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Sample records for additional beneficial effects

  1. Al2O3 Nanoparticle Addition to Commercial Magnesium Alloys: Multiple Beneficial Effects

    PubMed Central

    Paramsothy, Muralidharan; Chan, Jimmy; Kwok, Richard; Gupta, Manoj

    2012-01-01

    The multiple beneficial effects of Al2O3 nanoparticle addition to cast magnesium based systems (followed by extrusion) were investigated, constituting either: (a) enhanced strength; or (b) simultaneously enhanced strength and ductility of the corresponding magnesium alloys. AZ31 and ZK60A nanocomposites containing Al2O3 nanoparticle reinforcement were each fabricated using solidification processing followed by hot extrusion. Compared to monolithic AZ31 (tension levels), the corresponding nanocomposite exhibited higher yield strength (0.2% tensile yield strength (TYS)), ultimate strength (UTS), failure strain and work of fracture (WOF) (+19%, +21%, +113% and +162%, respectively). Compared to monolithic AZ31 (compression levels), the corresponding nanocomposite exhibited higher yield strength (0.2% compressive yield strength (CYS)) and ultimate strength (UCS), lower failure strain and higher WOF (+5%, +5%, −4% and +11%, respectively). Compared to monolithic ZK60A (tension levels), the corresponding nanocomposite exhibited lower 0.2% TYS and higher UTS, failure strain and WOF (−4%, +13%, +170% and +200%, respectively). Compared to monolithic ZK60A (compression levels), the corresponding nanocomposite exhibited lower 0.2% CYS and higher UCS, failure strain and WOF (−10%, +7%, +15% and +26%, respectively). The capability of Al2O3 nanoparticles to enhance the properties of cast magnesium alloys in a way never seen before with micron length scale reinforcements is clearly demonstrated.

  2. Beneficial effect of propane sultone and tris(trimethylsilyl) borate as electrolyte additives on the cycling stability of the lithium rich nickel manganese cobalt (NMC) oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birrozzi, Agnese; Laszczynski, Nina; Hekmatfar, Maral; von Zamory, Jan; Giffin, Guinevere A.; Passerini, Stefano

    2016-09-01

    This study reports the investigation of several compounds as electrolyte additives for Li[Li0.2Mn0.56 Ni0.16 Co0.08]O2 (a.k.a lithium rich NMC) cathode material. Among the compounds investigated via electrochemical and ex-situ analytical techniques, i.e. XRD, XPS and RAMAN spectroscopy, only 1,3-propane sultone and tris(trimethylsilyl) borate show a beneficial effect on the capacity retention and coulombic efficiency of the layered cathode. The results suggest that the improved capacity retention of the cells containing the two above-mentioned additives mainly originates from their participation in the formation of the cathode passive layer, which prevents the dissolution of the metals from the cathode material. Additionally, the borate additive reduces the lithium consumption upon the passive layer formation thus leaving a higher amount of lithium available in the electrolyte. Graphite/Li[Li0.2Mn0.56 Ni0.16 Co0.08]O2 cells containing the borate additive in the electrolyte showed 85% capacity retention after 485 cycles, confirming the feasibility of its employment for practical applications.

  3. Beneficial effects of activated carbon additives on the performance of negative lead-acid battery electrode for high-rate partial-state-of-charge operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, Jiayuan; Ding, Ping; Zhang, Hao; Wu, Xianzhang; Chen, Jian; Yang, Yusheng

    2013-11-01

    Experiments are made with negative electrode of 2 V cell and 12 V lead-acid battery doped with typical activated carbon additives. It turns out that the negative electrode containing tens-of-micron-sized carbon particles in NAM exhibits markedly increased HRPSoC cycle life than the one containing carbon particles with much smaller size of several microns or the one containing no activated carbon. The improved performance is mainly attributed to the optimized NAM microstructure and the enhanced electrode reaction kinetics by introducing appropriate activated carbon. The beneficial effects can be briefly summarized from three aspects. First, activated carbon acts as new porous-skeleton builder to increase the porosity and active surface of NAM, and thus facilitates the electrolyte diffusion from surface to inner and provides more sites for crystallization/dissolution of lead sulfate; second, activated carbon plays the role of electrolyte supplier to provide sufficient H2SO4 in the inner of plate when the diffusion of H2SO4 from plate surface cannot keep pace of the electrode reaction; Third, activated carbon acts as capacitive buffer to absorb excess charge current which would otherwise lead to insufficient NAM conversion and hydrogen evolution.

  4. [Prebiotics: concept, properties and beneficial effects].

    PubMed

    Corzo, N; Alonso, J L; Azpiroz, F; Calvo, M A; Cirici, M; Leis, R; Lombó, F; Mateos-Aparicio, I; Plou, F J; Ruas-Madiedo, P; Rúperez, P; Redondo-Cuenca, A; Sanz, M L; Clemente, A

    2015-02-07

    Prebiotics are non-digestible food ingredients (oligosaccharides) that reach the colon and are used as substrate by microorganisms producing energy, metabolites and micronutrients used for the host; in addition they also stimulate the selective growth of certain beneficial species (mainly bifidobacteria and lactobacilli) in the intestinal microbiota. In this article, a multidisciplinary approach to understand the concept of prebiotic carbohydrates, their properties and beneficial effects in humans has been carried out. Definitions of prebiotics, reported by relevant international organizations and researchers, are described. A comprehensive description of accepted prebiotics having strong scientific evidence of their beneficial properties in humans (inulin-type fructans, FOS, GOS, lactulose and human milk oligosaccharides) is reported. Emerging prebiotics and those which are in the early stages of study have also included in this study. Taken into account that the chemical structure greatly influences carbohydrates prebiotic properties, the analytical techniques used for their analysis and characterization are discussed. In vitro and in vivo models used to evaluate the gastrointestinal digestion, absorption resistance and fermentability in the colon of prebiotics as well as major criteria to design robust intervention trials in humans are described. Finally, a comprehensive summary of the beneficial effects of prebiotics for health at systemic and intestinal levels is reported. The research effort on prebiotics has been intensive in last decades and has demonstrated that a multidisciplinary approach is necessary in order to claim their health benefits.

