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Sample records for additional assessments bibliographic

  1. Behavioral Ecology of Captive Species: Using Bibliographic Information to Assess Pet Suitability of Mammal Species

    PubMed Central

    Koene, Paul; de Mol, Rudi M.; Ipema, Bert

    2016-01-01

    Which mammal species are suitable to be kept as pet? For answering this question many factors have to be considered. Animals have many adaptations to their natural environment in which they have evolved that may cause adaptation problems and/or risks in captivity. Problems may be visible in behavior, welfare, health, and/or human–animal interaction, resulting, for example, in stereotypies, disease, and fear. A framework is developed in which bibliographic information of mammal species from the wild and captive environment is collected and assessed by three teams of animal scientists. Oneliners from literature about behavioral ecology, health, and welfare and human–animal relationship of 90 mammal species are collected by team 1 in a database and strength of behavioral needs and risks is assessed by team 2. Based on summaries of those strengths the suitability of the mammal species is assessed by team 3. Involvement of stakeholders for supplying bibliographic information and assessments was propagated. Combining the individual and subjective assessments of the scientists using statistical methods makes the final assessment of a rank order of suitability as pet of those species less biased and more objective. The framework is dynamic and produces an initial rank ordered list of the pet suitability of 90 mammal species, methods to add new mammal species to the list or remove animals from the list and a method to incorporate stakeholder assessments. A model is developed that allows for provisional classification of pet suitability. Periodical update of the pet suitability framework is expected to produce an updated list with increased reliability and accuracy. Furthermore, the framework could be further developed to assess the pet suitability of additional species of other animal groups, e.g., birds, reptiles, and amphibians. PMID:27243023

  2. The Strategic Environment Assessment bibliographic network: A quantitative literature review analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Caschili, Simone; De Montis, Andrea; Ganciu, Amedeo; Ledda, Antonio; Barra, Mario

    2014-07-01

    Academic literature has been continuously growing at such a pace that it can be difficult to follow the progression of scientific achievements; hence, the need to dispose of quantitative knowledge support systems to analyze the literature of a subject. In this article we utilize network analysis tools to build a literature review of scientific documents published in the multidisciplinary field of Strategic Environment Assessment (SEA). The proposed approach helps researchers to build unbiased and comprehensive literature reviews. We collect information on 7662 SEA publications and build the SEA Bibliographic Network (SEABN) employing the basic idea that two publications are interconnected if one cites the other. We apply network analysis at macroscopic (network architecture), mesoscopic (sub graph) and microscopic levels (node) in order to i) verify what network structure characterizes the SEA literature, ii) identify the authors, disciplines and journals that are contributing to the international discussion on SEA, and iii) scrutinize the most cited and important publications in the field. Results show that the SEA is a multidisciplinary subject; the SEABN belongs to the class of real small world networks with a dominance of publications in Environmental studies over a total of 12 scientific sectors. Christopher Wood, Olivia Bina, Matthew Cashmore, and Andrew Jordan are found to be the leading authors while Environmental Impact Assessment Review is by far the scientific journal with the highest number of publications in SEA studies. - Highlights: • We utilize network analysis to analyze scientific documents in the SEA field. • We build the SEA Bibliographic Network (SEABN) of 7662 publications. • We apply network analysis at macroscopic, mesoscopic and microscopic network levels. • We identify SEABN architecture, relevant publications, authors, subjects and journals.

  3. Assessment of bibliographic databases performance in information retrieval for occupational and environmental toxicology

    PubMed Central

    Gehanno, J. F.; Paris, C.; Thirion, B.; Caillard, J. F.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the efficiency of the major bibliographic databases by assessing the percentage of references among the total literature available that can be retrieved from each database. We also evaluated the best database combinations to carry out an exhaustive search. METHODS: BIOSIS, EMBASE, MEDLINE, NIOSH-TIC, and TOXLINE were searched on two topics: allergy to latex and asbestos and mesothelioma, in the title, abstract, or keywords (textwords). This search was performed for the years 1994 and 1995. All the records were classified by journal and author's name and were verified for each record whether or not it was indexed in each database. Statistical analysis was performed with chi 2 test. RESULTS: 777 articles in 510 issues were found. The efficiency of each database (percentage of articles recovered) and of combinations varied between 11% and 63% for one database and between 42% and 86% for a combination of two databases. The reasons why these differences exist between databases, and within a database, between two different subjects or two different years are reported. CONCLUSION: Firstly, it is not advisable to assert that a bibliography is complete when only one database is searched. Secondly, the efficiency of the databases may be quite different. Finally, it is suggested that the best way to be as exhaustive as possible is to search two or more databases-for example, in EMBASE and TOXLINE, or to a lesser extent EMBASE and MEDLINE. This seems to be the best compromise solution between time consumed for searching and efficiency.   PMID:9849544

  4. Formative Assessment: Simply, No Additives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roskos, Kathleen; Neuman, Susan B.

    2012-01-01

    Among the types of assessment the closest to daily reading instruction is formative assessment. In contrast to summative assessment, which occurs after instruction, formative assessment involves forming judgments frequently in the flow of instruction. Key features of formative assessment include identifying gaps between where students are and…

  5. Bibliographical Control in Pakistan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohammadally, R.

    1986-01-01

    Discusses the main aspects of national bibliographical control in Pakistan--legal deposit, national bibliographical agency, and retrospective and current national bibliographies. Highlights include registration of publications, copyright, the National Bibliographic Unit, National Book Council of Pakistan, and Library of Congress Office. Works…

  6. Online bibliographic sources in hydrology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wild, Emily C.; Havener, W. Michael

    2001-01-01

    Traditional commercial bibliographic databases and indexes provide some access to hydrology materials produced by the government; however, these sources do not provide comprehensive coverage of relevant hydrologic publications. This paper discusses bibliographic information available from the federal government and state geological surveys, water resources agencies, and depositories. In addition to information in these databases, the paper describes the scope, styles of citing, subject terminology, and the ways these information sources are currently being searched, formally and informally, by hydrologists. Information available from the federal and state agencies and from the state depositories might be missed by limiting searches to commercially distributed databases.

  7. Bibliographical database of radiation biological dosimetry and risk assessment: Part 1, through June 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Straume, T.; Ricker, Y.; Thut, M.

    1988-08-29

    This database was constructed to support research in radiation biological dosimetry and risk assessment. Relevant publications were identified through detailed searches of national and international electronic databases and through our personal knowledge of the subject. Publications were numbered and key worded, and referenced in an electronic data-retrieval system that permits quick access through computerized searches on publication number, authors, key words, title, year, and journal name. Photocopies of all publications contained in the database are maintained in a file that is numerically arranged by citation number. This report of the database is provided as a useful reference and overview. It should be emphasized that the database will grow as new citations are added to it. With that in mind, we arranged this report in order of ascending citation number so that follow-up reports will simply extend this document. The database cite 1212 publications. Publications are from 119 different scientific journals, 27 of these journals are cited at least 5 times. It also contains reference to 42 books and published symposia, and 129 reports. Information relevant to radiation biological dosimetry and risk assessment is widely distributed among the scientific literature, although a few journals clearly dominate. The four journals publishing the largest number of relevant papers are Health Physics, Mutation Research, Radiation Research, and International Journal of Radiation Biology. Publications in Health Physics make up almost 10% of the current database.

  8. Bibliographic Instruction and Postmodern Pedagogy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubbard, Taylor E.

    1995-01-01

    Discussion of postmodernism and bibliographic instruction in academic libraries is based on a prospectus for an experimental information course at Evergreen State College (Washington). Highlights include structural bibliographic instruction, including a taxonomic model; discourse analysis and bibliographic instruction; composition and…

  9. Bibliographic Coupling: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinberg, Bella Hass

    1974-01-01

    The theory and practical applications of bibliographic coupling are reviewed. The reviewer takes issue with the use of bibliographic coupling for information retrieval and automatic classification on logical grounds, and for reasons relating to uncontrolled citation practices. The usefulness of the procedure for the study of the science of science…

  10. Evaluation of Bibliographic Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardesty, Larry

    Arguing that there is a current tendency among librarians to talk more about the evaluation of bibliographic instruction than to actually do anything about it, this paper examines limitations of and considerations pertaining to evaluation and includes: (1) a brief discussion of the history of bibliographic instruction; (2) discussion of types of…

  11. EU assessment of enterococci as feed additives.

    PubMed

    Becquet, Philippe

    2003-12-01

    Particular micro-organisms such as enterococcal strains are used as probiotics in feed. Observations indicate a positive effect of such strains on the gut flora, especially for young animals or during feed transition phases. This favourable effect is perceived by the farmers as a means of maintenance of the health status of the animals (e.g. less diarrhoea) and results in significant improvement of animal performance. Micro-organisms have been used since the end of the 1980s in animal feeds and were strictly regulated in 1993, when they were introduced under the scope of Council Directive 70/524/EEC of 23 November 1970 on additives in animal nutrition on feed additives. After a transition period, which ended in the year 2000, every microbial strain must now be assessed by the EU bodies and authorised by a Commission Regulation, before it can be placed on the market for use in feedingstuffs. Council Directive 70/524/EEC on feed additives is based on three main principles: (1) pre-market authorisation, (2) positive list principle, and (3) thorough risk assessment of the effect of a particular strain on human and animal health as well as on the environment. Therefore, before introducing a new enterococcal strain preparation or promote a new use of an approved product, a dossier has to be submitted to the authorities, following the guidelines, as published in Commission Directive 94/40/EEC [Commission Directive 94/40/EC of 22 July 1994 amending Council Directive 87/153/EEC fixing guidelines for the assessment of additives in animal nutrition]. These guidelines contain detailed evaluation methods. The safety requirements refer to (1) the target animal categories, (2) the consumer and the environment (presence of toxins and virulence factors as well as antibiotic resistance and transferability are assessed), and (3) the workers, based on requirements of Council Directive 89/391/EEC.

  12. Bayesian networks: a new method for the modeling of bibliographic knowledge: application to fall risk assessment in geriatric patients.

    PubMed

    Lalande, Laure; Bourguignon, Laurent; Carlier, Chloé; Ducher, Michel

    2013-06-01

    Falls in geriatry are associated with important morbidity, mortality and high healthcare costs. Because of the large number of variables related to the risk of falling, determining patients at risk is a difficult challenge. The aim of this work was to validate a tool to detect patients with high risk of fall using only bibliographic knowledge. Thirty articles corresponding to 160 studies were used to modelize fall risk. A retrospective case-control cohort including 288 patients (88 ± 7 years) and a prospective cohort including 106 patients (89 ± 6 years) from two geriatric hospitals were used to validate the performances of our model. We identified 26 variables associated with an increased risk of fall. These variables were split into illnesses, medications, and environment. The combination of the three associated scores gives a global fall score. The sensitivity and the specificity were 31.4, 81.6, 38.5, and 90 %, respectively, for the retrospective and the prospective cohort. The performances of the model are similar to results observed with already existing prediction tools using model adjustment to data from numerous cohort studies. This work demonstrates that knowledge from the literature can be synthesized with Bayesian networks.

  13. Database Management Systems: New Homes for Migrating Bibliographic Records.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Terrence A.; Bierbaum, Esther G.

    1987-01-01

    Assesses bibliographic databases as part of visionary text systems such as hypertext and scholars' workstations. Downloading is discussed in terms of the capability to search records and to maintain unique bibliographic descriptions, and relational database management systems, file managers, and text databases are reviewed as possible hosts for…

  14. The Bibliographic Control of Foreign Monographs: A Review and Baseline Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leazer, Gregory H.; Rohdy, Margaret

    1995-01-01

    Discussion of the acquisition of foreign research publications focuses on a study that assessed the extent of bibliographic control of foreign published materials in bibliographic utilities. Highlights include a review of previous studies; sources and quality of bibliographic records; timeliness; and presence of Library of Congress Classification…

  15. The Relevance Aura of Bibliographic Records.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Terrence A.

    1997-01-01

    Analyzes relevance assessments of topical descriptors for bibliographic records for two dimensions: (1) a vertical conceptual hierarchy of broad to narrow descriptors, and (2) a horizontal linkage of related terms. The data were analyzed for a semantic distance and semantic direction effect as postulated by the Semantic Distance Model. (Author/LRW)

  16. Diesel fuel detergent additive performance and assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Vincent, M.W.; Papachristos, M.J.; Williams, D.; Burton, J.

    1994-10-01

    Diesel fuel detergent additives are increasingly linked with high quality automotive diesel fuels. Both in Europe and in the USA, field problems associated with fuel injector coking or fouling have been experienced. In Europe indirect injection (IDI) light duty engines used in passenger cars were affected, while in the USA, a direct injection (DI) engine in heavy duty truck applications experienced field problems. In both cases, a fuel additive detergent performance test has evolved using an engine linked with the original field problem, although engine design modifications employed by the manufacturers have ensured improved operation in service. Increasing awareness of the potential for injector nozzle coking to cause deterioration in engine performance is coupled with a need to meet ever more stringent exhaust emissions legislation. These two requirements indicate that the use of detergency additives will continue to be associated with high quality diesel fuels. The paper examines detergency performance evaluated in a range of IDI and DI engines and correlates performance in the two most widely recognised test engines, namely the Peugeot 1.9 litre IDI, and Cummins L10 DI engines. 17 refs., 18 figs., 5 tabs.

  17. Bibliographic Instruction in an Undergraduate Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ormondroyd, Joan L.

    1984-01-01

    Since 1976, Uris Undergraduate Library at Cornell University has provided a program in bibliographic instruction involving 140-150 classes per year and reaching between 2,500 and 3,500 students. In addition to course related and course integrated classes for students at all levels, the program includes intensive training for teacher-librarians.…

  18. Including School Libraries in National Bibliographic Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyer, Esther R.

    1979-01-01

    Considers the incorporation of school libraries and media centers into a national bibliographic system, and discusses questions pertaining to the contributions, advantages, points of access, obstacles, and international implications of such a program. A bibliography of additional readings is provided. (FM)

  19. Hawaii bibliographic database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, Thomas L.; Takahashi, Taeko Jane

    The Hawaii bibliographic database has been created to contain all of the literature, from 1779 to the present, pertinent to the volcanological history of the Hawaiian-Emperor volcanic chain. References are entered in a PC- and Macintosh-compatible EndNote Plus bibliographic database with keywords and s or (if no ) with annotations as to content. Keywords emphasize location, discipline, process, identification of new chemical data or age determinations, and type of publication. The database is updated approximately three times a year and is available to upload from an ftp site. The bibliography contained 8460 references at the time this paper was submitted for publication. Use of the database greatly enhances the power and completeness of library searches for anyone interested in Hawaiian volcanism.

  20. Hawaii bibliographic database

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wright, T.L.; Takahashi, T.J.

    1998-01-01

    The Hawaii bibliographic database has been created to contain all of the literature, from 1779 to the present, pertinent to the volcanological history of the Hawaiian-Emperor volcanic chain. References are entered in a PC- and Macintosh-compatible EndNote Plus bibliographic database with keywords and abstracts or (if no abstract) with annotations as to content. Keywords emphasize location, discipline, process, identification of new chemical data or age determinations, and type of publication. The database is updated approximately three times a year and is available to upload from an ftp site. The bibliography contained 8460 references at the time this paper was submitted for publication. Use of the database greatly enhances the power and completeness of library searches for anyone interested in Hawaiian volcanism.

  1. Specialist Bibliographic Databases.

    PubMed

    Gasparyan, Armen Yuri; Yessirkepov, Marlen; Voronov, Alexander A; Trukhachev, Vladimir I; Kostyukova, Elena I; Gerasimov, Alexey N; Kitas, George D

    2016-05-01

    Specialist bibliographic databases offer essential online tools for researchers and authors who work on specific subjects and perform comprehensive and systematic syntheses of evidence. This article presents examples of the established specialist databases, which may be of interest to those engaged in multidisciplinary science communication. Access to most specialist databases is through subscription schemes and membership in professional associations. Several aggregators of information and database vendors, such as EBSCOhost and ProQuest, facilitate advanced searches supported by specialist keyword thesauri. Searches of items through specialist databases are complementary to those through multidisciplinary research platforms, such as PubMed, Web of Science, and Google Scholar. Familiarizing with the functional characteristics of biomedical and nonbiomedical bibliographic search tools is mandatory for researchers, authors, editors, and publishers. The database users are offered updates of the indexed journal lists, abstracts, author profiles, and links to other metadata. Editors and publishers may find particularly useful source selection criteria and apply for coverage of their peer-reviewed journals and grey literature sources. These criteria are aimed at accepting relevant sources with established editorial policies and quality controls.

  2. Specialist Bibliographic Databases

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Specialist bibliographic databases offer essential online tools for researchers and authors who work on specific subjects and perform comprehensive and systematic syntheses of evidence. This article presents examples of the established specialist databases, which may be of interest to those engaged in multidisciplinary science communication. Access to most specialist databases is through subscription schemes and membership in professional associations. Several aggregators of information and database vendors, such as EBSCOhost and ProQuest, facilitate advanced searches supported by specialist keyword thesauri. Searches of items through specialist databases are complementary to those through multidisciplinary research platforms, such as PubMed, Web of Science, and Google Scholar. Familiarizing with the functional characteristics of biomedical and nonbiomedical bibliographic search tools is mandatory for researchers, authors, editors, and publishers. The database users are offered updates of the indexed journal lists, abstracts, author profiles, and links to other metadata. Editors and publishers may find particularly useful source selection criteria and apply for coverage of their peer-reviewed journals and grey literature sources. These criteria are aimed at accepting relevant sources with established editorial policies and quality controls. PMID:27134485

  3. Bibliographic Access and Control System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Betsy; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Presents a brief summary of the functions of the Bibliographic Access & Control System (BACS) implemented at the Washington University School of Medicine Library, and outlines the design, development, and uses of the system. Bibliographic control of books and serials and user access to the system are also discussed. (Author/JL)

  4. 42 CFR 460.140 - Additional quality assessment activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) Quality Assessment and Performance Improvement § 460.140 Additional...

  5. 42 CFR 460.140 - Additional quality assessment activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) Quality Assessment and Performance Improvement § 460.140 Additional...

  6. 42 CFR 460.140 - Additional quality assessment activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) Quality Assessment and Performance Improvement § 460.140 Additional...

  7. 42 CFR 460.140 - Additional quality assessment activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) Quality Assessment and Performance Improvement § 460.140 Additional...

  8. Chemical Mixture Risk Assessment Additivity-Based Approaches

    EPA Science Inventory

    Powerpoint presentation includes additivity-based chemical mixture risk assessment methods. Basic concepts, theory and example calculations are included. Several slides discuss the use of "common adverse outcomes" in analyzing phthalate mixtures.

  9. 48 CFR 246.470-1 - Assessment of additional costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Assessment of additional costs. 246.470-1 Section 246.470-1 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE CONTRACT MANAGEMENT QUALITY ASSURANCE Government Contract...

  10. Bibliographic Instruction in the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poirier, Gayle

    2000-01-01

    Discusses bibliographic instruction in libraries. Topics include a history of bibliographic instruction; the Internet and electronic searching; librarians' use of technology; defining information needs; locating and accessing information, including classification systems and Boolean searching; evaluating information; using and communication…

  11. Derivative Bibliographic Relationships: The Work Relationship in a Global Bibliographic Database.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smiraglia, Richard P.; Leazer, Gregory H.

    1999-01-01

    Examines bibliographic relationships within the context of a global bibliographic database. Results of this research indicate that a core of works of similar character constitute the bibliographic population of American academic and research libraries (OCLC, Online Computer Library Center members). The size of a bibliographic family seems to be…

  12. Bibliographic search with Mark-and-Recapture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loe, Chuan Wen; Jensen, Henrik Jeldtoft

    2015-09-01

    Mark-and-Recapture is a methodology from Population Biology to estimate the population of a species without counting every individual. This is done by multiple samplings of the species using traps and discounting the instances that were caught repeated. In this paper we show that this methodology is applicable for bibliographic analysis as it is also not feasible to count all the relevant publications of a research topic. In addition this estimation also allows us to propose a stopping rule for researchers to decide how far one should extend their search for relevant literature.

  13. Marketing for Online Bibliographic Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elias, Art

    1979-01-01

    With reference to the "BIOSIS Previews" magnetic tape service of BioSciences Information Service (BIOSIS), marketing patterns of on-line bibliographic products are examined and future possibilities are discussed, with emphasis on geographic distribution of usage, organizations and institutions employing on-line service, and their…

  14. AFA History: Some Bibliographical Suggestions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Gerald H.; Reid, Ronald F.

    2000-01-01

    Presents a brief bibliographical study in order (1) to provide future historians with some hints about where to locate materials, and (2) to encourage the American Forensic Association to continue its recent efforts to collect materials and deposit them in a well-maintained historical archive. (NH)

  15. Bibliographic Control of Preservation Photocopies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Telerski, R. Michele

    This study examines how American Association of Research Libraries (ARL) member libraries catalog full-volume, monographic, non-cartographic, preservation photocopies and explores the use of full, minimal, or dependent bibliographic records. It analyzes On-line Public Access Catalog (OPAC) records structure for multiple versions materials in terms…

  16. Halley's Comet: A Bibliographic Essay.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallant, Stephen L.

    1985-01-01

    This bibliographic essay evaluates six books on Halley's Comet as science writings that fall into three categories: middle school and junior high-level books; senior high to adult-level books; and advanced level. Author, number of pages, publication date, price, International Standard Book Number, and publisher information are provided. (EJS)

  17. Cable Television; A Bibliographic Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoenung, James

    This bibliographic review of publications in the field of cable television begins with an introduction to cable television and an outline of the history and development of cable television. Particular attention is given to the regulatory activities of the Federal Communications Commission and the unfulfilled potential of cable television. The…

  18. Mathematical Notation in Bibliographic Databases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pasterczyk, Catherine E.

    1990-01-01

    Discusses ways in which using mathematical symbols to search online bibliographic databases in scientific and technical areas can improve search results. The representations used for Greek letters, relations, binary operators, arrows, and miscellaneous special symbols in the MathSci, Inspec, Compendex, and Chemical Abstracts databases are…

  19. The Internationality of Information Banks--Online Bibliographic Databases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veith, Richard H.

    The international character of online bibliographic databases is assessed by addressing three major aspects: literature production, article selection, and database use, as well as a number of side issues such as distribution and language. Requests for information were sent to producers and suppliers, most of whom responded, with no attempt being…

  20. Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smalheer, C. V.

    1973-01-01

    The chemistry of lubricant additives is discussed to show what the additives are chemically and what functions they perform in the lubrication of various kinds of equipment. Current theories regarding the mode of action of lubricant additives are presented. The additive groups discussed include the following: (1) detergents and dispersants, (2) corrosion inhibitors, (3) antioxidants, (4) viscosity index improvers, (5) pour point depressants, and (6) antifouling agents.

  1. Bibliographic Control or Chaos: An Agenda for National Bibliographic Services in the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorman, Michael

    This paper addresses bibliographic services in the 21st century. The paper begins by reviewing achievements of the past 30 years, including Universal Bibliographic Control (UBC), MARC, International Standard Bibliographic Description (ISBD), and the Anglo-American Cataloguing Rules, 2nd edition (AACR2). The cataloging of electronic resources is…

  2. Monitoring system for the quality assessment in additive manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Carl, Volker

    2015-03-31

    Additive Manufacturing (AM) refers to a process by which a set of digital data -representing a certain complex 3dim design - is used to grow the respective 3dim real structure equal to the corresponding design. For the powder-based EOS manufacturing process a variety of plastic and metal materials can be used. Thereby, AM is in many aspects a very powerful tool as it can help to overcome particular limitations in conventional manufacturing. AM enables more freedom of design, complex, hollow and/or lightweight structures as well as product individualisation and functional integration. As such it is a promising approach with respect to the future design and manufacturing of complex 3dim structures. On the other hand, it certainly calls for new methods and standards in view of quality assessment. In particular, when utilizing AM for the design of complex parts used in aviation and aerospace technologies, appropriate monitoring systems are mandatory. In this respect, recently, sustainable progress has been accomplished by joining the common efforts and concerns of a manufacturer Additive Manufacturing systems and respective materials (EOS), along with those of an operator of such systems (MTU Aero Engines) and experienced application engineers (Carl Metrology), using decent know how in the field of optical and infrared methods regarding non-destructive-examination (NDE). The newly developed technology is best described by a high-resolution layer by layer inspection technique, which allows for a 3D tomography-analysis of the complex part at any time during the manufacturing process. Thereby, inspection costs are kept rather low by using smart image-processing methods as well as CMOS sensors instead of infrared detectors. Moreover, results from conventional physical metallurgy may easily be correlated with the predictive results of the monitoring system which not only allows for improvements of the AM monitoring system, but finally leads to an optimisation of the quality

  3. Monitoring system for the quality assessment in additive manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carl, Volker

    2015-03-01

    Additive Manufacturing (AM) refers to a process by which a set of digital data -representing a certain complex 3dim design - is used to grow the respective 3dim real structure equal to the corresponding design. For the powder-based EOS manufacturing process a variety of plastic and metal materials can be used. Thereby, AM is in many aspects a very powerful tool as it can help to overcome particular limitations in conventional manufacturing. AM enables more freedom of design, complex, hollow and/or lightweight structures as well as product individualisation and functional integration. As such it is a promising approach with respect to the future design and manufacturing of complex 3dim structures. On the other hand, it certainly calls for new methods and standards in view of quality assessment. In particular, when utilizing AM for the design of complex parts used in aviation and aerospace technologies, appropriate monitoring systems are mandatory. In this respect, recently, sustainable progress has been accomplished by joining the common efforts and concerns of a manufacturer Additive Manufacturing systems and respective materials (EOS), along with those of an operator of such systems (MTU Aero Engines) and experienced application engineers (Carl Metrology), using decent know how in the field of optical and infrared methods regarding non-destructive-examination (NDE). The newly developed technology is best described by a high-resolution layer by layer inspection technique, which allows for a 3D tomography-analysis of the complex part at any time during the manufacturing process. Thereby, inspection costs are kept rather low by using smart image-processing methods as well as CMOS sensors instead of infrared detectors. Moreover, results from conventional physical metallurgy may easily be correlated with the predictive results of the monitoring system which not only allows for improvements of the AM monitoring system, but finally leads to an optimisation of the quality

  4. Additive manufacturing metrology: State of the art and needs assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koester, L.; Taheri, H.; Bond, L. J.; Barnard, D.; Gray, J.

    2016-02-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) is a technology that first emerged in 1987 with stereolithography (SL) of plastic materials from 3D Systems. It saw light use for rapid prototyping and very low volume production for a number of years. However, in the past few years AM of metallic materials has become a practical fabrication technology, use is rapidly increasing and is projected to continue with double digit growth in coming years. The promise and flexibility shown by AM has spurred efforts to begin standardization of this type of process. This paper provides an assessment of the state of the art for in-situ process monitoring of AM processes with an emphasis on the production of metallic components. It is seen that with the implementation of proper process control there is potential to create reliable and reproducible materials and geometries previously unachievable using metal removal based means of production. A reliable methodology for detection and control of microstructure and defects would be of great value in terms of enabling broader AM utilization.

  5. Discovering Semantic Patterns in Bibliographically Coupled Documents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qin, Jian

    1999-01-01

    An example of semantic pattern analysis, based on keywords selected from documents grouped by bibliographical coupling, is used to demonstrate the methodological aspects of knowledge discovery in bibliographic databases. Frequency distribution patterns suggest the existence of a common intellectual base with a wide range of specialties and…

  6. Bibliography Section. Bibliographic Control Division. Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Federation of Library Associations, The Hague (Netherlands).

    Papers on national bibliographies and bibliographic control, which were presented at the 1983 International Federation of Library Associations (IFLA) conference, include: (1) "Bibliographic Control of IFLA Publications: Retrospective and Current" by Mona Madsen (Denmark), which outlines types of IFLA documents, existing bibliographies,…

  7. A UNIMARC Bibliographic Format Database for ABCD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Megnigbeto, Eustache

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: ABCD is a web-based open and free software suite for library management derived from the UNESCO CDS/ISIS software technology. The first version was launched officially in December 2009 with a MARC 21 bibliographic format database. This paper aims to detail the building of the UNIMARC bibliographic format database for ABCD.…

  8. Bibliographic Service Development: A New CLR Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gwinn, Nancy; Jones, C. Lee

    1979-01-01

    Announces a project for national bibliographic control under the sponsorship of the Council on Library Resources. Areas explored will be the possibility of linking various bibliographic utilities and networks, cooperative planning, review of the Library of Congress' Network Development Office project as a potential nationwide database, and the…

  9. Standards for Bibliographic Control in Thailand.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiruppapa, Siriporn

    This paper summarizes initiatives related to standards for bibliographic control in Thailand. Topics addressed include: (1) standardized forms for headings; (2) standard bibliographic description; (3) standardized subject headings; (4) standards for classification schemes; (5) standardized format; (6) software application in libraries and…

  10. Publist - a bibliographic database utility

    SciTech Connect

    Peierls, R.F.

    1997-01-01

    A few years ago, the Department of Applied Science perceived a need to automate activities related to publications by using some computer based system. Among the objectives were that: (1) it should be easy for a secretary or someone without extensive computer skills to use the system; (2) it should run on PCs (at that time DOS based), Macintosh, and Unix systems, so that different groups or individual investigators could use it on their platform of choice; (3) it should be flexible enough to track evolving views of what information was needed; (4) it should be able to generate output in different formats for different purposes; (5) the information should be able to be selected from and sorted by a wide variety of keys; and (6) individual items should be able to be updated with new information or deleted. This document gives an over view of the PUBLIST database for handling bibliographic data.

  11. Assessment of Gasoline Additive Containing Ditert-butoxypropanol

    SciTech Connect

    West, Brian H.; Connatser, Raynella M.; Lewis, Samuel Arthur

    2016-04-01

    The Fuels, Engines, and Emissions Research Center completed analysis and testing of the CPS Powershot gasoline additive under the auspices of the Department of Energy’s Technical Assistance for US Small Businesses in Vehicle Technologies. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was used to quantify the makeup of the additive, finding a predominance of 2,3-Ditert-Butoxypropanol, also known as Glyceryl Di-Tert-Butyl Ether (GTBE). Blends of the additive at 2 and 4 volume percent were subjected to a number of standard ASTM tests, including Research Octane Number, Motor Octane Number, distillation, and vapor pressure. Results show a high boiling range and low vapor pressure for the additive, and a very modest octane boosting effect in gasoline with and without ethanol.

  12. Managing the Information Revolution: CLR's Bibliographic Service Development Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haas, Warren J.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Describes the Bibliographic Service Development Program begun in 1978 by the Council on Library Resources. The program's goals include (1) providing effective bibliographic services for all who need them, (2) improving the nature and quality of bibliographic products, and (3) stabilizing the costs of many bibliographic processes in individual…

  13. Bibliographic Resources for the Historian of Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corbin, B. G.

    1999-12-01

    Many large library collections now have online bibliographic catalogs on the web. These provide many hidden resources for the historian of astronomy. Special searching techniques will allow the historian to scan bibliographic records of hundreds of entries relating to biographies of astronomers, collected works of astronomers, ancient and medieval astronomy and many other historical subjects. Abstract databases such as the Astrophysics Data System and ARIBIB are also adding much historical bibliographic information. ARIBIB will eventually contain scanned images of the Astronomischer Jahresbericht containing bibliographic entries for all literature of astronomy from 1899 to 1968 and Astronomy and Astrophysics Abstracts from 1969 to present. Commercial services such as UnCover and FirstSearch provide a means of reaching bibliographic entries for journal and book literature in the history of astronomy which were not easily located in the past. A broad overview of these collections and services will be given, and searching techniques for finding ``hidden" bibliographic data will be presented. Web page addresses will be given for all sources covered.

  14. [Matrix Support: a bibliographical study].

    PubMed

    Iglesias, Alexandra; Avellar, Luziane Zacché

    2014-09-01

    This article presents a bibliographical review of matrix support in mental health. A search was conducted in the Virtual Health Library and the LILACS, SciELO and Google Scholar databases using the key words: "matrix support in mental health." Fourteen articles were located with the desired characteristics, which indicates that only a restricted number of publications are in circulation. The articles were analyzed with respect to their structural and methodological aspects, which revealed the absolute predominance of the use of qualitative methods and health professionals as the target research population. The same articles were then analyzed for their theoretical discussions. Among other issues, the importance of matrix support to enhance the primary health care teams provided to people suffering from psychic distress is highlighted. However, there is still considerable confusion regarding the proposal of the matrix support and shared responsibilities between teams of reference and mental health professionals, which emphasizes the need for training of these professionals, as well as better coordination and organization of the mental health care network.

  15. Interactive bibliographical database on color

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caivano, Jose L.

    2002-06-01

    The paper describes the methodology and results of a project under development, aimed at the elaboration of an interactive bibliographical database on color in all fields of application: philosophy, psychology, semiotics, education, anthropology, physical and natural sciences, biology, medicine, technology, industry, architecture and design, arts, linguistics, geography, history. The project is initially based upon an already developed bibliography, published in different journals, updated in various opportunities, and now available at the Internet, with more than 2,000 entries. The interactive database will amplify that bibliography, incorporating hyperlinks and contents (indexes, abstracts, keywords, introductions, or eventually the complete document), and devising mechanisms for information retrieval. The sources to be included are: books, doctoral dissertations, multimedia publications, reference works. The main arrangement will be chronological, but the design of the database will allow rearrangements or selections by different fields: subject, Decimal Classification System, author, language, country, publisher, etc. A further project is to develop another database, including color-specialized journals or newsletters, and articles on color published in international journals, arranged in this case by journal name and date of publication, but allowing also rearrangements or selections by author, subject and keywords.

  16. Bibliographic Analysis of Nature Based on Twitter and Facebook Altmetrics Data.

    PubMed

    Xia, Feng; Su, Xiaoyan; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Chenxin; Ning, Zhaolong; Lee, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a bibliographic analysis of Nature articles based on altmetrics. We assess the concern degree of social users on the Nature articles through the coverage analysis of Twitter and Facebook by publication year and discipline. The social media impact of a Nature article is examined by evaluating the mention rates on Twitter and on Facebook. Moreover, the correlation between tweets and citations is analyzed by publication year, discipline and Twitter user type to explore factors affecting the correlation. The results show that Twitter users have a higher concern degree on Nature articles than Facebook users, and Nature articles have higher and faster-growing impact on Twitter than on Facebook. The results also show that tweets and citations are somewhat related, and they mostly measure different types of impact. In addition, the correlation between tweets and citations highly depends on publication year, discipline and Twitter user type.

  17. Bibliographic Analysis of Nature Based on Twitter and Facebook Altmetrics Data

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Feng; Su, Xiaoyan; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Chenxin; Ning, Zhaolong; Lee, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a bibliographic analysis of Nature articles based on altmetrics. We assess the concern degree of social users on the Nature articles through the coverage analysis of Twitter and Facebook by publication year and discipline. The social media impact of a Nature article is examined by evaluating the mention rates on Twitter and on Facebook. Moreover, the correlation between tweets and citations is analyzed by publication year, discipline and Twitter user type to explore factors affecting the correlation. The results show that Twitter users have a higher concern degree on Nature articles than Facebook users, and Nature articles have higher and faster-growing impact on Twitter than on Facebook. The results also show that tweets and citations are somewhat related, and they mostly measure different types of impact. In addition, the correlation between tweets and citations highly depends on publication year, discipline and Twitter user type. PMID:27906981

  18. John Shaw Billings as a Bibliographer

    PubMed Central

    Marson, Joyce

    1969-01-01

    The influences that a man's childhood have on his life are, it is well known, great. Life is essentially a part of the things that happen to the individual and it is the manner in which one relates oneself to these things that determines what one is. With these facts in mind this study of John Shaw Billings as a bibliographer has been approached. His early life has been reviewed as an influence on his later achievements. Stress has been placed on those events which led to his bibliographic activities. Dr. Billings was prolific in many fields. Others have given detailed analyses of his writings (1, 2). The present study will consider only his bibliographic works. The description of these follows the brief outline of his childhood and youth. PMID:4898628

  19. Bibliographic Instruction at Moraine Valley Community College: A Position Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Larry A.; And Others

    This paper presents a plan for implementing bibliographic instruction at Moraine Valley Community College in Palos Hills, Illinois. The definition and purpose of bibliographic instruction are reviewed, educational strategies in bibliographic instruction are discussed, and an implementation proposal is presented. The proposal describes three phases…

  20. An Introduction to Bibliographical Press Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, John V., Jr.

    This guide to the literature of bibliographical press work is comprised of brief introductory notes on the field and this bibliography, followed by citations listed in seven categories: (1) book production, (2) handmade paper, (3) printer's ink, (4) type design, (5) book design, (6) hand printing, and (7) hand bookbinding. Introductory as well as…

  1. Microcomputer Database Management Systems for Bibliographic Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollard, Richard

    1986-01-01

    Discusses criteria for evaluating microcomputer database management systems (DBMS) used for storage and retrieval of bibliographic data. Two popular types of microcomputer DBMS--file management systems and relational database management systems--are evaluated with respect to these criteria. (Author/MBR)

  2. Bibliographic Instruction for Adults with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norlin, Dennis A.

    Conducted as part of a practicum to be completed at the Champaign (Illinois) Public Library and Information Center, this study was designed to view the availability of appropriate bibliographic instruction for adults who are mentally retarded that will enhance both their ability to use library resources and equipment, and their desire to do so.…

  3. The Networking of Interactive Bibliographic Retrieval Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcus, Richard S.; Reintjes, J. Francis

    Research in networking of heterogeneous interactive bibliographic retrieval systems is being conducted which centers on the concept of a virtual retrieval system. Such a virtual system would be created through a translating computer interface that would provide access to the different retrieval systems and data bases in a uniform and convenient…

  4. Bibliographic Resources on Pacific/Asian Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Endo, Russell

    This bibliographic listing of sources on Pacific/Asian American groups provides titles of existing bibliographies and literature reviews. Over 100 entries are included in the document. Most of the entries were published during the 1970's, with a few dating from the late 1960's and several from 1980 and 1981. The objective is to offer researchers,…

  5. Bibliographic Records in an Online Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cossham, Amanda F.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The IFLA functional requirements for bibliographic records model has had a major impact on cataloguing principles and practices over the past fifteen years. This paper evaluates the model in the light of changes in the wider information environment (especially to information resources and retrieval) and in information seeking…

  6. The "New" Age: A Bibliographic Essay.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chandler, Daniel Ross

    This bibliographic essay describes and discusses important books in a variety of thematic areas associated with the New Age Movement, which is a distinctive communicative phenomenon characterized by unconventional beliefs and activities. The essay argues that the single subject pervading the peculiar phenomena and puzzling thoughtful critics is…

  7. Higher Education: A Bibliographic Handbook. Volume I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halstead, D. Kent, Ed.

    A bibliography of readings in higher education, which covers 1968-1981, deals with subjects generally approached from an aggregate state or national perspective. For each publication, the following bibliographic information is provided: title, author(s), publisher, and number of pages, and abstracts. Subject and author indexes are included. The…

  8. Electronic Resources: Selection and Bibliographic Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pattie, Ling-yuh W., Ed.; Cox, Bonnie Jean, Ed.

    This book is a baseline guide for professionals and library school students on issues that concern the selection and bibliographic control of electronic resources, from both conceptual and pragmatic standpoints. The book includes the following articles: (1) "Foreward" (Lois Mai Chan); (2) "Introduction" (Ling-yuh W. (Miko)…

  9. Major Bibliographic Tools of Political Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Thomas H., Comp.

    Designed to introduce the student to some of the major bibliographic tools of political science found in the Raymond H. Fogler Library of the University of Maine at Orono, this guide provides a systematic approach to information sources in the manner of a pathfinder. Beginning with a list of articles that are useful for defining scope, the guide…

  10. Online Petroleum Industry Bibliographic Databases: A Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Margaret B.

    This paper discusses the present status of the bibliographic database industry, reviews the development of online databases of interest to the petroleum industry, and considers future developments in online searching and their effect on libraries and information centers. Three groups of databases are described: (1) databases developed by the…

  11. BIBLIOGRAPHIC AND RESEARCH AIDS IN SOVIET STUDIES--A SUMMARY REPORT OF THE GREYSTON CONFERENCE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BUIST, ELEANOR

    IN AN ATTEMPT TO REVIEW THE CURRENT STATE OF LIBRARY AND BIBLIOGRAPHIC DEVELOPMENTS IN SOVIET STUDIES, TO ASSESS MAJOR DEFICIENCIES AND NEEDS, AND TO RECOMMEND NEW SOLUTIONS AND PROGRAMS FOR THE FUTURE, 40 ACADEMIC AND GOVERNMENT SPECIALISTS, LIBRARIANS, AND FOUNDATION OFFICIALS WERE BROUGHT TOGETHER IN A CONFERENCE IN NEW YORK IN NOVEMBER, 1966.…

  12. Modern Arabic Literature 1800-1970: A Bibliographical Survey of Works in English. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altoma, Salih J.

    This bibliographical survey of modern Arabic literature, 1800-1970, has two main purposes: (1) to assess the manner in which Arabic literature is received, viewed or evaluated in Western (primarily English) sources, and (2) to determine the gaps, points of emphasis or directions which characterize Western scholarship in the field. The 891 entries…

  13. A test strategy for the assessment of additive attributed toxicity of tobacco products.

    PubMed

    Kienhuis, Anne S; Staal, Yvonne C M; Soeteman-Hernández, Lya G; van de Nobelen, Suzanne; Talhout, Reinskje

    2016-08-01

    The new EU Tobacco Product Directive (TPD) prohibits tobacco products containing additives that are toxic in unburnt form or that increase overall toxicity of the product. This paper proposes a strategy to assess additive attributed toxicity in the context of the TPD. Literature was searched on toxicity testing strategies for regulatory purposes from tobacco industry and governmental institutes. Although mainly traditional in vivo testing strategies have been applied to assess toxicity of unburnt additives and increases in overall toxicity of tobacco products due to additives, in vitro tests combined with toxicogenomics and validated using biomarkers of exposure and disease are most promising in this respect. As such, tests are needed that are sensitive enough to assess additive attributed toxicity above the overall toxicity of tobacco products, which can associate assay outcomes to human risk and exposure. In conclusion, new, sensitive in vitro assays are needed to conclude whether comparable testing allows for assessment of small changes in overall toxicity attributed to additives. A more pragmatic approach for implementation on a short-term is mandated lowering of toxic emission components. Combined with risk assessment, this approach allows assessment of effectiveness of harm reduction strategies, including banning or reducing of additives.

  14. Using bibliographic databases in technology transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huffman, G. David

    1987-01-01

    When technology developed for a specific purpose is used in another application, the process is called technology transfer--the application of an existing technology to a new use or user for purposes other than those for which the technology was originally intended. Using Bibliographical Databases in Technology Transfer deals with demand-pull transfer, technology transfer that arises from need recognition, and is a guide for conducting demand-pull technology transfer studies. It can be used by a researcher as a self-teaching manual or by an instructor as a classroom text. A major problem of technology transfer is finding applicable technology to transfer. Described in detail is the solution to this problem, the use of computerized, bibliographic databases, which currently contain virtually all documented technology of the past 15 years. A general framework for locating technology is described. NASA technology organizations and private technology transfer firms are listed for consultation.

  15. "The Dose Makes the Poison": Informing Consumers About the Scientific Risk Assessment of Food Additives.

    PubMed

    Bearth, Angela; Cousin, Marie-Eve; Siegrist, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Intensive risk assessment is required before the approval of food additives. During this process, based on the toxicological principle of "the dose makes the poison,ˮ maximum usage doses are assessed. However, most consumers are not aware of these efforts to ensure the safety of food additives and are therefore sceptical, even though food additives bring certain benefits to consumers. This study investigated the effect of a short video, which explains the scientific risk assessment and regulation of food additives, on consumers' perceptions and acceptance of food additives. The primary goal of this study was to inform consumers and enable them to construct their own risk-benefit assessment and make informed decisions about food additives. The secondary goal was to investigate whether people have different perceptions of food additives of artificial (i.e., aspartame) or natural origin (i.e., steviolglycoside). To attain these research goals, an online experiment was conducted on 185 Swiss consumers. Participants were randomly assigned to either the experimental group, which was shown a video about the scientific risk assessment of food additives, or the control group, which was shown a video about a topic irrelevant to the study. After watching the video, the respondents knew significantly more, expressed more positive thoughts and feelings, had less risk perception, and more acceptance than prior to watching the video. Thus, it appears that informing consumers about complex food safety topics, such as the scientific risk assessment of food additives, is possible, and using a carefully developed information video is a successful strategy for informing consumers.

  16. Environmental Assessment: Building Addition Building 233 at Grand Forks AFB, North Dakota

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-03-22

    construction methods. With respect to construction, we have the following comments: 1. All necessary measures must be taken to minimize fugitive dust...scheduled in the area. In addition, we believe the proposed activities are consistent with the State Implementation Plan for the Control of Air...0527, Draft EA, Addition to Building 233, Grand Forks AFB, ND. Dear Ms. Durako: We have reviewed: Environmental Assessment: Building Addition

  17. Indiana Reading Diagnostic Assessment: Resource & Intervention Guide, Kindergarten. Additional Activities and Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indiana Department of Education, 2006

    2006-01-01

    The materials included in this manual are organized according to the Indiana's Kindergarten Academic Standards for English/Language Arts. In each section teachers will find: (1) Indiana's Kindergarten Academic Standards for English/Language Arts Assessments: Black Line Masters of diagnostic/practice pages for skill areas, checklists, and rubrics;…

  18. Environmental projects, volume 11. Environmental assessment: Addition to operations building, Mars site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    An Environmental Assessment was performed of the proposed addition to building G-86 at the Mars Site, which will provide space for new electronic equipment to consolidate the Deep Space Network (DSN) support facilities from other Goldstone Deep Space Communication Complex (GDSCC) sites at the Mars Site, and will include a fifth telemetry and command group with its associated link monitor, control processor, and operator consoles. The addition of these facilities will increase the capability of the DSN to support future sophisticated NASA spacecraft missions such as the International Solar and Terrestrial Physics (ISTP) Program. The planned construction of this building addition requires an Environmental Assessment (EA) document that records the existing environmental conditions at the Mars Site, that analyzes the environmental effects that possibly could be expected from the construction and use of the new building addition, and that recommends measures to be taken to mitigate any possible deleterious environmental effects.

