Science.gov

Sample records for additional background information

  1. Foreign Energy Company Competitiveness: Background information

    SciTech Connect

    Weimar, M.R.; Freund, K.A.; Roop, J.M.

    1994-10-01

    This report provides background information to the report Energy Company Competitiveness: Little to Do With Subsidies (DOE 1994). The main body of this publication consists of data uncovered during the course of research on this DOE report. This data pertains to major government energy policies in each country studied. This report also provides a summary of the DOE report. In October 1993, the Office of Energy Intelligence, US Department of Energy (formerly the Office of Foreign Intelligence), requested that Pacific Northwest Laboratory prepare a report addressing policies and actions used by foreign governments to enhance the competitiveness of their energy firms. Pacific Northwest Laboratory prepared the report Energy Company Competitiveness Little to Do With Subsidies (DOE 1994), which provided the analysis requested by DOE. An appendix was also prepared, which provided extensive background documentation to the analysis. Because of the length of the appendix, Pacific Northwest Laboratory decided to publish this information separately, as contained in this report.

  2. 16 CFR 1102.16 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... PUBLICLY AVAILABLE CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY INFORMATION DATABASE Content Requirements § 1102.16 Additional... in the Database any additional information it determines to be in the public interest,...

  3. 16 CFR 1102.16 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... PUBLICLY AVAILABLE CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY INFORMATION DATABASE Content Requirements § 1102.16 Additional... in the Database any additional information it determines to be in the public interest,...

  4. 16 CFR 1102.16 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... PUBLICLY AVAILABLE CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY INFORMATION DATABASE Content Requirements § 1102.16 Additional... in the Database any additional information it determines to be in the public interest,...

  5. 76 FR 34639 - Notice of Proposed Additional Information Collection: Advisory Committee and Research and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-14

    ... Notice of Proposed Additional Information Collection: Advisory Committee and Research and Promotion... approved information collection of the Advisory Committee and Research and Promotion Background Information... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Advisory Committee and Research and Promotion Background Information....

  6. Lewis Information Network (LINK): Background and overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schulte, Roger R.

    1987-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center supports many research facilities with many isolated buildings, including wind tunnels, test cells, and research laboratories. These facilities are all located on a 350 acre campus adjacent to the Cleveland Hopkins Airport. The function of NASA-Lewis is to do basic and applied research in all areas of aeronautics, fluid mechanics, materials and structures, space propulsion, and energy systems. These functions require a great variety of remote high speed, high volume data communications for computing and interactive graphic capabilities. In addition, new requirements for local distribution of intercenter video teleconferencing and data communications via satellite have developed. To address these and future communications requirements for the next 15 yrs, a project team was organized to design and implement a new high speed communication system that would handle both data and video information in a common lab-wide Local Area Network. The project team selected cable television broadband coaxial cable technology as the communications medium and first installation of in-ground cable began in the summer of 1980. The Lewis Information Network (LINK) became operational in August 1982 and has become the backbone of all data communications and video.

  7. 16 CFR 1102.16 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... PUBLICLY AVAILABLE CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY INFORMATION DATABASE (Eff. Jan. 10, 2011) Content Requirements... notices, the CPSC shall include in the Database any additional information it determines to be in...

  8. Uniform Additivity in Classical and Quantum Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cross, Andrew; Li, Ke; Smith, Graeme

    2017-01-01

    Information theory quantifies the optimal rates of resource interconversions, usually in terms of entropies. However, nonadditivity often makes evaluating entropic formulas intractable. In a few auspicious cases, additivity allows a full characterization of optimal rates. We study uniform additivity of formulas, which is easily evaluated and captures all known additive quantum formulas. Our complete characterization of uniform additivity exposes an intriguing new additive quantity and identifies a remarkable coincidence—the classical and quantum uniformly additive functions with one auxiliary variable are identical.

  9. 10 CFR 810.14 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Additional information. 810.14 Section 810.14 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN ATOMIC ENERGY ACTIVITIES § 810.14 Additional information. The Department of Energy may at any time require a person engaging in any generally or specifically...

  10. 10 CFR 810.14 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Additional information. 810.14 Section 810.14 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN ATOMIC ENERGY ACTIVITIES § 810.14 Additional information. The Department of Energy may at any time require a person engaging in any generally or specifically...

  11. 12 CFR 1010.116 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Additional information. 1010.116 Section 1010.116 Banks and Banking BUREAU OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL PROTECTION LAND REGISTRATION (REGULATION J) Reporting Requirements § 1010.116 Additional information. (a) Property Owners' Association. (1) Will there be a property owners' association for...

  12. 12 CFR 1010.116 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Additional information. 1010.116 Section 1010.116 Banks and Banking BUREAU OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL PROTECTION LAND REGISTRATION (REGULATION J) Reporting Requirements § 1010.116 Additional information. (a) Property Owners' Association. (1) Will there be a property owners' association for...

  13. Background information on the SSC project

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, J.

    1991-10-01

    This report discusses the following information about the Superconducting Super Collider: Goals and milestones; civil construction; ring components; cryogenics; vacuum and cooling water systems; electrical power; instrumentation and control systems; and installation planning.

  14. Background Information Framework for the National Assessment of Educational Progress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Assessment Governing Board, Washington, DC.

    This framework will define the purpose and scope of NAEP's system of collecting background information, including background questionnaires and other sources of non-cognitive data. It will establish criteria for reporting background information as part of the National Assessment. The approach it suggests provides for asking various groups of…

  15. Molecules in the mirror: how SERS backgrounds arise from the quantum method of images† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Additional derivation of eqn (5). See DOI: 10.1039/c4cp00093e Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Barnett, Stephen M.; Harris, Nadine

    2014-01-01

    The Raman coupling of light to molecular vibrations is strongly modified when they are placed near a plasmonic metal surface, with the appearance of a strong broad continuum background in addition to the normal surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) peaks. Using a quantum method of images approach, we produce a simple but quantitative explanation of the inevitable presence of the background, due to the resistive damping of the image molecule. This model thus suggests new strategies for enhancing the SERS peak to background ratio. PMID:24584480

  16. 24 CFR 1710.116 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Additional information. 1710.116 Section 1710.116 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development... URBAN DEVELOPMENT (INTERSTATE LAND SALES REGISTRATION PROGRAM) LAND REGISTRATION Reporting...

  17. 24 CFR 1710.216 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Additional information. 1710.216 Section 1710.216 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development... URBAN DEVELOPMENT (INTERSTATE LAND SALES REGISTRATION PROGRAM) LAND REGISTRATION Reporting...

  18. 18 CFR 5.21 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Additional information. 5.21 Section 5.21 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL POWER ACT INTEGRATED LICENSE APPLICATION PROCESS §...

  19. 18 CFR 5.21 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Additional information. 5.21 Section 5.21 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL POWER ACT INTEGRATED LICENSE APPLICATION PROCESS §...

  20. 18 CFR 5.21 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Additional information. 5.21 Section 5.21 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL POWER ACT INTEGRATED LICENSE APPLICATION PROCESS §...

  1. 18 CFR 5.21 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Additional information. 5.21 Section 5.21 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL POWER ACT INTEGRATED LICENSE APPLICATION PROCESS §...

  2. 18 CFR 5.21 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Additional information. 5.21 Section 5.21 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL POWER ACT INTEGRATED LICENSE APPLICATION PROCESS §...

  3. 24 CFR 1710.116 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Additional information. 1710.116 Section 1710.116 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR HOUSING-FEDERAL HOUSING COMMISSIONER, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT (INTERSTATE LAND...

  4. 27 CFR 41.197 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., § 41.197 was revised, effective Aug. 26, 2013 through Aug. 26, 2016. ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Additional information. 41.197 Section 41.197 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE...

  5. 18 CFR 33.10 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Additional information. 33.10 Section 33.10 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL POWER ACT APPLICATIONS UNDER FEDERAL POWER ACT SECTION...

  6. Background risk information to assist in risk management decision making

    SciTech Connect

    Hammonds, J.S.; Hoffman, F.O.; White, R.K.; Miller, D.B.

    1992-10-01

    The evaluation of the need for remedial activities at hazardous waste sites requires quantification of risks of adverse health effects to humans and the ecosystem resulting from the presence of chemical and radioactive substances at these sites. The health risks from exposure to these substances are in addition to risks encountered because of the virtually unavoidable exposure to naturally occurring chemicals and radioactive materials that are present in air, water, soil, building materials, and food products. To provide a frame of reference for interpreting risks quantified for hazardous waste sites, it is useful to identify the relative magnitude of risks of both a voluntary and involuntary nature that are ubiquitous throughout east Tennessee. In addition to discussing risks from the ubiquitous presence of background carcinogens in the east Tennessee environment, this report also presents risks resulting from common, everyday activities. Such information should, not be used to discount or trivialize risks from hazardous waste contamination, but rather, to create a sensitivity to general risk issues, thus providing a context for better interpretation of risk information.

  7. Background information on the He(3) nuclear gyroscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fairbank, W. M.; Taber, M.

    1983-02-01

    During the contract period the background necessary to proceed with the assembly and testing of the precision He(3) nuclear gyroscope was completed. This background work included experiments on He(3)-He(4) liquid and gas mixtures in a prototype apparatus which was modified to provide additional information useful to the He(3) gyroscope research program. The precision quartz He(3) gyroscope was designed, constructed and delivered during the period as were the components of the airlock and cryostat probe assembly. A new ultra-low magnetic field shield was made which achieved 2 x 10 to the 8th power/G over the volume necessary for the He(3)gyroscope. This not only exceeds the nominal requirements of the He(3) gyroscope, but is the lowest magnetic field region ever made. An engineering Ph.D thesis was completed by Captain Gerald Shaw, working with professor Daniel DeBra, on a theoretical analysis of the cross-axis response of a three-axis He(3) gyroscope and on kinematic rectification in a nuclear gyro.

  8. [Information about phosphorus additives and nutritional counseling].

    PubMed

    Kido, Shinsuke; Nomura, Kengo; Sasaki, Shohei; Shiozaki, Yuji; Segawa, Hiroko; Tatsumi, Sawako

    2012-10-01

    Hyperphosphatemia is a common disorder in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) , and may result in hyperparathyroidism and renal osteodystrophy. Hyperphosphatemia also may contribute to deterioration vascular calcification and increase mortality. Hence, correction and prevention of hyperphosphatemia is a main component of the management of CKD. This goal is usually approached both by administering phosphorus binders and by restricting dietary phosphorus (P) intake. Dietary intake of phosphorus (P) is derived largely from foods with high protein content or food additives and is an important determinant of P balance in patient with CKD. Food additives (PO4) can dramatically increase the amount of P consumed in the daily diet, especially because P is more readily absorbed in its inorganic form. In addition, information about the P content and type in prepared foods is often unavailable or misleading. Therefore, during dietary counseling of patients with CKD, we recommended that they consider both the absolute dietary P content and the P-to-protein ratio of foods and meals including food additives.

  9. Student Performance Standards and Testing Programs: Background Information for Legislators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutter, Joel A.; Rice, Elizabeth V.

    This report provides Minnesota legislators with background information on establishing state educational standards and periodic testing to measure student progress. Scientific management, the accountability movement, and the basic education movement were educational trends of the 1970's providing pressure on states to set standards to improve…

  10. Acquisition of background and technical information and class trip planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mackinnon, R. M.; Wake, W. H.

    1981-01-01

    Instructors who are very familiar with a study area, as well as those who are not, find the field trip information acquisition and planning process speeded and made more effective by organizing it in stages. The stage follow a deductive progression: from the associated context region, to the study area, to the specific sample window sites, and from generalized background information on the study region to specific technical data on the environmental and human use systems to be interpreted at each site. On the class trip and in the follow up laboratory, the learning/interpretive process are at first deductive in applying previously learned information and skills to analysis of the study site, then inductive in reading and interpreting the landscape, imagery, and maps of the site, correlating them with information of other samples sites and building valid generalizations about the larger study area, its context region, and other (similar and/or contrasting) regions.

  11. 47 CFR 25.111 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Service (BSS) in Appendix 30 of the ITU Radio Regulations (RR) and associated feeder-link plans in Appendix 30A of the ITU RR, if the system has technical characteristics differing from those specified in... provide the Commission with the information required by Appendix 4 of the ITU RR for advance...

  12. 47 CFR 25.111 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS... Administrations. (c) In the Direct Broadcast Satellite service, applicants and licensees shall also provide the Commission with all information it requires in order to modify the Appendix 30 Broadcasting-Satellite...

  13. 47 CFR 25.111 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS... Administrations. (c) In the Direct Broadcast Satellite service, applicants and licensees shall also provide the Commission with all information it requires in order to modify the Appendix 30 Broadcasting-Satellite...

  14. 47 CFR 25.111 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS... Administrations. (c) In the Direct Broadcast Satellite service, applicants and licensees shall also provide the Commission with all information it requires in order to modify the Appendix 30 Broadcasting-Satellite...

  15. Information routing driven by background chatter in a signaling network.

    PubMed

    Domedel-Puig, Núria; Rué, Pau; Pons, Antonio J; García-Ojalvo, Jordi

    2011-12-01

    Living systems are capable of processing multiple sources of information simultaneously. This is true even at the cellular level, where not only coexisting signals stimulate the cell, but also the presence of fluctuating conditions is significant. When information is received by a cell signaling network via one specific input, the existence of other stimuli can provide a background activity -or chatter- that may affect signal transmission through the network and, therefore, the response of the cell. Here we study the modulation of information processing by chatter in the signaling network of a human cell, specifically, in a Boolean model of the signal transduction network of a fibroblast. We observe that the level of external chatter shapes the response of the system to information carrying signals in a nontrivial manner, modulates the activity levels of the network outputs, and effectively determines the paths of information flow. Our results show that the interactions and node dynamics, far from being random, confer versatility to the signaling network and allow transitions between different information-processing scenarios.

  16. Distant background information strongly affects lightness perception in dynamic displays.

    PubMed

    Pereverzeva, Maria; Murray, Scott O

    2009-02-25

    Lightness perception is strongly dependent on context, including the relative luminance of the adjacent surfaces, spatial configuration, and luminance contrast. The latter, local luminance contrast, is thought to be processed in relatively early stages of visual processing and has been shown to play a crucial role in lightness perception. However, more global processing, such as perceptual grouping of surfaces, can also have an effect on lightness perception. An unresolved question, which we will address in this paper, is how global and local processes interact. We used a static gray disk embedded in a temporally modulated in luminance ring, which gives rise to a lightness effect dependent on local luminance contrast. We manipulated global image information by presenting the stimulus on backgrounds of different luminances. Surprisingly, the induction effect was greatly attenuated at a background luminance equal to that of the disk. We show that this finding cannot be explained by common lightness induction models. However, it is consistent with an effect of grouping on lightness perception and demonstrates how processes that are dependent on local edge information can be overridden by global image information.

  17. Ohio White House Conference on Library and Information Services: Speak Out. Conference Background Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Library, Columbus.

    Developed as background material for the 1978 Ohio White House Conference on Library and Information Services, this document provides information in six areas of concern for Ohio libraries: (1) library and information services--library users, library collections, special user needs; (2) public awareness--definition, current status, suggestions for…

  18. Unexploded ordnance issues at Aberdeen Proving Ground: Background information

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenblatt, D.H.

    1996-11-01

    This document summarizes currently available information about the presence and significance of unexploded ordnance (UXO) in the two main areas of Aberdeen Proving Ground: Aberdeen Area and Edgewood Area. Known UXO in the land ranges of the Aberdeen Area consists entirely of conventional munitions. The Edgewood Area contains, in addition to conventional munitions, a significant quantity of chemical-munition UXO, which is reflected in the presence of chemical agent decomposition products in Edgewood Area ground-water samples. It may be concluded from current information that the UXO at Aberdeen Proving Ground has not adversely affected the environment through release of toxic substances to the public domain, especially not by water pathways, and is not likely to do so in the near future. Nevertheless, modest but periodic monitoring of groundwater and nearby surface waters would be a prudent policy.

  19. Background information for programs to improve the energy efficiency of Northwest residential rental property

    SciTech Connect

    Hendrickson, P.L.

    1986-02-01

    This report was prepared for the Office of Conservation, Bonneville Power Administration. The report will be used by the Office as background information to support future analysis and implementation of electricity conservation programs for owners of residential rental housing in the Northwest. The principal objective of the study was to review market research information relating to attitudes and actions of Northwest rental housing owners and, to a lesser extent, tenants toward energy conservation and energy-efficiency improvements. Available market research data on these subjects were found to be quite limited. The most useful data were two surveys of Seattle rental housing owners conducted in late 1984 for Seattle City Light. Several other surveys provided supplemental market research information in selected areas. In addition to market research information, the report also includes background information on rental housing characteristics in the Northwest.

  20. 10 CFR 71.39 - Requirement for additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Requirement for additional information. 71.39 Section 71.39 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) PACKAGING AND TRANSPORTATION OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL Application for Package Approval § 71.39 Requirement for additional information. The...

  1. 78 FR 75568 - Notice of Request for Additional Information

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION Notice of Request for Additional Information The Commission gives notice that it has formally requested that the parties to the below listed agreement provide additional information pursuant to 46 U.S.C. 40304(d). This action prevents the...

  2. Background Information on the Ethnic Chinese Refugees. General Information Series #22. Indochinese Refugee Education Guides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    English Language Resource Center, Washington, DC.

    The purpose of this guide is to provide background information on the ethnic Chinese refugees from Vietnam, Cambodia, and Laos that will be of interest and use to educators working with these refugees. The guide consists of four sections: (1) a brief history of the Chinese communities in Southeast Asia; (2) a more detailed discussion of the…

  3. An efficient voting algorithm for finding additive biclusters with random background.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Jing; Wang, Lusheng; Liu, Xiaowen; Jiang, Tao

    2008-12-01

    The biclustering problem has been extensively studied in many areas, including e-commerce, data mining, machine learning, pattern recognition, statistics, and, more recently, computational biology. Given an n x m matrix A (n >or= m), the main goal of biclustering is to identify a subset of rows (called objects) and a subset of columns (called properties) such that some objective function that specifies the quality of the found bicluster (formed by the subsets of rows and of columns of A) is optimized. The problem has been proved or conjectured to be NP-hard for various objective functions. In this article, we study a probabilistic model for the implanted additive bicluster problem, where each element in the n x m background matrix is a random integer from [0, L - 1] for some integer L, and a k x k implanted additive bicluster is obtained from an error-free additive bicluster by randomly changing each element to a number in [0, L - 1] with probability theta. We propose an O(n(2)m) time algorithm based on voting to solve the problem. We show that when k >or= Omega(square root of (n log n)), the voting algorithm can correctly find the implanted bicluster with probability at least 1 - (9/n(2)). We also implement our algorithm as a C++ program named VOTE. The implementation incorporates several ideas for estimating the size of an implanted bicluster, adjusting the threshold in voting, dealing with small biclusters, and dealing with overlapping implanted biclusters. Our experimental results on both simulated and real datasets show that VOTE can find biclusters with a high accuracy and speed.

  4. 29 CFR 502.44 - Additional information, if required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... ENFORCEMENT OF CONTRACTUAL OBLIGATIONS FOR TEMPORARY ALIEN AGRICULTURAL WORKERS ADMITTED UNDER SECTION 218 OF... Administrative Law Judge's Decision § 502.44 Additional information, if required. Where the ARB has determined...

  5. 29 CFR 502.44 - Additional information, if required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... ENFORCEMENT OF CONTRACTUAL OBLIGATIONS FOR TEMPORARY ALIEN AGRICULTURAL WORKERS ADMITTED UNDER SECTION 218 OF... Administrative Law Judge's Decision § 502.44 Additional information, if required. Where the ARB has determined...

  6. 29 CFR 502.44 - Additional information, if required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ENFORCEMENT OF CONTRACTUAL OBLIGATIONS FOR TEMPORARY ALIEN AGRICULTURAL WORKERS ADMITTED UNDER SECTION 218 OF... Administrative Law Judge's Decision § 502.44 Additional information, if required. Where the ARB has determined...

  7. 29 CFR 502.44 - Additional information, if required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... ENFORCEMENT OF CONTRACTUAL OBLIGATIONS FOR TEMPORARY ALIEN AGRICULTURAL WORKERS ADMITTED UNDER SECTION 218 OF... Administrative Law Judge's Decision § 502.44 Additional information, if required. Where the ARB has determined...

  8. 29 CFR 502.44 - Additional information, if required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ENFORCEMENT OF CONTRACTUAL OBLIGATIONS FOR TEMPORARY ALIEN AGRICULTURAL WORKERS ADMITTED UNDER SECTION 218 OF... Administrative Law Judge's Decision § 502.44 Additional information, if required. Where the ARB has determined...

  9. Information visualization courses for students with a computer science background.

    PubMed

    Kerren, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Linnaeus University offers two master's courses in information visualization for computer science students with programming experience. This article briefly describes the syllabi, exercises, and practices developed for these courses.

  10. 21 CFR 71.4 - Samples; additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Samples; additional information. 71.4 Section 71.4 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL COLOR... samples of the color additive, articles used as components thereof, or of the food, drug, or cosmetic...

  11. 21 CFR 71.4 - Samples; additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Samples; additional information. 71.4 Section 71.4 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL COLOR... samples of the color additive, articles used as components thereof, or of the food, drug, or cosmetic...

  12. Defense Health Care: Additional Information Needed about Mental Health Provider Staffing Needs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-01

    DEFENSE HEALTH CARE Additional Information Needed about Mental Health Provider Staffing Needs Report to the...REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2015 to 00-00-2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Defense Health Care: Additional Information Needed about Mental ...Z39-18 Page i GAO-15-184 DOD Mental Health Staffing Letter 1 Background 4 DOD and the Military Services Have Increased the

  13. Half a degree additional warming, prognosis and projected impacts (HAPPI): background and experimental design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, Daniel; AchutaRao, Krishna; Allen, Myles; Bethke, Ingo; Beyerle, Urs; Ciavarella, Andrew; Forster, Piers M.; Fuglestvedt, Jan; Gillett, Nathan; Haustein, Karsten; Ingram, William; Iversen, Trond; Kharin, Viatcheslav; Klingaman, Nicholas; Massey, Neil; Fischer, Erich; Schleussner, Carl-Friedrich; Scinocca, John; Seland, Øyvind; Shiogama, Hideo; Shuckburgh, Emily; Sparrow, Sarah; Stone, Dáithí; Uhe, Peter; Wallom, David; Wehner, Michael; Zaaboul, Rashyd

    2017-02-01

    The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has accepted the invitation from the UNFCCC to provide a special report on the impacts of global warming of 1.5 °C above pre-industrial levels and on related global greenhouse-gas emission pathways. Many current experiments in, for example, the Coupled Model Inter-comparison Project (CMIP), are not specifically designed for informing this report. Here, we document the design of the half a degree additional warming, projections, prognosis and impacts (HAPPI) experiment. HAPPI provides a framework for the generation of climate data describing how the climate, and in particular extreme weather, might differ from the present day in worlds that are 1.5 and 2.0 °C warmer than pre-industrial conditions. Output from participating climate models includes variables frequently used by a range of impact models. The key challenge is to separate the impact of an additional approximately half degree of warming from uncertainty in climate model responses and internal climate variability that dominate CMIP-style experiments under low-emission scenarios.Large ensembles of simulations (> 50 members) of atmosphere-only models for three time slices are proposed, each a decade in length: the first being the most recent observed 10-year period (2006-2015), the second two being estimates of a similar decade but under 1.5 and 2 °C conditions a century in the future. We use the representative concentration pathway 2.6 (RCP2.6) to provide the model boundary conditions for the 1.5 °C scenario, and a weighted combination of RCP2.6 and RCP4.5 for the 2 °C scenario.

  14. Automated band mapping in electrophoretic gel images using background information

    PubMed Central

    Zerr, Troy; Henikoff, Steven

    2005-01-01

    Some popular methods for polymorphism and mutation discovery involve ascertainment of novel bands by the examination of electrophoretic gel images. Although existing strategies for mapping bands work well for specific applications, such as DNA sequencing, these strategies are not well suited for novel band detection. Here, we describe a general strategy for band mapping that uses background banding patterns to facilitate lane calling and size calibration. We have implemented this strategy in GelBuddy, a user-friendly Java-based program for PC and Macintosh computers, which includes several utilities to assist discovery of mutations and polymorphisms. We demonstrate the use of GelBuddy in applications based on single-base mismatch cleavage of heteroduplexed PCR products. Use of software designed to facilitate novel band detection can significantly shorten the time needed for image analysis and data entry in a high-throughput setting. Furthermore, the interactive strategy implemented in GelBuddy has been successfully applied to DNA fingerprinting applications, such as AFLP. GelBuddy promises to make electrophoretic gel analysis a viable alternative to DNA resequencing for discovery of mutations and polymorphisms. PMID:15894797

  15. Social Security Administration's Master Earnings File: background information.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Anya; Hudson, Russell

    2009-01-01

    The Social Security Administration (SSA) receives reports of earnings for the U.S. working population each year. Earnings data are used to administer the Social Security programs and to conduct research on the populations served by those programs. The administrative needs of SSA and other agencies have changed over time and, as a result, there have been numerous changes to the main source of SSA's earnings data, which is known as the Master Earnings File (MEF). By documenting the history, content, limitations, complexities, and uses of the MEF (and data files derived from the MEF), this article serves as a resource for researchers who use earnings data to study work patterns and their implications. It is also a resource for policymakers and administrators who must understand the data used in administering current-law programs and the data available to inform potential changes to those programs.

  16. 25 CFR 227.7 - Additional information from applicant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Additional information from applicant. 227.7 Section 227.7 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF CERTAIN LANDS IN WIND RIVER INDIAN RESERVATION, WYOMING, FOR OIL AND GAS MINING How to Acquire...

  17. 25 CFR 227.7 - Additional information from applicant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Additional information from applicant. 227.7 Section 227.7 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF CERTAIN LANDS IN WIND RIVER INDIAN RESERVATION, WYOMING, FOR OIL AND GAS MINING How to Acquire Leases §...

  18. 25 CFR 227.7 - Additional information from applicant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Additional information from applicant. 227.7 Section 227.7 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF CERTAIN LANDS IN WIND RIVER INDIAN RESERVATION, WYOMING, FOR OIL AND GAS MINING How to Acquire...

  19. 25 CFR 215.17 - Additional information required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Additional information required. 215.17 Section 215.17 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEAD AND ZINC MINING... interested in lead and zinc mining leases, or land under the jurisdiction of the Quapaw Indian Agency,...

  20. 38 CFR 39.3 - Decisionmakers, notifications, and additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Decisionmakers, notifications, and additional information. 39.3 Section 39.3 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) AID TO STATES FOR ESTABLISHMENT, EXPANSION, AND IMPROVEMENT...

  1. 25 CFR 227.7 - Additional information from applicant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Additional information from applicant. 227.7 Section 227.7 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF CERTAIN LANDS IN WIND RIVER INDIAN RESERVATION, WYOMING, FOR OIL AND GAS MINING How to Acquire...

  2. 25 CFR 227.7 - Additional information from applicant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Additional information from applicant. 227.7 Section 227.7 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF CERTAIN LANDS IN WIND RIVER INDIAN RESERVATION, WYOMING, FOR OIL AND GAS MINING How to Acquire...

  3. 21 CFR 207.31 - Additional drug listing information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Additional drug listing information. 207.31 Section 207.31 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL REGISTRATION OF PRODUCERS OF DRUGS AND LISTING OF DRUGS IN COMMERCIAL...

  4. 21 CFR 207.31 - Additional drug listing information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Additional drug listing information. 207.31 Section 207.31 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL REGISTRATION OF PRODUCERS OF DRUGS AND LISTING OF DRUGS IN COMMERCIAL...

  5. 21 CFR 207.31 - Additional drug listing information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Additional drug listing information. 207.31 Section 207.31 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL REGISTRATION OF PRODUCERS OF DRUGS AND LISTING OF DRUGS IN COMMERCIAL...

  6. 29 CFR 2570.39 - Opportunities to submit additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Opportunities to submit additional information. 2570.39 Section 2570.39 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EMPLOYEE BENEFITS SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR ADMINISTRATION AND ENFORCEMENT UNDER THE EMPLOYEE RETIREMENT INCOME SECURITY ACT OF...

  7. 29 CFR 2570.39 - Opportunities to submit additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Opportunities to submit additional information. 2570.39 Section 2570.39 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EMPLOYEE BENEFITS SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR ADMINISTRATION AND ENFORCEMENT UNDER THE EMPLOYEE RETIREMENT INCOME SECURITY ACT OF...

  8. 29 CFR 2570.39 - Opportunities to submit additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Opportunities to submit additional information. 2570.39 Section 2570.39 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EMPLOYEE BENEFITS SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR ADMINISTRATION AND ENFORCEMENT UNDER THE EMPLOYEE RETIREMENT INCOME SECURITY ACT OF...

  9. 43 CFR 3922.30 - Application-Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Application-Additional information. 3922.30 Section 3922.30 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) OIL SHALE LEASING...

  10. 43 CFR 3922.30 - Application-Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Application-Additional information. 3922.30 Section 3922.30 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RANGE MANAGEMENT (4000) OIL SHALE LEASING...

  11. 43 CFR 3922.30 - Application-Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Application-Additional information. 3922.30 Section 3922.30 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) OIL SHALE LEASING...

  12. 43 CFR 3922.30 - Application-Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Application-Additional information. 3922.30 Section 3922.30 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) OIL SHALE LEASING...

  13. 46 CFR 535.606 - Requests for additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requests for additional information. 535.606 Section 535.606 Shipping FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION REGULATIONS AFFECTING OCEAN SHIPPING IN FOREIGN COMMERCE OCEAN COMMON CARRIER AND MARINE TERMINAL OPERATOR AGREEMENTS SUBJECT TO THE SHIPPING ACT OF 1984...

  14. Background Information on the Very Long Baseline Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    A continent-wide radio telescope system offering the greatest resolving power of any astronomical instrument operational today Overview: The National Science Foundation's VLBA is a system of ten identical radio-telescope antennas controlled from a common headquarters and working together as a single instrument. The radio signals received by each individual antenna contribute part of the information used to produce images of celestial objects with hundreds of times more detail than Hubble Space Telescope images. Scientific Areas: The VLBA can contribute to any astronomical research area where quality, high-resolution radio images will advance knowledge of the field. In its first five years of full operation, the VLBA has produced dramatic new information in these areas: * Stars: With the VLBA, astronomers have tracked gas motions in the atmosphere of a star other than the Sun for the first time; made the first maps of the magnetic field of a star other than the Sun; and studied the violent dances of double-star pairs in which one of the pair is a superdense neutron star or a black hole. * Protostars, star formation, and protoplanetary disks: The VLBA has provided scientists with some of the best views yet of very young stars and the complex regions in which they are born. VLBA images have shown outflows of gas from young stars and disks of material orbiting these new stars - material that later may form planetary systems. * Supernovae and Supernova Remnants: The VLBA has directly measured the expansion of a shell of exploded debris from the supernova SN 1993J, in the galaxy M81, some 11 million light-years from Earth. This has allowed scientists to learn new details about the explosion itself and its surroundings as well as calculate the distance to the supernova by using the VLBA data in conjunction with information from optical telescopes. VLBA images have shown regions of shocked gas in supernova remnants. * The Milky Way: Radio waves from extragalactic objects

  15. Integrated Land Information System - a relevant step for development of information background for PEEX?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shvidenko, Anatoly; Schepaschenko, Dmitry; Baklanov, Alexander

    2014-05-01

    PEEX, as a long-term multidisciplinary integrated study, needs a systems design of a relevant information background. The idea of development of an Integrated Land Information System (ILIS) for the region as an initial step of future advanced integrated observing systems is considered as a promising way. The ILIS could serve (1) for introduction of a unified system of classification and quantification of environment, ecosystems and landscapes; (2) as a benchmark for tracing the dynamics of land use - land cover and ecosystems parameters, particularly for forests; (3) as a systems background for empirical assessment of indicators of an interest (e.g., components of biogeochemical cycles); (4) comparisons, harmonizing and mutual constraints of the results obtained by different methods; (5) for parameterization of surface fluxes for the 'atmosphere-land' system; (6) for use in divers models and for models' validation; (7) for downscaling of available information to a required scale; (8) for understanding of gradients for up-scaling of "point" data, etc. The ILIS is presented in form of multi-layer and multi-scale GIS that includes a hybrid land cover (HLC) by a definite date and corresponding legends and attributive databases. The HLC is based on relevant combination of a "multi" remote sensing concept that includes sensors of different type and resolution and ground data. The ILIS includes inter alia (1) general geographical and biophysical description of the territory (landscapes, soil, vegetation, hydrology, bioclimatic zones, permafrost etc.); (2) diverse datasets of measurements in situ; (3) sets of empirical and semi-empirical aggregation and auxiliary models, (4) data on different inventories and surveys (forest inventory, land account, results of forest monitoring); (5) spatial and temporal description of anthropogenic and natural disturbances; (5) climatic data with relevant temporal resolution etc. The ILIS should include only the data with known

  16. Censored data treatment using additional information in intelligent medical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zenkova, Z. N.

    2015-11-01

    Statistical procedures are a very important and significant part of modern intelligent medical systems. They are used for proceeding, mining and analysis of different types of the data about patients and their diseases; help to make various decisions, regarding the diagnosis, treatment, medication or surgery, etc. In many cases the data can be censored or incomplete. It is a well-known fact that censorship considerably reduces the efficiency of statistical procedures. In this paper the author makes a brief review of the approaches which allow improvement of the procedures using additional information, and describes a modified estimation of an unknown cumulative distribution function involving additional information about a quantile which is known exactly. The additional information is used by applying a projection of a classical estimator to a set of estimators with certain properties. The Kaplan-Meier estimator is considered as an estimator of the unknown cumulative distribution function, the properties of the modified estimator are investigated for a case of a single right censorship by means of simulations.

  17. SNP Markers as Additional Information to Resolve Complex Kinship Cases

    PubMed Central

    Pontes, M. Lurdes; Fondevila, Manuel; Laréu, Maria Victoria; Medeiros, Rui

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background DNA profiling with sets of highly polymorphic autosomal short tandem repeat (STR) markers has been applied in various aspects of human identification in forensic casework for nearly 20 years. However, in some cases of complex kinship investigation, the information provided by the conventionally used STR markers is not enough, often resulting in low likelihood ratio (LR) calculations. In these cases, it becomes necessary to increment the number of loci under analysis to reach adequate LRs. Recently, it has been proposed that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) could be used as a supportive tool to STR typing, eventually even replacing the methods/markers now employed. Methods In this work, we describe the results obtained in 7 revised complex paternity cases when applying a battery of STRs, as well as 52 human identification SNPs (SNPforID 52plex identification panel) using a SNaPshot methodology followed by capillary electrophoresis. Results Our results show that the analysis of SNPs, as complement to STR typing in forensic casework applications, would at least increase by a factor of 4 total PI values and correspondent Essen-Möller's W value. Conclusions We demonstrated that SNP genotyping could be a key complement to STR information in challenging casework of disputed paternity, such as close relative individualization or complex pedigrees subject to endogamous relations. PMID:26733770

  18. Background risk information to assist in risk management decision making. Environmental Restoration Program

    SciTech Connect

    Hammonds, J.S.; Hoffman, F.O.; White, R.K.; Miller, D.B.

    1992-10-01

    The evaluation of the need for remedial activities at hazardous waste sites requires quantification of risks of adverse health effects to humans and the ecosystem resulting from the presence of chemical and radioactive substances at these sites. The health risks from exposure to these substances are in addition to risks encountered because of the virtually unavoidable exposure to naturally occurring chemicals and radioactive materials that are present in air, water, soil, building materials, and food products. To provide a frame of reference for interpreting risks quantified for hazardous waste sites, it is useful to identify the relative magnitude of risks of both a voluntary and involuntary nature that are ubiquitous throughout east Tennessee. In addition to discussing risks from the ubiquitous presence of background carcinogens in the east Tennessee environment, this report also presents risks resulting from common, everyday activities. Such information should, not be used to discount or trivialize risks from hazardous waste contamination, but rather, to create a sensitivity to general risk issues, thus providing a context for better interpretation of risk information.

  19. Students Seeking Access to Four-Year Institutions: Community College Transfers [Background Information].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Jamillah

    This publication provides background information for a hearing by the California Senate Select Committee on Higher Education and Outreach on December 3, 1997. The Introduction presents the Committee announcement, press release, agenda, information about transfer efforts in California, facts and figures about the community colleges, and the text of…

  20. How to retrieve additional information from the multiplicity distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilk, Grzegorz; Włodarczyk, Zbigniew

    2017-01-01

    Multiplicity distributions (MDs) P(N) measured in multiparticle production processes are most frequently described by the negative binomial distribution (NBD). However, with increasing collision energy some systematic discrepancies have become more and more apparent. They are usually attributed to the possible multi-source structure of the production process and described using a multi-NBD form of the MD. We investigate the possibility of keeping a single NBD but with its parameters depending on the multiplicity N. This is done by modifying the widely known clan model of particle production leading to the NBD form of P(N). This is then confronted with the approach based on the so-called cascade-stochastic formalism which is based on different types of recurrence relations defining P(N). We demonstrate that a combination of both approaches allows the retrieval of additional valuable information from the MDs, namely the oscillatory behavior of the counting statistics apparently visible in the high energy data.

  1. Background Information on Crimes against Children Study. Information Memorandum 86-20.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haas, Shaun

    This document was prepared to assist the Wisconsin Legislative Council's Special Committee on Crimes Against Children in its study of current laws relating to crimes against children. It provides the background of the origin of the study and describes the characteristics of the Criminal Code, upon which much of the committee review will center.…

  2. 31 CFR 26.5 - Upgrades and additional environmental information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., such environmental information from the MDB (e.g., environmental chapters from project feasibility studies or environmental data sheets) which contains this environmental analysis. The MDB Office...

  3. Identification and summary characterization of materials potentially requiring vitrification: Background information

    SciTech Connect

    Croff, A.G.

    1996-05-13

    This document contains background information for the Workshop in general and the presentation entitled `Identification and Summary Characterization of Materials Potentially Requiring Vitrification` that was given during the first morning of the workshop. summary characteristics of 9 categories of US materials having some potential to be vitrified are given. This is followed by a 1-2 page elaborations for each of these 9 categories. References to more detailed information are included.

  4. 10 CFR 1.3 - Sources of additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... fall within an exemption to the Act's openness requirement and the Commission also has determined that... availability of NRC records under the Freedom of Information Act and Privacy Act of 1974 may be obtained...

  5. Technical background information for the environmental and safety report, Volume 4: White Oak Lake and Dam

    SciTech Connect

    Oakes, T.W.; Kelly, B.A.; Ohnesorge, W.F.; Eldridge, J.S.; Bird, J.C.; Shank, K.E.; Tsakeres, F.S.

    1982-03-01

    This report has been prepared to provide background information on White Oak Lake for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Environmental and Safety Report. The paper presents the history of White Oak Dam and Lake and describes the hydrological conditions of the White Oak Creek watershed. Past and present sediment and water data are included; pathway analyses are described in detail.

  6. 29 CFR Appendix A to §§ 1605.2 and... - Background Information

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Background Information A Appendix A to §§ 1605.2 and 1605.3 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY COMMISSION GUIDELINES ON DISCRIMINATION BECAUSE OF RELIGION Selection practices. §§ 1605.2 &1605.3, App. A Appendix A...

  7. E-Mail Writing: Providing Background Information in the Core of Computer Assisted Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nazari, Behzad; Ninknejad, Sahar

    2015-01-01

    The present study highly supported the effective role of providing background information via email by the teacher to write e-mail by the students in learners' writing ability. A total number of 50 EFL advanced male students aged between 25 and 40 at different branches of Iran Language Institute in Tehran, Tehran. Through the placement test of…

  8. Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smalheer, C. V.

    1973-01-01

    The chemistry of lubricant additives is discussed to show what the additives are chemically and what functions they perform in the lubrication of various kinds of equipment. Current theories regarding the mode of action of lubricant additives are presented. The additive groups discussed include the following: (1) detergents and dispersants, (2) corrosion inhibitors, (3) antioxidants, (4) viscosity index improvers, (5) pour point depressants, and (6) antifouling agents.