  5. Beneficial effects of hyaluronic acid.

    PubMed

    Sudha, Prasad N; Rose, Maximas H

    2014-01-01

    Biomaterials are playing a vital role in our day-to-day life. Hyaluronan (hyaluronic acid), a biomaterial, receives special attention among them. Hyaluronic acid (HA) is a polyanionic natural polymer occurring as linear polysaccharide composed of glucuronic acid and N-acetylglucosamine repeats via a β-1,4 linkage. It is the most versatile macromolecule present in the connective tissues of all vertebrates. Hyaluronic acid has a wide range of applications with its excellent physicochemical properties such as biodegradability, biocompatibility, nontoxicity, and nonimmunogenicity and serves as an excellent tool in biomedical applications such as osteoarthritis surgery, ocular surgery, plastic surgery, tissue engineering, and drug delivery. It plays a key role in cushioning and lubricating the body and is abundant in the eyes, joints, and heart valves. A powerful antioxidant, hyaluronic acid is perhaps best known for its ability to bond water to tissue. Hyaluronan production increases in proliferating cells, and the polymer may play a role in mitosis. This chapter gives an overview of hyaluronic acid and its physicochemical properties and applications. This chapter gives a deep understanding on the special benefits of hyaluronic acid in the fields of pharmaceutical, medical, and environmental applications. Hyaluronic acid paves the way for beneficial research and applications to the welfare of life forms.

  6. Nitride Nanoparticle Addition to Beneficially Reinforce Hybrid Magnesium Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paramsothy, Muralidharan; Chan, Jimmy; Kwok, Richard; Gupta, Manoj

    2013-02-01

    This study is aimed at understanding the function of two nitride nanoparticles regarding altering the mechanical properties of hybrid magnesium alloys in relation to nanoparticle-matrix reactivity. Nitride nanoparticles were selected for reinforcement purposes due to the affinity between magnesium and nitrogen (in parallel with the well-known magnesium-oxygen affinity). AZ91/ZK60A and AZ31/AZ91 hybrid magnesium alloys were reinforced with AlN and Si3N4 nanoparticles (respectively) using solidification processing followed by hot extrusion. Each nitride nanocomposite exhibited higher tensile strength than the corresponding monolithic hybrid alloy. However, AZ91/ZK60A/AlN exhibited slightly lower tensile ductility than AZ91/ZK60A, while AZ31/AZ91/Si3N4 exhibited higher tensile ductility than AZ31/AZ91. The formation of high strain zones (HSZs) (from particle surfaces inclusive) during tensile deformation as a significant mechanism supporting ductility enhancement was addressed. AZ91/ZK60A/AlN exhibited lower and higher compressive strength and ductility (respectively) compared to AZ91/ZK60A, while AZ31/AZ91/Si3N4 exhibited higher and unchanged compressive strength and ductility (respectively) compared to AZ31/AZ91. Nanograin formation (recrystallization) during room temperature compressive deformation (as a toughening mechanism) in relation to nanoparticle-stimulated nucleation (NSN) ability was also discussed. The beneficial (as well as comparative) effects of the respective nitride nanoparticle on each hybrid alloy are studied in this article.

  7. Beneficial Effects of the Amino Acid Glycine.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Torres, Israel; Zuniga-Munoz, Alejandra María; Guarner-Lans, Veronica

    2017-01-01

    Glycine is the smallest non-essential, neutral and metabolically inert amino acid, with a carbon atom bound to two hydrogen atoms, and to an amino and a carboxyl group. This amino acid is an essential substrate for the synthesis of several biologically important biomolecules and compounds. It participates in the synthesis of proteins, of the tripeptide glutathione and in detoxification reactions. It has a broad spectrum of anti-inflammatory, cytoprotective and immunomodulatory properties. To exert its actions, glycine binds to different receptors. The GlyR anion channel is the most studied receptor for glycine. However, there are GlyR-independent mechanisms for glycine cytoprotection and other possible binding molecules of glycine are the NMDA receptor and receptors GlyT1 and GlyT2. Although, in humans, the normal serum level of glycine is approximately 300 μM, increasing glycine intake can lead to blood levels of more than 900 μM that increase its benefic actions without having harmful side effects. The herbal pesticide glyphosate might disrupt glycine homeostasis. Many in vitro studies involving different cell types have demonstrated beneficial effects of the addition of glycine. Glycine also improved conditions of isolated perfused or stored organs. In vivo studies in experimental animals have also tested glycine as a protector molecule and some studies on the beneficial effects of glycine after its clinical application have been done. Although at high-doses, glycine may cause toxic effects, further studies are needed to investigate the safe range of usage of this aminoacid and to test the diverse routes of administration.

  8. Immediate postoperative radiotherapy in residual nonfunctioning pituitary adenoma: Beneficial effect on local control without additional negative impact on pituitary function and life expectancy

    SciTech Connect

    Bergh, Alfons C.M. van den . E-mail: a.c.m.van.den.bergh@rt.umcg.nl; Berg, Gerrit van den; Schoorl, Michiel A.; Sluiter, Wim J.; Vliet, Anton M. van der; Hoving, Eelco W.; Szabo, Ben G.; Langendijk, Johannes A.; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H.R.; Dullaart, Robin P.F.

    2007-03-01

    Purpose: To demonstrate the benefit of immediate postoperative radiotherapy in residual nonfunctioning pituitary adenoma (NFA) in perspective to the need for hormonal substitution and life expectancy. Methods and Materials: Retrospective cohort analysis of 122 patients, operated for NFA between 1979 and 1998. Recurrence was defined as regrowth on computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging. The occurrence of hormonal deficiencies was defined as the starting date of hormonal substitution therapy. Results: Seventy-six patients had residual NFA after surgery and received immediate postoperative radiotherapy (Group 1); three patients developed a recurrence, resulting in a 95% local control rate at 10 years. Twenty-eight patients had residual NFA after surgery, but were followed by a wait-and-see policy (Group 2). Sixteen developed a recurrence, resulting in a local control rate of 49% at 5 years and 22% at 10 years (p < 0.001 compared with Group 1). There were no differences between Group 1 and 2 regarding the need for substitution with thyroid hormone, glucocorticoids, and sex hormones before first surgery, directly after surgery and at end of follow-up. There were no differences in hormone substitution free survival between Group 1 and Group 2 during the study period after first surgery. Life expectancy was similar in Group 1 and 2, and their median life expectancy did not differ from median life expectancy in the general population. Conclusions: Immediate postoperative radiotherapy provides a marked improvement of local control among patients with residual NFA compared with surgery alone, without an additional deleterious effect on pituitary function and life expectancy.