  19. ENVIRONMENTAL LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT OF GASOLINE ALTERNATIVES: MTBE AND ETHANOL ADDITIVES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Currently, the U.S. is considering options for additives to reformulated gasoline. To inform this debate the U.S. EPA's Office of Research and Development is conducting a screening life cycle assessment (LCA) of three gasoline alternatives. These alternatives include gasoline w...

  20. Environmental Assessment for a Two-Story Addition to Building 503 -- Hydraulic Flight Controls Lean Transformation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-01

    The addition will be outfitted with state-of-the-art equipment and the repair process and layout will be transformed in accordance with lean ... manufacturing concepts. Following federal regulations, this Environmental Assessment (EA) has been designed and written to do the following: (1) provide the

  1. John Brown's Elementa Medicinae: An Introductory Bibliographical Essay *

    PubMed Central

    Overmier, Judith A.

    1982-01-01

    This Gottlieb essay reports the initial findings of an in-progress bibliographic study of the Elementa Medicinae of the eighteenth century Scottish physician, John Brown (1735-1788). The bibliographic history of each of the three pivotal London editions of 1788, 1795, and 1804 is described in detail; Mexican, German, and American editions are also described. Images PMID:7052167

  2. ARL Statement on Unlimited Use and Exchange of Bibliographic Records.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Research Libraries, Washington, DC.

    The Association of Research Libraries is fully committed to the principle of unrestricted access to and dissemination of ideas, i.e., member libraries must have unlimited access to the machine-readable bibliographic records which are created by member libraries and maintained in bibliographic utilities. Coordinated collection development programs…

  3. Bibliographic Instruction, Vermont Libraries. A Directory of Programs and Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson State Coll., VT.

    Compiled from survey forms distributed to bibliographic instruction librarians in academic and special libraries in the spring of 1987, this directory includes information on the bibliographic instruction programs and methods of 17 Vermont universities and colleges listed according to the following metropolitan areas: (1) Bennington (Southern…

  4. Faculty Culture and Bibliographic Instruction: An Exploratory Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardesty, Larry

    1995-01-01

    Examines the nature of faculty culture and how certain aspects of it impede bibliographic instruction efforts. It is suggested that continued initiatives by librarians to understand and to reach out to faculty are needed to increase widescale acceptance by faculty of bibliographic instruction. (Contains 126 references.) (Author/LRW)

  5. Next-Generation Bibliographic Manager: An Interview with Trevor Owens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, James L.; Owens, Trevor

    2008-01-01

    James Morrison's interview with Trevor Owens explores Zotero, a free, open-source bibliographic tool that works as a Firefox plug-in. Previous bibliographic software, such as EndNote or Refworks, worked either online or offline to collect references and citations. Zotero leverages the power of the browser to allow users to work either online or…

  6. Urban Studies: A Study of Bibliographic Access and Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Barbara E.

    This paper analyzes: (1) the bibliographic access to publications in urban studies via printed secondary sources; (2) development and scope of classification systems and of vocabulary control for urban studies; and (3) currently accessible automated collections of bibliographic citations. Urban studies is defined as "an agglomeration of…

  7. International Standards: The Road to Universal Bibliographic Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tate, Elizabeth L.

    1976-01-01

    The evolution of modern practices in bibliographic description is traced to provide a frame of reference for consideration of the new ISBD(M) International Standard Bibliographic Description for Monographic Publications. The origin and objectives of the standard are discussed, and the American experience in its application is reviewed. (Author)

  8. An Inventory of Methods for the Assessment of Additive Increased Addictiveness of Tobacco Products

    PubMed Central

    van de Nobelen, Suzanne; Kienhuis, Anne S.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Cigarettes and other forms of tobacco contain the addictive drug nicotine. Other components, either naturally occurring in tobacco or additives that are intentionally added during the manufacturing process, may add to the addictiveness of tobacco products. As such, these components can make cigarette smokers more easily and heavily dependent. Efforts to regulate tobacco product dependence are emerging globally. Additives that increase tobacco dependence will be prohibited under the new European Tobacco Product Directive. Objective: This article provides guidelines and recommendations for developing a regulatory strategy for assessment of increase in tobacco dependence due to additives. Relevant scientific literature is summarized and criteria and experimental studies that can define increased dependence of tobacco products are described. Conclusions: Natural tobacco smoke is a very complex matrix of components, therefore analysis of the contribution of an additive or a combination of additives to the level of dependence on this product is challenging. We propose to combine different type of studies analyzing overall tobacco product dependence potential and the functioning of additives in relation to nicotine. By using a combination of techniques, changes associated with nicotine dependence such as behavioral, physiological, and neurochemical alterations can be examined to provide sufficient information. Research needs and knowledge gaps will be discussed and recommendations will be made to translate current knowledge into legislation. As such, this article aids in implementation of the Tobacco Product Directive, as well as help enable regulators and researchers worldwide to develop standards to reduce dependence on tobacco products. Implications: This article provides an overall view on how to assess tobacco product constituents for their potential contribution to use and dependence. It provides guidelines that help enable regulators worldwide to

  9. On-line access to geoscience bibliographic citations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wild, Emily C.

    2012-01-01

    On-line geoscience bibliographic citations and access points to citations are exponentially increasing as commercial, non-profit, and government agencies worldwide publish materials electronically. On-line bibliographic tools capture cited works, and open access content allows for freely obtained citations and documents. For this newsletter, citations from the numerous journals and books listed in the "Recent Papers" section of the EXPLORE newsletters from 2008-2011 were used to provide freely-accessible web sites to determine the availability of bibliographic information.

  10. Risk assessment of nitrate and oxytetracycline addition on coastal ecosystem functions.

    PubMed

    Feng-Jiao, Liu; Shun-Xing, Li; Feng-Ying, Zheng; Xu-Guang, Huang; Yue-Gang, Zuo; Teng-Xiu, Tu; Xue-Qing, Wu

    2014-01-01

    Diatoms dominate phytoplankton communities in the well-mixed coastal and upwelling regions. Coastal diatoms are often exposed to both aquaculture pollution and eutrophication. But how these exposures influence on coastal ecosystem functions are unknown. To examine these influences, a coastal centric diatom, Conticribra weissflogii was maintained at different concentrations of nitrate (N) and/or oxytetracycline (OTC). Algal density, cell growth cycle, protein, chlorophyll a, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, and malonaldehyde (MDA) were determined for the assessment of algal biomass, lifetime, nutritional value, photosynthesis and respiration, antioxidant capacity, and lipid peroxidation, respectively. When N addition was combined with OTC pollution, the cell growth cycles were shortened by 56-73%; algal density, SOD activities, the concentrations of chlorophyll a, protein, and MDA varied between 73 and 121%, 19 and 397%, 52 and 693%, 19 and 875%, and 66 and 2733% of the values observed in N addition experiments, respectively. According to P-value analysis, the influence of OTC on algal density and SOD activity was not significant, but the effect on cell growth cycle, protein, chlorophyll a, and MDA were significant (P<0.05). The influence of N addition with simultaneous OTC pollution on the above six end points was significant. Algal biomass, lifetime, nutrition, antioxidant capacity, lipid peroxidation, photosynthesis, and respiration were all affected by the addition of OTC and N. Coastal ecosystem functions were severely affected by N and OTC additions, and the influence was increased in the order: Nassessment of aquaculture pollution on coastal ecosystem functions.

  11. Who, What, Where and When! The Bibliographical Control of the Literature of Librarianship and Information Science (LOLIS) in Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasmussen, Radha

    1987-01-01

    Describes an investigation that assessed the effectiveness of Australian indexing and abstracting services in their bibliographic control of the literature of library and information science. Conclusions about the coverage of the literature are presented, and methods for improvement are suggested. (CLB)

  12. Ionic liquids as lubricants or lubrication additives: an ecotoxicity and biodegradability assessment.

    PubMed

    Stolte, Stefan; Steudte, Stephanie; Areitioaurtena, Olatz; Pagano, Francesco; Thöming, Jorg; Stepnowski, Piotr; Igartua, Amaya

    2012-11-01

    This paper reports on the (eco)toxicity and biodegradability of ionic liquids considered for application as lubricants or lubrication additives. Ammonium- and pyrrolidinium-based cations combined with methylsulphate, methylsulphonate and/or (CF(3)SO(2))(2)N(-) anions were investigated in tests to determine their aquatic toxicity using water fleas Daphnia magna, green algae Selenastrum capricornutum and marine bacteria (Vibrio fischeri). Additional test systems with an isolated enzyme (acetylcholinesterase) and isolated leukaemia cells from rats (IPC-81) were used to assess the biological activity of the ionic liquids. These compounds generally exhibit low acute toxicity and biological activity. Their biodegradability was screened according to OECD test procedures 301 B and 301 F. For choline and methoxy-choline ionic liquids ready biodegradability was observed within 5 or 10 d, respectively. Some of the compounds selected have a considerable potential to contribute to the development of more sustainable products and processes.

  13. Thermal imaging for assessment of electron-beam freeform fabrication (EBF3) additive manufacturing deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zalameda, Joseph N.; Burke, Eric R.; Hafley, Robert A.; Taminger, Karen M.; Domack, Christopher S.; Brewer, Amy; Martin, Richard E.

    2013-05-01

    Additive manufacturing is a rapidly growing field where 3-dimensional parts can be produced layer by layer. NASA's electron beam freeform fabrication (EBF3) technology is being evaluated to manufacture metallic parts in a space environment. The benefits of EBF3 technology are weight savings to support space missions, rapid prototyping in a zero gravity environment, and improved vehicle readiness. The EBF3 system is composed of 3 main components: electron beam gun, multi-axis position system, and metallic wire feeder. The electron beam is used to melt the wire and the multi-axis positioning system is used to build the part layer by layer. To insure a quality deposit, a near infrared (NIR) camera is used to image the melt pool and solidification areas. This paper describes the calibration and application of a NIR camera for temperature measurement. In addition, image processing techniques are presented for deposit assessment metrics.

  14. Bibliographic Control of Serial Publications: ISDS and ISBD(S)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bouffez, F.; Grousseaud, A.

    1978-01-01

    A comparison of the International Serials Data System within the UNISIST framework to the IFLA sponsored International Standard Bibliographic Description draws attention to the complementary nature of the two systems. (Author/JAB)

  15. [Requirements for drug approval and additional benefits assessment: Regulatory aspects and experiences].

    PubMed

    Broich, K; Löbker, W; Schulte, A; Beinlich, P; Müller, T

    2016-04-01

    The early assessment of benefits of newly approved drugs with novel active substances or new applications, which came into force on 1 January 2011 still represents a challenge to all parties involved. This article highlights the definitions, regulatory requirements and interaction between drug marketing approval and early assessment of benefits in Germany. The constellation of an extensively harmonized European and even international drug authorization process with a predominantly national regulation of drug reimbursement situation inevitably causes friction, which could be markedly reduced through early joint advisory discussions during the planning phase for pivotal clinical trials. During the year 2015 the Federal Institute for Drugs and Medical Devices (BfArM) carried out 300 scientific advice procedures of which 34 were concerned with applications in the field of indications for the central nervous system (CNS). In comparison 98 advisory meetings were held by the Federal Joint Committee (G-BA) of which the BfArM provided advice in 12 instances and in 2 cases on CNS indications. Study design, endpoints and appropriate comparative therapies are the key issues in exchanges and discussions between the BfArM, the G‑BA and applicants. Under these aspects the BfArM and G‑BA promote an early and consistent involvement in early advice procedures regarding the prerequisites for drug approval and assessment of additional benefits.

  16. Risk assessment of additives through soft drinks and nectars consumption on Portuguese population: a 2010 survey.

    PubMed

    Diogo, Janina S G; Silva, Liliana S O; Pena, Angelina; Lino, Celeste M

    2013-12-01

    This study investigated whether the Portuguese population is at risk of exceeding ADI levels for acesulfame-K, saccharin, aspartame, caffeine, benzoic and sorbic acid through an assessment of dietary intake of additives and specific consumption of four types of beverages, traditional soft drinks and soft drinks based on mineral waters, energetic drinks, and nectars. The highest mean levels of additives were found for caffeine in energetic drinks, 293.5mg/L, for saccharin in traditional soft drinks, 18.4 mg/L, for acesulfame-K and aspartame in nectars, with 88.2 and 97.8 mg/L, respectively, for benzoic acid in traditional soft drinks, 125.7 mg/L, and for sorbic acid in soft drinks based on mineral water, 166.5 mg/L. Traditional soft drinks presented the highest acceptable daily intake percentages (ADIs%) for acesulfame-K, aspartame, benzoic and sorbic acid and similar value for saccharin (0.5%) when compared with soft drinks based on mineral water, 0.7%, 0.08%, 7.3%, and 1.92% versus 0.2%, 0.053%, 0.6%, and 0.28%, respectively. However for saccharin the highest percentage of ADI was obtained for nectars, 0.9%, in comparison with both types of soft drinks, 0.5%. Therefore, it is concluded that the Portuguese population is not at risk of exceeding the established ADIs for the studied additives.

  17. [Post operatory blood recuperators; bibliographical review].

    PubMed

    Romero Ruiz, Adolfo; Muñoz Gómez, Manuel

    2009-12-01

    The authors presented this report at the Apheresis Workshop at the Mexican Congress on Transfusions. VI Annual Congress AMMTAC in Monterrey, Nuevo León district. The use of post operatory recuperators, especially in orthopedic surgery is a habitual practice nowadays. Nurses play a special role in their handling and use; therefore, the authors comment on the reasons why these devices should be used. The authors also state different scientific evidence, based on a bibliographical review regarding the effectiveness of these systems, their utility, their product quality, their cost benefit, and the absence of undesirable effects. The authors conclude that there is a determined patient profile for when a patient benefits from the use of these devices. After some years of high use, at present times, there has been a reduction in using these devices due to, firstly the pre-surgical use of hematin agents, and secondly due to the development of certain less invasive surgical techniques. In spite of this, this procedure has proven to be cost effective. Nurses have an important role in the handling and use of these instruments which, combined with other measures such as the use of hemoglobin analysis devices at the head of a patient's bed, can contribute to an improved management of transfusion requirements.

  18. Bibliographical review for reflectance of diffusing media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Philips-Invernizzi, Bernadette; Dupont, Daniel; Caze, Claude

    2001-06-01

    When light travels through a diffusing medium, the incident radiation is scattered and a part of it is reemitted. The reflected proportion is defined as the reflectance and provides the quantification of color sensations. Many authors have tried to derive reflectance values by various means. This bibliographical synthesis reviews the main theories on the subject, comparing them and especially their assumptions and derivations. First, the widely used theory of Kubelka and Munk--which has been proved to be a particular case of Schuster's formula-- is described, according to its terms, limits, improvements, and applications. Next, the well-known electromagnetic approach by Mie is presented, along with methods derived from radiative transfer theory, multilayer methods (the `pile of plates' due to Stokes), multiflux methods (developed by Mudgett and Richards or Volz for instance), and the corpuscular treatment proposed by Silvy. Finally, new methods are listed that allow the calculation of reflectance values, such as Monte Carlo simulations, expert systems, or neural networks. A chronological organization chart is also given to place each work or advance relative to the others.

  19. Assessment of the climate commitments and additional mitigation policies of the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenblatt, Jeffery B.; Wei, Max

    2016-12-01

    Current intended nationally determined contributions (INDCs) are insufficient to meet the Paris Agreement goal of limiting temperature change to between 1.5 and 2.0 °C above pre-industrial levels, so the effectiveness of existing INDCs will be crucial to further progress. Here we assess the likely range of US greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in 2025 and whether the US’s INDC can be met, on the basis of updated historical and projected estimates. We group US INDC policies into three categories reflecting potential future policies, and model 17 policies across these categories. With all modelled policies included, the upper end of the uncertainty range overlaps with the 2025 INDC target, but the required reductions are not achieved using reference values. Even if all modelled policies are implemented, additional GHG reduction is probably required; we discuss several potential policies.

  20. MULTIPROCESSOR AND DISTRIBUTED PROCESSING BIBLIOGRAPHIC DATA BASE SOFTWARE SYSTEM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miya, E. N.

    1994-01-01

    Multiprocessors and distributed processing are undergoing increased scientific scrutiny for many reasons. It is more and more difficult to keep track of the existing research in these fields. This package consists of a large machine-readable bibliographic data base which, in addition to the usual keyword searches, can be used for producing citations, indexes, and cross-references. The data base is compiled from smaller existing multiprocessing bibliographies, and tables of contents from journals and significant conferences. There are approximately 4,000 entries covering topics such as parallel and vector processing, networks, supercomputers, fault-tolerant computers, and cellular automata. Each entry is represented by 21 fields including keywords, author, referencing book or journal title, volume and page number, and date and city of publication. The data base contains UNIX 'refer' formatted ASCII data and can be implemented on any computer running under the UNIX operating system. The data base requires approximately one megabyte of secondary storage. The documentation for this program is included with the distribution tape, although it can be purchased for the price below. This bibliography was compiled in 1985 and updated in 1988.

  1. Aquatic toxicity assessment of the additive 6-methylcoumarine using four experimental systems.

    PubMed

    Jos, A; Repetto, G; Ríos, J C; Del Peso, A; Salguero, M; Cameán, A M

    2009-01-01

    The toxicity assessment of chemicals is one of the main issues in the current policies in order to protect the health of the environment and human beings. Food and cosmetic additives have been extensively studied in relation to their toxicity to humans, but data about their ecotoxicological effects are scarce. The aim of this study was to evaluate the toxic effects of the additive 6-methylcoumarine in the aquatic milieu using a test battery comprising experimental model systems from different trophic levels. The inhibition of bioluminiscence was studied in the bacteria Vibrio fischeri (decomposer), the inhibition of growth was evaluated in the alga Chlorella vulgaris (producer) and immobilization was studied in the cladoceran Daphnia magna (first consumer). Finally, several end points were evaluated in the RTG-2 salmonid fish cell line, including neutral red uptake, protein content, methylthiazol tetrazolium salt metabolization, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity, lactate dehydrogenase activity and leakage, and morphology. The sensitivity of the test systems employed was as follows: V. fischeri > D. magna > C. vulgaris > RTG-2 cell line. The results show that 6-methylcoumarine is not expected to produce acute toxic effects on the aquatic biota. However, chronic and synergistic effects with other chemicals cannot be excluded and should be further investigated.

  2. Critical review of the safety assessment of nano-structured silica additives in food.

    PubMed

    Winkler, Hans Christian; Suter, Mark; Naegeli, Hanspeter

    2016-06-10

    The development of nano-materials is viewed as one of the most important technological advances of the 21st century and new applications of nano-sized particles in the production, processing, packaging or storage of food are expected to emerge soon. This trend of growing commercialization of engineered nano-particles as part of modern diet will substantially increase oral exposure. Contrary to the proven benefits of nano-materials, however, possible adverse health effects have generally received less attention. This problem is very well illustrated by nano-structured synthetic amorphous silica (SAS), which is a common food additive since several decades although the relevant risk assessment has never been satisfactorily completed. A no observed adverse effect level of 2500 mg SAS particles/kg body weight per day was derived from the only available long-term administration study in rodents. However, extrapolation to a safe daily intake for humans is problematic due to limitations of this chronic animal study and knowledge gaps as to possible local intestinal effects of SAS particles, primarily on the gut-associated lymphoid system. This uncertainty is aggravated by digestion experiments indicating that dietary SAS particles preserve their nano-sized structure when reaching the intestinal lumen. An important aspect is whether food-borne particles like SAS alter the function of dendritic cells that, embedded in the intestinal mucosa, act as first-line sentinels of foreign materials. We conclude that nano-particles do not represent a completely new threat and that most potential risks can be assessed following procedures established for conventional chemical hazards. However, specific properties of food-borne nano-particles should be further examined and, for that purpose, in vitro tests with decision-making cells of the immune system are needed to complement existing in vivo studies.

  3. Genetic Assessment of Additional Endophenotypes from the Consortium on the Genetics of Schizophrenia Family Study

    PubMed Central

    Greenwood, Tiffany A.; Lazzeroni, Laura C.; Calkins, Monica E.; Freedman, Robert; Green, Michael F.; Gur, Raquel E.; Gur, Ruben C.; Light, Gregory A.; Nuechterlein, Keith H.; Olincy, Ann; Radant, Allen D.; Seidman, Larry J.; Siever, Larry J.; Silverman, Jeremy M.; Stone, William S.; Sugar, Catherine A.; Swerdlow, Neal R.; Tsuang, Debby W.; Tsuang, Ming T.; Turetsky, Bruce I.; Braff, David L.

    2015-01-01

    The Consortium on the Genetics of Schizophrenia Family Study (COGS-1) has previously reported our efforts to characterize the genetic architecture of 12 primary endophenotypes for schizophrenia. We now report the characterization of 13 additional measures derived from the same endophenotype test paradigms in the COGS-1 families. Nine of the measures were found to discriminate between schizophrenia patients and controls, were significantly heritable (31 to 62%), and were sufficiently independent of previously assessed endophenotypes, demonstrating utility as additional endophenotypes. Genotyping via a custom array of 1536 SNPs from 94 candidate genes identified associations for CTNNA2, ERBB4, GRID1, GRID2, GRIK3, GRIK4, GRIN2B, NOS1AP, NRG1, and RELN across multiple endophenotypes. An experiment-wide p value of 0.003 suggested that the associations across all SNPs and endophenotypes collectively exceeded chance. Linkage analyses performed using a genome-wide SNP array further identified significant or suggestive linkage for six of the candidate endophenotypes, with several genes of interest located beneath the linkage peaks (e.g., CSMD1, DISC1, DLGAP2, GRIK2, GRIN3A, and SLC6A3). While the partial convergence of the association and linkage likely reflects differences in density of gene coverage provided by the distinct genotyping platforms, it is also likely an indication of the differential contribution of rare and common variants for some genes and methodological differences in detection ability. Still, many of the genes implicated by COGS through endophenotypes have been identified by independent studies of common, rare, and de novo variation in schizophrenia, all converging on a functional genetic network related to glutamatergic neurotransmission that warrants further investigation. PMID:26597662

  4. Risk assessment for the combinational effects of food color additives: neural progenitor cells and hippocampal neurogenesis.

    PubMed

    Park, Mikyung; Park, Hee Ra; Kim, So Jung; Kim, Min-Sun; Kong, Kyoung Hye; Kim, Hyun Soo; Gong, Ein Ji; Kim, Mi Eun; Kim, Hyung Sik; Lee, Byung Mu; Lee, Jaewon

    2009-01-01

    In 2006, the Korea Food and Drug Administration reported that combinations of dietary colors such as allura red AC (R40), tartrazine (Y4), sunset yellow FCF (Y5), amaranth (R2), and brilliant blue FCF (B1) are widely used in food manufacturing. Although individual tar food colors are controlled based on acceptable daily intake (ADI), there is no apparent information available for how combinations of these additives affect food safety. In the current study, the potencies of single and combination use of R40, Y4, Y5, R2, and B1 were examined on neural progenitor cell (NPC) toxicity, a biomarker for developmental stage, and neurogenesis, indicative of adult central nervous system (CNS) functions. R40 and R2 reduced NPC proliferation and viability in mouse multipotent NPC, in the developing CNS model. Among several combinations tested in mouse model, combination of Y4 and B1 at 1000-fold higher than average daily intake in Korea significantly decreased numbers of newly generated cells in adult mouse hippocampus, indicating potent adverse actions on hippocampal neurogenesis. However, other combinations including R40 and R2 did not affect adult hippocampal neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus. Evidence indicates that single and combination use of most tar food colors may be safe with respect to risk using developmental NPC and adult hippocampal neurogenesis. However, the response to excessively high dose combination of Y4 and B1 is suggestive of synergistic effects to suppress proliferation of NPC in adult hippocampus. Data indicated that combinations of tar colors may adversely affect both developmental and adult hippocampal neurogenesis; thus, further extensive studies are required to assess the safety of these additive combinations.

  5. Toxicological safety assessment of genetically modified Bacillus thuringiensis with additional N-acyl homoserine lactonase gene.

    PubMed

    Peng, Donghai; Zhou, Chenfei; Chen, Shouwen; Ruan, Lifang; Yu, Ziniu; Sun, Ming

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to evaluate the toxicology safety to mammals of a genetically modified (GM) Bacillus thuringiensis with an additional N-acyl homoserine lactones gene (aiiA), which possesses insecticidal activity together with restraint of bacterial pathogenicity and is intended for use as a multifunctional biopesticide. Safety assessments included an acute oral toxicity test and 28-d animal feeding study in Wistar rats, primary eye and dermal irritation in Zealand White rabbits, and delayed contact hypersensitivity in guinea pigs. Tests were conducted using spray-dried powder preparation. This GM product showed toxicity neither in oral acute toxicity test nor in 28-d animal feeding test at a dose of 5,000 mg/kg body weight. During the animal feeding test, there were no significant differences in growth, food and water consumption, hematology, blood biochemical indices, organ weights, and histopathology finding between rats in controls and tested groups. Tested animals in primary eye and dermal irritation and delayed contact hypersensitivity test were also devoid of any toxicity compared to controls. All the above results demonstrated that the GM based multifunctional B. thuringiensis has low toxicity and low eye and dermal irritation and would not cause hypersensitivity to laboratory mammals and therefore could be regarded as safe for use as a pesticide.

  6. Automatic Extraction and Resolution of Bibliographical References in Patent Documents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez, Patrice

    This paper describes experiments with Conditional Random Fields (CRF) for extracting bibliographical references in patent documents. CRF are used for performing extraction and parsing tasks which are expressed as sequence tagging problems. The automatic recognition covers references to other patent documents and to scholarship publications which are both characterized by a strong variability of contexts and patterns. Our work is not limited to the extraction of reference blocks but also includes fine-grained parsing and the resolution of the bibliographical references based on data normalization and the access to different online bibliographical services. For these different tasks, CRF models surpass significantly existing rule-based algorithms and other machine learning techniques, resulting more particularly in a very high performance for patent reference extractions with a reduction of approx. 75% of the error rate compared to previous works.

  7. Automated labeling of bibliographic data extracted from biomedical online journals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jongwoo; Le, Daniel X.; Thoma, George R.

    2003-01-01

    A prototype system has been designed to automate the extraction of bibliographic data (e.g., article title, authors, abstract, affiliation and others) from online biomedical journals to populate the National Library of Medicine"s MEDLINE database. This paper describes a key module in this system: the labeling module that employs statistics and fuzzy rule-based algorithms to identify segmented zones in an article"s HTML pages as specific bibliographic data. Results from experiments conducted with 1,149 medical articles from forty-seven journal issues are presented.

  8. Effects of aircraft noise and sonic booms on domestic animals and wildlife: bibliographic abstracts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gladwin, Douglas N.; Manci, Karen M.; Villella, Rita

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide an information base on the effects of aircraft noise and sonic booms on various animal species. Such information is necessary to assess potential impacts to wildlife populations from proposed military and other flight operations. To develop this document the National Ecology Center conducted a literature search of information pertaining to animals and wildlife. Information concerning other types of noise was also gathered to supplement the lack of knowledge on the effects of aircraft noise. The bibliographic abstracts in this report provide a compilation of current knowledge. No attempt was made to evaluate the appropriateness or adequacy of the scientific approach of each study.

  9. Script Conversion and Bibliographic Control of Documents in Dissimilar Scripts: Problems and Alternatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wellisch, Hans H.

    1978-01-01

    Describes the numerous and profound problems with accepting Romanization as the sole means for universal bibliographic control, and suggests that some numerical system like the ISBN numbers might evolve to secure better bibliographic control of dissimilar scripts. (Author/VT)

  10. Multinomial additive hazard model to assess the disability burden using cross-sectional data.

    PubMed

    Yokota, Renata T C; Van Oyen, Herman; Looman, Caspar W N; Nusselder, Wilma J; Otava, Martin; Kifle, Yimer Wasihun; Molenberghs, Geert

    2017-03-23

    Population aging is accompanied by the burden of chronic diseases and disability. Chronic diseases are among the main causes of disability, which is associated with poor quality of life and high health care costs in the elderly. The identification of which chronic diseases contribute most to the disability prevalence is important to reduce the burden. Although longitudinal studies can be considered the gold standard to assess the causes of disability, they are costly and often with restricted sample size. Thus, the use of cross-sectional data under certain assumptions has become a popular alternative. Among the existing methods based on cross-sectional data, the attribution method, which was originally developed for binary disability outcomes, is an attractive option, as it enables the partition of disability into the additive contribution of chronic diseases, taking into account multimorbidity and that disability can be present even in the absence of disease. In this paper, we propose an extension of the attribution method to multinomial responses, since disability is often measured as a multicategory variable in most surveys, representing different severity levels. The R function constrOptim is used to maximize the multinomial log-likelihood function subject to a linear inequality constraint. Our simulation study indicates overall good performance of the model, without convergence problems. However, the model must be used with care for populations with low marginal disability probabilities and with high sum of conditional probabilities, especially with small sample size. For illustration, we apply the model to the data of the Belgian Health Interview Surveys.

  11. The Facial Aesthetic index: An additional tool for assessing treatment need

    PubMed Central

    Sundareswaran, Shobha; Ramakrishnan, Ranjith

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Facial Aesthetics, a major consideration in orthodontic diagnosis and treatment planning, may not be judged correctly and completely by simply analyzing dental occlusion or osseous structures. Despite this importance, there is no index to guarantee availability of treatment or prioritize patients based on their soft tissue treatment needs. Individuals having well-aligned teeth but unaesthetic convex profiles do not get included for treatment as per current malocclusion indices. The aim of this investigation is to develop an aesthetic index based on facial profiles which could be used as an additional tool with malocclusion indices. Materials and Methods: A chart showing typical facial profile changes due to underlying malocclusions was generated by soft tissue manipulations of standardized profile photographs of a well-balanced male and female face. A panel of 62 orthodontists judged the profile photographs of 100 patients with different soft tissue patterns for assessing profile variations and treatment need. The index was later tested in a cross-section of school population. Statistical analysis was done using “irr” package of R environment version 2.15.1. Results: The index exhibited very good reliability in determining profile variations (Fleiss kappa 0.866, P < 0.001), excellent reproducibility (kappa 0.9078), high sensitivity, and specificity (95.7%). Testing in population yielded excellent agreement among orthodontists (kappa 0.9286). Conclusions: A new Facial Aesthetic index, based on patient's soft tissue profile requirements is proposed, which can complement existing indices to ensure treatment to those in need. PMID:27127752

  12. Standard generalized markup language: A guide for transmitting encoded bibliographic records

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    This document provides the guidance necessary to transmit to DOE`s Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) an encoded bibliographic record that conforms to International Standard ISO 8879, Information Processing -- Text and office systems -- Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML). Included in this document are element and attribute tag definitions, sample bibliographic records, the bibliographic document type definition, and instructions on how to transmit a bibliographic record electronically to OSTI.

  13. Subject keywords index for the Carbon Dioxide Information Center's Bibliographic Information System

    SciTech Connect

    Millemann, R.E.; Cushman, R.M.

    1986-10-01

    Keywords (descriptors) are listed that are used to retrieve records from the Carbon Dioxide Information Center's Bibliographic Information System, which is a computerized data base of about 8,600 records on the carbon cycle, effects of atmospheric carbon dioxide on vegetation, climatology (especially as affected by carbon dioxide), and effects of climated on sea level and natural resources (e.g., agriculture, water resources, forestry, ecology, fisheries, and human health). The list of keyworks may be expanded in the future as additional descriptors are needed.

  14. Comparative Study on the Handling of Serials by ISDS Centres and National Bibliographic Agencies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bouffez, Francoise; Grousseaud, Annette

    A survey was conducted in July 1977 of 38 Centers of International Serials Data System (ISDS) and of national bibliographic agencies or comparable bodies in the same countries to study the various aspects of the identification and description of standardized bibliographic data by the ISDS and the International Standard Bibliographic Description…

  15. Africa Bibliographic Centre (ABC): An Experiment in African Documentation and Library Resource Sharing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mascarenhas, O. C.

    This description of the Africa Bibliographic Centre (ABC) concept--which is still in a formative stage--provides brief summaries of the 12 components of the system, including an African lending library, bibliographic publishing, a commission on information and bibliographic systems, an African microfiche publications center, African abstracting…

  16. 42 CFR 4.6 - Reference, bibliographic, reproduction, and consultation services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reference, bibliographic, reproduction, and... SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE § 4.6 Reference, bibliographic, reproduction, and... request, reference, bibliographic, reproduction, and consultation services. Priority will be given...

  17. 42 CFR 4.6 - Reference, bibliographic, reproduction, and consultation services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Reference, bibliographic, reproduction, and... SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE § 4.6 Reference, bibliographic, reproduction, and... request, reference, bibliographic, reproduction, and consultation services. Priority will be given...

  18. 42 CFR 4.6 - Reference, bibliographic, reproduction, and consultation services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Reference, bibliographic, reproduction, and... SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE § 4.6 Reference, bibliographic, reproduction, and... request, reference, bibliographic, reproduction, and consultation services. Priority will be given...

  19. 42 CFR 4.6 - Reference, bibliographic, reproduction, and consultation services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Reference, bibliographic, reproduction, and... SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE § 4.6 Reference, bibliographic, reproduction, and... request, reference, bibliographic, reproduction, and consultation services. Priority will be given...

  20. 42 CFR 4.6 - Reference, bibliographic, reproduction, and consultation services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Reference, bibliographic, reproduction, and... SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE § 4.6 Reference, bibliographic, reproduction, and... request, reference, bibliographic, reproduction, and consultation services. Priority will be given...

  1. Better Information Management Policies Needed: A Study of Scientific and Technical Bibliographic Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comptroller General of the U.S., Washington, DC.

    This report discusses the management of scientific and technical bibliographic data bases by the Federal Government, the existence of overlapping and duplicative bibliographic information services, the application of cost recovery principles to bibliographic information services, and the need to manage information as a resource. Questionnaires…

  2. Bibliographic Indexes to Periodical Literature in the Romance Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Llorens, Ana M. R.

    1976-01-01

    This is a general, descriptive survey of some of the most important and most specialized bibliographic indexes to periodical literature in the Romance languages. The annotated list includes seven categories: General, French, Italian, Portuguese, Spanish, Special Subjects and Books and Sets. (CHK)

  3. Facebook: A Bibliographic Analysis of the PsycINFO Database

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piotrowski, Chris

    2012-01-01

    With the advent of rapidly emerging technologies, researchers need to be cognizant of developments and applications in the area of social media as a topic of investigatory interest. To date, scholarly research on the topic of Facebook, a ubiquitous social media site, is rather extensive. This study on Facebook, using a bibliographic content…

  4. Cataloguing and Classification Section. Bibliographic Control Division. Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Federation of Library Associations, The Hague (Netherlands).

    Papers on cataloging, classification, and coding systems which were presented at the 1982 International Federation of Library Associations (IFLA) conference include: (1) "Numbering and Coding Systems for Bibliographic Control in Use in North America" by Lois Mai Chan (United States); (2) "A Project Undertaken by the Library of…

  5. Integrating End-User Searching into a Bibliographic Instruction Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penhale, Sara J.; Taylor, Nancy

    1986-01-01

    Describes results of several studies which led to integration of end-user searching using BRS/After Dark in the bibliographic instruction program at Earlham College (Indiana). These studies compared results and patterns of online searches by students and librarians, as well as online and manual searches by students. Student opinions were also…

  6. Bibliographic Instruction in ARL Libraries. SPEC Kit 121.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmad, Carol F.

    This Systems and Procedures Exchange Center (SPEC) kit on Bibliographic Instruction (BI) in Association of Research Libraries (ARL) examines current developments as well as anticipated trends based on a SPEC telephone survey of 25 ARL libraries with active BI programs. Two themes which ran through the mid-1985 interviews were the use of new…

  7. Syndicating Rich Bibliographic Metadata Using MODS and RSS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashton, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    Many libraries use RSS to syndicate information about their collections to users. A survey of 65 academic libraries revealed their most common use for RSS is to disseminate information about library holdings, such as lists of new acquisitions. Even though typical RSS feeds are ill suited to the task of carrying rich bibliographic metadata, great…

  8. Bibliographic Instruction Programs in Louisiana Academic Libraries. A Directory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dantin, Doris B., Comp.

    A survey of 33 academic libraries in Louisiana was conducted in the spring of 1983 to determine the techniques used during the 1981/82 academic year to impart bibliographic or library instruction to students and faculty. A total of 27 responses were received. It was found that all but five of the respondents had a library instruction program; the…

  9. Bibliographic Instruction: Defining, Organizing, and Promoting a Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardesty, Larry

    This basic discussion of the organization of bibliographic instruction programs in an academic setting includes consideration of factors involved in implementing an innovative program. Several stages in developing and organizing a systematic program are reviewed: creating student awareness of the academic library in general, introduction to use of…

  10. Thoughts on the History and Future of Bibliographical Description.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foxon, David F.

    The first part of this paper traces the historical origins of two current practices of bibliographical description. There is a general lack of historical knowledge of the origins of modern practice as well as an absence of rational justification which is exemplified by today's use of quasi-facsimile transcription to represent title pages. The…

  11. The Effects of Linking Bibliographic Utilities: A Progress Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    And Others; Kovacs, Gabor J.

    1980-01-01

    Summarizes results of a project which analyzed data for decisions concerning linking; i.e., whether and how to link utilities in order to pool bibliographic resources. Benefits and problems of links for cataloging, interlibrary loan, and online reference are discussed. A cost-revenue model which analyzes alternatives for linking is presented. (SW)

  12. Classified Bibliography on Bibliographic Data Base Interaction, Compatibility and Standardization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landau, H.B.

    This is the third in a series of eight reports of a research study for the National Agricultural Library (NAL) on the effective utilization of bibliographic data bases in machine-readable form. It consists of about 750 references collected to provide background data for the seven technical tasks of the study. The bibliography is set up to…

  13. In Search of Bibliographic Control for Instructional Motion Picture Films.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coover, Robert W.

    This historical study report describes phases in the development of applicable standards for cataloging instructional motion picture films. Steps leading to the present state of the art are objectively presented, focusing on standards developed to establish bibliographic control of instructional motion picture films, contemporary reaction to such…

  14. Two Medical Literatures That Are Logically But Not Bibliographically Connected.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, Don R.

    1987-01-01

    Describes a study which demonstrates that unintended logical connections within scientific literature, which potentially reveal new knowledge, are unmarked by reference citations or other bibliographic clues. Citation analysis of two separate literatures in biomedicine that have a logical link is used to support this hypothesis. (Author/CLB)

  15. Common Bibliographic Standards for Baylor University Libraries. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Sharon; And Others

    Developed by a Baylor University (Texas) Task Force, the revised policies of bibliographic standards for the university libraries provide formats for: (1) archives and manuscript control; (2) audiovisual media; (3) books; (4) machine-readable data files; (5) maps; (6) music scores; (7) serials; and (8) sound recordings. The task force assumptions…

  16. Communication in a Diverse Classroom: An Annotated Bibliographic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Rachelle

    2016-01-01

    Students have social and personal needs to fulfill and communicate these needs in different ways. This annotated bibliographic review examined communication studies to provide educators of diverse classrooms with ideas to build an environment that contributes to student well-being. Participants in the studies ranged in age, ability, and cultural…

  17. Guia Bibliografica del Bilinguismo (Bibliographic Guide for Bilingualism).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gold, Norman G.

    This paper presents a comprehensive, annotated guide to bibliographic materials related to bilingualism, with a particular focus on Spanish-English bilingualism. It is written in Spanish, to meet the needs of the student of language and literature who approaches the study of bilingualism with little prior contact with the research and literature…

  18. Teaching Composition: Twelve Bibliographical Essays. Revised and Enlarged Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tate, Gary, Ed.

    Intended for teachers of composition courses, this book provides twelve bibliographic essays covering various aspects of composition studies. The list of essays are as follows: (1) "Recent Developments in Rhetorical Invention" (Richard Young); (2) "Structure and Form in Non-Narrative Prose" (Richard L. Larson); (3)…

  19. A Conceptual Exploration of a Bibliographer's Workstation Network.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Arsdale, William O., III; Leath, Janis Hollingsworth

    Productivity of University of Wyoming (UW) subject bibliographers can be significantly increased by developing a network of microcomputer-based workstations with custom and off-the-shelf software; telecommunications to CARL (Colorado Alliance of Research Libraries), OCLC, and other databases; and a network server to provide special services and…

  20. Automated Collection Analysis Using the OCLC and RLG Bibliographic Databases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Nancy P.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Describes a study that examined the feasibility of automating the process of library collection analysis, using collections in botany and mathematical analysis as the study population and bibliographic utility databases as sources of holdings information. The discussion covers the effectiveness of the methodology and potential uses of the results.…

  1. Noncry Vocal Production in Infancy: A Bibliographic Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Proctor, Adele

    This bibliographic review aims to present a single comprehensive source of references to facilitate clinical application of data obtained on the vocal activity of normal infants and to facilitate continued research on prelinguistic vocal output. The bibliography cites the published observational, empirical, and theoretical reports that examine the…

  2. Notes on Operations. The Core Record: A New Bibliographic Standard.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cromwell, Willy

    1994-01-01

    Describes a proposed core-level bibliographic standard that combines the cost effectiveness of minimal-level cataloging with full-level cataloging's utility for library cooperation. The process of developing core-level standards, a definition of a core record, comparisons of core records with minimal- and full-level records, and implementation…

  3. Microcomputers as Interfaces to Bibliographic Utilities (OCLC, RLIN, etc.).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Genaway, David C.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses microcomputer interfacing systems which accept full MARC record from bibliographic utility, reformat and transform it into local library computer system format; illustrates how the TPS-400 interface works; outlines criteria for interface selection; indicates installation decisions; and notes limitation problems and benefits. Four…

  4. Bibliographic Control of Large Quantities of Research Material.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Martha M.

    1983-01-01

    Guidelines for individual researcher describe bibliographic methods for achieving high standards of quality while maintaining maximum efficiency in each step of all necessary procedures involved in the construction of a bibliography ranging from several hundred to several thousand items. Ways to minimize waste motion and duplication of effort are…

  5. Online Bibliographic Searching in the Humanities Databases: An Introduction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suresh, Raghini S.

    Numerous easily accessible databases cover almost every subject area in the humanities. The principal database resources in the humanities are described. There are two major database vendors for humanities information: BRS (Bibliographic Retrieval Services) and DIALOG Information Services, Inc. As an introduction to online searching, this article…

  6. Cleanup and Deduplication of an International Bibliographic Database.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toney, Stephen R.

    1992-01-01

    Describes a project that improved the quality of BCIN, the bibliographic database of the Conservation Information Network, by correcting data fields and removing duplicate records. The database is described, deduplication theory is discussed and relevant literature is reviewed, algorithm development and testing is described, and results of…

  7. Characteristics of the Journal Literature of Bibliographic Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bracken, James K.; Tucker, John Mark

    1989-01-01

    Analyzes the citations in 187 articles on bibliographic instruction published in library science journals to determine the extent to which authors cited sources from library and information science as compared to sources from traditional subject disciplines. The results suggest an insularity, not only from other subject disciplines, but from the…

  8. Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records: An Investigation of Two Prototypes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pisanski, Jan; Zumer, Maja

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to establish how the Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records (FRBR) conceptual model, which holds a lot of potential in theory, works in practice. It also aims to identify, and if possible, give solutions to problems found in two of the existing prototypes. Design/methodology/approach: An independent evaluation…

  9. What Constitutes Minimum Bibliographical Control in New Disciplines?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sable, M.

    1986-01-01

    Defends choice of abstracting service and directories as two types of reference tools for use in establishing bibliographic control over new discipline or interdisciplinary area as yet devoid of reference materials. Attributes of abstracting service (provision of current-awareness) and directory (lists organizations in field) are discussed.…

  10. Environmental Assessment: Construct a CDC Main Entry Addition at Grand Forks Air Force Base

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-01

    North Dakota. Purpose and Need: The purpose of the proposed action is to construct an addition to the northeast end of the Child Development Center...families. There is a companion proposal to repair the administrative support area in the northeast end of the Child Development Center (CDC), Bldg...action is to construct an addition to the northeast end of the Child Development Center (CDC), Building 168 at 1683 J St. The addition will provide

  11. Assessment of additive/nonadditive effects in structure-activity relationships: implications for iterative drug design.

    PubMed

    Patel, Yogendra; Gillet, Valerie J; Howe, Trevor; Pastor, Joaquin; Oyarzabal, Julen; Willett, Peter

    2008-12-11

    Free-Wilson (FW) analysis is common practice in medicinal chemistry and is based on the assumption that the contributions to activity made by substituents at different substitution positions are additive. We analyze eight near complete combinatorial libraries assayed on several different biological response(s) (GPCR, ion channel, kinase and P450 targets) and show that only half-exhibit clear additive behavior, which leads us to question the concept of additivity that is widely taken for granted in drug discovery. Next, we report a series of retrospective experiments in which subsets are extracted from the libraries for FW analysis to determine the minimum attributes (size, distribution of substituents, and activity range) necessary to reach the same conclusion about additive/nonadditive effects. These attributes can provide guidelines on when it is appropriate to apply FW analysis as well as for library design, and they also have important implications for further steps in iterative drug design.

  12. Collaborative Assessment: Working with Students Who Are Blind or Visually Impaired, Including Those with Additional Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, Stephen A., Ed.; Wittenstein, Stuart H., Ed.

    This book offers a comprehensive text on the assessment of students with blindness or visual impairment with a focus on approaches used at the California School for the Blind. An introductory chapter is by Frances K. Liefert and Marsha A. Silver. Eleven chapters have the following titles and authors: (1) "Introduction to Visual Impairment"…

  13. Assessment of Pulmonary Toxicity Induced by Inhaled Toner with External Additives.

    PubMed

    Tomonaga, Taisuke; Izumi, Hiroto; Yoshiura, Yukiko; Myojo, Toshihiko; Oyabu, Takako; Lee, Byeong-Woo; Okada, Takami; Li, Yunshan; Kawai, Kazuaki; Higashi, Toshiaki; Morimoto, Yasuo

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the harmful effects of exposure to a toner with external additives by a long-term inhalation study using rats, examining pulmonary inflammation, oxidative stress, and histopathological changes in the lung. Wistar rats were exposed to a well-dispersed toner (mean of MMAD: 2.1 μm) at three mass concentrations of 1, 4, and 16 mg/m(3) for 22.5 months, and the rats were sacrificed after 6 months, 12 months, and 22.5 months of exposure. The low and medium concentrations did not induce statistically significant pulmonary inflammation, but the high concentration did, and, in addition, a histopathological examination showed fibrosis in the lung. Although lung tumor was observed in one sample of high exposure for 22.5 months, the cause was not statistically significant. On the other hand, a persistent increase in 8-OHdG was observed in the high exposure group, indicating that DNA damage by oxidative stress with persistent inflammation leads to the formation of tumorigenesis. The results of our studies show that toners with external additives lead to pulmonary inflammation, oxidative stress, and fibrosis only at lung burdens beyond overload. These data suggest that toners with external additives may have low toxicity in the lung.

