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Sample records for additional batch experiments

  1. Adaptation of the pore diffusion model to describe multi-addition batch uptake high-throughput screening experiments.

    PubMed

    Traylor, Steven J; Xu, Xuankuo; Li, Yi; Jin, Mi; Li, Zheng Jian

    2014-11-14

    Equilibrium isotherm and kinetic mass transfer measurements are critical to mechanistic modeling of binding and elution behavior within a chromatographic column. However, traditional methods of measuring these parameters are impractically time- and labor-intensive. While advances in high-throughput robotic liquid handling systems have created time and labor-saving methods of performing kinetic and equilibrium measurements of proteins on chromatographic resins in a 96-well plate format, these techniques continue to be limited by physical constraints on protein addition, incubation and separation times; the available concentration of protein stocks and process pools; and practical constraints on resin and fluid volumes in the 96-well format. In this study, a novel technique for measuring protein uptake kinetics (multi-addition batch uptake) has been developed to address some of these limitations during high-throughput batch uptake kinetic measurements. This technique uses sequential additions of protein stock to chromatographic resin in a 96-well plate and the subsequent removal of each addition by centrifugation or vacuum separation. The pore diffusion model was adapted here to model multi-addition batch uptake and was tested and compared with traditional batch uptake measurements of uptake of an Fc-fusion protein on an anion exchange resin. Acceptable agreement between the two techniques is achieved for the two solution conditions investigated here. In addition, a sensitivity analysis of the model to the physical inputs is presented and the advantages and limitations of the multi-addition batch uptake technique are explored. PMID:25311484

  2. A Semi-Batch Reactor Experiment for the Undergraduate Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Derevjanik, Mario; Badri, Solmaz; Barat, Robert

    2011-01-01

    This experiment and analysis offer an economic yet challenging semi-batch reactor experience. Household bleach is pumped at a controlled rate into a batch reactor containing pharmaceutical hydrogen peroxide solution. Batch temperature, product molecular oxygen, and the overall change in solution conductivity are metered. The reactor simulation…

  3. Batch sequential designs for computer experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, Leslie M; Williams, Brian J; Loeppky, Jason L

    2009-01-01

    Computer models simulating a physical process are used in many areas of science. Due to the complex nature of these codes it is often necessary to approximate the code, which is typically done using a Gaussian process. In many situations the number of code runs available to build the Guassian process approximation is limited. When the initial design is small or the underlying response surface is complicated this can lead to poor approximations of the code output. In order to improve the fit of the model, sequential design strategies must be employed. In this paper we introduce two simple distance based metrics that can be used to augment an initial design in a batch sequential manner. In addition we propose a sequential updating strategy to an orthogonal array based Latin hypercube sample. We show via various real and simulated examples that the distance metrics and the extension of the orthogonal array based Latin hypercubes work well in practice.

  4. Bacteriophage PRD1 batch experiments to study attachment, detachment and inactivation processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadeghi, Gholamreza; Schijven, Jack F.; Behrends, Thilo; Hassanizadeh, S. Majid; van Genuchten, Martinus Th.

    2013-09-01

    Knowledge of virus removal in subsurface environments is pivotal for assessing the risk of viral contamination of water resources and developing appropriate protection measures. Columns packed with sand are frequently used to quantify attachment, detachment and inactivation rates of viruses. Since column transport experiments are very laborious, a common alternative is to perform batch experiments where usually one or two measurements are done assuming equilibrium is reached. It is also possible to perform kinetic batch experiments. In that case, however, it is necessary to monitor changes in the concentration with time. This means that kinetic batch experiments will be almost as laborious as column experiments. Moreover, attachment and detachment rate coefficients derived from batch experiments may differ from those determined using column experiments. The aim of this study was to determine the utility of kinetic batch experiments and investigate the effects of different designs of the batch experiments on estimated attachment, detachment and inactivation rate coefficients. The experiments involved various combinations of container size, sand-water ratio, and mixing method (i.e., rolling or tumbling by pivoting the tubes around their horizontal or vertical axes, respectively). Batch experiments were conducted with clean quartz sand, water at pH 7 and ionic strength of 20 mM, and using the bacteriophage PRD1 as a model virus. Values of attachment, detachment and inactivation rate coefficients were found by fitting an analytical solution of the kinetic model equations to the data. Attachment rate coefficients were found to be systematically higher under tumbling than under rolling conditions because of better mixing and more efficient contact of phages with the surfaces of the sand grains. In both mixing methods, more sand in the container yielded higher attachment rate coefficients. A linear increase in the detachment rate coefficient was observed with increased

  5. In-line image analysis on the effects of additives in batch cooling crystallization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, Haiyan; Louhi-Kultanen, Marjatta; Kallas, Juha

    2006-03-01

    The effects of two potassium salt additives, ethylene diamine tetra acetic acid dipotassium salt (EDTA) and potassium pyrophosphate (KPY), on the batch cooling crystallization of potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP) were investigated. The crystal growth rates of certain crystal faces were determined from in-line images taken with a MTS particle image analysis (PIA) video microscope. An in-line image processing method was developed to characterize the size and shape of the crystals. The nucleation kinetics was studied by measurement of the metastable zone width and induction time. A significant promotion effect on both nucleation and growth of KDP was observed when EDTA was used as an additive. KPY, however, exhibited strong inhibiting impacts. The mechanism underlying the EDTA promotion effect on crystal growth was further studied with the 2-dimension nucleation model. It is shown that the presence of EDTA increased the density of adsorbed molecules of the crystallizing solute on the surface of the crystal.

  6. Cheese whey as substrate of batch hydrogen production: effect of temperature and addition of buffer.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Páez, K M; Poggi-Varaldo, H M; García-Mena, J; Ponce-Noyola, M T; Ramos-Valdivia, A C; Barrera-Cortés, J; Robles-González, I V; Ruiz-Ordáz, N; Villa-Tanaca, L; Rinderknecht-Seijas, N

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of buffer addition and process temperature (ambient and 35°C) on H2 production in batch fermentation of cheese whey (CW). When the H2 production reached a plateau, the headspace of the reactors were flushed with N2 and reactors were re-incubated. Afterwards, only the reactors with phosphate buffer showed a second cycle of H2 production and 48% more H2 was obtained. The absence of a second cycle in non-buffered reactors could be related to a lower final pH than in the buffered reactors; the low pH could drive the fermentation to solvents production. Indeed a high solvent production was observed in non-buffered bioreactors as given by low ρ ratios (defined as the ratio between sum of organic acid production and sum of solvents production). Regarding the process temperatures, no significant difference between the H2 production of reactors incubated at ambient temperature and at 35°C was described. After flushing the headspace of bioreactors with N2 at the end of the second cycle, the H2 production did not resume (in all reactors). PMID:24821747

  7. Aquifer recharge with reclaimed water in the Llobregat Delta. Laboratory batch experiments and field test site.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobella, J.

    2010-05-01

    on the conditions to develop at the test site during artificial recharge. The data collected during the laboratory experiments and in the test site will be used to build and calibrate a numerical model of the physical-chemical-biochemical processes developing in the batches and of multicomponent reactive transport in the unsaturated/saturated zone in the test site area. 3. Field test site The infiltration site of Sant Vicenç dels Horts has been selected to assessing the biogeochemical processes occurring during SAT. The system consists of two ponds that have been built as compensatory measure for the reduction in natural recharge caused by the construction of the High Speed Train Line. The first pond acts as a decantation pond while the second one acts as an infiltration basin (Figure 1). Recharge water comes from the tertiary treatment plant of the El Prat de Llobregat WWTP and the river (?). The CUADLL (Lower Llobregat Aquifer End-Users Community) is now managing the system operation. Tasks that are currently being carried out at this Test Site aims at (i) improving the local experience on MAR through infiltration ponds operational aspects and (ii) monitoring the changes in water quality during the recharge processes (unsaturated and saturated zone). Special attention is being paid to the fate of emerging organic pollutants (pharmaceuticals, surfactants, pesticides, etc.). The yielding of the monitoring will be compared with the results from the laboratory batch experiments on the behaviour of selected emerging organic pollutants. To this end, observation wells have been constructed, pressure / temperature / electrical conductivity transducers have been installed and the vadose zone under the infiltration pond has been instrumented (tensiometers, water content probes and suction cups). In addition double ring and infiltration tests have been performed in order to forecast the infiltration capacity of the basin.

  8. MODELING HEXAVALENT CHROMIUM REDUCTION IN GROUNDWATER IN FIELD-SCALE TRANSPORT AND LABORATORY BATCH EXPERIMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A plausible and consistent model is developed to obtain a quantitative description of the gradual disappearance of hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) from groundwater in a small-scale field tracer test and in batch kinetic experiments using aquifer sediments under similar chemical cond...

  9. MODELING HEXAVALENT CHROMIUM REDUCTION IN GROUND- WATER IN FIELD-SCALE TRANSPORT AND LABORATORY BATCH EXPERIMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A plausible and consistent model is developed to obtain a quantitative description of the gradual disappearance of hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) from groundwater in a small-scale field tracer test and in batch kinetic experiments using aquifer sediments under similar chemical cond...

  10. Concentrated fed-batch cell culture increases manufacturing capacity without additional volumetric capacity.

    PubMed

    Yang, William C; Minkler, Daniel F; Kshirsagar, Rashmi; Ryll, Thomas; Huang, Yao-Ming

    2016-01-10

    Biomanufacturing factories of the future are transitioning from large, single-product facilities toward smaller, multi-product, flexible facilities. Flexible capacity allows companies to adapt to ever-changing pipeline and market demands. Concentrated fed-batch (CFB) cell culture enables flexible manufacturing capacity with limited volumetric capacity; it intensifies cell culture titers such that the output of a smaller facility can rival that of a larger facility. We tested this hypothesis at bench scale by developing a feeding strategy for CFB and applying it to two cell lines. CFB improved cell line A output by 105% and cell line B output by 70% compared to traditional fed-batch (TFB) processes. CFB did not greatly change cell line A product quality, but it improved cell line B charge heterogeneity, suggesting that CFB has both process and product quality benefits. We projected CFB output gains in the context of a 2000-L small-scale facility, but the output was lower than that of a 15,000-L large-scale TFB facility. CFB's high cell mass also complicated operations, eroded volumetric productivity, and showed our current processes require significant improvements in specific productivity in order to realize their full potential and savings in manufacturing. Thus, improving specific productivity can resolve CFB's cost, scale-up, and operability challenges. PMID:26521697

  11. French and English Together: An "Additive" Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiltshire, Jessica; Harbon, Lesley

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the nature of the "additive" experience of a bilingual French-English curriculum at Killarney Heights Public School in New South Wales. Predictably, the well-supported "additive" nature of the languages program model elicited positive reactions regarding educational success. The paper also explores issues for administration,…

  12. Subcritical wet oxidation of municipal sewage sludge: comparison of batch and continuous experiments.

    PubMed

    Lendormi, T; Prevot, C; Doppenbe, F; Foussard, J N; Debellefontaine, H

    2001-01-01

    Wet oxidation in subcritical conditions is a new alternative to usual routes for sewage sludge treatment and it complies with environmental standards. The paper presents tests carried out on a batch reactor and on a continuous pilot unit, treating municipal sewage sludge. A method is proposed that shows that the oxidation efficiency in a continuous reactor can only be easily predicted from the residence time distribution and batch tests results. Nevertheless, a partial settling of the solid residue in the continuous bubble column reactor is evident, and it increases the solid residence time and then decreases its organic content with respect to a similar batch test. In addition, these results highlight the considerable influence of temperature in the oxidation reactor and of the type of sewage sludge which is treated. At temperatures around 240 degrees C, foaming can seriously impair the operation of the continuous reactor, because of the presence of non-degraded fatty compounds and surfactants. Moreover, the COD reduction is limited to 70%. On the contrary, at 300 degrees C, COD removal efficiency greater than 80% is achieved without any catalyst additive and, in addition, only highly biodegradable compounds remain in the oxidised liquor. PMID:11695455

  13. Nitrate and bromate removal by autotrophic and heterotrophic denitrification processes: batch experiments

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The effects of various parameters on bromate reduction were tested using lab-scale batch reactors with sulfur based autotrophic and methanol based heterotrophic denitrification processes. The initial bromate (BrO3–) concentration of 100 and 500 μg/L was completely reduced and bromide (Br-) was produced stoichiometrically from bromate in all batch reactors. In all experiments, nitrate was completely reduced to below detection limit. Kinetic studies showed that the sulfur-based autotrophic nitrate reduction rate increased with increasing initial nitrate concentration. At stoichiometrically sufficient methanol concentration as an external carbon source, nitrate and bromate were reduced to below US EPA drinking water limits in heterotrophic denitrification conditions. The methanol was completely depleted at the end of the heterotrophic operation conditions. PMID:24354945

  14. Modelling approaches to compare sorption and degradation of metsulfuron-methyl in laboratory micro-lysimeter and batch experiments.

    PubMed

    Heistermann, Maik; Jene, Bernhard; Fent, Gunnar; Feyerabend, Martin; Seppelt, Ralf; Richter, Otto; Kubiak, Roland

    2003-12-01

    Results of laboratory batch studies often differ from those of outdoor lysimeter or field plot experiments--with respect to degradation as well as sorption. Laboratory micro-lysimeters are a useful device for closing the gap between laboratory and field by both including relevant transport processes in undisturbed soil columns and allowing controlled boundary conditions. In this study, sorption and degradation of the herbicide metsulfuron-methyl in a loamy silt soil were investigated by applying inverse modelling techniques to data sets from different experimental approaches under laboratory conditions at a temperature of 10 degrees C: first, batch-degradation studies and, second, column experiments with undisturbed soil cores (28 cm length x 21 cm diameter). The column experiments included leachate and soil profile analysis at two different run times. A sequential extraction method was applied in both study parts in order to determine different binding states of the test item within the soil. Data were modelled using ModelMaker and Hydrus-1D/2D. Metsulfuron-methyl half-life in the batch-experiments (t1/2 = 66 days) was shown to be about four times higher than in the micro-lysimeter studies (t1/2 about 17 days). Kinetic sorption was found to be a significant process both in batch and column experiments. Applying the one-rate-two-site kinetic sorption model to the sequential extraction data, it was possible to associate the stronger bonded fraction of metsulfuron-methyl with its kinetically sorbed fraction in the model. Although the columns exhibited strong significance of multi-domain flow (soil heterogeneity), the comparison between bromide and metsulfuron-methyl leaching and profile data showed clear evidence for kinetic sorption effects. The use of soil profile data had significant impact on parameter estimates concerning sorption and degradation. The simulated leaching of metsulfuron-methyl as it resulted from parameter estimation was shown to decrease when

  15. Cadmium sorption onto Natural Red Earth - An assessment using batch experiments and surface complexation modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahatantila, K.; Minoru, O.; Seike, Y.; Vithanage, M. S.

    2010-12-01

    Natural red earth (NRE), an iron coated sand found in north western part of Sri Lanka was used to examine its retention behavior of cadmium, a heavy metal postulated as a factor of chronic kidney disease in Sri Lanka. Adsorption studies were examined in batch experiments as a function of pH, ionic strength and initial cadmium loading. Proton binding sites on NRE were characterized by potentiometric titration yielding a pHzpc around 6.6. The cadmium adsorption increased from 6% to 99% along with a pH increase from 4 to 8.5. In addition, the maximum adsorption was observed when pH is greater than 7.5. Ionic strength dependency of cadmium adsorption for 100 fold variation of NaNO3 evidences the dominance of an inner-sphere bonding mechanism for 10 fold variation of initial cadmium loadings (4.44 and 44.4 µmol/L). Adsorption edges were quantified with a 2pK generalized diffuse double layer model considering two site types, >FeOH and >AlOH, for Cd2+ binding. From modeling, we introduced a monodentate chemical bonding mechanism for cadmium binding on to NRE and this finding was further verified with FTIR spectroscopy. Intrinsic constants determined were log KFeOCd = 8.543 and log KAlOCd = 13.917. Isotherm data implies the heterogeneity of NRE surface and the sorption maximum of 9.418 x10-6 mol/g and 1.3x10-4 mol/g for Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. The study suggested the potential of NRE as a material in decontaminating environmental water polluted with cadmium.

  16. [Virus adsorption from batch experiments as influenced by air-water interface].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hui; Zhao, Bing-zi; Zhang, Jia-bao; Zhang, Cong-zhi; Wang, Qiu-ying; Chen, Ji

    2007-12-01

    The presence of air-water interface in batch sorption experiments may result in inaccurate estimation of virus adsorption onto various soils. A batch sorption experiment was conducted to compare the adsorption results of MS2 in different soils under presence/absence of air-water interface. Soils with sterilization/nonterilization treatment were used. Virus recovery efficiency in a blank experiment (no soil) was also evaluated as affected by different amount of air-water interface. The presence of air-water interface altered the results of virus adsorption in different soils with different extent, with Sandy fluvo-aquic soil being the most considerably affected, followed by Red loam soil, and the least being Red clay soil, probably because of different soil properties associated with virus adsorption/inactivation. Soil sterilization resulted in more significant difference of virus adsorption onto the Sandy fluvo-aquic soil between the presence and absence of air-water interface, while a reduced difference was observed in the Red loam soil. The presence of air-water interface significantly decreased virus recovery efficiency, with the values being decreased with increase in the amount of air-water interface. Soil particles likely prohibit viruses from reaching the air-water interface or alter the forces at the solid-water-air interface so that the results from the blank experiment did not truly represent results from control blank, which probably resulted in adsorption difference between presence and absence of the air-water interface. PMID:18290440

  17. Aquifer recharge with reclaimed water in the Llobregat Delta. Laboratory batch experiments and field test site.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobella, J.

    2010-05-01

    Summary Spain, as most other Mediterranean countries, faces near future water shortages, generalized pollution and loss of water dependent ecosystems. Aquifer recharge represents a promising option to become a source for indirect potable reuse purposes but presence of pathogens as well as organic and inorganic pollutants should be avoided. To this end, understanding the processes of biogeochemical degradation occurring within the aquifer during infiltration is capital. A set of laboratory batch experiments has been assembled in order to assess the behaviour of selected pesticides, drugs, estrogens, surfactant degradation products, biocides and phthalates under different redox conditions. Data collected during laboratory experiments and monitoring activities at the Sant Vicenç dels Horts test site will be used to build and calibrate a numerical model (i) of the physical-chemical-biochemical processes occurring in the batches and (ii) of multicomponent reactive transport in the unsaturated/saturated zone at the test site. Keywords Aquifer recharge, batch experiments, emerging micropollutants, infiltration, numerical model, reclaimed water, redox conditions, Soil Aquifer Treatment (SAT). 1. Introduction In Spain, the Llobregat River and aquifers, which supply water to Barcelona, have been overexploited for years and therefore, suffer from serious damages: the river dries up on summer, riparian vegetation has disappeared and seawater has intruded the aquifer. In a global context, solutions to water stress problems are urgently needed yet must be sustainable, economical and safe. Recent developments of analytical techniques detect the presence of the so-called "emerging" organic micropollutants in water and soils. Such compounds may affect living organisms when occurring in the environment at very low concentrations (microg/l or ng/l). In wastewater and drinking water treatment plants, a remarkable removal of these chemicals from water can be obtained only using

  18. Kinetic studies of synthetic metaschoepite under acidic conditions in batch and flow experiments.

    PubMed

    Riba, Olga; Walker, Colin; Ragnarsdottir, K Vala

    2005-10-15

    The weathering and corrosion of depleted uranium (DU) forms a complex series of oxidation reactions, ultimately resulting in metaschoepite, UO3.2H2O. The present work focused on studying the dissolution rate of synthetic UO3. 2H2O using batch and flow-through reactors. Under acidic conditions (pH = 4.4-5.4), atmospheric CO2, room temperature, and 0.1 mionic strength,the log solubility product, log Ksp = 5.26 at equilibrium and a pH-dependent rate law Ro = (0.30 +/- 0.15)[H+]0.83+/-0.1 were established. For consistency, these results were incorporated into the computer program PHREEQC 2.6, and the experimental conditions were simulated. There is generally good agreement between the experimental results and the modeled results. Batch experiments revealed a fast dissolution rate of UO3.2H20 in the first hour, followed by fluctuations in uranium concentration before equilibrium was attained after 3000 h. PMID:16295856

  19. Nitrate attenuation potential of hypersaline lake sediments in central Spain: flow-through and batch experiments.

    PubMed

    Carrey, R; Rodríguez-Escales, P; Otero, N; Ayora, C; Soler, A; Gómez-Alday, J J

    2014-08-01

    Complex lacustrine systems, such as hypersaline lakes located in endorheic basins, are exposed to nitrate (NO3(-)) pollution. An excellent example of these lakes is the hypersaline lake located in the Pétrola basin (central Spain), where the lake acts as a sink for NO3(-) from agricultural activities and from sewage from the surrounding area. To better understand the role of the organic carbon (Corg) deposited in the bottom sediment in promoting denitrification, a four-stage flow-through experiment (FTR) and batch experiments using lake bottom sediment were performed. The chemical, multi-isotopic and kinetic characterization of the outflow showed that the intrinsic NO3(-) attenuation potential of the lake bottom sediment was able to remove 95% of the NO3(-) input over 296days under different flow conditions. The NO3(-) attenuation was mainly linked with denitrification but some dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium was observed at early days favored by the high C/N ratio and salinity. Sulfate reduction could be neither confirmed nor discarded during the experiments because the sediment leaching masked the chemical and isotopic signatures of this reaction. The average nitrogen reduction rate (NRR) obtained was 1.25mmold(-1)kg(-1) and was independent of the flow rate employed. The amount of reactive Corg from the bottom sediment consumed during denitrification was 28.8mmol, representing approximately 10% of the total Corg of the sediment (1.2%). Denitrification was produced coupled with an increase in the isotopic composition of both δ(15)N and δ(18)O. The isotopic fractionations (ε of (15)N-NO3(-) and (18)O-NO3(-)) produced during denitrification were calculated using batch and vertical profile samples. The results were -14.7‰ for εN and -14.5‰ for εO. PMID:25041733

  20. Effects of additional fermented food wastes on nitrogen removal enhancement and sludge characteristics in a sequential batch reactor for wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yongmei; Wang, Xiaochang C; Cheng, Zhe; Li, Yuyou; Tang, Jialing

    2016-07-01

    In order to enhance nitrogen removal from domestic wastewater with a carbon/nitrogen (C/N) ratio as low as 2.2:1, external carbon source was prepared by short-term fermentation of food wastes and its effect was evaluated by experiments using sequencing batch reactors (SBRs). The addition of fermented food wastes, with carbohydrate (42.8 %) and organic acids (24.6 %) as the main organic carbon components, could enhance the total nitrogen (TN) removal by about 25 % in contrast to the 20 % brought about by the addition of sodium acetate when the C/N ratio was equally adjusted to 6.6:1. The fermented food waste addition resulted in more efficient denitrification in the first anoxic stage of the SBR operation cycle than sodium acetate. In order to characterize the metabolic potential of microorganisms by utilizing different carbon sources, Biolog-ECO tests were conducted with activated sludge samples from the SBRs. As a result, in comparison with sodium acetate, the sludge sample by fermented food waste addition showed a greater average well color development (AWCD590), better utilization level of common carbon sources, and higher microbial diversity indexes. As a multi-organic mixture, fermented food wastes seem to be superior over mono-organic chemicals as an external carbon source. PMID:26988362

  1. Experiences with a compost biofilter for VOC control from batch chemical manufacturing operations

    SciTech Connect

    Gilmore, G.L.; Briggs, T.G.

    1997-12-31

    The Synthetic Chemicals Division of Eastman Kodak Company makes a large number of complex organic chemicals using batch reactor syntheses. Exhaust gas, resulting from batch reactor operations, typically contains many different volatile organic chemicals with dynamic concentration profiles. Exhaust streams of this type have been considered difficult to treat effectively by biofiltration. Eastman Kodak Company was interested in exploring the applicability of biofiltration to treat these types of off-gas streams as an alternative to more costly control technologies. To this end, a 20,000 cfm capacity BIOTON{reg_sign} biofilter was installed in December 1995 in Kodak Park, Rochester, New York. A study was initiated to determine the overall efficiency of the biofilter, as well as the chemical specific efficiencies for a number of organic compounds. Flame ionization detectors operated continuously on the inlet and outlet of the biofilter to measure total hydrocarbon concentrations. A process mass spectrometer was installed to simultaneously monitor the concentrations of seven organics in the inlet and outlet of the biofilter. In addition, the process control software for the biofilter continuously recorded pressure drop, temperature, and moisture content of the bed. This paper presents operating and performance data for the BIOTON biofilter from start-up through about eleven months of continuous operation. Included are data collected over a wide range of loading conditions, during initial start-up, and during start-up after shutdown periods. Data for total hydrocarbons, methanol, acetone, and heptane are presented. The relationship between organic loading and removal efficiency is discussed in the biofilter, which typically operates significantly below its design loading specification. The overall control efficiency of the biofilter at design loadings exceeds the design control efficiency of 90%.

  2. Release of iron-cyanide complexes form contaminated soils - Batch and column experiments on substrates from Manufactured Gas Plant (MGP) site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sut, Magdalena; Repmann, Frank; Raab, Thomas

    2013-04-01

    Soils of former Manufactured Gas Plants (MGPs) are often contaminated with iron-cyanide (Fe-CN) complexes that originate from gas purification process. Cyanide is a potentially toxic substance and its presence in soil and groundwater may cause risk for human health as well as for the environment. MGPs were commonly built on the city suburban areas, which have spread ever since. Nowadays, these sites are typically located in inner cities, causing environmental thread, due to the leaching of pollutants. More recently, columns and batch experiments have been used to study fate and mobility of contaminants is soil. The release of iron-cyanide complexes under unsaturated flow conditions was evaluated with eight columns of 30 cm length and a diameter of 5,4 cm. Cyanide concentrations in the collected leachates were measured with Flow Injection Analysis (FIA). Additionally pH, electrical conductivity (EC) and various ion concentrations were determined. In order to compare the release of Fe-CN complexes in saturated conditions a batch experiment was conducted, where in defined time intervals, 1 ml of the extract water phase was analyzed for CN concentration. Study revealed an analogous trend of cyanide release in both experiments indicating primarily the release of formerly dissolved phase (hexacyanoferrates) followed by continual dissolution of ferric ferrocyanide. We conclude that batch experiments, conducted prior to column analysis, can serve as preliminary prediction of the water soluble cyanide fraction under unsaturated conditions.

  3. Investigation of interaction between U(VI) and carbonaceous nanofibers by batch experiments and modeling study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Rui; Chen, Changlun; Li, Jie; Wang, Xiangke

    2015-12-15

    Carbonaceous nanofibers (CNFs) were synthesized using tellurium nanowires as a template and using glucose as carbon source by the hydrothermal carbonization method. The sorption capacity and mechanism of U(VI) on CNFs were investigated by a combination of batch sorption experiments, the double layer model (DLM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The sorption edges were modeled well by considering the following surface complexes: SOUO2(+), SOUO2OH, SOUO2(OH)2(-) and SOUO2(OH)3(2-) on the strong site as well as XOUO2OH and XOUO2(+) on the weak one (S and X represent surface). The sorption isotherms could be well fitted by the DLM parameters. The difference between type A (SOUO2OH and XOUO2OH) and type B (SOUO2(+) and XOUO2(+)) was observed in XPS because the former species are of low binding energy while the latter are of high one. Desorption and recycle experiments showed that CNFs had good reusability and stability in the present of common sodium salts within five rounds. When co-existing with montmorillonite, CNFs could extract the sorbed uranium onto their surface by a pseudo-second order kinetic process. As a new sort of environmental functional nanomaterials, CNFs should be paid more attention in the area of separation and wastewater remediation. PMID:26342973

  4. Formation of diclofenac and sulfamethoxazole reversible transformation products in aquifer material under denitrifying conditions: batch experiments.

    PubMed

    Barbieri, Manuela; Carrera, Jesús; Ayora, Carlos; Sanchez-Vila, Xavier; Licha, Tobias; Nödler, Karsten; Osorio, Victoria; Pérez, Sandra; Köck-Schulmeyer, Marianne; López de Alda, Miren; Barceló, Damià

    2012-06-01

    Soil-aquifer processes have proven to work as a natural treatment for the attenuation of numerous contaminants during artificial recharge of groundwater. Nowadays, significant scientific effort is being devoted to understanding the fate of pharmaceuticals in subsurface environments, and to verify if such semipersistent organic micropollutants could also be efficiently removed from water. In this context we carried out a series of batch experiments involving aquifer material, selected drugs (initial concentration of 1 μg/L and 1 mg/L), and denitrifying conditions. Diclofenac and sulfamethoxazole exhibited an unreported and peculiar behavior. Their concentrations consistently dropped in the middle of the tests but recovered toward the end, which suggest a complex effect of denitrifying conditions on aromatic amines. The transformation products Nitro-Diclofenac and 4-Nitro-Sulfamethoxazole were detected in the biotic experiments, while nitrite was present in the water. Their concentrations developed almost opposite to those of their respective parent compounds. We conjecture that this temporal and reversible effect of denitrifying conditions on the studied aromatic amines could have significant environmental implications, and could explain at least partially the wide range of removals in subsurface environments reported in literature for DCF and SMX, as well as some apparent discrepancies on SMX behavior. PMID:22534360

  5. Early-warning process/control for anaerobic digestion and biological nitrogen transformation processes: Batch, semi-continuous, and/or chemostat experiments. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hickey, R.

    1992-09-01

    The objective of this project was to develop and test an early-warning/process control model for anaerobic sludge digestion (AD). The approach was to use batch and semi-continuously fed systems and to assemble system parameter data on a real-time basis. Specific goals were to produce a real-time early warning control model and computer code, tested for internal and external validity; to determine the minimum rate of data collection for maximum lag time to predict failure with a prescribed accuracy and confidence in the prediction; and to determine and characterize any trends in the real-time data collected in response to particular perturbations to feedstock quality. Trends in the response of trace gases carbon monoxide and hydrogen in batch experiments, were found to depend on toxicant type. For example, these trace gases respond differently for organic substances vs. heavy metals. In both batch and semi-continuously feed experiments, increased organic loading lead to proportionate increases in gas production rates as well as increases in CO and H{sub 2} concentration. An analysis of variance of gas parameters confirmed that CO was the most sensitive indicator variable by virtue of its relatively larger variance compared to the others. The other parameters evaluated including gas production, methane production, hydrogen, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and methane concentration. In addition, a relationship was hypothesized between gaseous CO concentration and acetate concentrations in the digester. The data from semicontinuous feed experiments were supportive.

  6. NIGHTHAWK - A Program for Modeling Saturated Batch and Column Experiments Incorporating Equilibrium and Kinetic Biogeochemistry

    EPA Science Inventory

    NIGHTHAWK simulates the fate and transport of biogeochemically reactive contaminants in the saturated subsurface. Version 1.2 supports batch and one- dimensional advective-dispersive-reactive transport involving a number of biogeochemical processes, including: microbially-mediate...

  7. Aerobic biodegradability of methyldiethanolamine (MDEA) used in natural gas sweetening plants in batch tests and continuous flow experiments.

    PubMed

    Fürhacker, M; Pressl, A; Allabashi, R

    2003-09-01

    Mixtures of different amines including tertiary amines (methyldiethanolamine, MDEA) are commonly used for the removal of CO2 from gas mixtures or in gas sweetening processes for the extraction of CO2 and H2S. The absorber solutions used can be released into the industrial waste water due to continuous substitution of degraded MDEA, periodically cleaning processes or an accidental spill. In this study, the aerobic biodegradability of MDEA was investigated in a standardised batch test and a continuous flow experiment (40 l/d). The results of the batch test indicated that the MDEA-solution was non-biodegradable during the test period of 28 days, whereas the continuous flow experiments showed biodegradation of more than 96% based on TOC-measurements. This was probably due to the adaptation of the microorganisms to this particular waste water contamination during continuous flow experiment. PMID:12871741

  8. Competitive sorption of carbonate and arsenic to hematite: combined ATR-FTIR and batch experiments.

    PubMed

    Brechbühl, Yves; Christl, Iso; Elzinga, Evert J; Kretzschmar, Ruben

    2012-07-01

    The competitive sorption of carbonate and arsenic to hematite was investigated in closed-system batch experiments. The experimental conditions covered a pH range of 3-7, arsenate concentrations of 3-300 μM, and arsenite concentrations of 3-200 μM. Dissolved carbonate concentrations were varied by fixing the CO(2) partial pressure at 0.39 (atmospheric), 10, or 100 hPa. Sorption data were modeled with a one-site three plane model considering carbonate and arsenate surface complexes derived from ATR-FTIR spectroscopy analyses. Macroscopic sorption data revealed that in the pH range 3-7, carbonate was a weak competitor for both arsenite and arsenate. The competitive effect of carbonate increased with increasing CO(2) partial pressure and decreasing arsenic concentrations. For arsenate, sorption was reduced by carbonate only at slightly acidic to neutral pH values, whereas arsenite sorption was decreased across the entire pH range. ATR-FTIR spectra indicated the predominant formation of bidentate binuclear inner-sphere surface complexes for both sorbed arsenate and sorbed carbonate. Surface complexation modeling based on the dominant arsenate and carbonate surface complexes indicated by ATR-FTIR and assuming inner-sphere complexation of arsenite successfully described the macroscopic sorption data. Our results imply that in natural arsenic-contaminated systems where iron oxide minerals are important sorbents, dissolved carbonate may increase aqueous arsenite concentrations, but will affect dissolved arsenate concentrations only at neutral to alkaline pH and at very high CO(2) partial pressures. PMID:22494686

  9. Adsorption and transformation of ammonium ion in a loose-pore geothermal reservoir: Batch and column experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Li; Li, Yanli; Wang, Shidong; Wang, Xinyi; Meng, Hongqi; Luo, Shaohe

    2016-09-01

    Adsorption kinetics and transformation process of ammonium ion (NH4+) were investigated to advance the understanding of N cycle in a low-temperature loose-pore geothermal reservoir. Firstly, batch experiments were performed in order to determine the sorption capacity and the kinetic mechanism of NH4+ onto a loose-pore geothermal reservoir matrix. Then column experiments were carried out at temperatures from 20 °C to 60 °C in order to determine the transport parameters and transformation mechanism of NH4+ in the studied matrix. The results showed that the adsorption process of NH4+ onto the porous media well followed the pseudo-second-order model. No obvious variation of hydrodynamic dispersion coefficient (D) and retardation factor (R) was observed at different transport distances at a Darcy's flux of 2.27 cm/h, at which nitrification could be neglected. The simulated D obtained by the CDE model in CXTFIT2.1 increased with temperature while R decreased with temperature, indicating that the adsorption capacity of NH4+ onto the matrix decreased with the increasing of temperature. When the Darcy's flux was decreased to 0.014 cm/h, only a little part of NH4+ could be transformed to nitrate, suggesting that low density of nitrifiers existed in the simulated loose-pore geothermal reservoir. Although nitrification rate increased with temperature in the range of 20 °C to 60 °C, it was extremely low and no accumulation of nitrite was observed under the simulated low-temperature geothermal conditions without addition of biomass and oxygen.

  10. Adsorption and transformation of ammonium ion in a loose-pore geothermal reservoir: Batch and column experiments.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Li; Li, Yanli; Wang, Shidong; Wang, Xinyi; Meng, Hongqi; Luo, Shaohe

    2016-09-01

    Adsorption kinetics and transformation process of ammonium ion (NH4(+)) were investigated to advance the understanding of N cycle in a low-temperature loose-pore geothermal reservoir. Firstly, batch experiments were performed in order to determine the sorption capacity and the kinetic mechanism of NH4(+) onto a loose-pore geothermal reservoir matrix. Then column experiments were carried out at temperatures from 20°C to 60°C in order to determine the transport parameters and transformation mechanism of NH4(+) in the studied matrix. The results showed that the adsorption process of NH4(+) onto the porous media well followed the pseudo-second-order model. No obvious variation of hydrodynamic dispersion coefficient (D) and retardation factor (R) was observed at different transport distances at a Darcy's flux of 2.27cm/h, at which nitrification could be neglected. The simulated D obtained by the CDE model in CXTFIT2.1 increased with temperature while R decreased with temperature, indicating that the adsorption capacity of NH4(+) onto the matrix decreased with the increasing of temperature. When the Darcy's flux was decreased to 0.014cm/h, only a little part of NH4(+) could be transformed to nitrate, suggesting that low density of nitrifiers existed in the simulated loose-pore geothermal reservoir. Although nitrification rate increased with temperature in the range of 20°C to 60°C, it was extremely low and no accumulation of nitrite was observed under the simulated low-temperature geothermal conditions without addition of biomass and oxygen. PMID:27356192

  11. Adsorption and transport of polymaleic acid on Callovo-Oxfordian clay stone: Batch and transport experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durce, Delphine; Landesman, Catherine; Grambow, Bernd; Ribet, Solange; Giffaut, Eric

    2014-08-01

    completed after 1 day and represented 96% of the total sorption on this site. On the weak site the irreversible uptake was slower and completed only after 16 days but it also dominated the sorption. 85% of the PMA sorbed on the weak site was not desorbable after 21 days of sorption. The migration of PMA was studied by applying a hydraulic gradient to a clay core inserted in a stainless steel cell. Breakthrough of polymaleic acid, simulated with a 1D transport model including the two-box first-order non-reversible model, revealed that the mobility of PMA was limited by the same set of reversible/irreversible interactions as observed in the dispersed system. However, to describe efficiently the transport, the total sorption capacity had to be reduced to 33% of the capacity estimated in batch experiments. The irreversible sorption on the weak site was also slower in the intact sample than in the crushed sample. Geometrical constraints would therefore affect both the accessibility to the sorption sites and the kinetics of the irreversible sorption process.

  12. Autotrophic growth and lipid production of Chlorella sorokiniana in lab batch and BIOCOIL photobioreactors: Experiments and modeling.

    PubMed

    Concas, Alessandro; Malavasi, Veronica; Costelli, Cristina; Fadda, Paolo; Pisu, Massimo; Cao, Giacomo

    2016-07-01

    A novel mathematical model for the quantitative assessment of the effect of dissolved nitrogen on the autotrophic batch-growth and lipid accumulation of Chlorella sorokiniana, is proposed in this work. Model results have been validated through comparison with suitable experimental data performed in lab photobioreactors. Further experiments have been then performed using the BIOCOIL photobioreactor operated in fed-batch mode. The experimental results, which show that a maximum growth rate of 0.52day(-1) and a lipid content equal to 25%wt can be achieved with the BIOICOIL, have been successfully predicted through the proposed model. Therefore, the model might represent a first step toward the development of a tool for the scale-up and optimization of the operating conditions of BIOCOIL photobioreactors. Finally, the fatty acid methyl esters obtained by trans-esterification of lipids extracted from C. sorokiniana, have been analyzed in view of the assessment of their usability for producing biodiesel. PMID:27030952

  13. CO2-water-mineral reactions during CO2 leakage into glauconitic sands: geochemical and isotopic monitoring of batch experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humez, P.; Lions, J.; Lagneau, V.; Negrel, Ph.

    2012-04-01

    The assessment of environmental impacts of carbon dioxide geological storage requires the investigation of the potential CO2 leakages into fresh groundwater reserves. The Albian aquifer of the Paris Basin was chosen as a case of study because i) the Paris Basin contains deep saline Jurassic and Triassic aquifers identified as targets by the French national program of CO2 geological storage and ii) the Albian aquifer is a deep freshwater resource of strategic national importance, above the Jurassic and Triassic formations. An experimental and a geochemical modelling approach were carried out in order to better understand the rock-water-CO2 interactions with two main objectives: to assess the evolution of the chemistry of the formation water and of the mineralogy of the solid phase during the interaction and to design a monitoring program for freshwater resources. The main focus is to select and develop suitable indirect indicators of the presence of CO2 in the aquifer. We present here the experimental results, which combines both major and trace elements and isotopic tools, some of them new in the CCS field. Batch reactors with a liquid/solid ratio of 10 made of appropriate materials (PTFE, stainless steel) were equipped with simultaneous controls on several parameters (pH measurement, gas phase composition, pressure, tightness…) after CO2 injection (PCO2= 2 bar; room temperature). Ten reactors were run simultaneously, over pre-determined durations of CO2-water-rock interaction (1, 7, 15 and 30 days). During the batch experiment, we observed major changes in several chemical parameters due to the CO2 injection. A sharp drop in pH from 6.6 to 4.9 was noticeable, immediately after the injection, due to CO2 dissolution in the water phase. Alkalinity varies from 1.3 mmol.L-1 in the initial water to 2.0 mmol.L-1 at the end of the 1-month experiment. Four types of ion behaviors are observed: (1) calcium, silicon and magnesium concentrations increase during the 1-month

  14. Kinetics and bioenergetics of Spirulina platensis cultivation by fed-batch addition of urea as nitrogen source.

    PubMed

    Sassano, Carlos E N; Carvalho, João C M; Gioielli, Luiz A; Sato, Sunao; Torre, Paolo; Converti, Attilio

    2004-03-01

    The cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis was cultivated in bench-scale miniponds on bicarbonate/carbonate solutions using urea as nitrogen source. To minimize limitation and inhibition phenomena, urea was supplied semicontinuously using exponentially increasing feeding rates. The average growth rates obtained alternately varying the total mass of urea added per unit reactor volume (275 < mT < 725 mg/L) and the total feeding time (9 < tT < 15 d) clearly evidenced nitrogen limitation for mT< 500 mg/L and excess nitrogen inhibition above this threshold. The time behavior of the specific growth rate at variable urea feeding patterns allowed estimation of the time-dependent Gibbs energy dissipation for cell growth under the actual depletion conditions of fed-batch cultivations. Comparison of the yield of growth on Gibbs energy obtained using either urea or KNO3 pointed to the preference of S. platensis for the former nitrogen source, likely owing to more favorable bioenergetic conditions. PMID:15007182

  15. Kinetics of trichloroethylene cometabolism and toluene biodegradation: Model application to soil batch experiments

    SciTech Connect

    El-Farhan, Y.H.; Scow, K.M.; Fan, S.; Rolston, D.E.

    2000-06-01

    Trichloroethylene (TCE) biodegradation in soil under aerobic conditions requires the presence of another compound, such as toluene, to support growth of microbial populations and enzyme induction. The biodegradation kinetics of TCE and toluene were examined by conducting three groups of experiments in soil: toluene only, toluene combined with low TCE concentrations, and toluene with TCE concentrations similar to or higher than toluene. The biodegradation of TCE and toluene and their interrelationships were modeled using a combination of several biodegradation functions. In the model, the pollutants were described as existing in the solid, liquid, and gas phases of soil, with biodegradation occurring only in the liquid phase. The distribution of the chemicals between the solid and liquid phase was described by a linear sorption isotherm, whereas liquid-vapor partitioning was described by Henry's law. Results from 12 experiments with toluene only could be described by a single set of kinetic parameters. The same set of parameters could describe toluene degradation in 10 experiments where low TCE concentrations were present. From these 10 experiments a set of parameters describing TCE cometabolism induced by toluene also was obtained. The complete set of parameters was used to describe the biodegradation of both compounds in 15 additional experiments, where significant TCE toxicity and inhibition effects were expected. Toluene parameters were similar to values reported for pure culture systems. Parameters describing the interaction of TCE with toluene and biomass were different from reported values for pure cultures, suggesting that the presence of soil may have affected the cometabolic ability of the indigenous soil microbial populations.

  16. Low temperature-pressure batch experiments and field push-pull tests: Assessing potential effects of an unintended CO2 release from CCUS projects on groundwater chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mickler, P. J.; Yang, C.; Lu, J.; Reedy, R. C.; Scanlon, B. R.

    2012-12-01

    primarily through carbonate dissolution which releases Ca and elements that substitute for Ca in crystal lattices. Silicate weathering releases primarily Si and K at lower rates. Chemical changes with the addition of CO2 may initially mobilize As, Mo, V, Zn, Se and Cd but these elements become immobile in the lowered pH water and sorb onto aquifer minerals. A combined laboratory batch experiment and field push-pull test in fresh water aquifers overlying CCUS projects will best characterize the response of the aquifer to increased pCO2. The long experimental duration of the batch experiments may allow reactions to reach equilibrium however; reaction rates may be artificially high due to increased mineral surface areas. Field based push-pull tests offer a more realistic water rock ratio and test a much larger volume of aquifer material but the test must be shorter in duration because the high pCO2 water is subject to mixing with low pCO2 background water and migration away from the test well with groundwater flow. A comparison of the two methods best characterizes the potential effects on groundwater chemistry

  17. Batch experiments characterizing the reduction of Cr(VI) using suboxic material from a mildly reducing sand and gravel aquifer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, L.D.; Kent, D.B.; Davis, J.A.

    1994-01-01

    Batch experiments were conducted with sand collected from a shallow sand and gravel aquifer to identify the principal chemical reactions influencing the reduction of Cr(VI), so that field-observed Cr(VI) reduction could be described. The reduction appeared to be heterogeneous and occurred primarily on Fe(II)-bearing minerals. At only 1 wt %, the fine fraction (<64 ??m diameter) of the sediments dominated the amount of aqueous Cr(VI) reduction because of its greater reactivity and surface area. Although reduction of Cr(VI) increased with decreasing pH, small variations in the abundance of fine fraction among the replicate samples obscured pH trends in the batch experiments. Consistent results could only be obtained by separating the fine material from the sand and running parallel experiments on each fraction. As pH decreased (6.4 to 4.5), Cr(VI) reduction increased from 30 to 50 nmol/m2 for the sand fraction (64-1000 ??m) and from 130 to 200 nmol/m2 for the fine fraction. The amount of Cr(VI) reduced in both the sand-sized and fine material increased from 35 to 80 and from 130 to 1000 nmol/m2, respectively, for a 10-fold increase in Cr(VI)initial. A consistent description of the rate data was achieved by assuming that intraparticle diffusion limited the observed rate of reduction.

  18. Fire extinct experiments with water mist by adding additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Lijun; Zhao, Jianbo

    2011-12-01

    The effects of fire extinguishment with water mist by adding different additives were studied. Tens of chemical substances (including alkali metal salt, dilution agent and surface active agent) were selected as additives due to their different extinct mechanisms. At first the performance of fire extinguishment with single additive was studied, then the effects of the same kinds of chemical substances under the same mass fraction were compared to study their influences on the fire extinguishment factors, including extinct time, fire temperature and oxygen concentration from which the fire extinct mechanism with additives could be concluded. Based on this the experiments were conducted to study the cooperate effect of the complexity of different additives. It indicated the relations between different firefighting mechanisms and different additives were competitive. From a large number of experiments the extinct mechanism with water mist by adding additives was concluded and an optimal compounding additive was selected.

  19. Performance of a flat panel reactor in the continuous culture of microalgae in urban wastewater: prediction from a batch experiment.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, J; Álvarez-Díaz, P D; Arbib, Z; Garrido-Pérez, C; Barragán, J; Perales, J A

    2013-01-01

    A laboratory-scale flat panel photobioreactor was operated for the continuous growth of Scenedesmus obliquus and consequent removal of nutrients in wastewater. This study develops a simple model by which biomass values in continuous operation can be predicted from kinetic growth parameters obtained from a shorter batch experiment. Based on this study, biomass concentrations and productivities in continuous operation can be successfully predicted as a function of the specific hydraulic retention time (HRT) assumed. Considerable biomass production and nutrient uptake from wastewater were achieved in the experiment. Optimum operating conditions for the reactor depend on the particular objective: the maximization of biomass production and carbon dioxide biofixation involves a HRT of 2 μ(-1) (specific growth rate), whereas efficient nutrient removal involves a HRT as close as possible to μ(-1) (as long as discharges comply fully with the parameters set); alternatively biomass intended for biodiesel or biogas production would involve a HRT > 2 μ(-1). PMID:23138070

  20. Polymer Photooxidation: An Experiment to Demonstrate the Effect of Additives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Norman S.; McKellar, John F.

    1979-01-01

    This undergraduate experiment shows that the inclusion of an appropriate additive can have a very marked effect on the physical properties of a polymer. The polymer used is polypropylene and the additives are 2-hydroxy-4-octyloxy-benzophenone and benzophenone. (BB)

  1. Characterization of metoprolol biodegradation and its transformation products generated in activated sludge batch experiments and in full scale WWTPs.

    PubMed

    Rubirola, A; Llorca, M; Rodriguez-Mozaz, S; Casas, N; Rodriguez-Roda, I; Barceló, D; Buttiglieri, G

    2014-10-15

    Metoprolol (MTP) is a compound of concern, considered as an emerging contaminant due to its high consumption, pseudopersistence and potential ecotoxicity. Activated sludge batch experiments were performed to evaluate the biological transformation of MTP and the formation of transformation products under different treatment conditions. Total MTP removal was obtained in aerobic conditions, and the formation of MTP known metabolites (metoprolol acid (MTPA), α-hydroxymetoprolol (α-HMTP) and O-desmethylmetoprolol (O-DMTP)) and unknown transformation products (TPs) was investigated. The three known metabolites and two new TPs generated along the experiments were identified by liquid chromatography coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry. For the two new TPs plausible structures were proposed based on the tentative identification. MTPA had the major ratio formation for the TPs identified along the experiments (up to 40% of initial MTP concentration after 96 h treatment) and its persistence through biological treatment was proven. Ecotoxicity studies using Vibrio fischeri bioluminescent bacteria in an acute toxicity test showed that MTP and its known TPs are not toxic with the exception of o-DMTP. Finally, MTP and its TPs were monitored in a full scale membrane bioreactor and in a full scale conventional urban wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) and the results were compared with those obtained in batch experiments. α-HMTP was detected for the first time in a WWTP influent whereas MTPA was detected in influent and effluent WWTP samples at much higher levels (up to 100 folds higher) than MTP itself remarking its high persistence. PMID:24973729

  2. Cr(VI) removal from aqueous systems using pyrite as the reducing agent: batch, spectroscopic and column experiments.

    PubMed

    Kantar, Cetin; Ari, Cihan; Keskin, Selda; Dogaroglu, Zeynep Gorkem; Karadeniz, Aykut; Alten, Akin

    2015-03-01

    Laboratory batch and column experiments, in conjunction with geochemical calculations and spectroscopic analysis, were performed to better understand reaction mechanisms and kinetics associated with Cr(VI) removal from aqueous systems using pyrite as the reactive material under both static and dynamic flow conditions similar to those observed in in situ permeable reactive barriers (PRBs). The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and geochemical calculations suggest that the Cr(VI) removal by pyrite occurred due to the reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III), coupled with the oxidation of Fe(II) to Fe(III) and S2(2-) to SO4(2-) at the pyrite surface. Zeta potential measurements indicate that although the pyrite surface was negatively charged under a wide pH range in the absence of Cr(VI), it behaved more like a "metal oxide" surface with the surface potential shifting from positive to negative values at pH values >pH 6 in the presence of Cr(VI). Batch experiments show that increasing solution pH led to a significant decrease in Cr(VI) removal. The decrease in Cr(VI) removal at high Cr(VI) concentrations and pH values can be explained through the precipitation of sparingly soluble Cr(OH)(3(s)), Fe(OH)(3(s)) and Fe(III)-Cr(III) (oxy) hydroxides onto pyrite surface which may, then, lead to surface passivation for further Cr(VI) reduction. Batch results also suggest that the reaction kinetics follow a first order model with rate constants decreasing with increasing solution pH, indicating proton consumption during Cr(VI) reduction by pyrite. Column experiments indicate that nearly 100% of total Fe in the column effluent was in the form of Fe(II) species with a [SO4(2-)]/[Fe(2+)] stoichiometric ratio of 2.04, indicating that the reduction of Cr(VI) by pyrite produced about 2 mol of sulfate per mole of Fe (II) release under excess surface sites relative to Cr(VI) concentration. Column experiments provide further evidence on the accumulation of oxidation products which

  3. Control of algal production in a high rate algal pond: investigation through batch and continuous experiments.

    PubMed

    Derabe Maobe, H; Onodera, M; Takahashi, M; Satoh, H; Fukazawa, T

    2014-01-01

    For decades, arid and semi-arid regions in Africa have faced issues related to water availability for drinking, irrigation and livestock purposes. To tackle these issues, a laboratory scale greywater treatment system based on high rate algal pond (HRAP) technology was investigated in order to guide the operation of the pilot plant implemented in the 2iE campus in Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso). Because of the high suspended solids concentration generally found in effluents of this system, the aim of this study is to improve the performance of HRAPs in term of algal productivity and removal. To determine the selection mechanism of self-flocculated algae, three sets of sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) and three sets of continuous flow reactors (CFRs) were operated. Despite operation with the same solids retention time and the similarity of the algal growth rate found in these reactors, the algal productivity was higher in the SBRs owing to the short hydraulic retention time of 10 days in these reactors. By using a volume of CFR with twice the volume of our experimental CFRs, the algal concentration can be controlled during operation under similar physical conditions in both reactors. PMID:24960016

  4. Variability of biological degradation of phenolic hydrocarbons in an aerobic aquifer determined by laboratory batch experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielsen, Per H.; Christensen, Thomas H.

    1994-11-01

    The biological aerobic degradation of 7 phenolic hydrocarbons (phenol, o-cresol, o-nitrophenol, p-nitrophenol, 2,6-dichlorophenol, 2,4-dichlorophenol, 4,6- o-dichlorocresol) and 1 aromatic hydrocarbon (nitrobenzene) was studied for 149 days in replicate laboratory batch microcosms with sediment and groundwater from 8 localities representing a 15 m × 30 m section of an aerobic aquifer. Three patterns of variation were found: (1) phenol, o-cresol and in most cases p-nitrophenol showed very fast degradation with no or only short lag phases and with very little variation among localities; (2) 2,4-dichlorophenol was degraded in all localities and showed large variability among localities with respect to lag phases (0-50 days) and some variation with respect to degradation periods (20-40 days); and (3) nitrobenzene, o-nitrophenol, 2,6-dichlorophenol and 4,6- o-dichlorocresol showed very large variability among localities ranging from no degradation within 149 days in some localities to degradation within 2 days in other localities. The degradation patterns were highly sequential, indicating a general sequence, for those compounds degradable, valid in all localities. The results are of importance in designing experimental determination of degradation rates and in assigning degradation parameters for use in solute transport models.

  5. Effect of nutrient supplements addition on ethanol production from cheese whey using Candida psuedotropicalis under batch condition

    SciTech Connect

    Ghaly, A.E.; El-Taweel, A.A.

    1995-05-01

    Candida psuedotropicalis ATCC 8619 was selected among nine strains of lactose fermenting yeast for the production of ethanol from cheese whey. The effects of three nutrients (ammonium sulfate (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}SO{sub 4}, dipotassium hydrogen phosphate K{sub 2}HPO{sub 4}, yeast extract, and combination of them) on the ethanol yield from cheese whey were investigated. The results indicated that no addition of nutrient supplement is necessary to achieve complete lactose utilization during the cheese whey ethanol fermentation. However, addition of a small concentration (0.005% w/v) of these supplements reduced the lag period and the total fermentation time and increased the specific growth rate of the yeast. Higher concentrations (0.01 and 0.015% w/v) of ammonium sulfate and dipotassium hydrogen phosphate inhibited the cell growth rate of the yeast. The highest ethanol (21.7% g/L) was achieved using yeast extract at a concentration of 0.01% w/v, given a conversion efficiency of 98.3%. No indication of alcohol inhibition was observed in this study. 60 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. Enhancing the production of Fc fusion protein in fed-batch fermentation of Pichia pastoris by design of experiments.

    PubMed

    Lin, Henry; Kim, Tina; Xiong, Fei; Yang, Xiaoming

    2007-01-01

    This study focuses on the feasibility of producing a therapeutic Fc fusion protein in Pichia pastoris (P. pastoris) and presents an optimization design of experiment (DOE) strategy in a well-defined experimental space. The parameters examined in this study include pH, temperature, salt supplementation, and batch glycerol concentration. The effects of these process conditions were captured by statistical analysis focusing on growth rate and titer responses. Batch medium and fermentation conditions were also investigated prior to the DOE study in order to provide a favorable condition to enable the production of this Fc fusion protein. The results showed that approximately 373 mg/L of the Fc fusion protein could be produced. The pH was found to be particularly critical for the production of this Fc fusion protein. It was significantly higher than the conventional, recommended pH for P. pastoris fermentation. The development of this process shows that protein production in P. pastoris is protein specific, and there is not a set of pre-defined conditions that can work well for all types of proteins. Thorough process development would need to be performed for every type of protein in order for large-scale production in P. pastoris to be feasible. PMID:17461547

  7. Inverse Modeling of Water-Rock-CO2 Batch Experiments: Potential Impacts on Groundwater Resources at Carbon Sequestration Sites.

    PubMed

    Yang, Changbing; Dai, Zhenxue; Romanak, Katherine D; Hovorka, Susan D; Treviño, Ramón H

    2014-01-01

    This study developed a multicomponent geochemical model to interpret responses of water chemistry to introduction of CO2 into six water-rock batches with sedimentary samples collected from representative potable aquifers in the Gulf Coast area. The model simulated CO2 dissolution in groundwater, aqueous complexation, mineral reactions (dissolution/precipitation), and surface complexation on clay mineral surfaces. An inverse method was used to estimate mineral surface area, the key parameter for describing kinetic mineral reactions. Modeling results suggested that reductions in groundwater pH were more significant in the carbonate-poor aquifers than in the carbonate-rich aquifers, resulting in potential groundwater acidification. Modeled concentrations of major ions showed overall increasing trends, depending on mineralogy of the sediments, especially carbonate content. The geochemical model confirmed that mobilization of trace metals was caused likely by mineral dissolution and surface complexation on clay mineral surfaces. Although dissolved inorganic carbon and pH may be used as indicative parameters in potable aquifers, selection of geochemical parameters for CO2 leakage detection is site-specific and a stepwise procedure may be followed. A combined study of the geochemical models with the laboratory batch experiments improves our understanding of the mechanisms that dominate responses of water chemistry to CO2 leakage and also provides a frame of reference for designing monitoring strategy in potable aquifers. PMID:24494823

  8. Migration and leaching risk of extraneous antimony in three representative soils of China: lysimeter and batch experiments.

    PubMed

    Hou, H; Yao, N; Li, J N; Wei, Y; Zhao, L; Zhang, J; Li, F S

    2013-11-01

    Antimony (Sb) distribution, solubility and mobility onto natural soils of China were studied in lysimeter and batch experiments as a function of physicochemical properties of the soil. An outdoor lysimeter experiment investigated the leaching and migration of Sb in the soils with Sb-polluted topsoil and unpolluted subsoil over a 5month period. Soil solutions were collected by suction cups installed at different depth of lysimeters, and leachates were regularly collected and analyzed for Sb concentrations. The majority of the added Sb was retained in the topsoil layers, but small portions were moved to the sub-layers. Sb concentrations in the soil solutions and leachates ranged from 0-755.5 (6.38±54 on average) μg l(-1) and 0-0.45 (smaller than the detection limit) μg l(-1) respectively, indicating the low solubility of Sb in the soils. Batch experiments were performed in order to determine the sorption capacity and the partition coefficient (Kd). Freundlich isotherm described properly the equilibrium experimental data and results show that the Kd values for Primosol, Isohumosol, Ferrosol equal to 22.5, 87.8, 704 L kg(-1), respectively. These results showed the strong capacity of the soils to retain Sb, and prevent it being leached down the profile. The mobilizable Sb was in the order: Primosol>Isohumosol>Ferrosol. Sb migration in the soils was mainly associated with the exchangeable, carbonate-bound, and metal-organic complex-bound fractions. Health risk assessment indicates that Sb leaching from Ferrosol will not harm to human health through groundwater under the test conditions, while it has certain health risks from the Isohumosol and Primosol. PMID:23931906

  9. Coal fly ash interaction with environmental fluids: Geochemical and strontium isotope results from combined column and batch leaching experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Brubaker, Tonya M; Stewart, Brian W; Capo, Rosemary C; Schroeder, Karl T; Chapman, Elizabeth C; Spivak-Birndorf, Lev J; Vesper, Dorothy J; Cardone, Carol R; Rohar, Paul C

    2013-05-01

    The major element and Sr isotope systematics and geochemistry of coal fly ash and its interactions with environmental waters were investigated using laboratory flow-through column leaching experiments (sodium carbonate, acetic acid, nitric acid) and sequential batch leaching experiments (water, acetic acid, hydrochloric acid). Column leaching of Class F fly ash samples shows rapid release of most major elements early in the leaching procedure, suggesting an association of these elements with soluble and surface bound phases. Delayed release of certain elements (e.g., Al, Fe, Si) signals gradual dissolution of more resistant silicate or glass phases as leaching continues. Strontium isotope results from both column and batch leaching experiments show a marked increase in {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr ratio with continued leaching, yielding a total range of values from 0.7107 to 0.7138. For comparison, the isotopic composition of fluid output from a fly ash impoundment in West Virginia falls in a narrow range around 0.7124. The experimental data suggest the presence of a more resistant, highly radiogenic silicate phase that survives the combustion process and is leached after the more soluble minerals are removed. Strontium isotopic homogenization of minerals in coal does not always occur during the combustion process, despite the high temperatures encountered in the boiler. Early-released Sr tends to be isotopically uniform; thus the Sr isotopic composition of fly ash could be distinguishable from other sources and is a useful tool for quantifying the possible contribution of fly ash leaching to the total dissolved load in natural surface and ground waters.

  10. Plasmid Instability in Batch Cultures of Recombinant Bacteria. A Laboratory Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bentley, William E.; Kompala, Dhinakar S.

    1990-01-01

    Described is a laboratory experiment designed to expose students to problem-solving methods individually and as a group. Included are background information, a list of materials, laboratory procedures, analysis methods, and probable results. (CW)

  11. Iodine speciation in coastal and inland bathing waters and seaweeds extracts using a sequential injection standard addition flow-batch method.

    PubMed

    Santos, Inês C; Mesquita, Raquel B R; Bordalo, Adriano A; Rangel, António O S S

    2015-02-01

    The present work describes the development of a sequential injection standard addition method for iodine speciation in bathing waters and seaweeds extracts without prior sample treatment. Iodine speciation was obtained by assessing the iodide and iodate content, the two inorganic forms of iodine in waters. For the determination of iodide, an iodide ion selective electrode (ISE) was used. The indirect determination of iodate was based on the spectrophotometric determination of nitrite (Griess reaction). For the iodate measurement, a mixing chamber was employed (flow batch approach) to explore the inherent efficient mixing, essential for the indirect determination of iodate. The application of the standard addition method enabled detection limits of 0.14 µM for iodide and 0.02 µM for iodate, together with the direct introduction of the target water samples, coastal and inland bathing waters. The results obtained were in agreement with those obtained by ICP-MS and a colorimetric reference procedure. Recovery tests also confirmed the accuracy of the developed method which was effectively applied to bathing waters and seaweed extracts. PMID:25435219

  12. Carbon isotope fractionation during reductive dechlorination of TCE in batch experiments with iron samples from reactive barriers.

    PubMed

    Schüth, Christoph; Bill, Markus; Barth, Johannes A C; Slater, Gregory F; Kalin, Robert M

    2003-10-01

    Reductive dechlorination of trichloroethene (TCE) by zero-valent iron produces a systematic enrichment of 13C in the remaining substrate that can be described using a Rayleigh model. In this study, fractionation factors for TCE dechlorination with iron samples from two permeable reactive barriers (PRBs) were established in batch experiments. Samples included original unused iron as well as material from a barrier in Belfast after almost 4 years of operation. Despite the variety of samples, carbon isotope fractionations of TCE were remarkably similar and seemed to be independent of iron origin, reaction rate, and formation of precipitates on the iron surfaces. The average enrichment factor for all experiments was -10.1 per thousand (+/- 0.4 per thousand). These results indicate that the enrichment factor provides a powerful tool to monitor the reaction progress, and thus the performance, of an iron-reactive barrier over time. The strong fractionation observed may also serve as a tool to distinguish between insufficient residence time in the wall and a possible bypassing of the wall by the plume, which should result in an unchanged isotopic signature of the TCE. Although further work is necessary to apply this stable isotope method in the field, it has potential to serve as a unique monitoring tool for PRBs based on zero-valent iron. PMID:14516939

  13. Sludge reduction by direct addition of chlorine dioxide into a sequencing batch reactor under operational mode of repeatedly alternating aeration/non-aeration.

    PubMed

    Peng, Hong; Liu, Weiyi; Li, Yuanmei; Xiao, Hong

    2015-01-01

    The effect of direct addition of chlorine dioxide (ClO2) into a repeatedly alternating aeration/non-aeration sequencing batch reactor (SBR) on its sludge reduction and process performance was investigated. The experimental results showed that the sludge reduction efficiency was 32.9% and the observed growth yield (Yobs) of SBR was 0.11 kg VSS (volatile suspended solids) /kg COD (chemical oxygen demand) for 80 days' operation at the optimum ClO2 dosage of 2.0 mg/g TSS (total suspended solids). It was speculated that cell lysis and cryptic growth, uncoupled metabolism and endogenous metabolism were jointly responsible for the sludge reduction in this study. COD, NH3-N, total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) in the effluent increased on average 29.47, 4.44, 1.97 and 0.05 mg/L, respectively. However, the effluent quality still satisfied the first-class B discharge standards for municipal wastewater treatment plants in China. In that case, the sludge maintained fine viability with the specific oxygen uptake rate (SOUR) being 14.47 mg O2/(g VSS·h) and demonstrated good settleability with the sludge volume index (SVI) being 116 mL/g. The extra cost of sludge reduction at the optimum ClO2 dosage was estimated to be 2.24 CNY (or 0.36 dollar)/kg dry sludge. PMID:26524444

  14. Estimation of stream nutrient uptake from nutrient addition experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Payn, Robert

    2005-09-01

    Nutrient uptake in streams is often quantified by determining nutrient uptake length. However, current methods for measuring nutrient uptake length are often impractical, expensive, or demonstrably incorrect. We have developed a new method to estimate ambient nutrient uptake lengths using field experiments involving several levels of nutrient addition. Data analysis involves plotting nutrient addition uptake lengths versus added concentration and extrapolating to the negative ambient concentration. This method is relatively easy, inexpensive, and based on sound theoretical development. It is more accurate than the commonly used method involving a single nutrient addition. The utility of the method is supported by field studies directly comparing our new method with isotopic tracer methods for determining uptake lengths of phosphorus, ammonium, and nitrate. Our method also provides parameters for comparing potential nutrient limitation among streams.

