. Being a twin or multiple birth was associated with dramatically decreased height-for-age. Maternal age, maternal BMI, birth order and number of antenatal visits influenced child stunting in non-linear ways. Findings across the four quantile and two logistic regression models were largely comparable. Conclusions Our analysis confirms the multifactorial nature of child stunting. It emphasizes the need to pursue a systems-based approach and to consider non-linear effects, and suggests that differential effects across the height-for-age distribution do not play a major role. PMID:24223839

  10. Qualitative Analysis of Additives in Plastic Marine Debris and Its New Products.

    PubMed

    Rani, Manviri; Shim, Won Joon; Han, Gi Myung; Jang, Mi; Al-Odaini, Najat Ahmed; Song, Young Kyong; Hong, Sang Hee

    2015-10-01

    Due to their formulation and/or processing, plastics contain additives and impurities that may leach out under conditions of use and accumulate in the environment. To evaluate their role as vectors of chemical contaminants in marine environment, plastic debris (n = 19) collected from coastal beaches along with new plastics (n = 25; same or same brand) bought from local markets were screened by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in full scan mode. Detected peaks were identified using NIST library in different polymers (polypropylene (PP) > polyethylene (PE) > PP + PE > polyethyl terephthalate > poly(acylene:styrene) with different use (food, fishery, and general use). A database on the presence of 231 different chemicals were grouped into hydrocarbons, ultra-violet (UV)-stabilizers, antioxidants, plasticizers, lubricants, intermediates, compounds for dyes and inks, flame retardants, etc. The UV326, UV327, UV328, UV320, UvinualMC80, irganox 1076, DEHP, antioxidant no 33, di-n-octylisophthalate, diisooctyl phthalate, hexanoic acid 2-ethyl-hexadecyl ester, and hydrocarbons were most frequently detected. Finding of toxic phthalates and UV stabilizers in those products having moisture contact (like bottles with short use) raised concern to humans and indicated their irregular use. The comparison between new and debris plastics clearly indicated the leaching and absorption of chemicals and supports our assumption of plastic as media for transferring these additives in marine environment. PMID:26329499

  11. Tolerance analysis of optical telescopes using coherent addition of wavefront errors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davenport, J. W.

    1982-01-01

    A near diffraction-limited telescope requires that tolerance analysis be done on the basis of system wavefront error. One method of analyzing the wavefront error is to represent the wavefront error function in terms of its Zernike polynomial expansion. A Ramsey-Korsch ray trace package, a computer program that simulates the tracing of rays through an optical telescope system, was expanded to include the Zernike polynomial expansion up through the fifth-order spherical term. An option to determine a 3 dimensional plot of the wavefront error function was also included in the Ramsey-Korsch package. Several assimulation runs were analyzed to determine the particular set of coefficients in the Zernike expansion that are effected by various errors such as tilt, decenter and despace. A 3 dimensional plot of each error up through the fifth-order spherical term was also included in the study. Tolerance analysis data are presented.

  12. Control analysis of lipid biosynthesis in tissue cultures from oil crops shows that flux control is shared between fatty acid synthesis and lipid assembly.

    PubMed Central

    Ramli, Umi S; Baker, Darren S; Quant, Patti A; Harwood, John L

    2002-01-01

    Top-Down (Metabolic) Control Analysis (TDCA) was used to examine, quantitatively, lipid biosynthesis in tissue cultures from two commercially important oil crops, olive (Olea europaea L.) and oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.). A conceptually simplified system was defined comprising two blocks of reactions: fatty acid synthesis (Block A) and lipid assembly (Block B), which produced and consumed, respectively, a common and unique system intermediate, cytosolic acyl-CoA. We manipulated the steady-state levels of the system intermediate by adding exogenous oleic acid and, using two independent assays, measured the effect of the addition on the system fluxes (J(A) and J(B)). These were the rate of incorporation of radioactivity: (i) through Block A from [1-(14)C]acetate into fatty acids and (ii) via Block B from [U-(14)C]glycerol into complex lipids respectively. The data showed that fatty acid formation (Block A) exerted higher control than lipid assembly (Block B) in both tissues with the following group flux control coefficients (C):(i) Oil palm: *C(J(TL))(BlkA)=0.64+/-0.05 and *C(J(TL))(BlkB)=0.36+/-0.05(ii) Olive: *C(J(TL))(BlkA)=0.57+/-0.10 and *C(J(TL))(BlkB)=0.43+/-0.10where *C indicates the group flux control coefficient over the lipid biosynthesis flux (J(TL)) and the subscripts BlkA and BlkB refer to defined blocks of the system, Block A and Block B. Nevertheless, because both parts of the lipid biosynthetic pathway exert significant flux control, we suggest strongly that manipulation of single enzyme steps will not affect product yield appreciably. The present study represents the first use of TDCA to examine the overall lipid biosynthetic pathway in any tissue, and its findings are of immediate academic and economic relevance to the yield and nutritional quality of oil crops. PMID:12023882

  13. Personality, work characteristics, and employee well-being: a longitudinal analysis of additive and moderating effects.

    PubMed

    Houkes, Inge; Janssen, Peter P M; de Jonge, Jan; Bakker, Arnold B

    2003-01-01

    This study tested the longitudinal influence of personality (measured by the characteristics growth need strength, negative affectivity [NA], and upward striving) on 3 psychological outcomes (intrinsic work motivation, emotional exhaustion, and turnover intention), using a pattern of specific relationships between work characteristics and these outcomes as a framework. The study hypotheses were tested in a multioccupational sample consisting of bank employees and teachers, using a 2-wave panel design with a 1-year time interval and structural equation modeling. NA had a cross-lagged direct and additive relationship with emotional exhaustion and also moderated the relationship between Time 1 workload and Time 2 emotional exhaustion. The authors concluded that NA may have multiple effects on emotional exhaustion that persist over time. PMID:12553527

  14. PAT-1 safety analysis report addendum author responses to request for additional information.

    SciTech Connect

    Weiner, Ruth F.; Schmale, David T.; Kalan, Robert J.; Akin, Lili A.; Miller, David Russell; Knorovsky, Gerald Albert; Yoshimura, Richard Hiroyuki; Lopez, Carlos; Harding, David Cameron; Jones, Perry L.; Morrow, Charles W.

    2010-09-01

    The Plutonium Air Transportable Package, Model PAT-1, is certified under Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations Part 71 by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) per Certificate of Compliance (CoC) USA/0361B(U)F-96 (currently Revision 9). The National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) submitted SAND Report SAND2009-5822 to NRC that documented the incorporation of plutonium (Pu) metal as a new payload for the PAT-1 package. NRC responded with a Request for Additional Information (RAI), identifying information needed in connection with its review of the application. The purpose of this SAND report is to provide the authors responses to each RAI. SAND Report SAND2010-6106 containing the proposed changes to the Addendum is provided separately.

  15. The quantitative surface analysis of an antioxidant additive in a lubricant oil matrix by desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Da Costa, Caitlyn; Reynolds, James C; Whitmarsh, Samuel; Lynch, Tom; Creaser, Colin S

    2013-01-01

    RATIONALE Chemical additives are incorporated into commercial lubricant oils to modify the physical and chemical properties of the lubricant. The quantitative analysis of additives in oil-based lubricants deposited on a surface without extraction of the sample from the surface presents a challenge. The potential of desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (DESI-MS) for the quantitative surface analysis of an oil additive in a complex oil lubricant matrix without sample extraction has been evaluated. METHODS The quantitative surface analysis of the antioxidant additive octyl (4-hydroxy-3,5-di-tert-butylphenyl)propionate in an oil lubricant matrix was carried out by DESI-MS in the presence of 2-(pentyloxy)ethyl 3-(3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyphenyl)propionate as an internal standard. A quadrupole/time-of-flight mass spectrometer fitted with an in-house modified ion source enabling non-proximal DESI-MS was used for the analyses. RESULTS An eight-point calibration curve ranging from 1 to 80 µg/spot of octyl (4-hydroxy-3,5-di-tert-butylphenyl)propionate in an oil lubricant matrix and in the presence of the internal standard was used to determine the quantitative response of the DESI-MS method. The sensitivity and repeatability of the technique were assessed by conducting replicate analyses at each concentration. The limit of detection was determined to be 11 ng/mm2 additive on spot with relative standard deviations in the range 3–14%. CONCLUSIONS The application of DESI-MS to the direct, quantitative surface analysis of a commercial lubricant additive in a native oil lubricant matrix is demonstrated. © 2013 The Authors. Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:24097398

  16. Analysis of additives in dairy products by liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole-orbitrap mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Jia, Wei; Ling, Yun; Lin, Yuanhui; Chang, James; Chu, Xiaogang

    2014-04-01

    A new method combining QuEChERS with ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography and electrospray ionization quadrupole Orbitrap high-resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC/ESI Q-Orbitrap) was developed for the highly accurate and sensitive screening of 43 antioxidants, preservatives and synthetic sweeteners in dairy products. Response surface methodology was employed to optimize a quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe (QuEChERS) sample preparation method for the determination of 42 different analytes in dairy products for the first time. After optimization, the maximum predicted recovery was 99.33% rate for aspartame under the optimized conditions of 10 mL acetionitrile, 1.52 g sodium acetate, 410 mg PSA and 404 mgC18. For the matrices studied, the recovery rates of the other 42 compounds ranged from 89.4% to 108.2%, with coefficient of variation <6.4%. UHPLC/ESI Q-Orbitrap Mass full scan mode acquired full MS data was used to identify and quantify additives, and data-dependent scan mode obtained fragment ion spectra for confirmation. The mass accuracy typically obtained is routinely better than 1.5ppm, and only need to calibrate once a week. The 43 compounds behave dynamic in the range 0.001-1000 μg kg(-1) concentration, with correlation coefficient >0.999. The limits of detection for the analytes are in the range 0.0001-3.6 μg kg(-1). This method has been successfully applied on screening of antioxidants, preservatives and synthetic sweeteners in commercial dairy product samples, and it is very useful for fast screening of different food additives. PMID:24607030

  17. Compositional GC-FID analysis of the additives to PVC, focusing on the gaskets of lids for glass jars.

    PubMed

    Biedermann-Brem, Sandra; Biedermann, Maurus; Fiselier, Katell; Grob, Koni

    2005-12-01

    A gas chromatographic (FID) method is described which aims at the quantitative compositional analysis of the additives in plasticized PVC, particularly the plastisols used as gaskets for lids of glass jars. An extract of the PVC is analysed directly as well as after transesterification to ethyl esters. Transesterification enables the analysis of epoxidized soya bean and linseed oil (ESBO and ELO) as well as polyadipates. For most other additives, the shifts in the chromatogram resulting from transesterification is used to confirm the identifications made by direct analysis. In the gaskets of 69 lids from the European market used for packaging oily foods, a broad variety of plastisol compositions was found, many or possibly all of which do not comply with legal requirements. In 62% of these lids, ESBO was the principal plasticizer, whereas in 25% a phthalate had been used. PMID:16356892

  18. Characterization and Genetic Analysis of a Novel Light-Dependent Lesion Mimic Mutant, lm3, Showing Adult-Plant Resistance to Powdery Mildew in Common Wheat

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Fang; Wu, Wenying; Wang, Dongzhi; Yang, Wenlong; Sun, Jiazhu; Liu, Dongcheng; Zhang, Aimin

    2016-01-01

    Lesion mimics (LMs) that exhibit spontaneous disease-like lesions in the absence of pathogen attack might confer enhanced plant disease resistance to a wide range of pathogens. The LM mutant, lm3 was derived from a single naturally mutated individual in the F1 population of a 3-1/Jing411 cross, backcrossed six times with 3–1 as the recurrent parent and subsequently self-pollinated twice. The leaves of young seedlings of the lm3 mutant exhibited small, discrete white lesions under natural field conditions. The lesions first appeared at the leaf tips and subsequently expanded throughout the entire leaf blade to the leaf sheath. The lesions were initiated through light intensity and day length. Histochemical staining revealed that lesion formation might reflect programmed cell death (PCD) and abnormal accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The chlorophyll content in the mutant was significantly lower than that in wildtype, and the ratio of chlorophyll a/b was increased significantly in the mutant compared with wildtype, indicating that lm3 showed impairment of the biosynthesis or degradation of chlorophyll, and that Chlorophyll b was prone to damage during lesion formation. The lm3 mutant exhibited enhanced resistance to wheat powdery mildew fungus (Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici; Bgt) infection, which was consistent with the increased expression of seven pathogenesis-related (PR) and two wheat chemically induced (WCI) genes involved in the defense-related reaction. Genetic analysis showed that the mutation was controlled through a single partially dominant gene, which was closely linked to Xbarc203 on chromosome 3BL; this gene was delimited to a 40 Mb region between SSR3B450.37 and SSR3B492.6 using a large derived segregating population and the available Chinese Spring chromosome 3B genome sequence. Taken together, our results provide information regarding the identification of a novel wheat LM gene, which will facilitate the additional fine-mapping and

  19. Characterization and Genetic Analysis of a Novel Light-Dependent Lesion Mimic Mutant, lm3, Showing Adult-Plant Resistance to Powdery Mildew in Common Wheat.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fang; Wu, Wenying; Wang, Dongzhi; Yang, Wenlong; Sun, Jiazhu; Liu, Dongcheng; Zhang, Aimin

    2016-01-01

    Lesion mimics (LMs) that exhibit spontaneous disease-like lesions in the absence of pathogen attack might confer enhanced plant disease resistance to a wide range of pathogens. The LM mutant, lm3 was derived from a single naturally mutated individual in the F1 population of a 3-1/Jing411 cross, backcrossed six times with 3-1 as the recurrent parent and subsequently self-pollinated twice. The leaves of young seedlings of the lm3 mutant exhibited small, discrete white lesions under natural field conditions. The lesions first appeared at the leaf tips and subsequently expanded throughout the entire leaf blade to the leaf sheath. The lesions were initiated through light intensity and day length. Histochemical staining revealed that lesion formation might reflect programmed cell death (PCD) and abnormal accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The chlorophyll content in the mutant was significantly lower than that in wildtype, and the ratio of chlorophyll a/b was increased significantly in the mutant compared with wildtype, indicating that lm3 showed impairment of the biosynthesis or degradation of chlorophyll, and that Chlorophyll b was prone to damage during lesion formation. The lm3 mutant exhibited enhanced resistance to wheat powdery mildew fungus (Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici; Bgt) infection, which was consistent with the increased expression of seven pathogenesis-related (PR) and two wheat chemically induced (WCI) genes involved in the defense-related reaction. Genetic analysis showed that the mutation was controlled through a single partially dominant gene, which was closely linked to Xbarc203 on chromosome 3BL; this gene was delimited to a 40 Mb region between SSR3B450.37 and SSR3B492.6 using a large derived segregating population and the available Chinese Spring chromosome 3B genome sequence. Taken together, our results provide information regarding the identification of a novel wheat LM gene, which will facilitate the additional fine-mapping and

  20. Determination of 3D paleostress systems: An additional technique for basin analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Bakker, H.E.

    1988-08-01

    The present structure of the western Mediterranean has been largely determined by several phases of rifting and oceanic spreading which began during the Oligocene. The main rifting event took place during the middle Oligocene-earliest Miocene. This is indicated by structural, stratigraphic, metamorphic, and volcanic data. During this event Corsica and Sardinia drifted eastward from the previously amalgamated Iberian-European plate, and the Provencal and Algerian basins were developed. The plate movements related to the development of these basins have been reconstructed by using the orientation of the present plate boundaries, the strike of transform faults, the age and trend of magnetic anomalies, and paleomagnetic data. An additional approach is proposed, based on detailed field study of faults at specific locations on the continental plates. From fault-plane and slip-direction data the author can calculate the responsible 3D paleostress systems. These stress systems apparently can be used to reconstruct in detail the kinematics of the rifting and drifting processes on both a local and regional scale. The method is illustrated by the geodynamic evolution of Mallorca, Menorca, and the Gulf of Valencia.

  1. Temperature Profile and Imaging Analysis of Laser Additive Manufacturing of Stainless Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Islam, M.; Purtonen, T.; Piili, H.; Salminen, A.; Nyrhilä, O.

    Powder bed fusion is a laser additive manufacturing (LAM) technology which is used to manufacture parts layer-wise from powdered metallic materials. The technology has advanced vastly in the recent years and current systems can be used to manufacture functional parts for e.g. aerospace industry. The performance and accuracy of the systems have improved also, but certain difficulties in the powder fusion process are reducing the final quality of the parts. One of these is commonly known as the balling phenomenon. The aim of this study was to define some of the process characteristics in powder bed fusion by performing comparative studies with two different test setups. This was done by comparing measured temperature profiles and on-line photography of the process. The material used during the research was EOS PH1 stainless steel. Both of the test systems were equipped with 200 W single mode fiber lasers. The main result of the research was that some of the process instabilities are resulting from the energy input during the process.

  2. Factor analysis models for structuring covariance matrices of additive genetic effects: a Bayesian implementation

    PubMed Central

    de los Campos, Gustavo; Gianola, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    Multivariate linear models are increasingly important in quantitative genetics. In high dimensional specifications, factor analysis (FA) may provide an avenue for structuring (co)variance matrices, thus reducing the number of parameters needed for describing (co)dispersion. We describe how FA can be used to model genetic effects in the context of a multivariate linear mixed model. An orthogonal common factor structure is used to model genetic effects under Gaussian assumption, so that the marginal likelihood is multivariate normal with a structured genetic (co)variance matrix. Under standard prior assumptions, all fully conditional distributions have closed form, and samples from the joint posterior distribution can be obtained via Gibbs sampling. The model and the algorithm developed for its Bayesian implementation were used to describe five repeated records of milk yield in dairy cattle, and a one common FA model was compared with a standard multiple trait model. The Bayesian Information Criterion favored the FA model. PMID:17897592

  3. Additive analysis of nano silicon under the influence of neutron irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garibli, Aydan; Huseynov, Elchin; Garibov, Adil; Mehdiyeva, Ravan

    2016-04-01

    Nano silicon with 80m2g‑1 specific surface area, 100 nm size and 0.08 g/cm3 density has been irradiated continuously with neutrons (2 × 1013n ṡcm‑2s‑1) up to 20 h at various periods in TRIGA Mark II type research reactor. After the neutron irradiation, cooling time of the samples is taken approximately 360 h. It is found that the initial radioactivity of the irradiated samples changes within 0.1 kBq-3.1 GBq range. Definition of elements’ concentration is determined based on the activities formed in the relevant energy range. After the irradiation, the result of activity analysis carried out the element content of 1% mixture existing in nano Si which has been defined with radionuclides of the relevant element. Moreover, from activities of mixed radioisotopes, their amounts in percentage has been determined.

  4. Protein-protein interaction analysis highlights additional loci of interest for multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Ragnedda, Giammario; Disanto, Giulio; Giovannoni, Gavin; Ebers, George C; Sotgiu, Stefano; Ramagopalan, Sreeram V

    2012-01-01

    Genetic factors play an important role in determining the risk of multiple sclerosis (MS). The strongest genetic association in MS is located within the major histocompatibility complex class II region (MHC), but more than 50 MS loci of modest effect located outside the MHC have now been identified. However, the relative candidate genes that underlie these associations and their functions are largely unknown. We conducted a protein-protein interaction (PPI) analysis of gene products coded in loci recently reported to be MS associated at the genome-wide significance level and in loci suggestive of MS association. Our aim was to identify which suggestive regions are more likely to be truly associated, which genes are mostly implicated in the PPI network and their expression profile. From three recent independent association studies, SNPs were considered and divided into significant and suggestive depending on the strength of the statistical association. Using the Disease Association Protein-Protein Link Evaluator tool we found that direct interactions among genetic products were significantly higher than expected by chance when considering both significant regions alone (p<0.0002) and significant plus suggestive (p<0.007). The number of genes involved in the network was 43. Of these, 23 were located within suggestive regions and many of them directly interacted with proteins coded within significant regions. These included genes such as SYK, IL-6, CSF2RB, FCLR3, EIF4EBP2 and CHST12. Using the gene portal BioGPS, we tested the expression of these genes in 24 different tissues and found the highest values among immune-related cells as compared to non-immune tissues (p<0.001). A gene ontology analysis confirmed the immune-related functions of these genes. In conclusion, loci currently suggestive of MS association interact with and have similar expression profiles and function as those significantly associated, highlighting the fact that more common variants remain to be

  5. Mass analysis addition to the Differential Ion Flux Probe (DIFP) study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, K. H., Jr.; Jolley, Richard

    1994-01-01

    The objective of this study is to develop a technique to measure the characteristics of space plasmas under highly disturbed conditions; e.g., non-Maxwellian plasmas with strong drifting populations and plasmas contaminated by spacecraft outgassing. The approach, conducted in conjunction with current MSFC activities, is to extend the capabilities of the Differential Ion Flux Probe (DIFP) to include a high throughput mass measurement that does not require either high voltage or contamination sensitive devices such as channeltron electron multipliers or microchannel plates. This will significantly reduce the complexity and expense of instrument fabrication, testing, and integration of flight hardware compared to classical mass analyzers. The feasibility of the enhanced DIFP has been verified by using breadboard test models in a controlled plasma environment. The ability to manipulate particles through the instrument regardless of incident angle, energy, or ionic component has been amply demonstrated. The energy analysis mode is differential and leads directly to a time-of-flight mass measurement. With the new design, the DIFP will separate multiple ion streams and analyze each stream independently for ion flux intensity, velocity (including direction of motion), mass, and temperature (or energy distribution). In particular, such an instrument will be invaluable on follow-on electrodynamic TSS missions and, possibly, for environmental monitoring on the space station.

  6. Analysis on Soil Seed Bank Diversity Characteristics and Its Relation with Soil Physical and Chemical Properties after Substrate Addition

    PubMed Central

    He, Mengxuan; Lv, Lingyue; Li, Hongyuan; Meng, Weiqing; Zhao, Na

    2016-01-01

    Aims Considered as an essential measure in the application of soil seed bank (SSB) projects, the mixing of substrate and surface soil can effectively improve soil condition. This research is aimed at exploring the diversity characteristics of SSBs and the relationships between SSBs and soil properties. Methods Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) was adopted to describe the ordination of SSBs on soil properties’ gradients; multiple linear regressions were adopted to analyze the relationship between average growth height and soil properties, density and soil properties. Results Experimental groups of mixed substrate (the mixture of organic and inorganic substrates) had high diversity indexes, especially the Shannon-Wiener Index compared with those of single substrate. Meanwhile, a higher number of species and increased density were also noted in those of mixed substrate. The best test group, No.16, had the highest diversity indexes with a Shannon-Wiener of 1.898, Simpson of 0.633 and Pielou of 0.717, and also showed the highest density of 14000 germinants /m2 and 21 species. In addition, an improvement of the soil’s chemical and physical properties was noted when the substrates were mixed. The mixed substrate of turfy soil and perlite could effectively enhance the soil moisture content, whilst a mixed substrate of rice husk carbon and vermiculite could improve the content of available potassium (AK) and phosphorus (AP) and strengthen soil fertility. The germinated plants also reflected obvious regularities of ordination on soil factor gradients. Three distinct cluster groups were presented, of which the first cluster was distributed in an area with a relatively higher content of AK and AP; the second cluster was distributed at places with relatively higher soil moisture content; and the third cluster of plants didn’t show any obvious relationship with soil physical and chemical properties. Through CCA analysis, AK and AP were considered the most important

  7. The Toxic Effects of Cigarette Additives. Philip Morris' Project Mix Reconsidered: An Analysis of Documents Released through Litigation

    PubMed Central

    Wertz, Marcia S.; Kyriss, Thomas; Paranjape, Suman; Glantz, Stanton A.

    2011-01-01

    Background In 2009, the promulgation of US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) tobacco regulation focused attention on cigarette flavor additives. The tobacco industry had prepared for this eventuality by initiating a research program focusing on additive toxicity. The objective of this study was to analyze Philip Morris' Project MIX as a case study of tobacco industry scientific research being positioned strategically to prevent anticipated tobacco control regulations. Methods and Findings We analyzed previously secret tobacco industry documents to identify internal strategies for research on cigarette additives and reanalyzed tobacco industry peer-reviewed published results of this research. We focused on the key group of studies conducted by Phillip Morris in a coordinated effort known as “Project MIX.” Documents showed that Project MIX subsumed the study of various combinations of 333 cigarette additives. In addition to multiple internal reports, this work also led to four peer-reviewed publications (published in 2001). These papers concluded that there was no evidence of substantial toxicity attributable to the cigarette additives studied. Internal documents revealed post hoc changes in analytical protocols after initial statistical findings indicated an additive-associated increase in cigarette toxicity as well as increased total particulate matter (TPM) concentrations in additive-modified cigarette smoke. By expressing the data adjusted by TPM concentration, the published papers obscured this underlying toxicity and particulate increase. The animal toxicology results were based on a small number of rats in each experiment, raising the possibility that the failure to detect statistically significant changes in the end points was due to underpowering the experiments rather than lack of a real effect. Conclusion The case study of Project MIX shows tobacco industry scientific research on the use of cigarette additives cannot be taken at face value. The

  8. Net gain analysis, an addition to responder analysis--The case of antipsychotic treatment of acute mania.

    PubMed

    Welten, C C M; Koeter, M W J; Wohlfarth, T D; Storosum, J G; van den Brink, W; Gispen-de Wied, C C; Leufkens, H G M; Denys, D A J P

    2015-10-01

    Net Gain Analysis (NGA) is proposed as an alternative to Responders Analysis (RA) as a more comprehensive method to tap clinical relevance of the effect of treatment. NGA is the group difference in responders minus the group difference in deteriorators; while RA is the group difference in responders. We examined the performance of these two methods in a dataset consisting of individual patient data from 10 randomized controlled trials (N = 2666) of five different antipsychotics in patients with acute mania by comparing the rank ordering of the five compounds according to both systems (NGA and RA). The rank order did not differ between the 2 systems but the inferiority of one compound was revealed more evidently by the NGA in comparison to the RA. PMID:26164267

  9. Analysis of the effects of section 29 tax credits on reserve additions and production of gas from unconventional resources

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-09-01

    Federal tax credits for production of natural gas from unconventional resources can stimulate drilling and reserves additions at a relatively low cost to the Treasury. This report presents the results of an analysis of the effects of a proposed extension of the Section 29 alternative fuels production credit specifically for unconventional gas. ICF Resources estimated the net effect of the extension of the credit (the difference between development activity expected with the extension of the credit and that expected if the credit expires in December 1990 as scheduled). The analysis addressed the effect of tax credits on project economics and capital formation, drilling and reserve additions, production, impact on the US and regional economies, and the net public sector costs and incremental revenues. The analysis was based on explicit modeling of the three dominant unconventional gas resources: Tight sands, coalbed methane, and Devonian shales. It incorporated the most current data on resource size, typical well recoveries and economics, and anticipated activity of the major producers. Each resource was further disaggregated for analysis based on distinct resource characteristics, development practices, regional economics, and historical development patterns.

  10. Genomic in situ hybridization analysis of Thinopyrum chromatin in a wheat-Th. intermedium partial amphiploid and six derived chromosome addition lines

    PubMed

    Chen; Conner; Laroche; Ji; Armstrong; Fedak

    1999-12-01

    The genomic origin of alien chromosomes present in a wheat-Thinopyrum intermedium partial amphiploid TAF46 (2n = 8x = 56) and six derived chromosome addition lines were analyzed by genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) using S genomic DNA from Pseudoroegneria strigosa (2n = 2x = 14, SS) as a probe. The GISH analysis clearly showed that the chromosome complement of the partial amphiploid TAF46 consists of an entire wheat genome plus one synthetic genome consisting of a mixture of six S genome chromosomes and eight J (=E) genome chromosomes derived from Th. intermedium (2n = 6x = 42, JJJ(s)J(s)SS). There were no Js genome chromosomes present in TAF46. The J genome chromosomes present in TAF46 displayed a unique GISH hybridization pattern with the S genomic DNA probe, in which S genome DNA strongly hybridized at the terminal regions and weakly hybridized over the remaining parts of the chromosomes. This provides a diagnostic marker for distinguishing J genome chromosomes from Js or S genome or wheat ABD genome chromosomes. The genomic origin of the alien chromosomes present in the six derived chromosome addition lines were identified by their characteristic GISH hybridization patterns with S genomic DNA probe. GISH analysis showed that addition lines L1, L2, L3, and L5 carried one pair of J genome chromosomes, while addition lines L4 and L7 each carried one pair of S genome chromosomes. GISH patterns detected by the S genome probe on addition line of L1 were identical to those of the J genome chromosomes present in the partial amphiploid TAF46, suggesting that these chromosomes were not structurally altered when they were transferred from TAF46 to addition lines. PMID:10659790

  11. Proteome Analysis of the Effect of Mucoid Conversion on Global Protein Expression in Pseudomonas aeruginosa Strain PAO1 Shows Induction of the Disulfide Bond Isomerase, DsbA

    PubMed Central

    Malhotra, Sonal; Silo-Suh, Laura A.; Mathee, Kalai; Ohman, Dennis E.

    2000-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains that cause chronic pulmonary infections in cystic fibrosis patients typically undergo mucoid conversion. The mucoid phenotype indicates alginate overproduction and is often due to defects in MucA, an antisigma factor that controls the activity of sigma-22 (AlgT [also called AlgU]), which is required for the activation of genes for alginate biosynthesis. In this study we hypothesized that mucoid conversion may be part of a larger response that activates genes other than those for alginate synthesis. To address this, a two-dimensional (2-D) gel analysis was employed to compare total proteins in strain PAO1 to those of its mucA22 derivative, PDO300, in order to identify protein levels enhanced by mucoid conversion. Six proteins that were clearly more abundant in the mucoid strain were observed. The amino termini of such proteins were determined and used to identify the gene products in the genomic database. Proteins involved in alginate biosynthesis were expected among these, and two (AlgA and AlgD) were identified. This result verified that the 2-D gel approach could identify gene products under sigma-22 control and upregulated by mucA mutation. Two other protein spots were also clearly upregulated in the mucA22 background, and these were identified as porin F (an outer membrane protein) and a homologue of DsbA (a disulfide bond isomerase). Single-copy gene fusions were constructed to test whether these proteins were enhanced in the mucoid strain due to increased transcription. The oprF-lacZ fusion showed little difference in levels of expression in the two strains. However, the dsbA-lacZ fusion showed two- to threefold higher expression in PDO300 than in PAO1, suggesting that its promoter was upregulated by the deregulation of sigma-22 activity. A dsbA-null mutant was constructed in PAO1 and shown to have defects predicted for a cell with reduced disulfide bond isomerase activity, namely, reduction in periplasmic alkaline phosphatase

  12. Analysis of cell-to-bubble attachment in sparged bioreactors in the presence of cell-protecting additives.

    PubMed

    Michaels, J D; Nowak, J E; Mallik, A K; Koczo, K; Wasan, D T; Papoutsakis, E T

    1995-08-20

    To investigate the mechanisms of cell protection provided by medium additives against animal cell injury in sparged bioreactors, we have analyzed the effect of various additives on the cell-to-bubble attachment process using CHO cells in suspension. Cell-to-bubble attachment was examined using three experimental techniques: (1) cell-bubble induction time analysis (cell-to-bubble attachment times); (2) forming thin liquid films and observing the movement and location of cells in the thin films; and (3) foam flotation experiments. The induction times we measured for the various additives are as follows: no additive (50 to 500 ms), polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP: 20 to 500 ms), polyethylene glycol (PEG: 200 to 1000 ms), 3% serum (500 to 1000 ms), polyvinyl alcohol (PVA: 2 to 10 s), Pluronic F68 (5 to 20 s), and Methocel (20 to 60 s). In the thin film formation experiments, cells in medium with either F68, PVA, or Methocel quickly flowed out of draining thin liquid films and entered the plateau border. When using media with no additive or with serum, the flow of cells out of the thin liquid film and film drainage were slower than for media containing Pluronic F68. PVA, or Methocel. With PVP and PEG, the thin film drainage was much slower and cells remained trapped in the film. For the foam flotation experiments, a separation factor (ratio of cell concentration in the foam catch to that in the bubble column) was determined for the various additives. In the order of increasing separation factors (i.e., increasing cell attachment to bubbles), the additives are as follows: Methocel, PVA, Pluronic F68, 3% serum, serum-free medium with no additives, PEG, and PVP. Based on the results of these three different cell-to-bubble attachment experiments, we have classified the cell-protecting additives into three groups: (1) Pluronic F68, PVA, and Methocel (reduced cell-to-bubble attachment); (2) PEG and PVP (high or increased cell-to-bubble attachment); and (3) FBS (reduced cell

  13. Meta-analysis of high-latitude nitrogen-addition and warming studies implies ecological mechanisms overlooked by land models

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Bouskill, N. J.; Riley, W. J.; Tang, J. Y.

    2014-12-11

    Accurate representation of ecosystem processes in land models is crucial for reducing predictive uncertainty in energy and greenhouse gas feedbacks with the climate. Here we describe an observational and modeling meta-analysis approach to benchmark land models, and apply the method to the land model CLM4.5 with two versions of belowground biogeochemistry. We focused our analysis on the aboveground and belowground responses to warming and nitrogen addition in high-latitude ecosystems, and identified absent or poorly parameterized mechanisms in CLM4.5. While the two model versions predicted similar soil carbon stock trajectories following both warming and nitrogen addition, other predicted variables (e.g., belowgroundmore » respiration) differed from observations in both magnitude and direction, indicating that CLM4.5 has inadequate underlying mechanisms for representing high-latitude ecosystems. On the basis of observational synthesis, we attribute the model–observation differences to missing representations of microbial dynamics, aboveground and belowground coupling, and nutrient cycling, and we use the observational meta-analysis to discuss potential approaches to improving the current models. However, we also urge caution concerning the selection of data sets and experiments for meta-analysis. For example, the concentrations of nitrogen applied in the synthesized field experiments (average = 72 kg ha-1 yr-1) are many times higher than projected soil nitrogen concentrations (from nitrogen deposition and release during mineralization), which precludes a rigorous evaluation of the model responses to likely nitrogen perturbations. Overall, we demonstrate that elucidating ecological mechanisms via meta-analysis can identify deficiencies in ecosystem models and empirical experiments.« less

  14. Biomechanical analysis of a new carbon fiber/flax/epoxy bone fracture plate shows less stress shielding compared to a standard clinical metal plate.

    PubMed

    Bagheri, Zahra S; Tavakkoli Avval, Pouria; Bougherara, Habiba; Aziz, Mina S R; Schemitsch, Emil H; Zdero, Radovan

    2014-09-01

    Femur fracture at the tip of a total hip replacement (THR), commonly known as Vancouver B1 fracture, is mainly treated using rigid metallic bone plates which may result in "stress shielding" leading to bone resorption and implant loosening. To minimize stress shielding, a new carbon fiber (CF)/Flax/Epoxy composite plate has been developed and biomechanically compared to a standard clinical metal plate. For fatigue tests, experiments were done using six artificial femurs cyclically loaded through the femoral head in axial compression for four stages: Stage 1 (intact), stage 2 (after THR insertion), stage 3 (after plate fixation of a simulated Vancouver B1 femoral midshaft fracture gap), and stage 4 (after fracture gap healing). For fracture fixation, one group was fitted with the new CF/Flax/Epoxy plate (n = 3), whereas another group was repaired with a standard clinical metal plate (Zimmer, Warsaw, IN) (n = 3). In addition to axial stiffness measurements, infrared thermography technique was used to capture the femur and plate surface stresses during the testing. Moreover, finite element analysis (FEA) was performed to evaluate the composite plate's axial stiffness and surface stress field. Experimental results showed that the CF/Flax/Epoxy plated femur had comparable axial stiffness (fractured = 645 ± 67 N/mm; healed = 1731 ± 109 N/mm) to the metal-plated femur (fractured = 658 ± 69 N/mm; healed = 1751 ± 39 N/mm) (p = 1.00). However, the bone beneath the CF/Flax/Epoxy plate was the only area that had a significantly higher average surface stress (fractured = 2.10 ± 0.66 MPa; healed = 1.89 ± 0.39 MPa) compared to bone beneath the metal plate (fractured = 1.18 ± 0.93 MPa; healed = 0.71 ± 0.24 MPa) (p < 0.05). FEA bone surface stresses yielded peak of 13 MPa at distal epiphysis (stage 1), 16 MPa at distal epiphysis (stage 2), 85 MPa for composite and 129

  15. Open channel current noise analysis of S6 peptides from KvAP channel on bilayer lipid membrane shows bimodal power law scaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrivastava, Rajan; Malik, Chetan; Ghosh, Subhendu

    2016-06-01

    Open channel current noise in synthetic peptide S6 of KvAP channel was investigated in a voltage clamp experiment on bilayer lipid membrane (BLM). It was observed that the power spectral density (PSD) of the component frequencies follows power law with different slopes in different frequency ranges. In order to know the origin of the slopes PSD analysis was done with signal filtering. It was found that the first slope in the noise profile follows 1 / f pattern which exists at lower frequencies and has high amplitude current noise, while the second slope corresponds to 1 /f 2 - 3 pattern which exists at higher frequencies with low amplitude current noise. In addition, white noise was observed at very large frequencies. It was concluded that the plausible reason for the multiple power-law scaling is the existence of different modes of non-equilibrium ion transport through the S6 channel.

  16. Genome analysis shows Bacillus axarquiensis is not a later heterotypic synonym of Bacillus mojavensis; reclassification of Bacillus malacitensis and Brevibacterium halotolerans as heterotypic synonyms of Bacillus axarquiensis.

    PubMed

    Dunlap, Christopher A; Bowman, Michael J; Schisler, David A; Rooney, Alejandro P

    2016-06-01

    Bacillus axarquiensis and Bacillus malacitensis were previously reported to be later heterotypic synonyms of Bacillus mojavensis, based primarily on DNA-DNA relatedness values. We have sequenced draft genomes of Bacillus axarquiensis NRRL B-41617T and Bacillus malacitensis NRRL B-41618T. Comparative genomics and DNA-DNA relatedness calculations showed that while Bacillus axarquiensis and Bacillus malacitensis are synonymous with each other, they are not synonymous with Bacillus mojavensis. In addition, a draft genome was completed for Brevibacterium halotolerans, a strain long suspected of being a Bacillus subtilis group member based on 16S rRNA similarities (99.8 % with Bacillus mojavensis). Comparative genomics and DNA-DNA relatedness calculations showed that Brevibacterium halotolerans is synonymous with Bacillus axarquiensis and Bacillus malacitensis. The pairwise in silico DNA-DNA hybridization values calculated in comparisons between the three conspecific strains were all greater than 92 %, which is well above the standard species threshold of 70 %. While the pairwise in silico DNA-DNA hybridization values calculated in comparisons of the three conspecific strains with Bacillus mojavensis were all less than 65 %. The combined results of our genotype and phenotype studies showed that Bacillus axarquiensis, Bacillus malacitensis and Brevibacterium halotolerans are conspecific and distinct from Bacillus mojavensis. Because the valid publication of the name Bacillus axarquiensis predates the publication of the name Bacillus malacitensis, we propose that Bacillus malacitensis be reclassified as a synonym of Bacillus axarquiensis. In addition, we propose to reclassify Brevibacterium halotolerans as a synonym of Bacillus axarquiensis. An amended description of Bacillus axarquiensis is provided. PMID:27030978

  17. One-dimensional analysis of unsteady flows due to supercritical heat addition in high speed condensing steam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malek, N. A.; Hasini, H.; Yusoff, M. Z.

    2013-06-01

    Unsteadiness in supersonic flow in nozzles can be generated by the release of heat due to spontaneous condensation. The heat released is termed "supercritical" and may be responsible for turbine blades failure in turbine cascade as it causes a supersonic flow to decelerate. When the Mach number is reduced to unity, the flow can no longer sustain the additional heat and becomes unstable. This paper aims to numerically investigate the unsteadiness caused by supercritical heat addition in one-dimensional condensing flows. The governing equations for mass, momentum and energy, coupled with the equations describing the wetness fraction and droplet growth are integrated and solved iteratively to reveal the final solution. Comparison is made with well-established experimental and numerical solution done by previous researchers that shows similar phenomena.

  18. Uncertainty analysis of the use of a retailer fidelity card scheme in the assessment of food additive intake.

    PubMed

    McNamara, C; Mehegan, J; O'Mahony, C; Safford, B; Smith, B; Tennant, D; Buck, N; Ehrlich, V; Sardi, M; Haldemann, Y; Nordmann, H; Jasti, P R

    2011-12-01

    The feasibility of using a retailer fidelity card scheme to estimate food additive intake was investigated in an earlier study. Fidelity card survey information was combined with information provided by the retailer on levels of the food colour Sunset Yellow (E110) in the foods to estimate a daily exposure to the additive in the Swiss population. As with any dietary exposure method the fidelity card scheme is subject to uncertainties and in this paper the impact of uncertainties associated with input variables including the amounts of food purchased, the levels of E110 in food, the proportion of food purchased at the retailer, the rate of fidelity card usage, the proportion of foods consumed outside of the home and bodyweights and with systematic uncertainties was assessed using a qualitative, deterministic and probabilistic approach. An analysis of the sensitivity of the results to each of the probabilistic inputs was also undertaken. The analysis identified the key factors responsible for uncertainty within the model and demonstrated how the application of some simple probabilistic approaches can be used quantitatively to assess uncertainty. PMID:21995790

  19. BFS Simulation and Experimental Analysis of the Effect of Ti Additions on the Structure of NiAl

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bozzolo, Guillermo; Noebe, Ronald D.; Ferrante,John; Garg, Anita; Honecy, Frank S.; Amador, Carlos

    1999-01-01

    The Bozzolo-Ferrante-Smith (BFS) method for alloy energetics is applied to the study of ternary additions to NiAl. A description of the method and its application to alloy design is given. Two different approaches are used in the analysis of the effect of Ti additions to NiAl. First, a thorough analytical study is performed, where the energy of formation, lattice parameter and bulk modulus are calculated for a large number of possible atomic distributions of Ni, Al and Ti. Substitutional site preference schemes and formation of precipitates are thus predicted and analyzed. The second approach used consists of the determination of temperature effects on the final results, as obtained by performing a number of large scale numerical simulations using the Monte Carlo-Metropolis procedure and BFS for the calculation of the energy at every step in the simulation. The results indicate a sharp preference of Ti for Al sites in Ni-rich NiAl alloys and the formation of ternary Heusler precipitates beyond the predicted solubility limit of 5 at. % Ti. Experimental analysis of three Ni-Al-Ti alloys confirms the theoretical predictions.

  20. Atomistic Simulations and Experimental Analysis of the Effect of Ti Additions on the Structure of NiAl

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bozzolo, Guillermo; Noebe, Ronald D.; Ferrante, John; Garg, Anita; Amador, Carlos

    1997-01-01

    The Bozzolo-Ferrante-Smith (BFS) semiempirical method for alloy energetics is applied to the study of ternary additions to NiAl alloys. A detailed description of the method and its application to alloy design is given. Two different approaches are used in the analysis of the effect of Ti additions to NiAl. First, a thorough analytical study is performed, where the energy of formation, lattice parameter and bulk modulus are calculated for hundreds of possible atomic distributions of Ni, Al and Ti. Substitutional site preference schemes and formation of precipitates are thus predicted and analyzed. The second approach used consists of the determination of temperature effects on the final results, as obtained by performing a number of large scale numerical simulations using the Monte Carlo - Metropolis procedure and BFS for the calculation of the energy at every step in the simulation. The results indicate a sharp preference of Ti for Al sites in Ni-rich NiAl alloys and the formation of ternary Heusler precipitates beyond the predicted solubility limit of 5 at. % Ti. Experimental analysis of three NiAl+Ti alloys confirms the theoretical predictions.

  1. The use of fatty acid methyl ester analysis (FAME) for the identification of heterotrophic bacteria present on three mural paintings showing severe damage by microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Heyrman, J; Mergaert, J; Denys, R; Swings, J

    1999-12-01

    Mural paintings in Carmona (Spain), Herberstein (Austria) and Greene (Germany), showing visible deterioration by microorganisms, were sampled to investigate the biodiversity of the heterotrophic bacteria present. Four hundred twenty-eight bacterial strains were isolated from which 385 were characterized by fatty acid methyl ester analysis (FAME). The isolates were grouped into 41 clusters on the basis of their FAME profiles, 20 isolates remained ungrouped. The majority (94%) of the isolates comprised the gram-positive bacteria and the main clusters were identified as Bacillus sp., Paenibacillus sp., Micrococcus sp., Arthrobacter sp. and Staphylococcus sp. Other clusters contain nocardioform actinomycetes and gram-negative bacteria, respectively. A cluster of the latter contained extreme halotolerant bacteria isolated in Herberstein. The FAME profiles of this cluster showed a high similarity with Halomonas. PMID:10564789

  2. Analysis of blood leukocytes in a naturally occurring immunodeficiency of pigs shows the defect is localized to B and T cells.

    PubMed

    Ewen, C L; Cino-Ozuna, A G; He, H; Kerrigan, M A; Dekkers, J C M; Tuggle, C K; Rowland, R R R; Wyatt, C R

    2014-12-15

    Severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) is the result of a set of inherited genetic defects which render components of the immune response nonfunctional. In Arabian horses, Jack Russell terriers, and mice, the disorder is a consequence of the absence of T and B lymphocytes, while natural killer (NK) cell and other leukocyte populations remain intact. Preliminary analysis of a naturally acquired form of inherited SCID in a line of pigs showed several defects in the architecture and composition of secondary lymphoid organs. In this study, a quantitative assessment of lymphocyte populations in affected and normal littermates showed depleted T or B lymphocyte populations in affected pigs; however, NK cells and neutrophils were present in numbers comparable to unaffected littermates. The results indicate that the immune defect in pigs shares the same features as other SCID-affected species. PMID:25454085

  3. Addition to inhaled corticosteroids of leukotriene receptor antagonists versus theophylline for symptomatic asthma: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xin; Kang, Ying-Bo; Wang, Li-Qing; Li, Yun; Luo, Yu-Wen; Zhu, Zhe

    2015-01-01

    Background Inhaled corticosteroids (ICSs) are widely used in combination with second controller medications in the management of asthma in adults and children. There lacks a systematic comparison between addition of leukotriene receptor antagonists (LTRAs) and theophylline to ICS. The purpose of this meta-analysis was to evaluate the difference of the efficacy and safety profile of adding either LTRAs or theophylline to ICS in adults and children with symptomatic asthma. Methods Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) published prior to November 2014 were acquired through systematically searching and selected based on the established inclusion criteria for publications. The data extracted from the included studies were further analyzed by a meta-analysis. Results We included eight RCTs, of which six recruited adults and two recruited children aged 5 to 14 years. The primary outcomes were changes in lung function from baseline, including forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1) and peak expiratory flow (PEF). Overall, addition of LTRAs led to significantly better morning PEF {mean difference (MD) 16.94 [95% confidence interval (CI): 11.49-22.39] L/min, P<0.01} and FEV1 [MD 0.09 (95% CI: 0.03-0.15) L, P=0.005] as compared to addition of theophylline. There were no differences between the two treatments in terms of evening PEF, adverse events, rescue medication use and asthma exacerbation. Conclusions The combination of LTRA and ICS leads to modestly greater improvement in lung function than the combination of theophylline and ICS in the treatment of symptomatic asthma. Long-term trials are required to assess the efficacy and safety of these two therapies. PMID:25973230

  4. Food additives

    MedlinePlus

    Food additives are substances that become part of a food product when they are added during the processing or making of that food. "Direct" food additives are often added during processing to: Add nutrients ...