  14. Assessment of Pulmonary Toxicity Induced by Inhaled Toner with External Additives

    PubMed Central

    Yoshiura, Yukiko; Myojo, Toshihiko; Oyabu, Takako; Lee, Byeong-Woo; Okada, Takami; Li, Yunshan; Higashi, Toshiaki

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the harmful effects of exposure to a toner with external additives by a long-term inhalation study using rats, examining pulmonary inflammation, oxidative stress, and histopathological changes in the lung. Wistar rats were exposed to a well-dispersed toner (mean of MMAD: 2.1 μm) at three mass concentrations of 1, 4, and 16 mg/m3 for 22.5 months, and the rats were sacrificed after 6 months, 12 months, and 22.5 months of exposure. The low and medium concentrations did not induce statistically significant pulmonary inflammation, but the high concentration did, and, in addition, a histopathological examination showed fibrosis in the lung. Although lung tumor was observed in one sample of high exposure for 22.5 months, the cause was not statistically significant. On the other hand, a persistent increase in 8-OHdG was observed in the high exposure group, indicating that DNA damage by oxidative stress with persistent inflammation leads to the formation of tumorigenesis. The results of our studies show that toners with external additives lead to pulmonary inflammation, oxidative stress, and fibrosis only at lung burdens beyond overload. These data suggest that toners with external additives may have low toxicity in the lung. PMID:28191462

  15. Defense Business Transformation: Improvements Made but Additional Steps Needed to Strengthen Strategic Planning and Assess Progress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-02-01

    chosen. GAO also recommends that DOD further define its performance management approach. DOD partially concurred with our first recommendation and...to regularly review performance results or defined how these structures will routinely integrate various sources of performance data to assess...measures related to supply and security, which are key areas in DOD’s strategy for achieving operational energy efficiency. Better defining and

  16. Environmental Assessment for Renovation and Small Addition for AGE Facility MacDill AFB, Florida

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-05-01

    control number. 1. REPORT DATE MAY 2005 2. REPORT TYPE 3 . DATES COVERED 00-00-2005 to 00-00-2005 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Environmental Assessment...ENVIRONMENTAL PERMIT REQUIREMENTS..................................................... 3 2.0 DESCRIPTION OF THE PROPOSED ACTION AND ALTERNATIVES...Approximate Location of Aerospace Ground Equipment Facility in Relation to the 100-year Floodplain, MacDill Air Force Base Figure 3 -1 Demo Existing

  17. Assessing an unknown evolutionary process: effect of increasing site-specific knowledge through taxon addition.

    PubMed

    Pollock, D D; Bruno, W J

    2000-12-01

    Assessment of the evolutionary process is crucial for understanding the effect of protein structure and function on sequence evolution and for many other analyses in molecular evolution. Here, we used simulations to study how taxon sampling affects accuracy of parameter estimation and topological inference in the absence of branch length asymmetry. With maximum-likelihood analysis, we find that adding taxa dramatically improves both support for the evolutionary model and accurate assessment of its parameters when compared with increasing the sequence length. Using a method we call "doppelgänger trees," we distinguish the contributions of two sources of improved topological inference: greater knowledge about internal nodes and greater knowledge of site-specific rate parameters. Surprisingly, highly significant support for the correct general model does not lead directly to improved topological inference. Instead, substantial improvement occurs only with accurate assessment of the evolutionary process at individual sites. Although these results are based on a simplified model of the evolutionary process, they indicate that in general, assuming processes are not independent and identically distributed among sites, more extensive sampling of taxonomic biodiversity will greatly improve analytical results in many current sequence data sets with moderate sequence lengths.

  18. Impact assessment of additional predictors to the retrieval of atmospheric profiles from infrared radiances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Deming; Dong, Chaohua; Huo, Ruili; Cai, Ronghui

    2008-12-01

    Impacts of additional predictors on inverting atmospheric infrared radiance for temperature and humidity profiles are investigated using Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) real measurements and empirical orthogonal function expansion method (EOF). These predictors are microwave channels, latitude, topography, surface altitude, surface temperature, and surface air pressure. The results suggest that microwave channels can remarkably help the improvement of the accuracy of retrieved profiles at lower troposphere (below 800hPa) and have little effect on that above 800hPa. With dataset classified by latitude, better retrievals are obtained. The root mean square errors (RMSE) of retrieved temperature at complicated terrain are significantly greater than that at plat area. For humidity retrievals it was found that RMSE exhibit weak sensitivity to topography. By combined use of infrared measurements and additional predictors, great improvements have achieved in the retrieval of atmospheric temperature and humidity profiles at lower troposphere.

  19. Assessing the additive risks of PSII herbicide exposure to the Great Barrier Reef.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Stephen E; Schaffelke, Britta; Shaw, Melanie; Bainbridge, Zoë T; Rohde, Ken W; Kennedy, Karen; Davis, Aaron M; Masters, Bronwyn L; Devlin, Michelle J; Mueller, Jochen F; Brodie, Jon E

    2012-01-01

    Herbicide residues have been measured in the Great Barrier Reef lagoon at concentrations which have the potential to harm marine plant communities. Monitoring on the Great Barrier Reef lagoon following wet season discharge show that 80% of the time when herbicides are detected, more than one are present. These herbicides have been shown to act in an additive manner with regards to photosystem-II inhibition. In this study, the area of the Great Barrier Reef considered to be at risk from herbicides is compared when exposures are considered for each herbicide individually and also for herbicide mixtures. Two normalisation indices for herbicide mixtures were calculated based on current guidelines and PSII inhibition thresholds. The results show that the area of risk for most regions is greatly increased under the proposed additive PSII inhibition threshold and that the resilience of this important ecosystem could be reduced by exposure to these herbicides.

  20. The Application of Additive Factors Methodology to Workload Assessment in a Dynamic System Monitoring Task.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-12-01

    resources, task interference will be greater, and changes in the difficulty of one task will be more likely to derogate performance of the other. It...number of items in short term memory and response latency suggesting the presence of a comparison process between test stimulus onset and response...execution. Each additional item in memory adds approximately 38ms to the response latency. The essentially equivalent slopes for positive and negative

  1. Network-based statistical comparison of citation topology of bibliographic databases

    PubMed Central

    Šubelj, Lovro; Fiala, Dalibor; Bajec, Marko

    2014-01-01

    Modern bibliographic databases provide the basis for scientific research and its evaluation. While their content and structure differ substantially, there exist only informal notions on their reliability. Here we compare the topological consistency of citation networks extracted from six popular bibliographic databases including Web of Science, CiteSeer and arXiv.org. The networks are assessed through a rich set of local and global graph statistics. We first reveal statistically significant inconsistencies between some of the databases with respect to individual statistics. For example, the introduced field bow-tie decomposition of DBLP Computer Science Bibliography substantially differs from the rest due to the coverage of the database, while the citation information within arXiv.org is the most exhaustive. Finally, we compare the databases over multiple graph statistics using the critical difference diagram. The citation topology of DBLP Computer Science Bibliography is the least consistent with the rest, while, not surprisingly, Web of Science is significantly more reliable from the perspective of consistency. This work can serve either as a reference for scholars in bibliometrics and scientometrics or a scientific evaluation guideline for governments and research agencies. PMID:25263231

  2. Network-based statistical comparison of citation topology of bibliographic databases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šubelj, Lovro; Fiala, Dalibor; Bajec, Marko

    2014-09-01

    Modern bibliographic databases provide the basis for scientific research and its evaluation. While their content and structure differ substantially, there exist only informal notions on their reliability. Here we compare the topological consistency of citation networks extracted from six popular bibliographic databases including Web of Science, CiteSeer and arXiv.org. The networks are assessed through a rich set of local and global graph statistics. We first reveal statistically significant inconsistencies between some of the databases with respect to individual statistics. For example, the introduced field bow-tie decomposition of DBLP Computer Science Bibliography substantially differs from the rest due to the coverage of the database, while the citation information within arXiv.org is the most exhaustive. Finally, we compare the databases over multiple graph statistics using the critical difference diagram. The citation topology of DBLP Computer Science Bibliography is the least consistent with the rest, while, not surprisingly, Web of Science is significantly more reliable from the perspective of consistency. This work can serve either as a reference for scholars in bibliometrics and scientometrics or a scientific evaluation guideline for governments and research agencies.

  3. [Comprehensive Assessment of Psychiatric Residents: An Addition to the Program Admission Process].

    PubMed

    Luis, E Jaramillo G; Elena, Martín C

    2012-01-01

    The training of medical specialists is a long and complex process. Its purpose is to guarantee the society that they are the right professionals to meet the health needs of the population. The first step to ensure this objective is the admission process. In psychiatry this process, monitoring resident students and the criteria for each one are different in each country. Admission in Colombia is a heterogeneous process, not standardized, which varies greatly from one university to another, even between private and public universities. At the National University of Colombia, the admissions process is handled by the Admissions Office and includes: a written test for which you must obtain a minimum score, a resume rating and an interview. The Teaching Committee and the Department of Psychiatry considered the admission procedure in general to be good, but in need of refinement. Due to the experience of some teachers and given the current rules, a "comprehensive assessment" for master and doctoral students was required and in 1996 it was decided that this method of assessment for admission to a specialization in Psychiatry would serve to complement the admission process. The article describes the experience of the process and its outcomes, strengths and weaknesses.

  4. Bibliographic survey of medium energy inclusive reaction data

    SciTech Connect

    Arthur, E.D.; Madland, D.G.; McClellan, D.M.

    1986-04-01

    A bibliographic survey of inclusive reaction data (experimental and theoretical) for several projectile types having energies between 50 and 1000 MeV has been completed. Approximately one thousand references selected from this survey describe the current state of knowledge for particle-induced inclusive reaction data. The search covered data for the following projectiles: p, d, t, /sup 3/He, /sup 4/He, and lithium ions.

  5. Millimeter-wave sensing of the environment: A bibliographic survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, E.; Epstein, E. E.

    1981-01-01

    This literature survey was conducted to examine the field of millimeter wave remote sensing of the environment and collect all relevant observations made in the atmospheric windows near 90, 140, and 230 GHz of ocean, terrain, man-made features, and the atmosphere. Over 170 articles and reports were examined; bibliographic references are provided for all and abstracts are quoted when available. Selected highlights were extracted from the pertinent articles.

  6. Availability of renal literature in six bibliographic databases.

    PubMed

    Shariff, Salimah Z; Sontrop, Jessica M; Iansavichus, Arthur V; Haynes, R Brian; Weir, Matthew A; Gandhi, Sonja; Cuerden, Meaghan S; Garg, Amit X

    2012-12-01

    BACKGROUND: When searching for renal literature, nephrologists must choose between several different bibliographic databases. We compared the availability of renal clinical studies in six major bibliographic databases. METHODS: We gathered 151 renal systematic reviews, which collectively contained 2195 unique citations referencing primary studies in the form of journal articles, meeting articles or meeting abstracts published between 1963 and 2008. We searched for each citation in three subscription-free bibliographic databases (PubMed, Google Scholar and Scirus) and three subscription-based databases (EMBASE, Ovid-MEDLINE and ISI Web of Knowledge). For the subscription-free databases, we determined which full-text journal articles were available free of charge via links to the article source. RESULTS: The proportion of journal articles contained within each of the six databases ranged from 96 to 97%; results were similar for meeting articles. Availability of meeting abstracts was poor, ranging from 0 to 37% (P < 0.01) with ISI Web of Knowledge containing the largest proportion [37%, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 32-43%]. Among the subscription-free databases, free access to full-text articles was highest in Google Scholar (38% free, 95% CI 36-41%), and was only marginally higher (39%) when all subscription-free databases were searched. After 2000, free access to full-text articles increased to 49%. CONCLUSIONS: Over 99% of renal clinical journal articles are available in at least one major bibliographic database. Subscription-free databases provide free full-text access to almost half of the articles published after the year 2000, which may be of particular interest to clinicians in settings with limited access to subscription-based resources.

  7. Assessment of horizontal laminar air flow instrument table for additional ultraclean space during surgery.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, K-G; Lundholm, R; Friberg, S

    2010-11-01

    The area in a vertical ultraclean laminar air flow (LAF) theatre is usually too small to accommodate all the equipment needed for major surgery. We investigated the addition of an instrument table supplied with fixed ultraclean LAF and placed alongside the existing main LAF unit, to determine its physical and bacteriological effect on the main unit. In phase 1, with two investigators but without a patient, smoke tests showed no intrusion of air from the table into the main unit and particle counts did not show any adverse effect on the main LAF unit. In phase 2, during patients undergoing two total knee replacements, the LAF table and a table without LAF were placed alongside the main LAF unit. The tables were subjected to the activity of an extra operating room (OR) nurse working from inside the main LAF vigorously simulating handling of instruments. During this activity, the >5μm particle counts were 275/m(3) at the instrument table with LAF and 8550/m(3) at the table without LAF (P<0.0001). Also, without the OR nurse activity, the particle counts, just inside the main unit and adjacent to the LAF table, were significantly reduced (P<0.03-0.003). Sedimentation plates on the LAF table and in the main unit registered 22 and 25cfu/m(2)/h respectively compared with 45cfu/m(2)/h at the instrument table without LAF. In conclusion, the results from the smoke tests, particle counts and bacteriological evaluation showed that the additional instrument table supplied with LAF is efficient and can be safely used as an extension additional to a main OR LAF unit.

  8. Combining Advanced Oxidation Processes: Assessment Of Process Additivity, Synergism, And Antagonism

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, Robert W.; Sharma, M.P.; Gbadebo Adewuyi, Yusuf

    2007-07-01

    This paper addresses the process interactions from combining integrated processes (such as advanced oxidation processes (AOPs), biological operations, air stripping, etc.). AOPs considered include: Fenton's reagent, ultraviolet light, titanium dioxide, ozone (O{sub 3}), hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}), sonication/acoustic cavitation, among others. A critical review of the technical literature has been performed, and the data has been analyzed in terms of the processes being additive, synergistic, or antagonistic. Predictions based on the individual unit operations are made and compared against the behavior of the combined unit operations. The data reported in this paper focus primarily on treatment of petroleum hydrocarbons and chlorinated solvents. (authors)

  9. Assessing the effects of adsorptive polymeric resin additions on fungal secondary metabolite chemical diversity

    PubMed Central

    González-Menéndez, Víctor; Asensio, Francisco; Moreno, Catalina; de Pedro, Nuria; Monteiro, Maria Candida; de la Cruz, Mercedes; Vicente, Francisca; Bills, Gerald F.; Reyes, Fernando; Genilloud, Olga; Tormo, José R.

    2014-01-01

    Adsorptive polymeric resins have been occasionally described to enhance the production of specific secondary metabolites (SMs) of interest. Methods that induce the expression of new chemical entities in fungal fermentations may lead to the discovery of new bioactive molecules and should be addressed as possible tools for the creation of new microbial chemical libraries for drug lead discovery. Herein, we apply both biological activity and chemical evaluations to assess the use of adsorptive resins as tools for the differential expression of SMs in fungal strain sets. Data automation approaches were applied to ultra high performance liquid chromatography analysis of extracts to evaluate the general influence in generating new chemical entities or in changing the production of specific SMs by fungi grown in the presence of resins and different base media. PMID:25379340

  10. Quantitative analysis of EGR proteins binding to DNA: assessing additivity in both the binding site and the protein

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jiajian; Stormo, Gary D

    2005-01-01

    Background Recognition codes for protein-DNA interactions typically assume that the interacting positions contribute additively to the binding energy. While this is known to not be precisely true, an additive model over the DNA positions can be a good approximation, at least for some proteins. Much less information is available about whether the protein positions contribute additively to the interaction. Results Using EGR zinc finger proteins, we measure the binding affinity of six different variants of the protein to each of six different variants of the consensus binding site. Both the protein and binding site variants include single and double mutations that allow us to assess how well additive models can account for the data. For each protein and DNA alone we find that additive models are good approximations, but over the combined set of data there are context effects that limit their accuracy. However, a small modification to the purely additive model, with only three additional parameters, improves the fit significantly. Conclusion The additive model holds very well for every DNA site and every protein included in this study, but clear context dependence in the interactions was detected. A simple modification to the independent model provides a better fit to the complete data. PMID:16014175

  11. Generalized additive models and Lucilia sericata growth: assessing confidence intervals and error rates in forensic entomology.

    PubMed

    Tarone, Aaron M; Foran, David R

    2008-07-01

    Forensic entomologists use blow fly development to estimate a postmortem interval. Although accurate, fly age estimates can be imprecise for older developmental stages and no standard means of assigning confidence intervals exists. Presented here is a method for modeling growth of the forensically important blow fly Lucilia sericata, using generalized additive models (GAMs). Eighteen GAMs were created to predict the extent of juvenile fly development, encompassing developmental stage, length, weight, strain, and temperature data, collected from 2559 individuals. All measures were informative, explaining up to 92.6% of the deviance in the data, though strain and temperature exerted negligible influences. Predictions made with an independent data set allowed for a subsequent examination of error. Estimates using length and developmental stage were within 5% of true development percent during the feeding portion of the larval life cycle, while predictions for postfeeding third instars were less precise, but within expected error.

  12. An Assessment of Nondestructive Evaluation Capability for Complex Additive Manufacturing Aerospace Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, James; Beshears, Ron; Lambert, Dennis; Tilson, William

    2016-01-01

    The primary focus of this work is to investigate some of the fundamental relationships between processing, mechanical testing, materials characterization, and NDE for additively manufactured (AM) components using the powder bed fusion direct melt laser sintered process. The goal is to understand the criticality of defects unique to the AM process and then how conventional nondestructive evaluation methods as well as some of the more non-traditional methods such as computed tomography, are effected by the AM material. Specific defects including cracking, porosity and partially/unfused powder will be addressed. Besides line-of-site NDE, as appropriate these inspection capabilities will be put into the context of complex AM geometries where hidden features obscure, or inhibit traditional NDE methods.

  13. Assessment of quality of platelets preserved in plasma and platelet additive solution: A Malaysian experience

    PubMed Central

    Mokhtar, Munirah Binti; Hashim, Hasna Binti; Joshi, Sanmukh R

    2016-01-01

    Background: A use of platelet additives solution (PAS) improves storage conditions so as to give increased shelf life to platelets and to maintain hemostatic function. Objective: The present study was aimed to compare in vitro quality of platelet rich plasma (PRP)-derived platelet concentrate (PC) during extended period of storage in plasma and in additive solution (Composol PS and Fresenius). Study Design: Randomized 19 PCs each were used in the study for plasma and PAS as the storage medium. The measurement parameters, including pH, total white blood cell (WBC) count, total platelet count, and platelet activation rate, were studied on day 1, day 5, and day 8 of the storage period. The sterility test was carried out on the eighth day of storage. Results: pH of PC suspended in PAS was significantly lower as compared to that in plasma (P < 0.001) for all the three days of sampling. The WBC count, both in plasma and in PAS, showed an acceptable values of being <0.2 Χ 109 /unit during the storage period. Platelet count in PAS was higher as compared to that in plasma, though it was not statistically significant. While both the groups showed increased platelet activation rate during the storage, the PCs suspended in PAS showed significantly higher platelet activation rate (p0.001). Results from sterility test showed no bacterial growth in the PCs in both the groups. Conclusion: Most parameters studied on platelet storage in suspending medium of native plasma and PAS remained well within the acceptable limits. However, the pH values and platelet activation rate significantly differed in PAS as compared with plasma. PMID:27011678

  14. Assessment of production performance in 2 breeds of broilers fed prebiotics as feed additives.

    PubMed

    Hanning, I; Clement, A; Owens, C; Park, S H; Pendleton, S; Scott, E E; Almeida, G; Gonzalez Gil, F; Ricke, S C

    2012-12-01

    Pasture-flock-raised poultry are becoming an increasingly popular product, but only limited options are currently available for maintaining gut health. For these producers, prebiotics are an attractive option because they are generally recognized as safe (GRAS) and can be mixed into the feed and thus do not require adjustments to production protocols. However, if prebiotic treatments reduce production performance, they would not be useful to producers. Thus, the objective of this study was to measure performance of pasture-raised broilers fed 1 of 3 prebiotic treatments. For these trials, 2 breeds of birds were used: Naked Neck slow-growing breeds and Cornish White Rock cross fast-growing breeds. The experimental design was replicated for each breed. A total of 340 birds were split into 4 groups, each group fed one feed additive: 1) galactoligosaccharides (2% wt/wt), 2) fructooligosaccharides (1% wt/wt), 3) plum fibers (1% wt/wt), or 4) no additives. During the 8-wk rearing period, 10 birds from each group were collected and euthanized to take small intestine samples. Histological preparations were made from the small intestine tissue, and 4 measurements of villi height and crypt depth from each cross section were taken. Throughout the study, mortality was monitored and BW measurements were taken at 2-wk intervals. For the Cornish White Rock cross, the group receiving the feed supplemented with fructooligosaccharides had higher (P < 0.05) 8-wk BW than those fed Plum; control and birds fed galactoligosaccharides were intermediate. For the Naked Neck breed, the group receiving the plum fibers had the highest final BW. It appears that all 3 feed supplements offered some protective effect for alterations in villi length and crypt depth due to feed withdrawal, but only for the Naked Neck breed. The data indicate the 3 prebiotics utilized in this study could be used without risk of decreasing production performance, but only for Naked Neck breeds.

  15. Influence of compost addition on lead and arsenic bioavailability in reclaimed orchard soil assessed using Porcellio scaber bioaccumulation test.

    PubMed

    Udovic, M; McBride, M B

    2012-02-29

    Long-term application of lead arsenate in orchards has led to a significant accumulation of Pb and As in the topsoil. Reclamation of old orchards for agricultural purposes entails the exposure of humans to Pb and As, which can be reduced by adequate remediation actions. In this study, we assessed the remediation efficiency of compost addition, commonly used as a sustainable agricultural practice, in decreasing the human exposure Pb and As by direct ingestion. The remediation was evaluated based on Pb and As bioavailability, assessed by means of a selective non-exhaustive chemical extraction (modified Morgan extraction, MME), with a physiologically based extraction test (PBET) for the assessment of Pb and As bioavailability in ingested soils and with a novel in vivo bioaccumulation test with isopods (Porcellio scaber). All the tests showed that compost addition consistently reduced Pb, but increased As potential bioavailability. The bioaccumulation test with P. scaber was sensitive to changes in Pb and As bioavailability in test soils. However, the results indicate that the bioavailability of As could be under- or overestimated using solely chemical extraction tests. Indirect assessment of trace metal bioavailability with bioaccumulation in isopods can be used as complementary source of data to the existing in vitro chemical extraction test approach for the estimation of human exposure to trace elements in polluted and remediated soil. This is the first report on the use of As accumulation in P. scaber as a tool for the assessment of As bioavailability in contaminated orchard soil.

  16. A 9-year analysis of bibliographical trends for journals in the subject category of general and internal medicine.

    PubMed

    Foo, Jong Yong Abdiel

    2009-05-01

    For academic research outcomes, an important bibliometric scoring termed as the journal impact factor (JIF) is used when assessment of the quality of research is required. No known study has been conducted to explore the bibliographical trends of 'Medicine, General & Internal' journals indexed by the annual Journal Citation Reports. Data from the Journal Citation Reports and Web of Science database were extracted to formulate a comprehensive analysis. In this study, the trends of 15 journals (5 top ranked and 10 low ranked; 5 English and 5 non-English based) were selected and analysed over a 9-year period (starting from year 1999 to 2007). Using the year 1999 as the base year, the results showed that the JIF rose significantly for the selected top ranked journals (up to 180.9%) while the low ranked ones slipped in their JIF value (down to -44.4%). The observed upward or downward trend was caused by a combination of other bibliographical measures like citations, number of citable, and total items published. It is postulated that changes in bibliographical trends can be classified as editorial and non-editorial influences. The impacts of these influences on the 15 selected journals over the 9-year period were also discussed retrospectively.

  17. Assessing the effects of different pectins addition on color quality and antioxidant properties of blackberry jam

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In the last years pectin and other hydrocolloids were tested for improving the color stability and the retention of bioactive compounds in gelled fruit-based products. In line with these concerns, our study has been directed to quantify the changes in antioxidant status and color indices of blackberry jam obtained with different types of pectin (degree of esterification: DE, degree of amidation: DA) and doses in response to processing and storage for 1, 3 and 6 months at 20°C. Results Blackberry jam was obtained by a traditional procedure used in households or small-scale systems with different commercial pectins (HMP: high-methoxyl pectin, LMP: low-methoxyl pectin and LMAP: low-methoxyl amidated pectin) added to three concentrations (0.3, 0.7 and 1.0%) and investigated in terms of total monomeric anthocyanins (TMA), antioxidant capacity expressed as ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), total phenolics (TP), color density (CD) and percent of polymeric color, PC (%). Thermal processing resulted in significant depreciation of analyzed parameters reported to the corresponding values of fresh fruit as follows: TMA (69-82%), TP (33-55%) and FRAP (18-52%). Biologically active compounds and color were best retained one day post-processing in jams with LMAP followed by samples with LMP and HMP. Storage for 6 months brings along additional dramatic losses reported to the values recorded one day post-processing as follows: TMA (31-56%), TP (29-51%) and FRAP (20-41%). Also, both processing and storage resulted in significant increases in PC (%). The pectin type and dosage are very influential factors for limiting the alterations occurring in response to processing and storage. The best color retention and the highest TMA, TP and FRAP were achieved by LMAP, followed by LMP and HMP. Additionally, a high level of bioactive compounds in jam could be related to a high dose of pectin. LMAP to a level of 1% is the most indicated to provide the highest antioxidant

  18. Risk assessment of nitrate and petroleum-derived hydrocarbon addition on Contricriba weissflogii biomass, lifetime, and nutritional value.

    PubMed

    Shun-Xing, Li; Feng-Jiao, Liu; Feng-Ying, Zheng; Xu-Guang, Huang; Yue-Gang, Zuo

    2014-03-15

    Coastal diatoms are often exposed to both petroleum-derived hydrocarbon pollution and eutrophication. How these exposures influence on algal biomass, lifetime, and nutritional value are unknown. To examine a more accurate risk assessment of the pollutants on the role of diatoms in coastal ecosystem functions, Conticribra weissflogii was maintained at different concentrations of nitrate (N) and/or water-soluble fractions of No.0 diesel oil (WSF). Algal density, cell growth cycle, protein, chlorophyll a, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, and malonaldehyde (MDA) were determined for the assessment of algal biomass, lifetime, nutritional value, photosynthesis and respiration, antioxidant capacity, and lipid peroxidation, respectively.When N addition was combined with WSF pollution, the cell growth cycles were shortened by 27-44%; SOD activities were decreased by 1-64%; algal density, the concentrations of chlorophyll a, protein, and MDA were varied between 38 and 310%, 62 and 712%, 4 and 124%, and 19 and 233% of the values observed in N addition experiments, respectively. Coastal ecosystem functions were severely weakened by N and WSF additions, and the influence was increased in the order: Nassessment of petroleum-derived hydrocarbon on coastal ecosystem functions.

  19. Locating and parsing bibliographic references in HTML medical articles.

    PubMed

    Zou, Jie; Le, Daniel; Thoma, George R

    2010-06-01

    The set of references that typically appear toward the end of journal articles is sometimes, though not always, a field in bibliographic (citation) databases. But even if references do not constitute such a field, they can be useful as a preprocessing step in the automated extraction of other bibliographic data from articles, as well as in computer-assisted indexing of articles. Automation in data extraction and indexing to minimize human labor is key to the affordable creation and maintenance of large bibliographic databases. Extracting the components of references, such as author names, article title, journal name, publication date and other entities, is therefore a valuable and sometimes necessary task. This paper describes a two-step process using statistical machine learning algorithms, to first locate the references in HTML medical articles and then to parse them. Reference locating identifies the reference section in an article and then decomposes it into individual references. We formulate this step as a two-class classification problem based on text and geometric features. An evaluation conducted on 500 articles drawn from 100 medical journals achieves near-perfect precision and recall rates for locating references. Reference parsing identifies the components of each reference. For this second step, we implement and compare two algorithms. One relies on sequence statistics and trains a Conditional Random Field. The other focuses on local feature statistics and trains a Support Vector Machine to classify each individual word, followed by a search algorithm that systematically corrects low confidence labels if the label sequence violates a set of predefined rules. The overall performance of these two reference-parsing algorithms is about the same: above 99% accuracy at the word level, and over 97% accuracy at the chunk level.

  20. Web-based nuclear criticality safety bibliographic database

    SciTech Connect

    Koponen, B L; Huang, S T

    2000-06-21

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has prepared a Nuclear Criticality Safety Bibliographic Database that is now available via the Internet. This database is a component of the U.S. DOE Nuclear Criticality Safety Program (NCSP) Web site. This WWW resource was developed as part of the DOE response to the DNFSB Recommendation 97-2, which reflected the need to make criticality safety information available to a wide audience. To the extent possible, the hyperlinks on the Web pages direct the user to original source of the reference material in order to ensure accuracy and access to the latest versions. A master index is in place for simple navigation through the site. A search capability is available to assist in locating the on-line reference materials. Among the features included are: A user-friendly site map for ease of use; A personnel registry; Links to all major laboratories and organizations involved in the many aspects of criticality safety; General help for new criticality safety practitioners, including basic technical references and training modules; A discussion of computational methods; An interactive question and answer forum for the criticality safety community; and Collections of bibliographic references mdvahdation experiments. This paper will focus on the bibliographic database. This database evolved from earlier work done by the DOE's Nuclear Criticality Information System (NCIS) maintained at LLNL during the 1980s. The bibliographic database at the time of the termination of NCIS were composed principally of three parts: (1) A critical experiment bibliography of 1067 citations (reported in UCRL-52769); (2) A compilation of criticality safety papers from Volumes 1 through 41 of the Transactions of the American Nuclear Society (reported in UCRL-53369); and (3) A general criticality bibliography of several thousand citations (unpublished). When the NCIS project was terminated the database was nearly lost but, fortunately, several years later

  1. [Nursing care to the client with hypertension: a bibliographic review].

    PubMed

    Moura, Denizielle de Jesus Moreira; Bezerra, Sara Taciana Firmino; Moreira, Thereza Maria Magalhães; Fialho, Ana Virgínia de Melo

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to identify the nursing care practices to the client with hypertension in the scientific production in the last ten years. It was carried out a bibliographic study, using in the BIREME, the LILACS, SciELO and BDENF's data basis, selecting thirty articles. The results were exposed in charts, tables and graphics, where prevails, in the literature analyzed, the nursing consultation as the more used practice, through the nursing attendance systematization and the Health Education with individual approaches, besides the realization of home visits with family approach. One believes that the systematization of nursing care will contribute in an expressive manner to the adhesion to the antihypertensive treatment.

  2. Advanced Satellite Research Project: SCAR Research Database. Bibliographic analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pelton, Joseph N.

    1991-01-01

    The literature search was provided to locate and analyze the most recent literature that was relevant to the research. This was done by cross-relating books, articles, monographs, and journals that relate to the following topics: (1) Experimental Systems - Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS), and (2) Integrated System Digital Network (ISDN) and Advance Communication Techniques (ISDN and satellites, ISDN standards, broadband ISDN, flame relay and switching, computer networks and satellites, satellite orbits and technology, satellite transmission quality, and network configuration). Bibliographic essay on literature citations and articles reviewed during the literature search task is provided.

  3. Thermal Imaging for Assessment of Electron-Beam Free Form Fabrication (EBF(sup 3)) Additive Manufacturing Welds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zalameda, Joseph N.; Burke, Eric R.; Hafley, Robert A.; Taminger, Karen M.; Domack, Christopher S.; Brewer, Amy R.; Martin, Richard E.

    2013-01-01

    Additive manufacturing is a rapidly growing field where 3-dimensional parts can be produced layer by layer. NASA s electron beam free-form fabrication (EBF(sup 3)) technology is being evaluated to manufacture metallic parts in a space environment. The benefits of EBF(sup 3) technology are weight savings to support space missions, rapid prototyping in a zero gravity environment, and improved vehicle readiness. The EBF(sup 3) system is composed of 3 main components: electron beam gun, multi-axis position system, and metallic wire feeder. The electron beam is used to melt the wire and the multi-axis positioning system is used to build the part layer by layer. To insure a quality weld, a near infrared (NIR) camera is used to image the melt pool and solidification areas. This paper describes the calibration and application of a NIR camera for temperature measurement. In addition, image processing techniques are presented for weld assessment metrics.

  4. Choosing and using citation and bibliographic database software (BDS).

    PubMed

    Hernandez, David A; El-Masri, Maher M; Hernandez, Cheri Ann

    2008-01-01

    The diabetes educator/researcher is faced with a proliferation of diabetes articles in various journals, both online and in print. Keeping track of cited references and remembering how to cite the references in text and the bibliography can be a daunting task for the new researcher and a tedious task for the experienced researcher. The challenge is to find and use a technology, such as bibliographic database software (BDS), which can help to manage this information overload. This article focuses on the use of BDS for the diabetes educator who is undertaking research. BDS can help researchers access and organize literature and make literature searches more efficient and less time consuming. Moreover, the use of such programs tends to reduce errors associated with the complexity of bibliographic citations and can increase the productivity of scholarly publications. The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of BDS currently available, describe how it can be used to aid researchers in their work, and highlight the features of different programs. It is important for diabetes educators and researchers to explore the many benefits of such BDS programs and consider their use to enhance the accuracy and efficiency of accessing and citing references of their research work and publications. Armed with this knowledge, researchers will be able to make informed decisions about selecting BDS which will meet their usage requirements.

  5. Bibliographic Citations and U.S. Government Publications: A Conceptual Analysis and Comparison of Style Manuals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basefsky, Stuart Mark

    The author presents a conceptual analysis of the role of bibliographic citations in the control and retrieval of U.S. government publications, and a factual examination of citation forms for government documents as prescribed by eight major style manuals. A discussion of the general purpose of bibliographic citations and the relationship between…

  6. An Evaluation of Oregon's Participation in the Pacific Northwest Bibliographic Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemmer, Joanne

    The purpose of this study was to survey and evaluate past and current participation in the Pacific Northwest Bibliographic Center (PNBC) by Oregon libraries. Summarized, the findings were: (1) the PNBC has become a major source of assistance in the flow of interlibrary loans and bibliographic data; (2) it is part of a variety of formal and…

  7. International Symposium on Information Technology: Standards for Bibliographic Control (Bangkok, Thailand, September 4-8, 1989).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thammasat Univ., Bangkok (Thailand). Univ. Libraries.

    This document which covers the proceedings of the 1989 International Symposium on Information Technology, begins with several opening ceremony messages and includes the following papers: (1) "Reflections on International Bibliographic Standards" (Winston D. Roberts); (2) "Bibliographic Control from the User's Perspective" (Ruth…

  8. Computer Assisted Instruction Remediation Program for Credit Course in Bibliographic Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sugranes, Maria R.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Describes and evaluates computer assisted instruction (CAI) remedial program used for credit course in bibliographic instruction, noting need, requirements, development, planning, and implementation. Statistics are presented to support principle that CAI can be valuable instructional methodology for bibliographic instruction programs. Test-retake…

  9. A Comparison of Pricing Strategies for Bibliographical Databases on CDROM and Equivalent Printed Products.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowley, Jennifer; Butcher, David

    1994-01-01

    Considers comparative prices for bibliographic data on CD-ROM and in print. Topics addressed include differences in the nature of bibliographic data in the two media, the relative complexities of pricing structure, varying policies on network pricing, and standardization of the licensing arrangement. (KRN)

  10. Local Creation/Global Use: Bibliographic Data in the International Arena.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patton, Glenn

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the growth of OCLC (Online Computer Library Center) into a worldwide bibliographic utility. Topics include cataloging standards; subject access in languages appropriate to the users; local needs versus global usefulness; character sets; international name authority file; ISBD (International Standard Bibliographic Description) principles;…

  11. The Emerging Global Bibliographic Network: The Era of International Standardization in the Development of Cataloging Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrum, John D., Jr.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the growing interdependence of catalogers to provide uniform bibliographic control and access. Topics include the international applications of AACR2 (Anglo American Cataloging Rules 2); the PCC (Program for Cooperative Cataloging); ISBD (International Standard Bibliographic Description); and activities of IFLA (International Federation…

  12. ISBD(M), International Standard Bibliographic Description for Monographic Publications. First Standard Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Federation of Library Associations, London (England). Committee on Cataloguing.

    The International Standard Bibliographic Description for Monograph Publications [ISBD(M)] provides a format for the international communication on bibliographic information, so that records may be interchanged between sources, interpreted across language barriers, and converted to machine readable form. The ISBD(M) standards are limited to the…

  13. Uncertainty analysis of the use of a retailer fidelity card scheme in the assessment of food additive intake.

    PubMed

    McNamara, C; Mehegan, J; O'Mahony, C; Safford, B; Smith, B; Tennant, D; Buck, N; Ehrlich, V; Sardi, M; Haldemann, Y; Nordmann, H; Jasti, P R

    2011-12-01

    The feasibility of using a retailer fidelity card scheme to estimate food additive intake was investigated in an earlier study. Fidelity card survey information was combined with information provided by the retailer on levels of the food colour Sunset Yellow (E110) in the foods to estimate a daily exposure to the additive in the Swiss population. As with any dietary exposure method the fidelity card scheme is subject to uncertainties and in this paper the impact of uncertainties associated with input variables including the amounts of food purchased, the levels of E110 in food, the proportion of food purchased at the retailer, the rate of fidelity card usage, the proportion of foods consumed outside of the home and bodyweights and with systematic uncertainties was assessed using a qualitative, deterministic and probabilistic approach. An analysis of the sensitivity of the results to each of the probabilistic inputs was also undertaken. The analysis identified the key factors responsible for uncertainty within the model and demonstrated how the application of some simple probabilistic approaches can be used quantitatively to assess uncertainty.

  14. Concentration addition-based approach for aquatic risk assessment of realistic pesticide mixtures in Portuguese river basins.

    PubMed

    Silva, Emília; Cerejeira, Maria José

    2015-05-01

    A two-tiered outline for the predictive environmental risk assessment of chemical mixtures with effect assessments based on concentration addition (CA) approaches as first tier and consideration of independent action (IA) as the second tier was applied based on realistic pesticide mixtures measured in surface waters from 2002 to 2008 within three important Portuguese river basins ('Mondego', 'Sado' and 'Tejo'). The CA-based risk quotients, based on acute data and an assessment factor of 100, exceeded 1 in more than 39 % of the 281 samples, indicating a potential risk for the aquatic environment, namely to algae. Seven herbicide compounds and three insecticides were the most toxic compounds in the pesticide mixtures and provided at least 50 % of the mixture's toxicity in almost 100 % of the samples with risk quotients based on the sum of toxic units (RQSTU) above 1. In eight samples, the maximum cumulative ratio (MCR) and the Junghan's ratio values indicated that a chemical-by-chemical approach underestimated the toxicity of the pesticide mixtures, and CA predicted higher mixture toxicity than that of IA. From a risk management perspective, the results pointed out that, by deriving appropriate programmes of measures to a limited number of pesticides with the highest contribution to the total mixture toxicity, relevant benefits also on mixture impact could be produced.

  15. The Addition of Vascular Calcification Scores to Traditional Risk Factors Improves Cardiovascular Risk Assessment in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Diouf, Momar; Temmar, Mohamed; Renard, Cédric; Choukroun, Gabriel; Massy, Ziad A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Although a variety of non-invasive methods for measuring cardiovascular (CV) risk (such as carotid intima media thickness, pulse wave velocity (PWV), coronary artery and aortic calcification scores (measured either by CT scan or X-ray) and the ankle brachial index (ABI)) have been evaluated separately in chronic kidney disease (CKD) cohorts, few studies have evaluated these methods simultaneously. Here, we looked at whether the addition of non-invasive methods to traditional risk factors (TRFs) improves prediction of the CV risk in patients at different CKD stages. Methods We performed a prospective, observational study of the relationship between the outputs of non-invasive measurement methods on one hand and mortality and CV outcomes in 143 patients at different CKD stages on the other. During the follow-up period, 44 patients died and 30 CV events were recorded. We used Cox models to calculate the relative risk for outcomes. To assess the putative clinical value of each method, we also determined the categorical net reclassification improvement (NRI) and the integrated discrimination improvement. Results Vascular calcification, PWV and ABI predicted all-cause mortality and CV events in univariate analyses. However, after adjustment for TRFs, only aortic and coronary artery calcification scores were found to be significant, independent variables. Moreover, the addition of coronary artery calcification scores to TRFs improved the specificity of prediction by 20%. Conclusion The addition of vascular calcification scores (especially the coronary artery calcification score) to TRFs appears to improve CV risk assessment in a CKD population. PMID:26181592

  16. [Denoising and assessing method of additive noise in the ultraviolet spectrum of SO2 in flue gas].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Tao; Sun, Chang-Ku; Liu, Bin; Zhao, Yu-Mei

    2009-11-01

    The problem of denoising and assessing method of the spectrum of SO2 in flue gas was studied based on DOAS. The denoising procedure of the additive noise in the spectrum was divided into two parts: reducing the additive noise and enhancing the useful signal. When obtaining the absorption feature of measured gas, a multi-resolution preprocessing method of original spectrum was adopted for denoising by DWT (discrete wavelet transform). The signal energy operators in different scales were used to choose the denoising threshold and separate the useful signal from the noise. On the other hand, because there was no sudden change in the spectra of flue gas in time series, the useful signal component was enhanced according to the signal time dependence. And the standard absorption cross section was used to build the ideal absorption spectrum with the measured gas temperature and pressure. This ideal spectrum was used as the desired signal instead of the original spectrum in the assessing method to modify the SNR (signal-noise ratio). There were two different environments to do the proof test-in the lab and at the scene. In the lab, SO2 was measured several times with the system using this method mentioned above. The average deviation was less than 1.5%, while the repeatability was less than 1%. And the short range experiment data were better than the large range. In the scene of a power plant whose concentration of flue gas had a large variation range, the maximum deviation of this method was 2.31% in the 18 groups of contrast data. The experimental results show that the denoising effect of the scene spectrum was better than that of the lab spectrum. This means that this method can improve the SNR of the spectrum effectively, which is seriously polluted by additive noise.

  17. Assessment of diurnal systemic dose of agrochemicals in regulatory toxicity testing--an integrated approach without additional animal use.

    PubMed

    Saghir, Shakil A; Bartels, Michael J; Rick, David L; McCoy, Alene T; Rasoulpour, Reza J; Ellis-Hutchings, Robert G; Sue Marty, M; Terry, Claire; Bailey, Jason P; Billington, Richard; Bus, James S

    2012-07-01

    Integrated toxicokinetics (TK) data provide information on the rate, extent and duration of systemic exposure across doses, species, strains, gender, and life stages within a toxicology program. While routine for pharmaceuticals, TK assessments of non-pharmaceuticals are still relatively rare, and have never before been included in a full range of guideline studies for a new agrochemical. In order to better understand the relationship between diurnal systemic dose (AUC(24h)) and toxicity of agrochemicals, TK analyses in the study animals is now included in all short- (excluding acute), medium- and long-term guideline mammalian toxicity studies including reproduction/developmental tests. This paper describes a detailed procedure for the implementation of TK in short-, medium- and long-term regulatory toxicity studies, without the use of satellite animals, conducted on three agrochemicals (X11422208, 2,4-D and X574175). In these studies, kinetically-derived maximum doses (KMD) from short-term studies instead of, or along with, maximum tolerated doses (MTD) were used for the selection of the high dose in subsequent longer-term studies. In addition to leveraging TK data to guide dose level selection, the integrated program was also used to select the most appropriate method of oral administration (i.e., gavage versus dietary) of test materials for rat and rabbit developmental toxicity studies. The integrated TK data obtained across toxicity studies (without the use of additional/satellite animals) provided data critical to understanding differences in response across doses, species, strains, sexes, and life stages. Such data should also be useful in mode of action studies and to improve human risk assessments.

  18. [About some medical bibliographical sources of Jacobinic and Napoleonic age].

    PubMed

    Porro, Alessandro; Franchini, Antonia Francesca; Falconi, Bruno

    2011-01-01

    The authors analyze some bibliographical sources of jacobinic and Napoleonic age: books and pamphlets published by Stamperia Italiana e Francese in Milan (Lombardy); the Bullettino del Consiglio Subalpino di SanitY, ossia Giornale Fisico-Medico del Piemonte in Turin (Piedmont); some Charles Botta (1766-1837) books (Storia naturale e medica dell 'isola di Corfù; Mémoire du [...] sur la doctrine de Brown; Vicissitudes de l'instruction publique en Piémont depuis l'an VII jusq'au mois de ventose an XI [...]). They are useful to analyse the spreading of John Brown (1735-1788) theories in Italy, during the jacobinic and napoleonic time.

  19. Co-Authorship and Bibliographic Coupling Network Effects on Citations

    PubMed Central

    Biscaro, Claudio; Giupponi, Carlo

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyzes the effects of the co-authorship and bibliographic coupling networks on the citations received by scientific articles. It expands prior research that limited its focus on the position of co-authors and incorporates the effects of the use of knowledge sources within articles: references. By creating a network on the basis of shared references, we propose a way to understand whether an article bridges among extant strands of literature and infer the size of its research community and its embeddedness. Thus, we map onto the article – our unit of analysis – the metrics of authors' position in the co-authorship network and of the use of knowledge on which the scientific article is grounded. Specifically, we adopt centrality measures – degree, betweenneess, and closeness centrality – in the co-authorship network and degree, betweenness centrality and clustering coefficient in the bibliographic coupling and show their influence on the citations received in first two years after the year of publication. Findings show that authors' degree positively impacts citations. Also closeness centrality has a positive effect manifested only when the giant component is relevant. Author's betweenness centrality has instead a negative effect that persists until the giant component - largest component of the network in which all nodes can be linked by a path - is relevant. Moreover, articles that draw on fragmented strands of literature tend to be cited more, whereas the size of the scientific research community and the embeddedness of the article in a cohesive cluster of literature have no effect. PMID:24911416

  20. The Linked System Project : a network interconnection project between three major bibliographic utilities and LC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurihara, Shin'ichi

    The Linked Systems Project (LSP) is the first network project based on the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) in the world. The purpose of the project is to interconnect between three major bibliographic utilities and LC, and to perform as one system on the whole. The first application developed for the LSP is the sharing of name authority data based on the Name Authority Cooperative (NACO) Project. In 1985, LC began to send name authority records to RLG/RLIN. Since 1987, RLG/RLIN and OCLC send name authority records to LC. Bibliographic records will be sent mutually between three major bibliographic utilities and LC near future.