  9. The effects of spontaneous activity, background noise, and the stimulus ensemble on information transfer in neurons.

    PubMed

    Chacron, Maurice J; Longtin, André; Maler, Leonard

    2003-11-01

    Information theory is playing an increasingly important role in the analysis of neural data as it can precisely quantify the reliability of stimulus-response functions. Estimating the mutual information between a neural spike train and a time varying stimulus is, however, not trivial in practice and requires assumptions about the specific computations being performed by the neuron under study. Consequently, estimates of the mutual information depend on these assumptions and their validity must be ascertained in the particular physiological context in which experiments are carried out. Here we compare results obtained using different information measures that make different assumptions about the neural code (i.e. the way information is being encoded and decoded) and the stimulus ensemble (i.e. the set of stimuli that the animal can encounter in nature). Our comparisons are carried out in the context of spontaneously active neurons. However, some of our results are also applicable to neurons that are not spontaneously active. We first show conditions under which a single stimulus provides a good sample of the entire stimulus ensemble. Furthermore, we use a recently introduced information measure that is based on the spontaneous activity of the neuron rather than on the stimulus ensemble. This measure is compared to the Shannon information and it is shown that the two differ only by a constant. This constant is shown to represent the information that the neuron's spontaneous activity transmits about the fact that no stimulus is present in the animal's environment. As a consequence, the mutual information measure based on spontaneous activity is easily applied to stimuli that mimic those seen in nature, as it does not require a priori knowledge of the stimulus ensemble. Finally, we consider the effect of noise in the animal's environment on information transmission about sensory stimuli. Our results show that, as expected, such 'background' noise will increase the

  10. 77 FR 39573 - Additional Identifying Information Associated With Persons Whose Property and Interests in...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-03

    ... Office of Foreign Assets Control Additional Identifying Information Associated With Persons Whose... Treasury's Office of Foreign Assets Control (``OFAC'') is publishing additional indentifying information... on June 1, 2012. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Assistant Director, Sanctions...

  11. 40 CFR 141.154 - Required additional health information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Hotline (800-426-4791). (b) Ending in the report due by July 1, 2001, a system which detects arsenic at... system that detects arsenic above 0.005 mg/L and up to and including 0.010 mg/L: (1) Must include in its report a short informational statement about arsenic, using language such as: While your drinking...

  12. 40 CFR 141.154 - Required additional health information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Hotline (800-426-4791). (b) Ending in the report due by July 1, 2001, a system which detects arsenic at... system that detects arsenic above 0.005 mg/L and up to and including 0.010 mg/L: (1) Must include in its report a short informational statement about arsenic, using language such as: While your drinking...

  13. 40 CFR 141.154 - Required additional health information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... consultation with the Primacy Agency. (c) A system which detects nitrate at levels above 5 mg/l, but below the MCL: (1) Must include a short informational statement about the impacts of nitrate on children using language such as: Nitrate in drinking water at levels above 10 ppm is a health risk for infants of...

  14. 40 CFR 141.154 - Required additional health information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... consultation with the Primacy Agency. (c) A system which detects nitrate at levels above 5 mg/l, but below the MCL: (1) Must include a short informational statement about the impacts of nitrate on children using language such as: Nitrate in drinking water at levels above 10 ppm is a health risk for infants of...

  15. 40 CFR 141.154 - Required additional health information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... consultation with the Primacy Agency. (c) A system which detects nitrate at levels above 5 mg/l, but below the MCL: (1) Must include a short informational statement about the impacts of nitrate on children using language such as: Nitrate in drinking water at levels above 10 ppm is a health risk for infants of...

  16. 29 CFR Appendix A to §§ 1605.2 and... - Background Information

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Background Information A Appendix A to §§ 1605.2 and 1605... ON DISCRIMINATION BECAUSE OF RELIGION Selection practices. §§ 1605.2 &1605.3, App. A Appendix A to... employees or prospective employees unless to do so would create a “serious inconvenience to the conduct...

  17. Government Collection of Private Information: Background and Issues Related to the USA PATRIOT Act Reauthorization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-12-23

    Issues Related to the USA PATRIOT Act Reauthorization Anna C. Henning, Coordinator Legislative Attorney Elizabeth B. Bazan Legislative Attorney...of Private Information: Background and Issues Related to the USA PATRIOT Act Reauthorization 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM...Congressional Research Service Summary Congress enacted the USA PATRIOT Act soon after the 9/11 terrorist attacks. The most controversial sections of

  18. Government Collection of Private Information: Background and Issues Related to the USA PATRIOT Act Reauthorization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-02

    Issues Related to the USA PATRIOT Act Reauthorization Anna C. Henning, Coordinator Legislative Attorney Elizabeth B. Bazan Legislative Attorney...Information: Background and Issues Related to the USA PATRIOT Act Reauthorization 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6...Service Summary Congress enacted the USA PATRIOT Act soon after the 9/11 terrorist attacks. The most controversial sections of the act facilitate

  19. Government Collection of Private Information: Background and Issues Related to the USA PATRIOT Act Reauthorization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-12-09

    Issues Related to the USA PATRIOT Act Reauthorization Anna C. Henning, Coordinator Legislative Attorney Elizabeth B. Bazan Legislative Attorney...Information: Background and Issues Related to the USA PATRIOT Act Reauthorization 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6...Research Service Summary Congress enacted the USA PATRIOT Act soon after the 9/11 terrorist attacks. The most controversial sections of the Act

  20. 78 FR 77119 - Proposed Information Collection Request; Comment Request; Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-20

    ... AGENCY Proposed Information Collection Request; Comment Request; Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives: 2011 Renewable Fuel Standards-- Petition for International Aggregate Compliance Approach AGENCY... to submit an information collection request (ICR), ``Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives:...

  1. 30 CFR 75.1200-1 - Additional information on mine map.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Additional information on mine map. 75.1200-1... SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Maps § 75.1200-1 Additional information on mine map. Additional information required to be shown on mine maps under § 75.1200...

  2. 30 CFR 75.1200-1 - Additional information on mine map.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Additional information on mine map. 75.1200-1... SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Maps § 75.1200-1 Additional information on mine map. Additional information required to be shown on mine maps under § 75.1200...

  3. A Neural Mechanism for Background Information-Gated Learning Based on Axonal-Dendritic Overlaps

    PubMed Central

    Mainetti, Matteo; Ascoli, Giorgio A.

    2015-01-01

    Experiencing certain events triggers the acquisition of new memories. Although necessary, however, actual experience is not sufficient for memory formation. One-trial learning is also gated by knowledge of appropriate background information to make sense of the experienced occurrence. Strong neurobiological evidence suggests that long-term memory storage involves formation of new synapses. On the short time scale, this form of structural plasticity requires that the axon of the pre-synaptic neuron be physically proximal to the dendrite of the post-synaptic neuron. We surmise that such “axonal-dendritic overlap” (ADO) constitutes the neural correlate of background information-gated (BIG) learning. The hypothesis is based on a fundamental neuroanatomical constraint: an axon must pass close to the dendrites that are near other neurons it contacts. The topographic organization of the mammalian cortex ensures that nearby neurons encode related information. Using neural network simulations, we demonstrate that ADO is a suitable mechanism for BIG learning. We model knowledge as associations between terms, concepts or indivisible units of thought via directed graphs. The simplest instantiation encodes each concept by single neurons. Results are then generalized to cell assemblies. The proposed mechanism results in learning real associations better than spurious co-occurrences, providing definitive cognitive advantages. PMID:25767887

  4. Background Information for the Nevada National Security Site Integrated Sampling Plan, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    Farnham, Irene; Marutzky, Sam

    2014-12-01

    This document describes the process followed to develop the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) Integrated Sampling Plan (referred to herein as the Plan). It provides the Plan’s purpose and objectives, and briefly describes the Underground Test Area (UGTA) Activity, including the conceptual model and regulatory requirements as they pertain to groundwater sampling. Background information on other NNSS groundwater monitoring programs—the Routine Radiological Environmental Monitoring Plan (RREMP) and Community Environmental Monitoring Program (CEMP)—and their integration with the Plan are presented. Descriptions of the evaluations, comments, and responses of two Sampling Plan topical committees are also included.

  5. Background Languages, Learner Motivation and Self-Assessed Progress in Learning Zulu as an Additional Language in the UK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marten, Lutz; Mostert, Carola

    2012-01-01

    The article reports results of a study of beginner-level learners of Zulu in higher education in the UK, focussing on learners' linguistic background, their motivation and reasons for studying Zulu, and their self-assessed progress at the beginning of the second term of teaching. The study shows that participants typically studied Zulu as an…

  6. Information geometry with correlated data: Bayesian explorations of cosmological predictions for the microwave background radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinn, Katherine; de Bernardis, Francesco; Niemack, Michael; Sethna, James

    We developed a new, generalized fitting algorithm for miltiparameter models which incorporates varying and correlated errors. This was combined with geometrical methods of sampling to explore model prediction space, notably to plot geodesics and determine the size and edges of the model manifold. We illustrate this using the microwave background spectra for all possible universes, as described by the standard Λ-cold dark matter (Λ-CDM) cosmological model. In this case, the predicted data are fluctuations and highly correlated with varying errors, resulting in a manifold with a varying metric (as the natural metric to use is given by the Fisher information matrix). Furthermore, the model manifold shares the hyperribbon structure seen in other models, with the edges forming a strongly distorted image of a hypercube. Practical applications of such an analysis include optimizing experimental instrumentation designed to test more detailed cosmological theories. Funding supported in part by NSERC.

  7. 49 CFR 260.25 - Additional information for Applicants not having a credit rating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... prospective traffic base; (3) System-wide plans to maintain equipment and rights-of-way at current or improved... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Additional information for Applicants not having a... Financial Assistance § 260.25 Additional information for Applicants not having a credit rating....

  8. 49 CFR 260.25 - Additional information for Applicants not having a credit rating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... prospective traffic base; (3) System-wide plans to maintain equipment and rights-of-way at current or improved... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Additional information for Applicants not having a... Financial Assistance § 260.25 Additional information for Applicants not having a credit rating....

  9. 16 CFR 2.20 - Petitions for review of requests for additional information or documentary material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... additional information or documentary material. 2.20 Section 2.20 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE... material, or recommend such modification to the responsible Assistant Director of the Bureau of Competition... investigation. A request for additional information or documentary material may be modified only in...

  10. 47 CFR 25.111 - Additional information and ITU cost recovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Additional information and ITU cost recovery....111 Additional information and ITU cost recovery. (a) The Commission may request from any party at any... interference caused by radio stations authorized by other Administrations is guaranteed unless ITU...

  11. 49 CFR 260.25 - Additional information for Applicants not having a credit rating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Additional information for Applicants not having a... Financial Assistance § 260.25 Additional information for Applicants not having a credit rating. Each application submitted by Applicants not having a recent credit rating from one or more nationally...

  12. Activation energy associated with the electromigration of oligosaccharides through viscosity modifier and polymeric additive containing background electrolytes.

    PubMed

    Kerékgyártó, Márta; Járvás, Gábor; Novák, Levente; Guttman, András

    2016-02-01

    The activation energy related to the electromigration of oligosaccharides can be determined from their measured electrophoretic mobilities at different temperatures. The effects of a viscosity modifier (ethylene glycol) and a polymeric additive (linear polyacrylamide) on the electrophoretic mobility of linear sugar oligomers with α1-4 linked glucose units (maltooligosaccharides) were studied in CE using the activation energy concept. The electrophoretic separations of 8-aminopyrene-1,3,6-trisulfonate-labeled maltooligosaccharides were monitored by LIF detection in the temperature range of 20-50°C, using either 0-60% ethylene glycol (viscosity modifier) or 0-3% linear polyacrylamide (polymeric additive) containing BGEs. Activation energy curves were constructed based on the slopes of the Arrhenius plots. With the use of linear polyacrylamide additive, solute size-dependent activation energy variations were found for the maltooligosaccharides with polymerization degrees below and above maltoheptaose (DP 7), probably due to molecular conformation changes and possible matrix interaction effects.

  13. The Cryogenic Dark Matter Search and Background Rejection with Event Position Information

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Gensheng

    2005-01-01

    Evidence from observational cosmology and astrophysics indicates that about one third of the universe is matter, but that the known baryonic matter only contributes to the universe at 4%. A large fraction of the universe is cold and non-baryonic matter, which has important role in the universe structure formation and its evolution. The leading candidate for the non-baryonic dark matter is Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs), which naturally occurs in the supersymmetry theory in particle physics. The Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS) experiment is searching for evidence of a WIMP interaction off an atomic nucleus in crystals of Ge and Si by measuring simultaneously the phonon energy and ionization energy of the interaction in the CDMS detectors. The WIMP interaction energy is from a few keV to tens of keV with a rate less than 0.1 events/kg/day. To reach the goal of WIMP detection, the CDMS experiment has been conducted in the Soudan mine with an active muon veto and multistage passive background shields. The CDMS detectors have a low energy threshold and background rejection capabilities based on ionization yield. However, betas from contamination and other radioactive sources produce surface interactions, which have low ionization yield, comparable to that of bulk nuclear interactions. The low-ionization surface electron recoils must be removed in the WIMP search data analysis. An emphasis of this thesis is on developing the method of the surface-interaction rejection using location information of the interactions, phonon energy distributions and phonon timing parameters. The result of the CDMS Soudan run118 92.3 live day WIMP search data analysis is presented, and represents the most sensitive search yet performed.

  14. 33 CFR 148.107 - What additional information may be required?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... What additional information may be required? (a) The Commandant (CG-5), in coordination with MARAD, may... analysis, explanation, or other information he or she deems necessary. (b) The Commandant (CG-5) may... (CG-5) may set a deadline for receiving the information. (1) If the applicant states that the...

  15. 33 CFR 148.107 - What additional information may be required?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... What additional information may be required? (a) The Commandant (CG-5), in coordination with MARAD, may... analysis, explanation, or other information he or she deems necessary. (b) The Commandant (CG-5) may... (CG-5) may set a deadline for receiving the information. (1) If the applicant states that the...

  16. 75 FR 77645 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Color Additive...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-13

    ... Collection; Comment Request; Color Additive Certification Requests and Recordkeeping AGENCY: Food and Drug... certification of color additives manufactured for use in foods, drugs, cosmetics or medical devices in the... of information technology. Color Additive Certification Requests and Recordkeeping--21 CFR Part...

  17. Thin-shell bubbles and information loss problem in anti de Sitter background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasaki, Misao; Yeom, Dong-han

    2014-12-01

    We study the motion of thin-shell bubbles and their tunneling in anti de Sitter (AdS) background. We are interested in the case when the outside of a shell is a Schwarzschild-AdS space (false vacuum) and the inside of it is an AdS space with a lower vacuum energy (true vacuum). If a collapsing true vacuum bubble is created, classically it will form a Schwarzschild-AdS black hole. However, this collapsing bubble can tunnel to a bouncing bubble that moves out to spatial infinity. Then, although the classical causal structure of a collapsing true vacuum bubble has the singularity and the event horizon, quantum mechanically the wavefunction has support for a history without any singularity nor event horizon which is mediated by the non-perturbative, quantum tunneling effect. This may be regarded an explicit example that shows the unitarity of an asymptotic observer in AdS, while a classical observer who only follows the most probable history effectively lose information due to the formation of an event horizon.

  18. Internal combustion engines for alcohol motor fuels: a compilation of background technical information

    SciTech Connect

    Blaser, Richard

    1980-11-01

    This compilation, a draft training manual containing technical background information on internal combustion engines and alcohol motor fuel technologies, is presented in 3 parts. The first is a compilation of facts from the state of the art on internal combustion engine fuels and their characteristics and requisites and provides an overview of fuel sources, fuels technology and future projections for availability and alternatives. Part two compiles facts about alcohol chemistry, alcohol identification, production, and use, examines ethanol as spirit and as fuel, and provides an overview of modern evaluation of alcohols as motor fuels and of the characteristics of alcohol fuels. The final section compiles cross references on the handling and combustion of fuels for I.C. engines, presents basic evaluations of events leading to the use of alcohols as motor fuels, reviews current applications of alcohols as motor fuels, describes the formulation of alcohol fuels for engines and engine and fuel handling hardware modifications for using alcohol fuels, and introduces the multifuel engines concept. (LCL)

  19. 78 FR 52803 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; Additional...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-26

    ... OMB under the PRA and displays a currently valid OMB Control Number. In addition, notwithstanding any... collection of information that does not display a valid Control Number. See 5 CFR 1320.5(a) and 1320.6. The DOL obtains OMB approval for this information collection under Control Number 1218-0237....

  20. 77 FR 21992 - Proposed Renewal of Information Collection: Applicant Background Survey

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-12

    ... backgrounds, cultures, and experiences. A diverse workforce enables the DOI to provide a measure of... organizational group. The records of those applicants not selected are destroyed in accordance with DOI's...

  1. 76 FR 69287 - National Instant Criminal Background Check System Section Agency Information Collection...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-08

    ...) Brochure ACTION: 60-Day Notice of Information Collection Under Review. The Department of Justice (DOJ) FBI... Sherry L. Kuneff, Management and Program Analyst, FBI, Criminal Justice Information Services Division... Information Services (CJIS) Division of the FBI, Department of Justice (DOJ). (4) Affected Public who will...

  2. "The Dose Makes the Poison": Informing Consumers About the Scientific Risk Assessment of Food Additives.

    PubMed

    Bearth, Angela; Cousin, Marie-Eve; Siegrist, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Intensive risk assessment is required before the approval of food additives. During this process, based on the toxicological principle of "the dose makes the poison,ˮ maximum usage doses are assessed. However, most consumers are not aware of these efforts to ensure the safety of food additives and are therefore sceptical, even though food additives bring certain benefits to consumers. This study investigated the effect of a short video, which explains the scientific risk assessment and regulation of food additives, on consumers' perceptions and acceptance of food additives. The primary goal of this study was to inform consumers and enable them to construct their own risk-benefit assessment and make informed decisions about food additives. The secondary goal was to investigate whether people have different perceptions of food additives of artificial (i.e., aspartame) or natural origin (i.e., steviolglycoside). To attain these research goals, an online experiment was conducted on 185 Swiss consumers. Participants were randomly assigned to either the experimental group, which was shown a video about the scientific risk assessment of food additives, or the control group, which was shown a video about a topic irrelevant to the study. After watching the video, the respondents knew significantly more, expressed more positive thoughts and feelings, had less risk perception, and more acceptance than prior to watching the video. Thus, it appears that informing consumers about complex food safety topics, such as the scientific risk assessment of food additives, is possible, and using a carefully developed information video is a successful strategy for informing consumers.

  3. An Internet compendium of analytical methods and spectroscopic information for monomers and additives used in food packaging plastics.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, J; Simoneau, C; Cote, D; Boenke, A

    2000-10-01

    An internet website (http:¿cpf.jrc.it/smt/) has been produced as a means of dissemination of methods of analysis and supporting spectroscopic information on monomers and additives used for food contact materials (principally packaging). The site which is aimed primarily at assisting food control laboratories in the European Union contains analytical information on monomers, starting substances and additives used in the manufacture of plastics materials. A searchable index is provided giving PM and CAS numbers for each of 255 substances. For each substance a data sheet gives regulatory information, chemical structures, physico-chemical information and background information on the use of the substance in particular plastics, and the food packaging applications. For monomers and starting substances (155 compounds) the infra-red and mass spectra are provided, and for additives (100 compounds); additionally proton NMR are available for about 50% of the entries. Where analytical methods have been developed for determining these substances as residual amounts in plastics or as trace amounts in food simulants these methods are also on the website. All information is provided in portable document file (PDF) format which means that high quality copies can be readily printed, using freely available Adobe Acrobat Reader software. The website will in future be maintained and up-dated by the European Commission's Joint Research Centre (JRC) as new substances are authorized for use by the European Commission (DG-ENTR formerly DGIII). Where analytical laboratories (food control or other) require reference substances these can be obtained free-of-charge from a reference collection housed at the JRC and maintained in conjunction with this website compendium.

  4. Making background work visible: opportunities to address patient information needs in the hospital

    PubMed Central

    Kendall, Logan; Mishra, Sonali R.; Pollack, Ari; Aaronson, Barry; Pratt, Wanda

    2015-01-01

    Despite growing use of patient-facing technologies such as patient portals to address information needs for outpatients, we understand little about how patients manage information and use information technologies in an inpatient context. Based on hospital observations and responses to an online questionnaire from previously hospitalized patients and caregivers, we describe information workspace that patients have available to them in the hospital and the information items that patients and caregivers rate as important and difficult to access or manage while hospitalized. We found that patients and caregivers desired information—such as the plan of care and the schedule of activities—that is difficult to access as needed in a hospital setting. Within this study, we describe the various tools and approaches that patients and caregivers use to help monitor their care as well as illuminate gaps in information needs not typically captured by traditional patient portals. PMID:26958295

  5. 77 FR 10508 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Background Checks...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-22

    ... for Contractor Employees (Renewal) AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY....regulations.gov . Title: Background Checks for Contractor Employees. ICR numbers: EPA ICR No. 2159.05, OMB... EPA uses contractors to perform services throughout the nation with regard to...

  6. 76 FR 67182 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Background Checks...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-31

    ... AGENCY EPA-HQ-OARM-2011-0803, EPA-HQ-OARM-2-11-0804; FRL-9484-8] Agency Information Collection Activities... for Contract Employees (Renewal) AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice... announces that EPA is planning to submit a request to renew two existing ] approved Information...

  7. Background for Builders--Related Science and Trade Information for the Building Trades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucas, Joseph

    Primarily intended for instructors but also useful to students, this guide provides a set of lessons (interlaced with humorous phrases and cartoons) for teaching fundamental information for the building trades. Each lesson contains objectives, related information, and a review or summary. Unit I is a brief, humorous message to the student on the…

  8. 77 FR 31017 - Office of Facilities Management and Program Services; Information Collection; Background...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-24

    ... a Basic National Agency Check Criminal History, GSA Form 176; and 2. Two sets of fingerprints on FBI Fingerprint Cards, for FD-258. This is not a request to collect new information, this is a request to...

  9. 24 CFR 1710.200 - Instructions for Statement of Record, Additional Information and Documentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Instructions for Statement of Record, Additional Information and Documentation. 1710.200 Section 1710.200 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR...

  10. 10 CFR 52.158 - Contents of application; additional technical information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Contents of application; additional technical information. 52.158 Section 52.158 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Manufacturing Licenses § 52.158 Contents of application;...

  11. 10 CFR 52.158 - Contents of application; additional technical information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Contents of application; additional technical information. 52.158 Section 52.158 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Manufacturing Licenses § 52.158 Contents of application;...

  12. 10 CFR 52.158 - Contents of application; additional technical information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Contents of application; additional technical information. 52.158 Section 52.158 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Manufacturing Licenses § 52.158 Contents of application;...

  13. 10 CFR 52.158 - Contents of application; additional technical information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Contents of application; additional technical information. 52.158 Section 52.158 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Manufacturing Licenses § 52.158 Contents of application;...

  14. 10 CFR 52.158 - Contents of application; additional technical information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Contents of application; additional technical information. 52.158 Section 52.158 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Manufacturing Licenses § 52.158 Contents of application;...

  15. 16 CFR 803.20 - Requests for additional information or documentary material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Requests for additional information or documentary material. 803.20 Section 803.20 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION RULES, REGULATIONS, STATEMENTS AND INTERPRETATIONS UNDER THE HART-SCOTT-RODINO ANTITRUST IMPROVEMENTS ACT OF 1976...

  16. 16 CFR 803.20 - Requests for additional information or documentary material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Requests for additional information or documentary material. 803.20 Section 803.20 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION RULES, REGULATIONS, STATEMENTS AND INTERPRETATIONS UNDER THE HART-SCOTT-RODINO ANTITRUST IMPROVEMENTS ACT OF 1976...

  17. 16 CFR 803.20 - Requests for additional information or documentary material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Requests for additional information or documentary material. 803.20 Section 803.20 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION RULES, REGULATIONS, STATEMENTS AND INTERPRETATIONS UNDER THE HART-SCOTT-RODINO ANTITRUST IMPROVEMENTS ACT OF 1976...

  18. 16 CFR 803.21 - Additional information shall be supplied within reasonable time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Additional information shall be supplied within reasonable time. 803.21 Section 803.21 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION RULES, REGULATIONS, STATEMENTS AND INTERPRETATIONS UNDER THE HART-SCOTT-RODINO ANTITRUST IMPROVEMENTS ACT OF...

  19. 16 CFR 803.21 - Additional information shall be supplied within reasonable time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Additional information shall be supplied within reasonable time. 803.21 Section 803.21 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION RULES, REGULATIONS, STATEMENTS AND INTERPRETATIONS UNDER THE HART-SCOTT-RODINO ANTITRUST IMPROVEMENTS ACT OF...

  20. 16 CFR 803.21 - Additional information shall be supplied within reasonable time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Additional information shall be supplied within reasonable time. 803.21 Section 803.21 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION RULES, REGULATIONS, STATEMENTS AND INTERPRETATIONS UNDER THE HART-SCOTT-RODINO ANTITRUST IMPROVEMENTS ACT OF...

  1. 16 CFR 803.21 - Additional information shall be supplied within reasonable time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Additional information shall be supplied within reasonable time. 803.21 Section 803.21 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION RULES, REGULATIONS, STATEMENTS AND INTERPRETATIONS UNDER THE HART-SCOTT-RODINO ANTITRUST IMPROVEMENTS ACT OF...

  2. 16 CFR 803.21 - Additional information shall be supplied within reasonable time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Additional information shall be supplied within reasonable time. 803.21 Section 803.21 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION RULES, REGULATIONS, STATEMENTS AND INTERPRETATIONS UNDER THE HART-SCOTT-RODINO ANTITRUST IMPROVEMENTS ACT OF...

  3. 16 CFR 803.20 - Requests for additional information or documentary material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Requests for additional information or documentary material. 803.20 Section 803.20 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION RULES, REGULATIONS, STATEMENTS AND INTERPRETATIONS UNDER THE HART-SCOTT-RODINO ANTITRUST IMPROVEMENTS ACT OF 1976...

  4. 18 CFR 33.3 - Additional information requirements for applications involving horizontal competitive impacts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Additional information... and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE... reserve existing transmission capacity needed for native load growth and network transmission...

  5. 18 CFR 33.3 - Additional information requirements for applications involving horizontal competitive impacts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Additional information... and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE... reserve existing transmission capacity needed for native load growth and network transmission...

  6. 18 CFR 33.3 - Additional information requirements for applications involving horizontal competitive impacts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Additional information... and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE... reserve existing transmission capacity needed for native load growth and network transmission...

  7. 40 CFR Table 42 to Subpart Uuu of... - Additional Information for Initial Notification of Compliance Status

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Additional Information for Initial Notification of Compliance Status 42 Table 42 to Subpart UUU of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... applicable emission limit and the continuous opacity or that the emission monitoring system meets...

  8. 17 CFR 229.1118 - (Item 1118) Reports and additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false (Item 1118) Reports and additional information. 229.1118 Section 229.1118 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION STANDARD INSTRUCTIONS FOR FILING FORMS UNDER SECURITIES ACT OF 1933, SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT...

  9. 17 CFR 229.1118 - (Item 1118) Reports and additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false (Item 1118) Reports and additional information. 229.1118 Section 229.1118 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION STANDARD INSTRUCTIONS FOR FILING FORMS UNDER SECURITIES ACT OF 1933, SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT...

  10. 38 CFR 39.4 - Decision makers, notifications, and additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Decision makers, notifications, and additional information. 39.4 Section 39.4 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) AID TO STATES FOR ESTABLISHMENT, EXPANSION, AND IMPROVEMENT,...

  11. 38 CFR 39.4 - Decision makers, notifications, and additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Decision makers, notifications, and additional information. 39.4 Section 39.4 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) AID FOR THE ESTABLISHMENT, EXPANSION, AND IMPROVEMENT, OR...

  12. 38 CFR 39.4 - Decision makers, notifications, and additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Decision makers, notifications, and additional information. 39.4 Section 39.4 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) AID FOR THE ESTABLISHMENT, EXPANSION, AND IMPROVEMENT, OR...

  13. 38 CFR 39.4 - Decision makers, notifications, and additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Decision makers, notifications, and additional information. 39.4 Section 39.4 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) AID FOR THE ESTABLISHMENT, EXPANSION, AND IMPROVEMENT, OR...

  14. 30 CFR 250.418 - What additional information must I submit with my APD?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Drilling Operations Applying for A Permit to Drill § 250.418 What additional information must I submit with my APD? You must include the following with the APD: (a) Rated capacities of the drilling...

  15. 30 CFR 250.418 - What additional information must I submit with my APD?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Drilling Operations Applying for A Permit to Drill § 250.418 What additional information must I submit with my APD? You must include the following with the APD: (a) Rated capacities of the drilling...

  16. 30 CFR 250.418 - What additional information must I submit with my APD?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Drilling Operations Applying for A Permit to Drill § 250.418 What additional information must I submit with my APD? You must include the following with the APD: (a) Rated capacities of the drilling...

  17. 30 CFR 250.418 - What additional information must I submit with my APD?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Drilling Operations Applying for A Permit to Drill § 250.418 What additional information must I submit with my APD? You must include the following with the APD: (a) Rated capacities of the drilling rig and...

  18. 38 CFR 61.15 - Capital grants-obtaining additional information and awarding capital grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Capital grants-obtaining additional information and awarding capital grants. 61.15 Section 61.15 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) VA HOMELESS PROVIDERS GRANT AND PER DIEM...

  19. 38 CFR 61.15 - Obtaining additional information and awarding capital grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Obtaining additional information and awarding capital grants. 61.15 Section 61.15 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) VA HOMELESS PROVIDERS GRANT AND PER DIEM PROGRAM § 61.15...

  20. 38 CFR 61.15 - Obtaining additional information and awarding capital grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Obtaining additional information and awarding capital grants. 61.15 Section 61.15 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) VA HOMELESS PROVIDERS GRANT AND PER DIEM PROGRAM § 61.15...

  1. 38 CFR 61.15 - Capital grants-obtaining additional information and awarding capital grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Capital grants-obtaining additional information and awarding capital grants. 61.15 Section 61.15 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) VA HOMELESS PROVIDERS GRANT AND PER DIEM...

  2. 18 CFR 33.4 - Additional information requirements for applications involving vertical competitive impacts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Additional information... and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE... entities that provides inputs to electricity products and one or more merging entities that...

  3. 18 CFR 33.4 - Additional information requirements for applications involving vertical competitive impacts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Additional information... and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE... entities that provides inputs to electricity products and one or more merging entities that...

  4. 18 CFR 33.4 - Additional information requirements for applications involving vertical competitive impacts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Additional information... and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE... entities that provides inputs to electricity products and one or more merging entities that...

  5. 77 FR 41999 - Proposed Renewal of Information Collection: OMB Control Number 1091-0001, Applicant Background...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-17

    ..., Office of Management and Budget, Attention: Department of the Interior Desk Officer (1091-0001). Also... reporting and record keeping burden: Average reporting burden per application: 1 minute. Total annual... automated collection techniques or other forms of information technology. Burden means the total...

  6. Traceability information carriers. The technology backgrounds and consumers' perceptions of the technological solutions.

    PubMed

    Chrysochou, Polymeros; Chryssochoidis, George; Kehagia, Olga

    2009-12-01

    The implementation of traceability in the food supply chain has reinforced adoption of technologies with the ability to track forward and trace back product-related information. Based on the premise that these technologies can be used as a means to provide product-related information to consumers, this paper explores the perceived benefits and drawbacks of such technologies. The aim is to identify factors that influence consumers' perceptions of such technologies, and furthermore to advise the agri-food business on issues that they should consider prior to the implementation of such technologies in their production lines. For the purposes of the study, a focus group study was conducted across 12 European countries, while a set of four different technologies used as a means to provide traceability information to consumers was the focal point of the discussions in each focus group. Results show that the amount of and confidence in the information provided, perceived levels of convenience, impact on product quality and safety, impact on consumers' health and the environment, and potential consequences on ethical and privacy liberties constitute important factors influencing consumers' perceptions of technologies that provide traceability.

  7. Financial Information Source, Knowledge, and Practices of College Students from Diverse Backgrounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mimura, Yoko; Koonce, Joan; Plunkett, Scott W.; Pleskus, Lindsey

    2015-01-01

    Using cross-sectional data, we examined the financial information sources, financial knowledge, and financial practices of young adults, many of whom are first generation college students, ethnic minorities, and immigrants or children of immigrants. Participants (n = 1,249) were undergraduate students at a large regional comprehensive university.…

  8. Are racial differences in patient-physician cancer communication and information explained by background, predisposing, and enabling factors?

    PubMed Central

    Manfredi, Clara; Kaiser, Karen; Matthews, Alicia K.; Johnson, Timothy P.

    2009-01-01

    Research shows that African Americans tend to have poorer and less informative patient-physician communication than Whites. We analyzed survey data from 248 African American and 244 White cancer patients to examine whether this disadvantage could be explained by race variability on several other variables commonly reported to affect communication. These variables were organized into background, enabling, and predisposing factors, based on the Precede-Proceed Model. Multivariate regressions were used to test whether race differences on communication and information variables persisted after successively controlling for background, enabling and predisposing factors. African American patients had higher interpersonal communication barriers than Whites, but this difference did not persist after controlling for background factors. African Americans also had higher unmet information needs and were less likely to receive the name of a cancer expert. These differences persisted controlling for all other factors. Future research should focus on the informational disadvantages of African American patients and how such disadvantages may affect cancer treatment decisions. PMID:20432108

  9. Accident Generated Particulate Materials and Their Characteristics -- A Review of Background Information

    SciTech Connect

    Sutter, S. L.

    1982-05-01

    Safety assessments and environmental impact statements for nuclear fuel cycle facilities require an estimate of the amount of radioactive particulate material initially airborne (source term) during accidents. Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has surveyed the literature, gathering information on the amount and size of these particles that has been developed from limited experimental work, measurements made from operational accidents, and known aerosol behavior. Information useful for calculating both liquid and powder source terms is compiled in this report. Potential aerosol generating events discussed are spills, resuspension, aerodynamic entrainment, explosions and pressurized releases, comminution, and airborne chemical reactions. A discussion of liquid behavior in sprays, sparging, evaporation, and condensation as applied to accident situations is also included.

  10. On unitary evolution of a massless scalar field in a Schwarzschild background: Hawking radiation and the information paradox

    SciTech Connect

    Melnikov, Kirill

    2002-08-08

    We develop a Hamiltonian formalism which can be used to discuss the physics of a massless scalar field in a gravitational background of a Schwarzschild black hole. Using this formalism we show that the time evolution of the system is unitary and yet all known results such as the existence of Hawking radiation can be readily understood. We then point out that the Hamiltonian formalism leads to interesting observations about black hole entropy and the information paradox.

  11. Information processes in visual and object buffers of scene understanding system for reliable target detection, separation from background, and identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuvich, Gary

    2006-05-01

    Modern target recognition systems suffer from the lack of human-like abilities to understand the visual scene, detect, unambiguously identify and recognize objects. As result, the target recognition systems become dysfunctional if target doesn't demonstrate remarkably distinctive and contrast features that allow for unambiguous separation from background and identification upon such features. This is somewhat similar to visual systems of primitive animals like frogs, which can separate and recognize only moving objects. However, human vision unambiguously separates any object from its background. Human vision combines a rough but wide peripheral, and narrow but precise foveal systems with visual intelligence that utilize both scene and object contexts and resolve ambiguity and uncertainty in the visual information. Perceptual grouping is one of the most important processes in human vision, and it binds visual information into meaningful patterns and structures. Unlike the traditional computer vision models, biologically-inspired Network-Symbolic models convert image information into an "understandable" Network-Symbolic format, which is similar to relational knowledge models. The equivalent of interaction between peripheral and foveal systems in the network-symbolic system is achieved via interaction between Visual and Object Buffers and the top-level system of Visual Intelligence. This interaction provides recursive rough context identification of regions of interest in the visual scene and their analysis in the object buffer for precise and unambiguous separation of the object from background/clutter with following recognition of the target.

  12. Website Use and Effects of Online Information About Tobacco Additives Among the Dutch General Population: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Crutzen, Rik; Kienhuis, Anne S; Talhout, Reinskje; de Vries, Hein

    2017-01-01

    Background As a legal obligation, the Dutch government publishes online information about tobacco additives to make sure that it is publicly available. Little is known about the influence this website (”tabakinfo”) has on visitors and how the website is evaluated by them. Objective This study assesses how visitors use the website and its effect on their knowledge, risk perception, attitude, and smoking behavior. The study will also assess how the website is evaluated by visitors using a sample of the Dutch general population, including smokers and nonsmokers. Methods A randomized controlled trial was conducted, recruiting participants from an online panel. At baseline, participants (N=672) were asked to fill out an online questionnaire about tobacco additives. Next, participants were randomly allocated to either one of two experimental groups and invited to visit the website providing information about tobacco additives (either with or without a database containing product-specific information) or to a control group that had no access to the website. After 3 months, follow-up measurements took place. Results At follow-up (n=492), no statistically significant differences were found for knowledge, risk perception, attitude, or smoking behavior between the intervention and control groups. Website visits were positively related to younger participants (B=–0.07, 95% CI –0.12 to –0.01; t11=–2.43, P=.02) and having a low risk perception toward tobacco additives (B=–0.32, 95% CI –0.63 to –0.02; t11=–2.07, P=.04). In comparison, having a lower education (B=–0.67, 95% CI –1.14 to –0.17; t11=–2.65, P=.01) was a significant predictor for making less use of the website. Furthermore, the website was evaluated less positively by smokers compared to nonsmokers (t324=–3.55, P<.001), and males compared to females (t324=–2.21, P=.02). Conclusions The website did not change perceptions of tobacco additives or smoking behavior. Further research is

  13. Surveys for presence of Oregon spotted frog (Rana pretiosa): background information and field methods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pearl, Christopher A.; Clayton, David; Turner, Lauri

    2010-01-01

    The Oregon spotted frog (Rana pretiosa) is the most aquatic of the native frogs in the Pacific Northwest. The common name derives from the pattern of black, ragged-edged spots set against a brown or red ground color on the dorsum of adult frogs. Oregon spotted frogs are generally associated with wetland complexes that have several aquatic habitat types and sizeable coverage of emergent vegetation. Like other ranid frogs native to the Northwest, Oregon spotted frogs breed in spring, larvae transform in summer of their breeding year, and adults tend to be relatively short lived (3-5 yrs). Each life stage (egg, tadpole, juvenile and adult) has characteristics that present challenges for detection. Breeding can be explosive and completed within 1-2 weeks. Egg masses are laid in aggregations, often in a few locations in large areas of potential habitat. Egg masses can develop, hatch, and disintegrate in <2 weeks during warm weather. Tadpoles can be difficult to identify, have low survival, and spend most of their 3-4 months hidden in vegetation or flocculant substrates. Juveniles and adults are often difficult to capture and can spend summers away from breeding areas. Moreover, a substantial portion of extant populations are of limited size (<100 breeding adults), and field densities of all life stages are often low. An understanding of the biology of the species and use of multiple visits are thus important for assessing presence of Oregon spotted frogs. This report is meant to be a resource for USDA Region 6 Forest Service (FS) and OR/WA Bureau of Land Management (BLM) personnel tasked with surveying for the presence of Oregon spotted frogs. Our objective was to summarize information to improve the efficiency of field surveys and increase chances of detection if frogs are present. We include overviews of historical and extant ranges of Oregon spotted frog. We briefly summarize what is known of Oregon spotted frog habitat associations and review aspects of behavior and

  14. Corrective Action Site 02-37-02 Background Information and Comparison to Corrective Action Site 09-99-06

    SciTech Connect

    2012-06-26

    Corrective Action Site (CAS) 02-37-02, Gas Sampling Assembly, is associated with nuclear test MULLET. MULLET was an underground safety test conducted on October 17, 1963. The experiment also involved prompt sampling of particulate material from the detonation, similar to CAS 09-99-06, Gas Sampling Assembly, which is associated with PLAYER/YORK. The sampling system at MULLET was similar to that of PLAYER/YORK and was used to convey gas from the MULLET emplacement hole (U2ag) to a sampling assembly. Beyond the sampling assembly, the system had a 'Y' junction with one branch running to a filter unit and the other running to a scrubber unit. The total system length was approximately 250 feet and is depicted on the attached drawing. According to the available background information, retrieval of the sample material from the MULLET event caused significant alpha (plutonium) contamination, limited to an area near ground zero (GZ). Test support Radiological Control Technicians did not detect contamination outside the immediate GZ area. In addition, vehicles, equipment, and workers that were contaminated were decontaminated on site. Soil contamination was addressed through the application of oil, and the site was decommissioned after the test. Any equipment that could be successfully decontaminated and had a future use was removed from the site. The contaminated equipment and temporary buildings erected to support the test were buried on site, most likely in the area under the dirt berm. The exact location of the buried equipment and temporary buildings is unknown. No information was found describing the disposition of the filter and scrubber, but they are not known to be at the site. The COMMODORE test was conducted at U2am on May 20, 1967, and formed the crater next to CAS 02-37-02. The COMMODORE test area had been surveyed prior to the test, and alpha contamination was not identified. Furthermore, alpha contamination was not identified during the COMMODORE re

  15. PAT-1 safety analysis report addendum author responses to request for additional information.

    SciTech Connect

    Weiner, Ruth F.; Schmale, David T.; Kalan, Robert J.; Akin, Lili A.; Miller, David Russell; Knorovsky, Gerald Albert; Yoshimura, Richard Hiroyuki; Lopez, Carlos; Harding, David Cameron; Jones, Perry L.; Morrow, Charles W.