  15. Effects of an additional dimension in the Young experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Barros, Allan Kardec

    2015-09-15

    The results of the Young experiment can be analyzed either by classical or Quantum Physics. The later one though leads to a more complete interpretation, based on two different patterns that appear when one works either with single or double slits. Here we show that the two patterns can be derived from a single principle, in the context of General Relativity, if one assumes an additional spatial dimension to the four known today. The found equations yield the same results as those in Quantum Mechanics.

  16. Impact of dilution on microbial community structure and functional potential: comparison of numerical simulations and batch culture experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Franklin, R. B.; Garland, J. L.; Bolster, C. H.; Mills, A. L.

    2001-01-01

    A series of microcosm experiments was performed using serial dilutions of a sewage microbial community to inoculate a set of batch cultures in sterile sewage. After inoculation, the dilution-defined communities were allowed to regrow for several days and a number of community attributes were measured in the regrown assemblages. Based upon a set of numerical simulations, community structure was expected to differ along the dilution gradient; the greatest differences in structure were anticipated between the undiluted-low-dilution communities and the communities regrown from the very dilute (more than 10(-4)) inocula. Furthermore, some differences were expected among the lower-dilution treatments (e.g., between undiluted and 10(-1)) depending upon the evenness of the original community. In general, each of the procedures used to examine the experimental community structures separated the communities into at least two, often three, distinct groups. The groupings were consistent with the simulated dilution of a mixture of organisms with a very uneven distribution. Significant differences in community structure were detected with genetic (amplified fragment length polymorphism and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism), physiological (community level physiological profiling), and culture-based (colony morphology on R2A agar) measurements. Along with differences in community structure, differences in community size (acridine orange direct counting), composition (ratio of sewage medium counts to R2A counts, monitoring of each colony morphology across the treatments), and metabolic redundancy (i.e., generalist versus specialist) were also observed, suggesting that the differences in structure and diversity of communities maintained in the same environment can be manifested as differences in community organization and function.

  17. [Dynamics of the mineralization and transformation of rice photosynthesized carbon in paddy soils--a batch incubation experiment].

    PubMed

    Tan, Li-Min; Peng, Pei-Qin; Li, Ke-Lin; Li, Bao-Zhen; Nie, San-An; Ge, Ti-Da; Tong, Cheng-Li; Wu, Jin-Shui

    2014-01-01

    Photosynthesized carbon is an important part in C cycling of "atmosphere-plant-soil" and is the source of soil organic carbon (SOC), but its mineralization and transformation dynamics in paddy soils remains still unclear. Therefore, a batch incubation experiment was conducted to investigate the mineralization and transformation of rice photosynthesized carbon in paddy soils after rice harvest. The results showed that the mineralization rate of native SOC ranged from 4.44 to 17.8 microg x (g x d)(-1), while that of photosynthesized carbon (new carbon) was 0.15- 1.51 micro x (gx d)(-1) during the course of 100-day-incubation span. Rice photosynthesized carbon input significantly influenced the soil active carbon (DOC, MBC) transformation. During the incubation period (100 d), the amount of 14C-DOC transformation ranged from 1.89 to 5.32 mg x 8 kg(-1), and that of native DOC varied from 61.13 to 90.65 mg x kg(-2), with the transformation rates ranged from 0.18 to 0.34 mg x (kg x d)(-1) and from 4.10 to 5.48 mg. (kg x d)(-1), respectively. However, the 14C-MBC and native original MBC were 10.92-44.11 mg x kg(-1) and 463.31-1153.46 mg x kg(-1), respectively, and their transformation rates were 0.80-2.87, 41.60-74.46 mg x (kg-d)(-1), respectively. It suggested that the turnover of MBC was greater than that of DOC. Furthermore, "new carbon" was easier to be mineralized and decomposed than native SOC. The mineralized portion in "new carbon" was 13.5%-20.2%, whereas that in native SOC was only 2.2%-3.7%. Therefore, we concluded that the incorporation of rice photosynthesized carbon was vital to maintain the soil carbon sink for paddy soils. PMID:24720210

  18. Effects of Low-Molecular-Weight Organic Acids on the Dissolution of Hydroxyapatite Nanoparticles in Batch and Column Experiments: A Perspective from Phosphate Oxygen Isotope Fractionation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, D.; Jaisi, D. P.; Jin, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Hydroxyapatite nanoparticles (HANPs) are increasingly being advocated as an efficient and environment-friendly "green" phosphorus nanofertilizer attributed to their nanoscale dimension, large reactive surface area, and low leaching potential. However, knowledge of how naturally occurring low-molecular-weight organic acids (LMWOAs) that are secreted by plant roots mediate the dissolution of HANPs (releasing PO43- ion for plant growth) is nonexistent. Here three most commonly encountered LMWOAs (acetic acid, oxalic acid, and citric acid) at environmentally relevant concentration (1 mM) were evaluated for their effects on HANPs' dissolution in static batch and dynamic column systems. Particularly, phosphate oxygen isotope fractionation of HANPs during dissolution was examined to disentangle mechanisms controlling the evolution of O-isotopic composition of dissolved PO43- ion. Our results reveal that in batch experiments the dissolution of HANPs was fast but the overall dissolution efficiency of HANPs was limited (≤30%). In contrast, ~100% HANPs were dissolved in columns where LMWOAs were continuously injected. The limited dissolution of HANPs in static batch systems was due primarily to pH buffer effect (pH increased sharply when LMWOA was added in HANPs suspension), whereas in dynamic column systems the HANPs were continuously dissolved by low pH LMWOAs and leached away. Regardless of LMWOA type and experimental system, the isotopically light phosphate (P16O4) was preferentially released during dissolution and the O-isotopic composition of dissolved PO43- ion increased gradually with increasing dissolution due to equilibrium isotope effect between dissolved PO43- ion and HANPs. However, the overall magnitude of O-isotopic fractionation of dissolved PO43- ion was less in batch than in column systems, due to less mass transfer between dissolved PO43- ions and HANPs in batch relative to column experiments. Our findings provide new insights into bioavailability

  19. Morphologically structured model for antitumoral retamycin production during batch and fed-batch cultivations of Streptomyces olindensis.

    PubMed

    Giudici, Reinaldo; Pamboukian, Celso R D; Facciotti, Maria Cândida R

    2004-05-20

    A morphologically structured model is proposed to describe trends in biomass growth, substrate consumption, and antitumoral retamycin production during batch and fed-batch cultivations of Streptomyces olindensis. Filamentous biomass is structured into three morphological compartments (apical, subapical, and hyphal), and the production of retamycin, a secondary metabolite, is assumed to take place in the subapical cell compartment. Model accounts for the effect of glucose as well as complex nitrogen source on both the biomass growth and retamycin production. Laboratory data from bench-scale batch and fed-batch fermentations were used to estimate some model parameters by nonlinear regression. The predictive capability of the model was then tested for additional fed-batch and continuous experiments not used in the previous fitting procedure. The model predictions show fair agreement to the experimental data. The proposed model can be useful for further studies on process optimization and control. PMID:15112294

  20. Software for batch farms

    SciTech Connect

    Ian Bird; Bryan Hess; Andy Kowalski

    2000-02-01

    Over the past few years, LSF has become a standard for job management on batch farms. However, there are many instances where it cannot be deployed for a variety of reasons. In large farms the cost may be prohibitive for the set of features actually used; small university groups who wish to clone the farms and software of larger laboratories often have constraints which preclude the use of LSF. This paper discusses a generic interface developed at Jefferson Lab to provide a set of common services to the user, while using any one of a variety of underlying batch management software products. Initially the system provides an interface to LSF and an alternative--Portable Batch System (PBS) developed by NASA and freely available in source form. It is straightforward to extend this to other systems. Such a generic interface allows users to move from one location to another and run their jobs with no modification, and by extension provides a framework for a ''global'' batch system where jobs submitted at one site may be transparently executed at another. The interface also provides additional features not found in the underlying batch software. Being written in Java, the client can be easily installed anywhere and allows for authenticated remote job submission and manipulation, including a web interface. This paper will also discuss the problem of keeping a large batch farm occupied with work without waiting for slow tape access. The use of file caching, pre-staging of files from tape and the interconnection with the batch system will be discussed. As well as automated techniques, the provision of appropriate information to the user to allow optimization should not be overlooked.

  1. Debiasing Crowdsourced Batches

    PubMed Central

    Zhuang, Honglei; Parameswaran, Aditya; Roth, Dan; Han, Jiawei

    2015-01-01

    Crowdsourcing is the de-facto standard for gathering annotated data. While, in theory, data annotation tasks are assumed to be attempted by workers independently, in practice, data annotation tasks are often grouped into batches to be presented and annotated by workers together, in order to save on the time or cost overhead of providing instructions or necessary background. Thus, even though independence is usually assumed between annotations on data items within the same batch, in most cases, a worker's judgment on a data item can still be affected by other data items within the batch, leading to additional errors in collected labels. In this paper, we study the data annotation bias when data items are presented as batches to be judged by workers simultaneously. We propose a novel worker model to characterize the annotating behavior on data batches, and present how to train the worker model on annotation data sets. We also present a debiasing technique to remove the effect of such annotation bias from adversely affecting the accuracy of labels obtained. Our experimental results on both synthetic data and real-world data demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed method. PMID:26713175

  2. Effect of pine bark on the biotransformation of trinitrotoluene and on the bacterial community structure in a batch experiment.

    PubMed

    Chusova, Olga; Nolvak, Hiie; Nehrenheim, Emma; Truu, Jaak; Odlare, Monica; Oopkaup, Kristjan; Truu, Marika

    2014-01-01

    Pine bark, a low-cost industrial residue, has been suggested as a promising substitute for granular activated carbon in the on-site treatment of water contaminated with 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT). However, the complex organic structure and indigenous microbial community of pine bark have thus far not been thoroughly described in the context of TNT-contaminated water treatment. This two-week batch study examined the removal efficiency ofTNT from water by (1) adsorption on pine bark and (2) simultaneous adsorption on pine bark and biotransformation by specialized TNT-biotransforming microbial inocula. The bacterial community composition of experimental batches, inocula and pine bark, was profiled by Illumina sequencing of the V6 region of the 16S rRNA gene. The results revealed that the inocula and experimental batches were dominated by phylotypes belonging to the Enterobacteriaceae family and that the tested inocula had good potential for TNT biotransformation. The type of applied inocula had the most profound effect on the TNT-transforming bacterial community structure in the experimental batches. The indigenous microbial community of pine bark harboured phylotypes that also have a potential to degrade TNT. Altogether, the combination of a specialized inoculum and pine bark proved to be the most efficient treatment option for TNT-contaminated water. PMID:25145200

  3. Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smalheer, C. V.

    1973-01-01

    The chemistry of lubricant additives is discussed to show what the additives are chemically and what functions they perform in the lubrication of various kinds of equipment. Current theories regarding the mode of action of lubricant additives are presented. The additive groups discussed include the following: (1) detergents and dispersants, (2) corrosion inhibitors, (3) antioxidants, (4) viscosity index improvers, (5) pour point depressants, and (6) antifouling agents.

  4. Effect of glass-batch makeup on the melting process

    SciTech Connect

    Hrma, Pavel R; Schweiger, Michael J; Humrickhouse, Carissa J; Moody, J Adam; Tate, Rachel M; Rainsdon, Timothy T; Tegrotenhuis, Nathan E; Arrigoni, Benjamin M; Marcial, Jose; Rodriguez, Carmen P; Tincher, Benjamin

    2010-03-29

    The response of a glass batch to heating is determined by the batch makeup and in turn determines the rate of melting. Batches formulated for a high-alumina nuclear waste to be vitrified in an all-electric melter were heated at a constant temperature-increase rate to determine changes in melting behavior in response to the selection of batch chemicals and silica grain-size as well as the addition of heat-generating reactants. The type of batch materials and the size of silica grains determine how much, if any, primary foam occurs during melting. Small quartz grains, 5-μm in size, caused extensive foaming because their major portion dissolved at temperatures <800°C, contributing to the formation of viscous glass-forming melt that trapped evolving batch gases. Primary foam did not occur in batches with larger quartz grains, ±75 μm in size, because their major portion dissolved at temperatures >800°C when batch gases no longer evolved. The exothermal reaction of nitrates with sucrose was ignited at a temperature as low as 160°C and caused a temporary jump in temperature of several hundred degrees. Secondary foam, the source of which is oxygen from redox reactions, occurred in all batches of a limited composition variation involving five oxides, B2O3, CaO, Li2O, MgO, and Na2O. The foam volume at the maximum volume-increase rate was a weak function of temperature and melt basicity. Neither the batch makeup nor the change in glass composition had a significant impact on the dissolution of silica grains. The impacts of primary foam generation on glass homogeneity and the rate of melting in large-scale continuous furnaces have yet to be established via mathematical modeling and melter experiments.

  5. Pine bark as bio-adsorbent for Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn: batch-type and stirred flow chamber experiments.

    PubMed

    Cutillas-Barreiro, L; Ansias-Manso, L; Fernández-Calviño, D; Arias-Estévez, M; Nóvoa-Muñoz, J C; Fernández-Sanjurjo, M J; Álvarez-Rodríguez, E; Núñez-Delgado, A

    2014-11-01

    The objective of this work was to determine the retention of five metals on pine bark using stirred flow and batch-type experiments. Resulting from batch-type kinetic experiments, adsorption was rapid, with no significant differences for the various contact times. Adsorption was between 98 and 99% for Pb(2+), 83-84% for Cu(2+), 78-84% for Cd(2+), 77-83% for Zn(2+), and 70-75% for Ni(2+), and it was faster for low concentrations, with Pb suffering the highest retention, followed by Cu, Cd, Ni and Zn. The fitting to the Freundlich and Langmuir models was satisfactory. Desorption increased in parallel to the added concentrations, with Pb always showing the lowest levels. Stirred flow chamber experiments showed strong hysteresis for Pb and Cu, sorption being mostly irreversible. The differences affecting the studied heavy metals are mainly due to different affinity for the adsorption sites. Pine bark can be used to effectively remove Pb and Cu from polluted environments. PMID:24973614

  6. Software reliability: Additional investigations into modeling with replicated experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nagel, P. M.; Schotz, F. M.; Skirvan, J. A.

    1984-01-01

    The effects of programmer experience level, different program usage distributions, and programming languages are explored. All these factors affect performance, and some tentative relational hypotheses are presented. An analytic framework for replicated and non-replicated (traditional) software experiments is presented. A method of obtaining an upper bound on the error rate of the next error is proposed. The method was validated empirically by comparing forecasts with actual data. In all 14 cases the bound exceeded the observed parameter, albeit somewhat conservatively. Two other forecasting methods are proposed and compared to observed results. Although demonstrated relative to this framework that stages are neither independent nor exponentially distributed, empirical estimates show that the exponential assumption is nearly valid for all but the extreme tails of the distribution. Except for the dependence in the stage probabilities, Cox's model approximates to a degree what is being observed.

  7. Coupled alkai fieldspar dissolution and secondary mineral precipatation in batch systems-2: New experiments with supercritical CO2 and implications for carbon sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Peng; Fu, Qi; Seyfried, William E. Jr.; Hedges, Sheila W.; Soong, Yee; Jones, Kyle; Zhua, Chen

    2013-01-01

    In order to evaluate the extent of CO{sub 2}–water–rock interactions in geological formations for C sequestration, three batch experiments were conducted on alkali feldspars–CO{sub 2}–brine interactions at 150–200 °C and 300 bars. The elevated temperatures were necessary to accelerate the reactions to facilitate attainable laboratory measurements. Temporal evolution of fluid chemistry was monitored by major element analysis of in situ fluid samples. SEM, TEM and XRD analysis of reaction products showed extensive dissolution features (etch pits, channels, kinks and steps) on feldspars and precipitation of secondary minerals (boehmite, kaolinite, muscovite and paragonite) on feldspar surfaces. Therefore, these experiments have generated both solution chemistry and secondary mineral identity. The experimental results show that partial equilibrium was not attained between secondary minerals and aqueous solutions for the feldspar hydrolysis batch systems. Evidence came from both solution chemistry (supersaturation of the secondary minerals during the entire experimental duration) and metastable co-existence of secondary minerals. The slow precipitation of secondary minerals results in a negative feedback in the dissolution–precipitation loop, reducing the overall feldspar dissolution rates by orders of magnitude. Furthermore, the experimental data indicate the form of rate laws greatly influence the steady state rates under which feldspar dissolution took place. Negligence of both the mitigating effects of secondary mineral precipitation and the sigmoidal shape of rate–ΔG{sub r} relationship can overestimate the extent of feldspar dissolution during CO{sub 2} storage. Finally, the literature on feldspar dissolution in CO{sub 2}-charged systems has been reviewed. The data available are insufficient and new experiments are urgently needed to establish a database on feldspar dissolution mechanism, rates and rate laws, as well as secondary mineral

  8. The influence of Si addition in 55AlZn bath on the coating structures obtained in the batch hot-dip metallization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendala, J.

    2011-05-01

    One of the methods of increasing the corrosion resistance of zinc coatings is the application of zinc and aluminium alloy baths in the metallization process. The coatings obtained are characterized by much better corrosion resistance thanks to the combination of aluminium properties, i.e. the barrier protection provided by naturally created aluminium oxides, with the capacity to protect the steel substrate, which is characteristic of zinc coatings. Zinc coatings with 55 wt. % Al and an addition of Si have gained industrial importance. The introduction of a third alloying component into the metallization bath is a technological addition, the aim of which is to reduce and possibly inhibit the aluminium diffusion towards the substrate. The article presents the results of the examination of coatings obtained in a 55AlZn bath at varied parameters of the technological process, as well as the specification of silicon addition influence on the structure and chemical composition of the coatings, and on the kinetics of growth. The coatings were obtained in three temperatures: 620, 640 and 660°C, and the process was conducted in a 55 wt. % Al bath with Si content of 0, 0.8 and 1.6 wt. % respectively, the remaining content was Zn. For the purposes of evaluating the microstructure and thickness of the coatings obtained, examinations on a light microscope were conducted. In order to determine the chemical composition of the coatings obtained, an EDS analysis was conducted. Quantitative examination of the chemical composition was carried out on the selected cross-sections of samples with coatings considered to be representative ones, using a SEM with a microanalysis system. Moreover, the linear distribution of elements on the cross-sections of the chosen coatings was determined. It is possible to state that the addition of silicon to 55AlZn baths allows reducing the uncontrolled growth of a layer. The layers obtained are more uniform, continuous and they show good adhesion to

  9. Adding coal dust to coal batch

    SciTech Connect

    V.S. Shved; A.V.Berezin

    2009-05-15

    The granulometric composition of coke dust from the dry-slaking machine is determined. The influence of additions of 3-7% coke dust on the quality of industrial coking batch and the coke obtained by box coking is estimated. Adding 1% coke dust to coking batch does not markedly change the coke quality. Industrial equipment for the supply of dry-slaking dust to the batch is described.

  10. Pulsed addition of HMF and furfural to batch-grown xylose-utilizing Saccharomyces cerevisiae results in different physiological responses in glucose and xylose consumption phase

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass generates a number of undesired degradation products that can inhibit microbial metabolism. Two of these compounds, the furan aldehydes 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) and 2-furaldehyde (furfural), have been shown to be an impediment for viable ethanol production. In the present study, HMF and furfural were pulse-added during either the glucose or the xylose consumption phase in order to dissect the effects of these inhibitors on energy state, redox metabolism, and gene expression of xylose-consuming Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Results Pulsed addition of 3.9 g L-1 HMF and 1.2 g L-1 furfural during either the glucose or the xylose consumption phase resulted in distinct physiological responses. Addition of furan aldehydes in the glucose consumption phase was followed by a decrease in the specific growth rate and the glycerol yield, whereas the acetate yield increased 7.3-fold, suggesting that NAD(P)H for furan aldehyde conversion was generated by acetate synthesis. No change in the intracellular levels of NAD(P)H was observed 1 hour after pulsing, whereas the intracellular concentration of ATP increased by 58%. An investigation of the response at transcriptional level revealed changes known to be correlated with perturbations in the specific growth rate, such as protein and nucleotide biosynthesis. Addition of furan aldehydes during the xylose consumption phase brought about an increase in the glycerol and acetate yields, whereas the xylitol yield was severely reduced. The intracellular concentrations of NADH and NADPH decreased by 58 and 85%, respectively, hence suggesting that HMF and furfural drained the cells of reducing power. The intracellular concentration of ATP was reduced by 42% 1 hour after pulsing of inhibitors, suggesting that energy-requiring repair or maintenance processes were activated. Transcriptome profiling showed that NADPH-requiring processes such as amino acid biosynthesis and sulfate and

  11. Batch and column studies of adsorption of Li, Ni and Br by a reference sand for contaminant transport experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Seigel, M.D.; Ward, D.B.; Bryan, C.R.

    1995-09-01

    A processed quartz sand (Wedron 510), mined from the St. Peter sandstone, has been characterized by a variety of chemical and physical methods for use as a reference porous media in transport model validation experiments. Wedron 510 sand was used in an intermediate-scale experiment involving migration of Ni, Li and Br through a 6-m high x 3-m diameter caisson. Ni and Li adsorption/desorption, and Li/Ni site-competition experiments yielded information on the importance of the trace mineral phases to adsorption of Li and Ni by the sand. The presence of an iron hydroxide coating similar to goethite on the sand grains is suggested by visual observation and leaching experiments. Kaolinite was identified by SEM and XRD as a significant trace mineral phase in the sand and occurs as small particles coating the sand grains. Quartz, the predominant constituent of the sand by weight, does not appear to contribute significantly to the adsorption properties of the sand. Qualitatively, the adsorption properties of the sand can be adequately modeled as a two-mineral system (goethite and kaolinite). The studies described in this report should provide a basis for understanding transport of Ni, Li and Br through porous media similar to the reference sand. Techniques were developed for obtaining parameter values for surface complexation and kinetic adsorption models for the sand and its mineral components. These constants can be used directly in coupled hydrogeochemical transport codes. The techniques should be useful for characterization of other natural materials and elements in high-level nuclear waste in support of coupled hydrogeochemical transport calculations for Yucca Mountain.

  12. Simulated Batch Production of Penicillin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitaker, A.; Walker, J. D.

    1973-01-01

    Describes a program in applied biology in which the simulation of the production of penicillin in a batch fermentor is used as a teaching technique to give students experience before handling a genuine industrial fermentation process. Details are given for the calculation of minimum production cost. (JR)

  13. Adsorption of lead at variable pH onto a natural porous medium: Modeling of batch and column experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Papini, M.P.; Kahie, Y.D.; Troia, B.; Majone, M.

    1999-12-15

    The surface complexation approach has been applied to describe the adsorption of lead and proton onto a heterogeneous natural porous medium at constant ionic strength. Acid-base titration experiments were used to determine the minimum number of sites needed to describe the surface heterogeneity. Lead adsorption tests at several pH and total lead concentration were used to complete the model structure, whose adjustable parameters (site concentration and apparent formation constants) were determined by nonlinear multivariate regression of titration and adsorption data. The final model represents the acid-base properties of the surface by the presence of two amphoteric sites, SOH and TOH, and a monoprotic one, MOH; whereas lead adsorption is considered only onto SOH and MOH sites. The model allows a good representation of the experimental behavior in the whole experimental range. Theoretical surface speciation shows that lead adsorption occurs mostly onto site MOH at low pH level and on both SOH and MOH sites at higher values. The model was independently validated by simulating Pb and pH breakthrough experiments performed in small chromatographic columns. Experimental breakthroughs are well predicted by an advection-dispersion transport model coupled with the chemical equilibrium routine (IMPACT), without any parameter adjustment. A large spreading of Pb and pH breakthroughs was calculated and experimentally observed, even in the absence of any kinetic effect. That spreading is explained in terms of the concomitant presence of competitive adsorption and surface heterogeneity.

  14. Batch-to-batch reproducibility of Transferon™.

    PubMed

    Medina-Rivero, Emilio; Merchand-Reyes, Giovanna; Pavón, Lenin; Vázquez-Leyva, Said; Pérez-Sánchez, Gilberto; Salinas-Jazmín, Nohemí; Estrada-Parra, Sergio; Velasco-Velázquez, Marco; Pérez-Tapia, Sonia Mayra

    2014-01-01

    Human dialyzable leukocyte extracts (DLEs) are heterogeneous mixtures of low-molecular-weight peptides that modulate immune responses in various diseases. Due their complexity, standardized methods to identify their physicochemical properties and determine that production batches are biologically active must be established. We aimed to develop and validate a size exclusion ultra performance chromatographic (SE-UPLC) method to characterize Transferon™, a DLE that is produced under good manufacturing practices (GMPs). We analyzed an internal human DLE standard and 10 representative batches of Transferon™, all of which had a chromatographic profile characterized by 8 main peaks and a molecular weight range between 17.0 and 0.2kDa. There was high homogeneity between batches with regard to retention times and area percentages, varying by less than 0.2% and 30%, respectively, and the control chart was within 3 standard deviations. To analyze the biological activity of the batches, we studied the ability of Transferon™ to stimulate IFN-γ production in vitro. Transferon™ consistently induced IFN-γ production in Jurkat cells, demonstrating that this method can be included as a quality control step in releasing Transferon™ batches. Because all analyzed batches complied with the quality attributes that were evaluated, we conclude that the DLE Transferon™ is produced with high homogeneity. PMID:24099727

  15. The painkiller for batch control headaches

    SciTech Connect

    Haxthausen, N.

    1995-10-01

    The world of batch control is a complicated one, containing many of the issues common to continuous processes, as well as such concerns as complex sequential control, product variation, dynamic scheduling and lot tracking. Many different and poorly structured approaches have been taken to these problems, and communication between vendors and users has been troublesome. The newly defined ISA standard, ``SP88, Part 1: Batch Control Terminology,`` brings a large degree of order to the batch control process. SP88 provides definitions of many of the common elements of batch process equipment and recipe steps. In addition, it provides a methodology for logically arranging batch process control, so that the process is understandable and, most importantly, verifiable. Part 1 of this article introduces the important terms and concepts of SP88 along with recommendations for their implementation. In Part 2, a method is proposed to streamline the process of designing and constructing batch manufacturing facilities.

  16. SLUDGE BATCH 5 SIMULANT FLOWSHEET STUDIES

    SciTech Connect

    Lambert, D; Michael Stone, M; Bradley Pickenheim, B; David Best, D; David Koopman, D

    2008-10-03

    . (3) The sludge is high in noble metals. (4) The sludge is high in U and Pu--components that are not added in sludge simulants. Two SB5 processing issues were noted during testing. First, high hydrogen generation rates were measured during experiments with both the blend and batch simulant at high acid stoichiometry. Also, the reflux time was extended due to the high mercury concentration in both the batch and blend simulant. Adding ARP will extend processing times in DWPF. The ARP caustic boil took approximately six hours. The boiling time during the experiment with added MCU was 14 hours at the maximum DWPF steam flux rate. This is comparable to the DWPF processing time for dewatering plus reflux without MCU at a 5000 lbs/hr boil-up rate, but would require significantly more time at boiling at 2000-2500 lbs/hr boil-up rate. The addition of ARP and MCU did not cause any other processing issues, since foaming, rheology and hydrogen generation were less of an issue while processing with ARP/MCU.

  17. Thermal Analysis of Waste Glass Batches: Effect of Batch Makeup on Gas-Evolving Reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, David A.; Hrma, Pavel R.; Marcial, Jose

    2013-01-21

    Batches made with a variety of precursors were subjected to thermo-gravimetric analysis. The baseline modifications included all-nitrate batch with sucrose addition, all-carbonate batch, and batches with different sources of alumina. All batches were formulated for a single glass composition (a vitrified simulated high-alumina high-level waste). Batch samples were heated from the ambient temperature to 1200°C at constant heating rates ranging from 1 K/min to 50 K/min. Major gas evolving reactions began at temperatures just above 100°C and were virtually complete by 650°C. Activation energies for major reactions were obtained with the Kissinger’s method. A rough model for the overall kinetics of the batch-conversion was developed to be eventually applied to a mathematical model of the cold cap.

  18. 21 CFR 80.38 - Treatment of batch after certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Treatment of batch after certification. 80.38... COLOR ADDITIVE CERTIFICATION Certification Procedures § 80.38 Treatment of batch after certification. (a) Immediately upon notification that a batch of color additive has been certified, the person...

  19. 21 CFR 80.37 - Treatment of batch pending certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Treatment of batch pending certification. 80.37... COLOR ADDITIVE CERTIFICATION Certification Procedures § 80.37 Treatment of batch pending certification. Immediately after the sample that is to accompany a request for certification of a batch of color additive...

  20. Batching System for Superior Service

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Veridian's Portable Batch System (PBS) was the recipient of the 1997 NASA Space Act Award for outstanding software. A batch system is a set of processes for managing queues and jobs. Without a batch system, it is difficult to manage the workload of a computer system. By bundling the enterprise's computing resources, the PBS technology offers users a single coherent interface, resulting in efficient management of the batch services. Users choose which information to package into "containers" for system-wide use. PBS also provides detailed system usage data, a procedure not easily executed without this software. PBS operates on networked, multi-platform UNIX environments. Veridian's new version, PBS Pro,TM has additional features and enhancements, including support for additional operating systems. Veridian distributes the original version of PBS as Open Source software via the PBS website. Customers can register and download the software at no cost. PBS Pro is also available via the web and offers additional features such as increased stability, reliability, and fault tolerance.A company using PBS can expect a significant increase in the effective management of its computing resources. Tangible benefits include increased utilization of costly resources and enhanced understanding of computational requirements and user needs.

  1. 21 CFR 80.38 - Treatment of batch after certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Treatment of batch after certification. 80.38... COLOR ADDITIVE CERTIFICATION Certification Procedures § 80.38 Treatment of batch after certification. (a... cosmetic....

  2. Viral and bacterial production in the North Water: in situ measurements, batch-culture experiments and characterization and distribution of a virus host system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Middelboe, Mathias; Nielsen, Torkel G.; Bjørnsen, Peter K.

    Growth and viral lysis of bacterioplankton at subzero temperatures were measured in the North Water polynya in July 1998. In situ measurements of bacterial carbon consumption in surface waters ranged from 15 to 63 μg C l -1 d -1 in the eastern and 6 to 7 μg C l -1 d -1 in the northern part of the polynya. Both bacterial abundance and activity appeared to increase in response to the decay of the phytoplankton bloom that developed in the North Water. Organic carbon was the limiting substrate for bacteria in the polynya since addition of glucose, but not inorganic nutrients, to batch cultures increased both the carrying capacity of the substrate and the growth rate of the bacteria. Bacterial growth rates ranged from 0.11 to 0.40 d -1, corresponding to bacterial generation times of 1.7-6.3 d. The in situ viral production rate was estimated both from the frequency of visibly infected cells and from the rate of viral production in batch cultures; it ranged from 0.04 to 0.52 d -1 and from 0.25 to 0.47 d -1, respectively. From 6% to 28% of bacterial production was found to be lost due to viral lysis. The average virus-bacteria ratio was 5.1±3.1, with the abundance of viruses being correlated positively with bacterial production. A Pseudoalteromonas sp. bacterial host and an infective virus were isolated from the polynya; characteristics and distribution of the virus-host system were examined. The Pseudoalteromonas sp. showed psychrotolerant growth and sustained significant production of viruses at 0°C. The virus-host system was found throughout the polynya. Overall the results suggested that a large amount of organic carbon released during the development and breakdown of the spring phytoplankton bloom was consumed by planktonic bacteria and that the microbial food web was an important and dynamic component of the planktonic food web in the North Water.

  3. Gas Chromatographic Determination of Methyl Salicylate in Rubbing Alcohol: An Experiment Employing Standard Addition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Atta, Robert E.; Van Atta, R. Lewis

    1980-01-01

    Provides a gas chromatography experiment that exercises the quantitative technique of standard addition to the analysis for a minor component, methyl salicylate, in a commercial product, "wintergreen rubbing alcohol." (CS)

  4. Voices from the Classroom: Experiences of Teachers of Deaf Students with Additional Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Musyoka, Millicent Malinda; Gentry, Mary Anne; Bartlett, James Joseph

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to investigate experiences of K-12 classroom teachers of deaf students with additional disabilities. Today, more deaf and hard of hearing students are identified as having additional disabilities (Bruce, DiNatale & Ford, 2008; Ewing, 2011; Gallaudet Research Institute, 2011; Jones, Jones & Ewing, 2006;…

  5. 12 Batch coalescing studies

    SciTech Connect

    Kourbanis, I.; Wildman, D.; /Fermilab

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to identify and correct the problems in the 12 batch coalescing. The final goal is to be able to coalesce 12 booster batches of 11 bunches each into 12 bunches spaced at 21 buckets apart with an average intensity of 200 E9 ppb.

  6. Response of non-added solutes during nutrient addition experiments in streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez-Cardona, B.; Wymore, A.; Koenig, L.; Coble, A. A.; McDowell, W. H.

    2015-12-01

    Nutrient addition experiments, such as Tracer Additions for Spiraling Curve Characterization (TASCC), have become widely popular as a means to study nutrient uptake dynamics in stream ecosystems. However, the impact of these additions on ambient concentrations of non-added solutes is often overlooked. TASCC addition experiments are ideal for assessing interactions among solutes because it allows for the characterization of multiple solute concentrations across a broad range of added nutrient concentrations. TASCC additions also require the addition of a conservative tracer (NaCl) to track changes in conductivity during the experimental manipulation. Despite its use as a conservative tracer, chloride (Cl) and its associated sodium (Na) might change the concentrations of other ions and non-added nutrients through ion exchange or other processes. Similarly, additions of biologically active solutes might change the concentrations of other non-added solutes. These methodological issues in nutrient addition experiments have been poorly addressed in the literature. Here we examine the response of non-added solutes to pulse additions (i.e. TASCC) of NaCl plus nitrate (NO3-), ammonium, and phosphate across biomes including temperate and tropical forests, and arctic taiga. Preliminary results demonstrate that non-added solutes respond to changes in the concentration of these added nutrients. For example, concentrations of dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) in suburban headwater streams of New Hampshire both increase and decrease in response to NO3- additions, apparently due to biotic processes. Similarly, cations such as potassium, magnesium, and calcium also increase during TASCC experiments, likely due to cation exchange processes associated with Na addition. The response of non-added solutes to short-term pulses of added nutrients and tracers needs to be carefully assessed to ensure that nutrient uptake metrics are accurate, and to detect biotic interactions that may

  7. Investigation of pore size related parameters during long-term CO2-brine-rock interaction from batch experiments and from in situ rock cores after 4 years of geological CO2 storage at the Ketzin pilot site (Germany)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zemke, Kornelia; Liebscher, Axel; Fischer, Sebastian

    2013-04-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate long-term effects of injected CO2 on pore size related parameters. Changes in porosity, pore geometry and distribution, effective permeability, and capillary entry conditions influence the development of static and dynamic storage capacity and injectivity. For the batch experiments core samples from the target reservoir horizon and its directly overlying cap-rock of the Triassic Stuttgart Formation at the Ketzin pilot storage site in Germany drilled in 2007 (observation well Ktzi 202) were exposed to pure CO2 and synthetic reservoir brine in corrosion-resistant, high-pressure autoclaves under in situ P-T conditions over various time periods. For the first run with reservoir sandstone, seven inner core section (Ø 50 mm x 100 mm) and additional rock fragments were stored in separate autoclaves for 40 months. After 15, 21, 24, and 40 months, respectively, all autoclaves were opened and samples were taken for mineralogical, geochemical, microbiological and petrophysical investigations. In a second run, three parallel siltstone samples were placed in autoclaves and exposed to CO2 and synthetic reservoir brine with run durations of 2, 4 and 6 months; a fourth cap-rock sample was exposed to N2 for 6 months and served as blind-run. The samples were investigated by NMR relaxation and mercury injection porosimetry (MIP). The NMR amplitude is related to fluid filled porosity. In addition, the distribution of NMR-T2 values reflects the pore sizes. The porosity of the connected pore system and the distribution of pore throats can be derived from the MIP. Based on the data, empirical models were used to estimate corresponding permeabilities as well as displacement, threshold, and critical pore pressure from the mercury data. The porosity data of the batch experiments determined by NMR and MIP are comparable and consistent with the logging data. The data of the reservoir experiments indicate only small changes of the pore size

  8. Chemical and biological consequences of using carbon dioxide versus acid additions in ocean acidification experiments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yates, Kimberly K.; DuFore, Christopher M.; Robbins, Lisa L.

    2013-01-01

    Use of different approaches for manipulating seawater chemistry during ocean acidification experiments has confounded comparison of results from various experimental studies. Some of these discrepancies have been attributed to whether addition of acid (such as hydrochloric acid, HCl) or carbon dioxide (CO2) gas has been used to adjust carbonate system parameters. Experimental simulations of carbonate system parameter scenarios for the years 1766, 2007, and 2100 were performed using the carbonate speciation program CO2SYS to demonstrate the variation in seawater chemistry that can result from use of these approaches. Results showed that carbonate system parameters were 3 percent and 8 percent lower than target values in closed-system acid additions, and 1 percent and 5 percent higher in closed-system CO2 additions for the 2007 and 2100 simulations, respectively. Open-system simulations showed that carbonate system parameters can deviate by up to 52 percent to 70 percent from target values in both acid addition and CO2 addition experiments. Results from simulations for the year 2100 were applied to empirically derived equations that relate biogenic calcification to carbonate system parameters for calcifying marine organisms including coccolithophores, corals, and foraminifera. Calculated calcification rates for coccolithophores, corals, and foraminifera differed from rates at target conditions by 0.5 percent to 2.5 percent in closed-system CO2 gas additions, from 0.8 percent to 15 percent in the closed-system acid additions, from 4.8 percent to 94 percent in open-system acid additions, and from 7 percent to 142 percent in open-system CO2 additions.

  9. Effects of herbs and essential oils on in vitro batch culture ruminal fermentation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Medicinal herbs and essential oils were evaluated in a batch culture in vitro screening experiment as potential anti-methanogenic additives for ruminant diets. A total of 88 essential oils and 14 herbs were tested. Rumen inoculum enriched with particle-associated microorganisms was collected from ...

  10. Effects of plants and essential oils on ruminal in vitro batch culture methane production and fermentation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this study, plants (14) and essential oils (EO; 88) from plants that are naturalized to, or can be successfully grown in North America were evaluated in a batch culture in vitro screening experiments with ruminal fluid as potential anti-methanogenic additives for ruminant diets. Essential oils we...

  11. Additive Routes to Action Learning: Layering Experience Shapes Engagement of the Action Observation Network

    PubMed Central

    Kirsch, Louise P.; Cross, Emily S.

    2015-01-01

    The way in which we perceive others in action is biased by one's prior experience with an observed action. For example, we can have auditory, visual, or motor experience with actions we observe others perform. How action experience via 1, 2, or all 3 of these modalities shapes action perception remains unclear. Here, we combine pre- and post-training functional magnetic resonance imaging measures with a dance training manipulation to address how building experience (from auditory to audiovisual to audiovisual plus motor) with a complex action shapes subsequent action perception. Results indicate that layering experience across these 3 modalities activates a number of sensorimotor cortical regions associated with the action observation network (AON) in such a way that the more modalities through which one experiences an action, the greater the response is within these AON regions during action perception. Moreover, a correlation between left premotor activity and participants' scores for reproducing an action suggests that the better an observer can perform an observed action, the stronger the neural response is. The findings suggest that the number of modalities through which an observer experiences an action impacts AON activity additively, and that premotor cortical activity might serve as an index of embodiment during action observation. PMID:26209850

  12. An additional condition for Bell experiments for accepting local realistic theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagata, Koji; Nakamura, Tadao

    2013-12-01

    We assume that one source of two uncorrelated spin-carrying particles emits them in a state, which can be described as a spin-1/2 bipartite pure uncorrelated state. We consider a Bell-Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt (Bell-CHSH) experiment with two-orthogonal-settings. We propose an additional condition for the state to be reproducible by the property of local realistic theories. We use the proposed measurement theory in order to construct the additional condition (Nagata and Nakamura in Int J Theor Phys 49:162, 2010). The condition is that local measurement outcome is . Otherwise, such an experiment does not allow for the existence of local realistic theories even in the situation that all Bell-CHSH inequalities hold. Also we derive new set of Bell inequalities when local measurement outcome is.

  13. Quality and Batch-to-Batch Consistency of Original and Biosimilar Epoetin Products.

    PubMed

    Halim, Liem Andhyk; Brinks, Vera; Jiskoot, Wim; Romeijn, Stefan; Haselberg, Rob; Burns, Chris; Wadhwa, Meenu; Schellekens, Huub

    2016-02-01

    Comprehensive physicochemical characterization and biological assays are essential parts in assessing quality attributes of biologicals. Here, we compared the quality of different marketed recombinant human erythropoietin (epoetin) products: originators, Eprex and NeoRecormon as well as 2 biosimilars, Retacrit and Binocrit. In addition, assessment of batch-to-batch variability was included by collecting 2 or more batches of each product. Common assays which included sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, high-performance size-exclusion chromatography, asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation, capillary zone electrophoresis, and potency testing were used. Of the tested products and among batches of single products, variations in epoetin content, isoform profiles, and potency were found. Ultimately, this study demonstrated the high quality of epoetin products with some degree of variation among products and batches, confirming the "similar but not identical" paradigm of biologicals. PMID:26869417

  14. Stories from the trenches: Experiences of Alberta pharmacists in obtaining additional prescribing authority

    PubMed Central

    Charrois, Theresa; Rosenthal, Meagen; Tsuyuki, Ross T.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Pharmacists in Alberta can apply to the Alberta College of Pharmacists in order to obtain the designation of additional prescriber. This designation uniquely allows them to initiate therapy, in addition to other medication-related activities. Our objective was to examine specific experiences of pharmacists regarding the decision to apply and the application itself, and use this information to help inform other pharmacists who are considering additional prescribing. Methods: All pharmacists involved in a randomized, controlled trial being conducted in rural Alberta who had received their additional prescribing authorization (APA) were invited to participate. Pharmacists were contacted via e-mail and asked to respond to questions regarding their experiences in applying for APA. Responses were analyzed using content analysis and the identites of all respondents were kept anonymous. Results: Fourteen pharmacists were invited to participate. Review and examination of the responses revealed 3 main themes: motivation, hurdles and outcomes. Motivation can be understood as the reasons why they applied for their APA. Hurdles include any problems encountered of a personal, environmental or professional nature. Outcomes refer to how this designation has changed their practice. Discussion: Pharmacists had to address many factors that were unexpected during the application process; however, the eventual outcome of obtaining APA was deemed beneficial, both professionally and with regard to patient care. Conclusion: The information shared from these pharmacists will help other pharmacists, regardless of jurisdiction, overcome some of the challenges associated with obtaining advanced prescribing privileges. PMID:23509485

  15. GIDEP Batching Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fong, Danny; Odell,Dorice; Barry, Peter; Abrahamian, Tomik

    2008-01-01

    This software provides internal, automated search mechanics of GIDEP (Government- Industry Data Exchange Program) Alert data imported from the GIDEP government Web site. The batching tool allows the import of a single parts list in tab-delimited text format into the local JPL GIDEP database. Delimiters from every part number are removed. The original part numbers with delimiters are compared, as well as the newly generated list without the delimiters. The two lists run against the GIDEP imports, and output any matches. This feature only works with Netscape 2.0 or greater, or Internet Explorer 4.0 or greater. The user selects the browser button to choose a text file to import. When the submit button is pressed, this script will import alerts from the text file into the local JPL GIDEP database. This batch tool provides complete in-house control over exported material and data for automated batch match abilities. The batching tool has the ability to match capabilities of the parts list to tables, and yields results that aid further research and analysis. This provides more control over GIDEP information for metrics and reports information not provided by the government site. This software yields results quickly and gives more control over external data from the government site in order to generate other reports not available from the external source. There is enough space to store years of data. The program relates to risk identification and management with regard to projects and GIDEP alert information encompassing flight parts for space exploration.

  16. Spinel dissolution via addition of glass forming chemicals. Results of preliminary experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, K. M.; Johnson, F. C.

    2015-11-01

    Increased loading of high level waste in glass can lead to crystallization within the glass. Some crystalline species, such as spinel, have no practical impact on the chemical durability of the glass, and therefore may be acceptable from both a processing and a product performance standpoint. In order to operate a melter with a controlled amount of crystallization, options must be developed for remediating an unacceptable accumulation of crystals. This report describes preliminary experiments designed to evaluate the ability to dissolve spinel crystals in simulated waste glass melts via the addition of glass forming chemicals (GFCs).

  17. Sample displacement batch chromatography of proteins.

    PubMed

    Kotasinska, Marta; Richter, Verena; Kwiatkowski, Marcel; Schlüter, Hartmut

    2014-01-01

    In downstream processing large scale chromatography plays an important role. For its development screening experiments followed by pilot plant chromatography are mandatory steps. Here we describe fast, simple, and inexpensive methods for establishing a preparative chromatography for the separation of complex protein mixtures, based on sample displacement batch chromatography. The methods are demonstrated by anion-exchange chromatography of a human plasma protein fraction (Cohn IV-4), including the screening step and scaling up of the chromatography by a factor of 100. The results of the screening experiments and the preparative chromatography are monitored by SDS-PAGE electrophoresis. In summary we provide a protocol which should be easily adaptable for the chromatographic large scale purification of other proteins, in the laboratory as well as in industry for commercial manufacturing. For the latter these protocols cover the initial piloting steps for establishing a sample batch chromatography based on packed columns rather than batch chromatography. PMID:24648085

  18. Additional experiments relative to the shelf life of Li(Si)/FeS2 thermal batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Searcy, J. Q.; Armijo, J. R.

    1985-02-01

    A continuing effort to develop a new thermal battery technology based on the Li(Si)/FeS2 electrochemical couple is reported. The results relate to the long shelf life requirement for thermal batteries designed by Sandia, and include topics relevant to leakage through the hermetic seal and accelerated aging experiments with materials new to the technology. Conclusions relevant to leakage through the hermetic seal are that the maximum leak rate must not exceed 1.8 x 10(-7) w, where w is the grams of Li(Si) contained by a battery, and that a bomb type leak test can be designed that is adequate for most Li(Si)/FeS2 batteries. Conclusions relevant to long term compatibility of new materials include the following: nickel is not compatible with the iron disulfide in the cathode; the CaSi2 additive used to suppress the initial voltage transient does not react or degrade during accelerated aging experiments, but the use of that material can lead to an increase in the variability of the activated lives, especially for long life batteries; Grafoil current collectors used with the cathode do not degrade in accelerated aging experiments.

  19. Radionuclide migration laboratory studies for validation of batch sorption data

    SciTech Connect

    Triay, I.R.; Mitchell, A.J.; Ott, M.A.

    1991-12-31

    Advective and diffusive migration experiments (within the Dynamic Transport Column Experiments and Diffusion Studies of the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project) involve utilizing crushed material, intact, and fractured tuff in order to test and improve (if necessary) transport models by experimentally observing the migration of sorbing and non-sorbing radionuclides on a laboratory scale. Performing a validation of the sorption data obtained with batch techniques (within the Batch Sorption Study) is an integral part of the mission of the Dynamic Transport Column Experiments and Diffusion Studies. In this paper the work scope of the radionuclide migration laboratory experiments (as they apply to validation of batch sorption data) is reviewed.

  20. Responses of estuarine nematodes to an increase in nutrient supply: an in situ continuous addition experiment.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, R C; Nascimento-Junior, A B; Santos, P J P; Botter-Carvalho, M L; Pinto, T K

    2015-01-15

    An experiment was carried out on an estuarine mudflat to assess impacts of inorganic nutrients used to fertilize sugar-cane fields on the surrounding aquatic ecosystem, through changes in the nematode community structure. During 118 days, nine quadrats each 4m(2) were sampled six times after the beginning of fertilizer addition. The fertilizer was introduced weekly in six areas, at two different concentrations (low and high doses), and three areas were used as control. The introduction of nutrients modified key nematode community descriptors. In general, the nematodes were negatively affected over the study period. However, Comesa, Metachromadora, Metalinhomoeus, Spirinia and Terschellingia were considered tolerant, and other genera showed different degrees of sensitivity. Nutrient input also affect the availability and quality of food, changing the nematode trophic structure. The use of inorganic fertilizer should be evaluated with care because of the potential for damage to biological communities of coastal aquatic systems. PMID:25499965

  1. Modification of sandy soil hydrophysical environment through bagasse additive under laboratory experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abd El-Halim, A. A.; Kumlung, Arunsiri

    2015-01-01

    Until now sandy soils can be considered as one roup having common hydrophysical problems. Therefore, a laboratory experiment was conducted to evaluate the influence of bagasse as an amendment to improve hydrophysical properties of sandy soil, through the determination of bulk density, aggregatesize distribution, total porosity, hydraulic conductivity, pore-space structure and water retention. To fulfil this objective, sandy soils were amended with bagasse at the rate of 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 3 and 4% on the dry weight basis. The study results demonstrated that the addition of bagasse to sandy soils in between 3 to 4% on the dry weight basis led to a significant decrease in bulk density, hydraulic conductivity, and rapid-drainable pores, and increase in the total porosity, water-holding pores, fine capillary pores, water retained at field capacity, wilting point, and soil available water as compared with the control treatment

  2. Additional experiments on flowability improvements of aviation fuels at low temperatures, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stockemer, F. J.; Deane, R. L.

    1982-01-01

    An investigation was performed to study flow improver additives and scale-model fuel heating systems for use with aviation hydrocarbon fuel at low temperatures. Test were performed in a facility that simulated the heat transfer and temperature profiles anticipated in wing fuel tanks during flight of long-range commercial aircraft. The results are presented of experiments conducted in a test tank simulating a section of an outer wing integral fuel tank approximately full-scale in height, chilled through heat exchange panels bonded to the upper and lower horizontal surfaces. A separate system heated lubricating oil externally by a controllable electric heater, to transfer heat to fuel pumped from the test tank through an oil-to-fuel heat exchanger, and to recirculate the heated fuel back to the test tank.

  3. Loophole-free Bell test using electron spins in diamond: second experiment and additional analysis.

    PubMed

    Hensen, B; Kalb, N; Blok, M S; Dréau, A E; Reiserer, A; Vermeulen, R F L; Schouten, R N; Markham, M; Twitchen, D J; Goodenough, K; Elkouss, D; Wehner, S; Taminiau, T H; Hanson, R

    2016-01-01

    The recently reported violation of a Bell inequality using entangled electronic spins in diamonds (Hensen et al., Nature 526, 682-686) provided the first loophole-free evidence against local-realist theories of nature. Here we report on data from a second Bell experiment using the same experimental setup with minor modifications. We find a violation of the CHSH-Bell inequality of 2.35 ± 0.18, in agreement with the first run, yielding an overall value of S = 2.38 ± 0.14. We calculate the resulting P-values of the second experiment and of the combined Bell tests. We provide an additional analysis of the distribution of settings choices recorded during the two tests, finding that the observed distributions are consistent with uniform settings for both tests. Finally, we analytically study the effect of particular models of random number generator (RNG) imperfection on our hypothesis test. We find that the winning probability per trial in the CHSH game can be bounded knowing only the mean of the RNG bias. This implies that our experimental result is robust for any model underlying the estimated average RNG bias, for random bits produced up to 690 ns too early by the random number generator. PMID:27509823

  4. Loophole-free Bell test using electron spins in diamond: second experiment and additional analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hensen, B.; Kalb, N.; Blok, M. S.; Dréau, A. E.; Reiserer, A.; Vermeulen, R. F. L.; Schouten, R. N.; Markham, M.; Twitchen, D. J.; Goodenough, K.; Elkouss, D.; Wehner, S.; Taminiau, T. H.; Hanson, R.

    2016-01-01

    The recently reported violation of a Bell inequality using entangled electronic spins in diamonds (Hensen et al., Nature 526, 682–686) provided the first loophole-free evidence against local-realist theories of nature. Here we report on data from a second Bell experiment using the same experimental setup with minor modifications. We find a violation of the CHSH-Bell inequality of 2.35 ± 0.18, in agreement with the first run, yielding an overall value of S = 2.38 ± 0.14. We calculate the resulting P-values of the second experiment and of the combined Bell tests. We provide an additional analysis of the distribution of settings choices recorded during the two tests, finding that the observed distributions are consistent with uniform settings for both tests. Finally, we analytically study the effect of particular models of random number generator (RNG) imperfection on our hypothesis test. We find that the winning probability per trial in the CHSH game can be bounded knowing only the mean of the RNG bias. This implies that our experimental result is robust for any model underlying the estimated average RNG bias, for random bits produced up to 690 ns too early by the random number generator. PMID:27509823

  5. Augmenting a Waste Glass Mixture Experiment Study with Additional Glass Components and Experimental Runs

    SciTech Connect

    Piepel, Gregory F. ); Cooley, Scott K. ); Peeler, David K.; Vienna, John D. ); Edwards, Tommy B.

    2002-01-01

    A glass composition variation study (CVS) for high-level waste (HLW) stored in Idaho is being statistically designed and performed in phases over several years. The purpose of the CVS is to investigate and model how HLW-glass properties depend on glass composition. The resulting glass property-composition models will be used to develop desirable glass formulations and for other purposes. Phases 1 and 2 of the CVS have been completed and are briefly described. This paper focuses on the CVS Phase 3 experimental design, which was chosen to augment the Phase 1 and 2 data with additional data points, as well as to account for additional glass components not studied in Phases 1 and/or 2. In total, 16 glass components were varied in the Phase 3 experimental design. The paper describes how these Phase 3 experimental design augmentation challenges were addressed using the previous data, preliminary property-composition models, and statistical mixture experiment and optimal experimental design methods and software.

  6. The additive effect on suicidality of family history of suicidal behavior and early traumatic experiences.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Castroman, J; Guillaume, S; Olié, E; Jaussent, I; Baca-García, E; Courtet, P

    2015-01-01

    Family history of suicidal behavior and personal history of childhood abuse are reported risk factors for suicide attempts and suicide completion. We aim to quantify the additive effect of family history of suicidal behavior and different subtypes of childhood abuse on suicidal behavior. We examined a sample of 496 suicide attempters, comparing individuals with family history of suicidal behavior and personal history of childhood (physical or sexual) abuse, individuals with family history of suicidal behavior only, individuals with history of early traumatic experiences only, and individuals with none of these two risk factors with regards to suicidal features. An additive effect was found for the age at the first attempt in suicide attempters with both family history of suicidal behavior and either physical or sexual abuse. No significant interactions were found between family history of suicidal behavior and childhood trauma in relation to any characteristics of suicidal behavior. Subjects presenting family history of suicidal behavior and childhood abuse attempt suicide earlier in life than subjects with just one or none of them, particularly if they were sexually abused. Other suicidality indexes were only partially or not associated with this combination of risk factors. A careful assessment of patients with both family history of suicidal behavior and childhood abuse could help to prevent future suicide attempts, particularly in young people. PMID:25259671

  7. Batch-to-batch pharmacokinetic variability confounds current bioequivalence regulations: A dry powder inhaler randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Burmeister Getz, E; Carroll, K J; Jones, B; Benet, L Z

    2016-09-01

    Current pharmacokinetic (PK) bioequivalence guidelines do not account for batch-to-batch variability in study design or analysis. Here we evaluate the magnitude of batch-to-batch PK variability for Advair Diskus 100/50. Single doses of fluticasone propionate and salmeterol combinations were administered by oral inhalation to healthy subjects in a randomized clinical crossover study comparing three different batches purchased from the market, with one batch replicated across two treatment periods. All pairwise comparisons between different batches failed the PK bioequivalence statistical test, demonstrating substantial PK differences between batches that were large enough to demonstrate bio-inequivalence in some cases. In contrast, between-replicate PK bioequivalence was demonstrated for the replicated batch. Between-batch variance was ∼40-70% of the estimated residual error. This large additional source of variability necessitates re-evaluation of bioequivalence assessment criteria to yield a result that is both generalizable and consistent with the principles of type I and type II error rate control. PMID:27037630

  8. BATCH-GE: Batch analysis of Next-Generation Sequencing data for genome editing assessment

    PubMed Central

    Boel, Annekatrien; Steyaert, Woutert; De Rocker, Nina; Menten, Björn; Callewaert, Bert; De Paepe, Anne; Coucke, Paul; Willaert, Andy

    2016-01-01

    Targeted mutagenesis by the CRISPR/Cas9 system is currently revolutionizing genetics. The ease of this technique has enabled genome engineering in-vitro and in a range of model organisms and has pushed experimental dimensions to unprecedented proportions. Due to its tremendous progress in terms of speed, read length, throughput and cost, Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS) has been increasingly used for the analysis of CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing experiments. However, the current tools for genome editing assessment lack flexibility and fall short in the analysis of large amounts of NGS data. Therefore, we designed BATCH-GE, an easy-to-use bioinformatics tool for batch analysis of NGS-generated genome editing data, available from https://github.com/WouterSteyaert/BATCH-GE.git. BATCH-GE detects and reports indel mutations and other precise genome editing events and calculates the corresponding mutagenesis efficiencies for a large number of samples in parallel. Furthermore, this new tool provides flexibility by allowing the user to adapt a number of input variables. The performance of BATCH-GE was evaluated in two genome editing experiments, aiming to generate knock-out and knock-in zebrafish mutants. This tool will not only contribute to the evaluation of CRISPR/Cas9-based experiments, but will be of use in any genome editing experiment and has the ability to analyze data from every organism with a sequenced genome. PMID:27461955

  9. BATCH-GE: Batch analysis of Next-Generation Sequencing data for genome editing assessment.

    PubMed

    Boel, Annekatrien; Steyaert, Woutert; De Rocker, Nina; Menten, Björn; Callewaert, Bert; De Paepe, Anne; Coucke, Paul; Willaert, Andy

    2016-01-01

    Targeted mutagenesis by the CRISPR/Cas9 system is currently revolutionizing genetics. The ease of this technique has enabled genome engineering in-vitro and in a range of model organisms and has pushed experimental dimensions to unprecedented proportions. Due to its tremendous progress in terms of speed, read length, throughput and cost, Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS) has been increasingly used for the analysis of CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing experiments. However, the current tools for genome editing assessment lack flexibility and fall short in the analysis of large amounts of NGS data. Therefore, we designed BATCH-GE, an easy-to-use bioinformatics tool for batch analysis of NGS-generated genome editing data, available from https://github.com/WouterSteyaert/BATCH-GE.git. BATCH-GE detects and reports indel mutations and other precise genome editing events and calculates the corresponding mutagenesis efficiencies for a large number of samples in parallel. Furthermore, this new tool provides flexibility by allowing the user to adapt a number of input variables. The performance of BATCH-GE was evaluated in two genome editing experiments, aiming to generate knock-out and knock-in zebrafish mutants. This tool will not only contribute to the evaluation of CRISPR/Cas9-based experiments, but will be of use in any genome editing experiment and has the ability to analyze data from every organism with a sequenced genome. PMID:27461955

  10. Sensitivity of Arctic Permafrost Carbon in the Mackenzie River Basin: A substrate addition and incubation experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hedgpeth, A.; Beilman, D.; Crow, S. E.

    2014-12-01

    Arctic soil organic matter (SOM) mineralization processes are fundamental to the functioning of high latitude soils in relation to nutrients, stability, and feedbacks to atmospheric CO2 and climate. The arctic permafrost zone covers 25% of the northern hemisphere and contains 1672Pg of soil carbon (C). 88% of this C currently resides in frozen soils that are vulnerable to environmental change. For instance, arctic growing seasons may be lengthened, resulting in an increase in plant productivity and rate of below ground labile C inputs as root exudates. Understanding controls on Arctic SOM dynamics requires recognition that labile C inputs have the potential to significantly affect mineralization of previously stable SOM, also known as 'priming effects'. We conducted a substrate addition incubation experiment to quantify and compare respiration in highly organic (42-48 %C) permafrost soils along a north-south transect in western Canada. Near surface soils (10-20 cm) were collected from permafrost peatland sites in the Mackenzie River Basin from 69.2-62.6°N. The surface soils are fairly young (Δ14C values > -140.0) and can be assumed to contain relatively reactive soil carbon. To assess whether addition of labile substrate alters SOM decomposition dynamics, 4.77-11.75 g of permafrost soil were spiked with 0.5 mg D-glucose g-1 soil and incubated at 5°C. A mass balance approach was used to determin substrate-induced respiration and preliminary results suggest a potential for positive priming in these C-rich soils. Baseline respiration rates from the three sites were similar (0.067-0.263 mg CO2 g-1 soil C) yet show some site-specific trends. The rate at which added substrate was utilized within these soils suggests that other factors besides temperature and soil C content are controlling substrate consumption and its effect on SOM decomposition. Microbial activity can be stimulated by substrate addition to such an extent that SOM turnover is enhanced, suggesting that

  11. An experiment in software reliability: Additional analyses using data from automated replications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunham, Janet R.; Lauterbach, Linda A.

    1988-01-01

    A study undertaken to collect software error data of laboratory quality for use in the development of credible methods for predicting the reliability of software used in life-critical applications is summarized. The software error data reported were acquired through automated repetitive run testing of three independent implementations of a launch interceptor condition module of a radar tracking problem. The results are based on 100 test applications to accumulate a sufficient sample size for error rate estimation. The data collected is used to confirm the results of two Boeing studies reported in NASA-CR-165836 Software Reliability: Repetitive Run Experimentation and Modeling, and NASA-CR-172378 Software Reliability: Additional Investigations into Modeling With Replicated Experiments, respectively. That is, the results confirm the log-linear pattern of software error rates and reject the hypothesis of equal error rates per individual fault. This rejection casts doubt on the assumption that the program's failure rate is a constant multiple of the number of residual bugs; an assumption which underlies some of the current models of software reliability. data raises new questions concerning the phenomenon of interacting faults.

  12. Additions and Improvements to the FLASH Code for Simulating High Energy Density Physics Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamb, D. Q.; Daley, C.; Dubey, A.; Fatenejad, M.; Flocke, N.; Graziani, C.; Lee, D.; Tzeferacos, P.; Weide, K.

    2015-11-01

    FLASH is an open source, finite-volume Eulerian, spatially adaptive radiation hydrodynamics and magnetohydrodynamics code that incorporates capabilities for a broad range of physical processes, performs well on a wide range of computer architectures, and has a broad user base. Extensive capabilities have been added to FLASH to make it an open toolset for the academic high energy density physics (HEDP) community. We summarize these capabilities, with particular emphasis on recent additions and improvements. These include advancements in the optical ray tracing laser package, with methods such as bi-cubic 2D and tri-cubic 3D interpolation of electron number density, adaptive stepping and 2nd-, 3rd-, and 4th-order Runge-Kutta integration methods. Moreover, we showcase the simulated magnetic field diagnostic capabilities of the code, including induction coils, Faraday rotation, and proton radiography. We also describe several collaborations with the National Laboratories and the academic community in which FLASH has been used to simulate HEDP experiments. This work was supported in part at the University of Chicago by the DOE NNSA ASC through the Argonne Institute for Computing in Science under field work proposal 57789; and the NSF under grant PHY-0903997.

  13. Automated microbial metabolism laboratory. [design of advanced labeled release experiment based on single addition of soil and multiple sequential additions of media into test chambers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The design and rationale of an advanced labeled release experiment based on single addition of soil and multiple sequential additions of media into each of four test chambers are outlined. The feasibility for multiple addition tests was established and various details of the methodology were studied. The four chamber battery of tests include: (1) determination of the effect of various atmospheric gases and selection of that gas which produces an optimum response; (2) determination of the effect of incubation temperature and selection of the optimum temperature for performing Martian biochemical tests; (3) sterile soil is dosed with a battery of C-14 labeled substrates and subjected to experimental temperature range; and (4) determination of the possible inhibitory effects of water on Martian organisms is performed initially by dosing with 0.01 ml and 0.5 ml of medium, respectively. A series of specifically labeled substrates are then added to obtain patterns in metabolic 14CO2 (C-14)O2 evolution.