  5. Comprehensive Behavioral Analysis of Male Ox1r−/− Mice Showed Implication of Orexin Receptor-1 in Mood, Anxiety, and Social Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Abbas, Md. G.; Shoji, Hirotaka; Soya, Shingo; Hondo, Mari; Miyakawa, Tsuyoshi; Sakurai, Takeshi

    2015-01-01

    Neuropeptides orexin A and orexin B, which are exclusively produced by neurons in the lateral hypothalamic area, play an important role in the regulation of a wide range of behaviors and homeostatic processes, including regulation of sleep/wakefulness states and energy homeostasis. The orexin system has close anatomical and functional relationships with systems that regulate the autonomic nervous system, emotion, mood, the reward system, and sleep/wakefulness states. Recent pharmacological studies using selective antagonists have suggested that orexin receptor-1 (OX1R) is involved in physiological processes that regulate emotion, the reward system, and autonomic nervous system. Here, we examined Ox1r−/− mice with a comprehensive behavioral test battery to screen additional OX1R functions. Ox1r−/− mice showed increased anxiety-like behavior, altered depression-like behavior, slightly decreased spontaneous locomotor activity, reduced social interaction, increased startle response, and decreased prepulse inhibition. These results suggest that OX1R plays roles in social behavior and sensory motor gating in addition to roles in mood and anxiety. PMID:26696848

  6. Genome-Centric Analysis of Microbial Populations Enriched by Hydraulic Fracture Fluid Additives in a Coal Bed Methane Production Well.

    PubMed

    Robbins, Steven J; Evans, Paul N; Parks, Donovan H; Golding, Suzanne D; Tyson, Gene W

    2016-01-01

    Coal bed methane (CBM) is generated primarily through the microbial degradation of coal. Despite a limited understanding of the microorganisms responsible for this process, there is significant interest in developing methods to stimulate additional methane production from CBM wells. Physical techniques including hydraulic fracture stimulation are commonly applied to CBM wells, however the effects of specific additives contained in hydraulic fracture fluids on native CBM microbial communities are poorly understood. Here, metagenomic sequencing was applied to the formation waters of a hydraulically fractured and several non-fractured CBM production wells to determine the effect of this stimulation technique on the in-situ microbial community. The hydraulically fractured well was dominated by two microbial populations belonging to the class Phycisphaerae (within phylum Planctomycetes) and candidate phylum Aminicenantes. Populations from these phyla were absent or present at extremely low abundance in non-fractured CBM wells. Detailed metabolic reconstruction of near-complete genomes from these populations showed that their high relative abundance in the hydraulically fractured CBM well could be explained by the introduction of additional carbon sources, electron acceptors, and biocides contained in the hydraulic fracture fluid. PMID:27375557

  7. Genome-Centric Analysis of Microbial Populations Enriched by Hydraulic Fracture Fluid Additives in a Coal Bed Methane Production Well

    PubMed Central

    Robbins, Steven J.; Evans, Paul N.; Parks, Donovan H.; Golding, Suzanne D.; Tyson, Gene W.

    2016-01-01

    Coal bed methane (CBM) is generated primarily through the microbial degradation of coal. Despite a limited understanding of the microorganisms responsible for this process, there is significant interest in developing methods to stimulate additional methane production from CBM wells. Physical techniques including hydraulic fracture stimulation are commonly applied to CBM wells, however the effects of specific additives contained in hydraulic fracture fluids on native CBM microbial communities are poorly understood. Here, metagenomic sequencing was applied to the formation waters of a hydraulically fractured and several non-fractured CBM production wells to determine the effect of this stimulation technique on the in-situ microbial community. The hydraulically fractured well was dominated by two microbial populations belonging to the class Phycisphaerae (within phylum Planctomycetes) and candidate phylum Aminicenantes. Populations from these phyla were absent or present at extremely low abundance in non-fractured CBM wells. Detailed metabolic reconstruction of near-complete genomes from these populations showed that their high relative abundance in the hydraulically fractured CBM well could be explained by the introduction of additional carbon sources, electron acceptors, and biocides contained in the hydraulic fracture fluid. PMID:27375557

  8. Food additives

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Michael

    1974-01-01

    Food additives are discussed from the food technology point of view. The reasons for their use are summarized: (1) to protect food from chemical and microbiological attack; (2) to even out seasonal supplies; (3) to improve their eating quality; (4) to improve their nutritional value. The various types of food additives are considered, e.g. colours, flavours, emulsifiers, bread and flour additives, preservatives, and nutritional additives. The paper concludes with consideration of those circumstances in which the use of additives is (a) justified and (b) unjustified. PMID:4467857

  9. Meta-analysis of high-latitude nitrogen-addition and warming studies imply ecological mechanisms overlooked by land models

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Bouskill, N. J.; Riley, W. J.; Tang, J.

    2014-08-18

    Accurate representation of ecosystem processes in land models is crucial for reducing predictive uncertainty in energy and greenhouse gas feedbacks with the atmosphere. Here we describe an observational and modeling meta-analysis approach to benchmark land models, and apply the method to the land model CLM4.5 with two versions of belowground biogeochemistry. We focused our analysis on the above and belowground high-latitude ecosystem responses to warming and nitrogen addition, and identified mechanisms absent, or poorly parameterized in CLM4.5. While the two model versions predicted similar trajectories for soil carbon stocks following both types of perturbation, other variables (e.g., belowground respiration) differedmore » from the observations in both magnitude and direction, indicating the underlying mechanisms are inadequate for representing high-latitude ecosystems. The observational synthesis attribute these differences to missing representations of microbial dynamics, characterization of above and belowground functional processes, and nutrient competition. We use the observational meta-analyses to discuss potential approaches to improving the current models (e.g., the inclusion of dynamic vegetation or different microbial functional guilds), however, we also raise a cautionary note on the selection of data sets and experiments to be included in a meta-analysis. For example, the concentrations of nitrogen applied in the synthesized field experiments (average =72 kg ha-1 yr-1) are many times higher than projected soil nitrogen concentrations (from nitrogen deposition and release during mineralization), which preclude a rigorous evaluation of the model responses to nitrogen perturbation. Overall, we demonstrate here that elucidating ecological mechanisms via meta-analysis can identify deficiencies in both ecosystem models and empirical experiments.« less

  10. Immunochemical Analysis of the Electronegative LDL Subfraction Shows That Abnormal N-terminal Apolipoprotein B Conformation Is Involved in Increased Binding to Proteoglycans*

    PubMed Central

    Bancells, Cristina; Benítez, Sònia; Ordóñez-Llanos, Jordi; Öörni, Katariina; Kovanen, Petri T.; Milne, Ross W.; Sánchez-Quesada, José L.

    2011-01-01

    Electronegative LDL (LDL(−)) is a minor subfraction of modified LDL present in plasma. Among its atherogenic characteristics, low affinity to the LDL receptor and high binding to arterial proteoglycans (PGs) could be related to abnormalities in the conformation of its main protein, apolipoprotein B-100 (apoB-100). In the current study, we have performed an immunochemical analysis using monoclonal antibody (mAb) probes to analyze the conformation of apoB-100 in LDL(−). The study, performed with 28 anti-apoB-100 mAbs, showed that major differences of apoB-100 immunoreactivity between native LDL and LDL(−) concentrate in both terminal extremes. The mAbs Bsol 10, Bsol 14 (which recognize the amino-terminal region), Bsol 2, and Bsol 7 (carboxyl-terminal region) showed increased immunoreactivity in LDL(−), suggesting that both terminal extremes are more accessible in LDL(−) than in native LDL. The analysis of in vitro-modified LDLs, including LDL lipolyzed with sphingomyelinase (SMase-LDL) or phospholipase A2 (PLA2-LDL) and oxidized LDL (oxLDL), suggested that increased amino-terminal immunoreactivity was related to altered conformation due to aggregation. This was confirmed when the aggregated subfractions of LDL(−) (agLDL(−)) and oxLDL (ag-oxLDL) were isolated and analyzed. Thus, Bsol 10 and Bsol 14 immunoreactivity was high in SMase-LDL, ag-oxLDL, and agLDL(−). The altered amino-terminal apoB-100 conformation was involved in the increased PG binding affinity of agLDL(−) because Bsol 10 and Bsol 14 blocked its high PG-binding. These observations suggest that an abnormal conformation of the amino-terminal region of apoB-100 is responsible for the increased PG binding affinity of agLDL(−). PMID:21078674

  11. In silico analysis of SIGMAR1 variant (rs4879809) segregating in a consanguineous Pakistani family showing amyotrophic lateral sclerosis without frontotemporal lobar dementia.

    PubMed

    Ullah, Muhammad Ikram; Ahmad, Arsalan; Raza, Syed Irfan; Amar, Ali; Ali, Amjad; Bhatti, Attya; John, Peter; Mohyuddin, Aisha; Ahmad, Wasim; Hassan, Muhammad Jawad

    2015-10-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disorder affecting upper motor neurons in the brain and lower motor neurons in the brain stem and spinal cord, resulting in fatal paralysis. It has been found to be associated with frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). In the present study, we have described homozygosity mapping and gene sequencing in a consanguineous autosomal recessive Pakistani family showing non-juvenile ALS without signs of FTLD. Gene mapping was carried out in all recruited family members using microsatellite markers, and linkage was established with sigma non-opioid intracellular receptor 1 (SIGMAR1) gene at chromosome 9p13.2. Gene sequencing of SIGMAR1 revealed a novel 3'-UTR nucleotide variation c.672*31A>G (rs4879809) segregating with disease in this family. The C9ORF72 repeat region in intron 1, previously implicated in a related phenotype, was excluded through linkage, and further confirmation of exclusion was obtained by amplifying intron 1 of C9ORF72 with multiple primers in affected individuals and controls. In silico analysis was carried out to explore the possible role of 3'-UTR variant of SIGMAR1 in ALS. The Regulatory RNA motif and Element Finder program revealed disturbance in miRNA (hsa-miR-1205) binding site due to this variation. ESEFinder analysis showed new SRSF1 and SRSF1-IgM-BRCA1 binding sites with significant scores due to this variation. Our results indicate that the 3'-UTR SIGMAR1 variant c.672*31A>G may have a role in the pathogenesis of ALS in this family. PMID:26205306

  12. Analysis of conservative tracer measurement results using the Frechet distribution at planted horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands filled with coarse gravel and showing the effect of clogging processes.

    PubMed

    Dittrich, Ernő; Klincsik, Mihály

    2015-11-01

    A mathematical process, developed in Maple environment, has been successful in decreasing the error of measurement results and in the precise calculation of the moments of corrected tracer functions. It was proved that with this process, the measured tracer results of horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands filled with coarse gravel (HSFCW-C) can be fitted more accurately than with the conventionally used distribution functions (Gaussian, Lognormal, Fick (Inverse Gaussian) and Gamma). This statement is true only for the planted HSFCW-Cs. The analysis of unplanted HSFCW-Cs needs more research. The result of the analysis shows that the conventional solutions (completely stirred series tank reactor (CSTR) model and convection-dispersion transport (CDT) model) cannot describe these types of transport processes with sufficient accuracy. These outcomes can help in developing better process descriptions of very difficult transport processes in HSFCW-Cs. Furthermore, a new mathematical process can be developed for the calculation of real hydraulic residence time (HRT) and dispersion coefficient values. The presented method can be generalized to other kinds of hydraulic environments. PMID:26126688

  13. Transcriptome analysis of human ageing in male skin shows mid-life period of variability and central role of NF-κB.

    PubMed

    Haustead, Daniel J; Stevenson, Andrew; Saxena, Vishal; Marriage, Fiona; Firth, Martin; Silla, Robyn; Martin, Lisa; Adcroft, Katharine F; Rea, Suzanne; Day, Philip J; Melton, Phillip; Wood, Fiona M; Fear, Mark W

    2016-01-01

    Age is well-known to be a significant factor in both disease pathology and response to treatment, yet the molecular changes that occur with age in humans remain ill-defined. Here, using transcriptome profiling of healthy human male skin, we demonstrate that there is a period of significantly elevated, transcriptome-wide expression changes occurring predominantly in middle age. Both pre and post this period, the transcriptome appears to undergo much smaller, linear changes with increasing age. Functional analysis of the transient changes in middle age suggest a period of heightened metabolic activity and cellular damage associated with NF-kappa-B and TNF signaling pathways. Through meta-analysis we also show the presence of global, tissue independent linear transcriptome changes with age which appear to be regulated by NF-kappa-B. These results suggest that aging in human skin is associated with a critical mid-life period with widespread transcriptome changes, both preceded and proceeded by a relatively steady rate of linear change in the transcriptome. The data provides insight into molecular changes associated with normal aging and will help to better understand the increasingly important pathological changes associated with aging. PMID:27229172

  14. Transcriptome analysis of human ageing in male skin shows mid-life period of variability and central role of NF-κB

    PubMed Central

    Haustead, Daniel J.; Stevenson, Andrew; Saxena, Vishal; Marriage, Fiona; Firth, Martin; Silla, Robyn; Martin, Lisa; Adcroft, Katharine F.; Rea, Suzanne; Day, Philip J.; Melton, Phillip; Wood, Fiona M.; Fear, Mark W.

    2016-01-01

    Age is well-known to be a significant factor in both disease pathology and response to treatment, yet the molecular changes that occur with age in humans remain ill-defined. Here, using transcriptome profiling of healthy human male skin, we demonstrate that there is a period of significantly elevated, transcriptome-wide expression changes occurring predominantly in middle age. Both pre and post this period, the transcriptome appears to undergo much smaller, linear changes with increasing age. Functional analysis of the transient changes in middle age suggest a period of heightened metabolic activity and cellular damage associated with NF-kappa-B and TNF signaling pathways. Through meta-analysis we also show the presence of global, tissue independent linear transcriptome changes with age which appear to be regulated by NF-kappa-B. These results suggest that aging in human skin is associated with a critical mid-life period with widespread transcriptome changes, both preceded and proceeded by a relatively steady rate of linear change in the transcriptome. The data provides insight into molecular changes associated with normal aging and will help to better understand the increasingly important pathological changes associated with aging. PMID:27229172

  15. Efficient Markov Chain Monte Carlo Implementation of Bayesian Analysis of Additive and Dominance Genetic Variances in Noninbred Pedigrees

    PubMed Central

    Waldmann, Patrik; Hallander, Jon; Hoti, Fabian; Sillanpää, Mikko J.

    2008-01-01

    Accurate and fast computation of quantitative genetic variance parameters is of great importance in both natural and breeding populations. For experimental designs with complex relationship structures it can be important to include both additive and dominance variance components in the statistical model. In this study, we introduce a Bayesian Gibbs sampling approach for estimation of additive and dominance genetic variances in the traditional infinitesimal model. The method can handle general pedigrees without inbreeding. To optimize between computational time and good mixing of the Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) chains, we used a hybrid Gibbs sampler that combines a single site and a blocked Gibbs sampler. The speed of the hybrid sampler and the mixing of the single-site sampler were further improved by the use of pretransformed variables. Two traits (height and trunk diameter) from a previously published diallel progeny test of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and two large simulated data sets with different levels of dominance variance were analyzed. We also performed Bayesian model comparison on the basis of the posterior predictive loss approach. Results showed that models with both additive and dominance components had the best fit for both height and diameter and for the simulated data with high dominance. For the simulated data with low dominance, we needed an informative prior to avoid the dominance variance component becoming overestimated. The narrow-sense heritability estimates in the Scots pine data were lower compared to the earlier results, which is not surprising because the level of dominance variance was rather high, especially for diameter. In general, the hybrid sampler was considerably faster than the blocked sampler and displayed better mixing properties than the single-site sampler. PMID:18558655

  16. Efficient Markov chain Monte Carlo implementation of Bayesian analysis of additive and dominance genetic variances in noninbred pedigrees.

    PubMed

    Waldmann, Patrik; Hallander, Jon; Hoti, Fabian; Sillanpää, Mikko J

    2008-06-01

    Accurate and fast computation of quantitative genetic variance parameters is of great importance in both natural and breeding populations. For experimental designs with complex relationship structures it can be important to include both additive and dominance variance components in the statistical model. In this study, we introduce a Bayesian Gibbs sampling approach for estimation of additive and dominance genetic variances in the traditional infinitesimal model. The method can handle general pedigrees without inbreeding. To optimize between computational time and good mixing of the Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) chains, we used a hybrid Gibbs sampler that combines a single site and a blocked Gibbs sampler. The speed of the hybrid sampler and the mixing of the single-site sampler were further improved by the use of pretransformed variables. Two traits (height and trunk diameter) from a previously published diallel progeny test of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and two large simulated data sets with different levels of dominance variance were analyzed. We also performed Bayesian model comparison on the basis of the posterior predictive loss approach. Results showed that models with both additive and dominance components had the best fit for both height and diameter and for the simulated data with high dominance. For the simulated data with low dominance, we needed an informative prior to avoid the dominance variance component becoming overestimated. The narrow-sense heritability estimates in the Scots pine data were lower compared to the earlier results, which is not surprising because the level of dominance variance was rather high, especially for diameter. In general, the hybrid sampler was considerably faster than the blocked sampler and displayed better mixing properties than the single-site sampler. PMID:18558655

  17. Analysis of large new South African dataset using two host-specificity indices shows generalism in both adult and larval ticks of mammals.

    PubMed

    Espinaze, Marcela P A; Hellard, Eléonore; Horak, Ivan G; Cumming, Graeme S

    2016-03-01

    Ticks and tick-borne pathogens can have considerable impacts on the health of livestock, wildlife and people. Knowledge of tick-host preferences is necessary for both tick and pathogen control. Ticks were historically considered as specialist parasites, but the range of sampled host species has been limited, infestation intensity has not been included in prior analyses, and phylogenetic distances between hosts have not been previously considered. We used a large dataset of 35 604 individual collections and two host-specificity indices to assess the specificity of 61 South African tick species, as well as distinctions between adult and juvenile ticks, for 95 mammalian hosts. When accounting for host phylogeny, most adult and juvenile ticks behaved as generalists, with juveniles being significantly more generalist than adults. When we included the intensity of tick infestation, ticks exhibited a wider diversity of specificity in all life stages. Our results show that ticks of mammals in South Africa tend to behave largely as generalists and that adult ticks are more host-specific. More generally, our analysis shows that the incorporation of life-stage differences, infestation intensity and phylogenetic distances between hosts, as well as the use of more than one specificity index, can all contribute to a deeper understanding of host-parasite interactions. PMID:26690251

  18. Improving AFLP analysis of large-scale patterns of genetic variation--a case study with the Central African lianas Haumania spp (Marantaceae) showing interspecific gene flow.

    PubMed

    Ley, A C; Hardy, O J

    2013-04-01

    AFLP markers are often used to study patterns of population genetic variation and gene flow because they offer a good coverage of the nuclear genome, but the reliability of AFLP scoring is critical. To assess interspecific gene flow in two African rainforest liana species (Haumania danckelmaniana, H. liebrechtsiana) where previous evidence of chloroplast captures questioned the importance of hybridization and species boundaries, we developed new AFLP markers and a novel approach to select reliable bands from their degree of reproducibility. The latter is based on the estimation of the broad-sense heritability of AFLP phenotypes, an improvement over classical scoring error rates, which showed that the polymorphism of most AFLP bands was affected by a substantial nongenetic component. Therefore, using a quantitative genetics framework, we also modified an existing estimator of pairwise kinship coefficient between individuals correcting for the limited heritability of markers. Bayesian clustering confirms the recognition of the two Haumania species. Nevertheless, the decay of the relatedness between individuals of distinct species with geographic distance demonstrates that hybridization affects the nuclear genome. In conclusion, although we showed that AFLP markers might be substantially affected by nongenetic factors, their analysis using the new methods developed considerably advanced our understanding of the pattern of gene flow in our model species. PMID:23398575

  19. Planning a Successful Tech Show

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nikirk, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Tech shows are a great way to introduce prospective students, parents, and local business and industry to a technology and engineering or career and technical education program. In addition to showcasing instructional programs, a tech show allows students to demonstrate their professionalism and skills, practice public presentations, and interact…

  20. Television Quiz Show Simulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Jonnie Lynn

    2007-01-01

    This article explores the simulation of four television quiz shows for students in China studying English as a foreign language (EFL). It discusses the adaptation and implementation of television quiz shows and how the students reacted to them.

  1. Genome-wide meta-analysis of maize heterosis reveals the potential role of additive gene expression at pericentromeric loci

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The identification of QTL involved in heterosis formation is one approach to unravel the not yet fully understood genetic basis of heterosis - the improved agronomic performance of hybrid F1 plants compared to their inbred parents. The identification of candidate genes underlying a QTL is important both for developing markers and determining the molecular genetic basis of a trait, but remains difficult owing to the large number of genes often contained within individual QTL. To address this problem in heterosis analysis, we applied a meta-analysis strategy for grain yield (GY) of Zea mays L. as example, incorporating QTL-, hybrid field-, and parental gene expression data. Results For the identification of genes underlying known heterotic QTL, we made use of tight associations between gene expression pattern and the trait of interest, identified by correlation analyses. Using this approach genes strongly associated with heterosis for GY were discovered to be clustered in pericentromeric regions of the complex maize genome. This suggests that expression differences of sequences in recombination-suppressed regions are important in the establishment of heterosis for GY in F1 hybrids and also in the conservation of heterosis for GY across genotypes. Importantly functional analysis of heterosis-associated genes from these genomic regions revealed over-representation of a number of functional classes, identifying key processes contributing to heterosis for GY. Based on the finding that the majority of the analyzed heterosis-associated genes were addtitively expressed, we propose a model referring to the influence of cis-regulatory variation on heterosis for GY by the compensation of fixed detrimental expression levels in parents. Conclusions The study highlights the utility of a meta-analysis approach that integrates phenotypic and multi-level molecular data to unravel complex traits in plants. It provides prospects for the identification of genes relevant for

  2. How to interpret a small increase in AUC with an additional risk prediction marker: Decision analysis comes through

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Stuart G.; Schuit, Ewoud; Steyerberg, Ewout W.; Pencina, Michael J.; Vickers, Andew; Moons, Karel G. M.; Mol, Ben W.J.; Lindeman, Karen S.

    2014-01-01

    An important question in the evaluation of an additional risk prediction marker is how to interpret a small increase in the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). Many researchers believe that a change in AUC is a poor metric because it increases only slightly with the addition of a marker with a large odds ratio. Because it is not possible on purely statistical grounds to choose between the odds ratio and AUC, we invoke decision analysis, which incorporates costs and benefits. For example a timely estimate of the risk of later non-elective operative delivery can help a woman in labor decide if she wants an early elective cesarean section to avoid greater complications from possible later non-elective operative delivery. A basic risk prediction model for later non-elective operative delivery involves only antepartum markers. Because adding intrapartum markers to this risk prediction model increases AUC by 0.02, we questioned whether this small improvement is worthwhile. A key decision-analytic quantity is the risk threshold, here the risk of later non-elective operative delivery at which a patient would be indifferent between an early elective cesarean section and usual care. For a range of risk thresholds, we found that an increase in the net benefit of risk prediction requires collecting intrapartum marker data on 68 to 124 women for every correct prediction of later non-elective operative delivery. Because data collection is non-invasive, this test tradeoff of 68 to 124 is clinically acceptable, indicating the value of adding intrapartum markers to the risk prediction model. PMID:24825728

  3. Addition of gonadotropin releasing hormone agonist for luteal phase support in in-vitro fertilization: an analysis of 2739 cycles

    PubMed Central

    Şimşek, Erhan; Kılıçdağ, Esra Bulgan; Aytaç, Pınar Çağlar; Çoban, Gonca; Şimşek, Seda Yüksel; Çok, Tayfun; Haydardedeoğlu, Bülent

    2015-01-01

    Objective Luteal phase is defective in in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycles, and many regimens were tried for the very best luteal phase support (LPS). Gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist use, which was administered as an adjunct to the luteal phase support in IVF cycles, was suggested to improve pregnancy outcome measures in certain randomized studies. We analyzed the effects of addition of GnRH agonist to standard progesterone luteal support on pregnancy outcome measures, particularly the live birth rates. Material and Methods This is a retrospective cohort study, including 2739 IVF cycles. Long GnRH agonist and antagonist stimulation IVF cycles with cleavage-stage embryo transfer were included. Cycles were divided into two groups: Group A included cycles with single-dose GnRH agonist plus progesterone LPS and Group B included progesterone only LPS. Live birth rates were the primary outcome measures of the analysis. Miscarriage rates and multiple pregnancy rates were the secondary outcome measures. Results Live birth rates were not statistically different in GnRH agonist plus progesterone (Group A) and progesterone only (Group B) groups in both the long agonist and antagonist stimulation arms (40.8%/41.2% and 32.8%/34.4%, p<0.05 respectively). Moreover, pregnancy rates, implantation rates, and miscarriage rates were found to be similar between groups. Multiple pregnancy rates in antagonist cycles were significantly higher in Group A than those in Group B (12.0% and 6.9%, respectively). Conclusion A beneficial effect of a single dose of GnRH agonist administration as a luteal phase supporting agent is yet to be determined because of the wide heterogeneity of data present in literature. Well-designed randomized clinical studies are required to clarify any effect of luteal GnRH agonist addition on pregnancy outcome measures with different doses, timing, and administration routes of GnRH agonists. PMID:26097392

  4. Effective dose of dental CBCT—a meta analysis of published data and additional data for nine CBCT units

    PubMed Central

    Timothy, R; Walker, C; Hunter, R; Benavides, E; Samuelson, D B; Scheske, M J

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: This article analyses dose measurement and effective dose estimation of dental CBCT examinations. Challenges to accurate calculation of dose are discussed and the use of dose–height product (DHP) as an alternative to dose–area product (DAP) is explored. Methods: The English literature on effective dose was reviewed. Data from these studies together with additional data for nine CBCT units were analysed. Descriptive statistics, ANOVA and paired analysis are used to characterize the data. Results: PubMed and EMBASE searches yielded 519 and 743 publications, respectively, which were reduced to 20 following review. Reported adult effective doses for any protocol ranged from 46 to 1073 µSv for large fields of view (FOVs), 9–560 µSv for medium FOVs and 5–652 µSv for small FOVs. Child effective doses from any protocol ranged from 13 to 769 µSv for large or medium FOVs and 7–521 µSv for small FOVs. Effective doses from standard or default exposure protocols were available for 167 adult and 52 child exposures. Mean adult effective doses grouped by FOV size were 212 µSv (large), 177 µSv (medium) and 84 µSv (small). Mean child doses were 175 µSv (combined large and medium) and 103 µSv (small). Large differences were seen between different CBCT units. Additional low-dose and high-definition protocols available for many units extend the range of doses. DHP was found to reduce average absolute error for calculation of dose by 45% in comparison with DAP. Conclusions: Large exposure ranges make CBCT doses difficult to generalize. Use of DHP as a metric for estimating effective dose warrants further investigation. PMID:25224586

  5. The Great Cometary Show

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2007-01-01

    its high spatial and spectral resolution, it was possible to zoom into the very heart of this very massive star. In this innermost region, the observations are dominated by the extremely dense stellar wind that totally obscures the underlying central star. The AMBER observations show that this dense stellar wind is not spherically symmetric, but exhibits a clearly elongated structure. Overall, the AMBER observations confirm that the extremely high mass loss of Eta Carinae's massive central star is non-spherical and much stronger along the poles than in the equatorial plane. This is in agreement with theoretical models that predict such an enhanced polar mass-loss in the case of rapidly rotating stars. ESO PR Photo 06c/07 ESO PR Photo 06c/07 RS Ophiuchi in Outburst Several papers from this special feature focus on the later stages in a star's life. One looks at the binary system Gamma 2 Velorum, which contains the closest example of a star known as a Wolf-Rayet. A single AMBER observation allowed the astronomers to separate the spectra of the two components, offering new insights in the modeling of Wolf-Rayet stars, but made it also possible to measure the separation between the two stars. This led to a new determination of the distance of the system, showing that previous estimates were incorrect. The observations also revealed information on the region where the winds from the two stars collide. The famous binary system RS Ophiuchi, an example of a recurrent nova, was observed just 5 days after it was discovered to be in outburst on 12 February 2006, an event that has been expected for 21 years. AMBER was able to detect the extension of the expanding nova emission. These observations show a complex geometry and kinematics, far from the simple interpretation of a spherical fireball in extension. AMBER has detected a high velocity jet probably perpendicular to the orbital plane of the binary system, and allowed a precise and careful study of the wind and the shockwave

  6. Genome-wide analysis of AP2/ERF family genes from Lotus corniculatus shows LcERF054 enhances salt tolerance.

    PubMed

    Sun, Zhan-Min; Zhou, Mei-Liang; Xiao, Xing-Guo; Tang, Yi-Xiong; Wu, Yan-Min

    2014-09-01

    Lotus corniculatus is used in agriculture as a main forage plant. Members of the Apetala2/ethylene response factor (AP2/ERF) family play important roles in regulating gene expression in response to many forms of stress, including drought and salt. Here, starting from database of the L. corniculatus var. japonicus genome, we identified 127 AP2/ERF genes by insilico cloning method. The phylogeny, gene structures, and putative conserved motifs in L. corniculatus var. japonicus ERF proteins were analyzed. Based on the number of AP2/ERF domains and the function of the genes, 127 AP2/ERF genes from L. corniculatus var. japonicus were classified into five subfamilies named the AP2, dehydration-responsive element binding factor (DREB), ERF, RAV, and a soloist. Outside the AP2/ERF domain, many L. corniculatus var. japonicus-specific conserved motifs were detected. Expression profile analysis of AP2/ERF genes by quantitative real-time PCR revealed that 19 LcERF genes, including LcERF054 (KJ004728), were significantly induced by salt stress. The results showed that the LcERF054 gene encodes a nuclear transcription activator. Overexpression of LcERF054 in Arabidopsis enhanced the tolerances to salt stress, showed higher germination ratio of seeds, and had elevated levels of relative moisture contents, soluble sugars, proline, and lower levels of malondialdehyde under stress conditions compared to wild-type plants. The expression of hyperosmotic salinity response genes COR15A, LEA4-5, P5CS1, and RD29A was found to be elevated in the LcERF054-overexpressing Arabidopsis plants compared to wild type. These results revealed that the LcERF genes play important roles in L. corniculatus cv Leo under salt stress and that LcERFs are attractive engineering targets in applied efforts to improve abiotic stress tolerances in L. corniculatus cv Leo or other crops. PMID:24777608

  7. Genome-wide methylation analysis in vestibular schwannomas shows putative mechanisms of gene expression modulation and global hypomethylation at the HOX gene cluster.

    PubMed

    Torres-Martín, Miguel; Lassaletta, Luis; de Campos, Jose M; Isla, Alberto; Pinto, Giovanny R; Burbano, Rommel R; Melendez, Bárbara; Castresana, Javier S; Rey, Juan A

    2015-04-01

    Schwannomas are tumors that develop from Schwann cells in the peripheral nerves and commonly arise from the vestibular nerve. Vestibular schwannomas can present unilaterally and sporadically or bilaterally when the tumor is associated with neurofibromatosis Type 2 (NF2) syndrome. The molecular hallmark of the disease is biallelic inactivation of the NF2 gene. The epigenetic signature of schwannomas remains poorly understood and is mostly limited to DNA methylation of the NF2 gene, whose altered expression due to epigenetic factors in this tumor is controversial. In this study, we tested the genomewide DNA methylation pattern of schwannomas to shed light on this epigenetic alteration in these particular tumors. The methodology used includes Infinium Human Methylation 450K BeadChip microarrays in a series of 36 vestibular schwannomas, 4 nonvestibular schwannomas, and 5 healthy nerves. Our results show a trend toward hypomethylation in schwannomas. Furthermore, homeobox (HOX) genes, located at four clusters in the genome, displayed hypomethylation in several CpG sites in the vestibular schwannomas but not in the nonvestibular schwannomas. Several microRNA (miRNA) and protein-coding genes were also found to be hypomethylated at promoter regions and were confirmed as upregulated by expression analysis; including miRNA-21, Met Proto-Oncogene (MET), and PMEPA1. We also detected methylation patterns that might be involved in alternative transcripts of several genes such as NRXN1 or MBP, which would increase the complexity of the methylation and expression patterns. Overall, our results show specific epigenetic signatures in several coding genes and miRNAs that could potentially be used as therapeutic targets. PMID:25533176

  8. A pathway-based analysis provides additional support for an immune-related genetic susceptibility to Parkinson's disease

    PubMed Central

    Holmans, Peter; Moskvina, Valentina; Jones, Lesley; Sharma, Manu; Vedernikov, Alexey; Buchel, Finja; Sadd, Mohamad; Bras, Jose M.; Bettella, Francesco; Nicolaou, Nayia; Simón-Sánchez, Javier; Mittag, Florian; Gibbs, J. Raphael; Schulte, Claudia; Durr, Alexandra; Guerreiro, Rita; Hernandez, Dena; Brice, Alexis; Stefánsson, Hreinn; Majamaa, Kari; Gasser, Thomas; Heutink, Peter; Wood, Nicholas W.; Martinez, Maria; Singleton, Andrew B.; Nalls, Michael A.; Hardy, John; Morris, Huw R.; Williams, Nigel M.; Arepalli, Sampath; Barker, Roger; Barrett, Jeffrey; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav; Berendse, Henk W.; Berg, Daniela; Bhatia, Kailash; de Bie, Rob M.A.; Biffi, Alessandro; Bloem, Bas; Brice, Alexis; Bochdanovits, Zoltan; Bonin, Michael; Bras, Jose M.; Brockmann, Kathrin; Brooks, Janet; Burn, David J.; Charlesworth, Gavin; Chen, Honglei; Chinnery, Patrick F.; Chong, Sean; Clarke, Carl E.; Cookson, Mark R.; Cooper, Jonathan M.; Corvol, Jen-Christophe; Counsell, Carl; Damier, Philippe; Dartigues, Jean Francois; Deloukas, Panagiotis; Deuschl, Günther; Dexter, David T.; van Dijk, Karin D.; Dillman, Allissa; Durif, Frank; Durr, Alexandra; Edkins, Sarah; Evans, Jonathan R.; Foltynie, Thomas; Gao, Jianjun; Gardner, Michelle; Gasser, Thomas; Gibbs, J. Raphael; Goate, Alison; Gray, Emma; Guerreiro, Rita; Gústafsson, Ómar; Hardy, John; Harris, Clare; Hernandez, Dena G.; Heutink, Peter; van Hilten, Jacobus J.; Hofman, Albert; Hollenbeck, Albert; Holmans, Peter; Holton, Janice; Hu, Michele; Huber, Heiko; Hudson, Gavin; Hunt, Sarah E.; Huttenlocher, Johanna; Illig, Thomas; Langford, Cordelia; Lees, Andrew; Lesage, Suzanne; Lichtner, Peter; Limousin, Patricia; Lopez, Grisel; Lorenz, Delia; Martinez, Maria; McNeill, Alisdair; Moorby, Catriona; Moore, Matthew; Morris, Huw; Morrison, Karen E.; Moskvina, Valentina; Mudanohwo, Ese; Nalls, Michael A.; Pearson, Justin; Perlmutter, Joel S.; Pétursson, Hjörvar; Plagnol, Vincent; Pollak, Pierre; Post, Bart; Potter, Simon; Ravina, Bernard; Revesz, Tamas; Riess, Olaf; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Rizzu, Patrizia; Ryten, Mina; Saad, Mohamad; Sawcer, Stephen; Schapira, Anthony; Scheffer, Hans; Sharma, Manu; Shaw, Karen; Sheerin, Una-Marie; Shoulson, Ira; Schulte, Claudia; Sidransky, Ellen; Simón-Sánchez, Javier; Singleton, Andrew B.; Smith, Colin; Stefánsson, Hreinn; Stefánsson, Kári; Steinberg, Stacy; Stockton, Joanna D.; Sveinbjornsdottir, Sigurlaug; Talbot, Kevin; Tanner, Carlie M.; Tashakkori-Ghanbaria, Avazeh; Tison, François; Trabzuni, Daniah; Traynor, Bryan J.; Uitterlinden, André G.; Velseboer, Daan; Vidailhet, Marie; Walker, Robert; van de Warrenburg, Bart; Wickremaratchi, Mirdhu; Williams, Nigel; Williams-Gray, Caroline H.; Winder-Rhodes, Sophie; Wood, Nicholas

    2013-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disease affecting 1–2% in people >60 and 3–4% in people >80. Genome-wide association (GWA) studies have now implicated significant evidence for association in at least 18 genomic regions. We have studied a large PD-meta analysis and identified a significant excess of SNPs (P < 1 × 10−16) that are associated with PD but fall short of the genome-wide significance threshold. This result was independent of variants at the 18 previously implicated regions and implies the presence of additional polygenic risk alleles. To understand how these loci increase risk of PD, we applied a pathway-based analysis, testing for biological functions that were significantly enriched for genes containing variants associated with PD. Analysing two independent GWA studies, we identified that both had a significant excess in the number of functional categories enriched for PD-associated genes (minimum P = 0.014 and P = 0.006, respectively). Moreover, 58 categories were significantly enriched for associated genes in both GWA studies (P < 0.001), implicating genes involved in the ‘regulation of leucocyte/lymphocyte activity’ and also ‘cytokine-mediated signalling’ as conferring an increased susceptibility to PD. These results were unaltered by the exclusion of all 178 genes that were present at the 18 genomic regions previously reported to be strongly associated with PD (including the HLA locus). Our findings, therefore, provide independent support to the strong association signal at the HLA locus and imply that the immune-related genetic susceptibility to PD is likely to be more widespread in the genome than previously appreciated. PMID:23223016

  9. "Show and Tell" Persuasion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Virgil R.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To engage in the process of formulating compelling persuasive arguments. Type of speech: Persuasive. Point value: Incorporated into participation points. Requirements: (a) References: 0; (b) Length: 1-2 minutes; (c) Visual aid: No; (d) Outline: No; (e) Prerequisite reading: Chapter 19 (DeVito, 2003); (f) Additional requirements: None.…

  10. Food additives.

    PubMed

    Berglund, F

    1978-01-01

    The use of additives to food fulfils many purposes, as shown by the index issued by the Codex Committee on Food Additives: Acids, bases and salts; Preservatives, Antioxidants and antioxidant synergists; Anticaking agents; Colours; Emulfifiers; Thickening agents; Flour-treatment agents; Extraction solvents; Carrier solvents; Flavours (synthetic); Flavour enhancers; Non-nutritive sweeteners; Processing aids; Enzyme preparations. Many additives occur naturally in foods, but this does not exclude toxicity at higher levels. Some food additives are nutrients, or even essential nutritents, e.g. NaCl. Examples are known of food additives causing toxicity in man even when used according to regulations, e.g. cobalt in beer. In other instances, poisoning has been due to carry-over, e.g. by nitrate in cheese whey - when used for artificial feed for infants. Poisonings also occur as the result of the permitted substance being added at too high levels, by accident or carelessness, e.g. nitrite in fish. Finally, there are examples of hypersensitivity to food additives, e.g. to tartrazine and other food colours. The toxicological evaluation, based on animal feeding studies, may be complicated by impurities, e.g. orthotoluene-sulfonamide in saccharin; by transformation or disappearance of the additive in food processing in storage, e.g. bisulfite in raisins; by reaction products with food constituents, e.g. formation of ethylurethane from diethyl pyrocarbonate; by metabolic transformation products, e.g. formation in the gut of cyclohexylamine from cyclamate. Metabolic end products may differ in experimental animals and in man: guanylic acid and inosinic acid are metabolized to allantoin in the rat but to uric acid in man. The magnitude of the safety margin in man of the Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) is not identical to the "safety factor" used when calculating the ADI. The symptoms of Chinese Restaurant Syndrome, although not hazardous, furthermore illustrate that the whole ADI

  11. Eco-genomic analysis of the poleward range expansion of the wasp spider Argiope bruennichi shows rapid adaptation and genomic admixture.

    PubMed

    Krehenwinkel, Henrik; Rödder, Dennis; Tautz, Diethard

    2015-12-01

    Poleward range expansions are commonly attributed to global change, but could alternatively be driven by rapid evolutionary adaptation. A well-documented example of a range expansion during the past decades is provided by the European wasp spider Argiope bruennichi. Using ecological niche modeling, thermal tolerance experiments and a genome-wide analysis of gene expression divergence, we show that invasive populations have adapted to novel climatic conditions in the course of their expansion. Their climatic niche shift is mirrored in an increased cold tolerance and a population-specific and functionally differentiated gene expression response. We generated an Argiope reference genome sequence and used population genome resequencing to assess genomic changes associated with the new climatic adaptations. We find clear genetic differentiation and a significant admixture with alleles from East Asian populations in the invasive Northern European populations. Population genetic modeling suggests that at least some of these introgressing alleles have contributed to the new adaptations during the expansion. Our results thus confirm the notion that range expansions are not a simple consequence of climate change, but are accompanied by fast genetic changes and adaptations that may be fuelled through admixture between long separated lineages. PMID:26183328

  12. Linking concepts in the ecology and evolution of invasive plants: network analysis shows what has been most studied and identifies knowledge gaps

    PubMed Central

    Vanderhoeven, Sonia; Brown, Cynthia S; Tepolt, Carolyn K; Tsutsui, Neil D; Vanparys, Valérie; Atkinson, Sheryl; Mahy, Grégory; Monty, Arnaud

    2010-01-01

    In recent decades, a growing number of studies have addressed connections between ecological and evolutionary concepts in biologic invasions. These connections may be crucial for understanding the processes underlying invaders’ success. However, the extent to which scientists have worked on the integration of the ecology and evolution of invasive plants is poorly documented, as few attempts have been made to evaluate these efforts in invasion biology research. Such analysis can facilitate recognize well-documented relationships and identify gaps in our knowledge. In this study, we used a network-based method for visualizing the connections between major aspects of ecology and evolution in the primary research literature. Using the family Poaceae as an example, we show that ecological concepts were more studied and better interconnected than were evolutionary concepts. Several possible connections were not documented at all, representing knowledge gaps between ecology and evolution of invaders. Among knowledge gaps, the concepts of plasticity, gene flow, epigenetics and human influence were particularly under-connected. We discuss five possible research avenues to better understand the relationships between ecology and evolution in the success of Poaceae, and of alien plants in general. PMID:25567919

  13. Analysis of two P-element enhancer-trap insertion lines that show expression in the giant fibre neuron of Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Allen, M J; Drummond, J A; Sweetman, D J; Moffat, K G

    2007-06-01

    The giant fibre system (GFS) of Drosophila is a simple neural circuit that mediates escape responses in adult flies. Here we report the initial characterization of two genes that are preferentially expressed in the GFS. Two P-element insertion lines, carrying the GAL4 transcriptional activator, were identified that exhibited pronounced expression in elements of the GFS and relatively low levels elsewhere within the adult central nervous system. Genomic DNA flanking the P-element insertion site was recovered from each of these lines, sequenced, and nearby transcripts identified and confirmed to exhibit GFS expression by in situ hybridization. This analysis revealed that these P-elements were in previously characterized genes. Line P[GAL4]-A307 has an insert in the gene short stop for which we have identified a novel transcript, while line P[GAL4]-141 has an insert in the transcription factor ken and barbie. Here we show that ken and barbie mutants have defects in escape behaviour, behavioural responses to visual stimuli and synaptic functions in the GFS. We have therefore revealed a neural role for a transcription factor that previously had no implicated neural function. PMID:16879616

  14. Performance analysis for time-frequency MUSIC algorithm in presence of both additive noise and array calibration errors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khodja, Mohamed; Belouchrani, Adel; Abed-Meraim, Karim

    2012-12-01

    This article deals with the application of Spatial Time-Frequency Distribution (STFD) to the direction finding problem using the Multiple Signal Classification (MUSIC)algorithm. A comparative performance analysis is performed for the method under consideration with respect to that using data covariance matrix when the received array signals are subject to calibration errors in a non-stationary environment. An unified analytical expression of the Direction Of Arrival (DOA) error estimation is derived for both methods. Numerical results show the effect of the parameters intervening in the derived expression on the algorithm performance. It is particularly observed that for low Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) and high Signal to sensor Perturbation Ratio (SPR) the STFD method gives better performance, while for high SNR and for the same SPR both methods give similar performance.

  15. The Wordpath Show.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderton, Alice

    The Intertribal Wordpath Society is a nonprofit educational corporation formed to promote the teaching, status, awareness, and use of Oklahoma Indian languages. The Society produces "Wordpath," a weekly 30-minute public access television show about Oklahoma Indian languages and the people who are teaching and preserving them. The show aims to…

  16. Steroids Versus Steroids Plus Additional Agent in Frontline Treatment of Acute Graft-versus-Host Disease: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Trials.