    2010-09-01

    The Plutonium Air Transportable Package, Model PAT-1, is certified under Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations Part 71 by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) per Certificate of Compliance (CoC) USA/0361B(U)F-96 (currently Revision 9). The National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) submitted SAND Report SAND2009-5822 to NRC that documented the incorporation of plutonium (Pu) metal as a new payload for the PAT-1 package. NRC responded with a Request for Additional Information (RAI), identifying information needed in connection with its review of the application. The purpose of this SAND report is to provide the authors responses to each RAI. SAND Report SAND2010-6106 containing the proposed changes to the Addendum is provided separately.

  16. Technical support for amending standards for management of uranium byproduct materials: 40 cfr part 192-subpart d. Background information document

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is amending 40 CFR 192, Subpart D, dealing with disposal of uranium mill tailings at non-operational sites licensed by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) or an agreement state pursuant to the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) of 1978. The Background Information Document (BID) was prepared in support of the rulemaking proceedings for EPA's action. The BID only considers long-term disposal of tailings at facilities licensed by the NRC or an agreement state, and designated Title II facilities in the UMTRCA.

  17. 41 CFR 102-79.111 - Where may Executive agencies find additional information on Integrated Workplace concepts?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... agencies find additional information on Integrated Workplace concepts? 102-79.111 Section 102-79.111 Public... Space Integrated Workplace § 102-79.111 Where may Executive agencies find additional information on Integrated Workplace concepts? The GSA Office of Governmentwide Policy provides additional guidance in...

  18. 41 CFR 102-79.111 - Where may Executive agencies find additional information on Integrated Workplace concepts?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... agencies find additional information on Integrated Workplace concepts? 102-79.111 Section 102-79.111 Public... Space Integrated Workplace § 102-79.111 Where may Executive agencies find additional information on Integrated Workplace concepts? The GSA Office of Governmentwide Policy provides additional guidance in...

  19. 41 CFR 102-79.111 - Where may Executive agencies find additional information on Integrated Workplace concepts?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... agencies find additional information on Integrated Workplace concepts? 102-79.111 Section 102-79.111 Public... Space Integrated Workplace § 102-79.111 Where may Executive agencies find additional information on Integrated Workplace concepts? The GSA Office of Governmentwide Policy provides additional guidance in...

  20. 41 CFR 102-79.111 - Where may Executive agencies find additional information on Integrated Workplace concepts?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... agencies find additional information on Integrated Workplace concepts? 102-79.111 Section 102-79.111 Public... Space Integrated Workplace § 102-79.111 Where may Executive agencies find additional information on Integrated Workplace concepts? The GSA Office of Governmentwide Policy provides additional guidance in...

  1. Ground-water protection standards for inactive uranium tailings sites (40 CFR 192): Background information for final rule. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-03-01

    The Final Background Information Document summarizes the information and data considered by the Agency in developing the ground-water protection standards. The report presents a brief description of the Title II ground water standard and how it can be used to develop the Title I rulemaking. A description of the 24 designated uranium-tailings sites and their current status in the DOE remedial-action program is included as well as a detailed analysis of the available data on the ground water in the vicinity of 14 of the 24 sites. It also describes different methods that can be used for the restoration of ground water and the costs of using these restoration methods.

  2. Background Information for Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Environmental Protection Agency, 2001

    2001-01-01

    Mercury is a naturally occurring and widely used element that can cause health and ecological problems when released to the environment through human activities. Though a national and even international issue, the health and environmental impacts of mercury are best understood when studied at the local level. "Mercury: An Educator's Toolkit"…

  3. Emerging Technologies in the Built Environment: Geographic Information Science (GIS), 3D Printing, and Additive Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    New, Joshua Ryan

    2014-01-01

    Abstract 1: Geographic information systems emerged as a computer application in the late 1960s, led in part by projects at ORNL. The concept of a GIS has shifted through time in response to new applications and new technologies, and is now part of a much larger world of geospatial technology. This presentation discusses the relationship of GIS and estimating hourly and seasonal energy consumption profiles in the building sector at spatial scales down to the individual parcel. The method combines annual building energy simulations for city-specific prototypical buildings and commonly available geospatial data in a GIS framework. Abstract 2: This presentation focuses on 3D printing technologies and how they have rapidly evolved over the past couple of years. At a basic level, 3D printing produces physical models quickly and easily from 3D CAD, BIM (Building Information Models), and other digital data. Many AEC firms have adopted 3D printing as part of commercial building design development and project delivery. This presentation includes an overview of 3D printing, discusses its current use in building design, and talks about its future in relation to the HVAC industry. Abstract 3: This presentation discusses additive manufacturing and how it is revolutionizing the design of commercial and residential facilities. Additive manufacturing utilizes a broad range of direct manufacturing technologies, including electron beam melting, ultrasonic, extrusion, and laser metal deposition for rapid prototyping. While there is some overlap with the 3D printing talk, this presentation focuses on the materials aspect of additive manufacturing and also some of the more advanced technologies involved with rapid prototyping. These technologies include design of carbon fiber composites, lightweight metals processing, transient field processing, and more.

  4. Prepositioned Stocks: Additional Information and a Consistent Definition Would Make DOD’s Annual Report More Useful

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-01

    PREPOSITIONED STOCKS Additional Information and a Consistent Definition Would Make DOD’s Annual Report More Useful...COVERED 00-00-2015 to 00-00-2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Prepositioned Stocks: Additional Information and a Consistent Definition Would Make DOD’s...STOCKS Additional Information and a Consistent Definition Would Make DOD’s Annual Report More Useful Why GAO Did This Study DOD prepositions stocks

  5. Looking for angular information in the nHz gravitational wave background with harmonic space analysis of redshift maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roebber, Elinore; Holder, Gilbert

    2017-01-01

    I will discuss an alternate framework for treating the angular information in the nanohertz gravitational wave background (GWB). Population models suggest that the GWB produced by binary supermassive black holes will be mostly confused, but that individual frequency bins may be dominated by a single loud source. We consider two toy models to span the range of resolvable to confused GWBs: a single source and a statistically isotropic Gaussian random field. In our alternate framework we treat both cases consistently by analyzing the full-sky redshift field induced by the GWs at the earth in harmonic space. As an example of the utility of this approach, the power spectrum of the redshift maps is the harmonic space analogue of the Hellings and Downs curve. Variance in the redshift power spectrum allows us to characterize the expected variance around the Hellings and Downs curve.

  6. Background Error Covariance Estimation Using Information from a Single Model Trajectory with Application to Ocean Data Assimilation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keppenne, Christian L.; Rienecker, Michele; Kovach, Robin M.; Vernieres, Guillaume

    2014-01-01

    An attractive property of ensemble data assimilation methods is that they provide flow dependent background error covariance estimates which can be used to update fields of observed variables as well as fields of unobserved model variables. Two methods to estimate background error covariances are introduced which share the above property with ensemble data assimilation methods but do not involve the integration of multiple model trajectories. Instead, all the necessary covariance information is obtained from a single model integration. The Space Adaptive Forecast error Estimation (SAFE) algorithm estimates error covariances from the spatial distribution of model variables within a single state vector. The Flow Adaptive error Statistics from a Time series (FAST) method constructs an ensemble sampled from a moving window along a model trajectory.SAFE and FAST are applied to the assimilation of Argo temperature profiles into version 4.1 of the Modular Ocean Model (MOM4.1) coupled to the GEOS-5 atmospheric model and to the CICE sea ice model. The results are validated against unassimilated Argo salinity data. They show that SAFE and FAST are competitive with the ensemble optimal interpolation (EnOI) used by the Global Modeling and Assimilation Office (GMAO) to produce its ocean analysis. Because of their reduced cost, SAFE and FAST hold promise for high-resolution data assimilation applications.

  7. Capillary ion electrophoresis of inorganic anions and uric acid in human saliva using a polyvinyl alcohol coated capillary column and hexamethonium chloride as additive of background electrolyte.

    PubMed

    Mori, Masanobu; Yamamoto, Tsukasa; Kaseda, Maki; Yamada, Sachiko; Itabashi, Hideyuki

    2012-03-01

    A combination of polyvinyl alcohol chemically coated capillary (PVA capillary) and background electrolyte (BGE) with ion-pair reagent (hexamethonium dichloride, HMC) was used on capillary ion electrophoresis-UV detection (CIE-UV) for analysis of Br⁻, I⁻, NO₂⁻, NO₃⁻, SCN⁻ and uric acid in human saliva. The PVA capillary prepared in our laboratory minimized electro-osmotic flow (EOF) at the BGE in pH 3-10, and did not affect the UV detection at 210 nm by the PVA-layer on capillary wall. Therefore, use of the PVA capillary was suitable for sensitive UV detection for analyte anions, as well as suppression of protein adsorption. In this study, we optimized the BGE of 10 mM phosphate plus 10 mM HMC with applying a voltage of -15 kV. HMC as an additive to BGE could manipulate the electrophoretic mobility of anions, without electrostatic adsorption to the PVA capillary. The CIE-UV could separate and determine analyte anions in human saliva containing proteins by the direct injection without pretreatments such as dilution or deproteinization within 13 min. The relative standard deviations (n=10) were ranged of 0.5-1.6% in migration times, 2.2-6.8% in peak heights and 2.8-8.4% in peak areas. The limits of detection (S/N=3) were ranged of 3.42-6.87 μM. The peak height of anions in this system was gradually decreased through the successive injections of saliva samples, but the problem was successfully solved by periodically conditioning the PVA capillary. The quantifiability of anions in human saliva samples by the CIE-UV was evaluated through the recoveries by standard addition methods and comparison of other representative analytical methods, as well as identification by ion chromatography (IC). From the anion analyses in 12 different saliva samples, the CIE-UV demonstrated that can obtain obvious differences in concentrations of SCN⁻ between of smoker and non-smoker and those of uric acid between male and female with satisfactory results.

  8. 77 FR 31068 - Additional Identifying Information Associated With Persons Whose Property and Interests in...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-24

    ... Information Technology AGENCY: Office of Foreign Assets Control, Treasury. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The... Technology,'' whose property and interests in property are blocked. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT... Information Technology,'' (the ``Order'') pursuant to, inter alia, the International Emergency Economic...

  9. 77 FR 67655 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Food Additive...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-13

    ...) Moderate Category: For a food additive petition without complex chemistry, manufacturing, efficacy, or...) Complex Category: For a food additive petition with complex chemistry, manufacturing, efficacy, and/or... investigational food additive file without complex chemistry, manufacturing, efficacy, or safety issues,...

  10. Systematics of the family Plectopylidae in Vietnam with additional information on Chinese taxa (Gastropoda, Pulmonata, Stylommatophora)

    PubMed Central

    Páll-Gergely, Barna; Hunyadi, András; Ablett, Jonathan; Lương, Hào Văn; Fred Naggs; Asami, Takahiro

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Vietnamese species from the family Plectopylidae are revised based on the type specimens of all known taxa, more than 600 historical non-type museum lots, and almost 200 newly-collected samples. Altogether more than 7000 specimens were investigated. The revision has revealed that species diversity of the Vietnamese Plectopylidae was previously overestimated. Overall, thirteen species names (anterides Gude, 1909, bavayi Gude, 1901, congesta Gude, 1898, fallax Gude, 1909, gouldingi Gude, 1909, hirsuta Möllendorff, 1901, jovia Mabille, 1887, moellendorffi Gude, 1901, persimilis Gude, 1901, pilsbryana Gude, 1901, soror Gude, 1908, tenuis Gude, 1901, verecunda Gude, 1909) were synonymised with other species. In addition to these, Gudeodiscus hemmeni sp. n. and Gudeodiscus messageri raheemi ssp. n. are described from north-western Vietnam. Sixteen species and two subspecies are recognized from Vietnam. The reproductive anatomy of eight taxa is described. Based on anatomical information, Halongella gen. n. is erected to include Plectopylis schlumbergeri and Plectopylis fruhstorferi. Additionally, the genus Gudeodiscus is subdivided into two subgenera (Gudeodiscus and Veludiscus subgen. n.) on the basis of the morphology of the reproductive anatomy and the radula. The Chinese Gudeodiscus phlyarius werneri Páll-Gergely, 2013 is moved to synonymy of Gudeodiscus phlyarius. A spermatophore was found in the organ situated next to the gametolytic sac in one specimen. This suggests that this organ in the Plectopylidae is a diverticulum. Statistically significant evidence is presented for the presence of calcareous hook-like granules inside the penis being associated with the absence of embryos in the uterus in four genera. This suggests that these probably play a role in mating periods before disappearing when embryos develop. Sicradiscus mansuyi is reported from China for the first time. PMID:25632253

  11. 75 FR 78950 - Availability of Additional Information for the Proposed Rulemaking for Colorado's Attainment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-17

    ... provided, unless the comment includes information claimed to be Confidential Business Information (CBI) or... contact information unless you provide it in the body of your comment. If you send an e-mail comment... information in the body of your comment and with any disk or CD-ROM you submit. If EPA cannot read...

  12. Additional information is not ignored: New evidence for information integration and inhibition in take-the-best decisions.

    PubMed

    Dummel, Sebastian; Rummel, Jan; Voss, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Ignoring information when making a decision is at the heart of the take-the-best (TTB) strategy, according to which decision makers only consider information about the most valid cue (TTB-relevant) and ignore less valid cues (TTB-irrelevant). Results of four experiments, however, show that participants do not ignore information when cues are easily available (Experiments 1a, 1b, and 3) or when task instructions emphasize decision accuracy (Experiment 2). In all four experiments we found that the consistency between the TTB-relevant cue and a supposedly TTB-irrelevant cue systematically affected decision times and confidence ratings of even those participants whose choices were consistently driven by only the TTB-relevant cue. In Experiments 1a and 1b, we also found that these participants were more likely to ignore information when cues had to be acquired sequentially, suggesting that whether or not participants ignore information depends on information availability. Experiment 2 further showed that different task instructions (emphasizing decision accuracy vs. speed) affect whether or not participants ignore information. Finally, Experiment 3 addressed the question of how participants process information that, according to TTB, is considered irrelevant for their choices. We find first evidence that participants who consistently make choices in line with TTB inhibit information about a TTB-irrelevant cue when this information conflicts with their decisions. Findings are considered and discussed in relation to current models of decision making.

  13. 40 CFR 79.21 - Information and assurances to be provided by the additive manufacturer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGISTRATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Additive... application for registration submitted by the manufacturer of a designated fuel additive shall include the..., percentage by weight, and method of analysis of each element in the additive are required provided,...

  14. 40 CFR 79.21 - Information and assurances to be provided by the additive manufacturer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... fuel additive will be sold, offered for sale, or introduced into commerce, and the fuel additive manufacturer's recommended range of concentration and purpose-in-use for each such type of fuel. (e) Such other... (e) of this section as provided in § 79.5(b). (g) Assurances that the additive manufacturer will...

  15. Adiponectin Provides Additional Information to Conventional Cardiovascular Risk Factors for Assessing the Risk of Atherosclerosis in Both Genders

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Jin-Ha; Kim, Sung-Kyung; Choi, Ho-June; Choi, Soo-In; Cha, So-Youn; Koh, Sang-Baek

    2013-01-01

    Background This study evaluated the relation between adiponectin and atherosclerosis in both genders, and investigated whether adiponectin provides useful additional information for assessing the risk of atherosclerosis. Methods We measured serum adiponectin levels and other cardiovascular risk factors in 1033 subjects (454 men, 579 women) from the Korean Genomic Rural Cohort study. Carotid intima–media-thickness (CIMT) was used as measure of atherosclerosis. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated using multiple logistic regression, and receiver operating characteristic curves (ROC), the category-free net reclassification improvement (NRI) and integrated discrimination improvement (IDI) were calculated. Results After adjustment for conventional cardiovascular risk factors, such as age, waist circumference, smoking history, low-density and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, systolic blood pressure and insulin resistance, the ORs (95%CI) of the third tertile adiponectin group were 0.42 (0.25–0.72) in men and 0.47 (0.29–0.75) in women. The area under the curve (AUC) on the ROC analysis increased significantly by 0.025 in men and 0.022 in women when adiponectin was added to the logistic model of conventional cardiovascular risk factors (AUC in men: 0.655 to 0.680, p = 0.038; AUC in women: 0.654 to 0.676, p = 0.041). The NRI was 0.32 (95%CI: 0.13–0.50, p<0.001), and the IDI was 0.03 (95%CI: 0.01–0.04, p<0.001) for men. For women, the category-free NRI was 0.18 (95%CI: 0.02–0.34, p = 0.031) and the IDI was 0.003 (95%CI: −0.002–0.008, p = 0.189). Conclusion Adiponectin and atherosclerosis were significantly related in both genders, and these relationships were independent of conventional cardiovascular risk factors. Furthermore, adiponectin provided additional information to conventional cardiovascular risk factors regarding the risk of atherosclerosis. PMID:24116054

  16. 36 CFR 1290.2 - Scope of additional records and information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... describe the agency's: (1) Records policies and schedules; (2) Filing systems and organization; (3) Storage... Act; and (6) Reclassification to a higher level, transfer, destruction, or other information...

  17. 41 CFR 102-75.140 - In addition to the title report, and all necessary environmental information and certifications...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 102-75.140 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false In addition to the title report, and all necessary environmental information and certifications, what information must...

  18. 14 CFR 121.317 - Passenger information requirements, smoking prohibitions, and additional seat belt requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Passenger information requirements, smoking... OPERATIONS Instrument and Equipment Requirements § 121.317 Passenger information requirements, smoking... command. (c) No person may operate an airplane on a flight on which smoking is prohibited by part 252...

  19. 14 CFR 121.317 - Passenger information requirements, smoking prohibitions, and additional seat belt requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Passenger information requirements, smoking... OPERATIONS Instrument and Equipment Requirements § 121.317 Passenger information requirements, smoking... command. (c) No person may operate an airplane on a flight on which smoking is prohibited by part 252...

  20. 14 CFR 121.317 - Passenger information requirements, smoking prohibitions, and additional seat belt requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... prohibitions, and additional seat belt requirements. 121.317 Section 121.317 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL... prohibitions, and additional seat belt requirements. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (l) of this section... paragraph (l) of this section, the “Fasten Seat Belt” sign shall be turned on during any movement on...

  1. 14 CFR 121.317 - Passenger information requirements, smoking prohibitions, and additional seat belt requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... prohibitions, and additional seat belt requirements. 121.317 Section 121.317 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL... prohibitions, and additional seat belt requirements. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (l) of this section... paragraph (l) of this section, the “Fasten Seat Belt” sign shall be turned on during any movement on...

  2. 36 CFR 1290.2 - Scope of additional records and information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... PRESIDENT JOHN F. KENNEDY ASSASSINATION RECORDS COLLECTION ACT OF 1992 (JFK ACT) § 1290.2 Scope of... Act; and (6) Reclassification to a higher level, transfer, destruction, or other information...

  3. 21 CFR 803.12 - Where and how do I submit reports and additional information?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES MEDICAL DEVICE REPORTING General Provisions § 803.12 Where and how do... information required under this part to FDA, CDRH, Medical Device Reporting, P.O. Box 3002, Rockville,...

  4. 21 CFR 803.12 - Where and how do I submit reports and additional information?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES MEDICAL DEVICE REPORTING General Provisions § 803.12 Where and how do... information required under this part to FDA, CDRH, Medical Device Reporting, P.O. Box 3002, Rockville,...

  5. 21 CFR 71.15 - Confidentiality of data and information in color additive petitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... has been abandoned and they no longer represent a trade secret or confidential commercial or financial... studies and tests of a color additive on animals and humans and all studies and tests on a color...

  6. 21 CFR 71.15 - Confidentiality of data and information in color additive petitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... has been abandoned and they no longer represent a trade secret or confidential commercial or financial... studies and tests of a color additive on animals and humans and all studies and tests on a color...

  7. 21 CFR 71.15 - Confidentiality of data and information in color additive petitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... established in § 20.61 of this chapter. (6) All records showing the Food and Drug Administration's testing of... studies and tests of a color additive on animals and humans and all studies and tests on a color...

  8. Twenty-five additional cases of trisomy 9 mosaic: Birth information, medical conditions, and developmental status.

    PubMed

    Bruns, Deborah A; Campbell, Emily

    2015-05-01

    Limited literature exists on children and adults diagnosed with the mosaic form of trisomy 9. Data from the Tracking Rare Incidence Syndromes (TRIS) project has provided physical characteristics and medical conditions for 14 individuals. This article provides TRIS Survey results of 25 additional cases at two data points (birth and survey completion) as well as developmental status. Results confirmed a number of phenotypic features and medical conditions. In addition, a number of cardiac anomalies were reported along with feeding and respiratory difficulties in the immediate postnatal period. In addition, developmental status data indicated a range in functioning level up to skills in the 36 and 48-month range. Strengths were also noted across the sample in language and communication, fine motor and social-emotional development. Implications for professionals caring for children with this genetic condition are offered.

  9. 21 CFR 803.12 - Where and how do I submit reports and additional information?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... information? 803.12 Section 803.12 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... health emergency, this can be brought to FDA's attention by contacting the FDA Office of Emergency Operations (HFA-615), Office of Crisis Management, Office of the Commissioner, at 301-443-1240, followed...

  10. 14 CFR 121.317 - Passenger information requirements, smoking prohibitions, and additional seat belt requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... lavatory a sign or placard that reads: “Federal law provides for a penalty of up to $2,000 for tampering..., no person may operate an airplane unless it is equipped with passenger information signs that meet... signs must be constructed so that the crewmembers can turn them on and off. (b) Except as provided...

  11. 49 CFR 40.331 - To what additional parties must employers and service agents release information?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Confidentiality and... information about that employee's drug or alcohol tests to an identified person, you must provide the... for this part and DOT agency drug and alcohol program functions. (2) All written, printed,...

  12. Software for Information Storage and Retrieval Tested, Evaluated and Compared: Part VI--Various Additional Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sieverts, Eric G.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Reports on tests evaluating nine microcomputer software packages designed for information storage and retrieval: BRS-Search, dtSearch, InfoBank, Micro-OPC, Q&A, STN-PFS, Strix, TINman, and ZYindex. Tables and narrative evaluations detail results related to security, hardware, user features, search capability, indexing, input, maintenance of files,…

  13. 13 CFR 126.403 - May SBA require additional information from a HUBZone SBC?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... information from a HUBZone SBC? 126.403 Section 126.403 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS... HUBZone SBC? (a) At the discretion of the D/HUB, SBA has the right to require that a HUBZone SBC submit... adverse inference from the failure of a HUBZone SBC to cooperate with a program examination or...

  14. 29 CFR 2590.702-1 - Additional requirements prohibiting discrimination based on genetic information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... diabetes. A begins to experience excessive sweating, thirst, and fatigue. A's physician examines A and... adult onset diabetes mellitus (Type 2 diabetes). (ii) Conclusion. In this Example 1, A has been... involved. The diagnosis is not based principally on genetic information. Thus, Type 2 diabetes...

  15. 45 CFR 146.122 - Additional requirements prohibiting discrimination based on genetic information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... diabetes. A begins to experience excessive sweating, thirst, and fatigue. A's physician examines A and... adult onset diabetes mellitus (Type 2 diabetes). (ii) Conclusion. In this Example 1, A has been... involved. The diagnosis is not based principally on genetic information. Thus, Type 2 diabetes...

  16. 10 CFR 52.80 - Contents of applications; additional technical information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    .... 52.80 Section 52.80 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Combined Licenses § 52.80 Contents of applications; additional technical... the circumstances associated with the loss of large areas of the plant due to explosions or fire...

  17. 10 CFR 52.80 - Contents of applications; additional technical information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    .... 52.80 Section 52.80 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Combined Licenses § 52.80 Contents of applications; additional technical... the circumstances associated with the loss of large areas of the plant due to explosions or fire...

  18. 10 CFR 52.80 - Contents of applications; additional technical information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    .... 52.80 Section 52.80 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Combined Licenses § 52.80 Contents of applications; additional technical... the circumstances associated with the loss of large areas of the plant due to explosions or fire...

  19. 10 CFR 52.80 - Contents of applications; additional technical information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    .... 52.80 Section 52.80 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Combined Licenses § 52.80 Contents of applications; additional technical... the circumstances associated with the loss of large areas of the plant due to explosions or fire...

  20. 10 CFR 52.80 - Contents of applications; additional technical information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    .... 52.80 Section 52.80 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Combined Licenses § 52.80 Contents of applications; additional technical... the circumstances associated with the loss of large areas of the plant due to explosions or fire...

  1. Facing Facts: Can the Face-Name Mnemonic Strategy Accommodate Additional Factual Information?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carney, Russell N.; Levin, Joel R.

    2012-01-01

    In 3 experiments, undergraduates used their own best method (control) or an "imposed" face-name mnemonic strategy to associate 18 caricatured faces, names, and additional facts. On all immediate tests (prompted by the faces), and on the delayed tests of Experiments 2a and 2b combined, mnemonic students statistically outperformed control students…

  2. 40 CFR 79.21 - Information and assurances to be provided by the additive manufacturer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... will be accepted in lieu thereof; (2) In the case of an additive for engine oil, only the name..., that a percentage figure combining the percentages of carbon, hydrogen, and/or oxygen may be provided... any 1975 or subsequent model year vehicle or engine, or that the manufacturer has obtained a...

  3. 40 CFR 79.21 - Information and assurances to be provided by the additive manufacturer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... will be accepted in lieu thereof; (2) In the case of an additive for engine oil, only the name..., that a percentage figure combining the percentages of carbon, hydrogen, and/or oxygen may be provided... any 1975 or subsequent model year vehicle or engine, or that the manufacturer has obtained a...

  4. 40 CFR 79.21 - Information and assurances to be provided by the additive manufacturer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... will be accepted in lieu thereof; (2) In the case of an additive for engine oil, only the name..., that a percentage figure combining the percentages of carbon, hydrogen, and/or oxygen may be provided... any 1975 or subsequent model year vehicle or engine, or that the manufacturer has obtained a...

  5. 77 FR 58911 - Additional Identifying Information for One (1) Individual Designated Pursuant to Executive Order...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-24

    ... Threaten to Disrupt the Middle East Peace Process'' (the ``Order''). DATES: The addition by the Director of... sanctions on persons who threaten to disrupt the Middle East peace process. The President identified in the... Middle East peace ] process; or (2) assist in, sponsor, or provide financial, material, or...

  6. Transportation of high-current ion and electron beams in the accelerator drift gap in the presence of an additional electron background

    SciTech Connect

    Karas’, V. I. Kornilov, E. A.; Manuilenko, O. V.; Tarakanov, V. P.; Fedorovskaya, O. V.

    2015-12-15

    The dynamics of a high-current ion beam propagating in the drift gap of a linear induction accelerator with collective focusing is studied using 3D numerical simulations in the framework of the full system of the Vlasov–Maxwell equations (code KARAT). The ion beam is neutralized by a comoving electron beam in the current density and, partially, in space charge, since the velocities of electrons and ions differ substantially. The dynamics of the high-current ion beam is investigated for different versions of additional neutralization of its space charge. It is established that, for a given configuration of the magnetic field and in the presence of a specially programmed injection of additional electrons from the boundary opposite to the ion injection boundary, the angular divergence of the ion beam almost vanishes, whereas the current of the ion beam at the exit from the accelerator drift gap changes insignificantly and the beam remains almost monoenergetic.

  7. Transportation of high-current ion and electron beams in the accelerator drift gap in the presence of an additional electron background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karas', V. I.; Kornilov, E. A.; Manuilenko, O. V.; Tarakanov, V. P.; Fedorovskaya, O. V.

    2015-12-01

    The dynamics of a high-current ion beam propagating in the drift gap of a linear induction accelerator with collective focusing is studied using 3D numerical simulations in the framework of the full system of the Vlasov-Maxwell equations (code KARAT). The ion beam is neutralized by a comoving electron beam in the current density and, partially, in space charge, since the velocities of electrons and ions differ substantially. The dynamics of the high-current ion beam is investigated for different versions of additional neutralization of its space charge. It is established that, for a given configuration of the magnetic field and in the presence of a specially programmed injection of additional electrons from the boundary opposite to the ion injection boundary, the angular divergence of the ion beam almost vanishes, whereas the current of the ion beam at the exit from the accelerator drift gap changes insignificantly and the beam remains almost monoenergetic.

  8. Effect of display update interval, update type, and background on perception of aircraft separation on a cockpit display on traffic information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jago, S.; Baty, D.; Oconnor, S.; Palmer, E.

    1981-01-01

    The concept of a cockpit display of traffic information (CDTI) includes the integration of air traffic, navigation, and other pertinent information in a single electronic display in the cockpit. Concise display symbology was developed for use in later full-mission simulator evaluations of the CDTI concept. Experimental variables used included the update interval motion of the aircraft, the update type, (that is, whether the two aircraft were updated at the same update interval or not), the background (grid pattern or no background), and encounter type (straight or curved). Only the type of encounter affected performance.

  9. Background Study and Proposals for Development of Information Provision in Science and Technology in Ethiopia. Stockholm Papers in Library and Information Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwarz, Stephan; Winkel, Annette

    Provision of information for research and development in science and technology in Ethiopia was studied by 50 participants in a seminar on evaluation and analysis of a national information policy and plan. Policy makers and planners, users, producers and suppliers of information, information specialists, and representatives of Unesco (United…

  10. Background Information for Think Tank on Planning, Governance and System Building Early Care and Education--NYC

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boressoff, Todd

    2008-01-01

    This document provides some background on early childhood planning and system building around the country. Since mid-December, the author has been studying these efforts for Child Care, Inc. (CCI) interviewing national experts and reading widely. This outline provides insights and lesson learned from those inquiries. The goal at this meeting will…

  11. 24 CFR 903.9 - May HUD request additional information in the Annual Plan of a troubled PHA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false May HUD request additional information in the Annual Plan of a troubled PHA? 903.9 Section 903.9 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT (CONTINUED) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR PUBLIC...

  12. 12 CFR 516.220 - If OTS requests additional information to complete my application, how will it process my...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... complete my application, how will it process my application? 516.220 Section 516.220 Banks and Banking... Standard Treatment § 516.220 If OTS requests additional information to complete my application, how will it... your response. OTS will notify you that it has extended the period before the end of the initial...

  13. 12 CFR 390.128 - If the FDIC requests additional information to complete my application, how will it process my...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... complete my application, how will it process my application? 390.128 Section 390.128 Banks and Banking... additional information to complete my application, how will it process my application? (a) You may use the... will notify you that it has extended the period before the end of the initial 15-day period and...

  14. 12 CFR 116.220 - If the OCC requests additional information to complete my application, how will it process my...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... complete my application, how will it process my application? 116.220 Section 116.220 Banks and Banking... Treatment § 116.220 If the OCC requests additional information to complete my application, how will it... that it has extended the period before the end of the initial 15-day period and will briefly...

  15. 12 CFR 516.220 - If OTS requests additional information to complete my application, how will it process my...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... complete my application, how will it process my application? 516.220 Section 516.220 Banks and Banking... Standard Treatment § 516.220 If OTS requests additional information to complete my application, how will it... your response. OTS will notify you that it has extended the period before the end of the initial...

  16. 41 CFR 102-79.111 - Where may Executive agencies find additional information on Integrated Workplace concepts?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Where may Executive agencies find additional information on Integrated Workplace concepts? 102-79.111 Section 102-79.111 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued)...

  17. A new species of Neparholaspis (Acari: Parholaspididae) from Russia, with additional information on Neparholaspis evansi Krantz, 1960.

    PubMed

    Marchenko, Irina I

    2016-08-23

    Neparholaspis dubatolovi sp. nov. is described and illustrated from adult females and males collected from litter and moss in montane forest in north-eastern Sikhote-Alin Ridge in the Far East of Russia. Additional morphological information and illustrations of Neparholaspis evansi Krantz, 1960 are provided, based on examination of a paratype. A key to the world species of Neparholaspis is provided.

  18. 76 FR 80377 - Notice of Submission of Proposed Information Collection to OMB Additional On-Site Data Collection...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-23

    ... of Submission of Proposed Information Collection to OMB Additional On-Site Data Collection for the... HCV programs. The proposed data collection will take place through site visits to up to 30 PHAs and... the PHA. The results of the site visits will be used to identify PHAs to participate in a...

  19. Tautomers of a Fluorescent G Surrogate and Their Distinct Photophysics Provide Additional Information Channels.

    PubMed

    Sholokh, Marianna; Improta, Roberto; Mori, Mattia; Sharma, Rajhans; Kenfack, Cyril; Shin, Dongwon; Voltz, Karine; Stote, Roland H; Zaporozhets, Olga A; Botta, Maurizio; Tor, Yitzhak; Mély, Yves

    2016-07-04

    Thienoguanosine ((th) G) is an isomorphic nucleoside analogue acting as a faithful fluorescent substitute of G, with respectable quantum yield in oligonucleotides. Photophysical analysis of (th) G reveals the existence of two ground-state tautomers with significantly shifted absorption and emission wavelengths, and high quantum yield in buffer. Using (TD)-DFT calculations, the tautomers were identified as the H1 and H3 keto-amino tautomers. When incorporated into the loop of (-)PBS, the (-)DNA copy of the HIV-1 primer binding site, both tautomers are observed and show differential sensitivity to protein binding. The red-shifted H1 tautomer is strongly favored in matched (-)/(+)PBS duplexes, while the relative emission of the H3 tautomer can be used to detect single nucleotide polymorphisms. These tautomers and their distinct environmental sensitivity provide unprecedented information channels for analyzing G residues in oligonucleotides and their complexes.

  20. Tautomers of a Fluorescent G Surrogate and Their Distinct Photophysics Provide Additional Information Channels

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Rajhans; Kenfack, Cyril; Shin, Dongwon; Voltz, Karine; Stote, Roland H.; Zaporozhets, Olga A.; Botta, Maurizio; Tor, Yitzhak; Mély, Yves

    2016-01-01

    Thienoguanosine (thG) is an isomorphic nucleoside analogue acting as a faithful fluorescent substitute of G, with respectable quantum yield in oligonucleotides. Photophysical analysis of thG reveals the existence of two ground-state tautomers with significantly shifted absorption and emission wavelengths, and high quantum yield in buffer. Using (TD)-DFT calculations, the tautomers were identified as the H1 and H3 keto-amino tautomers. When incorporated into the loop of (−)PBS, the (−)DNA copy of the HIV-1 primer binding site, both tautomers are observed and show differential sensitivity to protein binding. The red-shifted H1 tautomer is strongly favored in matched (−)/(+)PBS duplexes, while the relative emission of the H3 tautomer can be used to detect single nucleotide polymorphisms. These tautomers and their distinct environmental sensitivity provide unprecedented information channels for analyzing G residues in oligonucleotides and their complexes. PMID:27273741

  1. Inclusion of Additional Plant Species and Trait Information in Dynamic Vegetation Modeling of Arctic Tundra and Boreal Forest Ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Euskirchen, E. S.; Patil, V.; Roach, J.; Griffith, B.; McGuire, A. D.

    2015-12-01

    Dynamic vegetation models (DVMs) have been developed to model the ecophysiological characteristics of plant functional types in terrestrial ecosystems. They have frequently been used to answer questions pertaining to processes such as disturbance, plant succession, and community composition under historical and future climate scenarios. While DVMs have proved useful in these types of applications, it has often been questioned if additional detail, such as including plant dynamics at the species-level and/or including species-specific traits would make these models more accurate and/or broadly applicable. A sub-question associated with this issue is, 'How many species, or what degree of functional diversity, should we incorporate to sustain ecosystem function in modeled ecosystems?' Here, we focus on how the inclusion of additional plant species and trait information may strengthen dynamic vegetation modeling in applications pertaining to: (1) forage for caribou in northern Alaska, (2) above- and belowground carbon storage in the boreal forest and lake margin wetlands of interior Alaska, and (3) arctic tundra and boreal forest leaf phenology. While the inclusion of additional information generally proved valuable in these three applications, this additional detail depends on field data that may not always be available and may also result in increased computational complexity. Therefore, it is important to assess these possible limitations against the perceived need for additional plant species and trait information in the development and application of dynamic vegetation models.

  2. A Review of the Level and Quality of Information Resources and Programs Available to Students and Parents. Symposium on Information Resources, Services, and Programs. Background Paper Number Two.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merisotis, Jamie

    This paper discusses the key role of information in helping minority group parents and students gain access to postsecondary education and offers a descriptive framework for understanding information needs and availability. The framework is a taxonomy of the kinds and types of information needed by students and parents in order for the student to…

  3. Supra-additive contribution of shape and surface information to individual face discrimination as revealed by fast periodic visual stimulation.

    PubMed

    Dzhelyova, Milena; Rossion, Bruno

    2014-12-24

    Face perception depends on two main sources of information--shape and surface cues. Behavioral studies suggest that both of them contribute roughly equally to discrimination of individual faces, with only a small advantage provided by their combination. However, it is difficult to quantify the respective contribution of each source of information to the visual representation of individual faces with explicit behavioral measures. To address this issue, facial morphs were created that varied in shape only, surface only, or both. Electrocephalogram (EEG) were recorded from 10 participants during visual stimulation at a fast periodic rate, in which the same face was presented four times consecutively and the fifth face (the oddball) varied along one of the morphed dimensions. Individual face discrimination was indexed by the periodic EEG response at the oddball rate (e.g., 5.88 Hz/5 = 1.18 Hz). While shape information was discriminated mainly at right occipitotemporal electrode sites, surface information was coded more bilaterally and provided a larger response overall. Most importantly, shape and surface changes alone were associated with much weaker responses than when both sources of information were combined in the stimulus, revealing a supra-additive effect. These observations suggest that the two kinds of information combine nonlinearly to provide a full individual face representation, face identity being more than the sum of the contribution of shape and surface cues.

  4. Background Information Document for Updating AP42 Section 2.4 for Estimating Emissions from Municipal Solid Waste Landfills

    EPA Science Inventory

    This revised draft document was prepared for U.S. EPA's Office of Research and Development, and describes the data analysis undertaken to update the Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) Landfill section of AP-42. This 2008 update includes the addition of data from 62 landfill gas emission...

  5. Identify, isolate, inform: Background and considerations for Ebola virus disease preparedness in U.S. ambulatory care settings.

    PubMed

    Chea, Nora; Perz, Joseph F; Srinivasan, Arjun; Laufer, Alison S; Pollack, Lori A

    2015-11-01

    Public health activities to identify and monitor persons at risk for Ebola virus disease in the United States include directing persons at risk to assessment facilities that are prepared to safely evaluate for Ebola virus disease. Although it is unlikely that a person with Ebola virus disease will unexpectedly present to a nonemergency ambulatory care facility, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention have provided guidance for this setting that can be summarized as identify, isolate, and inform.

  6. From Cleanup to Stewardship. A companion report to Accelerating Cleanup: Paths to Closure and background information to support the scoping process required for the 1998 PEIS Settlement Study

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    1999-10-01

    Long-term stewardship is expected to be needed at more than 100 DOE sites after DOE's Environmental Management program completes disposal, stabilization, and restoration operations to address waste and contamination resulting from nuclear research and nuclear weapons production conducted over the past 50 years. From Cleanup to stewardship provides background information on the Department of Energy (DOE) long-term stewardship obligations and activities. This document begins to examine the transition from cleanup to long-term stewardship, and it fulfills the Secretary's commitment to the President in the 1999 Performance Agreement to provide a companion report to the Department's Accelerating Cleanup: Paths to Closure report. It also provides background information to support the scoping process required for a study on long-term stewardship required by a 1998 Settlement Agreement.

  7. Signal detection in a lumpy background: effects of providing more information to the human than just raw data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallas, Brandon D.; Barrett, Harrison H.