  14. Additive Manufacturing, Design, Testing, and Fabrication: A Full Engineering Experience at JSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zusack, Steven

    2016-01-01

    I worked on several projects this term. While most projects involved additive manufacturing, I was also involved with two design projects, two testing projects, and a fabrication project. The primary mentor for these was Richard Hagen. Secondary mentors were Hai Nguyen, Khadijah Shariff, and fabrication training from James Brown. Overall, my experience at JSC has been successful and what I have learned will continue to help me in my engineering education and profession long after I leave. My 3D printing projects ranged from less than a 1 cubic centimeter to about 1 cubic foot and involved several printers using different printing technologies. It was exciting to become familiar with printing technologies such as industrial grade FDM (Fused Deposition Modeling), the relatively new SLA (Stereolithography), and PolyJet. My primary duty with the FDM printers was to model parts that came in from various sources to print effectively and efficiently. Using methods my mentor taught me and the Stratasys Insight software, I was able to minimize imperfections, hasten build time, improve strength for specific forces (tensile, shear, etc...), and reduce likelihood of a print-failure. Also using FDM, I learned how to repair a part after it was printed. This is done by using a special kind of glue that chemically melts the two faces of plastic parts together to form a fused interface. My first goal with SLA technology was to bring the printer back to operational readiness. In becoming familiar with the Pegasus SLA printer, I researched the leveling, laser settings, and different vats to hold liquid material. With this research, I was successfully able to bring the Pegasus back online and have successfully printed multiple sample parts as well as functional parts. My experience with PolyJet technology has been focused on an understanding of the abilities/limits, costs, and the maintenance for daily use. Still upcoming will be experience with using a composite printer that uses FDM

  15. Progressing batch hydrolysis process

    DOEpatents

    Wright, John D.

    1986-01-01

    A progressive batch hydrolysis process for producing sugar from a lignocellulosic feedstock, comprising passing a stream of dilute acid serially through a plurality of percolation hydrolysis reactors charged with said feedstock, at a flow rate, temperature and pressure sufficient to substantially convert all the cellulose component of the feedstock to glucose; cooling said dilute acid stream containing glucose, after exiting the last percolation hydrolysis reactor, then feeding said dilute acid stream serially through a plurality of prehydrolysis percolation reactors, charged with said feedstock, at a flow rate, temperature and pressure sufficient to substantially convert all the hemicellulose component of said feedstock to glucose; and cooling the dilute acid stream containing glucose after it exits the last prehydrolysis reactor.

  16. Progressing batch hydrolysis process

    DOEpatents

    Wright, J.D.

    1985-01-10

    A progressive batch hydrolysis process is disclosed for producing sugar from a lignocellulosic feedstock. It comprises passing a stream of dilute acid serially through a plurality of percolation hydrolysis reactors charged with feed stock, at a flow rate, temperature and pressure sufficient to substantially convert all the cellulose component of the feed stock to glucose. The cooled dilute acid stream containing glucose, after exiting the last percolation hydrolysis reactor, serially fed through a plurality of pre-hydrolysis percolation reactors, charged with said feedstock, at a flow rate, temperature and pressure sufficient to substantially convert all the hemicellulose component of said feedstock to glucose. The dilute acid stream containing glucose is cooled after it exits the last prehydrolysis reactor.

  17. Nitrate removal in stream ecosystems measured by 15N addition experiments: Total uptake

    SciTech Connect

    Mulholland, Patrick J; Hall, Robert; Tank, Jennifer; Sobota, Daniel; O'Brien, Jon; Webster, Jackson; Valett, H. Maurice; Dodds, Walter; Poole, Geoff; Peterson, Chris G.; Meyer, Judy; McDowell, William; Johnson, Sherri; Hamilton, Stephen; Gregory, Stanley; Grimm, Nancy; Dahm, Cliff; Cooper, Lee W; Ashkenas, Linda; Thomas, Suzanne; Sheibley, Rich; Potter, Jody; Niederlehner, Bobbie; Johnson, Laura; Helton, Ashley; Crenshaw, Chelsea; Burgin, Amy; Bernot, Melody; Beaulieu, Jake; Arango, Clay

    2009-01-01

    We measured uptake length of {sup 15}NO{sub 3}{sup -} in 72 streams in eight regions across the United States and Puerto Rico to develop quantitative predictive models on controls of NO{sub 3}{sup -} uptake length. As part of the Lotic Intersite Nitrogen Experiment II project, we chose nine streams in each region corresponding to natural (reference), suburban-urban, and agricultural land uses. Study streams spanned a range of human land use to maximize variation in NO{sub 3}{sup -} concentration, geomorphology, and metabolism. We tested a causal model predicting controls on NO{sub 3}{sup -} uptake length using structural equation modeling. The model included concomitant measurements of ecosystem metabolism, hydraulic parameters, and nitrogen concentration. We compared this structural equation model to multiple regression models which included additional biotic, catchment, and riparian variables. The structural equation model explained 79% of the variation in log uptake length (S{sub Wtot}). Uptake length increased with specific discharge (Q/w) and increasing NO{sub 3}{sup -} concentrations, showing a loss in removal efficiency in streams with high NO{sub 3}{sup -} concentration. Uptake lengths shortened with increasing gross primary production, suggesting autotrophic assimilation dominated NO{sub 3}{sup -} removal. The fraction of catchment area as agriculture and suburban-urban land use weakly predicted NO{sub 3}{sup -} uptake in bivariate regression, and did improve prediction in a set of multiple regression models. Adding land use to the structural equation model showed that land use indirectly affected NO{sub 3}{sup -} uptake lengths via directly increasing both gross primary production and NO{sub 3}{sup -} concentration. Gross primary production shortened S{sub Wtot}, while increasing NO{sub 3}{sup -} lengthened S{sub Wtot} resulting in no net effect of land use on NO{sub 3}{sup -} removal.

  18. Nitrate removal in stream ecosystems measured by 15N addition experiments: Total uptake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hall, R.O., Jr.; Tank, J.L.; Sobota, D.J.; Mulholland, P.J.; O'Brien, J. M.; Dodds, W.K.; Webster, J.R.; Valett, H.M.; Poole, G.C.; Peterson, B.J.; Meyer, J.L.; McDowell, W.H.; Johnson, S.L.; Hamilton, S.K.; Grimm, N. B.; Gregory, S.V.; Dahm, Clifford N.; Cooper, L.W.; Ashkenas, L.R.; Thomas, S.M.; Sheibley, R.W.; Potter, J.D.; Niederlehner, B.R.; Johnson, L.T.; Helton, A.M.; Crenshaw, C.M.; Burgin, A.J.; Bernot, M.J.; Beaulieu, J.J.; Arangob, C.P.

    2009-01-01

    We measured uptake length of 15NO-3 in 72 streams in eight regions across the United States and Puerto Rico to develop quantitative predictive models on controls of NO-3 uptake length. As part of the Lotic Intersite Nitrogen eXperiment II project, we chose nine streams in each region corresponding to natural (reference), suburban-urban, and agricultural land uses. Study streams spanned a range of human land use to maximize variation in NO-3 concentration, geomorphology, and metabolism. We tested a causal model predicting controls on NO-3 uptake length using structural equation modeling. The model included concomitant measurements of ecosystem metabolism, hydraulic parameters, and nitrogen concentration. We compared this structural equation model to multiple regression models which included additional biotic, catchment, and riparian variables. The structural equation model explained 79% of the variation in log uptake length (S Wtot). Uptake length increased with specific discharge (Q/w) and increasing NO-3 concentrations, showing a loss in removal efficiency in streams with high NO-3 concentration. Uptake lengths shortened with increasing gross primary production, suggesting autotrophic assimilation dominated NO-3 removal. The fraction of catchment area as agriculture and suburban-urban land use weakly predicted NO-3 uptake in bivariate regression, and did improve prediction in a set of multiple regression models. Adding land use to the structural equation model showed that land use indirectly affected NO-3 uptake lengths via directly increasing both gross primary production and NO-3 concentration. Gross primary production shortened SWtot, while increasing NO-3 lengthened SWtot resulting in no net effect of land use on NO- 3 removal. ?? 2009.

  19. Batch Scheduling a Fresh Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cardo, Nicholas P.; Woodrow, Thomas (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    The Network Queueing System (NQS) was designed to schedule jobs based on limits within queues. As systems obtain more memory, the number of queues increased to take advantage of the added memory resource. The problem now becomes too many queues. Having a large number of queues provides users with the capability to gain an unfair advantage over other users by tailoring their job to fit in an empty queue. Additionally, the large number of queues becomes confusing to the user community. The High Speed Processors group at the Numerical Aerodynamics Simulation (NAS) Facility at NASA Ames Research Center developed a new approach to batch job scheduling. This new method reduces the number of queues required by eliminating the need for queues based on resource limits. The scheduler examines each request for necessary resources before initiating the job. Also additional user limits at the complex level were added to provide a fairness to all users. Additional tools which include user job reordering are under development to work with the new scheduler. This paper discusses the objectives, design and implementation results of this new scheduler

  20. Image Data Processing System (IDAPS) user manual, S-056 experiment. Volume 1: System description. Volume 2: Batch IDAPS. Volume 3: Interactive IDAPS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Image data processing system (IDAPS) developed to satisfy the image processing requirements of the Skylab S-056 experiment is described. The S-056 experiment was designed to obtain high-resolution photographs of the sun in the far ultraviolet, or soft X-ray, portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. Thirty-five thousand photographs were obtained by the three flights of the program; and, faced with such a massive volume of imagery, the designers of the experiment decided to develop a computer-based system which would reduce the image processing workload. The purpose of the IDAPS User Manual is to give the IDAPS user the necessary information and instructions to effectively utilize the system.

  1. The Additional-Mass Effect of Plates as Determined by Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gracey, William

    1941-01-01

    The apparent increase in the inertia properties of a body moving in a fluid medium has been called the additional-mass effect. This report presents a resume of test procedures and results of experimental determinations of the additional-mass effect of flat plates. In addition to data obtained from various foreign sources and from a NACA investigation in 1933, the results of tests recently conducted by the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics are included.

  2. Characterization of Three LYSO Crystal Batches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Fan; Mao, Rihua; Zhang, Liyuan; Zhu, Ren-Yuan

    2015-02-01

    We report on three LYSO crystal batches characterized at the Caltech crystal laboratory for future HEP experiments: Twenty-five 20 cm long crystals for the SuperB experiment; twelve 13 cm long crystals for the Mu2e experiment and 623 14×14×1.5 mm plates with five holes for a LYSO/W Shashlik matrix for a beam test at Fermilab. Optical and scintillation properties measured are longitudinal Transmittance, light output and FWHM energy resolution. Correlations between these properties are also investigated.

  3. Characterization of three LYSO crystal batches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Fan; Mao, Rihua; Zhang, Liyuan; Zhu, Ren-Yuan

    2015-06-01

    We report on three LYSO crystal batches characterized at the Caltech crystal laboratory for future HEP experiments: 25 20 cm long crystals for the SuperB experiment; 12 13 cm long crystals for the Mu2e experiment and 623 14×14×1.5 mm3 plates with five holes for a LYSO/W Shashlik matrix for a beam test at Fermilab. Optical and scintillation properties measured are longitudinal transmittance, light output and FWHM energy resolution. Correlations between these properties are also investigated.

  4. Using Embryology Screencasts: A Useful Addition to the Student Learning Experience?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Darrell J. R.

    2011-01-01

    Although podcasting has been a well used resource format in the last few years as a way of improving the student learning experience, the inclusion of enhanced audiovisual formats such as screencasts has been less used, despite the advantage that they work well for both visual and auditory learners. This study examines the use of and student…

  5. Designing Location-Based Learning Experiences for People with Intellectual Disabilities and Additional Sensory Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, David J.; McHugh, David; Standen, Penny; Evett, Lindsay; Shopland, Nick; Battersby, Steven

    2011-01-01

    The research reported here is part of a larger project which seeks to combine serious games (or games-based learning) with location-based services to help people with intellectual disabilities and additional sensory impairments to develop work based skills. Specifically this paper reports on where these approaches are combined to scaffold the…

  6. Data-driven batch schuduling

    SciTech Connect

    Bent, John; Denehy, Tim; Arpaci - Dusseau, Remzi; Livny, Miron; Arpaci - Dusseau, Andrea C

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we develop data-driven strategies for batch computing schedulers. Current CPU-centric batch schedulers ignore the data needs within workloads and execute them by linking them transparently and directly to their needed data. When scheduled on remote computational resources, this elegant solution of direct data access can incur an order of magnitude performance penalty for data-intensive workloads. Adding data-awareness to batch schedulers allows a careful coordination of data and CPU allocation thereby reducing the cost of remote execution. We offer here new techniques by which batch schedulers can become data-driven. Such systems can use our analytical predictive models to select one of the four data-driven scheduling policies that we have created. Through simulation, we demonstrate the accuracy of our predictive models and show how they can reduce time to completion for some workloads by as much as 80%.

  7. Combustion Module-2 Preparations Completed for SPACEHAB Mission Including the Addition of a New Major Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Over, Ann P.

    2001-01-01

    The Combustion Module-1 (CM-1) was a large, state-of-the-art space shuttle Spacelab facility that was designed, built, and operated on STS-83 and STS-94 by a team from the NASA Glenn Research Center composed of civil servants and local support contractors (Analex and Zin Technologies). CM-1 accomplished the incredible task of providing a safe environment to support flammable and toxic gases while providing a suite of diagnostics for science measurements more extensive than any prior shuttle experiment (or anything since). Finally, CM-1 proved that multiple science investigations can be accommodated in one facility, a crucial step for Glenn's Fluids and Combustion Facility developed for the International Space Station. However, the story does not end with CM-1. In 1998, CM-2 was authorized to take the CM-1 accomplishments a big step further by completing three major steps: Converting the entire experiment to operate in a SPACEHAB module. Conducting an extensive hardware refurbishment and upgrading diagnostics (e.g., cameras, gas chromatograph, and numerous sensors). Adding a new, completely different combustion experiment.

  8. Laser Additive Melting and Solidification of Inconel 718: Finite Element Simulation and Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romano, John; Ladani, Leila; Sadowski, Magda

    2016-03-01

    The field of powdered metal additive manufacturing is experiencing a surge in public interest finding uses in aerospace, defense, and biomedical industries. The relative youth of the technology coupled with public interest makes the field a vibrant research topic. The authors have expanded upon previously published finite element models used to analyze the processing of novel engineering materials through the use of laser- and electron beam-based additive manufacturing. In this work, the authors present a model for simulating fabrication of Inconel 718 using laser melting processes. Thermal transport phenomena and melt pool geometries are discussed and validation against experimental findings is presented. After comparing experimental and simulation results, the authors present two correction correlations to transform the modeling results into meaningful predictions of actual laser melting melt pool geometries in Inconel 718.

  9. Batch compositions for cordierite ceramics

    DOEpatents

    Hickman, David L.

    1994-07-26

    Ceramic products consisting principally of cordierite and a method for making them are provided, the method employing batches comprising a mineral component and a chemical component, the mineral component comprising clay and talc and the chemical component consisting essentially of a combination of the powdered oxides, hydroxides, or hydrous oxides of magnesium, aluminum and silicon. Ceramics made by extrusion and firing of the batches can exhibit low porosity, high strength and low thermal expansion coefficients.

  10. Additional results on space environmental effects on polymer matrix composites: Experiment A0180

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tennyson, R. C.

    1992-01-01

    Additional experimental results on the atomic oxygen erosion of boron, Kevlar, and graphite fiber reinforced epoxy matrix composites are presented. Damage of composite laminates due to micrometeoroid/debris impacts is also examined with particular emphasis on the relationship between damage area and actual hole size due to particle penetration. Special attention is given to one micrometeoroid impact on an aluminum base plate which resulted in ejecta visible on an adjoining vertical flange structure.

  11. A New Dynamic Accumulator for Batch Updates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Peishun; Wang, Huaxiong; Pieprzyk, Josef

    A dynamic accumulator is an algorithm, which gathers together a large set of elements into a constant-size value such that for a given element accumulated, there is a witness confirming that the element was indeed included into the value, with a property that accumulated elements can be dynamically added and deleted into/from the original set such that the cost of an addition or deletion operation is independent of the number of accumulated elements. Although the first accumulator was presented ten years ago, there is still no standard formal definition of accumulators. In this paper, we generalize formal definitions for accumulators, formulate a security game for dynamic accumulators so-called Chosen Element Attack (CEA), and propose a new dynamic accumulator for batch updates based on the Paillier cryptosystem. Our construction makes a batch of update operations at unit cost. We prove its security under the extended strong RSA (es-RSA) assumption.

  12. Experiments to Populate and Validate a Processing Model for Polyurethane Foam: Additional Data for Structural Foams.

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, Rekha R.; Celina, Mathias C.; Giron, Nicholas Henry; Long, Kevin Nicholas; Russick, Edward M.

    2015-01-01

    We are developing computational models to help understand manufacturing processes, final properties and aging of structural foam, polyurethane PMDI. Th e resulting model predictions of density and cure gradients from the manufacturing process will be used as input to foam heat transfer and mechanical models. BKC 44306 PMDI-10 and BKC 44307 PMDI-18 are the most prevalent foams used in structural parts. Experiments needed to parameterize models of the reaction kinetics and the equations of motion during the foam blowing stages were described for BKC 44306 PMDI-10 in the first of this report series (Mondy et al. 2014). BKC 44307 PMDI-18 is a new foam that will be used to make relatively dense structural supports via over packing. It uses a different catalyst than those in the BKC 44306 family of foams; hence, we expect that the reaction kineti cs models must be modified. Here we detail the experiments needed to characteriz e the reaction kinetics of BKC 44307 PMDI-18 and suggest parameters for the model based on these experiments. In additi on, the second part of this report describes data taken to provide input to the preliminary nonlinear visco elastic structural response model developed for BKC 44306 PMDI-10 foam. We show that the standard cu re schedule used by KCP does not fully cure the material, and, upon temperature elevation above 150 o C, oxidation or decomposition reactions occur that alter the composition of the foam. These findings suggest that achieving a fully cured foam part with this formulation may be not be possible through therma l curing. As such, visco elastic characterization procedures developed for curing thermosets can provide only approximate material properties, since the state of the material continuously evolves during tests.

  13. In situ vitrification and the effects of soil additives; A mixture experiment case study

    SciTech Connect

    Piepel, G.F.; Shade, J.W. )

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents a case study involving in situ vitrification (ISV), a process for immobilizing chemical or nuclear wastes in soil by melting-dissolving the contaminated soil into a glass block. One goal of the study was to investigate how viscosity and electrical conductivity were affected by mixing CaO and Na{sub 2}O with soil. A three-component constrained-region mixture experiment design was generated and the viscosity and electrical conductivity data collected. Several second-order mixture models were considered, and the Box-Cox transformation technique was applied to select property transformations. The fitted models were used to produce contour and component effects plots.

  14. Comparison of growth, acetate production, and acetate inhibition of Escherichia coli strains in batch and fed-batch fermentations.

    PubMed

    Luli, G W; Strohl, W R

    1990-04-01

    The growth characteristics and acetate production of several Escherichia coli strains were compared by using shake flasks, batch fermentations, and glucose-feedback-controlled fed-batch fermentations to assess the potential of each strain to grow at high cell densities. Of the E. coli strains tested, including JM105, B, W3110, W3100, HB101, DH1, CSH50, MC1060, JRG1046, and JRG1061, strains JM105 and B were found to have the greatest relative biomass accumulation, strain MC1060 accumulated the highest concentrations of acetic acid, and strain B had the highest growth rates under the conditions tested. In glucose-feedback-controlled fed-batch fermentations, strains B and JM105 produced only 2 g of acetate.liter-1 while accumulating up to 30 g of biomass.liter-1. Under identical conditions, strains HB101 and MC1060 accumulated less than 10 g of biomass.liter-1 and strain MC1060 produced 8 g of acetate.liter-1. The addition of various concentrations of sodium acetate to the growth medium resulted in a logarithmic decrease, with respect to acetate concentration, in the growth rates of E. coli JM105, JM105(pOS4201), and JRG1061. These data indicated that the growth of the E. coli strains was likely to be inhibited by the acetate they produced when grown on media containing glucose. A model for the inhibition of growth of E. coli by acetate was derived from these experiments to explain the inhibition of acetate on E. coli strains at neutral pH. PMID:2187400

  15. Comparison of growth, acetate production, and acetate inhibition of Escherichia coli strains in batch and fed-batch fermentations.

    PubMed Central

    Luli, G W; Strohl, W R

    1990-01-01

    The growth characteristics and acetate production of several Escherichia coli strains were compared by using shake flasks, batch fermentations, and glucose-feedback-controlled fed-batch fermentations to assess the potential of each strain to grow at high cell densities. Of the E. coli strains tested, including JM105, B, W3110, W3100, HB101, DH1, CSH50, MC1060, JRG1046, and JRG1061, strains JM105 and B were found to have the greatest relative biomass accumulation, strain MC1060 accumulated the highest concentrations of acetic acid, and strain B had the highest growth rates under the conditions tested. In glucose-feedback-controlled fed-batch fermentations, strains B and JM105 produced only 2 g of acetate.liter-1 while accumulating up to 30 g of biomass.liter-1. Under identical conditions, strains HB101 and MC1060 accumulated less than 10 g of biomass.liter-1 and strain MC1060 produced 8 g of acetate.liter-1. The addition of various concentrations of sodium acetate to the growth medium resulted in a logarithmic decrease, with respect to acetate concentration, in the growth rates of E. coli JM105, JM105(pOS4201), and JRG1061. These data indicated that the growth of the E. coli strains was likely to be inhibited by the acetate they produced when grown on media containing glucose. A model for the inhibition of growth of E. coli by acetate was derived from these experiments to explain the inhibition of acetate on E. coli strains at neutral pH. PMID:2187400

  16. Additive manufacture (3d printing) of plasma diagnostic components and assemblies for fusion experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sieck, Paul; Woodruff, Simon; Stuber, James; Romero-Talamas, Carlos; Rivera, William; You, Setthivoine; Card, Alexander

    2015-11-01

    Additive manufacturing (or 3D printing) is now becoming sufficiently accurate with a large range of materials for use in printing sensors needed universally in fusion energy research. Decreasing production cost and significantly lowering design time of energy subsystems would realize significant cost reduction for standard diagnostics commonly obtained through research grants. There is now a well-established set of plasma diagnostics, but these expensive since they are often highly complex and require customization, sometimes pace the project. Additive manufacturing (3D printing) is developing rapidly, including open source designs. Basic components can be printed for (in some cases) less than 1/100th costs of conventional manufacturing. We have examined the impact that AM can have on plasma diagnostic cost by taking 15 separate diagnostics through an engineering design using Conventional Manufacturing (CM) techniques to determine costs of components and labor costs associated with getting the diagnostic to work as intended. With that information in hand, we set about optimizing the design to exploit the benefits of AM. Work performed under DOE Contract DE-SC0011858.

  17. Experiences of clinical tutors with English as an additional language (EAL) students.

    PubMed

    Lu, Hongyan; Maithus, Caroline

    2012-11-01

    Clinical tutors, referred to in the international literature as clinical supervisors, facilitators, mentors or instructors, are responsible for providing and supervising workplace learning opportunities for groups of Bachelor of Nursing (BN) students. They also play a key role in assessing students. The role modeling and support provided by both clinical tutors and registered nurses (RN) or nurse preceptors helps students become familiar with the language in which nursing work is realised. As BN student cohorts in New Zealand have become more diverse in terms of cultures, ethnicities and language backgrounds, clinical tutors have to directly facilitate the development of context-specific and client-focused communication skills for students who speak English as an additional language. We undertook a study which looked at the perceptions of new nursing graduates with English as an additional language (EAL) on the development of spoken language skills for the clinical workplace. As well as interviewing graduates, we spoke to four clinical tutors in order to elicit their views on the language development of EAL students in previous cohorts. This article reports on the themes which emerged from the interviews with the tutors. These include goal setting for communication, integrating students into nursing work, making assessment less stressful, and endorsing independent learning strategies. Based on their observations and on other published research we make some suggestions about ways both clinical tutors and EAL students within their teaching groups could be supported in the development of communication skills for clinical practice. PMID:23421011

  18. Characteristic hydrogen concentrations for various redox processes in batch study.

    PubMed

    Lu, X X; Tao, S; Bosma, T; Gerritse, J

    2001-01-01

    The dissolved hydrogen concentrations under various redox processes were investigated based on batch experiments. Chloroethenes including tetrachloroethene (PCE), cis-dichloroethene (cis-DCE) and vinylchloride (VC) were respectively used as culture substrates. For each chloroethene, a series of bottles were prepared with the additions of different electron acceptors or donors such as nitrate, manganese oxide, ferrous iron, sulfate, carbondioxide and volatile fatty acids. Hydrogen concentrations as well as redox species were measured over time to ensure the achievements of characteristic hydrogen levels in various enrichment batches. The results showed that redox processes with nitrate, manganese oxide and ferric iron as the electron acceptors exhibited hydrogen threshold values close to PCE/TCE dechlorination, whereas cis-DCE and VC dechlorinations exhibited hydrogen threshold values in the range of sulfate reduction and methanogenesis, respectively. Characteristic hydrogen concentrations for various redox processes were as follows (nM): denitrification, 0.1-0.4; manganese reduction, 0.1-2.0; iron reduction, 0.1-0.4; sulfate reduction, 1.5-4.5; methanogenesis, 2.5-24; PCE/TCE dechlorination, 0.6-0.9; eis-DCE dechlorination, 0.1-2.5; and VC dechlorination, 2-24. PMID:11688686

  19. CMS Pixel Telescope Addition to T-980 Bent Crystal Collimation Experiment at the Tevatron

    SciTech Connect

    Rivera, Ryan; Annala, Jerry; Johnson, Todd; Kwan, Simon; Lundberg, Carl; Still, Dean; Prosser, Alan; Uplegger, Lorenzo; Zagel, Jim; Zvodaya, Viktoriya; /Fermilab

    2011-09-14

    An enhancement to the T-980 bent crystal collimation experiment at the Tevatron has been completed. The enhancement was the installation of a pixel telescope inside the vacuum-sealed beam pipe of the Tevatron. The telescope is comprised of six CMS PSI46 pixel plaquettes, arranged as three stations of horizontal and vertical planes, with the CAPTAN system for data acquisition and control. The purpose of the pixel telescope is to measure beam profiles produced by bent crystals under various conditions. The telescope electronics inside the beam pipe initially were not adequately shielded from the image current of the passing beams. A new shielding approach was devised and installed, which resolved the problem. The noise issues encountered and the mitigating techniques are presented herein, as well as some preliminary results from the telescope.

  20. Summary and overview of the CYCLOPS P addition Lagrangian experiment in the Eastern Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krom, M. D.; Thingstad, T. F.; Brenner, S.; Carbo, P.; Drakopoulos, P.; Fileman, T. W.; Flaten, G. A. F.; Groom, S.; Herut, B.; Kitidis, V.; Kress, N.; Law, C. S.; Liddicoat, M. I.; Mantoura, R. F. C.; Pasternak, A.; Pitta, P.; Polychronaki, T.; Psarra, S.; Rassoulzadegan, F.; Skjoldal, E. F.; Spyres, G.; Tanaka, T.; Tselepides, A.; Wassmann, P.; Wexels Riser, C.; Woodward, E. M. S.; Zodiatis, G.; Zohary, T.

    2005-11-01

    CYCLOPS was a European Framework 5 program to further our understanding of phosphorus cycling in the Eastern Mediterranean. The core of CYCLOPS was a Lagrangian experiment in which buffered phosphoric acid was added to a <4×4 km patch of water together with SF 6 as the inert tracer. The patch was followed for nine days in total. Results obtained prior to the experiment showed that the system was typically ultra-oligotrophic and P-starved with DON:DOP, PON:POP and DIN:DIP all having ratios greatly in excess of 16:1 in surface waters. To our surprise, we found that although the added phosphate was rapidly taken up by the microbial biota, there was a small but significant decrease in chlorophyll a and no increase in primary production, together with an increase in heterotrophic bacterial activity, ciliate numbers and in the gut fullness and egg numbers in the zooplankton community. A microcosm experiment carried out using within-patch and out-of-patch water showed that the phytoplankton community were N and P co-limited while the bacteria and micrograzers were P-limited. Thus this system tends to N and P co-limitation of phytoplankton productivity in summer possibly caused by bioavailable DIN being converted into non-bioavailable forms of DON. On the basis of the data collected within the programme it was concluded that this behavior could be explained by three non-mutually exclusive processes described as (1) trophic by-pass in which the added phosphate gets directly to the grazing part of the predatory food chain from the heterotrophic bacteria bypassing the phytoplankton compartment phosphate, (2) trophic tunnelling in which phosphate is rapidly taken up by both phytoplankton and bacteria via rapid luxury consumption. This causes an immediate change in the phosphorus content but not the abundance of the prey organisms. The added P then "reappears" as responses at the predator level much more rapidly than expected, and (3) mixotrophic by-pass in which inorganic

  1. Analytical model of batch magnetophoretic separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kashevsky, S. B.; Kashevsky, B. E.

    2013-06-01

    Magnetophoresis (the motion of magnetic particles driven by the nonuniform magnetic field), that for a long time has been used for extracting magnetically susceptible objects in diverse industries, now attracts interest to develop more sophisticated microfluidic and batch techniques for separation and manipulation of biological particles, and magnetically assisted absorption and catalysis in organic chemistry, biochemistry, and petrochemistry. A deficiency of magnetic separation science is the lack of simple analytical models imitating real processes of magnetic separation. We have studied the motion of superparamagnetic (generally, soft magnetic) particles in liquid in the three-dimensional field of the diametrically polarized permanent cylindrical magnet; this geometry is basically representative of the batch separation mode. In the limit of the infinite-length magnet, we found the particle magnetophoresis proceeds independently of the magnet polarization direction, following the simple analytical relation incorporating all the relevant physical and geometrical parameters of the particle-magnet system. In experiments with a finite-length magnet we have shown applicability of the developed theory as to analyze the performance of the real batch separation systems in the noncooperative mode, and finally, we have presented an example of such analysis for the case of immunomagnetic cell separation and developed a criterion of the model limitation imposed by the magnetic aggregation of particles.

  2. [Requirements for drug approval and additional benefits assessment: Regulatory aspects and experiences].

    PubMed

    Broich, K; Löbker, W; Schulte, A; Beinlich, P; Müller, T

    2016-04-01

    The early assessment of benefits of newly approved drugs with novel active substances or new applications, which came into force on 1 January 2011 still represents a challenge to all parties involved. This article highlights the definitions, regulatory requirements and interaction between drug marketing approval and early assessment of benefits in Germany. The constellation of an extensively harmonized European and even international drug authorization process with a predominantly national regulation of drug reimbursement situation inevitably causes friction, which could be markedly reduced through early joint advisory discussions during the planning phase for pivotal clinical trials. During the year 2015 the Federal Institute for Drugs and Medical Devices (BfArM) carried out 300 scientific advice procedures of which 34 were concerned with applications in the field of indications for the central nervous system (CNS). In comparison 98 advisory meetings were held by the Federal Joint Committee (G-BA) of which the BfArM provided advice in 12 instances and in 2 cases on CNS indications. Study design, endpoints and appropriate comparative therapies are the key issues in exchanges and discussions between the BfArM, the G‑BA and applicants. Under these aspects the BfArM and G‑BA promote an early and consistent involvement in early advice procedures regarding the prerequisites for drug approval and assessment of additional benefits. PMID:27003322

  3. Effects of biochar addition to soil on nitrogen fluxes in a winter wheat lysimeter experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hüppi, Roman; Leifeld, Jens; Neftel, Albrecht; Conen, Franz; Six, Johan

    2014-05-01

    Biochar is a carbon-rich, porous residue from pyrolysis of biomass that potentially increases crop yields by reducing losses of nitrogen from soils and/or enhancing the uptake of applied fertiliser by the crops. Previous research is scarce about biochar's ability to increase wheat yields in temperate soils or how it changes nitrogen dynamics in the field. In a lysimeter system with two different soils (sandy/silt loam) nitrogen fluxes were traced by isotopic 15N enriched fertiliser to identify changes in nitrous oxide emissions, leaching and plant uptake after biochar addition. 20t/ha woodchip-waste biochar (pH=13) was applied to these soils in four lysimeters per soil type; the same number of lysimeters served as a control. The soils were cropped with winter wheat during the season 2012/2013. 170 kg-N/ha ammonium nitrate fertiliser with 10% 15N was applied in 3 events during the growing season and 15N concentrations where measured at different points in time in plant, soil, leachate and emitted nitrous oxide. After one year the lysimeter system showed no difference between biochar and control treatment in grain- and straw yield or nitrogen uptake. However biochar did reduce nitrous oxide emissions in the silt loam and losses of nitrate leaching in sandy loam. This study indicates potential reduction of nitrogen loss from cropland soil by biochar application but could not confirm increased yields in an intensive wheat production system.

  4. Diesel engine experiments with oxygen enrichment, water addition and lower-grade fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Sekar, R.R.; Marr, W.W.; Cole, R.L.; Marciniak, T.J. ); Schaus, J.E. )

    1990-01-01

    The concept of oxygen enriched air applied to reciprocating engines is getting renewed attention in the context of the progress made in the enrichment methods and the tougher emissions regulations imposed on diesel and gasoline engines. An experimental project was completed in which a direct injection diesel engine was tested with intake oxygen levels of 21% -- 35%. Since an earlier study indicated that it is necessary to use a cheaper fuel to make the concept economically attractive, a less refined fuel was included in the test series. Since a major objection to the use of oxygen enriched combustion air had been the increase in NO{sub x} emissions, a method must be found to reduce NO{sub x}. Introduction of water into the engine combustion process was included in the tests for this purpose. Fuel emulsification with water was the means used here even though other methods could also be used. The teat data indicated a large increase in engine power density, slight improvement in thermal efficiency, significant reductions in smoke and particulate emissions and NO{sub x} emissions controllable with the addition of water. 15 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Nitrate removal in stream ecosystems measured by 15N addition experiments: 2. Denitrification

    SciTech Connect

    Mulholland, Patrick J; Hall, Robert; Sobota, Daniel; Dodds, Walter; Findlay, Stuart; Grimm, Nancy; Hamilton, Stephen; McDowell, William; O'Brien, Jon; Tank, Jennifer; Ashkenas, Linda; Cooper, Lee W; Dahm, Cliff; Gregory, Stanley; Johnson, Sherri; Meyer, Judy; Peterson, Bruce; Poole, Geoff; Valett, H. Maurice; Webster, Jackson; Arango, Clay; Beaulieu, Jake; Bernot, Melody; Burgin, Amy; Crenshaw, Chelsea; Helton, Ashley; Johnson, Laura; Niederlehner, Bobbie; Potter, Jody; Sheibley, Rich; Thomas, Suzanne

    2009-01-01

    We measured denitrification rates using a field {sup 15}N-NO{sub 3}{sup -} tracer-addition approach in a large, cross-site study of nitrate uptake in reference, agricultural, and suburban-urban streams. We measured denitrification rates in 49 of 72 streams studied. Uptake length due to denitrification (S{sub Wden}) ranged from 89 m to 184 km (median of 9050 m) and there were no significant differences among regions or land-use categories, likely because of the wide range of conditions within each region and land use. N{sub 2} production rates far exceeded N{sub 2}O production rates in all streams. The fraction of total NO{sub 3}{sup -} removal from water due to denitrification ranged from 0.5% to 100% among streams (median of 16%), and was related to NH{sub 4}{sup +} concentration and ecosystem respiration rate (ER). Multivariate approaches showed that the most important factors controlling S{sub Wden} were specific discharge (discharge/width) and NO{sub 3}{sup -} concentration (positive effects), and ER and transient storage zones (negative effects). The relationship between areal denitrification rate (U{sub den}) and NO{sub 3}{sup -} concentration indicated a partial saturation effect. A power function with an exponent of 0.5 described this relationship better than a Michaelis-Menten equation. Although U{sub den} increased with increasing NO{sub 3}{sup -} concentration, the efficiency of NO{sub 3}{sup -} removal from water via denitrification declined, resulting in a smaller proportion of streamwater NO{sub 3}{sup -} load removed over a given length of stream. Regional differences in stream denitrification rates were small relative to the proximate factors of NO{sub 3}{sup -} concentration and ecosystem respiration rate, and land use was an important but indirect control on denitrification in streams, primarily via its effect on NO{sub 3}{sup -} concentration.

  6. Nitrate removal in stream ecosystems measured by 15N addition experiments: Denitrification

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mulholland, P.J.; Hall, R.O., Jr.; Sobota, D.J.; Dodds, W.K.; Findlay, S.E.G.; Grimm, N. B.; Hamilton, S.K.; McDowell, W.H.; O'Brien, J. M.; Tank, J.L.; Ashkenas, L.R.; Cooper, L.W.; Dahm, Clifford N.; Gregory, S.V.; Johnson, S.L.; Meyer, J.L.; Peterson, B.J.; Poole, G.C.; Valett, H.M.; Webster, J.R.; Arango, C.P.; Beaulieu, J.J.; Bernot, M.J.; Burgin, A.J.; Crenshaw, C.L.; Helton, A.M.; Johnson, L.T.; Niederlehner, B.R.; Potter, J.D.; Sheibley, R.W.; Thomasn, S.M.

    2009-01-01

    We measured denitrification rates using a field 15N-NO- 3 tracer-addition approach in a large, cross-site study of nitrate uptake in reference, agricultural, and suburban-urban streams. We measured denitrification rates in 49 of 72 streams studied. Uptake length due to denitrification (SWden) ranged from 89 m to 184 km (median of 9050 m) and there were no significant differences among regions or land-use categories, likely because of the wide range of conditions within each region and land use. N2 production rates far exceeded N2O production rates in all streams. The fraction of total NO-3 removal from water due to denitrification ranged from 0.5% to 100% among streams (median of 16%), and was related to NHz 4 concentration and ecosystem respiration rate (ER). Multivariate approaches showed that the most important factors controlling SWden were specific discharge (discharge / width) and NO-3 concentration (positive effects), and ER and transient storage zones (negative effects). The relationship between areal denitrification rate (Uden) and NO- 3 concentration indicated a partial saturation effect. A power function with an exponent of 0.5 described this relationship better than a Michaelis-Menten equation. Although Uden increased with increasing NO- 3 concentration, the efficiency of NO-3 removal from water via denitrification declined, resulting in a smaller proportion of streamwater NO-3 load removed over a given length of stream. Regional differences in stream denitrification rates were small relative to the proximate factors of NO-3 concentration and ecosystem respiration rate, and land use was an important but indirect control on denitrification in streams, primarily via its effect on NO-3 concentration. ?? 2009.

  7. MBASIC batch processor architectural overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reynolds, S. M.

    1978-01-01

    The MBASIC (TM) batch processor, a language translator designed to operate in the MBASIC (TM) environment is described. Features include: (1) a CONVERT TO BATCH command, usable from the ready mode; and (2) translation of the users program in stages through several levels of intermediate language and optimization. The processor is to be designed and implemented in both machine-independent and machine-dependent sections. The architecture is planned so that optimization processes are transparent to the rest of the system and need not be included in the first design implementation cycle.

  8. Batch Studies of Sodium Tetraphenylborate Decomposition on Reduced Palladium Catalyst

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, M.J.

    2001-02-13

    In these batch experiments we obtained preliminary information on palladium based catalytic decomposition of sodium tetraphenylborate (NaTPB). These preliminary data provide necessary data to design subsequent catalytic decomposition experiments for NaTPB using a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR).

  9. Mineral displacement and -dissolution processes and their relevance to rock porosity and permeability in Rotliegend sandstones of the Altmark natural gas field (central Germany) - results from CO2 laboratory batch experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pudlo, Dieter; Enzmann, Frieder; Heister, Katja; Werner, Lars; Ganzer, Leonhard; Reitenbach, Viktor; Henkel, Steven; Albrecht, Daniel; Gaupp, Reinhard

    2014-05-01

    The Rotliegend reservoir sandstones of the Altmark area (central Germany) comprise the second largest natural gas field of Europe. These sandstones were deposited on a playa-like continental platform with braided river systems, ephemeral lakes and aeolian dunes under semi-arid conditions. Some of the pristine, red coloured deposits suffered intensive late diagenetic alteration and are now preserved as bleached, high porous and permeable sandstones. To evaluate the relevance of distinct fluids and their fluid-rock alteration reactions on such bleaching processes we performed laboratory static batch experiments on the Altmark sandstones. These 4-6 week lasting runs were conducted with CO2 saturated synthetic brines under typical Altmark reservoir conditions (p= 20 MPa, T= 125°C). Thereby mineralogical, petrophysical and (hydro- and geo-) chemical rock features were maintained prior and after the experiments. Chemical data proved the dissolution of carbonate and sulphate minerals during the runs, whereas the variation in abundance of further elements was within the detection limit of analytical accuracy. However, FE-SEM investigations on used, evaporated brines reveal the presence of illite and chlorite minerals within a matrix of Ca-, Si-, Fe, Al-, Na- and S components (carbonate, anhydrite, albite and Fe-(hydr-) oxides ?). By porosity and relative permeability measurements an increase in both rock features was observed after the runs, indicating that mineral dissolution and/or (clay) fine migration/detachment occurred during the experiments. Mineral dissolution, especially of pore-filling cements (e.g. carbonate-, sulphate minerals) is also deduced by BET analysis, in determining the specific surface of the sandstones. The size of these reactive surfaces increased after the experiments, suggesting that after the dissolution of pore-filling cements, formerly armoured grain rimming clay cutans were exposed to potential migrating fluids. These findings are also

  10. Physicochemical Characteristics of Transferon™ Batches.

    PubMed

    Medina-Rivero, Emilio; Vallejo-Castillo, Luis; Vázquez-Leyva, Said; Pérez-Sánchez, Gilberto; Favari, Liliana; Velasco-Velázquez, Marco; Estrada-Parra, Sergio; Pavón, Lenin; Pérez-Tapia, Sonia Mayra

    2016-01-01

    Transferon, a biotherapeutic agent that has been used for the past 2 decades for diseases with an inflammatory component, has been approved by regulatory authorities in Mexico (COFEPRIS) for the treatment of patients with herpes infection. The active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) of Transferon is based on polydispersion of peptides that have been extracted from lysed human leukocytes by a dialysis process and a subsequent ultrafiltration step to select molecules below 10 kDa. To physicochemically characterize the drug product, we developed chromatographic methods and an SDS-PAGE approach to analyze the composition and the overall variability of Transferon. Reversed-phase chromatographic profiles of peptide populations demonstrated batch-to-batch consistency from 10 representative batches that harbored 4 primary peaks with a relative standard deviation (RSD) of less than 7%. Aminogram profiles exhibited 17 proteinogenic amino acids and showed that glycine was the most abundant amino acid, with a relative content of approximately 18%. Further, based on their electrophoretic migration, the peptide populations exhibited a molecular mass of about 10 kDa. Finally, we determined the Transferon fingerprint using a mass spectrometry tool. Because each batch was produced from independent pooled buffy coat samples from healthy donors, supplied by a local blood bank, our results support the consistency of the production of Transferon and reveal its peptide identity with regard to its physicochemical attributes. PMID:27525277

  11. NDA BATCH 2002-02

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    2009-12-09

    QC sample results (daily background checks, 20-gram and 100-gram SGS drum checks) were within acceptable criteria established by WIPP's Quality Assurance Objectives for TRU Waste Characterization. Replicate runs were performed on 5 drums with IDs LL85101099TRU, LL85801147TRU, LL85801109TRU, LL85300999TRU and LL85500979TRU. All replicate measurement results are identical at the 95% confidence level as established by WIPP criteria. Note that the batch covered 5 weeks of SGS measurements from 23-Jan-2002 through 22-Feb-2002. Data packet for SGS Batch 2002-02 generated using gamma spectroscopy with the Pu Facility SGS unit is technically reasonable. All QC samples are in compliance with established control limits. The batch data packet has been reviewed for correctness, completeness, consistency and compliance with WIPP's Quality Assurance Objectives and determined to be acceptable. An Expert Review was performed on the data packet between 28-Feb-02 and 09-Jul-02 to check for potential U-235, Np-237 and Am-241 interferences and address drum cases where specific scan segments showed Se gamma ray transmissions for the 136-keV gamma to be below 0.1 %. Two drums in the batch showed Pu-238 at a relative mass ratio more than 2% of all the Pu isotopes.

  12. Physicochemical Characteristics of Transferon™ Batches

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Sánchez, Gilberto; Favari, Liliana; Estrada-Parra, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    Transferon, a biotherapeutic agent that has been used for the past 2 decades for diseases with an inflammatory component, has been approved by regulatory authorities in Mexico (COFEPRIS) for the treatment of patients with herpes infection. The active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) of Transferon is based on polydispersion of peptides that have been extracted from lysed human leukocytes by a dialysis process and a subsequent ultrafiltration step to select molecules below 10 kDa. To physicochemically characterize the drug product, we developed chromatographic methods and an SDS-PAGE approach to analyze the composition and the overall variability of Transferon. Reversed-phase chromatographic profiles of peptide populations demonstrated batch-to-batch consistency from 10 representative batches that harbored 4 primary peaks with a relative standard deviation (RSD) of less than 7%. Aminogram profiles exhibited 17 proteinogenic amino acids and showed that glycine was the most abundant amino acid, with a relative content of approximately 18%. Further, based on their electrophoretic migration, the peptide populations exhibited a molecular mass of about 10 kDa. Finally, we determined the Transferon fingerprint using a mass spectrometry tool. Because each batch was produced from independent pooled buffy coat samples from healthy donors, supplied by a local blood bank, our results support the consistency of the production of Transferon and reveal its peptide identity with regard to its physicochemical attributes. PMID:27525277

  13. NDA Batch 2002-13

    SciTech Connect

    Hollister, R

    2009-09-17

    QC sample results (daily background check drum and 100-gram SGS check drum) were within acceptance criteria established by WIPP's Quality Assurance Objectives for TRU Waste Characterization. Replicate runs were performed on drum LL85501243TRU. Replicate measurement results are identical at the 95% confidence level as established by WIPP criteria. HWM NCAR No. 02-1000168 issued on 17-Oct-2002 regarding a partially dislodged Cd sheet filter on the HPGe coaxial detector. This physical geometry occurred on 01-Oct-2002 and was not corrected until 10-Oct-2002, during which period is inclusive of the present batch run of drums. Per discussions among the Independent Technical Reviewer, Expert Reviewer and the Technical QA Supervisor, as well as in consultation with John Fleissner, Technical Point of Contact from Canberra, the analytical results are technically reliable. All QC standard runs during this period were in control. Data packet for SGS Batch 2002-13 generated using passive gamma-ray spectroscopy with the Pu Facility SGS unit is technically reasonable. All QC samples are in compliance with establiShed control limits. The batch data packet has been reviewed for correctness, completeness, consistency and compliance with WIPP's Quality Assurance Objectives and determined to be acceptable.

  14. Energy efficiency of cement finish grinding in a dry batch ball mill

    SciTech Connect

    Touil, D.; Belaadi, S.; Frances, C. . E-mail: Christine.Frances@ensiacet.fr

    2006-03-15

    Dry grinding experiments on cement clinker were carried out using a laboratory batch ball mill equipped with torque measurement. The specific energy was found to be dependent on operating parameters and clinker environment. Additional compounds such as gypsum and pozzolanic tuff improve energy efficiency. The optimal parameters allowing maximising the energy efficiency factor were determined. Energy efficiency factors were obtained both on the crude material (size minus 2.8 mm) and on a sieved fraction (1-0.71 mm). They demonstrate that a low initial rate of breakage implies higher energy efficiency. On the contrary, conditions ensuring an initial maximal rate of breakage lead to an increase of the energy consumption.

  15. Comparison of neptunium sorption results using batch and column techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Triay, I.R.; Furlano, A.C.; Weaver, S.C.; Chipera, S.J.; Bish, D.L.

    1996-08-01

    We used crushed-rock columns to study the sorption retardation of neptunium by zeolitic, devitrified, and vitric tuffs typical of those at the site of the potential high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. We used two sodium bicarbonate waters (groundwater from Well J-13 at the site and water prepared to simulate groundwater from Well UE-25p No. 1) under oxidizing conditions. It was found that values of the sorption distribution coefficient, Kd, obtained from these column experiments under flowing conditions, regardless of the water or the water velocity used, agreed well with those obtained earlier from batch sorption experiments under static conditions. The batch sorption distribution coefficient can be used to predict the arrival time for neptunium eluted through the columns. On the other hand, the elution curves showed dispersivity, which implies that neptunium sorption in these tuffs may be nonlinear, irreversible, or noninstantaneous. As a result, use of a batch sorption distribution coefficient to calculate neptunium transport through Yucca Mountain tuffs would yield conservative values for neptunium release from the site. We also noted that neptunium (present as the anionic neptunyl carbonate complex) never eluted prior to tritiated water, which implies that charge exclusion does not appear to exclude neptunium from the tuff pores. The column experiments corroborated the trends observed in batch sorption experiments: neptunium sorption onto devitrified and vitric tuffs is minimal and sorption onto zeolitic tuffs decreases as the amount of sodium and bicarbonate/carbonate in the water increases.

  16. Increased CPC batch size study for Tank 42 sludge in the Defense Waste Processing Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel, W.E.

    2000-01-06

    A series of experiments have been completed at TNX for the sludge-only REDOX adjusted flowsheet using Tank 42 sludge simulant in response to the Technical Task Request HLW/DWPT/TTR-980013 to increase CPC batch sizes. By increasing the initial SRAT batch size, a melter feed batch at greater waste solids concentration can be prepared and thus increase melter output per batch by about one canister. The increased throughput would allow DWPF to dispose of more waste in a given time period thus shortening the overall campaign.

  17. MODELING CST ION EXCHANGE FOR CESIUM REMOVAL FROM SCIX BATCHES 1 - 4

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, F.

    2011-04-25

    The objective of this work is, through modeling, to predict the performance of Crystalline Silicotitinate (CST) for the removal of cesium from Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) Batches 1-4 (as proposed in Revision 16 of the Liquid Waste System Plan). The scope of this task is specified in Technical Task Request (TTR) 'SCIX Feed Modeling', HLE-TTR-2011-003, which specified using the Zheng, Anthony, Miller (ZAM) code to predict CST isotherms for six given SCIX feed compositions and the VErsatile Reaction and SEparation simulator for Liquid Chromatography (VERSE-LC) code to predict ion-exchange column behavior. The six SCIX feed compositions provided in the TTR represent SCIX Batches 1-4 and Batches 1 and 2 without caustic addition. The study also investigated the sensitivity in column performance to: (1) Flow rates of 5, 10, and 20 gpm with 10 gpm as the nominal flow; and (2) Temperatures of 25, 35, and 45 C with 35 C as the nominal temperature. The isotherms and column predictions presented in this report reflect the expected performance of engineered CST IE-911. This form of CST was used in experiments conducted at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) that formed the basis for estimating model parameters (Hamm et al., 2002). As has been done previously, the engineered resin capacity is estimated to be 68% of the capacity of particulate CST without binder.

  18. Leaching Behavior Of Mineral Processing Waste: Comparison Of Batch And Column Investigations

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this study, a comparison of laboratory batch and column experiments on metal release profile from a mineral processing waste (MPW) is presented. Batch (equilibrium) and column (dynamic) leaching tests were conducted on ground MPW at different liquid–solid ratios (LS) to determ...

  19. Application of gain scheduling to the control of batch bioreactors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cardello, Ralph; San, Ka-Yiu

    1987-01-01

    The implementation of control algorithms to batch bioreactors is often complicated by the inherent variations in process dynamics during the course of fermentation. Such a wide operating range may render the performance of fixed gain PID controllers unsatisfactory. In this work, a detailed study on the control of batch fermentation is performed. Furthermore, a simple batch controller design is proposed which incorporates the concept of gain-scheduling, a subclass of adaptive control, with oxygen uptake rate as an auxiliary variable. The control of oxygen tension in the biorector is used as a vehicle to convey the proposed idea, analysis and results. Simulation experiments indicate significant improvement in controller performance can be achieved by the proposed approach even in the presence of measurement noise.

  20. TANK 50 BATCH 0 SALTSTONE FORMULATION CONFIRMATION

    SciTech Connect

    Langton, C.

    2006-06-05

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) personnel were requested to confirm the Tank 50 Batch 0 grout formulation per Technical Task Request, SSF-TTR-2006-0001 (task 1 of 2) [1]. Earlier Batch 0 formulation testing used a Tank 50 sample collected in September 2005 and is described elsewhere [2]. The current testing was performed using a sample of Tank 50 waste collected in May 2006. This work was performed according to the Technical Task and Quality Assurance Plan (TT/QAP), WSRC-RP-2006-00594 [3]. The salt solution collected from Tank 50 in May 2006 contained approximately 3 weight percent more solids than the sample collected in September 2005. The insoluble solids took longer to settle in the new sample which was interpreted as indicating finer particles in the current sample. The saltstone formulation developed for the September 2005 Tank 50 Batch 0 sample was confirmed for the May 2006 sample with one minor exception. Saltstone prepared with the Tank 50 sample collected in May 2006 required 1.5 times more Daratard 17 set retarding admixture than the saltstone prepared with the September In addition, a sample prepared with lower shear mixing (stirring with a spatula) had a higher plastic viscosity (57 cP) than samples made with higher shear mixing in a blender (23cP). The static gel times of the saltstone slurries made with low shear mixing were also shorter ({approx}32 minutes) than those for comparable samples made in the blender ({approx}47 minutes). The addition of the various waste streams (ETP, HEU-HCAN, and GPE-HCAN) to Tank 50 from September 2005 to May 2006 has increased the amount of set retarder, Daratard 17, required for processing saltstone slurries through the Saltstone facility. If these streams are continued to be added to Tank 50, the quantity of admixtures required to maintain the same processing conditions for the Saltstone facility will probably change and additional testing is recommended to reconfirm the Tank 50 Saltstone formulation.

  1. Adaptation to high throughput batch chromatography enhances multivariate screening.

    PubMed

    Barker, Gregory A; Calzada, Joseph; Herzer, Sibylle; Rieble, Siegfried

    2015-09-01

    High throughput process development offers unique approaches to explore complex process design spaces with relatively low material consumption. Batch chromatography is one technique that can be used to screen chromatographic conditions in a 96-well plate. Typical batch chromatography workflows examine variations in buffer conditions or comparison of multiple resins in a given process, as opposed to the assessment of protein loading conditions in combination with other factors. A modification to the batch chromatography paradigm is described here where experimental planning, programming, and a staggered loading approach increase the multivariate space that can be explored with a liquid handling system. The iterative batch chromatography (IBC) approach is described, which treats every well in a 96-well plate as an individual experiment, wherein protein loading conditions can be varied alongside other factors such as wash and elution buffer conditions. As all of these factors are explored in the same experiment, the interactions between them are characterized and the number of follow-up confirmatory experiments is reduced. This in turn improves statistical power and throughput. Two examples of the IBC method are shown and the impact of the load conditions are assessed in combination with the other factors explored. PMID:25914370

  2. Reducing variance in batch partitioning measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Mariner, Paul E.

    2010-08-11

    The partitioning experiment is commonly performed with little or no attention to reducing measurement variance. Batch test procedures such as those used to measure K{sub d} values (e.g., ASTM D 4646 and EPA402 -R-99-004A) do not explain how to evaluate measurement uncertainty nor how to minimize measurement variance. In fact, ASTM D 4646 prescribes a sorbent:water ratio that prevents variance minimization. Consequently, the variance of a set of partitioning measurements can be extreme and even absurd. Such data sets, which are commonplace, hamper probabilistic modeling efforts. An error-savvy design requires adjustment of the solution:sorbent ratio so that approximately half of the sorbate partitions to the sorbent. Results of Monte Carlo simulations indicate that this simple step can markedly improve the precision and statistical characterization of partitioning uncertainty.

  3. Acoustic microstreaming applied to batch micromixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manasseh, Richard; Petkovic-Duran, Karolina; Tho, Paul; Zhu, Yonggang; Ooi, Andrew

    2006-01-01

    Experiments are presented in which acoustic microstreaming is investigated and applied to a batch micromixing case appropriate to a point-of-care pathology screening test. The flows presented can be created without complex engineering of contacts or surfaces in the microdevice, which could thus be made disposable. Fundamental flow patterns are measured with a micro-Particle-Image Velocimetry (micro-PIV) system, enabling a quantification of the fluiddynamical processes causing the flows. The design of micromixers based on this principle requires a quantification of the mixing. A simple technique based on digital image processing is presented that enables an assessment of the improvement in mixing due to acoustic microstreaming. The digital image processing technique developed was shown to be non-intrusive, convenient and able to generate useful quantitative data. Preliminary indications are that microstreaming can at least halve the time required to mix quantities of liquid typical of a point-of-care test, and significantly greater improvements seem feasible.

  4. Determination of Unknown Concentrations of Sodium Acetate Using the Method of Standard Addition and Proton NMR: An Experiment for the Undergraduate Analytical Chemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rajabzadeh, Massy

    2012-01-01

    In this experiment, students learn how to find the unknown concentration of sodium acetate using both the graphical treatment of standard addition and the standard addition equation. In the graphical treatment of standard addition, the peak area of the methyl peak in each of the sodium acetate standard solutions is found by integration using…

  5. Simultaneous removal of nanosilver and fullerene in sequencing batch reactors for biological wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yu; Wang, Yifei; Hristovski, Kiril; Westerhoff, Paul

    2015-04-01

    Increasing use of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) inevitably leads to their potential release to the sewer system. The co-removal of nano fullerenes (nC60) and nanosilver as well as their impact on COD removal were studied in biological sequencing batch reactors (SBR) for a year. When dosing nC60 at 0.07-2mgL(-1), the SBR removed greater than 95% of nC60 except for short-term interruptions occurred (i.e., dysfunction of bioreactor by nanosilver addition) when nC60 and nanosilver were dosed simultaneously. During repeated 30-d periods of adding both 2 mg L(-1) nC60 and 2 mg L(-1) nanosilver, short-term interruption of SBRs for 4d was observed and accompanied by (1) reduced total suspended solids in the reactor, (2) poor COD removal rate as low as 22%, and (3) decreased nC60 removal to 0%. After the short-term interruption, COD removal gradually returned to normal within one solids retention time. Except for during these "short-term interruptions", the silver removal rate was above 90%. A series of bottle-point batch experiments was conducted to determine the distribution coefficients of nC60 between liquid and biomass phases. A linear distribution model on nC60 combined with a mass balance equation simulated well its removal rate at a range of 0.07-0.76 mg L(-1) in SBRs. This paper illustrates the effect of "pulse" inputs (i.e., addition for a short period of time) of ENMs into biological reactors, demonstrates long-term capability of SBRs to remove ENMs and COD, and provides an example to predict the removal of ENMs in SBRs upon batch experiments. PMID:25532763

  6. Plutonium immobilization feed batching system concept report

    SciTech Connect

    Erickson, S.

    2000-07-19

    The Plutonium Immobilization Facility will encapsulate plutonium in ceramic pucks and seal the pucks inside welded cans. Remote equipment will place these cans in magazines and the magazines in a Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) canister. The DWPF will fill the canister with high level waste glass for permanent storage. Feed batching is one of the first process steps involved with first stage plutonium immobilization. It will blend plutonium oxide powder before it is combined with other materials to make pucks. This report discusses the Plutonium Immobilization feed batching process preliminary concept, batch splitting concepts, and includes a process block diagram, concept descriptions, a preliminary equipment list, and feed batching development areas.

  7. Inhibition of Sulfide Mineral Oxidation by Surface Coating Agents: Batch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, J.; Ji, M. K.; Yun, H. S.; Park, Y. T.; Gee, E. D.; Lee, W. R.; Jeon, B.-H.

    2012-04-01

    Mining activities and mineral industries have impacted on rapid oxidation of sulfide minerals such as pyrite (FeS2) which leads to Acid Mine Drainage (AMD) formation. Some of the abandoned mines discharge polluted water without proper environmental remediation treatments, largely because of financial constraints in treating AMD. Magnitude of the problem is considerable, especially in countries with a long history of mining. As metal sulfides become oxidized during mining activities, the aqueous environment becomes acid and rich in many metals, including iron, lead, mercury, arsenic and many others. The toxic heavy metals are responsible for the environmental deterioration of stream, groundwater and soils. Several strategies to remediate AMD contaminated sites have been proposed. Among the source inhibition and prevention technologies, microencapsulation (coating) has been considered as a promising technology. The encapsulation is based on inhibition of O2 diffusion by surface coating agent and is expected to control the oxidation of pyrite for a long time. Potential of several surface coating agents for preventing oxidation of metal sulfide minerals from both Young-Dong coal mine and Il-Gwang gold mine were examined by conducting batch experiments and field tests. Powdered pyrite as a standard sulfide mineral and rock samples from two mine outcrops were mixed with six coating agents (KH2PO4, MgO and KMnO4 as chemical agents, and apatite, cement and manganite as mineral agents) and incubated with oxidizing agents (H2O2 or NaClO). Batch experiments with Young-Dong coal mine samples showed least SO42- production in presence of KMnO4 (16% sulfate production compared to no surface coating agents) or cement (4%) within 8 days. In the case of Il-Gwang mine samples, least SO42- production was observed in presence of KH2PO4 (8%) or cement (2%) within 8 days. Field-scale pilot tests at Il-Gwang site also showed that addition of KH2PO4 decreased sulfate production from 200 to

  8. CALIBRATION OF SUBSURFACE BATCH AND REACTIVE-TRANSPORT MODELS INVOLVING COMPLEX BIOGEOCHEMICAL PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this study, the calibration of subsurface batch and reactive-transport models involving complex biogeochemical processes was systematically evaluated. Two hypothetical nitrate biodegradation scenarios were developed and simulated in numerical experiments to evaluate the perfor...

  9. Method and apparatus for melting glass batch

    DOEpatents

    Fassbender, Alexander G.; Walkup, Paul C.; Mudge, Lyle K.

    1988-01-01

    A glass melting system involving preheating, precalcining, and prefluxing of batch materials prior to injection into a glass furnace. The precursors are heated by convection rather than by radiation in present furnaces. Upon injection into the furnace, batch materials are intimately coated with molten flux so as to undergo or at least begin the process of dissolution reaction prior to entering the melt pool.

  10. Computer Batch Files Shorten Many Complicated Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deppa, Joan

    1987-01-01

    Defines "batch files," claiming that they can shorten many complicated computer procedures. Describes how batch file was created using the computer program "PC-Write" to streamline the process of creating a work disk and increase students' computer literacy. Lists and discusses each element in the file. Provides references for more information.…

  11. Modeling of 2-chloronaphthalene interaction with high carbon iron filings (HCIF) in semi-batch and continuous systems.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Alok; Bose, Purnendu

    2014-09-01

    Unrusted high carbon iron filings (HCIF) were contacted sequentially with successive aliquots of aqueous 2-chloronaphthalene (2-CN), i.e., in semi-batch mode, both in well-mixed and poorly-mixed conditions. Aqueous concentration of 2-CN and the dehalogenation by-product naphthalene (N) were monitored at the beginning and end of each 2-CN addition cycle. Experimental data was modeled using the 2-CN dehalogenation and adsorption/desorption rate constants determined from batch experiments involving 2-CN and a similar HCIF sample. Model predictions for the semi-batch experiments matched quite well with the experimental data in both well-mixed and poorly-mixed cases. Further, it was experimentally demonstrated that adsorption and hence accumulation of N on HCIF surface did not substantially hinder either 2-CN adsorption or dehalogenation under the conditions examined in this study. Continuous transport of water containing 0.5 μmol L(-1) 2-CN through a 1.0-m thick unrusted HCIF layer was simulated at superficial velocities of 0.01 and 0.10 m h(-1). Both simulations indicated nearly complete removal of 2-CN in the HCIF layer. This study suggests that HCIF can be used as a potential reactive material in permeable reactive barriers (PRBs) for in situ remediation of groundwater contaminated with 2-CN. PMID:24764006

  12. Plant uptake and downward migration of 85Sr and 137Cs after their deposition on to flooded rice fields: lysimeter experiments with and without the addition of KCl and lime.

    PubMed

    Choi, Y H; Lim, K M; Choi, H J; Choi, G S; Lee, H S; Lee, C W

    2005-01-01

    In order to study the plant uptake and downward migration of radiostrontium and radiocesium deposited on to a flooded rice field, 85Sr and 137Cs were applied to the standing water over an acidic sandy soil in planted lysimeters. The plant uptake was quantified with the areal transfer factor (TFa, m2 kg(-1)-dry plant). Following the spiking 14 days after transplanting, the TFa values for the hulled seeds were 3.9 x 10(-4) for 85Sr and 1.4 x 10(-4) for 137Cs, whereas those for the straws were 1.3 x 10(-2) and 3.2 x 10(-4), respectively. The 137Cs TFa from the spiking at the anthesis/milky-ripe stage was several times higher than that from the earlier spiking, whereas the difference was much less in the 85Sr TFa. Such an increase in the 137Cs TFa was attributed mainly to an enhanced plant-base uptake. The addition of KCl and lime after the spiking significantly reduced the TFa values of both radionuclides. The reducing effect was greater for the later spiking. An appreciable fraction of the applied activity leached out of the lysimeter for 85Sr, whereas a negligible fraction leached for 137Cs. The leaching was remarkably increased by the KCl and lime addition for both. A conspicuous localization of 137Cs with respect to the soil surface was observed. In a batch experiment, the 137Cs concentration in the standing water decreased more rapidly than that of 85Sr, both of which were fitted to the power functions of the elapsed time. To add KCl and lime slowed such decreases to lessen the distribution coefficients (Kd) of both 85Sr and 137Cs. PMID:15465178

  13. 27 CFR 19.748 - Dump/batch records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dump/batch records. 19.748.../batch records. (a) Format of dump/batch records. Proprietor's dump/batch records shall contain, as... ingredients used; (10) Formula number; (11) Quantity of ingredients used in the batch that have...