  1. Online Bibliographic Retrieval Services in Various Australian Tertiary Institutions: Trends in the Scope and Nature of Online Searching and an Evaluation of Patron Satisfaction. ANU Library Occasional Paper Number 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Fiona

    A 1981 investigation by the Australian National University (ANU) library of the scope and nature of online bibliographic retrieval services provided by the 19 Australian university libraries and 5 of the Australian central Institute of Technology libraries, and a further study carried out in 1980-81 to assess the satisfaction of patrons with…

  2. Assessment of PNGV fuels infrastructure. Phase 1 report: Additional capital needs and fuel-cycle energy and emissions impacts

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, M.; Stork, K.; Vyas, A.; Mintz, M.; Singh, M.; Johnson, L.

    1997-01-01

    This report presents the methodologies and results of Argonne`s assessment of additional capital needs and the fuel-cycle energy and emissions impacts of using six different fuels in the vehicles with tripled fuel economy (3X vehicles) that the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles is currently investigating. The six fuels included in this study are reformulated gasoline, low-sulfur diesel, methanol, ethanol, dimethyl ether, and hydrogen. Reformulated gasoline, methanol, and ethanol are assumed to be burned in spark-ignition, direct-injection engines. Diesel and dimethyl ether are assumed to be burned in compression-ignition, direct-injection engines. Hydrogen and methanol are assumed to be used in fuel-cell vehicles. The authors have analyzed fuels infrastructure impacts under a 3X vehicle low market share scenario and a high market share scenario. The assessment shows that if 3X vehicles are mass-introduced, a considerable amount of capital investment will be needed to build new fuel production plants and to establish distribution infrastructure for methanol, ethanol, dimethyl ether, and hydrogen. Capital needs for production facilities will far exceed those for distribution infrastructure. Among the four fuels, hydrogen will bear the largest capital needs. The fuel efficiency gain by 3X vehicles translates directly into reductions in total energy demand, fossil energy demand, and CO{sub 2} emissions. The combination of fuel substitution and fuel efficiency results in substantial petroleum displacement and large reductions in emissions of nitrogen oxide, carbon monoxide, volatile organic compounds, sulfur oxide, and particulate matter of size smaller than 10 microns.

  3. The Cybernetics of Bibliographic Control: Toward a Theory of Document Retrieval Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wellisch, Hans H.

    1980-01-01

    Explores the concept of cataloging, analyzes its functions and operations, and holds that as a control system bibliographic organization is subject to the laws of cybernetics. The role of relevance and the limitations of some regulatory devices are examined. (FM)

  4. Diseno y desarrollo de una base de datos bibliograficos (Design and Development of a Bibliographic Database).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattenella, L. E.; Velazco, J. W.

    1992-01-01

    This article briefly describes the development of bibliographic retrieval systems in the Instituto de Beneficio di Minerales (IN BE MI) in Salta, Argentina, using the Mini-micro CDS/ISIS software developed by Unesco. (LRW)

  5. Comparison of Printed Bibliographic Descriptions Distributed by BIOSIS, CAS, and Ei

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Julian R.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Printed bibliographic descriptions of journal articles cited by BioSciences Information Service of Biological Abstracts (BIOSIS), Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS), and Engineering Index (Ei) were compared to identify similarities and differences in form, format, and data content. (Author)

  6. Brownfields Assessing Contractor Capabilities for Streamlined Site Investigation: Additional Information Regarding All Appropriate Inquiries and Hiring an Environmental Professional

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document assists Brownfields grantees and other decision makers as they assess the capabilities of contractors and consultants to determine their qualifications to provide streamlined and innovative strategies for the assessment and and cleanup.

  7. Adiponectin Provides Additional Information to Conventional Cardiovascular Risk Factors for Assessing the Risk of Atherosclerosis in Both Genders

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Jin-Ha; Kim, Sung-Kyung; Choi, Ho-June; Choi, Soo-In; Cha, So-Youn; Koh, Sang-Baek

    2013-01-01

    Background This study evaluated the relation between adiponectin and atherosclerosis in both genders, and investigated whether adiponectin provides useful additional information for assessing the risk of atherosclerosis. Methods We measured serum adiponectin levels and other cardiovascular risk factors in 1033 subjects (454 men, 579 women) from the Korean Genomic Rural Cohort study. Carotid intima–media-thickness (CIMT) was used as measure of atherosclerosis. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated using multiple logistic regression, and receiver operating characteristic curves (ROC), the category-free net reclassification improvement (NRI) and integrated discrimination improvement (IDI) were calculated. Results After adjustment for conventional cardiovascular risk factors, such as age, waist circumference, smoking history, low-density and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, systolic blood pressure and insulin resistance, the ORs (95%CI) of the third tertile adiponectin group were 0.42 (0.25–0.72) in men and 0.47 (0.29–0.75) in women. The area under the curve (AUC) on the ROC analysis increased significantly by 0.025 in men and 0.022 in women when adiponectin was added to the logistic model of conventional cardiovascular risk factors (AUC in men: 0.655 to 0.680, p = 0.038; AUC in women: 0.654 to 0.676, p = 0.041). The NRI was 0.32 (95%CI: 0.13–0.50, p<0.001), and the IDI was 0.03 (95%CI: 0.01–0.04, p<0.001) for men. For women, the category-free NRI was 0.18 (95%CI: 0.02–0.34, p = 0.031) and the IDI was 0.003 (95%CI: −0.002–0.008, p = 0.189). Conclusion Adiponectin and atherosclerosis were significantly related in both genders, and these relationships were independent of conventional cardiovascular risk factors. Furthermore, adiponectin provided additional information to conventional cardiovascular risk factors regarding the risk of atherosclerosis. PMID:24116054

  8. Randomized clinical trial assessing whether additional massage treatments for chronic neck pain improve 12- and 26-week outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Andrea J.; Wellman, Robert D.; Cherkin, Daniel C.; Kahn, Janet R.; Sherman, Karen J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Context This is the first study to systematically evaluate the value of a longer treatment period for massage. We provide a framework of how to conceptualize an optimal dose in this challenging setting of non-pharmacological treatments. Purpose To determine the optimal dose of massage for neck pain. Study Design/Setting Two-phase randomized trial for persons with chronic non-specific neck pain. Primary randomization to one of 5 groups receiving 4 weeks of massage (30 minutes 2×/ or 3×/week or 60 minutes 1×, 2×, or 3×/week). Booster randomization of participants to receive an additional 6 massages, 60 minute 1×/week, or no additional massage. Patient Sample 179 participants from Group Health and the general population of Seattle, WA USA recruited between June 2010 and August 2011. Outcome Measures Primary outcomes self-reported neck-related dysfunction (Neck Disability Index) and pain (0–10 scale) were assessed at baseline, 12, and 26 weeks. Clinically meaningful improvement was defined as >5 point decrease in dysfunction and > 30% decrease in pain from baseline. Methods Clinically meaningful improvement for each primary outcome with both follow-up times was analyzed using adjusted modified Poisson generalized estimating equations. Secondary analyses for the continuous outcomes used linear generalized estimating equations. This study was funded the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine, NIH, USA (R01 AT004411). The funders had no role in the interpretation or reporting of results. Results There were no observed differences by primary treatment group at 12 or 26 weeks. Those receiving booster dose had improvements in both dysfunction and pain at 12 weeks (dysfunction: RR=1.56(1.08–2.25), P=0.018; pain: RR=1.25(0.98–1.61); P=0.077), but those were non-significant at 26 weeks (dysfunction: RR=1.22(0.85–1.74); pain: RR=1.09(0.82–1.43)). Subgroup analysis by primary and booster treatments found the booster dose only

  9. [Assessment of efficiency of dietotherapy with addition of a vitamin-mineral complex in patients with diabetes mellitus type 2].

    PubMed

    Lapik, I A; Sokol'nikov, A A; Sharafetdinov, Kh Kh; Sentsova, T B; Plotnikova, O A

    2014-01-01

    The influence of diet inclusion of vitamin and mineral complex (VMC), potassium and magnesium in the form of asparaginate on micronutrient status, body composition and biochemical parameters in patients with diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2) has been investigated. 120 female patients with DM2 and obesity of I-III degree (mean age - 58 +/- 6 years) have been included in the study. The patients were divided into two groups: main group (n = 60) and control group (n = 60). For 3 weeks patients of both groups received a low-calorie diet (1600 kcal/day). Patients of the main group received VMC, providing an additional intake of vitamins C and E (100-120% RDA), beta-carotene (40% RDA), nicotinamide (38% RDA), pantothenic acid and biotin (60% RDA), vitamins B12, B2 and folic acid (75-83% RDA), vitamins B1 and B6 (160-300% RDA), zinc (100% RDA) and chromium (400% RDA), and also received magnesium (17.7% RDA) and potassium (9.4% RDA) in the form of asparaginate. Body composition, biochemical parameters and micronutrient status (blood serum level of vitamins C, D, B6, B12, folate, potassium, calcium, magnesium, zinc, phosphorus) were evaluated in all patients before and after the 3-week course of diet therapy. After the low-calorie diet therapy average body weight reduction was 4.2 +/- 0.2 kg in the main group, and 4.4 +/- 0.1 kg in the control group, without statistically significant differences between groups. Statistically significant decrease of total cholesterol, triglycerides, and glucose concentration in blood serum was registered in both groups. It should be noted that in the control group glycemia decreased on 1.2 +/- 0.1 mmol/l, while the main group showed a decrease on 1.8 +/- 0.1 (p < 0.05) to normal values (5.4 +/- 0.1 mmol/l). Initial assessment of vitamin and mineral status revealed that most patients were optimal supplied with vitamins and minerals. After the dietotherapy significant increase of vitamin C, 25-hydroxyvitamin D, vitamin B6, folate, vitamin B12

  10. 41 CFR 302-7.21 - If my HHG shipment includes an item for which a weight additive is assessed by the HHG carrier (e...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false If my HHG shipment includes an item for which a weight additive is assessed by the HHG carrier (e.g., boat, trailer... is assessed by the HHG carrier (e.g., boat, trailer, ultralight vehicle), am I responsible...

  11. Assessment of the micro-structure and depletion potentials in two-dimensional binary mixtures of additive hard-disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perera-Burgos, Jorge Adrián; Méndez-Alcaraz, José Miguel; Pérez-Ángel, Gabriel; Castañeda-Priego, Ramón

    2016-09-01

    Depletion forces are a particular class of effective interactions that have been mainly investigated in binary mixtures of hard-spheres in bulk. Although there are a few contributions that point toward the effects of confinement on the depletion potential, little is known about such entropic potentials in two-dimensional colloidal systems. From theoretical point of view, the problem resides in the fact that there is no general formulation of depletion forces in arbitrary dimensions and, typically, any approach that works well in three dimensions has to be reformulated for lower dimensionality. However, we have proposed a theoretical framework, based on the formalism of contraction of the description within the integral equations theory of simple liquids, to account for effective interactions in colloidal liquids, whose main feature is that it does not need to be readapted to the problem under consideration. We have also shown that such an approach allows one to determine the depletion pair potential in three-dimensional colloidal mixtures even near to the demixing transition, provided the bridge functions are sufficiently accurate to correctly describe the spatial correlation between colloids [E. López-Sánchez et al., J. Chem. Phys. 139, 104908 (2013)]. We here report an extensive analysis of the structure and the entropic potentials in binary mixtures of additive hard-disks. In particular, we show that the same functional form of the modified-Verlet closure relation used in three dimensions can be straightforwardly employed to obtain an accurate solution for two-dimensional colloidal mixtures in a wide range of packing fractions, molar fractions, and size asymmetries. Our theoretical results are explicitly compared with the ones obtained by means of event-driven molecular dynamics simulations and recent experimental results. Furthermore, to assess the accuracy of our predictions, the depletion potentials are used in an effective one-component model to reproduce

  12. Assessment of the micro-structure and depletion potentials in two-dimensional binary mixtures of additive hard-disks.

    PubMed

    Perera-Burgos, Jorge Adrián; Méndez-Alcaraz, José Miguel; Pérez-Ángel, Gabriel; Castañeda-Priego, Ramón

    2016-09-14

    Depletion forces are a particular class of effective interactions that have been mainly investigated in binary mixtures of hard-spheres in bulk. Although there are a few contributions that point toward the effects of confinement on the depletion potential, little is known about such entropic potentials in two-dimensional colloidal systems. From theoretical point of view, the problem resides in the fact that there is no general formulation of depletion forces in arbitrary dimensions and, typically, any approach that works well in three dimensions has to be reformulated for lower dimensionality. However, we have proposed a theoretical framework, based on the formalism of contraction of the description within the integral equations theory of simple liquids, to account for effective interactions in colloidal liquids, whose main feature is that it does not need to be readapted to the problem under consideration. We have also shown that such an approach allows one to determine the depletion pair potential in three-dimensional colloidal mixtures even near to the demixing transition, provided the bridge functions are sufficiently accurate to correctly describe the spatial correlation between colloids [E. López-Sánchez et al., J. Chem. Phys. 139, 104908 (2013)]. We here report an extensive analysis of the structure and the entropic potentials in binary mixtures of additive hard-disks. In particular, we show that the same functional form of the modified-Verlet closure relation used in three dimensions can be straightforwardly employed to obtain an accurate solution for two-dimensional colloidal mixtures in a wide range of packing fractions, molar fractions, and size asymmetries. Our theoretical results are explicitly compared with the ones obtained by means of event-driven molecular dynamics simulations and recent experimental results. Furthermore, to assess the accuracy of our predictions, the depletion potentials are used in an effective one-component model to reproduce

  13. Addition of a fracture risk assessment to a coordinator's role improved treatment rates within 6 months of screening in a fragility fracture screening program.

    PubMed

    Beaton, D E; Vidmar, M; Pitzul, K B; Sujic, R; Rotondi, N K; Bogoch, E R; Sale, J E M; Jain, R; Weldon, J

    2017-03-01

    We evaluated the impact of a more intensive version of an existing post-fracture coordinator-based fracture prevention program and found that the addition of a full-risk assessment improved treatment rates. These findings provide additional support for more intensive programs aimed at reducing the risk of re-fractures.

  14. The future of bibliographic standards in a networked information environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The main mission of the CENDI Cataloging Working Group is to provide guidelines for cataloging practices that support the sharing of database records among the CENDI agencies, and that incorporate principles based on cost effectiveness and efficiency. Recent efforts include the extension of COSATI Guidelines for the Cataloging of Technical Reports to include non-print materials, and the mapping of each agency's export file structure to USMARC. Of primary importance is the impact of electronic documents and the distributed nature of the networked information environment. Topics discussed during the workshop include the following: Trade-offs in Cataloging and Indexing Internet Information; The Impact on Current and Future Standards; A Look at WWW Metadata Initiatives; Standards for Electronic Journals; The Present and Future Search Engines; The Roles for Text Analysis Software; Advanced Search Engine Meets Metathesaurus; Locator Schemes for Internet Resources; Identifying and Cataloging Web Document Types; In Search of a New Bibliographic Record. The videos in this set include viewgraphs of charts and related materials of the workshop.

  15. [Female stress urinary incontinence during pregnancy. A bibliographical review].

    PubMed

    Navarro García, Miguel Angel; De Carlos Alegre, Vanessa

    2009-10-01

    The authors have prepared a brief bibliographical review on female stress urinary incontinence during pregnancy. The high degree of incidence this disorder has and the introduction of the latest sanitary techniques combine to make necessary a profound review which aids medical professionals to realize the magnitude of this problem, as well as to diagnose and treat it effectively. Female stress urinary incontinence during pregnancy is an involuntary urine loss associated to the physical effort which an increase in abdominal pressure provokes. A literary review of articles related to this disorder leaves no doubt that among the risk factors which make a woman be predisposed to suffer female stress urinary incontinence, obstetric trauma as a consequence of pregnancy and birth is a main risk factor. The authors describe a couple of diagnostic tools, a ICIQ-SF questionnaire, and therapeutic tools, the pelvic floor muscle exercise program, whose effectiveness has been sufficiently demonstrated and may prove to have very beneficial clinical uses which can be applied in a nurse's office.

  16. [Medicine, philosophy and the scientific revolution. A bibliographical survey].

    PubMed

    Crignon, Claire; Antoine-Mahut, Delphine

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the place that has been reserved for medicine in the historiography of the sciences. More precisely, it focuses on the motifs that have lead historians of science to grant only a minor role to medicine within the movement commonly designated by the notion of the "scientific revolution". Among those motifs, the persistent and late application of teleological schemas in the thinking of the biological and the difficulties in "mathematizing" anatomy are often invoked. Starting with an overview of the critical literature on the topic, this bibliographical essay shows how the situation has changed over the last decades. The opposition between, on the one hand, the physical sciences founded on a model of mechanistic explanation of nature and, on the other hand, the life sciences that remained guided by a finalist mode of thinking are today much put into question. What we find today is more open reflection on the diversity of "models" for understanding the living, and on how to integrate them into more complex schemas than those that simply oppose mechanism and teleology. The essay is finally based on discussions and debates among medical doctors and philosophers in the modern period, and insists on the importance of studying this "medico-philosophical" tradition in order to avoid reconstructing a posteriori a mythical history that trends to consecrate a single model of rationality.

  17. Patent foramen ovale and paradoxical systemic embolism: a bibliographic review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foster, Philip P.; Boriek, Aladin M.; Butler, Bruce D.; Gernhardt, Michael L.; Bove, Alfred A.

    2003-01-01

    A patent foramen ovale (PFO) has been reported to be an important risk factor for cardioembolic cerebrovascular accidents through paradoxical systemic embolization, and it provides one potential mechanism for the paradoxical systemic embolization of venous gas bubbles produced after altitude or hyperbaric decompressions. Here, we present in a single document a summary of the original findings and views from authors in this field. It is a comprehensive review of 145 peer-reviewed journal articles related to PFO that is intended to encourage reflection on PFO detection methods and on the possible association between PFO and stroke. There is a heightened debate on whether aviators, astronauts, and scuba divers should go through screening for PFO. Because it is a source of an important controversy, we prefer to present the findings in the format of a neutral bibliographic review independent of our own opinions. Each cited peer-reviewed article includes a short summary in which we attempt to present potential parallels with the pathophysiology of decompression bubbles. Two types of articles are summarized, as follows. First, we report the original clinical and physiological findings which focus on PFO. The consistent reporting sequence begins by describing the method of detection of PFO and goal of the study, followed by bulleted results, and finally the discussion and conclusion. Second, we summarize from review papers the issues related only to PFO. At the end of each section, an abstract with concluding remarks based on the cited articles provides guidelines.

  18. Conglomeration or Chameleon? Teachers' Representations of Language in the Assessment of Learners with English as an Additional Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Sheena; Rea-Dickins, Pauline

    2001-01-01

    Investigates teacher representations of language in relation to assessment contexts. Analyzes not only what is represented in teachers' use of metalanguage, but also how it is presented--in terms of expression, voice, and source. The analysis is based on interviews with teachers, transcripts of lessons, and classroom-based assessments, formal…

  19. Performing arts medicine-a bibliographic retrospective of the early literature: an historical examination of bibliographic references pre-1975.

    PubMed

    Dawson, William J

    2013-03-01

    Performing arts medicine (PAM) emerged as a medical specialty around 1985. Prior to this time, relatively few publications addressed the identification and concerns of musicians' and dancers' medical problems. To determine what number and types of publications occurred prior to the actual beginnings of PAM as a discipline, and to determine how these original topics compared with present-day publications, a retrospective review of the current bibliographic database of the Performing Arts Medicine Association (PAMA) was undertaken. Out of a total of 12,600 entries to date, 489 references were found published from 1798 through 1974, which represent only 3.9% of the current database listings. One-sixth of the references were originally written in a language other than English. Journal articles were by far the most numerous type of publication. Topics with the highest number of entries included the neurobiology of music (n=77), dental/orofacial matters (71), and biographical accounts of composers or musicians and their illnesses (59). Other frequently published topics included hearing loss, physiology of playing instruments, and instrumental technique and teaching. Early topics with multiple publications included composers' biographies, dystonias, and surgery to improve finger independence for playing piano. Subjects whose publications occurred principally in the last two decades of this review included dermatological disorders, hearing loss, and ballet physiology, teaching, and technique. Those which remain popular to the present day include hearing loss, performance anxiety, focal dystonia, and dental/orofacial problems.

  20. IFLA General Conference, 1991. Division of Bibliographic Control: Open Forum of Division of Bibliographic Control; Section of Cataloguing; Section of Bibliography; Section of Classification and Indexing. Booklet 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions, The Hague (Netherlands).

    The 11 reports and papers in this booklet were presented at meetings of 4 sections within the Division of Bibliographic Control: (1) "Report of the Section on Cataloguing--Review of the Work 1990/1991" (Inger Cathrine Spangen, Norway); (2) "Les fichiers d'autorite auteurs: Rapport d'activite 1990-1991 (Author Authority Lists: Report…

  1. Reference master: a microcomputer-based storage and retrieval system for bibliographic references.

    PubMed

    Schmid, K; Böhmer, G

    1987-01-01

    A complete system for housekeeping and retrieval of bibliographic references managing individual reprint collections is described. By the use of special hardware and individual data base software even large reprint collections in the range up to 65,000 papers are handled economically. A fast 8-bit microprocessor (HD 64180) in combination with a Winchester hard disk drive serves as the basis for rapid access to the desired information. An efficient string search algorithm written in assembly language guarantees a fast operation with a search speed of more than 6,000 entries/minute. The system cannot only prepare reference lists and reference files, but also incorporates an editor and maintains the control whether reprints are already on file or requested. The implementation of back-up schemes assure against data losses. Using a state of the art design single board computer and the most recent mass storage device technology, the system is as well small and cost effective, and thus suitable for personal use. In addition, some general questions and pitfalls concerning the management of scientific literature collections are touched upon.

  2. Assessing the use of an infrared spectrum hyperpixel array imager to measure temperature during additive and subtractive manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitenton, Eric; Heigel, Jarred; Lane, Brandon; Moylan, Shawn

    2016-05-01

    Accurate non-contact temperature measurement is important to optimize manufacturing processes. This applies to both additive (3D printing) and subtractive (material removal by machining) manufacturing. Performing accurate single wavelength thermography suffers numerous challenges. A potential alternative is hyperpixel array hyperspectral imaging. Focusing on metals, this paper discusses issues involved such as unknown or changing emissivity, inaccurate greybody assumptions, motion blur, and size of source effects. The algorithm which converts measured thermal spectra to emissivity and temperature uses a customized multistep non-linear equation solver to determine the best-fit emission curve. Emissivity dependence on wavelength may be assumed uniform or have a relationship typical for metals. The custom software displays residuals for intensity, temperature, and emissivity to gauge the correctness of the greybody assumption. Initial results are shown from a laser powder-bed fusion additive process, as well as a machining process. In addition, the effects of motion blur are analyzed, which occurs in both additive and subtractive manufacturing processes. In a laser powder-bed fusion additive process, the scanning laser causes the melt pool to move rapidly, causing a motion blur-like effect. In machining, measuring temperature of the rapidly moving chip is a desirable goal to develop and validate simulations of the cutting process. A moving slit target is imaged to characterize how the measured temperature values are affected by motion of a measured target.

  3. Background Languages, Learner Motivation and Self-Assessed Progress in Learning Zulu as an Additional Language in the UK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marten, Lutz; Mostert, Carola

    2012-01-01

    The article reports results of a study of beginner-level learners of Zulu in higher education in the UK, focussing on learners' linguistic background, their motivation and reasons for studying Zulu, and their self-assessed progress at the beginning of the second term of teaching. The study shows that participants typically studied Zulu as an…

  4. Assessing and Promoting Resilience: An Additional Tool to Address the Increasing Number of College Students with Psychological Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartley, Michael T.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the assessment of resilience in undergraduate college students. Multigroup comparisons of the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC; Connor & Davidson, 2003) were performed on general population students and students recruited from campus mental health offices offering college counseling, psychiatric-support, and…

  5. Plants with genetically modified events combined by conventional breeding: an assessment of the need for additional regulatory data.

    PubMed

    Pilacinski, W; Crawford, A; Downey, R; Harvey, B; Huber, S; Hunst, P; Lahman, L K; MacIntosh, S; Pohl, M; Rickard, C; Tagliani, L; Weber, N

    2011-01-01

    Crop varieties with multiple GM events combined by conventional breeding have become important in global agriculture. The regulatory requirements in different countries for such products vary considerably, placing an additional burden on regulatory agencies in countries where the submission of additional data is required and delaying the introduction of innovative products to meet agricultural needs. The process of conventional plant breeding has predictably provided safe food and feed products both historically and in the modern era of plant breeding. Thus, previously approved GM events that have been combined by conventional plant breeding and contain GM traits that are not likely to interact in a manner affecting safety should be considered to be as safe as their conventional counterparts. Such combined GM event crop varieties should require little, if any, additional regulatory data to meet regulatory requirements.

  6. Assessing the potential additionality of certification by the Round table on Responsible Soybeans and the Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrett, Rachael D.; Carlson, Kimberly M.; Rueda, Ximena; Noojipady, Praveen

    2016-04-01

    Multi-stakeholder roundtables offering certification programs are promising voluntary governance mechanisms to address sustainability issues associated with international agricultural supply chains. Yet, little is known about whether roundtable certifications confer additionality, the benefits of certification beyond what would be expected from policies and practices currently in place. Here, we examine the potential additionality of the Round table on Responsible Soybeans (RTRS) and the Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil (RSPO) in mitigating conversion of native vegetation to cropland. We develop a metric of additionality based on business as usual land cover change dynamics and roundtable standard stringency relative to existing policies. We apply this metric to all countries with RTRS (n = 8) and RSPO (n = 12) certified production in 2013-2014, as well as countries that have no certified production but are among the top ten global producers in terms of soy (n = 2) and oil palm (n = 2). We find RSPO and RTRS both have substantially higher levels of stringency than existing national policies except in Brazil and Uruguay. In regions where these certification standards are adopted, the mean estimated rate of tree cover conversion to the target crop is similar for both standards. RTRS has higher mean relative stringency than the RSPO, yet RSPO countries have slightly higher enforcement levels. Therefore, mean potential additionality of RTRS and RSPO is similar across regions. Notably, countries with the highest levels of additionality have some adoption. However, with extremely low adoption rates (0.41% of 2014 global harvested area), RTRS likely has lower impact than RSPO (14%). Like most certification programs, neither roundtable is effectively targeting smallholder producers. To improve natural ecosystem protection, roundtables could target adoption to regions with low levels of environmental governance and high rates of forest-to-cropland conversion.

  7. ISBD(S), International Standard Bibliographic Description for Serials; Recommended by the Joint Working Group on the International Standard Bibliographic Description for Serials set up by the IFLA Committee on Cataloguing and the IFLA Committee on Serial Publications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Federation of Library Associations, London (England). Committee on Cataloguing.

    The International Standard Bibliographic Description for Serials--ISBD(S)--provides a format for the international communication of bibliographic information so that records may be interchanged between sources, interpreted across language barriers, and converted to machine readable form. The ISBD(S) standards are limited to the descriptive…

  8. A Multilateral Use and Processing of A Large Bibliographic Database for Research Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konishi, Osamu; Obayashi, Haruo

    In order to explain the multilateral use of bibliographic database in research activities, nuclear fusion research field as the comprehensive science was selected. The processing method of the above mentioned database is mainly described. Considering advantages of the bibliographic and indexed information of such database, its use is classified into three types: 1. To use for reference information, 2. To obtain facts and knowledge from information, and 3. To process and analyse information. Each sample corresponding to the above is introduced as follows, and the usefulness of a large scale database is made clear. 1) Use of online search in research activities, 2) Construction of scientific terms list utilizing keywords and their frequency in the database, and 3) To analyse bibliographic information metrically and evaluate research. This is an application of scientometrics.

  9. [The use of work process category for Brazilian nurses: a bibliographic analysis].

    PubMed

    Fracolli, Lislaine Aparecida; Granja, Gabriela Ferreira

    2005-12-01

    The aim of this study was to identify, in bibliographic production, how Brazilian nurses have been discussed "work process" in nursing practice. The bibliographic research was realized in Lilacs, in a period from January of 1993 to December of 2003, and focus the periodics: Acta Paulista de Enfermagem, Nursing (SP), Revista Brasileira de Enfermagem, Revista da Escola de Enfermagem da USP, Revista latinoamericana de Enfermagem e Revista Texto e contexto de Enfermagem. The key words used were: process and work and care; process and work and nursing. The results show that is small the bibliographic production that using "work process" like a category of analysis of nursing practice, and there are a concentration of this production in articles that focus tools of nursing work In this study were find 40 articles and the most of them was published in Revista Brasileira de Enfermagem in the year of 2000.

  10. 41 CFR 302-7.21 - If my HHG shipment includes an item for which a weight additive is assessed by the HHG carrier (e...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true If my HHG shipment includes an item for which a weight additive is assessed by the HHG carrier (e.g., boat, trailer... the HHG carrier (e.g., boat, trailer, ultralight vehicle), am I responsible for payment? (a) No,...

  11. 41 CFR 302-7.21 - If my HHG shipment includes an item for which a weight additive is assessed by the HHG carrier (e...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false If my HHG shipment includes an item for which a weight additive is assessed by the HHG carrier (e.g., boat, trailer... Management Federal Travel Regulation System RELOCATION ALLOWANCES TRANSPORTATION AND STORAGE OF PROPERTY...

  12. Assessing the Value of Additional Years of Schooling for the Non-Academically Inclined. Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth. Research Report 38

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dockery, Alfred Michael

    2005-01-01

    In this report data from the 1995 Year 9 Cohort of the Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth (LSAY) is used along with a variety of empirical approaches to assess the benefits of additional years of schooling for various groups of youth conditional upon their estimated propensity to engage in further schooling. Background material is provided…

  13. Piloting the Post-Entry Language Assessment: Outcomes from a New System for Supporting Research Candidates with English as an Additional Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tynan, Liz; Johns, Kellie

    2015-01-01

    The Post-Entry Language Assessment (PELA) was introduced by the James Cook University Graduate Research School in February 2013 as a pilot programme to test a new mechanism for initiating post-enrolment support for research degree candidates who have English as an additional language. Language ability does not necessarily, on its own, predict…

  14. Haptoglobin serum concentration is a suitable biomarker to assess the efficacy of a feed additive in pigs.

    PubMed

    Saco, Y; Fraile, L; Giménez, M; Pato, R; Montoya, M; Bassols, A

    2010-09-01

    Levels of haptoglobin and Pig-major acute phase protein (MAP) were analysed in animals from a commercial herd receiving or not a diet enriched with an additive. The group receiving the additive exhibited a decrease in haptoglobin after 3 weeks, suggesting that a better health status has been established, together with an improvement in total body weight and average daily gain. In contrast, Pig-MAP does not significantly change under these conditions. Aujeszky live modified vaccination, which is compulsory in Spain, did cause a significant increment in haptoglobin serum concentration although it did not affect Pig-MAP. The response of acute phase proteins to vaccination was similar in both control and additive-treated groups. Interleukins (IL)-1β and IL-6 was below the detection limits in most of the animals. In conclusion, this study shows that haptoglobin serum concentration, but not Pig-MAP, is a good biomarker to monitorize production parameters and for monitoring Aujeszky modified live vaccine in pigs reared under standard commercial conditions.

  15. Importing Downloaded Bibliographic Records into dBASE III+ and dBASE IV: Tools and Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LePoer, Peter M.

    1990-01-01

    Discusses the advantages and disadvantages of using dBASE for the storage and retrieval of downloaded bibliographic records, and the problems involved in importing data downloaded from various online systems into dBASE. ASCIIREF, a software program developed to allow users to easily reformat just about any file of ASCII bibliographic records into…

  16. The Use of AJAX in Searching a Bibliographic Database: A Case Study of the Italian Biblioteche Oggi Database

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavaleri, Piero

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to describe the use of AJAX for searching the Biblioteche Oggi database of bibliographic records. Design/methodology/approach: The paper is a demonstration of how bibliographic database single page interfaces allow the implementation of more user-friendly features for social and collaborative tasks. Findings:…

  17. A Critical Analysis of SocINDEX and Sociological Abstracts Using an Evaluation Method for the Practicing Bibliographer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mellone, James T.

    2010-01-01

    This study provides a database evaluation method for the practicing bibliographer that is more than a brief review yet less than a controlled experiment. The author establishes evaluation criteria in the context of the bibliographic instruction provided to meet the research requirements of undergraduate sociology majors at Queens College, City…

  18. Making the Link: Importing Downloaded Bibliographic References to Pro-Cite and EndNote on the Macintosh.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mead, Thomas

    1991-01-01

    Describes procedures for importing downloaded bibliographic references using Pro-Cite and EndNote software on the Macintosh microcomputer. The need for a link between a bibliographic database program and the text file is explained, an explanation for users developed at Dartmouth College is presented, and benefits of each linking approach are…

  19. The Many Faces of a Catalog Record: A Snapshot of Bibliographic Display Practices for Monographs in Online Catalogs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wool, Gregory

    1996-01-01

    Full displays of bibliographic records for 5 monographs were analyzed in 36 library online catalogs and compared with International Standard Bibliographic Description (ISBD) and traditional catalog-card displays. Sampled characteristics included completeness, visual layout, data sequence, label specificity, and integration of description and…

  20. American Fiction, 1901-1925: Collection Strengthening and Creation of a National Bibliographic Record. Final Technical Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowe, William J.; And Others

    This final report of the American Fiction Project (AFP) describes two years of work during which AFP met its goals of: strengthening the Ohio State University Libraries (OSUL) collection of American fiction, 1901-1925; establishing a comprehensive bibliographic file of fiction of the period; and improving national bibliographic access to these…

  1. Assessing the influence of methanol-containing additive on biological characteristics of diesel exhaust emissions using microtox and mutatox assays.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ta-Chang; Chao, Mu-Rong

    2002-02-04

    Here we investigate the effect of the methanol-containing additive (MCA) on the biological characteristics of diesel exhaust emissions. Microtox and Mutatox assays, respectively, were used to evaluate the acute toxicity and genotoxicity of crude extracts from diesel engine exhaust. The engine was tested on a series of diesel fuels blended with five additive levels (0, 5, 8, 10 and 15% of MCA by volume). Emission tests were performed over the hot start portion of the transient Heavy-Duty-Federal Test Procedure (HD-FTP) and two selected steady-state modes. Microtox results show that MCA additive moderately lowers the toxicity levels of particle-associated (SOF) samples, but generally increase the vapor-phase (XOC) associated toxicity. A strong correlation was found between XOC-associated toxicity and total hydrocarbon (THC) concentrations, while only a slight link was found between SOF-associated toxicity and particulate matter (PM) concentrations. For Mutatox test results, when either 5 or 8% MCA used, XOC and SOF-associated genotoxicity in both steady-state and hot-start transient cycle tests were relatively lower compared to those of the base diesel. The genotoxic potential of XOC samples was significantly increased after treatment with an exogenous metabolic activation system (S9). On the contrary, the genotoxic potential of SOF samples without S9 metabolic activation was generally higher than those with S9. It is noteworthy that the total particle-associated (SOF) PAHs emissions showed trends quite similar to that of the genotoxic potential. As expected, the total particle-associated (SOF) PAHs correlated moderately with direct mutagenicity, and fairly well with indirect mutagenicity. Finally, the genotoxicity data did not parallel the Microtox results in this study, indicating that potentially long-term genotoxic agents may not be revealed by short-term toxicity assays.

  2. Applying additive modeling and gradient boosting to assess the effects of watershed and reach characteristics on riverine assemblages

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maloney, Kelly O.; Schmid, Matthias; Weller, Donald E.

    2012-01-01

    Issues with ecological data (e.g. non-normality of errors, nonlinear relationships and autocorrelation of variables) and modelling (e.g. overfitting, variable selection and prediction) complicate regression analyses in ecology. Flexible models, such as generalized additive models (GAMs), can address data issues, and machine learning techniques (e.g. gradient boosting) can help resolve modelling issues. Gradient boosted GAMs do both. Here, we illustrate the advantages of this technique using data on benthic macroinvertebrates and fish from 1573 small streams in Maryland, USA.

  3. Assessment of the Annual Additional Effective Doses amongst Minamisoma Children during the Second Year after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Disaster.

    PubMed

    Tsubokura, Masaharu; Kato, Shigeaki; Morita, Tomohiro; Nomura, Shuhei; Kami, Masahiro; Sakaihara, Kikugoro; Hanai, Tatsuo; Oikawa, Tomoyoshi; Kanazawa, Yukio

    2015-01-01

    An assessment of the external and internal radiation exposure levels, which includes calculation of effective doses from chronic radiation exposure and assessment of long-term radiation-related health risks, has become mandatory for residents living near the nuclear power plant in Fukushima, Japan. Data for all primary and secondary children in Minamisoma who participated in both external and internal screening programs were employed to assess the annual additional effective dose acquired due to the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant disaster. In total, 881 children took part in both internal and external radiation exposure screening programs between 1st April 2012 to 31st March 2013. The level of additional effective doses ranged from 0.025 to 3.49 mSv/year with the median of 0.70 mSv/year. While 99.7% of the children (n = 878) were not detected with internal contamination, 90.3% of the additional effective doses was the result of external radiation exposure. This finding is relatively consistent with the doses estimated by the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR). The present study showed that the level of annual additional effective doses among children in Minamisoma has been low, even after the inter-individual differences were taken into account. The dose from internal radiation exposure was negligible presumably due to the success of contaminated food control.

  4. Assessment of the Annual Additional Effective Doses amongst Minamisoma Children during the Second Year after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Disaster

    PubMed Central

    Tsubokura, Masaharu; Kato, Shigeaki; Morita, Tomohiro; Nomura, Shuhei; Kami, Masahiro; Sakaihara, Kikugoro; Hanai, Tatsuo; Oikawa, Tomoyoshi; Kanazawa, Yukio

    2015-01-01

    An assessment of the external and internal radiation exposure levels, which includes calculation of effective doses from chronic radiation exposure and assessment of long-term radiation-related health risks, has become mandatory for residents living near the nuclear power plant in Fukushima, Japan. Data for all primary and secondary children in Minamisoma who participated in both external and internal screening programs were employed to assess the annual additional effective dose acquired due to the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant disaster. In total, 881 children took part in both internal and external radiation exposure screening programs between 1st April 2012 to 31st March 2013. The level of additional effective doses ranged from 0.025 to 3.49 mSv/year with the median of 0.70 mSv/year. While 99.7% of the children (n = 878) were not detected with internal contamination, 90.3% of the additional effective doses was the result of external radiation exposure. This finding is relatively consistent with the doses estimated by the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR). The present study showed that the level of annual additional effective doses among children in Minamisoma has been low, even after the inter-individual differences were taken into account. The dose from internal radiation exposure was negligible presumably due to the success of contaminated food control. PMID:26053271

  5. Collection Assessment Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Blaine H.

    This manual is designed to help bibliographers, librarians, and other materials selectors plan and conduct systematic collection evaluations using both collection centered and client centered techniques. Topics covered in five chapters are: (1) planning the assessment; (2) collection-centered techniques, comprising the compilation of statistics,…

  6. Bibliographical Services to the Nation: The Next Decade. Proceedings of a Conference (Sydney, Australia, August 26-27, 1980). Development of Resource Sharing Networks. Networks Study No. 16.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borchardt, D. H., Ed.; Thawley, John, Ed.

    As organized by the Working Party on Bibliography of the Australian Advisory Council on Bibliographical Services, this conference brings together librarians and bibliographers to examine Australian national requirements for bibliographic services and control. Seven conference sessions provide discussions of the Australian National Bibliography…

  7. Model assessment of additional contamination of water bodies as a result of wildfires in the Chernobyl exclusion zone.

    PubMed

    Bondar, Yu I; Navumau, A D; Nikitin, A N; Brown, J; Dowdall, M

    2014-12-01

    Forest fires and wild fires are recognized as a possible cause of resuspension and redistribution of radioactive substances when occurring on lands contaminated with such materials, and as such are a matter of concern within the regions of Belarus and the Ukraine which were contaminated by the Chernobyl accident in 1986. Modelling the effects of such fires on radioactive contaminants is a complex matter given the number of variables involved. In this paper, a probabilistic model was developed using empirical data drawn from the Polessie State Radiation-Ecological Reserve (PSRER), Belarus, and the Maximum Entropy Method. Using the model, it was possible to derive estimates of the contribution of fire events to overall variability in the levels of (137)Cs and (239,240)Pu in ground air as well as estimates of the deposition of these radionuclides to specific water bodies within the contaminated areas of Belarus. Results indicate that fire events are potentially significant redistributors of radioactive contaminants within the study area and may result in additional contamination being introduced to water bodies.

  8. Assessing the addition of mineral processing waste to green waste-derived compost: an agronomic, environmental and economic appraisal.

    PubMed

    Jones, D L; Chesworth, S; Khalid, M; Iqbal, Z

    2009-01-01

    The overall aim of this study was to evaluate the benefit of mixing two large volume wastes, namely mineral processing waste and source-segregated green waste compost, on the growth performance of plants targeted towards high (horticulture/agriculture) and low (amenity/restoration) value markets. The secondary aims were to evaluate the influence of mineral waste type on plant growth performance and to undertake a simple economic analysis of the use of mineral-compost mixtures in land restoration. Our results showed that in comparison to organic wastes, mineral wastes contained a low available nutrient content which reduces compost quality. This is supported by growth trials with tomato, wheat and grass which showed that, irrespective of mineral source, plants performed poorly in compost blended with mineral waste in comparison to those grown in green waste or peat-based compost alone. In terms of consumer confidence, unlike other wastes (e.g. biosolids and construction/demolition waste) the mineral quarry wastes can be expected to be free of potentially toxic elements, however, the production costs of compost-mineral waste mixtures and subsequent transport costs may limit its widespread use. In addition, handling of the material can be difficult under wet conditions and effective blending may require the purchase of specialist equipment. From our results, we conclude that mineral fines may prove useful for low quality, low value landscaping activities close to the source of production but are unsuited to high value markets.

  9. The Shared Bibliographic Input Network (SBIN): A Summary of the Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cotter, Gladys A.

    As part of its mission to provide centralized services for the acquisition, storage, retrieval, and dissemination of scientific and technical information (STI) to support Department of Defense (DoD) research, development, and engineering studies programs, the Defense Technical Information Center (DTIC) sponsors the Shared Bibliographic Input…

  10. The Organization and Search of Bibliographic Records: Component Studies. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shoffner, Ralph M., Ed.; Cunningham, Jay L., Ed.

    Contained in this report are the results of the second phase (July, 1968 - June, 1970) of the File Organization Project, directed toward the development of a facility in which the many issues relating to the organization and search of bibliographic records in on-line computer environments could be studied. The papers in this volume deal…

  11. Locating Sources in Humanities Scholarship: The Efficacy of Following Bibliographic References.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Rebecca

    2000-01-01

    Discussion of the information-seeking behavior of humanists focuses on a study that investigated the efficacy of following bibliographic references from documents already known. Topics include the nature of humanities research; vocabulary control and indexing; subject-based literature searches; seed documents; relevance; retrieval based on…

  12. A Comparison of Computer-Assisted Instruction and Classroom Bibliographic Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holman, Lucy

    2000-01-01

    Compares computer-assisted instruction in an online library tutorial with the traditional classroom approach to bibliographic instruction. Results of pretests and posttests were compared with students who did not participate in instruction and it is suggested that further research is needed in the area of confidence levels and library use.…

  13. Innovation and Collaboration Brings Forth a New Approach to Bibliographic Instruction: Teach the Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipman, Cynthia; King-Blandford, Marcia

    1997-01-01

    To help instructors teach students basic information retrieval skills, librarians at the University of Toledo (OH) developed a bibliographic instruction program, "Teach the Teachers," to be used in the English department's composition classes. This article discusses the development of the program and cooperation between librarians and…

  14. Integrating Bibliographic Software, Database Searching, and Molecular Modeling in an Introductory Biology Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Priore, Charles F., Jr.; Giannini, John L.

    2007-01-01

    Librarians instruct students where to find information, but rarely demonstrate its management, while faculty have difficulty incorporating real-time laboratory experience with library research. This paper focuses on the development of a hands-on biology laboratory experiment in an introductory course that integrates bibliographic software into the…

  15. A Comparison of Bibliographic Instruction Methods on CD-ROM Databases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Dorothy F.

    1993-01-01

    Describes a study of four methods used to instruct college students on searching PsycLIT on CD-ROM: (1) lecture/demonstration; (2) lecture/demonstration using a liquid crystal display (LCD) panel; (3) video; and (4) a computer-based tutorial. Performance data are analyzed, and factors to consider when developing a CD-ROM bibliographic instruction…

  16. The Relationship between BIBFRAME and OCLC's Linked-Data Model of Bibliographic Description: A Working Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Godby, Carol Jean

    2013-01-01

    This document describes a proposed alignment between BIBFRAME (Bibliographic Framework) and a model being explored by the Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) with extensions proposed by the Schema Bib Extend project, a Worldwide Web Consortium sponsored (W3C-sponsored) community group tasked with enhancing Schema.org to the description of…

  17. The Organization of Knowledge and Bibliographic Classification in Nineteenth-Century America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisser, Katherine M.

    2009-01-01

    Bibliographic classification is culturally bound. This research examines the classification systems created for social libraries in the first half of the nineteenth century in the United States. Social libraries are defined as institutions that have voluntary membership and are dependent on membership fees. Seventeen classified catalogs were…

  18. EARS: An Online Bibliographic Search and Retrieval System Based on Ordered Explosion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramesh, R.; Drury, Colin G.