    1999-05-01

    In this paper we present a modification to the standard two- alternative forced-choice (2AFC) experiment in an attempt to help the human detect signals by providing redundant information. We call the old experiment 2AFC_RAW, and the new experiment, 2AFC_FILTER. In the 2AFC_FILTER experiment, we provide the observer with the pair of raw data images (as in 2AFC_RAW) plus filtered versions of the raw data. The thought behind this modification is that the human might benefit from generic pre-processing of the data into multiple images, each extracting different information. We defined two different 2AFC_FILTER experiments, each using Laguerre-Gauss functions as the filters. The difference between the two was their defining Gaussian envelope. We tested human performance given a variety of image classes with the 2AFC_RAW and the two 2AFC_FILTER experiments. The same raw data were used in each. We found that there was a significant human performance increase from the 2AFC_RAW to the 2AFC_FILTER experiment. It was also seen that the choice of the filters made a difference. Specifically, human performance was better when the Gaussian envelope of the Laguerre-Gauss functions matched the signal.

  8. [Rad-Esito: new informational additions in the integration of content of hospital discharge cards for acute patients].

    PubMed

    Rini, F; Piscioneri, C; Consolante, C; Fara, G M

    2009-01-01

    Since the January 2008 the tracking of additional information about hospital discharge card's content has been activated in Latium. The new data, noticed by RAD-Esito card, regard the hospitalizations for acute myocardial infarction, femoral neck fracture and coronary artery bypass surgery. This study's objective has been to evaluate the quality of the data collected with the new card, at the end of the 1st semester of experimentation, concerning two institutes of care of Latium, the Casilino Polyclinic (ASL Rome B) and the Anzio-Nettuno hospital (Assembled Hospitals, ASL Rome H). Furthermore, any significant correlation's existence between a few variables for acute myocardial infarction and femoral fracture with the mortality rate and the average hospitalization period has been statistically verified. This study's preliminary results show how the integration of the hospital informative flow with the new clinical variables will be able to allow the promotion of the quality in the coding of the diagnosis and procedures, according to the current international innovations. This additional information will also be able to support the regional appropriateness and outcome of the treatments evaluation programs.

  9. Individuals with post-stroke hemiparesis are able to use additional sensory information to reduce postural sway.

    PubMed

    Cunha, B P; Alouche, S R; Araujo, I M G; Freitas, S M S F

    2012-03-28

    The present study aimed to investigate whether stroke survivals are able to use the additional somatosensory information provided by the light touch to reduce their postural sway during the upright stance. Eight individuals, naturally right-handed pre-stroke, and eight healthy age-matched adults stood as quiet as possible on a force plate during 35s. Participants performed two trials for each visual condition (eyes open and closed) and somatosensory condition (with and without the right or left index fingertip touching an instrumented rigid and fixed bar). When participants touched the bar, they were asked to apply less than 1N of vertical force. The postural sway was assessed by the center of pressure (COP) displacement area, mean amplitude and velocity. In addition, the mean and standard deviation of the force vertically applied on the bar during the trials with touch were assessed. The averaged values of COP area, amplitude and velocity were greater for stroke individuals compared to healthy adults during all visual and somatosensory conditions. For both groups, the values of all variables increased when participants stood with eyes closed and reduced when they touched the bar regardless of the side of the touch. Overall, the results suggested that, as healthy individuals, persons with post-stroke hemiparesis are able to use the additional somatosensory information provided by the light touch to reduce the postural sway.

  10. Effects of ivermectin application on the diversity and function of dung and soil fauna: Regulatory and scientific background information.

    PubMed

    Adler, Nicole; Bachmann, Jean; Blanckenhorn, Wolf U; Floate, Kevin D; Jensen, John; Römbke, Jörg

    2016-08-01

    The application of veterinary medical products to livestock can impact soil organisms in manure-amended fields or adversely affect organisms that colonize dung pats of treated animals and potentially retard the degradation of dung on pastures. For this reason, the authorization process for veterinary medicinal products in the European Union includes a requirement for higher-tier tests when adverse effects on dung organisms are observed in single-species toxicity tests. However, no guidance documents for the performance of higher-tier tests are available. Hence, an international research project was undertaken to develop and validate a proposed test method under varying field conditions of climate, soil, and endemic coprophilous fauna at Lethbridge (Canada), Montpellier (France), Zurich (Switzerland), and Wageningen (The Netherlands). The specific objectives were to determine if fecal residues of an anthelmintic with known insecticidal activity (ivermectin) showed similar effects across sites on 1) insects breeding in dung of treated animals, 2) coprophilous organisms in the soil beneath the dung, and 3) rates of dung degradation. By evaluating the effects of parasiticides on communities of dung-breeding insects and soil fauna under field conditions, the test method meets the requirements of a higher-tier test as mandated by the European Union. The present study provides contextual information on authorization requirements for veterinary medicinal products and on the structure and function of dung and soil organism communities. It also provides a summary of the main findings. Subsequent studies on this issue provide detailed information on different aspects of this overall project. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:1914-1923. © 2015 SETAC.

  11. Assessment of technical strengths and information flow of energy conservation research in Japan. Volume 2. Background document

    SciTech Connect

    Hane, G.J.; Lewis, P.M.; Hutchinson, R.A.; Rubinger, B.; Willis, A.

    1985-06-01

    Purpose of this study is to explore the status of R and D in Japan and the ability of US researchers to keep abreast of Japanese technical advances. US researchers familiar with R and D activities in Japan were interviewed in ten fields that are relevant to the more efficient use of energy: amorphous metals, biotechnology, ceramics, combustion, electrochemical energy storage, heat engines, heat transfer, high-temperature sensors, thermal and chemical energy storage, and tribology. The researchers were questioned about their perceptions of the strengths of R and D in Japan, comparative aspects of US work, and the quality of available information sources describing R and D in Japan. Of the ten related fields, the researchers expressed a strong perception that significant R and D is under way in amorphous metals, biotechnology, and ceramics, and that the US competitive position in these technologies will be significantly challenged. Researchers also identified alternative emphases in Japanese R and D programs in these areas that provide Japan with stronger technical capabilities. For example, in biotechnology, researchers noted the significant Japanese emphasis on industrial-scale bioprocess engineering, which contrasts with a more meager effort in the US. In tribology, researchers also noted the strength of the chemical tribology research in Japan and commented on the effective mix of chemical and mechanical tribology research. This approach contrasts with the emphasis on mechanical tribology in the US.

  12. Are South African Speech-Language Therapists adequately equipped to assess English Additional Language (EAL) speakers who are from an indigenous linguistic and cultural background? A profile and exploration of the current situation.

    PubMed

    Mdladlo, Thandeka; Flack, Penelope; Joubert, Robin

    2016-03-18

    This article presents the results of a survey conducted on Speech-Language Therapists (SLTs) regarding current practices in the assessment of English Additional Language (EAL) speakers in South Africa. It forms part of the rationale for a broader (PhD) study that critiques the use of assessment instruments on EAL speakers from an indigenous linguistic and cultural background. This article discusses an aspect of the broader research and presents the background, method, findings, discussion and implications of the survey. The results of this survey highlight the challenges of human and material resources to, and the dominance of English in, the profession in South Africa. The findings contribute to understanding critical factors for acquiring reliable and valid assessment results with diverse populations, particularly the implications from a cultural and linguistic perspective.

  13. The Alaskan mineral resource assessment program; background information to accompany folio of geologic and mineral resource maps of the Ambler River Quadrangle, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mayfield, Charles F.; Tailleur, I.L.; Albert, N.R.; Ellersieck, Inyo; Grybeck, Donald; Hackett, S.W.

    1983-01-01

    The Ambler River quadrangle, consisting of 14,290 km2 (5,520 mi2) in northwest Alaska, was investigated by an interdisciplinary research team for the purpose of assessing the mineral resource potential of the quadrangle. This report provides background information for a folio of maps on the geology, reconnaissance geochemistry, aeromagnetics, Landsat imagery, and mineral resource evaluation of the quadrangle. A summary of the geologic history, radiometric dates, and fossil localities and a comprehensive bibliography are also included. The quadrangle contains jade reserves, now being mined, and potentially significant resources of copper, zinc, lead, and silver.

  14. The Conterminous United States Mineral Assessment Program; background information to accompany folio of geologic, geochemical, geophysical, and mineral resource maps of the Ajo and Lukeville 1 degree x 2 degrees quadrangles, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gray, Floyd; Tosdal, R.M.; Peterson, J.A.; Cox, D.P.; Miller, R.J.; Klein, D.P.; Theobald, P.K.; Haxel, G.B.; Grubensky, M.J.; Raines, G.L.; Barton, H.N.; Singer, D.A.; Eppinger, R.G.

    1992-01-01

    Encompassing about 21,000 km 2 in southwestern Arizona, the Ajo and Lukeville 1 ? by 2 ? quadrangles have been the subject of mineral resource investigations utilizing field and laboratory studies in the disciplines of geology, geochemistry, geophysics, and Landsat imagery. The results of these studies are published as a folio of maps, figures, and tables, with accompanying discussions. Past mineral production has been limited to copper from the Ajo Mining District. In addition to copper, the quadrangles contain potentially significant resources of gold and silver; a few other commodities, including molybdenum and evaporites, may also exist in the area as appreciable resources. This circular provides background information on the mineral deposits and on the investigations and integrates the information presented in the folio. The bibliography cites references to the geology, geochemistry, geophysics, and mineral deposits of the two quadrangles.

  15. An interactive ontology-driven information system for simulating background radiation and generating scenarios for testing special nuclear materials detection algorithms

    DOE PAGES

    Sorokine, Alexandre; Schlicher, Bob G.; Ward, Richard C.; ...

    2015-05-22

    This paper describes an original approach to generating scenarios for the purpose of testing the algorithms used to detect special nuclear materials (SNM) that incorporates the use of ontologies. Separating the signal of SNM from the background requires sophisticated algorithms. To assist in developing such algorithms, there is a need for scenarios that capture a very wide range of variables affecting the detection process, depending on the type of detector being used. To provide such a cpability, we developed an ontology-driven information system (ODIS) for generating scenarios that can be used in creating scenarios for testing of algorithms for SNMmore » detection. The ontology-driven scenario generator (ODSG) is an ODIS based on information supplied by subject matter experts and other documentation. The details of the creation of the ontology, the development of the ontology-driven information system, and the design of the web user interface (UI) are presented along with specific examples of scenarios generated using the ODSG. We demonstrate that the paradigm behind the ODSG is capable of addressing the problem of semantic complexity at both the user and developer levels. Compared to traditional approaches, an ODIS provides benefits such as faithful representation of the users' domain conceptualization, simplified management of very large and semantically diverse datasets, and the ability to handle frequent changes to the application and the UI. Furthermore, the approach makes possible the generation of a much larger number of specific scenarios based on limited user-supplied information« less

  16. An interactive ontology-driven information system for simulating background radiation and generating scenarios for testing special nuclear materials detection algorithms

    SciTech Connect

    Sorokine, Alexandre; Schlicher, Bob G.; Ward, Richard C.; Wright, Michael C.; Kruse, Kara L.; Bhaduri, Budhendra; Slepoy, Alexander

    2015-05-22

    This paper describes an original approach to generating scenarios for the purpose of testing the algorithms used to detect special nuclear materials (SNM) that incorporates the use of ontologies. Separating the signal of SNM from the background requires sophisticated algorithms. To assist in developing such algorithms, there is a need for scenarios that capture a very wide range of variables affecting the detection process, depending on the type of detector being used. To provide such a cpability, we developed an ontology-driven information system (ODIS) for generating scenarios that can be used in creating scenarios for testing of algorithms for SNM detection. The ontology-driven scenario generator (ODSG) is an ODIS based on information supplied by subject matter experts and other documentation. The details of the creation of the ontology, the development of the ontology-driven information system, and the design of the web user interface (UI) are presented along with specific examples of scenarios generated using the ODSG. We demonstrate that the paradigm behind the ODSG is capable of addressing the problem of semantic complexity at both the user and developer levels. Compared to traditional approaches, an ODIS provides benefits such as faithful representation of the users' domain conceptualization, simplified management of very large and semantically diverse datasets, and the ability to handle frequent changes to the application and the UI. Furthermore, the approach makes possible the generation of a much larger number of specific scenarios based on limited user-supplied information

  17. 43 CFR 3276.13 - What additional information must I give BLM in the monthly report for flash and dry steam...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... BLM in the monthly report for flash and dry steam facilities? 3276.13 Section 3276.13 Public Lands... What additional information must I give BLM in the monthly report for flash and dry steam facilities? In addition to the regular monthly report information required by § 3276.12, send to BLM: (a)...

  18. 43 CFR 3276.13 - What additional information must I give BLM in the monthly report for flash and dry steam...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... BLM in the monthly report for flash and dry steam facilities? 3276.13 Section 3276.13 Public Lands... What additional information must I give BLM in the monthly report for flash and dry steam facilities? In addition to the regular monthly report information required by § 3276.12, send to BLM: (a)...

  19. 43 CFR 3276.13 - What additional information must I give BLM in the monthly report for flash and dry steam...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... BLM in the monthly report for flash and dry steam facilities? 3276.13 Section 3276.13 Public Lands... What additional information must I give BLM in the monthly report for flash and dry steam facilities? In addition to the regular monthly report information required by § 3276.12, send to BLM: (a)...

  20. 43 CFR 3276.13 - What additional information must I give BLM in the monthly report for flash and dry steam...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... BLM in the monthly report for flash and dry steam facilities? 3276.13 Section 3276.13 Public Lands... What additional information must I give BLM in the monthly report for flash and dry steam facilities? In addition to the regular monthly report information required by § 3276.12, send to BLM: (a)...

  1. On the additional information content of hyperspectral remote sensing data for estimating ecosystem carbon dioxde and energy exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wohlfahrt, Georg; Hammerle, Albin; Tomelleri, Enrico

    2015-04-01

    Radiation reflected back from an ecosystem carries a spectral signature resulting from the interaction of radiation with the vegetation canopy and the underlying soil and thus allows drawing conclusions about the structure and functioning of an ecosystem. When this information is linked to a model of the leaf CO2 exchange, the ecosystem-scale CO2 exchange can be simulated. A well-known and very simplistic example for this approach is the light-use efficiency (LUE) model proposed by Monteith which links the flux of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation times a LUE parameter, both of which may be estimated based on remote sensing data, to predict the ecosystem gross photosynthesis. Here we explore the ability of a more elaborate approach by using near-surface remote sensing of hyperspectral reflected radiation, eddy covariance CO2 and energy flux measurements and a coupled radiative transfer and soil-vegetation-atmosphere-transfer (SVAT) model. Our main objective is to understand to what degree the joint assimilation of hyperspectral reflected radiation and eddy covariance flux measurements into the model helps to better constrain model parameters. To this end we use the SCOPE model, a combination of the well-known PROSAIL model and a SVAT model, and the Bayesian inversion algorithm DREAM. In order to explicitly link reflectance in the visible light and the leaf CO2 exchange, a novel parameterisation of the maximum carboxylation capacity parameter (Vcmax) on the leaf a+b chlorophyll content parameter of PROSAIL is introduced. Results are discussed with respect to the additional information content the hyperspectral data yield for simulating canopy photosynthesis.

  2. The Alaska Mineral Resource Assessment Program; background information to accompany folio of geologic and resource maps of the Ugashik, Bristol Bay, and western part of Karluk quadrangles, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Detterman, Robert L.; Case, J.E.; Church, S.E.; Frisken, J.G.; Wilson, F.H.; Yount, M.E.

    1990-01-01

    The Ugashik, Bristol Bay, and western part of Karluk quadrangles (1:250,000) are a part of the Alaska Peninsula in southwestern Alaska. This circular, in conjunction with a companion folio of MF-series maps, two I-series geologic maps, and three bulletins, represents the results of integrated field and laboratory studies on the geology, geophysics, geochemistry, paleontology, geochronology, and mineral resources of the quadrangles. These studies were undertaken to provide a modern assessment of the mineral and energy resources of the quadrangles. Each map contains descriptive text, explanatory material, tables, diagrams, and pertinent references. This circular provides background information for the mineral resource assessment map (MF-1539-1) and integrates the component M F- and I-series maps. A comprehensive bibliography cites both specific and general references relevant to the geology and resources of the quadrangles.

  3. The Alaskan mineral resource assessment program; background information to accompany folio of geologic and mineral resource maps of the Nabesna Quadrangle, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Richter, Donald H.; Albert, N.R.D.; Barnes, D.F.; Griscom, Andrew; Marsh, S.P.; Singer, D.A.

    1975-01-01

    The Nabesna quadrangle in south-central Alaska is the first of the l:250,000-scale Alaskan quadrangles to be investigated by an interdisciplinary research team in order to furnish a mineral resource assessment of the State. The assessment of the 17,600-km 2 16,800-mi21 quadrangle is based on field and laboratory investigations of the geology, geochemistry, geophysics, and satellite imagery. The results of the investigations are published as a folio of maps, diagrams, and accompanying discussions. This report provides background information on the investigations and integrates the published components of the resource assessment. A comprehensive bibliography cites both specific and general references to the geology and mineral deposits of the Nabesna quadrangle.

  4. Background Error Covariance Estimation using Information from a Single Model Trajectory with Application to Ocean Data Assimilation into the GEOS-5 Coupled Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keppenne, Christian L.; Rienecker, Michele M.; Kovach, Robin M.; Vernieres, Guillaume; Koster, Randal D. (Editor)

    2014-01-01

    An attractive property of ensemble data assimilation methods is that they provide flow dependent background error covariance estimates which can be used to update fields of observed variables as well as fields of unobserved model variables. Two methods to estimate background error covariances are introduced which share the above property with ensemble data assimilation methods but do not involve the integration of multiple model trajectories. Instead, all the necessary covariance information is obtained from a single model integration. The Space Adaptive Forecast error Estimation (SAFE) algorithm estimates error covariances from the spatial distribution of model variables within a single state vector. The Flow Adaptive error Statistics from a Time series (FAST) method constructs an ensemble sampled from a moving window along a model trajectory. SAFE and FAST are applied to the assimilation of Argo temperature profiles into version 4.1 of the Modular Ocean Model (MOM4.1) coupled to the GEOS-5 atmospheric model and to the CICE sea ice model. The results are validated against unassimilated Argo salinity data. They show that SAFE and FAST are competitive with the ensemble optimal interpolation (EnOI) used by the Global Modeling and Assimilation Office (GMAO) to produce its ocean analysis. Because of their reduced cost, SAFE and FAST hold promise for high-resolution data assimilation applications.

  5. 36 CFR 1281.12 - What information must be provided to NARA for its report to Congress on a change or addition to a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... provided to NARA for its report to Congress on a change or addition to a Presidential library facility... ADMINISTRATION NARA FACILITIES PRESIDENTIAL LIBRARY FACILITIES § 1281.12 What information must be provided to NARA for its report to Congress on a change or addition to a Presidential library facility? (a)...

  6. 36 CFR 1281.12 - What information must be provided to NARA for its report to Congress on a change or addition to a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... provided to NARA for its report to Congress on a change or addition to a Presidential library facility... ADMINISTRATION NARA FACILITIES PRESIDENTIAL LIBRARY FACILITIES § 1281.12 What information must be provided to NARA for its report to Congress on a change or addition to a Presidential library facility? (a)...

  7. 36 CFR 1281.12 - What information must be provided to NARA for its report to Congress on a change or addition to a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... provided to NARA for its report to Congress on a change or addition to a Presidential library facility... ADMINISTRATION NARA FACILITIES PRESIDENTIAL LIBRARY FACILITIES § 1281.12 What information must be provided to NARA for its report to Congress on a change or addition to a Presidential library facility? (a)...

  8. 36 CFR 1281.12 - What information must be provided to NARA for its report to Congress on a change or addition to a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... provided to NARA for its report to Congress on a change or addition to a Presidential library facility... ADMINISTRATION NARA FACILITIES PRESIDENTIAL LIBRARY FACILITIES § 1281.12 What information must be provided to NARA for its report to Congress on a change or addition to a Presidential library facility? (a)...

  9. 36 CFR 1281.12 - What information must be provided to NARA for its report to Congress on a change or addition to a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... provided to NARA for its report to Congress on a change or addition to a Presidential library facility... ADMINISTRATION NARA FACILITIES PRESIDENTIAL LIBRARY FACILITIES § 1281.12 What information must be provided to NARA for its report to Congress on a change or addition to a Presidential library facility? (a)...

  10. Fact Sheets and Additional information Regarding the 2012 Particulate Matter (PM) National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Find tools for particulate matter, maps of nonattainment areas, an overview of the proposal, and information on designations, monitoring and permitting requirements and a presentation on the 2012 PM NAAQS revision.

  11. Processing time of addition or withdrawal of single or combined balance-stabilizing haptic and visual information

    PubMed Central

    Honeine, Jean-Louis; Crisafulli, Oscar; Sozzi, Stefania

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the integration time of haptic and visual input and their interaction during stance stabilization. Eleven subjects performed four tandem-stance conditions (60 trials each). Vision, touch, and both vision and touch were added and withdrawn. Furthermore, vision was replaced with touch and vice versa. Body sway, tibialis anterior, and peroneus longus activity were measured. Following addition or withdrawal of vision or touch, an integration time period elapsed before the earliest changes in sway were observed. Thereafter, sway varied exponentially to a new steady-state while reweighting occurred. Latencies of sway changes on sensory addition ranged from 0.6 to 1.5 s across subjects, consistently longer for touch than vision, and were regularly preceded by changes in muscle activity. Addition of vision and touch simultaneously shortened the latencies with respect to vision or touch separately, suggesting cooperation between sensory modalities. Latencies following withdrawal of vision or touch or both simultaneously were shorter than following addition. When vision was replaced with touch or vice versa, adding one modality did not interfere with the effect of withdrawal of the other, suggesting that integration of withdrawal and addition were performed in parallel. The time course of the reweighting process to reach the new steady-state was also shorter on withdrawal than addition. The effects of different sensory inputs on posture stabilization illustrate the operation of a time-consuming, possibly supraspinal process that integrates and fuses modalities for accurate balance control. This study also shows the facilitatory interaction of visual and haptic inputs in integration and reweighting of stance-stabilizing inputs. PMID:26334013

  12. Data Implementation Manual for Enrolments for the 2008 School Year. National Goals for Schooling in the 21st Century. Collection of Information on Student Background Characteristics. For Use by Schools, School Systems and Testing Agents. Third Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministerial Council on Education, Employment, Training and Youth Affairs (NJ1), 2007

    2007-01-01

    This manual provides information to assist schools and school systems to collect student background information as required by Education Ministers. The purpose is to enable nationally comparable reporting of students' outcomes against the "National Goals for Schooling in the Twenty-First Century." It involves the collection of…

  13. 33 CFR 148.108 - What if a Federal or State agency or other interested party requests additional information?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... must state briefly why the information is needed. (c) The Commandant (CG-5) must receive the request... decision on whether or not to approve the license application. (d) The Commandant (CG-5) will consider... the application process. (e) The Commandant (CG-5) may discuss the recommendation with...

  14. 33 CFR 148.108 - What if a Federal or State agency or other interested party requests additional information?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... must state briefly why the information is needed. (c) The Commandant (CG-5) must receive the request... decision on whether or not to approve the license application. (d) The Commandant (CG-5) will consider... the application process. (e) The Commandant (CG-5) may discuss the recommendation with...

  15. China: Background Notes Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reams, Joanne Reppert

    Concise background information on the People's Republic of China is provided. The publication begins with a profile of the country, outlining the people, geography, economy, and membership in international organizations. The bulk of the document then discusses in more detail China's people, geography, history, government, education, economy, and…

  16. The Alaska Mineral Resource Assessment Program; background information to accompany geologic and mineral-resource maps of the Cordova and Middleton Island quadrangles, southern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Winkler, Gary R.; Plafker, George; Goldfarb, R.J.; Case, J.E.

    1992-01-01

    report summarizes recent results of integrated geological, geochemical, and geophysical field and laboratory studies conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in the Cordova and Middleton Island 1?x3 ? quadrangles of coastal southern Alaska. Published open-file reports and maps accompanied by descriptive and interpretative texts, tables, diagrams, and pertinent references provide background information for a mineral-resource assessment of the two quadrangles. Mines in the Cordova and Middleton Island quadrangles produced copper and byproduct gold and silver in the first three decades of the 20th century. The quadrangles may contain potentially significant undiscovered resources of precious and base metals (gold, silver, copper, zinc, and lead) in veins and massive sulfide deposits hosted by Cretaceous and Paleogene sedimentary and volcanic rocks. Resources of manganese also may be present in the Paleogene rocks; uranium resources may be present in Eocene granitic rocks; and placer gold may be present in beach sands near the mouth of the Copper River, in alluvial sands within the canyons of the Copper River, and in smaller alluvial deposits underlain by rocks of the Valdez Group. Significant coal resources are present in the Bering River area, but difficult access and structural complexities have discouraged development. Investigation of numerous oil and gas seeps near Katalla in the eastern part of the area led to the discovery of a small, shallow field from which oil was produced between 1902 and 1933. The field has been inactive since, and subsequent exploration and drilling onshore near Katalla in the 1960's and offshore near Middleton Island on the outer continental shelf in the 1970's and 1980's was not successful.

  17. Space Takes Time: Concentration Dependent Output Codes from Primary Olfactory Networks Rapidly Provide Additional Information at Defined Discrimination Thresholds

    PubMed Central

    Daly, Kevin C.; Bradley, Samual; Chapman, Phillip D.; Staudacher, Erich M.; Tiede, Regina; Schachtner, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    As odor concentration increases, primary olfactory network representations expand in spatial distribution, temporal complexity and duration. However, the direct relationship between concentration dependent odor representations and the psychophysical thresholds of detection and discrimination is poorly understood. This relationship is absolutely critical as thresholds signify transition points whereby representations become meaningful to the organism. Here, we matched stimulus protocols for psychophysical assays and intracellular recordings of antennal lobe (AL) projection neurons (PNs) in the moth Manduca sexta to directly compare psychophysical thresholds and the output representations they elicit. We first behaviorally identified odor detection and discrimination thresholds across an odor dilution series for a panel of structurally similar odors. We then characterized spatiotemporal spiking patterns across a population of individually filled and identified AL PNs in response to those odors at concentrations below, at, and above identified thresholds. Using spatial and spatiotemporal based analyses we observed that each stimulus produced unique representations, even at sub-threshold concentrations. Mean response latency did not decrease and the percent glomerular activation did not increase with concentration until undiluted odor. Furthermore, correlations between spatial patterns for odor decreased, but only significantly with undiluted odor. Using time-integrated Euclidean distance (ED) measures, we determined that added spatiotemporal information was present at the discrimination but not detection threshold. This added information was evidenced by an increase in integrated distance between the sub-detection and discrimination threshold concentrations (of the same odor) that was not present in comparison of the sub-detection and detection threshold. After consideration of delays for information to reach the AL we find that it takes ~120–140 ms for the AL to

  18. The GLAST Background Model

    SciTech Connect

    Ormes, J. F.; Atwood, W.; Burnett, T.; Grove, E.; Longo, F.; McEnery, J.; Ritz, S.; Mizuno, T.

    2007-07-12

    In order to estimate the ability of the GLAST/LAT to reject unwanted background of charged particles, optimize the on-board processing, size the required telemetry and optimize the GLAST orbit, we developed a detailed model of the background particles that would affect the LAT. In addition to the well-known components of the cosmic radiation, we included splash and reentrant components of protons, electrons (e+ and e-) from 10 MeV and beyond as well as the albedo gamma rays produced by cosmic ray interactions with the atmosphere. We made estimates of the irreducible background components produced by positrons and hadrons interacting in the multilayered micrometeorite shield and spacecraft surrounding the LAT and note that because the orbital debris has increased, the shielding required and hence the background are larger than were present in EGRET. Improvements to the model are currently being made to include the east-west effect.

  19. The GLAST Background Model

    SciTech Connect

    Ormes, J.F.; Atwood, W.; Burnett, T.; Grove, E.; Longo, F.; McEnery, J.; Mizuno, T.; Ritz, S.; /NASA, Goddard

    2007-10-17

    In order to estimate the ability of the GLAST/LAT to reject unwanted background of charged particles, optimize the on-board processing, size the required telemetry and optimize the GLAST orbit, we developed a detailed model of the background particles that would affect the LAT. In addition to the well-known components of the cosmic radiation, we included splash and reentrant components of protons, electrons (e+ and e-) from 10 MeV and beyond as well as the albedo gamma rays produced by cosmic ray interactions with the atmosphere. We made estimates of the irreducible background components produced by positrons and hadrons interacting in the multilayered micrometeorite shield and spacecraft surrounding the LAT and note that because the orbital debris has increased, the shielding required and hence the background are larger than were present in EGRET. Improvements to the model are currently being made to include the east-west effect.

  20. Providing additional information about the benefits of statins in a leaflet for patients with coronary heart disease: a qualitative study of the impact on attitudes and beliefs

    PubMed Central

    Dickinson, Rebecca; Raynor, David K; MacDonald, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Objective To explore the impact of providing additional information about the potential benefits of simvastatin in a patient leaflet on attitudes and beliefs. Design Interview-based study using a generic qualitative approach and framework analysis. Participants 21 participants receiving a prescription for simvastatin were recruited from a general practitioner practice (from a total of 120). 8 participants were women; the age range was 55–92. Intervention Participants were provided with leaflets showing one of 3 types of additional benefit information: (1) textual statement, (2) number needed to treat (NNT) or (3) natural frequency. Semistructured interviews explored patient's attitudes and beliefs. Results A descriptive narrative of preferences for format suggested patients prefer textual as opposed to numerical benefit information. Significant barriers to the acceptance of numerical benefit information included difficulty in understanding the numbers. Patients overestimated the benefits of statins and expressed surprise at the numerical information. Conclusions Textual information was preferred but numerical information, in particular in the form of a natural frequency, may help patients make judgements about their medicines. NNTs were found to be very difficult to understand. This raises the prospect that some patients might reject medicines because of disappointment with the perceived low benefits of their medicines. The self-reported impact on behaviour appeared minimal with reports of intentions to ‘do what the doctor tells me’. Further research is needed to explore the impact of such statements on people who are yet to be prescribed a statin. PMID:27913558

  1. EPA evaluation of the SYNERGY-1 fuel additive under Section 511 of the Motor Vehicle Information and Cost Savings Act. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Syria, S.L.

    1981-06-01

    This document announces the conclusions of the EPA evaluation of the 'SYNERGY-1' device under provisions of Section 511 of the Motor Vehicle Information and Cost Savings Act. This additive is intended to improve fuel economy and exhaust emission levels of two and four cycle gasoline fueled engines.

  2. Improve Quality of Life - additional criteria for health and social care information technology acceptance in an ageing world.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Jorge

    2012-01-01

    Reversing the rising cost of health and social systems is needed in ageing developed and developing countries. A new model of ageing is advocated by the World Health Organization. This new model asks for more personal health accountability and a more integrated approach on care and preventive cure. Information systems and technologies can play an important role in supporting the changes needed in order to have better and more sustainable health and social care systems. Using value and results for patients as criteria by which systems are accepted by users and by organizations can contribute to a value based competition in health and social care systems. The unified theory of acceptance and use of technology is presented, and the pertinence of adding an extension to the theory in order capture Quality of Life improvements expectations is explored.

  3. Separate information required for nuclear and subnuclear localization: additional complexity in localizing an enzyme shared by mitochondria and nuclei.

    PubMed Central

    Rose, A M; Joyce, P B; Hopper, A K; Martin, N C

    1992-01-01

    The TRM1 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae codes for a tRNA modification enzyme, N2,N2-dimethylguanosine-specific tRNA methyltransferase (m2(2)Gtase), shared by mitochondria and nuclei. Immunofluorescent staining at the nuclear periphery demonstrates that m2(2)Gtase localizes at or near the nuclear membrane. In determining sequences necessary for targeting the enzyme to nuclei and mitochondria, we found that information required to deliver the enzyme to the nucleus is not sufficient for its correct subnuclear localization. We also determined that mislocalizing the enzyme from the nucleus to the cytoplasm does not destroy its biological function. This change in location was caused by altering a sequence similar to other known nuclear targeting signals (KKSKKKRC), suggesting that shared enzymes are likely to use the same import pathway as proteins that localize only to the nucleus. As with other well-characterized mitochondrial proteins, the mitochondrial import of the shared methyltransferase depends on amino-terminal amino acids, and removal of the first 48 amino acids prevents its import into mitochondria. While this truncated protein is still imported into nuclei, the immunofluorescent staining is uniform throughout rather than at the nuclear periphery, a staining pattern identical to that described for a fusion protein consisting of the first 213 amino acids of m2(2)Gtase in frame with beta-galactosidase. As both of these proteins together contain the entire m2(2)Gtase coding region, the information necessary for association with the nuclear periphery must be more complex than the short linear sequence necessary for nuclear localization. Images PMID:1448094

  4. Notification: Audit of EPA's Processes for Managing Background Investigations of Privileged Users and Taking Action to Remediate Weaknesses in Agency's Information Security Program

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Project #OA-FY17-0139, Feb 15, 2017.The EPA OIG plans to begin preliminary research on an audit of EPA's processes for managing background investigations of privileged users and taking action to remediate weaknesses in agency's info security program.

  5. Nonthermal cosmic neutrino background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Mu-Chun; Ratz, Michael; Trautner, Andreas

    2015-12-01

    We point out that, for Dirac neutrinos, in addition to the standard thermal cosmic neutrino background (C ν B ), there could also exist a nonthermal neutrino background with comparable number density. As the right-handed components are essentially decoupled from the thermal bath of standard model particles, relic neutrinos with a nonthermal distribution may exist until today. The relic density of the nonthermal (nt) background can be constrained by the usual observational bounds on the effective number of massless degrees of freedom Neff and can be as large as nν nt≲0.5 nγ. In particular, Neff can be larger than 3.046 in the absence of any exotic states. Nonthermal relic neutrinos constitute an irreducible contribution to the detection of the C ν B and, hence, may be discovered by future experiments such as PTOLEMY. We also present a scenario of chaotic inflation in which a nonthermal background can naturally be generated by inflationary preheating. The nonthermal relic neutrinos, thus, may constitute a novel window into the very early Universe.

  6. Radiological assessment of radioactive waste-disposal areas at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Volume 3: Technical background information for the ORNL environmental and safety report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oakes, T. W.; Ohnesorge, W. F.; Wagner, E. B.; Chaudhry, M. Y.

    1981-12-01

    Thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) were used to determine dose equivalent rates in the ORNL solid waste disposal areas. The dosimeters were exchanged and read approximately quarterly during 1979 and 1980. The data were reviewed to detect trends in dose equivalent rates, but no trends were detected other than increased radiation levels in some areas due to the lowering of White Oak Lake. The rates at the disposal site were compared with TLD readings taken in areas on the DOE reservation perimeter, as well as in remote areas that represent natural background for East Tennessee.

  7. Vision Therapy News Backgrounder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Optometric Association, St. Louis, MO.

    The booklet provides an overview on vision therapy to aid writers, editors, and broadcasters help parents, teachers, older adults, and all consumers learn more about vision therapy. Following a description of vision therapy or vision training, information is provided on how and why vision therapy works. Additional sections address providers of…

  8. The Evolving National Information Network: Background and Challenges. A Report of the Technology Assessment Advisory Committee to the Commission on Preservation and Access.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Houweling, Douglas E.; McGill, Michael J.

    The rapidly developing and changing networking and telecommunications environment now being implemented in the United States and across the globe is explored. The creation of a flexible and inexpensive digital network allowing instantaneous access by any individual to information of any type is now within our grasp. A primer on the technology…

  9. Recovery of Native Genetic Background in Admixed Populations Using Haplotypes, Phenotypes, and Pedigree Information – Using Cika Cattle as a Case Breed

    PubMed Central

    Simčič, Mojca; Smetko, Anamarija; Sölkner, Johann; Seichter, Doris; Gorjanc, Gregor; Kompan, Dragomir; Medugorac, Ivica

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to obtain unbiased estimates of the diversity parameters, the population history, and the degree of admixture in Cika cattle which represents the local admixed breeds at risk of extinction undergoing challenging conservation programs. Genetic analyses were performed on the genome-wide Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) Illumina Bovine SNP50 array data of 76 Cika animals and 531 animals from 14 reference populations. To obtain unbiased estimates we used short haplotypes spanning four markers instead of single SNPs to avoid an ascertainment bias of the BovineSNP50 array. Genome-wide haplotypes combined with partial pedigree and type trait classification show the potential to improve identification of purebred animals with a low degree of admixture. Phylogenetic analyses demonstrated unique genetic identity of Cika animals. Genetic distance matrix presented by rooted Neighbour-Net suggested long and broad phylogenetic connection between Cika and Pinzgauer. Unsupervised clustering performed by the admixture analysis and two-dimensional presentation of the genetic distances between individuals also suggest Cika is a distinct breed despite being similar in appearance to Pinzgauer. Animals identified as the most purebred could be used as a nucleus for a recovery of the native genetic background in the current admixed population. The results show that local well-adapted strains, which have never been intensively managed and differentiated into specific breeds, exhibit large haplotype diversity. They suggest a conservation and recovery approach that does not rely exclusively on the search for the original native genetic background but rather on the identification and removal of common introgressed haplotypes would be more powerful. Successful implementation of such an approach should be based on combining phenotype, pedigree, and genome-wide haplotype data of the breed of interest and a spectrum of reference breeds which potentially have had

  10. Recovery of native genetic background in admixed populations using haplotypes, phenotypes, and pedigree information--using Cika cattle as a case breed.

    PubMed

    Simčič, Mojca; Smetko, Anamarija; Sölkner, Johann; Seichter, Doris; Gorjanc, Gregor; Kompan, Dragomir; Medugorac, Ivica

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to obtain unbiased estimates of the diversity parameters, the population history, and the degree of admixture in Cika cattle which represents the local admixed breeds at risk of extinction undergoing challenging conservation programs. Genetic analyses were performed on the genome-wide Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) Illumina Bovine SNP50 array data of 76 Cika animals and 531 animals from 14 reference populations. To obtain unbiased estimates we used short haplotypes spanning four markers instead of single SNPs to avoid an ascertainment bias of the BovineSNP50 array. Genome-wide haplotypes combined with partial pedigree and type trait classification show the potential to improve identification of purebred animals with a low degree of admixture. Phylogenetic analyses demonstrated unique genetic identity of Cika animals. Genetic distance matrix presented by rooted Neighbour-Net suggested long and broad phylogenetic connection between Cika and Pinzgauer. Unsupervised clustering performed by the admixture analysis and two-dimensional presentation of the genetic distances between individuals also suggest Cika is a distinct breed despite being similar in appearance to Pinzgauer. Animals identified as the most purebred could be used as a nucleus for a recovery of the native genetic background in the current admixed population. The results show that local well-adapted strains, which have never been intensively managed and differentiated into specific breeds, exhibit large haplotype diversity. They suggest a conservation and recovery approach that does not rely exclusively on the search for the original native genetic background but rather on the identification and removal of common introgressed haplotypes would be more powerful. Successful implementation of such an approach should be based on combining phenotype, pedigree, and genome-wide haplotype data of the breed of interest and a spectrum of reference breeds which potentially have had

  11. The Conterminous United States Mineral Assessment Program; background information to accompany folio of geologic, geochemical, remote sensing, and mineral resources maps of the Butte 1 degree x 2 degrees Quadrangle, Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elliott, James E.; Trautwein, C.M.; Wallace, C.A.; Lee, G.K.; Rowan, L.C.; Hanna, W.F.

    1993-01-01

    The Butte 1?x2 ? quadrangle in west-central Montana was investigated as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's Conterminous United States Mineral Assessment Program (CUSMAP). These investigations included geologic mapping, geochemical surveys, gravity and aeromagnetic surveys, examinations of mineral deposits, and specialized geochronologic and remote-sensing studies. The data collected during these studies were compiled, combined with available published and unpublished data, analyzed, and used in a mineral-resource assessment of the quadrangle. The results, including data, interpretations, and mineral-resource assessments for nine types of mineral deposits, are published separately as a folio of maps. These maps are accompanied by figures, tables, and explanatory text. This circular provides background information on the Butte quadrangle, summarizes the studies and published maps, and lists a selected bibliography of references pertinent to the geology, geochemistry, geophysics, and mineral resources of the quadrangle. The Butte quadrangle, which includes the world-famous Butte mining district, has a long history of mineral production. Many mining districts within the quadrangle have produced large quantities of many commodities; the most important in dollar value of production were copper, gold, silver, lead, zinc, manganese, molybdenum, and phosphate. At present, mines at several locations produce copper, molybdenum, gold, silver, lead, zinc, and phosphate. Exploration, mainly for gold, has indicated the presence of other mineral deposits that may be exploited in the future. The results of the investigations by the U.S. Geological Survey indicate that many areas of the quadrangle are highly favorable for the occurrence of additional undiscovered resources of gold, silver, copper, molybdenum, tungsten, and other metals in several deposit types.