  14. Rifamycins Production by Amycolatopsis mediterranei in Batch and Repeated Batch Cultures Using Immobilized Cells in Alginate and Modified Alginate Beads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Enshasy, Hesham A.; Beshay, Usama I.; El-Diwany, Ahmed I.; Omar, Hoda M.; El-Kholy, Abdel Ghany E.; El-Najar, Rabab

    The production of rifamycins B and SV by Amycolatopsis mediterranei using immobilization technique was investigated. Alginate beads proved to be an alternative method for the production of rifamycin antibiotic as it has many advantage over using free cells such as it enables the operation at higher dilution rates without the danger of wash out, ease of handling and facilitates recycling or reverse of using microorganism. Different hardening agents were used to improve the stability of the beads and decrease cells escapement. Gum Arabic and gellan gum were used and the rate of rifamycin production increased by using gellan gum as hardening agent compared to pure alginate beads. The rifamycins B and SV increased from 685 to 810 and from 547.5 to 702 mg L-1, respectively by using gellan-gum modified beads compared to the non-treated beads. In repeated batch production, the beads were stable and no breaking of the gel beads was observed throughout the experiment time. The total amount of rifamycin B and SV during the five repeated batches (each of 144 h) reached 3360 and 2309 mg L-1, respectively. On reducing the batch time to only 72 h, the antibiotic production was not influenced and the total concentration of rifamycins B and SV for five batches was 3785 and 2393 mg L-1, respectively.

  15. Arsenic sorption onto titanium dioxide, granular ferric hydroxide and activated alumina: batch and dynamic studies.

    PubMed

    Lescano, Maia R; Passalía, Claudio; Zalazar, Cristina S; Brandi, Rodolfo J

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate and compare the efficiencies of three different adsorbents for arsenic (As) removal from water: titanium dioxide (TiO2), granular ferric hydroxide (GFH) and activated alumina (AA). Equilibrium experiments for dissolved arsenite and arsenate were carried out through batch tests. Freundlich and Langmuir isotherm models were adopted and their parameters were estimated by non-linear regressions. In addition, dynamic experiments were performed in mini fixed bed columns and breakthrough curves were obtained for each combination of sorbate/adsorbent. Experimental results obtained by column assays were compared with predictions of well-known breakthrough models (Bohart-Adams and Clark). Results indicate that As(V) is more easily adsorbed than As(III) for AA and GFH, while TiO2 has a similar behavior for both species. The titanium-based material is the most efficient adsorbent to carry out the process, followed by the GFH. PMID:25723069

  16. Conversion of batch to molten glass, II: Dissolution of quartz particles

    SciTech Connect

    Hrma, Pavel R.; Marcial, Jose; Swearingen, Kevin J.; Henager, Samuel H.; Schweiger, Michael J.; Tegrotenhuis, Nathan E.

    2011-01-28

    Quartz dissolution during the batch-to-glass conversion influences the melt viscosity and ultimately the temperature at which the glass forms. Batches to make a high-alumina borosilicate glass (formulated for the vitrification of nuclear waste) were heated as 5°C min-1 and quenched from the temperatures of 400-1200°C at 100°C intervals. As a silica source, the batches contained quartz with particles ranging from 5 to 195 µm. The content of unreacted quartz in the samples was determined with x-ray diffraction. Most of fine quartz has dissolved during the early batch reactions (at temperatures <800°C), whereas coarser quartz dissolved mostly in a continuous glass phase via diffusion. The mass-transfer coefficients were assessed from the data as functions of the initial particle sizes and the temperature. A series of batch was also tested that contained nitrated components and additions of sucrose known to accelerate melting. While sucrose addition had no discernible impact on quartz dissolution, nitrate batches melted somewhat more slowly than batches containing carbonates and hydroxides in addition to nitrates.

  17. Batch Production of Micron-scale Backlighter Targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arthur, G.

    2016-04-01

    The fabrication of micron-scale backlighter targets is described. Traditionally laser targets have been fabricated using conventional machining or coarse etching processes and have been produced in quantities of 10s to low 100s. The processes described herein allow batch production with numbers in the 1000s. In addition, the Micro-Electro-Mechanical System (MEMS) fabrication techniques used allow much finer tolerances and more accurate placement of the various components relative to each other.

  18. Fed-batch cultivation of Cellulomonas on sugarcane bagasse pith

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez, H.; Enriquez, A.

    1985-02-01

    A high biomass concentration (19.9 g/L) was obtained with the fed-batch cultivation of Cellulomonas on pretreated sugarcane bagasse pith. Similar results in biomass concentration, yield, and substrate consumption were obtained with the discontinuous feed of bagasse as with discontinuous feed supplemented with a partial continuous addition of salts. Two or more growth phases were detected, probably caused by the differential utilization of bagasse components. An acceptably low content of bagasse components remained in the biomass after separation.

  19. Remediation of lead-contaminated soil with EDTA: Batch and column studies

    SciTech Connect

    Heil, D.M.; Samani, Z.; Hanson, A.T.; Hu, S.; Rudd, B.

    1996-12-31

    Chelate extraction using ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and other chelates has been demonstrated to be an effective method of removal of Pb from many contaminated soils. However, column leaching of Pb from alkaline soils with EDTA has been problematic due to extremely low soil permeability. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of the addition of KOH and Ca(Cl){sub 2} to K{sub 2}H{sub 2}-EDTA extraction solution on Pb removal and hydraulic conductivity. A Pb-contaminated soil was sampled from an abandoned lead-acid battery recycling facility. Both batch shaker extractions and column leaching experiments were completed using five different EDTA extract solutions. Addition of Ca(Cl){sub 2} only to K{sub 2}H{sub 2}-EDTA did not change the amount of Pb removed by batch extraction, and Pb solubility was only slightly decreased by the addition of both Ca(Cl){sub 2} and KOH. Lead solubility was observed to decrease as pH was increased by the addition of KOH. The amount of time required to leach 6.0 l of extraction solution through the soil columns varied from 2 to 33 days. The addition of Ca(Cl){sub 2} and/or KOH resulted in increased soil hydraulic conductivity. However, Pb removal was diminished with the addition of Ca(Cl){sub 2} and KOH because of decreased Pb solubility and also a shorter residence time of the extract solution in the column. The hydraulic conductivity was related to residual calcium carbonate content, suggesting that dissolution of CaCO{sub 3} and subsequent production of CO{sub 2} gas in soil pores was partially responsible for the observed reductions in soil permeability.

  20. Batch gravitational sedimentation of slurries.

    PubMed

    Chu, C P; Ju, S P; Lee, D J; Mohanty, K K

    2002-01-01

    We investigated the batch settling behavior of the kaolin slurry and the UK ball clay slurry at various initial solids fractions (phi(0)s) using a computerized axial tomography scanner (CATSCAN). The spatio-temporal evolutions of solids fractions in the consolidating sediments were continuously monitored. Since the interface between the sediment and the supernatant of the investigated slurries was blurred, an averaging procedure was employed to estimate their null-stress solids fractions (phi(g)s). Besides the rather slow settling for the high-phi(0) slurries, the basic settling characteristics resemble each other regardless of whether phi(0)>phi(g) or vice versa. The above-mentioned experimental data reveal that the investigated slurries are neither purely elastic nor purely plastic in rheological behavior. On contrary to most model works a blurred supernatant-sediment interface makes difficulty in the gel point determination. During initial settling the high-phi(0) slurries clearly exhibit a finite yield stress to resist deformation. That is, the slurries are plastic fluids. However, the network structure in the slurries deteriorates gradually in the subsequent settling stage while the final, equilibrated sediment reveals a continuous distribution in solids fraction. Restated, the final sediment possesses as a purely elastic characteristic. The model parameters of theory by Buscall and White were regressed by the dynamic consolidating sediment data, while those by Tiller and Leu were obtained using the final equilibrated sediment data. Calculations from both models reveal that ball clay slurry is more compressible than is the kaolin slurry. The high-phi(S0) slurry would yield the less compressible sediment. PMID:16290348

  1. Batch Proving and Proof Scripting in PVS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Munoz, Cesar A.

    2007-01-01

    The batch execution modes of PVS are powerful, but highly technical, features of the system that are mostly accessible to expert users. This paper presents a PVS tool, called ProofLite, that extends the theorem prover interface with a batch proving utility and a proof scripting notation. ProofLite enables a semi-literate proving style where specification and proof scripts reside in the same file. The goal of ProofLite is to provide batch proving and proof scripting capabilities to regular, non-expert, users of PVS.

  2. Establishing column batch repeatability according to Quality by Design (QbD) principles using modeling software.

    PubMed

    Rácz, Norbert; Kormány, Róbert; Fekete, Jenő; Molnár, Imre

    2015-04-10

    Column technology needs further improvement even today. To get information of batch-to-batch repeatability, intelligent modeling software was applied. Twelve columns from the same production process, but from different batches were compared in this work. In this paper, the retention parameters of these columns with real life sample solutes were studied. The following parameters were selected for measurements: gradient time, temperature and pH. Based on calculated results, batch-to-batch repeatability of BEH columns was evaluated. Two parallel measurements on two columns from the same batch were performed to obtain information about the quality of packing. Calculating the average of individual working points at the highest critical resolution (R(s,crit)) it was found that the robustness, calculated with a newly released robustness module, had a success rate >98% among the predicted 3(6) = 729 experiments for all 12 columns. With the help of retention modeling all substances could be separated independently from the batch and/or packing, using the same conditions, having high robustness of the experiments. PMID:25703234

  3. Laboratory batch experiments and geochemical modelling of water-rock-supercritical CO2 reactions in Southern San Joaquin Valley, California oil field sediments: Implications for future carbon capture and sequestration projects.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mickler, P. J.; Rivas, C.; Freeman, S.; Tan, T. W.; Baron, D.; Horton, R. A.

    2015-12-01

    Storage of CO2 as supercritical liquid in oil reservoirs has been proposed for enhanced oil recovery and a way to lower atmospheric CO2 levels. The fate of CO2 after injection requires an understanding of mineral dissolution/precipitation reactions occurring between the formation minerals and the existing formation brines at formation temperatures and pressures in the presence of supercritical CO2. In this study, core samples from three potential storage formations, the Vedder Fm. (Rio Bravo oil field), Stevens Fm. (Elk Hills oil field) and Temblor Fm. (McKittrick oil field) were reacted with a synthetic brine and CO2(sc) at reservoir temperature (110°C) and pressure (245-250 bar). A combination of petrographic, SEM-EDS and XRD analyses, brine chemistry, and PHREEQ-C modelling were used to identify geochemical reactions altering aquifer mineralogy. XRD and petrographic analyses identified potentially reactive minerals including calcite and dolomite (~2%), pyrite (~1%), and feldspars (~25-60%). Despite the low abundance, calcite dissolution and pyrite oxidation were dominant geochemical reactions. Feldspar weathering produced release rates ~1-2 orders of magnitude slower than calcite dissolution. Calcite dissolution increased the aqueous concentrations of Ca, HCO3, Mg, Mn and Sr. Silicate weathering increased the aqueous concentrations of Si and K. Plagioclase weathering likely increased aqueous Ca concentrations. Pyrite oxidation, despite attempts to remove O2 from the experiment, increased the aqueous concentration of Fe and SO4. SEM-EDS analysis of post-reaction samples identified mixed-layered illite-smectites associated with feldspar grains suggesting clay mineral precipitation in addition to calcite, pyrite and feldspar dissolution. The Vedder Fm. sample underwent complete disaggregation during the reaction due to cement dissolution. This may adversely affect Vedder Formation CCS projects by impacting injection well integrity.

  4. Influence of semi-batch operation on the precipitation of natrojarosite particles from sulfate solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandré, Anne-Laure; Gaunand, Alain

    2012-03-01

    The precipitation of natrojarosite from iron sodium sulfate solutions has been investigated at temperatures close to the atmospheric boiling point, in batch and semi-batch conditions. Semi-batch conditions make it possible to maintain a weaker iron concentration in the stirred reactor, leading to lower supersaturations, closer to those in continuous and possibly seeded MSMPRs or tanks—in series units. In these reactors, primary and secondary nucleations are few, allowing the growth of pure mono-crystalline particles of controlled size and size dispersion. Both modi operandi lead to agglomerates made of crystals of cubic habit. The surface of cauliflower-like particles from the batch modus operandi displays overlaying crystals, of size between 100 and 400 nm. The particles from the semi-batch mode, with moderate iron addition, are rougher and show bigger intergrown constitutive crystals of size up to a few microns, which denotes lesser secondary nucleation and more growth. A model is developed to characterize iron(III) and sulfate speciation with non-ideal behavior in the mother solution. It is used to compare the variations of supersaturation in the reactor between the batch and the semi-batch conditions. During the first 500 min, the supersaturation resulting from a moderate addition of iron is 10,000-10 times lower than during batch kinetics, which agrees with the reduction of secondary nucleation suggested by scanning electron micrographs. The semi-batch technique, which can be combined with the addition of support particles, is worth further work, aiming to reduce secondary nucleation and to determine the crystallite growth rate expression of natrojarosite as a function of supersaturation, using the model of solution developed in this work.

  5. An explanation for differences in the process of colloid adsorption in batch and column studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Treumann, Svantje; Torkzaban, Saeed; Bradford, Scott A.; Visalakshan, Rahul M.; Page, Declan

    2014-08-01

    It is essential to understand the mechanisms that control virus and bacteria removal in the subsurface environment to assess the risk of groundwater contamination with fecal microorganisms. This study was conducted to explicitly provide a critical and systematic comparison between batch and column experiments. The aim was to investigate the underlying factors causing the commonly observed discrepancies in colloid adsorption process in column and batch systems. We examined the colloid adsorption behavior of four different sizes of carboxylate-modified latex (CML) microspheres, as surrogates for viruses and bacteria, on quartz sand in batch and column experiments over a wide range of solution ionic strengths (IS). Our results show that adsorption of colloids in batch systems should be considered as an irreversible attachment because the attachment/detachment model was found to be inadequate in describing the batch results. An irreversible attachment-blocking model was found to accurately describe the results of both batch and column experiments. The rate of attachment was found to depend highly on colloid size, solution IS and the fraction of the sand surface area favorable for attachment (Sf). The rate of attachment and Sf values were different in batch and column experiments due to differences in the hydrodynamic of the system, and the role of surface roughness and pore structure on colloid attachment. Results from column and batch experiments were generally not comparable, especially for larger colloids (≥ 0.5 μm). Predictions based on classical DLVO theory were found to inadequately describe interaction energies between colloids and sand surfaces.

  6. Reflections on Doctoral Supervision: Drawing from the Experiences of Students with Additional Learning Needs in Two Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Bethan

    2015-01-01

    Supervision is an essential part of doctoral study, consisting of relationship and process aspects, underpinned by a range of values. To date there has been limited research specifically about disabled doctoral students' experiences of supervision. This paper draws on qualitative, narrative interviews about doctoral supervision with disabled…

  7. Examining the Influence of Additional Field-Based Experiences on Pre-Service Teachers and Their Perceived Ability to Teach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Sarah K.

    2012-01-01

    In an attempt to analyse more closely the training experiences of pre-service teachers, the author conducted an exploratory quasi-experimental study at a university located in the Rocky Mountain region of the USA. All students who were enrolled in the same reading methods course (but enrolled in different sections) were invited to participate in…

  8. Biodenitrification in Sequencing Batch Reactors. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Silverstein, J.

    1996-01-23

    One plan for stabilization of the Solar Pond waters and sludges at Rocky Flats Plant (RFP), is evaporation and cement solidification of the salts to stabilize heavy metals and radionuclides for land disposal as low-level mixed waste. It has been reported that nitrate (NO{sub 3}{sub {minus}}) salts may interfere with cement stabilization of heavy metals and radionuclides. Therefore, biological nitrate removal (denitrification) may be an important pretreatment for the Solar Pond wastewaters at RFP, improving the stability of the cement final waste form, reducing the requirement for cement (or pozzolan) additives and reducing the volume of cemented low-level mixed waste requiring ultimate disposal. A laboratory investigation of the performance of the Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR) activated sludge process developed for nitrate removal from a synthetic brine typical of the high-nitrate and high-salinity wastewaters in the Solar Ponds at Rocky Flats Plant was carried out at the Environmental Engineering labs at the University of Colorado, Boulder, between May 1, 1994 and October 1, 1995.

  9. Ion-exchange reactions on clay minerals coupled with advection/dispersion processes. Application to Na+/Ca2+ exchange on vermiculite: Reactive-transport modeling, batch and stirred flow-through reactor experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tertre, E.; Hubert, F.; Bruzac, S.; Pacreau, M.; Ferrage, E.; Prêt, D.

    2013-07-01

    The present study aims at testing the validity of using an Na+/Ca2+ ion-exchange model, derived from batch data to interpret experimental Ca2+-for-Na+ exchange breakthrough curves obtained on vermiculite (a common swelling clay mineral in surface environments). The ion-exchange model was constructed considering the multi-site nature of the vermiculite surface as well as the exchange of all aqueous species (Mg2+ derived from the dissolution of the solid and H+). The proposed ion-exchange model was then coupled with a transport model, and the predicted breakthrough curves were compared with the experimental ones obtained using a well stirred flow-through reactor. For a given solute residence time in the reactor (typically 50 min), our thermodynamic model based on instantaneous equilibrium was found to accurately reproduce several of the experimental breakthrough curves, depending on the Na+ and Ca2+ concentrations of the influents pumped through the reactor. However the model failed to reproduce experimental breakthrough curves obtained at high flow rates and low chemical gradient between the exchanger phase and the solution. An alternative model based on a hybrid equilibrium/kinetic approach was thus used and allowed predicting experimental data. Based on these results, we show that a simple parameter can be used to differentiate between thermodynamic and kinetic control of the exchange reaction with water flow. The results of this study are relevant for natural systems where two aquatic environments having contrasted chemistries interact. Indeed, the question regarding the attainment of a full equilibrium in such a system during the contact time of the aqueous phase with the particle/colloid remains most often open. In this context, we show that when a river (a flow of fresh water) encounters marine colloids, a systematic full equilibrium can be assumed (i.e., the absence of kinetic effects) when the residence time of the solute in 1 m3 of the system is ⩾6200 h.

  10. Algal Feedback and Removal Efficiency in a Sequencing Batch Reactor Algae Process (SBAR) to Treat the Antibiotic Cefradine

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jianqiu; Zheng, Fengzhu; Guo, Ruixin

    2015-01-01

    Many previous studies focused on the removal capability for contaminants when the algae grown in an unexposed, unpolluted environment and ignored whether the feedback of algae to the toxic stress influenced the removal capability in a subsequent treatment batch. The present research investigated and compared algal feedback and removal efficiency in a sequencing batch reactor algae process (SBAR) to remove cefradine. Three varied pollution load conditions (10, 30 and 60 mg/L) were considered. Compared with the algal characteristics in the first treatment batch at 10 and 30 mg/L, higher algal growth inhibition rates were observed in the second treatment batch (11.23% to 20.81%). In contrast, algae produced more photosynthetic pigments in response to cefradine in the second treatment batch. A better removal efficiency (76.02%) was obtained during 96 h when the alga treated the antibiotic at 60 mg/L in the first treatment batch and at 30 mg/L in the second treatment batch. Additionally, the removal rate per unit algal density was also improved when the alga treated the antibiotic at 30 or 60 mg/L in the first treatment batch, respectively and at 30 mg/L in the second treatment batch. Our result indicated that the green algae were also able to adapt to varied pollution loads in different treatment batches. PMID:26177093

  11. Algal Feedback and Removal Efficiency in a Sequencing Batch Reactor Algae Process (SBAR) to Treat the Antibiotic Cefradine.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jianqiu; Zheng, Fengzhu; Guo, Ruixin

    2015-01-01

    Many previous studies focused on the removal capability for contaminants when the algae grown in an unexposed, unpolluted environment and ignored whether the feedback of algae to the toxic stress influenced the removal capability in a subsequent treatment batch. The present research investigated and compared algal feedback and removal efficiency in a sequencing batch reactor algae process (SBAR) to remove cefradine. Three varied pollution load conditions (10, 30 and 60 mg/L) were considered. Compared with the algal characteristics in the first treatment batch at 10 and 30 mg/L, higher algal growth inhibition rates were observed in the second treatment batch (11.23% to 20.81%). In contrast, algae produced more photosynthetic pigments in response to cefradine in the second treatment batch. A better removal efficiency (76.02%) was obtained during 96 h when the alga treated the antibiotic at 60 mg/L in the first treatment batch and at 30 mg/L in the second treatment batch. Additionally, the removal rate per unit algal density was also improved when the alga treated the antibiotic at 30 or 60 mg/L in the first treatment batch, respectively and at 30 mg/L in the second treatment batch. Our result indicated that the green algae were also able to adapt to varied pollution loads in different treatment batches. PMID:26177093

  12. Minimizing makespan on parallel machines with batch arrivals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Tsui-Ping; Liao, Ching-Jong; Lin, Chien-Hung

    2012-04-01

    Most studies in the scheduling literature assume that jobs arrive at time zero, while some studies assume that jobs arrive individually at non-zero times. However, both assumptions may not be valid in practice because jobs usually arrive in batches. In this article, a scheduling model for an identical parallel machine problem with batch arrivals is formulated. Because of the NP-hardness of the problem, a heuristic based on a simplified version of lexicographical search is proposed. To verify the heuristic, two lower bounding schemes are developed, where one lower bound is tight, and the list scheduling heuristic is compared. Extensive computational experiments demonstrate that the proposed heuristic is quite efficient in obtaining near optimal solution with an average error of less than 1.58%. The percentage improvement (from the lower bound) of the heuristic solution on the solution by the list scheduling is as large as 31.68.

  13. Effects of biochar addition on greenhouse gas emissions and microbial responses in a short-term laboratory experiment.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Gayoung; Kang, Hojeong

    2012-01-01

    Biochar application to soil has drawn much attention as a strategy to sequester atmospheric carbon in soil ecosystems. The applicability of this strategy as a climate change mitigation option is limited by our understanding of the mechanisms responsible for the observed changes in greenhouse gas emissions from soils, microbial responses, and soil fertility changes. We conducted an 8-wk laboratory incubation using soils from PASTURE (silt loam) and RICE PADDY (silt loam) sites with and without two types of biochar (biochar from swine manure [CHAR-M] and from barley stover [CHAR-B]). Responses to addition of the different biochars varied with the soil source. Addition of CHAR-B did not change CO and CH evolution from the PASTURE or the RICE PADDY soils, but there was a decrease in NO emissions from the PASTURE soil. The effects of CHAR-M addition on greenhouse gas emissions were different for the soils. The most substantial change was an increase in NO emissions from the RICE PADDY soil. This result was attributed to a combination of abundant denitrifiers in this soil and increased net nitrogen mineralization. Soil phosphatase and N-acetylglucosaminidase activity in the CHAR-B-treated soils was enhanced compared with the controls for both soils. Fungal biomass was higher in the CHAR-B-treated RICE PADDY soil. From our results, we suggest CHAR-B to be an appropriate amendment for the PASTURE and RICE PADDY soils because it provides increased nitrogen availability and microbial activity with no net increase in greenhouse gas emissions. Application of CHAR-M to RICE PADDY soils could result in excess nitrogen availability, which may increase NO emissions and possible NO leaching problems. Thus, this study confirms that the ability of environmentally sound biochar additions to sequester carbon in soils depends on the characteristics of the receiving soil as well as the nature of the biochar. PMID:22751062

  14. Batch vs continuous-feeding operational mode for the removal of pesticides from agricultural run-off by microalgae systems: A laboratory scale study.

    PubMed

    Matamoros, Víctor; Rodríguez, Yolanda

    2016-05-15

    Microalgae-based water treatment technologies have been used in recent years to treat different water effluents, but their effectiveness for removing pesticides from agricultural run-off has not yet been addressed. This paper assesses the effect of microalgae in pesticide removal, as well as the influence of different operation strategies (continuous vs batch feeding). The following pesticides were studied: mecoprop, atrazine, simazine, diazinone, alachlor, chlorfenvinphos, lindane, malathion, pentachlorobenzene, chlorpyrifos, endosulfan and clofibric acid (tracer). 2L batch reactors and 5L continuous reactors were spiked to 10 μg L(-1) of each pesticide. Additionally, three different hydraulic retention times (HRTs) were assessed (2, 4 and 8 days) in the continuous feeding reactors. The batch-feeding experiments demonstrated that the presence of microalgae increased the efficiency of lindane, alachlor and chlorpyrifos by 50%. The continuous feeding reactors had higher removal efficiencies than the batch reactors for pentachlorobenzene, chlorpyrifos and lindane. Whilst longer HRTs increased the technology's effectiveness, a low HRT of 2 days was capable of removing malathion, pentachlorobenzene, chlorpyrifos, and endosulfan by up to 70%. This study suggests that microalgae-based treatment technologies can be an effective alternative for removing pesticides from agricultural run-off. PMID:26882523

  15. A Comparison of Pupil Achievement and Pupil Attitudes with and without the Assistance of Batch Computer-Supported Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akkerhuis, Gerard

    The purpose of this study was to test the effect of Batch Computer-Supported Instruction (Batch CSI), an inexpensive method of involving ordinary classroom groups with the computer, on students' cognitive skills in mathematical computation and comprehension and on affective attitudes toward mathematics and the computer. Additionally, a…

  16. Modeling uranium transport in acidic contaminated groundwater with base addition

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Fan; Luo, Wensui; Parker, Jack C.; Brooks, Scott C; Watson, David B; Jardine, Philip; Gu, Baohua

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates reactive transport modeling in a column of uranium(VI)-contaminated sediments with base additions in the circulating influent. The groundwater and sediment exhibit oxic conditions with low pH, high concentrations of NO{sub 3}{sup -}, SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}, U and various metal cations. Preliminary batch experiments indicate that additions of strong base induce rapid immobilization of U for this material. In the column experiment that is the focus of the present study, effluent groundwater was titrated with NaOH solution in an inflow reservoir before reinjection to gradually increase the solution pH in the column. An equilibrium hydrolysis, precipitation and ion exchange reaction model developed through simulation of the preliminary batch titration experiments predicted faster reduction of aqueous Al than observed in the column experiment. The model was therefore modified to consider reaction kinetics for the precipitation and dissolution processes which are the major mechanism for Al immobilization. The combined kinetic and equilibrium reaction model adequately described variations in pH, aqueous concentrations of metal cations (Al, Ca, Mg, Sr, Mn, Ni, Co), sulfate and U(VI). The experimental and modeling results indicate that U(VI) can be effectively sequestered with controlled base addition due to sorption by slowly precipitated Al with pH-dependent surface charge. The model may prove useful to predict field-scale U(VI) sequestration and remediation effectiveness.

  17. MELT RATE FURNACE TESTING FOR SLUDGE BATCH 5 FRIT OPTIMIZATION

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, D; Fox, K; Pickenheim, B; Stone, M

    2008-10-03

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested to provide the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) with a frit composition for Sludge Batch 5 (SB5) to optimize processing. A series of experiments were designed for testing in the Melt Rate Furnace (MRF). This dry fed tool can be used to quickly determine relative melt rates for a large number of candidate frit compositions and lead to a selection for further testing. Simulated Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) product was made according to the most recent SB5 sludge projections and a series of tests were conducted with frits that covered a range of boron and alkali ratios. Several frits with relatively large projected operating windows indicated melt rates that would not severely impact production. As seen with previous MRF testing, increasing the boron concentration had positive impacts on melt rate on the SB5 system. However, there appears to be maximum values for both boron and sodium above which the there is a negative effect on melt rate. Based on these data and compositional trends, Frit 418 and a specially designed frit (Frit 550) have been selected for additional melt rate testing. Frit 418 and Frit 550 will be run in the Slurry Fed Melt Rate Furnace (SMRF), which is capable of distinguishing rheological properties not detected by the MRF. Frit 418 will be used initially for SB5 processing in DWPF (given its robustness to compositional uncertainty). The Frit 418-SB5 system will provide a baseline from which potential melt rate advantages of Frit 550 can be gauged. The data from SMRF testing will be used to determine whether Frit 550 should be recommended for implementation in DWPF.

  18. 40 CFR 63.1408 - Aggregate batch vent stream provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... from all aggregate batch vent streams in the compliance demonstration required for reactor batch... comply with the mass emission limit for reactor batch process vents. ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Aggregate batch vent stream...

  19. SLUDGE BATCH 4 SIMULANT FLOWSHEET STUDIES: PHASE II RESULTS

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, M; David Best, D

    2006-09-12

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) will transition from Sludge Batch 3 (SB3) processing to Sludge Batch 4 (SB4) processing in early fiscal year 2007. Tests were conducted using non-radioactive simulants of the expected SB4 composition to determine the impact of varying the acid stoichiometry during the Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) process. The work was conducted to meet the Technical Task Request (TTR) HLW/DWPF/TTR-2004-0031 and followed the guidelines of a Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan (TT&QAP). The flowsheet studies are performed to evaluate the potential chemical processing issues, hydrogen generation rates, and process slurry rheological properties as a function of acid stoichiometry. Initial SB4 flowsheet studies were conducted to guide decisions during the sludge batch preparation process. These studies were conducted with the estimated SB4 composition at the time of the study. The composition has changed slightly since these studies were completed due to changes in the sludges blended to prepare SB4 and the estimated SB3 heel mass. The following TTR requirements were addressed in this testing: (1) Hydrogen and nitrous oxide generation rates as a function of acid stoichiometry; (2) Acid quantities and processing times required for mercury removal; (3) Acid quantities and processing times required for nitrite destruction; and (4) Impact of SB4 composition (in particular, oxalate, manganese, nickel, mercury, and aluminum) on DWPF processing (i.e. acid addition strategy, foaming, hydrogen generation, REDOX control, rheology, etc.).

  20. A Batch Feeder for Inhomogeneous Bulk Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vislov, I. S.; Kladiev, S. N.; Slobodyan, S. M.; Bogdan, A. M.

    2016-04-01

    The work includes the mechanical analysis of mechanical feeders and batchers that find application in various technological processes and industrial fields. Feeders are usually classified according to their design features into two groups: conveyor-type feeders and non-conveyor feeders. Batchers are used to batch solid bulk materials. Less frequently, they are used for liquids. In terms of a batching method, they are divided into volumetric and weighting batchers. Weighting batchers do not provide for sufficient batching accuracy. Automatic weighting batchers include a mass controlling sensor and systems for automatic material feed and automatic mass discharge control. In terms of operating principle, batchers are divided into gravitational batchers and batchers with forced feed of material using conveyors and pumps. Improved consumption of raw materials, decreased loss of materials, ease of use in automatic control systems of industrial facilities allows increasing the quality of technological processes and improve labor conditions. The batch feeder suggested by the authors is a volumetric batcher that has no comparable counterparts among conveyor-type feeders and allows solving the problem of targeted feeding of bulk material batches increasing reliability and hermeticity of the device.

  1. Effect of pore size on bone ingrowth into porous titanium implants fabricated by additive manufacturing: An in vivo experiment.

    PubMed

    Taniguchi, Naoya; Fujibayashi, Shunsuke; Takemoto, Mitsuru; Sasaki, Kiyoyuki; Otsuki, Bungo; Nakamura, Takashi; Matsushita, Tomiharu; Kokubo, Tadashi; Matsuda, Shuichi

    2016-02-01

    Selective laser melting (SLM) is an additive manufacturing technique with the ability to produce metallic scaffolds with accurately controlled pore size, porosity, and interconnectivity for orthopedic applications. However, the optimal pore structure of porous titanium manufactured by SLM remains unclear. In this study, we evaluated the effect of pore size with constant porosity on in vivo bone ingrowth in rabbits into porous titanium implants manufactured by SLM. Three porous titanium implants (with an intended porosity of 65% and pore sizes of 300, 600, and 900μm, designated the P300, P600, and P900 implants, respectively) were manufactured by SLM. A diamond lattice was adapted as the basic structure. Their porous structures were evaluated and verified using microfocus X-ray computed tomography. Their bone-implant fixation ability was evaluated by their implantation as porous-surfaced titanium plates into the cortical bone of the rabbit tibia. Bone ingrowth was evaluated by their implantation as cylindrical porous titanium implants into the cancellous bone of the rabbit femur for 2, 4, and 8weeks. The average pore sizes of the P300, P600, and P900 implants were 309, 632, and 956μm, respectively. The P600 implant demonstrated a significantly higher fixation ability at 2weeks than the other implants. After 4weeks, all models had sufficiently high fixation ability in a detaching test. Bone ingrowth into the P300 implant was lower than into the other implants at 4weeks. Because of its appropriate mechanical strength, high fixation ability, and rapid bone ingrowth, our results indicate that the pore structure of the P600 implant is a suitable porous structure for orthopedic implants manufactured by SLM. PMID:26652423

  2. Progress in Multi-Batch Slip Stacking in the Fermilab Main Injector and Future Plans

    SciTech Connect

    Seiya, K.; Chase, B.; Dey, J.; Joireman, P.; Kourbanis, I.; Reid, J.; /Fermilab

    2008-04-01

    The multi-batch slip stacking has been used for operations since January, 2008 and effectively increased proton intensity to the NuMI target by 50% in a Main Injector (MI) cycle. The MI accepts 11 batches at injection energy from the Booster, and sends two batches to antiproton production and nine to the NuMI beam line. The total beam power in a cycle was increased to 340 kW on average. We have been doing beam studies in order to increase the beam power to 400 kW and to control the beam loss. We will also discuss 12 batch slip stacking scheme which is going to be used for future neutrino experiments.

  3. Kinetics of enzymatic hydrolysis of olive oil in batch and fed-batch systems.

    PubMed

    Cabral, Paloma Souza; Filho, Arion Zandoná; Voll, Fernando Augusto Pedersen; Corazza, Marcos Lúcio

    2014-07-01

    This work reports experimental data, kinetic modeling, and simulations of enzyme-catalyzed hydrolysis of olive oil. This reaction was performed in batch system and an ordered-sequential Bi Bi model was used to model the kinetic mechanism. A fed-batch system was proposed and experimental data were obtained and compared to the simulated values. The kinetic model used was able to correlate the experimental data, in which a satisfactory agreement between the experimental data and modeling results was obtained under different enzyme concentration and initial free water content. Therefore, the modeling allowed a better understanding of the reaction kinetics and affords a fed-batch simulation for this system. From the results obtained, it was observed that the fed-batch approach showed to be more advantageous when compared to the conventional batch system. PMID:24793196

  4. Does the addition of proteases affect the biogas yield from organic material in anaerobic digestion?

    PubMed

    Müller, Liane; Kretzschmar, Jörg; Pröter, Jürgen; Liebetrau, Jan; Nelles, Michael; Scholwin, Frank

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the biochemical disintegration effect of hydrolytic enzymes in lab scale experiments. Influences of enzyme addition on the biogas yield as well as effects on the process stability were examined. The addition of proteases occurred with low and high dosages in batch and semi-continuous biogas tests. The feed mixture consisted of maize silage, chicken dung and cow manure. Only very high concentrated enzymes caused an increase in biogas production in batch experiments. In semi-continuous biogas tests no positive long-term effects (100 days) were observed. Higher enzyme-dosage led to a reduced biogas-yield (13% and 36% lower than the reference). Phenylacetate and -propionate increased (up to 372 mgl(-1)) before the other volatile fatty acids did. Volatile organic acids rose up to 6.8 gl(-1). The anaerobic digestion process was inhibited. PMID:26741852

  5. An Integer Batch Scheduling Model for a Single Machine with Simultaneous Learning and Deterioration Effects to Minimize Total Actual Flow Time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yusriski, R.; Sukoyo; Samadhi, T. M. A. A.; Halim, A. H.

    2016-02-01

    In the manufacturing industry, several identical parts can be processed in batches, and setup time is needed between two consecutive batches. Since the processing times of batches are not always fixed during a scheduling period due to learning and deterioration effects, this research deals with batch scheduling problems with simultaneous learning and deterioration effects. The objective is to minimize total actual flow time, defined as a time interval between the arrival of all parts at the shop and their common due date. The decision variables are the number of batches, integer batch sizes, and the sequence of the resulting batches. This research proposes a heuristic algorithm based on the Lagrange Relaxation. The effectiveness of the proposed algorithm is determined by comparing the resulting solutions of the algorithm to the respective optimal solution obtained from the enumeration method. Numerical experience results show that the average of difference among the solutions is 0.05%.

  6. Improved productivity of poly (3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) in thermophilic Chelatococcus daeguensis TAD1 using glycerol as the growth substrate in a fed-batch culture.

    PubMed

    Cui, Bin; Huang, Shaobin; Xu, Fuqian; Zhang, Ruijian; Zhang, Yongqing

    2015-07-01

    A particularly successful polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) in industrial applications is poly (3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB). However, one of the major obstacles for wider application of PHB is the cost of its production and purification. Therefore, it is desirable to discover a method for producing PHB in large quantities at a competitive price. Glycerol is a cheap and widely used carbon source that can be applied in PHB production process. There are numerous advantages to operating fermentation at elevated temperatures; only several thermophilic bacteria are able to accumulate PHB when glycerol is the growth substrate. Here, we report on the possibility of increasing PHB production at low cost using thermophilic Chelatococcus daeguensis TAD1 when glycerol is the growth substrate in a fed-batch culture. We found that (1) excess glycerol inhibited PHB accumulation and (2) organic nitrogen sources, such as tryptone and yeast extract, promoted the growth of C. daeguensis TAD1. In the batch fermentation experiments, we found that using glycerol at low concentrations as the sole carbon source, along with the addition of mixed nitrate (NH4Cl, tryptone, and yeast extract), stimulated PHB accumulation in C. daeguensis TAD1. The results showed that the PHB productivity decreased in the following order: two-stage fed-batch fermentation > fed-batch fermentation > batch fermentation. In optimized culture conditions, a PHB amount of 17.4 g l(-1) was obtained using a two-stage feeding regimen, leading to a productivity rate of 0.434 g l(-1) h(-1), which is the highest productivity rate reported for PHB to date. This high PHB biosynthetic productivity could decrease the total production cost, allowing for further development of industrial applications of PHB. PMID:25773974

  7. SLUDGE BATCH 7B GLASS VARIABILITY STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, F.; Edwards, T.

    2011-10-25

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) is preparing to initiate processing Sludge Batch 7b (SB7b). In support of the upcoming processing, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) provided a recommendation to utilize Frits 418 with a 6% Na{sub 2}O addition (26 wt% Na{sub 2}O in sludge) and 702 with a 4% Na{sub 2}O addition (24 wt% Na{sub 2}O in sludge) to process SB7b. This recommendation was based on assessments of the compositional projections for SB7b available at the time from the Savannah River Remediation (SRR). To support qualification of SB7b, SRNL executed a variability study to assess the applicability of the current durability models for SB7b. The durability models were assessed over the expected composition range of SB7b, including potential caustic additions, combined with Frits 702 and 418 over a 32-40% waste loading (WL) range. Thirty four glasses were selected based on Frits 418 and 702 coupled with the sludge projections with an additional 4-6% Na{sub 2}O to reflect the potential caustic addition. Six of these glasses, based on average nominal sludge compositions including the appropriate caustic addition, were developed for both Frit 418 and Frit 702 at 32, 36 and 40% WL to provide coverage in the center of the anticipated SB7b glass region. All glasses were fabricated and characterized using chemical composition analysis, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and the Product Consistency Test (PCT). To comply with the DWPF Glass Product Control Program, a total of thirty four glasses were fabricated to assess the applicability of the current DWPF PCCS durability models. Based on the measured PCT response, all of the glasses were acceptable with respect to the Environmental Assessment (EA) benchmark glass regardless of thermal history. The NL[B] values of the SB7b variability study glasses were less than 1.99 g/L as compared to 16.695 g/L for EA. A small number of the D-optimally selected 'outer layer' extreme vertices (EV) glasses were not predictable

  8. Production of nattokinase by batch and fed-batch culture of Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Cho, Young-Han; Song, Jae Yong; Kim, Kyung Mi; Kim, Mi Kyoung; Lee, In Young; Kim, Sang Bum; Kim, Hyeon Shup; Han, Nam Soo; Lee, Bong Hee; Kim, Beom Soo

    2010-09-30

    Nattokinase was produced by batch and fed-batch culture of Bacillus subtilis in flask and fermentor. Effect of supplementing complex media (peptone, yeast extract, or tryptone) was investigated on the production of nattokinase. In flask culture, the highest cell growth and nattokinase activity were obtained with 50 g/L of peptone supplementation. In this condition, nattokinase activity was 630 unit/ml at 12 h. In batch culture of B. subtilis in fermentor, the highest nattokinase activity of 3400 unit/ml was obtained at 10h with 50 g/L of peptone supplementation. From the batch kinetics data, it was shown that nattokinase production was growth-associated and culture should be harvested before stationary phase for maximum nattokinase production. In fed-batch culture of B. subtilis using pH-stat feeding strategy, cell growth (optical density monitored at 600 nm) increased to ca. 100 at 22 h, which was 2.5 times higher than that in batch culture. The highest nattokinase activity was 7100 unit/ml at 19 h, which was also 2.1 times higher than that in batch culture. PMID:20541632

  9. Incorporation of additives into polymers

    DOEpatents

    McCleskey, T. Mark; Yates, Matthew Z.

    2003-07-29

    There has been invented a method for incorporating additives into polymers comprising: (a) forming an aqueous or alcohol-based colloidal system of the polymer; (b) emulsifying the colloidal system with a compressed fluid; and (c) contacting the colloidal polymer with the additive in the presence of the compressed fluid. The colloidal polymer can be contacted with the additive by having the additive in the compressed fluid used for emulsification or by adding the additive to the colloidal system before or after emulsification with the compressed fluid. The invention process can be carried out either as a batch process or as a continuous on-line process.

  10. JOB BUILDER remote batch processing subsystem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orlov, I. G.; Orlova, T. L.

    1980-01-01

    The functions of the JOB BUILDER remote batch processing subsystem are described. Instructions are given for using it as a component of a display system developed by personnel of the System Programming Laboratory, Institute of Space Research, USSR Academy of Sciences.

  11. RLIN Product Batch: Fundamental Design Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Walt

    1984-01-01

    Considers fundamental decisions that shaped the output products of Research Libraries Information Network. Product Batch was designed using single data definition (RMARC) combined with standard PL/I, modular programing techniques, program documentation. Choice of software and programing languages, other design aspects (accountability, count…

  12. Effect of volcano ash additions on nutrient concentrations, bloom dynamics and community metabolism in a short-term experiment in the NW Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinbauer, Markus

    2016-04-01

    Volcano ash deposition is now considered as an important source of inorganic bioavailable iron which can relieve Fe-limitation in the ocean. As volcano ash also releases PO4, a experiment was performed in the NW Mediterranean Sea to test whether volcano ash deposition can affect nutrient dynamics and bloom development in a P-limited system. In a 54h experiment, it was shown that the development of a phytoplankton bloom was not enhanced or even repressed by ash additions of 2 and 20 mg l-1, whereas higher ash concentrations (200 mg l-1) induced a phytoplankton bloom as indicated by elevated Chlorophyll-a levels. Concurrently, net community production (NCP) and gross primary production (GPP) were enhanced at T24h at the highest ash additions. The metabolic balance was roughly neutral at low or no ash additions, but shifted towards phototrophy at the highest ash additions. The data on inorganic nutrient development and release estimates from ash material assays suggest relieving of P-limitation concomitant with NO3 and silicate use from ash. The concentration of TEP increased with increasing ash levels. The abundances of the heterotrophic compartment (bacteria, viruses and ciliates) also indicated dose-dependent responses. Our data suggest that heterotrophs won the competition for inorganic nutrients at ash levels of 2 and 20 mg l-1, whereas phytoplankton won at levels of 200 mg l-1. Overall, our experiments point to a strong potential of volcano ash deposition as forcing factor for nutrient dynamics and the activity of microbial plankton in a P-limited system.

  13. Changes in water, carbon, and nitrogen fluxes with the addition of biochar to soils: lessons learned from laboratory and greenhouse experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, R. T.; Gallagher, M. E.; Masiello, C. A.; Liu, Z.; Dugan, B.; Rudgers, J. A.

    2011-12-01

    The addition of biochar to agricultural soils has the potential to provide a number of ecosystem services, ranging from carbon (C) sequestration to increased soil fertility and crop production. It is estimated that 0.5 to 0.9 Pg of C yr-1 can be sequestered through the addition of biochar to soils, significantly increasing the charcoal flux to the biosphere over natural inputs from fire (0.05 to 0.20 Pg C yr-1). There remain large uncertainties about biochar mobility within the environment, making it a challenge to assess the ecosystem residence time of biochar. We conducted laboratory and greenhouse experiments to understand how soil amendment with laboratory-produced biochar changes water, C, and nitrogen (N) fluxes from soils. We used column experiments to assess how biochar amendment to three types of soils (sand, organic, clay-rich) affected hydraulic conductivity and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and total dissolved nitrogen (TDN) fluxes. Results varied with soil type; biochar significantly decreased the hydraulic conductivity of the sand and organic soils by a factor of 10.6 and 2.7, respectively. While not statistically significant, biochar addition increased the hydraulic conductivity of the clay-rich soil by 50% on average. The addition of biochar significantly increased the DOC fluxes from the C-poor sand and clay soils while it significantly decreased the DOC flux from the organic-rich soil. In contrast, TDN fluxes decreased with biochar additions from all soil types, though the results were not statistically significant from the clay-rich soil. These laboratory experiments suggest that changes in the hydraulic conductivity of soil due to biochar amendments could play a significant role in understanding how biochar additions to agricultural fields will change watershed C and N dynamics. We additionally conducted a 28-day greenhouse experiment with sorghum plants using a three-way factorial treatment (water availability x biochar x mycorrhizae) to

  14. Production of fructosyltransferase by Aureobasidium sp. ATCC 20524 in batch and two-step batch cultures.

    PubMed

    Salinas, Martín A; Perotti, Nora I

    2009-01-01

    A comparison of fructosyltransferase (EC 2.4.1.9) production by Aureobasidium sp. ATCC 20524 in batch and two step batch cultures was investigated in a 1-l stirred tank reactor using a sucrose supply of 200 g/l. Results showed that the innovative cultivation in two step of Aureobasidium sp. produced more fructosyltransferase (FFase) than the single batch culture at the same sucrose concentration with a maximal enzyme production of 523 U/ml, which was 80.5% higher than the one obtained in the batch culture. The production of fructooligosaccharides (FOSs) was also analyzed; their concentration reached a maximum value of 160 g/l the first day in the two-step culture and 127 g/l in the single-batch mode. The use of the two-step batch culture with Aureobasidium sp. ATCC 20524 in allowing the microorganism to grow up prior to the induction of sucrose (second step), proved to be a powerful method for producing fructosyltransferase and FOSs. PMID:18810518

  15. Batch and fed-batch fermentation of Bacillus thuringiensis using starch industry wastewater as fermentation substrate.

    PubMed

    Vu, Khanh Dang; Tyagi, Rajeshwar Dayal; Valéro, José R; Surampalli, Rao Y

    2010-08-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki biopesticide was produced in batch and fed-batch fermentation modes using starch industry wastewater as sole substrate. Fed-batch fermentation with two intermittent feeds (at 10 and 20 h) during the fermentation of 72 h gave the maximum delta-endotoxin concentration (1,672.6 mg/L) and entomotoxicity (Tx) (18.5 x 10(6) SBU/mL) in fermented broth which were significantly higher than maximum delta-endotoxin concentration (511.0 mg/L) and Tx (15.8 x 10(6) SBU/mL) obtained in batch process. However, fed-batch fermentation with three intermittent feeds (at 10, 20 and 34 h) of the fermentation resulted in the formation of asporogenous variant (Spo-) from 36 h to the end of fermentation (72 h) which resulted in a significant decrease in spore and delta-endotoxin concentration and finally the Tx value. Tx of suspended pellets (27.4 x 10(6) SBU/mL) obtained in fed-batch fermentation with two feeds was the highest value as compared to other cases. PMID:19888605

  16. Assessing traumatic experiences in screening for PTSD in substance use disorder patients: what is the gain in addition to PTSD symptoms?

    PubMed

    Kok, Tim; de Haan, Hein; van der Meer, Margreet; Najavits, Lisa; de Jong, Cor

    2015-03-30

    Traumatic experiences have been linked with substance use disorders (SUD) and may be an important factor in the perpetuation of SUD, even in the absence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. The purpose of the current study was to examine the relationship between childhood trauma and substance use severity in 192 SUD inpatients. Childhood trauma was assessed using the Traumatic Experiences Checklist (TEC). With variables derived from this measure in addition to PTSD symptoms, two regression models were created with alcohol use or drug use severity as dependent variables. Alcohol severity was explained by PTSD symptoms as well as the age of trauma. Drug severity was explained solely by PTSD symptoms. The clinical value of assessing childhood trauma in determining the addiction severity appears to be limited in comparison with PTSD symptoms. PMID:25687377

  17. Response of aboveground biomass and diversity to nitrogen addition – a five-year experiment in semi-arid grassland of Inner Mongolia, China

    PubMed Central

    He, Kejian; Qi, Yu; Huang, Yongmei; Chen, Huiying; Sheng, Zhilu; Xu, Xia; Duan, Lei

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the response of the plant community to increasing nitrogen (N) deposition is helpful for improving pasture management in semi-arid areas. We implemented a 5-year N addition experiment in a Stipa krylovii steppe of Inner Mongolia, northern China. The aboveground biomass (AGB) and species richness were measured annually. Along with the N addition levels, the species richness declined significantly, and the species composition changed noticeably. However, the total AGB did not exhibit a noticeable increase. We found that compensatory effects of the AGB occurred not only between the grasses and the forbs but also among Gramineae species. The plant responses to N addition, from the community to species level, lessened in dry years compared to wet or normal years. The N addition intensified the reduction of community productivity in dry years. Our study indicated that the compensatory effects of the AGB among the species sustained the stability of grassland productivity. However, biodiversity loss resulting from increasing N deposition might lead the semi-arid grassland ecosystem to be unsustainable, especially in dry years. PMID:27573360

  18. Response of aboveground biomass and diversity to nitrogen addition - a five-year experiment in semi-arid grassland of Inner Mongolia, China.

    PubMed

    He, Kejian; Qi, Yu; Huang, Yongmei; Chen, Huiying; Sheng, Zhilu; Xu, Xia; Duan, Lei

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the response of the plant community to increasing nitrogen (N) deposition is helpful for improving pasture management in semi-arid areas. We implemented a 5-year N addition experiment in a Stipa krylovii steppe of Inner Mongolia, northern China. The aboveground biomass (AGB) and species richness were measured annually. Along with the N addition levels, the species richness declined significantly, and the species composition changed noticeably. However, the total AGB did not exhibit a noticeable increase. We found that compensatory effects of the AGB occurred not only between the grasses and the forbs but also among Gramineae species. The plant responses to N addition, from the community to species level, lessened in dry years compared to wet or normal years. The N addition intensified the reduction of community productivity in dry years. Our study indicated that the compensatory effects of the AGB among the species sustained the stability of grassland productivity. However, biodiversity loss resulting from increasing N deposition might lead the semi-arid grassland ecosystem to be unsustainable, especially in dry years. PMID:27573360

  19. Recovery of an oscillatory mode of batch yeast growth in water for a pure culture.

    PubMed

    Vadasz, A S; Vadasz, P; Abashar, M E; Gupthar, A S

    2001-12-30

    New experiments that we conducted show an oscillatory mode of batch yeast growth in water, for a pure culture of the T206 strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The oscillations are damped over time, allowing the cell concentration to stabilize at the stationary equilibrium. A new proposed model that includes the complete cell growth dynamics is introduced and showed to recover the experimental oscillatory results. In addition the proposed model recovers effects that are frequently encountered in experiments such as a "Lag Phase" as well as an inflection point in the "ln curve" of the cell concentration. The proposed model recovers also the Logistic Growth Curve as a special case. For purposes of providing some interesting contrast we present additional experimental as well as computational results for the growth of the VIN7 strain of S. cerevisiae in a 5% grape juice medium. The latter indicates even stronger oscillations during the growth process. In order to capture experimentally the oscillatory growth behavior, very frequent readings are required (every 15-30 min) and the measurement process needs to be extended to longer than usual periods (over 250 h). PMID:11789940

  20. Using Forensics to Untangle Batch Effects in TCGA Data - TCGA

    Cancer.gov

    Rehan Akbani, Ph.D., and colleagues at the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center developed a tool called MBatch to detect, diagnose, and correct batch effects in TCGA data. Read more about batch effects in this Case Study.

  1. Farm batch system and Fermi inter-process communication and synchronization toolkit

    SciTech Connect

    Mandrichenko, I.V.

    2001-02-20

    Farms Batch System (FBS) was developed as a batch process management system for off-line Run II data processing at Fermilab. FBS will manage PC farms composed of up to 250 nodes and scalable to 1000 nodes with disk capacity of up to several TB. FBS allows users to start arrays of parallel processes on multiple computers. It uses a simplified resource counting method load balancing. FBS has been successfully used for more than a year at Fermilab by fixed target experiments and will be used for collider experiment off-line data processing. Fermi Inter-Process Communication toolkit (FIPC) was designed as a supplement product for FBS that helps establish synchronization and communication between processes running in a distributed batch environment. However, FIPC is an independent package, and can be used with other batch systems, as well as in a non-batch environment. FIPC provides users with a variety of global distributed objects such as semaphores, queues and string variables. Other types of objects can be easily added to FIPC. FIPC has been running on several PC farms at Fermilab for half a year and is going to be used by CDF for off-line data processing.

  2. Job Scheduling Under the Portable Batch System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, Robert L.; Woodrow, Thomas S. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    The typical batch queuing system schedules jobs for execution by a set of queue controls. The controls determine from which queues jobs may be selected. Within the queue, jobs are ordered first-in, first-run. This limits the set of scheduling policies available to a site. The Portable Batch System removes this limitation by providing an external scheduling module. This separate program has full knowledge of the available queued jobs, running jobs, and system resource usage. Sites are able to implement any policy expressible in one of several procedural language. Policies may range from "bet fit" to "fair share" to purely political. Scheduling decisions can be made over the full set of jobs regardless of queue or order. The scheduling policy can be changed to fit a wide variety of computing environments and scheduling goals. This is demonstrated by the use of PBS on an IBM SP-2 system at NASA Ames.

  3. Capacitated max -Batching with Interval Graph Compatibilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nonner, Tim

    We consider the problem of partitioning interval graphs into cliques of bounded size. Each interval has a weight, and the weight of a clique is the maximum weight of any interval in the clique. This natural graph problem can be interpreted as a batch scheduling problem. Solving a long-standing open problem, we show NP-hardness, even if the bound on the clique sizes is constant. Moreover, we give a PTAS based on a novel dynamic programming technique for this case.

  4. Adsorption of Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether on Granular Zeolites: Batch and Column Studies

    PubMed Central

    Abu-Lail, Laila; Bergendahl, John A.; Thompson, Robert W.

    2010-01-01

    Methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) has been shown to be readily removed from water with powdered zeolites, but the passage of water through fixed beds of very small powdered zeolites produces high friction losses not encountered in flow through larger sized granular materials. In this study, equilibrium and kinetic adsorption of MTBE onto granular zeolites, a coconut shell granular activated carbon (CS-1240), and a commercial carbon adsorbent (CCA) sample was evaluated. In addition, the effect of natural organic matter (NOM) on MTBE adsorption was evaluated. Batch adsorption experiments determined that ZSM-5 was the most effective granular zeolite for MTBE adsorption. Further equilibrium and kinetic experiments verified that granular ZSM-5 is superior to CS-1240 and CCA in removing MTBE from water. No competitive-adsorption effects between NOM and MTBE were observed for adsorption to granular ZSM-5 or CS-1240, however there was competition between NOM and MTBE for adsorption onto the CCA granules. Fixed-bed adsorption experiments for longer run times were performed using granular ZSM-5. The bed depth service time model (BDST) was used to analyze the breakthrough data. PMID:20153106

  5. EMISSIONS REDUCTION OF COMMERCIAL GLASSMAKING USING SELECTIVE BATCHING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The vertical bubble populations of selectively batched melts were compared to the vertical bubble populations of conventionally batched melts. “Conventional” refers to the use of a powdered batch. Bubble position and diameter measurements were taken on 24 crucibles...

  6. 40 CFR 63.1406 - Reactor batch process vent provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Reactor batch process vent provisions... Resins § 63.1406 Reactor batch process vent provisions. (a) Emission standards. Owners or operators of reactor batch process vents located at new or existing affected sources shall comply with paragraph...

  7. 40 CFR 63.1406 - Reactor batch process vent provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Reactor batch process vent provisions... § 63.1406 Reactor batch process vent provisions. (a) Emission standards. Owners or operators of reactor... reactor batch process vent located at a new affected source shall control organic HAP emissions...

  8. 40 CFR 63.1406 - Reactor batch process vent provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Reactor batch process vent provisions... § 63.1406 Reactor batch process vent provisions. (a) Emission standards. Owners or operators of reactor... reactor batch process vent located at a new affected source shall control organic HAP emissions...

  9. 40 CFR 63.1406 - Reactor batch process vent provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Reactor batch process vent provisions... § 63.1406 Reactor batch process vent provisions. (a) Emission standards. Owners or operators of reactor... reactor batch process vent located at a new affected source shall control organic HAP emissions...

  10. 40 CFR 63.1406 - Reactor batch process vent provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Reactor batch process vent provisions... Resins § 63.1406 Reactor batch process vent provisions. (a) Emission standards. Owners or operators of reactor batch process vents located at new or existing affected sources shall comply with paragraph...

  11. 40 CFR 63.462 - Batch cold cleaning machine standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Batch cold cleaning machine standards... National Emission Standards for Halogenated Solvent Cleaning § 63.462 Batch cold cleaning machine standards. (a) Each owner or operator of an immersion batch cold solvent cleaning machine shall comply with...

  12. 40 CFR 63.462 - Batch cold cleaning machine standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Batch cold cleaning machine standards... National Emission Standards for Halogenated Solvent Cleaning § 63.462 Batch cold cleaning machine standards. (a) Each owner or operator of an immersion batch cold solvent cleaning machine shall comply with...

  13. 40 CFR 63.462 - Batch cold cleaning machine standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Batch cold cleaning machine standards... National Emission Standards for Halogenated Solvent Cleaning § 63.462 Batch cold cleaning machine standards. (a) Each owner or operator of an immersion batch cold solvent cleaning machine shall comply with...

  14. 40 CFR 63.462 - Batch cold cleaning machine standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Batch cold cleaning machine standards... National Emission Standards for Halogenated Solvent Cleaning § 63.462 Batch cold cleaning machine standards. (a) Each owner or operator of an immersion batch cold solvent cleaning machine shall comply with...

  15. 7 CFR 58.728 - Cooking the batch.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cooking the batch. 58.728 Section 58.728 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Procedures § 58.728 Cooking the batch. Each batch of cheese within the cooker, including the...

  16. 7 CFR 58.728 - Cooking the batch.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cooking the batch. 58.728 Section 58.728 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Procedures § 58.728 Cooking the batch. Each batch of cheese within the cooker, including the...

  17. 7 CFR 58.728 - Cooking the batch.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cooking the batch. 58.728 Section 58.728 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Procedures § 58.728 Cooking the batch. Each batch of cheese within the cooker, including the...

  18. 7 CFR 58.728 - Cooking the batch.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cooking the batch. 58.728 Section 58.728 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Procedures § 58.728 Cooking the batch. Each batch of cheese within the cooker, including the...

  19. 40 CFR 63.462 - Batch cold cleaning machine standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Batch cold cleaning machine standards... National Emission Standards for Halogenated Solvent Cleaning § 63.462 Batch cold cleaning machine standards. (a) Each owner or operator of an immersion batch cold solvent cleaning machine shall comply with...

  20. 40 CFR 63.1321 - Batch process vents provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Batch process vents provisions. 63.1321... Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group IV Polymers and Resins § 63.1321 Batch process vents provisions. (a) Batch process vents. Except as specified in paragraphs (b) through (d) of this...

  1. Semiautomated, Reproducible Batch Processing of Soy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thoerne, Mary; Byford, Ivan W.; Chastain, Jack W.; Swango, Beverly E.

    2005-01-01

    A computer-controlled apparatus processes batches of soybeans into one or more of a variety of food products, under conditions that can be chosen by the user and reproduced from batch to batch. Examples of products include soy milk, tofu, okara (an insoluble protein and fiber byproduct of soy milk), and whey. Most processing steps take place without intervention by the user. This apparatus was developed for use in research on processing of soy. It is also a prototype of other soy-processing apparatuses for research, industrial, and home use. Prior soy-processing equipment includes household devices that automatically produce soy milk but do not automatically produce tofu. The designs of prior soy-processing equipment require users to manually transfer intermediate solid soy products and to press them manually and, hence, under conditions that are not consistent from batch to batch. Prior designs do not afford choices of processing conditions: Users cannot use previously developed soy-processing equipment to investigate the effects of variations of techniques used to produce soy milk (e.g., cold grinding, hot grinding, and pre-cook blanching) and of such process parameters as cooking times and temperatures, grinding times, soaking times and temperatures, rinsing conditions, and sizes of particles generated by grinding. In contrast, the present apparatus is amenable to such investigations. The apparatus (see figure) includes a processing tank and a jacketed holding or coagulation tank. The processing tank can be capped by either of two different heads and can contain either of two different insertable mesh baskets. The first head includes a grinding blade and heating elements. The second head includes an automated press piston. One mesh basket, designated the okara basket, has oblong holes with a size equivalent to about 40 mesh [40 openings per inch (.16 openings per centimeter)]. The second mesh basket, designated the tofu basket, has holes of 70 mesh [70 openings

  2. Addressing case specific biogas plant tasks: industry oriented methane yields derived from 5L Automatic Methane Potential Test Systems in batch or semi-continuous tests using realistic inocula, substrate particle sizes and organic loading.

    PubMed

    Kolbl, Sabina; Paloczi, Attila; Panjan, Jože; Stres, Blaž

    2014-02-01

    The primary aim of the study was to develop and validate an in-house upscale of Automatic Methane Potential Test System II for studying real-time inocula and real-scale substrates in batch, codigestion and enzyme enhanced hydrolysis experiments, in addition to semi-continuous operation of the developed equipment and experiments testing inoculum functional quality. The successful upscale to 5L enabled comparison of different process configurations in shorter preparation times with acceptable accuracy and high-through put intended for industrial decision making. The adoption of the same scales, equipment and methodologies in batch and semi-continuous tests mirroring those at full scale biogas plants resulted in matching methane yields between the two laboratory tests and full-scale, confirming thus the increased decision making value of the approach for industrial operations. PMID:24368269

  3. Metabolomics profiling of extracellular metabolites in recombinant Chinese Hamster Ovary fed-batch culture.

    PubMed

    Chong, William P K; Goh, Lin Tang; Reddy, Satty G; Yusufi, Faraaz N K; Lee, Dong Yup; Wong, Niki S C; Heng, Chew Kiat; Yap, Miranda G S; Ho, Ying Swan

    2009-12-01

    A metabolomics-based approach was used to time profile extracellular metabolites in duplicate fed-batch bioreactor cultures of recombinant Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells producing monoclonal IgG antibody. Culture medium was collected and analysed using a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) system in tandem with an LTQ-Orbitrap mass spectrometer. An in-house software was developed to pre-process the LC/MS data in terms of filtering and peak detection. This was followed by principal component analysis (PCA) to assess variance amongst the samples, and hierarchical clustering to categorize mass peaks by their time profiles. Finally, LC/MS2 experiments using the LTQ-Orbitrap (where standard was available) and SYNAPT HDMS (where standard was unavailable) were performed to confirm the identities of the metabolites. Two groups of identified metabolites were of particular interest; the first consisted of metabolites that began to accumulate when the culture entered stationary phase. The majority of them were amino acid derivatives and they were likely to be derived from the amino acids in the feed media. Examples included acetylphenylalanine and dimethylarginine which are known to be detrimental to cell growth. The second group of metabolites showed a downward trend as the culture progressed. Two of them were medium components--tryptophan and choline, and these became depleted midway into the culture despite the addition of feed media. The findings demonstrated the potential of utilizing metabolomics to guide medium design for fed-batch culture to potentially improve cell growth and product titer. PMID:19902412

  4. Accelerated Mini-batch Randomized Block Coordinate Descent Method

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Tuo; Yu, Mo; Wang, Yiming; Arora, Raman; Liu, Han

    2014-01-01

    We consider regularized empirical risk minimization problems. In particular, we minimize the sum of a smooth empirical risk function and a nonsmooth regularization function. When the regularization function is block separable, we can solve the minimization problems in a randomized block coordinate descent (RBCD) manner. Existing RBCD methods usually decrease the objective value by exploiting the partial gradient of a randomly selected block of coordinates in each iteration. Thus they need all data to be accessible so that the partial gradient of the block gradient can be exactly obtained. However, such a “batch” setting may be computationally expensive in practice. In this paper, we propose a mini-batch randomized block coordinate descent (MRBCD) method, which estimates the partial gradient of the selected block based on a mini-batch of randomly sampled data in each iteration. We further accelerate the MRBCD method by exploiting the semi-stochastic optimization scheme, which effectively reduces the variance of the partial gradient estimators. Theoretically, we show that for strongly convex functions, the MRBCD method attains lower overall iteration complexity than existing RBCD methods. As an application, we further trim the MRBCD method to solve the regularized sparse learning problems. Our numerical experiments shows that the MRBCD method naturally exploits the sparsity structure and achieves better computational performance than existing methods. PMID:25620860

  5. UPTAKE OF HEAVY METALS IN BATCH SYSTEMS BY A RECYCLED IRON-BEARING MATERIAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    An iron-bearing material deriving from surface finishing operations in the manufacturing of cast-iron components demonstrates potential for removal of heavy metals from aqueous waste streams. Batch isotherm and rate experiments were conducted for uptake of cadmium, zinc, and lead...