    PubMed

    Rashidi, Armin; DiPersio, John F; Sandmaier, Brenda M; Colditz, Graham A; Weisdorf, Daniel J

    2016-06-01

    Despite extensive research in the last few decades, progress in treatment of acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD), a common complication of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT), has been limited and steroids continue to be the standard frontline treatment. Randomized clinical trials (RCTs) have failed to find a beneficial effect of escalating immunosuppression using additional agents. Considering the small number of RCTs, limited sample sizes, and frequent early termination because of anticipated futility, we conducted a systematic review and an aggregate data meta-analysis to explore whether a true efficacy signal has been missed because of the limitations of individual RCTs. Seven reports met our inclusion criteria. The control arm in all studies was 2 mg/kg/day prednisone (or equivalent). The additional agent(s) used in the experimental arm(s) were higher-dose steroids, antithymocyte globulin, infliximab, anti-interleukin-2 receptor antibody (daclizumab and BT563), CD5-specific immunotoxin, and mycophenolate mofetil. Random effects meta-analysis revealed no efficacy signal in pooled response rates at various times points. Overall survival at 100 days was significantly worse in the experimental arm (relative risk [RR], .83; 95% confidence interval [CI], .74 to .94; P = .004, data from 3 studies) and showed a similar trend (albeit not statistically significantly) at 1 year as well (RR, .86; 95% CI, .68 to 1.09; P = .21, data from 5 studies). In conclusion, these results argue against the value of augmented generic immunosuppression beyond steroids for frontline treatment of aGVHD and emphasize the importance of developing alternative strategies. Novel forms of immunomodulation and targeted therapies against non-immune-related pathways may enhance the efficacy of steroids in this setting, and early predictive and prognostic biomarkers can help identify the subgroup of patients who would likely need treatments other than (or in addition to

  17. Design and analysis of a piezoelectric material based touch screen with additional pressure and its acceleration measurement functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Xiang-Cheng; Liu, Jia-Yi; Gao, Ren-Long; Chang, Jie; Li, Long-Tu

    2013-12-01

    Touch screens are becoming more and more prevalent in everyday environments due to their convenience and humanized operation. In this paper, a piezoelectric material based touch screen is developed and investigated. Piezoelectric ceramics arrayed under the touch panel at the edges or corners are used as tactile sensors to measure the touch positioning point similarly to conventional touch screens. However, additional touch pressure and its acceleration performance can also be obtained to obtain a higher-level human-machine interface. The piezoelectric ceramics can also be added to a traditional touch screen structure, or they can be used independently to construct a novel touch screen with a high light transmittance approach to a transparent glass. The piezoelectric ceramics were processed from PZT piezoelectric ceramic powder into a round or rectangular shape. According to the varied touch position and physical press strength of a finger, or even a gloved hand or fingernail, the piezoelectric tactile sensors will have different output voltage responses. By calculating the ratio of different piezoelectric tactile sensors’ responses and summing up all piezoelectric tactile sensors’ output voltages, the touch point position, touch pressure and touch force acceleration can be detected. A prototype of such a touch screen is manufactured and its position accuracy, touch pressure and response speed are measured in detail. The experimental results show that the prototype has many advantages such as high light transmittance, low energy cost and high durability.

  18. A Holographic Road Show.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkpatrick, Larry D.; Rugheimer, Mac

    1979-01-01

    Describes the viewing sessions and the holograms of a holographic road show. The traveling exhibits, believed to stimulate interest in physics, include a wide variety of holograms and demonstrate several physical principles. (GA)

  19. Post-hoc analysis showing better clinical response with the loading dose of certolizumab pegol in Japanese patients with active rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Takeuchi, Tsutomu; Yamamoto, Kazuhiko; Yamanaka, Hisashi; Ishiguro, Naoki; Tanaka, Yoshiya; Eguchi, Katsumi; Watanabe, Akira; Origasa, Hideki; Kobayashi, Mariko; Shoji, Toshiharu; Togo, Osamu; Miyasaka, Nobuyuki; Koike, Takao

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objectives: To compare the efficacy and safety of certolizumab pegol (CZP) with and without loading dose (LD) in a post-hoc analysis of two Japanese clinical studies. Methods: Data from the double-blind trials (DBT) J-RAPID and HIKARI, and their open-label extension (OLE) studies, were used. Patients randomized to CZP 200 mg every 2 weeks (Q2W) groups starting with LD (400 mg Weeks 0/2/4; LD group; J-RAPID: n = 82, HIKARI: n = 116) and patients randomized to placebo groups who subsequently started CZP Q2W without LD in the OLEs (No-LD group; J-RAPID: n = 61, HIKARI: n = 99) were analyzed. Efficacy and pharmacokinetics were assessed during 24 weeks. Adverse events were reported from all studies. Results: In both trials, the LD groups showed more rapid initial ACR20/50/70 kinetics, and maintained higher ACR50/70 responses until 24 weeks, compared with the No-LD groups. Anti-CZP antibody development was less frequent in the LD groups (J-RAPID: 1.2% versus 4.9%; HIKARI: 17.2% versus 27.3%). Similar safety profiles were reported between LD and No-LD groups (any AEs: 281.8 versus 315.7 [J-RAPID], 282.6 versus 321.3 [HIKARI] [incidence rate/100 patient-years]). Conclusions: Despite limitations, including comparing DBT and OLE studies, these results suggest that a CZP LD improves clinical response in active rheumatoid arthritis without altering the safety profile. PMID:26472043

  20. Transcriptomic analysis of the interaction between Helianthus annuus and its obligate parasite Plasmopara halstedii shows single nucleotide polymorphisms in CRN sequences

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Downy mildew in sunflowers (Helianthus annuus L.) is caused by the oomycete Plasmopara halstedii (Farl.) Berlese et de Toni. Despite efforts by the international community to breed mildew-resistant varieties, downy mildew remains a major threat to the sunflower crop. Very few genomic, genetic and molecular resources are currently available to study this pathogen. Using a 454 sequencing method, expressed sequence tags (EST) during the interaction between H. annuus and P. halstedii have been generated and a search was performed for sites in putative effectors to show polymorphisms between the different races of P. halstedii. Results A 454 pyrosequencing run of two infected sunflower samples (inbred lines XRQ and PSC8 infected with race 710 of P. halstedii, which exhibit incompatible and compatible interactions, respectively) generated 113,720 and 172,107 useable reads. From these reads, 44,948 contigs and singletons have been produced. A bioinformatic portal, HP, was specifically created for in-depth analysis of these clusters. Using in silico filtering, 405 clusters were defined as being specific to oomycetes, and 172 were defined as non-specific oomycete clusters. A subset of these two categories was checked using PCR amplification, and 86% of the tested clusters were validated. Twenty putative RXLR and CRN effectors were detected using PSI-BLAST. Using corresponding sequences from four races (100, 304, 703 and 710), 22 SNPs were detected, providing new information on pathogen polymorphisms. Conclusions This study identified a large number of genes that are expressed during H. annuus/P. halstedii compatible or incompatible interactions. It also reveals, for the first time, that an infection mechanism exists in P. halstedii similar to that in other oomycetes associated with the presence of putative RXLR and CRN effectors. SNPs discovered in CRN effector sequences were used to determine the genetic distances between the four races of P. halstedii. This

  1. Analysis of Proteome Profile in Germinating Soybean Seed, and Its Comparison with Rice Showing the Styles of Reserves Mobilization in Different Crops

    PubMed Central

    Han, Chao; Yin, Xiaojian; He, Dongli; Yang, Pingfang

    2013-01-01

    Background Seed germination is a complex physiological process during which mobilization of nutrient reserves happens. In different crops, this event might be mediated by different regulatory and metabolic pathways. Proteome profiling has been proved to be an efficient way that can help us to construct these pathways. However, no such studies have been performed in soybean germinating seeds up to date. Results Proteome profiling was conducted through one-dimensional gel electrophoresis followed by liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry strategy in the germinating seeds of soybean (glycine max). Comprehensive comparisons were also carried out between rice and soybean germinating seeds. 764 proteins belonging to 14 functional groups were identified and metabolism related proteins were the largest group. Deep analyses of the proteins and pathways showed that lipids were degraded through lipoxygenase dependent pathway and proteins were degraded through both protease and 26S proteosome system, and the lipoxygenase could also help to remove the reactive oxygen species during the rapid mobilization of reserves of soybean germinating seeds. The differences between rice and soybean germinating seeds proteome profiles indicate that each crop species has distinct mechanism for reserves mobilization during germination. Different reserves could be converted into starches before they are totally utilized during the germination in different crops seeds. Conclusions This study is the first comprehensive analysis of proteome profile in germinating soybean seeds to date. The data presented in this paper will improve our understanding of the physiological and biochemical status in the imbibed soybean seeds just prior to germination. Comparison of the protein profile with that of germinating rice seeds gives us new insights on mobilization of nutrient reserves during the germination of crops seeds. PMID:23460823

  2. Fine Resolution Analysis of Lake Malawi Sediment Record Shows No Significant Climatic Impacts from the Mount Toba Super-Eruption of ~75ky

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, L. J.; Stone, J.; Cohen, A. S.

    2014-12-01

    Debate over long, and short-term climatic impacts of the Mt. Toba super-eruption circa 75ky is often focused on East Africa. A severe drop in anatomically modern human populations has been hypothesized to be synchronous with a volcanic winter caused by the Toba super-eruption. If the Toba eruption caused a volcanic winter in East Africa, climatologically-sensitive ecosystems, such as Lake Malawi and its immediate watershed should show a direct and observable response in the sediment record. Cooler temperatures would cause a reduction of density contrast between epilimnion and hypolimnion waters, allowing for increased mixing and oxygenation of normally anoxic bottom waters. Enhanced mixing would cause noticeable changes in lake fly and algal communities. Cooler temperatures might also affect precipitation and the fire regime in the surrounding watershed. We analyzed two Lake Malawi cores at the finest practical resolution. Core 2A-10H-2 was analyzed in less than 6-year intervals and core 1C-8H-1 in 7-year intervals surrounding the Youngest Toba Tephra (YTT) for microfaunal abundance and variability, sediment composition, and evidence of changes in the occurrence of fires or watershed precipitation. Our analysis included point counts of diatoms and other algae, lake flies, charcoal, and siliciclastics. Changes in microfossil assemblage, variability, and abundance, as well as sediment composition around the YTT in Core 2A and 1C do not indicate that increased mixing or cooler temperatures occurred in either the central or northern basins of Lake Malawi. Similarly, charcoal counts do not suggest a change in fire regime. Our results indicate that at a subdecadal scale there was no substantial response in Lake Malawi or its immediate watershed to the Mt. Toba super-eruption, in contrast to predictions from the volcanic winter hypothesis.

  3. Addition of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors to sulphonylureas and risk of hypoglycaemia: systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Nicholas; Arnaud, Mickael; Robinson, Philip; Raschi, Emanuel; De Ponti, Fabrizio; Bégaud, Bernard; Pariente, Antoine

    2016-01-01

    Objective To quantify the risk of hypoglycaemia associated with the concomitant use of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors and sulphonylureas compared with placebo and sulphonylureas. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis. Data sources Medline, ISI Web of Science, SCOPUS, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and clinicaltrial.gov were searched without any language restriction. Study selection Placebo controlled randomised trials comprising at least 50 participants with type 2 diabetes treated with DPP-4 inhibitors and sulphonylureas. Review methods Risk of bias in each trial was assessed using the Cochrane Collaboration tool. The risk ratio of hypoglycaemia with 95% confidence intervals was computed for each study and then pooled using fixed effect models (Mantel Haenszel method) or random effect models, when appropriate. Subgroup analyses were also performed (eg, dose of DPP-4 inhibitors). The number needed to harm (NNH) was estimated according to treatment duration. Results 10 studies were included, representing a total of 6546 participants (4020 received DPP-4 inhibitors plus sulphonylureas, 2526 placebo plus sulphonylureas). The risk ratio of hypoglycaemia was 1.52 (95% confidence interval 1.29 to 1.80). The NNH was 17 (95% confidence interval 11 to 30) for a treatment duration of six months or less, 15 (9 to 26) for 6.1 to 12 months, and 8 (5 to 15) for more than one year. In subgroup analysis, no difference was found between full and low doses of DPP-4 inhibitors: the risk ratio related to full dose DPP-4 inhibitors was 1.66 (1.34 to 2.06), whereas the increased risk ratio related to low dose DPP-4 inhibitors did not reach statistical significance (1.33, 0.92 to 1.94). Conclusions Addition of DPP-4 inhibitors to sulphonylurea to treat people with type 2 diabetes is associated with a 50% increased risk of hypoglycaemia and to one excess case of hypoglycaemia for every 17 patients in the first six months of treatment. This

  4. Ionic liquids as mobile phase additives for the high-performance liquid chromatographic analysis of fluoroquinolone antibiotics in water samples.

    PubMed

    Herrera-Herrera, Antonio V; Hernández-Borges, Javier; Rodríguez-Delgado, Miguel Angel

    2008-12-01

    In this work, four ionic liquids differing in the length of the alkyl chain on the imidazolium cation and one ionic liquid containing tetraethylammonium, all with the same counterion, (i.e. 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate (EMIm-BF(4)), 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate (BMIm-BF(4)), 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate (HMIm-BF(4)), 1-methyl-3-octylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate (MOIm-BF(4)), and tetraethylammonium tetrafluroborate (Et(4)N-BF(4))) were tested as mobile phase additives for HPLC separation of a group of seven basic fluoroquinolone (FQ) antibiotics for human and veterinary use (i.e. fleroxacin, ciprofloxacin, lomefloxacin, danofloxacin, enrofloxacin, sarafloxacin, and difloxacin) using a conventional reversed-phase Nova-Pak C(18) column. Fluorescence detection was used. Among the ionic liquids selected, use of BMIm-BF(4) enabled effective separation of these compounds with relatively low analysis time (14 min). The best separation was achieved by isocratic elution at 1 mL min(-1) with 5 mmol L(-1) BMIm-BF(4) and 10 mmol L(-1) ammonium acetate at pH 3.0 with 13% (v/v) acetonitrile. Limits of detection (LODs) for fluorescence detection were in the range 0.5-11 microg L(-1). The method was tested by analyzing several water samples after the optimization of a suitable solid-phase extraction (SPE) procedure using Oasis HLB cartridges. Mean recovery values were above 84% for all analytes with LODs in the range 1-29 ng L(-1). PMID:18854988

  5. Potlining Additives

    SciTech Connect

    Rudolf Keller

    2004-08-10

    In this project, a concept to improve the performance of aluminum production cells by introducing potlining additives was examined and tested. Boron oxide was added to cathode blocks, and titanium was dissolved in the metal pool; this resulted in the formation of titanium diboride and caused the molten aluminum to wet the carbonaceous cathode surface. Such wetting reportedly leads to operational improvements and extended cell life. In addition, boron oxide suppresses cyanide formation. This final report presents and discusses the results of this project. Substantial economic benefits for the practical implementation of the technology are projected, especially for modern cells with graphitized blocks. For example, with an energy savings of about 5% and an increase in pot life from 1500 to 2500 days, a cost savings of $ 0.023 per pound of aluminum produced is projected for a 200 kA pot.

  6. Phosphazene additives

    SciTech Connect

    Harrup, Mason K; Rollins, Harry W

    2013-11-26

    An additive comprising a phosphazene compound that has at least two reactive functional groups and at least one capping functional group bonded to phosphorus atoms of the phosphazene compound. One of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with cellulose and the other of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with a resin, such as an amine resin of a polycarboxylic acid resin. The at least one capping functional group is selected from the group consisting of a short chain ether group, an alkoxy group, or an aryloxy group. Also disclosed are an additive-resin admixture, a method of treating a wood product, and a wood product.

  7. Show What You Know

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eccleston, Jeff

    2007-01-01

    Big things come in small packages. This saying came to the mind of the author after he created a simple math review activity for his fourth grade students. Though simple, it has proven to be extremely advantageous in reinforcing math concepts. He uses this activity, which he calls "Show What You Know," often. This activity provides the perfect…

  8. The Ozone Show.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathieu, Aaron

    2000-01-01

    Uses a talk show activity for a final assessment tool for students to debate about the ozone hole. Students are assessed on five areas: (1) cooperative learning; (2) the written component; (3) content; (4) self-evaluation; and (5) peer evaluation. (SAH)

  9. Honored Teacher Shows Commitment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ratte, Kathy

    1987-01-01

    Part of the acceptance speech of the 1985 National Council for the Social Studies Teacher of the Year, this article describes the censorship experience of this honored social studies teacher. The incident involved the showing of a videotape version of the feature film entitled "The Seduction of Joe Tynan." (JDH)

  10. Talk Show Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Mitzi Ruth

    1992-01-01

    Proposes having students perform skits in which they play the roles of the science concepts they are trying to understand. Provides the dialog for a skit in which hot and cold gas molecules are interviewed on a talk show to study how these properties affect wind, rain, and other weather phenomena. (MDH)

  11. Stage a Water Show

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frasier, Debra

    2008-01-01

    In the author's book titled "The Incredible Water Show," the characters from "Miss Alaineus: A Vocabulary Disaster" used an ocean of information to stage an inventive performance about the water cycle. In this article, the author relates how she turned the story into hands-on science teaching for real-life fifth-grade students. The author also…

  12. Showing What They Know

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cech, Scott J.

    2008-01-01

    Having students show their skills in three dimensions, known as performance-based assessment, dates back at least to Socrates. Individual schools such as Barrington High School--located just outside of Providence--have been requiring students to actively demonstrate their knowledge for years. The Rhode Island's high school graduating class became…

  13. Kirkwood-Buff analysis of aqueous N-methylacetamide and acetamide solutions modeled by the CHARMM additive and Drude polarizable force fields.

    PubMed

    Lin, Bin; Lopes, Pedro E M; Roux, Benoît; MacKerell, Alexander D

    2013-08-28

    Kirkwood-Buff analysis was performed on aqueous solutions of N-methylacetamide and acetamide using the Chemistry at HARvard Molecular Mechanics additive and Drude polarizable all-atom force fields. Comparison of a range of properties with experimental results, including Kirkwood-Buff integrals, excess coordination numbers, solution densities, partial molar values, molar enthalpy of mixing, showed both models to be well behaved at higher solute concentrations with the Drude model showing systematic improvement at lower solution concentrations. However, both models showed difficulties reproducing experimental activity derivatives and the excess Gibbs energy, with the Drude model performing slightly better. At the molecular level, the improved agreement of the Drude model at low solute concentrations is due to increased structure in the solute-solute and solute-solvent interactions. The present results indicate that the explicit inclusion of electronic polarization leads to improved modeling of dilute solutions even when those properties are not included as target data during force field optimization. PMID:24007020

  14. Transcriptomic analysis of Clostridium thermocellum Populus hydrolysate-tolerant mutant strain shows increased cellular efficiency in response to Populus hydrolysate compared to the wild type strain

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The thermophilic, anaerobic bacterium, Clostridium thermocellum is a model organism for consolidated processing due to its efficient fermentation of cellulose. Constituents of dilute acid pretreatment hydrolysate are known to inhibit C. thermocellum and other microorganisms. To evaluate the biological impact of this type of hydrolysate, a transcriptomic analysis of growth in hydrolysate-containing medium was conducted on 17.5% v/v Populus hydrolysate-tolerant mutant (PM) and wild type (WT) strains of C. thermocellum. Results In two levels of Populus hydrolysate medium (0% and 10% v/v), the PM showed both gene specific increases and decreases of gene expression compared to the wild-type strain. The PM had increased expression of genes in energy production and conversion, and amino acid transport and metabolism in both standard and 10% v/v Populus hydrolysate media. In particular, expression of the histidine metabolism increased up to 100 fold. In contrast, the PM decreased gene expression in cell division and sporulation (standard medium only), cell defense mechanisms, cell envelope, cell motility, and cellulosome in both media. The PM downregulated inorganic ion transport and metabolism in standard medium but upregulated it in the hydrolysate media when compared to the WT. The WT differentially expressed 1072 genes in response to the hydrolysate medium which included increased transcription of cell defense mechanisms, cell motility, and cellulosome, and decreased expression in cell envelope, amino acid transport and metabolism, inorganic ion transport and metabolism, and lipid metabolism, while the PM only differentially expressed 92 genes. The PM tolerates up to 17.5% v/v Populus hydrolysate and growth in it elicited 489 genes with differential expression, which included increased expression in energy production and conversion, cellulosome production, and inorganic ion transport and metabolism and decreased expression in transcription and cell

  15. Monitoring Subsurface Microbial Biomass, Community Composition and Physiological Status during Biological Uranium Reduction with Acetate Addition using Lipid Analysis, DNA Arrays and q-PCR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peacock, A. D.; Long, P. E.; N'Guessan, L.; Williams, K. H.; Chandler, D.

    2011-12-01

    Our objectives for this effort were to investigate microbial community dynamics during each of the distinct terminal electron accepting phases that occur during long-term acetate addition for the immobilization of Uranium. Groundwater was collected from four wells (one up gradient and three down gradient) at three different depths and at four different times (pre-acetate injection, peak iron reduction, iron/sulfate reduction transition and during heavy sulfate reduction). Phospholipid fatty acid analysis (PLFA) results from ground water showed that microbial biomass was highest during Iron reduction and then lower during the transition from Iron reduction to Sulfate reduction and lowest during Sulfate reduction. Microbial community composition parameters as measured by PLFA showed distinct differences with terminal electron accepting status. Monounsaturated PLFA that have been shown to correspond with Gram-negative bacteria and Geobacteracea increased markedly with Iron reduction and then decreased with the onset of sulfate reduction. Bacterial physiological stress levels as measured by PLFA fluctuated with terminal electron acceptor status. Low bacterial stress levels coincided with pre-donor addition and Iron reduction but were much higher during Iron to Sulfate transition and during Sulfate reduction. Microarray results showed the expected progression of microbial signatures from Iron to Sulfate -reducers with changes in acetate amendment and in situ field conditions. The microarray response for Geobacter was highly correlated with qPCR for the same target gene (R2 = 0.84). Probes targeting Desulfobacter and Desulfitobacterium were the most reactive during the Iron to Sulfate transition and into Sulfate reduction, with a consistent Desulfotomaculum signature throughout the field experiment and a general decrease in Geobacter signal to noise ratios during the onset of Sulfate reducing conditions. Nitrate reducers represented by Dechloromonas and Dechlorosoma

  16. Free Radical Addition Polymerization Kinetics without Steady-State Approximations: A Numerical Analysis for the Polymer, Physical, or Advanced Organic Chemistry Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iler, H. Darrell; Brown, Amber; Landis, Amanda; Schimke, Greg; Peters, George

    2014-01-01

    A numerical analysis of the free radical addition polymerization system is described that provides those teaching polymer, physical, or advanced organic chemistry courses the opportunity to introduce students to numerical methods in the context of a simple but mathematically stiff chemical kinetic system. Numerical analysis can lead students to an…

  17. Taking in a Show.

    PubMed

    Boden, Timothy W

    2016-01-01

    Many medical practices have cut back on education and staff development expenses, especially those costs associated with conventions and conferences. But there are hard-to-value returns on your investment in these live events--beyond the obvious benefits of acquired knowledge and skills. Major vendors still exhibit their services and wares at many events, and the exhibit hall is a treasure-house of information and resources for the savvy physician or administrator. Make and stick to a purposeful plan to exploit the trade show. You can compare products, gain new insights and ideas, and even negotiate better deals with representatives anxious to realize returns on their exhibition investments. PMID:27249887

  18. Let the show begin

    SciTech Connect

    Alperowicz, N.

    1993-01-27

    Major changes should occur in the European polyolefins industry this year. BASF's (Ludwigshafen) polypropylene (PP) deal with ICI is expected to be followed by that of Hoechst (Frankfurt) and Petrofina (Brussels). The two are engaged in feasibility studies for a possible joint venture in PP and are expected to make a decision in the second quarter of this year. Shell and Himont are on track to complete their feasibility study in the first quarter for a polyolefins joint venture. And Huels and PCD are still in talks. But two new possible deals, a polyolefins merger between Nests (Helsinki) and Statoil (Stavanger) and an alliance in PP involving Appryl, the Elf Atochem (51%)/BP Chemicals (49%) joint venture, and Solvay have been denied. The Hoechst/Fina venture would initially encompass only the two companies European plants - Hoechst's 550,000-m.t./year and Fina's 180,000 m.t./year. In addition, Fina would either build or acquire another PP plant. In the second stage, the partners could bring in their overseas plants. Fina has plants in the US, and Hoechst has a combined 100,000 m.t./year in south Africa and Australia. Neste's board member Jukka Viinanen says the only talks between Nests and Statoil center on renegotiations of ethylene supply contract at Stenungsund, Sweden. Nests wants a more flexible deal on quantity and price. It needs 400,000 m.t./year of ethylene for its downstream plants. Viinanen adds that he is worried about the European petrochemical industry and producers need to do everything to improve margins through pricing policies and obtaining a balance between supply and demand. On the possibility of a future link with Statoil he comments, One can never say never. It would take time. We don't feel in a very vulnerable position right now.

  19. Risk of adverse events with bevacizumab addition to therapy in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Xi-Xi; Xu, Ren-Ai; Yu-Ping, Li; Yang, Han

    2016-01-01

    Background Bevacizumab, a monoclonal antibody against vascular endothelial growth factor ligand, has shown survival benefits in the treatment of many types of malignant tumors, including non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We conducted this systematic review and meta-analysis to investigate the risk of the most clinically relevant adverse events related to bevacizumab in advanced NSCLC. Methods Databases from PubMed, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library up to August 2015, were searched to identify relevant studies. We included prospective randomized controlled Phase II/III clinical trials that compared therapy with or without bevacizumab for advanced NSCLC. Summary relative risk (RR) and 95% confidence intervals were calculated using random effects or fixed effects according to the heterogeneity among included trials. Results A total of 3,745 patients from nine clinical trials were included in the meta-analysis. Summary RRs showed a statistically significant bevacizumab-associated increased risk in three of the adverse outcomes studied: proteinuria (RR =7.55), hypertension (RR =5.34), and hemorrhagic events (RR =2.61). No statistically significant differences were found for gastrointestinal perforation (P=0.60), arterial and venous thromboembolic events (P=0.35 and P=0.92, respectively), or fatal events (P=0.29). Conclusion The addition of bevacizumab to therapy in advanced NSCLC did significantly increase the risk of proteinuria, hypertension, and hemorrhagic events but not arterial/venous thromboembolic events, gastrointestinal perforation, or fatal adverse events. PMID:27143937

  20. Not a "reality" show.

    PubMed

    Wrong, Terence; Baumgart, Erica

    2013-01-01

    The authors of the preceding articles raise legitimate questions about patient and staff rights and the unintended consequences of allowing ABC News to film inside teaching hospitals. We explain why we regard their fears as baseless and not supported by what we heard from individuals portrayed in the filming, our decade-long experience making medical documentaries, and the full un-aired context of the scenes shown in the broadcast. The authors don't and can't know what conversations we had, what documents we reviewed, and what protections we put in place in each televised scene. Finally, we hope to correct several misleading examples cited by the authors as well as their offhand mischaracterization of our program as a "reality" show. PMID:23631336

  1. Meta-analysis on Methane Mitigating Properties of Saponin-rich Sources in the Rumen: Influence of Addition Levels and Plant Sources.

    PubMed

    Jayanegara, Anuraga; Wina, Elizabeth; Takahashi, Junichi

    2014-10-01

    Saponins have been considered as promising natural substances for mitigating methane emissions from ruminants. However, studies reported that addition of saponin-rich sources often arrived at contrasting results, i.e. either it decreased methane or it did not. The aim of the present study was to assess ruminal methane emissions through a meta-analytical approach of integrating related studies from published papers which described various levels of different saponin-rich sources being added to ruminant feed. A database was constructed from published literature reporting the addition of saponin-rich sources at various levels and then monitoring ruminal methane emissions in vitro. Accordingly, levels of saponin-rich source additions as well as different saponin sources were specified in the database. Apart from methane, other related rumen fermentation parameters were also included in the database, i.e. organic matter digestibility, gas production, pH, ammonia concentration, short-chain fatty acid profiles and protozoal count. A total of 23 studies comprised of 89 data points met the inclusion criteria. The data obtained were subsequently subjected to a statistical meta-analysis based on mixed model methodology. Accordingly, different studies were treated as random effects whereas levels of saponin-rich source additions or different saponin sources were considered as fixed effects. Model statistics used were p-value and root mean square error. Results showed that an addition of increasing levels of a saponin-rich source decreased methane emission per unit of substrate incubated as well as per unit of total gas produced (p<0.05). There was a decrease in acetate proportion (linear pattern; p<0.001) and an increase in propionate proportion (linear pattern; p<0.001) with increasing levels of saponin. Log protozoal count decreased (p<0.05) at higher saponin levels. Comparing between different saponin-rich sources, all saponin sources, i.e. quillaja, tea and yucca saponins

  2. Meta-analysis on Methane Mitigating Properties of Saponin-rich Sources in the Rumen: Influence of Addition Levels and Plant Sources

    PubMed Central

    Jayanegara, Anuraga; Wina, Elizabeth; Takahashi, Junichi

    2014-01-01

    Saponins have been considered as promising natural substances for mitigating methane emissions from ruminants. However, studies reported that addition of saponin-rich sources often arrived at contrasting results, i.e. either it decreased methane or it did not. The aim of the present study was to assess ruminal methane emissions through a meta-analytical approach of integrating related studies from published papers which described various levels of different saponin-rich sources being added to ruminant feed. A database was constructed from published literature reporting the addition of saponin-rich sources at various levels and then monitoring ruminal methane emissions in vitro. Accordingly, levels of saponin-rich source additions as well as different saponin sources were specified in the database. Apart from methane, other related rumen fermentation parameters were also included in the database, i.e. organic matter digestibility, gas production, pH, ammonia concentration, short-chain fatty acid profiles and protozoal count. A total of 23 studies comprised of 89 data points met the inclusion criteria. The data obtained were subsequently subjected to a statistical meta-analysis based on mixed model methodology. Accordingly, different studies were treated as random effects whereas levels of saponin-rich source additions or different saponin sources were considered as fixed effects. Model statistics used were p-value and root mean square error. Results showed that an addition of increasing levels of a saponin-rich source decreased methane emission per unit of substrate incubated as well as per unit of total gas produced (p<0.05). There was a decrease in acetate proportion (linear pattern; p<0.001) and an increase in propionate proportion (linear pattern; p<0.001) with increasing levels of saponin. Log protozoal count decreased (p<0.05) at higher saponin levels. Comparing between different saponin-rich sources, all saponin sources, i.e. quillaja, tea and yucca saponins

  3. Enhanced L-lactic acid production in Lactobacillus paracasei by exogenous proline addition based on comparative metabolite profiling analysis.

    PubMed

    Tian, Xiwei; Wang, Yonghong; Chu, Ju; Zhuang, Yingping; Zhang, Siliang

    2016-03-01

    This study investigated cell physiological and metabolic responses of Lactobacillus paracasei to osmotic stresses. Both cellular fatty acid composition and metabolite profiling were responded by increasing unsaturated and epoxy-fatty acid proportions, as well as accumulating some specific intracellular metabolites. Simultaneously, metabolite profiling was adopted to rationally and systematically discover potential osmoprotectants. Consequently, exogenous addition of proline or aspartate was validated to be a feasible and efficacious approach to improve cell growth under hyperosmotic stress in shake flasks. Particularly, with 5-L cultivation system, L-lactic acid concentration increased from 108 to 150 g/L during the following 16-h fermentation in 2 g/L proline addition group, while it only increased from 110 to 140 g/L in no proline addition group. Moreover, glucose consumption rate with proline addition reached 3.49 g/L/h during this phase, 35.8 % higher than that with no proline addition. However, extreme high osmotic pressure would significantly limit the osmoprotection of proline, and the osmolality threshold for L. paracasei was approximately 3600 mOsm/kg. It was suggested that proline principally played a role as a compatible solute accumulated in the cell for hyperosmotic preservation. The strategies of exploiting osmotic protectant with metabolite profiling and enhancing L-lactic acid production by osmoprotectant addition would be potential to provide a new insight for other microorganisms and organic acids production. PMID:26658821

  4. Effect of preservative addition on sensory and dynamic profile of Lucanian dry-sausages as assessed by quantitative descriptive analysis and temporal dominance of sensations.

    PubMed

    Braghieri, Ada; Piazzolla, Nicoletta; Galgano, Fernanda; Condelli, Nicola; De Rosa, Giuseppe; Napolitano, Fabio

    2016-12-01

    The quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA) was combined with temporal dominance of sensations (TDS) to assess the sensory properties of Lucanian dry-sausages either added with nitrate, nitrite and l-ascorbic acid (NS), or not (NNS). Both QDA and TDS differentiated the two groups of sausages. NNS products were perceived with higher intensity of hardness (P<0.05) and tended to be perceived with higher intensities of flavor (P<0.10), pepper (P<0.20), and oiliness (P<0.20), while resulting lower in chewiness (P<0.20). TDS showed that in all the sausages hardness was the first dominant attribute; then, in NNS products flavor remained dominant until the end of tasting, whereas in NS products oiliness prevailed. In conclusion, TDS showed that the perception of some textural parameters, such as oiliness, during mastication was more dominant in NS products, whereas using conventional QDA this attribute appeared higher in sausages manufactured without preservatives. Therefore, TDS provided additional information for the description and differentiation of Lucanian sausages. PMID:27486959

  5. The Standards We Need: A Comparative Analysis of Performance Standards Shows Us What Is Essential for Principals to Know and Be Able to Do to Improve Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waters, Tim; Kingston, Sally

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the findings from Mid-continent Research for Education and Learning's (McREL) comparative analysis of the Balanced Leadership Framework and the Interstate School Leaders Licensure Consortium (ISLLC) standards and provides insights about what future standards for school-level leaders should encompass. McREL conducted a…

  6. Public medical shows.

    PubMed

    Walusinski, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    In the second half of the 19th century, Jean-Martin Charcot (1825-1893) became famous for the quality of his teaching and his innovative neurological discoveries, bringing many French and foreign students to Paris. A hunger for recognition, together with progressive and anticlerical ideals, led Charcot to invite writers, journalists, and politicians to his lessons, during which he presented the results of his work on hysteria. These events became public performances, for which physicians and patients were transformed into actors. Major newspapers ran accounts of these consultations, more like theatrical shows in some respects. The resultant enthusiasm prompted other physicians in Paris and throughout France to try and imitate them. We will compare the form and substance of Charcot's lessons with those given by Jules-Bernard Luys (1828-1897), Victor Dumontpallier (1826-1899), Ambroise-Auguste Liébault (1823-1904), Hippolyte Bernheim (1840-1919), Joseph Grasset (1849-1918), and Albert Pitres (1848-1928). We will also note their impact on contemporary cinema and theatre. PMID:25273491

  7. Short of the mark. A Modern Healthcare analysis of Form 990s shows some very profitable hospitals offering little subsidized care.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Joe; Evans, Melanie

    2011-03-21

    A Modern Healthcare analysis finds a widely uneven distribution in the levels of charity care given to the poor by various hospitals. Many of the charitable healthcare providers even acknowledge billing patients who, in retrospect, probably should have qualified for free care. "Hospitals, if they're not-for-profits, should act like a charity," says Sen. Chuck Grassley, left. "I expect nonprofit hospitals to fulfill their not-for-profit status by providing whatever charity care is needed". PMID:21516617

  8. Single-Cell Analysis and Next-Generation Immuno-Sequencing Show That Multiple Clones Persist in Patients with Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Kriangkum, Jitra; Motz, Sarah N.; Mack, Tanner; Beiggi, Sara; Baigorri, Eva; Kuppusamy, Hemalatha; Belch, Andrew R.; Johnston, James B.; Pilarski, Linda M.

    2015-01-01

    The immunoglobulin heavy chain (IGH) gene rearrangement in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) provides a unique molecular signature; however, we demonstrate that 26/198 CLL patients (13%) had more than one IGH rearrangement, indicating the power of molecular technology over phenotypic analysis. Single-cell PCR analysis and next-generation immuno-sequencing identified IGH-defined clones. In 23% (18/79) of cases whose clones carried unmutated immunoglobulin heavy chain variable (IGHV) genes (U-CLL), IGH rearrangements were bialleic with one productive (P) and one non-productive (NP) allele. Two U-CLL were biclonal, each clone being monoallelic (P). In 119 IGHV-mutated (M-CLL) cases, one had biallelic rearrangements in their CLL (P/NP) and five had 2–4 distinct clones. Allelic exclusion was maintained in all B-clones analyzed. Based on single-cell PCR analysis, 5/11 partner clones (45%) reached levels of >5x109 cells/L, suggesting second CLL clones. Partner clones persisted over years. Conventional IGH characterization and next-generation sequencing of 13 CLL, 3 multiple myeloma, 2 Waldenstrom’s macroglobulinemia and 3 age-matched healthy donors consistently identified the same rearranged IGH sequences. Most multiple clones occurred in M-CLL, perhaps indicative of weak clonal dominance, thereby associating with a good prognosis. In contrast, biallelic CLL occurred primarily in U-CLL thus being associated with poor prognosis. Extending beyond intra-clonal diversity, molecular analysis of clonal evolution and apparent subclones in CLL may also reflect inter-clonal diversity. PMID:26353109

  9. Waardenburg syndrome (WS): the analysis of a single family with a WS1 mutation showing linkage to RFLP markers on human chromosome 2q.

    PubMed Central

    Asher, J H; Morell, R; Friedman, T B

    1991-01-01

    Waardenburg syndrome type I (WS1; MIM 19350) is caused by a pleiotropic, autosomal dominant mutation with variable penetrance and expressivity. Of individuals with this mutation, 20%-25% are hearing impaired. A multilocus linkage analysis of RFLP data from a single WS1 family with 11 affected individuals indicates that the WS1 mutation in this family is linked to the following four marker loci located on the long arm of chromosome 2: ALPP (alkaline phosphatase, placental), FN1 (fibronectin 1), D2S3 (a unique-copy DNA segment), and COL6A3 (collagen VI, alpha 3). For the RFLP marker loci, a multilocus linkage analysis using MLINK produced a peak lod (Z) of 3.23 for the following linkage relationships and recombination fractions (theta i): (ALPP----.000----FN1)----.122----D2S3----.267----CO L6A3. A similar analysis produced a Z of 6.67 for the following linkage relationships and theta i values among the markers and WS1: (FN1----.000----WS1----.000----ALPP)----.123----D2S 3----.246----COL6A3. The data confirm the conclusion of Foy et al. that at least some WS1 mutations map to chromosome 2q. Images Figure 2 PMID:1670751

  10. Reservoir analysis study: Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1, Elk Hills Field, Kern County, California: Phase 3 report, Recommended additional reservoir engineering analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-07-01

    The basis for completion of the Phase III tasks above were the reports of Phases I and II and the associated backup material. The Phase II report was reviewed to identify the major uncertainties in all of the reserve assignments. In addition to the Proved, Probable and Possible reserves of Phase II, ''potential reserves'' or those associated with a greater degree of risk than the Possible reserves included in the Phase II report, were also identified based on the work performed by Bergeson through the Phase II reporting date. Thirty-three specific studies were identified to address the major Phase II reserve uncertainties or these potential reserves. These studies are listed in Table 1 and are grouped by the Elk Hills pool designation. The basis and need for each study are elaborated in the discussion which follows. Where possible, the need for the study was quantified by associating the study with a particular reserve estimate which would be clarified by the analysis. This reserve value was either the Probable or Possible reserves which were being studied, the potential reserves that were identified, or simply the uncertainty inherent in the proved reserves as identified in the study purpose. The costs associated with performing the study are also shown in Table 1 and were estimated based on Bergeson's knowledge of the Elk Hills reservoirs and data base following Phases I and II, as well as the company's experience in performing similar studies in other fields. The cost estimates are considered reasonable for general budgeting purposes, but may require refinement prior to actual initiation of these studies. This is particularly true for studies involving field testing to obtain additional log, core or test information as the cost of such items is not considered in this report. 51 figs., 46 tabs.

  11. Pathbreaking CBO Study Shows Dramatic Increases in Income Disparities in 1980s and 1990s: An Analysis of the CBO Data. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapiro, Isaac; Greenstein, Robert; Primus, Wendell

    A study by the Congressional Budget Office of income and tax trends since 1979 showed dramatic increases in income disparities, especially between the wealthiest one percent of Americans and the rest of society, in the 1980s and 1990s. The percentage of income Americans paid in federal taxes declined for every income group between 1979-97. The…

  12. Consequence analysis of a NaOH solution spray release during addition to waste tank. Revision 2

    SciTech Connect

    Van Vleet, R.J.; Lancing, L.C.

    1997-07-08

    Toxicological consequences are presented for three postulated accidents involving caustic soda (sodium hydroxide) addition to a waste tank to adjust the tank waste pH. These are spray from the skid mounted delivery system, spray from a cargo tank truck, and rupture of a cargo tank truck. Consequences for the onsite and offsite receptor are calculated.

  13. The Job Demands-Resources Model: An Analysis of Additive and Joint Effects of Demands and Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hu, Qiao; Schaufeli, Wilmar B.; Taris, Toon W.

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated the additive, synergistic, and moderating effects of job demands and job resources on well-being (burnout and work engagement) and organizational outcomes, as specified by the Job Demands-Resources (JD-R) model. A survey was conducted among two Chinese samples: 625 blue collar workers and 761 health professionals. A…

  14. Family, Neighborhood, and Peer Characteristics as Predictors of Child Adjustment: A Longitudinal Analysis of Additive and Mediation Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Criss, Michael M.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Moilanen, Kristin L.; Hitchings, Julia E.; Ingoldsby, Erin M.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test direct, additive, and mediation models involving family, neighborhood, and peer factors in relation to emerging antisocial behavior and social skills. Neighborhood danger, maternal depressive symptoms, and supportive parenting were assessed in early childhood. Peer group acceptance was measured in middle…

  15. Evaluation of five additional enhancements to the building loads analysis and system thermodynamics (BLAST) program. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Nemeth, R.J.

    1993-04-01

    The Building Loads Analysis and System Thermodynamics (BLAST) energy analysis computer program has undergone a multiyear enhancement program based on feedback and priorities of the BLAST users' group. This project was conducted to evaluate the convenience and applicability of the following BLAST enhancements: Air-to-Air Heat Pump; Expanded Baseboard Heat Options; Report Writer; Thermal Comfort Model. Ice Storage Model; Evaluation responses indicate that the enhancements satisfied users' needs for advanced building energy analysis tools. Although the evaluations revealed program bugs and the lack of documentation in some areas, the programs were easy to install and use. The bugs have been removed and the documentation expanded in the BLAST Users Reference. It is recommended that the enhancements be distributed with future updates and releases of the BLAST program.... BLAST, Enhancements, Energy efficient, Comfort analysis, Technology Transfer Test Bed(T3B).

  16. Kinetic analysis of HO{sub 2} addition to ethylene, propene, and isobutene, and thermochemical parameters of alkyl hydroperoxides and hydroperoxide alkyl radicals

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, C.J.; Bozzelli, J.W.

    2000-06-01

    Thermochemical kinetic analysis for the reactions of HO{sub 2} radical addition to the primary, secondary, and tertiary carbon-carbon double bonds of ethylene, propene, and isobutene are studied using canonical transition state theory (TST). Thermochemical properties of reactants, alkyl hydroperoxides (ROOH), hydroperoxy alkyl radicals (R-OOH), and transition states (TSs) are determined by ab initio and density functional calculations. Enthalpies of formation ({Delta}H{sub f 298}{degree}) of product radicals (R-OOH) are determined using isodesmic reactions with group balance at MP4(full)6-31G(d,p)/MP2(full)/6-31G(d), MP2(full)/6-31G(d), complete basis set model chemistry (CBS-q with MP2(full)/6-31g(d) and B3LYP/6-31g(d) optimized geometries), and density functional (B3LYP/6-31g(d) and B3LYP/6-311+g(3df,2p)//B3LYP/6-31g(d)) calculations. {Delta}H{sub f 298}{degree} of TSs are obtained from the {Delta}H{sub f 298}{degree} of reactants plus energy differences between reactants and TSs. Entropies (S{sub 298}{degree}) and heat capacities (Cp(T) 300 {le} T/K {le} 1,500) contributions from vibrational, translational, and external rotational are calculated using the rigid-rotor-harmonic-oscillator approximation based on geometric parameters and vibrational frequencies obtained at MP2(full)/6-31G(d) and B3LYP/6-31G(d) levels of theory. Selected potential barriers of internal rotations for hydroperoxy alkyl radicals and TSs are calculated at MP2(full)/6-31G(d) and CBS-Q//MP2(full)/6-31G(d) levels. Contributions from hindered rotors of S{sub 298}{degree} and Cp(T) are calculated by the method of Pitzer and Gwinn and by summation over the energy levels obtained by direct diagonalization of the Hamiltonian matrix of hindered internal rotations when the potential barriers of internal rotations are available. calculated rate constants obtained at CBS-q/MP2(full)/6-31G(d) and CBS-q//B3LYP/6-31G(d) levels of theory show similar trends with experimental data: HO{sub 2} radical

  17. Maps showing interpretation, using R-mode factor analysis, of trace-element abundances in heavy-mineral concentrate samples, Delta 1° x 2° Quadrangle, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zimbelman, David R.

    1994-01-01

    A set of heavy-mineral concentrate data for the Delta 1° x 2° quadrangle, Utah Conterminous U.S. Mineral Assessment Program (CUSMAP) project was compiled from results of analyses of samples collected during the National Uranium Resource Evaluation Program (SURE), as well as results obtained from samples collected more recently by the USGS. Data results, sampling methods, and analytical methods are provided in Abrogast and others, 1993; 1990; 1988a; 1988b). A similar report, discussing results obtained from stream-sediment samples, is presented in Zimbelman (1993a). The Delta 1° x 2° quadrangle, Utah (figure 1) contains a variety of hydrothermal mineral deposit types, including porphyry-, vein-, replacement-, and Carlin-type deposits. These deposit types have been worked for commodities including gold, silver, beryllium, uranium, lead, zinc, copper, manganese, and cadmium (Lindsey, 1977; Morris and Mogensen, 1978; Zimbelman and others, 1990; Zimbelman and others, 1988). Heavy-mineral concentrate and stream-sediment samples derived from these hydrothermally altered rocks typically contain many geochemical anomalies (for example, see Zimbelman 1993b, c, d). Element associations characterizing lithology and hydrothermal mineral deposits can be distinguished using R-mode factor analysis. This tool often is useful in reconnaissance-scale surveys where sample anomalies are often weak. and single-element distributions may not help to delineate targets. R-mode factors analysis can help identify geologic trends and areas most likely to contain the mineral deposits. R-mode factor analysis was performed on a data set of results of analyses for 19 elements in 643 samples and produced a six-factor model. These six factors represent the geochemical contributions to the data set provided by lithologic and mineralization processes, The distribution of samples that contain high scores for mineralization-related factors is widespread in the Delta quadrangle. These sample sites

  18. Population pharmacokinetic analysis for 10-monohydroxy derivative of oxcarbazepine in pediatric epileptic patients shows no difference between Japanese and other ethnicities.