  12. The Conterminous United States Mineral Appraisal Program; background information to accompany folio of geologic, geochemical, geophysical, and mineral resources maps of the Walker Lake 1 degree x 2 degrees Quadrangle, California and Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stewart, John Harris; Chaffee, M.A.; Dohrenwend, J.C.; John, D.A.; Kistler, R.W.; Kleinhampl, F.J.; Menzie, W.D.; Plouff, Donald; Rowan, L.C.; Silberling, Norman J.

    1984-01-01

    The Walker Lake 1? by 2? quadrangle in eastern California and western Nevada was studied by an interdisciplinary research team to appraise its mineral resources. The appraisal is based on geological, geochemical, and geophysical field and laboratory investigations, the results of which are published as a folio of maps, figures, and tables, with accompanying discussions. This circular provides background information on the investigations and integrates the information presented in the folio. The selected bibliography lists selected references to the geology, geochemistry, geophysics, and mineral deposits of the Walker Lake 1? by 2? quadrangle.

  13. The Conterminous United States Mineral Appraisal Program; background information to accompany folio of geologic, geochemical, geophysical, and mineral resources maps of the Tonopah 1 by 2 degree Quadrangle, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    John, David A.; Nash, J.T.; Plouff, Donald; Whitebread, D.H.

    1991-01-01

    The Tonopah 1 ? by 2 ? quadrangle in south-central Nevada was studied by an interdisciplinary research team to appraise its mineral resources. The appraisal is based on geological, geochemical, and geophysical field and laboratory investigations, the results of which are published as a folio of maps, figures, and tables, with accompanying discussions. This circular provides background information on the investigations and integrates the information presented in the folio. The selected bibliography lists references to the geology, geochemistry, geophysics, and mineral deposits of the Tonopah 1 ? by 2 ? quadrangle.

  14. The Conterminous United States Mineral Assessment Project; background information to accompany folio of geologic, geochemical, geophysical, and mineral resources maps of the Reno 1 by 2 degree Quadrangle, Nevada and California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    John, David A.; Stewart, John H.; Hendricks, J.D.; Rowan, L.C.; Plouff, Donald

    1992-01-01

    The Reno 1 ? by 2 ? quadrangle in west-central Nevada was studied by an interdisciplinary research team to appraise its mineral resources. The assessment is based on geological, geochemical, and geophysical field and laboratory investigations, the results of which are published as a folio of maps, reports, figures, and tables, with accompanying discussions. This circular provides background information on the investigations and integrates the information presented in the folio. The selected bibliography lists references to the geology, geochemistry, geophysics, and mineral deposits of the Reno 1 ? by 2 ? quadrangle.

  15. The Conterminous United States Mineral Appraisal Program; background information to accompany folio of geologic, geochemical, geophysical, and mineral resources maps of the Medford 1 degree x 2 degrees Quadrangle, Oregon and California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, James G.; Blakely, R.J.; Johnson, M.G.; Page, N.J.; Peterson, J.A.; Singer, D.A.; Whittington, C.L.

    1986-01-01

    The Medford 1 ? by 2 ? quadrangle in southern Oregon and northern California was studied by an interdisciplinary research team to appraise its mineral resources. The appraisal is based on geological, geochemical, and geophysical field and laboratory investigations, the results of which are published as a folio of maps, figures, and tables, with accompanying discussions. This circular provides background information on the investigations and integrates the information presented in the folio. The bibliography lists selected references to the geology, geochemistry, geophysics, and mineral deposits of the Medford 1 ? by 2 ? quadrangle.

  16. [Underreporting of tuberculosis in the Information System on Notifiable Diseases (SINAN): primary default and case detection from additional data sources using probabilistic record linkage].

    PubMed

    Pinheiro, Rejane Sobrino; Andrade, Vanusa de Lemos; Oliveira, Gisele Pinto de

    2012-08-01

    This study aimed to analyze underreporting of tuberculosis (TB) cases in the Information System on Notifiable Diseases (SINAN), based on the following data sources: Mortality Information System (SIM), Registry and Follow-up Book for TB Case Treatment (LPATB), and Laboratory Registry Book (LRLAB). Probabilistic record linkage was used between the SIM (2007-2008) and SINAN (2002-2008). A search was conducted in LPATB and LRLAB (2007-2008) for cases not recorded in SINAN. There were 125 deaths, of which 44.8% were not recorded in SINAN. In LPATB, 58 cases (5.1%) were in treatment and were not reported in SINAN. LRLAB showed 32 smear-positive cases not reported to SINAN and without treatment, representing primary default. Addition of the retrieved cases, led to a 14.6% increase in the incidence rate in 2007 and 11.6% in 2008. Underreporting of deaths from or with TB in the Mortality Information System and primary default revealed difficulties in access to adequate and timely treatment, calling for rethinking of strategies to detect cases for timely treatment.

  17. Human Blood Typing: A Forensic Science Approach. Part I: Background.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kobilinsky, Lawrence; Sheehan, Francis X.

    1988-01-01

    In this article, part I of a series, the forensic methods used in "typing" human blood, which as physical evidence is often found in the dried state, are outlined. Background information about individualization, antibody typing, fresh blood, dried blood, and additional systems is provided. (CW)

  18. The Backgrounds Data Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, W. A.; Gursky, H.; Heckathorn, H. M.; Lucke, R. L.; Berg, S. L.; Dombrowski, E. G.; Kessel, R. A.

    1993-01-01

    The Strategic Defense Initiative Organization has created data centers for midcourse, plumes, and backgrounds phenomenologies. The Backgrounds Data Center (BDC) has been designated as the prime archive for data collected by SDIO programs. The BDC maintains a Summary Catalog that contains 'metadata,' that is, information about data, such as when the data were obtained, what the spectral range of the data is, and what region of the Earth or sky was observed. Queries to this catalog result in a listing of all data sets (from all experiments in the Summary Catalog) that satisfy the specified criteria. Thus, the user can identify different experiments that made similar observations and order them from the BDC for analysis. On-site users can use the Science Analysis Facility (SAFE for this purpose. For some programs, the BDC maintains a Program Catalog, which can classify data in as many ways as desired (rather than just by position, time, and spectral range as in the Summary Catalog). For example, data sets could be tagged with such diverse parameters as solar illumination angle, signal level, or the value of a particular spectral ratio, as long as these quantities can be read from the digital record or calculated from it by the ingest program. All unclassified catalogs and unclassified data will be remotely accessible.

  19. Fuel characteristics pertinent to the design of aircraft fuel systems, Supplement I : additional information on MIL-F-7914(AER) grade JP-5 fuel and several fuel oils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnett, Henry C; Hibbard, Robert R

    1953-01-01

    Since the release of the first NACA publication on fuel characteristics pertinent to the design of aircraft fuel systems (NACA-RM-E53A21), additional information has become available on MIL-F7914(AER) grade JP-5 fuel and several of the current grades of fuel oils. In order to make this information available to fuel-system designers as quickly as possible, the present report has been prepared as a supplement to NACA-RM-E53A21. Although JP-5 fuel is of greater interest in current fuel-system problems than the fuel oils, the available data are not as extensive. It is believed, however, that the limited data on JP-5 are sufficient to indicate the variations in stocks that the designer must consider under a given fuel specification. The methods used in the preparation and extrapolation of data presented in the tables and figures of this supplement are the same as those used in NACA-RM-E53A21.

  20. The Conterminous United States Mineral Appraisal Program; background information to accompany folio of geologic, geochemical, geophysical, and mineral resource maps of the Choteau 1 degree x 2 degrees Quadrangle, Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Earhart, Robert L.; Grimes, David J.; Leinz, Reinhard W.; Kleinkopf, M. Dean

    1981-01-01

    The Choteau l? x 2? quadrangle in northwest Montana was studied by an interdisciplinary research team in order to appraise its mineral resource and hydrocarbon potential The appraisal is based on field and laboratory investigations of the geology, geochemistry, and geophysics. The results of the investigations are published as a folio of maps, figures, tables, and accompanying discussions. This circular provides background information on the investigations and integrates the published components of the resource appraisal. A comprehensive bibliography cites both specific and general references to the geology, geochemistry, geophysics, and mineral deposits of the Choteau l? x 2? quadrangle.

  1. The Conterminous United States Mineral Assessment Program; background information to accompany folio of geologic, geochemical, geophysical, remote sensing, and mineral resource maps of the Wallace 1 degree x 2 degrees Quadrangle, Montana and Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harrison, Jack Edward; Leach, David L.; Kleinkopf, M. Dean; Long, Carl L.; Rowan, Larry C.; Marvin, Richard F.

    1986-01-01

    The Wallace 1? x 2 quadrangle in Montana and Idaho was studied by an interdisciplinary research team that included geologists, geochemists, and geophysicists, as well as specialists in isotopic dating and remote sensing. The basic data resulting from these studies, as well as the final metallic mineral resource assessments, are published as a folio of maps, figures, tables, and accompanying discussions. This circular provides background information on the studies and lists the published components of the resource appraisal. An extensive bibliography lists both specific and general references that apply to this geoscience study of the quadrangle.

  2. Rocket observations of the diffuse ultraviolet background

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jakobsen, P.; Bowyer, S.; Kimble, R.; Jelinsky, P.; Grewing, M.; Kraemer, G.; Wulf-Mathies, C.

    1984-01-01

    The objective of the experiment reported here was to obtain additional information on the absolute intensity level and spatial variation of the diffuse ultraviolet background and thereby gain insight into the origin of this radiation. The experiment used three ultraviolet sensitive photometers placed in the focal plane of a 95-cm, f/2.8 normal incidence telescope flown on board an Aries sounding rocket. The measured intensities clearly refute the hypothesis of an isotropic background, the intensities of the high galactic latitude being definitely lower than the intensities seen at intermediate latitudes. Moreover, the count rates in all three channels along the slow scan exhibit local enhancements as well as an overall trend. In general, the spatial variations exhibited by the data correlate with the line of sight of neutral hydrogen column density as determined from 21-cm radio observations. This fact demonstrates that there is a galactic component to the diffuse ultraviolet radiation field.

  3. Food additives

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Michael

    1974-01-01

    Food additives are discussed from the food technology point of view. The reasons for their use are summarized: (1) to protect food from chemical and microbiological attack; (2) to even out seasonal supplies; (3) to improve their eating quality; (4) to improve their nutritional value. The various types of food additives are considered, e.g. colours, flavours, emulsifiers, bread and flour additives, preservatives, and nutritional additives. The paper concludes with consideration of those circumstances in which the use of additives is (a) justified and (b) unjustified. PMID:4467857

  4. Limits of Astrophysics with Gravitational-Wave Backgrounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Callister, Thomas; Sammut, Letizia; Qiu, Shi; Mandel, Ilya; Thrane, Eric

    2016-07-01

    The recent Advanced LIGO detection of gravitational waves from the binary black hole GW150914 suggests there exists a large population of merging binary black holes in the Universe. Although most are too distant to be individually resolved by advanced detectors, the superposition of gravitational waves from many unresolvable binaries is expected to create an astrophysical stochastic background. Recent results from the LIGO and Virgo Collaborations show that this astrophysical background is within reach of Advanced LIGO. In principle, the binary black hole background encodes interesting astrophysical properties, such as the mass distribution and redshift distribution of distant binaries. However, we show that this information will be difficult to extract with the current configuration of advanced detectors (and using current data analysis tools). Additionally, the binary black hole background also constitutes a foreground that limits the ability of advanced detectors to observe other interesting stochastic background signals, for example, from cosmic strings or phase transitions in the early Universe. We quantify this effect.

  5. The Conterminous United States Mineral Assessment Program; background information to accompany folio of geologic and mineral resource maps of the Silver City 1 degree x 2 degrees Quadrangle, New Mexico and Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Richter, Donald H.; Houser, B.B.; Watts, K.C.; Klein, D.P.; Sharp, W.N.; Drewes, Harald; Hedlund, D.C.; Raines, G.L.; Hassemer, J.R.

    1987-01-01

    The Silver City 1 ? x 2 ? quadrangle, consisting of about 20,650 km2 in southwestern New Mexico and southeastern Arizona, has been investigated by a multidisciplinary research team for the purpose of assessing its mineral resource potential. The results of this investigation are in a folio of 21 maps that contain detailed information on the geology, geochemistry, geophysics, mineral deposits, and potential mineral resources of the quadrangle. This Circular provides background information on the various studies and integrates the component maps. It contains an extensive selected bibliography pertinent to the geology and mineral deposits of the quadrangle. The quadrangle has produced more than $3.5 billion in mineral products since about 1850 and contains significant resources of gold, silver, copper, molybdenum, lead, zinc, iron, manganese-iron, zeolite minerals, and possibly tin and tungsten.

  6. Background information on high voltage fields.

    PubMed Central

    Janes, D E

    1977-01-01

    The increased demand for power has led to higher voltages for overhead transmission lines. Environmentalists, governmental agencies, and some members of the scientific community have questioned if past biological effects research and experience with lower voltage lines provide adequate bases for predicting the possible health and environmental effects of the higher voltage lines. Only a small amount of work has been done to explore the possible effects, especially long term effects, of the exposure of biological systems to electric fields from transmission lines. Research in Western Europe and the United States has not identified any prompt or acute effects other than spark and electric discharge and no permanent effects. Contrasted with this are the studies of workers in Soviet and Spanish high voltage switchyards that report effects, such as excitability, headaches, drowsiness, fatique, and nausea, that are not found in Soviet line maintenance workers. The results of current and planned research, supported by both U.S. Government agencies and the private sector, should resolve a number of the present uncertanties and provide answers for the many questions concerning potential effects. PMID:598346

  7. Compulsive Gambling: Background Information for Security Personnel

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-04-01

    the American Psychiatric Associations’ Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders . This "medicalization" of compulsive gambling has made...opposite direction as the 29 many financial, family and legal difficulties caused by compulsive gambling can lead to depression and other mental disorders ...Ideation, and Psychoticism, and significantly lower on Obsessive - compulsive , Interpersonal Sensitivity, Anxiety, and Phobic Anxiety scales. The test used

  8. Background Information | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Screening Trial is a large population-based randomized trial evaluating screening programs for these cancers. The primary goal of this long-term trial of the National Cancer Institute's (NCI) Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) is to determine the effects of screening on cancer-related mortality and on secondary endpoints. |

  9. Background Information on the Soviet Union

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-01-01

    made up mostly of Great Russians. The official rate of the 1941-46 period resulted in a paucity of language of the USSR is Great Russian. and anyone...implied in this publication are not to be construed as carrying official sanction of the Department of the Air Force or the Air University. II Preface S...country’s largest industrial complex. It indigenous populations with well-developed is the key point in a wide-spread network of languages and cultures

  10. Water Watch Program Overview. Background Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kentucky State Div. of Water, Frankfort. Kentucky Natural Resources and Environmental Protection Cabinet.

    Lakes, streams, and wetlands serve many purposes for the people of the state of Kentucky and are necessary and valued elements of its natural resources. The Water Watch program promotes individual responsibility for a common resource, educates people about the use and protection of local water resources, provides recreational opportunities through…

  11. Inputs and Processes in Education: A Background Paper. Final Report Deliverable #1-2.2b.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schrag, Judy A.

    This background paper is a result of a literature review conducted under Project FORUM that identifies research-based inputs and processes related to student outcomes. It was intended to provide background information for the participants attending the Wingspread Conference on Inputs and Processes in October, 1998. In addition, the report is…

  12. BPI-ANCA Provides Additional Clinical Information to Anti-Pseudomonas Serology: Results from a Cohort of 117 Swedish Cystic Fibrosis Patients.

    PubMed

    Lindberg, Ulrika; Carlsson, Malin; Hellmark, Thomas; Segelmark, Mårten

    2015-01-01

    Patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) colonized with Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) have worse prognosis compared with patients who are not. BPI-ANCA is an anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody against BPI (bactericidal/permeability increasing protein) correlating with P. aeruginosa colonization and adverse long time prognosis. Whether it provides additional information as compared to standard anti-P. aeruginosa serology tests is not known. 117 nontransplanted CF patients at the CF centre in Lund, Sweden, were followed prospectively for ten years. Bacterial colonisation was classified according to the Leeds criteria. IgA BPI-ANCA was compared with assays for antibodies against alkaline protease (AP), Elastase (ELA), and Exotoxin A (ExoA). Lung function and patient outcome, alive, lung transplanted, or dead, were registered. BPI-ANCA showed the highest correlation with lung function impairment with an r-value of 0.44. Forty-eight of the 117 patients were chronically colonized with P. aeruginosa. Twenty of these patients experienced an adverse outcome. Receiver operator curve (ROC) analysis revealed that this could be predicted by BPI-ANCA (AUC = 0.77), (p = 0.002) to a better degree compared with serology tests. BPI-ANCA correlates better with lung function impairment and long time prognosis than anti-P. aeruginosa serology and has similar ability to identify patients with chronic P. aeruginosa.

  13. Background sources at PEP

    SciTech Connect

    Lynch, H.; Schwitters, R.F.; Toner, W.T.

    1988-01-01

    Important sources of background for PEP experiments are studied. Background particles originate from high-energy electrons and positrons which have been lost from stable orbits, ..gamma..-rays emitted by the primary beams through bremsstrahlung in the residual gas, and synchrotron radiation x-rays. The effect of these processes on the beam lifetime are calculated and estimates of background rates at the interaction region are given. Recommendations for the PEP design, aimed at minimizing background are presented. 7 figs., 4 tabs.

  14. 47 CFR 215.1 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... among affected Federal agencies information concerning the telecommunications effects of EMP and... Telecommunication OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY AND NATIONAL SECURITY COUNCIL FEDERAL GOVERNMENT FOCAL POINT FOR ELECTROMAGNETIC PULSE (EMP) INFORMATION § 215.1 Background. (a) The nuclear...

  15. 16 CFR 1101.1 - General background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false General background. 1101.1 Section 1101.1 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS INFORMATION DISCLOSURE UNDER SECTION 6(b) OF THE CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT Background § 1101.1 General background....

  16. 16 CFR 1101.1 - General background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General background. 1101.1 Section 1101.1 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS INFORMATION DISCLOSURE UNDER SECTION 6(b) OF THE CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT Background § 1101.1 General background. (a) Basic purpose. This rule sets...

  17. From linked open data to molecular interaction: studying selectivity trends for ligands of the human serotonin and dopamine transporter† †The authors declare no competing interests. ‡ ‡Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c6md00207b Click here for additional data file. Click here for additional data file. Click here for additional data file. Click here for additional data file. Click here for additional data file. Click here for additional data file. Click here for additional data file. Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Hellsberg, Eva; Viereck, Michael; Ecker, Gerhard F.

    2016-01-01

    Retrieval of congeneric and consistent SAR data sets for protein targets of interest is still a laborious task to do if no appropriate in-house data set is available. However, combining integrated open data sources (such as the Open PHACTS Discovery Platform) with workflow tools now offers the possibility of querying across multiple domains and tailoring the search to the given research question. Starting from two phylogenetically related protein targets of interest (the human serotonin and dopamine transporters), the whole chemical compound space was explored by implementing a scaffold-based clustering of compounds possessing biological measurements for both targets. In addition, potential hERG blocking liabilities were included. The workflow allowed studying the selectivity trends of scaffold series, identifying potentially harmful compound series, and performing SAR, docking studies and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations for a consistent data set of 56 cathinones. This delivered useful insights into driving determinants for hDAT selectivity over hSERT. With respect to the scaffold-based analyses it should be noted that the cathinone data set could be retrieved only when Murcko scaffold analyses were combined with similarity searches such as a common substructure search. PMID:27891211

  18. Food additives

    MedlinePlus

    ... or natural. Natural food additives include: Herbs or spices to add flavor to foods Vinegar for pickling ... Certain colors improve the appearance of foods. Many spices, as well as natural and man-made flavors, ...

  19. The Cosmic Background Explorer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gulkis, Samuel; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Outlines the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) mission to measure celestial radiation. Describes the instruments used and experiments involving differential microwave radiometers, and a far infrared absolute spectrophotometer. (YP)

  20. Potlining Additives

    SciTech Connect

    Rudolf Keller

    2004-08-10

    In this project, a concept to improve the performance of aluminum production cells by introducing potlining additives was examined and tested. Boron oxide was added to cathode blocks, and titanium was dissolved in the metal pool; this resulted in the formation of titanium diboride and caused the molten aluminum to wet the carbonaceous cathode surface. Such wetting reportedly leads to operational improvements and extended cell life. In addition, boron oxide suppresses cyanide formation. This final report presents and discusses the results of this project. Substantial economic benefits for the practical implementation of the technology are projected, especially for modern cells with graphitized blocks. For example, with an energy savings of about 5% and an increase in pot life from 1500 to 2500 days, a cost savings of $ 0.023 per pound of aluminum produced is projected for a 200 kA pot.

  1. Phosphazene additives

    DOEpatents

    Harrup, Mason K; Rollins, Harry W

    2013-11-26

    An additive comprising a phosphazene compound that has at least two reactive functional groups and at least one capping functional group bonded to phosphorus atoms of the phosphazene compound. One of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with cellulose and the other of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with a resin, such as an amine resin of a polycarboxylic acid resin. The at least one capping functional group is selected from the group consisting of a short chain ether group, an alkoxy group, or an aryloxy group. Also disclosed are an additive-resin admixture, a method of treating a wood product, and a wood product.

  2. Correlators in nontrivial backgrounds

    SciTech Connect

    Mello Koch, Robert de; Ives, Norman; Stephanou, Michael

    2009-01-15

    Operators in N=4 super Yang-Mills theory with an R-charge of O(N{sup 2}) are dual to backgrounds which are asymtotically AdS{sub 5}xS{sup 5}. In this article we develop efficient techniques that allow the computation of correlation functions in these backgrounds. We find that (i) contractions between fields in the string words and fields in the operator creating the background are the field theory accounting of the new geometry, (ii) correlation functions of probes in these backgrounds are given by the free field theory contractions but with rescaled propagators and (iii) in these backgrounds there are no open string excitations with their special end point interactions; we have only closed string excitations.

  3. The Athena Background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piro, Luigi; Lotti, Simone; Macculi, Claudio; Molendi, Silvano; Eraerds, Tanja; Laurent, Philippe

    2015-09-01

    Estimating, reducing and controlling the residual particle background is fundamental for achieving the objectives of several science topics of Athena, in particular those connected with background dominated observations of faint and/or diffuse sources. This requires assessing the particle environment in L2, propagating the various particle components throughout the mirror, spacecraft, and instruments via proper modelling and simulations of various physical processes, implementing design and h/w measures at instrument and mission level to reduce the un-rejected background and identifying proper calibration methods to control the background variations. Likewise, an adequate knowledge of the XRB, made of components that may vary spatially or temporally, is required as well. Here we will review the present status of the background knowledge, and summarize the activities on-going within Athena at various levels.

  4. Ambient Background Particulate Compositiion Outdoor Natural Background: Interferents/Clutter

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-08-01

    the biological warfare detection world), you must conduct long term ( seasonally ) particulate monitoring. Anecdotal short term monitoring attempts...particulates (interferents or clutter) in the lower atmosphere at four locations along a transect in the UK for 2 years. In addition, seasonal , diurnal...CONTENTS 1. INTRODUCTION/BACKGROUND 9 2. UK AEROSOL BIODIVERSITY STUDY-2 YEARS, FOUR LOCATIONS. FOUR SEASONS 10 3. DoD SPONSORED ANAL YSIS OF UK

  5. Background character research for synthetical performance of thermal imaging systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Song-lin; Wang, Ji-hui; Wang, Xiao-wei; Jin, Wei-qi

    2014-05-01

    Background is assumed to be uniform usually for evaluating the performance of thermal imaging systems, however the impact of background cannot be ignored for target acquisition in reality, background character is important research content for thermal imaging technology. A background noise parameter 𝜎 was proposed in MRTD model and used to describe background character. Background experiments were designed, and some typical backgrounds (namely lawn background, concrete pavement background, trees background and snow background) character were analyzed by 𝜎. MRTD including 𝜎 was introduced into MRTD-Channel Width (CW) model, the impact of above typical backgrounds for target information quantity were analyzed by MRTD-CW model with background character. Target information quantity for different backgrounds was calculated by MRTD-CW, and compared with that of TTP model. A target acquisition performance model based on MRTD-CW with background character will be research in the future.

  6. The cosmic neutrino background

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dar, Arnon

    1991-01-01

    The cosmic neutrino background is expected to consist of relic neutrinos from the big bang, of neutrinos produced during nuclear burning in stars, of neutrinos released by gravitational stellar collapse, and of neutrinos produced by cosmic ray interactions with matter and radiation in the interstellar and intergalactic medium. Formation of baryonic dark matter in the early universe, matter-antimatter annihilation in a baryonic symmetric universe, and dark matter annihilation could have also contributed significantly to the cosmic neutrino background. The purpose of this paper is to review the properties of these cosmic neutrino backgrounds, the indirect evidence for their existence, and the prospects for their detection.

  7. Background Underground at WIPP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esch, Ernst-Ingo; Hime, A.; Bowles, T. J.

    2001-04-01

    Recent interest to establish a dedicated underground laboratory in the United States prompted an experimental program at to quantify the enviromental backgrounds underground at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in Carlsbad, New Mexico. An outline of this program is provided along with recent experimental data on the cosmic ray muon flux at the 650 meter level of WIPP. The implications of the cosmic ray muon and fast neutron background at WIPP will be discussed in the context of new generation, low background experiments envisioned in the future.

  8. Notification: Background Investigation Services

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Project #OA-FY15-0029, February 26, 2015. The Office of Inspector General (OIG) for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) plans to begin field work for our audit of background investigation services.

  9. Establishment of a Background Environmental Monitoring Station for the PNNL Campus

    SciTech Connect

    Fritz, Brad G.; Snyder, Sandra F.; Barnett, J. Matthew; Bisping, Lynn E.; Rishel, Jeremy P.

    2014-12-01

    The environmental surveillance of background levels of radionuclides and, in particular, the siting of a background environmental surveillance (monitoring) station are examined. Many published works identify and stress the need for background monitoring; however, little definitive and comprehensive information for siting a station exists. A definition of an ideal background monitoring location and the generic criteria recommended for use in establishing such a background monitoring location are proposed. There are seven primary (mandatory) criteria described with two additional, optional criteria. The criteria are applied to the Richland, Washington (WA), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Campus, which currently uses background monitoring data from the nearby Hanford Site. Eleven potential background monitoring sites were identified, with one location in Benton City, WA found to meet all of the mandatory and optional criteria. It is expected that the new sampler will be installed and operating by the end of June, 2015.

  10. The Cosmic Background Explorer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gulkis, Samuel; Lubin, Philip M.; Meyer, Stephan S.; Silverberg, Robert F.

    1990-01-01

    The Cosmic Background Explorer (CBE), NASA's cosmological satellite which will observe a radiative relic of the big bang, is discussed. The major questions connected to the big bang theory which may be clarified using the CBE are reviewed. The satellite instruments and experiments are described, including the Differential Microwave Radiometer, which measures the difference between microwave radiation emitted from two points on the sky, the Far-Infrared Absolute Spectrophotometer, which compares the spectrum of radiation from the sky at wavelengths from 100 microns to one cm with that from an internal blackbody, and the Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment, which searches for the radiation from the earliest generation of stars.

  11. Environmental Assessment for the Construction of an Addition to USSOCOM Command and Control Facility, an Information Technology Facility, and a Permanent Parking Lot MacDill AFB, Florida

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-01-01

    In addition, since the site is larger than one acre in area, a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Phase II Storm water...Clean Air Act (CAA), as amended in 1977 and 1990, provides the basis for regulating air pollution to the atmosphere. The United States Environmental...Protection Agency (USEPA) set air quality standards for six “criteria” pollutants : carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), ozone (O3), sulfur

  12. Recent Additions to the General College Career Development Program Offerings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hixson, Bruce, Ed.

    1981-01-01

    Recent additions to the career development offerings at the University of Minnesota's General College are described. The aviation training program, which is described by Thomas Brothen, is designed to prepare students for licensure testing through the Federal Aviation Administration. Background information on aviation training at the University of…

  13. Activating Background Knowledge in Reading Comprehension Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowe, Deborah Wells; Rayford, Lawrence

    1987-01-01

    Indicates that a broad age range of students can use some purpose questions as cues to activate background knowledge. Suggest topic familiarity, amount of information presented, and the presence of genre clues as text features affecting schema activation. (NKA)

  14. 47 CFR 215.1 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Background. 215.1 Section 215.1 Telecommunication OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY AND NATIONAL SECURITY COUNCIL FEDERAL GOVERNMENT FOCAL POINT FOR ELECTROMAGNETIC PULSE (EMP) INFORMATION § 215.1 Background. (a) The nuclear...

  15. Child Care: State Requirements for Background Checks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fagnoni, Cynthia

    Background checks involve gathering information from state and federal databases to determine if child care providers have a history of child abuse or other criminal convictions that would make them unacceptable for working with children. Background checks include state criminal history checks, state child abuse registry checks, and Federal Bureau…

  16. 47 CFR 215.1 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Background. 215.1 Section 215.1 Telecommunication OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY AND NATIONAL SECURITY COUNCIL FEDERAL GOVERNMENT FOCAL POINT FOR ELECTROMAGNETIC PULSE (EMP) INFORMATION § 215.1 Background. (a) The nuclear...

  17. 47 CFR 215.1 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Background. 215.1 Section 215.1 Telecommunication OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY AND NATIONAL SECURITY COUNCIL FEDERAL GOVERNMENT FOCAL POINT FOR ELECTROMAGNETIC PULSE (EMP) INFORMATION § 215.1 Background. (a) The nuclear...

  18. 47 CFR 215.1 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Background. 215.1 Section 215.1 Telecommunication OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY AND NATIONAL SECURITY COUNCIL FEDERAL GOVERNMENT FOCAL POINT FOR ELECTROMAGNETIC PULSE (EMP) INFORMATION § 215.1 Background. (a) The nuclear...

  19. Berkeley Low Background Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, K. J.; Norman, E. B.; Smith, A. R.; Poon, A. W. P.; Chan, Y. D.; Lesko, K. T.

    2015-08-17

    The Berkeley Low Background Facility (BLBF) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) in Berkeley, California provides low background gamma spectroscopy services to a wide array of experiments and projects. The analysis of samples takes place within two unique facilities; locally within a carefully-constructed, low background laboratory on the surface at LBNL and at the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) in Lead, SD. These facilities provide a variety of gamma spectroscopy services to low background experiments primarily in the form of passive material screening for primordial radioisotopes (U, Th, K) or common cosmogenic/anthropogenic products; active screening via neutron activation analysis for U,Th, and K as well as a variety of stable isotopes; and neutron flux/beam characterization measurements through the use of monitors. A general overview of the facilities, services, and sensitivities will be presented. Recent activities and upgrades will also be described including an overview of the recently installed counting system at SURF (recently relocated from Oroville, CA in 2014), the installation of a second underground counting station at SURF in 2015, and future plans. The BLBF is open to any users for counting services or collaboration on a wide variety of experiments and projects.

  20. Building Background Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Douglas; Ross, Donna; Grant, Maria

    2010-01-01

    Too often, students enter our classrooms with insufficient knowledge of physical science. As a result, they have a difficult time understanding content in texts, lectures, and laboratory activities. This lack of background knowledge can have an impact on their ability to ask questions and wonder--both key components of inquiry. In this article,…

  1. Two new endemic species of Ameiva (Squamata: Teiidae) from the dry forest of northwestern Peru and additional information on Ameiva concolor Ruthven, 1924.

    PubMed

    Koch, Claudia; Venegas, Pablo J; Rödder, Dennis; Flecks, Morris; Böhme, Wolfgang

    2013-12-04

    We describe two new species of Ameiva Meyer, 1795 from the dry forest of the Northern Peruvian Andes. The new species Ameiva nodam sp. nov. and Ameiva aggerecusans sp. nov. share a divided frontal plate and are differentiated from each other and from their congeners based on genetic (12S and 16S rRNA genes) and morphological characteristics. A. nodam sp. nov. has dilated postbrachials, a maximum known snout-vent length of 101 mm, 10 longitudinal rows of ventral plates, 86-113 midbody granules, 25-35 lamellae under the fourth toe, and a color pattern with 5 longitudinal yellow stripes on the dorsum. Ameiva aggerecusans sp. nov. has not or only hardly dilated postbrachials, a maximum known snout-vent length of 99.3 mm, 10-12 longitudinal rows of ventral plates, 73-92 midbody granules, 31-39 lamellae under the fourth toe, and the females and juveniles of the species normally exhibit a cream-colored vertebral stripe on a dark dorsum ground color. We provide information on the intraspecific variation and distribution of A. concolor. Furthermore, we provide information on the environmental niches of the taxa and test for niche conservatism. 

  2. Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification assay identifies additional copy number changes compared with R-band karyotype and provide more accuracy prognostic information in myelodysplastic syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Zefeng; Zhang, Yue; Liu, Jinqin; Li, Bing; Fang, Liwei; Zhang, Hongli; Pan, Lijuan; Hu, Naibo; Qu, Shiqiang; Cai, Wenyu; Ru, Kun; Jia, Yujiao; Huang, Gang; Xiao, Zhijian

    2017-01-01

    Cytogenetic analysis provides important diagnostic and prognostic information for patients with Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) and plays an essential role in the International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS) and the revised International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS-R). Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) assay is a recently developed technique to identify targeted cytogenetic aberrations in MDS patients. In the present study, we evaluated the results obtained using an MLPA assay in 437 patients with MDS to determine the efficacy of MLPA analysis. Using R-banding karyotyping, 45% (197/437) of MDS patients had chromosomal abnormalities, whereas MLPA analysis detected that 35% (153/437) of MDS cases contained at least one copy-number variations (CNVs) .2/5 individuals (40%) with R-band karyotype failures had trisomy 8 detected using only MLPA. Clonal cytogenetic abnormalities were detected in 20/235 (8.5%) MDS patients with a normal R-band karyotype, and 12/20 (60%) of those patients were reclassified into a higher-risk IPSS-R prognostic category. When sequencing and cytogenetics were combined, the fraction of patients with MDS-related oncogenic lesions increased to 87.3% (233/267 cases). MLPA analysis determined that the median OS of patients with a normal karyotype (n=218) was 65 months compared with 27 months in cases with an aberrant karyotype (P=0.002) in 240 patients with normal or failed karyotypes by R-banding karyotyping. The high-resolution MPLA assay is an efficient and reliable method that can be used in conjunction with R-band karyotyping to detect chromosomal abnormalities in patients with suspected MDS. MLPA may also provide more accurate prognostic information. PMID:27906673

  3. The midlatitude North American background aerosol and global aerosol variation.

    PubMed

    Hidy, George M; Blanchard, Charles L

    2005-11-01

    Protocols for the particulate matter (PM) National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS), and the Regional Haze Rule (RHR) give two complementary definitions for "natural" background airborne particle concentrations in the United States. The definition for the NAAQS derives largely from reported annual averages, whereas the definition for the RHR takes into account the frequency of occurrence of a range of visibility conditions estimated using fine particle composition. These definitions are simple, static representations of background or "unmanageable" aerosol conditions in the United States. An accumulation of data from rural-remote sites representing global conditions indicates that the airborne particle concentrations are highly variable. Observational campaigns show weather-related variations, including incidents of regional or intercontinental transport of pollution that influence background aerosol levels over midlatitude North America. Defining a background in North America based on long-term observations relies mainly on the remote-rural IMPROVE network in the United States, with a few additional measurements from Canada. Examination of the frequency of occurrence of mass concentrations and particle components provides insight not only about annual median conditions but also the variability of apparent background conditions. The results of this analysis suggest that a more elaborate approach to defining an unmanageable background could improve the present approach taken for information input into the U.S. regulatory process. An approach interpreting the continental gradients in fine PM (PM2.5) concentrations and composition may be warranted.

  4. Anisotropies in the gravitational wave background as a probe of the cosmic string network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuroyanagi, Sachiko; Takahashi, Keitaro; Yonemaru, Naoyuki; Kumamoto, Hiroki

    2017-02-01

    Pulsar timing arrays are powerful tools to test the existence of cosmic strings by searching for the gravitational wave (GW) background. The amplitude of the background connects to information on cosmic strings such as the tension and string network properties. In addition, one may be able to extract more information on the properties of cosmic strings by measuring anisotropies in the GW background. In this paper, we provide estimates of the level of anisotropy expected in the GW background generated by cusps on cosmic strings. We find that the anisotropy level strongly depends on the initial loop size α , and thus we may be able to put constraints on α by measuring the anisotropy of the GW background. We also find that certain regions of the parameter space can be probed by shifting the observation frequency of GWs.

  5. Background Investigations and Clearances

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    You may need to complete certain security forms and report for identity proofing and fingerprinting before you can begin work at EPA. The following document contain specific instructions and information to help guide you through the process:

  6. The background is remapped across saccades.

    PubMed

    Cha, Oakyoon; Chong, Sang Chul

    2014-02-01

    Physiological studies have found that neurons prepare for impending eye movements, showing anticipatory responses to stimuli presented at the location of the post-saccadic receptive fields (RFs) (Wurtz in Vis Res 48:2070-2089, 2008). These studies proposed that visual neurons with shifting RFs prepared for the stimuli they would process after an impending saccade. Additionally, psychophysical studies have shown behavioral consequences of those anticipatory responses, including the transfer of aftereffects (Melcher in Nat Neurosci 10:903-907, 2007) and the remapping of attention (Rolfs et al. in Nat Neurosci 14:252-258, 2011). As the physiological studies proposed, the shifting RF mechanism explains the transfer of aftereffects. Recently, a new mechanism based on activation transfer via a saliency map was proposed, which accounted for the remapping of attention (Cavanagh et al. in Trends Cogn Sci 14:147-153, 2010). We hypothesized that there would be different aspects of the remapping corresponding to these different neural mechanisms. This study found that the information in the background was remapped to a similar extent as the figure, provided that the visual context remained stable. We manipulated the status of the figure and the ground in the saliency map and showed that the manipulation modulated the remapping of the figure and the ground in different ways. These results suggest that the visual system has an ability to remap the background as well as the figure, but lacks the ability to modulate the remapping of the background based on the visual context, and that different neural mechanisms might work together to maintain visual stability across saccades.

  7. Ultraviolet Background Radiation (Preprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-03-01

    5.4 Apollo-Soyuz 3 5 5.5 Evidence for Scattering From Dust ? 3 8 5.6 More Evidence For Scattering From Dust ? 4 0 5.7 More Observations 4 2...Emission from cold interstellar dust . This has been observed by IRAS as the 100 u.m cosmic cirrus (64). The existence of such dust at moderate and... DUST 4 6 CONCLUSIONS 4 7 6.1 Spectral Structure in the Diffuse 4 7 Ultraviolet Background 6.2 Is There Light Scattered From Dust ? 4 7 6.3

  8. Cosmic Background Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sidharth, B. G.; Valluri, S. R.

    2015-08-01

    It is shown that a collection of photons with nearly the same frequency exhibits a "condensation" type of phenomenon corresponding to a peak intensity. The observed cosmic background radiation can be explained from this standpoint. We have obtained analogous results by extremization of the occupation number for photons with the use of the Lambert W function. Some of the interesting applications of this function are briefly discussed in the context of graphene which exhibits an interesting two dimensional structure with several characteristic properties and diverse practical applications.