  6. High performance batch production of LREBa 2Cu 3O y using novel thin film Nd-123 seed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muralidhar, M.; Suzuki, K.; Fukumoto, Y.; Ishihara, A.; Tomita, M.

    2011-11-01

    A batch production for fabrication of LREBa 2Cu 3O y (LRE: Sm, Gd, NEG) “LRE-123” pellets are developed in air and Ar-1% O 2 using a novel thin film Nd-123 seeds grown on MgO crystals. The SEM and XRD results conformed that the quality and orientation of the seed crystals are excellent. On the other hand, new seeds can withstand temperatures >1100 °C, as a result, the cold seeding process was applied even to grow Sm-123 material in Air. The trapped field observed in the best 45 mm single-grain puck of Gd-123 was in the range of 1.35 T and 0.35 T at 77.3 K and 87.3 K, respectively. The average trapped field at 77.3 K in the 24 mm diameter NEG-123 samples batch lies between 0.9 and 1 T. The maximum trapped field of 1.2 T was recorded at the sample surface. Further, the maximum trapped field of 0.23 T at 77 K was recorded in a sample with 16 mm diameter of Sm-123 with 3 mol% BaO 2 addition. As a result we made more then 130 single grain pucks within a couple of months. Taking advantage of the single grain batch processed material, we constructed self-made chilled levitation disk, which was used on the open day of railway technical research Institute. More then 150 children stood on the levitation disk and revel the experience of levitation. The present results prove that a high-performance good-quality class of LREBa 2Cu 3O y material can be made by using a novel thin film Nd-123 seeds.

  7. SLUDGE BATCH VARIABILITY STUDY WITH FRIT 418

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, F.; Edwards, T.

    2010-11-29

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) initiated processing Sludge Batch 6 (SB6) in the summer of 2010. In support of processing, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) provided a recommendation to utilize Frit 418 to process SB6. This recommendation was based on assessments of the compositional projections for SB6 available at the time from the Liquid Waste Organization (LWO) and SRNL (using a model-based approach). To support qualification of SB6, SRNL executed a variability study to assess the applicability of the current durability models for SB6. The durability models were assessed over the expected Frit 418-SB6 composition range. Seventeen glasses were selected for the variability study based on the sludge projections used in the frit recommendation. Five of the glasses are based on the centroid of the compositional region, spanning a waste loading (WL) range of 32 to 40%. The remaining twelve glasses are extreme vertices (EVs) of the sludge region of interest for SB6 combined with Frit 418 and are all at 36% WL. These glasses were fabricated and characterized using chemical composition analysis, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and the Product Consistency Test (PCT). After initiating the SB6 variability study, the measured composition of the SB6 Tank 51 qualification glass produced at the SRNL Shielded Cells Facility indicated that thorium was present in the glass at an appreciable concentration (1.03 wt%), which made it a reportable element for SB6. This concentration of ThO{sub 2} resulted in a second phase of experimental studies. Five glasses were formulated that were based on the centroid of the new sludge compositional region combined with Frit 418, spanning a WL range of 32 to 40%. These glasses were fabricated and characterized using chemical composition analysis and the PCT. Based on the measured PCT response, all of the glasses (with and without thorium) were acceptable with respect to the Environmental Assessment (EA) reference glass

  8. 40 CFR 204.57-7 - Acceptance and rejection of batch sequence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS NOISE EMISSION STANDARDS FOR CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT Portable Air Compressors... when the decision is made on the last compressor required to make a decision under paragraph (a) of... any additional testing on compressors from subsequent batches pursuant to the initiating test...

  9. Enhanced submerged Aspergillus ficuum phytase production by implementation of fed-batch fermentation.

    PubMed

    Coban, Hasan B; Demirci, Ali

    2014-12-01

    Phytase is an important feed and food additive, which is both used in animal and human diets. Phytase has been used to increase the absorption of several divalent ions, amino acids, and proteins in the bodies and to decrease the excessive phosphorus release in the manure to prevent negative effects on the environment. To date, microbial phytase has been mostly produced in solid-state fermentations with insignificant production volumes. There are only a few studies in the literature that phytase productions were performed in submerged bench-top reactor scale. In our previous studies, growth parameters (temperature, pH, and aeration) and important fermentation medium ingredients (glucose, Na-phytate, and CaSO4) were optimized. This study was undertaken for further enhancement of phytase production with Aspergillus ficuum in bench-top bioreactors by conducting fed-batch fermentations. The results showed that addition of 60 g of glucose and 10 g of Na-phytate at 96 h of fermentation increased phytase activity to 3.84 and 4.82 U/ml, respectively. Therefore, the maximum phytase activity was further enhanced with addition of glucose and Na-phytate by 11 and 40 %, respectively, as compared to batch phytase fermentations. It was also reported that phytase activity increased higher in early log stage additions than late log stage additions because of higher microbial activity. In addition, the phytase activity in fed-batch fermentation did not drop significantly as compared to the batch fermentation. Overall, this study shows that fungal phytase can be successfully produced in submerged fed-batch fermentations. PMID:24958522

  10. A dynamic fed batch strategy for a Pichia pastoris mixed feed system to increase process understanding.

    PubMed

    Zalai, Dénes; Dietzsch, Christian; Herwig, Christoph; Spadiut, Oliver

    2012-01-01

    Mixed substrate feeding strategies are frequently investigated to enhance the productivity of recombinant Pichia pastoris processes. For this purpose, numerous fed batch experiments or time-consuming continuous cultivations are required to optimize control parameters such as the substrate mixing ratio and the applied methanol concentration. In this study, we decoupled the feeding of methanol and glycerol in a mixed substrate fed batch environment to gain process understanding for a recombinant P. pastoris Muts strain producing the model enzyme horseradish peroxidase. Specific substrate uptake rates (qs) were controlled separately, and a stepwise increased qGly-control scheme was applied to investigate the effect of various substrate fluxes on the culture. The qs-controlled strategy allowed a parallel characterization of the metabolism and the recombinant protein expression in a fed batch environment. A critical-specific glycerol uptake rate was determined, where a decline of the specific productivity occurred, and a time-dependent acceleration of protein expression was characterized with the dynamic fed batch approach. Based on the observations on recombinant protein expression, propositions for an optimal feeding design to target maximal productivities were stated. Thus, the dynamic fed batch strategy was found to be a valuable tool for both process understanding and optimization of product formation for P. pastoris in a mixed substrate environment. PMID:22505140

  11. Enhanced Growth of Acidovorax sp. Strain 2AN during Nitrate-Dependent Fe(II) Oxidation in Batch and Continuous-Flow Systems▿†

    PubMed Central

    Chakraborty, Anirban; Roden, Eric E.; Schieber, Jürgen; Picardal, Flynn

    2011-01-01

    Microbial nitrate-dependent, Fe(II) oxidation (NDFO) is a ubiquitous biogeochemical process in anoxic sediments. Since most microorganisms that can oxidize Fe(II) with nitrate require an additional organic substrate for growth or sustained Fe(II) oxidation, the energetic benefits of NDFO are unclear. The process may also be self-limiting in batch cultures due to formation of Fe-oxide cell encrustations. We hypothesized that NDFO provides energetic benefits via a mixotrophic physiology in environments where cells encounter very low substrate concentrations, thereby minimizing cell encrustations. Acidovorax sp. strain 2AN was incubated in anoxic batch reactors in a defined medium containing 5 to 6 mM NO3−, 8 to 9 mM Fe2+, and 1.5 mM acetate. Almost 90% of the Fe(II) was oxidized within 7 days with concomitant reduction of nitrate and complete consumption of acetate. Batch-grown cells became heavily encrusted with Fe(III) oxyhydroxides, lost motility, and formed aggregates. Encrusted cells could neither oxidize more Fe(II) nor utilize further acetate additions. In similar experiments with chelated iron (Fe(II)-EDTA), encrusted cells were not produced, and further additions of acetate and Fe(II)-EDTA could be oxidized. Experiments using a novel, continuous-flow culture system with low concentrations of substrate, e.g., 100 μM NO3−, 20 μM acetate, and 50 to 250 μM Fe2+, showed that the growth yield of Acidovorax sp. strain 2AN was always greater in the presence of Fe(II) than in its absence, and electron microscopy showed that encrustation was minimized. Our results provide evidence that, under environmentally relevant concentrations of substrates, NDFO can enhance growth without the formation of growth-limiting cell encrustations. PMID:22003007

  12. Synchronization of the Fermilab Booster and Main Injector for multiple batch injection

    SciTech Connect

    Robert Zwaska et al.

    2004-07-09

    To date, the 120 GeV Fermilab Main Injector accelerator has accelerated a single batch of protons from the 8 GeV rapid-cycling Booster synchrotron for production of antiprotons for Run II. In the future, the Main Injector must accelerate 6 or more Booster batches simultaneously; the first will be extracted to the antiproton source, while the remaining are extracted for the NuMI/MINOS (Neutrinos at the Main Injector/Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search) neutrino experiment. Performing this multi-batch operation while avoiding unacceptable radioactivation of the beamlines requires a previously unnecessary synchronization between the accelerators. We describe a mechanism and present results of advancing or retarding the longitudinal progress of the Booster beam by active feedback radial manipulation of the beam during the acceleration period.

  13. Seismic reflection data imaging and interpretation from Braniewo2014 experiment using additional wide-angle refraction and reflection and well-logs data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trzeciak, Maciej; Majdański, Mariusz; Białas, Sebastian; Gaczyński, Edward; Maksym, Andrzej

    2015-04-01

    Braniewo2014 reflection and refraction experiment was realized in cooperation between Polish Oil and Gas Company (PGNiG) and the Institute of Geophysics (IGF), Polish Academy of Sciences, near the locality of Braniewo in northern Poland. PGNiG realized a 20-km-long reflection profile, using vibroseis and dynamite shooting; the aim of the reflection survey was to characterise Silurian shale gas reservoir. IGF deployed 59 seismic stations along this profile and registered additional full-spread wide-angle refraction and reflection data, with offsets up to 12 km; maximum offsets from the seismic reflection survey was 3 km. To improve the velocity information two velocity logs from near deep boreholes were used. The main goal of the joint reflection-refraction interpretation was to find relations between velocity field from reflection velocity analysis and refraction tomography, and to build a velocity model which would be consistent for both, reflection and refraction, datasets. In this paper we present imaging results and velocity models from Braniewo2014 experiment and the methodology we used.

  14. Food additives

    MedlinePlus

    Food additives are substances that become part of a food product when they are added during the processing or making of that food. "Direct" food additives are often added during processing to: Add nutrients ...

  15. Self-tuning GMV control of glucose concentration in fed-batch baker's yeast production.

    PubMed

    Hitit, Zeynep Yilmazer; Boyacioglu, Havva; Ozyurt, Baran; Ertunc, Suna; Hapoglu, Hale; Akay, Bulent

    2014-04-01

    A detailed system identification procedure and self-tuning generalized minimum variance (STGMV) control of glucose concentration during the aerobic fed-batch yeast growth were realized. In order to determine the best values of the forgetting factor (λ), initial value of the covariance matrix (α), and order of the Auto-Regressive Moving Average with eXogenous (ARMAX) model (n a, n b), transient response data obtained from the real process wereutilized. Glucose flow rate was adjusted according to the STGMV control algorithm coded in Visual Basic in an online computer connected to the system. Conventional PID algorithm was also implemented for the control of the glucose concentration in aerobic fed-batch yeast cultivation. Controller performances were examined by evaluating the integrals of squared errors (ISEs) at constant and random set point profiles. Also, batch cultivation was performed, and microorganism concentration at the end of the batch run was compared with the fed-batch cultivation case. From the system identification step, the best parameter estimation was accomplished with the values λ = 0.9, α = 1,000 and n a = 3, n b = 2. Theoretical control studies show that the STGMV control system was successful at both constant and random glucose concentration set profiles. In addition, random effects given to the set point, STGMV control algorithm were performed successfully in experimental study. PMID:24569909

  16. Treatment of opium alkaloid containing wastewater in sequencing batch reactor (SBR)—Effect of gamma irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bural, Cavit B.; Demirer, Goksel N.; Kantoglu, Omer; Dilek, Filiz B.

    2010-04-01

    Aerobic biological treatment of opium alkaloid containing wastewater as well as the effect of gamma irradiation as pre-treatment was investigated. Biodegradability of raw wastewater was assessed in aerobic batch reactors and was found highly biodegradable (83-90% degradation). The effect of irradiation (40 and 140 kGy) on biodegradability was also evaluated in terms of BOD 5/COD values and results revealed that irradiation imparted no further enhancement in the biodegradability. Despite the highly biodegradable nature of wastewater, further experiments in sequencing batch reactors (SBR) revealed that the treatment operation was not possible due to sludge settleability problem observed beyond an influent COD value of 2000 mg dm -3. Possible reasons for this problem were investigated, and the high molecular weight, large size and aromatic structure of the organic pollutants present in wastewater was thought to contribute to poor settleability. Initial efforts to solve this problem by modifying the operational conditions, such as SRT reduction, failed. However, further operational modifications including addition of phosphate buffer cured the settleability problem and influent COD was increased up to 5000 mg dm -3. Significant COD removal efficiencies (>70%) were obtained in both SBRs fed with original and irradiated wastewaters (by 40 kGy). However, pre-irradiated wastewater provided complete thebain removal and a better settling sludge, which was thought due to degradation of complex structure by radiation application. Degradation of the structure was observed by GC/MS analyses and enhancement in filterability tests.

  17. Batch and continuous recrystallization of secondary explosives

    SciTech Connect

    Moodie, W.J.; Bennett, J.E.

    1984-03-09

    Explosive powders are recrystallized at Mound for use in development and production programs of the US Department of Energy. Batch and continuous precipitation units are operated on a small scale to produce powders of different crystal morphology over a wide range of specific surface areas. The equipment and procedures are described for both methods of operation. Safety aspects, and features designed to optimize product purity and freedom from contamination, are discussed. Experimental studies are conducted to determine the effects of varying the process parameters. The results are used to select the operating conditions to make powders for specific applications.

  18. Production and delivery batch scheduling with a common due date and multiple vehicles to minimize total cost

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasetyaningsih, E.; Suprayogi; Samadhi, TMAA; Halim, AH

    2016-02-01

    This paper studies production and delivery batch scheduling problems for a single- supplier-to-a-single-manufacturer case, with multiple capacitated vehicles wherein different holding costs between in-process and completed parts are allowed. In the problem, the parts of a single item are first batched,then the resulting batches are processed on a single machine. All completed batches are transported in a number of deliveries in order to be received at a common due date. The objective is to find the integrated schedule of production and delivery batches so as to satisfy its due date and to minimize the total cost of associated in-process parts inventory, completed parts inventory and delivery. It should be noted that both holding costs constitute a derivation of the so-called actual flow time, and the delivery cost is proportional to the required number of deliveries. The problem can be formulated as an integer non-linier programming and it is solved optimally by Lingo 11.0 software. Numerical experiences show that there are two patterns of batch sizes affected by the ratio of holding costs of in-process and completed parts. It can be used by practitioners to solve the realistic integrated production and delivery batch scheduling problem.

  19. Co-addition of manure increases the dissipation rates of tylosin A and the numbers of resistance genes in laboratory incubation experiments.

    PubMed

    Li, Qian; Wang, Yan; Zou, Yong-De; Liao, Xin-Di; Liang, Juan-Boo; Xin, Wen; Wu, Yin-Bao

    2015-09-15

    The behavior of veterinary antibiotics in the soil is commonly studied using the following methods to add antibiotics to the soil: (A) adding manure collected from animals fed a diet that includes antibiotics; (B) adding antibiotic-free animal manure spiked with antibiotics; and (C) the direct addition of antibiotics. However, most studies have only used methods (B) and (C) in their research, and few studies have simultaneously compared the different antibiotic addition methods. This study used tylosin A (TYLA) as a model antibiotic to compare the effects of these three commonly used antibiotic addition methods on the dissipation rates of TYLA and the numbers of resistance genes in laboratory incubation experiments. The results showed that the three treatment methods produced similar TYLA degradation trends; however, there were significant differences (P<0.05) in the TYLA degradation half-life (t1/2) among the three methods. The half-life of TYLA degradation in treatments A, B and C was 2.44 ± 0.04, 1.21 ± 0.03 and 5.13 ± 0.11 days, respectively. The presence of manure resulted in a higher electrical conductivity (EC), higher relative abundance of Citrobacter amalonaticus, higher macrolide resistant gene (ermB, ermF and ermT) count and lower ecological toxicity in the soil, which could partially explain the higher TYLA degradation rate in the treatments containing manure. The higher degradation rate of TYLA in treatment B when compared to treatment A could be due to the lower concentrations of tylosin B (TYLB) and tylosin D (TYLD). The main route for veterinary antibiotics to enter the soil is via the manure of animals that have been administered antibiotics. Therefore, the more appropriate method to study the degradation and ecotoxicity of antibiotic residues in the soil is by using manure from animals fed/administered the particular antibiotic rather than by adding the antibiotic directly to the soil. PMID:25958362

  20. 40 CFR 80.1126 - How are RINs generated and assigned to batches of renewable fuel by renewable fuel producers or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... batches of renewable fuel by renewable fuel producers or importers? 80.1126 Section 80.1126 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Renewable Fuel Standard § 80.1126 How are RINs generated and assigned to batches of renewable...

  1. 40 CFR 80.1126 - How are RINs generated and assigned to batches of renewable fuel by renewable fuel producers or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... batches of renewable fuel by renewable fuel producers or importers? 80.1126 Section 80.1126 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Renewable Fuel Standard § 80.1126 How are RINs generated and assigned to batches of renewable...

  2. Soil microbial biomass and community structure affected by repeated additions of sewage sludge in four Swedish long-term field experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Börjesson, G.; Kätterer, T.; Kirchmann, H.

    2012-04-01

    Soil organic matter is a key attribute of soil fertility. The pool of soil organic C can be increased, either by mineral fertilisers or by adding organic amendments such as sewage sludge. Sewage sludge has positive effects on agricultural soils through the supply of organic matter and essential plant nutrients, but sludge may also contain unwanted heavy metals, xenobiotic substances and pathogens. One obvious effect of long-term sewage sludge addition is a decrease in soil pH, caused by N mineralisation followed by nitrification, sulphate formation and presence of organic acids with the organic matter added. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of sewage sludge on the microbial biomass and community structure. Materials and methods We analysed soil samples from four sites where sewage sludge has been repeatedly applied in long-term field experiments situated in different parts of Sweden; Ultuna (59°49'N, 17°39'E, started 1956), Lanna (58°21'N, 13°06'E, started 1997-98), Petersborg (55°32'N, 13°00'E, started 1981) and Igelösa (55°45'N, 13°18'E, started 1981). In these four experiments, at least one sewage sludge treatment is included in the experimental design. In the Ultuna experiment, all organic fertilisers, including sewage sludge, are applied every second year, corresponding to 4 ton C ha-1. The Lanna experiment has a similar design, with 8 ton dry matter ha-1 applied every second year. Lanna also has an additional treatment in which metal salts (Cd, Cu, Ni and Zn) are added together with sewage sludge. At Petersborg and Igelösa, two levels of sewage sludge (4 or 12 ton dry matter ha-1 every 4th year) are compared with three levels of NPK fertiliser (0 N, ½ normal N and normal N). Topsoil samples (0-20 cm depth) from the four sites were analysed for total C, total N, pH and PLFAs (phospholipid fatty acids). In addition, crop yields were recorded. Results At all four sites, sewage sludge has had a positive effect on crop yields

  3. Food additives

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Michael

    1974-01-01

    Food additives are discussed from the food technology point of view. The reasons for their use are summarized: (1) to protect food from chemical and microbiological attack; (2) to even out seasonal supplies; (3) to improve their eating quality; (4) to improve their nutritional value. The various types of food additives are considered, e.g. colours, flavours, emulsifiers, bread and flour additives, preservatives, and nutritional additives. The paper concludes with consideration of those circumstances in which the use of additives is (a) justified and (b) unjustified. PMID:4467857

  4. Quality-by-Design approach to monitor the operation of a batch bioreactor in an industrial avian vaccine manufacturing process.

    PubMed

    Largoni, Martina; Facco, Pierantonio; Bernini, Donatella; Bezzo, Fabrizio; Barolo, Massimiliano

    2015-10-10

    Monitoring batch bioreactors is a complex task, due to the fact that several sources of variability can affect a running batch and impact on the final product quality. Additionally, the product quality itself may not be measurable on line, but requires sampling and lab analysis taking several days to be completed. In this study we show that, by using appropriate process analytical technology tools, the operation of an industrial batch bioreactor used in avian vaccine manufacturing can be effectively monitored as the batch progresses. Multivariate statistical models are built from historical databases of batches already completed, and they are used to enable the real time identification of the variability sources, to reliably predict the final product quality, and to improve process understanding, paving the way to a reduction of final product rejections, as well as to a reduction of the product cycle time. It is also shown that the product quality "builds up" mainly during the first half of a batch, suggesting on the one side that reducing the variability during this period is crucial, and on the other side that the batch length can possibly be shortened. Overall, the study demonstrates that, by using a Quality-by-Design approach centered on the appropriate use of mathematical modeling, quality can indeed be built "by design" into the final product, whereas the role of end-point product testing can progressively reduce its importance in product manufacturing. PMID:26216182

  5. Medication Waste Reduction in Pediatric Pharmacy Batch Processes

    PubMed Central

    Veltri, Michael A.; Hamrock, Eric; Mollenkopf, Nicole L.; Holt, Kristen; Levin, Scott

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To inform pediatric cart-fill batch scheduling for reductions in pharmaceutical waste using a case study and simulation analysis. METHODS: A pre and post intervention and simulation analysis was conducted during 3 months at a 205-bed children's center. An algorithm was developed to detect wasted medication based on time-stamped computerized provider order entry information. The algorithm was used to quantify pharmaceutical waste and associated costs for both preintervention (1 batch per day) and postintervention (3 batches per day) schedules. Further, simulation was used to systematically test 108 batch schedules outlining general characteristics that have an impact on the likelihood for waste. RESULTS: Switching from a 1-batch-per-day to a 3-batch-per-day schedule resulted in a 31.3% decrease in pharmaceutical waste (28.7% to 19.7%) and annual cost savings of $183,380. Simulation results demonstrate how increasing batch frequency facilitates a more just-in-time process that reduces waste. The most substantial gains are realized by shifting from a schedule of 1 batch per day to at least 2 batches per day. The simulation exhibits how waste reduction is also achievable by avoiding batch preparation during daily time periods where medication administration or medication discontinuations are frequent. Last, the simulation was used to show how reducing batch preparation time per batch provides some, albeit minimal, opportunity to decrease waste. CONCLUSIONS: The case study and simulation analysis demonstrate characteristics of batch scheduling that may support pediatric pharmacy managers in redesign toward minimizing pharmaceutical waste. PMID:25024671

  6. Fermentation of Cellulosic Substrates in Batch and Continuous Culture by Clostridium thermocellum

    PubMed Central

    Lynd, Lee Rybeck; Grethlein, Hans E.; Wolkin, Richard H.

    1989-01-01

    Fermentation of dilute-acid-pretreated mixed hardwood and Avicel by Clostridium thermocellum was compared in batch and continuous cultures. Maximum specific growth rates per hour obtained on cellulosic substrates were 0.1 in batch culture and >0.13 in continuous culture. Cell yields (grams of cells per gram of substrate) in batch culture were 0.17 for pretreated wood and 0.15 for Avicel. Ethanol and acetate were the main products observed under all conditions. Ethanol:acetate ratios (in grams) were approximately 1.8:1 in batch culture and generally slightly less than 1:1 in continuous culture. Utilization of cellulosic substrates was essentially complete in batch culture. A prolonged lag phase was initially observed in batch culture on pretreated wood; the length of the lag phase could be shortened by addition of cell-free spent medium. In continuous culture with ∼5 g of glucose equivalent per liter in the feed, substrate conversion relative to theoretical ranged from 0.86 at a dilution rate (D) of 0.05/h to 0.48 at a D of 0.167/h for Avicel and from 0.75 at a D of 0.05/h to 0.43 at a D of 0.11/h for pretreated wood. At feed concentrations of <4.5 g of glucose equivalent per liter, conversion of pretreated wood was 80 to 90% at D = 0.083/h. Lower conversion was obtained at higher feed substrate concentrations, consistent with a limiting factor other than cellulose. Free Avicelase activities of 12 to 84 mU/ml were observed, with activity increasing in this order: batch cellobiose, batch pretreated wood < batch Avicel, continuous pretreated wood < continuous Avicel. Free cellulase activity was higher at increasing extents of substrate utilization for both pretreated wood and Avicel under all conditions tested. The results indicate that fermentation parameters, with the exception of free cellulase activity, are essentially the same for pretreated mixed hardwood and Avicel under a variety of conditions. Hydrolysis yields obtained with C. thermocellum cellulase acting

  7. The Role of Patients’ Age on Their Preferences for Choosing Additional Blood Pressure-Lowering Drugs: A Discrete Choice Experiment in Patients with Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    de Vries, Sieta T.; de Vries, Folgerdiena M.; Dekker, Thijs; Haaijer-Ruskamp, Flora M.; de Zeeuw, Dick; Ranchor, Adelita V.; Denig, Petra

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To assess whether patients’ willingness to add a blood pressure-lowering drug and the importance they attach to specific treatment characteristics differ among age groups in patients with type 2 diabetes. Materials and Methods Patients being prescribed at least an oral glucose-lowering and a blood pressure-lowering drug completed a questionnaire including a discrete choice experiment. This experiment contained choice sets with hypothetical blood pressure-lowering drugs and a no additional drug alternative, which differed in their characteristics (i.e. effects and intake moments). Differences in willingness to add a drug were compared between patients <75 years (non-aged) and ≥75 years (aged) using Pearson χ2-tests. Multinomial logit models were used to assess and compare the importance attached to the characteristics. Results Of the 161 patients who completed the questionnaire, 151 (72%) could be included in the analyses (mean age 68 years; 42% female). Aged patients were less willing to add a drug than non-aged patients (67% versus 84% respectively; P = 0.017). In both age groups, the effect on blood pressure was most important for choosing a drug, followed by the risk of adverse drug events and the risk of death. The effect on limitations due to stroke was only significant in the non-aged group. The effect on blood pressure was slightly more important in the non-aged than the aged group (P = 0.043). Conclusions Aged patients appear less willing to add a preventive drug than non-aged patients. The importance attached to various treatment characteristics does not seem to differ much among age groups. PMID:26445349

  8. A high-throughput media design approach for high performance mammalian fed-batch cultures

    PubMed Central

    Rouiller, Yolande; Périlleux, Arnaud; Collet, Natacha; Jordan, Martin; Stettler, Matthieu; Broly, Hervé

    2013-01-01

    An innovative high-throughput medium development method based on media blending was successfully used to improve the performance of a Chinese hamster ovary fed-batch medium in shaking 96-deepwell plates. Starting from a proprietary chemically-defined medium, 16 formulations testing 43 of 47 components at 3 different levels were designed. Media blending was performed following a custom-made mixture design of experiments considering binary blends, resulting in 376 different blends that were tested during both cell expansion and fed-batch production phases in one single experiment. Three approaches were chosen to provide the best output of the large amount of data obtained. A simple ranking of conditions was first used as a quick approach to select new formulations with promising features. Then, prediction of the best mixes was done to maximize both growth and titer using the Design Expert software. Finally, a multivariate analysis enabled identification of individual potential critical components for further optimization. Applying this high-throughput method on a fed-batch, rather than on a simple batch, process opens new perspectives for medium and feed development that enables identification of an optimized process in a short time frame. PMID:23563583

  9. Accumulation of poly[(R)-3-hydroxyalkanoates] in Pseudomonas oleovorans during growth in batch and chemostat culture with different carbon sources.

    PubMed

    Durner, R; Zinn, M; Witholt, B; Egli, T

    2001-02-01

    Pseudomonas oleovorans (ATCC 29347) was grown in batch and chemostat cultures with citrate, hexanoate, heptanoate, octanoate, and nonanoate as single carbon substrates. The growth medium for batch cultures was adjusted such that nitrogen (NH(4)(+)) limitation terminated the exponential-growth phase. During batch cultivation with octanoate or nonanoate the biomass continued to increase after depletion of ammonium due to the accumulation of medium-chain-length poly[(R)-3-hydroxyalkanoates] (mcl-PHAs). Additionally, a significant rate of mcl-PHA accumulation was also observed in the exponential-growth phase of batch cultures. It is well known that the accumulation of reserve materials is strongly dependent on the ratio of nutrients (here of carbon, C, and of nitrogen, N) and that in a batch culture the ratio of C:N is continuously changing. Therefore, we have also investigated the effect of defined ratios of C:N under constant cultivation conditions, namely at a fixed dilution rate (D) in a chemostat fed with different medium C:N ratios. These experiments were performed at a constant D of 0.2 h(-1). The concentration of the nitrogen source in the inflowing medium (N()) was kept constant, while its carbon concentration (C()) was increased stepwise, resulting in an increase of the medium carbon to nitrogen ratio (C()/N() ratio). The culture parameters and the cell composition of steady-state cultures were determined as a function of the C()/N() ratio in the feed medium. Mcl-PHA accumulation was detected during growth with the fatty acids, and three distinct regimes of growth limitation were discovered: In addition to carbon limitation at low, and nitrogen limitation at high C()/N() ratios, an intermediate growth regime of simultaneous limitation by carbon and nitrogen was detected where both substrates were used to completion. The width of this dual-nutrient-limited growth regime was dependent on the change in the yield factors for carbon and nitrogen (Y(X/C), Y

  10. Reactive Scheduling in Multipurpose Batch Plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayani, A.; Shaik, Munawar A.

    2010-10-01

    Scheduling is an important operation in process industries for improving resource utilization resulting in direct economic benefits. It has a two-fold objective of fulfilling customer orders within the specified time as well as maximizing the plant profit. Unexpected disturbances such as machine breakdown, arrival of rush orders and cancellation of orders affect the schedule of the plant. Reactive scheduling is generation of a new schedule which has minimum deviation from the original schedule in spite of the occurrence of unexpected events in the plant operation. Recently, Shaik & Floudas (2009) proposed a novel unified model for short-term scheduling of multipurpose batch plants using unit-specific event-based continuous time representation. In this paper, we extend the model of Shaik & Floudas (2009) to handle reactive scheduling.

  11. Upscaling of U(VI) Desorption Modeling from Batch Scale to Decimeter Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kannappan, R.; Hay, M. B.; Miller, A. W.; Kohler, M.; Rodriguez, D.; Davis, J. A.; Curtis, G. P.

    2012-12-01

    Uranium (VI) is a contaminant of concern in several groundwater aquifers at many former uranium mills and processing facilities. Understanding the migration of U(VI) is important in assessing the risk of groundwater contamination and the efficacy of treatment options. Accurate prediction of field-scale migration is difficult because often key model parameters such as adsorption equilibrium and rate parameters are determined in batch scale experiments. These parameters need to be upscaled when used to simulate larger scale simulations. To better understand the impact of scale on transport, this research incorporates previous batch scale experimental data in the interpretation of decimeter scale tank experiments involving uranium desorption. In the decimeter scale experiments, different grain size fractions were used to create porous media systems with known physical and chemical heterogeneity. Tracer results allowed hydraulic parameters to be calibrated independently of chemical equilibrium parameters. Geochemical observations were used to evaluate alternative adsorption and mass transfer models with varying complexity. Surface complexation models derived from batch experiments were evaluated under different decimeter scale model conditions. A two dimensional reactive transport model was calibrated to the decimeter scale experiments and the model reproduced the observed transport. The flux-averaged concentrations exiting the tank were also reproduced by a one dimensional model that included a dual porosity formulation to account for heterogeneity. The decimeter scale model calibrations help determine the effectiveness of these methods of reducing complexity, which can later be applied to improve predictions of tracer and site scale systems.

  12. In Vitro Growth of Curcuma longa L. in Response to Five Mineral Elements and Plant Density in Fed-Batch Culture Systems

    PubMed Central

    El-Hawaz, Rabia F.; Bridges, William C.; Adelberg, Jeffrey W.

    2015-01-01

    Plant density was varied with P, Ca, Mg, and KNO3 in a multifactor experiment to improve Curcuma longa L. micropropagation, biomass and microrhizome development in fed-batch liquid culture. The experiment had two paired D-optimal designs, testing sucrose fed-batch and nutrient sucrose fed-batch techniques. When sucrose became depleted, volume was restored to 5% m/v sucrose in 200 ml of modified liquid MS medium by adding sucrose solutions. Similarly, nutrient sucrose fed-batch was restored to set points with double concentration of treatments’ macronutrient and MS micronutrient solutions, along with sucrose solutions. Changes in the amounts of water and sucrose supplementations were driven by the interaction of P and KNO3 concentrations. Increasing P from 1.25 to 6.25 mM increased both multiplication and biomass. The multiplication ratio was greatest in the nutrient sucrose fed-batch technique with the highest level of P, 6 buds/vessel, and the lowest level of Ca and KNO3. The highest density (18 buds/vessel) produced the highest fresh biomass at the highest concentrations of KNO3 and P with nutrient sucrose fed-batch, and moderate Ca and Mg concentrations. However, maximal rhizome dry biomass required highest P, sucrose fed-batch, and a moderate plant density. Different media formulations and fed-batch techniques were identified to maximize the propagation and storage organ responses. A single experimental design was used to optimize these dual purposes. PMID:25830292

  13. Food additives.

    PubMed

    Berglund, F

    1978-01-01

    The use of additives to food fulfils many purposes, as shown by the index issued by the Codex Committee on Food Additives: Acids, bases and salts; Preservatives, Antioxidants and antioxidant synergists; Anticaking agents; Colours; Emulfifiers; Thickening agents; Flour-treatment agents; Extraction solvents; Carrier solvents; Flavours (synthetic); Flavour enhancers; Non-nutritive sweeteners; Processing aids; Enzyme preparations. Many additives occur naturally in foods, but this does not exclude toxicity at higher levels. Some food additives are nutrients, or even essential nutritents, e.g. NaCl. Examples are known of food additives causing toxicity in man even when used according to regulations, e.g. cobalt in beer. In other instances, poisoning has been due to carry-over, e.g. by nitrate in cheese whey - when used for artificial feed for infants. Poisonings also occur as the result of the permitted substance being added at too high levels, by accident or carelessness, e.g. nitrite in fish. Finally, there are examples of hypersensitivity to food additives, e.g. to tartrazine and other food colours. The toxicological evaluation, based on animal feeding studies, may be complicated by impurities, e.g. orthotoluene-sulfonamide in saccharin; by transformation or disappearance of the additive in food processing in storage, e.g. bisulfite in raisins; by reaction products with food constituents, e.g. formation of ethylurethane from diethyl pyrocarbonate; by metabolic transformation products, e.g. formation in the gut of cyclohexylamine from cyclamate. Metabolic end products may differ in experimental animals and in man: guanylic acid and inosinic acid are metabolized to allantoin in the rat but to uric acid in man. The magnitude of the safety margin in man of the Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) is not identical to the "safety factor" used when calculating the ADI. The symptoms of Chinese Restaurant Syndrome, although not hazardous, furthermore illustrate that the whole ADI

  14. ADHD diagnosis from multiple data sources with batch effects.

    PubMed

    Olivetti, Emanuele; Greiner, Susanne; Avesani, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    The Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) affects the school-age population and has large social costs. The scientific community is still lacking a pathophysiological model of the disorder and there are no objective biomarkers to support the diagnosis. In 2011 the ADHD-200 Consortium provided a rich, heterogeneous neuroimaging dataset aimed at studying neural correlates of ADHD and to promote the development of systems for automated diagnosis. Concurrently a competition was set up with the goal of addressing the wide range of different types of data for the accurate prediction of the presence of ADHD. Phenotypic information, structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans and resting state fMRI recordings were provided for nearly 1000 typical and non-typical young individuals. Data were collected by eight different research centers in the consortium. This work is not concerned with the main task of the contest, i.e., achieving a high prediction accuracy on the competition dataset, but we rather address the proper handling of such a heterogeneous dataset when performing classification-based analysis. Our interest lies in the clustered structure of the data causing the so-called batch effects which have strong impact when assessing the performance of classifiers built on the ADHD-200 dataset. We propose a method to eliminate the biases introduced by such batch effects. Its application on the ADHD-200 dataset generates such a significant drop in prediction accuracy that most of the conclusions from a standard analysis had to be revised. In addition we propose to adopt the dissimilarity representation to set up effective representation spaces for the heterogeneous ADHD-200 dataset. Moreover we propose to evaluate the quality of predictions through a recently proposed test of independence in order to cope with the unbalancedness of the dataset. PMID:23060755

  15. Batch-to-batch uniformity of bacterial community succession and flavor formation in the fermentation of Zhenjiang aromatic vinegar.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zong-Min; Lu, Zhen-Ming; Yu, Yong-Jian; Li, Guo-Quan; Shi, Jin-Song; Xu, Zheng-Hong

    2015-09-01

    Solid-state fermentation of traditional Chinese vinegar is a mixed-culture refreshment process that proceeds for many centuries without spoilage. Here, we investigated bacterial community succession and flavor formation in three batches of Zhenjiang aromatic vinegar using pyrosequencing and metabolomics approaches. Temporal patterns of bacterial succession in the Pei (solid-state vinegar culture) showed no significant difference (P > 0.05) among three batches of fermentation. In all the batches investigated, the average number of community operational taxonomic units (OTUs) decreased dramatically from 119 ± 11 on day 1 to 48 ± 16 on day 3, and then maintained in the range of 61 ± 9 from day 5 to the end of fermentation. We confirmed that, within a batch of fermentation process, the patterns of bacterial diversity between the starter (took from the last batch of vinegar culture on day 7) and the Pei on day 7 were similar (90%). The relative abundance dynamics of two dominant members, Lactobacillus and Acetobacter, showed high correlation (coefficient as 0.90 and 0.98 respectively) among different batches. Furthermore, statistical analysis revealed dynamics of 16 main flavor metabolites were stable among different batches. The findings validate the batch-to-batch uniformity of bacterial community succession and flavor formation accounts for the quality of Zhenjiang aromatic vinegar. Based on our understanding, this is the first study helps to explain the rationality of age-old artistry from a scientific perspective. PMID:25998816

  16. Addition of trim coils to the Tandem Mirror Experiment Upgrade (TMX-U) magnet system to improve the magnetic field mapping

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, R.L.; Pedrotti, L.R.; Baldwin, D.E.; Hibbs, S.M.; Hill, D.N.; Hornady, R.H.; Jackson, M.C.

    1985-11-14

    The mapping of the magnetic flux bundle from the center cell to the Plasma Potential Control plates (PPC) on the end fan of the Tandem Mirror Experiment Upgrade (TMX-U), was improved by the addition of trim coils (12,000 amp-turns) on each side of each end fan next to the pump beam magnetic shields. The coils' axes are oriented perpendicular to the machine centerline. These coils made the necessary corrections to the field-line mapping, while keeping the field in the nearby pump beam magnetic shield below the saturation threshold. This paper briefly describes the problem, discusses the design as it evolved, and presents the results of the field testing. The disturbance to the field mapping and the appropriate corrections were determined using the code GFUN (a three dimensional electromagnetic field analysis code that includes the presence of permeable materials). The racetrack-shaped coils have dimensions of 1.5 feet by 3 feet and are powered by a renovated 600 kW Bart-Messing power supply controlled by the machine's magnet control system. The magnets were fabricated from polyimide-coated magnet wire. They are rated to 200/sup 0/C, although in pulsed operation they rise only a few degrees centigrade. The coils are placed outside of the vacuum system, and thus are considerably simpler than the other machine magnets. The restraints are designed to withstand a force of 1000 pounds per coil and a turning moment of 1000 foot pounds. The calculated field strengths were verified on the machine by inserting a Hall probe along the axis. The perturbations to the neutral beam magnetic shields were also measured. A brief description of the improvement in the machine performance is also included.

  17. Inhibition of pyrite oxidation by surface coating agents: Batch and field studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Jaeyoung; Do Gee, Eun; Yun, Hyun-Shik; Ram Lee, Woo; Park, Young-Tae

    2013-04-01

    The potential of several surface coating agents to inhibit the oxidation of metal sulfide minerals from Young-Dong coal mine and the Il-Gwang gold mine was examined by conducting laboratory scale batch experiments and field tests. Powdered pyrite as a standard sulfide mineral and rock samples from two mine outcrops were mixed with six coating agents (KH2PO4, MgO and KMnO4 as chemical agents, and apatite, cement and manganite as mineral agents) and incubated with oxidizing agents (H2O2 or NaClO). For the observed time period (8 days), Young-Dong coal mine samples exhibited the least sulfate (SO42-) production in the presence of KMnO4 (16%) or cement (4%) while, for Il-Gwang mine samples, the least SO42- production was observed in presence of KH2PO4 (8%) or cement (2%) compared to control. Field-scale pilot tests at the Il-Gwang site also showed that addition of KH2PO4 decreased SO42- production from 200 to 13 mg L-1 and it also reduced Cu and Mn from 8 and 3 mg L-1, respectively to <0.05 mg L-1 (below ICP-OES detection limits). The experimental results suggested that the use of surface coating agents is a promising alternative for sulfide oxidation inhibition at acid mine drainage sites.

  18. Inhibition of sulfide mineral oxidation by surface coating agents: batch and field studies.

    PubMed

    Ji, Min-Kyu; Gee, Eun-Do; Yun, Hyun-Shik; Lee, Woo-Ram; Park, Young-Tae; Khan, Moonis Ali; Jeon, Byong-Hun; Choi, Jaeyoung

    2012-08-30

    The potential of several surface coating agents to inhibit the oxidation of metal sulfide minerals from Young-Dong coal mine and the Il-Gwang gold mine was examined by conducting laboratory scale batch experiments and field tests. Powdered pyrite as a standard sulfide mineral and rock samples from two mine outcrops were mixed with six coating agents (KH(2)PO(4), MgO and KMnO(4) as chemical agents, and apatite, cement and manganite as mineral agents) and incubated with oxidizing agents (H(2)O(2) or NaClO). For the observed time period (8 days), Young-Dong coal mine samples exhibited the least sulfate (SO(4)(2-)) production in the presence of KMnO(4) (16%) or cement (4%) while, for Il-Gwang mine samples, the least SO(4)(2-) production was observed in presence of KH(2)PO(4) (8%) or cement (2%) compared to control. Field-scale pilot tests at the Il-Gwang site also showed that addition of KH(2)PO(4) decreased SO(4)(2-) production from 200 to 13 mg L(-1) and it also reduced Cu and Mn from 8 and 3 mg L(-1), respectively to <0.05 mg L(-1) (below ICP-OES detection limits). The experimental results suggested that the use of surface coating agents is a promising alternative for sulfide oxidation inhibition at acid mine drainage sites. PMID:22727481

  19. Searching CA Condensates, On-Line and Batch.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaminecki, Ronald M.; And Others

    Batch mode processing is compared, using cost-effectiveness, with on-line processing for computer-aided searching of chemical abstracts. Consideration for time, need, coverage, and adaptability are found to be the criteria by which a searcher selects a method, and sometimes both methods are used. There is a tradeoff between batch mode's slower…

  20. INTERIOR VIEW SHOWING BATCH SCALES. SERIES OF FIVE SCALES WITH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW SHOWING BATCH SCALES. SERIES OF FIVE SCALES WITH SIX DIFFERENT MATERIALS. MIX SIFTED DOWN FROM SILOS ABOVE. INGREDIENTS: SAND, SODA ASH, DOLOMITE LIMESTONE, NEPHELINE SYENITE, SALT CAKE. - Chambers-McKee Window Glass Company, Batch Plant, Clay Avenue Extension, Jeannette, Westmoreland County, PA

  1. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart H of... - Batch Processes

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Batch Processes 1 Table 1 to Subpart H... Standards for Organic Hazardous Air Pollutants for Equipment Leaks Pt. 63, Subpt. H, Table 1 Table 1 to Subpart H of Part 63—Batch Processes Monitoring Frequency for Equipment Other than Connectors...

  2. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart H of... - Batch Processes

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Batch Processes 1 Table 1 to Subpart H... Standards for Organic Hazardous Air Pollutants for Equipment Leaks Pt. 63, Subpt. H, Table 1 Table 1 to Subpart H of Part 63—Batch Processes Monitoring Frequency for Equipment Other than Connectors...

  3. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart H of... - Batch Processes

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Batch Processes 1 Table 1 to Subpart H... Subpart H of Part 63—Batch Processes Monitoring Frequency for Equipment Other than Connectors Operating time (% of year) Equivalent continuous process monitoring frequency time in use Monthly...

  4. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart H of... - Batch Processes

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Batch Processes 1 Table 1 to Subpart H... Subpart H of Part 63—Batch Processes Monitoring Frequency for Equipment Other than Connectors Operating time (% of year) Equivalent continuous process monitoring frequency time in use Monthly...

  5. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart H of... - Batch Processes

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Batch Processes 1 Table 1 to Subpart H... Standards for Organic Hazardous Air Pollutants for Equipment Leaks Pt. 63, Subpt. H, Table 1 Table 1 to Subpart H of Part 63—Batch Processes Monitoring Frequency for Equipment Other than Connectors...

  6. IMPLEMENTATION OF SEQUENCING BATCH REACTORS FOR MUNICIPAL TREATMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sequencing batch reactor technology is being implemented at various municipal sites in both the United States and abroad. Total life cycle cost savings, ease of operation, and reliability favor this technology at facilities sized up to 19,000 cu m per day (5 mgd). Batch treatment...

  7. System Requirements for On-Line and Batch Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Society for Information Science, Washington, DC. Special Interest Group on Computerized Retrieval Services.

    Three papers on system requirements for on-line and batch retrieval presented at the American Society for Information Science (ASIS) annual meeting are included here. At G.D. Searle, data for records related to pharmacology screening are used in a batch system, and an on-line system is used to search information on mutagenic, carcinogenic, and…

  8. 27 CFR 19.598 - Dump/batch records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Dump/batch records. 19.598 Section 19.598 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Records and Reports Processing Records § 19.598 Dump/batch records. A proprietor...

  9. Column and batch tests of sulfonamide leaching from different types of soil.

    PubMed

    Maszkowska, Joanna; Kołodziejska, Marta; Białk-Bielińska, Anna; Mrozik, Wojciech; Kumirska, Jolanta; Stepnowski, Piotr; Palavinskas, Richard; Krüger, Oliver; Kalbe, Ute

    2013-09-15

    Sulfonamides (SAs) and their metabolites present severe hazards to human health and the environment, mainly because of antibiotic resistance. Knowledge of their bioavailability, including their sorption to soils and their impact on the soil-groundwater pathway, is crucial to their risk assessment. Laboratory batch and column leaching tests are important tools for determining the release potential of contaminants from soil or waste materials. Batch and column tests were carried out with soils differing in particle size distribution, organic matter content and pH, each spiked with sulfonamides (sulfadimethoxine (SDM), sulfaguanidine (SGD), sulfisoxazole (SX)). In order to test the applicability of leaching tests to polar contaminants batch and column tests were also compared. In the column tests, release was found to depend on the properties of both soil and sulfonamides. The fastest release was observed for coarse-grained soil with the smallest organic matter content (MS soil; 100% decrease in concentration until liquid-to-solid ratio (L/S) of 0.9 L kg(-1) for all SAs). The slowest release was established for sulfadimethoxine (24.5% decrease in concentration until L/S 1.22 L kg(-1)). The results of the batch and column tests were comparable to a large extent, with slightly higher concentrations being obtained in the column test experiments of fine-grained soils with a high organic matter content. PMID:23811368

  10. Power consumption evaluation of different fed-batch strategies for enzymatic hydrolysis of sugarcane bagasse.

    PubMed

    Corrêa, Luciano Jacob; Badino, Alberto Colli; Cruz, Antonio José Gonçalves

    2016-05-01

    The minimization of costs in the distillation step of lignocellulosic ethanol production requires the use of a high solids loading during the enzymatic hydrolysis to obtain a more concentrated glucose liquor. However, this increase in biomass can lead to problems including increased mass and heat transfer resistance, decreased cellulose conversion, and increased apparent viscosity with the associated increase in power consumption. The use of fed-batch operation offers a promising way to circumvent these problems. In this study, one batch and four fed-batch strategies for solids and/or enzyme feeding during the enzymatic hydrolysis of sugarcane bagasse were evaluated. Determinations of glucose concentration, power consumption, and apparent viscosity were made throughout the experiments, and the different strategies were compared in terms of energy efficiency (mass of glucose produced according to the energy consumed). The best energy efficiency was obtained for the strategy in which substrate and enzyme were added simultaneously (0.35 kg(glucose) kWh⁻¹). This value was 52% higher than obtained in batch operation. PMID:26899602

  11. Dynamic Simulation of Batch Photocatalytic Reactor (BPR) for Wastewater Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutta, Suman

    2012-08-01

    Reactive dyes discharged from dyehouse causes a serious environmental problem. UV/TiO2 photocatalysis has been employed effectively for these organic dyes removal from dye-house effluent. This process produces less amount of non-toxic final product. In this paper a photocatalytic reactor has been designed for Reactive red 198 (RR198) removal from aqueous solution. The reactor is operating in batch mode. After each batch, TiO2 catalyst has been separated and recycled in the next batch. Mathematical model equation of this batch photocatalytic reactor (BPR) has been developed considering Langmuir-Hinshelwood kinetics. Simulation of BPR has been carried out using fourth order Runge-Kutta (RK) method and fifth order RK method (Butcher method). This simulation results can be used to develop an automatic photocatlytic reactor for industrial wastewater treatment. Catalyst activity decay and its effect on each batch have been incorporated in this model.

  12. Nisin production in realkalized fed-batch cultures in whey with feeding with lactose- or glucose-containing substrates.

    PubMed

    Costas Malvido, Mónica; Alonso González, Elisa; Pérez Guerra, Nelson

    2016-09-01

    Nisin production by Lactococcus lactis CECT 539 was followed in batch cultures in whey supplemented with different concentrations of glucose and in two realkalized fed-batch fermentations in unsupplemented whey, which were fed, respectively, with concentrated solutions of lactose and glucose. In the batch fermentations, supplementation of whey with glucose inhibited both the growth and bacteriocin production. However, fed-batch cultures were characterized with high productions of biomass (1.34 and 1.51 g l(-1)) and nisin (50.6 and 60.3 BU ml(-1)) in comparison to the batch fermentations in unsupplemented whey (0.48 g l(-1) and 22.5 BU ml(-1)) and MRS broth (1.59 g l(-1) and 50.0 BU ml(-1)). In the two realkalized fed-batch fermentations, the increase in bacteriocin production parallels both the biomass production and pH drop generated in each realkalization and feeding cycle, suggesting that nisin was synthesized as a pH-dependent primary metabolite. A shift from homolactic to heterolactic fermentation was observed at the 108 h of incubation, and other metabolites (acetic acid and butane-2,3-diol) in addition to lactic acid accumulated in the medium. On the other hand, the feeding with glucose improved the efficiencies in glucose, nitrogen, and phosphorus consumption as compared to the batch cultures. The realkalized fed-batch fermentations showed to be an effective strategy to enhance nisin production in whey by using an appropriate feeding strategy to avoid the substrate inhibition. PMID:27112347

  13. Potlining Additives

    SciTech Connect

    Rudolf Keller

    2004-08-10

    In this project, a concept to improve the performance of aluminum production cells by introducing potlining additives was examined and tested. Boron oxide was added to cathode blocks, and titanium was dissolved in the metal pool; this resulted in the formation of titanium diboride and caused the molten aluminum to wet the carbonaceous cathode surface. Such wetting reportedly leads to operational improvements and extended cell life. In addition, boron oxide suppresses cyanide formation. This final report presents and discusses the results of this project. Substantial economic benefits for the practical implementation of the technology are projected, especially for modern cells with graphitized blocks. For example, with an energy savings of about 5% and an increase in pot life from 1500 to 2500 days, a cost savings of $ 0.023 per pound of aluminum produced is projected for a 200 kA pot.

  14. Phosphazene additives

    SciTech Connect

    Harrup, Mason K; Rollins, Harry W

    2013-11-26

    An additive comprising a phosphazene compound that has at least two reactive functional groups and at least one capping functional group bonded to phosphorus atoms of the phosphazene compound. One of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with cellulose and the other of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with a resin, such as an amine resin of a polycarboxylic acid resin. The at least one capping functional group is selected from the group consisting of a short chain ether group, an alkoxy group, or an aryloxy group. Also disclosed are an additive-resin admixture, a method of treating a wood product, and a wood product.

  15. The development of an industrial-scale fed-batch fermentation simulation.

    PubMed

    Goldrick, Stephen; Ştefan, Andrei; Lovett, David; Montague, Gary; Lennox, Barry

    2015-01-10

    This paper describes a simulation of an industrial-scale fed-batch fermentation that can be used as a benchmark in process systems analysis and control studies. The simulation was developed using a mechanistic model and validated using historical data collected from an industrial-scale penicillin fermentation process. Each batch was carried out in a 100,000 L bioreactor that used an industrial strain of Penicillium chrysogenum. The manipulated variables recorded during each batch were used as inputs to the simulator and the predicted outputs were then compared with the on-line and off-line measurements recorded in the real process. The simulator adapted a previously published structured model to describe the penicillin fermentation and extended it to include the main environmental effects of dissolved oxygen, viscosity, temperature, pH and dissolved carbon dioxide. In addition the effects of nitrogen and phenylacetic acid concentrations on the biomass and penicillin production rates were also included. The simulated model predictions of all the on-line and off-line process measurements, including the off-gas analysis, were in good agreement with the batch records. The simulator and industrial process data are available to download at www.industrialpenicillinsimulation.com and can be used to evaluate, study and improve on the current control strategy implemented on this facility. PMID:25449107

  16. Optimization of high solids fed-batch saccharification of sugarcane bagasse based on system viscosity changes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yunyun; Xu, Jingliang; Zhang, Yu; Yuan, Zhenhong; Xie, Jun

    2015-10-10

    Viscosity trends in alkali-pretreated sugarcane bagasse (SCB) slurries undergoing high solids fed-batch enzymatic hydrolysis were measured for a range of solids loading from 15% to 36%. Solids liquefaction times were related to system viscosity changes. The viscosity decreased quickly for low solids loading, and increased with increasing solids content. Fed-batch hydrolysis was initiated with 15% solids loading, and an additional 8%, 7% and 6% were successively added after the system viscosity decreased to stable values to achieve a final solids content of 36%. Two enzyme-adding modes with 8.5FPU/g solid were investigated. The batch mode with all enzyme being added at the beginning of the reaction produced the highest yields, with approximately 231.7g/L total sugars and 134.9g/L glucose being obtained after 96h with nearly 60% of the final glucan conversion rate. This finding indicates that under the right conditions, the fed-batch strategy might be a plausible way to produce high sugars under high solids. PMID:26150018

  17. Cold Pad-Batch dyeing method for cotton fabric dyeing with reactive dyes using ultrasonic energy.

    PubMed

    Khatri, Zeeshan; Memon, Muhammad Hanif; Khatri, Awais; Tanwari, Anwaruddin

    2011-11-01

    Reactive dyes are vastly used in dyeing and printing of cotton fibre. These dyes have a distinctive reactive nature due to active groups which form covalent bonds with -OH groups of cotton through substitution and/or addition mechanism. Among many methods used for dyeing cotton with reactive dyes, the Cold Pad Batch (CPB) method is relatively more environment friendly due to high dye fixation and non requirement of thermal energy. The dyed fabric production rate is low due to requirement of at least twelve hours batching time for dye fixation. The proposed CPB method for dyeing cotton involves ultrasonic energy resulting into a one third decrease in batching time. The dyeing of cotton fibre was carried out with CI reactive red 195 and CI reactive black 5 by conventional and ultrasonic (US) method. The study showed that the use of ultrasonic energy not only shortens the batching time but the alkalis concentrations can considerably be reduced. In this case, the colour strength (K/S) and dye fixation (%F) also enhances without any adverse effect on colour fastness of the dyed fabric. The appearance of dyed fibre surface using scanning electron microscope (SEM) showed relative straightening of fibre convolutions and significant swelling of the fibre upon ultrasonic application. The total colour difference values ΔE (CMC) for the proposed method, were found within close proximity to the conventionally dyed sample. PMID:21550289

  18. Geochemistry of batch-extract waters derived from spoil material collected at the Cordero coal mine, Powder River basin, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Naftz, D.L.

    1990-01-01

    Batch-mixing experiments to evaluate postmining water quality at the Cordero Mine were conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey during 1984 to 1985. Contact of groundwater from the spoil aquifer with fresh spoil material caused only small changes in major-element concentrations and in pH, unless sulfide oxidation or contact with soluble salts, such as epsomite, occurred. In contrast, large changes in major-element concentration resulted when water from the coal aquifer contacted the spoil material. Only three of seven reaction models considered to explain the water quality changes during the batch-mixing experiments were consistent with the thermodynamic and mineralogical data. The three models used to account for the observed water quality changes derived potassium from potassium feldspar; magnesium from chlorite or epsomite or both; sodium from cation exchange and halite; chloride from halite; silica from potassium feldspar and chlorite; sulfate from gypsum, or epsomite or both, and carbon from carbon dioxide. In general, water quality samples obtained from the batch-mixing experiments using water from the coal aquifer had smaller major-ion concentrations than the actual water quality in the spoil aquifer. These differences can be explained by the limited amount of efflorescent salt dissolution and volume of water used in the experiments. Correction ratios calculated for these experiments may be applied to batch-mixing experiments at other mines in the area, to predict postmining water quality. (USGS)

  19. Kinetic study of batch and fed-batch enzymatic saccharification of pretreated substrate and subsequent fermentation to ethanol

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Enzymatic hydrolysis, the rate limiting step in the process development for biofuel, is always hampered by its low sugar concentration. High solid enzymatic saccharification could solve this problem but has several other drawbacks such as low rate of reaction. In the present study we have attempted to enhance the concentration of sugars in enzymatic hydrolysate of delignified Prosopis juliflora, using a fed-batch enzymatic hydrolysis approach. Results The enzymatic hydrolysis was carried out at elevated solid loading up to 20% (w/v) and a comparison kinetics of batch and fed-batch enzymatic hydrolysis was carried out using kinetic regimes. Under batch mode, the actual sugar concentration values at 20% initial substrate consistency were found deviated from the predicted values and the maximum sugar concentration obtained was 80.78 g/L. Fed-batch strategy was implemented to enhance the final sugar concentration to 127 g/L. The batch and fed-batch enzymatic hydrolysates were fermented with Saccharomyces cerevisiae and ethanol production of 34.78 g/L and 52.83 g/L, respectively, were achieved. Furthermore, model simulations showed that higher insoluble solids in the feed resulted in both smaller reactor volume and shorter residence time. Conclusion Fed-batch enzymatic hydrolysis is an efficient procedure for enhancing the sugar concentration in the hydrolysate. Restricting the process to suitable kinetic regimes could result in higher conversion rates. PMID:22433563

  20. Microfabrication-derived DDS: From batch to individual production.

    PubMed

    Takada, K

    2008-06-01

    As a result of recent advances in microfabrication technology (MFT), microparticles including microcapsules and microspheres can be prepared individually and the disadvantages of the conventional microparticles produced by batch production, i.e. (i) low loading efficiency, (ii) large size variation, and (iii) initial burst release, have been remedied. In addition, all conventional microparticles have the same structure, a spherical shape, so they have only one function, sustained release. Threelayer microcapsules (TLMCs) have been designed to address these issues. TLMCs consist of a surface layer, a drug carrying layer, and a basement layer. TLMCs have sustained release as well as adhesiveness and targeting functions. TLMCs are prepared using ink-jet printer nozzle technology. The obtained TLMCs are used for the oral delivery of peptide/protein drugs and long-term sustained-release injection preparation. In addition, self-dissolving micropiles (SDMPs) can be individually produced by MFT as a percutaneous preparation. MFT allows biopharmaceutical drugs like insulin, erythropoietin, and growth hormone to be absorbed through the skin. Thus, advances in MFT have accelerated the development of pharmaceutical technology. PMID:22504567

  1. Monitoring Uranium Transformations Determined by the Evolution of Biogeochemical Processes: Design of Mixed Batch Reactor and Column Studies at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Criddle, Craig S.; Wu, Weimin

    2013-04-17

    With funds provided by the US DOE, Argonne National Laboratory subcontracted the design of batch and column studies to a Stanford University team with field experience at the ORNL IFRC, Oak Ridge, TN. The contribution of the Stanford group ended in 2011 due to budget reduction in ANL. Over the funded research period, the Stanford research team characterized ORNL IFRC groundwater and sediments and set up microcosm reactors and columns at ANL to ensure that experiments were relevant to field conditions at Oak Ridge. The results of microcosm testing demonstrated that U(VI) in sediments was reduced to U(IV) with the addition of ethanol. The reduced products were not uraninite but were instead U(IV) complexes associated with Fe. Fe(III) in solid phase was only partially reduced. The Stanford team communicated with the ANL team members through email and conference calls and face to face at the annual ERSP PI meeting and national meetings.

  2. Iodide interactions with clay minerals: Batch and diffusion studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, A. W.; Kruichak, J.; Mills, M.; Wang, Y.

    2012-12-01

    Clay minerals are likely candidates to aid in nuclear waste isolation due to their low permeability, favorable swelling properties, and high cation sorption capacities. Iodine-129 is often the major driver of exposure risk from nuclear waste repositories at timescales >10,000 years. Therefore, understanding the geochemical cycling of iodine in clays is critical in developing defensible quantitative descriptions of nuclear waste disposal. Anions are not typically considered to interact with most clays as it is assumed that the fixed negative charge of clays actively repels the dissoloved anion. This is corroborated by many batch studies, but diffusion experiments in compacted clays have shown iodide retardation relative to chloride. The reasons for this are unknown; however, several possible hypotheses include: redox transformation controls on sorption behavior, complex surface charge environments due to overlapping charge domains, and sorption to ancillary minerals or weathering products. Seven different clay minerals have been examined using several techniques to chracterize the surface charge environment and iodide uptake. The use of a series of clays shifts the independent variable away from water chemistry characteristics (pH, contaminant concentration), and toward structural characterisitics of clay minerals including isomorphous substitution and clay texture. Iodide uptake batch experiments were completed with the clay minerals in a range of swamping electrolytes. The results give evidence for a novel uptake mechanism involving ion pair formation and iodide concentration within nano-confined environments. These results were further tested using diffusional columns where nano-confined regimes make up a larger proportion of the total porosity. These columns were compacted to different hydrostatic pressures and saturated with different ionic compositions. Porosity distributions were characterized with a fluoride tracer. Iodide diffusion characteristics were

  3. A versatile noninvasive method for adsorber quantification in batch and column chromatography based on the ionic capacity.

    PubMed

    Huuk, Thiemo C; Briskot, Till; Hahn, Tobias; Hubbuch, Jürgen

    2016-05-01

    Within the Quality by Design (QbD) framework proposed by the International Conference on Harmonisation (ICH), high-throughput process development (HTPD) and mechanistic modeling are of outstanding importance for future biopharmaceutical chromatography process development. In order to compare the data derived from different column scales or batch chromatographies, the amount of adsorber has to be quantified with the same noninvasive method. Similarly, an important requirement for the implementation of mechanistic modeling is the reliable determination of column characteristics such as the ionic capacity Λ for ion-exchange chromatography with the same method at all scales and formats. We developed a method to determine the ionic capacity in column and batch chromatography, based on the adsorption/desorption of the natural, uv-detectable amino acid histidine. In column chromatography, this method produces results comparable to those of classical acid-base titration. In contrast to acid-base titration, this method can be adapted to robotic batch chromatographic experiments. We are able to convert the adsorber volumes in batch chromatography to the equivalent volume of a compressed column. In a case study, we demonstrate that this method increases the quality of SMA parameters fitted to batch adsorption isotherms, and the capability to predict column breakthrough experiments. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 32:666-677, 2016. PMID:27324662

  4. Optimization of glutathione production in batch and fed-batch cultures by the wild-type and recombinant strains of the methylotrophic yeast Hansenula polymorpha DL-1

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Tripeptide glutathione (gamma-glutamyl-L-cysteinyl-glycine) is the most abundant non-protein thiol that protects cells from metabolic and oxidative stresses and is widely used as medicine, food additives and in cosmetic industry. The methylotrophic yeast Hansenula polymorpha is regarded as a rich source of glutathione due to the role of this thiol in detoxifications of key intermediates of methanol metabolism. Cellular and extracellular glutathione production of H. polymorpha DL-1 in the wild type and recombinant strains which overexpress genes of glutathione biosynthesis (GSH2) and its precursor cysteine (MET4) was studied. Results Glutathione producing capacity of H. polymorpha DL-1 depending on parameters of cultivation (dissolved oxygen tension, pH, stirrer speed), carbon substrate (glucose, methanol) and type of overexpressed genes of glutathione and its precursor biosynthesis during batch and fed-batch fermentations were studied. Under optimized conditions of glucose fed-batch cultivation, the glutathione productivity of the engineered strains was increased from ~900 up to ~ 2300 mg of Total Intracellular Glutathione (TIG) or GSH+GSSGin, per liter of culture medium. Meantime, methanol fed-batch cultivation of one of the recombinant strains allowed achieving the extracellular glutathione productivity up to 250 mg of Total Extracellular Glutathione (TEG) or GSH+GSSGex, per liter of the culture medium. Conclusions H. polymorpha is an competitive glutathione producer as compared to other known yeast and bacteria strains (Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Candida utilis, Escherichia coli, Lactococcus lactis etc.) with good perspectives for further improvement especially for production of extracellular form of glutathione. PMID:21255454

  5. A Framework for Batched and GPU-Resident Factorization Algorithms Applied to Block Householder Transformations

    SciTech Connect

    Dong, Tingzing Tim; Tomov, Stanimire Z; Luszczek, Piotr R; Dongarra, Jack J

    2015-01-01

    As modern hardware keeps evolving, an increasingly effective approach to developing energy efficient and high-performance solvers is to design them to work on many small size and independent problems. Many applications already need this functionality, especially for GPUs, which are currently known to be about four to five times more energy efficient than multicore CPUs. We describe the development of one-sided factorizations that work for a set of small dense matrices in parallel, and we illustrate our techniques on the QR factorization based on Householder transformations. We refer to this mode of operation as a batched factorization. Our approach is based on representing the algorithms as a sequence of batched BLAS routines for GPU-only execution. This is in contrast to the hybrid CPU-GPU algorithms that rely heavily on using the multicore CPU for specific parts of the workload. But for a system to benefit fully from the GPU's significantly higher energy efficiency, avoiding the use of the multicore CPU must be a primary design goal, so the system can rely more heavily on the more efficient GPU. Additionally, this will result in the removal of the costly CPU-to-GPU communication. Furthermore, we do not use a single symmetric multiprocessor(on the GPU) to factorize a single problem at a time. We illustrate how our performance analysis, and the use of profiling and tracing tools, guided the development and optimization of our batched factorization to achieve up to a 2-fold speedup and a 3-fold energy efficiency improvement compared to our highly optimized batched CPU implementations based on the MKL library(when using two sockets of Intel Sandy Bridge CPUs). Compared to a batched QR factorization featured in the CUBLAS library for GPUs, we achieved up to 5x speedup on the K40 GPU.