  9. Combination therapy with ONO-KK1-300-01, a cathepsin K inhibitor, and parathyroid hormone results in additive beneficial effect on bone mineral density in ovariectomized rats.

    PubMed

    Ochi, Yasuo; Yamada, Hiroyuki; Mori, Hiroshi; Kawada, Naoki; Tanaka, Makoto; Imagawa, Akira; Ohmoto, Kazuyuki; Kawabata, Kazuhito

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the effects of a novel cathepsin K inhibitor, ONO-KK1-300-01 (KK1-300), used concurrently with parathyroid hormone (PTH) in ovariectomized (OVX) rats. KK1-300 (3 mg/kg, twice daily), alendronate (1 mg/kg, once daily) or vehicle were orally administered to OVX rats for 56 days, starting the day after ovariectomy, followed by combination treatment with or without PTH (3 μg/kg, subcutaneously three times a week) for another 28 days. OVX control animals exhibited a significant increase in both bone resorption (urinary deoxypyridinoline; DPD) and formation markers (serum osteocalcin) as well as microstructural changes associated with decreased bone mineral density (BMD). Combination treatment with KK1-300 and PTH significantly decreased urinary DPD and increased serum osteocalcin, indicating a sustained beneficial effect compared to the effect of each mono-therapy. On the other hand, combination therapy with alendronate and PTH weakened the PTH-induced increase in osteocalcin. In proximal tibia, combination treatment with KK1-300 and PTH increased BMD to a level significantly higher than that achieved following single treatment with KK1-300 or PTH alone. On the other hand, combination treatment with alendronate and PTH failed to produce any significant additive effect on BMD following single treatment with alendronate or PTH alone. Microstructural analysis revealed that the PTH-induced increase in bone formation (MS/BS and BFR/BS) was fully maintained following combination treatment with KK1-300 and PTH, but not following combination treatment with alendronate and PTH. These findings indicate that KK1-300, unlike alendronate, has an additive effect on the preventive action of PTH on bone loss in OVX rats.

  10. Beneficial effect of sesame oil on heavy metal toxicity.

    PubMed

    Chandrasekaran, Victor Raj Mohan; Hsu, Dur-Zong; Liu, Ming-Yie

    2014-02-01

    Heavy metals become toxic when they are not metabolized by the body and accumulate in the soft tissue. Chelation therapy is mainly for the management of heavy metal-induced toxicity; however, it usually causes adverse effects or completely blocks the vital function of the particular metal chelated. Much attention has been paid to the development of chelating agents from natural sources to counteract lead- and iron-induced hepatic and renal damage. Sesame oil (a natural edible oil) and sesamol (an active antioxidant) are potently beneficial for treating lead- and iron-induced hepatic and renal toxicity and have no adverse effects. Sesame oil and sesamol significantly inhibit iron-induced lipid peroxidation by inhibiting the xanthine oxidase, nitric oxide, superoxide anion, and hydroxyl radical generation. In addition, sesame oil is a potent inhibitor of proinflammatory mediators, and it attenuates lead-induced hepatic damage by inhibiting nitric oxide, tumor necrosis factor-α, and interleukin-1β levels. Because metal chelating therapy is associated with adverse effects, treating heavy metal toxicity in addition with sesame oil and sesamol may be better alternatives. This review deals with the possible use and beneficial effects of sesame oil and sesamol during heavy metal toxicity treatment.

  11. Potential beneficial effects of butyrate in intestinal and extraintestinal diseases

    PubMed Central

    Canani, Roberto Berni; Costanzo, Margherita Di; Leone, Ludovica; Pedata, Monica; Meli, Rosaria; Calignano, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    The multiple beneficial effects on human health of the short-chain fatty acid butyrate, synthesized from non-absorbed carbohydrate by colonic microbiota, are well documented. At the intestinal level, butyrate plays a regulatory role on the transepithelial fluid transport, ameliorates mucosal inflammation and oxidative status, reinforces the epithelial defense barrier, and modulates visceral sensitivity and intestinal motility. In addition, a growing number of studies have stressed the role of butyrate in the prevention and inhibition of colorectal cancer. At the extraintestinal level, butyrate exerts potentially useful effects on many conditions, including hemoglobinopathies, genetic metabolic diseases, hypercholesterolemia, insulin resistance, and ischemic stroke. The mechanisms of action of butyrate are different; many of these are related to its potent regulatory effects on gene expression. These data suggest a wide spectrum of positive effects exerted by butyrate, with a high potential for a therapeutic use in human medicine. PMID:21472114

  12. Harnessing the beneficial heterologous effects of vaccination.

    PubMed

    Goodridge, Helen S; Ahmed, S Sohail; Curtis, Nigel; Kollmann, Tobias R; Levy, Ofer; Netea, Mihai G; Pollard, Andrew J; van Crevel, Reinout; Wilson, Christopher B

    2016-06-01

    Clinical evidence strongly suggests that certain live vaccines, in particular bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) and measles vaccines, can reduce all-cause mortality, most probably through protection against non-targeted pathogens in addition to the targeted pathogen. The underlying mechanisms are currently unknown. We discuss how heterologous lymphocyte activation and innate immune memory could promote protection beyond the intended target pathogen and consider how vaccinologists could leverage heterologous immunity to improve outcomes in vulnerable populations, in particular the very young and the elderly.

  13. Harnessing the beneficial heterologous effects of vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Goodridge, Helen S.; Ahmed, S. Sohail; Curtis, Nigel; Kollmann, Tobias R.; Levy, Ofer; Netea, Mihai G.; Pollard, Andrew J.; van Crevel, Reinout; Wilson, Christopher B.

    2016-01-01

    Clinical evidence strongly suggests that certain live vaccines, in particular Bacille Calmette–Guérin (BCG) and measles vaccines, can reduce all-cause mortality, likely via protection against non-targeted pathogens in addition to the targeted pathogen. The underlying mechanisms are currently unknown. We discuss how heterologous lymphocyte activation and innate immune memory could promote protection beyond the intended target pathogen and consider how vaccinologists could leverage heterologous immunity to improve outcomes in vulnerable populations, in particular the very young and the elderly. PMID:27157064

  14. Effective citizen advocacy of beneficial nuclear technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, S.; McKibben, Ph.D.