  9. Extragalactic Backgrounds after Planck

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dore, Olivier

    Among the potentially most important results of cosmology in the last decade is the realization that the star formation rate at redshifts greater than 1 is higher than at present by about an order of magnitude, and that half of the energy produced since the surface of last scattering has been absorbed and reemitted by dust. Most of the light produced by stars at high redshifts thus reaches us in the far infrared. This radiation is referred to as the cosmic infrared background (CIB) and is emitted primarily by dusty, star-forming galaxies at redshift z=1-4. Embedded in far infrared emission of the CIB is the history of star formation, dust production, and the growth of large scale structures. Our research project aims at shedding new light on several extragalactic backgrounds investigated by NASA surveys, in light of recent observational progresses in mapping the CIB. Most lately, two new missions, Planck and Herschel, released ground-breaking measurements of the CIB. These measurements are an order of magnitude deeper and wider than previous ones, and they are literally revolutionizing the field. Our understanding of these data is now advanced enough for us to leverage our measurement of the CIB in Planck and Herschel, in order to extract new scientific insights from past missions. We propose to combine Planck and Herschel public data with archival data from WISE, GALEX, Chandra and Fermi. Not only original, the impact of our research project should be immediate. Using the CIB as a full sky, bright, high redshift reference extragalactic background, we will exploit the underlying physical connection among these various cosmological datasets. We expect new insights about the CIB, but also about the multiple extragalactic backgrounds probed in combination with it. In particular, we will investigate the cosmic star formation history at a period where it peaks, and because the clustering of matter is driven by dark matter, the measurement of the CIB clustering also

  10. Language and Cultural Background

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Littlewood, William T.

    1978-01-01

    Language is inseparable from its cultural context. Considered here are: aspects of culture to be learned (not just odd differences); method; use of suitable, well-balanced materials; aims - informational, communicative (for life situations), and motivational. Motivation is higher in students with favorable attitudes toward the foreign people.…

  11. Gamma-Ray Background Variability in Mobile Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aucott, Timothy John

    Gamma-ray background radiation significantly reduces detection sensitivity when searching for radioactive sources in the field, such as in wide-area searches for homeland security applications. Mobile detector systems in particular must contend with a variable background that is not necessarily known or even measurable a priori. This work will present measurements of the spatial and temporal variability of the background, with the goal of merging gamma-ray detection, spectroscopy, and imaging with contextual information--a "nuclear street view" of the ubiquitous background radiation. The gamma-ray background originates from a variety of sources, both natural and anthropogenic. The dominant sources in the field are the primordial isotopes potassium-40, uranium-238, and thorium-232, as well as their decay daughters. In addition to the natural background, many artificially-created isotopes are used for industrial or medical purposes, and contamination from fission products can be found in many environments. Regardless of origin, these backgrounds will reduce detection sensitivity by adding both statistical as well as systematic uncertainty. In particular, large detector arrays will be limited by the systematic uncertainty in the background and will suffer from a high rate of false alarms. The goal of this work is to provide a comprehensive characterization of the gamma-ray background and its variability in order to improve detection sensitivity and evaluate the performance of mobile detectors in the field. Large quantities of data are measured in order to study their performance at very low false alarm rates. Two different approaches, spectroscopy and imaging, are compared in a controlled study in the presence of this measured background. Furthermore, there is additional information that can be gained by correlating the gamma-ray data with contextual data streams (such as cameras and global positioning systems) in order to reduce the variability in the background

  12. NGSI student activities in open source information analysis in support of the training program of the U.S. DOE laboratories for the entry into force of the additional protocol

    SciTech Connect

    Sandoval, M Analisa; Uribe, Eva C; Sandoval, Marisa N; Boyer, Brian D; Stevens, Rebecca S

    2009-01-01

    In 2008 a joint team from Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) consisting of specialists in training of IAEA inspectors in the use of complementary access activities formulated a training program to prepare the U.S. Doe laboratories for the entry into force of the Additional Protocol. As a major part of the support of the activity, LANL summer interns provided open source information analysis to the LANL-BNL mock inspection team. They were a part of the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative's (NGSI) summer intern program aimed at producing the next generation of safeguards specialists. This paper describes how they used open source information to 'backstop' the LANL-BNL team's effort to construct meaningful Additional Protocol Complementary Access training scenarios for each of the three DOE laboratories, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Idaho National Laboratory, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

  13. Additives in plastics.

    PubMed Central

    Deanin, R D

    1975-01-01

    The polymers used in plastics are generally harmless. However, they are rarely used in pure form. In almost all commercial plastics, they are "compounded" with monomeric ingredients to improve their processing and end-use performance. In order of total volume used, these monomeric additives may be classified as follows: reinforcing fibers, fillers, and coupling agents; plasticizers; colorants; stabilizers (halogen stabilizers, antioxidants, ultraviolet absorbers, and biological preservatives); processing aids (lubricants, others, and flow controls); flame retardants, peroxides; and antistats. Some information is already available, and much more is needed, on potential toxicity and safe handling of these additives during processing and manufacture of plastics products. PMID:1175566

  14. Additives in plastics.

    PubMed

    Deanin, R D

    1975-06-01

    The polymers used in plastics are generally harmless. However, they are rarely used in pure form. In almost all commercial plastics, they are "compounded" with monomeric ingredients to improve their processing and end-use performance. In order of total volume used, these monomeric additives may be classified as follows: reinforcing fibers, fillers, and coupling agents; plasticizers; colorants; stabilizers (halogen stabilizers, antioxidants, ultraviolet absorbers, and biological preservatives); processing aids (lubricants, others, and flow controls); flame retardants, peroxides; and antistats. Some information is already available, and much more is needed, on potential toxicity and safe handling of these additives during processing and manufacture of plastics products.

  15. The cosmic background explorer

    SciTech Connect

    Gulkis, G. ); Lubin, P.M. ); Meyer, S.S. ); Silverberg, R.F.

    1990-01-01

    Late last year the National Aeronautics and Space Administration launched its first satellite dedicated to the study of phenomena related to the origins of the universe. The satellite, called the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE), carries three complementary detectors that will make fundamental measurements of the celestial radiation. Part of that radiation is believed to have originated in processes that occurred at the very dawn of the universe. By measuring the remnant radiation at wavelengths from one micrometer to one centimeter across the entire sky, scientists hope to be able to solve many mysteries regarding the origin and evolution of the early universe. Unfortunately, these radiative relics of the early universe are weak and veiled by local astrophysical and terrestrial sources of radiation. The wavelengths of the various cosmic components may also overlap, thereby making the understanding of the diffuse celestial radiation a challenge. Nevertheless, the COBE instruments, with their full-sky coverage, high sensitivity to a wide range of wavelengths and freedom from interference from the earth's atmosphere, will constitute for astrophysicists an observatory of unprecedented sensitivity and scope. The interesting cosmic signals will then be separated from one another and from noncosmic radiation sources by a comprehensive analysis of the data.

  16. 24 CFR 1710.116 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... the right to exercise, any control over the Association because of voting rights or placement of... any of the following general areas: Lot marketing and advertising, rendering of lot services, and...

  17. 12 CFR 1010.116 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... developer exercise, or have the right to exercise, any control over the Association because of voting rights... environment, land sales, securities sales, construction or sale of homes or home improvements, consumer fraud... subdivision. (d) Resale or exchange program. (1) Are there restrictions which might hinder lot owners in...

  18. 24 CFR 1710.116 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT (INTERSTATE LAND SALES REGISTRATION PROGRAM) LAND REGISTRATION Reporting Requirements..., when will it be formed? Who is responsible for its formation? (2) Does the developer exercise, or have the right to exercise, any control over the Association because of voting rights or placement...

  19. 24 CFR 1710.116 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... land but only the right to use it for a certain period of time.” (f) Equal opportunity in lot sales... the right to exercise, any control over the Association because of voting rights or placement of... Statements of Record and amendments need not be listed.) (2) Has the developer, the owner of the land,...

  20. 303d Impaired Waters Additional Information

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    For ATTAINS 303(d) geospatial data, the Table of Available Cycles in the RAD lists the most recent ATTAINS cycle for which GIS data are available for each state. Page includes a fact sheet and pollution category summary document.

  1. 24 CFR 1710.216 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... of any membership agreement or similar document. (b) Price range, type of sales and marketing. (1... marketing to be used for the subdivision. The description should include, but need not be limited to... will be furnished transportation from distant cities to the subdivision; (iv) Whether mass...

  2. A Study of Nuclear Recoil Backgrounds in Dark Matter Detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Westerdale, Shawn S.

    2016-01-01

    Despite the great success of the Standard Model of particle physics, a preponderance of astrophysical evidence suggests that it cannot explain most of the matter in the universe. This so-called dark matter has eluded direct detection, though many theoretical extensions to the Standard Model predict the existence of particles with a mass on the $1-1000$ GeV scale that interact only via the weak nuclear force. Particles in this class are referred to as Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs), and their high masses and low scattering cross sections make them viable dark matter candidates. The rarity of WIMP-nucleus interactions makes them challenging to detect: any background can mask the signal they produce. Background rejection is therefore a major problem in dark matter detection. Many experiments greatly reduce their backgrounds by employing techniques to reject electron recoils. However, nuclear recoil backgrounds, which produce signals similar to what we expect from WIMPs, remain problematic. There are two primary sources of such backgrounds: surface backgrounds and neutron recoils. Surface backgrounds result from radioactivity on the inner surfaces of the detector sending recoiling nuclei into the detector. These backgrounds can be removed with fiducial cuts, at some cost to the experiment's exposure. In this dissertation we briefly discuss a novel technique for rejecting these events based on signals they make in the wavelength shifter coating on the inner surfaces of some detectors. Neutron recoils result from neutrons scattering from nuclei in the detector. These backgrounds may produce a signal identical to what we expect from WIMPs and are extensively discussed here. We additionally present a new tool for calculating ($\\alpha$, n)yields in various materials. We introduce the concept of a neutron veto system designed to shield against, measure, and provide an anti-coincidence veto signal for background neutrons. We discuss the research and development

  3. Background and Rationale.

    PubMed

    Penman-Aguilar, Ana; Bouye, Karen; Liburd, Leandris

    2016-02-12

    In 2011, CDC published the first CDC Health Disparities and Inequalities Report (CHDIR). This report examined health disparities in the United States associated with various characteristics, including race/ethnicity, sex, income, education, disability status, and geography. Health disparities were defined as "differences in health outcomes and their determinants between segments of the population, as defined by social, demographic, environmental, and geographic attributes". Among other recommendations, the 2011 CHDIR emphasized the need to address health disparities with a dual intervention strategy focused on populations at greatest need and on improving the health of the U.S. population by making interventions available to everyone. The 2013 CHDIR updated the 2011 CHDIR and included additional reports on social and environmental determinants of health; the supplement emphasized the importance of multisectoral collaboration, highlighting the need for a comprehensive, community-driven approach to reducing health disparities in the United States. A follow-up report described five interventions that were shown to be effective or demonstrated promise for reducing health disparities. These publications have focused attention on the need to address health disparities in the United States, as well as on programs and interventions that address them. This supplement describes additional interventions that address particular disparities observed by race and ethnicity, socioeconomic status, geographic location, disability, and/or sexual orientation across a range of conditions, including asthma, infection with HIV and hepatitis A, use of colorectal cancer screening, youth violence, food security, and health-related quality of life.

  4. Integrable Background Geometries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calderbank, David M. J.

    2014-03-01

    This work has its origins in an attempt to describe systematically the integrable geometries and gauge theories in dimensions one to four related to twistor theory. In each such dimension, there is a nondegenerate integrable geometric structure, governed by a nonlinear integrable differential equation, and each solution of this equation determines a background geometry on which, for any Lie group G, an integrable gauge theory is defined. In four dimensions, the geometry is selfdual conformal geometry and the gauge theory is selfdual Yang-Mills theory, while the lower-dimensional structures are nondegenerate (i.e., non-null) reductions of this. Any solution of the gauge theory on a k-dimensional geometry, such that the gauge group H acts transitively on an ℓ-manifold, determines a (k+ℓ)-dimensional geometry (k+ℓ≤4) fibering over the k-dimensional geometry with H as a structure group. In the case of an ℓ-dimensional group H acting on itself by the regular representation, all (k+ℓ)-dimensional geometries with symmetry group H are locally obtained in this way. This framework unifies and extends known results about dimensional reductions of selfdual conformal geometry and the selfdual Yang-Mills equation, and provides a rich supply of constructive methods. In one dimension, generalized Nahm equations provide a uniform description of four pole isomonodromic deformation problems, and may be related to the {SU}(∞) Toda and dKP equations via a hodograph transformation. In two dimensions, the {Diff}(S^1) Hitchin equation is shown to be equivalent to the hyperCR Einstein-Weyl equation, while the {SDiff}(Σ^2) Hitchin equation leads to a Euclidean analogue of Plebanski's heavenly equations. In three and four dimensions, the constructions of this paper help to organize the huge range of examples of Einstein-Weyl and selfdual spaces in the literature, as well as providing some new ! ones. The nondegenerate reductions have a long ancestry. More ! recently

  5. Model-based target and background characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, Markus; Krueger, Wolfgang; Heinze, Norbert

    2000-07-01

    Up to now most approaches of target and background characterization (and exploitation) concentrate solely on the information given by pixels. In many cases this is a complex and unprofitable task. During the development of automatic exploitation algorithms the main goal is the optimization of certain performance parameters. These parameters are measured during test runs while applying one algorithm with one parameter set to images that constitute of image domains with very different domain characteristics (targets and various types of background clutter). Model based geocoding and registration approaches provide means for utilizing the information stored in GIS (Geographical Information Systems). The geographical information stored in the various GIS layers can define ROE (Regions of Expectations) and may allow for dedicated algorithm parametrization and development. ROI (Region of Interest) detection algorithms (in most cases MMO (Man- Made Object) detection) use implicit target and/or background models. The detection algorithms of ROIs utilize gradient direction models that have to be matched with transformed image domain data. In most cases simple threshold calculations on the match results discriminate target object signatures from the background. The geocoding approaches extract line-like structures (street signatures) from the image domain and match the graph constellation against a vector model extracted from a GIS (Geographical Information System) data base. Apart from geo-coding the algorithms can be also used for image-to-image registration (multi sensor and data fusion) and may be used for creation and validation of geographical maps.

  6. Probing Inflation via Cosmic Microwave Background Polarimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chuss, David T.

    2008-01-01

    The Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) has been a rich source of information about the early Universe. Detailed measurements of its spectrum and spatial distribution have helped solidify the Standard Model of Cosmology. However, many questions still remain. Standard Cosmology does not explain why the early Universe is geometrically flat, expanding, homogenous across the horizon, and riddled with a small anisotropy that provides the seed for structure formation. Inflation has been proposed as a mechanism that naturally solves these problems. In addition to solving these problems, inflation is expected to produce a spectrum of gravitational waves that will create a particular polarization pattern on the CMB. Detection of this polarized signal is a key test of inflation and will give a direct measurement of the energy scale at which inflation takes place. This polarized signature of inflation is expected to be -9 orders of magnitude below the 2.7 K monopole level of the CMB. This measurement will require good control of systematic errors, an array of many detectors having the requisite sensitivity, and a reliable method for removing polarized foregrounds, and nearly complete sky coverage. Ultimately, this measurement is likely to require a space mission. To this effect, technology and mission concept development are currently underway.

  7. Group Sparse Additive Models

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Junming; Chen, Xi; Xing, Eric P.

    2016-01-01

    We consider the problem of sparse variable selection in nonparametric additive models, with the prior knowledge of the structure among the covariates to encourage those variables within a group to be selected jointly. Previous works either study the group sparsity in the parametric setting (e.g., group lasso), or address the problem in the nonparametric setting without exploiting the structural information (e.g., sparse additive models). In this paper, we present a new method, called group sparse additive models (GroupSpAM), which can handle group sparsity in additive models. We generalize the ℓ1/ℓ2 norm to Hilbert spaces as the sparsity-inducing penalty in GroupSpAM. Moreover, we derive a novel thresholding condition for identifying the functional sparsity at the group level, and propose an efficient block coordinate descent algorithm for constructing the estimate. We demonstrate by simulation that GroupSpAM substantially outperforms the competing methods in terms of support recovery and prediction accuracy in additive models, and also conduct a comparative experiment on a real breast cancer dataset.

  8. X-Ray Background Survey Spectrometer (XBSS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanders, W. T. (Principal Investigator); Paulos, R. J.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this investigation was to perform a spectral survey of the low energy diffuse X-ray background using the X-ray Background Survey Spectrometer (XBSS) on board the Space Station Freedom (SSF). XBSS obtains spectra of the X-ray diffuse background in the 11-24 A and 44-84 A wavelength intervals over the entire sky with 15 deg spatial resolution. These X-rays are almost certainly from a very hot (10(exp 6) K) component of the interstellar medium that is contained in regions occupying a large fraction of the interstellar volume near the Sun. Astrophysical plasmas near 10(exp 6) K are rich in emission lines, and the relative strengths of these lines, besides providing information about the physical conditions of the emitting gas, also provide information about its history and heating mechanisms.

  9. Building for Reauthorization: Background and Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of Student Financial Aid Administrators, Washington, DC.

    The report provides background information on the next reauthorization of the federal Higher Education Act, and is intended for college and university financial aid officers. An introductory section chronicles the history of federal legislation for student financial aid. The next section outlines the congressional reauthorization process,…

  10. Drug Abuse Information, Teacher Resource Material.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowen, Haskell, Comp.

    This informational publication is to be used as an aid for teachers, bringing them basic facts regarding drugs and drug abuse. Its purpose is to (1) give additional teacher background information and (2) enrich any course of study that has been developed on drug abuse. To use the material most effectively, it is suggested the teacher have an…

  11. Neurobiological background of negative symptoms.

    PubMed

    Galderisi, Silvana; Merlotti, Eleonora; Mucci, Armida

    2015-10-01

    Studies investigating neurobiological bases of negative symptoms of schizophrenia failed to provide consistent findings, possibly due to the heterogeneity of this psychopathological construct. We tried to review the findings published to date investigating neurobiological abnormalities after reducing the heterogeneity of the negative symptoms construct. The literature in electronic databases as well as citations and major articles are reviewed with respect to the phenomenology, pathology, genetics and neurobiology of schizophrenia. We searched PubMed with the keywords "negative symptoms," "deficit schizophrenia," "persistent negative symptoms," "neurotransmissions," "neuroimaging" and "genetic." Additional articles were identified by manually checking the reference lists of the relevant publications. Publications in English were considered, and unpublished studies, conference abstracts and poster presentations were not included. Structural and functional imaging studies addressed the issue of neurobiological background of negative symptoms from several perspectives (considering them as a unitary construct, focusing on primary and/or persistent negative symptoms and, more recently, clustering them into factors), but produced discrepant findings. The examined studies provided evidence suggesting that even primary and persistent negative symptoms include different psychopathological constructs, probably reflecting the dysfunction of different neurobiological substrates. Furthermore, they suggest that complex alterations in multiple neurotransmitter systems and genetic variants might influence the expression of negative symptoms in schizophrenia. On the whole, the reviewed findings, representing the distillation of a large body of disparate data, suggest that further deconstruction of negative symptomatology into more elementary components is needed to gain insight into underlying neurobiological mechanisms.

  12. Background

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    An analysis was made of the UF6 fueled gas core reactor as a function of cavity reactor criticality and fluid mechanics tests, investigations of uranium optical emission spectra, and radiant heat transfer power plant studies. Data are also given on nuclear and thermodynamic cycle analysis.

  13. 14 CFR § 1203.200 - Background and discussion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Background and discussion. § 1203.200 Section § 1203.200 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION INFORMATION SECURITY PROGRAM NASA Information Security Program § 1203.200 Background and discussion. (a)...

  14. Low background screening capability in the UK

    SciTech Connect

    Ghag, Chamkaur

    2015-08-17

    Low background rare event searches in underground laboratories seeking observation of direct dark matter interactions or neutrino-less double beta decay have the potential to profoundly advance our understanding of the physical universe. Successful results from these experiments depend critically on construction from extremely radiologically clean materials and accurate knowledge of subsequent low levels of expected background. The experiments must conduct comprehensive screening campaigns to reduce radioactivity from detector components, and these measurements also inform detailed characterisation and quantification of background sources and their impact, necessary to assign statistical significance to any potential discovery. To provide requisite sensitivity for material screening and characterisation in the UK to support our rare event search activities, we have re-developed our infrastructure to add ultra-low background capability across a range of complementary techniques that collectively allow complete radioactivity measurements. Ultra-low background HPGe and BEGe detectors have been installed at the Boulby Underground Laboratory, itself undergoing substantial facility re-furbishment, to provide high sensitivity gamma spectroscopy in particular for measuring the uranium and thorium decay series products. Dedicated low-activity mass spectrometry instrumentation has been developed at UCL for part per trillion level contaminant identification to complement underground screening with direct U and Th measurements, and meet throughput demands. Finally, radon emanation screening at UCL measures radon background inaccessible to gamma or mass spectrometry techniques. With this new capability the UK is delivering half of the radioactivity screening for the LZ dark matter search experiment.

  15. Randomized pilot study and qualitative evaluation of a clinical decision support system for brain tumour diagnosis based on SV ¹H MRS: evaluation as an additional information procedure for novice radiologists.

    PubMed

    Sáez, Carlos; Martí-Bonmatí, Luis; Alberich-Bayarri, Angel; Robles, Montserrat; García-Gómez, Juan M

    2014-02-01

    The results of a randomized pilot study and qualitative evaluation of the clinical decision support system Curiam BT are reported. We evaluated the system's feasibility and potential value as a radiological information procedure complementary to magnetic resonance (MR) imaging to assist novice radiologists in diagnosing brain tumours using MR spectroscopy (1.5 and 3.0T). Fifty-five cases were analysed at three hospitals according to four non-exclusive diagnostic questions. Our results show that Curiam BT improved the diagnostic accuracy in all the four questions. Additionally, we discuss the findings of the users' feedback about the system, and the further work to optimize it for real environments and to conduct a large clinical trial.

  16. Diffuse Cosmic Infrared Background Radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dwek, Eli

    2002-01-01

    The diffuse cosmic infrared background (CIB) consists of the cumulative radiant energy released in the processes of structure formation that have occurred since the decoupling of matter and radiation following the Big Bang. In this lecture I will review the observational data that provided the first detections and limits on the CIB, and the theoretical studies explaining the origin of this background. Finally, I will also discuss the relevance of this background to the universe as seen in high energy gamma-rays.

  17. A statistical approach based on substitution of macronutrients provides additional information to models analyzing single dietary factors in relation to type 2 diabetes in danish adults: the Inter99 study.

    PubMed

    Faerch, Kristine; Lau, Cathrine; Tetens, Inge; Pedersen, Oluf Borbye; Jørgensen, Torben; Borch-Johnsen, Knut; Glümer, Charlotte

    2005-05-01

    Most studies analyzing diet-disease relations focus on single dietary factors rather than combining different nutrients into the same statistical model. The objective of this study was to identify dietary factors associated with the probability of having diabetes identified by screening (SDM) in Danish men and women aged 30-60 y. A specific objective was to examine whether an alternative statistical approach could provide additional information to already existing statistical approaches used in nutritional epidemiology. Baseline data from the Danish population-based Inter99 study were used. The dietary intake of 262 individuals with SDM was compared with that of 4627 individuals with normal glucose tolerance (NGT) using 2 different types of multiple logistic regression models adjusted for potential confounders. The first model included single dietary factors, whereas the second model was based on substitution of macronutrients. In the models with single dietary factors, high intakes of carbohydrates, dietary fiber, and coffee were inversely associated with SDM (P < 0.01), whereas high intakes of total fat and saturated fat were positively associated with SDM (P < 0.05). A modest U-shaped association was found between alcohol consumption and SDM (P = 0.10) [corrected] Results from the substitution model showed that when 3% of energy (En%) as carbohydrate replaced 3 En% fat or alcohol, the probability of having SDM decreased by 9 and 10%, respectively (P < 0.01) [corrected] No other macronutrient substitutions resulted in significant associations. Hence, the statistical approach based on substitution of macronutrients provided additional information to the model analyzing single dietary factors.

  18. Estimating radiological background using imaging spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Bernacki, Bruce E.; Schweppe, John E.; Stave, Sean C.; Jordan, David V.; Kulisek, Jonathan A.; Stewart, Trevor N.; Seifert, Carolyn E.

    2014-06-13

    Optical imaging spectroscopy is investigated as a method to estimate radiological background by spectral identification of soils, sediments, rocks, minerals and building materials derived from natural materials and assigning tabulated radiological emission values to these materials. Radiological airborne surveys are undertaken by local, state and federal agencies to identify the presence of radiological materials out of regulatory compliance. Detection performance in such surveys is determined by (among other factors) the uncertainty in the radiation background; increased knowledge of the expected radiation background will improve the ability to detect low-activity radiological materials. Radiological background due to naturally occurring radiological materials (NORM) can be estimated by reference to previous survey results, use of global 40K, 238U, and 232Th (KUT) values, reference to existing USGS radiation background maps, or by a moving average of the data as it is acquired. Each of these methods has its drawbacks: previous survey results may not include recent changes, the global average provides only a zero-order estimate, the USGS background radiation map resolutions are coarse and are accurate only to 1 km – 25 km sampling intervals depending on locale, and a moving average may essentially low pass filter the data to obscure small changes in radiation counts. Imaging spectroscopy from airborne or spaceborne platforms can offer higher resolution identification of materials and background, as well as provide imaging context information. AVIRIS hyperspectral image data is analyzed using commercial exploitation software to determine the usefulness of imaging spectroscopy to identify qualitative radiological background emissions when compared to airborne radiological survey data.

  19. Video object segmentation via adaptive threshold based on background model diversity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boubekeur, Mohamed Bachir; Luo, SenLin; Labidi, Hocine; Benlefki, Tarek

    2015-03-01

    The background subtraction could be presented as classification process when investigating the upcoming frames in a video stream, taking in consideration in some cases: a temporal information, in other cases the spatial consistency, and these past years both of the considerations above. The classification often relied in most of the cases on a fixed threshold value. In this paper, a framework for background subtraction and moving object detection based on adaptive threshold measure and short/long frame differencing procedure is proposed. The presented framework explored the case of adaptive threshold using mean squared differences for a sampled background model. In addition, an intuitive update policy which is neither conservative nor blind is presented. The algorithm succeeded on extracting the moving foreground and isolating an accurate background.

  20. Target-to-background enhancement in multispectral endoscopy with background autofluorescence mitigation for quantitative molecular imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Chenying; Hou, Vivian W.; Girard, Emily J.; Nelson, Leonard Y.; Seibel, Eric J.

    2014-07-01

    Fluorescence molecular imaging with exogenous probes improves specificity for the detection of diseased tissues by targeting unambiguous molecular signatures. Additionally, increased diagnostic sensitivity is expected with the application of multiple molecular probes. We developed a real-time multispectral fluorescence-reflectance scanning fiber endoscope (SFE) for wide-field molecular imaging of fluorescent dye-labeled molecular probes at nanomolar detection levels. Concurrent multichannel imaging with the wide-field SFE also allows for real-time mitigation of the background autofluorescence (AF) signal, especially when fluorescein, a U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved dye, is used as the target fluorophore. Quantitative tissue AF was measured for the ex vivo porcine esophagus and murine brain tissues across the visible and near-infrared spectra. AF signals were then transferred to the unit of targeted fluorophore concentration to evaluate the SFE detection sensitivity for sodium fluorescein and cyanine. Next, we demonstrated a real-time AF mitigation algorithm on a tissue phantom, which featured molecular probe targeted cells of high-grade dysplasia on a substrate containing AF species. The target-to-background ratio was enhanced by more than one order of magnitude when applying the real-time AF mitigation algorithm. Furthermore, a quantitative estimate of the fluorescein photodegradation (photobleaching) rate was evaluated and shown to be insignificant under the illumination conditions of SFE. In summary, the multichannel laser-based flexible SFE has demonstrated the capability to provide sufficient detection sensitivity, image contrast, and quantitative target intensity information for detecting small precancerous lesions in vivo.

  1. Target-to-background enhancement in multispectral endoscopy with background autofluorescence mitigation for quantitative molecular imaging

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Chenying; Hou, Vivian W.; Girard, Emily J.; Nelson, Leonard Y.; Seibel, Eric J.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract. Fluorescence molecular imaging with exogenous probes improves specificity for the detection of diseased tissues by targeting unambiguous molecular signatures. Additionally, increased diagnostic sensitivity is expected with the application of multiple molecular probes. We developed a real-time multispectral fluorescence-reflectance scanning fiber endoscope (SFE) for wide-field molecular imaging of fluorescent dye-labeled molecular probes at nanomolar detection levels. Concurrent multichannel imaging with the wide-field SFE also allows for real-time mitigation of the background autofluorescence (AF) signal, especially when fluorescein, a U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved dye, is used as the target fluorophore. Quantitative tissue AF was measured for the ex vivo porcine esophagus and murine brain tissues across the visible and near-infrared spectra. AF signals were then transferred to the unit of targeted fluorophore concentration to evaluate the SFE detection sensitivity for sodium fluorescein and cyanine. Next, we demonstrated a real-time AF mitigation algorithm on a tissue phantom, which featured molecular probe targeted cells of high-grade dysplasia on a substrate containing AF species. The target-to-background ratio was enhanced by more than one order of magnitude when applying the real-time AF mitigation algorithm. Furthermore, a quantitative estimate of the fluorescein photodegradation (photobleaching) rate was evaluated and shown to be insignificant under the illumination conditions of SFE. In summary, the multichannel laser-based flexible SFE has demonstrated the capability to provide sufficient detection sensitivity, image contrast, and quantitative target intensity information for detecting small precancerous lesions in vivo. PMID:25027002

  2. Background modeling for the GERDA experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Becerici-Schmidt, N.; Collaboration: GERDA Collaboration

    2013-08-08

    The neutrinoless double beta (0νββ) decay experiment GERDA at the LNGS of INFN has started physics data taking in November 2011. This paper presents an analysis aimed at understanding and modeling the observed background energy spectrum, which plays an essential role in searches for a rare signal like 0νββ decay. A very promising preliminary model has been obtained, with the systematic uncertainties still under study. Important information can be deduced from the model such as the expected background and its decomposition in the signal region. According to the model the main background contributions around Q{sub ββ} come from {sup 214}Bi, {sup 228}Th, {sup 42}K, {sup 60}Co and α emitting isotopes in the {sup 226}Ra decay chain, with a fraction depending on the assumed source positions.

  3. Background and introduction: Chapter 1

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shafroth, Patrick B.

    2010-01-01

    The Salt Cedar and Russian Olive Control Demonstration Act of 2006 (Public Law 109-320; hereafter the Act) directs the Department of the Interior to submit a report to Congress1 that includes an assessment of several issues surrounding these two nonnative trees, now dominant components of the vegetation along many rivers in the Western United States. Specifically, the Act calls for “…an assessment of the extent of salt cedar and Russian olive infestation on public and private land in the western United States,” which shall“A) consider existing research on methods to control salt cedar and Russian olive trees; B) consider the feasibility of reducing water consumption by salt cedar and Russian olive trees; C) consider methods of and challenges associated with the revegetation or restoration of infested land; and D) estimate the costs of destruction of salt cedar and Russian olive trees, related biomass removal, and revegetation or restoration and maintenance of the infested land.”Finally, the Act calls for discussion of“(i) long-term management and funding strategies…that could be implemented by Federal, State, tribal, and private land managers and owners to address the infestation by salt cedar and Russian olive; (ii) any deficiencies in the assessment or areas for additional study; and (iii) any field demonstrations that would be useful in the effort to control salt cedar and Russian olive.”The primary intent of this report is to provide the science assessment called for under the Act. A secondary purpose is to provide a common background for applicants for prospective demonstration projects, should funds be appropriated for this second phase of the Act. In addition to relying on the direction provided under Section C of the Act, the authors of this report also drew upon the detailed list of considerations presented in Section E of the Act to guide development of more expansive discussions of topics relevant to saltcedar and Russian olive control

  4. Background reduction in cryogenic detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Bauer, Daniel A.; /Fermilab

    2005-04-01

    This paper discusses the background reduction and rejection strategy of the Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS) experiment. Recent measurements of background levels from CDMS II at Soudan are presented, along with estimates for future improvements in sensitivity expected for a proposed SuperCDMS experiment at SNOLAB.

  5. Lattice QCD in Background Fields

    SciTech Connect

    William Detmold, Brian Tiburzi, Andre Walker-Loud

    2009-06-01

    Electromagnetic properties of hadrons can be computed by lattice simulations of QCD in background fields. We demonstrate new techniques for the investigation of charged hadron properties in electric fields. Our current calculations employ large electric fields, motivating us to analyze chiral dynamics in strong QED backgrounds, and subsequently uncover surprising non-perturbative effects present at finite volume.

  6. Background events in microchannel plates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siegmund, O. H. W.; Vallerga, J.; Wargelin, B.

    1988-01-01

    Measurements have been made to assess the characteristics and origins of background events in microchannel plates (MCPs). An overall background rate of about 0.4 events/sq cm persec has been achieved consistently for MCPs that have been baked and scrubbed. The temperature and gain of the MCPs are found to have no significant effect on the background rate. Detection of 1.46-MeV gamma rays from the MCP glass confirms the presence of K-40, with a concentration of 0.0007 percent, in MCP glass. It is shown that beta decay from K-40 is sufficient to cause the background rate and spectrum observed. Anticoincidence measurements indicate the the background rate caused by cosmic ray interactions is small (less than 0.016 events/sq cm per sec).

  7. Can one measure the Cosmic Neutrino Background?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faessler, Amand; Hodák, Rastislav; Kovalenko, Sergey; Šimkovic, Fedor

    The Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) yields information about our Universe at around 380,000 years after the Big Bang (BB). Due to the weak interaction of the neutrinos with matter, the Cosmic Neutrino Background (CNB) should give information about a much earlier time of our Universe, around one second after the BB. Probably, the most promising method to “see” the CNB is the capture of the electron neutrinos from the Background by Tritium, which then decays into 3He and an electron with the energy of the the Q-value = 18.562keV plus the electron neutrino rest mass. The “KArlsruhe TRItium Neutrino” (KATRIN) experiment, which is in preparation, seems presently the most sensitive proposed method for measuring the electron antineutrino mass. At the same time, KATRIN can also look by the reaction νe(˜ 1.95K) +3H →3He + e‑(Q = 18.6keV + m νec2). The capture of the Cosmic Background Neutrinos (CNB) should show in the electron spectrum as a peak by the electron neutrino rest mass above Q. Here, the possibility to see the CNB with KATRIN is studied. A detection of the CNB by KATRIN seems not to be possible at the moment. But KATRIN should be able to determine an upper limit for the local electron neutrino density of the CNB.

  8. Low background counting at the LBNL low background facility

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, K. J.; Norman, E. B.; Smith, A. R.; Chan, Y. D.; Hurley, D. L.; Wang, B. S.

    2013-08-08

    The Low Background Facility (LBF) at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) in Berkeley, California provides low background gamma spectroscopy services to end-users in two unique facilities: locally within a carefully-constructed, low background laboratory space; and a satellite underground station (600 m.w.e) in Oroville, CA. These facilities provide a variety of gamma spectroscopy services to low background experiments primarily in the form of passive material screening for primordial radioisotopes (U, Th, K) or common cosmogenic and anthropogenic products, as well as active screening via neutron activation analysis for specific applications. A general overview of the facilities, services, and capabilities will be discussed. Recent activities will also be presented, including the recent installation of a 3π muon veto at the surface facility, cosmogenic activation studies of TeO{sub 2} for CUORE, and environmental monitoring of Fukushima fallout.

  9. Aluminum as a source of background in low background experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majorovits, B.; Abt, I.; Laubenstein, M.; Volynets, O.

    2011-08-01

    Neutrinoless double beta decay would be a key to understanding the nature of neutrino masses. The next generation of High Purity Germanium experiments will have to be operated with a background rate of better than 10 -5 counts/(kg y keV) in the region of interest around the Q-value of the decay. Therefore, so far irrelevant sources of background have to be considered. The metalization of the surface of germanium detectors is in general done with aluminum. The background from the decays of 22Na, 26Al, 226Ra and 228Th introduced by this metalization is discussed. It is shown that only a special selection of aluminum can keep these background contributions acceptable.

  10. Technical background information for the ORNL environmental and safety report. Volume 2. A description of the aquatic ecology of the White Oak Creek Watershed and the Clinch River below Melton Hill Dam

    SciTech Connect

    Loar, J.M.; Solomon, J.A.; Cada, G.F.

    1981-10-01

    In order to characterize the aquatic communities in the vicinity of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), a biological sampling program was initiated in March 1979 and continued until June 1980. The periphyton, benthic macroinvertebrate, and fish communities were sampled at four sites in White Oak Creek watershed above White Oak Lake. In addition to these communities, phytoplankton, zooplankton, and ichthyoplankton were routinely collected at sites in White Oak Lake, White Oak Creek embayment below the dam, and in the Clinch River above and below the confluence with White Oak Creek. Also, muscle tissue of several fish species, including sauger and striped bass from the Clinch River, was analyzed for seven trace elements (Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Hg, Ni, and Zn). Data on the taxonomic composition, abundance, and temporal distribution of each community are presented for each of three study areas: upper White Oak Creek watershed, White Oak Lake, and the Clinch River (including White Oak Creek embayment). The spatial distribution of major taxonomic groups in each area was examined using analysis of variance techniques and dissimilarity indices. Results obtained from this study are compared with those of previous surveys of White Oak Creek when equivalent sampling methodologies were used. Attempts were also made to document changes that have occurred since the 1950-1953 survey.

  11. A review on natural background radiation

    PubMed Central

    Shahbazi-Gahrouei, Daryoush; Gholami, Mehrdad; Setayandeh, Samaneh

    2013-01-01

    The world is naturally radioactive and approximately 82% of human-absorbed radiation doses, which are out of control, arise from natural sources such as cosmic, terrestrial, and exposure from inhalation or intake radiation sources. In recent years, several international studies have been carried out, which have reported different values regarding the effect of background radiation on human health. Gamma radiation emitted from natural sources (background radiation) is largely due to primordial radionuclides, mainly 232Th and 238U series, and their decay products, as well as 40K, which exist at trace levels in the earth's crust. Their concentrations in soil, sands, and rocks depend on the local geology of each region in the world. Naturally occurring radioactive materials generally contain terrestrial-origin radionuclides, left over since the creation of the earth. In addition, the existence of some springs and quarries increases the dose rate of background radiation in some regions that are known as high level background radiation regions. The type of building materials used in houses can also affect the dose rate of background radiations. The present review article was carried out to consider all of the natural radiations, including cosmic, terrestrial, and food radiation. PMID:24223380

  12. Mineral-resource assessments in Alaska; background information to accompany maps and reports about the geology and undiscovered-mineral-resource potential of the Mount Katmai Quadrangle and adjacent parts of the Naknek and Afognak quadrangles, Alaska Peninsula

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Riehle, J.R.; Church, S.E.; Detterman, R.L.; Miller, J.W.

    1994-01-01

    Geologic and geochemical field studies were carded out from 1983 to 1987 in the Mount Katmai l?x2 ? quadrangle and adjoining region, at the northeast end of the Alaska Peninsula. The region is nearly entirely within Katmai National Park and Preserve and has had almost no mineral production, so prior to this study there were few data by which to assess the mineral potential of the region. This report describes the folio of publications that have resulted from the study: geologic maps, geochemical results, fossil identifications, radiometric rock ages, and an assessment of the undiscovered-mineral-resource potential of the region. The Katmai region is inferred to potentially have three types of undiscovered mineral deposits: porphyry copper (molybdenum), precious-metal vein, and hot-springs gold. These deposit types occur elsewhere on the Alaska Peninsula in similar geologic units. Evidence suggesting their occurrence in the Katmai region is the presence of trace amounts of metals typically associated with these kinds of deposits in bedrock of certain tracts and in sediments of streams draining those tracts. Magma to provide heat, fractures to provide pathways for mineralizing fluids, and altered rock are required by genetic models of these deposit types. Such features do occur in the Katmai tracts. Confirmation of any mineral deposit in the Katmai region requires detailed follow-up sampling and acquisition of subsurface information, which is beyond the scope of this study. However, producing porphyry deposits are unknown elsewhere on the Alaska Peninsula in similar rocks, so if any such deposits occur in the Katmai region, they are likely to be few in number. Conversely, vein deposits are typically small in size so there may be several of such deposits. The properties and thermal history of the sedimentary rocks that could serve as reservoirs for oil or gas are unfavorable in adjacent regions. Thus the potential of the Katmai region for producible quantities of

  13. Alcohol Use During Pregnancy. [and] Fast Food and the American Diet. [and] Food Additives and Hyperactivity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Terrence; And Others

    These three separate pamphlets provide background information, brief discussions of research findings, and guidelines and recommendations concerning selected aspects of diet. The first pamphlet discusses food additives and hyperactivity, focusing on both the Feingold theory and controlled experiments which do not support Feingold's clinical…

  14. Analysis of the XRS background

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kilbourne, Caroline A.; Boyce, K. R.; Brown, G. V.; Cottam, J.; Fujimoto, R.; Furusho, T.; Ishisaki, Y.; Kelley, R. L.; McCammon, D.; Mitsuda, K.