  6. FRIT DEVELOPMENT FOR SLUDGE BATCH 6

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, K.; Edwards, T.; Zamecnik, J.

    2010-05-13

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) evaluated a large number of Sludge Batch 6 (SB6) composition projections to support frit optimization for SB6 vitrification at the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). The evaluations discussed in this report occurred over a period of about 4 months, and included about 40 composition projections, developed by both Savannah River Remediation (SRR) and SRNL. Paper study assessments were used to evaluate the sludge composition projections with arrays of potential frit compositions using the predictive models in the DWPF Product Composition Control System (PCCS). Both nominal sludge compositions and sludge compositions with anticipated compositional variation were considered. The model predictions were used to identify candidate frit compositions for each SB6 projection and to provide some guidance to SRR on washing and blending strategies for SB6 preparation. This report presents a chronological review of this process and summarizes the findings at each stage. Following initial feedback from this work, the number of washes in Tank 51 was reduced to increase the projected sodium concentration in SB6. Analyses of predicted frit performance before and after a potential decant of Tank 40 showed that the post-decant SB6 composition would be difficult to process with any frit composition and that this scenario should be avoided. Based on the most recent SB6 projections (February 2010 SB6 composition projections developed at SRNL using the measured SB6 qualification sample composition and the revised Tank Farm washing plan), Frit 418 appears to be viable for SB6 processing at a target waste loading of 36%. A Nominal Stage PCCS Measurement Acceptability Region (MAR) assessment gave projected operating windows of 25-41% waste loading, limited by predictions of nepheline crystallization. The projected operating window is reduced to 25-38% waste loading when anticipated compositional variation is considered, again limited by

  7. Simultaneous attenuation of pharmaceuticals, organic matter, and nutrients in wastewater effluent through managed aquifer recharge: Batch and column studies.

    PubMed

    Im, Huncheol; Yeo, Inseol; Maeng, Sung Kyu; Park, Chul Hwi; Choi, Heechul

    2016-01-01

    Batch and column experiments were conducted to evaluate the removal of organic matter, nutrients, and pharmaceuticals and to identify the removal mechanisms of the target contaminants. The sands used in the experiments were obtained from the Youngsan River located in South Korea. Neutral and cationic pharmaceuticals (iopromide, estrone, and trimethoprim) were removed with efficiencies greater than 80% from different sand media during experiments, due to the effect of sorption between sand and pharmaceuticals. However, the anionic pharmaceuticals (sulfamethoxazole, ketoprofen, ibuprofen, and diclofenac) were more effectively removed by natural sand, compared to baked sand. These observations were mainly attributed to biodegradation under natural conditions of surface organic matter and ATP concentrations. The removal of organic matter and nitrogen was also found to increase under biotic conditions. Therefore, it is indicated that biodegradation plays an important role and act as major mechanisms for the removal of organic matter, nutrients, and selected pharmaceuticals during sand passage and the managed aquifer recharge, which is an effective treatment method for removing target contaminants. However, the low removal efficiencies of pharmaceuticals (e.g., carbamazepine and sulfamethoxazole) require additional processes (e.g., AOPs, NF and RO membrane), a long residence time, and long travel distance for increasing the removal efficiencies. PMID:26559901

  8. Comparison of heavy metal toxicity in continuous flow and batch reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sengor, S. S.; Gikas, P.; Moberly, J. G.; Peyton, B. M.; Ginn, T. R.

    2009-12-01

    The presence of heavy metals may significantly affect microbial growth. In many cases, small amounts of particular heavy metals may stimulate microbial growth; however, larger quantities may result in microbial growth reduction. Environmental parameters, such as growth pattern may alter the critical heavy metal concentration, above which microbial growth stimulation turns to growth inhibition. Thus, it is important to quantify the effects of heavy metals on microbial activity for understanding natural or manmade biological reactors, either in situ or ex situ. Here we compare the toxicity of Zn and Cu on Arthrobacter sp., a heavy metal tolerant microorganism, under continuous flow versus batch reactor operations. Batch and continuous growth tests of Arthrobacter sp. were carried out at various individual and combined concentrations of Zn and Cu. Biomass concentration (OD) was measured for both the batch and continuous reactors, whereas ATP, oxygen uptake rates and substrate concentrations were additionally measured for the continuous system. Results indicated that Cu was more toxic than Zn under all conditions for both systems. In batch reactors, all tested Zn concentrations up to 150 uM showed a stimulatory effect on microbial growth. However, in the case of mixed Zn and Cu exposures, the presence of Zn either eliminated (at the 50 uM level both Zn and Cu) or reduced by ~25% (at the 100 and 150 uM levels both Zn and Cu) the Cu-induced inhibition. In the continuous system, only one test involved combined Cu (40uM) and Zn (125uM) and this test showed similar results to the 40uM Cu continuous test, i.e., no reduction in inhibition. The specific ATP concentration, i.e., ATP/OD, results for the continuous reactor showed an apparent recovery for both Cu-treated populations, although neither the OD nor glucose data showed any recovery. This may reflect that the individual microorganisms that survived after the addition of heavy metals, kept maintaining the usual ATP

  9. Colloidal diatomite, radionickel, and humic substance interaction: a combined batch, XPS, and EXAFS investigation.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Guodong; Shen, Runpu; Dong, Huaping; Li, Yimin

    2013-06-01

    This work determined the influence of humic acid (HA) and fulvic acid (FA) on the interaction mechanism and microstructure of Ni(II) onto diatomite by using batch experiments, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) methods. Macroscopic and spectroscopic experiments have been combined to see the evolution of the interaction mechanism and microstructure of Ni(II) in the presence of HA/FA as compared with that in the absence of HA/FA. The results indicated that the interaction of Ni(II) with diatomite presents the expected solution pH edge at 7.0, which is modified by addition of HA/FA. In the presence of HA/FA, the interaction of Ni(II) with diatomite increased below solution pH 7.0, while Ni(II) interaction decreased above solution pH 7.0. XPS analysis suggested that the enrichment of Ni(II) onto diatomite may be due to the formation of (≡SO)2Ni. EXAFS results showed that binary surface complexes and ternary surface complexes of Ni(II) can be simultaneously formed in the presence of HA/FA, whereas only binary surface complexes of Ni(II) are formed in the absence of HA/FA, which contribute to the enhanced Ni(II) uptake at low pH values. The results observed in this work are important for the evaluation of Ni(II) and related radionuclide physicochemical behavior in the natural soil and water environment. PMID:23143822

  10. Colored noise effects on batch attitude accuracy estimates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bilanow, Stephen

    1991-01-01

    The effects of colored noise on the accuracy of batch least squares parameter estimates with applications to attitude determination cases are investigated. The standard approaches used for estimating the accuracy of a computed attitude commonly assume uncorrelated (white) measurement noise, while in actual flight experience measurement noise often contains significant time correlations and thus is colored. For example, horizon scanner measurements from low Earth orbit were observed to show correlations over many minutes in response to large scale atmospheric phenomena. A general approach to the analysis of the effects of colored noise is investigated, and interpretation of the resulting equations provides insight into the effects of any particular noise color and the worst case noise coloring for any particular parameter estimate. It is shown that for certain cases, the effects of relatively short term correlations can be accommodated by a simple correction factor. The errors in the predicted accuracy assuming white noise and the reduced accuracy due to the suboptimal nature of estimators that do not take into account the noise color characteristics are discussed. The appearance of a variety of sample noise color characteristics are demonstrated through simulation, and their effects are discussed for sample estimation cases. Based on the analysis, options for dealing with the effects of colored noise are discussed.

  11. Kinetic Batch Soil Adsorption Studies of 2, 4-dinitroanisole (DNAN)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arthur, J.; Mark, N. W.; Taylor, S.; Brusseau, M. L.; Dontsova, K.

    2014-12-01

    Currently the explosive 2, 4, 6- trinitrotoluene (TNT) is used as a main ingredient in munitions; however the compound has failed to meet sensitivity requirements. The replacement compound being tested is 2, 4-dinitroanisole (DNAN). DNAN is less sensitive to shock, high temperatures, and has good detonation characteristics. However, DNAN is more soluble than TNT, which can influence transport and fate behavior and thus bioavailability and exposure potential. DNAN has been shown to have some human and environmental toxicity. The objective of this study was to investigate the environmental fate of DNAN in soil, with a specific focus on sorption processes. Batch experiments were conducted using 11 soils collected from military installations located across the United States. The soils were characterized for pH, specific surface area, electrical conductivity, cation exchange capacity, and organic carbon content. Adsorption kinetic data determined at room temperature were fitted using the first order kinetic equation. Adsorption isotherms were fitted with linear and Freundlich isotherm equations. The magnitudes of the linear adsorption coefficients ranged from 0.6 to 6 cm3/g. Results indicated that the adsorption of DNAN is strongly dependent on the amount of organic carbon present in the soil.

  12. Treatment of winery wastewater in a sequencing batch biofilm reactor.

    PubMed

    Andreottola, G; Foladori, P; Ragazzi, M; Villa, R

    2002-01-01

    Pilot-scale experiments were carried out applying the SBBR process (Sequencing Batch Biofilm Reactor) for the treatment of winery wastewater. The aim was the evaluation of the SBBR performance and the development of a control strategy based on dissolved oxygen (DO) for the optimisation of the SBBR treatment cycle and the minimisation of the energy supply. The results of the experimentation have confirmed the applicability of the SBBR process pointing out high COD removal efficiencies between 86% and 99%, with applied loads up to 29 gCOD m-2d-1, corresponding to 8.8 kgCOD m-3d-1. The on-line monitoring of DO concentration appeared as a good indicator of the progress in the COD biodegradation. The control strategy for the ending of the SBBR cycles was based on the time derivative of the DO concentration. The optimised control strategy makes it possible to obtain a steady quality of the effluent wastewater with an average daily applied load of 6.3 kgCOD m-3d-1 rather than 3.5 kgCOD m-3d-1 for the non-optimised SBBR cycle. The possibility of optimising the SBBR cycle through a simple control of the DO in the mixed liquor could be an interesting solution for the biological pre-treatment of winery wastewater to be discharged into sewerage or as a single-stage of a combined treatment plant for the discharge into surface water. PMID:12201122

  13. Periodic CO2 Dosing Strategy for Dunaliella salina Batch Culture

    PubMed Central

    Ying, Kezhen; Gilmour, D. James; Zimmerman, William B.

    2015-01-01

    A periodic CO2 dosing strategy for D. salina 19/30 batch culture is proposed. A model of periodic CO2 dosing including dosing time calculation, dosing interval estimation and final chlorophyll yield prediction was established. In experiments, 5% CO2/95% N2 gas was periodically dosed into D. salina culture. Two different gas dosing flow rates were tested. The corresponding dosing time for each flow rate was estimated via the model (10 min·d−1 for 0.7 L·min−1 and 36 min·d−1 for 0.3 L·min−1). Daily pH measurements showed that the pH of these cultures dosed periodically was always kept between 7.5 and 9.5, which highlights that periodic gas supply can maintain a suitable range of pH for microalgal growth without expensive buffers. Notably the culture dosed for set daily intervals was seen to have similar growth to the culture supplied constantly, but with much higher CO2 capture efficiency (11%–18%) compared to continuous dosing (0.25%). It shows great potential for using periodic gas supply to reduce cost, wasted gas and energy use. PMID:25997005

  14. New emission controls for Missouri batch-type charcoal kilns

    SciTech Connect

    Yronwode, P.; Graf, W.J.

    1999-07-01

    Charcoal kilns have been exempted from air emission regulation in the state of Missouri. Today, 80% of US charcoal production takes place in Missouri. As a result of a petition filed by people in the area around an installation in southern Missouri, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) set up air monitors and measured ambient air levels at that charcoal manufacturing installation. These monitors yielded the highest particulate matter less than 10 micron (PM{sub 10}) levels ever recorded in the state. Earlier stack testing at another charcoal manufacturing installation indicated that toxics and carcinogens are present in charcoal kiln air emissions. A Charcoal Kiln Workgroup was formed to determine the Best Available Control Technology (BACT) for charcoal kilns and to draft a charcoal kiln rule that requires BACT. The BACT report determined that afterburners were suitable for controlling emissions from batch-type charcoal kilns. In addition, the charcoal industry supported incorporating the BACT limits and requirements into an enforceable state rule and submitting this rule to the EPA for federal approval. A consent agreement between the EPA and three major charcoal companies was signed with provisions to install, operate, and maintain emission control devices on charcoal kilns. This agreement was to settle complaints alleging that the three major charcoal producers had failed to report toxic air emissions to federal and state regulators. The agreement provided that industry would install control devices on a set schedule with some charcoal kilns being shut down.

  15. Efficient flotation of yeast cells grown in batch culture.

    PubMed

    Palmieri, M C; Greenhalf, W; Laluce, C

    1996-05-01

    A fast flotation assay was used to select new floating yeast strains. The flotation ability did not seem to be directly correlated to total extracellular protein concentration of the culture. However, the hydrophobicity of the cell was definitely correlated to the flotation capacity. The Saccharomyces strains (FLT strains) were highly hydrophobic and showed an excellent flotation performance in batch cultures without additives (flotation agents) and with no need for a special flotation chamber or flotation column. A stable and well-organized structure was evident in the dried foam as shown by scanning electron microscopy which revealed its unique structure showing mummified cells (dehydrated) attached to each other. The attachment among the cells and the high protein concentration of the foams indicated that proteins might be involved in the foam formation. The floating strains (strains FLT) which were not flocculent and showed no tendency to aggregate, were capable of growing and producing ethanol in a synthetic medium containing high glucose concentration as a carbon source. The phenomenon responsible for flotation seems to be quite different from the flocculation phenomenon. PMID:18626952

  16. Equipment and wafer modeling of batch furnaces by neural networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benesch, N.; Schneider, Claus; Lehnert, Wolfgang; Pfitzner, Lothar; Ryssel, Heiner

    1999-04-01

    In semiconductor manufacturing there is a great demand for innovations towards higher cost-effectiveness. The increasing employment of advanced control systems for process and equipment control is one means to improve manufacturing processes effectively and, hence, to lower costs. A precondition for an accurate and fast control is the availability of process models. In this paper neural networks are applied to non-linear system identification as an alternative or addition to physical models. Neural empirical models are developed with the help of measured input and output data of a system or process. After a brief summary of the theory of neural networks their application to system identification is described in detail. The capabilities of the neural network models are demonstrated by several examples. The temperature dynamics of a vertical furnace for the oxidation of 300 mm wafers as well as the zone temperatures of a 150 mm LPCVD furnace are simulated and the results are verified by measurements. Moreover, in order to control wafer temperatures in batch furnaces, an appropriate model was developed and implemented in a model- based controller.

  17. Transformation and sorption of the veterinary antibiotic sulfadiazine in two soils: a short-term batch study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasteel, Roy; Mboh, Cho; Unold, Myriam; Groeneweg, Joost; Vanderborght, Jan; Vereecken, Harry

    2010-05-01

    The worldwide use of veterinary antibiotics poses a continuous threat to the environment. There is, however, a lack of mechanistic studies on sorption and transformation processes for environmental assessment in soils. Two-weeks batch sorption experiments were performed with the antibiotic sulfadiazine (SDZ) in the plow layer and the subsoil of a loamy sand and a silty loam. The sorption and transformation parameters of SDZ and its main transformation products N1-2-(4-hydroxypyrimidinyl) benzenesulfanilamide (4-OH-SDZ) and 4-(2-iminopyrimidin-1(2H)-yl)-aniline (An-SDZ) were estimated using a global optimization algorithm. A two-stage, one-rate kinetic sorption model combined with a first-order transformation model adequately described the batch data. Sorption of SDZ was nonlinear (Freundlich), time-dependent, and affected by pH (speciation), with a higher sorption capacity for the loamy sand. Transformation of SDZ into 4-OH-SDZ occurred only in the liquid phase, with half-life values of about 1 month in the plow layers and about 6 months in the subsoils. Both the faster transformation rate in the plow layer compared to the subsoil and negligible transformation in the solid phase point to a microbial process for the formation of 4-OH-SDZ. Under the exclusion of light, An-SDZ was formed in substantial amounts in the silty loam only, with liquid phase half-life values of about 2 to 3 weeks. Despite the rather large parameter uncertainties, which may be reduced after the inclusion of additional information obtained from sequential solid phase extraction, the proposed method allows us to quantify and predict the fate of antibiotics in soils.

  18. Detection of Salicylic Acid in Willow Bark: An Addition to a Classic Series of Experiments in the Introductory Organic Chemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clay, Matthew D.; McLeod, Eric J.

    2012-01-01

    Salicylic acid and its derivative, acetylsalicylic acid, are often encountered in introductory organic chemistry experiments, and mention is often made that salicylic acid was originally isolated from the bark of the willow tree. This biological connection, however, is typically not further pursued, leaving students with an impression that biology…

  19. Generation, Isolation, and Characterization of a Stable Enol from Grignard Addition to a Bis-Ester: A Microscale Experiment for the Undergraduate Organic Chemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicaise, Olivier J. C.; Ostrom, Kyle F.; Dalke, Brent J.

    2005-01-01

    An experiment is described that introduces students to the concept of temperature-dependent stability of the tetrahedral intermediate in an acyl-transfer reaction. The process involves the determination of the structure of an alpha-ketoester and its corresponding remarkably stable enol ester to suggest a mechanism for the formation of the products.

  20. 11. GASFIRED CRUCIBLE FURNACES WERE USED TO MELT SMALL, BATCH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. GAS-FIRED CRUCIBLE FURNACES WERE USED TO MELT SMALL, BATCH QUANTITIES OF BRONZE IN STOCKHAM'S BRASS FOUNDRY FOR THE PRODUCTION OF BRONZE VALVES, CA. 1950. - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  1. 12. Interior view of cement and aggregate batch plant showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Interior view of cement and aggregate batch plant showing storage bins. Photographer unknown, c. 1926. Source: Ralph Pleasant. - Waddell Dam, On Agua Fria River, 35 miles northwest of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  2. Groundwater arsenic remediation using zerovalent iron: Batch and column tests

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recently, increasing efforts have been made to explore the applicability and limitations of zerovalent iron (Fe0) for the treatment of arsenicbearing groundwater and wastewater. The experimental batch and column tests have demonstrated that arsenate and arsenite are removed effec...

  3. 19. Main deck just forward of fish batch, portion of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. Main deck just forward of fish batch, portion of fish hatch cover has been opened to show the ventilation grate below. - Schooner "Lettie G. Howard", South Street Seaport Museum, New York County, NY

  4. 1. EXTERIOR VIEW LOOKING NORTHWEST AT BATCH FURNACE BUILDING, 22' ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. EXTERIOR VIEW LOOKING NORTHWEST AT BATCH FURNACE BUILDING, 22' BAR MILL BUILDING, AND 22 BAR MILL MOTOR ROOM. - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, 22-Inch Bar Mill, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  5. 21 CFR 111.255 - What is the requirement to establish a batch production record?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... MANUFACTURING, PACKAGING, LABELING, OR HOLDING OPERATIONS FOR DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS Production and Process Control... relating to the production and control of each batch; (c) Your batch production record must...

  6. 21 CFR 111.255 - What is the requirement to establish a batch production record?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... MANUFACTURING, PACKAGING, LABELING, OR HOLDING OPERATIONS FOR DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS Production and Process Control... relating to the production and control of each batch; (c) Your batch production record must...

  7. Analysis and interpretation of the leaching behaviour of waste thermal treatment bottom ash by batch and column tests.

    PubMed

    Di Gianfilippo, Martina; Costa, Giulia; Verginelli, Iason; Gavasci, Renato; Lombardi, Francesco

    2016-10-01

    This paper investigates the leaching behaviour of specific types of waste thermal treatment bottom ash (BA) as a function of both pH and the liquid-to-solid ratio (L/S). Specifically, column percolation tests and different types of batch tests (including pH-dependence) were applied to BA produced by hospital waste incineration (HW-I), Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF) gasification (RDF-G) and RDF incineration (RDF-I). The results of these tests were interpreted applying an integrated graphical and modelling approach aimed at identifying the main mechanisms (solubility, availability or time-controlled dissolution and diffusion) governing the release of specific constituents from each type of BA. The final aim of this work was in fact to gain insight on the information that can be provided by the leaching tests applied, and hence on which ones may be more suitable to apply for assessing the leaching concentrations expected in the field. The results of the leaching tests showed that the three samples of analysed BA presented differences of orders of magnitude in their leaching behaviour, especially as a function of pH, but also in terms of the L/S. These were mainly related to the differences in mineralogy of the samples. In addition, for the same type of bottom ash, the comparison between the results of batch and percolation column tests, expressed in terms of cumulative release, showed that for some constituents (e.g. Mg for HW-I BA and Cu for RDF-G BA) differences of over one order of magnitude were obtained due to variations in pH and DOC release. Similarly, the eluate concentrations observed in the percolation tests, for most of the investigated elements, were not directly comparable with the results of the pH-dependence tests. In particular, in some cases the percolation test results showed eluate concentrations of some constituents (e.g. K and Ca in HW-I BA) of up to one order of magnitude higher than the values obtained from the pH-dependence experiments at the same p

  8. Technique of ethanol food grade production with batch distillation and dehydration using starch-based adsorbent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Widjaja, Tri; Altway, Ali; Ni'mah, Hikmatun; Tedji, Namira; Rofiqah, Umi

    2015-12-01

    Development and innovation of ethanol food grade production are becoming the reasearch priority to increase economy growth. Moreover, the government of Indonesia has established regulation for increasing the renewable energy as primary energy. Sorghum is cerealia plant that contains 11-16% sugar that is optimum for fermentation process, it is potential to be cultivated, especially at barren area in Indonesia. The purpose of this experiment is to learn about the effect of microorganisms in fermentation process. Fermentation process was carried out batchwise in bioreactor and used 150g/L initial sugar concentration. Microorganisms used in this experiment are Zymomonas mobilis mutation (A3), Saccharomyces cerevisiae and mixed of Pichia stipitis. The yield of ethanol can be obtained from this experiment. For ethanol purification result, distillation process from fermentation process has been done to search the best operation condition for efficiency energy consumption. The experiment for purification was divided into two parts, which are distillation with structured packing steel wool and adsorption (dehydration) sequencely. In distillation part, parameters evaluation (HETP and pressure drop) of distillation column that can be used for scale up are needed. The experiment was operated at pressure of 1 atm. The distillation stage was carried out at 85 °C and reflux ratio of 0.92 with variety porosities of 20%, 40%, and 60%. Then the adsorption process was done at 120°C and two types of adsorbent, which are starch - based adsorbent with ingredient of cassava and molecular sieve 3A, were used. The adsorption process was then continued to purify the ethanol from impurities by using activated carbon. This research shows that the batch fermentation process with Zymomonas mobilis A3 obtain higher % yield of ethanol of 40,92%. In addition to that, for purification process, the best operation condition is by using 40% of porosity of stuctured packing steel wool in distillation

  9. Nuclear criticality safety evaluation DWPF melter -- Batch 1

    SciTech Connect

    Williamson, T.G.

    1993-12-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) High Level Nuclear Waste will be vitrified in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) for long term storage and disposal. This is a preliminary safety evaluation for the Melt Cell of the DWPF vitrification process for Batch 1 waste. This evaluation demonstrates that the material in the Melt cell remains subcritical for the contents of Batch 1 which contains uranium with less than 1% by weight U-235.

  10. EFFECTS OF ADDITION RATE AND ACID MATRIX ON THE DESTRUCTION OF AMMONIUM BY THE SEMI-CONTINUOUS ADDITION OF SODIUM NITRITE DURING EVAPORATION

    SciTech Connect

    Kyser, E

    2007-08-27

    The destruction of ammonium by the semi-continuous addition of sodium nitrite during acidic evaporation can be achieved with a wide range of waste compositions. The efficiency of nitrite utilization for ammonium destruction was observed to vary from less than 20% to 60% depending on operating conditions. The effects of nitric acid concentration and nitrite addition rate are dominant factors that affect the efficiency of nitrite utilization for ammonium destruction. Reducing the acid concentration by performing acid recovery via steam stripping prior to performing nitrite destruction of ammonium will require more nitrite due to the low destruction efficiency. The scale-up of the baseline rate nitrite addition rate from the 100 mL to the 1600 gallon batch size has significant uncertainty and poses the risk of lower efficiency at the plant scale. Experience with plant scale processing will improve confidence in the application of nitrite destruction of ammonium to different waste streams.

  11. OPLS in batch monitoring - Opens up new opportunities.

    PubMed

    Souihi, Nabil; Lindegren, Anders; Eriksson, Lennart; Trygg, Johan

    2015-02-01

    In batch statistical process control (BSPC), data from a number of "good" batches are used to model the evolution (trajectory) of the process and they also define model control limits, against which new batches may be compared. The benchmark methods used in BSPC include partial least squares (PLS) and principal component analysis (PCA). In this paper, we have used orthogonal projections to latent structures (OPLS) in BSPC and compared the results with PLS and PCA. The experimental study used was a batch hydrogenation reaction of nitrobenzene to aniline characterized by both UV spectroscopy and process data. The key idea is that OPLS is able to separate the variation in data that is correlated to the process evolution (also known as 'batch maturity index') from the variation that is uncorrelated to process evolution. This separation of different types of variations can generate different batch trajectories and hence lead to different established model control limits to detect process deviations. The results demonstrate that OPLS was able to detect all process deviations and provided a good process understanding of the root causes for these deviations. PCA and PLS on the other hand were shown to provide different interpretations for several of these process deviations, or in some cases they were unable to detect actual process deviations. Hence, the use of OPLS in BSPC can lead to better fault detection and root cause analysis as compared to existing benchmark methods and may therefore be used to complement the existing toolbox. PMID:25604817

  12. [Characteristic of Particulate Emissions from Concrete Batching in Beijing].

    PubMed

    Xue, Yi-feng; Zhou, Zhen; Zhong, Lian-hong; Yan, Jing; Qu, Song; Huang, Yu-hu; Tian, He- zhong; Pan, Tao

    2016-01-15

    With the economic development and population growth in Beijing, there is a strong need for construction and housing, which leads to the increase of the construction areas. Meanwhile, as a local provided material, the production of concrete has been raised. In the process of concrete production by concrete batching, there are numerous particulates emitted, which have large effect on the atmospheric environment, however, systematic study about the tempo-spatial characteristics of pollutant emission from concrete batching is still rare. In this study, we estimated the emission of particulates from concrete batching from 1991 to 2012 using emission factor method, analyzed the tempo-spatial characteristics of pollutant emission, established the uncertainty range by adopting Monte-Carlo method, and predicted the future emission in 2020 based on the relative environmental and economical policies. The results showed that: (1) the emissions of particulates from concrete batching showed a trend of "first increase and then decrease", reaching the maximum in 2005, and then decreased due to stricter emission standard and enhanced environmental management. (2) according to spatial distribution, the emission of particulates from concrete batch mainly concentrated in the urban area with more human activities, and the area between the fifth ring and the sixth ring contributed the most. (3) through scenarios analysis, for further reducing the emission from concrete batching in 2020, more stricter standard for green production as well as powerful supervision is needed. PMID:27078945

  13. Improvement of Yarrowia lipolytica lipase production by fed-batch fermentation.

    PubMed

    Fickers, Patrick; Destain, Jacqueline; Thonart, Philippe

    2009-04-01

    Two different types of fed-batch fermentation were investigated to improve production yields of the Lip2 extracellular lipase in Y. lipolytica mutant-strain LgX64.81 grown in a 20l bioreactor. Compare to batch cultures, culture feeding with the complete medium led to a 2-fold increased lipase production (2016 +/- 76 U ml(-1)) whereas addition of a combination of glucose and olive oil led to a 3-fold increase. The high level of lipase production obtained on glucose media with Y. lipolytica LgX64.81 could be related to its phenotype, i.e., a lower sensibility to glucose catabolite repression due to a modification in the level of HXK1 expression. PMID:19025871

  14. 40 CFR 80.581 - What are the batch testing and sample retention requirements for motor vehicle diesel fuel, NRLM...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... retention requirements for motor vehicle diesel fuel, NRLM diesel fuel, and ECA marine fuel? 80.581 Section...) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel; and ECA Marine Fuel Sampling and Testing § 80.581 What are the batch testing and sample...

  15. 40 CFR 80.581 - What are the batch testing and sample retention requirements for motor vehicle diesel fuel, NRLM...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... retention requirements for motor vehicle diesel fuel, NRLM diesel fuel, and ECA marine fuel? 80.581 Section...) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel; and ECA Marine Fuel Sampling and Testing § 80.581 What are the batch testing and sample...

  16. Micron-Size Zero-Valent Iron Emplacement in Porous Media Using Polymer Additives: Column and Flow Cell Ex-periments

    SciTech Connect

    Oostrom, Mart; Wietsma, Thomas W.; Covert, Matthew A.; Vermeul, Vince R.

    2006-03-20

    At the Hanford Site, an extensive In Situ Redox Manipulation (ISRM) permeable reactive barrier was installed to prevent chromate from reaching the Columbia River. However, chromium has been detected in several wells, indicating a premature loss of the reductive capacity in the aquifer. Laboratory experiments have been conducted to investigate whether barrier reductive capacity can be enhanced by adding micron-scale zero-valent iron to the high-permeability zones within the aquifer using shear-thinning fluids containing polymers. Porous media were packed in a wedge-shaped flow cell to create either a heterogeneous layered system with a high-permeability zone between two low-permeability zones or a high-permeability channel sur-rounded by low-permeability materials. The injection flow rate, polymer type, polymer concentration, and injected pore volumes were determined based on preliminary short- and long-column experiments. The flow cell experiments indicated that iron concentration enhancements of at least 0.6% (w/w) could be obtained using moderate flow rates and injection of 30 pore volumes. The 0.6% amended Fe0 concentration would provide approximately 20 times the average reductive capacity that is provided by the dithionite-reduced iron in the ISRM barrier. Calculations show that a 1-m-long Fe0 amended zone with an average concentration of 0.6% w/w iron subject to a groundwater velocity of 1 m/day will have an estimated longevity of 7.2 years.

  17. Application of ''Confirm tank T is an appropriate feed source for Low-Activity waste feed batch X'' to specific feed batches

    SciTech Connect

    JO, J.

    1999-02-23

    This document addresses the characterization needs of tanks as set forth in the ''Confirm Tank T is an Appropriate Feed Source for Low-Activity Waste Feed Batch X'' Data Quality Objective (DQO) (Certa and Jo 1998). The primary purpose of this document is to collect existing data and identify the data needed to determine whether or not the feed source(s) are appropriate for a specific batch before transfer is made to the feed staging tanks. To answer these questions, the existing tank data must be collected and a detailed review performed. If the existing data are insufficient to complete a full comparison, additional data must be obtained from the feed source(s). Additional information requirements need to be identified and formally documented, then the source tank waste must be sampled or resampled and analyzed. Once the additional data are obtained, the data shall be incorporated into the existing database for the source tank and a reevaluation of the data against the DQO must be made.

  18. Online batch scheduling of equal-length jobs on two identical batch machines to maximise the number of early jobs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wenjie; Li, Shisheng

    2015-03-01

    We study the online batch scheduling of equal-length jobs on two identical batch machines. Each batch machine can process up to b jobs simultaneously as a batch (where b is called the capacity of the machines). The goal is to determine a schedule that maximises the (weighted) number of early jobs. For the non-preemptive model, we first present an upper bound that depends on the machine capacity b, and then we provide a greedy online algorithm with a competitive ratio of 1/(b + 1). For the preemption-restart model with b = ∞, we first show that no online algorithm has a competitive ratio greater than 0.595, and then we design an online algorithm with a competitive ratio of ?.

  19. Qualitative impact of salinity, UV radiation and turbulence on leaching of organic plastic additives from four common plastics - A lab experiment.

    PubMed

    Suhrhoff, Tim Jesper; Scholz-Böttcher, Barbara M

    2016-01-15

    Four common consumer plastic samples (polyethylene, polystyrene, polyethylene terephthalate, polyvinylchloride) were studied to investigate the impact of physical parameters such as turbulence, salinity and UV irradiance on leaching behavior of selected plastic components. Polymers were exposed to two different salinities (i.e. 0 and 35 g/kg), UV radiation and turbulence. Additives (e.g. bisphenol A, phthalates, citrates, and Irgafos® 168 phosphate) and oligomers were detected in initial plastics and aqueous extracts. Identification and quantification was performed by GC-FID/MS. Bisphenol A and citrate based additives are leached easier compared to phthalates. The print highly contributed to the chemical burden of the analyzed polyethylene bag. The study underlines a positive relationship between turbulence and magnitude of leaching. Salinity had a minor impact that differs for each analyte. Global annual release of additives from assessed plastics into marine environments is estimated to be between 35 and 917 tons, of which most are derived from plasticized polyvinylchloride. PMID:26696590

  20. A high-fidelity batch simulation environment for integrated batch and piloted air combat simulation analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodrich, Kenneth H.; Mcmanus, John W.; Chappell, Alan R.

    1992-01-01

    A batch air combat simulation environment known as the Tactical Maneuvering Simulator (TMS) is presented. The TMS serves as a tool for developing and evaluating tactical maneuvering logics and to evaluate the tactical implications of perturbations to aircraft performance or supporting systems. The TMS is capable of simulating air combat between any number of engagement participants, with practical limits imposed by computer memory and processing power. Aircraft are modeled using equations of motion, control laws, aerodynamics and propulsive characteristics, and databases representative of a modern high-performance aircraft with and without thrust-vectoring capability are included. A Tactical Autopilot is implemented in the aircraft simulation model to convert guidance commands issued by computerized maneuvering logics in the form of desired angle-of-attack and wind axis-bank angle into inputs to the inner-loop control augmentation system of the aircraft.

  1. Butanol production by immobilised Clostridium acetobutylicum in repeated batch, fed-batch, and continuous modes of fermentation.

    PubMed

    Dolejš, Igor; Krasňan, Vladimír; Stloukal, Radek; Rosenberg, Michal; Rebroš, Martin

    2014-10-01

    Clostridium acetobutylicum immobilised in polyvinylalcohol, lens-shaped hydrogel capsules (LentiKats(®)) was studied for production of butanol and other products of acetone-butanol-ethanol fermentation. After optimising the immobilisation protocol for anaerobic bacteria, continuous, repeated batch, and fed-batch fermentations in repeated batch mode were performed. Using glucose as a substrate, butanol productivity of 0.41 g/L/h and solvent productivity of 0.63 g/L/h were observed at a dilution rate of 0.05 h(-1) during continuous fermentation with a concentrated substrate (60 g/L). Through the process of repeated batch fermentation, the duration of fermentation was reduced from 27.8h (free-cell fermentation) to 3.3h (immobilised cells) with a solvent productivity of 0.77 g/L/h (butanol 0.57 g/L/h). The highest butanol and solvent productivities of 1.21 and 1.91 g/L/h were observed during fed-batch fermentation operated in repeated batch mode with yields of butanol (0.15 g/g) and solvents (0.24 g/g), respectively, produced per gram of glucose. PMID:25108474

  2. Batch and Pulsed Fed-Batch Cultures of Aspergillus flavipes FP-500 Growing on Lemon Peel at Stirred Tank Reactor.

    PubMed

    Wolf-Márquez, V E; García-García, E; García-Rivero, M; Aguilar-Osorio, G; Martínez Trujillo, M A

    2015-11-01

    Aspergillus flavipes FP-500 grew up on submerged cultures using lemon peel as the only carbon source, developing several batch and pulsed fed-batch trials on a stirred tank reactor. The effect of carbon source concentration, reducing sugar presence and initial pH on exopectinase and endopectinase production, was analyzed on batch cultures. From this, we observed that the highest substrate concentration favored biomass (X max) but had not influence on the corresponding specific production (q p) of both pectinases; the most acid condition provoked higher endopectinase-specific productions but had not a significant effect on those corresponding to exopectinases; and reducing sugar concentrations higher than 1.5 g/L retarded pectinase production. On the other hand, by employing the pulsed fed-batch operation mode, we observed a prolonged growth phase, and an increase of about twofold on endopectinase production without a significant raise on biomass concentration. So, pulsed fed-batch seems to be a good alternative for obtaining higher endopectinase titers by using high lemon peel quantities without having mixing and repression problems to the system. The usefulness of unstructured kinetic models for explaining, under a theoretic level, the behavior of the fungus along the batch culture with regard to pectinase production was evident. PMID:26304128

  3. SLUDGE BATCH 6/TANK 51 SIMULANT CHEMICAL PROCESS CELL SIMULATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Koopman, David; Best, David

    2010-04-28

    Qualification simulant testing was completed to determine appropriate processing conditions and assumptions for the Sludge Batch 6 (SB6) Shielded Cells demonstration of the DWPF flowsheet using the qualification sample from Tank 51 for SB6 after SRNL washing. It was found that an acid addition window of 105-139% of the DWPF acid equation (100-133% of the Koopman minimum acid equation) gave acceptable Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) and Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) results for nitrite destruction and hydrogen generation. Hydrogen generation occurred continuously after acid addition in three of the four tests. The three runs at 117%, 133%, and 150% stoichiometry (Koopman) were all still producing around 0.1 lb hydrogen/hr at DWPF scale after 42 hours of boiling in the SRAT. The 150% acid run reached 110% of the DWPF SRAT limit of 0.65 lb H{sub 2}/hr, and the 133% acid run reached 75% of the DWPF SME limit of 0.223 lb H{sub 2}/hr. Conversely, nitrous oxide generation was subdued compared to previous sludge batches, staying below 25 lb/hr in all four tests or about a fourth as much as in comparable SB4 testing. Two other processing issues were noted. First, incomplete mercury suspension impacted mercury stripping from the SRAT slurry. This led to higher SRAT product mercury concentrations than targeted (>0.45 wt% in the total solids). Associated with this issue was a general difficulty in quantifying the mass of mercury in the SRAT vessel as a function of time, especially as acid stoichiometry increased. About ten times more mercury was found after drying the 150% acid SME product to powder than was indicated by the SME product sample results. Significantly more mercury was also found in the 133% acid SME product samples than was found during the SRAT cycle sampling. It appears that mercury is segregating from the bulk slurry in the SRAT vessel, as mercury amalgam deposits for example, and is not being resuspended by the agitators. The second processing issue

  4. Genetic variability in a frozen batch of MCF-7 cells invisible in routine authentication affecting cell function.

    PubMed

    Kleensang, Andre; Vantangoli, Marguerite M; Odwin-DaCosta, Shelly; Andersen, Melvin E; Boekelheide, Kim; Bouhifd, Mounir; Fornace, Albert J; Li, Heng-Hong; Livi, Carolina B; Madnick, Samantha; Maertens, Alexandra; Rosenberg, Michael; Yager, James D; Zhaog, Liang; Hartung, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Common recommendations for cell line authentication, annotation and quality control fall short addressing genetic heterogeneity. Within the Human Toxome Project, we demonstrate that there can be marked cellular and phenotypic heterogeneity in a single batch of the human breast adenocarcinoma cell line MCF-7 obtained directly from a cell bank that are invisible with the usual cell authentication by short tandem repeat (STR) markers. STR profiling just fulfills the purpose of authentication testing, which is to detect significant cross-contamination and cell line misidentification. Heterogeneity needs to be examined using additional methods. This heterogeneity can have serious consequences for reproducibility of experiments as shown by morphology, estrogenic growth dose-response, whole genome gene expression and untargeted mass-spectroscopy metabolomics for MCF-7 cells. Using Comparative Genomic Hybridization (CGH), differences were traced back to genetic heterogeneity already in the cells from the original frozen vials from the same ATCC lot, however, STR markers did not differ from ATCC reference for any sample. These findings underscore the need for additional quality assurance in Good Cell Culture Practice and cell characterization, especially using other methods such as CGH to reveal possible genomic heterogeneity and genetic drifts within cell lines. PMID:27456714

  5. Genetic variability in a frozen batch of MCF-7 cells invisible in routine authentication affecting cell function

    PubMed Central

    Kleensang, Andre; Vantangoli, Marguerite M.; Odwin-DaCosta, Shelly; Andersen, Melvin E.; Boekelheide, Kim; Bouhifd, Mounir; Fornace, Albert J.; Li, Heng-Hong; Livi, Carolina B.; Madnick, Samantha; Maertens, Alexandra; Rosenberg, Michael; Yager, James D.; Zhaog, Liang; Hartung, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Common recommendations for cell line authentication, annotation and quality control fall short addressing genetic heterogeneity. Within the Human Toxome Project, we demonstrate that there can be marked cellular and phenotypic heterogeneity in a single batch of the human breast adenocarcinoma cell line MCF-7 obtained directly from a cell bank that are invisible with the usual cell authentication by short tandem repeat (STR) markers. STR profiling just fulfills the purpose of authentication testing, which is to detect significant cross-contamination and cell line misidentification. Heterogeneity needs to be examined using additional methods. This heterogeneity can have serious consequences for reproducibility of experiments as shown by morphology, estrogenic growth dose-response, whole genome gene expression and untargeted mass-spectroscopy metabolomics for MCF-7 cells. Using Comparative Genomic Hybridization (CGH), differences were traced back to genetic heterogeneity already in the cells from the original frozen vials from the same ATCC lot, however, STR markers did not differ from ATCC reference for any sample. These findings underscore the need for additional quality assurance in Good Cell Culture Practice and cell characterization, especially using other methods such as CGH to reveal possible genomic heterogeneity and genetic drifts within cell lines. PMID:27456714

  6. Use of 13C and 15N mass spectrometry to study the decomposition of Calamagrostis epigeios in soil column experiments with and without ash additions.

    PubMed

    Ludwig, B; Heil, B; Flessa, H; Beese, F

    2000-01-01

    The dynamics of C and N in terrestrial ecosystems are not completely understood and the use of stable isotopes may be useful to gain further insight in the pathways of CO2 emissions and leaching of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and nitrogen (DON) during decomposition of litter. Objectives were (i) to study the decomposition dynamics of Calamagrostis epigeios, a common grass species in forests, using 13C-depleted and 15N-enriched plants and (ii) to quantify the effect wood ash addition on the decomposition and leaching of DOC and DON. Decomposition was studied for 128 days under aerobic conditions at 8 degrees C and moisture close to field capacity in a spodic dystric Cambisol with mor-moder layer. Variants included control plots and additions of (i) Calamagrostis litter and (ii) Calamagrostis litter plus 4 kg ash m-2. (i) Decomposition of Calamagrostis resulted in a CO2 production of 76.2 g CO2-C m-2 (10% of added C) after 128 days and cumulative DOC production was 14.0 g C m-2 out of which 0.9 g C m-2 was Calamagrostis-derived (0.1% of added C). The specific CO2 formation and specific DOC production from Calamagrostis were 6 times higher (CO2) and 4 times smaller (DOC) than those from the organic layer. The amount of Calamagrostis-derived total N (NH4+, NO3-, DON) leached was 0.7 g N m-2 (4.8% of added N). Cumulative DON production was 0.8 g N m-2 which was slightly higher than for the control. During soil passage, much of the DOC and DON was removed due to sorption or decomposition. DOC and DON releases from the mineral soil (17 cm depth) were 6.3 g C m-2 and 0.5 g N m-2. (ii) Addition of ash resulted in a complete fixing of CO2 for 40 days due to carbonatisation. Afterwards, the CO2 production rates were similar to the variant without ash addition. Production of DOC (98.6 g C m-2) and DON (2.5 g N m-2) was marked, mainly owing to humus decay. However, Calamagrostis-derived DOC and Calamagrostis-derived total N were only 3.9 g C m-2 (0.5% of added C) and 0.5 g N

  7. Batch uniformity and energy efficiency improvements on a cabinet dryer suitable for smallholder farmers.

    PubMed

    Precoppe, Marcelo; Janjai, Serm; Mahayothee, Busarakorn; Müller, Joachim

    2015-08-01

    Drying can add value, facilitate transport and extend the storage life of agro-products; therefore, in developing countries with poorly established cool-chains, drying is particularly effective. Furthermore, drying within small-scale village-based enterprises contributes to rural development. However, most equipment suitable to such operations yields a product of non-uniform quality and shows low levels of energy efficiency. The aim of this research was to improve the batch uniformity and the energy efficiency of a cabinet dryer suitable for smallholder farmers. Experiments were carried out with the cooperation of a dryer manufacturer and a group of users. On each trial 144.5 kg of peeled and deseeded litchis were placed at the dryer's 17 trays, that were stacked atop each other. Moisture content (wet basis) was reduced from 87 to 23 % in about 15.5 h. It was found that a low-cost modification to the dryer chamber's air inlet was able to improve heat distribution and increase the uniformity of the fruit's moisture content. In the original design, at the end of the drying process, moisture content of the fruits on the top tray was 38 % while at the bottom tray was 12 %. The modification to the dryer reduced this disparity and the final moisture content of the fruits placed at the top tray was 25 % while at the bottom tray was 21 %. In addition, the modification reduced the dryer's air mass flow from 0.3 to 0.1 kg s(-1) without jeopardizing drying forces, consequently the dryer energy efficiency increased from 33 to 42 %. PMID:26243902

  8. Modeling of the pyruvate production with Escherichia coli in a fed-batch bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Zelić, B; Vasić-Racki, D; Wandrey, C; Takors, R

    2004-07-01

    A family of 10 competing, unstructured models has been developed to model cell growth, substrate consumption, and product formation of the pyruvate producing strain Escherichia coli YYC202 ldhA::Kan strain used in fed-batch processes. The strain is completely blocked in its ability to convert pyruvate into acetyl-CoA or acetate (using glucose as the carbon source) resulting in an acetate auxotrophy during growth in glucose minimal medium. Parameter estimation was carried out using data from fed-batch fermentation performed at constant glucose feed rates of q(VG)=10 mL h(-1). Acetate was fed according to the previously developed feeding strategy. While the model identification was realized by least-square fit, the model discrimination was based on the model selection criterion (MSC). The validation of model parameters was performed applying data from two different fed-batch experiments with glucose feed rate q(VG)=20 and 30 mL h(-1), respectively. Consequently, the most suitable model was identified that reflected the pyruvate and biomass curves adequately by considering a pyruvate inhibited growth (Jerusalimsky approach) and pyruvate inhibited product formation (described by modified Luedeking-Piret/Levenspiel term). PMID:15085423

  9. Ethanol production potential from fermented rice noodle wastewater treatment using entrapped yeast cell sequencing batch reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siripattanakul-Ratpukdi, Sumana

    2012-03-01

    Fermented rice noodle production generates a large volume of starch-based wastewater. This study investigated the treatment of the fermented rice noodle wastewater using entrapped cell sequencing batch reactor (ECSBR) compared to traditional sequencing batch reactor (SBR). The yeast cells were applied because of their potential to convert reducing sugar in the wastewater to ethanol. In present study, preliminary treatment by acid hydrolysis was performed. A yeast culture, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, with calcium alginate cell entrapment was used. Optimum yeast cell loading in batch experiment and fermented rice noodle treatment performances using ECSBR and SBR systems were examined. In the first part, it was found that the cell loadings (0.6-2.7 × 108 cells/mL) did not play an important role in this study. Treatment reactions followed the second-order kinetics with the treatment efficiencies of 92-95%. In the second part, the result showed that ECSBR performed better than SBR in both treatment efficiency and system stability perspectives. ECSBR maintained glucose removal of 82.5 ± 10% for 5-cycle treatment while glucose removal by SBR declined from 96 to 40% within the 5-cycle treatment. Scanning electron microscopic images supported the treatment results. A number of yeast cells entrapped and attached onto the matrix grew in the entrapment matrix.

  10. TDRSS-user orbit determination using batch least-squares and sequential methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oza, D. H.; Jones, T. L.; Hakimi, M.; Samii, Mina V.; Doll, C. E.; Mistretta, G. D.; Hart, R. C.

    1993-01-01

    The Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Flight Dynamics Division (FDD) commissioned Applied Technology Associates, Incorporated, to develop the Real-Time Orbit Determination/Enhanced (RTOD/E) system on a Disk Operating System (DOS)-based personal computer (PC) as a prototype system for sequential orbit determination of spacecraft. This paper presents the results of a study to compare the orbit determination accuracy for a Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) user spacecraft, Landsat-4, obtained using RTOD/E, operating on a PC, with the accuracy of an established batch least-squares system, the Goddard Trajectory Determination System (GTDS), and operating on a mainframe computer. The results of Landsat-4 orbit determination will provide useful experience for the Earth Observing System (EOS) series of satellites. The Landsat-4 ephemerides were estimated for the January 17-23, 1991, timeframe, during which intensive TDRSS tracking data for Landsat-4 were available. Independent assessments were made of the consistencies (overlap comparisons for the batch case and covariances and the first measurement residuals for the sequential case) of solutions produced by the batch and sequential methods. The forward-filtered RTOD/E orbit solutions were compared with the definitive GTDS orbit solutions for Landsat-4; the solution differences were less than 40 meters after the filter had reached steady state.

  11. Evaluation of Landsat-4 orbit determination accuracy using batch least-squares and sequential methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oza, D. H.; Jones, T. L.; Feiertag, R.; Samii, M. V.; Doll, C. E.; Mistretta, G. D.; Hart, R. C.

    1993-01-01

    The Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Flight Dynamics Division (FDD) commissioned Applied Technology Associates, Incorporated, to develop the Real-Time Orbit Determination/Enhanced (RTOD/E) system on a Disk Operating System (DOS)-based personal computer (PC) as a prototype system for sequential orbit determination of spacecraft. This paper presents the results of a study to compare the orbit determination accuracy for a Tracking and Data Relay Satellite (TDRS) System (TDRSS) user spacecraft, Landsat-4, obtained using RTOD/E, operating on a PC, with the accuracy of an established batch least-squares system, the Goddard Trajectory Determination System (GTDS), operating on a mainframe computer. The results of Landsat-4 orbit determination will provide useful experience for the Earth Observing System (EOS) series of satellites. The Landsat-4 ephemerides were estimated for the May 18-24, 1992, timeframe, during which intensive TDRSS tracking data for Landsat-4 were available. During this period, there were two separate orbit-adjust maneuvers on one of the TDRSS spacecraft (TDRS-East) and one small orbit-adjust maneuver for Landsat-4. Independent assessments were made of the consistencies (overlap comparisons for the batch case and covariances and the first measurement residuals for the sequential case) of solutions produced by the batch and sequential methods. The forward-filtered RTOD/E orbit solutions were compared with the definitive GTDS orbit solutions for Landsat-4; the solution differences were generally less than 30 meters after the filter had reached steady state.

  12. 40 CFR 205.57-6 - Acceptance and rejection of batches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Acceptance and rejection of batches... Acceptance and rejection of batches. (a) The batch from which a batch sample is selected will be accepted or... equal to the acceptance number or greater than or equal to the rejection number appropriate for...

  13. 40 CFR 205.57-6 - Acceptance and rejection of batches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Acceptance and rejection of batches... Acceptance and rejection of batches. (a) The batch from which a batch sample is selected will be accepted or... equal to the acceptance number or greater than or equal to the rejection number appropriate for...

  14. 40 CFR 63.1327 - Batch process vents-reporting requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Batch process vents-reporting... Batch process vents—reporting requirements. (a) The owner or operator of a batch process vent or... in § 63.1335(e)(5). (1) For each batch process vent complying § 63.1322(a) and each aggregate...

  15. 40 CFR 63.486 - Batch front-end process vent provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Batch front-end process vent provisions... Batch front-end process vent provisions. (a) Batch front-end process vents. Except as specified in paragraph (b) of this section, owners and operators of new and existing affected sources with batch...

  16. Ethanol production from glycerol using immobilized Pachysolen tannophilus during microaerated repeated-batch fermentor culture.

    PubMed

    Cha, Hye-Geun; Kim, Yi-Ok; Choi, Woon Yong; Kang, Do-Hyung; Lee, Hyeon-Yong; Jung, Kyung-Hwan

    2015-03-01

    Herein, we established a repeated-batch process for ethanol production from glycerol by immobilized Pachysolen tannophilus. The aim of this study was to develop a more practical and applicable ethanol production process for biofuel. In particular, using industrial-grade medium ingredients, the microaeration rate was optimized for maximization of the ethanol production, and the relevant metabolic parameters were then analyzed. The microaeration rate of 0.11 vvm, which is far lower than those occurring in a shaking flask culture, was found to be the optimal value for ethanol production from glycerol. In addition, it was found that, among those tested, Celite was a more appropriate carrier for the immobilization of P. tannophilus to induce production of ethanol from glycerol. Finally, through a repeated-batch culture, the ethanol yield (Ye/g) of 0.126 ± 0.017 g-ethanol/g-glycerol (n = 4) was obtained, and this value was remarkably comparable with a previous report. In the future, it is expected that the results of this study will be applied for the development of a more practical and profitable long-term ethanol production process, thanks to the industrial-grade medium preparation, simple immobilization method, and easy repeated-batch operation. PMID:25315054

  17. No-observed-effect concentrations in batch and continuous algal toxicity tests

    SciTech Connect

    Chao, M.R.; Chen, C.Y.

    2000-06-01

    In this study, the authors compare the no-observed-effect concentrations (NOECs) of Cd, Ni, Zn, Cu, and Pb based on different response parameters, using batch and continuous algal toxicity tests. For both batch and continuous tests, parameters based on total cell volume (TCV) were found to be less sensitive than those related to cell densities. The above observation mainly occurred because, under the stresses from metal toxicants evaluated in this and a previous study, the mean cell volume (MCV) of algae increased considerably. The increase of MCV compensates for the effects brought about by the reduction in cell density and eventually results in less variation in TCVs. This study shows that parameters based on cell density are quite sensitive and ideal for the estimation of NOECs. In addition, comparison of the NOEC values derived from different culture techniques shows that the continuous methods generally yields lower NOEC values than that obtained by the batch tests. The results of this study also indicate that the NOEC provides more protection to the test organism than the effective concentration at 10% growth reduction (EC10). For toxicity test methods that produce small variations among replicates, the NOEC is still a good indicator of low toxic effect. Furthermore, for the continuous algal toxicity test, a relatively simple approach is proposed to determine the NOEC values based on the algal culture's control charts. The proposed method produced identical results as those based on conventional hypothesis-testing methods.

  18. Analysis Of DWPF Sludge Batch 7a (Macrobatch 8) Pour Stream Samples

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, F. C.; Pareizs, J. M.

    2012-10-24

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) began processing Sludge Batch 7a (SB7a), also referred to as Macrobatch 8 (MB8), in June 2011. SB7a is a blend of the heel of Tank 40 from Sludge Batch 6 (SB6) and the SB7a material that was transferred to Tank 40 from Tank 51. SB7a was processed using Frit 418. During processing of each sludge batch, the DWPF is required to take at least one glass sample to meet the objectives of the Glass Product Control Program (GPCP), which is governed by the DWPF Waste Compliance Plan, and to complete the necessary Production Records so that the final glass product may be disposed of at a Federal Repository. Three pour stream glass samples and two Melter Feed Tank (MFT) slurry samples were collected while processing SB7a. These additional samples were taken during SB7a to understand the impact of antifoam and the melter bubblers on glass redox chemistry. The samples were transferred to the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) where they were analyzed.

  19. Fine Drop Recovery in Batch Gas-Agitated Liquid-Liquid Dispersions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahrokhi, H.; Shaw, J. M.

    1996-11-01

    The hydrodynamics of batch gas-agitated liquid-liquid dispersions has received comparatively little attention in the open literature1-5. Such systems arise in diverse contexts but operate on the same basic principle. Two immiscible liquids form stratified layers initially and return to this stratified state at the end of a batch. Liquid from the lower liquid phase is entrained and then dispersed by gas bubbles passing from the lower to the upper liquid phase. At the end of a batch, the liquids separate under the influence of gravity. Fine drops separate slowly. For industrial processes such as nickel conversion, long settling periods reduce equipment productivity. Metal drops entrained in the lower density slag phase also pose leaching problems in slag heaps. We assessed fine drop production in such batch systems previously5. In this work, we address fine drop recovery. The net rate of fine drop recovery can be up to five times greater than Standard Settling experiments if low speed recirculation loops are imposed within the upper liquid phase that are perpendicular to the liquid-liquid interface. The principal mechanism for enhanced fine drop recovery, in this case, arises from improving drop liquid-liquid interface coalescence. 1. Hatzikiriakos et al., A.I.Ch.E. J., 36, 677-684 (1990). 2. Hatzikiriakos et al., Chem. Eng. Sci., 45, 2349-2356 (1990). 3. Konduru & Shaw, Proc. Int. Symp. Materials Handling in Pyromet., Hamilton, Cda, 14-24 (1991). 4. ibid, Can. J. Chem. Eng., 70, 381-384 (1992). 5. Shahrokhi & Shaw, Chem. Eng. Sci., 49, 5203-5213 (1994).

  20. Comparison of Reductive Dechlorination of Chlorinated Ethylene in Batch and Continuous-Flow Reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, S.; Jonghwan, L.; Hong, U.; Kim, N.; Ahn, H.; Lee, S.; Kim, Y.

    2010-12-01

    A 1.28 L-Batch reactor and continuous-flow stirred tank reactor (CFSTR) fed with formate and trichloriethene (TCE) were operated for 120 days and 72 days, respectively, to study the effect of formate as electron donor on reductive dechlorination of TCE to cis-1,2-dichloroethylene (c-DCE), vinyl chloride (VC), and ethylene (ETH). In batch reactor, injected 60 μmol TCE was completely degraded in presence of 20% hydrogen gas (H2) in less than 8 days by Evanite culture (300 mg-soluble protein) with ability to completely degrade tetrachloroethene (PCE) and TCE to ETH under anaerobic conditions. To determine the effect of formate as electron donor instead of H2, about 3 or 11 mmol of formate injected into batch-reactor every 15 days was enough to support H2 for dechlorination of c-DCE to VC and ETH. Soluble protein concentration of Evanite culture during the batch test increased from 300 mg to 688 mg for 120 days. In CFSTR test, TCE was fed continuously at 9.9 ppm (75.38 μmol/L) and the influent formate feed concentration increased stepwise from 1.3 mmol/L to 14.3 mmol/L. Injected TCE was accumulated at HRT 18 days for 13 days, but TCE was completed degraded at HRT 36 days without accumulation during left of experiment period, getting H2 from fermentative hydrogen production of injected formate. Although c-DCE was also accumulated for 23 days after CFSTR operation, it reached steady-state without accumulation in presence of excessive formate. However, since c-DCE in CFSTR was not completely dechlorinated, we will determine the transcriptional level of enzyme involved in reductive dechlorination of TCE, c-DCE, and VC in our future work.

  1. Capsular polysaccharide production by Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 1: from strain selection to fed-batch cultivation.

    PubMed

    Marthos, Bruno Vitorio; Ferri, Anne Letícia Silva; de Figueiredo, Douglas Borges; Zangirolami, Teresa Cristina; Gonçalves, Viviane Maimoni

    2015-12-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is a human pathogen largely transmitted by aerosols. Vaccines are the main strategy against this pathogen, and the capsular polysaccharide (PS) is its major antigen. S. pneumoniae serotype 1 is associated with large outbreaks and epidemics of invasive diseases. The aims of this work were to screen serotype 1 strains to identify the best PS1 producer, evaluate three peptones for PS1 production, investigate the effects of culture medium components using a design of experiments (DoE), a statistic tool for optimization, and propose a new medium/cultivation strategy. After flask cultivation of nine strains, two that produced high PS1 and biomass values were chosen for further evaluation in the bioreactor, and ST595/01 was chosen as the best PS1 producer strain. Among the peptones tested (Casamino acids, Soytone, and Phytone), the highest PS1 production (298 mg/L) was reached with Phytone. Next, DoE (2(4-1)) was performed to evaluate the effects of yeast extract (YE), Phytone, L-asparagine (Asn), and L-glutamine (Gln), yielding the following results: Phytone presented positive effects (p < 0.05) for maximum production of biomass, PS1, acetate, and lactate; YE showed positive effects for biomass and acid production (p < 0.05); Gln exerted a minor positive effect on PS1 yield factor on glucose (p < 0.1); and Asn presented only an effect on acetate production (p < 0.1). Hence, a new culture medium was formulated based on Phytone, YE, and glucose, and batch and fed-batch cultivations were evaluated. The fed-batch cultivation showed almost 2 times the biomass and 2.5 times the PS1 production as the batch culture, and 8-10 times higher PS1 production than has been previously reported. PMID:26298702

  2. Towards Batched Linear Solvers on Accelerated Hardware Platforms

    SciTech Connect

    Haidar, Azzam; Dong, Tingzing Tim; Tomov, Stanimire; Dongarra, Jack J

    2015-01-01

    As hardware evolves, an increasingly effective approach to develop energy efficient, high-performance solvers, is to design them to work on many small and independent problems. Indeed, many applications already need this functionality, especially for GPUs, which are known to be currently about four to five times more energy efficient than multicore CPUs for every floating-point operation. In this paper, we describe the development of the main one-sided factorizations: LU, QR, and Cholesky; that are needed for a set of small dense matrices to work in parallel. We refer to such algorithms as batched factorizations. Our approach is based on representing the algorithms as a sequence of batched BLAS routines for GPU-contained execution. Note that this is similar in functionality to the LAPACK and the hybrid MAGMA algorithms for large-matrix factorizations. But it is different from a straightforward approach, whereby each of GPU's symmetric multiprocessors factorizes a single problem at a time. We illustrate how our performance analysis together with the profiling and tracing tools guided the development of batched factorizations to achieve up to 2-fold speedup and 3-fold better energy efficiency compared to our highly optimized batched CPU implementations based on the MKL library on a two-sockets, Intel Sandy Bridge server. Compared to a batched LU factorization featured in the NVIDIA's CUBLAS library for GPUs, we achieves up to 2.5-fold speedup on the K40 GPU.

  3. Job schedul in Grid batch farms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gellrich, Andreas

    2014-06-01

    We present here a study for a scheduler which cooperates with the queueing system TORQUE and is tailored to the needs of a HEP-dominated large Grid site with around 10000 jobs slots. Triggered by severe scaling problems of MAUI, a scheduler, referred to as MYSCHED, was developed and put into operation. We discuss conceptional aspects as well as experiences after almost two years of running.

  4. Seismic Absorption and Modulus Measurements in Porous Rocks in Lab and Field: Physical, Chemical, and Biological Effects of Fluids (Detecting a Biosurfactant Additive in a Field Irrigation Experiment)

    SciTech Connect

    Spetzler, Hartmut

    2006-05-01

    We have been exploring a new technology that is based on using low-frequency seismic attenuation data to monitor changes in fluid saturation conditions in two-fluid phase porous materials. The seismic attenuation mechanism is related to the loss of energy due to the hysteresis of resistance to meniscus movement (changes in surface tension, wettability) when a pore containing two fluids is stressed at very low frequencies (< 10 Hz). This technology has potential applications to monitoring changes in (1) leakage at buried waste sites, (2) contaminant remediation, and (3) flooding during enhanced petroleum recovery. We have concluded a three year field study at the Maricopa Agricultural Center site of the University of Arizona. Three sets of instruments were installed along an East-West line perpendicular to the 50m by 50m inigation site. Each set of instruments consisted of one three component seismometer and one tiltmeter. Microseisms and solid Earth-tides served as strain sources. The former have a power peak at a period of about 6 seconds and the tides have about two cycles per day. Installation of instruments commenced in late summer of 2002. The instruments operated nearly continuously until April 2005. During the fall of 2003 the site was irrigated with water and one year later with water containing 150 ppm of a biosurfactant additive. This biodegradable additive served to mimic a class of contaminants that change the surface tension of the inigation fluid. Tilt data clearly show tidal tilts superimposed on local tilts due to agricultural irrigation and field work. When the observed signals were correlated with site specific theoretical tilt signals we saw no anomalies for the water irrigation in 2003, but large anomalies on two stations for the surfactant irrigation in 2004. Occasional failures of seismometers as well as data acquisition systems contributed to less than continuous coverage. These data are noisier than the tilt data, but do also show possible

  5. Can additive measures add to an intersectional understanding? Experiences of gay and ethnic discrimination among HIV-positive Latino gay men

    PubMed Central

    Reisen, Carol A.; Brooks, Kelly D.; Zea, Maria Cecilia; Poppen, Paul J.; Bianchi, Fernanda T.