    PubMed

    Sugiyama, Ikuo; Bouillon, Thomas; Yamaguchi, Masayuki; Suzuki, Hikoe; Hirota, Takashi; Fink, Martin

    2015-04-01

    Oxcarbazepine is an anti-epileptic drug, which is almost completely metabolized by cytosolic enzymes in the liver to the active 10-monohyroxy metabolite (MHD) following oral administration. The pharmacokinetic (PK) profiles of MHD were evaluated in pediatric epileptic patients and a possible ethnic difference in PK of MHD between Japanese and non-Japanese pediatric patients was assessed. A non-linear mixed effect modeling approach was used to determine the PK of MHD. A one-compartment population model with first-order absorption appropriately described the PK of MHD. No clinically relevant differences were found for using body surface area or weight to explain between-patient variability, therefore the final model included the effects of body weight on apparent clearance (CL/F) and apparent volume of distribution (V/F) of MHD, and in addition, the effect of 3 concomitant anti-epileptic drugs (carbamazepine, phenobarbital and phenytoin) on CL/F of MHD. Inclusion of ethnicity as a covariate in the final model, concluded no ethnic difference with respect to CL/F of MHD between Japanese and non-Japanese patients. Hence, oxcarbazepine can be generally applied using the same dosage and administration for the treatment of partial onset seizures in pediatric patients, regardless of ethnicity. PMID:25989891

  19. Additional Value of CH₄ Measurement in a Combined (13)C/H₂ Lactose Malabsorption Breath Test: A Retrospective Analysis.

    PubMed

    Houben, Els; De Preter, Vicky; Billen, Jaak; Van Ranst, Marc; Verbeke, Kristin

    2015-09-01

    The lactose hydrogen breath test is a commonly used, non-invasive method for the detection of lactose malabsorption and is based on an abnormal increase in breath hydrogen (H₂) excretion after an oral dose of lactose. We use a combined (13)C/H₂ lactose breath test that measures breath (13)CO₂ as a measure of lactose digestion in addition to H₂ and that has a better sensitivity and specificity than the standard test. The present retrospective study evaluated the results of 1051 (13)C/H₂ lactose breath tests to assess the impact on the diagnostic accuracy of measuring breath CH₄ in addition to H₂ and (13)CO₂. Based on the (13)C/H₂ breath test, 314 patients were diagnosed with lactase deficiency, 138 with lactose malabsorption or small bowel bacterial overgrowth (SIBO), and 599 with normal lactose digestion. Additional measurement of CH₄ further improved the accuracy of the test as 16% subjects with normal lactose digestion and no H₂-excretion were found to excrete CH₄. These subjects should have been classified as subjects with lactose malabsorption or SIBO. In conclusion, measuring CH₄-concentrations has an added value to the (13)C/H₂ breath test to identify methanogenic subjects with lactose malabsorption or SIBO. PMID:26371034

  20. A systematic review and meta-analysis of 130,000 individuals shows smoking does not modify the association of APOE genotype on risk of coronary heart disease

    PubMed Central

    Holmes, Michael V.; Frikke-Schmidt, Ruth; Melis, Daniela; Luben, Robert; Asselbergs, Folkert W.; Boer, Jolanda M.A.; Cooper, Jackie; Palmen, Jutta; Horvat, Pia; Engmann, Jorgen; Li, Ka-Wah; Onland-Moret, N. Charlotte; Hofker, Marten H.; Kumari, Meena; Keating, Brendan J.; Hubacek, Jaroslav A.; Adamkova, Vera; Kubinova, Ruzena; Bobak, Martin; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Nordestgaard, Børge G.; Wareham, Nick; Humphries, Steve E.; Langenberg, Claudia; Tybjaerg-Hansen, Anne; Talmud, Philippa J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Conflicting evidence exists on whether smoking acts as an effect modifier of the association between APOE genotype and risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). Methods and results We searched PubMed and EMBASE to June 11, 2013 for published studies reporting APOE genotype, smoking status and CHD events and added unpublished data from population cohorts. We tested for presence of effect modification by smoking status in the relationship between APOE genotype and risk of CHD using likelihood ratio test. In total 13 studies (including unpublished data from eight cohorts) with 10,134 CHD events in 130,004 individuals of European descent were identified. The odds ratio (OR) for CHD risk from APOE genotype (ε4 carriers versus non-carriers) was 1.06 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.01, 1.12) and for smoking (present vs. past/never smokers) was OR 2.05 (95%CI: 1.95, 2.14). When the association between APOE genotype and CHD was stratified by smoking status, compared to non-ε4 carriers, ε4 carriers had an OR of 1.11 (95%CI: 1.02, 1.21) in 28,789 present smokers and an OR of 1.04 (95%CI 0.98, 1.10) in 101,215 previous/never smokers, with no evidence of effect modification (P-value for heterogeneity = 0.19). Analysis of pack years in individual participant data of >60,000 with adjustment for cardiovascular traits also failed to identify evidence of effect modification. Conclusions In the largest analysis to date, we identified no evidence for effect modification by smoking status in the association between APOE genotype and risk of CHD. PMID:25173947

  1. Genome-wide analysis of primary CD4+ and CD8+ T cell transcriptomes shows evidence for a network of enriched pathways associated with HIV disease

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background HIV preferentially infects CD4+ T cells, and the functional impairment and numerical decline of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells characterize HIV disease. The numerical decline of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells affects the optimal ratio between the two cell types necessary for immune regulation. Therefore, this work aimed to define the genomic basis of HIV interactions with the cellular transcriptome of both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. Results Genome-wide transcriptomes of primary CD4+ and CD8+ T cells from HIV+ patients were analyzed at different stages of HIV disease using Illumina microarray. For each cell subset, pairwise comparisons were performed and differentially expressed (DE) genes were identified (fold change >2 and B-statistic >0) followed by quantitative PCR validation. Gene ontology (GO) analysis of DE genes revealed enriched categories of complement activation, actin filament, proteasome core and proton-transporting ATPase complex. By gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA), a network of enriched pathways functionally connected by mitochondria was identified in both T cell subsets as a transcriptional signature of HIV disease progression. These pathways ranged from metabolism and energy production (TCA cycle and OXPHOS) to mitochondria meditated cell apoptosis and cell cycle dysregulation. The most unique and significant feature of our work was that the non-progressing status in HIV+ long-term non-progressors was associated with MAPK, WNT, and AKT pathways contributing to cell survival and anti-viral responses. Conclusions These data offer new comparative insights into HIV disease progression from the aspect of HIV-host interactions at the transcriptomic level, which will facilitate the understanding of the genetic basis of transcriptomic interaction of HIV in vivo and how HIV subverts the human gene machinery at the individual cell type level. PMID:21410942

  2. Quantitative analysis of free and bonded forms of volatile sulfur compouds in wine. Basic methodologies and evidences showing the existence of reversible cation-complexed forms.

    PubMed

    Franco-Luesma, Ernesto; Ferreira, Vicente

    2014-09-12

    This paper examines first some basic aspects critical to the analysis of Volatile Sulfur Compounds (VSCs), such as the analytical characteristics of the GC-pFPD system and the stability of the different standard solutions required for a proper calibration. Following, a direct static headspace analytical method for the determination of exclusively free forms of VSCs has been developed. Method repeatability is better than 4%, detection limits for main analytes are below 0.5μgL(-1), and the method dynamic linear range (r(2)>0.99) is expanded by controlling the split ratio in the chromatographic inlet to cover the natural range of occurrence of these compounds in wines. The method gives reliable estimates of headspace concentrations but, as expected, suffers from strong matrix effects with recoveries ranging from 0 to 100% or from 60 to 100 in the cases of H2S and the other mercaptans, respectively. This demonstrates the existence of strong interactions of these compounds with different matrix components. The complexing ability of Cu(2+) and to a lower extent Fe(2+) and Zn(2+) has been experimentally checked. A previously developed method in which the wine is strongly diluted with brine and the volatiles are preconcentrated by HS-SPME, was found to give a reliable estimation of the total amount (free+complexed) of mercaptans, demonstrating that metal-mercaptan complexes are reversible. The comparative analysis of different wines by the two procedures reveals that in normal wines H2S and methanethiol can be complexed at levels above 99%, with averages around 97% for H2S and 75% for methanethiol, while thioethers such as dimethyl sulfide (DMS) are not complexed. Overall, the proposed strategy may be generalized to understand problems caused by VSCs in different matrices. PMID:25064535

  3. National Orange Show Photovoltaic Demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Dan Jimenez Sheri Raborn, CPA; Tom Baker

    2008-03-31

    National Orange Show Photovoltaic Demonstration created a 400KW Photovoltaic self-generation plant at the National Orange Show Events Center (NOS). The NOS owns a 120-acre state fairground where it operates an events center and produces an annual citrus fair known as the Orange Show. The NOS governing board wanted to employ cost-saving programs for annual energy expenses. It is hoped the Photovoltaic program will result in overall savings for the NOS, help reduce the State's energy demands as relating to electrical power consumption, improve quality of life within the affected grid area as well as increase the energy efficiency of buildings at our venue. In addition, the potential to reduce operational expenses would have a tremendous effect on the ability of the NOS to service its community.

  4. Additional photoelectric observations and analysis of the variability of the beta Cephei stars 12 and 16 Lacertae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarzebowski, T.; Jerzykiewicz, M.; Rios Herrera, M.; Rios Berumen, M.

    1980-04-01

    We present photoelectric observations of two Cephei variables - 12 and 16 Lacertae- made in 1977 in the Observatory of Zacatecas. The results of a frequency analysis made with these data and with the data obtained in the same year at the San Pedro Martir, Chiran and Bialkow Observatories are also given.

  5. Numerical analysis of the effect of acetylene and benzene addition to low-pressure benzene-rich flat flames on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon formation

    SciTech Connect

    Kunioshi, Nilson; Komori, Seisaku; Fukutani, Seishiro

    2006-10-15

    A modification of the CHEMKIN II package has been proposed for modeling addition of an arbitrary species at an arbitrary temperature to an arbitrary distance from the burner along a flat flame. The modified program was applied to the problem of addition of acetylene or benzene to different positions of a 40-Torr, {phi}=2.4 benzene/O{sub 2}/40%-N{sub 2} premixed flame to reach final equivalence ratios of {phi}=2.5 and 2.681. The results obtained showed that acetylene addition to early positions of the flame led to significant increase in pyrene production rates, but pyrene concentrations were lower in the flames with acetylene addition in both the {phi}=2.5 and 2.681 cases. Addition of benzene to the flame did not alter pyrene production rates in either the {phi}=2.5 or 2.681 cases; however, for {phi}=2.5, pyrene concentrations increased with benzene addition, while for {phi}=2.681, pyrene contents decreased in comparison to the correspondent flames with no addition. Acetylene addition led to a significant increase in pyrene production rates, but the pyrene levels dropped due to increase in the flow velocity. Pyrene production rates were not sensitive to benzene addition, but pyrene contents increased with benzene addition when the flow velocity decreased. These results show that PAH concentration changes accompanying species addition to flames should be interpreted carefully, because an increase or decrease in the content of a PAH species does not necessarily reflect an effect on its formation rate or mechanism. (author)

  6. Inhibition of Hepatitis C Virus in Chimeric Mice by Short Synthetic Hairpin RNAs: Sequence Analysis of Surviving Virus Shows Added Selective Pressure of Combination Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Dallas, Anne; Ilves, Heini; Ma, Han; Chin, Daniel J.; MacLachlan, Ian; Klumpp, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT We have recently shown that a cocktail of two short synthetic hairpin RNAs (sshRNAs), targeting the internal ribosome entry site of hepatitis C virus (HCV) formulated with lipid nanoparticles, was able to suppress viral replication in chimeric mice infected with HCV GT1a by up to 2.5 log10 (H. Ma et al., Gastroenterology 146:63–66.e5, http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.gastro.2013.09.049) Viral load remained about 1 log10 below pretreatment levels 21 days after the end of dosing. We have now sequenced the HCV viral RNA amplified from serum of treated mice after the 21-day follow-up period. Viral RNA from the HCV sshRNA-treated groups was altered in sequences complementary to the sshRNAs and nowhere else in the 500-nucleotide sequenced region, while the viruses from the control group that received an irrelevant sshRNA had no mutations in that region. The ability of the most commonly selected mutations to confer resistance to the sshRNAs was confirmed in vitro by introducing those mutations into HCV-luciferase reporters. The mutations most frequently selected by sshRNA treatment within the sshRNA target sequence occurred at the most polymorphic residues, as identified from an analysis of available clinical isolates. These results demonstrate a direct antiviral activity with effective HCV suppression, demonstrate the added selective pressure of combination therapy, and confirm an RNA interference (RNAi) mechanism of action. IMPORTANCE This study presents a detailed analysis of the impact of treating a hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected animal with synthetic hairpin-shaped RNAs that can degrade the virus's RNA genome. These RNAs can reduce the viral load in these animals by over 99% after 1 to 2 injections. The study results confirm that the viral rebound that often occurred a few weeks after treatment is due to emergence of a virus whose genome is mutated in the sequences targeted by the RNAs. The use of two RNA inhibitors, which is more effective than use of either

  7. Analysis of congenital disorder of glycosylation-Id in a yeast model system shows diverse site-specific under-glycosylation of glycoproteins.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Ulla-Maja; Jamaluddin, Muhammad Fairuz; Schulz, Benjamin L

    2012-11-01

    Asparagine-linked glycosylation is a common post-translational modification of proteins in eukaryotes. Mutations in the human ALG3 gene cause changed levels and altered glycan structures on mature glycoproteins and are the cause of a severe congenital disorder of glycosylation (CDG-Id). Diverse glycoproteins are also under-glycosylated in Saccharomyces cerevisae alg3 mutants. Here we analyzed site-specific glycosylation occupancy in this yeast model system using peptide-N-glycosidase F to label glycosylation sites with an asparagine-aspartate conversion that creates a new endoproteinase AspN cleavage site, followed by proteolytic digestion, and detection of peptides and glycopeptides by LC-ESI-MS/MS. We used this analytical method to identify and measure site-specific glycosylation occupancy in alg3 mutant and wild type yeast strains. We found decreased site-specific N-glycosylation occupancy in the alg3 knockout strain preferentially at Asn-Xaa-Ser sequences located in secondary structural elements, features previously associated with poor glycosylation efficiency. Furthermore, we identified 26 previously experimentally unverified glycosylation sites. Our results provide insights into the underlying mechanisms of disease in CDG-Id, and our methodology will be useful in site-specific glycosylation analysis in many model systems and clinical applications. PMID:23038983

  8. RNA-Seq analysis of developing nasturtium seeds (Tropaeolum majus): identification and characterization of an additional galactosyltransferase involved in xyloglucan biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Jacob K; Schultink, Alex; Keegstra, Kenneth; Wilkerson, Curtis G; Pauly, Markus

    2012-09-01

    A deep-sequencing approach was pursued utilizing 454 and Illumina sequencing methods to discover new genes involved in xyloglucan biosynthesis. cDNA sequences were generated from developing nasturtium (Tropaeolum majus) seeds, which produce large amounts of non-fucosylated xyloglucan as a seed storage polymer. In addition to known xyloglucan biosynthetic genes, a previously uncharacterized putative xyloglucan galactosyltransferase was identified. Analysis of an Arabidopsis thaliana mutant line defective in the corresponding ortholog (AT5G62220) revealed that this gene shows no redundancy with the previously characterized xyloglucan galactosyltransferase, MUR3, but is required for galactosyl-substitution of xyloglucan at a different position. The gene was termed XLT2 for Xyloglucan L-side chain galactosylTransferase position 2. It represents an enzyme in the same subclade of glycosyltransferase family 47 as MUR3. A double mutant defective in both MUR3 (mur3.1) and XLT2 led to an Arabidopsis plant with xyloglucan that consists essentially of only xylosylated glucosyl units, with no further substitutions. PMID:22474179

  9. Effects of chemical mechanical planarization slurry additives on the agglomeration of alumina nanoparticles II: aggregation rate analysis.

    PubMed

    Brahma, Neil; Talbot, Jan B

    2014-04-01

    The aggregation rate and mechanism of 150 nm alumina particles in 1mM KNO3 with various additives used in chemical mechanical planarization of copper were investigated. The pH of each suspension was ∼8 such that the aggregation rate was slow enough to be measured and analyzed over ∼120 min. In general, an initial exponential growth was observed for most suspensions indicating reaction-limited aggregation. After aggregate sizes increase to >500 nm, the rate followed a power law suggesting diffusion-limited aggregation. Stability ratios and fractal dimension numbers were also calculated to further elucidate the aggregation mechanism. PMID:24491325

  10. Assessing direct analysis in real-time-mass spectrometry (DART-MS) for the rapid identification of additives in food packaging.

    PubMed

    Ackerman, L K; Noonan, G O; Begley, T H

    2009-12-01

    The ambient ionization technique direct analysis in real time (DART) was characterized and evaluated for the screening of food packaging for the presence of packaging additives using a benchtop mass spectrometer (MS). Approximate optimum conditions were determined for 13 common food-packaging additives, including plasticizers, anti-oxidants, colorants, grease-proofers, and ultraviolet light stabilizers. Method sensitivity and linearity were evaluated using solutions and characterized polymer samples. Additionally, the response of a model additive (di-ethyl-hexyl-phthalate) was examined across a range of sample positions, DART, and MS conditions (temperature, voltage and helium flow). Under optimal conditions, molecular ion (M+H+) was the major ion for most additives. Additive responses were highly sensitive to sample and DART source orientation, as well as to DART flow rates, temperatures, and MS inlet voltages, respectively. DART-MS response was neither consistently linear nor quantitative in this setting, and sensitivity varied by additive. All additives studied were rapidly identified in multiple food-packaging materials by DART-MS/MS, suggesting this technique can be used to screen food packaging rapidly. However, method sensitivity and quantitation requires further study and improvement. PMID:19753496

  11. Quantitative mass spectrometric analysis of dipeptides in protein hydrolysate by a TNBS derivatization-aided standard addition method.

    PubMed

    Hanh, Vu Thi; Kobayashi, Yutaro; Maebuchi, Motohiro; Nakamori, Toshihiro; Tanaka, Mitsuru; Matsui, Toshiro

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to establish, through a standard addition method, a convenient quantification assay for dipeptides (GY, YG, SY, YS, and IY) in soybean hydrolysate using 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonate (TNBS) derivatization-aided LC-TOF-MS. Soybean hydrolysate samples (25.0 mg mL(-1)) spiked with target standards were subjected to TNBS derivatization. Under the optimal LC-MS conditions, five target dipeptides derivatized with TNBS were successfully detected. Examination of the standard addition curves, with a correlation coefficient of r(2) > 0.979, provided a reliable quantification of the target dipeptides, GY, YG, SY, YS, and IY, in soybean hydrolysate to be 424 ± 20, 184 ± 9, 2188 ± 199, 327 ± 16, and 2211 ± 133 μg g(-1) of hydrolysate, respectively. The proposed LC-MS assay is a reliable and convenient assay method, with no interference from matrix effects in hydrolysate, and with no requirement for the use of an isotope labeled internal standard. PMID:26212980

  12. MEG-measured auditory steady-state oscillations show high test-retest reliability: A sensor and source-space analysis.

    PubMed

    Tan, H-R M; Gross, J; Uhlhaas, P J

    2015-11-15

    Stability of oscillatory signatures across magnetoencephalography (MEG) measurements is an important prerequisite for basic and clinical research that has been insufficiently addressed. Here, we evaluated the test-retest reliability of auditory steady-state responses (ASSRs) over two MEG sessions. The study required participants (N=13) to detect the rare occurrence of pure tones interspersed within a stream of 5 Hz or 40 Hz amplitude-modulated (AM) tones. Intraclass correlations (ICC; Shrout and Fleiss, 1979) were derived to assess stability of spectral power changes and the inter-trial phase coherence (ITPC) of task-elicited neural responses. ASSRs source activity was estimated using eLORETA beamforming from bilateral auditory cortex. ASSRs to 40 Hz AM stimuli evoked stronger power modulation and phase-locking than 5 Hz stimulation. Overall, spectral power and ITPC values at both sensor- and source-level showed robust ICC values. Notably, ITPC measures yielded higher ICCs (~0.86-0.96) between sessions compared to the assessment of spectral power change (~0.61-0.82). Our data indicate that spectral modulations and phase consistency of ASSRs in MEG data are highly reproducible, providing support for MEG-measured oscillatory parameters in basic and clinical research. PMID:26216274

  13. Psychometric analysis in children with mental retardation due to perinatal hypoxia treated with fibroblast growth factor (FGF) and showing improvement in mental development.

    PubMed

    Aguilar, L C; Islas, A; Rosique, P; Hernandez, B; Portillo, E; Herrera, J M; Cortes, R; Cruz, S; Alfaro, F; Martin, R

    1993-12-01

    Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) has shown a neurotrophic effect in the neurons of several CNS areas. In vivo, it contributes to restore neurochemical and morphological deficits in different rodent models of brain damage, including rats with brain damage induced by hypoxia/ischemia when FGF was intramuscularly (i.m.) administered. Toxicological and immunological studies performed in rats, mice and volunteers showed no evidence of side-effects. Bovine FGF was i.m. administered in children with mental retardation caused by perinatal hypoxia, aged 1-15 years, at dosages of 0.4 or 0.28 microgram kg-1, once or twice a month, over 7-12 months. Group A [n = 12; 6 treated (T), 6 controls (Ct)], group B (n = 16; 8 T, 8 Ct) and group C (n = 67; 45 T, 22 Ct) were evaluated with the P. A. R. scale, the WISC-RM and the Gesell scale, respectively. Development increased significantly in treated children from groups A (P < 0.02) and C (P < 0.001), and IQ rose by more than 10 points (P < 0.001) in group B patients. PMID:8123997

  14. Individual voxel-based analysis of brain magnetization transfer maps shows great variability of gray matter injury in the first stage of multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Jure, Lorena; Zaaraoui, Wafaa; Rousseau, Celia; Reuter, Françoise; Rico, Audrey; Malikova, Irina; Confort-Gouny, Sylviane; Cozzone, Patrick J; Pelletier, Jean; Ranjeva, Jean-Philippe; Audoin, Bertrand

    2010-08-01

    In multiple sclerosis (MS), it seems likely that the variability of the long-term disability might be partly due to the variability of the early gray matter (GM) injury. In the present study, we assessed the variability of GM injury in early MS, using a method designed to determine individual pathological GM patterns. Eighteen patients presenting with a clinically isolated syndrome and 24 healthy matched control subjects were included in this study. Patients were explored using a 1.5 Tesla MR scanner (Magnetom Vision Plus; Siemens). Brain MR protocol included magnetization transfer ratio imaging (MTR). Statistical mapping analyses were performed to compare each subject's GM MTR maps with those of the whole group of control subjects (SPM5). The statistical threshold was taken to be the maximum P value showing no significant cluster when any control individual was compared with the whole control population. GM abnormalities were observed in 83% of the patients, ranging in size from 0.3 to 125 cm(3). Among the patients with GM abnormalities, 87% had abnormalities located in the temporal cortex, 80% in the frontal cortex, 80% in the limbic cortex, 73% in the posterior fossa, 53% in the deep GM, 47% in the parietal cortex, and 47% in the occipital cortex. Individual statistical mapping of MTR data, which gives a quantitative assessment of individual GM lesions, demonstrates great variability of grey matter injury in the first stage of multiple sclerosis. PMID:20677272

  15. The gene expression profiling of hepatocellular carcinoma by a network analysis approach shows a dominance of intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) between hub nodes.

    PubMed

    Singh, Sakshi; Colonna, Giovanni; Di Bernardo, Giovanni; Bergantino, Francesca; Cammarota, Marcella; Castello, Giuseppe; Costantini, Susan

    2015-11-01

    We have analyzed the transcriptomic data from patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) after viral HCV infection at the various stages of the disease by means of a networking analysis using the publicly available E-MTAB-950 dataset. The data was compared with those obtained in our group from HepG2 cells, a cancer cell line that lacks the viral infection. By sequential pruning of data, and also taking into account the data from cells of healthy patients as blanks, we were able to obtain a distribution of hub genes for the various stages that characterize the disease and finally, we isolated a metabolic sub-net specific to HCC alone. The general picture is that the basic organization to energetically and metabolically sustain the cells in both the normal and diseased conditions is the same, but a complex cluster of sub-networks controlled by hub genes drives the HCC progression with high metabolic flexibility and plasticity. In particular, we have extracted a sub-net of genes strictly correlated to other hub genes of the network from HepG2 cells, but specific for the HCC and mainly devoted to: (i) control at chromatin levels of cell division; (ii) control of ergastoplasmatic stress through protein degradation and misfolding; (iii) control of the immune response also through an increase of mature T-cells in the thymus. This sub-net is characterized by 26 hub genes coding for intrinsically disordered proteins with a high ability to interact with numerous molecular partners. Moreover, we have also noted that periphery molecules, that is, with one or very few interactions (e.g., cytokines or post-translational enzymes), which do not have a central role in the clusters that make up the global metabolic network, essentially have roles as information transporters. The results evidence a strong presence of intrinsically disordered proteins with key roles as hubs in the sub-networks that characterize the various stages of the disease, conferring a structural plasticity to

  16. Longitudinal data analysis of polymorphisms in the κ-casein and β-lactoglobulin genes shows differential effects along the trajectory of the lactation curve in tropical dairy goats.

    PubMed

    Cardona, Samir Julián Calvo; Cadavid, Henry Cardona; Corrales, Juan David; Munilla, Sebastián; Cantet, Rodolfo J C; Rogberg-Muñoz, Andrés

    2016-09-01

    The κ-casein (CSN-3) and β-lactoglobulin (BLG) genes are extensively polymorphic in ruminants. Several association studies have estimated the effects of polymorphisms in these genes on milk yield, milk composition, and cheese-manufacturing properties. Usually, these results are based on production integrated over the lactation curve or on cross-sectional studies at specific days in milk (DIM). However, as differential expression of milk protein genes occurs over lactation, the effect of the polymorphisms may change over time. In this study, we fitted a mixed-effects regression model to test-day records of milk yield and milk quality traits (fat, protein, and total solids yields) from Colombian tropical dairy goats. We used the well-characterized A/B polymorphisms in the CSN-3 and BLG genes. We argued that this approach provided more efficient estimators than cross-sectional designs, given the same number and pattern of observations, and allowed exclusion of between-subject variation from model error. The BLG genotype AA showed a greater performance than the BB genotype for all traits along the whole lactation curve, whereas the heterozygote showed an intermediate performance. We observed no such constant pattern for the CSN-3 gene between the AA homozygote and the heterozygote (the BB genotype was absent from the sample). The differences among the genotypic effects of the BLG and the CSN-3 polymorphisms were statistically significant during peak and mid lactation (around 40-160 DIM) for the BLG gene and only for mid lactation (80-145 DIM) for the CSN-3 gene. We also estimated the additive and dominant effects of the BLG locus. The locus showed a statistically significant additive behavior along the whole lactation trajectory for all quality traits, whereas for milk yield the effect was not significant at later stages. In turn, we detected a statistically significant dominance effect only for fat yield in the early and peak stages of lactation (at about 1-45 DIM

  17. Analysis of contingency tables based on generalised median polish with power transformations and non-additive models.

    PubMed

    Klawonn, Frank; Jayaram, Balasubramaniam; Crull, Katja; Kukita, Akiko; Pessler, Frank

    2013-01-01

    Contingency tables are a very common basis for the investigation of effects of different treatments or influences on a disease or the health state of patients. Many journals put a strong emphasis on p-values to support the validity of results. Therefore, even small contingency tables are analysed by techniques like t-test or ANOVA. Both these concepts are based on normality assumptions for the underlying data. For larger data sets, this assumption is not so critical, since the underlying statistics are based on sums of (independent) random variables which can be assumed to follow approximately a normal distribution, at least for a larger number of summands. But for smaller data sets, the normality assumption can often not be justified. Robust methods like the Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney-U test or the Kruskal-Wallis test do not lead to statistically significant p-values for small samples. Median polish is a robust alternative to analyse contingency tables providing much more insight than just a p-value. Median polish is a technique that provides more information than just a p-value. It explains the contingency table in terms of an overall effect, row and columns effects and residuals. The underlying model for median polish is an additive model which is sometimes too restrictive. In this paper, we propose two related approach to generalise median polish. A power transformation can be applied to the values in the table, so that better results for median polish can be achieved. We propose a graphical method how to find a suitable power transformation. If the original data should be preserved, one can apply other transformations - based on so-called additive generators - that have an inverse transformation. In this way, median polish can be applied to the original data, but based on a non-additive model. The non-linearity of such a model can also be visualised to better understand the joint effects of rows and columns in a contingency table. PMID:25825662

  18. Genetic analysis shows low levels of hybridization between African wildcats (Felis silvestris lybica) and domestic cats (F. s. catus) in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Le Roux, Johannes J; Foxcroft, Llewellyn C; Herbst, Marna; MacFadyen, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    Hybridization between domestic and wild animals is a major concern for biodiversity conservation, and as habitats become increasingly fragmented, conserving biodiversity at all levels, including genetic, becomes increasingly important. Except for tropical forests and true deserts, African wildcats occur across the African continent; however, almost no work has been carried out to assess its genetic status and extent of hybridization with domestic cats. For example, in South Africa it has been argued that the long-term viability of maintaining pure wildcat populations lies in large protected areas only, isolated from human populations. Two of the largest protected areas in Africa, the Kgalagadi Transfrontier and Kruger National Parks, as well as the size of South Africa and range of landscape uses, provide a model situation to assess how habitat fragmentation and heterogeneity influences the genetic purity of African wildcats. Using population genetic and home range data, we examined the genetic purity of African wildcats and their suspected hybrids across South Africa, including areas within and outside of protected areas. Overall, we found African wildcat populations to be genetically relatively pure, but instances of hybridization and a significant relationship between the genetic distinctiveness (purity) of wildcats and human population pressure were evident. The genetically purest African wildcats were found in the Kgalagadi Transfrontier Park, while samples from around Kruger National Park showed cause for concern, especially combined with the substantial human population density along the park's boundary. While African wildcat populations in South Africa generally appear to be genetically pure, with low levels of hybridization, our genetic data do suggest that protected areas may play an important role in maintaining genetic purity by reducing the likelihood of contact with domestic cats. We suggest that approaches such as corridors between protected areas

  19. Genetic analysis shows low levels of hybridization between African wildcats (Felis silvestris lybica) and domestic cats (F. s. catus) in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Le Roux, Johannes J; Foxcroft, Llewellyn C; Herbst, Marna; MacFadyen, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    Hybridization between domestic and wild animals is a major concern for biodiversity conservation, and as habitats become increasingly fragmented, conserving biodiversity at all levels, including genetic, becomes increasingly important. Except for tropical forests and true deserts, African wildcats occur across the African continent; however, almost no work has been carried out to assess its genetic status and extent of hybridization with domestic cats. For example, in South Africa it has been argued that the long-term viability of maintaining pure wildcat populations lies in large protected areas only, isolated from human populations. Two of the largest protected areas in Africa, the Kgalagadi Transfrontier and Kruger National Parks, as well as the size of South Africa and range of landscape uses, provide a model situation to assess how habitat fragmentation and heterogeneity influences the genetic purity of African wildcats. Using population genetic and home range data, we examined the genetic purity of African wildcats and their suspected hybrids across South Africa, including areas within and outside of protected areas. Overall, we found African wildcat populations to be genetically relatively pure, but instances of hybridization and a significant relationship between the genetic distinctiveness (purity) of wildcats and human population pressure were evident. The genetically purest African wildcats were found in the Kgalagadi Transfrontier Park, while samples from around Kruger National Park showed cause for concern, especially combined with the substantial human population density along the park's boundary. While African wildcat populations in South Africa generally appear to be genetically pure, with low levels of hybridization, our genetic data do suggest that protected areas may play an important role in maintaining genetic purity by reducing the likelihood of contact with domestic cats. We suggest that approaches such as corridors between protected areas

  20. Pre-Restoration Habitat Use by Chinook Salmon in the Nisqually Estuary Using Otolith Analysis: An Additional Year

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lind-Null, Angie; Larsen, Kim

    2009-01-01

    The Nisqually Fall Chinook population is one of 27 stocks in the Puget Sound evolutionarily significant unit listed as threatened under the Federal Endangered Species Act (ESA). Preservation and extensive restoration of the Nisqually delta ecosystem is currently taking place to assist in recovery of the stock as juvenile Fall Chinook salmon are dependent upon the estuary. A pre-restoration baseline that includes characterization of life history types, estuary residence times, growth rates, and habitat use is needed to evaluate the potential response of hatchery and natural origin Chinook salmon to restoration efforts and determine restoration success. Otolith analysis was selected to examine Chinook salmon life history, growth, and residence in the Nisqually Estuary. Previously funded work on wild samples collected in 2004 established the growth rate and length of residence associated with various habitats. The purpose of the current study is to build on the previous work by incorporating otolith microstructure analysis from 2005 (second sampling year), to verify findings from 2004, and to evaluate between-year variation in otolith microstructure. Our results from this second year of analysis indicated no inter-annual variation in the appearance of the tidal delta check (TDCK) and delta-flats check (DFCK). However, a new life history type (fry migrant) was observed on samples collected in 2005. Fish caught in the tidal delta regardless of capture date spent an average of 17 days in the tidal delta. There was a corresponding increase in growth rate as the fish migrated from freshwater (FW) to tidal delta to nearshore (NS) habitats. Fish grew 33 percent faster in the tidal delta than in FW habitat and slightly faster (14 percent) in the delta flats (DF) habitat compared to the tidal delta.

  1. Performance Analysis of a New Coded TH-CDMA Scheme in Dispersive Infrared Channel with Additive Gaussian Noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamdi, Mazda; Kenari, Masoumeh Nasiri

    2013-06-01

    We consider a time-hopping based multiple access scheme introduced in [1] for communication over dispersive infrared links, and evaluate its performance for correlator and matched filter receivers. In the investigated time-hopping code division multiple access (TH-CDMA) method, the transmitter benefits a low rate convolutional encoder. In this method, the bit interval is divided into Nc chips and the output of the encoder along with a PN sequence assigned to the user determines the position of the chip in which the optical pulse is transmitted. We evaluate the multiple access performance of the system for correlation receiver considering background noise which is modeled as White Gaussian noise due to its large intensity. For the correlation receiver, the results show that for a fixed processing gain, at high transmit power, where the multiple access interference has the dominant effect, the performance improves by the coding gain. But at low transmit power, in which the increase of coding gain leads to the decrease of the chip time, and consequently, to more corruption due to the channel dispersion, there exists an optimum value for the coding gain. However, for the matched filter, the performance always improves by the coding gain. The results show that the matched filter receiver outperforms the correlation receiver in the considered cases. Our results show that, for the same bandwidth and bit rate, the proposed system excels other multiple access techniques, like conventional CDMA and time hopping scheme.

  2. Bayesian spatiotemporal analysis of zero-inflated biological population density data by a delta-normal spatiotemporal additive model.

    PubMed

    Arcuti, Simona; Pollice, Alessio; Ribecco, Nunziata; D'Onghia, Gianfranco

    2016-03-01

    We evaluate the spatiotemporal changes in the density of a particular species of crustacean known as deep-water rose shrimp, Parapenaeus longirostris, based on biological sample data collected during trawl surveys carried out from 1995 to 2006 as part of the international project MEDITS (MEDiterranean International Trawl Surveys). As is the case for many biological variables, density data are continuous and characterized by unusually large amounts of zeros, accompanied by a skewed distribution of the remaining values. Here we analyze the normalized density data by a Bayesian delta-normal semiparametric additive model including the effects of covariates, using penalized regression with low-rank thin-plate splines for nonlinear spatial and temporal effects. Modeling the zero and nonzero values by two joint processes, as we propose in this work, allows to obtain great flexibility and easily handling of complex likelihood functions, avoiding inaccurate statistical inferences due to misclassification of the high proportion of exact zeros in the model. Bayesian model estimation is obtained by Markov chain Monte Carlo simulations, suitably specifying the complex likelihood function of the zero-inflated density data. The study highlights relevant nonlinear spatial and temporal effects and the influence of the annual Mediterranean oscillations index and of the sea surface temperature on the distribution of the deep-water rose shrimp density. PMID:26418888

  3. Spectroscopic analysis of porphyrin compounds irradiated with visible light in chloroform with addition of β-myrcene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makarska-Bialokoz, Magdalena; Gladysz-Plaska, Agnieszka

    2016-12-01

    The behaviour of two porphyrins, 5,10,15,20-tetraphenyl-21H,23H-porphine (H2TPP) and 5,10,15,20-tetra(4-pyridyl)-21H, 23H-porphine (H2TPyP), as well as their Zn(II) complexes (ZnTPP and ZnTPyP), have been studied analysing their absorption and steady-state fluorescence spectra in chloroform with addition of β-myrcene. After irradiation with visible light the free-base porphyrins have been converted to the form of dication on account of hydrochloric acid generated as a result of chloroform decomposition induced by β-myrcene. Whereas in case of their Zn(II) complexes the mechanism of action is more complicated, leading presumably to the formation of the aggregated metalloporphyrin species with chloride ions playing the bridging role. The pseudo-first-order rate constants of the absorption quenching process were calculated for all the systems examined, with respect to the porphyrin concentration. The most effective irradiation was observed in case of H2TPP porphyrin.

  4. The Addition of Noncondensable Gases into RELAP5-3D for Analysis of High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    C. B. Davis; C. H. Oh

    2003-08-01

    Oxygen, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide have been added to the RELAP5-3D computer code as noncondensable gases to support analysis of high temperature gas-cooled reactors. Models of these gases are required to simulate the effects of air ingress on graphite oxidation following a loss-of-coolant accident. Correlations were developed for specific internal energy, thermal conductivity, and viscosity for each gas at temperatures up to 3000 K. The existing model for internal energy (a quadratic function of temperature) was not sufficiently accurate at these high temperatures and was replaced by a more general, fourth-order polynomial. The maximum deviation between the correlations and the underlying data was 2.2% for the specific internal energy and 7% for the specific heat capacity at constant volume. The maximum deviation in the transport properties was 4% for oxygen and carbon monoxide and 12% for carbon dioxide.

  5. Polyimide processing additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fletcher, James C. (Inventor); Pratt, J. Richard (Inventor); St.clair, Terry L. (Inventor); Stoakley, Diane M. (Inventor); Burks, Harold D. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A process for preparing polyimides having enhanced melt flow properties is described. The process consists of heating a mixture of a high molecular weight poly-(amic acid) or polyimide with a low molecular weight amic acid or imide additive in the range of 0.05 to 15 percent by weight of additive. The polyimide powders so obtained show improved processability, as evidenced by lower melt viscosity by capillary rheometry. Likewise, films prepared from mixtures of polymers with additives show improved processability with earlier onset of stretching by TMA.

  6. Polyimide processing additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pratt, J. Richard (Inventor); St.clair, Terry L. (Inventor); Stoakley, Diane M. (Inventor); Burks, Harold D. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A process for preparing polyimides having enhanced melt flow properties is described. The process consists of heating a mixture of a high molecular weight poly-(amic acid) or polyimide with a low molecular weight amic acid or imide additive in the range of 0.05 to 15 percent by weight of the additive. The polyimide powders so obtained show improved processability, as evidenced by lower melt viscosity by capillary rheometry. Likewise, films prepared from mixtures of polymers with additives show improved processability with earlier onset of stretching by TMA.

  7. Analysis of the Diversity of Substrate Utilisation of Soil Bacteria Exposed to Cd and Earthworm Activity Using Generalised Additive Models

    PubMed Central

    Muñiz, Selene; Lacarta, Juan; Pata, María P.; Jiménez, Juan José; Navarro, Enrique

    2014-01-01

    Biolog EcoPlates™ can be used to measure the carbon substrate utilisation patterns of microbial communities. This method results in a community-level physiological profile (CLPP), which yields a very large amount of data that may be difficult to interpret. In this work, we explore a combination of statistical techniques (particularly the use of generalised additive models [GAMs]) to improve the exploitation of CLPP data. The strength of GAMs lies in their ability to address highly non-linear relationships between the response and the set of explanatory variables. We studied the impact of earthworms (Aporrectodea caliginosa Savigny 1826) and cadmium (Cd) on the CLPP of soil bacteria. The results indicated that both Cd and earthworms modified the CLPP. GAMs were used to assess time-course changes in the diversity of substrate utilisation (DSU) using the Shannon-Wiener index. GAMs revealed significant differences for all treatments (compared to control -S-). The Cd exposed microbial community presented very high metabolic capacities on a few substrata, resulting in an initial acute decrease of DSU (i.e. intense utilization of a few carbon substrata). After 54 h, and over the next 43 h the increase of the DSU suggest that other taxa, less dominant, reached high numbers in the wells containing sources that are less suitable for the Cd-tolerant taxa. Earthworms were a much more determining factor in explaining time course changes in DSU than Cd. Accordingly, Ew and EwCd soils presented similar trends, regardless the presence of Cd. Moreover, both treatments presented similar number of bacteria and higher than Cd-treated soils. This experimental approach, based on the use of DSU and GAMs allowed for a global and statistically relevant interpretation of the changes in carbon source utilisation, highlighting the key role of earthworms on the protection of microbial communities against the Cd. PMID:24416339

  8. Meta-analysis of gene–environment-wide association scans accounting for education level identifies additional loci for refractive error

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Qiao; Verhoeven, Virginie J. M.; Wojciechowski, Robert; Barathi, Veluchamy A.; Hysi, Pirro G.; Guggenheim, Jeremy A.; Höhn, René; Vitart, Veronique; Khawaja, Anthony P.; Yamashiro, Kenji; Hosseini, S Mohsen; Lehtimäki, Terho; Lu, Yi; Haller, Toomas; Xie, Jing; Delcourt, Cécile; Pirastu, Mario; Wedenoja, Juho; Gharahkhani, Puya; Venturini, Cristina; Miyake, Masahiro; Hewitt, Alex W.; Guo, Xiaobo; Mazur, Johanna; Huffman, Jenifer E.; Williams, Katie M.; Polasek, Ozren; Campbell, Harry; Rudan, Igor; Vatavuk, Zoran; Wilson, James F.; Joshi, Peter K.; McMahon, George; St Pourcain, Beate; Evans, David M.; Simpson, Claire L.; Schwantes-An, Tae-Hwi; Igo, Robert P.; Mirshahi, Alireza; Cougnard-Gregoire, Audrey; Bellenguez, Céline; Blettner, Maria; Raitakari, Olli; Kähönen, Mika; Seppala, Ilkka; Zeller, Tanja; Meitinger, Thomas; Ried, Janina S.; Gieger, Christian; Portas, Laura; van Leeuwen, Elisabeth M.; Amin, Najaf; Uitterlinden, André G.; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Hofman, Albert; Vingerling, Johannes R.; Wang, Ya Xing; Wang, Xu; Tai-Hui Boh, Eileen; Ikram, M. Kamran; Sabanayagam, Charumathi; Gupta, Preeti; Tan, Vincent; Zhou, Lei; Ho, Candice E. H.; Lim, Wan'e; Beuerman, Roger W.; Siantar, Rosalynn; Tai, E-Shyong; Vithana, Eranga; Mihailov, Evelin; Khor, Chiea-Chuen; Hayward, Caroline; Luben, Robert N.; Foster, Paul J.; Klein, Barbara E. K.; Klein, Ronald; Wong, Hoi-Suen; Mitchell, Paul; Metspalu, Andres; Aung, Tin; Young, Terri L.; He, Mingguang; Pärssinen, Olavi; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Jin Wang, Jie; Williams, Cathy; Jonas, Jost B.; Teo, Yik-Ying; Mackey, David A.; Oexle, Konrad; Yoshimura, Nagahisa; Paterson, Andrew D.; Pfeiffer, Norbert; Wong, Tien-Yin; Baird, Paul N.; Stambolian, Dwight; Wilson, Joan E. Bailey; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Hammond, Christopher J.; Klaver, Caroline C. W.; Saw, Seang-Mei; Rahi, Jugnoo S.; Korobelnik, Jean-François; Kemp, John P.; Timpson, Nicholas J.; Smith, George Davey; Craig, Jamie E.; Burdon, Kathryn P.; Fogarty, Rhys D.; Iyengar, Sudha K.; Chew, Emily; Janmahasatian, Sarayut; Martin, Nicholas G.; MacGregor, Stuart; Xu, Liang; Schache, Maria; Nangia, Vinay; Panda-Jonas, Songhomitra; Wright, Alan F.; Fondran, Jeremy R.; Lass, Jonathan H.; Feng, Sheng; Zhao, Jing Hua; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick J.; Rantanen, Taina; Kaprio, Jaakko; Pang, Chi Pui; Chen, Li Jia; Tam, Pancy O.; Jhanji, Vishal; Young, Alvin L.; Döring, Angela; Raffel, Leslie J.; Cotch, Mary-Frances; Li, Xiaohui; Yip, Shea Ping; Yap, Maurice K.H.; Biino, Ginevra; Vaccargiu, Simona; Fossarello, Maurizio; Fleck, Brian; Yazar, Seyhan; Tideman, Jan Willem L.; Tedja, Milly; Deangelis, Margaret M.; Morrison, Margaux; Farrer, Lindsay; Zhou, Xiangtian; Chen, Wei; Mizuki, Nobuhisa; Meguro, Akira; Mäkelä, Kari Matti

    2016-01-01

    Myopia is the most common human eye disorder and it results from complex genetic and environmental causes. The rapidly increasing prevalence of myopia poses a major public health challenge. Here, the CREAM consortium performs a joint meta-analysis to test single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) main effects and SNP × education interaction effects on refractive error in 40,036 adults from 25 studies of European ancestry and 10,315 adults from 9 studies of Asian ancestry. In European ancestry individuals, we identify six novel loci (FAM150B-ACP1, LINC00340, FBN1, DIS3L-MAP2K1, ARID2-SNAT1 and SLC14A2) associated with refractive error. In Asian populations, three genome-wide significant loci AREG, GABRR1 and PDE10A also exhibit strong interactions with education (P<8.5 × 10−5), whereas the interactions are less evident in Europeans. The discovery of these loci represents an important advance in understanding how gene and environment interactions contribute to the heterogeneity of myopia. PMID:27020472

  9. Theoretical study of the molecular force field and vibration analysis of the hydrogen cyanide addition compound with boron tribromide.