    2007-07-01

    In 1991, a small group of citizens from communities near the Savannah River Site (SRS) formed a pro-nuclear education and advocacy group, Citizens for Nuclear Technology Awareness (CNTA). Their purpose was to: (1) counter nuclear misinformation that dominated the nation's news outlets, (2) provide education on nuclear subjects to area citizens, students, elected officials, and (3) provide informed citizen support for potential new missions for SRS when needed. To effectively accomplish these objectives it is also essential to establish and maintain good relations with community leaders and reporters that cover energy and nuclear subjects. The organization has grown considerably since its inception and has expanded its sphere of influence. We believe that our experiences over these fifteen years are a good model for effectively communicating nuclear subjects with the public. This paper describes the structure, operation and some of the results of CNTA. (authors)

  15. Evidence for beneficial effects of vitamin E

    PubMed Central

    Niki, Etsuo

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation have been implicated in the pathogenesis of various diseases, including atherosclerosis and fatty liver diseases, and consequently the role of antioxidants in the prevention and treatment of such diseases has received much attention. In particular, the effects of vitamin E, the most important lipophilic radical-scavenging antioxidant, have been investigated extensively. Many in vitro, animal, and epidemiological studies have reported positive results, but large-scale randomized controlled intervention studies and meta-analyses have produced inconsistent and often disappointing results. In the present review article, the role and action of vitamin E are discussed, with consideration of the factors that determine the outcome of vitamin E treatment. Vitamin E should benefit subjects experiencing oxidative stress due to free radicals when administered at the correct time and for an appropriate duration. PMID:26354050

  16. Climate change effects on beneficial plant-microorganism interactions.

    PubMed

    Compant, Stéphane; van der Heijden, Marcel G A; Sessitsch, Angela

    2010-08-01

    It is well known that beneficial plant-associated microorganisms may stimulate plant growth and enhance resistance to disease and abiotic stresses. The effects of climate change factors such as elevated CO(2), drought and warming on beneficial plant-microorganism interactions are increasingly being explored. This now makes it possible to test whether some general patterns occur and whether different groups of plant-associated microorganisms respond differently or in the same way to climate change. Here, we review the results of 135 studies investigating the effects of climate change factors on beneficial microorganisms and their interaction with host plants. The majority of studies showed that elevated CO(2) had a positive influence on the abundance of arbuscular and ectomycorrhizal fungi, whereas the effects on plant growth-promoting bacteria and endophytic fungi were more variable. In most cases, plant-associated microorganisms had a beneficial effect on plants under elevated CO(2). The effects of increased temperature on beneficial plant-associated microorganisms were more variable, positive and neutral, and negative effects were equally common and varied considerably with the study system and the temperature range investigated. Moreover, numerous studies indicated that plant growth-promoting microorganisms (both bacteria and fungi) positively affected plants subjected to drought stress. Overall, this review shows that plant-associated microorganisms are an important factor influencing the response of plants to climate change.

  17. Beneficial effects of lactic acid bacteria on human beings.

    PubMed

    Masood, Muhammad Irfan; Qadir, Muhammad Imran; Shirazi, Jafir Hussain; Khan, Ikram Ullah

    2011-02-01

    Lactic acid bacteria are a diverse group of bacteria that produce lactic acid as their major fermented product. Most of them are normal flora of human being and animals and produce myriad beneficial effects for human beings include, alleviation of lactose intolerance, diarrhea, peptic ulcer, stimulation of immune system, antiallergic effects, antifungal actions, preservation of food, and prevention of colon cancer. This review highlights the potential species of Lactic acid bacteria responsible for producing these effects. It has been concluded that lactic acid bacteria are highly beneficial microorganisms for human beings and are present abundantly in dairy products so their use should be promoted for good human health.

  18. Energy Drink Consumption: Beneficial and Adverse Health Effects

    PubMed Central

    Alsunni, Ahmed Abdulrahman

    2015-01-01

    Consumption of energy drinks has been increasing dramatically in the last two decades, particularly amongst adolescents and young adults. Energy drinks are aggressively marketed with the claim that these products give an energy boost to improve physical and cognitive performance. However, studies supporting these claims are limited. In fact, several adverse health effects have been related to energy drink; this has raised the question of whether these beverages are safe. This review was carried out to identify and discuss the published articles that examined the beneficial and adverse health effects related to energy drink. It is concluded that although energy drink may have beneficial effects on physical performance, these products also have possible detrimental health consequences. Marketing of energy drinks should be limited or forbidden until independent research confirms their safety, particularly among adolescents. PMID:26715927

  19. Energy Drink Consumption: Beneficial and Adverse Health Effects.

    PubMed

    Alsunni, Ahmed Abdulrahman

    2015-10-01

    Consumption of energy drinks has been increasing dramatically in the last two decades, particularly amongst adolescents and young adults. Energy drinks are aggressively marketed with the claim that these products give an energy boost to improve physical and cognitive performance. However, studies supporting these claims are limited. In fact, several adverse health effects have been related to energy drink; this has raised the question of whether these beverages are safe. This review was carried out to identify and discuss the published articles that examined the beneficial and adverse health effects related to energy drink. It is concluded that although energy drink may have beneficial effects on physical performance, these products also have possible detrimental health consequences. Marketing of energy drinks should be limited or forbidden until independent research confirms their safety, particularly among adolescents.

  20. [Randomized controlled trials terminated prematurely: beneficial therapy effects].

    PubMed

    Kluth, L A; Rink, M; Ahyai, S A; Fisch, M; Shariat, S F; Dahm, P

    2013-08-01

    Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) stopped prematurely for beneficial therapy effects are becoming increasingly more prevalent in the urological literature and often receive great attention in the public and medical media. Urologists who practice evidence-based medicine should be aware of the potential bias and the different reasons why and how early termination of RCTs can and will affect the results. This review provides insights into the challenges clinical urologists face by interpreting the results of prematurely terminated RCTs.