    2013-01-01

    The current study investigated a methodological question of whether traditional, additive, quantitative data can be used to address intersectional issues, and illustrated such an approach with a sample of 301 HIV-positive, Latino gay men in the U.S. Participants were surveyed using A-CASI. Hierarchical logistic set regression investigated the role of sets of variables reflecting demographic characteristics, gender nonconformity, and gay and ethnic discrimination in relation to depression and gay collective identity. Results showed the discrimination set was related to depression and to gay collective identity, as was gender nonconformity. Follow-up logistic regression showed that both types of discrimination were associated with greater depression, but gender nonconformity was not. Gay discrimination and gender nonconformity were positively associated with gay collective identity, whereas ethnic discrimination was negatively associated. Results are discussed in terms of the use of traditional quantitative data as a potential means of understanding intersectional issues, as well as of contributing to knowledge about individuals facing multiple structural inequalities. PMID:23647331

  6. Anaplastic Thyroid Cancer: The Addition of Systemic Chemotherapy to Radiotherapy Led to an Observed Improvement in Survival—A Single Centre Experience and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Lowe, Natalie M.; Loughran, Sean; Slevin, Nicholas J.; Yap, Beng K.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) is rare yet accounts for up to 50% of all thyroid cancer deaths. This study reviews outcomes of patients with confirmed ATC referred to a tertiary oncology centre plus reviews the literature to explore how poor outcomes may be improved. Materials and Methods. The management and outcomes of 20 patients with ATC were reviewed. Results. Median age at diagnosis was 69.5 years. 19 patients died due to ATC, 40% of whom died from asphyxiation. Median survival for all cases was 59 days. Patients who had previous surgery prior to other treatment modalities had a longer median survival overall compared to those who had not had previous surgery (142 days compared to 59 days) and produced the one long-term survivor. Chemotherapy followed by radiotherapy (without previous surgery) was associated with longer median survival (220 days). Palliative radiotherapy alone did not decrease the rate of death by asphyxiation when compared to other single modality treatments. Conclusion. Multimodality treatment including surgery when feasible remains the best strategy to improve survival and prevent death from asphyxiation in the management of ATC. The addition of chemotherapy to our institutional protocol led to improved survival but prognosis remains very poor. PMID:25184150

  7. SULFATE SOLUBILITY LIMIT VERIFICATION FOR DWPF SLUDGE BATCH 7B

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, K.

    2011-10-03

    The objective of this study was to determine a sulfate solubility limit in glass for Sludge Batch 7b (SB7b). The SB7b composition projection provided by Savannah River Remediation (SRR) on May 25, 2011 was used as the basis for formulating glass compositions to determine the sulfate limit. Additions of Na{sub 2}O to the projected sludge composition were made by the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) due to uncertainty in the final concentration of Na{sub 2}O for SB7b, which is dependent on washing effectiveness and the potential need to add NaOH to ensure an acceptable projected operating window. Additions of 4, 6, and 8 wt % Na{sub 2}O were made to the nominal May 25, 2011 composition projection. An updated SB7b composition projection was received from SRR on August 4, 2011. Due to compositional similarities, no additional experimental work using the August 4, 2011 compositions was considered to be necessary for this study. Both Frit 418 and Frit 702 were included in this study. The targeted sulfate (SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}) concentrations of the study glasses were selected within the range of 0.6 to 0.9 wt % in glass. A total of 52 glass compositions were selected based on the compositional variables of Na{sub 2}O addition, Actinide Removal Process (ARP) stream addition, waste loading, frit composition, and sulfate concentration. The glasses were batched, melted, and characterized following SRNL procedures. Visual observations were recorded for each glass after it cooled and used as in indicator of sulfur retention. Representative samples of each of the glasses fabricated were subjected to chemical analysis to determine whether the targeted compositions were met, as well as to determine the quantity of sulfate that was retained after melting. In general, the measured composition data showed that there were only minor issues in meeting the targeted compositions for the study glasses, and the measured sulfate concentrations for each study glass were within 10% of

  8. SLUDGE BATCH 5 VARIABILITY STUDY WITH FRIT 418

    SciTech Connect

    Raszewski, F; Tommy Edwards, T; David Peeler, D

    2008-09-29

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) is preparing to initiate processing Sludge Batch 5 (SB5) in early FY 2009. In support of the upcoming processing, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) provided a recommendation to utilize Frit 418 as a transitional frit to initiate processing of SB5. This recommendation was based on the results of assessments on the compositional projections for SB5 available at that time from both the Liquid Waste Organization (LWO) and SRNL (using a model-based approach). To support qualification of the Frit 418-SB5 system, SRNL executed a variability study to assess the acceptability of the Frit 418-SB5 glasses with respect to durability and the applicability of the current durability models. Twenty one glasses were selected for the variability study based on the available SB5 projections primarily spanning a waste loading (WL) range of 25-37%. In order to account for the addition of caustic to Tank 40, which occurred in July 2008, 3 wt% Na2O was added to the original Tank 40 heel projections. The addition of the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) stream to the blend composition was also included. Two of the glasses were fabricated at 25% and 28% WL in order to challenge the homogeneity constraint of the Product Composition Control System (PCCS) for SB5 coupled operations. These twenty one glasses were fabricated and characterized using chemical composition analysis, X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and the Product Consistency Test (PCT). The results of this study indicate that Frit 418 is a viable option for sludge-only and coupled operations. The addition of ARP did not have any negative impacts on the acceptability and predictability of the variability study glasses. Based on the measured PCT response, all of the glasses were acceptable as compared to the Environmental Assessment (EA) reference glass regardless of the thermal history and were also predictable using the current PCCS model for durability. The homogeneity constraint can

  9. Using porphyritic andesite as a new additive for improving hydrolysis and acidogenesis of solid organic wastes.

    PubMed

    Li, Dawei; Zhou, Tao; Chen, Ling; Jiang, Weizhong; Cheng, Fan; Li, Baoming; Kitamura, Yutaka

    2009-12-01

    The effects of porphyritic andesite on the hydrolysis and acidogenesis of solid organic wastes were investigated by batch and continuous experiments using a rotational drum fermentation system. The results of the batch experiment show that if porphyritic andesite (1%, 3%, and 5% reactants) is added initially, the pH level increases and hydrolysis and acidogenesis are accelerated. The highest surface based hydrolysis constant (26.4x10(-3) kgm(-2) d(-1)) and volatile solid degradation ratio (43.3%) were obtained at a 1% porphyritic andesite addition. In the continuous experiment, porphyritic andesite elevated the first order hydrolysis constant from 13.10x10(-3) d(-1) to 18.82x10(-3) d(-1). A particle mean diameter reduction rate of 33.05 microm/d and a volatile solid degradation rate of 3.53 g/L d(-1) were obtained under the hydraulic retention time of 4, 8, 12 and 16 d. PMID:19560914

  10. A High-Fidelity Batch Simulation Environment for Integrated Batch and Piloted Air Combat Simulation Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodrich, Kenneth H.; McManus, John W.; Chappell, Alan R.

    1992-01-01

    A batch air combat simulation environment known as the Tactical Maneuvering Simulator (TMS) is presented. The TMS serves as a tool for developing and evaluating tactical maneuvering logics. The environment can also be used to evaluate the tactical implications of perturbations to aircraft performance or supporting systems. The TMS is capable of simulating air combat between any number of engagement participants, with practical limits imposed by computer memory and processing power. Aircraft are modeled using equations of motion, control laws, aerodynamics and propulsive characteristics equivalent to those used in high-fidelity piloted simulation. Databases representative of a modern high-performance aircraft with and without thrust-vectoring capability are included. To simplify the task of developing and implementing maneuvering logics in the TMS, an outer-loop control system known as the Tactical Autopilot (TA) is implemented in the aircraft simulation model. The TA converts guidance commands issued by computerized maneuvering logics in the form of desired angle-of-attack and wind axis-bank angle into inputs to the inner-loop control augmentation system of the aircraft. This report describes the capabilities and operation of the TMS.

  11. 40 CFR Table 7 to Subpart Jjj of... - Group 1 Batch Process Vents and Aggregate Batch Vent Streams-Monitoring, Recordkeeping, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Aggregate Batch Vent Streams-Monitoring, Recordkeeping, and Reporting Requirements 7 Table 7 to Subpart JJJ... Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group IV Polymers and Resins Pt. 63, Subpt. JJJ, Table 7 Table 7 to Subpart JJJ of Part 63—Group 1 Batch Process Vents and Aggregate Batch Vent...

  12. 40 CFR Table 7 to Subpart Jjj of... - Group 1 Batch Process Vents and Aggregate Batch Vent Streams-Monitoring, Recordkeeping, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Aggregate Batch Vent Streams-Monitoring, Recordkeeping, and Reporting Requirements 7 Table 7 to Subpart JJJ..., Subpt. JJJ, Table 7 Table 7 to Subpart JJJ of Part 63—Group 1 Batch Process Vents and Aggregate Batch... presented in this table) Concentration level or reading indicated by an organic monitoring device at...

  13. 40 CFR Table 7 to Subpart Jjj of... - Group 1 Batch Process Vents and Aggregate Batch Vent Streams-Monitoring, Recordkeeping, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Aggregate Batch Vent Streams-Monitoring, Recordkeeping, and Reporting Requirements 7 Table 7 to Subpart JJJ..., Subpt. JJJ, Table 7 Table 7 to Subpart JJJ of Part 63—Group 1 Batch Process Vents and Aggregate Batch... presented in this table) Concentration level or reading indicated by an organic monitoring device at...

  14. 40 CFR Table 7 to Subpart Jjj of... - Group 1 Batch Process Vents and Aggregate Batch Vent Streams-Monitoring, Recordkeeping, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Aggregate Batch Vent Streams-Monitoring, Recordkeeping, and Reporting Requirements 7 Table 7 to Subpart JJJ... Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group IV Polymers and Resins Pt. 63, Subpt. JJJ, Table 7 Table 7 to Subpart JJJ of Part 63—Group 1 Batch Process Vents and Aggregate Batch Vent...

  15. Batch-related sterile endophthalmitis following intravitreal injection of bevacizumab

    PubMed Central

    Entezari, Morteza; Ramezani, Alireza; Ahmadieh, Hamid; Ghasemi, Hassan

    2014-01-01

    Background: To report a series of patients with sterile endophthalmitis after intravitreal bevacizumab (IVB) injection from 2 different batches of bevacizumab. Materials and Methods: Records of 11 eyes with severe inflammation after IVB injections from two different batches (7 eyes from one and 4 from the other) on two separate days were evaluated. Fifteen eyes of 15 patients in one day were treated with one batch and 18 eyes of 17 patients were treated another day using another batch injected for different retinal diseases. Each batch was opened on the day of injection. We used commercially available bevacizumab (100 mg/4 ml) kept at 4°C. Severe cases with hypopyon were admitted to the ward and underwent anterior chamber and vitreous tap for direct smear and culture. Results: Pain, redness and decreased vision began after 11-17 days. All had anterior chamber and vitreous reactions and 5 had hypopyon. Antibiotics and corticosteroids were initiated immediately, but the antibiotics were discontinued after negative culture results. Visual acuity returned to pre-injection levels in 10 eyes after 1 month and only in one eye pars plana vitrectomy was performed. Mean VA at the time of presentation with inflammation (1.76 ± 0.78 logMAR) decreased significantly (P =0.008) compared to the initial mean corrected VA (1.18 ± 0.55 logMAR); however, final mean corrected VA (1.02 ± 0.48 logMAR) improved in comparison with the baseline but not to a significant level (P =0.159). Conclusions: We report a cluster of sterile endophthalmitis following intravitreal injection of bevacizumab from the same batch of bevacizumab that has a favorable prognosis. PMID:23619494

  16. Dissolution retardation of solid silica during glass batch-melting

    SciTech Connect

    Hrma, Pavel R.; Marcial, Jose

    2011-07-15

    During glass-batch melting, solid silica (quartz) usually dissolves last. A retardation function was defined as a measure of the progressive inhibition of silica dissolution that occurs during batch melting. This function is based on the comparison of the measured rate of dissolution of silica particles with the hypothetical diffusion-controlled volume flux from regularly distributed particles with uniform concentration layers around them. The severe inhibition of silica dissolution has been attributed to the irregular spatial distribution of silica particles that is associated with the formation of nearly saturated melt at a portion of their surfaces. Irregular shapes and unequal sizes of particles also contribute to their extended lifetime.

  17. Stochastic growth logistic model with aftereffect for batch fermentation process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosli, Norhayati; Ayoubi, Tawfiqullah; Bahar, Arifah; Rahman, Haliza Abdul; Salleh, Madihah Md

    2014-06-01

    In this paper, the stochastic growth logistic model with aftereffect for the cell growth of C. acetobutylicum P262 and Luedeking-Piret equations for solvent production in batch fermentation system is introduced. The parameters values of the mathematical models are estimated via Levenberg-Marquardt optimization method of non-linear least squares. We apply Milstein scheme for solving the stochastic models numerically. The effciency of mathematical models is measured by comparing the simulated result and the experimental data of the microbial growth and solvent production in batch system. Low values of Root Mean-Square Error (RMSE) of stochastic models with aftereffect indicate good fits.

  18. Stochastic growth logistic model with aftereffect for batch fermentation process

    SciTech Connect

    Rosli, Norhayati; Ayoubi, Tawfiqullah; Bahar, Arifah; Rahman, Haliza Abdul; Salleh, Madihah Md

    2014-06-19

    In this paper, the stochastic growth logistic model with aftereffect for the cell growth of C. acetobutylicum P262 and Luedeking-Piret equations for solvent production in batch fermentation system is introduced. The parameters values of the mathematical models are estimated via Levenberg-Marquardt optimization method of non-linear least squares. We apply Milstein scheme for solving the stochastic models numerically. The effciency of mathematical models is measured by comparing the simulated result and the experimental data of the microbial growth and solvent production in batch system. Low values of Root Mean-Square Error (RMSE) of stochastic models with aftereffect indicate good fits.

  19. [Hydroxycinnamic acid levels of various batches from mugwort flowering tops].

    PubMed

    Fraisse, D; Carnat, A; Carnat, A-P; Guédon, D; Lamaison, J-L

    2003-07-01

    Dried flowering tops of 24 harvested batches (Artemisia vulgaris: 13; Artemisia verlotiorum: 11) and 12 batches of mugwort from commercial origin were examined. The levels of principal compounds averaged respectively: total hydroxycinnamic acids 6.09; 10.29 and 9.13%, chlorogenic acid 0.79; 2.05 and 1.35%, 1,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid 0.51; 4.01 and 1.25%, 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid 2.21; 1.25 and 2.60%. Specifications were discussed for an European Pharmacopoeial monography. PMID:12843960

  20. Estimation of Temperature Dependent Parameters of a Batch Alcoholic Fermentation Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Andrade, Rafael Ramos; Rivera, Elmer Ccopa; Costa, Aline C.; Atala, Daniel I. P.; Filho, Francisco Maugeri; Filho, Rubens Maciel

    In this work, a procedure was established to develop a mathematical model considering the effect of temperature on reaction kinetics. Experiments were performed in batch mode in temperatures from 30 to 38°C. The microorganism used was Saccharomyces cerevisiae and the culture media, sugarcane molasses. The objective is to assess the difficulty in updating the kinetic parameters when there are changes in fermentation conditions. We conclude that, although the re-estimation is a time-consuming task, it is possible to accurately describe the process when there are changes in raw material composition if a re-estimation of parameters is performed.

  1. Evaluation of Sludge Batch 5 Qualification with ISDP Salt Batch 1 Compliance to DWPF Waste Acceptance Criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Shafer, A.

    2010-05-05

    The purpose of this report is to document the acceptability of Sludge Batch 5 with the initial macrobatch operation of the Interim Salt Disposition Project (ISDP) waste to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). This report was prepared to comply with the requirements listed in the Waste Acceptance Criteria for Sludge, Actinide Removal Process (ARP), and Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) Process Transfers to 512-S and DWPF. The requirements for transfers to 512-S were evaluated during ISDP Salt Batch 1 qualification. The calculations of sludge concentrations are based entirely on the Tank 51 sample processed at SRNL. This is conservative because Tank 51 is blended with the dilute feed in the DWPF Feed Tank (Tank 40). This report documents the acceptability of sludge only as well as Sludge Batch 5 sludge slurry combined with ARP/MCU products for feed to DWPF. All criteria were met for unblended Tank 51 material.

  2. ISDP salt batch #2 supernate qualification

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, T. B.; Nash, C. A.; Fink, S. D.

    2009-01-05

    This report covers the laboratory testing and analyses of the second Integrated Salt Disposition Project (ISDP) salt supernate samples, performed in support of initial radioactive operations of Actinide Removal Process (ARP) and Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU). Major goals of this work include characterizing Tank 22H supernate, characterizing Tank 41H supernate, verifying actinide and strontium adsorption with a standard laboratory-scale test using monosodium titanate (MST) and filtration, and checking cesium mass transfer behavior for the MCU solvent performance when contacted with the liquid produced from MST contact. This study also includes characterization of a post-blend Tank 49H sample as part of the Nuclear Criticality Safety Evaluation (NCSE). This work was specified by Task Technical Request and by Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan (TTQAP). In addition, a sampling plan will be written to guide analytical future work. Safety and environmental aspects of the work were documented in a Hazard Assessment Package.

  3. Selective batch crushing in the coal-preparation shop at OAO NTMK

    SciTech Connect

    N.A. Berkutov; Yu.V. Stepanov; P.V. Shtark; L.A. Makhortova; N.K. Popova; D.A. Koshkarov; N.V. Tsarev

    2007-05-15

    In September 2004, after reconstruction at OAO Nizhnetagil'skii Metallurgicheskii Kombinat (NTMK), blast furnace 6 went into operation for the production of vanadium from hot metal. At the startup of furnace 6, besides optimising its composition; it was decided to restore selective crushing of the coal batch using pneumatic and mechanical separation in the third unit of the coal preparation shop. Additional increase in the mechanical strength of coke by 1.5-2.0% was predicted with a 0.5-1.0% decrease in wear.

  4. A Batch Wafer Scale LIGA Assembly and Packaging Technique vai Diffusion Bonding

    SciTech Connect

    Christenson, T.R.; Schmale, D.T.

    1999-01-27

    A technique using diffusion bonding (or solid-state welding) has been used to achieve batch fabrication of two- level nickel LIGA structures. Interlayer alignment accuracy of less than 1 micron is achieved using press-fit gauge pins. A mini-scale torsion tester was built to measure the diffusion bond strength of LIGA formed specimens that has shown successful bonding at temperatures of 450"C at 7 ksi pressure with bond strength greater than 100 Mpa. Extensions to this basic process to allow for additional layers and thereby more complex assemblies as well as commensurate packaging are discussed.

  5. Batch culture and repeated-batch culture of Cunninghamella bainieri 2A1 for lipid production as a comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Dashti, Marjan Ganjali; Abdeshahian, Peyman

    2015-01-01

    This research was performed based on a comparative study on fungal lipid production by a locally isolated strain Cunninghamella bainieri 2A1 in batch culture and repeated-batch culture using a nitrogen-limited medium. Lipid production in the batch culture was conducted to study the effect of different agitation rates on the simultaneous consumption of ammonium tartrate and glucose sources. Lipid production in the repeated-batch culture was studied by considering the effect of harvesting time and harvesting volume of the culture broth on the lipid accumulation. The batch cultivation was carried out in a 500 ml Erlenmeyer flask containing 200 ml of the fresh nitrogen-limited medium. Microbial culture was incubated at 30 °C under different agitation rates of 120, 180 and 250 rpm for 120 h. The repeated-batch culture was performed at three harvesting times of 12, 24 and 48 h using four harvesting cultures of 60%, 70%, 80% and 90%. Experimental results revealed that nitrogen source (ammonium tartrate) was fully utilized by C. bainieri 2A1 within 24 h in all agitation rates tested. It was also observed that a high amount of glucose in culture medium was consumed by C. bainieri 2A1 at 250 rpm agitation speed during the batch fermentation. Similar results showed that the highest lipid concentration of 2.96 g/L was obtained at an agitation rate of 250 rpm at 120 h cultivation time with the maximum lipid productivity of 7.0 × 10−2 mg/ml/h. On the other hand, experimental results showed that the highest lipid concentration produced in the repeated-batch culture was 3.30 g/L at the first cycle of 48 h harvesting time using 70% harvesting volume, while 0.23 g/L gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) was produced at the last cycle of 48 h harvesting time using 80% harvesting volume. PMID:26980997

  6. Batch culture and repeated-batch culture of Cunninghamella bainieri 2A1 for lipid production as a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Dashti, Marjan Ganjali; Abdeshahian, Peyman

    2016-03-01

    This research was performed based on a comparative study on fungal lipid production by a locally isolated strain Cunninghamella bainieri 2A1 in batch culture and repeated-batch culture using a nitrogen-limited medium. Lipid production in the batch culture was conducted to study the effect of different agitation rates on the simultaneous consumption of ammonium tartrate and glucose sources. Lipid production in the repeated-batch culture was studied by considering the effect of harvesting time and harvesting volume of the culture broth on the lipid accumulation. The batch cultivation was carried out in a 500 ml Erlenmeyer flask containing 200 ml of the fresh nitrogen-limited medium. Microbial culture was incubated at 30 °C under different agitation rates of 120, 180 and 250 rpm for 120 h. The repeated-batch culture was performed at three harvesting times of 12, 24 and 48 h using four harvesting cultures of 60%, 70%, 80% and 90%. Experimental results revealed that nitrogen source (ammonium tartrate) was fully utilized by C. bainieri 2A1 within 24 h in all agitation rates tested. It was also observed that a high amount of glucose in culture medium was consumed by C. bainieri 2A1 at 250 rpm agitation speed during the batch fermentation. Similar results showed that the highest lipid concentration of 2.96 g/L was obtained at an agitation rate of 250 rpm at 120 h cultivation time with the maximum lipid productivity of 7.0 × 10(-2) mg/ml/h. On the other hand, experimental results showed that the highest lipid concentration produced in the repeated-batch culture was 3.30 g/L at the first cycle of 48 h harvesting time using 70% harvesting volume, while 0.23 g/L gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) was produced at the last cycle of 48 h harvesting time using 80% harvesting volume. PMID:26980997

  7. Lipid production in batch and fed-batch cultures of Rhodosporidium toruloides from 5 and 6 carbon carbohydrates

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Microbial lipids are a potential source of bio- or renewable diesel and the red yeast Rhodosporidium toruloides is interesting not only because it can accumulate over 50% of its dry biomass as lipid, but also because it utilises both five and six carbon carbohydrates, which are present in plant biomass hydrolysates. Methods R. toruloides was grown in batch and fed-batch cultures in 0.5 L bioreactors at pH 4 in chemically defined, nitrogen restricted (C/N 40 to 100) media containing glucose, xylose, arabinose, or all three carbohydrates as carbon source. Lipid was extracted from the biomass using chloroform-methanol, measured gravimetrically and analysed by GC. Results Lipid production was most efficient with glucose (up to 25 g lipid L−1, 48 to 75% lipid in the biomass, at up to 0.21 g lipid L−1 h−1) as the sole carbon source, but high lipid concentrations were also produced from xylose (36 to 45% lipid in biomass). Lipid production was low (15–19% lipid in biomass) with arabinose as sole carbon source and was lower than expected (30% lipid in biomass) when glucose, xylose and arabinose were provided simultaneously. The presence of arabinose and/or xylose in the medium increased the proportion of palmitic and linoleic acid and reduced the proportion of oleic acid in the fatty acids, compared to glucose-grown cells. High cell densities were obtained in both batch (37 g L−1, with 49% lipid in the biomass) and fed-batch (35 to 47 g L−1, with 50 to 75% lipid in the biomass) cultures. The highest proportion of lipid in the biomass was observed in cultures given nitrogen during the batch phase but none with the feed. However, carbohydrate consumption was incomplete when the feed did not contain nitrogen and the highest total lipid and best substrate consumption were observed in cultures which received a constant low nitrogen supply. Conclusions Lipid production in R. toruloides was lower from arabinose and mixed carbohydrates than from glucose

  8. Analysis of Sludge Batch 3 (Macrobatch4) DWPF Pour Stream Glass Sample for Canister s02312

    SciTech Connect

    Bannochie, C

    2005-09-01

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) began processing Sludge Batch 3 (SB3), Macrobatch 4 (MB4) in March 2004 as part of Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) Batch 272. Sludge Batch 3 is a blend of the contents Tank 40 remaining from Sludge Batch 2 (SB2), the sludge that was transferred to Tank 40 from Tank 51 and Canyon Np solution additions made directly to Tank 40. The sludge transferred from Tank 51 contained sludges from Tanks 7, 18 and 19 along with precipitated solutions of U, Pu/Gd and Am/Cm from the F and H Canyons. The blend of sludge from Tank 51, Tank 40, and the Canyon additions defines SB3 (or MB4). The sludge slurry is received into the DWPF Chemical Processing Cell (CPC) and is processed through the SRAT and Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) Tank and fed to the melter. During the processing of each sludge batch, the DWPF is required to take at least one glass sample. This glass sample is taken to meet the objectives of the Glass Product Control Program and complete the necessary Production Records so that the final glass product may be disposed of at a Federal Repository. Two glass samples were obtained while pouring Canisters S02312 and S02315 which were sent to the Savannah River National Laboratory's (SRNL) Shielded Cells Facility. Sample S02312 was designated for analysis, while sample S02315 was designated for archival storage. This report contains the visual observations of the as-received glass sample, results for the density, chemical composition, the Product Consistency Test (PCT) and the calculated and measured radionuclide results needed for the Production Record for Canister S02312. The following conclusions were drawn from the examination of this DWPF pour stream glass sample: (1) The glass sample taken during the filling of DWPF Canister S02312 weighed 41.69 g and was generally dark and reflective. (2) Minor inclusions, on the order of 1 {micro}m in size, of noble metals were seen in the glass via contained scanning electron

  9. SLUDGE BATCH 7B QUALIFICATION ACTIVITIES WITH SRS TANK FARM SLUDGE

    SciTech Connect

    Pareizs, J.; Click, D.; Lambert, D.; Reboul, S.

    2011-11-16

    Waste Solidification Engineering (WSE) has requested that characterization and a radioactive demonstration of the next batch of sludge slurry - Sludge Batch 7b (SB7b) - be completed in the Shielded Cells Facility of the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) via a Technical Task Request (TTR). This characterization and demonstration, or sludge batch qualification process, is required prior to transfer of the sludge from Tank 51 to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) feed tank (Tank 40). The current WSE practice is to prepare sludge batches in Tank 51 by transferring sludge from other tanks. Discharges of nuclear materials from H Canyon are often added to Tank 51 during sludge batch preparation. The sludge is washed and transferred to Tank 40, the current DWPF feed tank. Prior to transfer of Tank 51 to Tank 40, SRNL typically simulates the Tank Farm and DWPF processes with a Tank 51 sample (referred to as the qualification sample). With the tight schedule constraints for SB7b and the potential need for caustic addition to allow for an acceptable glass processing window, the qualification for SB7b was approached differently than past batches. For SB7b, SRNL prepared a Tank 51 and a Tank 40 sample for qualification. SRNL did not receive the qualification sample from Tank 51 nor did it simulate all of the Tank Farm washing and decanting operations. Instead, SRNL prepared a Tank 51 SB7b sample from samples of Tank 7 and Tank 51, along with a wash solution to adjust the supernatant composition to the final SB7b Tank 51 Tank Farm projections. SRNL then prepared a sample to represent SB7b in Tank 40 by combining portions of the SRNL-prepared Tank 51 SB7b sample and a Tank 40 Sludge Batch 7a (SB7a) sample. The blended sample was 71% Tank 40 (SB7a) and 29% Tank 7/Tank 51 on an insoluble solids basis. This sample is referred to as the SB7b Qualification Sample. The blend represented the highest projected Tank 40 heel (as of May 25, 2011), and thus, the highest

  10. High concentrations of cellulosic ethanol achieved by fed batch semi simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of waste-paper

    PubMed Central

    Elliston, Adam; Collins, Samuel R.A.; Wilson, David R.; Roberts, Ian N.; Waldron, Keith W.

    2013-01-01

    A fundamental goal of second generation ethanol production is to increase the ethanol concentration to 10% (v/v) or more to optimise distillation costs. Semi simultaneous saccharification and fermentations (SSSF) were conducted at small pilot scale (5 L) utilising fed-batch additions of solid shredded copier paper substrate. Early addition of Accellerase® 1500 at 16 FPU/g substrate and 30 U/g β-glucosidase followed by substrate only batch addition allowed low final equivalent enzyme concentrations to be achieved (3.7 FPU/g substrate) whilst maintaining digestion. Batch addition resulted in a cumulative substrate concentration equivalent to 65% (w/v). This in turn resulted in the production of high concentrations of ethanol (11.6% v/v). The success of this strategy relied on the capacity of the bioreactor to perform high shear mixing as required. Further research into the timing and number of substrate additions could lead to further improvement in overall yields from the 65.5% attained. PMID:23500568

  11. Efficiency of biological activator formulated material (BAFM) for volatile organic compounds removal--preliminary batch culture tests with activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Corre, Charline; Couriol, Catherine; Amrane, Abdeltif; Dumont, Eric; Andrès, Yves; Le Cloirec, Pierre

    2012-01-01

    During biological degradation, such as biofiltration of air loaded with volatile organic compounds, the pollutant is passed through a bed packed with a solid medium acting as a biofilm support. To improve microorganism nutritional equilibrium and hence to enhance the purification capacities, a Biological Activator Formulated Material (BAFM) was developed, which is a mixture of solid nutrients dissolving slowly in a liquid phase. This solid was previously validated on mineral pollutants: ammonia and hydrogen sulphide. To evaluate the efficiency of such a material for biodegradation of some organic compounds, a simple experiment using an activated sludge batch reactor was carried out. The pollutants (sodium benzoate, phenol, p-nitrophenol and 2-4-dichlorophenol) were in the concentration range 100 to 1200 mg L(-1). The positive impact of the formulated material was shown. The improvement of the degradation rates was in the range 10-30%. This was the consequence of the low dissolution of the nutrients incorporated during material formulation, followed by their consumption by the biomass, as shown for urea used as a nitrogen source. Owing to its twofold interest (mechanical resistance and nutritional supplementation), the Biological Activator Formulated Material seems to be a promising material. Its addition to organic or inorganic supports should be investigated to confirm its relevance for implementation in biofilters. PMID:22988627

  12. THE FINING BEHAVIOR OF SELECTIVELY BATCHED COMMERCIAL GLASSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A re-melt at higher temperatures is underway to try and resolve a greater difference in fining behaviors between conventional and selective batching methods. Concentric granulation combines the two-granule system into a single-granule system with a core and crust of different ...

  13. Processing TOVS Polar Pathfinder data using the distributed batch controller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duff, James; Salem, Kenneth M.; Schweiger, Axel; Livny, Miron

    1997-09-01

    The distributed batch controller (DBC) supports scientific batch data processing. Batch jobs are distributed by the DBC over a collection of computing resources. Since these resources may be widely scattered the DBC is well suited for collaborative research efforts whose resources may not be centrally located. The DBC provides its users with centralized monitoring and control of distributed batch jobs. Version 1 of the DBC is currently being used by the TOVS Polar Pathfinder project to generate Arctic atmospheric temperature and humidity profiles. Profile generating jobs are distributed and executed by the DBC on workstation clusters located at several sites across the US. This paper describes the data processing requirements of the TOVS Polar Pathfinder project, and how the DBC is being used to meet them. It also describes Version 2 of the DBC. DBC V2 is implemented in Java, and utilizes a number of advanced Java features such as threads and remote method invocation. It incorporates a number of functional enhancements. These include a flexible mechanism supporting interoperation of the DBC with a wider variety of execution resources and an improved user interface.

  14. 27 CFR 19.598 - Dump/batch records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Dump/batch records. 19.598 Section 19.598 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Records and Reports Processing Records § 19.598...

  15. 27 CFR 19.598 - Dump/batch records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Dump/batch records. 19.598 Section 19.598 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... gallons, the percentage of alcohol by volume and proof, and alcoholic flavoring materials in proof...

  16. 27 CFR 19.598 - Dump/batch records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Dump/batch records. 19.598 Section 19.598 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... gallons, the percentage of alcohol by volume and proof, and alcoholic flavoring materials in proof...

  17. 7 CFR 58.728 - Cooking the batch.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cooking the batch. 58.728 Section 58.728 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND...

  18. Continuous cellulosic bioethanol fermentation by cyclic fed-batch cocultivation.

    PubMed

    Jiang, He-Long; He, Qiang; He, Zhili; Hemme, Christopher L; Wu, Liyou; Zhou, Jizhong

    2013-03-01

    Cocultivation of cellulolytic and saccharolytic microbial populations is a promising strategy to improve bioethanol production from the fermentation of recalcitrant cellulosic materials. Earlier studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of cocultivation in enhancing ethanolic fermentation of cellulose in batch fermentation. To further enhance process efficiency, a semicontinuous cyclic fed-batch fermentor configuration was evaluated for its potential in enhancing the efficiency of cellulose fermentation using cocultivation. Cocultures of cellulolytic Clostridium thermocellum LQRI and saccharolytic Thermoanaerobacter pseudethanolicus strain X514 were tested in the semicontinuous fermentor as a model system. Initial cellulose concentration and pH were identified as the key process parameters controlling cellulose fermentation performance in the fixed-volume cyclic fed-batch coculture system. At an initial cellulose concentration of 40 g liter(-1), the concentration of ethanol produced with pH control was 4.5-fold higher than that without pH control. It was also found that efficient cellulosic bioethanol production by cocultivation was sustained in the semicontinuous configuration, with bioethanol production reaching 474 mM in 96 h with an initial cellulose concentration of 80 g liter(-1) and pH controlled at 6.5 to 6.8. These results suggested the advantages of the cyclic fed-batch process for cellulosic bioethanol fermentation by the cocultures. PMID:23275517

  19. Tier 3 batch system data locality via managed caches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, Max; Giffels, Manuel; Jung, Christopher; Kühn, Eileen; Quast, Günter

    2015-05-01

    Modern data processing increasingly relies on data locality for performance and scalability, whereas the common HEP approaches aim for uniform resource pools with minimal locality, recently even across site boundaries. To combine advantages of both, the High- Performance Data Analysis (HPDA) Tier 3 concept opportunistically establishes data locality via coordinated caches. In accordance with HEP Tier 3 activities, the design incorporates two major assumptions: First, only a fraction of data is accessed regularly and thus the deciding factor for overall throughput. Second, data access may fallback to non-local, making permanent local data availability an inefficient resource usage strategy. Based on this, the HPDA design generically extends available storage hierarchies into the batch system. Using the batch system itself for scheduling file locality, an array of independent caches on the worker nodes is dynamically populated with high-profile data. Cache state information is exposed to the batch system both for managing caches and scheduling jobs. As a result, users directly work with a regular, adequately sized storage system. However, their automated batch processes are presented with local replications of data whenever possible.

  20. 21 CFR 211.188 - Batch production and control records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Batch production and control records. 211.188 Section 211.188 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR FINISHED PHARMACEUTICALS Records...

  1. ORGANIC LOADING STUDY OF FULL-SCALE SEQUENCING BATCH REACTORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The sequencing batch reactor (SBR) at Culver, Indiana, has two 440(sup 3) aeration basins that have received primary effluent on an alternating, fill-and-draw basis since May 1980. During normal SBR operation, liquid level variation and mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS) concen...

  2. 21 CFR 211.188 - Batch production and control records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Batch production and control records. 211.188 Section 211.188 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR FINISHED PHARMACEUTICALS Records...

  3. 21 CFR 211.188 - Batch production and control records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Batch production and control records. 211.188 Section 211.188 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR FINISHED PHARMACEUTICALS Records...

  4. 21 CFR 211.188 - Batch production and control records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Batch production and control records. 211.188 Section 211.188 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR FINISHED PHARMACEUTICALS Records...

  5. 21 CFR 211.188 - Batch production and control records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Batch production and control records. 211.188 Section 211.188 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR FINISHED PHARMACEUTICALS Records...

  6. 40 CFR 63.1408 - Aggregate batch vent stream provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... non-combustion control device, whichever is less stringent, on a continuous basis. (2) The owner or... non-combustion control device, whichever is less stringent, on a continuous basis. (b) Alternative... from all aggregate batch vent streams in the compliance demonstration required for reactor...

  7. Use of sequential-batch fermentations to characterize the impact of mild hypothermic temperatures on the anaerobic stoichiometry and kinetics of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Cruz, A L B; Verbon, A J; Geurink, L J; Verheijen, P J T; Heijnen, J J; van Gulik, W M

    2012-07-01

    This work presents a characterization of the stoichiometry and kinetics of anaerobic batch growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae at cultivation temperatures between 12 and 30°C. To minimize the influence of the inoculum condition and ensure full adaptation to the cultivation temperature, the experiments were carried out in sequencing batch reactors. It was observed that the growth rate obtained in the first batch performed after each temperature shift was 10-30% different compared with the subsequent batches at the same temperature, which were much more reproducible. This indicates that the sequencing batch approach provides accurate and reproducible growth rate data. Data reconciliation was applied to the measured time patterns of substrate, biomass, carbon dioxide and byproducts with the constraint that the elemental conservation relations were satisfied, allowing to obtain consistent best estimates of all uptake and secretion rates. Subsequently, it was attempted to obtain an appropriate model description of the temperature dependency of these rates. It was found that the Ratkowsky model provided a better description of the temperature dependency of growth, uptake and secretion rates than the Arrhenius law. Most interesting was to find that most of the biomass-specific rates have the same temperature dependency, leading to a near temperature independent batch stoichiometry. PMID:22359245

  8. Competitive anion transport in desalting of mixtures of organic acids by batch electrodialysis.

    SciTech Connect

    Moon, P. J.; Parulekar, S. J.; Tsai, S.-P.; Energy Systems; Illinois Inst. of Tech.

    1998-04-01

    Desalting and separation of binary and quaternary acid mixtures via batch electrodialysis are investigated in this article. A monoselective cation exchange membrane and either a non-selective or a monoselective anion exchange membrane are employed in the electrodialysis stack. The effects of current density and composition of the initial feed of the electrodialysis stack (employing a non-selective anion exchange membrane) on its performance are studied in experiments involving mixtures of acetic and succinic acids. The effect of the type of the anion exchange membrane on the process performance is examined in desalting experiments involving a mixture of acetic, formic, lactic, and succinic acids. The trends observed in the experiments are interpreted in terms of species-specific parameters (such as molar concentration, charge on ionic species, molecular weight, degree of ionization, and ionic equivalent conductivity) and characteristics of anion exchange membrane used.

  9. Leaching potential of phenylurea herbicides in a calcareous soil: comparison of column elution and batch studies.

    PubMed

    Langeron, Julie; Sayen, Stéphanie; Couderchet, Michel; Guillon, Emmanuel

    2014-04-01

    The transfer of eleven phenylurea herbicides through soil columns was investigated in laboratory conditions in order to determine leaching properties in a calcareous soil. Elution curves with distilled water were plotted after herbicide application on the soil column. Phenylurea retention by the soil indicating interactions with soil can be classified as follows: fenuron < fluometron ≤ isoproturon = monuron < metoxuron < monolinuron < metobromuron < chlorotoluron < linuron = diuron < chlorbromuron. The number and nature of halogen atoms on the phenyl ring had an important influence on leaching. Retention was higher for molecules with higher number of halogen, and it was also higher for bromine than chlorine. Column elution experiments were compared to batch experiments from which the distribution coefficients K d were determined. According to Kendall correlation coefficients, parameter m/m 0 max from column experiments was relatively well linked to K d. In case of phenylurea, a linear relationship between K d and m/m 0 max was established. PMID:23097070

  10. Impact of Zeolite Transferred from Tank 19F to Tank 18F on DWPF Vitrification of Sludge Batch 3

    SciTech Connect

    Jantzen, C.M.

    2004-01-07

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) is planning to initiate vitrification of Sludge Batch 3 (SB3) in combination with Sludge Batch 2 (SB2) in the spring of 2004. The contents of Sludge Batch 3 will be a mixture of the heel remaining from Sludge Batch 1B, sludge from Tank 7F (containing coal, sand, and sodium oxalate), and sludge materials from Tank 18F. The sludge materials in Tank 18F contain part of a mound of zeolitic material transferred there from Tank 19F. This mound was physically broken up and transfers were made from Tank 19F to Tank 18F for vitrification into SB3. In addition, excess Pu and Am/Cm materials were transferred to Tank 51H to be processed through the DWPF as part of SB3. Additional Pu material and a Np stream from the Canyons are also planned to be added to SB3 before processing of this batch commences at DWPF. The primary objective of this task was to assess the impacts of the excess zeolite mound material in Tank 19F on the predicted glass and processing properties of interest when the zeolite becomes part of SB3. The two potential impacts of the Tank 19F zeolite mound on DWPF processing relates to (1) the samples taken for determination of the acceptability of a macrobatch of DWPF feed and (2) the achievable waste loading. The potential effects of the large size of the zeolite particles found in the Tank 19F solids, as reported in this study, are considered minimal for processing of SB3 in DWPF. Other findings about the zeolite conversion mechanism via a process of Ostwald ripening are discussed in the text and in the conclusions.

  11. Comparison of batch sorption tests, pilot studies, and modeling for estimating GAC bed life.

    PubMed

    Scharf, Roger G; Johnston, Robert W; Semmens, Michael J; Hozalski, Raymond M

    2010-02-01

    Saint Paul Regional Water Services (SPRWS) in Saint Paul, MN experiences annual taste and odor episodes during the warm summer months. These episodes are attributed primarily to geosmin that is produced by cyanobacteria growing in the chain of lakes used to convey and store the source water pumped from the Mississippi River. Batch experiments, pilot-scale experiments, and model simulations were performed to determine the geosmin removal performance and bed life of a granular activated carbon (GAC) filter-sorber. Using batch adsorption isotherm parameters, the estimated bed life for the GAC filter-sorber ranged from 920 to 1241 days when challenged with a constant concentration of 100 ng/L of geosmin. The estimated bed life obtained using the AdDesignS model and the actual pilot-plant loading history was 594 days. Based on the pilot-scale GAC column data, the actual bed life (>714 days) was much longer than the simulated values because bed life was extended by biological degradation of geosmin. The continuous feeding of high concentrations of geosmin (100-400 ng/L) in the pilot-scale experiments enriched for a robust geosmin-degrading culture that was sustained when the geosmin feed was turned off for 40 days. It is unclear, however, whether a geosmin-degrading culture can be established in a full-scale filter that experiences taste and odor episodes for only 1 or 2 months per year. The results of this research indicate that care must be exercised in the design and interpretation of pilot-scale experiments and model simulations for predicting taste and odor removal in full-scale GAC filter-sorbers. Adsorption and the potential for biological degradation must be considered to estimate GAC bed life for the conditions of intermittent geosmin loading typically experienced by full-scale systems. PMID:19969323

  12. Semi-Batch Deoxygenation of Canola- and Lard-Derived Fatty Acids to Diesel-Range Hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Ford, JP; Thapaliya, N; Kelly, MJ; Roberts, WL; Lamb, HH

    2013-12-01

    Fatty acids (FAs) derived via thermal hydrolysis of food-grade lard and canola oil were deoxygenated in the liquid phase using a commercially available 5 wt % Pd/C catalyst. Online quadrupole mass spectrometry and gas chromatography were used to monitor the effluent gases from the semi-batch stirred autoclave reactors. Stearic, oleic, and palmitic acids were employed as model compounds. A catalyst lifetime exceeding 2200 turnovers for oleic acid deoxygenation was demonstrated at 300 degrees C and 15 atm under 10% H-2. The initial decarboxylation rate of palmitic acid under 5% H-2 decreases sharply with increasing initial concentration; in contrast, the initial decarbonylation rate increases linearly, indicative of first-order kinetics. Scale-up of diesel-range hydrocarbon production was investigated by increasing the reactor vessel size, initial FA concentration, and FA/catalyst mass ratio. Lower CO2 selectivity and batch productivity were observed at the larger scales (600 and 5000 mL), primarily because of the higher initial FA concentration (67 wt %) employed. Because unsaturated FAs must be hydrogenated before deoxygenation can proceed at an appreciable rate, the additional batch time required for FA hydrogenation reduces the batch productivity for unsaturated feedstocks. Low-temperature hydrogenation of unsaturated feedstocks (using Pd/C or another less-expensive catalyst) prior to deoxygenation is recommended.

  13. Optimization of L-(+)-lactic acid production by ring and disc plastic composite supports through repeated-batch biofilm fermentation.

    PubMed Central

    Ho, K L; Pometto, A L; Hinz, P N

    1997-01-01

    Four customized bioreactors, three with plastic composite supports (PCS) and one with suspended cells (control), were operated as repeated-batch fermentors for 66 days at pH 5 and 37 degrees C. The working volume of each customized reactor was 600 ml, and each reactor's medium was changed every 2 to 5 days for 17 batches. The performance of PCS bioreactors in long-term biofilm repeated-batch fermentation was compared with that of suspended-cell bioreactors in this research. PCS could stimulate biofilm formation, supply nutrients to attached and free suspended cells, and reduce medium channelling for lactic acid production. Compared with conventional repeated-batch fermentation, PCS bioreactors shortened the lag time by threefold (control, 11 h; PCS, 3.5 h) and sixfold (control, 9 h; PCS, 1.5 h) at yeast extract concentrations of 0.4 and 0.8% (wt/vol), respectively. They also increased the lactic acid productivity of Lactobacillus casei subsp. rhamnosus (ATCC 11443) by 40 to 70% and shortened the total fermentation time by 28 to 61% at all yeast extract concentrations. The fastest productivity of the PCS bioreactors (4.26 g/liter/h) was at a starting glucose concentration of 10% (wt/vol), whereas that of the control (2.78 g/liter/h) was at 8% (wt/vol). PCS biofilm lactic acid fermentation can drastically improve the fermentation rate with reduced complex-nutrient addition. PMID:9212403

  14. Uranium Adsorption on Ion-Exchange Resins - Batch Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Mattigod, Shas V.; Golovich, Elizabeth C.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Cordova, Elsa A.; Smith, Ronald M.

    2010-12-01

    The uranium adsorption performance of five resins (Dowex 1, Dowex 21K 16-30 [fresh], Dowex 21K 16-30 [regenerated], Purofine PFA600/4740, and ResinTech SIR-1200) were tested using unspiked, nitrate-spiked, and nitrate-spiked/pH adjusted source water from well 299-W19-36. These batch tests were conducted in support of a resin selection process in which the best resin to use for uranium treatment in the 200-West Area groundwater pump-and-treat system will be identified. The results from these tests are as follows: • The data from the high-nitrate (1331 mg/L) tests indicated that Dowex 1, Dowex 21K 16-30 (fresh), Purofine PFA600/4740, and ResinTech SIR-1200 all adsorbed uranium similarly well with Kd values ranging from ~15,000 to 95,000 ml/g. All four resins would be considered suitable for use in the treatment system based on uranium adsorption characteristics. • Lowering the pH of the high nitrate test conditions from 8.2 to 7.5 did not significantly change the uranium adsorption isotherms for the four tested resins. The Kd values for these four resins under high nitrate (1338 mg/L), lower pH (7.5) ranged from ~15,000 to 80,000 ml/g. • Higher nitrate concentrations greatly reduced the uranium adsorption on all four resins. Tests conducted with unspiked (no amendments; nitrate at 337 mg/L and pH at 8.2) source water yielded Kd values for Dowex 1, Dowex 21K 16-30 (fresh), Purofine PFA600/4740, and ResinTech SIR-1200 resins ranging from ~800,000 to >3,000,000 ml/g. These values are about two orders of magnitude higher than the Kd values noted from tests conducted using amended source water. • Compared to the fresh resin, the regenerated Dowex 21K 16-30 resin exhibited significantly lower uranium-adsorption performance under all test conditions. The calculated Kd values for the regenerated resin were typically an order of magnitude lower than the values calculated for the fresh resin. • Additional testing using laboratory columns is recommended to better

  15. DEFENSE WASTE PROCESSING FACILITY ANALYTICAL METHOD VERIFICATION FOR THE SLUDGE BATCH 5 QUALIFICATION SAMPLE

    SciTech Connect

    Click, D; Tommy Edwards, T; Henry Ajo, H

    2008-07-25

    sample by SRNL which consists of the final composition of the sludge (the SB5 Blend); (2) Given the heel of SB4 in Tank 40, the DWPF lab should monitor the aluminum concentration in the first 10 SRAT Receipt batches of SB5 using both CC and sodium peroxide/hydroxide fusion to evaluate the adequacy of aluminum recovery by the CC method for this sludge batch; and (3) SRNL and the DWPF lab should investigate if comparisons between the elemental concentrations of the SME product glass (adjusted for frit addition) obtained by the mixed acid and peroxide fusion digestion and the SRAT Receipt and SRAT Product elemental concentrations obtained via the DWPF CC method provide insight into the adequacy of the CC method for analysis of the SRAT Product. The DWPF lab would need to calcine the SRAT product at 1050 C for the best comparison. If a consistent difference in elemental concentrations is revealed, another type of digestion (i.e. sodium peroxide/hydroxide fusion) should be used to determine the concentration of the element in question. Particular emphasis should be placed on monitoring the aluminum concentration in SB5.

  16. Design of Mixed Batch Reactor and Column Studies at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Weimin; Criddle, Craig S.

    2015-11-16

    We (the Stanford research team) were invited as external collaborators to contribute expertise in environmental engineering and field research at the ORNL IFRC, Oak Ridge, TN, for projects carried out at the Argonne National Laboratory and funded by US DOE. Specifically, we assisted in the design of batch and column reactors using ORNL IFRC materials to ensure the experiments were relevant to field conditions. During the funded research period, we characterized ORNL IFRC groundwater and sediments in batch microcosm and column experiments conducted at ANL, and we communicated with ANL team members through email and conference calls and face-to-face meetings at the annual ERSP PI meeting and national meetings. Microcosm test results demonstrated that U(VI) in sediments was reduced to U(IV) when amended with ethanol. The reduced products were not uraninite but unknown U(IV) complexes associated with Fe. Fe(III) in solid phase was only partially reduced. Due to budget reductions at ANL, Stanford contributions ended in 2011.

  17. Kinetics of phosphate adsorption on goethite: comparing batch adsorption and ATR-IR measurements.

    PubMed

    Luengo, Carina; Brigante, Maximiliano; Antelo, Juan; Avena, Marcelo

    2006-08-15

    The adsorption kinetics of phosphate on goethite has been studied by batch adsorption experiments and by in situ ATR-IR spectroscopy at different pH, initial phosphate concentrations and stirring rates. Batch adsorption results are very similar to those reported by several authors, and show a rather fast initial adsorption taking place in a few minutes followed by a slower process taking place in days or weeks. The adsorption kinetics could be also monitored by integrating the phosphate signals obtained in ATR-IR experiments, and a very good agreement between both techniques was found. At pH 4.5 two surface complexes, the bidentate nonprotonated (FeO)(2)PO(2) and the bidentate protonated (FeO)(2)(OH)PO complexes, are formed at the surface. There are small changes in the relative concentrations of these species as the reaction proceeds, and they seem to evolve in time rather independently. At pH 7.5 and 9 the dominating surface species is (FeO)(2)PO(2), which is accompanied by an extra unidentified species at low concentration. They also seem to evolve independently as the reaction proceeds. The results are consistent with a mechanism that involve a fast adsorption followed by a slow diffusion into pores, and are not consistent with surface precipitation of iron phosphate. PMID:16643942

  18. Uranium Desorption From Contaminated Sediments at the USDOE IFC Research Site in Rifle, CO: From Batch to Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fox, P. M.; Hyun, S. P.; Davis, J. A.; Hayes, K.; Dayvault, R.; Williams, K. H.; Long, P. E.

    2008-12-01

    Uranium contamination in the subsurface is a part of the legacy of nuclear weapons and energy production, resulting from both mining activities and nuclear waste disposal. The Rifle IFC project focuses on gaining a better mechanistic understanding of U mobility in the subsurface and the use of bioremediation to achieve groundwater U concentrations below the MCL at a former U mill tailings site, integrating biological, geochemical, and hydrological studies. As a part of this project we have performed a series of experiments to better understand the U(VI) sorption-desorption and transport behavior under oxidizing conditions at this site. A series of U(VI) desorption experiments on aquifer sediment was conducted at the batch, column, and field scales. As one proceeds from the batch to the field scale, there is an increase in complexity and heterogeneity in both the geochemical and hydrological conditions. A surface-complexation model for U(VI) developed using batch adsorption and desorption experiments on homogenized sediments was applied to describe U(VI) desorption and transport behavior under high alkalinity conditions in a column experiment with the same sediments. An array of multi-level samplers was installed at the Rifle field site in order to investigate U behavior in both 3-dimensional spatial and temporal scales. A high degree of geochemical and hydrological heterogeneity was observed through the investigation of sediment core samples, nonreactive tracer tests, and geochemical groundwater sampling. A U(VI) desorption tracer test was performed in the field under high alkalinity conditions to compare with the batch and column work. The results from these multiple scales investigations are being integrated to assess the impact of the observed field-scale heterogeneities on U reactive transport in contaminated aquifers.

  19. [Analysis of the transcriptional profiling of cell cycle regulatory networks of recombinant Chinese hamster ovary cells in batch and fed-batch cultures].

    PubMed

    Liu, Xingmao; Ye, Lingling; Liu, Hong; Li, Shichong; Wang, Qiwei; Wu, Benchuan; Chen, Zhaolie

    2011-08-01

    In the light of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell line 11G-S expressing human recombinant pro-urokinase, the differences of gene expression levels of the cells in different growth phases in both batch and fed-batch cultures were revealed by using gene chip technology. Then, based on the known cell cycle regulatory networks, the transcriptional profiling of the cell cycle regulatory networks of the cells in batch and fed-batch cultures was analyzed by using Genmapp software. Among the approximate 19 191 target genes in gene chip, the number of down-regulated genes was more than those of up-regulated genes of the cells in both batch and fed-batch cultures. The number of down-regulated genes of the cells in the recession phase in fed-batch culture was much more than that of the cells in batch culture. Comparative transcriptional analysis of the key cell cycle regulatory genes of the cells in both culture modes indicated that the cell proliferation and cell viability of the cells in both batch and fed-batch cultures were mainly regulated through down-regulating Cdk6, Cdk2, Cdc2a, Ccne1, Ccne2 genes of CDKs, Cyclin and CKI family and up-regulating Smad4 gene. PMID:22097809

  20. 21 CFR 111.255 - What is the requirement to establish a batch production record?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE IN MANUFACTURING, PACKAGING, LABELING, OR HOLDING OPERATIONS FOR DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS Production and Process Control... batch of a dietary supplement; (b) Your batch production record must include complete...

  1. A Study of the Batch Annealing of Cold-Rolled HSLA Steels Containing Niobium or Titanium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Chao; Garcia, C. Isaac; Choi, Shi-Hoon; DeArdo, Anthony J.

    2015-08-01

    The batch annealing behavior of two cold-rolled, microalloyed HSLA steels has been studied in this program. One steel was microalloyed with niobium while the other with titanium. A successfully batch annealed steel will exhibit minimum variation in properties along the length of the coil, even though the inner and outer wraps experience faster heating and cooling rates and lower soaking temperatures, i.e., the so-called "cold spot" areas, than the mid-length portion of the coil, i.e., the so-called "hot spot" areas. The variation in strength and ductility is caused by differences in the extent of annealing in the different areas. It has been known for 30 years that titanium-bearing HSLA steels show more variability after batch annealing than do the niobium-bearing steels. One of the goals of this study was to try to explain this observation. In this study, the annealing kinetics of the surface and center layers of the cold-rolled sheet were compared. The surface and center layers of the niobium steel and the surface layer of the titanium steel all showed similar annealing kinetics, while the center layer of the titanium steel exhibited much slower kinetics. Metallographic results indicate that the stored energy of the cold-rolled condition, as revealed by grain center sub-grain boundary density, appeared to strongly influence the annealing kinetics. The kinetics were followed by the Kernel Average Misorientation reconstruction of the microstructure at different stages on annealing. Possible pinning effects caused by microalloy precipitates were also considered. Methods of improving uniformity and increasing kinetics, involving optimizing both hot-rolled and cold-rolled microstructure, are suggested.

  2. Sorting Olive Batches for the Milling Process Using Image Processing.

    PubMed

    Aguilera Puerto, Daniel; Martínez Gila, Diego Manuel; Gámez García, Javier; Gómez Ortega, Juan

    2015-01-01

    The quality of virgin olive oil obtained in the milling process is directly bound to the characteristics of the olives. Hence, the correct classification of the different incoming olive batches is crucial to reach the maximum quality of the oil. The aim of this work is to provide an automatic inspection system, based on computer vision, and to classify automatically different batches of olives entering the milling process. The classification is based on the differentiation between ground and tree olives. For this purpose, three different species have been studied (Picudo, Picual and Hojiblanco). The samples have been obtained by picking the olives directly from the tree or from the ground. The feature vector of the samples has been obtained on the basis of the olive image histograms. Moreover, different image preprocessing has been employed, and two classification techniques have been used: these are discriminant analysis and neural networks. The proposed methodology has been validated successfully, obtaining good classification results. PMID:26147729

  3. Empirical State Error Covariance Matrix for Batch Estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frisbee, Joe

    2015-01-01

    State estimation techniques effectively provide mean state estimates. However, the theoretical state error covariance matrices provided as part of these techniques often suffer from a lack of confidence in their ability to describe the uncertainty in the estimated states. By a reinterpretation of the equations involved in the weighted batch least squares algorithm, it is possible to directly arrive at an empirical state error covariance matrix. The proposed empirical state error covariance matrix will contain the effect of all error sources, known or not. This empirical error covariance matrix may be calculated as a side computation for each unique batch solution. Results based on the proposed technique will be presented for a simple, two observer and measurement error only problem.

  4. Plutonium immobilization ceramic feed batching component test report

    SciTech Connect

    Erickson, S.A.

    1999-10-04

    The Plutonium Immobilization Facility will encapsulate plutonium in ceramic pucks and seal the pucks inside welded cans. Remote equipment will place these cans in magazines and the magazines in a Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) canister. The DWPF will fill the canister with high level waste glass for permanent storage. Ceramic feed batching (CFB) is one of the first process steps involved with first stage plutonium immobilization. The CFB step will blend plutonium oxide powder before it is combined with other materials to make pucks. This report discusses the Plutonium Immobilization CFB process preliminary concept (including a process block diagram), batch splitting component test results, CFB development areas, and FY 1999 and 2000 CFB program milestones.

  5. Sorting Olive Batches for the Milling Process Using Image Processing

    PubMed Central

    Puerto, Daniel Aguilera; Martínez Gila, Diego Manuel; Gámez García, Javier; Gómez Ortega, Juan

    2015-01-01

    The quality of virgin olive oil obtained in the milling process is directly bound to the characteristics of the olives. Hence, the correct classification of the different incoming olive batches is crucial to reach the maximum quality of the oil. The aim of this work is to provide an automatic inspection system, based on computer vision, and to classify automatically different batches of olives entering the milling process. The classification is based on the differentiation between ground and tree olives. For this purpose, three different species have been studied (Picudo, Picual and Hojiblanco). The samples have been obtained by picking the olives directly from the tree or from the ground. The feature vector of the samples has been obtained on the basis of the olive image histograms. Moreover, different image preprocessing has been employed, and two classification techniques have been used: these are discriminant analysis and neural networks. The proposed methodology has been validated successfully, obtaining good classification results. PMID:26147729

  6. Jute batching oil: a tumor promoter on mouse skin

    SciTech Connect

    Mehrotra, N.K.; Kumar, S.; Agarwal, R.; Antony, M.

    1987-02-01

    A mineral oil essentially used in the jute industry for the batching of jute fibers, and earlier reported to be nontumorigenic on mouse skin, has been found to be a tumor promoter following a two-stage mouse-skin bioassay protocol. The types of tumors developed after initiation with a single dose of urethane or 3-methylcholanthrene (subcutaneously), followed by repeated skin painting with jute batching oil (JBO) included benign papillomas, keratoacanthomas, and fibrosarcomas. Chemical analysis of this oil indicated the total aromatic content was 11.71% and the amount of fluoranthene, pyrene, chrysene, and triphenylene was in the range of 192.54 to 227.79 mg/kg in the test sample. The underlying biochemical mechanism for the tumor-promoting effect of JBO seemed to operate through a different pathway rather than involving the induction of cytochrome-dependent monoxygenase and N-demethylase activities in the tissue.

  7. Evaluation of the anaerobic degradation of black liquor from a Kraft pulp plant with addition of organic co-substrates.

    PubMed

    Buzzini, A P; Sakamoto, I K; Varesche, M B; Pires, E C

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the anaerobic degradation of black liquor with and without additional carbon sources. Batch experiments were conducted using black liquor, from an integrated pulp and paper mill adding ethanol, methanol and nutrients. The PCR/DGGE technique was used to characterize the structure of the microbial community. The addition of extra sources of carbon did not significantly influence the degradation of black liquor under the conditions evaluated and the microbial community was similar in all experiments. It was observed an increase in some members of the archaeal in reactors that had the best efficiencies for removal of black liquor (around 7.5%). Either ethanol or methanol can be used as co-substrates because the produce the same quantitative and qualitative effect. PMID:19587424

  8. Simplified feeding strategies for the fed-batch cultivation of Kluyveromyces lactis GG799 for enhanced recombinant xylanase production.

    PubMed

    Fuzi, Siti Fatimah Zaharah Mohamad; Razali, Firdausi; Jahim, Jamaliah Md; Rahman, Roshanida A; Illias, Rosli Md

    2014-09-01

    A xylanase gene (xyn2) from Trichoderma reesei ATCC 58350 was previously cloned and expressed in Kluyveromyces lactis GG799. The production of the recombinant xylanase was conducted in a developed medium with an optimised batch and with fed-batches that were processed with glucose. The glucose served as a carbon source for cell growth and as an inducer for xylanase production. In a 1-L batch system, a glucose concentration of 20 g L(-1) and 80 % dissolved oxygen were found to provide the best conditions for the tested ranges. A xylanase activity of 75.53 U mL(-1) was obtained. However, in the batch mode, glucose depletions reduced the synthesis of recombinant xylanase by K. lactis GG799. To maximise the production of xylanase, further optimisation was performed using exponential feeding. We investigated the effects of various nitrogen sources combined with the carbon to nitrogen (C/N) molar ratio on the production of xylanase. Of the various nitrogen sources, yeast extract was found to be the most useful for recombinant xylanase production. The highest xylanase production (110.13 U mL(-1)) was measured at a C/N ratio of 50.08. These conditions led to a 45.8 % increase in xylanase activity compared with the batch cultures. Interestingly, the further addition of 500 g L(-1) glucose led to a 6.2-fold increase (465.07 U mL(-1)) in recombinant xylanase activity. These findings, together with those of the exponential feeding strategy, indicate that the composition of the C/N molar ratio has a substantial impact on recombinant protein production in K. lactis. PMID:24633311

  9. A review of the Lasnet batch job system

    SciTech Connect

    Busby, L.

    1993-01-13

    The authors installed the McGill-DNQS job queuing system on their network of Sun Sparc and HP7x0 Unix workstations. These machines support interactive use as well as cpu-intensive batch jobs. After three months of operation they are generally very pleased with the system. This paper covers the decisions they made about installation, configuration, and operation. It details the successes and failures so far, and discusses future plans.

  10. Simulation of continuous and batch hydrolysis of willow

    SciTech Connect

    Zacchi, G.; Dahlbom, J.; Scott, C.D.

    1986-01-01

    The influence of product and enzyme concentrations on the kinetics of the enzymic hydrolysis of alkali-pretreated willow is studied. The hydrolysis was performed in a UF-membrane reactor in which the product concentration was kept constant. An empirical 4-parameter rate equation that gives a good correlation to both continuous and batch hydrolysis data is presented. The model comprises the effects of enzyme concentration and product inhibition. (Refs. 11).