    PubMed

    Hase, Y

    2010-01-01

    An extensive HF, MP2, B3LYP and CCSD study of the molecular structure, force field and normal vibrations has been carried out for the hydrogen cyanide compound with boron tribromide. Most of the calculations agree that the HCN-BBr(3) molecule belongs to C(3v) point group and has a N-B length of 1.55-1.70 A and a N-B-Br angle of 103-105 degrees. These calculations also have estimated the missing low-wavenumber fundamentals in the 190 (nu(5)), 150 (nu(9)) and 105 cm(-1) (nu(10)) regions, instead of the supposed fundamentals at 207, 188 and 150 cm(-1), respectively, based on the combination bands. The quantum chemical force constants, by the B3LYP/6-31G and CCSD/3-21G calculations, have been adjusted by the scaling factors to reproduce the fundamentals in the literature [3] to include the bands below 200 cm(-1) proposed in this study. Normal coordinate analysis using the scaled force constants has been performed to interpret the molecular vibrations of four isotopic molecules, HCN-(10)BBr(3), HCN-(11)BBr(3), DCN-(10)BBr(3) and DCN-(11)BBr(3). PMID:19955013

  10. Theoretical study of the molecular force field and vibration analysis of the hydrogen cyanide addition compound with boron tribromide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hase, Y.

    2010-01-01

    An extensive HF, MP2, B3LYP and CCSD study of the molecular structure, force field and normal vibrations has been carried out for the hydrogen cyanide compound with boron tribromide. Most of the calculations agree that the HCN-BBr 3 molecule belongs to C3v point group and has a N-B length of 1.55-1.70 Å and a N-B-Br angle of 103-105°. These calculations also have estimated the missing low-wavenumber fundamentals in the 190 ( ν5), 150 ( ν9) and 105 cm -1 ( ν10) regions, instead of the supposed fundamentals at 207, 188 and 150 cm -1, respectively, based on the combination bands. The quantum chemical force constants, by the B3LYP/6-31G and CCSD/3-21G calculations, have been adjusted by the scaling factors to reproduce the fundamentals in the literature [3] to include the bands below 200 cm -1 proposed in this study. Normal coordinate analysis using the scaled force constants has been performed to interpret the molecular vibrations of four isotopic molecules, HCN- 10BBr 3, HCN- 11BBr 3, DCN- 10BBr 3 and DCN- 11BBr 3.

  11. Meta-analysis of gene-environment-wide association scans accounting for education level identifies additional loci for refractive error.

    PubMed

    Fan, Qiao; Verhoeven, Virginie J M; Wojciechowski, Robert; Barathi, Veluchamy A; Hysi, Pirro G; Guggenheim, Jeremy A; Höhn, René; Vitart, Veronique; Khawaja, Anthony P; Yamashiro, Kenji; Hosseini, S Mohsen; Lehtimäki, Terho; Lu, Yi; Haller, Toomas; Xie, Jing; Delcourt, Cécile; Pirastu, Mario; Wedenoja, Juho; Gharahkhani, Puya; Venturini, Cristina; Miyake, Masahiro; Hewitt, Alex W; Guo, Xiaobo; Mazur, Johanna; Huffman, Jenifer E; Williams, Katie M; Polasek, Ozren; Campbell, Harry; Rudan, Igor; Vatavuk, Zoran; Wilson, James F; Joshi, Peter K; McMahon, George; St Pourcain, Beate; Evans, David M; Simpson, Claire L; Schwantes-An, Tae-Hwi; Igo, Robert P; Mirshahi, Alireza; Cougnard-Gregoire, Audrey; Bellenguez, Céline; Blettner, Maria; Raitakari, Olli; Kähönen, Mika; Seppala, Ilkka; Zeller, Tanja; Meitinger, Thomas; Ried, Janina S; Gieger, Christian; Portas, Laura; van Leeuwen, Elisabeth M; Amin, Najaf; Uitterlinden, André G; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Hofman, Albert; Vingerling, Johannes R; Wang, Ya Xing; Wang, Xu; Tai-Hui Boh, Eileen; Ikram, M Kamran; Sabanayagam, Charumathi; Gupta, Preeti; Tan, Vincent; Zhou, Lei; Ho, Candice E H; Lim, Wan'e; Beuerman, Roger W; Siantar, Rosalynn; Tai, E-Shyong; Vithana, Eranga; Mihailov, Evelin; Khor, Chiea-Chuen; Hayward, Caroline; Luben, Robert N; Foster, Paul J; Klein, Barbara E K; Klein, Ronald; Wong, Hoi-Suen; Mitchell, Paul; Metspalu, Andres; Aung, Tin; Young, Terri L; He, Mingguang; Pärssinen, Olavi; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Jin Wang, Jie; Williams, Cathy; Jonas, Jost B; Teo, Yik-Ying; Mackey, David A; Oexle, Konrad; Yoshimura, Nagahisa; Paterson, Andrew D; Pfeiffer, Norbert; Wong, Tien-Yin; Baird, Paul N; Stambolian, Dwight; Wilson, Joan E Bailey; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Hammond, Christopher J; Klaver, Caroline C W; Saw, Seang-Mei; Rahi, Jugnoo S; Korobelnik, Jean-François; Kemp, John P; Timpson, Nicholas J; Smith, George Davey; Craig, Jamie E; Burdon, Kathryn P; Fogarty, Rhys D; Iyengar, Sudha K; Chew, Emily; Janmahasatian, Sarayut; Martin, Nicholas G; MacGregor, Stuart; Xu, Liang; Schache, Maria; Nangia, Vinay; Panda-Jonas, Songhomitra; Wright, Alan F; Fondran, Jeremy R; Lass, Jonathan H; Feng, Sheng; Zhao, Jing Hua; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick J; Rantanen, Taina; Kaprio, Jaakko; Pang, Chi Pui; Chen, Li Jia; Tam, Pancy O; Jhanji, Vishal; Young, Alvin L; Döring, Angela; Raffel, Leslie J; Cotch, Mary-Frances; Li, Xiaohui; Yip, Shea Ping; Yap, Maurice K H; Biino, Ginevra; Vaccargiu, Simona; Fossarello, Maurizio; Fleck, Brian; Yazar, Seyhan; Tideman, Jan Willem L; Tedja, Milly; Deangelis, Margaret M; Morrison, Margaux; Farrer, Lindsay; Zhou, Xiangtian; Chen, Wei; Mizuki, Nobuhisa; Meguro, Akira; Mäkelä, Kari Matti

    2016-01-01

    Myopia is the most common human eye disorder and it results from complex genetic and environmental causes. The rapidly increasing prevalence of myopia poses a major public health challenge. Here, the CREAM consortium performs a joint meta-analysis to test single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) main effects and SNP × education interaction effects on refractive error in 40,036 adults from 25 studies of European ancestry and 10,315 adults from 9 studies of Asian ancestry. In European ancestry individuals, we identify six novel loci (FAM150B-ACP1, LINC00340, FBN1, DIS3L-MAP2K1, ARID2-SNAT1 and SLC14A2) associated with refractive error. In Asian populations, three genome-wide significant loci AREG, GABRR1 and PDE10A also exhibit strong interactions with education (P<8.5 × 10(-5)), whereas the interactions are less evident in Europeans. The discovery of these loci represents an important advance in understanding how gene and environment interactions contribute to the heterogeneity of myopia. PMID:27020472

  12. Well-to-Wheels analysis of landfill gas-based pathways and their addition to the GREET model.

    SciTech Connect

    Mintz, M.; Han, J.; Wang, M.; Saricks, C.; Energy Systems

    2010-06-30

    Today, approximately 300 million standard cubic ft/day (mmscfd) of natural gas and 1600 MW of electricity are produced from the decomposition of organic waste at 519 U.S. landfills (EPA 2010a). Since landfill gas (LFG) is a renewable resource, this energy is considered renewable. When used as a vehicle fuel, compressed natural gas (CNG) produced from LFG consumes up to 185,000 Btu of fossil fuel and generates from 1.5 to 18.4 kg of carbon dioxide-equivalent (CO{sub 2}e) emissions per million Btu of fuel on a 'well-to-wheel' (WTW) basis. This compares with approximately 1.1 million Btu and 78.2 kg of CO{sub 2}e per million Btu for CNG from fossil natural gas and 1.2 million Btu and 97.5 kg of CO{sub 2}e per million Btu for petroleum gasoline. Because of the additional energy required for liquefaction, LFG-based liquefied natural gas (LNG) requires more fossil fuel (222,000-227,000 Btu/million Btu WTW) and generates more GHG emissions (approximately 22 kg CO{sub 2}e /MM Btu WTW) if grid electricity is used for the liquefaction process. However, if some of the LFG is used to generate electricity for gas cleanup and liquefaction (or compression, in the case of CNG), vehicle fuel produced from LFG can have no fossil fuel input and only minimal GHG emissions (1.5-7.7 kg CO{sub 2}e /MM Btu) on a WTW basis. Thus, LFG-based natural gas can be one of the lowest GHG-emitting fuels for light- or heavy-duty vehicles. This report discusses the size and scope of biomethane resources from landfills and the pathways by which those resources can be turned into and utilized as vehicle fuel. It includes characterizations of the LFG stream and the processes used to convert low-Btu LFG into high-Btu renewable natural gas (RNG); documents the conversion efficiencies and losses of those processes, the choice of processes modeled in GREET, and other assumptions used to construct GREET pathways; and presents GREET results by pathway stage. GREET estimates of well-to-pump (WTP), pump

  13. Showing "F = BIL" Using Video Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Leon; Parker, David; Brown, Carl; Ireson, Gren

    2011-01-01

    The force on a current-carrying conductor in a magnetic field is a common aspect of post-16 physics courses. Many textbooks approach this topic via a current balance, e.g. Hutchins (1990) through to Duncan (2000), with websites such as "Practical Physics" giving a qualitative version. This article takes the approach of equating "F = BIL"sin[theta]…

  14. Microarray Analysis of Gene Expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae kap108Δ Mutants upon Addition of Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Belanger, Kenneth D.; Larson, Nathaniel; Kahn, Jonathan; Tkachev, Dmitry; Ay, Ahmet

    2016-01-01

    Protein transport between the nucleus and cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells is tightly regulated, providing a mechanism for controlling intracellular localization of proteins, and regulating gene expression. In this study, we have investigated the importance of nucleocytoplasmic transport mediated by the karyopherin Kap108 in regulating cellular responses to oxidative stress in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We carried out microarray analyses on wild-type and kap108 mutant cells grown under normal conditions, shortly after introduction of oxidative stress, after 1 hr of oxidative stress, and 1 hr after oxidative stress was removed. We observe more than 500 genes that undergo a 40% or greater change in differential expression between wild-type and kap108Δ cells under at least one of these conditions. Genes undergoing changes in expression can be categorized in two general groups: 1) those that are differentially expressed between wild-type and kap108Δ cells, no matter the oxidative stress conditions; and 2) those that have patterns of response dependent upon both the absence of Kap108, and introduction or removal of oxidative stress. Gene ontology analysis reveals that, among the genes whose expression is reduced in the absence of Kap108 are those involved in stress response and intracellular transport, while those overexpressed are largely involved in mating and pheromone response. We also identified 25 clusters of genes that undergo similar patterns of change in gene expression when oxidative stresses are added and subsequently removed, including genes involved in stress response, oxidation–reduction processing, iron homeostasis, ascospore wall assembly, transmembrane transport, and cell fusion during mating. These data suggest that Kap108 is important for regulating expression of genes involved in a variety of specific cell functions. PMID:26888869

  15. Isotope dilution-GC-MS/MS analysis of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in selected medicinal herbs used as health food additives.

    PubMed

    Yu, L; Cao, Y; Zhang, J; Cui, Z; Sun, H

    2012-01-01

    Medicinal herbs have a very important role in health protection and disease control, and have been used in health foods. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have carcinogenic, biological and mutagenic effects. In this paper, the content of 16 PAHs as representative contaminants in nine Chinese medicinal herbs, as additives for health foods, was investigated in order to ensure food safety from this source. A highly sensitive isotope dilution-gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (ID-GC-MS/MS) method combined with gel permeation chromatography (GPC) and solid-phase extraction (SPE) was developed. Calibration curves showed good linearity for all PAHs (R² > 0.999), and the limit of quantification (LOQ) ranged from 0.42 to 2.7 µg kg⁻¹. Average recoveries for these compounds were in the range of 52.5-117%, 52.6-119% and 81.4-108% at the concentrations of 10, 50 and 250 µg kg⁻¹ with RSD of 1.8-15%, 0.9-15% and 1.0-15%, respectively. The proposed method was used for the analysis of nine Chinese medicinal herbs. Total levels of PAHs varied from 98.2 µg kg⁻¹ (cassia seed) to 2245 µg kg⁻¹ (eucommia bark). The highest level was found for phenanthrene (Phe) in liquorice root (631.3 µg kg⁻¹), indigowoad leaf (551.0 µg kg⁻¹), rose flower (435.2 µg kg⁻¹) and eucommia bark (432.3 µg kg⁻¹). The proposed method could provide a useful basis for safety monitoring of herbs and risk management for PAHs in the health food industry. PMID:22870881

  16. Effects of Rhenium Addition on the Temporal Evolution of the Nanostructure and Chemistry of a Model Ni-Cr-Al Superalloy. 2; Analysis of the Coarsening Behavior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yoon, Kevin E.; Noebe, Ronald D.; Seidman, David N.

    2007-01-01

    The temporal evolution of the nanostructure and chemistry of a model Ni-8.5 at.% Cr-10 at.% Al alloy with the addition of 2 at.% Re was studied using transmission electron microscopy and atom-probe tomography in order to measure the number density and mean radius of the y' (LIZ) precipitates and the chemistry of the y'-precipitates and the y (fcc)-matrix. In this article, the coarsening behavior of the y'-precipitates is discussed in detail and compared with the Umantsev-Olson model for multi-component alloys. In addition, the experimental results are evaluated with PrecipiCalc(TradeMark) simulations. The results show that the diffusivities of the solute elements play a major role in the coarsening behavior of the y'-precipitates and that the addition of Re retards the coarsening kinetics and stabilizes the spheroidal morphology of the precipitates by reducing the interfacial energy.

  17. Restricted access chiral stationary phase synthesized via reversible addition-fragmentation chain-transfer polymerization for direct analysis of biological samples by high performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Song, Wen-Jun; Wei, Ji-Ping; Wang, Su-Ying; Wang, Huai-Song

    2014-06-17

    Novel hydrophilic microparticles containing β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) were prepared via one-pot synthesis using reversible addition-fragmentation chain-transfer (RAFT) precipitation polymerization, a "controlled/living" radical polymerization technique. The polymerization was initiated by hydrophilic macromolecular chain-transfer agent [poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate), PHEMA]. The hydrophilic PHEMA on the surface of microparticles can well improve their surface hydrophilicity and lead to their biological compatibility. As chiral restricted access material (RAM), the hydrophilic microparticles can be used for determination of enantiomers in biological samples with direct injection via HPLC analysis. PMID:24890695

  18. Total System Performance Assessment-License Application Design Selection (LADS) Phase 1 Analysis of Surface Modification Consisting of Addition of Alluvium (Feature 23a)

    SciTech Connect

    N. Erb

    1999-06-11

    The objective of this report is to document the analysis that was conducted to evaluate the effect of a potential change to the TSPA-VA base case design that could improve long-term repository performance. The design feature evaluated in this report is a modification of the topographic surface of Yucca Mountain. The modification consists of covering the land surface immediately above the repository foot-print with a thick layer of unconsolidated material utilizing rip-rap and plants to mitigate erosion. This surface modification is designated as Feature 23a or simply abbreviated as F23a. The fundamental aim of F23a is to reduce the net infiltration into the unsaturated zone by enhancing the potential for evapotranspiratiration at the surface; such a change would, in turn, reduce the seepage flux and the rate of radionuclide releases from the repository. Field and modeling studies of water movement in the unsaturated zone have indicated that shallow infiltration at the surface is almost negligible in locations where the bedrock is covered by a sufficiently thick soil layer. In addition to providing storage for meteoric water, a thick soil layer would slow the downward movement of soil moisture to such an extent that evaporation and transpiration could easily transfer most of the soil-water back to the atmosphere. Generic requirements for the effectiveness of this design feature are two-fold. First, the soil layer above the repository foot-print must be thick enough to provide sufficient storage of meteoric water (from episodic precipitation events) and accommodate plant roots. Second, the added soil layer must be engineered so as to mitigate thinning by erosional processes and have sufficient thickness to accommodate the roots of common desert plants. Under these two conditions, it is reasonable to expect that modification would be effective for a significant time period and the net infiltration and deep percolation flux would be reduced by orders of magnitude lower

  19. Efficacy of the Additional Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy to Concurrent Chemoradiotherapy for Patients with Locoregionally Advanced Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma: a Bayesian Network Meta-analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yu-Pei; Guo, Rui; Liu, Na; Liu, Xu; Mao, Yan-Ping; Tang, Ling-Long; Zhou, Guan-Qun; Lin, Ai-Hua; Sun, Ying; Ma, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Background: Due to the lack of studies, it remains unclear whether the additional neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) to concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) is superior to CCRT alone for locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). The main objective of this Bayesian network meta-analysis was to determine the efficacy of NACT+CCRT as compared with CCRT alone. Methods: We comprehensively searched databases and extracted data from randomized controlled trials involving NPC patients who received NACT+CCRT, CCRT, NACT+radiotherapy (RT), or RT. Overall survival (OS) with hazard ratio (HR), and locoregional recurrence rate (LRR) and distant metastasis rate (DMR) with relative risks (RRs), were concerned. Results: Nine trials involving 1988 patients were analyzed. In the network meta-analysis, there was significant benefit of NACT+CCRT over CCRT for DMR (RR=0.54, 95% credible interval [CrI]=0.27-0.94). However, NACT+CCRT had a tendency to worsen locoregional control significantly as compared with CCRT (RR =1.71, 95%CrI =0.94-2.84), and no significant improvement in OS was found (HR =0.73, 95%CrI=0.40-1.23). Conclusions: NACT+CCRT is associated with reduced distant failure as compared with CCRT alone, and whether the additional NACT can improve survival for locoregionally advanced NPC should be further explored. Optimizing regimens and identifying patients at high risk of metastasis may enhance the efficacy of NACT+CCRT. PMID:26284140

  20. Mutation analysis of TMC1 identifies four new mutations and suggests an additional deafness gene at locus DFNA36-DFNB7/11

    PubMed Central

    Hilgert, Nele; Alasti, Fatemeh; Dieltjens, Nele; Pawlik, Barbara; Wollnik, Bernd; Uyguner, Oya; Delmaghani, Sedigheh; Weil, Dominique; Petit, Christine; Danis, Evi; Yang, Tao; Pandelia, Efthimia; Petersen, Michael B.; Goossens, Dirk; Favero, Jurgen Del; Sanati, Mohammad Hossein; Smith, Richard JH; Van Camp, Guy

    2016-01-01

    Hearing loss is the most frequent sensorineural disorder, affecting 1 in 1000 newborns. In more than half of these babies, the hearing loss is inherited. Hereditary hearing loss is a very heterogeneous trait, with about 100 gene localizations and 44 gene identifications for nonsyndromic hearing loss. TMC1 has been identified as the disease-causing gene for autosomal dominant and autosomal recessive nonsyndromic hearing loss at the DFNA36 and DFNB7/11 loci, respectively. To date, two dominant and 18 recessive TMC1 mutations have been reported as the cause of hearing loss in 34 families. In this report, we describe linkage to DFNA36 and DFNB7/11 in one family with dominant and 10 families with recessive nonsyndromic sensorineural hearing loss. In addition, mutation analysis of TMC1 was performed in 51 familial Turkish patients with autosomal recessive hearing loss. TMC1 mutations were identified in seven of the families segregating recessive hearing loss. The pathogenic variants we found included two known mutations, c.100C>T and c.1165C>T, and four new mutations, c.2350C>T, c.776+1G>A, c.767_768del and c.1166G>A. The absence of TMC1 mutations in the remaining six linked families implies the presence of mutations outside the coding region of this gene, or alternatively, at least one additional deafness-causing gene in this region. The analysis of copy number variations in TMC1 as well as DNA sequencing of 15 additional candidate genes did not reveal any proven pathogenic changes, leaving both hypotheses open. PMID:18616530

  1. The performance improvement of automatic classification among obstructive lung diseases on the basis of the features of shape analysis, in addition to texture analysis at HRCT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Youngjoo; Kim, Namkug; Seo, Joon Beom; Lee, JuneGoo; Kang, Suk Ho

    2007-03-01

    In this paper, we proposed novel shape features to improve classification performance of differentiating obstructive lung diseases, based on HRCT (High Resolution Computerized Tomography) images. The images were selected from HRCT images, obtained from 82 subjects. For each image, two experienced radiologists selected rectangular ROIs with various sizes (16x16, 32x32, and 64x64 pixels), representing each disease or normal lung parenchyma. Besides thirteen textural features, we employed additional seven shape features; cluster shape features, and Top-hat transform features. To evaluate the contribution of shape features for differentiation of obstructive lung diseases, several experiments were conducted with two different types of classifiers and various ROI sizes. For automated classification, the Bayesian classifier and support vector machine (SVM) were implemented. To assess the performance and cross-validation of the system, 5-folding method was used. In comparison to employing only textural features, adding shape features yields significant enhancement of overall sensitivity(5.9, 5.4, 4.4% in the Bayesian and 9.0, 7.3, 5.3% in the SVM), in the order of ROI size 16x16, 32x32, 64x64 pixels, respectively (t-test, p<0.01). Moreover, this enhancement was largely due to the improvement on class-specific sensitivity of mild centrilobular emphysema and bronchiolitis obliterans which are most hard to differentiate for radiologists. According to these experimental results, adding shape features to conventional texture features is much useful to improve classification performance of obstructive lung diseases in both Bayesian and SVM classifiers.

  2. VIEW SHOWING WEST ELEVATION, EAST SIDE OF MEYER AVENUE. SHOWS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW SHOWING WEST ELEVATION, EAST SIDE OF MEYER AVENUE. SHOWS 499-501, MUNOZ HOUSE (AZ-73-37) ON FAR RIGHT - Antonio Bustamente House, 485-489 South Meyer Avenue & 186 West Kennedy Street, Tucson, Pima County, AZ

  3. 15. Detail showing lower chord pinconnected to vertical member, showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Detail showing lower chord pin-connected to vertical member, showing floor beam riveted to extension of vertical member below pin-connection, and showing brackets supporting cantilevered sidewalk. View to southwest. - Selby Avenue Bridge, Spanning Short Line Railways track at Selby Avenue between Hamline & Snelling Avenues, Saint Paul, Ramsey County, MN

  4. Performance analysis of precoding-based asymmetrically clipped optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing wireless system in additive white Gaussian noise and indoor multipath channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranjha, Bilal; Zhou, Zhou; Kavehrad, Mohsen

    2014-08-01

    We have compared the bit error rate (BER) performance of precoding-based asymmetrically clipped optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (ACO-OFDM) and pulse amplitude modulated discrete multitone (PAM-DMT) optical wireless (OW) systems in additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) and indoor multipath frequency selective channel. Simulation and analytical results show that precoding schemes such as discrete Fourier transform, discrete cosine transform, and Zadoff-Chu sequences do not affect the performance of the OW systems in the AWGN channel while they do reduce the peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR) of the OFDM output signal. However, in a multipath indoor channel, using zero forcing frequency domain equalization precoding-based systems give better BER performance than their conventional counterparts. With additional clipping to further reduce the PAPR, precoding-based systems also show better BER performance compared to nonprecoded systems when clipped relative to the peak of nonprecoded systems. Therefore, precoding-based ACO-OFDM and PAM-DMT systems offer better BER performance, zero signaling overhead, and low PAPR compared to conventional systems.

  5. Transcriptome analysis of genes related to resistance against powdery mildew in wheat-Thinopyrum alien addition disomic line germplasm SN6306.

    PubMed

    Li, Quanquan; Niu, Zubiao; Bao, Yinguang; Tian, Qiuju; Wang, Honggang; Kong, Lingrang; Feng, Deshun

    2016-09-15

    Wheat powdery mildew, which is mainly caused by Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici (Bgt), seriously damages wheat production. The wheat-Thinopyrum intermedium alien addition disomic line germplasm SN6306, being one of the important sources of genes for wheat resistance, is highly resistant to Bgt E09 and to many other powdery mildew physiological races. However, knowledge on the resistance mechanism of SN6306 remains limited. Our study employed high-throughput RNA sequencing based on next-generation sequencing technology (Illumina) to obtain an overview of the transcriptome characteristics of SN6306 and its parent wheat Yannong 15 (YN15) during Bgt infection. The sequencing generated 104,773 unigenes, 9909 of which showed varied expression levels. Among the 9909 unigenes, 1678 unigenes showed 0 reads in YN15. The expression levels in Bgt-inoculated SN6306 and YN15 of exactly 39 unigenes that showed 0 or considerably low reads in YN15 were validated to identify the genes involved in Bgt resistance. Among the 39 unigenes, 12 unigenes were upregulated in SN6306 by 3-45 times. These unigenes mainly encoded kinase, synthase, proteases, and signal transduction proteins, which may play an important role in the resistance against Bgt. To confirm whether the unigenes that showed 0 reads in YN15 are really unique to SN6306, 8 unigenes were cloned and sequenced. Results showed that the selected unigenes are more similar to SN6306 and Th. intermedium than to the wheat cultivar YN15. The sequencing results further confirmed that the unigenes showing 0 reads in YN15 are unique to SN6306 and are most likely derived from Th. intermedium (Host) Nevski. Thus, the genes from Th. intermedium most probably conferred the resistance of SN6306 to Bgt. PMID:27265028

  6. 2D Raman correlation analysis of formation mechanism of passivating film on overcharged LiCoO2 electrode with additive system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Yeonju; Shin, Su Hyun; Lee, Sung Man; Kim, Sung Phil; Choi, Hyun Chul; Jung, Young Mee

    2014-07-01

    The effect of vinylene carbonate (VC) as solid electrolyte interface (SEI)-forming additive on the electrochemical performance of the LiCoO2 cathode was investigated by galvanostatic charge-discharge testing as well as Raman and 2D correlation spectroscopy. It was found that VC-containing electrolyte has a positive effect on capacity fading. An analysis of the 2D Raman correlation spectra suggested that even though the same SEI components (i.e., Co3O4 and Li2O) are produced on the cathode surface, the electrochemical reaction kinetics in the cathode/electrolyte interface differ according to the non-use or use of VC: in the latter case, formation of the SEI components is delayed.

  7. 28. MAP SHOWING LOCATION OF ARVFS FACILITY AS BUILT. SHOWS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. MAP SHOWING LOCATION OF ARVFS FACILITY AS BUILT. SHOWS LINCOLN BOULEVARD, BIG LOST RIVER, AND NAVAL REACTORS FACILITY. F.C. TORKELSON DRAWING NUMBER 842-ARVFS-101-2. DATED OCTOBER 12, 1965. INEL INDEX CODE NUMBER: 075 0101 851 151969. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Advanced Reentry Vehicle Fusing System, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  8. 8. Detail showing concrete abutment, showing substructure of bridge, specifically ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Detail showing concrete abutment, showing substructure of bridge, specifically west side of arch and substructure. - Presumpscot Falls Bridge, Spanning Presumptscot River at Allen Avenue extension, 0.75 mile west of U.S. Interstate 95, Falmouth, Cumberland County, ME

  9. Market surveillance on non-halal additives incorporated in surimi based products using polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-southern hybridization analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aravindran, S.; Sahilah, A. M.; Aminah, A.

    2014-09-01

    Halal surveillance on halal ingredients incorporated in surimi based products were studied using polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-southern hybridization on chip analysis. The primers used in this technique were targeted on mitochondria DNA (mtDNA) of cytochrome b (cyt b) gene sequence which able to differentiate 7 type (beef, chicken, duck, goat, buffalo, lamb and pork) of species on a single chip. 17 (n = 17*3) different brands of surimi-based product were purchased randomly from Selangor local market in January 2013. Of 17 brands, 3 (n = 3*3) brands were positive for chicken DNA, 1 (n = 1*3) brand was positive for goat DNA, and the remainder 13 brands (n = 13*3) have no DNA species detected. The sensitivity of PCR-southern hybridization primers to detect each meat species was 0.1 ng. In the present study, it is evidence that PCR-Southern Hybridization analysis offered a reliable result due to its highly specific and sensitive properties in detecting non-halal additive such as plasma protein incorporation in surimi-based product.

  10. Importance of Rhodococcus strains in a bacterial consortium degrading a mixture of hydrocarbons, gasoline, and diesel oil additives revealed by metatranscriptomic analysis.

    PubMed

    Auffret, Marc D; Yergeau, Etienne; Labbé, Diane; Fayolle-Guichard, Françoise; Greer, Charles W

    2015-03-01

    A bacterial consortium (Mix3) composed of microorganisms originating from different environments (soils and wastewater) was obtained after enrichment in the presence of a mixture of 16 hydrocarbons, gasoline, and diesel oil additives. After addition of the mixture, the development of the microbial composition of Mix3 was monitored at three different times (35, 113, and 222 days) using fingerprinting method and dominant bacterial species were identified. In parallel, 14 bacteria were isolated after 113 days and identified. Degradation capacities for Mix3 and the isolated bacterial strains were characterized and compared. At day 113, we induced the expression of catabolic genes in Mix3 by adding the substrate mixture to resting cells and the metatranscriptome was analyzed. After addition of the substrate mixture, the relative abundance of Actinobacteria increased at day 222 while a shift between Rhodococcus and Mycobacterium was observed after 113 days. Mix3 was able to degrade 13 compounds completely, with partial degradation of isooctane and 2-ethylhexyl nitrate, but tert-butyl alcohol was not degraded. Rhodococcus wratislaviensis strain IFP 2016 isolated from Mix3 showed almost the same degradation capacities as Mix3: these results were not observed with the other isolated strains. Transcriptomic results revealed that Actinobacteria and in particular, Rhodococcus species, were major contributors in terms of total and catabolic gene transcripts while other species were involved in cyclohexane degradation. Not all the microorganisms identified at day 113 were active except R. wratislaviensis IFP 2016 that appeared to be a major player in the degradation activity observed in Mix3. PMID:25343979

  11. Governing the morphology of Pt–Au heteronanocrystals with improved electrocatalytic performance† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Additional tabulated data, TEM, HAADF-STEM, HRTEM images, UV-visible measurements, XPS spectra, ICP elemental analysis, EDX-mapping, cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry measurements and tomography videos. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr07481e Click here for additional data file. Click here for additional data file. Click here for additional data file. Click here for additional data file. Click here for additional data file. Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Mourdikoudis, Stefanos; Chirea, Mariana; Zanaga, Daniele; Altantzis, Thomas; Mitrakas, Manasis; Bals, Sara; Liz-Marzán, Luis M.

    2015-01-01

    Platinum–gold heteronanostructures comprising either dimer (Pt–Au) or core–satellite (Pt@Au) configurations were synthesized by means of a seeded growth procedure using platinum nanodendrites as seeds. Careful control of the reduction kinetics of the gold precursor can be used to direct the nucleation and growth of gold nanoparticles on either one or multiple surface sites simultaneously, leading to the formation of either dimers or core–satellite nanoparticles, respectively, in high yields. Characterization by electron tomography and high resolution electron microscopy provided a better understanding of the actual three-dimensional particle morphology, as well as the Au–Pt interface, revealing quasi-epitaxial growth of Au on Pt. The prepared Pt–Au bimetallic nanostructures are highly efficient catalysts for ethanol oxidation in alkaline solution, showing accurate selectivity, high sensitivity, and improved efficiency by generating higher current densities than their monometallic counterparts. PMID:25904481

  12. Hey Teacher, Your Personality's Showing!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulsen, James R.

    1977-01-01

    A study of 30 fourth, fifth, and sixth grade teachers and 300 of their students showed that a teacher's age, sex, and years of experience did not relate to students' mathematics achievement, but that more effective teachers showed greater "freedom from defensive behavior" than did less effective teachers. (DT)

  13. What Do Blood Tests Show?

    MedlinePlus

    ... shows the ranges for blood glucose levels after 8 to 12 hours of fasting (not eating). It shows the normal range and the abnormal ranges that are a sign of prediabetes or diabetes. Plasma Glucose Results (mg/dL)* Diagnosis 70 to 99 ...

  14. High Flow Addition Curing Polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chuang, Kathy C.; Vannucci, Raymond D.; Ansari, Irfan; Cerny, Lawrence L.; Scheiman, Daniel A.

    1994-01-01

    A new series of high flow PMR-type addition curing polyimides was developed, which employed the substitution of 2,2'-bis (trifluoromethyl) -4,4'-diaminobiphenyl (BTDB) for p-phenylenediamine (p -PDA) in a PMR-IL formulation. These thermoset polyimides, designated as 12F resins, were prepared from BTDB and the dimethyl ester of 4,4'- (hexafluo- roisopropylidene) -diphthalic acid (HFDE) with either nadic ester (NE) or p-aminostyrene (PAS) as the endcaps for addition curing. The 12F prepolymers displayed lower melting temperatures in DSC analysis, and higher melt flow in rheological studies than the cor- responding PMR-11 polyimides. Long-term isothermal aging studies showed that BTDB- based 12F resins exhibited comparable thermo-oxidative stability to P-PDA based PMR-11 polyimides. The noncoplanar 2- and 2'-disubstituted biphenyldiamine (BTDB) not only lowered the melt viscosities of 12F prepolymers, but also retained reasonable thermal sta- bility of the cured resins. The 12F polyimide resin with p-aminostyrene endcaps showed the best promise for long-term, high-temperature application at 343 C (650 F).

  15. Random Addition Concatenation Analysis: A Novel Approach to the Exploration of Phylogenomic Signal Reveals Strong Agreement between Core and Shell Genomic Partitions in the Cyanobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Narechania, Apurva; Baker, Richard H.; Sit, Ryan; Kolokotronis, Sergios-Orestis; DeSalle, Rob; Planet, Paul J.

    2012-01-01

    Recent whole-genome approaches to microbial phylogeny have emphasized partitioning genes into functional classes, often focusing on differences between a stable core of genes and a variable shell. To rigorously address the effects of partitioning and combining genes in genome-level analyses, we developed a novel technique called Random Addition Concatenation Analysis (RADICAL). RADICAL operates by sequentially concatenating randomly chosen gene partitions starting with a single-gene partition and ending with the entire genomic data set. A phylogenetic tree is built for every successive addition, and the entire process is repeated creating multiple random concatenation paths. The result is a library of trees representing a large variety of differently sized random gene partitions. This library can then be mined to identify unique topologies, assess overall agreement, and measure support for different trees. To evaluate RADICAL, we used 682 orthologous genes across 13 cyanobacterial genomes. Despite previous assertions of substantial differences between a core and a shell set of genes for this data set, RADICAL reveals the two partitions contain congruent phylogenetic signal. Substantial disagreement within the data set is limited to a few nodes and genes involved in metabolism, a functional group that is distributed evenly between the core and the shell partitions. We highlight numerous examples where RADICAL reveals aspects of phylogenetic behavior not evident by examining individual gene trees or a “‘total evidence” tree. Our method also demonstrates that most emergent phylogenetic signal appears early in the concatenation process. The software is freely available at http://desalle.amnh.org. PMID:22094860

  16. Satellite Movie Shows Erika Dissipate

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation of visible and infrared imagery from NOAA's GOES-West satellite from Aug. 27 to 29 shows Tropical Storm Erika move through the Eastern Caribbean Sea and dissipate near eastern Cuba. ...

  17. New oral anticoagulants in addition to single or dual antiplatelet therapy after an acute coronary syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Oldgren, Jonas; Wallentin, Lars; Alexander, John H.; James, Stefan; Jönelid, Birgitta; Steg, Gabriel; Sundström, Johan

    2013-01-01

    Background Oral anticoagulation in addition to antiplatelet treatment after an acute coronary syndrome might reduce ischaemic events but increase bleeding risk. We performed a meta-analysis to evaluate the efficacy and safety of adding direct thrombin or factor-Xa inhibition by any of the novel oral anticoagulants (apixaban, dabigatran, darexaban, rivaroxaban, and ximelagatran) to single (aspirin) or dual (aspirin and clopidogrel) antiplatelet therapy in this setting. Methods and results All seven published randomized, placebo-controlled phase II and III studies of novel oral anticoagulants in acute coronary syndromes were included. The database consisted of 30 866 patients, 4135 (13.4%) on single, and 26 731 (86.6%) on dual antiplatelet therapy, with a non-ST- or ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome within the last 7–14 days. We defined major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs) as the composite of all-cause mortality, myocardial infarction, or stroke; and clinically significant bleeding as the composite of major and non-major bleeding requiring medical attention according to the study definitions. When compared with aspirin alone the combination of an oral anticoagulant and aspirin reduced the incidence of MACE [hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval 0.70; 0.59–0.84], but increased clinically significant bleeding (HR: 1.79; 1.54–2.09). Compared with dual antiplatelet therapy with aspirin and clopidogrel, adding an oral anticoagulant decreased the incidence of MACE modestly (HR: 0.87; 0.80–0.95), but more than doubled the bleeding (HR: 2.34; 2.06–2.66). Heterogeneity between studies was low, and results were similar when restricting the analysis to phase III studies. Conclusion In patients with a recent acute coronary syndrome, the addition of a new oral anticoagulant to antiplatelet therapy results in a modest reduction in cardiovascular events but a substantial increase in bleeding, most pronounced when new oral anticoagulants are combined with

  18. Meta-analysis of genome-wide association data and large-scale replication identifies additional susceptibility loci for type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Zeggini, Eleftheria; Scott, Laura J.; Saxena, Richa; Voight, Benjamin F.; Marchini, Jonathan L; Hu, Tainle; de Bakker, Paul IW; Abecasis, Gonçalo R; Almgren, Peter; Andersen, Gitte; Ardlie, Kristin; Boström, Kristina Bengtsson; Bergman, Richard N; Bonnycastle, Lori L; Borch-Johnsen, Knut; Burtt, Noël P; Chen, Hong; Chines, Peter S; Daly, Mark J; Deodhar, Parimal; Ding, Charles; Doney, Alex S F; Duren, William L; Elliott, Katherine S; Erdos, Michael R; Frayling, Timothy M; Freathy, Rachel M; Gianniny, Lauren; Grallert, Harald; Grarup, Niels; Groves, Christopher J; Guiducci, Candace; Hansen, Torben; Herder, Christian; Hitman, Graham A; Hughes, Thomas E; Isomaa, Bo; Jackson, Anne U; Jørgensen, Torben; Kong, Augustine; Kubalanza, Kari; Kuruvilla, Finny G; Kuusisto, Johanna; Langenberg, Claudia; Lango, Hana; Lauritzen, Torsten; Li, Yun; Lindgren, Cecilia M; Lyssenko, Valeriya; Marvelle, Amanda F; Meisinger, Christa; Midthjell, Kristian; Mohlke, Karen L; Morken, Mario A; Morris, Andrew D; Narisu, Narisu; Nilsson, Peter; Owen, Katharine R; Palmer, Colin NA; Payne, Felicity; Perry, John RB; Pettersen, Elin; Platou, Carl; Prokopenko, Inga; Qi, Lu; Qin, Li; Rayner, Nigel W; Rees, Matthew; Roix, Jeffrey J; Sandbæk, Anelli; Shields, Beverley; Sjögren, Marketa; Steinthorsdottir, Valgerdur; Stringham, Heather M; Swift, Amy J; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Timpson, Nicholas J; Tuomi, Tiinamaija; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Walker, Mark; Watanabe, Richard M; Weedon, Michael N; Willer, Cristen J; Illig, Thomas; Hveem, Kristian; Hu, Frank B; Laakso, Markku; Stefansson, Kari; Pedersen, Oluf; Wareham, Nicholas J; Barroso, Inês; Hattersley, Andrew T; Collins, Francis S; Groop, Leif; McCarthy, Mark I; Boehnke, Michael; Altshuler, David

    2009-01-01

    Genome-wide association (GWA) studies have identified multiple new genomic loci at which common variants modestly but reproducibly influence risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D)1-11. Established associations to common and rare variants explain only a small proportion of the heritability of T2D. As previously published analyses had limited power to discover loci at which common alleles have modest effects, we performed meta-analysis of three T2D GWA scans encompassing 10,128 individuals of European-descent and ~2.2 million SNPs (directly genotyped and imputed). Replication testing was performed in an independent sample with an effective sample size of up to 53,975. At least six new loci with robust evidence for association were detected, including the JAZF1 (p=5.0×10−14), CDC123/CAMK1D (p=1.2×10−10), TSPAN8/LGR5 (p=1.1×10−9), THADA (p=1.1×10−9), ADAMTS9 (p=1.2×10−8), and NOTCH2 (p=4.1×10−8) gene regions. The large number of loci with relatively small effects indicates the value of large discovery and follow-up samples in identifying additional clues about the inherited basis of T2D. PMID:18372903

  19. Analysis of baicalein, baicalin and wogonin in Scutellariae radix and its preparation by microemulsion electrokinetic chromatography with 1-butyl-3-methylimizolium tetrafluoborate ionic liquid as additive.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huige; Tian, Kan; Tang, Jianghong; Qi, Shengda; Chen, Hongli; Chen, Xingguo; Hu, Zhide

    2006-10-01

    Microemulsion electrokinetic chromatography (MEEKC) using 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate (BMIM-BF4) ionic liquid (IL) as additive was developed for the analysis of baicalin, wogonin and baicalein in Scutellariae radix and its preparation. After conducting a series of optimizations, baseline separation was obtained for the analytes within 5min under the optimum conditions (sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) 0.88% (m/v) ethyl acetate 0.8% (v/v) butan-1-ol 0.2% (v/v) and the buffer composition were 25% acetonitrile (v/v), 7.5 mM BMIM-BF4 and 10 mM NaH2PO4, pH 8.2, applied voltage 17.5 kV and detection at 254 nm), the method has been successfully applied to the determination and quantification of the analytes in the extracts of S. radix (cooked), S. radix (raw) and Qingfeiyihuowan which was the preparation including S. radix. PMID:16952364

  20. Active mineral additives of sapropel ashes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khomich, V. A.; Danilina, E. V.; Krivonos, O. I.; Plaksin, G. V.

    2015-01-01

    The goal of the presented research is to establish a scientific rational for the possibility of sapropel ashes usage as an active mineral additive. The research included the study of producing active mineral additives from sapropels by their thermal treatment at 850900 °C and afterpowdering, the investigation of the properties of paste matrix with an ash additive, and the study of the ash influence on the cement bonding agent. Thermogravimetric analysis and X-ray investigations allowed us to establish that while burning, organic substances are removed, clay minerals are dehydrated and their structure is broken. Sapropel ashes chemical composition was determined. An amorphous ash constituent is mainly formed from silica of the mineral sapropel part and alumosilicagels resulted from clay minerals decomposition. Properties of PC 400 and PC 500A0 sparopel ash additives were studied. Adding ashes containing Glenium plasticizer to the cement increases paste matrix strength and considerably reduces its water absorption. X-ray phase analysis data shows changes in the phase composition of the paste matrix with an ash additive. Ash additives produce a pozzolanic effect on the cement bonding agent. Besides, an ash additive due to the alumosilicagels content causes transformation from unstable calcium aluminate forms to the stable ones.

  1. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis for the chemical impact of solvent addition rate on electromagnetic shielding effectiveness of HCl-doped polyaniline nanopowders

    SciTech Connect

    Tantawy, Hesham Ramzy; Aston, D. Eric; Kengne, Blaise-Alexis F.; McIlroy, David N.; Qiang, You; Nguyen, Tai; Heo, Deukhyoun

    2015-11-07

    An in-depth analysis of the chemical functionality in HCl-doped polyaniline (PANI) nanopowders is discussed through interpretations of x-ray photoelectron spectra. The distinctions between three PANI sample types, produced under varied synthesis conditions, are compared on the basis correlations between newly collected electron spectra for chemical analysis (or also x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy) and electromagnetic (EM) shielding effectiveness (SE) within two frequency bands (100–1500 MHz and ∼2–14 GHz). The findings are discussed with reference to previous data analysis of electrical conductivities and Raman and UV-vis spectra analyzed from replicates of the same PANI nanopowders, where only the 8–12 GHz range for SE was tested. They further corroborate previous results for limited-solvent conditions that enhance EM shielding. The three nanopowder types show distinctive differences in polaron, bipolaron, and polar lattice contributions. The collective findings describe the chemical connections between controlling and, most importantly, limiting the available solvent for polymerization with simultaneously doping and how it is that the newly developed solvent-limited approach for HCl-PANI nanopowders provides better shielding than traditionally solvent-rich methods by having more extended and perhaps even faster polaron delocalization than other PANI-based products. The maximum oxidation (50%) and doping (49%) levels obtained in the solvent-free nanopowders also produced the highest SE values of 37.3 ± 3.7 dB (MHz band) and 68.6 ± 4.6 dB (GHz band)

  2. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis for the chemical impact of solvent addition rate on electromagnetic shielding effectiveness of HCl-doped polyaniline nanopowders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tantawy, Hesham Ramzy; Kengne, Blaise-Alexis F.; McIlroy, David N.; Nguyen, Tai; Heo, Deukhyoun; Qiang, You; Aston, D. Eric

    2015-11-01

    An in-depth analysis of the chemical functionality in HCl-doped polyaniline (PANI) nanopowders is discussed through interpretations of x-ray photoelectron spectra. The distinctions between three PANI sample types, produced under varied synthesis conditions, are compared on the basis correlations between newly collected electron spectra for chemical analysis (or also x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy) and electromagnetic (EM) shielding effectiveness (SE) within two frequency bands (100-1500 MHz and ˜2-14 GHz). The findings are discussed with reference to previous data analysis of electrical conductivities and Raman and UV-vis spectra analyzed from replicates of the same PANI nanopowders, where only the 8-12 GHz range for SE was tested. They further corroborate previous results for limited-solvent conditions that enhance EM shielding. The three nanopowder types show distinctive differences in polaron, bipolaron, and polar lattice contributions. The collective findings describe the chemical connections between controlling and, most importantly, limiting the available solvent for polymerization with simultaneously doping and how it is that the newly developed solvent-limited approach for HCl-PANI nanopowders provides better shielding than traditionally solvent-rich methods by having more extended and perhaps even faster polaron delocalization than other PANI-based products. The maximum oxidation (50%) and doping (49%) levels obtained in the solvent-free nanopowders also produced the highest SE values of 37.3 ± 3.7 dB (MHz band) and 68.6 ± 4.6 dB (GHz band).