    1987-01-01

    Provides overview of Ergonomics Abstracts Retrieval System (EARS), an online bibliographic search and retrieval system in the area of human factors engineering. Other online systems are described, the design of EARS based on inverted file organization is explained, and system expansions including a thesaurus are discussed. (Author/LRW)

  19. Language barriers and bibliographic retrieval effectiveness: use of MEDLINE by French-speaking end users.

    PubMed Central

    Mouillet, E

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: A study was conducted to determine if bibliographic retrieval performed by French-speaking end users is impaired by English language interfaces. The American database MEDLINE on CD-ROM was used as a model. METHODS: A survey of self-administered questionnaires was performed at two libraries of Victor Segalen Bordeaux 2 University, during a two-month period in 1997. Three study groups were constituted: MEDLINE / Ovid end users, MEDLINE / Ovid librarian-mediated users, and Pascal, a French bibliographic database, end users. RESULTS: Among 191 respondents, only 22% thought English was an obstacle to their bibliographic retrieval. However, the research software was generally underused and the quality of the retrieval weak. The differences were statistically significant between users trained by librarians and the self-trained group, the former performing better. CONCLUSION: Special efforts need to be made to develop curriculum training programs for computerized bibliographic retrieval in medical schools, regardless of the native language of the student. PMID:10550030

  20. Spanish Society. Government and Political Economy: A Bibliographic Essay. Occasional Paper Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agranoff, Robert

    This bibliographic essay is designed to help the student begin to investigate both context and content of contemporary Spanish society, government, politics, and economy. Coverage is selective because the focus is on sources in English, although where important subject matter gaps exist, Spanish sources are provided. Many of these are available in…

  1. Improving the Quality of Fourth-Year Civil Engineering Research Projects through Bibliographic Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruce, Christine S.; Brameld, Gerald H.

    1990-01-01

    Describes a bibliographic instruction (BI) program aimed at improving the quality of research report literature reviews of fourth year civil engineering students. Faculty and librarian collaboration is discussed, and survey results showing how students could most benefit most from BI and how the program affected their work are presented. (four…

  2. [The mosquitoes (Diptera Culicidae) of Morocco. Bibliographic review (1916-2001) and inventory of the species].

    PubMed

    Trari, B; Dakki, M; Himmi, O; el Agbani, M A

    2003-11-01

    The history of the Culicidae of Morocco was related from bibliographical data. A synthesis of the almost entire works carried out on these Insects (Diptera) since 1916 allowed to bring out the main stages of research of which they were the subject, while emphasizing the important periods of large malaria epidemics in Morocco. A short list of species is also given.

  3. Bibliographic Instruction II: Production of an Instructional Program in a Non-Print Medium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cipolla, Katharine G.

    Focusing on the problem of choosing a presentation medium, this paper discusses instructional considerations involved in the production of bibliographic instructional programs in non-print media. The practical and economic characteristics and level of abstraction are differentiated for audiotape, slide/tape, videotape, and film, and appropriate…

  4. Networks with Emphasis on Planning an On-line Bibliographic Access System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarn, D. B.

    1971-01-01

    Covered is the general nature of networks: advantages, configurations, transmission, speeds, costs and media. As a specific example of networking, planning for a national on-line medical bibliographic service is described; including network alternatives, decentralization versus communications, costs, and selection from alternatives. (3 references)…

  5. Bibliographic Automation of Large Library Operations Using a Time-Sharing System: Phase I. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epstein, A. H.; And Others

    The first phase of an ongoing library automation project at Stanford University is described. Project BALLOTS (Bibliographic Automation of Large Library Operations Using a Time-Sharing System) seeks to automate the acquisition and cataloging functions of a large library using an on-line time-sharing computer. The main objectives are to control…

  6. Preservation and Dissemination of the Hardcopy Documentation Portion of the NCSP Nuclear Criticality Bibliographic Database

    SciTech Connect

    Koponen, B L; Heinrichs, D

    2009-05-18

    The U.S. Department of Energy supports a nuclear criticality safety bibliographic internet database that contains approximately 15,000 records. We are working to ensure that a substantial portion of the corresponding hardcopy documents are preserved, digitized, and made available to criticality safety practitioners via the Nuclear Criticality Safety Program web site.

  7. The Uses of Automated Bibliographic Data Bases in the Development of an Hispanic Data Base.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yanez, Elva; Chabran, Richard

    With the growth of computer technology, bibliographic data bases have developed into sophisticated online research tools. The major data bases are produced by abstracting and indexing (A&I) publishers. Vendors purchase the A&I publishers' machine readable tapes, then sell computer access to the tapes to information based organizations such…

  8. Water Resources. A Bibliographic Guide to Reference Sources. Bibliography Series No. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ralston, Valerie Hunter

    This bibliographic guide to water resources materials provides a guide to reference materials in the field. Of the 411 references to individual publications or services, 46 percent are government publications or services sponsored by government agencies. Reference materials reviewed include: guides to the literature; dictionaries; encyclopedias;…

  9. Design Issues in a Hypertext-Based Information System for Bibliographic Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dimitroff, Alexandra; Wolfram, Dietmar

    1993-01-01

    Describes initial design considerations and implementation issues for a hypertext retrieval system for structured bibliographic data. Previous research on information retrieval and hypertext is reviewed; HyperLynx, a hypertext prototype information retrieval system that emphasized ease of use and browsing capabilities, is explained; and further…

  10. Searcher Response in a Hypertext-Based Bibliographic Information Retrieval System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dimitroff, Alexandra; Wolfram, Dietmar

    1995-01-01

    Describes a study of graduate students that examined search behavior and affective response to a hypertext-based bibliographic information retrieval system called HyperLynx for searchers with different search skills and backgrounds. Previous experience with hypertext or Boolean searching is examined, and search times are discussed. (21 references)…

  11. Preliminary Findings on Searcher Performance and Perceptions of Performance in a Hypertext Bibliographic Retrieval System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfram, Dietmar; Dimitroff, Alexandra

    1997-01-01

    Although hypertext system usage has been studied, little research has examined the relationship of searcher performance and perception of performance, particularly for hypertext-based information retrieval systems for bibliographic data. This article reports preliminary findings of a study at the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee in which 83…

  12. A Zipfian Model of an Automatic Bibliographic System: An Application to MEDLINE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fedorowicz, Jane

    1982-01-01

    Derives the underlying structure of the Zipf distribution, with emphasis on its application to word frequencies in the inverted files of automatic bibliographic systems, and applies the Zipfian model to the National Library of Medicine's MEDLINE database. An appendix on the Zipfian mean and 12 references are included. (Author/JL)

  13. Automatic Format Recognition of MARC Bibliographic Elements: A Review and Projection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Brett

    1974-01-01

    Review and discussion of the techniques of automatic format recognition (AFR) of bibliographic data. Comparison of record-building facilities of Library of Congress, University of California (both AFR techniques), and Ohio College Library Center (non-AFR). Projection of a next logical generation, original format recognition. (Author/LS)

  14. Main bibliographic database in European ethics for EU New Member States.

    PubMed

    Leskosek, Branimir L; Dimec, Jure

    2007-10-11

    The paper presents Eureth.net network's web-based database information system (IS) used by project partners from EU New Member States (NMS) to collect bibliographic records from bioethics domains. The IS development was focused mainly on: records compatibility with other Eureth.net databases; support for all European character sets; minimalisation of network traffic; security issues and low establishment and maintenance costs.

  15. Use of Bibliographic Systems and Concept Maps: Innovative Tools to Complete a Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martelo, Maira L.

    2011-01-01

    This article presents a process for utilizing a bibliographic system built with Microsoft Excel as well as concept maps to organize and to synthesize information that can be included in a literature review. A review of the conceptual framework behind these tools is included as well as a detailed description about how to build the system in Excel.…

  16. Purposes and Bibliographic Objectives of a Pioneer Library Catalog in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Hur-Li; Lan, Wen-Chin

    2009-01-01

    This research aims to ascertain the conceptual basics underlying the design of the "Seven Epitomes", the first library catalog to establish the bibliographic model in imperial China. The analytical framework for the study consists of a reconstructed version of the catalog and its historical contexts. In analyzing the surviving text of…

  17. The Terminal and the Terminus: The Prospect of Free Online Bibliographic Searching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Budd, John

    1982-01-01

    Discusses the controversy over whether or not libraries should charge fees for online bibliographic services, reviews the evidence for imposing fees, for maintaining free services, and outlines the relevance of certain sections of the United States Code to decisions concerning the provision of information. Twenty-four references are included. (JL)

  18. The Undergraduate Library at United States and Canadian Universities: A Bibliographic Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Person, Roland C.

    This bibliographic review of the literature on American and Canadian university undergraduate libraries was adapted from a PhD dissertation completed at Southern Illinois University at Carbondale in 1982. Included are books, dissertations, and journal articles which treat the undergraduate library as a whole, rather than looking at only one aspect…

  19. On-Line Public Access to Library Bibliographic Data Bases: Developments, Issues, and Priorities. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaske, Neal K.; Ferguson, Douglas

    This report describes project activities designed to identify the critical issues and problems in designing and developing library bibliographic retrieval systems for direct patron use. The results of a survey, an issues analysis paper, and a working session indicate four priority areas for study and action: user and use characteristics, interface…

  20. [The importance of a bibliographic analysis in the magazines published by Revista Rol de Enfermeria"].

    PubMed

    Lorente Gallego, A M; Chaín-Navarro, C; Flores Martín, J A

    2007-06-01

    This article is a preview of a project whose objective is to carry out a bibliographical analysis of the articles bearing scientific information included in the "ROL de Enfermeria" magazine over the past five years. This magazine started publication in 1978 and has as its goal contributing to the spread of scientific knowledge in the Nursing field.

  1. Dispelling the "Old Green Spinach": Impressions of Bibliographic Instruction in Eastern Europe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swensen, Rolf; Garrison-Terry, Suzanne

    1994-01-01

    Describes the historical development of libraries and bibliographic instruction (BI) under the Communist system; provides impressions of research libraries visited during a tour of Saint Petersburg (Russia), Kiev (Ukraine), and Budapest (Hungary); and gives examples of BI as it exists in Eastern Europe today. (KRN)

  2. Extending MARC for Bibliographic Control in the Web Environment: Challenges and Alternatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCallum, Sally

    This paper looks at three avenues of exploration related to bibliographic records that the World Wide Web environment invites--sorting out the level of control for Web material, reevaluating aspects of descriptive content requirements for these materials, and experimenting with new format structures. Part I discusses extending MARC for Web…

  3. United States of America National Bibliographical Services and Related Activities in 1965-67.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Helen Dudenbostel

    This publication represents a combination of three separate reports, one for each of the three years (1965, 1966, and 1967), prepared in reply to a United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization questionnaire. These reports are not intended to cover all bibliographical services in the United States; however, it is hoped that they…

  4. Utilizing Natural Structure of the Research Literature in Psychology as a Model for Bibliographic Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olivetti, L. James

    1979-01-01

    Offered as an alternative to the search strategy model for bibliographic instruction, the approach to library instruction in psychology which is described involves analysis of the natural structure of the research literature. An example using Festinger's theory of cognitive dissonance is presented. Twelve references are cited. (EJS)

  5. Online Search + Logic Programming = Subject Bibliography: An Expert Systems Approach to Bibliographic Processing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lirov, Yuval; Lirov, Viktor

    1990-01-01

    Describes the development of a knowledge-based system, REX, that creates subject bibliographies by downloading reference material from an online bibliographic service. The expert systems architecture is explained, use of Prolog is described, and creation of the subject knowledge base and an author index are discussed. (10 references) (LRW)

  6. An Illustrated Guide to the International Standard Bibliographic Description for Monographs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sayre, John L., Comp.; Hamburger, Roberta, Comp.

    Illustrations are provided for descriptive cataloging of monographs in the International Standard Bibliographic Description (ISBD) format. Sample cards, mostly from the Library of Congress, illustrate the cataloging rules of the newly revised Chapter 6 of the "Anglo-American Cataloging Rules." Arranged in the same order as in Chapter 6,…

  7. Global Collective Resources: A Study of Monographic Bibliographic Records in WorldCat.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perrault, Anna H.

    In 2001, WorldCat, the primary international bibliographic utility, contained 45 million records with over 750 million library location listings. These records span over 4,000 years of recorded knowledge in 377 languages. Under the auspices of an OCLC/ALISE (Online Computer Library Center/Association of Library and Information Science Educators)…

  8. The Direct Use of Online Bibliographic Information Systems by Untrained End Users: A Review of Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenberg, Michael

    This paper reviews the current extent of, research into, and future expectations for the use of online bibliographic retrieval systems by untrained end users rather than by trained search intermediaries. Six sections cover: (1) studies of direct end user searching, done primarily with students or persons in highly technical fields; (2) problems to…

  9. Assessment of continuous acoustic respiratory rate monitoring as an addition to a pulse oximetry-based patient surveillance system.

    PubMed

    McGrath, Susan P; Pyke, Joshua; Taenzer, Andreas H

    2016-05-03

    Technology advances make it possible to consider continuous acoustic respiratory rate monitoring as an integral component of physiologic surveillance systems. This study explores technical and logistical aspects of augmenting pulse oximetry-based patient surveillance systems with continuous respiratory rate monitoring and offers some insight into the impact on patient deterioration detection that may result. Acoustic respiratory rate sensors were introduced to a general care pulse oximetry-based surveillance system with respiratory rate alarms deactivated. Simulation was used after 4324 patient days to determine appropriate alarm thresholds for respiratory rate, which were then activated. Data were collected for an additional 4382 patient days. Physiologic parameters, alarm data, sensor utilization and patient/staff feedback were collected throughout the study and analyzed. No notable technical or workflow issues were observed. Sensor utilization was 57 %, with patient refusal leading reasons for nonuse (22.7 %). With respiratory rate alarm thresholds set to 6 and 40 breaths/min., the majority of nurse pager clinical notifications were triggered by low oxygen saturation values (43 %), followed by low respiratory rate values (21 %) and low pulse rate values (13 %). Mean respiratory rate collected was 16.6 ± 3.8 breaths/min. The vast majority (82 %) of low oxygen saturation states coincided with normal respiration rates of 12-20 breaths/min. Continuous respiratory rate monitoring can be successfully added to a pulse oximetry-based surveillance system without significant technical, logistical or workflow issues and is moderately well-tolerated by patients. Respiratory rate sensor alarms did not significantly impact overall system alarm burden. Respiratory rate and oxygen saturation distributions suggest adding continuous respiratory rate monitoring to a pulse oximetry-based surveillance system may not significantly improve patient deterioration detection.

  10. Preliminary assessment of metal-porcelain bonding strength of CoCrW alloy after 3wt.% Cu addition.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yanjin; Zhao, Chaoqian; Ren, Ling; Guo, Sai; Gan, Yiliang; Yang, Chunguang; Wu, Songquan; Lin, Junjie; Huang, Tingting; Yang, Ke; Lin, Jinxin

    2016-06-01

    In this work, a novel Cu-bearing CoCrW alloy fabricated by selective laser melting for dental application has been studied. For its successful application, the bonding strength of metal-porcelain is essential to be systematically investigated. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the metal-porcelain bonding strength of CoCrWCu alloy by three-point bending test, meanwhile the Ni-free CoCrW alloy was used as control. The oxygen content was investigated by an elemental analyzer; X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was used to analyze the surface chemical composition of CoCrW based alloy after preoxidation treatment; the fracture mode was investigated by X-ray energy spectrum analysis (EDS) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Result from the oxygen content analysis showed that the content of oxygen dramatically increased after the Cu addition. And the XPS suggested that Co-oxidation, Cr2O3, CrO2, WO3, Cu2O and CuO existed on the preoxidated surface of the CoCrWCu alloy; the three-point bending test showed that the bonding strength of the CoCrWCu alloy was 43.32 MPa, which was lower than that of the CoCrW group of 47.65 MPa. However, the average metal-porcelain bonding strength is significantly higher than the minimum value in the ISO 9693 standard. Results from the SEM images and EDS indicated that the fracture mode of CoCrWCu-porcelain was mixed between cohesive and adhesive. Based on the results obtained in this study, it can be indicated that the Cu-bearing CoCrW alloy fabricated by the selective laser melting is a promising candidate for use in dental application.

  11. Assessment of postcrumble addition of limestone and calcium-specific appetite in broilers during the starter phase.

    PubMed

    Li, W; Angel, R; Kim, S-W; Jiménez-Moreno, E; Proszkowiec-Weglarz, M; Iglesias, B F; Wilkinson, S J; Cowieson, A J

    2014-10-01

    A study was done to determine whether broilers can regulate Ca intake when limestone is provided separately or mixed with a crumbled feed of variable Ca and P content, and the influence of this on performance and apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of Ca and P (AIDP). Twelve crumbled diets were fed from 10 to 20 d of age (8 replicates, 8 broilers/replicate). Diets A to D contained 0.28% nonphytate P (nPP) and 0.27, 0.51, 0.77, and 1.02% Ca, respectively. Diets E to H contained 0.48% nPP and 0.41, 0.51, 0.77, and 1.02% Ca, respectively. A large particle size limestone was mixed manually to the crumbled diet on a daily basis to achieve 1.02% total Ca in diets A to H. Diets I to L had the same Ca and nPP as diets A to D, but limestone was provided in a separate feeder to assess spatial importance of limestone supply. Limestone consumption, provided in a separate feeder, decreased as Ca concentration increased in the crumble diet (P < 0.05). Calcium intake increased as Ca concentration in crumbled diets increased (P < 0.05). Increased tibia ash and decreased AIDP were observed as Ca intake increased (P < 0.05). When limestone was added to diets containing 0.28% nPP postcrumble, Ca intake (6.38 g/bird), tibia ash (717 mg/bone), and AIDP (39.78%) were not affected by crumbled diet Ca concentration or consumed Ca. Broilers fed diets containing 0.48% nPP and limestone mixed with the crumble, Ca intake changed (5.96, 6.93, 6.59, and 6.04 g/bird for crumble diet with 0.41, 0.51, 0.77, and 1.02% Ca, respectively). Increasing Ca concentration in the crumble from 0.41 to 1.02% resulted in greater tibia ash (875 mg/bone) but lower AIDP (P < 0.05), although Ca intake was similar. In conclusion, when large particle size limestone was provided ad libitum, the ability of broilers to select for Ca was not sufficient to meet their requirement when crumble Ca was less than 0.77%. The AIDP was highest in birds fed the 0.27% Ca concentration diet.

  12. Assessment of postcrumble addition of limestone and calcium-specific appetite in broilers during the starter phase1

    PubMed Central

    Li, W.; Angel, R.; Kim, S.-W.; Jiménez-Moreno, E.; Proszkowiec-Weglarz, M.; Iglesias, B. F.; Wilkinson, S. J.; Cowieson, A. J.

    2014-01-01

    A study was done to determine whether broilers can regulate Ca intake when limestone is provided separately or mixed with a crumbled feed of variable Ca and P content, and the influence of this on performance and apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of Ca and P (AIDP). Twelve crumbled diets were fed from 10 to 20 d of age (8 replicates, 8 broilers/replicate). Diets A to D contained 0.28% nonphytate P (nPP) and 0.27, 0.51, 0.77, and 1.02% Ca, respectively. Diets E to H contained 0.48% nPP and 0.41, 0.51, 0.77, and 1.02% Ca, respectively. A large particle size limestone was mixed manually to the crumbled diet on a daily basis to achieve 1.02% total Ca in diets A to H. Diets I to L had the same Ca and nPP as diets A to D, but limestone was provided in a separate feeder to assess spatial importance of limestone supply. Limestone consumption, provided in a separate feeder, decreased as Ca concentration increased in the crumble diet (P < 0.05). Calcium intake increased as Ca concentration in crumbled diets increased (P < 0.05). Increased tibia ash and decreased AIDP were observed as Ca intake increased (P < 0.05). When limestone was added to diets containing 0.28% nPP postcrumble, Ca intake (6.38 g/bird), tibia ash (717 mg/bone), and AIDP (39.78%) were not affected by crumbled diet Ca concentration or consumed Ca. Broilers fed diets containing 0.48% nPP and limestone mixed with the crumble, Ca intake changed (5.96, 6.93, 6.59, and 6.04 g/bird for crumble diet with 0.41, 0.51, 0.77, and 1.02% Ca, respectively). Increasing Ca concentration in the crumble from 0.41 to 1.02% resulted in greater tibia ash (875 mg/bone) but lower AIDP (P < 0.05), although Ca intake was similar. In conclusion, when large particle size limestone was provided ad libitum, the ability of broilers to select for Ca was not sufficient to meet their requirement when crumble Ca was less than 0.77%. The AIDP was highest in birds fed the 0.27% Ca concentration diet. PMID:25085931

  13. A first screening and risk assessment of pharmaceuticals and additives in personal care products in waste water, sludge, recipient water and sediment from Faroe Islands, Iceland and Greenland.

    PubMed

    Huber, Sandra; Remberger, Mikael; Kaj, Lennart; Schlabach, Martin; Jörundsdóttir, Hrönn Ó; Vester, Jette; Arnórsson, Mímir; Mortensen, Inge; Schwartson, Richard; Dam, Maria

    2016-08-15

    A screening of a broad range of pharmaceuticals and additives in personal care products (PPCPs) in sub-arctic locations of the Faroe Islands (FO), Iceland (IS) and Greenland (GL) was conducted. In total 36 pharmaceuticals including some metabolites, and seven additives in personal care products were investigated in influent and effluent waters as well as sludge of waste water treatment plants (WWTPs) and in water and sediment of recipients. Concentrations and distribution patterns for PPCPs discharged via sewage lines (SLs) to the marine environment were assessed. Of the 36 pharmaceuticals or metabolites analysed 33 were found close to or above the limit of detection (LOD) in all or a part of the samples. All of the seven investigated additives in personal care products were detected above the LOD. Some of the analysed PPCPs occurred in every or almost every sample. Among these were diclofenac, ibuprofen, lidocaine, naproxen, metformin, citalopram, venlafaxine, amiloride, furosemide, metoprolol, sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) and cetrimonium salt (ATAC-C16). Additionally, the study encompasses ecotoxicological risk assessment of 2/3 of the analysed PPCPs in recipient and diluted effluent waters. For candesartan only a small margin to levels with inacceptable risks was observed in diluted effluent waters at two locations (FO). Chronical risks for aquatic organisms staying and/or living around WWTP effluent pipe-outlets were indicated for 17β-estradiol and estriol in the three countries. Additives in PCPs were found to pose the largest risk to the aquatic environment. The surfactants CAPB and ATAC-C16 were found in concentrations resulting in risk factors up to 375 for CAPB and 165 for ATAC-C16 in recipients for diluted effluents from Iggia, Nuuk (GL) and Torshavn (FO) respectively. These results demonstrates a potentially high ecological risk stemming from discharge of surfactants as used in household and industrial detergents as well as additives in personal care

  14. Food additives

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Michael

    1974-01-01

    Food additives are discussed from the food technology point of view. The reasons for their use are summarized: (1) to protect food from chemical and microbiological attack; (2) to even out seasonal supplies; (3) to improve their eating quality; (4) to improve their nutritional value. The various types of food additives are considered, e.g. colours, flavours, emulsifiers, bread and flour additives, preservatives, and nutritional additives. The paper concludes with consideration of those circumstances in which the use of additives is (a) justified and (b) unjustified. PMID:4467857

  15. Mitigation measures to contain the environmental impact of urban areas: a bibliographic review moving from the life cycle approach.

    PubMed

    Belussi, Lorenzo; Barozzi, Benedetta

    2015-12-01

    The global environmental impact of urban areas has greatly increased over the years, due to the growth of urbanisation and the associated increase in management costs. There are several measures aimed at mitigating this impact that affect in different ways the environmental, economic and societal spheres. This article has analysed a selection of different mitigation measures, related to the built environment, according to the life cycle approach, aimed at identifying the procedural features chosen by the different authors and defining a common way to deal with this issue. In particular, all the individual single steps of a Life Cycle Assessment/Life Cycle Costing of the different studies are analysed and the results of the individual measures are highlighted. The analysis has shown how the scientific literature is mainly focused on the evaluation of the impact of technological solutions related to individual buildings (cool/green roof). Less interest is shown in the solutions for urban areas, while, as far as the impact on greenhouse gas emissions is concerned, some studies are shifting the target to a global scale. Due to the accuracy whereby the calculation of the impact indicators deals with and structures the life cycle methods, opportunities to compare studies developed by different authors are quite rare and hard to find. Hence the need to find a simple, intuitive and flexible scheme to combine some of the most useful results of the bibliographical studies, in a comparative outline of different technological solutions, which can support the decision-making phase through a rough assessment.

  16. Bibliographic compilation of NIR spectroscopy for stars in the Galactic O-Star Catalog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres Robledo, S.; Barbá, R.; Arias, J. I.; Morrell, N. I.

    We are carrying out a bibliographic compilation of near-infrared (NIR) (0.7 - 5.0 μm) spectroscopic studies available for stars in the Galactic O Star Catalog (GOSC, Maíz Apellániz et al. 2004). This compilation al- lows us to quantify the precise degree of knowledge about NIR spectral information for GOSC sources, such as band coverage, spectral resolution, equivalent-width measurements, etc. This bibliographic compilation has a clear next step toward the development of a new catalog of O-type stars observed only in the NIR, which will be annexed to the GOSC. In this poster paper we present preliminary results derived from a set of different attributes extracted from the retrieved papers.

  17. On the uncertainty of interdisciplinarity measurements due to incomplete bibliographic data.

    PubMed

    Calatrava Moreno, María Del Carmen; Auzinger, Thomas; Werthner, Hannes

    The accuracy of interdisciplinarity measurements is directly related to the quality of the underlying bibliographic data. Existing indicators of interdisciplinarity are not capable of reflecting the inaccuracies introduced by incorrect and incomplete records because correct and complete bibliographic data can rarely be obtained. This is the case for the Rao-Stirling index, which cannot handle references that are not categorized into disciplinary fields. We introduce a method that addresses this problem. It extends the Rao-Stirling index to acknowledge missing data by calculating its interval of uncertainty using computational optimization. The evaluation of our method indicates that the uncertainty interval is not only useful for estimating the inaccuracy of interdisciplinarity measurements, but it also delivers slightly more accurate aggregated interdisciplinarity measurements than the Rao-Stirling index.

  18. Bibliographic description of photo database : The case study of "EXPO '90", The Photo Museum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamio, Tatsuo

    Advanced electronic technology enables to convert image information such as photos into the digital form and store the resulting data on to computers. Thus we have seen the movement toward constructing photo databases. One of the examples is the photo database exhibited at the Photo Museum of "EXPO '90" which will be held at Osaka in this coming April. Even image information database such as photos we have to still rely on languages when retrieving them. However, there exist different aspects from document information database so that we need to have much discussion on how to prepare guidelines or standards for bibliographic description of photo databases. Taking the Photo Museum as the case study this paper considers the photo databases. The bibliographic elements are categorized into four items; photographing behavior, photographing technique, title and subject. Particularly, subject category which can be searching keys, consists of sense information, subject class and keywords.

  19. Geoffrey Keynes's Two-Fold Vision: Medical Savant-Connoisseur and Literary Bibliographer.

    PubMed

    Kutcher, Gerald

    2016-10-01

    During the 1920s and 1930s, the British surgeon Geoffrey Keynes (1887-1982) treated breast cancer with radium instead of the hegemonic radical mastectomy, while vehemently attacking the "radicalists" for mutilating women. Keynes was also a leading bibliographer of literary figures from Sir Thomas Browne to William Blake through Jane Austen. This article argues that these endeavors did not inhabit separate worlds, but rather his bibliographic methods of collecting and sorting were deeply interwoven with his therapeutic practices and medical ways of knowing. The article also examines the profound influence his engagement with the works of William Blake had on his battle against the reigning medical orthodoxy and on the humanity of his relationship with his patients. It concludes that Keynes' story sheds light on a now distant medico-cultural world where literary studies, often centered on book collecting and critique, were not only highly valued, but were influential in guiding the vision and behavior of a number of physicians.

  20. Bioremediation. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the decomposition of toxic materials by biological means. Bacterial decomposition of jet fuel, wood preservatives, explosives, crude oil, halogenated organics, diesel fuel, aviation fuel, and creosote is discussed. Enhancement of decomposition rates by addition of nutrients is also included.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  1. Bioremediation. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the decomposition of toxic materials by biological means. Bacterial decomposition of jet fuel, wood preservatives, explosives, crude oil, halogenated organics, diesel fuel, aviation fuel, and creosote is discussed. Enhancement of decomposition rates by addition of nutrients is also included.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  2. Bioremediation. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-07-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the decomposition of toxic materials by biological means. Bacterial decomposition of jet fuel, wood preservatives, explosives, crude oil, halogenated organics, diesel fuel, aviation fuel, and creosote is discussed. Enhancement of decomposition rates by addition of nutrients is also included. (Contains a minimum of 137 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  3. Bioremediation. (Latest citations from the NTIS Bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the decomposition of toxic materials by biological means. Bacterial decomposition of jet fuel, wood preservatives, explosives, crude oil, halogenated organics, diesel fuel, aviation fuel, and creosote is discussed. Enhancement of decomposition rates by addition of nutrients is also included. (Contains a minimum of 106 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  4. Users guide for the Water Resources Division bibliographic retrieval and report generation system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tamberg, Nora

    1983-01-01

    The WRDBIB Retrieval and Report-generation system has been developed by applying Multitrieve (CSD 1980, Reston) software to bibliographic data files. The WRDBIB data base includes some 9 ,000 records containing bibliographic citations and descriptors of WRD reports released for publication during 1968-1982. The data base is resident in the Reston Multics computer and may be accessed by registered Multics users in the field. The WRDBIB Users Guide provides detailed procedures on how to run retrieval programs using WRDBIB library files, and how to prepare custom bibliographic reports and author indexes. Users may search the WRDBIB data base on the following variable fields as described in the Data Dictionary: Authors, organizational source, title, citation, publication year, descriptors, and the WRSIC (accession) number. The Users Guide provides ample examples of program runs illustrating various retrieval and report generation aspects. Appendices include Multics access and file manipulation procedures; a ' Glossary of Selected Terms'; and a complete ' Retrieval Session ' with step-by-step outlines. (USGS)

  5. Food additives

    MedlinePlus

    ... or natural. Natural food additives include: Herbs or spices to add flavor to foods Vinegar for pickling ... Certain colors improve the appearance of foods. Many spices, as well as natural and man-made flavors, ...

  6. The benefits of an additional worker are task-dependent: assessing low-back injury risks during prefabricated (panelized) wall construction.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sunwook; Nussbaum, Maury A; Jia, Bochen

    2012-09-01

    Team manual material handling is a common practice in residential construction where prefabricated building components (e.g., wall panels) are increasingly used. As part of a larger effort to enable proactive control of ergonomic exposures among workers handling panels, this study explored the effects of additional workers on injury risks during team-based panel erection tasks, specifically by quantifying how injury risks are affected by increasing the number of workers (by one, above the nominal or most common number). Twenty-four participants completed panel erection tasks with and without an additional worker under different panel mass and size conditions. Four risk assessment methods were employed that emphasized the low back. Though including an additional worker generally reduced injury risk across several panel masses and sizes, the magnitude of these benefits varied depending on the specific task and exhibited somewhat high variability within a given task. These results suggest that a simple, generalizable recommendation regarding team-based panel erection tasks is not warranted. Rather, a more systems-level approach accounting for both injury risk and productivity (a strength of panelized wall systems) should be undertaken.

  7. Exposure assessment of PCDD/Fs for the population living in the vicinity of municipal waste incinerator: Additional exposure via local vegetable consumption.

    PubMed

    Ben, Yujie; Li, Tong; Wan, Yi; Dong, Zhaomin; Hu, Jianying

    2017-05-01

    While the exposure assessment of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDD/Fs) for people living in the vicinity of municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWI) has been investigated, indirect exposure to MSWI-emitted PCDD/Fs via consumption of local foods has not been well assessed. In this study, the PCDD/F concentration in the local vegetables grown near a MSWI located in Shenzhen, South China, was determined to be 0.92 ± 0.59 pg/g wet weight (ww), significantly higher than that (0.25 ± 0.35 pg/g ww) in commercial vegetables (p < 0.05). The PCDD/F concentrations in Banyan leaf (Ficus microcarpa) samples collected from 5 sampling sites at 1 km intervals from the MSWI were found to be significantly decreased with increasing distance, suggesting that the local plants would be impacted by emissions from the MSWI. The exposure assessment of PCDD/Fs for the population living in the vicinity of MSWI was carried out by simultaneously analyzing PCDD/Fs in other food groups that were commonly consumed by the residents. If only the local vegetables were consumed and other foods were acquired commercially, the total dietary intake for a general adult was 0.94 ± 0.41 pg TEQ/kg bw/day, of which consumption of local vegetables accounted for 52.3%. If all foods consumed including vegetables were from a commercial source, the total dietary intake was 0.56 ± 0.30 pg TEQ/kg bw/day, of which consumption of commercial vegetables accounted for 20.1%. The present study for the first time reported the additional human exposure to PCDD/Fs via consumption of local vegetables impacted by emissions from MSWI.

  8. Pre- and post-experimental manipulation assessments confirm the increase in number of birds due to the addition of nest boxes.

    PubMed

    Cuatianquiz Lima, Cecilia; Macías Garcia, Constantino

    2016-01-01

    Secondary cavity nesting (SCN) birds breed in holes that they do not excavate themselves. This is possible where there are large trees whose size and age permit the digging of holes by primary excavators and only rarely happens in forest plantations, where we expected a deficit of both breeding holes and SCN species. We assessed whether the availability of tree cavities influenced the number of SCNs in two temperate forest types, and evaluated the change in number of SCNs after adding nest boxes. First, we counted all cavities within each of our 25-m radius sampling points in mature and young forest plots during 2009. We then added nest boxes at standardised locations during 2010 and 2011 and conducted fortnightly bird counts (January-October 2009-2011). In 2011 we added two extra plots of each forest type, where we also conducted bird counts. Prior to adding nest boxes, counts revealed more SCNs in mature than in young forest. Following the addition of nest boxes, the number of SCNs increased significantly in the points with nest boxes in both types of forest. Counts in 2011 confirmed the increase in number of birds due to the addition of nest boxes. Given the likely benefits associated with a richer bird community we propose that, as is routinely done in some countries, forest management programs preserve old tree stumps and add nest boxes to forest plantations in order to increase bird numbers and bird community diversity.

  9. Pre- and post-experimental manipulation assessments confirm the increase in number of birds due to the addition of nest boxes

    PubMed Central

    Cuatianquiz Lima, Cecilia

    2016-01-01

    Secondary cavity nesting (SCN) birds breed in holes that they do not excavate themselves. This is possible where there are large trees whose size and age permit the digging of holes by primary excavators and only rarely happens in forest plantations, where we expected a deficit of both breeding holes and SCN species. We assessed whether the availability of tree cavities influenced the number of SCNs in two temperate forest types, and evaluated the change in number of SCNs after adding nest boxes. First, we counted all cavities within each of our 25-m radius sampling points in mature and young forest plots during 2009. We then added nest boxes at standardised locations during 2010 and 2011 and conducted fortnightly bird counts (January–October 2009–2011). In 2011 we added two extra plots of each forest type, where we also conducted bird counts. Prior to adding nest boxes, counts revealed more SCNs in mature than in young forest. Following the addition of nest boxes, the number of SCNs increased significantly in the points with nest boxes in both types of forest. Counts in 2011 confirmed the increase in number of birds due to the addition of nest boxes. Given the likely benefits associated with a richer bird community we propose that, as is routinely done in some countries, forest management programs preserve old tree stumps and add nest boxes to forest plantations in order to increase bird numbers and bird community diversity. PMID:26998410

  10. Potlining Additives

    SciTech Connect

    Rudolf Keller

    2004-08-10

    In this project, a concept to improve the performance of aluminum production cells by introducing potlining additives was examined and tested. Boron oxide was added to cathode blocks, and titanium was dissolved in the metal pool; this resulted in the formation of titanium diboride and caused the molten aluminum to wet the carbonaceous cathode surface. Such wetting reportedly leads to operational improvements and extended cell life. In addition, boron oxide suppresses cyanide formation. This final report presents and discusses the results of this project. Substantial economic benefits for the practical implementation of the technology are projected, especially for modern cells with graphitized blocks. For example, with an energy savings of about 5% and an increase in pot life from 1500 to 2500 days, a cost savings of $ 0.023 per pound of aluminum produced is projected for a 200 kA pot.

  11. Phosphazene additives

    DOEpatents

    Harrup, Mason K; Rollins, Harry W

    2013-11-26

    An additive comprising a phosphazene compound that has at least two reactive functional groups and at least one capping functional group bonded to phosphorus atoms of the phosphazene compound. One of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with cellulose and the other of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with a resin, such as an amine resin of a polycarboxylic acid resin. The at least one capping functional group is selected from the group consisting of a short chain ether group, an alkoxy group, or an aryloxy group. Also disclosed are an additive-resin admixture, a method of treating a wood product, and a wood product.

  12. Assessing the efficacy over time of the addition of industrial by-products to remediate contaminated soils at a pilot-plant scale.

    PubMed

    González-Núñez, Raquel; Rigol, Anna; Vidal, Miquel

    2017-04-01

    The effect of the addition of industrial by-products (gypsum and calcite) on the leaching of As and metals (Cu, Zn, Ni, Pb and Cd) in a soil contaminated by pyritic minerals was monitored over a period of 6 months at a two-pit pilot plant. The contaminated soil was placed in one pit (non-remediated soil), whereas a mixture of the contaminated soil (80% w/w) with gypsum (10% w/w) and calcite (10% w/w) was placed in the other pit (remediated soil). Soil samples and leachates of the two pits were collected at different times. Moreover, the leaching pattern of major and trace elements in the soil samples was assessed at laboratory level through the application of the pHstat leaching test. Addition of the by-products led to an increase in initial soil pH from around 2.0 to 7.5, and it also provoked that the concentration of trace elements in soil extracts obtained from the pHstat leaching test decreased to values lower than quantification limits of inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry and lower than the hazardous waste threshold for soil management. The trace element concentration in the pilot-plant leachates decreased over time in the non-remediated soil, probably due to the formation of more insoluble secondary minerals containing sulphur, but especially decreased in pit of the remediated soil, in agreement with laboratory data. The pH in the remediated soil remained constant over the 6-month period, and the X-ray diffraction analyses confirmed that the phases did not vary over time, thus indicating the efficacy of the addition of the by-products. This finding suggests that soil remediation may be a feasible option for the re-use of non-hazardous industrial by-products.

  13. History of toxicology and allied sciences: a bibliographic review and guide to suggested readings.

    PubMed

    Stirling, Dale A

    2006-01-01

    With roots extending to antiquity, toxicology is a profession that recognizes that the past is often prologue to the present. In that spirit, this article provides a comprehensive bibliographic overview of writings on the history of toxicology and allied sciences. These writings pertain to the evolution of toxicology, its various methods, concepts, and theories; as well as pioneers of the profession and the growth of professional toxicological organizations. It is not an exhaustive survey, but provides a thorough accounting of literature pertaining to the history of toxicology.

  14. Building co-operative bibliographic databases in European bioethics: a contribution from EU New Member States.

    PubMed

    Dimec, Jure; Leskosek, Branimir

    2007-08-01

    The paper presents a web-based application, developed as a part of the Eurethnet database network, which is being used by project partners from EU New Member States to collect bibliographic records from bioethics domains. The application development was focused mainly on records compatibility with other Eurethnet databases, support for all European character sets, minimalisation of network traffic, and security issues. The time window available for the system development was very small and this problem was solved with our own software for automatic application generation.

  15. Assessment of the improvements in accuracy of aerosol characterization resulted from additions of polarimetric measurements to intensity-only observations using GRASP algorithm (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubovik, O.; Litvinov, P.; Lapyonok, T.; Herman, M.; Fedorenko, A.; Lopatin, A.; Goloub, P.; Ducos, F.; Aspetsberger, M.; Planer, W.; Federspiel, C.

    2013-12-01

    measurements of both total intensity and polarization, the algorithm can be easily set to use either total intensity or polarization, as well as both of them in the same retrieval. Using this feature of the algorithm design we have studied the relative importance of total intensity and polarization measurements for retrieving different parameters of aerosol. In this presentation, we present the quantitative assessment of the improvements in aerosol retrievals associated with additions of polarimetric measurements to the intensity-only observations. The study has been performed using satellite measurements by POLDER/PARASOL polarimeter and ground-based measurements by new generation AERONET sun/sky-radiometers implementing measurements of polarization at each spectral channel.

  16. Suitability of the microbial community composition and function in a semiarid mine soil for assessing phytomanagement practices based on mycorrhizal inoculation and amendment addition.

    PubMed

    Kohler, J; Caravaca, F; Azcón, R; Díaz, G; Roldán, A

    2016-03-15

    The recovery of species composition and functions of soil microbial community of degraded lands is crucial in order to guarantee the long-term self-sustainability of the ecosystems. A field experiment was carried out to test the influence of combining fermented sugar beet residue (SBR) addition and inoculation with the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus Funneliformis mosseae on the plant growth parameters and microbial community composition and function in the rhizosphere of two autochthonous plant species (Dorycnium pentaphyllum L. and Asteriscus maritimus L.) growing in a semiarid soil contaminated by heavy metals. We analysed the phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs), neutral lipids fatty acids (NLFAs) and enzyme activities to study the soil microbial community composition and function, respectively. The combined treatment was not effective for increasing plant growth. The SBR promoted the growth of both plant species, whilst the AM fungus was effective only for D. pentaphyllum. The effect of the treatments on plant growth was linked to shifts in the rhizosphere microbial community composition and function. The highest increase in dehydrogenase and β-glucosidase activities was recorded in SBR-amended soil. The SBR increased the abundance of marker PLFAs for saprophytic fungi, Gram+ and Gram- bacteria and actinobacteria, whereas the AM fungus enhanced the abundance of AM fungi-related NLFA and marker PLFAs for Gram- bacteria. Measurement of the soil microbial community composition and function was useful to assess the success of phytomanagement technologies in a semiarid, contaminated soil.

  17. Passage-Based Bibliographic Coupling: An Inter-Article Similarity Measure for Biomedical Articles.

    PubMed

    Liu, Rey-Long

    2015-01-01

    Biomedical literature is an essential source of biomedical evidence. To translate the evidence for biomedicine study, researchers often need to carefully read multiple articles about specific biomedical issues. These articles thus need to be highly related to each other. They should share similar core contents, including research goals, methods, and findings. However, given an article r, it is challenging for search engines to retrieve highly related articles for r. In this paper, we present a technique PBC (Passage-based Bibliographic Coupling) that estimates inter-article similarity by seamlessly integrating bibliographic coupling with the information collected from context passages around important out-link citations (references) in each article. Empirical evaluation shows that PBC can significantly improve the retrieval of those articles that biomedical experts believe to be highly related to specific articles about gene-disease associations. PBC can thus be used to improve search engines in retrieving the highly related articles for any given article r, even when r is cited by very few (or even no) articles. The contribution is essential for those researchers and text mining systems that aim at cross-validating the evidence about specific gene-disease associations.

  18. Brownfields Assessing Contractor Capabilities for Streamlined Site Investigations -- Additional Information Regarding All Appropriate Inquiries and Hiring an Environmental Professional (November 2006)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Guidance for Brownfields grantees and other decision makers to assess the capabilities of contractors and consultants to determine their qualifications to provide streamlined and innovative strategies for the assessment and cleanup of brownfields.

  19. (BARS) -- Bibliographic Retrieval System Sandia shock compression (SSC) database shock physics index (SPHINX) database. Volume 3, UNIX version Systems Guide

    SciTech Connect

    von Laven, G.M.; Herrmann, W.

    1993-09-01

    The Bibliographic Retrieval System (BARS) is a database management system specially designed to store and retrieve bibliographic references and track documents. The system uses INGRES to manage this database and user interface. It uses forms for journal articles, books, conference proceedings, theses, technical reports, letters, memos, visual aids, as well as a miscellaneous form which can be used for data sets or any other material which can be assigned an access or file number. Sorted output resulting from flexible BOOLEAN searches can be printed or saved in files which can be inserted in reference lists for use with word processors.

  20. Surveying the traumatic stress literature: the effective use of bibliographic databases in preparing reviews and meta-analyses.

    PubMed

    Lerner, Fred; Hamblen, Jessica L

    2010-12-01

    The value of a systematic review or meta-analysis depends upon the care with which it is designed and conducted. A major factor in this is the literature search that identifies the articles to be reviewed. Careful selection of bibliographic databases and the use of well-designed search strategies based on the controlled vocabularies contained in published thesauri are essential to ensure retrieval of all relevant articles. This commentary offers suggestions for identifying the literature to be searched, designing a suitable search strategy, using a controlled vocabulary, and describing the bibliographic methodology underlying a systematic review or meta-analysis.

  1. International Federation of Library Associations Annual Conference Papers. Bibliographic Control Division: Bibliography and Cataloguing Sections (47th, Leipzig, East Germany, August 17-22, 1981).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vita, Susan H.; And Others

    This set of papers delivered to the Bibliographic Control Division of the International Federation of Library Associations (IFLA) during its 47th annual conference (1981) includes: "Cataloging in Publication in the United States--Problems and Prospects," by Susan H. Vita; "Development and Coordination of Bibliographic Activities:…

  2. Beyond Bibliographic Data: Proceedings of the Library of Congress Network Advisory Committee Meeting (Washington, D.C., March 29-31, 1989). Network Planning Paper No. 19.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Library of Congress, Washington, DC. Network Development and MARC Standards Office.

    The seven papers in these proceedings focus on the characteristics and potentials of non-bibliographic databases in the context of library and commercial networks. Following an introduction by Sandra K. Paul, this report presents the individual papers: (1) "User Perspectives and Requirements: Creator of Non-Bibliographic Databases Has To Share…

  3. Some arguments in favor of a Myriophyllum aquaticum growth inhibition test in a water-sediment system as an additional test in risk assessment of herbicides.