    2005-01-01

    Background counts on the XRS Calorimeter spectrometer of Astro-E2 have several sources, including primary cosmic rays and secondary particles interacting with the pixels and with the silicon structure of the array. After rejecting events coincident between pixels or between a pixel and the anti-coincidence detector behind the calorimeter array, the residual background on the ground in the 0.1 - 10 keV band is 1e-3 counts/s (8e-3 counts/s/sq cm). We will present the details of the ground background events and the rejection criteria required lo remove them while minimizing deadtime. We will also present preliminary analysis of the in-orbit background.

  15. Greater need for background checks.

    PubMed

    Fiesta, J

    1999-11-01

    The push is on for a more uniform system of background checks for health care employees. Studies and crimes against patients have prompted regulation by the Health Care Financing Administration (HCFA), state governments, hospitals, and Congress.

  16. Low Background Counting at LBNL

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, A. R.; Thomas, K. J.; Norman, E. B.; Chan, Y. D.; Lesko, K. T.; Hurley, D. L.

    2015-03-24

    The Low Background Facility (LBF) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in Berkeley, California provides low background gamma spectroscopy services to a wide array of experiments and projects. The analysis of samples takes place within two unique facilities; locally within a carefully-constructed, low background cave and remotely at an underground location that historically has operated underground in Oroville, CA, but has recently been relocated to the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) in Lead, SD. These facilities provide a variety of gamma spectroscopy services to low background experiments primarily in the form of passive material screening for primordial radioisotopes (U, Th, K) or common cosmogenic/anthropogenic products, as well as active screening via Neutron Activation Analysis for specific applications. The LBF also provides hosting services for general R&D testing in low background environments on the surface or underground for background testing of detector systems or similar prototyping. A general overview of the facilities, services, and sensitivities is presented. Recent activities and upgrades will also be presented, such as the completion of a 3π anticoincidence shield at the surface station and environmental monitoring of Fukushima fallout. The LBF is open to any users for counting services or collaboration on a wide variety of experiments and projects.

  17. Low Background Counting at LBNL

    DOE PAGES

    Smith, A. R.; Thomas, K. J.; Norman, E. B.; ...

    2015-03-24

    The Low Background Facility (LBF) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in Berkeley, California provides low background gamma spectroscopy services to a wide array of experiments and projects. The analysis of samples takes place within two unique facilities; locally within a carefully-constructed, low background cave and remotely at an underground location that historically has operated underground in Oroville, CA, but has recently been relocated to the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) in Lead, SD. These facilities provide a variety of gamma spectroscopy services to low background experiments primarily in the form of passive material screening for primordial radioisotopes (U, Th, K)more » or common cosmogenic/anthropogenic products, as well as active screening via Neutron Activation Analysis for specific applications. The LBF also provides hosting services for general R&D testing in low background environments on the surface or underground for background testing of detector systems or similar prototyping. A general overview of the facilities, services, and sensitivities is presented. Recent activities and upgrades will also be presented, such as the completion of a 3π anticoincidence shield at the surface station and environmental monitoring of Fukushima fallout. The LBF is open to any users for counting services or collaboration on a wide variety of experiments and projects.« less

  18. Cosmic Microwave Background Data Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paykari, Paniez; Starck, Jean-Luc Starck

    2012-03-01

    About 400,000 years after the Big Bang the temperature of the Universe fell to about a few thousand degrees. As a result, the previously free electrons and protons combined and the Universe became neutral. This released a radiation which we now observe as the cosmic microwave background (CMB). The tiny fluctuations* in the temperature and polarization of the CMB carry a wealth of cosmological information. These so-called temperature anisotropies were predicted as the imprints of the initial density perturbations which gave rise to the present large-scale structures such as galaxies and clusters of galaxies. This relation between the present-day Universe and its initial conditions has made the CMB radiation one of the most preferred tools to understand the history of the Universe. The CMB radiation was discovered by radio astronomers Arno Penzias and Robert Wilson in 1965 [72] and earned them the 1978 Nobel Prize. This discovery was in support of the Big Bang theory and ruled out the only other available theory at that time - the steady-state theory. The crucial observations of the CMB radiation were made by the Far-Infrared Absolute Spectrophotometer (FIRAS) instrument on the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) satellite [86]- orbited in 1989-1996. COBE made the most accurate measurements of the CMB frequency spectrum and confirmed it as being a black-body to within experimental limits. This made the CMB spectrum the most precisely measured black-body spectrum in nature. The CMB has a thermal black-body spectrum at a temperature of 2.725 K: the spectrum peaks in the microwave range frequency of 160.2 GHz, corresponding to a 1.9mmwavelength. The results of COBE inspired a series of ground- and balloon-based experiments, which measured CMB anisotropies on smaller scales over the next decade. During the 1990s, the first acoustic peak of the CMB power spectrum (see Figure 5.1) was measured with increasing sensitivity and by 2000 the BOOMERanG experiment [26] reported

  19. Robust Constraint on Cosmic Textures from the Cosmic Microwave Background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feeney, Stephen M.; Johnson, Matthew C.; Mortlock, Daniel J.; Peiris, Hiranya V.

    2012-06-01

    Fluctuations in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) contain information which has been pivotal in establishing the current cosmological model. These data can also be used to test well-motivated additions to this model, such as cosmic textures. Textures are a type of topological defect that can be produced during a cosmological phase transition in the early Universe, and which leave characteristic hot and cold spots in the CMB. We apply Bayesian methods to carry out a rigorous test of the texture hypothesis, using full-sky data from the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe. We conclude that current data do not warrant augmenting the standard cosmological model with textures. We rule out at 95% confidence models that predict more than 6 detectable cosmic textures on the full sky.

  20. Judgments of aircraft noise in a traffic noise background

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, C. A.; Rice, C. G.

    1975-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to determine subjective response to aircraft noise in different road traffic backgrounds. In addition, two laboratory techniques for presenting the aircraft noise with the background noise were evaluated. For one technique, the background noise was continuous over an entire test session; for the other, the background noise level was changed with each aircraft noise during a session. Subjective response to aircraft noise was found to decrease with increasing background noise level, for a range of typical indoor noise levels. Subjective response was found to be highly correlated with the Noise Pollution Level (NPL) measurement scale.

  1. SURFACE GEOPHYSICAL EXPLORATION OF TX-TY TANK FARMS AT THE HANFORD SITE RESULTS OF BACKGROUND CHARACTERIZATION WITH GROUND PENETRATING RADAR

    SciTech Connect

    MYERS DA; CUBBAGE R; BRAUCHLA R; O'BRIEN G

    2008-07-24

    Ground penetrating radar surveys of the TX and TY tank farms were performed to identify existing infrastructure in the near surface environment. These surveys were designed to provide background information supporting Surface-to-Surface and Well-to-Well resistivity surveys of Waste Management Area TX-TY. The objective of the preliminary investigation was to collect background characterization information with GPR to understand the spatial distribution of metallic objects that could potentially interfere with the results from high resolution resistivity{trademark} surveys. The results of the background characterization confirm the existence of documented infrastructure, as well as highlight locations of possible additional undocumented subsurface metallic objects.

  2. Robust background modelling in DIALS

    PubMed Central

    Parkhurst, James M.; Winter, Graeme; Waterman, David G.; Fuentes-Montero, Luis; Gildea, Richard J.; Murshudov, Garib N.; Evans, Gwyndaf

    2016-01-01

    A method for estimating the background under each reflection during integration that is robust in the presence of pixel outliers is presented. The method uses a generalized linear model approach that is more appropriate for use with Poisson distributed data than traditional approaches to pixel outlier handling in integration programs. The algorithm is most applicable to data with a very low background level where assumptions of a normal distribution are no longer valid as an approximation to the Poisson distribution. It is shown that traditional methods can result in the systematic underestimation of background values. This then results in the reflection intensities being overestimated and gives rise to a change in the overall distribution of reflection intensities in a dataset such that too few weak reflections appear to be recorded. Statistical tests performed during data reduction may mistakenly attribute this to merohedral twinning in the crystal. Application of the robust generalized linear model algorithm is shown to correct for this bias. PMID:27980508

  3. Background simulations and shielding calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudryavtsev, Vitaly A.

    2011-04-01

    Key improvements in the sensitivity of the underground particle astrophysics experiments can only be achieved if the radiation causing background events in detectors is well understood and proper measures are taken to suppress it. The background radiation arising from radioactivity and cosmic-ray muons is discussed here together with the methods of its suppression. Different shielding designs are considered to attenuate gamma-rays and neutrons coming from radioactivity in rock and lab walls. Purity of materials used in detector construction is analysed and the background event rates due to the presence of radioactive isotopes in detector components are discussed. Event rates in detectors caused by muon-induced neutrons with and without active veto systems are presented leading to the requirements for the depth of an underground laboratory and the efficiency of the veto system.

  4. Investigation of intervertebral disc degeneration using multivariate FTIR spectroscopic imaging† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5fd00160a Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Peeters, Mirte; Detiger, Suzanne E. L.; Helder, Marco N.; Smit, Theo H.; Le Maitre, Christine L.; Sammon, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Traditionally tissue samples are analysed using protein or enzyme specific stains on serial sections to build up a picture of the distribution of components contained within them. In this study we investigated the potential of multivariate curve resolution-alternating least squares (MCR-ALS) to deconvolute 2nd derivative spectra of Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) microscopic images measured in transflectance mode of goat and human paraffin embedded intervertebral disc (IVD) tissue sections, to see if this methodology can provide analogous information to that provided by immunohistochemical stains and bioassays but from a single section. MCR-ALS analysis of non-degenerate and enzymatically in vivo degenerated goat IVDs reveals five matrix components displaying distribution maps matching histological stains for collagen, elastin and proteoglycan (PG), as well as immunohistochemical stains for collagen type I and II. Interestingly, two components exhibiting characteristic spectral and distribution profiles of proteoglycans were found, and relative component/tissue maps of these components (labelled PG1 and PG2) showed distinct distributions in non-degenerate versus mildly degenerate goat samples. MCR-ALS analysis of human IVD sections resulted in comparable spectral profiles to those observed in the goat samples, highlighting the inter species transferability of the presented methodology. Multivariate FTIR image analysis of a set of 43 goat IVD sections allowed the extraction of semi-quantitative information from component/tissue gradients taken across the IVD width of collagen type I, collagen type II, PG1 and PG2. Regional component/tissue parameters were calculated and significant correlations were found between histological grades of degeneration and PG parameters (PG1: p = 0.0003, PG2: p < 0.0001); glycosaminoglycan (GAG) content and PGs (PG1: p = 0.0055, PG2: p = 0.0001); and MRI T2* measurements and PGs (PG1: p = 0.0021, PG2: p < 0.0001). Additionally

  5. Detector Background at Muon Colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Mokhov, N.V.; Striganov, S.I.; /Fermilab

    2011-09-01

    Physics goals of a Muon Collider (MC) can only be reached with appropriate design of the ring, interaction region (IR), high-field superconducting magnets, machine-detector interface (MDI) and detector. Results of the most recent realistic simulation studies are presented for a 1.5-TeV MC. It is shown that appropriately designed IR and MDI with sophisticated shielding in the detector have a potential to substantially suppress the background rates in the MC detector. The main characteristics of backgrounds are studied.

  6. Background music and cognitive performance.

    PubMed

    Angel, Leslie A; Polzella, Donald J; Elvers, Greg C

    2010-06-01

    The present experiment employed standardized test batteries to assess the effects of fast-tempo music on cognitive performance among 56 male and female university students. A linguistic processing task and a spatial processing task were selected from the Criterion Task Set developed to assess verbal and nonverbal performance. Ten excerpts from Mozart's music matched for tempo were selected. Background music increased the speed of spatial processing and the accuracy of linguistic processing. The findings suggest that background music can have predictable effects on cognitive performance.

  7. Generative electronic background music system

    SciTech Connect

    Mazurowski, Lukasz

    2015-03-10

    In this short paper-extended abstract the new approach to generation of electronic background music has been presented. The Generative Electronic Background Music System (GEBMS) has been located between other related approaches within the musical algorithm positioning framework proposed by Woller et al. The music composition process is performed by a number of mini-models parameterized by further described properties. The mini-models generate fragments of musical patterns used in output composition. Musical pattern and output generation are controlled by container for the mini-models - a host-model. General mechanism has been presented including the example of the synthesized output compositions.

  8. 42 CFR 82.0 - Background information on this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... compensation may be provided are cancers. There are two categories of covered employees with cancer under... with cancer for whom a dose reconstruction must be conducted, as required under 20 CFR 30.115. (b) The second category is members of the Special Exposure Cohort seeking compensation for a specified cancer,...

  9. 42 CFR 82.0 - Background information on this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... compensation may be provided are cancers. There are two categories of covered employees with cancer under... with cancer for whom a dose reconstruction must be conducted, as required under 20 CFR 30.115. (b) The second category is members of the Special Exposure Cohort seeking compensation for a specified cancer,...

  10. 42 CFR 82.0 - Background information on this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... compensation may be provided are cancers. There are two categories of covered employees with cancer under... with cancer for whom a dose reconstruction must be conducted, as required under 20 CFR 30.115. (b) The second category is members of the Special Exposure Cohort seeking compensation for a specified cancer,...

  11. Background information: requirements for advanced specialty education programs in prosthodontics.

    PubMed

    1983-12-01

    The proposed revisions have been developed to address problems of fragmentation, inconsistency, and lack of balance in advanced prosthodontic education. Minimum didactic and clinical requirements for each subdiscipline are clearly indicated in the proposed "Requirements," and programs will no longer be directed to provide special emphasis in one subdiscipline. It should be noted that the proposed "Requirements" do not prevent or preclude programs from emphasizing one subdiscipline. This option is left up to the sponsoring institutions. The proposed "Requirements," however, do underscore the fact that the primary responsibility of accredited prosthodontic programs is to provide students with the opportunity to achieve competence in the full scope of prosthodontic procedures.

  12. Revised Hazard Ranking System: Background information. Fact sheet

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-11-01

    The Fact Sheet discusses the Hazard Ranking System (HRS) in response to the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 (SARA). The HRS is the scoring system EPA uses to assess the relative threat associated with the release or potential release of hazardous substances from a waste site. The HRS score is the primary criterion EPA uses to determine whether a site should be placed on the National Priorities List (NPL). The NPL identifies sites that warrant further investigation to determine if they pose risks to public health or the environment. Sites on the NPL are eligible for long-term 'remedial action' financed under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA), as amended by SARA. SARA authorizes a 'Hazardous Substances Superfund' totalling $8.5 billion over 5 years to pay costs not assumed by those responsible for problems at a site. The HRS uses data that can be collected relatively quickly and inexpensively, thus allowing most Superfund resources to be directed to remedial actions at sites on the NPL.

  13. LANL-IPF responses to isotopes workshop background information survey

    SciTech Connect

    Nortier, Francois Meiring

    2008-01-01

    Responses to the following are provided: (A) Which isotopes do you (company, agency, university, community) currently use in your activities or distribute (repackage) to end-users? (B) Describe generally what these isotopes are used for, i.e. the science or application. (C) Which isotope(s) do you anticipate may have significant future increase in demand. Identify the isotope(s), its priority, possible chemical form and for what purpose it would be used. (D) Are there other isotopes that you might use but are currently unavilable or not available in difficient quantities? If so, please identify this isotope, from whom have you tired to obtain it and for what prupose would it be used. (E) Do you have any specific issues with respect to the purity, availability, reliability of supply, etc. of isotopes at present?

  14. Background Information concerning Miami-Dade Community College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Losak, John; And Others

    Seven essays are presented that deal with the students, instruction, and administration of Miami-Dade Community College (MDCC). First, John Losak considers the M-DCC student population since 1969, providing data on ethnicity, age of students, male/female enrollments, foreign student enrollments, program diversity, skill level of enrolling…

  15. 42 CFR 82.0 - Background information on this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES METHODS FOR CONDUCTING DOSE RECONSTRUCTION UNDER THE ENERGY... compensation may be provided are cancers. There are two categories of covered employees with cancer under... with cancer for whom a dose reconstruction must be conducted, as required under 20 CFR 30.115. (b)...

  16. 42 CFR 82.0 - Background information on this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES METHODS FOR CONDUCTING DOSE RECONSTRUCTION UNDER THE ENERGY... compensation may be provided are cancers. There are two categories of covered employees with cancer under... with cancer for whom a dose reconstruction must be conducted, as required under 20 CFR 30.115. (b)...

  17. US uranium mining industry: background information on economics and emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Bruno, G.A.; Dirks, J.A.; Jackson, P.O.; Young, J.K.

    1984-03-01

    A review of the US uranium mining industry has revealed a generally depressed industry situation. The 1982 U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ production from both open-pit and underground mines declined to 3800 and 6300 tons respectively with the underground portion representing 46% of total production. US exploration and development has continued downward in 1982. Employment in the mining and milling sectors has dropped 31% and 17% respectively in 1982. Representative forecasts were developed for reactor fuel demand and U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ production for the years 1983 and 1990. Reactor fuel demand is estimated to increase from 15,900 tons to 21,300 tons U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ respectively. U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ production, however, is estimated to decrease from 10,600 tons to 9600 tons respectively. A field examination was conducted of 29 selected underground uranium mines that represent 84% of the 1982 underground production. Data was gathered regarding population, land ownership and private property valuation. An analysis of the increased cost to production resulting from the installation of 20-meter high exhaust borehole vent stacks was conducted. An assessment was made of the current and future /sup 222/Rn emission levels for a group of 27 uranium mines. It is shown that /sup 222/Rn emission rates are increasing from 10 individual operating mines through 1990 by 1.2 to 3.8 times. But for the group of 27 mines as a whole, a reduction of total /sup 222/Rn emissions is predicted due to 17 of the mines being shutdown and sealed. The estimated total /sup 222/Rn emission rate for this group of mines will be 105 Ci/yr by year end 1983 or 70% of the 1978-79 measured rate and 124 Ci/yr by year end 1990 or 83% of the 1978-79 measured rate.

  18. Drug Use and Abuse: Background Information for Security Personnel

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-05-01

    such as poppy seeds , can lead to detectable levels of drugs in urine during an initial drug screening; the confirmatory GC/MS test can generally identify...morphine, codeine ), as methadone can be used to facilitate withdrawal. Methadone substitutes for the abused drug so the patient can cease heroin or other...chemical manipulation of either morphine or codeine . Although heroin is the most common narcotic available on the street, addicts can obtain a variety of

  19. Background information for Van Aken on testing of NESTT product

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, John G.

    2016-11-18

    Debris from explosives testing in a shot tank that contains 4 weight percent or less of explosive is shown to be non-reactive under the specified testing protocol in the Code of Federal Regulations. This debris can then be regarded as a non-hazardous waste on the basis of reactivity, when collected and packaged in a specified manner. If it is contaminated with radioactive components (e.g. depleted uranium), it can therefore be disposed of as radioactive waste or mixed waste, as appropriate (note that debris may contain other materials that render it hazardous, such as beryllium). We also discuss potential waste generation issues in contained firing operations that are applicable to the planned new Contained Firing Facility (CFF).

  20. WIS Implementation Study Report. Volume 3. Background Information.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-10-01

    entailed the analysis of all the cluster workshop reports in a meeting of the cluster chairpersons. This was conducted to eliminate areas of redundancy and...can be found in the Executive Summary , Volume I of this report . Finally, this Record Document has been prepared by the IDA project management, cluster...INTRODUCTION The purpose of this report is to support an effort by the Institute for Defense Analysis that is developing estimates of the cost and scope of

  1. Crime and Security Risk: Background Information for Security Personnel

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-08-01

    Monterey, CA: Defense Personnel Security Research and Education Center. 69. Hare, R. D., Hart, S. D., & Harpur, T. J. (1991). Psychopathy and the DSM-IV...Predictors of psychopathy and release outcome in a criminal population. Psycho- logical Assessment: A Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 4, 419

  2. Sensitive Security Information (SSI) and Transportation Security: Background and Controversies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-02-05

    with airport security procedures, employee accountability, passenger screening, and airport secrecy agreements. In January 2003, the Dallas/Fort... Airport Security Flaws Bring Criticism,” Los Angeles Times, July 2, 2002, p. A8. 16 Charles Piller and Ricardo Alonso-Zaldivar, “A Suspect Computer...Secrecy in Airport Security Contract Criticized,” Des Moines Register, Sept. 27, 2003, p. 1A; James Andrews, “Here in Tristate, Security’s Tighter

  3. Heritage Learners in the Chinese Language Classroom: Home Background

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xiao, Yun

    2006-01-01

    Studies from information-processing and language comprehension research have reported that background knowledge facilitates reading and writing. By comparing Chinese language development of heritage students who had home background in Chinese language and culture with those who did not, this study found that heritage learners did significantly…

  4. 76 FR 79565 - Management Contracts-Background Investigations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-22

    ... National Indian Gaming Commission 25 CFR Part 537 RIN 3141-AA46 Management Contracts--Background... management contracts. The proposed revision may reduce duplication of efforts while maintaining the integrity... contractor should be required to submit background information when the contract is for management of...

  5. Low background techniques in CANDLES

    SciTech Connect

    Nakajima, K. E-mail: nkyohei@u-fukui.ac.jp; Iida, T.; Matsuoka, K.; Nomachi, M.; Umehara, S.; Kishimoto, T.; Chan, W. M.; Kakubata, H.; Li, X.; Maeda, T.; Ohata, T.; Temuge, B.; Tetsuno, K.; Trang, V. T. T.; Uehara, T.; Yoshida, S.; Morishita, K.; Ogawa, I.; Sakamoto, K.; Tamagawa, Y.; and others

    2015-08-17

    CANDLES is a double beta decay experiment using {sup 48}Ca in CaF{sub 2} crystals. The measurement is being performed with prototype detector (CANDLES III) for high sensitive measurement in the future. Recent status of detector improvements and background reduction techniques are described in this paper.

  6. Teaching about Natural Background Radiation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Azmi, Darwish; Karunakara, N.; Mustapha, Amidu O.

    2013-01-01

    Ambient gamma dose rates in air were measured at different locations (indoors and outdoors) to demonstrate the ubiquitous nature of natural background radiation in the environment and to show that levels vary from one location to another, depending on the underlying geology. The effect of a lead shield on a gamma radiation field was also…

  7. Teacher Pensions: A Background Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Janet S.

    2008-01-01

    Pensions are an important but comparatively unexamined component of human resource policies in education. In an increasingly competitive world where employees are more mobile than ever, pension policies that were designed in the last century may be out of step with the needs of both individuals and schools. This background paper aims to foster…

  8. Ambient background particulate composition, outdoor natural background: interferents/clutter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paterno, Dorothea

    2012-06-01

    It has proven a very difficult task to discriminate an actual BW threat from the natural occurring ambient particulate aerosol, which includes a significant fraction of particles consisting of mixed mineral and biological material. The interferent particles [clutter] (bio and non bio) concentration varies widely both by location, weather and season and diurnally. Naturally occurring background particulates are composed of fungal and bacterial spores both fragments and components, plant fragments and debris, animal fragments and debris, all of which may be associated with inert dust or combustion material. Some or all of which could also be considered to be an interferent to a biological warfare detector and cause these biodector systems to cause False Alarms by non specific BW bio detectors. I will share analysis of current long term background data sets.

  9. 27 CFR 5.33 - Additional requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... English, and for products bottled for consumption within Puerto Rico the required information may be... cannot be removed without thorough application of water or other solvents. (f) Additional information...

  10. 27 CFR 5.33 - Additional requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... English, and for products bottled for consumption within Puerto Rico the required information may be... cannot be removed without thorough application of water or other solvents. (f) Additional information...

  11. 27 CFR 5.33 - Additional requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... English, and for products bottled for consumption within Puerto Rico the required information may be... cannot be removed without thorough application of water or other solvents. (f) Additional information...

  12. 27 CFR 5.33 - Additional requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... English, and for products bottled for consumption within Puerto Rico the required information may be... cannot be removed without thorough application of water or other solvents. (f) Additional information...

  13. 27 CFR 5.33 - Additional requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... English, and for products bottled for consumption within Puerto Rico the required information may be... cannot be removed without thorough application of water or other solvents. (f) Additional information...

  14. The cosmic infrared background experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bock, James; Battle, John; Cooray, Asantha; Kawada, Mitsunobu; Keating, Brian; Lange, Andrew; Lee, Dae-Hea; Matsumoto, Toshio; Matsuura, Shuji; Pak, Soojong; Renbarger, Tom; Sullivan, Ian; Tsumura, Kohji; Wada, Takehiko; Watabe, Toyoki

    2006-03-01

    The extragalactic background, based on absolute measurements reported by DIRBE and IRTS at 1.2 and 2.2 μm, exceeds the brightness derived from galaxy counts by up to a factor 5. Furthermore, both DIRBE and the IRTS report fluctuations in the near-infrared sky brightness that appear to have an extra-galactic origin, but are larger than expected from local ( z = 1-3) galaxies. These observations have led to speculation that a new class of high-mass stars or mini-quasars may dominate primordial star formation at high-redshift ( z ˜ 10-20), which, in order to explain the excess in the near-infrared background, must be highly luminous but produce a limited amount of metals and X-ray photons. Regardless of the nature of the sources, if a significant component of the near-infrared background comes from first-light galaxies, theoretical models generically predict a prominent near-infrared spectral feature from the redshifted Lyman cutoff, and a distinctive fluctuation power spectrum. We are developing a rocket-borne instrument (the Cosmic Infrared Background ExpeRiment, or CIBER) to search for signatures of primordial galaxy formation in the cosmic near-infrared extra-galactic background. CIBER consists of a wide-field two-color camera, a low-resolution absolute spectrometer, and a high-resolution narrow-band imaging spectrometer. The cameras will search for spatial fluctuations in the background on angular scales from 7″ to 2°, where a first-light galaxy signature is expected to peak, over a range of angular scales poorly covered by previous experiments. CIBER will determine if the fluctuations reported by the IRTS arise from first-light galaxies or have a local origin. In a short rocket flight CIBER has sensitivity to probe fluctuations 100× fainter than IRTS/DIRBE, with sufficient resolution to remove local-galaxy correlations. By jointly observing regions of the sky studied by Spitzer and ASTRO-F, CIBER will build a multi-color view of the near

  15. The Cosmic Infrared Background Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bock, James; Battle, J.; Cooray, A.; Hristov, V.; Kawada, M.; Keating, B.; Lee, D.; Matsumoto, T.; Matsuura, S.; Nam, U.; Renbarger, T.; Sullivan, I.; Tsumura, K.; Wada, T.; Zemcov, M.

    2009-01-01

    We are developing the Cosmic Infrared Background ExpeRiment (CIBER) to search for signatures of first-light galaxy emission in the extragalactic background. The first generation of stars produce characteristic signatures in the near-infrared extragalactic background, including a redshifted Ly-cutoff feature and a characteristic fluctuation power spectrum, that may be detectable with a specialized instrument. CIBER consists of two wide-field cameras to measure the fluctuation power spectrum, and a low-resolution and a narrow-band spectrometer to measure the absolute background. The cameras will search for fluctuations on angular scales from 7 arcseconds to 2 degrees, where the first-light galaxy spatial power spectrum peaks. The cameras have the necessary combination of sensitivity, wide field of view, spatial resolution, and multiple bands to make a definitive measurement. CIBER will determine if the fluctuations reported by Spitzer arise from first-light galaxies. The cameras observe in a single wide field of view, eliminating systematic errors associated with mosaicing. Two bands are chosen to maximize the first-light signal contrast, at 1.6 um near the expected spectral maximum, and at 1.0 um; the combination is a powerful discriminant against fluctuations arising from local sources. We will observe regions of the sky surveyed by Spitzer and Akari. The low-resolution spectrometer will search for the redshifted Lyman cutoff feature in the 0.7 - 1.8 um spectral region. The narrow-band spectrometer will measure the absolute Zodiacal brightness using the scattered 854.2 nm Ca II Fraunhofer line. The spectrometers will test if reports of a diffuse extragalactic background in the 1 - 2 um band continues into the optical, or is caused by an under estimation of the Zodiacal foreground. We report performance of the assembled and tested instrument as we prepare for a first sounding rocket flight in early 2009. CIBER is funded by the NASA/APRA sub-orbital program.

  16. D instanton on the linear-dilaton background

    SciTech Connect

    Gal'tsov, D. V. Orlov, D. G. Klevtsov, S. E.

    2007-09-15

    It is shown that, in addition to a standard asymptotically flat D instanton, IIB superstring theory contains an instanton-type excitation on the linear-dilaton background. The new solution is asymptotically flat, but the dilaton grows linearly at infinity. The total action of this configuration diverges, but the instanton action proper becomes finite upon subtracting an infinite background contribution.

  17. Background reduction in the SNO+ experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Segui, L.

    2015-08-17

    SNO+ is a large multi-purpose liquid scintillator experiment, which first aim is to detect the neutrinoless double beta decay of {sup 130}Te. It is placed at SNOLAB, at 6000 m.w.e. and it is based on the SNO infrastructure. SNO+ will contain approximately 780 tonnes of liquid scintillator, loaded with {sup 130}Te inside an acrylic vessel (AV) with an external volume of ultra pure water to reduce the external backgrounds. Light produced in the scintillator by the interaction of particles will be detected with about 9,000 photomultiplier’s. For the neutrinoless double beta decay phase, due to its the extremely low rate expected, the control, knowledge and reduction of the background is essential. Moreover, it will also benefit other phases of the experiment focused on the study of solar neutrinos, nucleon decay, geoneutrinos and supernovae. In order to reduce the internal background level, a novel purification technique for tellurium loaded scintillators has been developed by the collaboration that reduces the U/Th concentration and several cosmic-activated isotopes by at least a factor 10{sup 2} -10{sup 3} in a single pass. In addition, different rejection techniques have been developed for the remaining internal backgrounds based on Monte-Carlo simulations. In this work, the scintillator purification technique and the levels obtained with it will be discussed. Furthermore, an overview of the different backgrounds for the double-beta phase will be presented, highlighting some of the techniques developed to reject the remained decays based on their expected timing differences.

  18. Changes in Odor Background Affect the Locomotory Response to Pheromone in Moths

    PubMed Central

    Party, Virginie; Hanot, Christophe; Büsser, Daniela Schmidt; Rochat, Didier; Renou, Michel

    2013-01-01

    Many animals rely on chemical cues to recognize and locate a resource, and they must extract the relevant information from a complex and changing odor environment. For example, in moths, finding a mate is mediated by a sex pheromone, which is detected in a rich environment of volatile plant compounds. Here, we investigated the effects of a volatile plant background on the walking response of male Spodoptera littoralis to the female pheromone. Males were stimulated by combining pheromone with one of three plant compounds, and their walking paths were recorded with a locomotion compensator and analyzed. We found that the addition of certain volatile plant compounds disturbed the orientation toward the sex pheromone. The effect on locomotion was correlated with the capacity of the plant compound to antagonize pheromone detection by olfactory receptor neurons, suggesting a masking effect of the background over the pheromone signal. Moths were more sensitive to changes in background compared to a constant background, suggesting that a background odor also acts as a distracting stimulus. Our experiments show that the effects of odorant background on insect responses to chemical signals are complex and cannot be explained by a single mechanism. PMID:23301000

  19. WFC3/UVIS Sky Backgrounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baggett, Sylvia; Anderson, Jay

    2012-06-01

    This report summarizes the on-orbit background levels present in WFC3/UVIS full-frame images. The results are based on nearly all standard readout images taken since the installation of WFC3 on HST in May 2009, with a relatively small number of exclusions e.g. images with obvious anomalous backgrounds (such as extended targets filling the field of view) or those taken with the quad filters (different bandpass in each amp). Comparisons are provided to estimates from the Exposure Time Calculator (ETC). We anticipate these results to be helpful in fine-tuning the level of post-flash required to achieve the optimum balance of charge transfter efficiency (CTE) loss mitigation versus noise penalty. Observers considering the use of post-flash should refer to the White Paper (MacKenty & Smith 2012) on the CTE WWW page (http://www.stsci.edu/hst/wfc3/ins_performance/CTE/).

  20. The Cosmic Background Explorer /COBE/

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mather, J. C.

    1982-01-01

    The Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) satellite, under study by NASA since 1976, will map the spectrum and the angular distribution of diffuse radiation from the universe over the entire wavelength range from 1 micron to 1.3 cm. It carries three instruments: a set of differential microwave radiometers (DMR) at 23.5, 31.4, 53, and 90GHz, a far infrared absolute spectrophotometer (FIRAS) covering 1 to 100 per cm, and a diffuse infrared background experiment (DIRBE) covering 1 to 300 microns. They will use the ideal space environment, a one year lifetime, and standard instrument techniques to achieve orders of magnitude improvements in sensitivity and accuracy, providing a fundamental data base for cosmology. The instruments are united by common purpose as well as similar environmental and orbital requirements. The data from all three experiments will be analyzed together, to distinguish nearby sources of radiation from the cosmologically interesting diffuse background radiations. Construction is planned to begin in 1982 for a launch in 1988.

  1. Background independence in a background dependent renormalization group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labus, Peter; Morris, Tim R.; Slade, Zöe H.

    2016-07-01

    Within the derivative expansion of conformally reduced gravity, the modified split Ward identities are shown to be compatible with the flow equations if and only if either the anomalous dimension vanishes or the cutoff profile is chosen to have a power-law form. No solutions exist if the Ward identities are incompatible. In the compatible case, a clear reason is found for why Ward identities can still forbid the existence of fixed points; however, for any cutoff profile, a background independent (and parametrization independent) flow equation is uncovered. Finally, expanding in vertices, the combined equations are shown generically to become either overconstrained or highly redundant beyond the six-point level.

  2. Additive Similarity Trees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sattath, Shmuel; Tversky, Amos

    1977-01-01

    Tree representations of similarity data are investigated. Hierarchical clustering is critically examined, and a more general procedure, called the additive tree, is presented. The additive tree representation is then compared to multidimensional scaling. (Author/JKS)

  3. Wind energy information guide

    SciTech Connect

    1996-04-01

    This book is divided into nine chapters. Chapters 1--8 provide background and annotated references on wind energy research, development, and commercialization. Chapter 9 lists additional sources of printed information and relevant organizations. Four indices provide alphabetical access to authors, organizations, computer models and design tools, and subjects. A list of abbreviations and acronyms is also included. Chapter topics include: introduction; economics of using wind energy; wind energy resources; wind turbine design, development, and testing; applications; environmental issues of wind power; institutional issues; and wind energy systems development.

  4. Theatre fleet's vital additional capacity.

    PubMed

    2012-11-01

    Vanguard Healthcare's fleet of mobile surgical facilities has been deployed to healthcare sites throughout Europe and beyond for over a decade, providing vital additional clinical capacity when existing buildings are refurbished or upgraded, in the event of flood or fire, or simply to help hospitals cater for rising demand. It is a combination of careful planning, teamwork, and the specialist expertise of Vanguard's personnel--many with a clinical background--that ensures not only each unit's successful installation, but equally its subsequent running, servicing, and maintenance, the company explains.

  5. Polyimide processing additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pratt, J. R.; St. Clair, T. L.; Burks, H. D.; Stoakley, D. M.

    1987-01-01

    A method has been found for enhancing the melt flow of thermoplastic polyimides during processing. A high molecular weight 422 copoly(amic acid) or copolyimide was fused with approximately 0.05 to 5 pct by weight of a low molecular weight amic acid or imide additive, and this melt was studied by capillary rheometry. Excellent flow and improved composite properties on graphite resulted from the addition of a PMDA-aniline additive to LARC-TPI. Solution viscosity studies imply that amic acid additives temporarily lower molecular weight and, hence, enlarge the processing window. Thus, compositions containing the additive have a lower melt viscosity for a longer time than those unmodified.

  6. [Food additives and healthiness].

    PubMed

    Heinonen, Marina

    2014-01-01

    Additives are used for improving food structure or preventing its spoilage, for example. Many substances used as additives are also naturally present in food. The safety of additives is evaluated according to commonly agreed principles. If high concentrations of an additive cause adverse health effects for humans, a limit of acceptable daily intake (ADI) is set for it. An additive is a risk only when ADI is exceeded. The healthiness of food is measured on the basis of nutrient density and scientifically proven effects.

  7. Teaching about natural background radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Azmi, Darwish; Karunakara, N.; Mustapha, Amidu O.

    2013-07-01

    Ambient gamma dose rates in air were measured at different locations (indoors and outdoors) to demonstrate the ubiquitous nature of natural background radiation in the environment and to show that levels vary from one location to another, depending on the underlying geology. The effect of a lead shield on a gamma radiation field was also demonstrated to emphasize the important role of shielding in radiation protection. The measurements were carried out with a Geiger-Muller (GM)-based dosimeter and a NaI scintillation gamma-ray spectrometer, which are normally available in physics laboratories. Radioactivity in household materials was demonstrated using a gas mantle as an example.

  8. Raman background photobleaching as a possible method of cancer diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandt, Nikolai N.; Brandt, Nikolai B.; Chikishev, Andrey Y.; Gangardt, Mihail G.; Karyakina, Nina F.

    2001-06-01

    Kinetics of photobleaching of background in Raman spectra of aqueous solutions of plant toxins ricin and ricin agglutinin, ricin binding subunit, and normal and malignant human blood serum were measured. For the excitation of the spectra cw and pulsed laser radiation were used. The spectra of Raman background change upon laser irradiation. Background intensity is lower for the samples with small molecular weight. The cyclization of amino acid residues in the toxin molecules as well as in human blood serum can be a reason of the Raman background. The model of the background photobleaching is proposed. The differences in photobleaching kinetics in the cases of cw and pulsed laser radiation are discussed. It is shown that Raman background photobleaching can be very informative for cancer diagnostics.

  9. Video coding with dynamic background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, Manoranjan; Lin, Weisi; Lau, Chiew Tong; Lee, Bu-Sung

    2013-12-01

    Motion estimation (ME) and motion compensation (MC) using variable block size, sub-pixel search, and multiple reference frames (MRFs) are the major reasons for improved coding performance of the H.264 video coding standard over other contemporary coding standards. The concept of MRFs is suitable for repetitive motion, uncovered background, non-integer pixel displacement, lighting change, etc. The requirement of index codes of the reference frames, computational time in ME & MC, and memory buffer for coded frames limits the number of reference frames used in practical applications. In typical video sequences, the previous frame is used as a reference frame with 68-92% of cases. In this article, we propose a new video coding method using a reference frame [i.e., the most common frame in scene (McFIS)] generated by dynamic background modeling. McFIS is more effective in terms of rate-distortion and computational time performance compared to the MRFs techniques. It has also inherent capability of scene change detection (SCD) for adaptive group of picture (GOP) size determination. As a result, we integrate SCD (for GOP determination) with reference frame generation. The experimental results show that the proposed coding scheme outperforms the H.264 video coding with five reference frames and the two relevant state-of-the-art algorithms by 0.5-2.0 dB with less computational time.