  3. Creating Slide Show Book Reports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Harriet G.; Stuhlmann, Janice M.

    1995-01-01

    Describes the use of "Kid Pix 2" software by fourth grade students to develop slide-show book reports. Highlights include collaboration with education majors from Louisiana State University, changes in attitudes of the education major students and elementary students, and problems with navigation and disk space. (LRW)

  4. Producing Talent and Variety Shows.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szabo, Chuck

    1995-01-01

    Identifies key aspects of producing talent shows and outlines helpful hints for avoiding pitfalls and ensuring a smooth production. Presents suggestions concerning publicity, scheduling, and support personnel. Describes types of acts along with special needs and problems specific to each act. Includes a list of resources. (MJP)

  5. Magic Carpet Shows Its Colors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The upper left image in this display is from the panoramic camera on the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit, showing the 'Magic Carpet' region near the rover at Gusev Crater, Mars, on Sol 7, the seventh martian day of its journey (Jan. 10, 2004). The lower image, also from the panoramic camera, is a monochrome (single filter) image of a rock in the 'Magic Carpet' area. Note that colored portions of the rock correlate with extracted spectra shown in the plot to the side. Four different types of materials are shown: the rock itself, the soil in front of the rock, some brighter soil on top of the rock, and some dust that has collected in small recesses on the rock face ('spots'). Each color on the spectra matches a line on the graph, showing how the panoramic camera's different colored filters are used to broadly assess the varying mineral compositions of martian rocks and soils.

  6. Protecting child health and nutrition status with ready-to-use food in addition to food assistance in urban Chad: a cost-effectiveness analysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite growing interest in use of lipid nutrient supplements for preventing child malnutrition and morbidity, there is inconclusive evidence on the effectiveness, and no evidence on the cost-effectiveness of this strategy. Methods A cost effectiveness analysis was conducted comparing costs and outcomes of two arms of a cluster randomized controlled trial implemented in eastern Chad during the 2010 hunger gap by Action contre la Faim France and Ghent University. This trial assessed the effect on child malnutrition and morbidity of a 5-month general distribution of staple rations, or staple rations plus a ready-to-use supplementary food (RUSF). RUSF was distributed to households with a child aged 6–36 months who was not acutely malnourished (weight-for-height > = 80% of the NCHS reference median, and absence of bilateral pitting edema), to prevent acute malnutrition in these children. While the addition of RUSF to a staple ration did not result in significant reduction in wasting rates, cost-effectiveness was assessed using successful secondary outcomes of cases of diarrhea and anemia (hemoglobin <110 g/L) averted among children receiving RUSF. Total costs of the program and incremental costs of RUSF and related management and logistics were estimated using accounting records and key informant interviews, and include costs to institutions and communities. An activity-based costing methodology was applied and incremental costs were calculated per episode of diarrhea and case of anemia averted. Results Adding RUSF to a general food distribution increased total costs by 23%, resulting in an additional cost per child of 374 EUR, and an incremental cost per episode of diarrhea averted of 1,083 EUR and per case of anemia averted of 3,627 EUR. Conclusions Adding RUSF to a staple ration was less cost-effective than other standard intervention options for averting diarrhea and anemia. This strategy holds potential to address a broad array of health and

  7. Array-Based Transcript Profiling and Limiting-Dilution Reverse Transcription-PCR Analysis Identify Additional Latent Genes in Kaposi's Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Chandriani, Sanjay; Ganem, Don

    2010-01-01

    Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is a B-lymphotropic herpesvirus strongly linked to both lymphoproliferative diseases and Kaposi's sarcoma. The viral latency program of KSHV is central to persistent infection and plays important roles in the pathogenesis of KSHV-related tumors. Up to six polypeptides and 18 microRNAs are known to be expressed in latency, but it is unclear if all major latency genes have been identified. Here, we have employed array-based transcript profiling and limiting-dilution reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) methodologies to explore this issue in several KSHV-infected cell lines. Our results show that RNAs encoding the K1 protein are found at low levels in most latently infected cell lines. The gene encoding v-IL-6 is also expressed as a latent transcript in some contexts. Both genes encode powerful signaling molecules with particular relevance to B cell biology: K1 mimics signaling through the B cell receptor, and v-IL-6 promotes B cell survival. These data resolve earlier controversies about K1 and v-IL-6 expression and indicate that, in addition to core latency genes, some transcripts can be expressed in KSHV latency in a context-dependent manner. PMID:20219929

  8. [The ontogeny of additional saccules in the orifice of the cheek pouches in hamsters (Phodopus campbelli Thomas, 1905 and Phodopus sungorus Pallas, 1773): a morphometric analysis].

    PubMed

    Sokolov, V E; Feoktistova, N Iu; Vasil'eva, N Iu

    1993-01-01

    Time changes in functional activity of the recently described additional sacs in the orifice of cheek pouches (AS) has been studied in one-month-old and adult Phodopus sungorus and P. campbelli. The most intense AS growth and increase in their secretory activity falls on the second decade of the first month. It coincide with transition to their own feeding by coarse crust. Although there is no sexual dimorphism in the AS mass or the amount of their secret, time pattern of growth is different in males and females. Stabilization of the main indices of AS functional activity, their relative mass and amount of secret, at the adult level occurs in females earlier than in males. Adults of both species do not show sexual dimorphism by the both studied indices, but breeding females have both absolute and relative mass of AS and its secret significantly increased. As a whole the obtained data agree well with the previous studies (Vasil'eva, Feoktistova, 1993) that have demonstrated the importance of AS secret in survival, normal growth and development during the first month of P. campbelli. The described time pattern of the AS activity in ontogenesis seem to reflect the real need in the secret at the early age in small hamsters, and the increased AS activity in lactating females can be considered as a functional adaptation that compensate the secret deficit. PMID:8260886

  9. Anomaly Detection In Additively Manufactured Parts Using Laser Doppler Vibrometery

    SciTech Connect

    Hernandez, Carlos A.

    2015-09-29

    Additively manufactured parts are susceptible to non-uniform structure caused by the unique manufacturing process. This can lead to structural weakness or catastrophic failure. Using laser Doppler vibrometry and frequency response analysis, non-contact detection of anomalies in additively manufactured parts may be possible. Preliminary tests show promise for small scale detection, but more future work is necessary.

  10. Revisiting Additivity Violation of Quantum Channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuda, Motohisa

    2014-12-01

    We prove additivity violation of minimum output entropy of quantum channels by straightforward application of -net argument and Lévy's lemma. The additivity conjecture was disproved initially by Hastings. Later, a proof via asymptotic geometric analysis was presented by Aubrun, Szarek and Werner, which uses Dudley's bound on Gaussian process (or Dvoretzky's theorem with Schechtman's improvement). In this paper, we develop another proof along Dvoretzky's theorem in Milman's view, showing additivity violation in broader regimes than the existing proofs. Importantly,Dvoretzky's theorem works well with norms to give strong statements, but these techniques can be extended to functions which have norm-like structures-positive homogeneity and triangle inequality. Then, a connection between Hastings' method and ours is also discussed. In addition, we make some comments on relations between regularized minimum output entropy and classical capacity of quantum channels.

  11. Analysis of nine food additives in red wine by ion-suppression reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography using trifluoroacetic acid and ammonium acetate as ion-suppressors.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yong-Gang; Chen, Xiao-Hong; Yao, Shan-Shan; Pan, Sheng-Dong; Li, Xiao-Ping; Jin, Mi-Cong

    2012-01-01

    A reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) method was developed for the simultaneous determination of nine food additives, i.e., acesulfame, saccharin, caffeine, aspartame, benzoic acid, sorbic acid, stevioside, dehydroacetic acid and neotame in red wine. The effects of ion-suppressors, i.e., trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) and ammonium acetate (AmAc) on retention behavior of nine food additives in RP-HPLC separation were discussed in detail. The relationships between retention factors of solutes and volume percent of ion-suppressors in the mobile-phase systems of acetonitrile-TFA aqueous solution and acetonitrile-TFA-AmAc aqueous solution were quantitatively established, respectively. The results showed that the ion suppressors had not only an ion suppression effect, but also an organic modification effect on the acidic analytes. The baseline separation of nine food additives was completed by a gradient elution with acetonitrile-TFA(0.01%, v/v)-AmAc(2.5 mmol L(-1)) aqueous solution as the mobile phase. The recoveries were between 80.2 - 99.5% for all analytes with RSDs in the range of 1.5 - 8.9%. The linearities were in the range of 0.2 - 100.0 mg L(-1) with determination coefficients (r(2)) higher than 0.9991 for all analytes. The limits of quantification (LOQs) were between 0.53 - 0.99 mg L(-1). The applicability of the proposed method to detect and quantify food additives has been demonstrated in the analysis of 30 real samples. PMID:23059992

  12. Analysis of Latvian familial melanoma patients shows novel variants in the noncoding regions of CDKN2A and that the CDK4 mutation R24H is a founder mutation.

    PubMed

    Veinalde, Rūta; Ozola, Aija; Azarjana, Kristīne; Molven, Anders; Akslen, Lars A; Doniņa, Simona; Proboka, Guna; Cēma, Ingrīda; Baginskis, Ainārs; Pjanova, Dace

    2013-06-01

    Hereditary cutaneous melanoma is associated with mutations in the high-risk CDKN2A gene in about 40% of melanoma-prone families. Mutations in the CDK4 gene are the cause in only a few pedigrees. In this study, we analyzed 20 Latvian familial melanoma probands and carried out a comprehensive analysis of CDKN2A including sequencing of its promoter/intronic regions and deletion screening. We also analyzed the critical second exon of the CDK4 gene. One novel intronic variant (IVS2+82C>T) of the CDKN2A gene and a small deletion (c.-20677_-20682delGTACGC) in its promoter region were found. Genotyping of the novel variants in larger melanoma and control groups indicated that the deletion increases the risk of melanoma (odds ratio=6.353, 95% confidence interval: 1.34-30.22, P=0.0168). The CDK4 gene analysis showed a Latvian melanoma family with the mutation R24H carried on the same haplotype as in two previously described Latvian CDK4-positive families. Our study suggests that the main risk gene in Latvian families with a strong family history of melanoma is CDK4 and that most of the other cases analyzed could be sporadic or associated with low-penetrance risk genes. PMID:23546221

  13. ENVITEC shows off air technologies

    SciTech Connect

    McIlvaine, R.W.

    1995-08-01

    The ENVITEC International Trade Fair for Environmental Protection and Waste Management Technologies, held in June in Duesseldorf, Germany, is the largest air pollution exhibition in the world and may be the largest environmental technology show overall. Visitors saw thousands of environmental solutions from 1,318 companies representing 29 countries and occupying roughly 43,000 square meters of exhibit space. Many innovations were displayed under the category, ``thermal treatment of air pollutants.`` New technologies include the following: regenerative thermal oxidizers; wet systems for removing pollutants; biological scrubbers;electrostatic precipitators; selective adsorption systems; activated-coke adsorbers; optimization of scrubber systems; and air pollution monitors.

  14. ShowMe3D

    2012-01-05

    ShowMe3D is a data visualization graphical user interface specifically designed for use with hyperspectral image obtained from the Hyperspectral Confocal Microscope. The program allows the user to select and display any single image from a three dimensional hyperspectral image stack. By moving a slider control, the user can easily move between images of the stack. The user can zoom into any region of the image. The user can select any pixel or region from themore » displayed image and display the fluorescence spectrum associated with that pixel or region. The user can define up to 3 spectral filters to apply to the hyperspectral image and view the image as it would appear from a filter-based confocal microscope. The user can also obtain statistics such as intensity average and variance from selected regions.« less

  15. ShowMe3D

    SciTech Connect

    Sinclair, Michael B

    2012-01-05

    ShowMe3D is a data visualization graphical user interface specifically designed for use with hyperspectral image obtained from the Hyperspectral Confocal Microscope. The program allows the user to select and display any single image from a three dimensional hyperspectral image stack. By moving a slider control, the user can easily move between images of the stack. The user can zoom into any region of the image. The user can select any pixel or region from the displayed image and display the fluorescence spectrum associated with that pixel or region. The user can define up to 3 spectral filters to apply to the hyperspectral image and view the image as it would appear from a filter-based confocal microscope. The user can also obtain statistics such as intensity average and variance from selected regions.

  16. Pea Plants Show Risk Sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Dener, Efrat; Kacelnik, Alex; Shemesh, Hagai

    2016-07-11

    Sensitivity to variability in resources has been documented in humans, primates, birds, and social insects, but the fit between empirical results and the predictions of risk sensitivity theory (RST), which aims to explain this sensitivity in adaptive terms, is weak [1]. RST predicts that agents should switch between risk proneness and risk aversion depending on state and circumstances, especially according to the richness of the least variable option [2]. Unrealistic assumptions about agents' information processing mechanisms and poor knowledge of the extent to which variability imposes specific selection in nature are strong candidates to explain the gap between theory and data. RST's rationale also applies to plants, where it has not hitherto been tested. Given the differences between animals' and plants' information processing mechanisms, such tests should help unravel the conflicts between theory and data. Measuring root growth allocation by split-root pea plants, we show that they favor variability when mean nutrient levels are low and the opposite when they are high, supporting the most widespread RST prediction. However, the combination of non-linear effects of nitrogen availability at local and systemic levels may explain some of these effects as a consequence of mechanisms not necessarily evolved to cope with variance [3, 4]. This resembles animal examples in which properties of perception and learning cause risk sensitivity even though they are not risk adaptations [5]. PMID:27374342

  17. Casimir experiments showing saturation effects

    SciTech Connect

    Sernelius, Bo E.

    2009-10-15

    We address several different Casimir experiments where theory and experiment disagree. First out is the classical Casimir force measurement between two metal half spaces; here both in the form of the torsion pendulum experiment by Lamoreaux and in the form of the Casimir pressure measurement between a gold sphere and a gold plate as performed by Decca et al.; theory predicts a large negative thermal correction, absent in the high precision experiments. The third experiment is the measurement of the Casimir force between a metal plate and a laser irradiated semiconductor membrane as performed by Chen et al.; the change in force with laser intensity is larger than predicted by theory. The fourth experiment is the measurement of the Casimir force between an atom and a wall in the form of the measurement by Obrecht et al. of the change in oscillation frequency of a {sup 87}Rb Bose-Einstein condensate trapped to a fused silica wall; the change is smaller than predicted by theory. We show that saturation effects can explain the discrepancies between theory and experiment observed in all these cases.

  18. Study of total dry matter and protein extraction from canola meal as affected by the pH, salt addition and use of zeta-potential/turbidimetry analysis to optimize the extraction conditions.

    PubMed

    Gerzhova, Alina; Mondor, Martin; Benali, Marzouk; Aider, Mohammed

    2016-06-15

    Total dry matter and proteins were differentially and preferentially extracted from canola meal (CM) under different conditions. The effect of the extraction medium pH, CM concentration and salt concentrations were found to have different influences on the extractability of total dry matter and proteins from CM. The pH of the extracting medium had the most significant effect. The maximal total dry matter (42.8±1.18%) extractability was obtained with 5% CM at pH 12 without salt addition, whereas the maximal for total protein (58.12±1.47%) was obtained with 15% CM under the same conditions. The minimal extractability for the dry matter (26.63±0.67%) was obtained with 5% CM at pH 10 without salt added and the minimal protein extractability was observed in a 10% CM at pH 10, in 0.01 NaCl. Turbidity and ζ-potential measurements indicated that pH 5 was the optimum condition for the highest protein extraction yield. SDS-PAGE analysis showed that salt addition contributes to higher solubility of canola proteins specifically cruciferin fraction, although it reduces napin extraction. PMID:26868572

  19. An analysis of the risk of introduction of additional strains of the rust puccinia psidii Winter ('Ohi'a Rust) to Hawai'i

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Loope, Lloyd; La Rosa, Anne Marie

    2010-01-01

    In April 2005, the rust fungus Puccinia psidii (most widely known as guava rust or eucalyptus rust) was found in Hawai'i. This was the first time this rust had been found outside the Neotropics (broadly-defined, including subtropical Florida, where the rust first established in the 1970s). First detected on a nursery-grown 'ohi'a plant, it became known as ''ohi'a rust'in Hawai'i. The rust spread rapidly and by August 2005 had been found throughout the main Hawaiian Islands. The rust probably reached Hawai'i via the live plant trade or via the foliage trade. In Hawai'i, the rust has infected three native plant species and at least eight non-native species. Effects have been substantial on the endangered endemic plant Eugenia koolauensis and the introduced rose apple, Syzygium jambos. Billions of yellow, asexual urediniospores are produced on rose apple, but a complete life cycle (involving sexual reproduction) has not yet been observed. The rust is autoecious (no alternate host known) on Myrtaceae. The strain introduced into Hawai'i is found sparingly on 'ohi'a (Metrosideros polymorpha), the dominant tree of Hawai'i's forests, with sporadic damage detected to date. The introduction of a rust strain that causes widespread damage to 'ohi'a would be catastrophic for Hawai'i's native biodiversity. Most imports of material potentially contaminated with rust are shipped to Hawai'i from Florida and California (from which P. psidii was reported in late 2005 by Mellano, 2006). Florida is known to have multiple strains. The identity of the strain or strains in California is unclear, but one of them is known to infect myrtle, Myrtus communis, a species commonly imported into Hawai'i. It is important to ecosystem conservation and commercial forestry that additional rust strains or genotypes be prevented from establishing in Hawai'i. The purpose of this analysis of risk is to evaluate the need for an interim rule by the Hawai'i Department of Agriculture to regulate plant

  20. Measuring additive interaction using odds ratios

    PubMed Central

    Kalilani, Linda; Atashili, Julius

    2006-01-01

    Interaction measured on the additive scale has been argued to be better correlated with biologic interaction than when measured on the multiplicative scale. Measures of interaction on the additive scale have been developed using risk ratios. However, in studies that use odds ratios as the sole measure of effect, the calculation of these measures of additive interaction is usually performed by directly substituting odds ratios for risk ratios. Yet assessing additive interaction based on replacing risk ratios by odds ratios in formulas that were derived using the former may be erroneous. In this paper, we evaluate the extent to which three measures of additive interaction – the interaction contrast ratio (ICR), the attributable proportion due to interaction (AP), and the synergy index (S), estimated using odds ratios versus using risk ratios differ as the incidence of the outcome of interest increases in the source population and/or as the magnitude of interaction increases. Our analysis shows that the difference between the two depends on the measure of interaction used, the type of interaction present, and the baseline incidence of the outcome. Substituting odds ratios for risk ratios, when calculating measures of additive interaction, may result in misleading conclusions. Of the three measures, AP appears to be the most robust to this direct substitution. Formulas that use stratum specific odds and odds ratios to accurately calculate measures of additive interaction are presented. PMID:16620385

  1. Mimas Showing False Colors #1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    False color images of Saturn's moon, Mimas, reveal variation in either the composition or texture across its surface.

    During its approach to Mimas on Aug. 2, 2005, the Cassini spacecraft narrow-angle camera obtained multi-spectral views of the moon from a range of 228,000 kilometers (142,500 miles).

    The image at the left is a narrow angle clear-filter image, which was separately processed to enhance the contrast in brightness and sharpness of visible features. The image at the right is a color composite of narrow-angle ultraviolet, green, infrared and clear filter images, which have been specially processed to accentuate subtle changes in the spectral properties of Mimas' surface materials. To create this view, three color images (ultraviolet, green and infrared) were combined into a single black and white picture that isolates and maps regional color differences. This 'color map' was then superimposed over the clear-filter image at the left.

    The combination of color map and brightness image shows how the color differences across the Mimas surface materials are tied to geological features. Shades of blue and violet in the image at the right are used to identify surface materials that are bluer in color and have a weaker infrared brightness than average Mimas materials, which are represented by green.

    Herschel crater, a 140-kilometer-wide (88-mile) impact feature with a prominent central peak, is visible in the upper right of each image. The unusual bluer materials are seen to broadly surround Herschel crater. However, the bluer material is not uniformly distributed in and around the crater. Instead, it appears to be concentrated on the outside of the crater and more to the west than to the north or south. The origin of the color differences is not yet understood. It may represent ejecta material that was excavated from inside Mimas when the Herschel impact occurred. The bluer color of these materials may be caused by subtle differences in

  2. Noise variance analysis using a flat panel x-ray detector: A method for additive noise assessment with application to breast CT applications

    SciTech Connect

    Yang Kai; Huang, Shih-Ying; Packard, Nathan J.; Boone, John M.

    2010-07-15

    Purpose: A simplified linear model approach was proposed to accurately model the response of a flat panel detector used for breast CT (bCT). Methods: Individual detector pixel mean and variance were measured from bCT projection images acquired both in air and with a polyethylene cylinder, with the detector operating in both fixed low gain and dynamic gain mode. Once the coefficients of the linear model are determined, the fractional additive noise can be used as a quantitative metric to evaluate the system's efficiency in utilizing x-ray photons, including the performance of different gain modes of the detector. Results: Fractional additive noise increases as the object thickness increases or as the radiation dose to the detector decreases. For bCT scan techniques on the UC Davis prototype scanner (80 kVp, 500 views total, 30 frames/s), in the low gain mode, additive noise contributes 21% of the total pixel noise variance for a 10 cm object and 44% for a 17 cm object. With the dynamic gain mode, additive noise only represents approximately 2.6% of the total pixel noise variance for a 10 cm object and 7.3% for a 17 cm object. Conclusions: The existence of the signal-independent additive noise is the primary cause for a quadratic relationship between bCT noise variance and the inverse of radiation dose at the detector. With the knowledge of the additive noise contribution to experimentally acquired images, system modifications can be made to reduce the impact of additive noise and improve the quantum noise efficiency of the bCT system.

  3. Analysis of biomass sugars and galacturonic acid by gradient anion exchange chromatography and pulsed amperometric detection without post-column addition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    While the most accurate method for analysis of sugars in biomass is based on gas chromatography of trimethylsilane or alditol acetate derivatives of sugars, the derivation method is time consuming and laborious. In comparison, sample preparation for sugar analysis of hydrolyzed biomass samples using...

  4. Show Me Your Rump Hair and I Will Tell You What You Ate - The Dietary History of Muskoxen (Ovibos moschatus) Revealed by Sequential Stable Isotope Analysis of Guard Hairs.

    PubMed

    Mosbacher, Jesper Bruun; Michelsen, Anders; Stelvig, Mikkel; Hendrichsen, Ditte Katrine; Schmidt, Niels Martin

    2016-01-01

    The nutritional state of animals is tightly linked to the ambient environment, and for northern ungulates the state strongly influences vital population demographics, such as pregnancy rates. Continuously growing tissues, such as hair, can be viewed as dietary records of animals over longer temporal scales. Using sequential data on nitrogen stable isotopes (δ15N) in muskox guard hairs from ten individuals in high arctic Northeast Greenland, we were able to reconstruct the dietary history of muskoxen over approximately 2.5 years with a high temporal resolution of app. 9 days. The dietary chronology included almost three full summer and winter periods. The diet showed strong intra- and inter-annual seasonality, and was significantly linked to changes in local environmental conditions (temperature and snow depth). The summer diets were highly similar across years, reflecting a graminoid-dominated diet. In contrast, winter diets were markedly different between years, a pattern apparently linked to snow conditions. Snow-rich winters had markedly higher δ15N values than snow-poor winters, indicating that muskoxen had limited access to forage, and relied more heavily on their body stores. Due to the close link between body stores and calf production in northern ungulates, the dietary winter signals could eventually serve as an indicator of calf production the following spring. Our study opens the field for further studies and longer chronologies to test such links. The method of sequential stable isotope analysis of guard hairs thus constitutes a promising candidate for population-level monitoring of animals in remote, arctic areas. PMID:27097032

  5. Show Me Your Rump Hair and I Will Tell You What You Ate – The Dietary History of Muskoxen (Ovibos moschatus) Revealed by Sequential Stable Isotope Analysis of Guard Hairs

    PubMed Central

    Mosbacher, Jesper Bruun; Michelsen, Anders; Stelvig, Mikkel; Hendrichsen, Ditte Katrine; Schmidt, Niels Martin

    2016-01-01

    The nutritional state of animals is tightly linked to the ambient environment, and for northern ungulates the state strongly influences vital population demographics, such as pregnancy rates. Continuously growing tissues, such as hair, can be viewed as dietary records of animals over longer temporal scales. Using sequential data on nitrogen stable isotopes (δ15N) in muskox guard hairs from ten individuals in high arctic Northeast Greenland, we were able to reconstruct the dietary history of muskoxen over approximately 2.5 years with a high temporal resolution of app. 9 days. The dietary chronology included almost three full summer and winter periods. The diet showed strong intra- and inter-annual seasonality, and was significantly linked to changes in local environmental conditions (temperature and snow depth). The summer diets were highly similar across years, reflecting a graminoid-dominated diet. In contrast, winter diets were markedly different between years, a pattern apparently linked to snow conditions. Snow-rich winters had markedly higher δ15N values than snow-poor winters, indicating that muskoxen had limited access to forage, and relied more heavily on their body stores. Due to the close link between body stores and calf production in northern ungulates, the dietary winter signals could eventually serve as an indicator of calf production the following spring. Our study opens the field for further studies and longer chronologies to test such links. The method of sequential stable isotope analysis of guard hairs thus constitutes a promising candidate for population-level monitoring of animals in remote, arctic areas. PMID:27097032

  6. [Food additives and healthiness].

    PubMed

    Heinonen, Marina

    2014-01-01

    Additives are used for improving food structure or preventing its spoilage, for example. Many substances used as additives are also naturally present in food. The safety of additives is evaluated according to commonly agreed principles. If high concentrations of an additive cause adverse health effects for humans, a limit of acceptable daily intake (ADI) is set for it. An additive is a risk only when ADI is exceeded. The healthiness of food is measured on the basis of nutrient density and scientifically proven effects. PMID:24772784

  7. Polyimide processing additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pratt, J. R.; St. Clair, T. L.; Burks, H. D.; Stoakley, D. M.

    1987-01-01

    A method has been found for enhancing the melt flow of thermoplastic polyimides during processing. A high molecular weight 422 copoly(amic acid) or copolyimide was fused with approximately 0.05 to 5 pct by weight of a low molecular weight amic acid or imide additive, and this melt was studied by capillary rheometry. Excellent flow and improved composite properties on graphite resulted from the addition of a PMDA-aniline additive to LARC-TPI. Solution viscosity studies imply that amic acid additives temporarily lower molecular weight and, hence, enlarge the processing window. Thus, compositions containing the additive have a lower melt viscosity for a longer time than those unmodified.

  8. Additional guidance for including nuclear safety equivalency in the Canister Storage Building and Cold Vacuum Drying Facility final safety analysis report

    SciTech Connect

    Garvin, L.J.

    1997-05-20

    This document provides guidance for the production of safety analysis reports that must meet both DOE Order 5480.23 and STD 3009, and be in compliance with the DOE regulatory policy that imposes certain NRC requirements.

  9. 75. Photocopied July 1978. (QMC) VIEW SHOWING (LEFT TO RIGHT) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    75. Photocopied July 1978. (QMC) VIEW SHOWING (LEFT TO RIGHT) NORTH'S STORE (1900); BLACKSMITH SHOP (C. 1860, WITH ADDITIONS); AND DRYHOUSE (C. 1860, WITH ADDITIONS). C. 1905. - Quincy Mining Company, Hancock, Houghton County, MI

  10. Proteome-wide analysis of human disease mutations in short linear motifs: neglected players in cancer?† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Supplementary files 1–22 and supplementary Fig. 1–3. See DOI: 10.1039/c4mb00290c Click here for additional data file. Click here for additional data file. Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Weatheritt, Robert J.; Dinkel, Holger; Davey, Norman E.

    2014-01-01

    Disease mutations are traditionally thought to impair protein functionality by disrupting the folded globular structure of proteins. However, 22% of human disease mutations occur in natively unstructured segments of proteins known as intrinsically disordered regions (IDRs). This therefore implicates defective IDR functionality in various human diseases including cancer. The functionality of IDRs is partly attributable to short linear motifs (SLiMs), but it remains an open question how much defects in SLiMs contribute to human diseases. A proteome-wide comparison of the distribution of missense mutations from disease and non-disease mutation datasets revealed that, in IDRs, disease mutations are more likely to occur within SLiMs than neutral missense mutations. Moreover, compared to neutral missense mutations, disease mutations more frequently impact functionally important residues of SLiMs, cause changes in the physicochemical properties of SLiMs, and disrupt more SLiM-mediated interactions. Analysis of these mutations resulted in a comprehensive list of experimentally validated or predicted SLiMs disrupted in disease. Furthermore, this in-depth analysis suggests that ‘prostate cancer pathway’ is particularly enriched for proteins with disease-related SLiMs. The contribution of mutations in SLiMs to disease may currently appear small when compared to mutations in globular domains. However, our analysis of mutations in predicted SLiMs suggests that this contribution might be more substantial. Therefore, when analysing the functional impact of mutations on proteins, SLiMs in proteins should not be neglected. Our results suggest that an increased focus on SLiMs in the coming decades will improve our understanding of human diseases and aid in the development of targeted treatments. PMID:25057855

  11. Additive usage levels.

    PubMed

    Langlais, R

    1996-01-01

    With the adoption of the European Parliament and Council Directives on sweeteners, colours and miscellaneous additives the Commission is now embarking on the project of coordinating the activities of the European Union Member States in the collection of the data that are to make up the report on food additive intake requested by the European Parliament. This presentation looks at the inventory of available sources on additive use levels and concludes that for the time being national legislation is still the best source of information considering that the directives have yet to be transposed into national legislation. Furthermore, this presentation covers the correlation of the food categories as found in the additives directives with those used by national consumption surveys and finds that in a number of instances this correlation still leaves a lot to be desired. The intake of additives via food ingestion and the intake of substances which are chemically identical to additives but which occur naturally in fruits and vegetables is found in a number of cases to be higher than the intake of additives added during the manufacture of foodstuffs. While the difficulties are recognized in contributing to the compilation of food additive intake data, industry as a whole, i.e. the food manufacturing and food additive manufacturing industries, are confident that in a concerted effort, use data on food additives by industry can be made available. Lastly, the paper points out that with the transportation of the additives directives into national legislation and the time by which the food industry will be able to make use of the new food legislative environment several years will still go by; food additives use data by the food industry will thus have to be reviewed at the beginning of the next century. PMID:8792135

  12. ToF-SIMS analysis of anti-fretting films generated on the surface of ball bearings containing dithiocarbamate and dithiophosphate grease additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duque, Ricardo G.; Wang, Zhiyu; Duell, Dave; Fowler, David E.

    2004-06-01

    During transport of hard drives from the factory to the end customer, vibrations can induce small repetitive displacements of the ball bearings giving rise to fretting corrosion at the metal surfaces. On the other hand, it has been found that some particular types of grease additives can form thin layers on steel surfaces and thus protect against fretting corrosion. ToF-SIMS has been used to study the chemical nature of layers formed on bearing surfaces containing greases with dithiocarbamates, dithiophosphates, and metal sulfonate additives. In cases where fretting was prevented, the presence of MoS 2-, FeS - and ion fragments containing Mo-Fe-S - were observed, whereas none of these ions were detected on the surfaces of fretted bearings. Finally, it is inferred that the action of metal sulfonates may have an antagonist effect on the anti-fretting activity of the dithiocarbamate and dithiophosphate compounds studied.

  13. An additional middle cuneiform?

    PubMed Central

    Brookes-Fazakerley, S.D.; Jackson, G.E.; Platt, S.R.

    2015-01-01

    Additional cuneiform bones of the foot have been described in reference to the medial bipartite cuneiform or as small accessory ossicles. An additional middle cuneiform has not been previously documented. We present the case of a patient with an additional ossicle that has the appearance and location of an additional middle cuneiform. Recognizing such an anatomical anomaly is essential for ruling out second metatarsal base or middle cuneiform fractures and for the preoperative planning of arthrodesis or open reduction and internal fixation procedures in this anatomical location. PMID:26224890

  14. Additional Value of CH4 Measurement in a Combined 13C/H2 Lactose Malabsorption Breath Test: A Retrospective Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Houben, Els; De Preter, Vicky; Billen, Jaak; Van Ranst, Marc; Verbeke, Kristin

    2015-01-01

    The lactose hydrogen breath test is a commonly used, non-invasive method for the detection of lactose malabsorption and is based on an abnormal increase in breath hydrogen (H2) excretion after an oral dose of lactose. We use a combined 13C/H2 lactose breath test that measures breath 13CO2 as a measure of lactose digestion in addition to H2 and that has a better sensitivity and specificity than the standard test. The present retrospective study evaluated the results of 1051 13C/H2 lactose breath tests to assess the impact on the diagnostic accuracy of measuring breath CH4 in addition to H2 and 13CO2. Based on the 13C/H2 breath test, 314 patients were diagnosed with lactase deficiency, 138 with lactose malabsorption or small bowel bacterial overgrowth (SIBO), and 599 with normal lactose digestion. Additional measurement of CH4 further improved the accuracy of the test as 16% subjects with normal lactose digestion and no H2-excretion were found to excrete CH4. These subjects should have been classified as subjects with lactose malabsorption or SIBO. In conclusion, measuring CH4-concentrations has an added value to the 13C/H2 breath test to identify methanogenic subjects with lactose malabsorption or SIBO. PMID:26371034

  15. Gut Health of Pigs: Challenge Models and Response Criteria with a Critical Analysis of the Effectiveness of Selected Feed Additives — A Review

    PubMed Central

    Adewole, D. I.; Kim, I. H.; Nyachoti, C. M.

    2016-01-01

    The gut is the largest organ that helps with the immune function. Gut health, especially in young pigs has a significant benefit to health and performance. In an attempt to maintain and enhance intestinal health in pigs and improve productivity in the absence of in-feed antibiotics, researchers have evaluated a wide range of feed additives. Some of these additives such as zinc oxide, copper sulphate, egg yolk antibodies, mannan-oligosaccharides and spray dried porcine plasma and their effectiveness are discussed in this review. One approach to evaluate the effectiveness of these additives in vivo is to use an appropriate disease challenge model. Over the years, researchers have used a number of challenge models which include the use of specific strains of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli, bacteria lipopolysaccharide challenge, oral challenge with Salmonella enteric serotype Typhimurium, sanitation challenge, and Lawsonia intercellularis challenge. These challenge models together with the criteria used to evaluate the responses of the animals to them are also discussed in this review. PMID:26954144

  16. Gut Health of Pigs: Challenge Models and Response Criteria with a Critical Analysis of the Effectiveness of Selected Feed Additives - A Review.

    PubMed

    Adewole, D I; Kim, I H; Nyachoti, C M

    2016-07-01

    The gut is the largest organ that helps with the immune function. Gut health, especially in young pigs has a significant benefit to health and performance. In an attempt to maintain and enhance intestinal health in pigs and improve productivity in the absence of in-feed antibiotics, researchers have evaluated a wide range of feed additives. Some of these additives such as zinc oxide, copper sulphate, egg yolk antibodies, mannan-oligosaccharides and spray dried porcine plasma and their effectiveness are discussed in this review. One approach to evaluate the effectiveness of these additives in vivo is to use an appropriate disease challenge model. Over the years, researchers have used a number of challenge models which include the use of specific strains of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli, bacteria lipopolysaccharide challenge, oral challenge with Salmonella enteric serotype Typhimurium, sanitation challenge, and Lawsonia intercellularis challenge. These challenge models together with the criteria used to evaluate the responses of the animals to them are also discussed in this review. PMID:26954144

  17. Meta-Analysis of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder or Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms, Restriction Diet, and Synthetic Food Color Additives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nigg, Joel T.; Lewis, Kara; Edinger, Tracy; Falk, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The role of diet and of food colors in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or its symptoms warrants updated quantitative meta-analysis, in light of recent divergent policy in Europe and the United States. Method: Studies were identified through a literature search using the PubMed, Cochrane Library, and PsycNET databases…

  18. Carbamate deposit control additives

    SciTech Connect

    Honnen, L.R.; Lewis, R.A.

    1980-11-25

    Deposit control additives for internal combustion engines are provided which maintain cleanliness of intake systems without contributing to combustion chamber deposits. The additives are poly(oxyalkylene) carbamates comprising a hydrocarbyloxyterminated poly(Oxyalkylene) chain of 2-5 carbon oxyalkylene units bonded through an oxycarbonyl group to a nitrogen atom of ethylenediamine.

  19. Tougher Addition Polyimides Containing Siloxane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    St. Clair, T. L.; Maudgal, S.

    1986-01-01

    Laminates show increased impact resistances and other desirable mechanical properties. Bismaleamic acid extended by reaction of diaminosiloxane with maleic anhydride in 1:1 molar ratio, followed by reaction with half this molar ratio of aromatic dianhydride. Bismaleamic acid also extended by reaction of diaminosiloxane with maleic anhydride in 1:2 molar ratio, followed by reaction with half this molar ratio of aromatic diamine (Michael-addition reaction). Impact resistances improved over those of unmodified bismaleimide, showing significant increase in toughness. Aromatic addition polyimides developed as both matrix and adhesive resins for applications on future aircraft and spacecraft.

  20. Bioprocessing of “Hair Waste” by Paecilomyces lilacinus as a Source of a Bleach-Stable, Alkaline, and Thermostable Keratinase with Potential Application as a Laundry Detergent Additive: Characterization and Wash Performance Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Cavello, Ivana A.; Hours, Roque A.; Cavalitto, Sebastián F.

    2012-01-01

    Paecilomyces lilacinus (Thom) Samson LPS 876, a locally isolated fungal strain, was grown on minimal mineral medium containing “hair waste,” a residue from the hair-saving unhairing process, and produced a protease with keratinolytic activity. This enzyme was biochemically characterized. The optimum reaction conditions, determined with a response surface methodology, were 60°C and pH 6.0. It was remarkably stable in a wide range of pHs and temperatures. Addition of Ca2+, Mg2+, or sorbitol was found to be effective in increasing thermal stability of the protease. PMSF and Hg2+ inhibited the proteolytic activity indicating the presence of a thiol-dependent serine protease. It showed high stability toward surfactants, bleaching agents, and solvents. It was also compatible with commercial detergents (7 mg/mL) such as Ariel, Skip, Drive, and Ace, retaining more than 70% of its proteolytic activity in all detergents after 1 h of incubation at 40°C. Wash performance analysis revealed that this protease could effectively remove blood stains. From these properties, this enzyme may be considered as a potential candidate for future use in biotechnological processes, as well as in the formulation of laundry detergents. PMID:23365760

  1. Bioprocessing of "Hair Waste" by Paecilomyces lilacinus as a Source of a Bleach-Stable, Alkaline, and Thermostable Keratinase with Potential Application as a Laundry Detergent Additive: Characterization and Wash Performance Analysis.

    PubMed

    Cavello, Ivana A; Hours, Roque A; Cavalitto, Sebastián F

    2012-01-01

    Paecilomyces lilacinus (Thom) Samson LPS 876, a locally isolated fungal strain, was grown on minimal mineral medium containing "hair waste," a residue from the hair-saving unhairing process, and produced a protease with keratinolytic activity. This enzyme was biochemically characterized. The optimum reaction conditions, determined with a response surface methodology, were 60°C and pH 6.0. It was remarkably stable in a wide range of pHs and temperatures. Addition of Ca(2+), Mg(2+), or sorbitol was found to be effective in increasing thermal stability of the protease. PMSF and Hg(2+) inhibited the proteolytic activity indicating the presence of a thiol-dependent serine protease. It showed high stability toward surfactants, bleaching agents, and solvents. It was also compatible with commercial detergents (7 mg/mL) such as Ariel, Skip, Drive, and Ace, retaining more than 70% of its proteolytic activity in all detergents after 1 h of incubation at 40°C. Wash performance analysis revealed that this protease could effectively remove blood stains. From these properties, this enzyme may be considered as a potential candidate for future use in biotechnological processes, as well as in the formulation of laundry detergents. PMID:23365760

  2. First- and Second-Line Bevacizumab in Addition to Chemotherapy for Metastatic Colorectal Cancer: A United States–Based Cost-Effectiveness Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Goldstein, Daniel A.; Chen, Qiushi; Ayer, Turgay; Howard, David H.; Lipscomb, Joseph; El-Rayes, Bassel F.; Flowers, Christopher R.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The addition of bevacizumab to fluorouracil-based chemotherapy is a standard of care for previously untreated metastatic colorectal cancer. Continuation of bevacizumab beyond progression is an accepted standard of care based on a 1.4-month increase in median overall survival observed in a randomized trial. No United States–based cost-effectiveness modeling analyses are currently available addressing the use of bevacizumab in metastatic colorectal cancer. Our objective was to determine the cost effectiveness of bevacizumab in the first-line setting and when continued beyond progression from the perspective of US payers. Methods We developed two Markov models to compare the cost and effectiveness of fluorouracil, leucovorin, and oxaliplatin with or without bevacizumab in the first-line treatment and subsequent fluorouracil, leucovorin, and irinotecan with or without bevacizumab in the second-line treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer. Model robustness was addressed by univariable and probabilistic sensitivity analyses. Health outcomes were measured in life-years and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs). Results Using bevacizumab in first-line therapy provided an additional 0.10 QALYs (0.14 life-years) at a cost of $59,361. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was $571,240 per QALY. Continuing bevacizumab beyond progression provided an additional 0.11 QALYs (0.16 life-years) at a cost of $39,209. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was $364,083 per QALY. In univariable sensitivity analyses, the variables with the greatest influence on the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio were bevacizumab cost, overall survival, and utility. Conclusion Bevacizumab provides minimal incremental benefit at high incremental cost per QALY in both the first- and second-line settings of metastatic colorectal cancer treatment. PMID:25691669

  3. Functional mapping of left parietal areas involved in simple addition and multiplication. A single-case study of qualitative analysis of errors.

    PubMed

    Della Puppa, Alessandro; De Pellegrin, Serena; Salillas, Elena; Grego, Alberto; Lazzarini, Anna; Vallesi, Antonino; Saladini, Marina; Semenza, Carlo

    2015-09-01

    All electrostimulation studies on arithmetic have so far solely reported general errors. Nonetheless, a classification of the errors during stimulation can inform us about underlying arithmetic processes. The present electrostimulation study was performed in a case of left parietal glioma. The patient's erroneous responses suggested that calculation was mainly applied for addition and a combination of retrieval and calculation was mainly applied for multiplication. The findings of the present single-case study encourage follow up with further data collection with the same paradigm. PMID:24646158

  4. Simultaneous determination of antioxidants, preservatives and sweetener additives in food and cosmetics by flow injection analysis coupled to a monolithic column.

    PubMed

    García-Jiménez, J F; Valencia, M C; Capitán-Vallvey, L F

    2007-07-01

    Today it is common to find samples with various additives from several families. This is the case of sweeteners, preservatives and antioxidants. We have selected a set of additives broadly used in foods and cosmetics with an ample variety of polarities, namely: aspartame (AS), acesulfame (AK)/saccharin (SA), methylparaben (MP), ethylparaben (EP), propylparaben (PP), butylparaben (BP), propylgallate (PG) and butylhydroxyanisole (BA). The monolithic column used as separative system is a 5 mm commercial precolumn of silica C18 coupled to a flow injection manifold working with a peristaltic pump. The mixture was separated in only 400 s with resolution factors greater than 1.1 in all cases. To achieve the separation in the FIA system we used two carriers: first, a mixture of ACN/water buffered with 10 mM pH 6.0 phosphate buffer and second, a methanol:water mixture to improve the carrier strength and speed up the more apolar analytes at 3.5 mL min(-1). Detection is accomplished by means of a diode array spectrometer at the respective wavelength of each compound. The comparison of the analytical parameters obtained for this procedure with a standard HPLC method validates our new method, obtaining a method that is quick, with high repeatability and reproducibility and with good resolution between analytes. We have successfully applied the method to real food and cosmetics samples. PMID:17586119

  5. Fuel and Additive Characterization for HCCI Combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Aceves, S M; Flowers, D; Martinez-Frias, J; Espinosa-Loza, F; Pitz, W J; Dibble, R

    2003-02-12

    This paper shows a numerical evaluation of fuels and additives for HCCl combustion. First, a long list of candidate HCCl fuels is selected. For all the fuels in the list, operating conditions (compression ratio, equivalence ratio and intake temperature) are determined that result in optimum performance under typical operation for a heavy-duty engine. Fuels are also characterized by presenting Log(p)-Log(T) maps for multiple fuels under HCCl conditions. Log(p)-Log(T) maps illustrate important processes during HCCl engine operation, including compression, low temperature heat release and ignition. Log(p)-Log(T) diagrams can be used for visualizing these processes and can be used as a tool for detailed analysis of HCCl combustion. The paper also includes a ranking of many potential additives. Experiments and analyses have indicated that small amounts (a few parts per million) of secondary fuels (additives) may considerably affect HCCl combustion and may play a significant role in controlling HCCl combustion. Additives are ranked according to their capability to advance HCCl ignition. The best additives are listed and an explanation of their effect on HCCl combustion is included.

  6. Smog control fuel additives

    SciTech Connect

    Lundby, W.

    1993-06-29

    A method is described of controlling, reducing or eliminating, ozone and related smog resulting from photochemical reactions between ozone and automotive or industrial gases comprising the addition of iodine or compounds of iodine to hydrocarbon-base fuels prior to or during combustion in an amount of about 1 part iodine per 240 to 10,000,000 parts fuel, by weight, to be accomplished by: (a) the addition of these inhibitors during or after the refining or manufacturing process of liquid fuels; (b) the production of these inhibitors for addition into fuel tanks, such as automotive or industrial tanks; or (c) the addition of these inhibitors into combustion chambers of equipment utilizing solid fuels for the purpose of reducing ozone.

  7. Food Additives and Hyperkinesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wender, Ester H.

    1977-01-01

    The hypothesis that food additives are causally associated with hyperkinesis and learning disabilities in children is reviewed, and available data are summarized. Available from: American Medical Association 535 North Dearborn Street Chicago, Illinois 60610. (JG)

  8. Additional Types of Neuropathy

    MedlinePlus

    ... A A Listen En Español Additional Types of Neuropathy Charcot's Joint Charcot's Joint, also called neuropathic arthropathy, ... can stop bone destruction and aid healing. Cranial Neuropathy Cranial neuropathy affects the 12 pairs of nerves ...