    PubMed

    Tunić, Tanja; Knežević, Varja; Kerkez, Đurđa; Tubić, Aleksandra; Šunjka, Dragana; Lazić, Sanja; Brkić, Dragica; Teodorović, Ivana

    2015-09-01

    The present study compares the practicability, reproducibility, power, and sensitivity of a Myriophyllum aquaticum growth inhibition test in a water-sediment system with the recently accepted Myriophyllum spicatum test in an equivalent testing system and the standard Lemna sp. test. Special consideration was given to endpoints based on M. aquaticum control plant growth and variability of relative growth rate and yield: shoot length, fresh weight, dry weight, and root weight. Sensitivity analysis was based on tests performed with 3,5-dichlorophenol, atrazine, isoproturon, trifluralin, 2,4-dichlorophenoloxyacetic acid, and dicamba. Growth rates for average M. aquaticum control plants were 0.119 d(-1) and 0.112 d(-1), with average estimated doubling time 6.33 d and 6.74 d for relative growth rate fresh weight and shoot length, respectively. Intrinsic variability of M. aquaticum endpoints was low: 12.9%, 12.5%, and 17.8% for relative growth rate shoot length, relative growth rate fresh weight and yield fresh weight, respectively. The power of the test was fairly high. When the most sensitive endpoints were used for comparison, the 2 Myriophyllum species were similarly sensitive, more sensitive (in the case of auxin simulators), or at least equally sensitive as Lemna minor to other tested herbicides. The M. aquaticum 10-d test with a 7-d exposure period in a water-sediment system has acceptable sensitivity and can provide repeatable, reliable, and reproducible results; therefore, it should not be disregarded as a good and representative additional test in environmental risk assessment.

  4. An Assessment of the Model of Concentration Addition for Predicting the Estrogenic Activity of Chemical Mixtures in Wastewater Treatment Works Effluents

    PubMed Central

    Thorpe, Karen L.; Gross-Sorokin, Melanie; Johnson, Ian; Brighty, Geoff; Tyler, Charles R.

    2006-01-01

    The effects of simple mixtures of chemicals, with similar mechanisms of action, can be predicted using the concentration addition model (CA). The ability of this model to predict the estrogenic effects of more complex mixtures such as effluent discharges, however, has yet to be established. Effluents from 43 U.K. wastewater treatment works were analyzed for the presence of the principal estrogenic chemical contaminants, estradiol, estrone, ethinylestradiol, and nonylphenol. The measured concentrations were used to predict the estrogenic activity of each effluent, employing the model of CA, based on the relative potencies of the individual chemicals in an in vitro recombinant yeast estrogen screen (rYES) and a short-term (14-day) in vivo rainbow trout vitellogenin induction assay. Based on the measured concentrations of the four chemicals in the effluents and their relative potencies in each assay, the calculated in vitro and in vivo responses compared well and ranged between 3.5 and 87 ng/L of estradiol equivalents (E2 EQ) for the different effluents. In the rYES, however, the measured E2 EQ concentrations in the effluents ranged between 0.65 and 43 ng E2 EQ/L, and they varied against those predicted by the CA model. Deviations in the estimation of the estrogenic potency of the effluents by the CA model, compared with the measured responses in the rYES, are likely to have resulted from inaccuracies associated with the measurement of the chemicals in the extracts derived from the complex effluents. Such deviations could also result as a consequence of interactions between chemicals present in the extracts that disrupted the activation of the estrogen response elements in the rYES. E2 EQ concentrations derived from the vitellogenic response in fathead minnows exposed to a series of effluent dilutions were highly comparable with the E2 EQ concentrations derived from assessments of the estrogenic potency of these dilutions in the rYES. Together these data support the

  5. An assessment of the model of concentration addition for predicting the estrogenic activity of chemical mixtures in wastewater treatment works effluents.

    PubMed

    Thorpe, Karen L; Gross-Sorokin, Melanie; Johnson, Ian; Brighty, Geoff; Tyler, Charles R

    2006-04-01

    The effects of simple mixtures of chemicals, with similar mechanisms of action, can be predicted using the concentration addition model (CA). The ability of this model to predict the estrogenic effects of more complex mixtures such as effluent discharges, however, has yet to be established. Effluents from 43 U.K. wastewater treatment works were analyzed for the presence of the principal estrogenic chemical contaminants, estradiol, estrone, ethinylestradiol, and nonylphenol. The measured concentrations were used to predict the estrogenic activity of each effluent, employing the model of CA, based on the relative potencies of the individual chemicals in an in vitro recombinant yeast estrogen screen (rYES) and a short-term (14-day) in vivo rainbow trout vitellogenin induction assay. Based on the measured concentrations of the four chemicals in the effluents and their relative potencies in each assay, the calculated in vitro and in vivo responses compared well and ranged between 3.5 and 87 ng/L of estradiol equivalents (E2 EQ) for the different effluents. In the rYES, however, the measured E2 EQ concentrations in the effluents ranged between 0.65 and 43 ng E2 EQ/L, and they varied against those predicted by the CA model. Deviations in the estimation of the estrogenic potency of the effluents by the CA model, compared with the measured responses in the rYES, are likely to have resulted from inaccuracies associated with the measurement of the chemicals in the extracts derived from the complex effluents. Such deviations could also result as a consequence of interactions between chemicals present in the extracts that disrupted the activation of the estrogen response elements in the rYES. E2 EQ concentrations derived from the vitellogenic response in fathead minnows exposed to a series of effluent dilutions were highly comparable with the E2 EQ concentrations derived from assessments of the estrogenic potency of these dilutions in the rYES. Together these data support the

  6. The Tip of the Iceberg: Bibliographic Essay on Measurement and Evaluation in Public Relations, 1974-1984.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cline, Carolyn Garrett

    A bibliographic research project was conducted to identify the major articles published from 1974 to 1984 on measurement and evaluation in public relations, business, and organizational communication. The major findings of the project were as follows: (1) Some kind of evaluation and measurement is needed; (2) There is no concensus about the type…

  7. Head-to-Head Evaluation of the Pro-Cite and Sci-Mate Bibliographic Database Management Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saari, David S.; Foster, George A., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Compares two full featured database management systems for bibliographic information in terms of programs and documentation; record creation and editing; online database citations; search procedures; access to references in external text files; sorting and printing functions; style sheets; indexes; and file operations. (four references) (CLB)

  8. Increasing Special Library Collection Use in Very Computer Intensive Environments: Automatic Bibliographic Compilation and the Dissemination of Electronic Newsletters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanchez, James Joseph

    This paper describes the development and implementation of an automatic bibliographic facility and an electronic newsletter created for a special collection of aerospace and mechanical engineering monographs and articles at the University of Arizona. The project included the development of an online catalog, increasing the depth of bibliographic…

  9. Hypertext vs Boolean-Based Searching in a Bibliographic Database Environment: A Direct Comparison of Searcher Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfram, Dietmar; Dimitroff, Alexandra

    1998-01-01

    Describes a study that compared a hypertext-based bibliographic retrieval system with a traditional Boolean-based system. Results, conducted with novice and experienced searchers, revealed that the Boolean system performed better for tasks with a large number of relevant items, and that searcher experience level did not play a significant role.…

  10. Bibliographic Services throughout the World. Supplement: 1981-1982 = Les services bibliographiques dans le monde. Supplement, 1981-1982.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaudiquez, Marcelle

    This compilation provides an overall view of the state of national bibliographic services in 101 countries. The document includes data gathered via a questionnaire that was sent to 160 countries of whom 101 replied. Introductory materials include a list of the countries listed in the document; a brief discussion of the survey and how the results…

  11. Setting Up a Bibliographic Database from National Inventory of Scientific and Technical Literature. The CIDST Experience in Madagascar.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andriamparany, Louis Marius; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Describes the development of a bibliographic database in Madagascar through a national inventory of scientific and technical literature. The roles of the Ministry of Scientific and Technological Research for Development (MRSTD) and its information service, CIDST, are described; database products are discussed; and future prospects are suggested.…

  12. Rhode Island Higher Education Library Integrated Network (HELIN). Final Report. Task Force on Bibliographic and Authority Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vocino, Michael; And Others

    The final report from the Higher Education Library Integrated Network (HELIN)'s Task Force on Bibliographic and Authority Control begins with a statement of the charge to the task force. It then summarizes its activities in each of five areas: (1) documentation of local authority control (cataloging) practices; (2) consultation with vendors of…

  13. Interactive text mining with Pipeline Pilot: a bibliographic web-based tool for PubMed.

    PubMed

    Vellay, S G P; Latimer, N E Miller; Paillard, G

    2009-06-01

    Text mining has become an integral part of all research in the medical field. Many text analysis software platforms support particular use cases and only those. We show an example of a bibliographic tool that can be used to support virtually any use case in an agile manner. Here we focus on a Pipeline Pilot web-based application that interactively analyzes and reports on PubMed search results. This will be of interest to any scientist to help identify the most relevant papers in a topical area more quickly and to evaluate the results of query refinement. Links with Entrez databases help both the biologist and the chemist alike. We illustrate this application with Leishmaniasis, a neglected tropical disease, as a case study.

  14. [Occupational risk due to use of mercury in dentistry: a bibliographic review].

    PubMed

    Grigoletto, Jamyle Calencio; Oliveira, Aline da Silva; Muñoz, Susana Inés Segura; Alberguini, Leny Borghesan Albertini; Takayanagui, Angela Maria Magosso

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study is to present data concerning hazardous waste management in the health area, with emphasis to the utilization of mercury in dentistry. The study was based on a bibliographic review regarding the use of mercury in dental fillings and its potential toxicological risks for patients and due to occupational exposure. The studies also take into consideration national and international recommendations on the use of mercury and its occupational exposure limits. The review of the literature reveals the potential toxic effects of mercury both on the environment and on human health. Given that the use of dental amalgam is still very frequent in dentistry, there is a need for safety regulations in order to minimize the risks posed by dental amalgam in dentistry proceedings based on technical guidelines for its use, discard and final disposal.

  15. Psychosocial wellbeing in the Central and Eastern European transition: an overview and systematic bibliographic review.

    PubMed

    Eiroá Orosa, Francisco José

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a systematic review of literature on the psychosocial wellbeing of populations in Central and Eastern Europe during the transition period subsequent to the fall of the SovietBloc. A revision of research addressing emotional wellbeing trends in this period and theoretical models was carried in order to verify their validity in the analysis of empirical studies. Hence, a systematic bibliographic review was conducted, aiming to find possible subjective mediators between social variables derived from change sand emotional wellbeing. The results of the review show that subjective mediators such as locus of control,perceived control, self-efficacy beliefs, perceived familial support, and the subjective evaluation of social change explain part of the relationship between macrosocial changes and emotional wellbeing. Results appear coherent with proposed multidimensional models of social change and mental health, although further research should be conducted to determine the specific weight of these phenomena in individual emotional wellbeing.

  16. Assessment of a phytogenic feed additive (Digestarom P.E.P. MGE) on growth performance, processing yield, fillet composition, and survival of channel catfish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The use of feed additives to improve production has been identified as an important area for development in aquaculture. A study was conducted to investigate the effects of a phytogenic feed additive (Digestarom® P.E.P. MGE) on growth performance, processing yield, fillet composition, and survival ...

  17. Assessing direct analysis in real-time-mass spectrometry (DART-MS) for the rapid identification of additives in food packaging.

    PubMed

    Ackerman, L K; Noonan, G O; Begley, T H

    2009-12-01

    The ambient ionization technique direct analysis in real time (DART) was characterized and evaluated for the screening of food packaging for the presence of packaging additives using a benchtop mass spectrometer (MS). Approximate optimum conditions were determined for 13 common food-packaging additives, including plasticizers, anti-oxidants, colorants, grease-proofers, and ultraviolet light stabilizers. Method sensitivity and linearity were evaluated using solutions and characterized polymer samples. Additionally, the response of a model additive (di-ethyl-hexyl-phthalate) was examined across a range of sample positions, DART, and MS conditions (temperature, voltage and helium flow). Under optimal conditions, molecular ion (M+H+) was the major ion for most additives. Additive responses were highly sensitive to sample and DART source orientation, as well as to DART flow rates, temperatures, and MS inlet voltages, respectively. DART-MS response was neither consistently linear nor quantitative in this setting, and sensitivity varied by additive. All additives studied were rapidly identified in multiple food-packaging materials by DART-MS/MS, suggesting this technique can be used to screen food packaging rapidly. However, method sensitivity and quantitation requires further study and improvement.

  18. Comprehensive cardiac assessment with multislice computed tomography: evaluation of left ventricular function and perfusion in addition to coronary anatomy in patients with previous myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Henneman, M M; Schuijf, J D; Jukema, J W; Lamb, H J; de Roos, A; Dibbets, P; Stokkel, M P; van der Wall, E E; Bax, J J

    2006-01-01

    Objective To evaluate a comprehensive multislice computed tomography (MSCT) protocol in patients with previous infarction, including assessment of coronary artery stenoses, left ventricular (LV) function and perfusion. Patients and methods 16‐slice MSCT was performed in 21 patients with previous infarction; from the MSCT data, coronary artery stenoses, (regional and global) LV function and perfusion were assessed. Invasive coronary angiography and gated single‐photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) served as the reference standards for coronary artery stenoses and LV function/perfusion, respectively. Results 236 of 241 (98%) coronary artery segments were interpretable on MSCT. The sensitivity and specificity for detection of stenoses were 91% and 97%. Pearson's correlation showed excellent agreement for assessment of LV ejection fraction between MSCT and SPECT (49 (13)% v 53 (12)%, respectively, r  =  0.85). Agreement for assessment of regional wall motion was excellent (92%, κ  =  0.77). In 68 of 73 (93%) segments, MSCT correctly identified a perfusion defect as compared with SPECT, whereas the absence of perfusion defects was correctly detected in 277 of 284 (98%) segments. Conclusions MSCT permits accurate, non‐invasive assessment of coronary artery stenoses, LV function and perfusion in patients with previous infarction. All parameters can be assessed from a single dataset. PMID:16740917

  19. Noise variance analysis using a flat panel x-ray detector: A method for additive noise assessment with application to breast CT applications

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Kai; Huang, Shih-Ying; Packard, Nathan J.; Boone, John M.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: A simplified linear model approach was proposed to accurately model the response of a flat panel detector used for breast CT (bCT). Methods: Individual detector pixel mean and variance were measured from bCT projection images acquired both in air and with a polyethylene cylinder, with the detector operating in both fixed low gain and dynamic gain mode. Once the coefficients of the linear model are determined, the fractional additive noise can be used as a quantitative metric to evaluate the system’s efficiency in utilizing x-ray photons, including the performance of different gain modes of the detector. Results: Fractional additive noise increases as the object thickness increases or as the radiation dose to the detector decreases. For bCT scan techniques on the UC Davis prototype scanner (80 kVp, 500 views total, 30 frames∕s), in the low gain mode, additive noise contributes 21% of the total pixel noise variance for a 10 cm object and 44% for a 17 cm object. With the dynamic gain mode, additive noise only represents approximately 2.6% of the total pixel noise variance for a 10 cm object and 7.3% for a 17 cm object. Conclusions: The existence of the signal-independent additive noise is the primary cause for a quadratic relationship between bCT noise variance and the inverse of radiation dose at the detector. With the knowledge of the additive noise contribution to experimentally acquired images, system modifications can be made to reduce the impact of additive noise and improve the quantum noise efficiency of the bCT system. PMID:20831059

  20. Noise variance analysis using a flat panel x-ray detector: A method for additive noise assessment with application to breast CT applications

    SciTech Connect

    Yang Kai; Huang, Shih-Ying; Packard, Nathan J.; Boone, John M.

    2010-07-15

    Purpose: A simplified linear model approach was proposed to accurately model the response of a flat panel detector used for breast CT (bCT). Methods: Individual detector pixel mean and variance were measured from bCT projection images acquired both in air and with a polyethylene cylinder, with the detector operating in both fixed low gain and dynamic gain mode. Once the coefficients of the linear model are determined, the fractional additive noise can be used as a quantitative metric to evaluate the system's efficiency in utilizing x-ray photons, including the performance of different gain modes of the detector. Results: Fractional additive noise increases as the object thickness increases or as the radiation dose to the detector decreases. For bCT scan techniques on the UC Davis prototype scanner (80 kVp, 500 views total, 30 frames/s), in the low gain mode, additive noise contributes 21% of the total pixel noise variance for a 10 cm object and 44% for a 17 cm object. With the dynamic gain mode, additive noise only represents approximately 2.6% of the total pixel noise variance for a 10 cm object and 7.3% for a 17 cm object. Conclusions: The existence of the signal-independent additive noise is the primary cause for a quadratic relationship between bCT noise variance and the inverse of radiation dose at the detector. With the knowledge of the additive noise contribution to experimentally acquired images, system modifications can be made to reduce the impact of additive noise and improve the quantum noise efficiency of the bCT system.

  1. A concentration addition model to assess activation of the pregnane X receptor (PXR) by pesticide mixtures found in the French diet.

    PubMed

    de Sousa, Georges; Nawaz, Ahmad; Cravedi, Jean-Pierre; Rahmani, Roger

    2014-09-01

    French consumers are exposed to mixtures of pesticide residues in part through food consumption. As a xenosensor, the pregnane X receptor (hPXR) is activated by numerous pesticides, the combined effect of which is currently unknown. We examined the activation of hPXR by seven pesticide mixtures most likely found in the French diet and their individual components. The mixture's effect was estimated using the concentration addition (CA) model. PXR transactivation was measured by monitoring luciferase activity in hPXR/HepG2 cells and CYP3A4 expression in human hepatocytes. The three mixtures with the highest potency were evaluated using the CA model, at equimolar concentrations and at their relative proportion in the diet. The seven mixtures significantly activated hPXR and induced the expression of CYP3A4 in human hepatocytes. Of the 14 pesticides which constitute the three most active mixtures, four were found to be strong hPXR agonists, four medium, and six weak. Depending on the mixture and pesticide proportions, additive, greater than additive or less than additive effects between compounds were demonstrated. Predictions of the combined effects were obtained with both real-life and equimolar proportions at low concentrations. Pesticides act mostly additively to activate hPXR, when present in a mixture. Modulation of hPXR activation and its target genes induction may represent a risk factor contributing to exacerbate the physiological response of the hPXR signaling pathways and to explain some adverse effects in humans.

  2. 2013 Mathematics Assessment Report Card: Summary Data Tables with Additional Detail for Average Scores and Achievement Levels for States and Jurisdictions. [Results Appendix. NCES 2014-451

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Education Statistics, 2013

    2013-01-01

    This document represents one of three appendices associated with "The Nation's Report Card: A First Look--2013 Mathematics and Reading. National Assessment of Educational Progress at Grade 4 and 8. NCES 2014-451." It includes tabular data relating to the mathematics portion of the Tables of Education Progress at Grade 4 and 8. [For the…

  3. Final Environmental Assessment: For Construction of an Addition to the Joint Strike Fighter Reprogramming Facility, Building 614, on Eglin Air Force Base, Florida

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    located approximately 0.8 miles south of Lewis Middle School . Additionally, the construction site would be fenced, preventing unauthorized access...boiler insulation, acoustical ceilings, sprayed-on fireproofing, and other material used for soundproofing or insulation. ● Lead-Based Paint – LBP

  4. A Concentration Addition Model to Assess Activation of the Pregnane X Receptor (PXR) by Pesticide Mixtures Found in the French Diet

    PubMed Central

    de Sousa, Georges; Nawaz, Ahmad; Cravedi, Jean-Pierre; Rahmani, Roger

    2014-01-01

    French consumers are exposed to mixtures of pesticide residues in part through food consumption. As a xenosensor, the pregnane X receptor (hPXR) is activated by numerous pesticides, the combined effect of which is currently unknown. We examined the activation of hPXR by seven pesticide mixtures most likely found in the French diet and their individual components. The mixture's effect was estimated using the concentration addition (CA) model. PXR transactivation was measured by monitoring luciferase activity in hPXR/HepG2 cells and CYP3A4 expression in human hepatocytes. The three mixtures with the highest potency were evaluated using the CA model, at equimolar concentrations and at their relative proportion in the diet. The seven mixtures significantly activated hPXR and induced the expression of CYP3A4 in human hepatocytes. Of the 14 pesticides which constitute the three most active mixtures, four were found to be strong hPXR agonists, four medium, and six weak. Depending on the mixture and pesticide proportions, additive, greater than additive or less than additive effects between compounds were demonstrated. Predictions of the combined effects were obtained with both real-life and equimolar proportions at low concentrations. Pesticides act mostly additively to activate hPXR, when present in a mixture. Modulation of hPXR activation and its target genes induction may represent a risk factor contributing to exacerbate the physiological response of the hPXR signaling pathways and to explain some adverse effects in humans. PMID:25028461

  5. Environmental Assessment for the Construction of an Addition to USSOCOM Command and Control Facility, an Information Technology Facility, and a Permanent Parking Lot MacDill AFB, Florida

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-01-01

    In addition, since the site is larger than one acre in area, a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Phase II Storm water...Clean Air Act (CAA), as amended in 1977 and 1990, provides the basis for regulating air pollution to the atmosphere. The United States Environmental...Protection Agency (USEPA) set air quality standards for six “criteria” pollutants : carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), ozone (O3), sulfur

  6. Study of sensory-code space to assess the possibility of synthesis of additional sensory channels in a human-machine system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonets, V. A.; Zeveke, A. V.; Malysheva, G. I.; Polevaya, S. A.

    1994-09-01

    The attributes of the afferent flow of the cat analyzer under heat, cold, tactile, and pain stimulation are studied. It is shown the flows formed can be described by an attribute vector. It is found that unoccupied regions exist in the vector space of the descriptions of physiologically permissible codes, i.e., there is an excess of code space that could serve for the synthesis of additional channels, including those not inherent in human modalities. In many problems of engineering and medicine, this could be the only way to restore or compensate for lost functions of analyzing systems, such as vision and hearing.

  7. Gene cloning and characterization of a thermostable phytase from Bacillus subtilis US417 and assessment of its potential as a feed additive in comparison with a commercial enzyme.

    PubMed

    Farhat, Ameny; Chouayekh, Hichem; Ben Farhat, Mounira; Bouchaala, Kameleddine; Bejar, Samir

    2008-10-01

    An extracellular phytase from Bacillus subtilis US417 (PHY US417) was purified and characterized. The purified enzyme of 41 kDa was calcium-dependent and optimally active at pH 7.5 and 55 degrees C. The thermal stability of PHY US417 was drastically improved by calcium. Indeed, it recovered 77% of its original activity after denaturation for 10 min at 75 degrees C in the presence of 5 mM CaCl2, while it retained only 22% of activity when incubated for 10 min at 60 degrees C without calcium. In addition, PHY US417 was found to be highly specific for phytate and exhibited pH stability similar to Phyzyme, a commercial phytase with optimal activity at pH 5.5 and 60 degrees C. The phytase gene was cloned by PCR from Bacillus subtilis US417. Sequence analysis of the encoded polypeptide revealed one residue difference from PhyC of Bacillus subtilis VTTE-68013 (substitution of arginine in position 257 by proline in PHY US417) which was reported to exhibit lower thermostability especially in the absence of calcium. With its neutral pH optimum as well as its great pH and thermal stability, the PHY US417 enzyme presumed to be predominantly active in the intestine has a high potential for use as feed additive.

  8. Assessing Caudal Block Concentrations of Bupivacaine With and Without the Addition of Intravenous Fentanyl on Postoperative Outcomes in Pediatric Patients: A Retrospective Review.

    PubMed

    Karkera, Megha M; Harrison, Dale R; Aunspaugh, Jennifer P; Martin, Timothy W

    2016-01-01

    Caudal blocks are a significant and efficacious aspect of pediatric anesthesia, especially in urologic and many general surgery cases. This type of regional anesthesia is common because it has a high success rate and provides between 6 and 8 hours of postoperative pain control. The aim of this study was to determine whether the concentration of bupivacaine or the addition of intravascular (i.v.) fentanyl affected the postanesthesia care unit (PACU) discharge time. A retrospective cohort study comparing the outcomes in pediatric patients who have received varying caudal concentrations with and without the addition of i.v. fentanyl was performed. A total of 849 consecutive patients undergoing hypospadias repairs or circumcisions were reviewed and placed in one of the following 3 groups: 0.125% bupivacaine (group 1), 0.25% bupivacaine (group 2), or one of these concentrations of bupivacaine + i.v. fentanyl intraoperatively (group 3). Total PACU time for each group was 46.1 minutes (group 1), 48.9 minutes (group 2), and 49.7 minutes (group 3). Our results revealed that there is no statistically significant difference between concentrations of bupivacaine administered in a caudal block with or without i.v. fentanyl with regard to the outcome of PACU duration (P = 0.16). Overall, based on the retrospective cohort design, there is no difference in primary and secondary outcomes based on the concentration of bupivacaine, when administered at a volume of 1 mL/kg.

  9. Cryptosporidium within-host genetic diversity: systematic bibliographical search and narrative overview.

    PubMed

    Grinberg, Alex; Widmer, Giovanni

    2016-07-01

    Knowledge of the within-host genetic diversity of a pathogen often has broad implications for disease management. Cryptosporidium protozoan parasites are among the most common causative agents of infectious diarrhoea. Current limitations of in vitro culture impose the use of uncultured isolates obtained directly from the hosts as operational units of Cryptosporidium genotyping. The validity of this practice is centred on the assumption of genetic homogeneity of the parasite within the host, and genetic studies often take little account of the within-host genetic diversity of Cryptosporidium. Yet, theory and experimental evidence contemplate genetic diversity of Cryptosporidium at the within-host scale, but this diversity is not easily identified by genotyping methods ill-suited for the resolution of DNA mixtures. We performed a systematic bibliographical search of the occurrence of within-host genetic diversity of Cryptosporidium parasites in epidemiological samples, between 2005 and 2015. Our results indicate that genetic diversity at the within-host scale, in the form of mixed species or intra-species diversity, has been identified in a large number (n=55) of epidemiological surveys of cryptosporidiosis in variable proportions, but has often been treated as a secondary finding and not analysed. As in malaria, there are indications that the scale of this diversity varies between geographical regions, perhaps depending on the prevailing transmission pathways. These results provide a significant knowledge base from which to draw alternative population genetic structure models, some of which are discussed in this paper.

  10. CiteSpace II: Visualization and Knowledge Discovery in Bibliographic Databases

    PubMed Central

    Synnestvedt, Marie B.; Chen, Chaomei; Holmes, John H.

    2005-01-01

    This article presents a description and case study of CiteSpace II, a Java application which supports visual exploration with knowledge discovery in bibliographic databases. Highly cited and pivotal documents, areas of specialization within a knowledge domain, and emergence of research topics are visually mapped through a progressive knowledge domain visualization approach to detecting and visualizing trends and patterns in scientific literature. The test case in this study is progressive knowledge domain visualization of the field of medical informatics. Datasets based on publications from twelve journals in the medical informatics field covering the time period from 1964–2004 were extracted from PubMed and Web of Science (WOS) and developed as testbeds for evaluation of the CiteSpace system. Two resulting document-term co-citation and MeSH term co-occurrence visualizations are qualitatively evaluated for identification of pivotal documents, areas of specialization, and research trends. Practical applications in bio-medical research settings are discussed. PMID:16779135

  11. Defrosting the digital library: bibliographic tools for the next generation web.

    PubMed

    Hull, Duncan; Pettifer, Steve R; Kell, Douglas B

    2008-10-01

    Many scientists now manage the bulk of their bibliographic information electronically, thereby organizing their publications and citation material from digital libraries. However, a library has been described as "thought in cold storage," and unfortunately many digital libraries can be cold, impersonal, isolated, and inaccessible places. In this Review, we discuss the current chilly state of digital libraries for the computational biologist, including PubMed, IEEE Xplore, the ACM digital library, ISI Web of Knowledge, Scopus, Citeseer, arXiv, DBLP, and Google Scholar. We illustrate the current process of using these libraries with a typical workflow, and highlight problems with managing data and metadata using URIs. We then examine a range of new applications such as Zotero, Mendeley, Mekentosj Papers, MyNCBI, CiteULike, Connotea, and HubMed that exploit the Web to make these digital libraries more personal, sociable, integrated, and accessible places. We conclude with how these applications may begin to help achieve a digital defrost, and discuss some of the issues that will help or hinder this in terms of making libraries on the Web warmer places in the future, becoming resources that are considerably more useful to both humans and machines.

  12. National Uranium Resource Evaluation. Bibliographic index of Grand Junction office uranium reports

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, J.B.

    1981-05-01

    In October 1978, Mesa College entered into subcontract with Bendix Field Engineering Corporation (BFEC) to prepare a bibliographic index of the uranium raw materials reports issued by the Grand Junction Office of the US Department of Energy (DOE). Bendix, prime contractor to the Grand Junction Office, operates the Technical Library at the DOE facility. Since the early 1950s, approximately 2700 reports have been issued by the Grand Junction Office. These reports were the results of uranium investigations conducted by federal agencies and their subcontractors. The majority of the reports cover geology, mineralogy, and metallurgy of uranium and/or thorium. No single, complete list of these reports existed. The purpose of this subcontract was to compile a comprehensive index to these reports. The Mesa College geology faculty worked with the BFEC and DOE staffs to develop the format for the index. Undergraduate geology students from Mesa compiled a master record sheet for each report. All reports issued up to January 1, 1979 were included in the bibliography. The bibliography is in preliminary, unedited form. It is being open-filed at this time, on microfiche, to make the information available to the public on a timely basis. The bibliography is divided into a master record list arranged in alpha-numeric order by report identification number, with separate indices arranged by title, author, state and county, 1/sup 0/ x 2/sup 0/ NTMS quadrangle, key words, and exploration area.

  13. Bibliographic citations pertinent to the Weldon Spring Site, St. Charles County, Missouri

    SciTech Connect

    Owen, P. T.; Michelson, D. C.; Knox, N. P.

    1985-08-01

    This report is a compilation of 166 bibliographic references pertinent to the Weldon Spring Site (WSS), St. Charles County, Missouri. The WSS is a surplus US government facility which consists of the Weldon Spring Chemical Plant; two separate low-level radioactive waste storage properties, designated the ''raffinate pits'' and ''quarry'', and a number of potentially contaminated vicinity properties. The facility was used by the US Atomic Energy Commission from 1957 to 1966 to refine uranium. After several years the US Department of the Army acquired responsibility for the Weldon Spring Chemical Plant, performed some limited radiological decontamination, and then cancelled plans to construct a chemical process. Contamination of the facility and adjacent lands resulted from operation of the refining facility and the storage, transport, and disposal of process wastes on the property, as well as subsequent decontamination activities. All identified references to published technical documents that relate to the WSS were included in this report. In some cases citations from the reference section of existing documents were included in this report with no hardcopy to substantiate the existence of the document referenced.

  14. Defrosting the Digital Library: Bibliographic Tools for the Next Generation Web

    PubMed Central

    Hull, Duncan; Pettifer, Steve R.; Kell, Douglas B.

    2008-01-01

    Many scientists now manage the bulk of their bibliographic information electronically, thereby organizing their publications and citation material from digital libraries. However, a library has been described as “thought in cold storage,” and unfortunately many digital libraries can be cold, impersonal, isolated, and inaccessible places. In this Review, we discuss the current chilly state of digital libraries for the computational biologist, including PubMed, IEEE Xplore, the ACM digital library, ISI Web of Knowledge, Scopus, Citeseer, arXiv, DBLP, and Google Scholar. We illustrate the current process of using these libraries with a typical workflow, and highlight problems with managing data and metadata using URIs. We then examine a range of new applications such as Zotero, Mendeley, Mekentosj Papers, MyNCBI, CiteULike, Connotea, and HubMed that exploit the Web to make these digital libraries more personal, sociable, integrated, and accessible places. We conclude with how these applications may begin to help achieve a digital defrost, and discuss some of the issues that will help or hinder this in terms of making libraries on the Web warmer places in the future, becoming resources that are considerably more useful to both humans and machines. PMID:18974831

  15. How and why musicians are different from nonmusicians: a bibliographic review.

    PubMed

    Dawson, William J

    2011-06-01

    Musicians differ from nonmusicians in many ways; their many special skills reflect the fact that their brains are built differently and function differently. This review of 172 references from PAMA's bibliographic database reveals that most differences occur in the neurobiological realm, in contrast to those of gross anatomy and physiology. Gross changes occur in both cerebral and cerebellar hemispheres and in both gray and white matter. Neurophysiologic differences, measured by sophisticated imaging and electrophysiological techniques, are revealed in sound processing in general, as well as in multiple parameters of music perception, processing, and performance. Most of the neurological differences, both structural and functional, seem to be related to the early age of onset, intense degree, and prolonged duration of musical training and affect multiple, widespread areas of the brain. Training-related differences extend beyond the musical realm to speech, special senses, and general mental parameters and are seen in both instrumental and vocal musicians. A small percentage of reviewed papers demonstrated no appreciable differences between musicians and nonmusicians in a few parameters.

  16. A bibliographic review of public health dissemination and implementation research output and citation rates.

    PubMed

    Wolfenden, Luke; Milat, Andrew J; Lecathelinais, Christophe; Skelton, Eliza; Clinton-McHarg, Tara; Williams, Christopher; Wiggers, John; Chai, Li Kheng; Yoong, Sze Lin

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the research output and citation rates (academic impact) of public health dissemination and implementation research according to research design and study type. A cross sectional bibliographic study was undertaken in 2013. All original data-based studies and review articles focusing on dissemination and implementation research that had been published in 10 randomly selected public health journals in 2008 were audited. The electronic database 'Scopus' was used to calculate 5-year citation rates for all included publications. Of the 1648 publications examined, 216 were original data-based research or literature reviews focusing on dissemination and implementation research. Of these 72% were classified as descriptive/epidemiological, 26% were intervention and just 1.9% were measurement research. Cross-sectional studies were the most common study design (47%). Reviews, randomized trials, non-randomized trials and decision/cost-effectiveness studies each represented between 6 and 10% of all output. Systematic reviews, randomized controlled trials and cohort studies were the most frequently cited study designs. The study suggests that publications that had the greatest academic impact (highest citation rates) made up only a small proportion of overall public health dissemination and implementation research output.

  17. Bibliographic control of audiovisuals: analysis of a cataloging project using OCLC.

    PubMed

    Curtis, J A; Davison, F M

    1985-04-01

    The staff of the Quillen-Dishner College of Medicine Library cataloged 702 audiovisual titles between July 1, 1982, and June 30, 1983, using the OCLC database. This paper discusses the library's audiovisual collection and describes the method and scope of a study conducted during this project, the cataloging standards and conventions adopted, the assignment and use of NLM classification, the provision of summaries for programs, and the amount of staff time expended in cataloging typical items. An analysis of the use of OCLC for this project resulted in the following findings: the rate of successful searches for audiovisual copy was 82.4%; the error rate for records used was 41.9%; modifications were required in every record used; the Library of Congress and seven member institutions provided 62.8% of the records used. It was concluded that the effort to establish bibliographic control of audiovisuals is not widespread and that expanded and improved audiovisual cataloging by the Library of Congress and the National Library of Medicine would substantially contribute to that goal.

  18. Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reising, Bob

    1998-01-01

    Argues (guided by "The Challenge of Change: Assessment in the 21st Century") that in the decades ahead, assessment will play an unprecedented role as the vehicle that will influence and guide scheduling, curriculum, and instruction. (SR)

  19. Colorimetric Method of Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification with the Pre-Addition of Calcein for Detecting Flavobacterium columnare and its Assessment in Tilapia Farms.

    PubMed

    Suebsing, Rungkarn; Kampeera, Jantana; Sirithammajak, Sarawut; Withyachumnarnkul, Boonsirm; Turner, Warren; Kiatpathomchai, Wansika

    2015-03-01

    Flavobacterium columnare, the causative agent of columnaris disease in fish, affects many economically important freshwater fish species. A colorimetric method of loop-mediated isothermal amplification with the pre-addition of calcein (LAMP-calcein) was developed and used to detect the presence of F. columnare in farmed tilapia (Nile Tilapia Oreochromis niloticus and red tilapia [Nile Tilapia × Mozambique Tilapia O. mossambicus]) and rearing water. The detection method, based on a change in color from orange to green, could be performed within 45 min at 63°C. The method was highly specific, as it had no cross-detections with 14 other bacterial species, including other fish pathogens and two Flavobacterium species. The method has a minimum detection limit of 2.2 × 10(2) F. columnare CFU; thus, it is about 10 times more sensitive than conventional PCR. With this method, F. columnare was detected in gonad, gill, and blood samples from apparently healthy tilapia broodstock as well as in samples of fertilized eggs, newly hatched fry, and rearing water. The bacteria isolated from the blood were further characterized biochemically and found to be phenotypically identical to F. columnare. The amplified products from the LAMP-calcein method had 97% homology with the DNA sequence of F. columnare.

  20. Assessment of Chinese sturgeon habitat suitability in the Yangtze River (China): Comparison of generalized additive model, data-driven fuzzy logic model, and preference curve model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Yujun; Sun, Jie; Zhang, Shanghong; Yang, Zhifeng

    2016-05-01

    To date, a wide range of models have been applied to evaluate aquatic habitat suitability. In this study, three models, including the expert knowledge-based preference curve model (PCM), data-driven fuzzy logic model (DDFL), and generalized additive model (GAM), are used on a common data set to compare their effectiveness and accuracy. The true skill statistic (TSS) and the area under the receiver operating characteristics curve (AUC) are used to evaluate the accuracy of the three models. The results indicate that the two data-based methods (DDFL and GAM) yield better accuracy than the expert knowledge-based PCM, and the GAM yields the best accuracy. There are minor differences in the suitable ranges of the physical habitat variables obtained from the three models. The hydraulic habitat suitability index (HHSI) calculated by the PCM is the largest, followed by the DDFL and then the GAM. The results illustrate that data-based models can describe habitat suitability more objectively and accurately when there are sufficient data. When field data are lacking, combining expertise with data-based models is recommended. When field data are difficult to obtain, an expert knowledge-based model can be used as a replacement for the data-based methods.

  1. Resilience of Soil Microbial Communities to Metals and Additional Stressors: DNA-Based Approaches for Assessing “Stress-on-Stress” Responses

    PubMed Central

    Azarbad, Hamed; van Gestel, Cornelis A. M.; Niklińska, Maria; Laskowski, Ryszard; Röling, Wilfred F. M.; van Straalen, Nico M.

    2016-01-01

    Many microbial ecology studies have demonstrated profound changes in community composition caused by environmental pollution, as well as adaptation processes allowing survival of microbes in polluted ecosystems. Soil microbial communities in polluted areas with a long-term history of contamination have been shown to maintain their function by developing metal-tolerance mechanisms. In the present work, we review recent experiments, with specific emphasis on studies that have been conducted in polluted areas with a long-term history of contamination that also applied DNA-based approaches. We evaluate how the “costs” of adaptation to metals affect the responses of metal-tolerant communities to other stress factors (“stress-on-stress”). We discuss recent studies on the stability of microbial communities, in terms of resistance and resilience to additional stressors, focusing on metal pollution as the initial stress, and discuss possible factors influencing the functional and structural stability of microbial communities towards secondary stressors. There is increasing evidence that the history of environmental conditions and disturbance regimes play central roles in responses of microbial communities towards secondary stressors. PMID:27314330

  2. Resilience of Soil Microbial Communities to Metals and Additional Stressors: DNA-Based Approaches for Assessing "Stress-on-Stress" Responses.

    PubMed

    Azarbad, Hamed; van Gestel, Cornelis A M; Niklińska, Maria; Laskowski, Ryszard; Röling, Wilfred F M; van Straalen, Nico M

    2016-06-14

    Many microbial ecology studies have demonstrated profound changes in community composition caused by environmental pollution, as well as adaptation processes allowing survival of microbes in polluted ecosystems. Soil microbial communities in polluted areas with a long-term history of contamination have been shown to maintain their function by developing metal-tolerance mechanisms. In the present work, we review recent experiments, with specific emphasis on studies that have been conducted in polluted areas with a long-term history of contamination that also applied DNA-based approaches. We evaluate how the "costs" of adaptation to metals affect the responses of metal-tolerant communities to other stress factors ("stress-on-stress"). We discuss recent studies on the stability of microbial communities, in terms of resistance and resilience to additional stressors, focusing on metal pollution as the initial stress, and discuss possible factors influencing the functional and structural stability of microbial communities towards secondary stressors. There is increasing evidence that the history of environmental conditions and disturbance regimes play central roles in responses of microbial communities towards secondary stressors.

  3. In vivo assessment of an industrial waste product as a feed additive in dairy cows: Effects of larch (Larix decidua L.) sawdust on blood parameters and milk composition.

    PubMed

    Tedesco, D; Garavaglia, L; Spagnuolo, M S; Pferschy-Wenzig, E M; Bauer, R; Franz, C

    2015-12-01

    When larch (Larix spp.) is processed in the wood industry, the sawdust is currently disposed of as waste or used as combustible material, even though it is rich in biologically active compounds. In this study the effect of larch sawdust supplementation on blood parameters as well as milk composition was examined in healthy mid-lactating dairy cows. Twenty-four multiparous Italian Friesian dairy cows were assigned to groups receiving either 300 g/day/cow of larch sawdust or a control diet, and treatments were continued for a 20 day period. Milk parameters were unaffected by treatment. A lower plasma total protein concentration was observed and can be attributed to a decrease in globulin concentration. A lower plasma urea concentration was also detected in the larch group. Moreover, biomarkers of liver function were influenced by the treatment. Total bilirubin was lower in larch-treated animals, and cholesterol tended to be lower. In addition, an interaction between day and treatment was observed for very low density lipoprotein. The concentration of other parameters, including reactive oxygen metabolites, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and nitrotyrosine, did not differ between treatments. The observed benefits, together with the good palatability, make larch sawdust a promising candidate for the development of beneficial feed supplements for livestock. Further studies will be useful, particularly to evaluate its efficacy in different health conditions.

  4. Using generalized additive mixed models to assess spatial, temporal, and hydrologic controls on bacteria and nitrate in a vulnerable agricultural aquifer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mellor, Andrea F. P.; Cey, Edwin E.

    2015-11-01

    The Abbotsford-Sumas aquifer (ASA) has a history of nitrate contamination from agricultural land use and manure application to soils, yet little is known about its microbial groundwater quality. The goal of this study was to investigate the spatiotemporal distribution of pathogen indicators (Escherichia coli [E. coli] and total coliform [TC]) and nitrate in groundwater, and their potential relation to hydrologic drivers. Sampling of 46 wells over an 11-month period confirmed elevated nitrate concentrations, with more than 50% of samples exceeding 10 mg-N/L. E. coli detections in groundwater were infrequent (4 of 385 total samples) and attributed mainly to surface water-groundwater connections along Fishtrap Creek, which tested positive for E. coli in every sampling event. TC was detected frequently in groundwater (70% of samples) across the ASA. Generalized additive mixed models (GAMMs) yielded valuable insights into relationships between TC or nitrate and a range of spatial, temporal, and hydrologic explanatory variables. Increased TC values over the wetter fall and winter period were most strongly related to groundwater temperatures and levels, while precipitation and well location were weaker (but still significant) predictors. In contrast, the moderate temporal variability in nitrate concentrations was not significantly related to hydrologic forcings. TC was relatively widespread across the ASA and spatial patterns could not be attributed solely to surface water connectivity. Varying nitrate concentrations across the ASA were significantly related to both well location and depth, likely due to spatially variable nitrogen loading and localized geochemical attenuation (i.e., denitrification). Vulnerability of the ASA to bacteria was clearly linked to hydrologic conditions, and was distinct from nitrate, such that a groundwater management strategy specifically for bacterial contaminants is warranted.

  5. Using generalized additive mixed models to assess spatial, temporal, and hydrologic controls on bacteria and nitrate in a vulnerable agricultural aquifer.

    PubMed

    Mellor, Andrea F P; Cey, Edwin E

    2015-11-01

    The Abbotsford-Sumas aquifer (ASA) has a history of nitrate contamination from agricultural land use and manure application to soils, yet little is known about its microbial groundwater quality. The goal of this study was to investigate the spatiotemporal distribution of pathogen indicators (Escherichia coli [E. coli] and total coliform [TC]) and nitrate in groundwater, and their potential relation to hydrologic drivers. Sampling of 46 wells over an 11-month period confirmed elevated nitrate concentrations, with more than 50% of samples exceeding 10 mg-N/L. E. coli detections in groundwater were infrequent (4 of 385 total samples) and attributed mainly to surface water-groundwater connections along Fishtrap Creek, which tested positive for E. coli in every sampling event. TC was detected frequently in groundwater (70% of samples) across the ASA. Generalized additive mixed models (GAMMs) yielded valuable insights into relationships between TC or nitrate and a range of spatial, temporal, and hydrologic explanatory variables. Increased TC values over the wetter fall and winter period were most strongly related to groundwater temperatures and levels, while precipitation and well location were weaker (but still significant) predictors. In contrast, the moderate temporal variability in nitrate concentrations was not significantly related to hydrologic forcings. TC was relatively widespread across the ASA and spatial patterns could not be attributed solely to surface water connectivity. Varying nitrate concentrations across the ASA were significantly related to both well location and depth, likely due to spatially variable nitrogen loading and localized geochemical attenuation (i.e., denitrification). Vulnerability of the ASA to bacteria was clearly linked to hydrologic conditions, and was distinct from nitrate, such that a groundwater management strategy specifically for bacterial contaminants is warranted.

  6. Development of a bibliographical search matrix exemplified by a computer-assisted literature search on the evidence of condyle position analysis.

    PubMed

    Rybczynski, A; Vahle-Hinz, K; Jakstat, H; Ahlers, M O

    2009-01-01

    Apart from monographs, textbook publications and publications on websites, scientific studies have also been published concerning the method of condyle position analysis. Determination of the current research status, which can serve as basis for further scientific publications, would therefore be helpful. Accessing the texts published on this subject in scientific journals is comparatively difficult, since a keyworded search term by which the subject area can be narrowed down directly is not available in the dline" database. The development of a computer-assisted bibliographical search matrix, which facilitates clear identification of relevant publications in scientific journals through "Medline", is described in this paper as an example. This search matrix can be used in corresponding web services and can also be imported into research software and saved for future computer-assisted searches. The currently available scientific studies on condyle position analysis have been found and structured with regard to contents on the basis of the search matrix and with the aid of other research sources. The matrix describing the structure of the contents serves as a logical classification on the basis of which the publications have been classified. In addition to the classification by subject, the evidence levels were determined for the scientific studies - on the basis of their concept - and thus the external evidence on condyle position analysis as a procedure was developed.

  7. Are South African Speech-Language Therapists adequately equipped to assess English Additional Language (EAL) speakers who are from an indigenous linguistic and cultural background? A profile and exploration of the current situation.