  1. Adaptive walks and distribution of beneficial fitness effects.

    PubMed

    Seetharaman, Sarada; Jain, Kavita

    2014-04-01

    We study the adaptation dynamics of a maladapted asexual population on rugged fitness landscapes with many local fitness peaks. The distribution of beneficial fitness effects is assumed to belong to one of the three extreme value domains, viz. Weibull, Gumbel, and Fréchet. We work in the strong selection-weak mutation regime in which beneficial mutations fix sequentially, and the population performs an uphill walk on the fitness landscape until a local fitness peak is reached. A striking prediction of our analysis is that the fitness difference between successive steps follows a pattern of diminishing returns in the Weibull domain and accelerating returns in the Fréchet domain, as the initial fitness of the population is increased. These trends are found to be robust with respect to fitness correlations. We believe that this result can be exploited in experiments to determine the extreme value domain of the distribution of beneficial fitness effects. Our work here differs significantly from the previous ones that assume the selection coefficient to be small. On taking large effect mutations into account, we find that the length of the walk shows different qualitative trends from those derived using small selection coefficient approximation.

  2. Fludarabine and cytosine are less effective than standard ADE chemotherapy in high-risk acute myeloid leukemia, and addition of G-CSF and ATRA are not beneficial: results of the MRC AML-HR randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Milligan, Donald W; Wheatley, Keith; Littlewood, Timothy; Craig, Jenny I O; Burnett, Alan K

    2006-06-15

    The optimum chemotherapy schedule for reinduction of patients with high-risk acute myeloid leukemia (relapsed, resistant/refractory, or adverse genetic disease) is uncertain. The MRC AML (Medical Research Council Acute Myeloid Leukemia) Working Group designed a trial comparing fludarabine and high-dose cytosine (FLA) with standard chemotherapy comprising cytosine arabinoside, daunorubicin, and etoposide (ADE). Patients were also randomly assigned to receive filgrastim (G-CSF) from day 0 until neutrophil count was greater than 0.5 x 10(9)/L (or for a maximum of 28 days) and all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) for 90 days. Between 1998 and 2003, 405 patients were entered: 250 were randomly assigned between FLA and ADE; 356 to G-CSF versus no G-CSF; 362 to ATRA versus no ATRA. The complete remission rate was 61% with 4-year disease-free survival of 29%. There were no significant differences in the CR rate, deaths in CR, relapse rate, or DFS between ADE and FLA, although survival at 4 years was worse with FLA (16% versus 27%, P = .05). Neither the addition of ATRA nor G-CSF demonstrated any differences in the CR rate, relapse rate, DFS, or overall survival between the groups. In conclusion these findings indicate that FLA may be inferior to standard chemotherapy in high-risk AML and that the outcome is not improved with the addition of either G-CSF or ATRA.

  3. Probiotic supplementation in diabetic hemodialysis patients has beneficial metabolic effects.

    PubMed

    Soleimani, Alireza; Zarrati Mojarrad, Malihe; Bahmani, Fereshteh; Taghizadeh, Mohsen; Ramezani, Mohammad; Tajabadi-Ebrahimi, Maryam; Jafari, Parvaneh; Esmaillzadeh, Ahmad; Asemi, Zatollah

    2017-02-01

    This study determined the effects of probiotic supplementation on glycemic control, lipid concentrations, biomarkers of inflammation and oxidative stress in 60 diabetic patients on hemodialysis in a parallel randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial. Participants were initially matched based on sex, duration of dialysis and diabetes, body mass index and age. Subsequently, they were randomly divided into two groups to take either a capsule containing the probiotics Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus casei and Bifidobacterium bifidum or placebo for 12 weeks. Based on three-day dietary records throughout the trial, there was no significant change in dietary macro- and micro-nutrients or total dietary fiber to confound results. After the 12 weeks, analysis of patients who received probiotic supplements compared with the placebo showed they had significantly decreased fasting plasma glucose (-22.0 vs. +6.6 mg/dl), serum insulin (-6.4 vs. +2.3 μIU/ml), homeostasis model of assessment-estimated insulin resistance (-2.9 vs. +2.5), homeostasis model of assessment-estimated beta-cell function (-14.1 vs. +6.1) and HbA1c (-0.4 vs. -0.1%,), and improved quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (+0.03 vs. -0.02). Additionally, compared with the placebo, probiotic supplementation resulted in significant reductions in serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (-1933 vs. +252 ng/ml), plasma malondialdehyde (-0.3 vs. +1.0 μmol/l), subjective global assessment scores (-0.7 vs. +0.7) and total iron binding capacity (-230 vs. +33 μg/dl), and a significant increase in plasma total antioxidant capacity (+15 vs. -88 mmol/l). Thus, probiotic supplementation for 12 weeks among diabetic hemodialysis patients had beneficial effects on parameters of glucose homeostasis, and some biomarkers of inflammation and oxidative stress.

  4. Critical evaluation of toxic versus beneficial effects of methylglyoxal.

    PubMed

    Talukdar, D; Chaudhuri, B S; Ray, M; Ray, S

    2009-10-01

    In various organisms, an array of enzymes is involved in the synthesis and breakdown of methylglyoxal. Through these enzymes, it is intimately linked to several other physiologically important metabolites, suggesting that methylglyoxal has some important role to play in the host organism. Several in vitro and in vivo studies showed that methylglyoxal acts specifically against different types of malignant cells. These studies culminated in a recent investigation to evaluate a methylglyoxal-based formulation in treating a small group of cancer patients, and the results were promising. Methylglyoxal acts against a number of pathogenic microorganisms. However, recent literature abounds with the toxic effects of methylglyoxal, which are supposed to be mediated through methylglyoxal-derived advanced glycation end products (AGE). Many diseases such as diabetes, cataract formation, hypertension, and uremia are proposed to be intimately linked with methylglyoxal-derived AGE. However methylglyoxal-derived AGE formation and subsequent pathogenesis might be a very minor event because AGE are nonspecific reaction products that are derived through the reactions of carbonyl groups of reducing sugars with amino groups present in the side chains of lysine and arginine and in terminal amino groups of proteins. Moreover, the results of some in vitro experiments with methylglyoxal under non-physiological conditions were extrapolated to the in vivo situation. Some experiments even showed contradictory results and were differently interpreted. For this reason conclusions about the potential beneficial effects of methylglyoxal have often been neglected, thus hindering the advancement of medical science and causing some confusion in fundamental understanding. Overall, the potential beneficial effects of methylglyoxal far outweigh its possible toxic role in vivo, and it should be utilized for the benefit of suffering humanity.