  9. Optimization of the β-Elimination/Michael Addition Chemistry on Reversed-Phase Supports for Mass Spectrometry Analysis of O-Linked Protein Modifications

    PubMed Central

    Nika, Heinz; Nieves, Edward; Hawke, David H.; Angeletti, Ruth Hogue

    2013-01-01

    We previously adapted the β-elimination/Michael addition chemistry to solid-phase derivatization on reversed-phase supports, and demonstrated the utility of this reaction format to prepare phosphoseryl peptides in unfractionated protein digests for mass spectrometric identification and facile phosphorylation-site determination. Here, we have expanded the use of this technique to β-N-acetylglucosamine peptides, modified at serine/threonine, phosphothreonyl peptides, and phosphoseryl/phosphothreonyl peptides, followed in sequence by proline. The consecutive β-elimination with Michael addition was adapted to optimize the solid-phase reaction conditions for throughput and completeness of derivatization. The analyte remained intact during derivatization and was recovered efficiently from the silica-based, reversed-phase support with minimal sample loss. The general use of the solid-phase approach for enzymatic dephosphorylation was demonstrated with phosphoseryl and phosphothreonyl peptides and was used as an orthogonal method to confirm the identity of phosphopeptides in proteolytic mixtures. The solid-phase approach proved highly suitable to prepare substrates from low-level amounts of protein digests for phosphorylation-site determination by chemical-targeted proteolysis. The solid-phase protocol provides for a simple, robust, and efficient tool to prepare samples for phosphopeptide identification in MALDI mass maps of unfractionated protein digests, using standard equipment available in most biological laboratories. The use of a solid-phase analytical platform is expected to be readily expanded to prepare digest from O-glycosylated- and O-sulfonated proteins for mass spectrometry-based structural characterization. PMID:23997661

  10. Southeast upstairs room of northwest wing showing southeast masonry wall ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Southeast upstairs room of northwest wing showing southeast masonry wall shared with Federal addition. note angled cracks showing original 1 1/2 story gable. - Scheetz Farm, House, 7161 Camp Hill Road, Fort Washington, Montgomery County, PA

  11. Tetrasulfide extreme pressure lubricant additives

    SciTech Connect

    Gast, L.E.; Kenney, H.E.; Schwab, A.W.

    1980-08-19

    A novel class of compounds has been prepared comprising the tetrasulfides of /sup 18/C hydrocarbons, /sup 18/C fatty acids, and /sup 18/C fatty and alkyl and triglyceride esters. These tetrasulfides are useful as extreme pressure lubricant additives and show potential as replacements for sulfurized sperm whale oil.

  12. Detection of multivessel disease in patients with sustained myocardial infarction by thallium 201 myocardial scintigraphy: No additional value of quantitative analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Niemeyer, M.G.; Pauwels, E.K.; van der Wall, E.E.; Cramer, M.J.; Verzijlbergen, J.F.; Zwinderman, A.H.; Ascoop, C.A. )

    1989-01-01

    This study was performed to determine the value of visual and quantitative thallium 201 scintigraphy for the detection of multivessel disease in 67 patients with a sustained transmural myocardial infarction. Also the viability of the myocardial regions corresponding to pathologic Q-waves was evaluated. Of the 67 patients, 51 patients had multivessel coronary artery disease (76%). The sensitivity of the exercise test was 53%, of thallium scintigraphy 69%, when interpreted visually, and 67%, when analysed quantitatively. The specificity of these methods was 69%, 56%, and 50%, respectively. Sixty-two infarct-related flow regions were detected by visual analysis of the thallium scans, total redistribution was observed in 11/62 (18%) of patients, partial redistribution in 26/62 (42%), and no redistribution in 25/62 (40%) of patients. The infarct-related areas with total redistribution on the thallium scintigrams were more likely to be associated with normal or hypokinetic wall motion (7/11: 64%) than the areas with a persistent defect (7/25:28%) (P = 0.05), which were more related with akinetic or dyskinetic wall motion. Based on our results, it is concluded that (1) both visual and quantitative analysis of thallium exercise scintigraphy have limited value to predict the presence or absence of multivessel coronary artery disease in patients with sustained myocardial infarction, and (2) exercise-induced thallium redistribution may occur within the infarct zone, suggesting the presence of viable but jeopardized myocardium in presumed fibrotic myocardial areas.

  13. 9. July 1974. SOUTH SIDE OF THE WORKS, SHOWING RIGHTTOLEFT: ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. July 1974. SOUTH SIDE OF THE WORKS, SHOWING RIGHT-TO-LEFT: 1885 ADDITION TO THE PRE-1883 FARM SHOP, TWO-STORY 1905 ADDITION, ONE STORY ADDITION OF 1908, AND IRON SHED. - Gruber Wagon Works, Pennsylvania Route 183 & State Hill Road at Red Bridge Park, Bernville, Berks County, PA

  14. Efficacy and Safety Assessment of the Addition of Bevacizumab to Adjuvant Therapy Agents in Cancer Patients: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Ahmadizar, Fariba; Onland-Moret, N. Charlotte; de Boer, Anthonius; Liu, Geoffrey; Maitland-van der Zee, Anke H.

    2015-01-01

    Aim To evaluate the efficacy and safety of bevacizumab in the adjuvant cancer therapy setting within different subset of patients. Methods & Design/ Results PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane and Clinical trials.gov databases were searched for English language studies of randomized controlled trials comparing bevacizumab and adjuvant therapy with adjuvant therapy alone published from January 1966 to 7th of May 2014. Progression free survival, overall survival, overall response rate, safety and quality of life were analyzed using random- or fixed-effects models according to the PRISMA guidelines. We obtained data from 44 randomized controlled trials (30,828 patients). Combining bevacizumab with different adjuvant therapies resulted in significant improvement of progression free survival (log hazard ratio, 0.87; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.84–0.89), overall survival (log hazard ratio, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.94–0.98) and overall response rate (relative risk, 1.46; 95% CI: 1.33–1.59) compared to adjuvant therapy alone in all studied tumor types. In subgroup analyses, there were no interactions of bevacizumab with baseline characteristics on progression free survival and overall survival, while overall response rate was influenced by tumor type and bevacizumab dose (p-value: 0.02). Although bevacizumab use resulted in additional expected adverse drug reactions except anemia and fatigue, it was not associated with a significant decline in quality of life. There was a trend towards a higher risk of several side effects in patients treated by high-dose bevacizumab compared to the low-dose e.g. all grade proteinuria (9.24; 95% CI: 6.60–12.94 vs. 2.64; 95% CI: 1.29–5.40). Conclusions Combining bevacizumab with different adjuvant therapies provides a survival benefit across all major subsets of patients, including by tumor type, type of adjuvant therapy, and duration and dose of bevacizumab therapy. Though bevacizumab was associated with increased risks of some adverse drug

  15. Comparison of the performance of non-ionic and anionic surfactants as mobile phase additives in the RPLC analysis of basic drugs.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Ángel, María J; García-Álvarez-Coque, María C

    2011-03-01

    Surfactants added to the mobile phases in reversed-phase liquid chromatography (RPLC) give rise to a modified stationary phase, due to the adsorption of surfactant monomers. Depending on the surfactant nature (ionic or non-ionic), the coated stationary phase can exhibit a positive net charge, or just change its polarity remaining neutral. Also, micelles in the mobile phase introduce new sites for solute interaction. This affects the chromatographic behavior, especially in the case of basic compounds. Two surfactants of different nature, the non-ionic Brij-35 and the anionic sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) added to water or aqueous-organic mixtures, are here compared in the separation of basic compounds (β-blockers and tricyclic antidepressants). The reversible/irreversible adsorption of the monomers of both surfactants on the stationary phase was examined. The changes in the nature of the chromatographic system using different columns and chromatographic conditions were followed based on the changes in retention and peak shape. The study revealed that Brij-35 is suitable for analyzing basic compounds of intermediate polarity, using "green chemistry", since the addition of an organic solvent is not needed and Brij-35 is a biodegradable surfactant. In contrast, RPLC with hydro-organic mixtures or mobile phases containing SDS required high concentrations of organic solvents. PMID:21328695

  16. Electrochemical Analysis for Enhancing Interface Layer of Spinel Li4Ti5O12: p-Toluenesulfonyl Isocyanate as Electrolyte Additive.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ren-Heng; Li, Xin-Hai; Wang, Zhi-Xing; Guo, Hua-Jun; He, Zhen-Jiang

    2015-10-28

    An electrolyte additive, p-toluenesulfonyl isocyanate (PTSI), is evaluated in our work to overcome the poor cycling performance of spinel lithium titanate (Li4Ti5O12) lithium-ion batteries. We find that the cycling performance of a Li/Li4Ti5O12 cell with 0.5 wt % PTSI after 400 cycles is obviously improved. Remarkably, we also find that a solid electrolyte interface (SEI) film is formed about 1.2 V, which has higher potential to generate a stable SEI film than do carbonate solvents in the voltage range of 3.0-0 V. The stable SEI film derived from PTSI can effectively suppress the decomposition of electrolyte, HF generation, interfacial reaction, and LiF formation upon cycling. These observations are explained in terms of PTSI including SO3. The S═O groups can delocalize the nitrogen core, which acts as the weak base site to hinder the reactivity of PF5. Hence, HF generation and LiF formation are suppressed. PMID:26451678

  17. Synthesis of magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers by reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer strategy and its application in the Sudan dyes residue analysis.

    PubMed

    Xie, Xiaoyu; Chen, Liang; Pan, Xiaoyan; Wang, Sicen

    2015-07-31

    Magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers (MMIPs) have become a hotspot owing to the dual functions of target recognition and magnetic separation. In this study, the MMIPs were obtained by the surface-initiated reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization using Sudan I as the template. The resultant MMIPs were characterized by transmission electron microscope, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, vibrating sample magnetometer, and X-ray diffraction. Benefiting from the controlled/living property of the RAFT strategy, the uniform MIP layer was successfully grafted on the surface of RAFT agent-modified Fe3O4@SiO2 nanoparticles, favoring the fast mass transfer and rapid binding kinetics. The developed MMIPs were used as the solid-phase extraction sorbents to selectively extract four Sudan dyes (Sudan I, II, III, and IV) from chili powder samples. The recoveries of the spiked samples in chili powder samples ranged from 74.1 to 93.3% with RSD lower than 6.4% and the relative standard uncertainty lower than 0.029. This work provided a good platform for the extraction and removal of Sudan dyes in complicated matrixes and demonstrated a bright future for the application of the well-constructed MMIPs in the field of solid-phase extraction. PMID:26077971

  18. Non-additive Empirical Force Fields for Short-Chain Linear Alcohols: Methanol to Butanol. Hydration Free Energetics and Kirkwood-Buff Analysis Using Charge Equilibration Models

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Yang; Patel, Sandeep

    2010-01-01

    Building upon the nonadditive electrostatic force field for alcohols based on the CHARMM charge equilibration (CHEQ) formalism, we introduce atom-pair specific solute-solvent Lennard-Jones (LJ) parameters for alcohol-water interaction force fields targeting improved agreement with experimental hydration free energies of a series of small molecule linear alcohols as well as ab initio water-alcohol geometries and energetics. We consider short-chain, linear alcohols from methanol to butanol as they are canonical small-molecule organic model compounds to represent the hydroxyl chemical functionality for parameterizing biomolecular force fields for proteins. We discuss molecular dynamics simulations of dilute aqueous solutions of methanol and ethanol in TIP4P-FQ water, with particular discussion of solution densities, structure defined in radial distribution functions, electrostatic properties (dipole moment distributions), hydrogen bonding patterns of water, as well as a Kirkwood-Buff (KB) integral analysis. Calculation of the latter provides an assessment of how well classical force fields parameterized to at least semi-quantitatively match experimental hydration free energies capture the microscopic structures of dilute alcohol solutions; the latter translate into macroscopic thermodynamic properties through the application of KB analysis. We find that the CHEQ alcohol force fields of this work semi-quantitatively match experimental KB integrals for methanol and ethanol mole fractions of 0.1 and 0.2. The force field combination qualitatively captures the concentration dependence of the alcohol-alcohol and water-water KB integrals, but due to inadequacies in the representation of the microscopic structures in such systems (which cannot be parameterized in any systematic fashion), a priori quantitative description of alcohol-water KB integrals remains elusive. PMID:20687517

  19. Additive Manufacturing Infrared Inspection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaddy, Darrell

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing is a rapid prototyping technology that allows parts to be built in a series of thin layers from plastic, ceramics, and metallics. Metallic additive manufacturing is an emerging form of rapid prototyping that allows complex structures to be built using various metallic powders. Significant time and cost savings have also been observed using the metallic additive manufacturing compared with traditional techniques. Development of the metallic additive manufacturing technology has advanced significantly over the last decade, although many of the techniques to inspect parts made from these processes have not advanced significantly or have limitations. Several external geometry inspection techniques exist such as Coordinate Measurement Machines (CMM), Laser Scanners, Structured Light Scanning Systems, or even traditional calipers and gages. All of the aforementioned techniques are limited to external geometry and contours or must use a contact probe to inspect limited internal dimensions. This presentation will document the development of a process for real-time dimensional inspection technique and digital quality record of the additive manufacturing process using Infrared camera imaging and processing techniques.

  20. Phenylethynyl Containing Reactive Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John W. (Inventor); Smith, Joseph G., Jr. (Inventor); Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Phenylethynyl containing reactive additives were prepared from aromatic diamine, containing phenylethvnvl groups and various ratios of phthalic anhydride and 4-phenylethynviphthalic anhydride in glacial acetic acid to form the imide in one step or in N-methyl-2-pvrrolidinone to form the amide acid intermediate. The reactive additives were mixed in various amounts (10% to 90%) with oligomers containing either terminal or pendent phenylethynyl groups (or both) to reduce the melt viscosity and thereby enhance processability. Upon thermal cure, the additives react and become chemically incorporated into the matrix and effect an increase in crosslink density relative to that of the host resin. This resultant increase in crosslink density has advantageous consequences on the cured resin properties such as higher glass transition temperature and higher modulus as compared to that of the host resin.

  1. Additives in plastics.

    PubMed Central

    Deanin, R D

    1975-01-01

    The polymers used in plastics are generally harmless. However, they are rarely used in pure form. In almost all commercial plastics, they are "compounded" with monomeric ingredients to improve their processing and end-use performance. In order of total volume used, these monomeric additives may be classified as follows: reinforcing fibers, fillers, and coupling agents; plasticizers; colorants; stabilizers (halogen stabilizers, antioxidants, ultraviolet absorbers, and biological preservatives); processing aids (lubricants, others, and flow controls); flame retardants, peroxides; and antistats. Some information is already available, and much more is needed, on potential toxicity and safe handling of these additives during processing and manufacture of plastics products. PMID:1175566

  2. Genome-wide analysis of BMI in adolescents and young adults reveals additional insight into the effects of genetic loci over the life course

    PubMed Central

    Graff, Mariaelisa; Ngwa, Julius S.; Workalemahu, Tsegaselassie; Homuth, Georg; Schipf, Sabine; Teumer, Alexander; Völzke, Henry; Wallaschofski, Henri; Abecasis, Goncalo R.; Edward, Lakatta; Francesco, Cucca; Sanna, Serena; Scheet, Paul; Schlessinger, David; Sidore, Carlo; Xiao, Xiangjun; Wang, Zhaoming; Chanock, Stephen J.; Jacobs, Kevin B.; Hayes, Richard B.; Hu, Frank; Van Dam, Rob M.; Crout, Richard J.; Marazita, Mary L.; Shaffer, John R; Atwood, Larry D.; Fox, Caroline S.; Heard-Costa, Nancy L.; White, Charles; Choh, Audrey C.; Czerwinski, Stefan A.; Demerath, Ellen W.; Dyer, Thomas D.; Towne, Bradford; Amin, Najaf; Oostra, Ben A.; Van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Zillikens, M. Carola; Esko, Tõnu; Nelis, Mari; Nikopensius, Tit; Metspalu, Andres; Strachan, David P.; Monda, Keri; Qi, Lu; North, Kari E.; Cupples, L. Adrienne; Gordon-Larsen, Penny; Berndt, Sonja I.

    2013-01-01

    Genetic loci for body mass index (BMI) in adolescence and young adulthood, a period of high risk for weight gain, are understudied, yet may yield important insight into the etiology of obesity and early intervention. To identify novel genetic loci and examine the influence of known loci on BMI during this critical time period in late adolescence and early adulthood, we performed a two-stage meta-analysis using 14 genome-wide association studies in populations of European ancestry with data on BMI between ages 16 and 25 in up to 29 880 individuals. We identified seven independent loci (P < 5.0 × 10−8) near FTO (P = 3.72 × 10−23), TMEM18 (P = 3.24 × 10−17), MC4R (P = 4.41 × 10−17), TNNI3K (P = 4.32 × 10−11), SEC16B (P = 6.24 × 10−9), GNPDA2 (P = 1.11 × 10−8) and POMC (P = 4.94 × 10−8) as well as a potential secondary signal at the POMC locus (rs2118404, P = 2.4 × 10−5 after conditioning on the established single-nucleotide polymorphism at this locus) in adolescents and young adults. To evaluate the impact of the established genetic loci on BMI at these young ages, we examined differences between the effect sizes of 32 published BMI loci in European adult populations (aged 18–90) and those observed in our adolescent and young adult meta-analysis. Four loci (near PRKD1, TNNI3K, SEC16B and CADM2) had larger effects and one locus (near SH2B1) had a smaller effect on BMI during adolescence and young adulthood compared with older adults (P < 0.05). These results suggest that genetic loci for BMI can vary in their effects across the life course, underlying the importance of evaluating BMI at different ages. PMID:23669352

  3. The Addition of Gemtuzumab Ozogamicin to Induction Chemotherapy in Acute Myeloid Leukaemia : An IndividualPatient Data Meta-analysis of Randomised Trials in Adults

    PubMed Central

    Hills, Robert K; Castaigne, Sylvie; Appelbaum, Frederick R; Delaunay, Jacques; Petersdorf, Stephen; Othus, Megan; MD, Elihu H Estey; Dombret, Hervé; Chevret, Sylvie; Ifrah, Norbert; Cahn, Jean-Yves; Récher, Christian; Chilton, Lucy; Moorman, Anthony V; Burnett, Alan K

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background Gemtuzumab Ozogamicin (GO) was the first example of antibody directed chemotherapy in cancer and developed for Acute Myeloid Leukaemia. Its role has been unclear. Five randomised trials where it was combined with standard induction chemotherapy in adults have produced different results. In an effort to clarify the level of benefit, if any, and in which patients outcomes might be improved, an individual patient data meta-analysis of these 5 trials has been undertaken. Methods All randomised trials of GO in adults (age >15), given in conjunction with the first course of intensive induction chemotherapy for AML (excluding APL) were identified. In a collaboration between the groups involved, source data concerning demographics, treatment was requested in May 2013 and collected in 3325 randomised patients (median age 58). All trials were centrally randomised and open-label, with survival as primary endpoint. Analyses are presented by standard techniques, and within standardised risk groups Results Remission rates were not increased, but by significantly reducing the risk of relapse overall survival at 5 years was improved irrespective of patient age (30.7% vs 34.6%; HR 0.90 (95% CI 0.82-0.98), p=0.01). The survival benefit was particularly clear in those with favourable cytogenetics (55.2% vs 76.3%; HR0.47 (0.31-0.73), p=0.0005), but also observed in intermediate risk patients (34.1% vs 39.4%; HR 0.84 (0.75-0.95), p=0.007) Patients with adverse karyotype did not benefit overall or within any trial. Dose levels of 3mg/m2 were associated with less toxicity and equal efficacy. Interpretation GO can be safely added to conventional induction therapy. For patients who do not have adverse cytogenetics there is a significant survival benefit. These data suggest that the use of GO should be re-evaluated and the license status of GO may need to be reviewed. Role of funding source There was no funder for this meta-analysis. PMID:25008258

  4. Response of soybean rhizosphere communities to human hygiene water addition as determined by community level physiological profiling (CLPP) and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP) analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerkhof, L.; Santoro, M.; Garland, J.

    2000-01-01

    In this report, we describe an experiment conducted at Kennedy Space Center in the biomass production chamber (BPC) using soybean plants for purification and processing of human hygiene water. Specifically, we tested whether it was possible to detect changes in the root-associated bacterial assemblage of the plants and ultimately to identify the specific microorganism(s) which differed when plants were exposed to hygiene water and other hydroponic media. Plants were grown in hydroponics media corresponding to four different treatments: control (Hoagland's solution), artificial gray water (Hoagland's+surfactant), filtered gray water collected from human subjects on site, and unfiltered gray water. Differences in rhizosphere microbial populations in all experimental treatments were observed when compared to the control treatment using both community level physiological profiles (BIOLOG) and molecular fingerprinting of 16S rRNA genes by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis (TRFLP). Furthermore, screening of a clonal library of 16S rRNA genes by TRFLP yielded nearly full length SSU genes associated with the various treatments. Most 16S rRNA genes were affiliated with the Klebsiella, Pseudomonas, Variovorax, Burkholderia, Bordetella and Isosphaera groups. This molecular approach demonstrated the ability to rapidly detect and identify microorganisms unique to experimental treatments and provides a means to fingerprint microbial communities in the biosystems being developed at NASA for optimizing advanced life support operations.

  5. Knee Pain and Low Back Pain Additively Disturb Sleep in the General Population: A Cross-Sectional Analysis of the Nagahama Study

    PubMed Central

    Murase, Kimihiko; Tabara, Yasuharu; Ito, Hiromu; Kobayashi, Masahiko; Takahashi, Yoshimitsu; Setoh, Kazuya; Kawaguchi, Takahisa; Muro, Shigeo; Kadotani, Hiroshi; Kosugi, Shinji; Sekine, Akihiro; Yamada, Ryo; Nakayama, Takeo; Mishima, Michiaki; Matsuda, Shuichi; Matsuda, Fumihiko; Chin, Kazuo

    2015-01-01

    low back pain: OR = 1.61, p<0.01; both knee and low back pain: OR = 2.17, p<0.01). Conclusion Knee and low back pains were independently associated with short sleep duration and poor sleep quality. Further, they additively increased the correlation with these sleep problems in the general population. PMID:26444713

  6. Biobased lubricant additives

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fully biobased lubricants are those formulated using all biobased ingredients, i.e. biobased base oils and biobased additives. Such formulations provide the maximum environmental, safety, and economic benefits expected from a biobased product. Currently, there are a number of biobased base oils that...

  7. Multifunctional fuel additives

    SciTech Connect

    Baillargeon, D.J.; Cardis, A.B.; Heck, D.B.

    1991-03-26

    This paper discusses a composition comprising a major amount of a liquid hydrocarbyl fuel and a minor low-temperature flow properties improving amount of an additive product of the reaction of a suitable diol and product of a benzophenone tetracarboxylic dianhydride and a long-chain hydrocarbyl aminoalcohol.

  8. Genome-Wide Chromatin Immunoprecipitation Sequencing Analysis Shows that WhiB Is a Transcription Factor That Cocontrols Its Regulon with WhiA To Initiate Developmental Cell Division in Streptomyces

    PubMed Central

    Chandra, Govind; Bibb, Maureen J.; Findlay, Kim C.; Buttner, Mark J.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT WhiB is the founding member of a family of proteins (the WhiB-like [Wbl] family) that carry a [4Fe-4S] iron-sulfur cluster and play key roles in diverse aspects of the biology of actinomycetes, including pathogenesis, antibiotic resistance, and the control of development. In Streptomyces, WhiB is essential for the process of developmentally controlled cell division that leads to sporulation. The biochemical function of Wbl proteins has been controversial; here, we set out to determine unambiguously if WhiB functions as a transcription factor using chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing (ChIP-seq) in Streptomyces venezuelae. In the first demonstration of in vivo genome-wide Wbl binding, we showed that WhiB regulates the expression of key genes required for sporulation by binding upstream of ~240 transcription units. Strikingly, the WhiB regulon is identical to the previously characterized WhiA regulon, providing an explanation for the identical phenotypes of whiA and whiB mutants. Using ChIP-seq, we demonstrated that in vivo DNA binding by WhiA depends on WhiB and vice versa, showing that WhiA and WhiB function cooperatively to control expression of a common set of WhiAB target genes. Finally, we show that mutation of the cysteine residues that coordinate the [4Fe-4S] cluster in WhiB prevents DNA binding by both WhiB and WhiA in vivo. PMID:27094333

  9. De Novo Transcriptome Analysis Shows That SAV-3 Infection Upregulates Pattern Recognition Receptors of the Endosomal Toll-Like and RIG-I-Like Receptor Signaling Pathways in Macrophage/Dendritic Like TO-Cells

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Cheng; Evensen, Øystein; Mweemba, Hetron Munang’andu

    2016-01-01

    A fundamental step in cellular defense mechanisms is the recognition of “danger signals” made of conserved pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) expressed by invading pathogens, by host cell germ line coded pattern recognition receptors (PRRs). In this study, we used RNA-seq and the Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes (KEGG) to identify PRRs together with the network pathway of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) that recognize salmonid alphavirus subtype 3 (SAV-3) infection in macrophage/dendritic like TO-cells derived from Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L) headkidney leukocytes. Our findings show that recognition of SAV-3 in TO-cells was restricted to endosomal Toll-like receptors (TLRs) 3 and 8 together with RIG-I-like receptors (RLRs) and not the nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptors NOD-like receptor (NLRs) genes. Among the RLRs, upregulated genes included the retinoic acid inducible gene I (RIG-I), melanoma differentiation association 5 (MDA5) and laboratory of genetics and physiology 2 (LGP2). The study points to possible involvement of the tripartite motif containing 25 (TRIM25) and mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein (MAVS) in modulating RIG-I signaling being the first report that links these genes to the RLR pathway in SAV-3 infection in TO-cells. Downstream signaling suggests that both the TLR and RLR pathways use interferon (IFN) regulatory factors (IRFs) 3 and 7 to produce IFN-a2. The validity of RNA-seq data generated in this study was confirmed by quantitative real time qRT-PCR showing that genes up- or downregulated by RNA-seq were also up- or downregulated by RT-PCR. Overall, this study shows that de novo transcriptome assembly identify key receptors of the TLR and RLR sensors engaged in host pathogen interaction at cellular level. We envisage that data presented here can open a road map for future intervention strategies in SAV infection of salmon. PMID:27110808

  10. De Novo Transcriptome Analysis Shows That SAV-3 Infection Upregulates Pattern Recognition Receptors of the Endosomal Toll-Like and RIG-I-Like Receptor Signaling Pathways in Macrophage/Dendritic Like TO-Cells.

    PubMed

    Xu, Cheng; Evensen, Øystein; Mweemba Munang'andu, Hetron

    2016-01-01

    A fundamental step in cellular defense mechanisms is the recognition of "danger signals" made of conserved pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) expressed by invading pathogens, by host cell germ line coded pattern recognition receptors (PRRs). In this study, we used RNA-seq and the Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes (KEGG) to identify PRRs together with the network pathway of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) that recognize salmonid alphavirus subtype 3 (SAV-3) infection in macrophage/dendritic like TO-cells derived from Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L) headkidney leukocytes. Our findings show that recognition of SAV-3 in TO-cells was restricted to endosomal Toll-like receptors (TLRs) 3 and 8 together with RIG-I-like receptors (RLRs) and not the nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptors NOD-like receptor (NLRs) genes. Among the RLRs, upregulated genes included the retinoic acid inducible gene I (RIG-I), melanoma differentiation association 5 (MDA5) and laboratory of genetics and physiology 2 (LGP2). The study points to possible involvement of the tripartite motif containing 25 (TRIM25) and mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein (MAVS) in modulating RIG-I signaling being the first report that links these genes to the RLR pathway in SAV-3 infection in TO-cells. Downstream signaling suggests that both the TLR and RLR pathways use interferon (IFN) regulatory factors (IRFs) 3 and 7 to produce IFN-a2. The validity of RNA-seq data generated in this study was confirmed by quantitative real time qRT-PCR showing that genes up- or downregulated by RNA-seq were also up- or downregulated by RT-PCR. Overall, this study shows that de novo transcriptome assembly identify key receptors of the TLR and RLR sensors engaged in host pathogen interaction at cellular level. We envisage that data presented here can open a road map for future intervention strategies in SAV infection of salmon. PMID:27110808

  11. Hierarchical Cluster Analysis of Three-Dimensional Reconstructions of Unbiased Sampled Microglia Shows not Continuous Morphological Changes from Stage 1 to 2 after Multiple Dengue Infections in Callithrix penicillata

    PubMed Central

    Diniz, Daniel G.; Silva, Geane O.; Naves, Thaís B.; Fernandes, Taiany N.; Araújo, Sanderson C.; Diniz, José A. P.; de Farias, Luis H. S.; Sosthenes, Marcia C. K.; Diniz, Cristovam G.; Anthony, Daniel C.; da Costa Vasconcelos, Pedro F.; Picanço Diniz, Cristovam W.

    2016-01-01

    It is known that microglial morphology and function are related, but few studies have explored the subtleties of microglial morphological changes in response to specific pathogens. In the present report we quantitated microglia morphological changes in a monkey model of dengue disease with virus CNS invasion. To mimic multiple infections that usually occur in endemic areas, where higher dengue infection incidence and abundant mosquito vectors carrying different serotypes coexist, subjects received once a week subcutaneous injections of DENV3 (genotype III)-infected culture supernatant followed 24 h later by an injection of anti-DENV2 antibody. Control animals received either weekly anti-DENV2 antibodies, or no injections. Brain sections were immunolabeled for DENV3 antigens and IBA-1. Random and systematic microglial samples were taken from the polymorphic layer of dentate gyrus for 3-D reconstructions, where we found intense immunostaining for TNFα and DENV3 virus antigens. We submitted all bi- or multimodal morphological parameters of microglia to hierarchical cluster analysis and found two major morphological phenotypes designated types I and II. Compared to type I (stage 1), type II microglia were more complex; displaying higher number of nodes, processes and trees and larger surface area and volumes (stage 2). Type II microglia were found only in infected monkeys, whereas type I microglia was found in both control and infected subjects. Hierarchical cluster analysis of morphological parameters of 3-D reconstructions of random and systematic selected samples in control and ADE dengue infected monkeys suggests that microglia morphological changes from stage 1 to stage 2 may not be continuous. PMID:27047345

  12. Hierarchical Cluster Analysis of Three-Dimensional Reconstructions of Unbiased Sampled Microglia Shows not Continuous Morphological Changes from Stage 1 to 2 after Multiple Dengue Infections in Callithrix penicillata.

    PubMed

    Diniz, Daniel G; Silva, Geane O; Naves, Thaís B; Fernandes, Taiany N; Araújo, Sanderson C; Diniz, José A P; de Farias, Luis H S; Sosthenes, Marcia C K; Diniz, Cristovam G; Anthony, Daniel C; da Costa Vasconcelos, Pedro F; Picanço Diniz, Cristovam W

    2016-01-01

    It is known that microglial morphology and function are related, but few studies have explored the subtleties of microglial morphological changes in response to specific pathogens. In the present report we quantitated microglia morphological changes in a monkey model of dengue disease with virus CNS invasion. To mimic multiple infections that usually occur in endemic areas, where higher dengue infection incidence and abundant mosquito vectors carrying different serotypes coexist, subjects received once a week subcutaneous injections of DENV3 (genotype III)-infected culture supernatant followed 24 h later by an injection of anti-DENV2 antibody. Control animals received either weekly anti-DENV2 antibodies, or no injections. Brain sections were immunolabeled for DENV3 antigens and IBA-1. Random and systematic microglial samples were taken from the polymorphic layer of dentate gyrus for 3-D reconstructions, where we found intense immunostaining for TNFα and DENV3 virus antigens. We submitted all bi- or multimodal morphological parameters of microglia to hierarchical cluster analysis and found two major morphological phenotypes designated types I and II. Compared to type I (stage 1), type II microglia were more complex; displaying higher number of nodes, processes and trees and larger surface area and volumes (stage 2). Type II microglia were found only in infected monkeys, whereas type I microglia was found in both control and infected subjects. Hierarchical cluster analysis of morphological parameters of 3-D reconstructions of random and systematic selected samples in control and ADE dengue infected monkeys suggests that microglia morphological changes from stage 1 to stage 2 may not be continuous. PMID:27047345

  13. Analysis of the effect of high hydrostatic pressure treatment and enterocin AS-48 addition on the bacterial communities of cherimoya pulp.

    PubMed

    Pérez Pulido, Rubén; Toledo, Julia; Grande, M José; Gálvez, Antonio; Lucas, Rosario

    2015-03-01

    In the present study, pulp obtained from cherimoya pulp (Annona cherimola) was inoculated with epiphytic microbiota collected from cherimoya fruits, and supplemented or not with the circular bacteriocin enterocin AS-48 (50μg/g) and then packed under vacuum. Samples supplemented or not with enterocin were treated by high hydrostatic pressure (600MPa, 8min) and then stored at 5°C for 30days. The single AS-48 treatment only delayed microbial growth non-significantly (p>0.05). HHP treatment reduced microbial counts by five log cycles, but it did not prevent further growth of survivors by day 7. The combined treatment (AS-48+HHP) was the most effective, keeping bacterial cell densities at ≤1.5 log CFU/g for up to 15days. 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing analysis was done on amplicon libraries from the growth on TSA plates seeded with ten-fold dilutions of pulp suspensions and incubated at 22°C for 24h. The results obtained are limited by the experimental conditions used in the study, and only concern the bacterial fraction that was selected by the TSA and growth conditions used. Pantoea (Pantoea agglomerans, Pantoea vagans) were the operational taxonomic units (OTUs) detected at highest relative abundance in bacterial biomass grown from control samples for the first 7days of storage, followed by Enterococcus gallinarum and Leuconostoc mesenteroides during late storage. The single HHP treatment significantly reduced the relative abundance of OTUs belonging to Pantoea and strongly increased that of endosporeformers (mainly Bacillus firmus and Bacillus stratosphericus) early after treatment, although Pantoea became again the predominant OTUs during storage. Samples singly treated with enterocin AS-48 revealed a strong inhibition of E. gallinarum as well as an early decrease in the relative abundance of Pantoea and an increased relative abundance of OTUs belonging to other Gram-negative species (mainly from genera Serratia and Pseudomonas). The strong microbial

  14. Boron addition to alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Coad, B. C.

    1985-08-20

    A process for addition of boron to an alloy which involves forming a melt of the alloy and a reactive metal, selected from the group consisting of aluminum, titanium, zirconium and mixtures thereof to the melt, maintaining the resulting reactive mixture in the molten state and reacting the boric oxide with the reactive metal to convert at least a portion of the boric oxide to boron which dissolves in the resulting melt, and to convert at least portion of the reactive metal to the reactive metal oxide, which oxide remains with the resulting melt, and pouring the resulting melt into a gas stream to form a first atomized powder which is subsequently remelted with further addition of boric oxide, re-atomized, and thus reprocessed to convert essentially all the reactive metal to metal oxide to produce a powdered alloy containing specified amounts of boron.

  15. Tackifier for addition polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, J. M.; St.clair, T. L.

    1980-01-01

    A modification to the addition polyimide, LaRC-160, was prepared to improve tack and drape and increase prepeg out-time. The essentially solventless, high viscosity laminating resin is synthesized from low cost liquid monomers. The modified version takes advantage of a reactive, liquid plasticizer which is used in place of solvent and helps solve a major problem of maintaining good prepeg tack and drape, or the ability of the prepeg to adhere to adjacent plies and conform to a desired shape during the lay up process. This alternate solventless approach allows both longer life of the polymer prepeg and the processing of low void laminates. This approach appears to be applicable to all addition polyimide systems.

  16. Vinyl capped addition polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vannucci, Raymond D. (Inventor); Malarik, Diane C. (Inventor); Delvigs, Peter (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    Polyimide resins (PMR) are generally useful where high strength and temperature capabilities are required (at temperatures up to about 700 F). Polyimide resins are particularly useful in applications such as jet engine compressor components, for example, blades, vanes, air seals, air splitters, and engine casing parts. Aromatic vinyl capped addition polyimides are obtained by reacting a diamine, an ester of tetracarboxylic acid, and an aromatic vinyl compound. Low void materials with improved oxidative stability when exposed to 700 F air may be fabricated as fiber reinforced high molecular weight capped polyimide composites. The aromatic vinyl capped polyimides are provided with a more aromatic nature and are more thermally stable than highly aliphatic, norbornenyl-type end-capped polyimides employed in PMR resins. The substitution of aromatic vinyl end-caps for norbornenyl end-caps in addition polyimides results in polymers with improved oxidative stability.

  17. [Biologically active food additives].

    PubMed

    Velichko, M A; Shevchenko, V P

    1998-07-01

    More than half out of 40 projects for the medical science development by the year of 2000 have been connected with the bio-active edible additives that are called "the food of XXI century", non-pharmacological means for many diseases. Most of these additives--nutricevtics and parapharmacevtics--are intended for the enrichment of food rations for the sick or healthy people. The ecologicaly safest and most effective are combined domestic adaptogens with immuno-modulating and antioxidating action that give anabolic and stimulating effect,--"leveton", "phytoton" and "adapton". The MKTs-229 tablets are residue discharge means. For atherosclerosis and general adiposis they recommend "tsar tablets" and "aiconol (ikhtien)"--on the base of cod-liver oil or "splat" made out of seaweed (algae). All these preparations have been clinically tested and received hygiene certificates from the Institute of Dietology of the Russian Academy of Medical Science. PMID:9752776

  18. Electrophilic addition of astatine

    SciTech Connect

    Norseev, Yu.V.; Vasaros, L.; Nhan, D.D.; Huan, N.K.

    1988-03-01

    It has been shown for the first time that astatine is capable of undergoing addition reactions to unsaturated hydrocarbons. A new compound of astatine, viz., ethylene astatohydrin, has been obtained, and its retention numbers of squalane, Apiezon, and tricresyl phosphate have been found. The influence of various factors on the formation of ethylene astatohydrin has been studied. It has been concluded on the basis of the results obtained that the univalent cations of astatine in an acidic medium is protonated hypoastatous acid.

  19. Hydrocarbon fuel additive

    SciTech Connect

    Ambrogio, S.

    1989-02-28

    This patent describes the method of fuel storage or combustion, wherein the fuel supply contains small amounts of water, the step of adding to the fuel supply an additive comprising a blend of a hydrophilic agent chosen from the group of ethylene glycol, n-butyl alcohol, and cellosolve in the range of 22-37% by weight; ethoxylated nonylphenol in the range of 26-35% by weight; nonylphenol polyethylene glycol ether in the range of 32-43% by weight.

  20. Additive Manufacturing of Hybrid Circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarobol, Pylin; Cook, Adam; Clem, Paul G.; Keicher, David; Hirschfeld, Deidre; Hall, Aaron C.; Bell, Nelson S.

    2016-07-01

    There is a rising interest in developing functional electronics using additively manufactured components. Considerations in materials selection and pathways to forming hybrid circuits and devices must demonstrate useful electronic function; must enable integration; and must complement the complex shape, low cost, high volume, and high functionality of structural but generally electronically passive additively manufactured components. This article reviews several emerging technologies being used in industry and research/development to provide integration advantages of fabricating multilayer hybrid circuits or devices. First, we review a maskless, noncontact, direct write (DW) technology that excels in the deposition of metallic colloid inks for electrical interconnects. Second, we review a complementary technology, aerosol deposition (AD), which excels in the deposition of metallic and ceramic powder as consolidated, thick conformal coatings and is additionally patternable through masking. Finally, we show examples of hybrid circuits/devices integrated beyond 2-D planes, using combinations of DW or AD processes and conventional, established processes.

  1. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy shows similar response in patients with inflammatory or locally advanced breast cancer when compared with operable breast cancer: a secondary analysis of the GeparTrio trial data.

    PubMed

    Costa, Serban Dan; Loibl, Sibylle; Kaufmann, Manfred; Zahm, Dirk-Michael; Hilfrich, Jörn; Huober, Jens; Eidtmann, Holger; du Bois, Andreas; Blohmer, Jens-Uwe; Ataseven, Beyhan; Weiss, Erich; Tesch, Hans; Gerber, Bernd; Baumann, Klaus H; Thomssen, Christoph; Breitbach, Georg Peter; Ibishi, Shaip; Jackisch, Christian; Mehta, Keyur; von Minckwitz, Gunter

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE Neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by mastectomy is the treatment of choice in patients with inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) or locally advanced breast cancer (LABC), but it is considered less effective in these diseases than in operable breast cancer (OBC). We report a prospective comparison of the GeparTrio trial of patients with IBC (cT4 days) or LABC (cT4a-c or cN3; stage IIIB or IIIC) and patients with OBC (cT2-3). PATIENTS AND METHODS Participants were stratified by stage and were randomly assigned to six or eight cycles of docetaxel/doxorubicin/cyclophosphamide (TAC) or to two cycles of TAC followed by four cycles of vinorelbine/capecitabine. We present results of a secondary aim of the study, which was to compare pathologic complete response (pCR; ie, no remaining invasive/noninvasive tumor in breast and lymph nodes) in different stage groups. Results A total of 287 patients with IBC (n = 93) or LABC (n = 194) and 1,777 patients with OBC were entered onto the trial. At baseline, parameters were as follows for the three types of cancer, respectively: median tumor sizes: 8.0 cm, 7.0 cm, and 4.0 cm (P < .001); multiple lesions: 31.2%, 27.3%, and 19.6% (P < .001); nodal involvement: 86.6%, 71.2%, and 51.6% (P < .001); grade 3: 44.4%, 30.4%, and 39.9% (P = .178); lobular-invasive type: 7.5%, 17.5%, and 13.3% (P = .673); negative hormone receptor status: 38.0%, 20.0%, and 36.4% (P = .008); and positive human growth factor receptor 2 status: 45.1%, 38.9%, and 35.7% (P = .158). Response rates for IBC, LABC, and OBC, respectively, were 8.6%, 11.3%, and 17.7% for pCR (P = .002); 71.0%, 69.6%, and 83.4% for overall response by physical or sonographic examination (P < .001); and 12.9%, 33.0%, and 69.9% for breast conservation (P < .001). All P values were for IBC and LABC versus OBC. However, tumor stage itself was not an independent predictor for pCR in multivariable analysis (odds ratio, 1.51; 95% CI, 0.88 to 2.59; P = .13). CONCLUSION No evidence of a

  2. Functional Generalized Additive Models.

    PubMed

    McLean, Mathew W; Hooker, Giles; Staicu, Ana-Maria; Scheipl, Fabian; Ruppert, David

    2014-01-01

    We introduce the functional generalized additive model (FGAM), a novel regression model for association studies between a scalar response and a functional predictor. We model the link-transformed mean response as the integral with respect to t of F{X(t), t} where F(·,·) is an unknown regression function and X(t) is a functional covariate. Rather than having an additive model in a finite number of principal components as in Müller and Yao (2008), our model incorporates the functional predictor directly and thus our model can be viewed as the natural functional extension of generalized additive models. We estimate F(·,·) using tensor-product B-splines with roughness penalties. A pointwise quantile transformation of the functional predictor is also considered to ensure each tensor-product B-spline has observed data on its support. The methods are evaluated using simulated data and their predictive performance is compared with other competing scalar-on-function regression alternatives. We illustrate the usefulness of our approach through an application to brain tractography, where X(t) is a signal from diffusion tensor imaging at position, t, along a tract in the brain. In one example, the response is disease-status (case or control) and in a second example, it is the score on a cognitive test. R code for performing the simulations and fitting the FGAM can be found in supplemental materials available online. PMID:24729671

  3. Genes co-regulated with LBD16 in nematode feeding sites inferred from in silico analysis show similarities to regulatory circuits mediated by the auxin/cytokinin balance in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Cabrera, Javier; Fenoll, Carmen; Escobar, Carolina

    2015-01-01

    Plant endoparasitic nematodes, root-knot and cyst nematodes (RKNs and CNs) induce within the root vascular cylinder transfer cells used for nourishing, termed giant cells (GCs) and syncytia. Understanding the molecular mechanisms behind this process is essential to develop tools for nematode control. Based on the crucial role in gall development of LBD16, also a key component of the auxin pathway leading to the divisions in the xylem pole pericycle during lateral root (LR) formation, we investigated genes co-regulated with LBD16 in different transcriptomes and analyzed their similarities and differences with those of RKNs and CNs feeding sites (FS). This analysis confirmed LBD16 and its co-regulated genes, integrated in signaling cascades mediated by auxins during LR and callus formation, as a particular feature of RKN-FS distinct to CNs. However, LBD16, and its positively co-regulated genes, were repressed in syncytia, suggesting a selective down- regulation of the LBD16 auxin mediated pathways in CNs-FS. Interestingly, cytokinin-induced genes are enriched in syncytia and we encountered similarities between the transcriptome of shoot regeneration from callus, modulated by cytokinins, and that of syncytia. These findings establish differences in the regulatory networks leading to both FS formation, probably modulated by the auxin/cytokinin balance. PMID:25664644

  4. Myeloma in patients younger than age 50 years presents with more favorable features and shows better survival: an analysis of 10 549 patients from the International Myeloma Working Group

    PubMed Central

    Durie, Brian G. M.; Bolejack, Vanessa; Turesson, Ingemar; Kyle, Robert A.; Blade, Joan; Fonseca, Rafael; Dimopoulos, Meletios; Shimizu, Kazuyuki; San Miguel, Jesus; Westin, Jan; Harousseau, Jean-Luc; Beksac, Meral; Boccadoro, Mario; Palumbo, Antonio; Barlogie, Bart; Shustik, Chaim; Cavo, Michele; Greipp, Philip R.; Joshua, Douglas; Attal, Michel; Sonneveld, Pieter; Crowley, John

    2008-01-01

    We analyzed the presenting features and survival in 1689 patients with multiple myeloma aged younger than 50 years compared with 8860 patients 50 years of age and older. Of the total 10 549 patients, 7765 received conventional therapy and 2784 received high-dose therapy. Young patients were more frequently male, had more favorable features such as low International Staging System (ISS) and Durie-Salmon stage as well as less frequently adverse prognostic factors including high C-reactive protein (CRP), low hemoglobin, increased serum creatinine, and poor performance status. Survival was significantly longer in young patients (median, 5.2 years vs 3.7 years; P < .001) both after conventional (median, 4.5 years vs 3.3 years; P < .001) or high-dose therapy (median, 7.5 years vs 5.7 years; P = .04). The 10-year survival rate was 19% after conventional therapy and 43% after high-dose therapy in young patients, and 8% and 29%, respectively, in older patients. Multivariate analysis revealed age as an independent risk factor during conventional therapy, but not after autologous transplantation. A total of 5 of the 10 independent risk factors identified for conventional therapy were also relevant for autologous transplantation. After adjusting for normal mortality, lower ISS stage and other favorable prognostic features seem to account for the significantly longer survival of young patients with multiple myeloma with age remaining a risk factor during conventional therapy. PMID:18268097

  5. Human exposure assessment to a large set of polymer additives through the analysis of urine by solid phase extraction followed by ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Pouech, Charlène; Kiss, Agneta; Lafay, Florent; Léonard, Didier; Wiest, Laure; Cren-Olivé, Cécile; Vulliet, Emmanuelle

    2015-12-01

    Polymer items are extensively present in the human environment. Humans may be consequently exposed to some compounds, such as additives, incorporated in these items. The objective of this work is to assess the human exposure to the main additives such as those authorized in the packaging for pharmaceutical products. The urinary matrix was selected to optimally answer this challenge because it has already been proven that the exposure to chemicals can be revealed by the analysis of this biological matrix. A multi-residue analytical method for the trace analysis at ng/mL in human urine was developed, and consisted of an extraction of analytes from urine by solid phase extraction (SPE) and an analysis by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled to a tandem mass spectrometer (UHPLC-MS/MS). Even if the quantification of these compounds was an analytical challenge because of (i) the presence of these substances in the analytical process, (ii) the diversity of their physicochemical properties, and (iii) the complexity of the matrix, the optimized method exhibited quantification limits lower than 25ng/mL and recoveries between 51% and 120% for all compounds. The method was validated and applied to 52 human urines. To the best of our knowledge, this work presents the first study allowing the assessment of the occurrence of more than twenty polymer additives at ng/mL in human urine. PMID:26554294

  6. A Combined Analysis of 48 Type 2 Diabetes Genetic Risk Variants Shows No Discriminative Value to Predict Time to First Prescription of a Glucose Lowering Drug in Danish Patients with Screen Detected Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Hornbak, Malene; Allin, Kristine Højgaard; Jensen, Majken Linnemann; Lau, Cathrine Juel; Witte, Daniel; Jørgensen, Marit Eika; Sandbæk, Annelli; Lauritzen, Torsten; Andersson, Åsa; Pedersen, Oluf; Hansen, Torben

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the genetic influence of 48 type 2 diabetes susceptibility variants on disease progression measured as risk of early prescription redemption of glucose lowering drugs in screen-detected patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods We studied type 2 diabetes progression in 1,480 patients with screen-detected type 2 diabetes from the ADDITION-Denmark study using information of redeemed prescriptions from the Register of Medicinal Products Statistics from 2001–2009 in Denmark. Patients were cluster randomized by general practitioners, who were randomized to treat type 2 diabetes according to either a conventional or a multifactorial intensive treatment algorithm. We investigated the genetic influence on diabetes progression by constructing a genetic risk score (GRS) of all 48 validated type 2 diabetes susceptibility variants, a GRS of 11 variants linked to β-cell function and a GRS of 3 variants linked to insulin sensitivity and assessed the association between number of risk alleles and time from diagnosis until first redeemed prescription of either any glucose lowering drug or an insulin drug. Results The GRS linked to insulin sensitivity only nominally increased the risk of an early prescription redemption with an insulin drug by 39% (HR [95% C.I.] = 1.39 [1.09–1.77], p = 0.009] in patients randomized to the intensive treatment group. Furthermore, the strongest univariate predictors of diabetes progression for the intensive treatment group (measured as time to first insulin) were younger age (HR [95% C.I.] = 0.96 [0.93–0.99]), increased BMI (1.05 [1.01–1.09]), increased HbA1c (1.50 [1.36–.66]), increased TG (1.24 [1.11–1.39]) and reduced fasting serum HDL (0.37 [0.17–0.80]) at baseline. Similar results were obtained for the conventional treatment group. Conclusion Higher levels of HbA1c, fasting circulating levels of triglyceride, lower HDL, larger BMI and younger age are significant determinants of early

  7. Has the sanctity of life law 'gone too far'?: analysis of the sanctity of life doctrine and English case law shows that the sanctity of life law has not 'gone too far'.