    PubMed

    Mdladlo, Thandeka; Flack, Penelope; Joubert, Robin

    2016-03-18

    This article presents the results of a survey conducted on Speech-Language Therapists (SLTs) regarding current practices in the assessment of English Additional Language (EAL) speakers in South Africa. It forms part of the rationale for a broader (PhD) study that critiques the use of assessment instruments on EAL speakers from an indigenous linguistic and cultural background. This article discusses an aspect of the broader research and presents the background, method, findings, discussion and implications of the survey. The results of this survey highlight the challenges of human and material resources to, and the dominance of English in, the profession in South Africa. The findings contribute to understanding critical factors for acquiring reliable and valid assessment results with diverse populations, particularly the implications from a cultural and linguistic perspective.

  8. Overview of existing European food consumption databases: critical aspects in relation to their use for the assessment of dietary exposure to additives, flavourings and residues of food contact materials.

    PubMed

    Le Donne, Cinzia; Piccinelli, Raffaela; Sette, Stefania; Leclercq, Catherine

    2011-03-01

    A critical analysis of existing food consumption databases was performed with particular regard for their current and potential use for the assessment of dietary exposure to additives, flavourings and residues of food contact materials. Within the European Food Consumption Validation project (EFCOVAL), a questionnaire on critical aspects of such datasets was developed and administered to researchers responsible for the collection/analysis of national food consumption data in European countries. Information collected was complemented through a review of the literature and of grey publications in order to provide an inventory of the main food consumption surveys performed in Europe from 1994 to 2007, for a total of 23 countries and 37 surveys. It appeared that existing European food consumption surveys have as a main objective the assessment of nutrient intake in the population. On the other hand, most of the databases were shown to be used also for the purpose of dietary exposure assessment.

  9. Social sciences research in neglected tropical diseases 2: A bibliographic analysis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background There are strong arguments for social science and interdisciplinary research in the neglected tropical diseases. These diseases represent a rich and dynamic interplay between vector, host, and pathogen which occurs within social, physical and biological contexts. The overwhelming sense, however, is that neglected tropical diseases research is a biomedical endeavour largely excluding the social sciences. The purpose of this review is to provide a baseline for discussing the quantum and nature of the science that is being conducted, and the extent to which the social sciences are a part of that. Methods A bibliographic analysis was conducted of neglected tropical diseases related research papers published over the past 10 years in biomedical and social sciences. The analysis had textual and bibliometric facets, and focussed on chikungunya, dengue, visceral leishmaniasis, and onchocerciasis. Results There is substantial variation in the number of publications associated with each disease. The proportion of the research that is social science based appears remarkably consistent (<4%). A textual analysis, however, reveals a degree of misclassification by the abstracting service where a surprising proportion of the "social sciences" research was pure clinical research. Much of the social sciences research also tends to be "hand maiden" research focused on the implementation of biomedical solutions. Conclusion There is little evidence that scientists pay any attention to the complex social, cultural, biological, and environmental dynamic involved in human pathogenesis. There is little investigator driven social science and a poor presence of interdisciplinary science. The research needs more sophisticated funders and priority setters who are not beguiled by uncritical biomedical promises. PMID:21210997

  10. Calculating impact factor: how bibliographical classification of journal items affects the impact factor of large and small journals.

    PubMed

    Golubic, Rajna; Rudes, Mihael; Kovacic, Natasa; Marusic, Matko; Marusic, Ana

    2008-03-01

    As bibliographical classification of published journal items affects the denominator in this equation, we investigated how the numerator and denominator of the impact factor (IF) equation were generated for representative journals in two categories of the Journal Citation Reports (JCR). We performed a full text search of the 1st-ranked journal in 2004 JCR category "Medicine, General and Internal" (New England Journal of Medicine, NEJM, IF = 38.570) and 61st-ranked journal (Croatian Medical Journal, CMJ, IF = 0.690), 1st-ranked journal in category "Multidisciplinary Sciences" (Nature, IF = 32.182) and journal with a relative rank of CMJ (Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciencias, AABC, IF = 0.435). Large journals published more items categorized by Web of Science (WoS) as non-research items (editorial material, letters, news, book reviews, bibliographical items, or corrections): 63% out of total 5,193 items in Nature and 81% out of 3,540 items in NEJM, compared with 31% out of 283 items in CMJ and only 2 (2%) out of 126 items in AABC. Some items classified by WoS as non-original contained original research data (9.5% in Nature, 7.2% in NEJM, 13.7% in CMJ and none in AABC). These items received a significant number of citations: 6.9% of total citations in Nature, 14.7% in NEJM and 18.5% in CMJ. IF decreased for all journals when only items presenting original research and citations to them were used for IF calculation. Regardless of the journal's size or discipline, publication of non-original research and its classification by the bibliographical database have an effect on both numerator and denominator of the IF equation.

  11. Development of Additional Hazard Assessment Models

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-03-01

    the case of continuous release of liquid, the pool teaches a maximum radius for constant liquid regression rate. Therefore, when a fire results on an...Propylene", Ind. J. Tech 5, 81 (1967). 11. Kobe, K. A. and Long, E. G., " Thermochemistry for the Petrochemical Industry, Part III - Monoolefinic

  12. Food additives and preschool children.

    PubMed

    Martyn, Danika M; McNulty, Breige A; Nugent, Anne P; Gibney, Michael J

    2013-02-01

    Food additives have been used throughout history to perform specific functions in foods. A comprehensive framework of legislation is in place within Europe to control the use of additives in the food supply and ensure they pose no risk to human health. Further to this, exposure assessments are regularly carried out to monitor population intakes and verify that intakes are not above acceptable levels (acceptable daily intakes). Young children may have a higher dietary exposure to chemicals than adults due to a combination of rapid growth rates and distinct food intake patterns. For this reason, exposure assessments are particularly important in this age group. The paper will review the use of additives and exposure assessment methods and examine factors that affect dietary exposure by young children. One of the most widely investigated unfavourable health effects associated with food additive intake in preschool-aged children are suggested adverse behavioural effects. Research that has examined this relationship has reported a variety of responses, with many noting an increase in hyperactivity as reported by parents but not when assessed using objective examiners. This review has examined the experimental approaches used in such studies and suggests that efforts are needed to standardise objective methods of measuring behaviour in preschool children. Further to this, a more holistic approach to examining food additive intakes by preschool children is advisable, where overall exposure is considered rather than focusing solely on behavioural effects and possibly examining intakes of food additives other than food colours.

  13. Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, Theodore E., Ed.

    "The Role of the State in Performance-Based Teacher Education-Certification" by Robert Roth creates a context for viewing how state agencies are approaching performance education. Peter Airasian then explores the value questions that are at the heart of evaluation issues. Fred McDonald looks at "The State of the Art in Performance Assessment," and…

  14. Third year nursing students' understanding of how to find and evaluate information from bibliographic databases and Internet sites.

    PubMed

    Jacobsen, Hilary E; Andenæs, Randi

    2011-11-01

    The aim of this study was to increase undergraduate nursing students' knowledge of finding and evaluating information from selected bibliographic databases and Internet sites. A quasi-experimental design was adopted. The 2004 autumn cohort (n=480) was divided into two approximately equal groups at the beginning of their studies. One group was subjected to a greater number of assignments requiring them to find and evaluate bibliographic and Internet-based information. The assignments were spread throughout the curriculum. Questionnaires were used to collect data. The low response rate makes generalizing the findings difficult. Only small differences were demonstrated between the knowledge of the revised assignment group and that of the other students. Both groups had a poor understanding of the use of important search and evaluation techniques. The results indicate that strategies proven in one context are not necessarily as effective in a new context and that more research is needed into which learning activities best enhance the development of information literacy skills during undergraduate nursing education.

  15. [Core research areas on addiction in Spain through the Web of Science bibliographic coupling analysis (2000-2013)].

    PubMed

    G, González-Alcaide; A, Calafat; E, Becoña

    2014-01-01

    The present study identifies the main Spanish core research areas in the area of addictions through the bibliographic coupling analysis of the publications at the Web of Science under the substance abuse heading. The bibliographic coupling methodology is the analytical procedure that determines the thematic-intellectual proximity of the documents under consideration through the identification of the shared or simultaneously cited bibliography by those documents. A factor analysis and network analysis have been carried out to cluster documents, graphically represent the existing core research areas, and analyse the interrelations between them. We have identified 30 core research areas. Alcohol is the topic of attention of 17 areas and cocaine has a strong presence in 6. Heroin and opiates are only present as prominent substances in 4 areas and cannabis and tobacco in other two for each substance. It has been found that there is a significant degree of fragmentation in the area, with the existence of numerous research foci but with few connections with each other and few documents showing shared common knowledge. Also noteworthy is the large number of emerging research areas, reflecting an incipient stage in many of the research topics. Consideration must be placed in promoting scientific consensus and cohesion of the discipline as well as to encouraging the consolidation of main lines that respond to the social problems and research challenges.

  16. Standard for University of California Union Catalog Input Records; Standard for Brief Machine-Readable Bibliographic Records for University of California Libraries; [and] Record Format for the MELVYL Catalog. Technical Reports Nos. 1-3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Univ., Oakland. Div. of Library Automation.

    Three reports describe the standards and format to be used when contributing bibliographic records to MELVYL, the University of California (UC) online library catalog. The first report, which was revised and approved in May 1990, defines record format standards, record maintenance information standards, bibliographic fields, local data fields,…

  17. Effect of using cardiovascular risk scoring in routine risk assessment in primary prevention of cardiovascular disease: protocol for an overview of systematic reviews

    PubMed Central

    Studzin´ski, Krzysztof; Tomasik, Tomasz; Krzyszton´, Janusz; Józ´wiak, Jacek; Windak, Adam

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Major clinical practice guidelines recommend assessing risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) using absolute/global/total CVD risk scores. However, the effectiveness of using them in clinical practice, despite publication of numerous randomised controlled trials (RCTs), is still poorly understood. To summarise and analyse current knowledge in this field, we will carry out an overview of existing systematic reviews (SRs). The objective of this overview will be to assess the effect of using cardiovascular risk scoring in routine risk assessment in primary prevention of CVD compared with standard care. Methods and analysis We will include SRs and meta-analyses which take into account RCTs and quasi-RCTs investigating the effect of using cardiovascular risk scoring in routine risk assessment in primary prevention of CVD. SRs will be retrieved from 4 bibliographical databases and reference lists of identified reviews. Additionally, the PROSPERO database will be searched for unpublished, ongoing or recently completed SRs. 2 reviewers will assess the SRs independently for eligibility and bias. The data will be extracted to a special form. Any disagreement will be resolved by discussion. In case of lack of consensus, a third author will arbitrate. The overview of SRs will be reported according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement. Ethics and dissemination Ethics approval is not required for overview of SRs. We will summarise evidence concerning whether use of the absolute/global/total CVD risk scoring tools in primary prevention of CVD is effective and supported with scientific data or not. If we face unsatisfactory confirmation, we will highlight a need for further research and advice on how to plan such a study. We will submit the results of our study for peer-review publication in a journal indexed in the international bibliographic database of biomedical information. PMID:28274967

  18. Afro-American Literary Bibliographies: An Annotated List of Bibliographical Guides for the Study of Afro-American Literature, Folklore and Related Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowell, Charles Henry

    This dissertation is an annotated bibliographical guide to published and unpublished bibliographies of primary and secondary materials useful in the study of Afro-American literature, folklore, and allied fields. The published bibliographies listed include those devoted to particular literary genres, individual authors, specific subjects, and…

  19. Are Bibliographic Management Software Search Interfaces Reliable?: A Comparison between Search Results Obtained Using Database Interfaces and the EndNote Online Search Function

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzgibbons, Megan; Meert, Deborah

    2010-01-01

    The use of bibliographic management software and its internal search interfaces is now pervasive among researchers. This study compares the results between searches conducted in academic databases' search interfaces versus the EndNote search interface. The results show mixed search reliability, depending on the database and type of search…

  20. Bulletin bibliographique sur la linguistique appliquee a l'informatique (Bibliographic Bulletin on Applied Linguistics and Information Science). Relai, Publication K-3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laforge, Lorne, Ed.

    This annotated bibliography contains 150 citations of journal articles, conference and research reports, and other publications drawn from the BIBELO database concerning linguistics as applied to the field of information science or information science as applied to linguistics. The bulk of the bibliography consists of the bibliographic citations,…

  1. Use of Online Bibliographic Retrieval Systems in Science and Technology Libraries. A Report to the Council on Library Resources on a Fellowship Project, 1977.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Carolyn

    This study examines the use of online bibliographic retrieval systems in a selected number of science and technology libraries chosen for their leadership reputation; it is limited to the use of online systems operated by a library staff member. Participating libraries included 12 academic, one government, and 10 research or institutional…

  2. Computer Assisted Instruction and Bibliographic Instruction: Preliminary Data on the Use of PLATO in the BI Program of the Humanities and Social Sciences Library, University of Alberta.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Champion, Brian

    In response to requests from the University of Alberta Department of Computing Services for PLATO (Programmed Logic for Automatic Teaching Operations) applications in structured learning situations, a program for computer-assisted bibliographic instruction (BI) was developed. The program is divided into the following six units: (1) Introduction;…

  3. A Classification as a Source for a Thesaurus: The Bibliographic Classification of H. E. Bliss as a Source of Thesaurus Terms and Structure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aitchison, Jean

    1986-01-01

    Describes features of Bliss Bibliographic Classification (BC2) that make it thesaurus-compatible and a source for thesaurus compilers: facet analysis, terminology source, thesaural relationship source, and updating ease. Problems with using BC2 as a thesaurus source are also considered, and two thesauri based on BC2 are described. (MBR)

  4. Project BALLOTS: Bibliographic Automation of Large Library Operations Using a Time-Sharing System. Progress Report (3/27/69 - 6/26/69).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veaner, Allen B.

    Project BALLOTS is a large-scale library automation development project of the Stanford University Libraries which has demonstrated the feasibility of conducting on-line interactive searches of complex bibliographic files, with a large number of users working simultaneously in the same or different files. This report documents the continuing…

  5. IFLA General Conference, 1990. Division of Bibliographic Control: Open Forum; Section of Cataloguing; Section of Bibliography; Section of Classification and Indexing. Booklet 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Federation of Library Associations, The Hague (Netherlands).

    The 10 papers in this collection were presented at an open forum and meetings of three sections within the Division of Bibliographic Control: (1) "Review of the Work of the Section on Cataloguing 1989/1990" (Nancy R. John and Inger Cathrine Spangen); (2) "Report from the Section on Classification and Indexing" (Dorothy…

  6. Reinforcing the foundations of ornithological nomenclature: Filling the gaps in Sherborn's and Richmond's historical legacy of bibliographic exploration.

    PubMed

    Dickinson, Edward C

    2016-01-01

    Due to its public popularity, ornithology has a huge corpus of scientific publication for a relatively small number of species. Although there are global checklists of currently recognised taxa, there has been only limited, mainly individual, effort to build a nomenclatural database that the science of ornithology deserves. This is especially true in relation to concise synonymies. With the arrival of ZooBank and the Biodiversity Heritage Library, the time has come to develop synonymies and to add fuller bibliographic detail to databases. The preparation for both began at the start of the 20(th) century with extensive work by Sherborn and Richmond. I discuss their legacy, offer notes on significant work since then, and provide suggestions for what remains to be done. To make solid the foundations for ornithological nomenclature and taxonomy, especially for synonymies, ornithologists will need to collaborate much more and contribute to the digital infrastructure.

  7. Ecotoxicity of cadmium in a soil collembolan-predatory mite food chain: Can we use the (15)N labeled litter addition method to assess soil functional change?

    PubMed

    Zhu, Dong; Ke, Xin; Wu, Longhua; Li, Zhu; Christie, Peter; Luo, Yongming

    2016-12-01

    Effects of cadmium (Cd) on predator-prey relationships and soil ecological function are poorly understood and there are few methods available to measure soil functional change. Thus, we structured a soil-dwelling food chain containing the predatory mite Hypoaspis aculeifer and its collembolan prey Folsomia candida to study the effects of Cd exposure for eight weeks in a spiked soil aged for five years. The (15)N labeled litter was added as food to analyze the change in nitrogen (N) transfer content. H. aculeifer reproduction and growth and the survival and reproduction of F. candida were all negatively affected by Cd exposure, and H. aculeifer reproduction was the most sensitive parameter. The sensitivity responses of F. candida and H. aculeifer were different from those using the previous single species test. The results suggest that predator-prey interactions might influence the toxicity of Cd by predation and food restriction. Cadmium lethal body concentrations of adults and juveniles of F. candida and H. aculeifer juveniles were 500-600, 180-270 and 8-10 μg g(-1), respectively. The content of N transfer from litter to animals in the food chain decreased significantly with increasing soil Cd concentration between 100 and 400 mg kg(-1). The results suggest that the (15)N labeled litter addition method is potentially useful for quantitative assessment of soil functional change for further risk assessment purposes.

  8. Additive Similarity Trees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sattath, Shmuel; Tversky, Amos

    1977-01-01

    Tree representations of similarity data are investigated. Hierarchical clustering is critically examined, and a more general procedure, called the additive tree, is presented. The additive tree representation is then compared to multidimensional scaling. (Author/JKS)

  9. Polyimide processing additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pratt, J. R.; St. Clair, T. L.; Burks, H. D.; Stoakley, D. M.

    1987-01-01

    A method has been found for enhancing the melt flow of thermoplastic polyimides during processing. A high molecular weight 422 copoly(amic acid) or copolyimide was fused with approximately 0.05 to 5 pct by weight of a low molecular weight amic acid or imide additive, and this melt was studied by capillary rheometry. Excellent flow and improved composite properties on graphite resulted from the addition of a PMDA-aniline additive to LARC-TPI. Solution viscosity studies imply that amic acid additives temporarily lower molecular weight and, hence, enlarge the processing window. Thus, compositions containing the additive have a lower melt viscosity for a longer time than those unmodified.

  10. [Food additives and healthiness].

    PubMed

    Heinonen, Marina

    2014-01-01

    Additives are used for improving food structure or preventing its spoilage, for example. Many substances used as additives are also naturally present in food. The safety of additives is evaluated according to commonly agreed principles. If high concentrations of an additive cause adverse health effects for humans, a limit of acceptable daily intake (ADI) is set for it. An additive is a risk only when ADI is exceeded. The healthiness of food is measured on the basis of nutrient density and scientifically proven effects.

  11. Automobile air pollution: Automotive fuels. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of fuels and fuel additives for the reduction of automotive air pollution. Alternative fuels discussed include gasohol, methane, natural gas, and hydrogen. Improvements to gasoline and its properties which affect air pollution are considered, as well as lead and other fuel additives. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  12. Polylactides in additive biomanufacturing.

    PubMed

    Poh, Patrina S P; Chhaya, Mohit P; Wunner, Felix M; De-Juan-Pardo, Elena M; Schilling, Arndt F; Schantz, Jan-Thorsten; van Griensven, Martijn; Hutmacher, Dietmar W

    2016-12-15

    New advanced manufacturing technologies under the alias of additive biomanufacturing allow the design and fabrication of a range of products from pre-operative models, cutting guides and medical devices to scaffolds. The process of printing in 3 dimensions of cells, extracellular matrix (ECM) and biomaterials (bioinks, powders, etc.) to generate in vitro and/or in vivo tissue analogue structures has been termed bioprinting. To further advance in additive biomanufacturing, there are many aspects that we can learn from the wider additive manufacturing (AM) industry, which have progressed tremendously since its introduction into the manufacturing sector. First, this review gives an overview of additive manufacturing and both industry and academia efforts in addressing specific challenges in the AM technologies to drive toward AM-enabled industrial revolution. After which, considerations of poly(lactides) as a biomaterial in additive biomanufacturing are discussed. Challenges in wider additive biomanufacturing field are discussed in terms of (a) biomaterials; (b) computer-aided design, engineering and manufacturing; (c) AM and additive biomanufacturing printers hardware; and (d) system integration. Finally, the outlook for additive biomanufacturing was discussed.

  13. Additive Manufactured Product Integrity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waller, Jess; Wells, Doug; James, Steve; Nichols, Charles

    2017-01-01

    NASA is providing key leadership in an international effort linking NASA and non-NASA resources to speed adoption of additive manufacturing (AM) to meet NASA's mission goals. Participants include industry, NASA's space partners, other government agencies, standards organizations and academia. Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) is identified as a universal need for all aspects of additive manufacturing.

  14. Oil spills: Biological effects. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the biological and ecological effects of oil spills. Citations discuss effects on microorganisms, plants, and animals. Damage assessment, ecological modeling, and environmental impact statements are included. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  15. Oil spills: Biological effects. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the biological and ecological effects of oil spills. Citations discuss effects on microorganisms, plants, and animals. Damage assessment, ecological modeling, and environmental impact statements are included. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  16. Oil spills: Biological effects. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the biological and ecological effects of oil spills. Citations discuss effects on microorganisms, plants, and animals. Damage assessment, ecological modeling, and environmental impact statements are included. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  17. Oil spills: Biological effects. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-12-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the biological and ecological effects of oil spills. Citations discuss effects on microorganisms, plants, and animals. Damage assessment, ecological modeling, and environmental impact statements are included. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  18. Insect control: General studies. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-03-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the control of insects by pesticides and barrier methods. Insect studies, damage assessments, and pesticide application techniques are included. Toxicity of chemical pesticide residues and the effects of pesticides on insects and the ecology are also discussed. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  19. CADDIS Recent Additions

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Causal Analysis/Diagnosis Decision Information System, or CADDIS, is a website developed to help scientists and engineers in the Regions, States, and Tribes conduct causal assessments in aquatic systems.

  20. Bioremediation. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). NewSearch

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the decomposition of toxic materials by biological means. Bacterial decomposition of jet fuel, wood preservatives, explosives, crude oil, halogenated organics, diesel fuel, aviation fuel, and creosote is discussed. Enhancement of decomposition rates by addition of nutrients is also included. (Contains a minimum of 164 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  1. The Use of the International Standard Bibliographic Description (ISBD) in Nigeria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bankole, Beatrice S.

    Implementation of ISBD in Nigeria has successfully overcome problems with the diversities of 200 ethnic groups, 400 languages and dialects (in addition to English as the official language), arabic and roman alphabets, and the interface of two major religious systems--Islam and Christianity. This paper describes the adoption and uses of the ISBDs…

  2. Polyimide processing additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fletcher, James C. (Inventor); Pratt, J. Richard (Inventor); St.clair, Terry L. (Inventor); Stoakley, Diane M. (Inventor); Burks, Harold D. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A process for preparing polyimides having enhanced melt flow properties is described. The process consists of heating a mixture of a high molecular weight poly-(amic acid) or polyimide with a low molecular weight amic acid or imide additive in the range of 0.05 to 15 percent by weight of additive. The polyimide powders so obtained show improved processability, as evidenced by lower melt viscosity by capillary rheometry. Likewise, films prepared from mixtures of polymers with additives show improved processability with earlier onset of stretching by TMA.

  3. Polyimide processing additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pratt, J. Richard (Inventor); St.clair, Terry L. (Inventor); Stoakley, Diane M. (Inventor); Burks, Harold D. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A process for preparing polyimides having enhanced melt flow properties is described. The process consists of heating a mixture of a high molecular weight poly-(amic acid) or polyimide with a low molecular weight amic acid or imide additive in the range of 0.05 to 15 percent by weight of the additive. The polyimide powders so obtained show improved processability, as evidenced by lower melt viscosity by capillary rheometry. Likewise, films prepared from mixtures of polymers with additives show improved processability with earlier onset of stretching by TMA.

  4. Bibliographical note on behavioral aspects: on the margin of the 50th anniversary of the Minnesota Starvation-Nutritional Rehabilitation experiment.

    PubMed

    Brozek, J

    1995-10-01

    The principal technical aim of this note is to bring together bibliographic information on the papers dealing with the behavioral aspects of the study and published both before and, in particular, after the appearance in print of the two-volume treatise on The Biology of Human Starvation by Keys, et al. in 1950, which provides a systematic, comprehensive account. The communications fall into three categories: methods, results, and overviews. The section on results is concerned primarily with the effects on personality.

  5. Oil pollution sampling, detection, and analysis. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1997-05-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the monitoring and analysis of pollution resulting from oil production and transport operations. Citations discuss pollution monitoring methods and devices, tracing and analytical techniques, remote sensing, and oil-laden sediment sampling. Marine pollution assessment and control, offshore oil industry discharges, pollution effects on wildlife, and international cooperation on pollution control are also examined. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  6. Chlorofluorocarbon uses. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the methods and assessment of industrial applications of chlorofluorocarbons (freons). Citations discuss the uses of freons in refrigerants, fire extinguishers, cleaning and drying, aerosol propellants, blowing agents, solvents, artificial blood supplements, and purification of vaccinial viruses. Toxicity, carcinogencity, depletion of the ozone layer, and substitutions of freons are examined. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  7. Oil pollution sampling, detection, and analysis. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-12-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the monitoring and analysis of pollution resulting from oil production and transport operations. Citations discuss pollution monitoring methods and devices, tracing and analytical techniques, remote sensing, and oil-laden sediment sampling. Marine pollution assessment and control, offshore oil industry discharges, pollution effects on wildlife, and international cooperation on pollution control are also examined. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  8. Oil pollution sampling, detection, and analysis. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the monitoring and analysis of pollution resulting from oil production and transport operations. Citations discuss pollution monitoring methods and devices, tracing and analytical techniques, remote sensing, and oil-laden sediment sampling. Marine pollution assessment and control, offshore oil industry discharges, pollution effects on wildlife, and international cooperation on pollution control are also examined. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  9. Oil pollution sampling, detection, and analysis. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1996-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the monitoring and analysis of pollution resulting from oil production and transport operations. Citations discuss pollution monitoring methods and devices, tracing and analytical techniques, remote sensing, and oil-laden sediment sampling. Marine pollution assessment and control, offshore oil industry discharges, pollution effects on wildlife, and international cooperation on pollution control are also examined. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  10. Planning and management of water resource programs. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning planning and management of water resource programs and projects at the local, regional, state, and national levels. The studies of water quality, drinking water, industrial water, and irrigation are presented. Topics include groundwater and surface water management, flood control, waste water treatment, hydroelectric power generation, sanitation and toxic hazards, models and risk assessment, and remote sensing technology. Worldwide water management is covered. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  11. Food Additives and Hyperkinesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wender, Ester H.

    1977-01-01

    The hypothesis that food additives are causally associated with hyperkinesis and learning disabilities in children is reviewed, and available data are summarized. Available from: American Medical Association 535 North Dearborn Street Chicago, Illinois 60610. (JG)

  12. Smog control fuel additives

    SciTech Connect

    Lundby, W.

    1993-06-29

    A method is described of controlling, reducing or eliminating, ozone and related smog resulting from photochemical reactions between ozone and automotive or industrial gases comprising the addition of iodine or compounds of iodine to hydrocarbon-base fuels prior to or during combustion in an amount of about 1 part iodine per 240 to 10,000,000 parts fuel, by weight, to be accomplished by: (a) the addition of these inhibitors during or after the refining or manufacturing process of liquid fuels; (b) the production of these inhibitors for addition into fuel tanks, such as automotive or industrial tanks; or (c) the addition of these inhibitors into combustion chambers of equipment utilizing solid fuels for the purpose of reducing ozone.

  13. Evaluation of certain food additives.

    PubMed

    2015-01-01

    This report represents the conclusions of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee convened to evaluate the safety of various food additives, including flavouring agents, and to prepare specifications for identity and purity. The first part of the report contains a general discussion of the principles governing the toxicological evaluation of and assessment of dietary exposure to food additives, including flavouring agents. A summary follows of the Committee's evaluations of technical, toxicological and dietary exposure data for eight food additives (Benzoe tonkinensis; carrageenan; citric and fatty acid esters of glycerol; gardenia yellow; lutein esters from Tagetes erecta; octenyl succinic acid-modified gum arabic; octenyl succinic acid-modified starch; paprika extract; and pectin) and eight groups of flavouring agents (aliphatic and alicyclic hydrocarbons; aliphatic and aromatic ethers; ionones and structurally related substances; miscellaneous nitrogen-containing substances; monocyclic and bicyclic secondary alcohols, ketones and related esters; phenol and phenol derivatives; phenyl-substituted aliphatic alcohols and related aldehydes and esters; and sulfur-containing heterocyclic compounds). Specifications for the following food additives were revised: citric acid; gellan gum; polyoxyethylene (20) sorbitan monostearate; potassium aluminium silicate; and Quillaia extract (Type 2). Annexed to the report are tables summarizing the Committee's recommendations for dietary exposures to and toxicological evaluations of all of the food additives and flavouring agents considered at this meeting.

  14. Wastewater treatment: Chemical industry. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1996-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning wastewater treatment in the chemical industry relative to a wide variety of industrial pollutants. Biological treatments including carbon additives are described relative to effectiveness. The removal of mercury and its compounds is included, as well as associated problems and recommendations for fertilizer and pesticide pollution. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  15. Wastewater treatment: Chemical industry. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-12-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning wastewater treatment in the chemical industry relative to a wide variety of industrial pollutants. Biological treatments including carbon additives are described relative to effectiveness. The removal of mercury and its compounds is included, as well as associated problems and recommendations for fertilizer and pesticide pollution. (Contains a minimum of 204 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  16. Wastewater treatment: Chemical industry. (Latest citations from the NTIS Bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning wastewater treatment in the chemical industry relative to a wide variety of industrial pollutants. Biological treatments including carbon additives are described relative to effectiveness. The removal of mercury and its compounds is included, as well as associated problems and recommendations for fertilizer and pesticide pollution. (Contains a minimum of 181 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  17. Radon gas: Health risks and toxicity. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning health risks and toxicity associated with indoor and outdoor exposure to radon gas. Citations discuss radon sources from tobacco smoke, fossil fuel combustion, phosphate mining, uranium mining, granitic rocks, building materials, and water supplies. Discussed also are risk assessment, regulations, radon gas monitoring, exposure modeling and control, biological pathways, and occupational exposure. Radionuclides in groundwater, and radon analysis and detection, are examined in separate bibliographies. (Contains a minimum of 125 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  18. Planning and management of water resource programs. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1997-05-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning planning and management of water resource programs and projects at the local, regional, state, and national levels. The studies of water quality, drinking water, industrial water, and irrigation are presented. Topics include groundwater and surface water management, flood control, waste water treatment, hydroelectric power generation, sanitation and toxic hazards, models and risk assessment, and remote sensing technology. Worldwide water management is covered.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  19. Planning and management of water resource programs. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning planning and management of water resource programs and projects at the local, regional, state, and national levels. The studies of water quality, drinking water, industrial water, and irrigation are presented. Topics include groundwater and surface water management, flood control, waste water treatment, hydroelectric power generation, sanitation and toxic hazards, models and risk assessment, and remote sensing technology. Worldwide water management is covered.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  20. Group Sparse Additive Models

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Junming; Chen, Xi; Xing, Eric P.

    2016-01-01

    We consider the problem of sparse variable selection in nonparametric additive models, with the prior knowledge of the structure among the covariates to encourage those variables within a group to be selected jointly. Previous works either study the group sparsity in the parametric setting (e.g., group lasso), or address the problem in the nonparametric setting without exploiting the structural information (e.g., sparse additive models). In this paper, we present a new method, called group sparse additive models (GroupSpAM), which can handle group sparsity in additive models. We generalize the ℓ1/ℓ2 norm to Hilbert spaces as the sparsity-inducing penalty in GroupSpAM. Moreover, we derive a novel thresholding condition for identifying the functional sparsity at the group level, and propose an efficient block coordinate descent algorithm for constructing the estimate. We demonstrate by simulation that GroupSpAM substantially outperforms the competing methods in terms of support recovery and prediction accuracy in additive models, and also conduct a comparative experiment on a real breast cancer dataset.

  1. Additive Manufacturing Infrared Inspection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaddy, Darrell

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing is a rapid prototyping technology that allows parts to be built in a series of thin layers from plastic, ceramics, and metallics. Metallic additive manufacturing is an emerging form of rapid prototyping that allows complex structures to be built using various metallic powders. Significant time and cost savings have also been observed using the metallic additive manufacturing compared with traditional techniques. Development of the metallic additive manufacturing technology has advanced significantly over the last decade, although many of the techniques to inspect parts made from these processes have not advanced significantly or have limitations. Several external geometry inspection techniques exist such as Coordinate Measurement Machines (CMM), Laser Scanners, Structured Light Scanning Systems, or even traditional calipers and gages. All of the aforementioned techniques are limited to external geometry and contours or must use a contact probe to inspect limited internal dimensions. This presentation will document the development of a process for real-time dimensional inspection technique and digital quality record of the additive manufacturing process using Infrared camera imaging and processing techniques.

  2. Effect of bibliographical classification on the impact factor of science- and engineering-based journals.

    PubMed

    Foo, Jong Yong Abdiel

    2009-01-01

    The simplest and widely used assessment of academic research and researchers is the journal impact factor (JIF). However, the JIF may exhibit patterns that are skewed towards journals that publish high number of non-research items and short turnover research. Moreover, there are concerns as the JIF is often used as a comparison for journals from different disciplines. In this study, the JIF computation of eight top ranked journals from four different subject categories was analyzed. The analysis reveals that most of the published items (>65%) in the science disciplines were nonresearch items while fewer such items (<22%) were observed in engineering-based journals. The single regression analysis confirmed that there is correlation (R(2) > or = .99) in the number of published items or citations received over the two-year period used in the JIF calculation amongst the eight selected journals. A weighted factor computation is introduced to compensate for the smaller journals and journals that publish longer turnover research. It is hoped that the approach can provide a comprehensive assessment of the quality of a journal regardless of the disciplinary field.

  3. Phenylethynyl Containing Reactive Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John W. (Inventor); Smith, Joseph G., Jr. (Inventor); Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Phenylethynyl containing reactive additives were prepared from aromatic diamine, containing phenylethvnvl groups and various ratios of phthalic anhydride and 4-phenylethynviphthalic anhydride in glacial acetic acid to form the imide in one step or in N-methyl-2-pvrrolidinone to form the amide acid intermediate. The reactive additives were mixed in various amounts (10% to 90%) with oligomers containing either terminal or pendent phenylethynyl groups (or both) to reduce the melt viscosity and thereby enhance processability. Upon thermal cure, the additives react and become chemically incorporated into the matrix and effect an increase in crosslink density relative to that of the host resin. This resultant increase in crosslink density has advantageous consequences on the cured resin properties such as higher glass transition temperature and higher modulus as compared to that of the host resin.

  4. Fused Lasso Additive Model

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Ashley; Witten, Daniela; Simon, Noah

    2016-01-01

    We consider the problem of predicting an outcome variable using p covariates that are measured on n independent observations, in a setting in which additive, flexible, and interpretable fits are desired. We propose the fused lasso additive model (FLAM), in which each additive function is estimated to be piecewise constant with a small number of adaptively-chosen knots. FLAM is the solution to a convex optimization problem, for which a simple algorithm with guaranteed convergence to a global optimum is provided. FLAM is shown to be consistent in high dimensions, and an unbiased estimator of its degrees of freedom is proposed. We evaluate the performance of FLAM in a simulation study and on two data sets. Supplemental materials are available online, and the R package flam is available on CRAN. PMID:28239246

  5. Phenylethynyl Containing Reactive Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John W. (Inventor); Smith, Joseph G., Jr. (Inventor); Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Phenylethynyl containing reactive additives were prepared from aromatic diamines containing phenylethynyl groups and various ratios of phthalic anhydride and 4-phenylethynylphthalic anhydride in glacial acetic acid to form the imide in one step or in N-methyl-2-pyrrolidi none to form the amide acid intermediate. The reactive additives were mixed in various amounts (10% to 90%) with oligomers containing either terminal or pendent phenylethynyl groups (or both) to reduce the melt viscosity and thereby enhance processability. Upon thermal cure, the additives react and become chemically incorporated into the matrix and effect an increase in crosslink density relative to that of the host resin. This resultant increase in crosslink density has advantageous consequences on the cured resin properties such as higher glass transition temperature and higher modulus as compared to that of the host resin.

  6. Additives in plastics.

    PubMed Central

    Deanin, R D

    1975-01-01

    The polymers used in plastics are generally harmless. However, they are rarely used in pure form. In almost all commercial plastics, they are "compounded" with monomeric ingredients to improve their processing and end-use performance. In order of total volume used, these monomeric additives may be classified as follows: reinforcing fibers, fillers, and coupling agents; plasticizers; colorants; stabilizers (halogen stabilizers, antioxidants, ultraviolet absorbers, and biological preservatives); processing aids (lubricants, others, and flow controls); flame retardants, peroxides; and antistats. Some information is already available, and much more is needed, on potential toxicity and safe handling of these additives during processing and manufacture of plastics products. PMID:1175566

  7. Additives in plastics.

    PubMed

    Deanin, R D

    1975-06-01

    The polymers used in plastics are generally harmless. However, they are rarely used in pure form. In almost all commercial plastics, they are "compounded" with monomeric ingredients to improve their processing and end-use performance. In order of total volume used, these monomeric additives may be classified as follows: reinforcing fibers, fillers, and coupling agents; plasticizers; colorants; stabilizers (halogen stabilizers, antioxidants, ultraviolet absorbers, and biological preservatives); processing aids (lubricants, others, and flow controls); flame retardants, peroxides; and antistats. Some information is already available, and much more is needed, on potential toxicity and safe handling of these additives during processing and manufacture of plastics products.

  8. Faunistic and bibliographical inventory of the Psychodinae moth-flies of North Africa (Diptera, Psychodidae)

    PubMed Central

    Afzan, Hanan; Belqat, Boutaïna

    2016-01-01

    Abstract All published records for the 49 species of moth flies known from North Africa are reviewed and discussed: Morocco (27 species), Algeria (33 species), Tunisia (18 species) and Egypt (five species). In addition, records of seven species of Psychodinae new to the fauna of Morocco are added, of which three are new mentions for North Africa (Table 1) and one is a new record for Egypt. Telmatoscopus squamifer Tonnoir, 1922 is transferred to the genus Iranotelmatoscopus Ježek, 1987, comb. n. Satchelliella reghayana Boumezzough & Vaillant, 1987 is transferred to the genus Pneumia Enderlein, 1935, comb. n. Pneumia aberrans Tonnoir, 1922 is transferred to the subgenus Logima. PMID:27006599

  9. Biobased lubricant additives

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fully biobased lubricants are those formulated using all biobased ingredients, i.e. biobased base oils and biobased additives. Such formulations provide the maximum environmental, safety, and economic benefits expected from a biobased product. Currently, there are a number of biobased base oils that...

  10. More Than Additional Space...

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CEFP Journal, 1973

    1973-01-01

    A much needed addition to the Jamestown Elementary School turned out to be more than an expansion of walls for more space. A new educational program, a limited budget, and a short time line were tackled on a team approach basis and were successfully resolved. (Author)

  11. Vinyl capped addition polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vannucci, Raymond D. (Inventor); Malarik, Diane C. (Inventor); Delvigs, Peter (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    Polyimide resins (PMR) are generally useful where high strength and temperature capabilities are required (at temperatures up to about 700 F). Polyimide resins are particularly useful in applications such as jet engine compressor components, for example, blades, vanes, air seals, air splitters, and engine casing parts. Aromatic vinyl capped addition polyimides are obtained by reacting a diamine, an ester of tetracarboxylic acid, and an aromatic vinyl compound. Low void materials with improved oxidative stability when exposed to 700 F air may be fabricated as fiber reinforced high molecular weight capped polyimide composites. The aromatic vinyl capped polyimides are provided with a more aromatic nature and are more thermally stable than highly aliphatic, norbornenyl-type end-capped polyimides employed in PMR resins. The substitution of aromatic vinyl end-caps for norbornenyl end-caps in addition polyimides results in polymers with improved oxidative stability.

  12. Electrophilic addition of astatine

    SciTech Connect

    Norseev, Yu.V.; Vasaros, L.; Nhan, D.D.; Huan, N.K.

    1988-03-01

    It has been shown for the first time that astatine is capable of undergoing addition reactions to unsaturated hydrocarbons. A new compound of astatine, viz., ethylene astatohydrin, has been obtained, and its retention numbers of squalane, Apiezon, and tricresyl phosphate have been found. The influence of various factors on the formation of ethylene astatohydrin has been studied. It has been concluded on the basis of the results obtained that the univalent cations of astatine in an acidic medium is protonated hypoastatous acid.

  13. Functional Generalized Additive Models.

    PubMed

    McLean, Mathew W; Hooker, Giles; Staicu, Ana-Maria; Scheipl, Fabian; Ruppert, David

    2014-01-01

    We introduce the functional generalized additive model (FGAM), a novel regression model for association studies between a scalar response and a functional predictor. We model the link-transformed mean response as the integral with respect to t of F{X(t), t} where F(·,·) is an unknown regression function and X(t) is a functional covariate. Rather than having an additive model in a finite number of principal components as in Müller and Yao (2008), our model incorporates the functional predictor directly and thus our model can be viewed as the natural functional extension of generalized additive models. We estimate F(·,·) using tensor-product B-splines with roughness penalties. A pointwise quantile transformation of the functional predictor is also considered to ensure each tensor-product B-spline has observed data on its support. The methods are evaluated using simulated data and their predictive performance is compared with other competing scalar-on-function regression alternatives. We illustrate the usefulness of our approach through an application to brain tractography, where X(t) is a signal from diffusion tensor imaging at position, t, along a tract in the brain. In one example, the response is disease-status (case or control) and in a second example, it is the score on a cognitive test. R code for performing the simulations and fitting the FGAM can be found in supplemental materials available online.

  14. [Quantitative bibliographic analysis of French clinical research in the treatment of bronchopulmonary cancer].

    PubMed

    Lebeau, B

    1998-04-01

    A retrospective analysis by searching Medline to assess various criteria regarding the quality of publications in recent years in the treatment of bronchial cancer in France. Following some pre-defined principles for inclusion, 103 references corresponding to 90 papers were retained for this study. The data analysed had been the method of publication (45 abstracts and 58 articles), the origin of the study based on the place and the specialty of the first signatory to publication, the subject of the study (42 out of the 90 studies were on chemotherapy), the population of the patient studies (56 concerned non small cell cancer), the methodology of the study which most often used the rules for open phase II trials and only 13 times was it a phase III study, also the number of patients included was recorded. A tentative interpretation of the weak and strong points of French lung cancer research was carried out based on this analysis and has led to the proposition for the creation of a confederation of clinical research in this area.

  15. Evaluation of certain food additives.

    PubMed

    2012-01-01

    This report represents the conclusions of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee convened to evaluate the safety of various food additives, including flavouring agents, with a view to concluding as to safety concerns and to preparing specifications for identity and purity. The first part of the report contains a general discussion of the principles governing the toxicological evaluation of and assessment of dietary exposure to food additives, including flavouring agents. A summary follows of the Committee's evaluations of technical, toxicological and dietary exposure data for five food additives (magnesium dihydrogen diphosphate; mineral oil (medium and low viscosity) classes II and III; 3-phytase from Aspergillus niger expressed in Aspergillus niger; serine protease (chymotrypsin) from Nocardiopsis prasina expressed in Bacillus licheniformis; and serine protease (trypsin) from Fusarium oxysporum expressed in Fusarium venenatum) and 16 groups of flavouring agents (aliphatic and aromatic amines and amides; aliphatic and aromatic ethers; aliphatic hydrocarbons, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids and related esters, sulfides, disulfides and ethers containing furan substitution; aliphatic linear alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes, acids and related alcohols, acetals and esters; amino acids and related substances; epoxides; furfuryl alcohol and related substances; linear and branched-chain aliphatic, unsaturated, unconjugated alcohols, aldehydes, acids and related esters; miscellaneous nitrogen-containing substances; phenol and phenol derivatives; pyrazine derivatives; pyridine, pyrrole and quinoline derivatives; saturated aliphatic acyclic branched-chain primary alcohols, aldehydes and acids; simple aliphatic and aromatic sulfides and thiols; sulfur-containing heterocyclic compounds; and sulfur-substituted furan derivatives). Specifications for the following food additives were revised: ethyl cellulose, mineral oil (medium viscosity), modified starches and titanium

  16. 15 CFR 990.66 - Additional considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Additional considerations. 990.66 Section 990.66 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued... NATURAL RESOURCE DAMAGE ASSESSMENTS Restoration Implementation Phase § 990.66 Additional...

  17. Siloxane containing addition polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maudgal, S.; St. Clair, T. L.

    1984-01-01

    Addition polyimide oligomers have been synthesized from bis(gamma-aminopropyl) tetramethyldisiloxane and 3, 3', 4, 4'-benzophenonetetracarboxylic dianhydride using a variety of latent crosslinking groups as endcappers. The prepolymers were isolated and characterized for solubility (in amide, chlorinated and ether solvents), melt flow and cure properties. The most promising systems, maleimide and acetylene terminated prepolymers, were selected for detailed study. Graphite cloth reinforced composites were prepared and properties compared with those of graphite/Kerimid 601, a commercially available bismaleimide. Mixtures of the maleimide terminated system with Kerimid 601, in varying proportions, were also studied.