  5. Coffee components and cardiovascular risk: beneficial and detrimental effects.

    PubMed

    Godos, Justyna; Pluchinotta, Francesca Romana; Marventano, Stefano; Buscemi, Silvio; Li Volti, Giovanni; Galvano, Fabio; Grosso, Giuseppe

    2014-12-01

    Coffee consists of several biological active compounds, such as caffeine, diterpenes, chlorogenic acids, and melanoidins, which may affect human health. The intake of each compound depends on the variety of coffee species, roasting degree, type of brewing method and serving size. The bioavailability and the distribution of each compound and its metabolites also contribute to coffee mechanisms of action. The health benefits of coffee consumption regarding cardiovascular system and metabolism mostly depend on its antioxidant compounds. In contrast, diterpenes and caffeine may produce harmful effects by raising lipid fraction and affecting endothelial function, respectively. Studying the mechanism of action of coffee components may help understanding weather coffee's impact on health is beneficial or hazardous. In this article, we reviewed the available information about coffee compounds and their mechanism of action. Furthermore, benefits and risks for cardiovascular system associated with coffee consumption will be discussed.

  6. Beneficial effects of tea and its polyphenols against prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, Imtiaz A; Adhami, Vaqar M; Saleem, Mohammad; Mukhtar, Hasan

    2006-02-01

    Tea, next to water, is the most widely consumed beverage in the world. Depending upon the level of fermentation, tea can be categorized into three types: green (unfermented), oolong (partially fermented), and black (highly to fully fermented). In general, green tea has been found to be superior to black and oolong tea in terms of antioxidant and health promoting benefits owing to the higher content of (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate. Tea polyphenols comprise about one-third of the weight of the dried leaf, and they exhibit biochemical and pharmacological activities including antioxidant activities, inhibition of cell proliferation, induction of apoptosis, cell cycle arrest and modulation of carcinogen metabolism. Several studies demonstrate that most tea polyphenols exert their effects by scavenging reactive oxygen species (ROS) since excessive production of ROS has been implicated in the development of a variety of ailments including cancer of the prostate gland (CaP). Using cell culture and animal model systems, molecular targets for these remarkable beneficial effects of green tea drinking on CaP prevention and therapy have been defined. Geographical and case-control studies are showing that green tea drinking could afford CaP chemopreventive effects in human population. In this review we attempt to summarize the experimental as well as the epidemiological basis for the possible role of tea and its polyphenols for chemoprevention and chemotherapy of CaP.

  7. Beneficial effects of footbaths in controlling spasticity after stroke

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, Shuji; Shimodozono, Megumi; Etoh, Seiji; Shimozono, Yurika; Tanaka, Nobuyuki; Kawahira, Kazumi

    2010-07-01

    Footbaths are considered to provide beneficial thermal therapy for post-stroke patients with spasticity, but their anti-spastic effects have not been investigated comprehensively. The present study aimed to evaluate alterations in motor-neuron excitability using F-wave parameters in post-stroke patients with spastic hemiplegia. Subjects’ legs below the knee joint were immersed in water at 41°C and F-wave recordings were made over the abductor hallucis muscle before, immediately after, and 30 min after thermal treatment. Antidromic stimulation was performed on the tibial nerve at the ankle. Measurements included F-wave amplitude, F-wave/M-response ratio, changes in modified Ashworth scale (MAS), body temperature and surface-skin temperature. The mean values of both F-wave parameters were higher on the affected side before footbath treatment. In post-stroke patients, the mean values of F-wave parameters were significantly reduced after footbath treatment ( P < 0.01). The anti-spastic effects of footbath treatment were indicated by decreased F-wave parameters, in parallel with decreases in MAS. Body temperature was significantly increased both immediately after, and 30 min following footbath treatment in both groups, which appeared to play an important role in decreased spasticity. Surface-skin temperature increased immediately after footbath treatment in both groups and returned to baseline 30 min later. These findings demonstrate that the use of footbaths is an effective nonpharmacological anti-spastic treatment that might facilitate stroke rehabilitation.

  8. The beneficial effects of taurine to counteract sarcopenia.

    PubMed

    Scicchitano, Bianca M; Sica, Gigliola

    2016-11-22

    Aging is a multifactorial process characterized by several features including low-grade inflammation, increased oxidative stress and reduced regenerative capacity, which ultimately lead to alteration in morpho-functional properties of skeletal muscle, thus promoting sarcopenia. This condition is characterized by a gradual loss of muscle mass due to an unbalance between protein synthesis and degradation, finally conveying in functional decline and disability. The development of specific therapeutic approaches able to block or reverse this condition may represent an invaluable tool for the promotion of a healthy aging among elderly. It is well established that changes in the quantity and the quality of dietary proteins, as well as the intake of specific amino acids, are able to counteract some of the physiopathological processes related to the progression of the loss of muscle mass and may have beneficial effects in improving the anabolic response of muscle in the elderly. Taurine is a non-essential amino acid expressed in high concentration in several mammalian tissues and particularly in skeletal muscle where it is involved in the modulation of intracellular calcium concentration and ion channel regulation and where it also acts as an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory factor. The aim of this review is to summarize the pleiotropic effects of taurine on specific muscle targets and to discuss its role in regulating signaling pathways involved in the maintenance of muscle homeostasis. We also highlight the potential use of taurine as a therapeutic molecule for the amelioration of skeletal muscle function and performance severely compromised during aging.

  9. Multifarious Beneficial Effect of Nonessential Amino Acid, Glycine: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Razak, Meerza Abdul; Begum, Pathan Shajahan

    2017-01-01

    Glycine is most important and simple, nonessential amino acid in humans, animals, and many mammals. Generally, glycine is synthesized from choline, serine, hydroxyproline, and threonine through interorgan metabolism in which kidneys and liver are the primarily involved. Generally in common feeding conditions, glycine is not sufficiently synthesized in humans, animals, and birds. Glycine acts as precursor for several key metabolites of low molecular weight such as creatine, glutathione, haem, purines, and porphyrins. Glycine is very effective in improving the health and supports the growth and well-being of humans and animals. There are overwhelming reports supporting the role of supplementary glycine in prevention of many diseases and disorders including cancer. Dietary supplementation of proper dose of glycine is effectual in treating metabolic disorders in patients with cardiovascular diseases, several inflammatory diseases, obesity, cancers, and diabetes. Glycine also has the property to enhance the quality of sleep and neurological functions. In this review we will focus on the metabolism of glycine in humans and animals and the recent findings and advances about the beneficial effects and protection of glycine in different disease states. PMID:28337245