    PubMed

    Rabiu, Abdul-Rasheed; Sugand, Kapil

    2014-01-01

    The medical profession consistently strives to uphold patient empowerment, equality and safety. It is ironic that now, at a time where advances in technology and knowledge have given us an increased capacity to preserve and prolong life, we find ourselves increasingly asking questions about the value of the lives we are saving. A recent editorial by Professor Raanan Gillon questions the emphasis that English law places on the sanctity of life doctrine. In what was described by Reverend Nick Donnelly as a "manifesto for killing patients", Professor Gillon argues that the sanctity of life law has gone too far because of its disregard for distributive justice and an incompetent person's previously declared autonomy. This review begins by outlining the stance of the sanctity of life doctrine on decisions about administering, withholding and withdrawing life-prolonging treatment. Using this as a foundation for a rebuttal, a proposal is made that Professor Gillon's assertions do not take the following into account:1) A sanctity of life law does not exist since English Common Law infringes the sanctity doctrine by tolerating quality of life judgements and a doctor's intention to hasten death when withdrawing life-prolonging treatment.2) Even if a true sanctity of life law did exist:a) The sanctity of life doctrine allows for resource considerations in the wider analysis of benefits and burdens.b) The sanctity of life doctrine yields to a competent person's autonomous decision.This review attempts to demonstrate that at present, and with the legal precedent that restricts it, a sanctity of life law cannot go too far. PMID:24559151

  8. Has the sanctity of life law ‘gone too far’?: analysis of the sanctity of life doctrine and English case law shows that the sanctity of life law has not ‘gone too far’

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The medical profession consistently strives to uphold patient empowerment, equality and safety. It is ironic that now, at a time where advances in technology and knowledge have given us an increased capacity to preserve and prolong life, we find ourselves increasingly asking questions about the value of the lives we are saving. A recent editorial by Professor Raanan Gillon questions the emphasis that English law places on the sanctity of life doctrine. In what was described by Reverend Nick Donnelly as a “manifesto for killing patients”, Professor Gillon argues that the sanctity of life law has gone too far because of its disregard for distributive justice and an incompetent person’s previously declared autonomy. This review begins by outlining the stance of the sanctity of life doctrine on decisions about administering, withholding and withdrawing life-prolonging treatment. Using this as a foundation for a rebuttal, a proposal is made that Professor Gillon’s assertions do not take the following into account: 1) A sanctity of life law does not exist since English Common Law infringes the sanctity doctrine by tolerating quality of life judgements and a doctor’s intention to hasten death when withdrawing life-prolonging treatment. 2) Even if a true sanctity of life law did exist: a) The sanctity of life doctrine allows for resource considerations in the wider analysis of benefits and burdens. b) The sanctity of life doctrine yields to a competent person’s autonomous decision. This review attempts to demonstrate that at present, and with the legal precedent that restricts it, a sanctity of life law cannot go too far. PMID:24559151

  9. Mitochondrial and nuclear phylogenetic analysis with Sanger and next-generation sequencing shows that, in Área de Conservación Guanacaste, northwestern Costa Rica, the skipper butterfly named Urbanus belli (family Hesperiidae) comprises three morphologically cryptic species

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Skipper butterflies (Hesperiidae) are a relatively well-studied family of Lepidoptera. However, a combination of DNA barcodes, morphology, and natural history data has revealed several cryptic species complexes within them. Here, we investigate three DNA barcode lineages of what has been identified as Urbanus belli (Hesperiidae, Eudaminae) in Área de Conservación Guanacaste (ACG), northwestern Costa Rica. Results Although no morphological traits appear to distinguish among the three, congruent nuclear and mitochondrial lineage patterns show that “Urbanus belli” in ACG is a complex of three sympatric species. A single strain of Wolbachia present in two of the three cryptic species indicates that Urbanus segnestami Burns (formerly Urbanus belliDHJ01), Urbanus bernikerni Burns (formerly Urbanus belliDHJ02), and Urbanus ehakernae Burns (formerly Urbanus belliDHJ03) may be biologically separated by Wolbachia, as well as by their genetics. Use of parallel sequencing through 454-pyrosequencing improved the utility of ITS2 as a phylogenetic marker and permitted examination of the intra- and interlineage relationships of ITS2 variants within the species complex. Interlineage, intralineage and intragenomic compensatory base pair changes were discovered in the secondary structure of ITS2. Conclusion These findings corroborate the existence of three cryptic species. Our confirmation of a novel cryptic species complex, initially suggested by DNA barcode lineages, argues for using a multi-marker approach coupled with next-generation sequencing for exploration of other suspected species complexes. PMID:25005355

  10. Siloxane containing addition polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maudgal, S.; St. Clair, T. L.

    1984-01-01

    Addition polyimide oligomers have been synthesized from bis(gamma-aminopropyl) tetramethyldisiloxane and 3, 3', 4, 4'-benzophenonetetracarboxylic dianhydride using a variety of latent crosslinking groups as endcappers. The prepolymers were isolated and characterized for solubility (in amide, chlorinated and ether solvents), melt flow and cure properties. The most promising systems, maleimide and acetylene terminated prepolymers, were selected for detailed study. Graphite cloth reinforced composites were prepared and properties compared with those of graphite/Kerimid 601, a commercially available bismaleimide. Mixtures of the maleimide terminated system with Kerimid 601, in varying proportions, were also studied.

  11. Oil additive process

    SciTech Connect

    Bishop, H.

    1988-10-18

    This patent describes a method of making an additive comprising: (a) adding 2 parts by volume of 3% sodium hypochlorite to 45 parts by volume of diesel oil fuel to form a sulphur free fuel, (b) removing all water and foreign matter formed by the sodium hypochlorite, (c) blending 30 parts by volume of 24% lead naphthanate with 15 parts by volume of the sulphur free fuel, 15 parts by volume of light-weight material oil to form a blended mixture, and (d) heating the blended mixture slowly and uniformly to 152F.

  12. The earliest published electrocardiogram showing ventricular preexcitation.

    PubMed

    Von Knorre, Georg H

    2005-03-01

    When in 1930, Wolff, Parkinson, and White published what is today known as the WPW, or preexcitation syndrome, they, and subsequently others, found few comparable cases in the preceding literature. Among these the report of Cohn and Fraser, published in 1913, was the earliest. However, another even earlier documentation in a 1909 article by Hoffmann escaped notice till now. The ECG of a patient with paroxysmal tachycardia reveals a short PR interval and a delta-wave-induced widening of the QRS complex, even though the reproduced tachycardia was not preexcitation related. The interpretation of this poorly reproduced ECG can be confirmed by another and more detailed description of the patient in an electrocardiography textbook published in 1914 by the same author. Thus, the earliest publication of an ECG showing ventricular preexcitation now can be dated back to 1909. Moreover, the Hoffmann monograph contains two additional examples of the WPW syndrome not noticed until now. All three cases published by Hoffmann had their first ECG recordings in 1912 or earlier. PMID:15733183

  13. Temperature Data Shows Warming in 2001

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    TThe figure above depicts how much air temperatures near the Earth's surface changed relative to the global mean temperature from 1951 to 1980. NASA researchers used maps of urban areas derived from city lights data to account for the 'heat island' effect of cities. The red and orange colors show that temperatures are warmer in most regions of the world when compared to the 1951 to 1980 'normal' temperatures. Warming around the world has been widespread, but it is not present everywhere. The largest warming is in Northern Canada, Alaska and Siberia, as indicated by the deeper red colors. The lower 48 United States have become warmer recently, but only enough to make the temperatures comparable to what they were in the 1930s. The scale on the bottom of these temperature anomaly images represent degrees in Celsius. The negative numbers represent cooling and the positive numbers depict warming. Overall, the air temperature near the Earth's surface has warmed by 1oF (0.6oC) globally, on average, over the last century. For more information and additional images, read Satellites Shed Light on a Warmer World. Image courtesy Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS).

  14. Performance Boosting Additive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Mainstream Engineering Corporation was awarded Phase I and Phase II contracts from Goddard Space Flight Center's Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program in early 1990. With support from the SBIR program, Mainstream Engineering Corporation has developed a unique low cost additive, QwikBoost (TM), that increases the performance of air conditioners, heat pumps, refrigerators, and freezers. Because of the energy and environmental benefits of QwikBoost, Mainstream received the Tibbetts Award at a White House Ceremony on October 16, 1997. QwikBoost was introduced at the 1998 International Air Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration Exposition. QwikBoost is packaged in a handy 3-ounce can (pressurized with R-134a) and will be available for automotive air conditioning systems in summer 1998.

  15. Sewage sludge additive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalvinskas, J. J.; Mueller, W. A.; Ingham, J. D. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    The additive is for a raw sewage treatment process of the type where settling tanks are used for the purpose of permitting the suspended matter in the raw sewage to be settled as well as to permit adsorption of the dissolved contaminants in the water of the sewage. The sludge, which settles down to the bottom of the settling tank is extracted, pyrolyzed and activated to form activated carbon and ash which is mixed with the sewage prior to its introduction into the settling tank. The sludge does not provide all of the activated carbon and ash required for adequate treatment of the raw sewage. It is necessary to add carbon to the process and instead of expensive commercial carbon, coal is used to provide the carbon supplement.

  16. Perspectives on Additive Manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourell, David L.

    2016-07-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) has skyrocketed in visibility commercially and in the public sector. This article describes the development of this field from early layered manufacturing approaches of photosculpture, topography, and material deposition. Certain precursors to modern AM processes are also briefly described. The growth of the field over the last 30 years is presented. Included is the standard delineation of AM technologies into seven broad categories. The economics of AM part generation is considered, and the impacts of the economics on application sectors are described. On the basis of current trends, the future outlook will include a convergence of AM fabricators, mass-produced AM fabricators, enabling of topology optimization designs, and specialization in the AM legal arena. Long-term developments with huge impact are organ printing and volume-based printing.

  17. New addition curing polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frimer, Aryeh A.; Cavano, Paul

    1991-01-01

    In an attempt to improve the thermal-oxidative stability (TOS) of PMR-type polymers, the use of 1,4-phenylenebis (phenylmaleic anhydride) PPMA, was evaluated. Two series of nadic end-capped addition curing polyimides were prepared by imidizing PPMA with either 4,4'-methylene dianiline or p-phenylenediamine. The first resulted in improved solubility and increased resin flow while the latter yielded a compression molded neat resin sample with a T(sub g) of 408 C, close to 70 C higher than PME-15. The performance of these materials in long term weight loss studies was below that of PMR-15, independent of post-cure conditions. These results can be rationalized in terms of the thermal lability of the pendant phenyl groups and the incomplete imidization of the sterically congested PPMA. The preparation of model compounds as well as future research directions are discussed.

  18. "The George Lopez Show": The Same Old Hispano?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markert, John

    2007-01-01

    "The George Lopez Show" is the first successful television show with a Latino in a leading role that features Hispanic material since Freddie Prinze's thirty-year-old sitcom, "Chico and the Man." This study seeks to assess how Latinos are presented on "The George Lopez Show." A content analysis reveals that the show perpetuates some of the…

  19. Show Horse Welfare: Horse Show Competitors' Understanding, Awareness, and Perceptions of Equine Welfare.

    PubMed

    Voigt, Melissa A; Hiney, Kristina; Richardson, Jennifer C; Waite, Karen; Borron, Abigail; Brady, Colleen M

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to gain a better understanding of stock-type horse show competitors' understanding of welfare and level of concern for stock-type show horses' welfare. Data were collected through an online questionnaire that included questions relating to (a) interest and general understanding of horse welfare, (b) welfare concerns of the horse show industry and specifically the stock-type horse show industry, (c) decision-making influences, and (d) level of empathic characteristics. The majority of respondents indicated they agree or strongly agree that physical metrics should be a factor when assessing horse welfare, while fewer agreed that behavioral and mental metrics should be a factor. Respondent empathy levels were moderate to high and were positively correlated with the belief that mental and behavioral metrics should be a factor in assessing horse welfare. Respondents indicated the inhumane practices that most often occur at stock-type shows include excessive jerking on reins, excessive spurring, and induced excessive unnatural movement. Additionally, respondents indicated association rules, hired trainers, and hired riding instructors are the most influential regarding the decisions they make related to their horses' care and treatment. PMID:27029609

  20. Moon Phase & Libration 2013: Additional Graphics

    NASA Video Gallery

    This visualization shows the phase and libration of the Moon throughout the year 2013, at hourly intervals. Each frame represents one hour. In addition, this version of the visualization shows addi...

  1. 11. SOUTH AND EAST SIDE, THREEQUARTER VIEW, DETAIL SHOWING SIXTHFLOOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. SOUTH AND EAST SIDE, THREE-QUARTER VIEW, DETAIL SHOWING SIXTH-FLOOR BRICK ADDITION AND ORIGINAL BRICK PILASTERS; LOOKING NORTHWEST - Crown Roller Mill, 105 Fifth Avenue, South, West Side Milling District, Minneapolis, Hennepin County, MN

  2. 9. SITE MAP HIGHLIGHTING SIGNIFICANT BUILDINGS AND SHOWING LOCATION LOCATION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. SITE MAP HIGHLIGHTING SIGNIFICANT BUILDINGS AND SHOWING LOCATION LOCATION OF OUTPATIENT CLINIC ADDITION - U.S. Veterans Administration Medical Center, 600 South Seventieth Street, Lincoln, Lancaster County, NE

  3. 32. PLAN OF DEER ISLAND PUMPING STATION SHOWING EXISTING PUMPING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. PLAN OF DEER ISLAND PUMPING STATION SHOWING EXISTING PUMPING PLANT AND LOCATION OF PROPOSED ADDITIONS, JULY 1898 SHEET NO. 1. Aperture card 4966-1 - Deer Island Pumping Station, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  4. 3. Exterior, detail view of north elevation, from northeast, showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Exterior, detail view of north elevation, from northeast, showing joint of addition. Sept. 12, 1940. Mixon. - Upper Swedish Log Cabin, Darby Creek vicinity, Clifton Heights (Upper Darby Township), Darby, Delaware County, PA

  5. 7. NORTHEAST CORNER DETAIL SHOWING LOG JOINERY. AT RIGHT IS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. NORTHEAST CORNER DETAIL SHOWING LOG JOINERY. AT RIGHT IS REAR SHED ROOM ADDITION (copy negative, original 35 mm negative in field records) - Thomas Jefferson Walling Log Cabin, Henderson, Rusk County, TX

  6. 5. SOUTHWEST CORNER, SHOWING WEST ELEVATION WITH BUILDING 8251 (AIRCRAFT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. SOUTHWEST CORNER, SHOWING WEST ELEVATION WITH BUILDING 8251 (AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE AND REPAIR SHOPS BUILDING ADDITION) AT LEFT. - Loring Air Force Base, Arch Hangar, East of Arizona Road near southern end of runway, Limestone, Aroostook County, ME

  7. 7. VIEW SOUTHWEST, SHOWING NORTHEAST CORNER ENTRANCES TO TWO SERVICE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. VIEW SOUTHWEST, SHOWING NORTHEAST CORNER ENTRANCES TO TWO SERVICE BAYS AND SHED ADDITION ON EAST WALL - Chesapeake Beach Railroad Engine House, 21 Yost Place, Seat Pleasant, Prince George's County, MD

  8. 3. Historic American Buildings Survey February, 1953 LOOKING EAST, SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Historic American Buildings Survey February, 1953 LOOKING EAST, SHOWING A GROUP OF HAGERSTOWN HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS IN THE PROCESS OF UNCOVERING THE ADDITIONAL FOUNDATION - Jonathan Hager House (Foundation), Hagerstown, Washington County, MD

  9. 9. View of southeast corner of main building showing changes ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. View of southeast corner of main building showing changes in elevation; facing southeast (south addition behind). - Mission Motel, South Court, 9235 MacArthur Boulevard, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  10. 3. MAIN ELEVATION, DETAIL SHOWING HEWN LOGS WITH HALFDOVETAIL JOINTS; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. MAIN ELEVATION, DETAIL SHOWING HEWN LOGS WITH HALF-DOVETAIL JOINTS; LATHE AND PLASTER ADDITION; AND CLAPBOARD SIDING - Shinn-Curtis Log Cabin, 23 Washington Street (moved from Rancocas Boulevard), Mount Holly, Burlington County, NJ

  11. Antenna cab interior showing waveguide from external parabolic antenna (later ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Antenna cab interior showing waveguide from external parabolic antenna (later addition), looking north. - Western Union Telegraph Company, Jennerstown Relay, Laurel Summit Road off U.S. 30, Laughlintown, Westmoreland County, PA

  12. 33. PLAN OF DEER ISLAND PUMPING STATION SHOWING EXISTING PUMPING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    33. PLAN OF DEER ISLAND PUMPING STATION SHOWING EXISTING PUMPING PLAN AND LOCATION OF PROPOSED ADDITIONS, METROPOLITAN WATER AND SEWERAGE BOARD, METROPOLITAN SEWERAGE WORKS, JULY 1908. Aperture card 6417. - Deer Island Pumping Station, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  13. Method for the determination of natural ester-type gum bases used as food additives via direct analysis of their constituent wax esters using high-temperature GC/MS

    PubMed Central

    Tada, Atsuko; Ishizuki, Kyoko; Yamazaki, Takeshi; Sugimoto, Naoki; Akiyama, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    Natural ester-type gum bases, which are used worldwide as food additives, mainly consist of wax esters composed of long-chain fatty acids and long-chain fatty alcohols. There are many varieties of ester-type gum bases, and thus a useful method for their discrimination is needed in order to establish official specifications and manage their quality control. Herein is reported a rapid and simple method for the analysis of different ester-type gum bases used as food additives by high-temperature gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). With this method, the constituent wax esters in ester-type gum bases can be detected without hydrolysis and derivatization. The method was applied to the determination of 10 types of gum bases, including beeswax, carnauba wax, lanolin, and jojoba wax, and it was demonstrated that the gum bases derived from identical origins have specific and characteristic total ion chromatogram (TIC) patterns and ester compositions. Food additive gum bases were thus distinguished from one another based on their TIC patterns and then more clearly discriminated using simultaneous monitoring of the fragment ions corresponding to the fatty acid moieties of the individual molecular species of the wax esters. This direct high-temperature GC/MS method was shown to be very useful for the rapid and simple discrimination of varieties of ester-type gum bases used as food additives. PMID:25473499

  14. Method for the determination of natural ester-type gum bases used as food additives via direct analysis of their constituent wax esters using high-temperature GC/MS.

    PubMed

    Tada, Atsuko; Ishizuki, Kyoko; Yamazaki, Takeshi; Sugimoto, Naoki; Akiyama, Hiroshi

    2014-07-01

    Natural ester-type gum bases, which are used worldwide as food additives, mainly consist of wax esters composed of long-chain fatty acids and long-chain fatty alcohols. There are many varieties of ester-type gum bases, and thus a useful method for their discrimination is needed in order to establish official specifications and manage their quality control. Herein is reported a rapid and simple method for the analysis of different ester-type gum bases used as food additives by high-temperature gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). With this method, the constituent wax esters in ester-type gum bases can be detected without hydrolysis and derivatization. The method was applied to the determination of 10 types of gum bases, including beeswax, carnauba wax, lanolin, and jojoba wax, and it was demonstrated that the gum bases derived from identical origins have specific and characteristic total ion chromatogram (TIC) patterns and ester compositions. Food additive gum bases were thus distinguished from one another based on their TIC patterns and then more clearly discriminated using simultaneous monitoring of the fragment ions corresponding to the fatty acid moieties of the individual molecular species of the wax esters. This direct high-temperature GC/MS method was shown to be very useful for the rapid and simple discrimination of varieties of ester-type gum bases used as food additives. PMID:25473499

  15. NGSI student activities in open source information analysis in support of the training program of the U.S. DOE laboratories for the entry into force of the additional protocol

    SciTech Connect

    Sandoval, M Analisa; Uribe, Eva C; Sandoval, Marisa N; Boyer, Brian D; Stevens, Rebecca S

    2009-01-01

    In 2008 a joint team from Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) consisting of specialists in training of IAEA inspectors in the use of complementary access activities formulated a training program to prepare the U.S. Doe laboratories for the entry into force of the Additional Protocol. As a major part of the support of the activity, LANL summer interns provided open source information analysis to the LANL-BNL mock inspection team. They were a part of the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative's (NGSI) summer intern program aimed at producing the next generation of safeguards specialists. This paper describes how they used open source information to 'backstop' the LANL-BNL team's effort to construct meaningful Additional Protocol Complementary Access training scenarios for each of the three DOE laboratories, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Idaho National Laboratory, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

  16. Trajectory Hunting: Analysis of UARS Measurements Showing Rapid Chlorine Activation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danilin, M. Y.; Santee, M. L.; Rodriquez, J. M.; Ko, M. K. W.; Mergenthaler, J. M.; Kumer, J. B.; Tabazadeh, A.

    1998-01-01

    Trajectory hunting (i.e., a technique to find air parcels sampled at least twice over the course of a few days) is applied to analyze Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) measurements in conjunction with the AER photochemical box model. In this study, we investigate rapid chlorine activation in the Arctic lower stratosphere on 29 Dec. 1992 associated with a polar stratospheric cloud (PSC) event. Six air parcels that have been sampled twice were followed along 5-day trajectories at the 465 K (approx. 46 mb) and 585 K (approxi. 22 mb) levels. A detailed sensitivity study with the AER photochemical box model along these trajectories leads to the following conclusions for the episode considered: 1) model results are in better agreement with UARS measurements at these levels if the U.K. Meteorological Office (UKMO) temperature is decreased by at least 1-2 K; 2) the NAT (nitric acid trihydrate) PSC formation scheme produces results in better agreement with observations than the STS (supercooled ternary solution) scheme; 3) the model can explain the UARS measurements at 585 K, but under-estimates the ClO abundance at 465 K, suggesting some inconsistency between the UARS measurements at this level.

  17. Trajectory Hunting: Analysis of UARS Measurements showing Rapid Chlorine Activation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danilin, M.Y.; Santee, M. L.; Rodriquez, J. M.; Ko, M. K. W.; Mergenthaler, J. M.; Kumer, J. B.; Tabazadeh, A.

    1998-01-01

    Trajectory hunting (i.e., a technique to find air parcels sampled at least twice over the course of a few days) is applied to analyze Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) measurements in conjunction with the AER photochemical box model. In this study, we investigate rapid chlorine activation in the Arctic lower stratosphere on 29 Dec 1992 associated with a polar stratospheric cloud (PSC) event. Six air parcels that have been sampled twice were followed along 5-day trajectories at the 465 K (approximately 46 mb) and 585 K (approximately 22 mb) levels. A detailed sensitivity study with the AER. photochemical box model along these trajectories leads to the following conclusions for the episode considered: (1) model results are in better agreement with UARS measurements at these levels if the UKMO temperature is decreased by at least 1-2 K; (2) the NAT (nitric acid trihydrate) PSC formation scheme produces results in better agreement with observations than the STS (supercooled ternary solution) scheme; (3) the model can explain the UARS measurements at 585 K, but under-estimates the ClO abundance at 465 K, suggesting some inconsistency between the UARS measurements at this level.

  18. Analysis of audiometric database shows evidence of employee fraud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erdreich, John

    2003-10-01

    Following a lengthy strike, several hundred delivery drivers filed workers compensation claims for occupational hearing loss. We were asked to evaluate the noise exposure of the drivers during their in-plant tasks. In-plant exposures were not predictive of any hearing loss. A comparison of audiometric data for the claimants revealed consistent hearing loss independent of duration of employment or age. These discrepancies between observations and common understanding of dose-response relationships between noise exposure and hearing loss led to further investigation, ultimately resulting in the dismissal of all claims against the employer who then filed an action against the claimant's attorneys and physician under the Racketeering in Corrupt Organizations Act (RICO). The details of the legal complaint, which reads like a detective novel, can be found at the United States District Court for the Southern District of New York [93 Civ. 7222 (LAP)].

  19. Cost-effectiveness of intensive multifactorial treatment compared with routine care for individuals with screen-detected Type 2 diabetes: analysis of the ADDITION-UK cluster-randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Tao, L; Wilson, E C F; Wareham, N J; Sandbæk, A; Rutten, G E H M; Lauritzen, T; Khunti, K; Davies, M J; Borch-Johnsen, K; Griffin, S J; Simmons, R K

    2015-01-01

    Aims To examine the short- and long-term cost-effectiveness of intensive multifactorial treatment compared with routine care among people with screen-detected Type 2 diabetes. Methods Cost–utility analysis in ADDITION-UK, a cluster-randomized controlled trial of early intensive treatment in people with screen-detected diabetes in 69 UK general practices. Unit treatment costs and utility decrement data were taken from published literature. Accumulated costs and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) were calculated using ADDITION-UK data from 1 to 5 years (short-term analysis, n = 1024); trial data were extrapolated to 30 years using the UKPDS outcomes model (version 1.3) (long-term analysis; n = 999). All costs were transformed to the UK 2009/10 price level. Results Adjusted incremental costs to the NHS were £285, £935, £1190 and £1745 over a 1-, 5-, 10- and 30-year time horizon, respectively (discounted at 3.5%). Adjusted incremental QALYs were 0.0000, – 0.0040, 0.0140 and 0.0465 over the same time horizons. Point estimate incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) suggested that the intervention was not cost-effective although the ratio improved over time: the ICER over 10 years was £82 250, falling to £37 500 over 30 years. The ICER fell below £30 000 only when the intervention cost was below £631 per patient: we estimated the cost at £981. Conclusion Given conventional thresholds of cost-effectiveness, the intensive treatment delivered in ADDITION was not cost-effective compared with routine care for individuals with screen-detected diabetes in the UK. The intervention may be cost-effective if it can be delivered at reduced cost. PMID:25661661

  20. Printability of alloys for additive manufacturing

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Mukherjee, T.; Zuback, J. S.; De, A.; DebRoy, T.

    2016-01-22

    Although additive manufacturing (AM), or three dimensional (3D) printing, provides significant advantages over existing manufacturing techniques, metallic parts produced by AM are susceptible to distortion, lack of fusion defects and compositional changes. Here we show that the printability, or the ability of an alloy to avoid these defects, can be examined by developing and testing appropriate theories. A theoretical scaling analysis is used to test vulnerability of various alloys to thermal distortion. A theoretical kinetic model is used to examine predisposition of different alloys to AM induced compositional changes. A well-tested numerical heat transfer and fluid flow model is usedmore » to compare susceptibilities of various alloys to lack of fusion defects. These results are tested and validated with independent experimental data. Here, the findings presented in this paper are aimed at achieving distortion free, compositionally sound and well bonded metallic parts.« less

  1. Printability of alloys for additive manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, T; Zuback, J S; De, A; DebRoy, T

    2016-01-01

    Although additive manufacturing (AM), or three dimensional (3D) printing, provides significant advantages over existing manufacturing techniques, metallic parts produced by AM are susceptible to distortion, lack of fusion defects and compositional changes. Here we show that the printability, or the ability of an alloy to avoid these defects, can be examined by developing and testing appropriate theories. A theoretical scaling analysis is used to test vulnerability of various alloys to thermal distortion. A theoretical kinetic model is used to examine predisposition of different alloys to AM induced compositional changes. A well-tested numerical heat transfer and fluid flow model is used to compare susceptibilities of various alloys to lack of fusion defects. These results are tested and validated with independent experimental data. The findings presented in this paper are aimed at achieving distortion free, compositionally sound and well bonded metallic parts. PMID:26796864

  2. Printability of alloys for additive manufacturing

    PubMed Central

    Mukherjee, T.; Zuback, J. S.; De, A.; DebRoy, T.

    2016-01-01

    Although additive manufacturing (AM), or three dimensional (3D) printing, provides significant advantages over existing manufacturing techniques, metallic parts produced by AM are susceptible to distortion, lack of fusion defects and compositional changes. Here we show that the printability, or the ability of an alloy to avoid these defects, can be examined by developing and testing appropriate theories. A theoretical scaling analysis is used to test vulnerability of various alloys to thermal distortion. A theoretical kinetic model is used to examine predisposition of different alloys to AM induced compositional changes. A well-tested numerical heat transfer and fluid flow model is used to compare susceptibilities of various alloys to lack of fusion defects. These results are tested and validated with independent experimental data. The findings presented in this paper are aimed at achieving distortion free, compositionally sound and well bonded metallic parts. PMID:26796864

  3. Printability of alloys for additive manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, T.; Zuback, J. S.; de, A.; Debroy, T.

    2016-01-01

    Although additive manufacturing (AM), or three dimensional (3D) printing, provides significant advantages over existing manufacturing techniques, metallic parts produced by AM are susceptible to distortion, lack of fusion defects and compositional changes. Here we show that the printability, or the ability of an alloy to avoid these defects, can be examined by developing and testing appropriate theories. A theoretical scaling analysis is used to test vulnerability of various alloys to thermal distortion. A theoretical kinetic model is used to examine predisposition of different alloys to AM induced compositional changes. A well-tested numerical heat transfer and fluid flow model is used to compare susceptibilities of various alloys to lack of fusion defects. These results are tested and validated with independent experimental data. The findings presented in this paper are aimed at achieving distortion free, compositionally sound and well bonded metallic parts.

  4. Individualized additional instruction for calculus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takata, Ken

    2010-10-01

    College students enrolling in the calculus sequence have a wide variance in their preparation and abilities, yet they are usually taught from the same lecture. We describe another pedagogical model of Individualized Additional Instruction (IAI) that assesses each student frequently and prescribes further instruction and homework based on the student's performance. Our study compares two calculus classes, one taught with mandatory remedial IAI and the other without. The class with mandatory remedial IAI did significantly better on comprehensive multiple-choice exams, participated more frequently in classroom discussion and showed greater interest in theorem-proving and other advanced topics.

  5. Additive manufacturing of hybrid circuits

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Bell, Nelson S.; Sarobol, Pylin; Cook, Adam; Clem, Paul G.; Keicher, David M.; Hirschfeld, Deidre; Hall, Aaron Christopher

    2016-03-26

    There is a rising interest in developing functional electronics using additively manufactured components. Considerations in materials selection and pathways to forming hybrid circuits and devices must demonstrate useful electronic function; must enable integration; and must complement the complex shape, low cost, high volume, and high functionality of structural but generally electronically passive additively manufactured components. This article reviews several emerging technologies being used in industry and research/development to provide integration advantages of fabricating multilayer hybrid circuits or devices. First, we review a maskless, noncontact, direct write (DW) technology that excels in the deposition of metallic colloid inks for electrical interconnects.more » Second, we review a complementary technology, aerosol deposition (AD), which excels in the deposition of metallic and ceramic powder as consolidated, thick conformal coatings and is additionally patternable through masking. As a result, we show examples of hybrid circuits/devices integrated beyond 2-D planes, using combinations of DW or AD processes and conventional, established processes.« less

  6. Hydration of Portland cement with additions of calcium sulfoaluminates

    SciTech Connect

    Le Saout, Gwenn; Lothenbach, Barbara; Hori, Akihiro; Higuchi, Takayuki; Winnefeld, Frank

    2013-01-15

    The effect of mineral additions based on calcium aluminates on the hydration mechanism of ordinary Portland cement (OPC) was investigated using isothermal calorimetry, thermal analysis, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, solid state nuclear magnetic resonance and pore solution analysis. Results show that the addition of a calcium sulfoaluminate cement (CSA) to the OPC does not affect the hydration mechanism of alite but controls the aluminate dissolution. In the second blend investigated, a rapid setting cement, the amorphous calcium aluminate reacts very fast to ettringite. The release of aluminum ions strongly retards the hydration of alite but the C-S-H has a similar composition as in OPC with no additional Al to Si substitution. As in CSA-OPC, the aluminate hydration is controlled by the availability of sulfates. The coupling of thermodynamic modeling with the kinetic equations predicts the amount of hydrates and pore solution compositions as a function of time and validates the model in these systems.

  7. A study protocol of a randomised controlled trial incorporating a health economic analysis to investigate if additional allied health services for rehabilitation reduce length of stay without compromising patient outcomes

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Reducing patient length of stay is a high priority for health service providers. Preliminary information suggests additional Saturday rehabilitation services could reduce the time a patient stays in hospital by three days. This large trial will examine if providing additional physiotherapy and occupational therapy services on a Saturday reduces health care costs, and improves the health of hospital inpatients receiving rehabilitation compared to the usual Monday to Friday service. We will also investigate the cost effectiveness and patient outcomes of such a service. Methods/Design A randomised controlled trial will evaluate the effect of providing additional physiotherapy and occupational therapy for rehabilitation. Seven hundred and twelve patients receiving inpatient rehabilitation at two metropolitan sites will be randomly allocated to the intervention group or control group. The control group will receive usual care physiotherapy and occupational therapy from Monday to Friday while the intervention group will receive the same amount of rehabilitation as the control group Monday to Friday plus a full physiotherapy and occupational therapy service on Saturday. The primary outcomes will be patient length of stay, quality of life (EuroQol questionnaire), the Functional Independence Measure (FIM), and health utilization and cost data. Secondary outcomes will assess clinical outcomes relevant to the goals of therapy: the 10 metre walk test, the timed up and go test, the Personal Care Participation Assessment and Resource Tool (PC PART), and the modified motor assessment scale. Blinded assessors will assess outcomes at admission and discharge, and follow up data on quality of life, function and health care costs will be collected at 6 and 12 months after discharge. Between group differences will be analysed with analysis of covariance using baseline measures as the covariate. A health economic analysis will be carried out alongside the randomised

  8. Experimental Drug for Rheumatoid Arthritis Shows Promise

    MedlinePlus

    ... news/fullstory_158076.html Experimental Drug for Rheumatoid Arthritis Shows Promise Baricitinib helped patients who failed other ... HealthDay News) -- An experimental drug to treat rheumatoid arthritis showed promise in a new six-month trial. ...

  9. Experimental Genital Herpes Drug Shows Promise

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_159462.html Experimental Genital Herpes Drug Shows Promise Drug lowered viral activity, recurrence ... News) -- An experimental immune-boosting treatment for genital herpes shows promise, researchers report. The drug, called GEN- ...

  10. Alzheimer's Gene May Show Effects in Childhood

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159854.html Alzheimer's Gene May Show Effects in Childhood Brain scans reveal ... 2016 WEDNESDAY, July 13, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- A gene related to Alzheimer's disease may start to show ...

  11. Effect of glutathione addition in sparkling wine.

    PubMed

    Webber, Vanessa; Dutra, Sandra Valduga; Spinelli, Fernanda Rodrigues; Marcon, Ângela Rossi; Carnieli, Gilberto João; Vanderlinde, Regina

    2014-09-15

    This study aims to evaluate the effect of the addition of glutathione (GSH) on secondary aromas and on the phenolic compounds of sparkling wine elaborated by traditional method. It was added 10 and 20 mg L(-1) of GSH to must and to base wine. The determination of aroma compounds was performed by gas chromatography. Phenolic compounds and glutathione content were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography. Sparkling wines with addition of GSH to must showed lower levels of total phenolic compounds and hydroxycinnamic acids. Furthermore, the sparkling wine with addition of GSH to must showed higher levels of 2-phenylethanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol and diethyl succinate, and lower concentrations of ethyl decanoate, octanoic and decanoic acids. The GSH addition to the must show a greater influence on sparkling wine than to base wine, however GSH addition to base wine seems retain higher SO2 free levels. The concentration of GSH added showed no significant difference. PMID:24767072

  12. Tomato Fruits Show Wide Phenomic Diversity but Fruit Developmental Genes Show Low Genomic Diversity

    PubMed Central

    Mohan, Vijee; Gupta, Soni; Thomas, Sherinmol; Mickey, Hanjabam; Charakana, Chaitanya; Chauhan, Vineeta Singh; Sharma, Kapil; Kumar, Rakesh; Tyagi, Kamal; Sarma, Supriya; Gupta, Suresh Kumar; Kilambi, Himabindu Vasuki; Nongmaithem, Sapana; Kumari, Alka; Gupta, Prateek; Sreelakshmi, Yellamaraju; Sharma, Rameshwar

    2016-01-01

    Domestication of tomato has resulted in large diversity in fruit phenotypes. An intensive phenotyping of 127 tomato accessions from 20 countries revealed extensive morphological diversity in fruit traits. The diversity in fruit traits clustered the accessions into nine classes and identified certain promising lines having desirable traits pertaining to total soluble salts (TSS), carotenoids, ripening index, weight and shape. Factor analysis of the morphometric data from Tomato Analyzer showed that the fruit shape is a complex trait shared by several factors. The 100% variance between round and flat fruit shapes was explained by one discriminant function having a canonical correlation of 0.874 by stepwise discriminant analysis. A set of 10 genes (ACS2, COP1, CYC-B, RIN, MSH2, NAC-NOR, PHOT1, PHYA, PHYB and PSY1) involved in various plant developmental processes were screened for SNP polymorphism by EcoTILLING. The genetic diversity in these genes revealed a total of 36 non-synonymous and 18 synonymous changes leading to the identification of 28 haplotypes. The average frequency of polymorphism across the genes was 0.038/Kb. Significant negative Tajima’D statistic in two of the genes, ACS2 and PHOT1 indicated the presence of rare alleles in low frequency. Our study indicates that while there is low polymorphic diversity in the genes regulating plant development, the population shows wider phenotype diversity. Nonetheless, morphological and genetic diversity of the present collection can be further exploited as potential resources in future. PMID:27077652

  13. Addition polyimide end cap study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    St.clair, T. L.

    1980-01-01

    The characterization of addition polyimides with various end caps for adhesive applications at 120-250 C environments is discussed. Oligometric polyimides were prepared from 3,3',4,4'-benzophenone tetracarboxylic dianhydride and 3,3'-methylenedianiline which were end-capped with functionally reactive moities which cause crosslinking when the oligomers are heated to 200-400 C. The syntheses of the oligomers are outlined. The thermolysis of the oligomers was studied by differential scanning calorimetry and the resulting polymers were characterized by differential thermal analysis and adhesive performance. The adhesive data include lap shear strengths on titanium 6-4 adherends both before and after aging for 1000 hours at 121 C and/or 232 C.

  14. An Additive Manufacturing Test Artifact

    PubMed Central

    Moylan, Shawn; Slotwinski, John; Cooke, April; Jurrens, Kevin; Donmez, M Alkan

    2014-01-01

    A test artifact, intended for standardization, is proposed for the purpose of evaluating the performance of additive manufacturing (AM) systems. A thorough analysis of previously proposed AM test artifacts as well as experience with machining test artifacts have inspired the design of the proposed test artifact. This new artifact is designed to provide a characterization of the capabilities and limitations of an AM system, as well as to allow system improvement by linking specific errors measured in the test artifact to specific sources in the AM system. The proposed test artifact has been built in multiple materials using multiple AM technologies. The results of several of the builds are discussed, demonstrating how the measurement results can be used to characterize and improve a specific AM system. PMID:26601039

  15. An Additive Manufacturing Test Artifact.

    PubMed

    Moylan, Shawn; Slotwinski, John; Cooke, April; Jurrens, Kevin; Donmez, M Alkan

    2014-01-01

    A test artifact, intended for standardization, is proposed for the purpose of evaluating the performance of additive manufacturing (AM) systems. A thorough analysis of previously proposed AM test artifacts as well as experience with machining test artifacts have inspired the design of the proposed test artifact. This new artifact is designed to provide a characterization of the capabilities and limitations of an AM system, as well as to allow system improvement by linking specific errors measured in the test artifact to specific sources in the AM system. The proposed test artifact has been built in multiple materials using multiple AM technologies. The results of several of the builds are discussed, demonstrating how the measurement results can be used to characterize and improve a specific AM system. PMID:26601039

  16. A comparison of 3D poly(ε-caprolactone) tissue engineering scaffolds produced with conventional and additive manufacturing techniques by means of quantitative analysis of SR μ-CT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brun, F.; Intranuovo, F.; Mohammadi, S.; Domingos, M.; Favia, P.; Tromba, G.

    2013-07-01

    The technique used to produce a 3D tissue engineering (TE) scaffold is of fundamental importance in order to guarantee its proper morphological characteristics. An accurate assessment of the resulting structural properties is therefore crucial in order to evaluate the effectiveness of the produced scaffold. Synchrotron radiation (SR) computed microtomography (μ-CT) combined with further image analysis seems to be one of the most effective techniques to this aim. However, a quantitative assessment of the morphological parameters directly from the reconstructed images is a non trivial task. This study considers two different poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) scaffolds fabricated with a conventional technique (Solvent Casting Particulate Leaching, SCPL) and an additive manufacturing (AM) technique (BioCell Printing), respectively. With the first technique it is possible to produce scaffolds with random, non-regular, rounded pore geometry. The AM technique instead is able to produce scaffolds with square-shaped interconnected pores of regular dimension. Therefore, the final morphology of the AM scaffolds can be predicted and the resulting model can be used for the validation of the applied imaging and image analysis protocols. It is here reported a SR μ-CT image analysis approach that is able to effectively and accurately reveal the differences in the pore- and throat-size distributions as well as connectivity of both AM and SCPL scaffolds.

  17. Xenon fluorides show potential as fluorinating agents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chernick, C. L.; Shieh, T. C.; Yang, N. C.

    1967-01-01

    Xenon fluorides permit the controlled addition of fluorine across an olefinic double bond. They provide a series of fluorinating agents that permit ready separation from the product at a high purity. The reactions may be carried out in the vapor phase.

  18. Effects of Talk Show Viewing on Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Stacy; Mares, Marie-Louise

    1998-01-01

    Investigates the effects of talk-show viewing on high-school students' social-reality beliefs. Supports the hypothesis that viewers overestimate the frequency of deviant behaviors; does not find support for the hypothesis that viewers become desensitized to the suffering of others; and finds that talk-show viewing was positively related, among…

  19. Acculturation, Cultivation, and Daytime TV Talk Shows.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woo, Hyung-Jin; Dominick, Joseph R.

    2003-01-01

    Explores the cultivation phenomenon among international college students in the United States by examining the connection between levels of acculturation, daytime TV talk show viewing, and beliefs about social reality. Finds that students who scored low on acculturation and watched a great deal of daytime talk shows had a more negative perception…

  20. The Physics of Equestrian Show Jumping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stinner, Art

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses the kinematics and dynamics of equestrian show jumping. For some time I have attended a series of show jumping events at Spruce Meadows, an international equestrian center near Calgary, Alberta, often referred to as the "Wimbledon of equestrian jumping." I have always had a desire to write an article such as this…