  11. Composition of OSCS-contaminated heparin occurring in 2008 in batches on the German market.

    PubMed

    Beyer, Tanja; Matz, Magnus; Brinz, Daniela; Rädler, Oliver; Wolf, Bernhard; Norwig, Jochen; Baumann, Knut; Alban, Susanne; Holzgrabe, Ulrike

    2010-07-11

    In 2008, some 900 cases of adverse events associated with the use of heparin were reported to the Food and Drug Administration of USA and the Federal Institute of Drugs and Medical Devices in Germany. 238 patients died from heparin in the USA. In March 2008, oversulfated chondroitin sulfate (OSCS) was identified to be responsible for these cases. NMR spectroscopic evaluation of heparin samples revealed OSCS, dermatan sulfate (DS), chondroitin sulfate A and C as well as various residual solvents to be present in heparin batches, which could not be identified by means of conventional methods described in various pharmacopoeias at that time. In order to evaluate the situation on the German market, 145 representative samples were collected in 2008 and analyzed by means of 1H NMR spectroscopy, water determination, optical rotation and sheep plasma clotting assay. 66 samples were found to contain pure heparin, 51 samples heparin plus DS, 5 samples heparin plus OSCS, and 23 samples heparin, DS and OSCS, each in varying amounts. In 94 out of 145 batches especially ethanol was found in strongly varying amounts up to about 9.5%. Traces of acetone and formic acid were found with concentrations up to 0.04%, as well as sodium acetate and methanol up to 0.5%. Additionally, in many batches the content of water was found to be relatively high. Whereas the optical rotation was able to identify samples with a high contamination of OCSC, all samples tested fulfilled the requirements of the anticoagulation potency assay of the European Pharmacopoeia 6.0. The presented analysis of a representative set of heparin samples proves the suitability of 1H NMR spectroscopy for the quality control of heparin of both glycosaminoglycans and residual solvents. PMID:20399266

  12. Algae for controlled ecological life support system diet characterization of cyanobacteria 'spirulina' in batch cultures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tadros, M. G.

    1990-01-01

    Spirulina sp. is a bioregenerative photosynthetic and edible alga for space craft crews in a Closed Ecological Life Support System (CLESS). It was characterized for growth rate and biomass yield in batch cultures, under various environmental conditions. The cell characteristics were identified for one strain of Spirulina: S. maxima. Fast growth rate and high yield were obtained. The partitioning of the assimulatory products (proteins, carbohydrates, lipids) were manipulated by varying the environmental conditions. Experiments with Spirulina demonstrated that under stress conditions carbohydrate increased at the expense of protein. In other experiments, where the growth media were sufficient in nutrients and incubated under optimum growth conditions, the total proteins were increased up to almost 70 percent of the organic weight. In other words, the nutritional quality of the alga could be manipulated by growth conditions. These results support the feasibility of considering Spirulina as a subsystem in CELSS because of the ease with which its nutrient content can be manipulated.

  13. Analyzing data flows of WLCG jobs at batch job level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuehn, Eileen; Fischer, Max; Giffels, Manuel; Jung, Christopher; Petzold, Andreas

    2015-05-01

    With the introduction of federated data access to the workflows of WLCG, it is becoming increasingly important for data centers to understand specific data flows regarding storage element accesses, firewall configurations, as well as the scheduling of batch jobs themselves. As existing batch system monitoring and related system monitoring tools do not support measurements at batch job level, a new tool has been developed and put into operation at the GridKa Tier 1 center for monitoring continuous data streams and characteristics of WLCG jobs and pilots. Long term measurements and data collection are in progress. These measurements already have been proven to be useful analyzing misbehaviors and various issues. Therefore we aim for an automated, realtime approach for anomaly detection. As a requirement, prototypes for standard workflows have to be examined. Based on measurements of several months, different features of HEP jobs are evaluated regarding their effectiveness for data mining approaches to identify these common workflows. The paper will introduce the actual measurement approach and statistics as well as the general concept and first results classifying different HEP job workflows derived from the measurements at GridKa.

  14. 21 CFR 111.260 - What must the batch record include?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., LABELING, OR HOLDING OPERATIONS FOR DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS Production and Process Control System: Requirements... record must include the following: (a) The batch, lot, or control number: (1) Of the finished batch of... that quality control personnel: (1) Reviewed the batch production record, including: (i) Review of...

  15. 40 CFR 63.1407 - Non-reactor batch process vent provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Non-reactor batch process vent... Resins § 63.1407 Non-reactor batch process vent provisions. (a) Emission standards. (1) Owners or operators of non-reactor batch process vents located at new or existing affected sources with 0.25 tons...

  16. 40 CFR 63.1407 - Non-reactor batch process vent provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Non-reactor batch process vent... Resins § 63.1407 Non-reactor batch process vent provisions. (a) Emission standards. (1) Owners or operators of non-reactor batch process vents located at new or existing affected sources with 0.25 tons...

  17. 40 CFR 63.1407 - Non-reactor batch process vent provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Non-reactor batch process vent... § 63.1407 Non-reactor batch process vent provisions. (a) Emission standards. (1) Owners or operators of non-reactor batch process vents located at new or existing affected sources with 0.25 tons per year...

  18. 40 CFR 63.1407 - Non-reactor batch process vent provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Non-reactor batch process vent... § 63.1407 Non-reactor batch process vent provisions. (a) Emission standards. (1) Owners or operators of non-reactor batch process vents located at new or existing affected sources with 0.25 tons per year...

  19. 40 CFR 63.1407 - Non-reactor batch process vent provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Non-reactor batch process vent... § 63.1407 Non-reactor batch process vent provisions. (a) Emission standards. (1) Owners or operators of non-reactor batch process vents located at new or existing affected sources with 0.25 tons per year...

  20. 40 CFR 205.57-7 - Acceptance and rejection of batch sequence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Acceptance and rejection of batch....57-7 Acceptance and rejection of batch sequence. (a) The manufacturer will continue to inspect... rejection number appropriate for the cumulative number of batches inspected. The acceptance and...

  1. 40 CFR 205.57-7 - Acceptance and rejection of batch sequence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Acceptance and rejection of batch....57-7 Acceptance and rejection of batch sequence. (a) The manufacturer will continue to inspect... rejection number appropriate for the cumulative number of batches inspected. The acceptance and...

  2. BatchPrimer3: A high throughput web application for PCR and sequencing primer design

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new web primer design program, BatchPrimer3, is developed based on Primer3. BatchPrimer3 adopted the Primer3 core program as a major primer design engine to choose the best primer pairs. A new score-based primer picking module is incorporated into BatchPrimer3 and used to pick position-restricte...

  3. 40 CFR 63.1322 - Batch process vents-reference control technology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Batch process vents-reference control technology. 63.1322 Section 63.1322 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Batch process vents—reference control technology. (a) Batch process vents. The owner or operator of...

  4. 40 CFR 63.487 - Batch front-end process vents-reference control technology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Batch front-end process vents-reference control technology. 63.487 Section 63.487 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... § 63.487 Batch front-end process vents—reference control technology. (a) Batch front-end process...

  5. 21 CFR 111.123 - What quality control operations are required for the master manufacturing record, the batch...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... the master manufacturing record, the batch production record, and manufacturing operations? 111.123... manufacturing record, the batch production record, and manufacturing operations? (a) Quality control operations for the master manufacturing record, the batch production record, and manufacturing operations...

  6. Validity of batch sorption data to describe selenium transport through unsaturated tuff

    SciTech Connect

    Conca, J.L.; Triay, I.R.

    1996-08-01

    As part of project for characterizing Yucca Mt. as a potential site for high-level nuclear waste respository, we used UFA {trademark} technology (centifuge-induced flow) to directly measure selenite retardation coefficients and hydraulic conductivity under unsaturated conditions on two tuff samples from Yucca Mt. Retardation factor for the selenite species was 2.5 in both Yucca Mt. vitric tuff at 62.6% saturation and zeolitic nonwelded tuff from G-tunnel at 52.8% saturation. For these column experiments, we prepared a solution, using J-13 well water from NTS, with a Se conc. of 1.31 mg/L(ppM). The retardation factor of 2.5 measured for both tuffs translates into a sorption distribution coefficient K{sub d} of 0.9 mL/g for the vitric tuff and 0.8 mL/g for the zeolitic tuff. For batch sorption experiments, using the same zeolitic tuff as for the column experiments and solutions of J-13 well water with a Se conc. of 1.1 mg/L(ppM), the average K{sub d} was determined to be 0.1{+-}0.2 mL/g. Given the small K{sub d} values for Se sorption, general agreement between batch and column measurements (obtained under unsaturated conditions) was observed. Unsaturated hydraulic conductivities during the experiments were 2.5x10{sup -8} cm/s for the Yucca Mt. vitric tuff and 1.2x10{sup -8} cm/s for the zeolitic nonwelded tuff from G- tunnel.

  7. Macroscopic modelling of bioethanol production from potato peel wastes in batch cultures supplemented with inorganic nitrogen.

    PubMed

    Richelle, A; Ben Tahar, I; Hassouna, M; Bogaerts, Ph

    2015-09-01

    Inorganic nitrogen supplementation is commonly used to boost fermentation metabolism in yeast cultures. However, an excessive addition can induce an opposite effect. Hence, it is important to ensure that the ammonia supplemented to the culture leads to an improvement of the ethanol production while avoiding undesirable inhibition effects. To this end, a macroscopic model describing the influence of ammonia addition on Saccharomyces cerevisiae metabolism during bioethanol production from potato peel wastes has been developed. The model parameters are obtained by a simplified identification methodology in five steps. It is validated with experimental data and successfully predicts the dynamics of growth, substrate consumption (ammonia and fermentable sugar sources) and bioethanol production, even in cross validation. The model is used to determine the optimal quantity of supplemented ammonia required for maximizing bioethanol production from potato peel wastes in batch cultures. PMID:26059818

  8. Intelligent monitoring system for long-term control of Sequencing Batch Reactors.

    PubMed

    Marsili-Libelli, S; Spagni, A; Susini, R

    2008-01-01

    This paper discusses the application of artificial intelligence (AI) concepts to the monitoring of a lab-scale Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR) treating nitrogen-rich wastewater (sanitary landfill leachate). The paper describes the implementation of a fuzzy inferential system to identify the correct switching sequence of the process and discusses the results obtained with six months of uninterrupted operation, during which the process conditions varied widely. The monitoring system proved capable of adjusting the process operation, in terms of phase length and external COD addition, to the varying environmental and loading conditions, with a percentage of correct phase recognition in excess of 95%. In addition, the monitoring system could be remotely operated through the internet via TCP/IP protocol. PMID:18309223

  9. Batch Preheat for glass and related furnace processing operations

    SciTech Connect

    Energy & Environmental Resources, Inc

    2002-08-12

    The objectives that our development work addressed are: (1) Establish through lab tests a salt eutectic with a melting point of about 250 F and a working range of 250 to 1800 F. (2) Establish the most economical material of construction for the screened salt eutectics identified in the first objective. (3) Establish the material of construction for the salt heater liner. Objectives 2 and 3 were determined through corrosion tests using selected metallurgical samples. Successful completion of the above-stated goals will be incorporated in a heat recovery design that can be used in high temperature processes and furnaces, typical of which is the glass melting process. The process design incorporates the following unit operations: a vertical batch heater (whereby the batch flows down through tubes in a shell and tube exchanger; a molten salt eutectic is circulated on the shell side); a molten salt heater utilizing furnace flue gas in a radiation type heater (molten salt is circulated in the annular space between the inner and outer shells of the vertical heater, and flue gas passes from the furnace exhaust through the inner shell of the heater); a cantilever type molten salt circulating pump; and a jacketed mixer/conveyor to drive off moisture from the batch prior to feeding the batch to the vertical batch heater. Historically, radiation heaters, when applied to glass or fiberglass furnace recuperation, have experienced failures due to uneven heat flux rates, which increases internal stresses and spot overheating conditions. Low heat transfer coefficients result in requirements for large heat transfer surface areas in gas to gas or gas to air exchangers. Fouling is another factor that results in lower unit availability and reduced performance. These factors are accommodated in this process by the incorporation of several design features. The salt heater will be a vertical double wall radiation design, similar to radiation air heaters used in high temperature heat

  10. Initial Sulfate Solubility Study for Sludge Batch 4 (SB4)

    SciTech Connect

    Lorier, T

    2005-04-01

    The objective of this task is to provide the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) of the Savannah River Site (SRS) with an assessment of the viability of using the current 0.6 wt% SO{sub 4}{sup =} limit (in glass) and/or the possibility of increasing the SO{sub 4}{sup =} solubility limit to account for anticipated sulfur concentrations in Sludge Batch 4 (SB4). The 0.6 wt% SO{sub 4}{sup =} limit was implemented for processing of Frit 418-Sludge Batch 3 (SB3) to avoid the formation of sulfate inclusions in the glass and/or the formation of a molten sulfate-rich phase on the melt pool in the DWPF melter. The presence of such a phase on the surface of the melt pool increases corrosion rates of melter components, enhances the potential for steam excursions in a slurry-fed waste glass melter, and creates the potential for undesirable current paths that could deplete energy delivered to the melter due to the electrical conductivity of the molten salt layer. This suite of sulfate-solubility tests began by testing the 1200-canister, 2nd transfer case for SB4 (as defined by Lilliston and Shah, 2004)--based on this being the most conservative (having the highest predicted viscosity when coupled with specific frits, it could potentially have the greatest impact on SO{sub 4}{sup =} solubility) blending scenario of SB4 with the heel of SB3 for SO{sub 4}{sup =} solubility. Frits 320 and 418 were tested with SB4 and the tests indicated that at the current SO{sub 4}{sup =} limit (in glass) and the tested waste loadings (30% and 40%), neither Frit 320 nor Frit 418 could be utilized with SB4 (for the 1200-canister, 2nd transfer case composition originally provided). More specifically, SO{sub 4}{sup =} was observed on the surface with the SB4 composition and Frit 320 at 40% waste loading (WL) and 0.6 wt% SO{sub 4}{sup =}, and with Frit 418 at 30% and 40% WL and 0.5 wt% SO{sub 4}{sup =}. As alternative frits were being developed--Frits 447, 448, and 449, that contained CaO and/or V

  11. Increased production of cellulases and xylanases by Penicillium echinulatum S1M29 in batch and fed-batch culture.

    PubMed

    dos Reis, Laísa; Fontana, Roselei Claudete; Delabona, Priscila da Silva; da Silva Lima, Deise Juliana; Camassola, Marli; Pradella, José Geraldo da Cruz; Dillon, Aldo José Pinheiro

    2013-10-01

    The development of more productive strains of microorganisms and processes that increase enzyme levels can contribute to the economically efficient production of second generation ethanol. To this end, cellulases and xylanases were produced with the S1M29 mutant strain of Penicillium echinulatum, using different concentrations of cellulose (20, 40, and 60 g L(-1)) in batch and fed-batch processes. The highest activities of FPase (8.3 U mL(-1)), endoglucanases (37.3 U mL(-1)), and xylanases (177 U mL(-1)) were obtained in fed-batch cultivation with 40 g L(-1) of cellulose. The P. echinulatum enzymatic broth and the commercial enzyme Cellic CTec2 were tested for hydrolysis of pretreated sugar cane bagasse. Maximum concentrations of glucose and xylose were achieved after 72 h of hydrolysis. Glucose yields of 28.0% and 27.0% were obtained using the P. echinulatum enzymatic extract and Cellic CTec2, respectively. PMID:23973981

  12. Kinetic studies on batch cultivation of Trichoderma reesei and application to enhance cellulase production by fed-batch fermentation.

    PubMed

    Ma, Lijuan; Li, Chen; Yang, Zhenhua; Jia, Wendi; Zhang, Dongyuan; Chen, Shulin

    2013-07-20

    Reducing the production cost of cellulase as the key enzyme for cellulose hydrolysis to fermentable sugars remains a major challenge for biofuel production. Because of the complexity of cellulase production, kinetic modeling and mass balance calculation can be used as effective tools for process design and optimization. In this study, kinetic models for cell growth, substrate consumption and cellulase production in batch fermentation were developed, and then applied in fed-batch fermentation to enhance cellulase production. Inhibition effect of substrate was considered and a modified Luedeking-Piret model was developed for cellulase production and substrate consumption according to the growth characteristics of Trichoderma reesei. The model predictions fit well with the experimental data. Simulation results showed that higher initial substrate concentration led to decrease of cellulase production rate. Mass balance and kinetic simulation results were applied to determine the feeding strategy. Cellulase production and its corresponding productivity increased by 82.13% after employing the proper feeding strategy in fed-batch fermentation. This method combining mathematics and chemometrics by kinetic modeling and mass balance can not only improve cellulase fermentation process, but also help to better understand the cellulase fermentation process. The model development can also provide insight to other similar fermentation processes. PMID:23702163

  13. Levan production by Zymomonas mobilis in batch and continuous fermentation systems.

    PubMed

    Silbir, Selim; Dagbagli, Seval; Yegin, Sirma; Baysal, Taner; Goksungur, Yekta

    2014-01-01

    Levan production in batch and continuous fermentation systems by Zymomonas mobilis B-14023 was investigated. The culture medium used in both of the fermentation systems contained sucrose and various organic nitrogen sources. Maximum concentration of levan was produced with yeast extract among the nitrogen sources tested. Response surface methodology was used to investigate the effects of three factors on the concentration of levan in batch cultures of Z. mobilis. Maximum levan concentration was 40.2 g/L and this concentration was reached at the optimum levels of process variables, which were 299.1 g/L initial substrate concentration, 42.3 h incubation time, and initial pH 6.0. Continuous fermentation experiments were done in packed bed bioreactor using Ca-alginate immobilized Z. mobilis cells. The highest levan concentration (31.8 ± 0.21 g/L) was obtained at a dilution rate of 0.14 h(-1) while maximum volumetric productivity (6.556 g/(Lh)) was obtained at a dilution rate of 0.22 h(-1). Increasing the dilution rate resulted in decreased levan and increased residual sugar concentrations. PMID:24274530

  14. Batch control system vaccines: BCSV : A new man machine interface for bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Wieten, G; Dorresteijn, R C; Philippi, M C; Habben-Jansen, M; De Clercq, G; Beuvery, E C

    1995-01-01

    The Batch Control System for Vaccines (BCSV), a new Man Machine Interface (MMI) for the control of cultivations in bioreactors, was developed according to SP-88. SP-88 is the ISA standard for Batch Control Systems. Among others, SP-88 supplied the concept of recipes, which organize and specify the monitoring and control requirements for manufacturing. Process optimisation and compliance to GMP rules and regulations were the main objectives for this development.The most important features of the BCSV interface include: - implementation at production, pilot and R & D scale to assure easy transfer of knowledge and experience at the various stage of process development; - independency of underlying hardware to ensure similar "look and feel" for different pieces of equipment; - in-house development and maintenance of recipes to have maximum control over applications; - interactive communication between operator and BCSV during recipe execution. GMP compliance was assured not only by considering governing sets of GMP regulations, but also by taking up the interface in a overall Information & Automation strategy and by setting up a QA strategy for the entire life cycle of the system. PMID:22358637

  15. Metabolic engineering of CHO cells to alter lactate metabolism during fed-batch cultures.

    PubMed

    Toussaint, Cécile; Henry, Olivier; Durocher, Yves

    2016-01-10

    Recombinant yeast pyruvate carboxylase (PYC2) expression was previously shown to be an effective metabolic engineering strategy for reducing lactate formation in a number of relevant mammalian cell lines, but, in the case of CHO cells, did not consistently lead to significant improvement in terms of cell growth, product titer and energy metabolism efficiency. In the present study, we report on the establishment of a PYC2-expressing CHO cell line producing a monoclonal antibody and displaying a significantly altered lactate metabolism compared to its parental line. All clones exhibiting strong PYC2 expression were shown to experience a significant and systematic metabolic shift toward lactate consumption, as well as a prolonged exponential growth phase leading to an increased maximum cell concentration and volumetric product titer. Of salient interest, PYC2-expressing CHO cells were shown to maintain a highly efficient metabolism in fed-batch cultures, even when exposed to high glucose levels, thereby alleviating the need of controlling nutrient at low levels and the potential negative impact of such strategy on product glycosylation. In bioreactor operated in fed-batch mode, the higher maximum cell density achieved with the PYC2 clone led to a net gain (20%) in final volumetric productivity. PMID:26603123

  16. Degradation of estrogens by laccase from Myceliophthora thermophila in fed-batch and enzymatic membrane reactors.

    PubMed

    Lloret, L; Eibes, G; Feijoo, G; Moreira, M T; Lema, J M

    2012-04-30

    Several studies reported that natural and synthetic estrogens are the major contributors to the estrogenic activity associated with the effluents of wastewater treatment plants. The ability of the enzyme laccase to degrade these compounds in batch experiments has been demonstrated in previous studies. Nevertheless, information is scarce regarding in vitro degradation of estrogens in continuous enzymatic bioreactors. The present work constitutes an important step forward for the implementation of an enzymatic reactor for the continuous removal of estrone (E1) and estradiol (E2) by free laccase from Myceliophthora thermophila. In a first step, the effect of the main process parameters (pH, enzyme level, gas composition (air or oxygen) and estrogen feeding rate) were evaluated in fed-batch bioreactors. E1 and E2 were oxidized by 94.1 and 95.5%, respectively, under the best conditions evaluated. Thereafter, an enzymatic membrane reactor (EMR) was developed to perform the continuous degradation of the estrogens. The configuration consisted of a stirred tank reactor coupled with an ultrafiltration membrane, which allowed the recovery of enzyme while both estrogens and degradation products could pass through it. The highest removal rates at steady state conditions were up to 95% for E1 and nearly complete degradation for E2. Furthermore, the residual estrogenic activity of the effluent was largely reduced up to 97%. PMID:22342900

  17. Effect of feeding time on the performance of a sequencing batch reactor treating a mixture of 4-CP and 2,4-DCP.

    PubMed

    Sahinkaya, Erkan; Dilek, Filiz B

    2007-06-01

    This paper investigated the biodegradation kinetics of 4-chlorophenol (4-CP) and 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) separately in batch reactors and mixed in sequencing batch reactors (SBRs). Batch reactor experiments showed that both 4-CP and 2,4-DCP began to inhibit their own degradation at 53 and 25 mg l(-1), respectively, and that the Haldane equation gave a good fit to the experimental data because r(2) values were higher than 0.98. The maximum specific degradation rates (q(m)) were 130.3 and 112.4 mg g(-1) h for 4-CP and 2,4-DCP, respectively. The values of the half saturation (K(s)) and self-inhibition constants (K(i)) were 34.98 and 79.74 mg l(-1) for 4-CP, and 13.77 and 44.46 mg l(-1) for 2,4-DCP, respectively. The SBR was fed with a mixture of 220 mg l(-1) of 4-CP, 110 mg l(-1) of 2,4-DCP, and 300 mg l(-1) of peptone as biogenic substrate at varying feeding periods (0-8h) to evaluate the effect of feeding time on the performance of the SBR. During SBR operation, in addition to self-inhibition, 4-CP degradation was strongly and competitively inhibited by 2,4-DCP. The inhibitory effects were particularly pronounced during short feeding periods because of higher chlorophenol peak concentrations in the reactor. The competitive inhibition constant (K(ii)) of 2,4-DCP on 4-CP degradation was 0.17 mg l(-1) when the reactor was fed instantaneously (0 h feeding). During longer feedings, increased removal/loading rates led to lower chlorophenol peak concentrations at the end of feeding. Therefore, in multi-substrate systems feeding time plus reaction time should be determined based on both degradation kinetics and substrate interaction. During degradation, the meta cleavage of 4-chlorocatechol resulted in accumulation of a yellowish color because of the formation of 5-chloro-2-hydroxymuconic semialdehyde (CHMS), which was further metabolized. Isolation and enrichment of the chlorophenols-degrading culture suggested Pseudomonas sp. and Pseudomonas stutzeri to be the

  18. Growth and energy metabolism in aerobic fed-batch cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae: Simulation and model verification

    SciTech Connect

    Pham, H.T.B.; Larsson, G.; Enfors, S.O.

    1998-11-20

    Some yeast species are classified as being glucose sensitive, which means that they may produce ethanol also under aerobic conditions when the sugar concentration is high. A kinetic model of overflow metabolism in Saccharomyces cerevisiae was used for simulation of aerobic fed-batch cultivations. An inhibitory effect of ethanol on the maximum respiration of the yeast was observed in the experiments and included in the model. The model predicts respiration, biomass, and ethanol formation and the subsequent ethanol consumption, and was experimentally validated in fed-batch cultivations. Oscillating sugar feed with resulting oscillating carbon dioxide production did not influence the maximum respiration rate, which indicates that the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex is not involved as a bottleneck causing aerobic ethanol formation.

  19. The microwave-to-flow paradigm: translating high-temperature batch microwave chemistry to scalable continuous-flow processes.

    PubMed

    Glasnov, Toma N; Kappe, C Oliver

    2011-10-17

    The popularity of dedicated microwave reactors in many academic and industrial laboratories has produced a plethora of synthetic protocols that are based on this enabling technology. In the majority of examples, transformations that require several hours when performed using conventional heating under reflux conditions reach completion in a few minutes or even seconds in sealed-vessel, autoclave-type, microwave reactors. However, one severe drawback of microwave chemistry is the difficulty in scaling this technology to a production-scale level. This Concept article demonstrates that this limitation can be overcome by translating batch microwave chemistry to scalable continuous-flow processes. For this purpose, conventionally heated micro- or mesofluidic flow devices fitted with a back-pressure regulator are employed, in which the high temperatures and pressures attainable in a sealed-vessel microwave chemistry batch experiment can be mimicked. PMID:21932289

  20. SULFATE RETENTION IN HIGH LEVEL WASTE SLUDGE BATCH 4 GLASSES: A PRELIMINARY ASSESSMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, K; Tommy Edwards, T; David Peeler, D

    2006-12-11

    Early projections of the Sludge Batch 4 (SB4) composition predicted relatively high concentrations of alumina (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, 23.5 wt%) and sulfate (SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}, 1.2 wt%) in the sludge. A high concentration of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} in the sludge, combined with Na{sub 2}O additions in the frit, raises the potential for nepheline crystallization in the glass. However, strategic frit development efforts at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) have shown that frits containing a relatively high concentration of B{sub 2}O{sub 3} can both suppress nepheline crystallization and improve melt rates. A high sulfate concentration is a concern to the DWPF as it can lead to the formation of sulfate inclusions in the glass and/or the formation of a molten, sulfate-rich phase atop the melt pool. To avoid these issues, a sulfate concentration limit of 0.4 wt% SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} in glass was originally set in the Product Composition Control System (PCCS) used at DWPF. It was later shown that this limit could be increased to 0.6 wt% SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} in glass for the Frit 418, Sludge Batch 3 (SB3) system.

  1. Mild pretreatment and enzymatic saccharification of cellulose with recycled ionic liquids towards one-batch process.

    PubMed

    Auxenfans, Thomas; Buchoux, Sébastien; Djellab, Karim; Avondo, Carine; Husson, Eric; Sarazin, Catherine

    2012-10-01

    The development of second-generation bioethanol involves minimizing the energy input throughout the processing steps. We report here that efficient ionic liquid pretreatments of cellulose can be achieved with short duration times (20 min) at mild temperature (45°C) with [Emim](+)[MeO(H)PO(2)](-) and at room temperature (25 °C) with [Emim](+)[CH(3)COO](-). In these conditions, yields of glucose were increased by a factor of 3. In addition, the recycling of these two imidazolium-based ILs can be performed in maintaining their efficiency to pretreat cellulose. The short time and mild temperature of cellulose solubilization allowed a one-batch processing of [Emim](+)[MeO(H)PO(2)](-) IL-pretreatment and saccharification. In the range from 0 to 100% IL in an aqueous enzymatic medium, the glucose yields were improved at IL proportions between 10 and 40%. The maximum yield at 10% IL is very promising to consider one batch process as efficient as two-step process. PMID:22840005

  2. Microbial succession in response to pollutants in batch-enrichment culture.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Shuo; Chen, Weimin; Wang, Entao; Wang, Junman; Liu, Zhenshan; Li, Yining; Wei, Gehong

    2016-01-01

    As a global problem, environmental pollution is an important factor to shape the microbial communities. The elucidation of the succession of microbial communities in response to pollutants is essential for developing bioremediation procedures. In the present study, ten batches of soil-enrichment subcultures were subjected to four treatments: phenanthrene, n-octadecane, phenanthrene + n-octadecane, or phenanthrene + n-octadecane + CdCl2. Forty pollutant-degrading consortia, corresponding to each batch of the four treatments were obtained. High-throughput sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene revealed that the diversity, richness and evenness of the consortia decreased throughout the subculturing procedure. The well-known hydrocarbon degraders Acinetobacter, Gordonia, Sphingobium, Sphingopyxis, and Castellaniella and several other genera, including Niabella and Naxibacter, were detected in the enriched consortia. The predominant microbes varied and the microbial community in the consortia gradually changed during the successive subculturing depending on the treatment, indicating that the pollutants influenced the microbial successions. Comparison of the networks in the treatments indicated that organic pollutants and CdCl2 affected the co-occurrence patterns in enriched consortia. In conclusion, single environmental factors, such as the addition of nutrients or selection pressure, can shape microbial communities and partially explain the extensive differences in microbial community structures among diverse environments. PMID:26905741

  3. Microbial succession in response to pollutants in batch-enrichment culture

    PubMed Central

    Jiao, Shuo; Chen, Weimin; Wang, Entao; Wang, Junman; Liu, Zhenshan; Li, Yining; Wei, Gehong

    2016-01-01

    As a global problem, environmental pollution is an important factor to shape the microbial communities. The elucidation of the succession of microbial communities in response to pollutants is essential for developing bioremediation procedures. In the present study, ten batches of soil-enrichment subcultures were subjected to four treatments: phenanthrene, n-octadecane, phenanthrene + n-octadecane, or phenanthrene + n-octadecane + CdCl2. Forty pollutant-degrading consortia, corresponding to each batch of the four treatments were obtained. High-throughput sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene revealed that the diversity, richness and evenness of the consortia decreased throughout the subculturing procedure. The well-known hydrocarbon degraders Acinetobacter, Gordonia, Sphingobium, Sphingopyxis, and Castellaniella and several other genera, including Niabella and Naxibacter, were detected in the enriched consortia. The predominant microbes varied and the microbial community in the consortia gradually changed during the successive subculturing depending on the treatment, indicating that the pollutants influenced the microbial successions. Comparison of the networks in the treatments indicated that organic pollutants and CdCl2 affected the co-occurrence patterns in enriched consortia. In conclusion, single environmental factors, such as the addition of nutrients or selection pressure, can shape microbial communities and partially explain the extensive differences in microbial community structures among diverse environments. PMID:26905741

  4. Enhanced production of erythritol by Yarrowia lipolytica on glycerol in repeated batch cultures.

    PubMed

    Mirończuk, Aleksandra M; Furgała, Joanna; Rakicka, Magdalena; Rymowicz, Waldemar

    2014-01-01

    Erythritol is an important natural sweetener, industrially produced only by fermentation on glucose media. Glycerol is an important renewable feedstock as it is the major by-product of the biodiesel production process; here we present an alternative way to convert this low-cost substrate into value-added products, such as erythritol. Repeated batch cultures (RBC) were performed to improve the productivity of erythritol from pure and crude glycerol. An acetate negative mutant of Yarrowia lipolytica Wratislavia K1 was found to be applicable for the production of high amounts of erythritol in RBC. When 20 % of fresh replaced medium was added, the strain Wratislavia K1 was able to produce 220 g l (-1) erythritol, which corresponded to a 0.43 g g(-1) yield and a productivity of 0.54 g l(-1) h(-1). Additionally, the activity of the culture remained stable for more than 1,000 h, i.e., 11 cycles of the repeated batch bioreactors. PMID:24281394

  5. Color Addition and Subtraction Apps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruiz, Frances; Ruiz, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Color addition and subtraction apps in HTML5 have been developed for students as an online hands-on experience so that they can more easily master principles introduced through traditional classroom demonstrations. The evolution of the additive RGB color model is traced through the early IBM color adapters so that students can proceed step by step…

  6. Ochratoxin A contamination of coffee batches from Kenya in relation to cultivation methods and post-harvest processing treatments.

    PubMed

    Duris, Daniel; Mburu, Joseph K; Durand, Noël; Clarke, Renata; Frank, John M; Guyot, Bernard

    2010-06-01

    This study set out to assess the relative importance of sound and unsound beans in a batch of coffee with regard to ochratoxin A (OTA) contamination. Initially, unsound beans were found to account for 95% of contamination in a batch of coffee, whatever the methods used for post-harvest processing. It was also found that beans displaying traces of attacks by Colletotrichum kahawae were the greatest contributors to OTA contamination. In a second stage, the study compared the contamination of sound beans with that of beans attacked by Colletotrichum kahawae. On average, beans attacked by Colletotrichum kahawae had a statistically higher OTA content than sound beans (18.0 microg kg(-1) as opposed to 1.2 microg kg(-1)). In addition, the average OTA content in unsound beans varied depending on growing conditions. PMID:20175009

  7. 40 CFR 80.1426 - How are RINs generated and assigned to batches of renewable fuel by renewable fuel producers or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false How are RINs generated and assigned to batches of renewable fuel by renewable fuel producers or importers? 80.1426 Section 80.1426 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Renewable Fuel...

  8. Alternate carbohydrate and nontraditional inducer leads to increased productivity of a collagen binding domain fusion protein via fed-batch fermentation.

    PubMed

    Fruchtl, McKinzie; Sakon, Joshua; Beitle, Robert

    2016-05-20

    The production of collagen binding domain fusion proteins is of significant importance because of their potential as therapeutic biomaterials. It was previously reported that the expression of collagen-binding domain fusion proteins in Escherichia coli was higher when expressed using lactose as an inducer and chemically defined growth media on a shake flask scale. In an effort to further investigate factors that affect expression levels on a fed-batch scale, alternative induction techniques were tested in conjunction with fed-batch fermentation. In this paper, we discuss ten fed-batch fermentation experiments utilizing either glucose or glycerol feed and using lactose or isopropyl-β-d-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG) as an induction source. It was found that glycerol-fed fermentations induced with lactose allowed for greater expression of target protein, though lesser cell densities were achieved. PMID:26975843

  9. SLUDGE BATCH 6/TANK 40 SIMULANT CHEMICAL PROCESS CELL SIMULATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Koopman, David

    2010-04-28

    Phase III simulant flowsheet testing was completed using the latest composition estimates for SB6/Tank 40 feed to DWPF. The goals of the testing were to determine reasonable operating conditions and assumptions for the startup of SB6 processing in the DWPF. Testing covered the region from 102-159% of the current DWPF stoichiometric acid equation. Nitrite ion concentration was reduced to 90 mg/kg in the SRAT product of the lowest acid run. The 159% acid run reached 60% of the DWPF Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) limit of 0.65 lb H2/hr, and then sporadically exceeded the DWPF Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) limit of 0.223 lb H2/hr. Hydrogen generation rates peaked at 112% of the SME limit, but higher than targeted wt% total solids levels may have been partially responsible for rates seen. A stoichiometric factor of 120% met both objectives. A processing window for SB6 exists from 102% to something close to 159% based on the simulant results. An initial recommendation for SB6 processing is at 115-120% of the current DWPF stoichiometric acid equation. The addition of simulated Actinide Removal Process (ARP) and Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) streams to the SRAT cycle had no apparent impact on the preferred stoichiometric factor. Hydrogen generation occurred continuously after acid addition in three of the four tests. The three runs at 120%, 118.4% with ARP/MCU, and 159% stoichiometry were all still producing around 0.1 lb hydrogen/hr at DWPF scale after 36 hours of boiling in the SRAT. The 120% acid run reached 23% of the SRAT limit and 37% of the SME limit. Conversely, nitrous oxide generation was subdued compared to previous sludge batches, staying below 29 lb/hr in all four tests or about a fourth as much as in comparable SB4 testing. Two processing issues, identified during SB6 Phase II flowsheet testing and qualification simulant testing, were monitored during Phase III. Mercury material balance closure was impacted by acid stoichiometry

  10. Persistence of Escherichia coli in batch and continuous vermicomposting systems.

    PubMed

    Hénault-Ethier, Louise; Martin, Vincent J J; Gélinas, Yves

    2016-10-01

    Vermicomposting is a biooxidation process in which epigeicearthworms act in synergy with microbial populations to degrade organic matter. Vermicomposting does not go through a thermophilic stage as required by North American legislations for pathogen eradication. We examined the survival of a Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) labeled Escherichia coli MG1655 as a model for the survival of pathogenic bacteria in both small-scale batch and medium-scale continuously-operated systems to discern the influence of the earthworm Eisenia fetida, nutrient content and the indigenous vermicompost microbial community on pathogen abundance. In batch systems, the microbial community had the greatest influence on the rapid decline of E. coli populations, and the effect of earthworms was only visible in microbially-impoverishedvermicomposts. No significant earthworm density-dependent relationship was observed on E. coli survival under continuous operation. E. coli numbers decreased below the US EPA compost sanitation guidelines of 10(3)Colony Forming Units (CFU)/g (dry weight) within 18-21days for both the small-scale batch and medium-scale continuous systems, but it took up to 51days without earthworms and with an impoverished microbial community to reach the legal limit. Nutrient replenishment (i.e. organic carbon) provided by continuous feed input did not appear to extend E. coli survival. In fact, longer survival of E. coli was noticed in treatments where less total and labile sugars were available, suggesting that sugars may support potentially antagonist bacteria in the vermicompost. Total N, pH and humidity did not appear to affect E. coli survival. Several opportunistic human pathogens may be found in vermicompost, and their populations are likely kept in check by antagonists. PMID:27499290

  11. [Kinetics model for batch culture of white rot fungus].

    PubMed

    Xiong, Xiao-ping; Wen, Xiang-hua; Xu, Kang-ning; Bian, Bing-hui

    2008-02-01

    In order to understand ligninolytic enzymes production process during culture of white rot fungus, accordingly to direct the design of fermentation process, a kinetics model was built for the batch culture of Phanerochaete chrysosporium. The parameters in the model were calibrated based on the experimental data from free and immobilized culture separately. The difference between each variable's values calculated based on kinetics model and experimental data is within 15%. Comparing parameters for the free and the immobilized culture, it is found that maximum biomass concentrations are both 1.78 g/L; growth rate ratio of immobilized culture (0.6683 d(-1)) is larger than that of free culture (0.5144 d(-1)); very little glucose is consumed for biomass growth in free culture while in immobilized culture much glucose is used and ammonium nitrogen is consumed at a greater rate. Ligninolytic enzymes production process is non-growth related; fungal pellets can produce MnP (231 U/L) in free culture with a production rate of 115.8 U x (g x d)(-1) before peak and 26.1 U x (g x d)(-1) after peak, thus fed-batch is a possible mode to improve MnP production and fermentation efficiency. MnP (410 U/L) and LiP (721 U/L) can be produced in immobilized culture, but MnP and LiP production rate decrease from 80.1 U x (g x d)(-1) and 248.9 U x (g x d)(-1) to 6.04 U x (g x d)(-1) and 0 U x (g x d)(-1), respectively, indicating a proper feed moment is before the enzymes peak during fed-batch culture. PMID:18613526

  12. 40 CFR Table 6 to Subpart U of... - Group 1 Batch Front-End Process Vents and Aggregate Batch Vent Streams-Monitoring, Recordkeeping...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Group 1 Batch Front-End Process Vents and Aggregate Batch Vent Streams-Monitoring, Recordkeeping, and Reporting Requirements 6 Table 6 to Subpart U of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS...

  13. 40 CFR Table 6 to Subpart U of... - Group 1 Batch Front-End Process Vents and Aggregate Batch Vent Streams-Monitoring, Recordkeeping...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Group 1 Batch Front-End Process Vents and Aggregate Batch Vent Streams-Monitoring, Recordkeeping, and Reporting Requirements 6 Table 6 to Subpart U of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS...

  14. 40 CFR Table 7 to Subpart Jjj of... - Group 1 Batch Process Vents and Aggregate Batch Vent Streams-Monitoring, Recordkeeping, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Group 1 Batch Process Vents and Aggregate Batch Vent Streams-Monitoring, Recordkeeping, and Reporting Requirements 7 Table 7 to Subpart JJJ of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR...

  15. Economic comparison of continuous and batch sintering of silicon nitride

    SciTech Connect

    Wittner, D.E.; Conover, J.J.; Knapp, V.A. ); Miller, C.W. Jr. )

    1993-06-01

    It is generally agreed that Si[sub 3]N[sub 4]-based compositions can be produced with reliable properties that are suitable for some automotive components. The major barrier to extensive application of Si[sub 3]N[sub 4] components is cost. Continuous sintering has recently been investigated as a means for cost-effective sintering of selected Si[sub 3]N[sub 4] compositions. Factors related to the cost of sintering in both belt furnaces and batch furnaces of increasing capacity - to allow sintering of the large number of parts required by the automotive industry - have been considered.

  16. REAL WASTE TESTING OF SLUDGE BATCH 5 MELTER FEED RHEOLOGY

    SciTech Connect

    Reboul, S.; Stone, M.

    2010-03-17

    Clogging of the melter feed loop at the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) has reduced the throughput of Sludge Batch 5 (SB5) processing. After completing a data review, DWPF attributed the clogging to the rheological properties of the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) project. The yield stress of the SB5 melter feed material was expected to be high, based on the relatively high pH of the SME product and the rheological results of a previous Chemical Process Cell (CPC) demonstration performed at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL).

  17. Bounded Parallel-Batch Scheduling on Unrelated Parallel Machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miao, Cuixia; Zhang, Yuzhong; Wang, Chengfei

    In this paper, we consider the bounded parallel-batch scheduling problem on unrelated parallel machines. Problems R m |B|F are NP-hard for any objective function F. For this reason, we discuss the special case with p ij = p i for i = 1, 2, ⋯ , m , j = 1, 2, ⋯ , n. We give optimal algorithms for the general scheduling to minimize total weighted completion time, makespan and the number of tardy jobs. And we design pseudo-polynomial time algorithms for the case with rejection penalty to minimize the makespan and the total weighted completion time plus the total penalty of the rejected jobs, respectively.

  18. Determining gold in water by anion-exchange batch extraction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McHugh, J.B.

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes a batch procedure for determining gold in natural waters. It is completely adaptable to field operations. The water samples are filtered and acidified before they are equilibrated with an anion-exchange resin by shaking. The gold is then eluted with acetone-nitric acid solution, and the eluate evaporated to dryness. The residue is taken up in hydrobromic acid-bromine solution and the gold is extracted with methyl isobutyl ketone. The extract is electrothermally atomized in an atomic-absorption spectrophotometer. The limit of determination is 1 ng 1. ?? 1986.

  19. Is it efficient to co-compost and co-vermicompost green waste with biochar and/or clay to reduce CO2 emissions? A short-term laboratory experiment on (vermi)composts with additives.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barthod, Justine; Rumpel, Cornélia; Paradelo, Remigio; Dignac, Marie-France

    2016-04-01

    Intensive farming practices can lead to a depletion of soil organic matter, negatively impacting important soil properties such as structural stability, fertility and C storage. The addition of organic amendments such as compost and vermicompost, rich in carbon, helps maintaining soil organic matter levels or restoring degraded soils. Composting and vermicomposting are based on stabilization of organic matter through the mineralization of easily decomposable organic matter compounds, therefore releasing greenhouse gases, including CO2. The aim of this study was to evaluate the global potential reduction of such emissions by the use of additives (2:1 clay and/or biochar): during (vermi)composting processes and after use of the final products as soil amendments. We hypothesized that the interactions between the additives and organic matter may lead to carbon stabilization and that such interactions may be enhanced by the presence of worms (Eisenia). We added in different proportions clay (25% or 50%), biochar (10%) and a mixture of biochar (10%) with clay (25%) to pre-composted green waste. The CO2 emissions of the composting and vermicomposting processes were measured during 21 days. After that, the amendments were added to a loamy cambisol soil and the CO2 emissions were monitored during 30 days of a laboratory experiment. The most efficient treatments in terms of reducing global CO2 emissions were the co-vermicomposting process with 25% clay followed by co-composting with 50% clay and with 10% biochar plus 25% clay. In this treatment (vermicompost with 25% clay), the carbon emissions were decreased by up to 44% compared to regular compost. Addition of biochar reduced CO2 emissions only during composting. Co-composting with biochar could be a promising avenue to limit global CO2 emissions whereas in presence of worms clay additions are better suited. These findings suggest that the presence of worms increased the formation of organo-mineral associations and thus C

  20. Hybrid Metaheuristics for Solving a Fuzzy Single Batch-Processing Machine Scheduling Problem

    PubMed Central

    Molla-Alizadeh-Zavardehi, S.; Tavakkoli-Moghaddam, R.; Lotfi, F. Hosseinzadeh

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with a problem of minimizing total weighted tardiness of jobs in a real-world single batch-processing machine (SBPM) scheduling in the presence of fuzzy due date. In this paper, first a fuzzy mixed integer linear programming model is developed. Then, due to the complexity of the problem, which is NP-hard, we design two hybrid metaheuristics called GA-VNS and VNS-SA applying the advantages of genetic algorithm (GA), variable neighborhood search (VNS), and simulated annealing (SA) frameworks. Besides, we propose three fuzzy earliest due date heuristics to solve the given problem. Through computational experiments with several random test problems, a robust calibration is applied on the parameters. Finally, computational results on different-scale test problems are presented to compare the proposed algorithms. PMID:24883359

  1. Treatment of anaerobic digester supernatant and filter press filtrate sidestreams with a sequencing batch reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Bowen, R.B.; Ketchum, L.H. Jr.

    1998-07-01

    The Elkhart, Indiana publicly owned treatment works (POTW) occasionally experiences periods of high effluent ammonia. The POTW currently treats 61,000 m{sup 3}/d (16 MGD), which includes a large industrial component of 15,000 m{sup 3}/d (4 MGD). This industrial component includes frequent periods of high ammonia levels resulting in plant influent ammonia concentrations exceeding 40 mg/L as nitrogen which can upset plant nitrification. The anaerobic digester supernatant and filter press filtrate are returned to the head of the plant. These recycled streams also contain high ammonia, 475 mg/L as nitrogen, and contribute to the influent ammonia problem. This study is an investigation of the use of a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) to biologically nitrify these recycle streams to help mitigate the problem of high effluent ammonia.

  2. Toxicity and biodegradability of olive mill wastewaters in batch anaerobic digestion

    SciTech Connect

    Hamdi, M. Universite de Provence, Marseille )

    1992-11-01

    The anaerobic biodegradability and toxicity of olive mill wastewaters (OMW) were studied in batch anaerobic digestion experiments. Anaerobic digestion of OMW or the supernatant of its centrifugation, the methane production was achieved at up to 5-15% (V/V) dilution corresponding to only 5-20 g/L COD. The washed suspended solids of OMW were toxic at up to 80 g/L COD; however, the kinetic of biodegradability of OMW or the supernatant was faster than for suspended solids, which are constituted mealy of cellulose and lignin. The darkly colored polyphenols induce the problem of biodegradation of OMW, whereas the long chain fatty acids (LCFA), tannins and simple phenolic compounds are responsible for its toxicity for methanogenic bacteria. 26 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Hybrid metaheuristics for solving a fuzzy single batch-processing machine scheduling problem.

    PubMed

    Molla-Alizadeh-Zavardehi, S; Tavakkoli-Moghaddam, R; Lotfi, F Hosseinzadeh

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with a problem of minimizing total weighted tardiness of jobs in a real-world single batch-processing machine (SBPM) scheduling in the presence of fuzzy due date. In this paper, first a fuzzy mixed integer linear programming model is developed. Then, due to the complexity of the problem, which is NP-hard, we design two hybrid metaheuristics called GA-VNS and VNS-SA applying the advantages of genetic algorithm (GA), variable neighborhood search (VNS), and simulated annealing (SA) frameworks. Besides, we propose three fuzzy earliest due date heuristics to solve the given problem. Through computational experiments with several random test problems, a robust calibration is applied on the parameters. Finally, computational results on different-scale test problems are presented to compare the proposed algorithms. PMID:24883359

  4. Comparison of the release of constituents from granular materials under batch and column testing.

    PubMed

    Lopez Meza, Sarynna; Garrabrants, Andrew C; van der Sloot, Hans; Kosson, David S

    2008-01-01

    Column leaching testing can be considered a better basis for assessing field impact data than any other available batch test method and thus provides a fundamental basis from which to estimate constituent release under a variety of field conditions. However, column testing is time-intensive compared to the more simplified batch testing, and may not always be a viable option when making decisions for material reuse. Batch tests are used most frequently as a simple tool for compliance or quality control reasons. Therefore, it is important to compare the release that occurs under batch and column testing, and establish conservative interpretation protocols for extrapolation from batch data when column data are not available. Five different materials (concrete, construction debris, aluminum recycling residue, coal fly ash and bottom ash) were evaluated via batch and column testing, including different column flow regimes (continuously saturated and intermittent unsaturated flow). Constituent release data from batch and column tests were compared. Results showed no significant difference between the column flow regimes when constituent release data from batch and column tests were compared. In most cases batch and column testing agreed when presented in the form of cumulative release. For arsenic in carbonated materials, however, batch testing underestimates the column constituent release for most LS ratios and also on a cumulative basis. For cases when As is a constituent of concern, column testing may be required. PMID:18242972

  5. Cultivation of aerobic granules in a novel configuration of sequencing batch airlift reactor.

    PubMed

    Rezaei, Laya Siroos; Ayati, Bita; Ganjidoust, Hossein

    2012-01-01

    Aerobic granules can be formed in sequencing batch airlift reactors (SBAR) and sequencing batch reactors (SBR). Comparing these two systems, the SBAR has excellent mixing condition, but due to a high height-to-diameter ratio (H/D), there is no performance capability at full scale at the present time. This research examined a novel configuration of SBAR at laboratory scale (with a box structure) for industrial wastewater treatment. To evaluate chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency and granule formation of the novel reactor (R1), in comparison a conventional SBAR (R2) was operated under similar conditions during the experimental period. R1 and R2 with working volumes of 3.6 L and 4.5 L, respectively, were used to cultivate aerobic granules. Both reactors were operated for 4 h per cycle. Experiments were done at different organic loading rates (OLRs) ranging from 0.6-4.5 kg COD/m3.d for R1 and from 0.72-5.4 kg COD/m3.d for R2. After 150 days of operation, large-sized black filamentous granules with diameters of 0.5-2 mm and 2-11 mm were formed in R1 and R2, respectively. In the second part of the experiment, the efficiency of removal of a toxic substance by aerobic granules was investigated using aniline as a carbon source with a concentration in the range 1.2-6.6 kg COD/m3.d and 1.44-7.92 kg COD/m3.d in R1 and R2, respectively. It was found that COD removal efficiency of the novel airlift reactor was over 97% and 94.5% using glucose and aniline as carbon sources, respectively. Sludge volume index (SVI) was also decreased to 30 mL/g by granulation in the novel airlift reactor. PMID:23393968

  6. Domestic wastewater treatment in a novel sequencing batch biofilm filter.

    PubMed

    Ji, Bin; Wei, Li; Chen, Dan; Wang, Hongyu; Li, Zhenhua; Yang, Kai

    2015-07-01

    Biological treatment of domestic sewage low C/N ratio was accomplished in a pilot-scale sequencing batch biofilm filter (SBBF). The novel hybrid bioreactor consisted of bio-band in the upper and anthracite filter media in the bottom, which combined a sequencing batch biofilm reactor (SBBR) with a biological filter. The average removal efficiency values of chemical oxygen demand (COD), ammonium nitrogen (NH4 (+)-N), total nitrogen (TN), and total phosphorus (TP) were 89.4, 83.3, 62.9, and 48.7%, respectively. A 454-pyrosequencing technology was employed to investigate the microbial communities of the influent (J1) and the biofilm (J2) on the bio-band on day 40. Pyrosequencing analysis of the 16S rRNA gene revealed the community of the biofilm consisted of Gammaproteobacteria (48.6%), Planctomycetacia (18.0%), Alphaproteobacteria (13.7%), Clostridia (9.6%), Desulfonatronum (18.5%), Actinobacteria (1.9%), and Bacilli (1.7%), accounting for 93.6% of total operational taxonomic units at genera level. Acinetobacter tjernbergiae and Acinetobacter lwoffii were the most abundant species, suggesting that denitrifying phosphorus removal was achieved in the SBBF. PMID:25967659

  7. A batch-mode micromachining process for spherical structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Tao; Visvanathan, Karthik; Gianchandani, Yogesh B.

    2014-02-01

    This paper reports a self-aligned three-dimensional process (3D-SOULE) that incorporates batch-mode micro ultrasonic machining (µUSM), lapping and micro electro-discharge machining (µEDM) for fabrication of concave and mushroom-shaped spherical structures from hard and brittle materials. To demonstrate the process, 1 mm structures are fabricated from glass and ruby spheres. The µEDM technique is used to create the tool for μUSM from stainless steel spheres. Stainless steel 440, which provides a tool wear ratio <5%, is chosen as the tool material. A 2 × 2 array is used for batch processing. For an ultrasound generator frequency of 20 kHz and a vibration amplitude of 15 µm, machining rates of 24 and 12 µm min-1 are obtained for glass and ruby spheres, respectively. An approximate linear relationship is observed between the measured roughness (Ra) of the machined surface and the product of the fracture toughness (KIC) and the hardness (H) of the workpiece material (KIC3/2H1/2).

  8. Comparison of laboratory batch and flow-through microcosm bioassays.

    PubMed

    Clément, Bernard J P; Delhaye, Hélène L; Triffault-Bouchet, Gaëlle G

    2014-10-01

    Since 1997, we have been developing a protocol for ecotoxicological bioassays in 2-L laboratory microcosms and have applied it to the study of various pollutants and ecotoxicological risk assessment scenarios in the area of urban facilities and transport infrastructures. The effects on five different organisms (micro-algae, duckweeds, daphnids, amphipods, chironomids) are assessed using biological responses such as growth, emergence (chironomids), reproduction (daphnids) and survival, with a duration of exposure of 3 weeks. This bioassay has mainly been used as a batch bioassay, i.e., the water was not renewed during the test. A flow-through microcosm bioassay has been developed recently, with the assumption that conditions for the biota should be improved, variability reduced, and the range of exposure patterns enlarged (e.g., the possibility of maintaining constant exposure in the water column). This paper compares the results obtained in batch and flow-through microcosm bioassays, using cadmium as a model toxicant. As expected, the stabilization of physico-chemical parameters, increased organism fitness and reduced variability were observed in the flow-through microcosm bioassay. PMID:25086825

  9. Detection and isolation of Bluetongue virus from commercial vaccine batches.

    PubMed

    Bumbarov, Velizar; Golender, Natalia; Erster, Oran; Khinich, Yevgeny

    2016-06-14

    In this report we describe the detection and identification of Bluetongue virus (BTV) contaminations in commercial vaccines. BTV RNA was detected in vaccine batches of Lumpy skin disease (LSD) and Sheep pox (SP) using quantitative PCR (qPCR) for VP1 and NS3 genes. Both batches were positive for VP1 and NS3 in qPCR. The LSD vaccine-derived sample was positive for VP1 and VP2 in conventional PCR. The SP vaccine-derived sample was examined by amplification of VP1, VP4, VP6, VP7, NS2 and NS3 gene segments in conventional PCR. The SP vaccine-derived sample was further propagated in embryonated chicken eggs (ECE) and Vero cells. Preliminary sequence analysis showed that the LSD vaccine-derived sequence was 98-99% similar to BTV9. Analysis of the six genomic segments from the SP vaccine-derived isolate showed the highest similarity to BTV26 (66.3-97.8%). These findings are particularly important due to the effect of BTV on cattle and sheep, for which the vaccines are intended. They also demonstrate the necessity of rigorous vaccine inspection and strict vaccine production control. PMID:27171751

  10. BEclear: Batch Effect Detection and Adjustment in DNA Methylation Data

    PubMed Central

    Akulenko, Ruslan; Merl, Markus; Helms, Volkhard

    2016-01-01

    Batch effects describe non-natural variations of, for example, large-scale genomic data sets. If not corrected by suitable numerical algorithms, batch effects may seriously affect the analysis of these datasets. The novel array platform independent software tool BEclear enables researchers to identify those portions of the data that deviate statistically significant from the remaining data and to replace these portions by typical values reconstructed from neighboring data entries based on latent factor models. In contrast to other comparable methods that often use some sort of global normalization of the data, BEclear avoids changing the apparently unaffected parts of the data. We tested the performance of this approach on DNA methylation data for various tumor data sets taken from The Cancer Genome Atlas and compared the results to those obtained with the existing algorithms ComBat, Surrogate Variable Analysis, RUVm and Functional normalization. BEclear constantly performed at par with or better than these methods. BEclear is available as an R package at the Bioconductor project http://bioconductor.org/packages/release/bioc/html/BEclear.html. PMID:27559732

  11. BEclear: Batch Effect Detection and Adjustment in DNA Methylation Data.

    PubMed

    Akulenko, Ruslan; Merl, Markus; Helms, Volkhard

    2016-01-01

    Batch effects describe non-natural variations of, for example, large-scale genomic data sets. If not corrected by suitable numerical algorithms, batch effects may seriously affect the analysis of these datasets. The novel array platform independent software tool BEclear enables researchers to identify those portions of the data that deviate statistically significant from the remaining data and to replace these portions by typical values reconstructed from neighboring data entries based on latent factor models. In contrast to other comparable methods that often use some sort of global normalization of the data, BEclear avoids changing the apparently unaffected parts of the data. We tested the performance of this approach on DNA methylation data for various tumor data sets taken from The Cancer Genome Atlas and compared the results to those obtained with the existing algorithms ComBat, Surrogate Variable Analysis, RUVm and Functional normalization. BEclear constantly performed at par with or better than these methods. BEclear is available as an R package at the Bioconductor project http://bioconductor.org/packages/release/bioc/html/BEclear.html. PMID:27559732

  12. A phaseguided passive batch microfluidic mixing chamber for isothermal amplification.

    PubMed

    Hakenberg, Sydney; Hügle, Matthias; Weidmann, Manfred; Hufert, Frank; Dame, Gregory; Urban, Gerald A

    2012-11-01

    With a view to developing a rapid pathogen detection system utilizing isothermal nucleic acid amplification, the necessary micro-mixing step is innovatively implemented on a chip. Passive laminar flow mixing of two 6.5 μl batches differing in viscosity is performed within a microfluidic chamber. This is achieved with a novel chip space-saving phaseguide design which allows, for the first time, the complete integration of a passive mixing structure into a target chamber. Sequential filling of batches prior to mixing is demonstrated. Simulation predicts a reduction of diffusive mixing time from hours down to one minute. A simple and low-cost fabrication method is used which combines dry film resist technology and direct wafer bonding. Finally, an isothermal nucleic acid detection assay is successfully implemented where fluorescence results are measured directly from the chip after a one minute mixing sequence. In combination with our previous work, this opens up the way towards a fully integrated pathogen detection system in a lab-on-a-chip format. PMID:22952055

  13. SIPB: a seismic refraction inverse modeling program for batch computer systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scott, James Henry

    1977-01-01

    SIPB is an interactive Fortran computer program that was developed for use with a timeshare computer system with program control information submitted from a remote terminal, and output data displayed on the terminal or printed on a line printer. The program is an upgraded version of FSIPI (Scott, Tibbetts, and Burdick, 1972) with several major improvements in addition to .its adaptation to timeshare operation. The most significant improvement was made in the procedure for handling data from in-line offset shotpoints beyond the end shotpoints of the geophone spread. The changes and improvements are described, user's instructions are outlined, examples of input and output data for a test problem are presented, and the Fortran program is listed in this report. An upgraded batch-mode program, SIPB, is available for users who do not have a timeshare computer system available (Scott, 1977).

  14. A STATISTICAL REVIEW OF DWPF LABORATORY MEASUREMENTS GENERATED DURING THE PROCESSING OF BATCHES 300 THROUGH 356

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, T

    2006-08-31

    In this report, the Statistical Consulting Section (SCS) of the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) provides summaries and comparisons of composition measurements for glass samples that were generated during the processing of batches 300 through 356 at the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). These analyses, which include measurements of samples from the Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) and the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) as well as samples of glass standards, were provided to SCS by the DWPF Laboratory (DWPF Lab) of Waste Laboratory Services. The comparisons made by SCS were extensive given that these data allowed for contrasts between preparation methods and between the two spectrometers that are currently in use at the DWPF Lab. In addition to general comparisons, specific questions that were posed in the Technical Task Request (TTR) behind this effort were addressed in this report.

  15. Effect of different salinity adaptation on the performance and microbial community in a sequencing batch reactor.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yuanyuan; Park, Hee-Deung; Park, Jeong-Hoon; Zhang, Fushuang; Chen, Chen; Li, Xiangkun; Zhao, Dan; Zhao, Fangbo

    2016-09-01

    The performance and microbial community profiles in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) treating saline wastewater were studied over 300days from 0wt% to 3.0wt% salinity. The experimental results indicated that the activated sludge had high sensitivity to salinity variations in terms of pollutants removal and sedimentation. At 2.0wt% salinity, the system retained a good performance, and 95% removal rate of chemical oxygen demand (COD), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), NH4(+)-N and total phosphorus (TP) could be achieved. Operation before addition salinity revealed the optimal performance and the most microbial diversity indicated by 16S rRNA gene clone library. Sequence analyses illustrated that Candidate_division_TM7 (TM7) was predominant at 2.0 wt% salinity; however, Actinobacteria was more abundant at 3.0wt% salinity. PMID:27318158

  16. Data management in the cell therapy production facility: the batch process record (BPR).

    PubMed

    Janssen, We

    2008-01-01

    The activities of cell therapy establishments are associated with substantial amounts of information. For reasons of best practice, regulation and adherence to prevailing standards, the data generated in the course of cell therapy product processing must be recorded and retained in an organized manner. Because cell therapy products are functionally pharmaceuticals, the paradigm of the pharmaceutical manufacturing batch process record (BPR) is proposed as a unit for collecting the data resulting from processing. Considerations for cell-processing facilities for the design of BPR and possible selection of electronic data-recording tools are reviewed, including data to collect in response to regulatory or accreditation mandates and different types of electronic data management tools that may be employed. Additionally, considerations for selection, qualification and validation of computer software for maintenance of the BPR are addressed. PMID:18418768

  17. Short Contact Time Direct Coal Liquefaction Using a Novel Batch Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    He Huang; Michael T. Klein; William H. Calkins

    1997-01-30

    The primary objective of this research is to optimize the design and operation of the bench scale batch reactor (SCTBR) for studying direct coal liquefaction at short contact times (.01 to 10 minutes or longer). Additional objectives are to study the kinetics of direct coal liquefaction particularly at short reaction times and to investigate the role of organic oxygen components of coal and their reaction pathways during coal liquefaction. Many of those objectives have already been achieved. This quarterly report discusses further kinetic studies of the liquefaction in tetralin of a Montana Lignite, Wyodak-Anderson subbituminous coal, Illinois #6 hv bituminous coal, Pittsburgh #8 hv bituminous coals, and Pocohontas lV bituminous coal at short contact times. All of these coals showed a distinct extraction stage. Further work has also been done to attempt to clarify the role of the liquefaction solvent in the direct liquefaction process.

  18. Short contact time direct coal liquefaction using a novel batch reactor. Quarterly report, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, M.T.; Calkins, W.H.; Huang, H.

    1996-05-01

    The objective of this research is to optimize the design and operation of the bench scale batch reactor (SCTBR) for coal liquefaction at short contact times (0.01 to 10 minutes or longer). Additional objectives are to study the kinetics of direct coal liquefaction particularly at short reaction times, and to investigate the role of the organic oxygen components of coal and their reaction pathways during liquefaction. Many of those objectives have already been achieved and others are still in progress. This quarterly report covers further progress toward those objectives. Much of the previous quarterly report was concerned mainly in the retrograde reactions occurring during the liquefaction process. This report is largely devoted to the kinetics and mechanisms of the liquefaction process itself and the influence of the liquefaction solvents.

  19. Pulsed feeding during fed-batch Aspergillus oryzae fermentation leads to improved oxygen mass transfer.

    PubMed

    Bhargava, Swapnil; Wenger, Kevin S; Marten, Mark R

    2003-01-01

    Productivity in many fungal fermentations is detrimentally affected by high broth viscosity and consequent reduced oxygen mass transfer capacity. The goal here was to determine whether pulsed feeding of limiting carbon in a fungal fermentation could lead to reduced viscosity and improved oxygen mass transfer. As a model, an industrially relevant recombinant strain of Aspergillus oryzae was grown in carbon-limited, fed-batch mode. Maltodextrin was used as a carbon source and was added either continuously or in 1.5-min pulses, 3.5 min apart. In both feeding modes the same total amount of carbon was added, and carbon feed rate was at sufficiently low levels to ensure cultures were always carbon-limited. Compared to continuous feeding, pulsed addition of substrate led to smaller fungal elements, which resulted in a significant reduction in broth viscosity. This in turn led to higher dissolved oxygen concentrations and increased oxygen uptake rates during pulsed feeding. PMID:12790687

  20. Modelling the effect of the antimicrobial tylosin on the performance of an anaerobic sequencing batch reactor.

    PubMed

    Shimada, T; Zilles, J L; Morgenroth, E; Raskin, L

    2008-01-01

    A laboratory-scale anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (ASBR) was fed a synthetic wastewater containing glucose to study the effects of the antimicrobial tylosin on treatment performance. Measurements of methane, volatile fatty acids, and COD concentrations suggested that the addition of 1.67 mg/L and 167 mg/l of tylosin to the synthetic wastewater inhibited propionate oxidizing syntrophic bacteria and aceticlastic methanogens. The latter is presumed to be an indirect effect. A modified version of the IWA Anaerobic Digestion Model No. 1 (ADM1) with extensions for microbial storage and hydrolysis of reserve carbohydrates, and tylosin liquid-solid mass transfer and inhibition adequately described the dynamic profiles observed in the ASBR. PMID:18547919