  10. Small Beneficial Effect of Caffeinated Energy Drink Ingestion on Strength.

    PubMed

    Collier, Nora B; Hardy, Michelle A; Millard-Stafford, Mindy L; Warren, Gordon L

    2016-07-01

    Collier, NB, Hardy, MA, Millard-Stafford, ML, and Warren, GL. Small beneficial effect of caffeinated energy drink ingestion on strength. J Strength Cond Res 30(7): 1862-1870, 2016-Because caffeine ingestion has been found to increase muscle strength, our aim was to determine whether caffeine when combined with other potential ergogenic ingredients, such as those in commercial energy drinks, would have a similar effect. Fifteen young healthy subjects were used in a double-blind, repeated-measures experimental design. Each subject performed 3 trials, ingesting either a caffeinated energy drink, an uncaffeinated version of the drink, or a placebo drink. The interpolated twitch procedure was used to assess maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) strength, electrically evoked strength, and percent muscle activation during MVIC of the knee extensors both before and after drink ingestion, and after a fatiguing bout of contractions; electromyographic (EMG) amplitude of the knee extensors during MVIC was also assessed. The mean (±SE) change in MVIC strength from before to after drink ingestion was significantly greater for the caffeinated energy drink compared with placebo [+5.0 (±1.7) vs. -0.5 (±1.5)%] and the difference between the drinks remained after fatigue (p = 0.015); the strength changes for the uncaffeinated energy drink were not significantly different from those of the other 2 drinks at any time. There was no significant effect of drink type on the changes in electrically evoked strength, percent muscle activation, and EMG from before to after drink ingestion. This study indicates that a caffeinated energy drink can increase MVIC strength but the effect is modest and the strength increase cannot be attributed to increased muscle activation. Whether the efficacy of energy drinks can be attributed solely to caffeine remains unclear.

  11. Beneficial Effect of Antioxidants in Retinopathies: A New Hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Panfoli, Isabella

    2012-01-01

    The retina is the most oxygen consuming tissue of the body. Rod and cone photoreceptors efficiently carry out visual cascades, which are energetically costly processes. Data has recently been published that suggests that the metabolic support to phototransduction in the rod outer segment (OS) may originate directly in the OS, which is able to conduct aerobic metabolism. This oxygen-handling activity of the rod OS, which was never suspected before, appears to be a primary cause of the generation of reactive oxygen species directly inside the OS. Oxidative stress has been hypothesised to contribute to most of the neurodegenerative retinal pathologies, such as diabetic retinopathy, age-related macular degeneration, retinitis pigmentosa and photoreceptor cell death after retinal detachment. Many natural antioxidant compounds are routinely used in experimental or human therapies for preventing or delaying photoreceptor degeneration in those pathologies. Here it is proposed that the ultimate reason for the beneficial actions of antioxidants in preventing or retarding the effect on the retinal degenerative pathologies can be found in their action on reactive oxygen species generated by the ectopic mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC) coupled to FoF1-ATP synthase in rod OS disks. In fact, if not adequately coupled, the ETC generates reactive oxygen species that, in turn, can act on the polyunsaturated fatty acids which the rod OS is rich in. If correct, the mechanism put forward here would provide a potential for the molecular basis of therapies with antioxidants for retinal degenerative diseases. PMID:24600629

  12. The beneficial effects of Brassica vegetables on human health.

    PubMed

    Kapusta-Duch, Joanna; Kopeć, Aneta; Piatkowska, Ewa; Borczak, Barbara; Leszczyńska, Teresa

    2012-01-01

    The products of plant origin are a rich source of biologically active substances, both nutritive and referred as anti-nutritive. A large group of these compounds are substances with antioxidant activity that fights against free radicals. In the family of Brassicaceae vegetables, Brassica, is the largest and most widely consumed a group of plants in Europe and all over the world. They are characterized by different levels of nutrients. However because of their large and frequent consumption, they may become a significant source of nutrients and bioactive compounds in the daily diet. The beneficial effects of Brassica vegetables on human health have been somewhat linked to phytochemicals. They prevent oxidative stress, induce detoxification enzymes, stimulate immune system, decrease the risk of cancers, inhibit malignant transformation and carcinogenic mutations, as well as, reduce proliferation of cancer cells. Brassica vegetables contain a lot of valuable metabolites, which are effective in chemoprevention of cancer, what has been already documented by numerous studies. Due to the presence of vitamins C and E, carotenoids and antioxidant enzymes such as catalase, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase, these vegetables are considerable source ofantioxidants, and due to the presence of polyphenols and the sulfur-organic compounds exert also antimutagenic action. Moreover, these vegetables are also rich in glucosinolates, which are unstable compounds and undergo degradation into biologically active indoles and isothiocyanates under the influence of enzyme presented in plant tissues- myrosynase. These substances through the induction of enzymatic systems I and II phase of xenobiotics metabolism may affect the elimination or neutralization of carcinogenic and mutagenic factors, and consequently inhibit DNA methylation and cancer development. Despite many healthy benefits upon eating of cruciferous vegetables, it has been also seen a negative impact of their certain

  13. Nebivolol has a beneficial effect in monocrotaline-induced pulmonary hypertension.

    PubMed

    Pankey, Edward A; Edward, Justin A; Swan, Kevin W; Bourgeois, Camille R T; Bartow, Matthew J; Yoo, Daniel; Peak, Taylor A; Song, Bryant M; Chan, Ryan A; Murthy, Subramanyam N; Prieto, Minolfa C; Giles, Thomas D; Kadowitz, Philip J

    2016-07-01

    Pulmonary hypertension is a rare disorder that, without treatment, is progressive and fatal within 3-4 years. Current treatment involves a diverse group of drugs that target the pulmonary vascular bed. In addition, strategies that increase nitric oxide (NO) formation have a beneficial effect in rodents and patients. Nebivolol, a selective β1 adrenergic receptor-blocking agent reported to increase NO production and stimulate β3 receptors, has vasodilator properties suggesting that it may be beneficial in the treatment of pulmonary hypertension. The present study was undertaken to determine whether nebivolol has a beneficial effect in monocrotaline-induced (60 mg/kg) pulmonary hypertension in the rat. These results show that nebivolol treatment (10 mg/kg, once or twice daily) attenuates pulmonary hypertension, reduces right ventricular hypertrophy, and improves pulmonary artery remodeling in monocrotaline-induced pulmonary hypertension. This study demonstrates the presence of β3 adrenergic receptor immunoreactivity in pulmonary arteries and airways and that nebivolol has pulmonary vasodilator activity. Studies with β3 receptor agonists (mirabegron, BRL 37344) and antagonists suggest that β3 receptor-mediated decreases in systemic arterial pressure occur independent of NO release. Our results suggest that nebivolol, a selective vasodilating β1 receptor antagonist that stimulates β3 adrenergic receptors and induces vasodilation by increasing NO production, may be beneficial in treating pulmonary hypertensive disorders.