  10. Sample selection bias and presence-only distribution models: implications for background and pseudo-absence data.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Steven J; Dudík, Miroslav; Elith, Jane; Graham, Catherine H; Lehmann, Anthony; Leathwick, John; Ferrier, Simon

    2009-01-01

    Most methods for modeling species distributions from occurrence records require additional data representing the range of environmental conditions in the modeled region. These data, called background or pseudo-absence data, are usually drawn at random from the entire region, whereas occurrence collection is often spatially biased toward easily accessed areas. Since the spatial bias generally results in environmental bias, the difference between occurrence collection and background sampling may lead to inaccurate models. To correct the estimation, we propose choosing background data with the same bias as occurrence data. We investigate theoretical and practical implications of this approach. Accurate information about spatial bias is usually lacking, so explicit biased sampling of background sites may not be possible. However, it is likely that an entire target group of species observed by similar methods will share similar bias. We therefore explore the use of all occurrences within a target group as biased background data. We compare model performance using target-group background and randomly sampled background on a comprehensive collection of data for 226 species from diverse regions of the world. We find that target-group background improves average performance for all the modeling methods we consider, with the choice of background data having as large an effect on predictive performance as the choice of modeling method. The performance improvement due to target-group background is greatest when there is strong bias in the target-group presence records. Our approach applies to regression-based modeling methods that have been adapted for use with occurrence data, such as generalized linear or additive models and boosted regression trees, and to Maxent, a probability density estimation method. We argue that increased awareness of the implications of spatial bias in surveys, and possible modeling remedies, will substantially improve predictions of species

  11. Cuba: Background to a Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De La Fuente, Alejandro

    2000-01-01

    Provides historical information on Cuba. Addresses early colonization, the advent of plantation agriculture, the role and presence of the United States in the Caribbean and Cuba, and the social and economic developments in Cuba after the revolution in 1959 led by Fidel Castro. (CMK)

  12. Korean Basic Course: Area Background.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

    Designed to serve as an introduction to some aspects of Korean culture and civilization, this text consists largely of lectures on various topics prepared by staff members of the Defense Language Institute. The major section on the Republic of South Korea includes information on: (1) the historical setting; (2) the politico-military complex; (3)…

  13. US Forest Service and National Park Service Wilderness Aircraft Overflight Study: Sociological background and study plans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrison, Robin T.; Hartmann, Lawrence

    1990-01-01

    The background and sociological aspects of the combined U.S. Forest Service and National Park Service Wilderness Aircraft Overflight Study (WACOS) are presented. The WACOS broaches a new area of research by combining aspects of outdoor recreation sociology and aircraft noise response studies. The tasks faced create new challenges and require innovative solutions. Background information on the WACOS is presented with special emphasis on sociological considerations. At the time of this writing, no data have yet been collected, so this paper will present background information, related issues, and plans for data collection. Some recent studies indicate that managers of Forest Service wildernesses and National Park Service areas consider aircraft overflights to be a problem to their users in some areas. Additional relevant background research from outdoor recreation sociology is discussed, followed by presentation of the authors' opinions of the most salient sociological issues faced by this study. The goals and desired end products are identified next, followed by a review of the methods anticipated to be used to obtain these results. Finally, a discussion and conclusion section is provided.

  14. Polylactides in additive biomanufacturing.

    PubMed

    Poh, Patrina S P; Chhaya, Mohit P; Wunner, Felix M; De-Juan-Pardo, Elena M; Schilling, Arndt F; Schantz, Jan-Thorsten; van Griensven, Martijn; Hutmacher, Dietmar W

    2016-12-15

    New advanced manufacturing technologies under the alias of additive biomanufacturing allow the design and fabrication of a range of products from pre-operative models, cutting guides and medical devices to scaffolds. The process of printing in 3 dimensions of cells, extracellular matrix (ECM) and biomaterials (bioinks, powders, etc.) to generate in vitro and/or in vivo tissue analogue structures has been termed bioprinting. To further advance in additive biomanufacturing, there are many aspects that we can learn from the wider additive manufacturing (AM) industry, which have progressed tremendously since its introduction into the manufacturing sector. First, this review gives an overview of additive manufacturing and both industry and academia efforts in addressing specific challenges in the AM technologies to drive toward AM-enabled industrial revolution. After which, considerations of poly(lactides) as a biomaterial in additive biomanufacturing are discussed. Challenges in wider additive biomanufacturing field are discussed in terms of (a) biomaterials; (b) computer-aided design, engineering and manufacturing; (c) AM and additive biomanufacturing printers hardware; and (d) system integration. Finally, the outlook for additive biomanufacturing was discussed.

  15. Additive Manufactured Product Integrity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waller, Jess; Wells, Doug; James, Steve; Nichols, Charles

    2017-01-01

    NASA is providing key leadership in an international effort linking NASA and non-NASA resources to speed adoption of additive manufacturing (AM) to meet NASA's mission goals. Participants include industry, NASA's space partners, other government agencies, standards organizations and academia. Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) is identified as a universal need for all aspects of additive manufacturing.

  16. 32 CFR 2001.24 - Additional requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Markings § 2001.24 Additional requirements. (a) Marking prohibitions. Markings other than “Top Secret... the marking, “This Document Contains (indicate country of origin) Information.” Agencies may also.... If the fact that information is foreign government information must be concealed, the...

  17. Texture induced microwave background anisotropies

    SciTech Connect

    Borrill, Julian; Copeland, Edmund J.; Liddle, Andrew R.; Stebbins, Albert; Veeraraghavan, Shoba

    1994-03-01

    We use numerical simulations to calculate the cosmic microwave background anisotropy induced by the evolution of a global texture field, with special emphasis on individual textures. Both spherically symmetric and general configurations are analyzed, and in the latter case we consider field configurations which exhibit unwinding events and also ones which do not. We compare the results given by evolving the field numerically under both the expanded core (XCORE) and non-linear sigma model (NLSM) approximations with the analytic predictions of the NLSM exact solution for a spherically symmetric self-similar (SSSS) unwinding. We find that the random unwinding configuration spots' typical peak height is 60-75\\% and angular size typically only 10% of those of the SSSS unwinding, and that random configurations without an unwinding event nonetheless may generate indistinguishable hot and cold spots. A brief comparison is made with other work.

  18. Background illumination and automated perimetry.

    PubMed

    Klewin, K M; Radius, R L

    1986-03-01

    Visual field function in the right and left eyes of 31 normal volunteers was evaluated with an automated projection perimeter (OCTOPUS). Serial visual field evaluations were repeated in these same eyes with neutral filters of increasing optical density. We compared the results of threshold determinations with the different neutral filters in place before the examined eye. Significant reduction in threshold sensitivity at several test spots throughout the central 30 degrees visual field was seen with neutral density filters of 0.5 log units or greater. The low level of background illumination of the OCTOPUS perimeter (4.0 apostilbs) may allow relatively minor reduction in light transmission by the ocular media to produce significant changes in the recorded level of threshold sensitivity during visual field evaluation.

  19. Background canceling surface alpha detector

    DOEpatents

    MacArthur, D.W.; Allander, K.S.; Bounds, J.A.

    1996-06-11

    A background canceling long range alpha detector which is capable of providing output proportional to both the alpha radiation emitted from a surface and to radioactive gas emanating from the surface. The detector operates by using an electrical field between first and second signal planes, an enclosure and the surface or substance to be monitored for alpha radiation. The first and second signal planes are maintained at the same voltage with respect to the electrically conductive enclosure, reducing leakage currents. In the presence of alpha radiation and radioactive gas decay, the signal from the first signal plane is proportional to both the surface alpha radiation and to the airborne radioactive gas, while the signal from the second signal plane is proportional only to the airborne radioactive gas. The difference between these two signals is proportional to the surface alpha radiation alone. 5 figs.

  20. Background canceling surface alpha detector

    DOEpatents

    MacArthur, Duncan W.; Allander, Krag S.; Bounds, John A.

    1996-01-01

    A background canceling long range alpha detector which is capable of providing output proportional to both the alpha radiation emitted from a surface and to radioactive gas emanating from the surface. The detector operates by using an electrical field between first and second signal planes, an enclosure and the surface or substance to be monitored for alpha radiation. The first and second signal planes are maintained at the same voltage with respect to the electrically conductive enclosure, reducing leakage currents. In the presence of alpha radiation and radioactive gas decay, the signal from the first signal plane is proportional to both the surface alpha radiation and to the airborne radioactive gas, while the signal from the second signal plane is proportional only to the airborne radioactive gas. The difference between these two signals is proportional to the surface alpha radiation alone.

  1. Deleterious background selection with recombination

    SciTech Connect

    Hudson, R.R.; Kaplan, N.L.

    1995-12-01

    An analytic expression for the expected nucleotide diversity is obtained for a neutral locus in a region with deleterious mutation and recombination. Our analytic results are used to predict levels of variation for the entire third chromosome of Drosophila melanogaster. The predictions are consistent with the low levels of variation that have been observed at loci near the centromeres of the third chromosome of D. melanogaster. However, the low levels of variation observed near the tips of this chromosome are not predicted using currently available estimates of the deleterious mutation rate and of selection coefficients. If considerably smaller selection coefficients are assumed, the low observed levels of variation at the tips of the third chromosome are consistent with the background selection model. 33 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Axion Decay and Anisotropy of Near-IR Extragalactic Background Light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Yan; Cooray, Asantha; Mitchell-Wynne, Ketron; Chen, Xuelei; Zemcov, Michael; Smidt, Joseph

    2016-07-01

    The extragalactic background light (EBL) is composed of the cumulative radiation from all galaxies and active galactic nuclei over cosmic history. In addition to point sources, the EBL also contains information from diffuse sources of radiation. The angular power spectra of the near-infrared intensities could contain additional signals, and a complete understanding of the nature of the infrared (IR) background is still lacking in the literature. Here we explore the constraints that can be placed on particle decays, especially candidate dark matter (DM) models involving axions that trace DM halos of galaxies. Axions with a mass around a few electronvolts will decay via two photons with wavelengths in the near-IR band and will leave a signature in the IR background intensity power spectrum. Using recent power spectra measurements from the Hubble Space Telescope and the Cosmic Infrared Background Experiment, we find that the 0.6-1.6 μm power spectra can be explained by axions with masses around 4 eV. The total axion abundance Ω a ≃ 0.05, and it is comparable to the baryon density of the universe. The suggested mean axion mass and abundance are not ruled out by existing cosmological observations. Interestingly, the axion model with a mass distribution is preferred by the data, which cannot be explained by the standard quantum chromodynamics theory and needs further discussion.

  3. CADDIS Recent Additions

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Causal Analysis/Diagnosis Decision Information System, or CADDIS, is a website developed to help scientists and engineers in the Regions, States, and Tribes conduct causal assessments in aquatic systems.

  4. EMC Recent Additions

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page has information about recent changes to promulgated and proposed test methods, perfomance specifications, and quality assurance procedures. It also includes updates and changes to all other approved and proposed test methods.

  5. Rationale for the sluggish oxidative addition of aryl halides to Au(i)† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. CCDC 891201–891204 and 964933. For ESI and crystallographic data in CIF or other electronic format see DOI: 10.1039/c3cc48914k Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Livendahl, Madeleine; Goehry, Charles

    2014-01-01

    The oxidative addition of Csp2–Br or Csp2–I bonds to gold(i) does not take place even under very favorable intramolecular conditions that could form five- or six-membered gold(iii) metallacycles. DFT calculations reveal that although this process could be feasible thermodynamically, it is kinetically very sluggish. PMID:24382586

  6. Polyimide processing additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fletcher, James C. (Inventor); Pratt, J. Richard (Inventor); St.clair, Terry L. (Inventor); Stoakley, Diane M. (Inventor); Burks, Harold D. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A process for preparing polyimides having enhanced melt flow properties is described. The process consists of heating a mixture of a high molecular weight poly-(amic acid) or polyimide with a low molecular weight amic acid or imide additive in the range of 0.05 to 15 percent by weight of additive. The polyimide powders so obtained show improved processability, as evidenced by lower melt viscosity by capillary rheometry. Likewise, films prepared from mixtures of polymers with additives show improved processability with earlier onset of stretching by TMA.

  7. Polyimide processing additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pratt, J. Richard (Inventor); St.clair, Terry L. (Inventor); Stoakley, Diane M. (Inventor); Burks, Harold D. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A process for preparing polyimides having enhanced melt flow properties is described. The process consists of heating a mixture of a high molecular weight poly-(amic acid) or polyimide with a low molecular weight amic acid or imide additive in the range of 0.05 to 15 percent by weight of the additive. The polyimide powders so obtained show improved processability, as evidenced by lower melt viscosity by capillary rheometry. Likewise, films prepared from mixtures of polymers with additives show improved processability with earlier onset of stretching by TMA.

  8. Food Additives and Hyperkinesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wender, Ester H.

    1977-01-01

    The hypothesis that food additives are causally associated with hyperkinesis and learning disabilities in children is reviewed, and available data are summarized. Available from: American Medical Association 535 North Dearborn Street Chicago, Illinois 60610. (JG)

  9. Smog control fuel additives

    SciTech Connect

    Lundby, W.

    1993-06-29

    A method is described of controlling, reducing or eliminating, ozone and related smog resulting from photochemical reactions between ozone and automotive or industrial gases comprising the addition of iodine or compounds of iodine to hydrocarbon-base fuels prior to or during combustion in an amount of about 1 part iodine per 240 to 10,000,000 parts fuel, by weight, to be accomplished by: (a) the addition of these inhibitors during or after the refining or manufacturing process of liquid fuels; (b) the production of these inhibitors for addition into fuel tanks, such as automotive or industrial tanks; or (c) the addition of these inhibitors into combustion chambers of equipment utilizing solid fuels for the purpose of reducing ozone.

  10. Using Correlated Photons to Suppress Background Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, Deborah; Hockney, George; Dowling, Jonathan

    2003-01-01

    way of knowing the precise location and time of creation of a given pair of correlated signal photons in the nonlinear down-conversion crystal, the fact that the photons are necessarily created at the same time and place makes it possible to utilize conventional geometrical imaging optics to reunite the photons in coincidence in the receiving photodetector. Because most or all of the signal photons would be correlated while most or all of the noise photons would be uncorrelated, the S/N would be correspondingly enhanced in the photodetector output. An additional advantage to be gained by use of a correlated-photon detector is that it could be capable of recovering the signal even in the presence of background light so bright that a classical uncorrelated-photon detector would be saturated. A blocked-impurity-band (BIB) photodetector that preferentially detects pairs of correlated photons over uncorrelated ones and that operates at a quantum efficiency of 88 percent is commercially available. This detector must be cooled to the temperature of liquid helium to obtain the desired low-noise performance. It is planned to use this detector in a proof-of-principle demonstration. In addition, it may be possible to develop GaN-based photodetectors that could offer the desired low-noise performance at room temperature.

  11. Anisotropies in the cosmic microwave background: Theory

    SciTech Connect

    Dodelson, S.

    1998-02-01

    Anisotropies in the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) contain a wealth of information about the past history of the universe and the present values of cosmological parameters. I online some of the theoretical advances of the last few years. In particular, I emphasize that for a wide class of cosmological models, theorists can accurately calculate the spectrum to better than a percent. The spectrum of anisotropies today is directly related to the pattern of inhomogeneities present at the time of recombination. This recognition leads to a powerful argument that will enable us to distinguish inflationary models from other models of structure formation. If the inflationary models turn out to be correct, the free parameters in these models will be determined to unprecedented accuracy by the upcoming satellite missions.

  12. Bayesian Analysis of the Cosmic Microwave Background

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jewell, Jeffrey

    2007-01-01

    There is a wealth of cosmological information encoded in the spatial power spectrum of temperature anisotropies of the cosmic microwave background! Experiments designed to map the microwave sky are returning a flood of data (time streams of instrument response as a beam is swept over the sky) at several different frequencies (from 30 to 900 GHz), all with different resolutions and noise properties. The resulting analysis challenge is to estimate, and quantify our uncertainty in, the spatial power spectrum of the cosmic microwave background given the complexities of "missing data", foreground emission, and complicated instrumental noise. Bayesian formulation of this problem allows consistent treatment of many complexities including complicated instrumental noise and foregrounds, and can be numerically implemented with Gibbs sampling. Gibbs sampling has now been validated as an efficient, statistically exact, and practically useful method for low-resolution (as demonstrated on WMAP 1 and 3 year temperature and polarization data). Continuing development for Planck - the goal is to exploit the unique capabilities of Gibbs sampling to directly propagate uncertainties in both foreground and instrument models to total uncertainty in cosmological parameters.

  13. Fluctuations in the Cosmic Microwave Background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaldarriaga, Matias

    1998-06-01

    In this thesis we investigate several aspects related to the theory of fluctuations in the Cosmic Microwave Background. We develop a new algorithm to calculate the angular power spectrum of the anisotropies which is two orders of magnitude faster than the standard Boltzmann hierarchy approach (Chapter 3). The new algorithm will become essential when comparing the observational results of the next generation of CMB experiments with theoretical predictions. The parameter space of the models is so large that an exhaustive exploration to find the best fit model will only be feasible with this new type of algorithm. We also investigate the polarization properties of the CMB field. We develop a new formalism to describe the statistics of the polarization variables that takes into account their spin two nature (Chapter 2). In Chapter 4 we explore several physical effects that create distinct features in the polarization power spectrum. We study the signature of the reionization of the universe and a stochastic background of gravitational waves. We also describe how the polarization correlation functions can be used to test the causal structure of the universe. Finally in Chapter 5 we quantify the amount of information the next generation of satellites can obtain by measuring both temperature and polarization anisotropies. We calculate the expected error bars on the cosmological parameters for the specifications of the MAP and Planck satellite missions.

  14. Chameleon scalar fields in relativistic gravitational backgrounds

    SciTech Connect

    Tsujikawa, Shinji; Tamaki, Takashi; Tavakol, Reza E-mail: tamaki@gravity.phys.waseda.ac.jp

    2009-05-15

    We study the field profile of a scalar field {phi} that couples to a matter fluid (dubbed a chameleon field) in the relativistic gravitational background of a spherically symmetric spacetime. Employing a linear expansion in terms of the gravitational potential {Phi}{sub c} at the surface of a compact object with a constant density, we derive the thin-shell field profile both inside and outside the object, as well as the resulting effective coupling with matter, analytically. We also carry out numerical simulations for the class of inverse power-law potentials V({phi}) = M{sup 4+n}{phi}{sup -n} by employing the information provided by our analytical solutions to set the boundary conditions around the centre of the object and show that thin-shell solutions in fact exist if the gravitational potential {Phi}{sub c} is smaller than 0.3, which marginally covers the case of neutron stars. Thus the chameleon mechanism is present in the relativistic gravitational backgrounds, capable of reducing the effective coupling. Since thin-shell solutions are sensitive to the choice of boundary conditions, our analytic field profile is very helpful to provide appropriate boundary conditions for {Phi}{sub c}{approx}

  15. The Diffuse Extreme Ultraviolet Background

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vallerga, John; Slavin, Jonathan

    1996-01-01

    Observations of the diffuse EUV background towards 138 different directions using the spectrometers aboard the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer satellite (EUVE) have been combined into a spectrum from 150A to 730A and represent an effective exposure of 18 million seconds. There is no significant evidence of any non-local line flux in the resultant spectrum such as that from a hot coronal plasma. These results are inconsistent with the Wisconsin C and B broad-band surveys assuming the source is a logT = 5.8 - 6.1 hot plasma in ionization equilibrium with solar abundances, confirming the previous result of Jelinksy, Vallerga and Edelstein) (hereafter Paper 1) using an observation along the ecliptic with the same instrument. To make these results consistent with the previous broad-band surveys, the plasma responsible for the emission must either be depleted in Fe by a factor of approximately 6, be behind an absorbing slab of neutral H with a column of 2 x 10(exp 19)/sq cm, or not be in collisional ionization equilibrium (CIE). One such non-CIE model (Breitswerdt and Schmutzier) that explains the soft x-ray results is also inconsistent with this EUV data.

  16. Beyond Scene Gist: Objects Guide Search More Than Scene Background.

    PubMed

    Koehler, Kathryn; Eckstein, Miguel P

    2017-03-13

    Although the facilitation of visual search by contextual information is well established, there is little understanding of the independent contributions of different types of contextual cues in scenes. Here we manipulated 3 types of contextual information: object co-occurrence, multiple object configurations, and background category. We isolated the benefits of each contextual cue to target detectability, its impact on decision bias, confidence, and the guidance of eye movements. We find that object-based information guides eye movements and facilitates perceptual judgments more than scene background. The degree of guidance and facilitation of each contextual cue can be related to its inherent informativeness about the target spatial location as measured by human explicit judgments about likely target locations. Our results improve the understanding of the contributions of distinct contextual scene components to search and suggest that the brain's utilization of cues to guide eye movements is linked to the cue's informativeness about the target's location. (PsycINFO Database Record

  17. BOOK REVIEW: The Cosmic Microwave Background The Cosmic Microwave Background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coles, Peter

    2009-08-01

    With the successful launch of the European Space Agency's Planck satellite earlier this year the cosmic microwave background (CMB) is once again the centre of attention for cosmologists around the globe. Since its accidental discovery in 1964 by Arno Penzias and Robert Wilson, this relic of the Big Bang has been subjected to intense scrutiny by generation after generation of experiments and has gradually yielded up answers to the deepest questions about the origin of our Universe. Most recently, the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) has made a full-sky analysis of the pattern of temperature and polarization variations that helped establish a new standard cosmological model, confirmed the existence of dark matter and dark energy, and provided strong evidence that there was an epoch of primordial inflation. Ruth Durrer's book reflects the importance of the CMB for future developments in this field. Aimed at graduate students and established researchers, it consists of a basic introduction to cosmology and the theory of primordial perturbations followed by a detailed explanation of how these manifest themselves as measurable variations in the present-day radiation field. It then focuses on the statistical methods needed to obtain accurate estimates of the parameters of the standard cosmological model, and finishes with a discussion of the effect of gravitational lensing on the CMB and on the evolution of its spectrum. The book apparently grew out of various lecture notes on CMB anisotropies for graduate courses given by the author. Its level and scope are well matched to the needs of such an audience and the presentation is clear and well-organized. I am sure that this book will be a useful reference for more senior scientists too. If I have a criticism, it is not about what is in the book but what is omitted. In my view, one of the most exciting possibilities for future CMB missions, including Planck, is the possibility that they might discover physics

  18. Kentucky Department for Natural Resources and Environmental Protection permit application for air contaminant source: SRC-I demonstration plant, Newman, Kentucky. Supplement I. [Additional information on 38 items requested by KY/DNREP

    SciTech Connect

    Pearson, Jr., John F.

    1981-02-13

    In response to a letter from KY/DNREP, January 19, 1981, ICRC and DOE have prepared the enclosed supplement to the Kentucky Department for Natural Resources and Environmental Protection Permit Application for Air Contaminant Source for the SRC-I Demonstration Plant. Each of the 38 comments contained in the letter has been addressed in accordance with the discussions held in Frankfort on January 28, 1981, among representatives of KY/DNREP, EPA Region IV, US DOE, and ICRC. The questions raised involve requests for detailed information on the performance and reliability of proprietary equipment, back-up methods, monitoring plans for various pollutants, composition of wastes to flares, emissions estimates from particular operations, origin of baseline information, mathematical models, storage tanks, dusts, etc. (LTN)

  19. A new bush anole (Iguanidae, Polychrotinae, Polychrus) from the upper Marañon basin, Peru, with a redescription of Polychrus peruvianus (Noble, 1924) and additional information on Polychrus gutturosus Berthold, 1845

    PubMed Central

    Koch, Claudia; Venegas, Pablo J.; Garcia-Bravo, Antonio; Böhme, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    Abstract We herein describe a new colorful species of Polychrus with a conspicuous sexual dimorphism from the dry forest of the northern portion of Región de La Libertad, Peru. The new species differs from all other Polychrus species, in that this species has very small dorsal scales and thus a higher number of scales around midbody and in the middorsal line from behind the occipital scales to the level of the posterior edge of the thigh. Furthermore, we redescribe Polychrus peruvianus whose original description is short and lacks information on intraspecific variation and sexual dimorphism. Also, we add some information on intraspecific variation and ecology of Polychrus gutturosus. Finally, we synonymize Polychrus spurrelli Boulenger with Polychrus gutturosus. PMID:22287882

  20. The Background Emission Anisotropy Scanning Telescope (BEAST)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seiffert, M.

    1996-12-01

    Since 1988 the UCSB Cosmology Group has performed a number of measurements of the degree scale structure in the Cosmic Background Radiation. These include 3 South Pole expeditions in 1989, 91 and 94. and 8 balloon flights using SIS, HEMTs and bolometer based detectors. We will present a summary of these measurements focusing onthe recent results. In addition, we will describe the recent flight of HACME, a balloon- borne experiment to map CMB anisotropies with 0.75 degree angular resolution over several hundred square degrees. This experiment is a prototype for our next generation CMB experiment, the Background Emission Anisotropy Scanning Telescope (BEAST). BEAST will feature a 2 m diameter carbon fiber composite primary mirror for high angular resolution and a sensitive array of ultra-low noise HEMT amplifiers at 30, 40, and 90 GHz. BEAST is designed for an Antarctic long duration balloon flight allowing an observing time of order two weeks. This experiment will provide an unprecedented combination of sensitivty and angular resolution across a significant region of sky.

  1. Genetic background of Fuchs' heterochromic cyclitis.

    PubMed

    Saari, M; Vuorre, I; Tiilikainen, A; Algvere, P

    1978-10-01

    We studied the genetic background of 24 patients with Fuchs' heterochromic cyclitis (FHC). Each was given a careful eye examination which included family history and serological determination of HLA antigens. Two families each had 2 cases of FHC in the same family; in addition an ancestor in the second family possibly had FHC; in both families one healthy member had simple heterochromia. One patient with FHC had congenital uveal coloboma, one pigmentary retinal dystrophy, and four had cysts of the ciliary body. The frequencies of all HLA antigens in patients with FHC compared well with the frequencies in the controls. In a family in which HLA haplotypes could be derived, the patients with FHC showed different HLA haplotypes. We conclude that FHC has a hereditary basis but its immunological component is not genetically associated with the HLA system.

  2. Isothiourea-catalysed enantioselective pyrrolizine synthesis: synthetic and computational studies† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: NMR spectra, HPLC analysis and computational co-ordinates. Data available.12 CCDC 1483759. For ESI and crystallographic data in CIF or other electronic format see DOI: 10.1039/c6ob01557c Click here for additional data file. Click here for additional data file. Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Stark, Daniel G.; Williamson, Patrick; Gayner, Emma R.; Musolino, Stefania F.; Kerr, Ryan W. F.; Taylor, James E.; Slawin, Alexandra M. Z.; O'Riordan, Timothy J. C.

    2016-01-01

    The catalytic enantioselective synthesis of a range of cis-pyrrolizine carboxylate derivatives with outstanding stereocontrol (14 examples, >95 : 5 dr, >98 : 2 er) through an isothiourea-catalyzed intramolecular Michael addition-lactonisation and ring-opening approach from the corresponding enone acid is reported. An optimised and straightforward three-step synthetic route to the enone acid starting materials from readily available pyrrole-2-carboxaldehydes is delineated, with benzotetramisole (5 mol%) proving the optimal catalyst for the enantioselective process. Ring-opening of the pyrrolizine dihydropyranone products with either MeOH or a range of amines leads to the desired products in excellent yield and enantioselectivity. Computation has been used to probe the factors leading to high stereocontrol, with the formation of the observed cis-steroisomer predicted to be kinetically and thermodynamically favoured. PMID:27489030

  3. Additive Manufacturing Infrared Inspection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaddy, Darrell

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing is a rapid prototyping technology that allows parts to be built in a series of thin layers from plastic, ceramics, and metallics. Metallic additive manufacturing is an emerging form of rapid prototyping that allows complex structures to be built using various metallic powders. Significant time and cost savings have also been observed using the metallic additive manufacturing compared with traditional techniques. Development of the metallic additive manufacturing technology has advanced significantly over the last decade, although many of the techniques to inspect parts made from these processes have not advanced significantly or have limitations. Several external geometry inspection techniques exist such as Coordinate Measurement Machines (CMM), Laser Scanners, Structured Light Scanning Systems, or even traditional calipers and gages. All of the aforementioned techniques are limited to external geometry and contours or must use a contact probe to inspect limited internal dimensions. This presentation will document the development of a process for real-time dimensional inspection technique and digital quality record of the additive manufacturing process using Infrared camera imaging and processing techniques.

  4. Cesium-containing triple cation perovskite solar cells: improved stability, reproducibility and high efficiency† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5ee03874j Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Matsui, Taisuke; Seo, Ji-Youn; Domanski, Konrad; Correa-Baena, Juan-Pablo; Nazeeruddin, Mohammad Khaja; Zakeeruddin, Shaik M.; Tress, Wolfgang; Abate, Antonio; Hagfeldt, Anders; Grätzel, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Today's best perovskite solar cells use a mixture of formamidinium and methylammonium as the monovalent cations. With the addition of inorganic cesium, the resulting triple cation perovskite compositions are thermally more stable, contain less phase impurities and are less sensitive to processing conditions. This enables more reproducible device performances to reach a stabilized power output of 21.1% and ∼18% after 250 hours under operational conditions. These properties are key for the industrialization of perovskite photovoltaics. PMID:27478500

  5. Phenylethynyl Containing Reactive Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John W. (Inventor); Smith, Joseph G., Jr. (Inventor); Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Phenylethynyl containing reactive additives were prepared from aromatic diamine, containing phenylethvnvl groups and various ratios of phthalic anhydride and 4-phenylethynviphthalic anhydride in glacial acetic acid to form the imide in one step or in N-methyl-2-pvrrolidinone to form the amide acid intermediate. The reactive additives were mixed in various amounts (10% to 90%) with oligomers containing either terminal or pendent phenylethynyl groups (or both) to reduce the melt viscosity and thereby enhance processability. Upon thermal cure, the additives react and become chemically incorporated into the matrix and effect an increase in crosslink density relative to that of the host resin. This resultant increase in crosslink density has advantageous consequences on the cured resin properties such as higher glass transition temperature and higher modulus as compared to that of the host resin.

  6. Fused Lasso Additive Model

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Ashley; Witten, Daniela; Simon, Noah

    2016-01-01

    We consider the problem of predicting an outcome variable using p covariates that are measured on n independent observations, in a setting in which additive, flexible, and interpretable fits are desired. We propose the fused lasso additive model (FLAM), in which each additive function is estimated to be piecewise constant with a small number of adaptively-chosen knots. FLAM is the solution to a convex optimization problem, for which a simple algorithm with guaranteed convergence to a global optimum is provided. FLAM is shown to be consistent in high dimensions, and an unbiased estimator of its degrees of freedom is proposed. We evaluate the performance of FLAM in a simulation study and on two data sets. Supplemental materials are available online, and the R package flam is available on CRAN. PMID:28239246

  7. Phenylethynyl Containing Reactive Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John W. (Inventor); Smith, Joseph G., Jr. (Inventor); Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Phenylethynyl containing reactive additives were prepared from aromatic diamines containing phenylethynyl groups and various ratios of phthalic anhydride and 4-phenylethynylphthalic anhydride in glacial acetic acid to form the imide in one step or in N-methyl-2-pyrrolidi none to form the amide acid intermediate. The reactive additives were mixed in various amounts (10% to 90%) with oligomers containing either terminal or pendent phenylethynyl groups (or both) to reduce the melt viscosity and thereby enhance processability. Upon thermal cure, the additives react and become chemically incorporated into the matrix and effect an increase in crosslink density relative to that of the host resin. This resultant increase in crosslink density has advantageous consequences on the cured resin properties such as higher glass transition temperature and higher modulus as compared to that of the host resin.

  8. Genetic background of supernumerary teeth

    PubMed Central

    Subasioglu, Asli; Savas, Selcuk; Kucukyilmaz, Ebru; Kesim, Servet; Yagci, Ahmet; Dundar, Munis

    2015-01-01

    Supernumerary teeth (ST) are odontostomatologic anomaly characterized by as the existence excessive number of teeth in relation to the normal dental formula. This condition is commonly seen with several congenital genetic disorders such as Gardner's syndrome, cleidocranial dysostosis and cleft lip and palate. Less common syndromes that are associated with ST are; Fabry Disease, Ellis-van Creveld syndrome, Nance-Horan syndrome, Rubinstein-Taybi Syndrome and Trico–Rhino–Phalangeal syndrome. ST can be an important component of a distinctive disorder and an important clue for early diagnosis. Certainly early detecting the abnormalities gives us to make correct management of the patient and also it is important for making well-informed decisions about long-term medical care and treatment. In this review, the genetic syndromes that are related with ST were discussed. PMID:25713500

  9. Biobased lubricant additives

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fully biobased lubricants are those formulated using all biobased ingredients, i.e. biobased base oils and biobased additives. Such formulations provide the maximum environmental, safety, and economic benefits expected from a biobased product. Currently, there are a number of biobased base oils that...

  10. More Than Additional Space...

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CEFP Journal, 1973

    1973-01-01

    A much needed addition to the Jamestown Elementary School turned out to be more than an expansion of walls for more space. A new educational program, a limited budget, and a short time line were tackled on a team approach basis and were successfully resolved. (Author)

  11. Covariant and background independent functional RG flow for the effective average action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safari, Mahmoud; Vacca, Gian Paolo

    2016-11-01

    We extend our prescription for the construction of a covariant and background-independent effective action for scalar quantum field theories to the case where momentum modes below a certain scale are suppressed by the presence of an infrared regulator. The key step is an appropriate choice of the infrared cutoff for which the Ward identity, capturing the information from single-field dependence of the ultraviolet action, continues to be exactly solvable, and therefore, in addition to covariance, manifest background independence of the effective action is guaranteed at any scale. A practical consequence is that in this framework one can adopt truncations dependent on the single total field. Furthermore we discuss the necessary and sufficient conditions for the preservation of symmetries along the renormalization group flow.

  12. Information Presentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holden, Kritina L.; Thompson, Shelby G.; Sandor, Aniko; McCann, Robert S.; Kaiser, Mary K.; Adelstein, Barnard D.; Begault, Durand R.; Beutter, Brent R.; Stone, Leland S.; Godfroy, Martine

    2009-01-01

    The goal of the Information Presentation Directed Research Project (DRP) is to address design questions related to the presentation of information to the crew. In addition to addressing display design issues associated with information formatting, style, layout, and interaction, the Information Presentation DRP is also working toward understanding the effects of extreme environments encountered in space travel on information processing. Work is also in progress to refine human factors-based design tools, such as human performance modeling, that will supplement traditional design techniques and help ensure that optimal information design is accomplished in the most cost-efficient manner. The major areas of work, or subtasks, within the Information Presentation DRP for FY10 are: 1) Displays, 2) Controls, 3) Procedures and Fault Management, and 4) Human Performance Modeling. The poster will highlight completed and planned work for each subtask.

  13. Auditory intensity processing: Effect of MRI background noise.

    PubMed

    Angenstein, Nicole; Stadler, Jörg; Brechmann, André

    2016-03-01

    Studies on active auditory intensity discrimination in humans showed equivocal results regarding the lateralization of processing. Whereas experiments with a moderate background found evidence for right lateralized processing of intensity, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies with background scanner noise suggest more left lateralized processing. With the present fMRI study, we compared the task dependent lateralization of intensity processing between a conventional continuous echo planar imaging (EPI) sequence with a loud background scanner noise and a fast low-angle shot (FLASH) sequence with a soft background scanner noise. To determine the lateralization of the processing, we employed the contralateral noise procedure. Linearly frequency modulated (FM) tones were presented monaurally with and without contralateral noise. During both the EPI and the FLASH measurement, the left auditory cortex was more strongly involved than the right auditory cortex while participants categorized the intensity of FM tones. This was shown by a strong effect of the additional contralateral noise on the activity in the left auditory cortex. This means a massive reduction in background scanner noise still leads to a significant left lateralized effect. This suggests that the reversed lateralization in fMRI studies with loud background noise in contrast to studies with softer background cannot be fully explained by the MRI background noise.

  14. Concealed by conspicuousness: distractive prey markings and backgrounds

    PubMed Central

    Dimitrova, Marina; Stobbe, Nina; Schaefer, H. Martin; Merilaita, Sami

    2009-01-01

    High-contrast markings, called distractive or dazzle markings, have been suggested to draw and hold the attention of a viewer, thus hindering detection or recognition of revealing prey characteristics, such as the body outline. We tested this hypothesis in a predation experiment with blue tits (Cyanistes caeruleus) and artificial prey. We also tested whether this idea can be extrapolated to the background appearance and whether high-contrast markings in the background would improve prey concealment. We compared search times for a high-contrast range prey (HC-P) and a low-contrast range prey (LC-P) in a high-contrast range background (HC-B) and a low-contrast range background (LC-B). The HC-P was more difficult to detect in both backgrounds, although it did not match the LC-B. Also, both prey types were more difficult to find in the HC-B than in the LC-B, in spite of the mismatch of the LC-P. In addition, the HC-P was more difficult to detect, in both backgrounds, when compared with a generalist prey, not mismatching either background. Thus, we conclude that distractive prey pattern markings and selection of microhabitats with distractive features may provide an effective way to improve camouflage. Importantly, high-contrast markings, both as part of the prey coloration and in the background, can indeed increase prey concealment. PMID:19324754

  15. 32 CFR 2003.15 - Additional functions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... President through the National Security Advisor, the ISCAP performs such additional advisory functions as... National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense INFORMATION SECURITY OVERSIGHT OFFICE, NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION INTERAGENCY SECURITY CLASSIFICATION APPEALS PANEL...

  16. 32 CFR 2003.15 - Additional functions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... President through the National Security Advisor, the ISCAP performs such additional advisory functions as... National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense INFORMATION SECURITY OVERSIGHT OFFICE, NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION INTERAGENCY SECURITY CLASSIFICATION APPEALS PANEL...

  17. Vinyl capped addition polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vannucci, Raymond D. (Inventor); Malarik, Diane C. (Inventor); Delvigs, Peter (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    Polyimide resins (PMR) are generally useful where high strength and temperature capabilities are required (at temperatures up to about 700 F). Polyimide resins are particularly useful in applications such as jet engine compressor components, for example, blades, vanes, air seals, air splitters, and engine casing parts. Aromatic vinyl capped addition polyimides are obtained by reacting a diamine, an ester of tetracarboxylic acid, and an aromatic vinyl compound. Low void materials with improved oxidative stability when exposed to 700 F air may be fabricated as fiber reinforced high molecular weight capped polyimide composites. The aromatic vinyl capped polyimides are provided with a more aromatic nature and are more thermally stable than highly aliphatic, norbornenyl-type end-capped polyimides employed in PMR resins. The substitution of aromatic vinyl end-caps for norbornenyl end-caps in addition polyimides results in polymers with improved oxidative stability.

  18. Electrophilic addition of astatine

    SciTech Connect

    Norseev, Yu.V.; Vasaros, L.; Nhan, D.D.; Huan, N.K.

    1988-03-01

    It has been shown for the first time that astatine is capable of undergoing addition reactions to unsaturated hydrocarbons. A new compound of astatine, viz., ethylene astatohydrin, has been obtained, and its retention numbers of squalane, Apiezon, and tricresyl phosphate have been found. The influence of various factors on the formation of ethylene astatohydrin has been studied. It has been concluded on the basis of the results obtained that the univalent cations of astatine in an acidic medium is protonated hypoastatous acid.

  19. Additive interaction between heterogeneous environmental ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    BACKGROUND Environmental exposures often occur in tandem; however, epidemiological research often focuses on singular exposures. Statistical interactions among broad, well-characterized environmental domains have not yet been evaluated in association with health. We address this gap by conducting a county-level cross-sectional analysis of interactions between Environmental Quality Index (EQI) domain indices on preterm birth in the Unites States from 2000-2005.METHODS: The EQI, a county-level index constructed for the 2000-2005 time period, was constructed from five domain-specific indices (air, water, land, built and sociodemographic) using principal component analyses. County-level preterm birth rates (n=3141) were estimated using live births from the National Center for Health Statistics. Linear regression was used to estimate prevalence differences (PD) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) comparing worse environmental quality to the better quality for each model for a) each individual domain main effect b) the interaction contrast and c) the two main effects plus interaction effect (i.e. the “net effect”) to show departure from additive interaction for the all U.S counties. Analyses were also performed for subgroupings by four urban/rural strata. RESULTS: We found the suggestion of antagonistic interactions but no synergism, along with several purely additive (i.e., no interaction) associations. In the non-stratified model, we observed antagonistic interac

  20. Fluctuations In The Cosmic Infrared Background Using the Cosmic Infrared Background ExpeRiment (CIBER).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smidt, Joseph; Arai, T.; Battle, J.; Bock, J. J.; Cooray, A.; Frazer, C.; Hristov, V.; Keating, B.; Kim, M.; Lee, D.; Mason, P.; Matsumoto, T.; Mitchell-Wynne, K.; Nam, U.; Renbarger, T.; Smith, A.; Sullivan, I.; Tsumura, K.; Wada, T.; Zemcov, M.

    2012-01-01

    The clustering properties of faint unresolved sources may be probed by examining the anisotropies they create in the Cosmic Infrared Background (CIB). Using information from fluctuations in the CIB at different wavelengths allows us to disentangle how clustering relates to redshift. In this talk, preliminary measurements of clustering using data from the Cosmic Infrared Background ExpeRiment (CIBER), a rocket-borne experiment designed to detect the signatures of unresolved infrared galaxies during reionization, will be discussed. The CIBER payload contains four instruments including two wide field imagers designed to measure fluctuations in the near IR cosmic infrared background (CIB) at 1.0 and 1.6 microns on scales between 0.2 and 100 arcmin in both bands, where the clustering of high-redshift sources is expected to peak. CIBER observations may be combined with Akari/NEP and Spitzer/NDWFS near-infrared surveys to check systematic errors and to fully characterize the electromagnetic spectrum of CIB fluctuations.