  18. Evaluation of certain food additives.

    PubMed

    2009-01-01

    This report represents the conclusions of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee convened to evaluate the safety of various food additives, including flavouring agents, with a view to recommending acceptable daily intakes (ADIs) and to preparing specifications for identity and purity. The first part of the report contains a general discussion of the principles governing the toxicological evaluation and assessment of intake of food additives (in particular, flavouring agents). A summary follows of the Committee's evaluations of technical, toxicological and intake data for certain food additives (asparaginase from Aspergillus niger expressed in A. niger, calcium lignosulfonate (40-65), ethyl lauroyl arginate, paprika extract, phospholipase C expressed in Pichia pastoris, phytosterols, phytostanols and their esters, polydimethylsiloxane, steviol glycosides and sulfites [assessment of dietary exposure]) and 10 groups of related flavouring agents (aliphatic branched-chain saturated and unsaturated alcohols, aldehydes, acids and related esters; aliphatic linear alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes, acids and related alcohols, acetals and esters; aliphatic secondary alcohols, ketones and related esters; alkoxy-substituted allylbenzenes present in foods and essential oils and used as flavouring agents; esters of aliphatic acyclic primary alcohols with aliphatic linear saturated carboxylic acids; furan-substituted aliphatic hydrocarbons, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids and related esters, sulfides, disulfides and ethers; miscellaneous nitrogen-containing substances; monocyclic and bicyclic secondary alcohols, ketones and related esters; hydroxy- and alkoxy-substituted benzyl derivatives; and substances structurally related to menthol). Specifications for the following food additives were revised: canthaxanthin; carob bean gum and carob bean gum (clarified); chlorophyllin copper complexes, sodium and potassium salts; Fast Green FCF; guar gum and guar gum (clarified

  19. West Nile Disease Epidemiology in North-West Africa: Bibliographical Review.

    PubMed

    Benjelloun, A; El Harrak, M; Belkadi, B

    2016-12-01

    West Nile fever (WNF) or West Nile disease (WND) is a mosquito-borne viral disease that can affect birds, humans and horses. West Nile virus (WNV) is a member of the genus Flavivirus in the family Flaviviridae. WNV is maintained in a mosquito-bird-mosquito transmission cycle, whereas humans and horses are considered dead-end hosts. In human and horses, symptoms range from unapparent infection to mild febrile illness, meningitis, encephalitis or death. WNV has a wide geographical range that includes portions of Europe, Asia, Africa, Australia (Kunjin virus), and in North, Central and South America. Migratory birds are thought to be primarily responsible for virus dispersal, including reintroduction of WNV from endemic areas into regions that experience sporadic outbreaks (Fields Virology, 2001, Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA, 1043-1125). The occurrence of disease in humans and animals along with birds and mosquitoes surveillance for WNV activity demonstrates that the virus range has dramatically expanded including North, Central and South America as well as Europe and countries facing the Mediterranean Basin. WND infection in humans has been reported in Morocco in 1996 (Virologie, 1, 1997, 248), in Tunisia in 2007 (Ann. N. Y. Acad., 951, 2001, 117) (Med. Trop., 61, 2001, 487) and 2003 (Epidémiologie de la fièvre West Nile, 2012, Thèse de doctorat, Université Montpellier II, Sciences et techniques du Langueduc, Montpellier, France), and in Algeria in 1994 (Rev. Sci. Tech., 31, 2012, 829). Outbreaks of equine encephalitis have been also reported in Morocco in 1996 (Bull. OIE, 11, 1996, 867), in 2003 (Emerg. Infect. Dis., 11, 2005, 306) and in 2010 (World Animal Health Information Database. WAHID, 2010). Serological evidence of WNV has been demonstrated in the three countries in many species. The aim of this review was to assess the epidemiological situation of WND in north-west Africa comprising Morocco, Algeria and Tunisia, with

  20. Platelet additive solution - electrolytes.

    PubMed

    Azuma, Hiroshi; Hirayama, Junichi; Akino, Mitsuaki; Ikeda, Hisami

    2011-06-01

    Recent attention to solutions that replace most or all plasma in platelet concentrates, while maintaining satisfactory platelet function, is motivated by the potential of plasma reduction or depletion to mitigate various transfusion-related adverse events. This report considers the electrolytic composition of previously described platelet additive solutions, in order to draw general conclusions about what is required for platelet function and longevity. The optimal concentrations of Na(+) and Cl(-) are 69-115 mM. The presence of both K(+) and Mg(2+) in platelet suspension at nearly physiological concentrations (3-5mM and 1.5-3mM, respectively) is indispensable for good preservation capacity because both electrolytes are required to prevent platelet activation. In contrast to K(+) and Mg(2+), Ca(2+) may not be important because no free Ca(2+) is available in M-sol, which showed excellent platelet preservation capacity at less than 5% plasma concentration. The importance of bicarbonate (approximately 40 mM) can be recognized when the platelets are suspended in additive solution under less than 5% residual plasma concentration.

  1. Additive composition, for gasoline

    SciTech Connect

    Vataru, M.

    1989-01-10

    An admixture is described that comprises Diesel fuel and an additive composition added thereto which is between about 0.05 to about 2.0 percent by weight of the fuel, the composition comprising: (a) between about 0.05 and 25% relative weight parts of an organic peroxide, and (b) between about 0.1 and 25% relative weight parts of detergent selected from the component group that consists of: (i) fatty amines; (ii) ethoxylated and propoxylated derivatives of fatty amines; (iii) fatty diamines; (iv) fatty imidazlines; (v) polymeric amines and derivatives thereof; (vi) combination of one or more of the (i) through (v) components with carboxylic acid or acids having from three to forth carbon atoms, (c) from about 99.0 to about 50% by weight of a hydrocarbon solvent.

  2. Teardrop bladder: additional considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Wechsler, R.J.; Brennan, R.E.

    1982-07-01

    Nine cases of teardrop bladder (TDB) seen at excretory urography are presented. In some of these patients, the iliopsoas muscles were at the upper limit of normal in size, and additional evaluation of the perivesical structures with computed tomography (CT) was necessary. CT demonstrated only hypertrophied muscles with or without perivesical fat. The psoas muscles and pelvic width were measured in 8 patients and compared with the measurements of a control group of males without TDB. Patients with TDB had large iliopsoas muscles and narrow pelves compared with the control group. The psoas muscle width/pelvic width ratio was significantly greater (p < 0.0005) in patients with TDB than in the control group, with values of 1.04 + 0.05 and 0.82 + 0.09, respectively. It is concluded that TDB is not an uncommon normal variant in black males. Both iliopsoas muscle hypertrophy and a narrow pelvis are factors that predispose a patient to TDB.

  3. New addition curing polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frimer, Aryeh A.; Cavano, Paul

    1991-01-01

    In an attempt to improve the thermal-oxidative stability (TOS) of PMR-type polymers, the use of 1,4-phenylenebis (phenylmaleic anhydride) PPMA, was evaluated. Two series of nadic end-capped addition curing polyimides were prepared by imidizing PPMA with either 4,4'-methylene dianiline or p-phenylenediamine. The first resulted in improved solubility and increased resin flow while the latter yielded a compression molded neat resin sample with a T(sub g) of 408 C, close to 70 C higher than PME-15. The performance of these materials in long term weight loss studies was below that of PMR-15, independent of post-cure conditions. These results can be rationalized in terms of the thermal lability of the pendant phenyl groups and the incomplete imidization of the sterically congested PPMA. The preparation of model compounds as well as future research directions are discussed.

  4. Perspectives on Additive Manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourell, David L.

    2016-07-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) has skyrocketed in visibility commercially and in the public sector. This article describes the development of this field from early layered manufacturing approaches of photosculpture, topography, and material deposition. Certain precursors to modern AM processes are also briefly described. The growth of the field over the last 30 years is presented. Included is the standard delineation of AM technologies into seven broad categories. The economics of AM part generation is considered, and the impacts of the economics on application sectors are described. On the basis of current trends, the future outlook will include a convergence of AM fabricators, mass-produced AM fabricators, enabling of topology optimization designs, and specialization in the AM legal arena. Long-term developments with huge impact are organ printing and volume-based printing.

  5. Sewage sludge additive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalvinskas, J. J.; Mueller, W. A.; Ingham, J. D. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    The additive is for a raw sewage treatment process of the type where settling tanks are used for the purpose of permitting the suspended matter in the raw sewage to be settled as well as to permit adsorption of the dissolved contaminants in the water of the sewage. The sludge, which settles down to the bottom of the settling tank is extracted, pyrolyzed and activated to form activated carbon and ash which is mixed with the sewage prior to its introduction into the settling tank. The sludge does not provide all of the activated carbon and ash required for adequate treatment of the raw sewage. It is necessary to add carbon to the process and instead of expensive commercial carbon, coal is used to provide the carbon supplement.

  6. Additive lattice kirigami.

    PubMed

    Castle, Toen; Sussman, Daniel M; Tanis, Michael; Kamien, Randall D

    2016-09-01

    Kirigami uses bending, folding, cutting, and pasting to create complex three-dimensional (3D) structures from a flat sheet. In the case of lattice kirigami, this cutting and rejoining introduces defects into an underlying 2D lattice in the form of points of nonzero Gaussian curvature. A set of simple rules was previously used to generate a wide variety of stepped structures; we now pare back these rules to their minimum. This allows us to describe a set of techniques that unify a wide variety of cut-and-paste actions under the rubric of lattice kirigami, including adding new material and rejoining material across arbitrary cuts in the sheet. We also explore the use of more complex lattices and the different structures that consequently arise. Regardless of the choice of lattice, creating complex structures may require multiple overlapping kirigami cuts, where subsequent cuts are not performed on a locally flat lattice. Our additive kirigami method describes such cuts, providing a simple methodology and a set of techniques to build a huge variety of complex 3D shapes.

  7. Ceramics with Different Additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Juanjuan; Feng, Lajun; Lei, Ali; Zhao, Kang; Yan, Aijun

    2014-09-01

    Li2CO3, MgCO3, BaCO3, and Bi2O3 dopants were introduced into CaCu3Ti4O12 (CCTO) ceramics in order to improve the dielectric properties. The CCTO ceramics were prepared by conventional solid-state reaction method. The phase structure, microstructure, and dielectric behavior were carefully investigated. The pure structure without any impurity phases can be confirmed by the x-ray diffraction patterns. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) analysis illuminated that the grains of Ca0.90Li0.20Cu3Ti4O12 ceramics were greater than that of pure CCTO. It was important for the properties of the CCTO ceramics to study the additives in complex impedance spectroscopy. It was found that the Ca0.90Li0.20Cu3Ti4O12 ceramics had the higher permittivity (>45000), the lower dielectric loss (<0.025) than those of CCTO at 1 kHz at room temperature and good temperature stability from -30 to 75 °C.

  8. Additive lattice kirigami

    PubMed Central

    Castle, Toen; Sussman, Daniel M.; Tanis, Michael; Kamien, Randall D.

    2016-01-01

    Kirigami uses bending, folding, cutting, and pasting to create complex three-dimensional (3D) structures from a flat sheet. In the case of lattice kirigami, this cutting and rejoining introduces defects into an underlying 2D lattice in the form of points of nonzero Gaussian curvature. A set of simple rules was previously used to generate a wide variety of stepped structures; we now pare back these rules to their minimum. This allows us to describe a set of techniques that unify a wide variety of cut-and-paste actions under the rubric of lattice kirigami, including adding new material and rejoining material across arbitrary cuts in the sheet. We also explore the use of more complex lattices and the different structures that consequently arise. Regardless of the choice of lattice, creating complex structures may require multiple overlapping kirigami cuts, where subsequent cuts are not performed on a locally flat lattice. Our additive kirigami method describes such cuts, providing a simple methodology and a set of techniques to build a huge variety of complex 3D shapes. PMID:27679822

  9. MapAffil: A Bibliographic Tool for Mapping Author Affiliation Strings to Cities and Their Geocodes Worldwide

    PubMed Central

    Torvik, Vetle I.

    2016-01-01

    Bibliographic records often contain author affiliations as free-form text strings. Ideally one would be able to automatically identify all affiliations referring to any particular country or city such as Saint Petersburg, Russia. That introduces several major linguistic challenges. For example, Saint Petersburg is ambiguous (it refers to multiple cities worldwide and can be part of a street address) and it has spelling variants (e.g., St. Petersburg, Sankt-Peterburg, and Leningrad, USSR). We have designed an algorithm that attempts to solve these types of problems. Key components of the algorithm include a set of 24,000 extracted city, state, and country names (and their variants plus geocodes) for candidate look-up, and a set of 1.1 million extracted word n-grams, each pointing to a unique country (or a US state) for disambiguation. When applied to a collection of 12.7 million affiliation strings listed in PubMed, ambiguity remained unresolved for only 0.1%. For the 4.2 million mappings to the USA, 97.7% were complete (included a city), 1.8% included a state but not a city, and 0.4% did not include a state. A random sample of 300 manually inspected cases yielded six incompletes, none incorrect, and one unresolved ambiguity. The remaining 293 (97.7%) cases were unambiguously mapped to the correct cities, better than all of the existing tools tested: GoPubMed got 279 (93.0%) and GeoMaker got 274 (91.3%) while MediaMeter CLIFF and Google Maps did worse. In summary, we find that incorrect assignments and unresolved ambiguities are rare (< 1%). The incompleteness rate is about 2%, mostly due to a lack of information, e.g. the affiliation simply says "University of Illinois" which can refer to one of five different campuses. A search interface called MapAffil has been developed at the University of Illinois in which the longitude and latitude of the geographical city-center is displayed when a city is identified. This not only helps improve geographic information

  10. Diglossia: A Bibliographic Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudson, Alan

    1992-01-01

    Defines and traces the history of diglossia, and offers an extensive bibliography on the subject. The need for an overall integration of research within the socioevolutionary context of diglossia is highlighted. (32 references) (LT)

  11. Obesity: A Bibliographic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGowan, Beth

    2012-01-01

    The study of obesity is a relatively new interdisciplinary academic field. The community college library shelves should contain two types of resources. First, several kinds of reference materials, and second, a host of broader materials that place the discussion of obesity within a cultural framework. This overview is divided into two major…

  12. An estimation of the extent of animal use in research in Brazil, as determined by bibliographic sampling from journals published in the State of Paraná.

    PubMed

    Silla, Vanessa Carli Bones; de Oliveira Sans, Elaine Cristina; Molento, Carla Forte Maiolino

    2010-03-01

    Animal use in research is an issue of increasing ethical concern. The objective of this work was to investigate animal use in research described in the papers appearing in 18 journals published in the State of Paraná in 2006. The fields used in the bibliographic sampling were: agrarian science, biological science, biological and health science, environmental science, food technology, and health science. Of the 865 papers analysed, 41% involved the use of animals - a total of 3,497,653 animals, of which 216,223 were vertebrates. Procedures which were classified as A or B for degree of invasiveness were involved in 67% of the papers; 571 fish were employed in procedures classified as E. Only 11% of the journals required certificates from Animal Use Ethics Committees. These results suggest that Brazil is important in the context of worldwide animal use for research, in terms of both the total numbers of animals and the numbers of vertebrates used. Bibliographical sampling is a useful method for estimating the extent of animal use in experiments in Brazil. However, there are limitations to this approach, resulting from the geographical distribution of the authors, the existence of papers presenting insufficient information, and the exclusive inclusion of animal experimentation that actually reaches publication. Thus, the introduction of a formal system to record and control laboratory animal use in Brazil, is urgently required.

  13. Linking: Today's Libraries, Tomorrow's Technologies. Report of the Bibliographic and Communications Network Pilot Project. Canadian Network Papers Number 7 = Le Lien entre les Bibliotheques d'Aujourd'hui et les Technologies de Demain. Rapport du Projet Pilote du Reseau de Services Bibliographiques et de Communications. Documents sur les Reseaux Canadiens Numero 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Library of Canada, Ottawa (Ontario).

    A pilot project was conducted from May 1980 to November 1983 to test the application of iNet--a decentralized, packet-switched telecommunications network--to bibliographic data interchange in Canada. The principal components of the project were participation of the Bibliographic Common Interest Group (BCIP), a group of libraries with stand-alone,…

  14. [Web of Science production quality indicators of ten professors' at the area of personality, assessment and psychological treatment: additional contributions to Olivas-Ávila y Musi-Lechuga study].

    PubMed

    Aluja, Antón; Becoña, Elisardo; Botella, Cristina; Colom, Roberto; Echeburúa, Enrique; Forns, María; Pérez, Miguel; Vila, Jaime

    2011-04-01

    Rankings of scientific productivity are increasingly relevant both from an individual and a collective perspective. Therefore, making sure they are based on reliable and exhaustive information is really important. This study clearly shows that available rankings change dramatically when internationally acknowledged bibliometric indices are considered. Data from the 10 Professors belonging to the 'Personality, Assessment, and Psychological Treatment' Department considered in the recent analysis by Olivas-Ávila y Musi-Lechuga ( Psicothema 2010. Vol. 22, nº 4, pp. 909-916) are revisited here for illustrative purposes.

  15. Children's understanding of additive concepts.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Katherine M; Dubé, Adam K; Beatch, Jacqueline-Ann

    2017-04-01

    Most research on children's arithmetic concepts is based on one concept at a time, limiting the conclusions that can be made about how children's conceptual knowledge of arithmetic develops. This study examined six arithmetic concepts (identity, negation, commutativity, equivalence, inversion, and addition and subtraction associativity) in Grades 3, 4, and 5. Identity (a-0=a) and negation (a-a=0) were well understood, followed by moderate understanding of commutativity (a+b=b+a) and inversion (a+b-b=a), with weak understanding of equivalence (a+b+c=a+[b+c]) and associativity (a+b-c=[b-c]+a). Understanding increased across grade only for commutativity and equivalence. Four clusters were found: The Weak Concept cluster understood only identity and negation; the Two-Term Concept cluster also understood commutativity; the Inversion Concept cluster understood identity, negation, and inversion; and the Strong Concept cluster had the strongest understanding of all of the concepts. Grade 3 students tended to be in the Weak and Inversion Concept clusters, Grade 4 students were equally likely to be in any of the clusters, and Grade 5 students were most likely to be in the Two-Term and Strong Concept clusters. The findings of this study highlight that conclusions about the development of arithmetic concepts are highly dependent on which concepts are being assessed and underscore the need for multiple concepts to be investigated at the same time.

  16. Task Group on Computer/Communication Protocols for Bibliographic Data Exchange. Interim Report = Groupe de Travail sur les Protocoles de Communication/Ordinateurs pour l'Exchange de Donnees Bibliographiques. Rapport d'Etape. May 1983.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canadian Network Papers, 1983

    1983-01-01

    This preliminary report describes the work to date of the Task Group on Computer/Communication protocols for Bibliographic Data Interchange, which was formed in 1980 to develop a set of protocol standards to facilitate communication between heterogeneous library and information systems within the framework of Open Systems Interconnection (OSI). A…

  17. The Birth and Re-Birth of the ISBDs: Process and Procedures for Creating and Revising the International Standard Bibliographic Descriptions [and] Section on Bibliography--Review of Activities, 1999-2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrum, John D.

    This document contains two papers. The first paper discusses the process and procedures for creating and revising the ISBD (International Standard Bibliographic Description), including historical background from 1969 to the present, a description of revision projects, and a chart that summarizes the history and current status of the full range of…

  18. ALISSA: Abridged Landslide Inventory of Spain for synoptic Susceptibility Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hervás, Javier

    2014-05-01

    natively collected in kml format, while these and additional landslide attributes extracted from literature are finally stored in an ArcGIS database. In order to not "over-inventory" landslides in some densely mapped areas, some basic registration rules are applied, including neglecting very small landslides as well as small landslides affecting road cuts, and keeping a minimum distance of approximately 100 m between mappable landslide centroids, thus not over-registering rockfalls or partly reactivated large landslides. Although the main purpose of the inventory was to collect fairly distributed landslide locations in Spain for synoptic landslide susceptibility mapping, ALISSA systematically includes also bibliographic references and information on lithology. Including harmonised, major landslide typology is often not possible because of lack of information on landslide type or the unclear classification used in a number of documents and maps. Other landslide properties such as volume or size, date of occurrence or reactivation, activity and damage caused are at the moment occasionally included as they are not relevant to the model used to produce ELSUS 1000 v1. It should be noted that the bibliographical references associated to the inventoried landslides will enable in many instances to collect additional information for engineering works and hazard and risk assessment. ALISSA currently holds over 1400 landslides, including most large landslides and landslides causing major damage in mainland Spain and the Balearic Islands. Although it can be considered to fairly portray landslide distribution in Spain, especially large slides and flows, the inventory is quite far from including all the landslides occurred in the country, bearing also in mind the somehow restrictive landslide registration rules applied for the main purpose of the inventory. In particular, rockfalls and debris flows appear poorly covered. In addition, there are some landslide-prone areas where landslides

  19. Comparative Performance of Adult Social Care Research, 1996–2011: A Bibliometric Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, David; Côté, Grégoire; Grant, Jonathan; Knapp, Martin; Mehta, Anji; Morgan Jones, Molly

    2016-01-01

    Decision makers in adult social care are increasingly interested in using evidence from research to support or shape their decisions. The scope and nature of the current landscape of adult social care research (ASCR) need to be better understood. This paper provides a bibliometric assessment of ASCR outputs from 1996 to 2011. ASCR papers were retrieved using three strategies: from key journals; using keywords and noun phrases; and from additional papers preferentially citing or being cited by other ASCR papers. Overall, 195,829 ASCR papers were identified in the bibliographic database Scopus, of which 16 per cent involved at least one author from the UK. The UK output increased 2.45-fold between 1996 and 2011. Among selected countries, those with greater research intensity in ASCR generally had higher citation impact, such as the USA, UK, Canada and the Netherlands. The top five UK institutions in terms of volume of papers in the UK accounted for 26 per cent of total output. We conclude by noting the limitations to bibliometric analysis of ASCR and examine how such analysis can support the strategic development of the field. PMID:27559228

  20. Reinforcing the foundations of ornithological nomenclature: Filling the gaps in Sherborn’s and Richmond’s historical legacy of bibliographic exploration

    PubMed Central

    Dickinson, Edward C.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Due to its public popularity, ornithology has a huge corpus of scientific publication for a relatively small number of species. Although there are global checklists of currently recognised taxa, there has been only limited, mainly individual, effort to build a nomenclatural database that the science of ornithology deserves. This is especially true in relation to concise synonymies. With the arrival of ZooBank and the Biodiversity Heritage Library, the time has come to develop synonymies and to add fuller bibliographic detail to databases. The preparation for both began at the start of the 20th century with extensive work by Sherborn and Richmond. I discuss their legacy, offer notes on significant work since then, and provide suggestions for what remains to be done. To make solid the foundations for ornithological nomenclature and taxonomy, especially for synonymies, ornithologists will need to collaborate much more and contribute to the digital infrastructure. PMID:26877655

  1. Evaluation of certain food additives and contaminants.

    PubMed

    2013-01-01

    This report represents the conclusions of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee convened to evaluate the safety of various food additives and a food contaminant with a view to concluding as to safety concerns and to preparing specifications for identity and purity. The first part of the report contains a general discussion of the principles governing the toxicological evaluation of and assessment of dietary exposure to food additives. A summary follows of the Committee's evaluations of technical, toxicological and dietary exposure data for seven food additives (advantame; glucoamylase from Trichoderma reesei expressed in Trichoderma reesei; glycerol ester of gum rosin; glycerol ester of tall oil rosin; glycerol ester of wood rosin; nisin; and octenyl succinic acid modified gum arabic) and an assessment of dietary exposure to cadmium from cocoa and cocoa products. Specifications for the following food additives were revised: annatto extracts (solvent-extracted bixin and solvent-extracted norbixin); Benzoe tonkinensis; food additives containing aluminium and/or silicon; mineral oil (medium viscosity); modified starches; paprika extract; phosphates (analytical methods for the determination of phosphorus and revision of specifications); 3-phytase from Aspergillus niger expressed in Aspergillus niger; potassium aluminium silicate; and potassium aluminium silicate-based pearlescent pigments. Annexed to the report are tables summarizing the Committee's recommendations for dietary exposures to and toxicological evaluations of the food additives and contaminant considered.

  2. Quality assessment of platelets stored in a modified platelet additive solution with trehalose at low temperature (10 °C) and in vivo effects on rabbit model of thrombocytopenia.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin; Fan, Yahan; Shi, Ronghua; Li, Jing; Zhao, Shuming

    2015-01-01

    Trehalose is widely used as a cryoprotective reagent to preserve various cells. Platelet additive solution-III (PAS) has been used to maintain platelet function, benefit the virus inactivation, and extend the storage period. PAS with trehalose (PAS-III M + T) may effectively protect platelets (PLTs) at a relatively low temperature (10 °C). The apheresis PLTs from six donors were divided into two groups. Group A was stored in PAS-III M + T at 10 °C as experimental group and group B in plasma at 22 °C as control group. The samples were collected on different storage dates, and multiple parameters were determined or investigated for in vitro studies. The in vivo recovery and survival of rabbit PLTs stored in the same conditions, and then labeled with (51)Cr were measured and evaluated using a rabbit model of thrombocytopenia. Over 9 days, P-selectin expression increased significantly in a time-dependent manner in both groups (n = 6). The levels of the hypotonic shock reaction and PLT aggregation rate decreased in both groups and were significantly higher in group A than B after 1 day of storage. The lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release and glucose (GLU) consumption increased similarly, but the levels were significantly lower in group A than B. The pH decreased significantly after 5 days of storage in group B but did not change in group A. After 5 days, the morphology of the PLTs in group B maintained a more normal shape than that of group A. The recovery and survival of PLTs stored in both groups were not significantly different (p > 0.05). The bacteria growth was not examined out in both groups for up to 5 (group A) and 9 (group B) days. Storage of PLTs in the modified PAS at low temperature was more effective in protecting PLT functions than that of standard storage method and may have the potential to decrease the risk of PLT activation and bacterial contamination.

  3. How Safe Are Color Additives?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home For Consumers Consumer Updates How Safe are Color Additives? Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... Consumer Updates RSS Feed Download PDF (380 K) Color additives give the red tint to your fruit ...

  4. Detergent Additive for Lubricating Oils,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The Russian patent pertains to a method of producing additives for lubricating oils . A method is known for producing an antiwear additive for... lubricating oils by processing phenols with phosphorus oxychloride, phosphoric acid esters are obtained. In order to give the additive detergent properties

  5. [The Health Technology Assessment Engine of the Academic Hospital of Udine: first appraisal].

    PubMed

    Vidale, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    The Health Technology Assessment Engine (HTAE) of the Academic Hospital of Udine aggregates about one hundred of health technology assessment websites. It was born thanks to Google technology in 2008 and after about four years of testing it became public for everybody from the Homepage of the Italian Society of Health Technology Assessment (SIHTA). In this paper the first results obtained with this resource are reported. The role of the scientific librarian is examined not only as a support specialist in bibliographic search but also as a creative expert in managing new technologies for the community.

  6. Incorporation of additives into polymers

    DOEpatents

    McCleskey, T. Mark; Yates, Matthew Z.

    2003-07-29

    There has been invented a method for incorporating additives into polymers comprising: (a) forming an aqueous or alcohol-based colloidal system of the polymer; (b) emulsifying the colloidal system with a compressed fluid; and (c) contacting the colloidal polymer with the additive in the presence of the compressed fluid. The colloidal polymer can be contacted with the additive by having the additive in the compressed fluid used for emulsification or by adding the additive to the colloidal system before or after emulsification with the compressed fluid. The invention process can be carried out either as a batch process or as a continuous on-line process.

  7. Additive manufacturing of optical components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinrich, Andreas; Rank, Manuel; Maillard, Philippe; Suckow, Anne; Bauckhage, Yannick; Rößler, Patrick; Lang, Johannes; Shariff, Fatin; Pekrul, Sven

    2016-08-01

    The development of additive manufacturing methods has enlarged rapidly in recent years. Thereby, the work mainly focuses on the realization of mechanical components, but the additive manufacturing technology offers a high potential in the field of optics as well. Owing to new design possibilities, completely new solutions are possible. This article briefly reviews and compares the most important additive manufacturing methods for polymer optics. Additionally, it points out the characteristics of additive manufactured polymer optics. Thereby, surface quality is of crucial importance. In order to improve it, appropriate post-processing steps are necessary (e.g. robot polishing or coating), which will be discussed. An essential part of this paper deals with various additive manufactured optical components and their use, especially in optical systems for shape metrology (e.g. borehole sensor, tilt sensor, freeform surface sensor, fisheye lens). The examples should demonstrate the potentials and limitations of optical components produced by additive manufacturing.

  8. The phytochemical analysis and antioxidant activity assessment of orange peel (Citrus sinensis) cultivated in Greece-Crete indicates a new commercial source of hesperidin.

    PubMed

    Kanaze, Firas I; Termentzi, Aikaterini; Gabrieli, Chrysi; Niopas, Ioannis; Georgarakis, Manolis; Kokkalou, Eugene

    2009-03-01

    The flavonoid content of several methanolic extract fractions of Navel orange peel (flavedo and albedo of Citrus sinensis) cultivated in Crete (Greece) was first analysed phytochemically and then assessed for its antioxidant activity in vitro. The chemical structures of the constituents fractionated were originally determined by comparing their retention times and the obtained UV spectral data with the available bibliographic data and further verified by detailed LC-DAD-MS (ESI+) analysis. The main flavonoid groups found within the fractions examined were polymethoxylated flavones, O-glycosylated flavones, C-glycosylated flavones, O-glycosylated flavonols, O-glycosylated flavanones and phenolic acids along with their ester derivatives. In addition, the quantitative HPLC analysis confirmed that hesperidin is the major flavonoid glycoside found in the orange peel. Interestingly enough, its quantity at 48 mg/g of dry peel permits the commercial use of orange peel as a source for the production of hesperidin. The antioxidant activity of the orange peel methanolic extract fractions was evaluated by applying two complementary methodologies, DPPH(*) assay and the Co(II)/EDTA-induced luminol chemiluminescence approach. Overall, the results have shown that orange peel methanolic extracts possess moderate antioxidant activity as compared with the activity seen in tests where the corresponding aglycones, diosmetin and hesperetin were assessed in different ratios.

  9. Enantioselective Michael addition of water.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bi-Shuang; Resch, Verena; Otten, Linda G; Hanefeld, Ulf

    2015-02-09

    The enantioselective Michael addition using water as both nucleophile and solvent has to date proved beyond the ability of synthetic chemists. Herein, the direct, enantioselective Michael addition of water in water to prepare important β-hydroxy carbonyl compounds using whole cells of Rhodococcus strains is described. Good yields and excellent enantioselectivities were achieved with this method. Deuterium labeling studies demonstrate that a Michael hydratase catalyzes the water addition exclusively with anti-stereochemistry.

  10. Enantioselective Michael Addition of Water

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Bi-Shuang; Resch, Verena; Otten, Linda G; Hanefeld, Ulf

    2015-01-01

    The enantioselective Michael addition using water as both nucleophile and solvent has to date proved beyond the ability of synthetic chemists. Herein, the direct, enantioselective Michael addition of water in water to prepare important β-hydroxy carbonyl compounds using whole cells of Rhodococcus strains is described. Good yields and excellent enantioselectivities were achieved with this method. Deuterium labeling studies demonstrate that a Michael hydratase catalyzes the water addition exclusively with anti-stereochemistry. PMID:25529526

  11. Environmental Assessment: Repair and Addition of Firing Range, Facility 1404

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-06-01

    ADDRESS(ES) 10 . SPONSOR/MONITOR’S ACRONYM(S) 11. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S REPORT NUMBER(S) 12. DISTRIBUTION/AVAILABILITY STATEMENT Approved for public release...Action ~ 3 8 4 9 5 10 SURNAME OF ACTION OFFICER AND GRADE SYMBOL PHONE TYPIST’S SUSPENSE DATE Mikula, GS-13 CEV 6849 INITIALS eh SUBJECT DATE

  12. Environmental Assessment: Construct an Addition to Facility 206

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-06-01

    REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 10 . SPONSOR/MONITOR’S ACRONYM(S) 11. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S REPORT NUMBER(S) 12...34, November 1993 10 ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS AFI- Air Force Instruction AFOSH - Air Force Occupational and Environmental Safety, Fire Protection, and...8217-/ MSG/CC Sign / 2 7 /~;....--: --- p ~ 3 CES/CEV Action __...- 8 4 9 5 10 SURNAME OF ACTION OFFICER AND GRADE SYMBOL PHONE TYPIST’S SUSPENSE

  13. Evaluation of certain food additives and contaminants.

    PubMed

    2004-01-01

    This report represents the conclusions of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee convened to evaluate the safety of various food additives, with a view to recommending acceptable daily intakes (ADIs) and to prepare specifications for the identity and purity of food additives. The first part of the report contains a general discussion of the principles governing the toxicological evaluation of food additives (including flavouring agents) and contaminants, assessments of intake, and the establishment and revision of specifications for food additives. A summary follows of the Committee's evaluations of toxicological and intake data on various specific food additives (alpha-amylase from Bacillus lichenformis containing a genetically engineered alpha-amylase gene from B. licheniformis, annatto extracts, curcumin, diacetyl and fatty acid esters of glycerol, D-tagatose, laccase from Myceliophthora thermophila expressed in Aspergillus oryzae, mixed xylanase, beta-glucanase enzyme preparation produced by a strain of Humicola insolens, neotame, polyvinyl alcohol, quillaia extracts and xylanase from Thermomyces lanuginosus expressed in Fusarium venenatum), flavouring agents, a nutritional source of iron (ferrous glycinate, processed with citric acid), a disinfectant for drinking-water (sodium dichloroisocyanurate) and contaminants (cadmium and methylmercury). Annexed to the report are tables summarizing the Committee's recommendations for ADIs of the food additives, recommendations on the flavouring agents considered, and tolerable intakes of the contaminants considered, changes in the status of specifications and further information requested or desired.

  14. Evaluation of certain food additives and contaminants.

    PubMed

    2011-01-01

    This report represents the conclusions of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee convened to evaluate the safety of various food additives, with a view to recommending acceptable daily intakes (ADIs) and to preparing specifications for identity and purity. The Committee also evaluated the risk posed by two food contaminants, with the aim of deriving tolerable intakes where appropriate and advising on risk management options for the purpose of public health protection. The first part of the report contains a general discussion of the principles governing the toxicological evaluation of and assessment of dietary exposure to food additives and contaminants. A summary follows of the Committee's evaluations of technical, toxicological and dietary exposure data for certain food additives (aluminium-containing food additives, Benzoe Tonkinensis, glycerol ester of gum rosin, glycerol ester of tall oil rosin, glycerol ester of wood rosin, octenyl succinic acid modified gum arabic, polydimethyl siloxane, Ponceau 4R, pullulan, pullulanase from Bacillus deromificans expressed in Bacillus licheniformis, Quinoline Yellow and Sunset Yellow FCF) and two food contaminants (cyanogenic glycosides and fumonisins). Specifications for the following food additives were revised: aluminium lakes of colouring matters; beta-apo-8'-carotenal; beta-apo-8'-carotenoic acid ethyl ester; beta-carotene, synthetic; hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose; magnesium silicate, synthetic; modified starches; nitrous oxide; sodium carboxymethyl cellulose; and sucrose monoesters of lauric, palmitic or stearic acid. Annexed to the report are tables summarizing the Committee's recommendations for dietary exposures to and toxicological evaluations of the food additives and contaminants considered.

  15. Color Addition and Subtraction Apps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruiz, Frances; Ruiz, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Color addition and subtraction apps in HTML5 have been developed for students as an online hands-on experience so that they can more easily master principles introduced through traditional classroom demonstrations. The evolution of the additive RGB color model is traced through the early IBM color adapters so that students can proceed step by step…

  16. Additive Effects on Asymmetric Catalysis.

    PubMed

    Hong, Liang; Sun, Wangsheng; Yang, Dongxu; Li, Guofeng; Wang, Rui

    2016-03-23

    This review highlights a number of additives that can be used to make asymmetric reactions perfect. Without changing other reaction conditions, simply adding additives can lead to improved asymmetric catalysis, such as reduced reaction time, improved yield, or/and increased selectivity.

  17. Chemical and biological warfare: Detection and warning systems. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1995-03-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the detection, identification, verification, and warning systems of chemical and biological warfare agents. Citations discuss agents sampling, monitoring, and assessment. Techniques include chromotography, biosensing, chemical analysis, and DNA probes. Land pollution, soil tests, and skin protection are examined. (Contains a minimum of 244 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  18. Chemical and biological warfare: Detection and warning systems. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1996-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the detection, identification, verification, and warning systems of chemical and biological warfare agents. Citations discuss agents sampling, monitoring, and assessment. Techniques include chromotography, biosensing, chemical analysis, and DNA probes. Land pollution, soil tests, and skin protection are examined. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  19. Color Addition and Subtraction Apps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz, Frances; Ruiz, Michael J.

    2015-10-01

    Color addition and subtraction apps in HTML5 have been developed for students as an online hands-on experience so that they can more easily master principles introduced through traditional classroom demonstrations. The evolution of the additive RGB color model is traced through the early IBM color adapters so that students can proceed step by step in understanding mathematical representations of RGB color. Finally, color addition and subtraction are presented for the X11 colors from web design to illustrate yet another real-life application of color mixing.

  20. The Development of the International Standard Bibliographic Descriptions (ISBD) and Some Problems for Non-Roman Scripts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerr, Rosamond; Clarke, Tom C.

    1977-01-01

    The purpose and use of ISBDs are explained, as well as ISBD form and structure. Specific examples of problem scripts are illustrated. Additional articles in this journal describe the state of ISBD application to African, Asian, and Latin American national bibliographies. (JAB)

  1. Adverse reactions to drug additives.

    PubMed

    Simon, R A

    1984-10-01

    There is a long list of additives used by the pharmaceutical industry. Most of the agents used have not been implicated in hypersensitivity reactions. Among those that have, only reactions to parabens and sulfites have been well established. Parabens have been shown to be responsible for rare immunoglobulin E-mediated reactions that occur after the use of local anesthetics. Sulfites, which are present in many drugs, including agents commonly used to treat asthma, have been shown to provoke severe asthmatic attacks in sensitive individuals. Recent studies indicate that additives do not play a significant role in "hyperactivity." The role of additives in urticaria is not well established and therefore the incidence of adverse reactions in this patient population is simply not known. In double-blind, placebo-controlled studies, reactions to tartrazine or additives other than sulfites, if they occur at all, are indeed quite rare for the asthmatic population, even for the aspirin-sensitive subpopulation.

  2. Radiation Therapy: Additional Treatment Options

    MedlinePlus

    ... SNIPEND SNIPSTART Find A Radiation Oncologist SNIPEND Additional Treatment Options SNIPSTART A A SNIPEND Chemotherapy Medicines prescribed ... such as antibodies, to fight cancer. Novel Targeted Therapies Cancer doctors now know much more about how ...

  3. Calculators and Computers: Graphical Addition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spero, Samuel W.

    1978-01-01

    A computer program is presented that generates problem sets involving sketching graphs of trigonometric functions using graphical addition. The students use calculators to sketch the graphs and a computer solution is used to check it. (MP)

  4. Sediment-water interactions and their effects upon water quality. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the testing and evaluation of fresh-water sediments. Citations discuss assessment and remediation of contaminated sediments, monitoring systems, sediment transport, water pollution effects, water traffic, habitats and fisheries, and the effect of dredging operation. National programs, acts, regulations, and criteria are examined.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  5. Lubrication for high and extreme pressures. (Latest citations from the US Patent bibliographic file with exemplary claims). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations of selected patents concerning compositions and applications of extreme pressure (EP) lubricants. The citations include compositions and methods of producing lubricant additives containing boron, sulfur, phosphorous, organic compounds, and metal complexes. Applications include lubricants for gears, metal working, wire drawing, vehicles, and machines. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  6. [INVITED] Lasers in additive manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinkerton, Andrew J.

    2016-04-01

    Additive manufacturing is a topic of considerable ongoing interest, with forecasts predicting it to have major impact on industry in the future. This paper focusses on the current status and potential future development of the technology, with particular reference to the role of lasers within it. It begins by making clear the types and roles of lasers in the different categories of additive manufacturing. This is followed by concise reviews of the economic benefits and disadvantages of the technology, current state of the market and use of additive manufacturing in different industries. Details of these fields are referenced rather than expanded in detail. The paper continues, focusing on current indicators to the future of additive manufacturing. Barriers to its development, trends and opportunities in major industrial sectors, and wider opportunities for its development are covered. Evidence indicates that additive manufacturing may not become the dominant manufacturing technology in all industries, but represents an excellent opportunity for lasers to increase their influence in manufacturing as a whole.

  7. Additive manufacturing of hybrid circuits

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, Nelson S.; Sarobol, Pylin; Cook, Adam; Clem, Paul G.; Keicher, David M.; Hirschfeld, Deidre; Hall, Aaron Christopher

    2016-03-26

    There is a rising interest in developing functional electronics using additively manufactured components. Considerations in materials selection and pathways to forming hybrid circuits and devices must demonstrate useful electronic function; must enable integration; and must complement the complex shape, low cost, high volume, and high functionality of structural but generally electronically passive additively manufactured components. This article reviews several emerging technologies being used in industry and research/development to provide integration advantages of fabricating multilayer hybrid circuits or devices. First, we review a maskless, noncontact, direct write (DW) technology that excels in the deposition of metallic colloid inks for electrical interconnects. Second, we review a complementary technology, aerosol deposition (AD), which excels in the deposition of metallic and ceramic powder as consolidated, thick conformal coatings and is additionally patternable through masking. As a result, we show examples of hybrid circuits/devices integrated beyond 2-D planes, using combinations of DW or AD processes and conventional, established processes.

  8. Tougher Addition Polyimides Containing Siloxane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    St. Clair, T. L.; Maudgal, S.

    1986-01-01

    Laminates show increased impact resistances and other desirable mechanical properties. Bismaleamic acid extended by reaction of diaminosiloxane with maleic anhydride in 1:1 molar ratio, followed by reaction with half this molar ratio of aromatic dianhydride. Bismaleamic acid also extended by reaction of diaminosiloxane with maleic anhydride in 1:2 molar ratio, followed by reaction with half this molar ratio of aromatic diamine (Michael-addition reaction). Impact resistances improved over those of unmodified bismaleimide, showing significant increase in toughness. Aromatic addition polyimides developed as both matrix and adhesive resins for applications on future aircraft and spacecraft.

  9. 40 CFR 158.75 - Requirements for additional data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... cases for an assessment of the properties and effects of the pesticide. ....75 Section 158.75 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES General Provisions § 158.75 Requirements for additional data....

  10. 40 CFR 158.75 - Requirements for additional data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... cases for an assessment of the properties and effects of the pesticide. ....75 Section 158.75 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES General Provisions § 158.75 Requirements for additional data....

  11. 40 CFR 158.75 - Requirements for additional data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... cases for an assessment of the properties and effects of the pesticide. ....75 Section 158.75 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES General Provisions § 158.75 Requirements for additional data....

  12. 40 CFR 158.75 - Requirements for additional data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... cases for an assessment of the properties and effects of the pesticide. ....75 Section 158.75 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES General Provisions § 158.75 Requirements for additional data....

  13. 40 CFR 158.75 - Requirements for additional data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... cases for an assessment of the properties and effects of the pesticide. ....75 Section 158.75 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES General Provisions § 158.75 Requirements for additional data....

  14. 21 CFR 26.46 - Listing of additional CAB's.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL MUTUAL RECOGNITION OF PHARMACEUTICAL GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE REPORTS, MEDICAL DEVICE QUALITY SYSTEM AUDIT REPORTS... operational period, additional conformity assessment bodies (CAB's) will be considered for equivalence...

  15. 21 CFR 26.46 - Listing of additional CAB's.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL MUTUAL RECOGNITION OF PHARMACEUTICAL GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE REPORTS, MEDICAL DEVICE QUALITY SYSTEM AUDIT REPORTS... operational period, additional conformity assessment bodies (CAB's) will be considered for equivalence...

  16. The Additive Property of Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsaoussis, Dimitris S.

    1995-01-01

    Presents exercises that analyze the additive property of energy. Concludes that if a body has more than one component of energy depending on the same physical quantity, the body's total energy will be the algebraic sum of the components if a linear relationship exists between the energy components and that physical quantity. (JRH)

  17. Tetrasulfide extreme pressure lubricant additives

    SciTech Connect

    Gast, L.E.; Kenney, H.E.; Schwab, A.W.

    1980-08-19

    A novel class of compounds has been prepared comprising the tetrasulfides of /sup 18/C hydrocarbons, /sup 18/C fatty acids, and /sup 18/C fatty and alkyl and triglyceride esters. These tetrasulfides are useful as extreme pressure lubricant additives and show potential as replacements for sulfurized sperm whale oil.

  18. Out of bounds additive manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Holshouser, Chris; Newell, Clint; Palas, Sid; Love, Lonnie J.; Kunc, Vlastimil; Lind, Randall F.; Lloyd, Peter D.; Rowe, John C.; Blue, Craig A.; Duty, Chad E.; Peter, William H.; Dehoff, Ryan R.

    2013-03-01

    Lockheed Martin and Oak Ridge National Laboratory are working on an additive manufacturing system capable of manufacturing components measured not in terms of inches or feet, but multiple yards in all dimensions with the potential to manufacture parts that are completely unbounded in size.

  19. Additionality of global benefits and financial additionality in the context of the AIJ negotiations

    SciTech Connect

    Puhl, I.

    1996-12-31

    The Conference of the Party at their first meeting (COP1) took a decision regarding criteria for joint implementation as indicated in Art. 4.2 (a) of the FCCC which established a pilot phase for activities implemented jointly (AIJ) under the pilot phase. Besides some more technical issues this decision specified that such measures should bring about real, measurable and long-term environmental benefits related to the mitigation of climate change that would not have occurred in the absence of such activities. It also established that the financing of AIJ shall be additional to the financial obligations of developed country parties. These two requirements are called the additionality criteria for AIJ. The first refers to the realness of GHG emission abatement (which means reduction compared to a baseline) whereas the second describes that funds earmarked for AIJ have no other objective (i.e. profit making, export promotion) but to reduce GHG emissions to avoid the free-riding of investors and subsequently developed country parties. The reporting framework as well as the reporting requirements under national programs do not specify further the two types of additionality and even though research focuses on issues like baseline determination there has been no attempt so far to identify approaches which contribute towards defining strict and practicable methods and guidelines to frame additionality criteria. The first FCCC assessment of pilot project reporting revealed that in the reporting of activities, emissions additionality often remained unclear, especially in cases where AIJ was only a portion of an existing or already planned project, and that there is a point about how to account for financial additionality. It subsequently proposed to develop a uniform approach to baseline determination and the assessment of emission (reduction) additionality and financial additionality.

  20. The Frontiers of Additive Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Grote, Christopher John

    2016-03-03

    Additive manufacturing, more commonly known as 3-D printing, has become a ubiquitous tool in science for its precise control over mechanical design. For additive manufacturing to work, a 3-D structure is split into thin 2D slices, and then different physical properties, such as photo-polymerization or melting, are used to grow the sequential layers. The level of control allows not only for devices to be made with a variety of materials: e.g. plastics, metals, and quantum dots, but to also have finely controlled structures leading to other novel properties. While 3-D printing is widely used by hobbyists for making models, it also has industrial applications in structural engineering, biological tissue scaffolding, customized electric circuitry, fuel cells, security, and more.