  14. Beneficial Effects of Childhood Selective Dorsal Rhizotomy in Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Caleb; Liu, Jenny L; Walter, Deanna M; Dobbs, Matthew B

    2017-01-01

    spinal fusion.  Orthopedic surgeries were pursued by 59% of patients. The most common orthopedic surgeries were hamstring lengthenings (31%), Achilles tendon lengthenings (18%), adductor lengthenings (16%), and derotational osteotomies (16%). Twenty-four percent of all patients later underwent hip surgery and 8% had surgeries on their knees.  Conclusion: Results of this study indicate that the beneficial effects of childhood SDR extend to adulthood quality of life and ambulatory function without late side effects of surgery.

  15. Plant for producing an oxygen-containing additive as an ecologically beneficial component for liquid motor fuels

    DOEpatents

    Siryk, Yury Paul; Balytski, Ivan Peter; Korolyov, Volodymyr George; Klishyn, Olexiy Nick; Lnianiy, Vitaly Nick; Lyakh, Yury Alex; Rogulin, Victor Valery

    2013-04-30

    A plant for producing an oxygen-containing additive for liquid motor fuels comprises an anaerobic fermentation vessel, a gasholder, a system for removal of sulphuretted hydrogen, and a hotwell. The plant further comprises an aerobic fermentation vessel, a device for liquid substance pumping, a device for liquid aeration with an oxygen-containing gas, a removal system of solid mass residue after fermentation, a gas distribution device; a device for heavy gases utilization; a device for ammonia adsorption by water; a liquid-gas mixer; a cavity mixer, a system that serves superficial active and dispersant matters and a cooler; all of these being connected to each other by pipelines. The technical result being the implementation of a process for producing an oxygen containing additive, which after being added to liquid motor fuels, provides an ecologically beneficial component for motor fuels by ensuring the stability of composition fuel properties during long-term storage.

  16. Beneficial Effects of Tea and the Green Tea Catechin Epigallocatechin-3-gallate on Obesity.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Takuji; Pervin, Monira; Goto, Shingo; Isemura, Mamoru; Nakamura, Yoriyuki

    2016-09-29

    Green tea has been shown to have beneficial effects against cancer, obesity, atherosclerosis, diabetes, bacterial and viral infections, and dental caries. The catechin (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) has shown the highest biological activity among green tea catechins (GTCs) in most of the studies. While several epidemiological studies have shown the beneficial effects of tea and GTCs on obesity, some studies have failed to do this. In addition, a large number of interventional clinical studies have shown these favorable effects, and cellular and animal experiments have supported those findings, and revealed the underlying anti-obesity mechanisms. One of the mechanisms is enhanced cellular production of reactive oxygen species, which is mediated through the pro-oxidant action of EGCG, leading to the activation of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase, which suppresses gene and protein expression of enzymes and transcription factors involved in adipogenesis and lipogenesis, and stimulates those involved in lipolysis. Recently, scientific evidence supporting the beneficial anti-obesity effects of green tea and GTCs has been increasing. However, future investigations are still required to clarify the reasons for the inconsistent results reported in the human studies; to achieve this, careful adjustment of confounding factors will be required.

  17. Intestinal Innate Antiviral Immunity and Immunobiotics: Beneficial Effects against Rotavirus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Villena, Julio; Vizoso-Pinto, Maria Guadalupe; Kitazawa, Haruki

    2016-01-01

    The mucosal tissues of the gastrointestinal tract are the main portal entry of pathogens such as rotavirus (RV), which is a leading cause of death due to diarrhea among young children across the globe and a major cause of severe acute intestinal infection in livestock animals. The interactions between intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) and immune cells with RVs have been studied for several years, and now, it is known that the innate immune responses triggered by this virus can have both beneficial and detrimental effects for the host. It was demonstrated that natural RV infection in infants and experimental challenges in mice result in the intestinal activation of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) such as toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) and striking secretion of proinflammatory mediators that can lead to increased local tissue damage and immunopathology. Therefore, modulating desregulated intestinal immune responses triggered by PRRs activation are a significant promise for reducing the burden of RV diseases. The ability of immunoregulatory probiotic microorganisms (immunobiotics) to protect against intestinal infections, such as those caused by RVs, is among the oldest effects studied for these important group of beneficial microbes. In this review, we provide an update of the current status on the modulation of intestinal antiviral innate immunity by immunobiotics and their beneficial impact on RV infection. In addition, we describe the research of our group that demonstrated the capacity of immunobiotic strains to beneficially modulated TLR3-triggered immune response in IECs, reduce the disruption of intestinal homeostasis caused by intraepithelial lymphocytes, and improve the resistance to RV infections. PMID:27994593

  18. Effect of basicity on ferromanganese production from beneficiated low-grade manganese ore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suharno, Bambang; Noegroho, Adi; Ferdian, Deni; Nurjaman, Fajar

    2017-01-01

    Indonesia is known to have a large low-grade manganese ore reserve. Nevertheless, it could not be used optimally in producing ferromanganese due to their low Mn/Fe ratio. In this present study, the beneficiation process had been applied to the low-grade manganese ore. Reduction roasting was conducted to this manganese ore at 700°C for an hour and then continued with low-intensity magnetic separation. This process had improved the Mn/Fe ratio from 1.39 to 6.11. The effect of basicity on ferromanganese production from this beneficiated low-grade manganese ore had been investigated clearly in this experiment by using mini submerged arc furnace (SAF). Several basicities for 0.7 and 1.0, was used and it was controlled by the addition of limestone in this smelting process. From this experiment, the ferromanganese containing 60% Mn was obtained from smelting the beneficiated low-grade manganese ore with the optimum basicity 0.7.

  19. Beneficial effect of camel milk in diabetic nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Rajendra Prasad; Dogra, Rutba; Mohta, Niranjana; Tiwari, Raksha; Singhal, Sushma; Sultania, Surender

    2009-08-01

    Diabetic nephropathy is originally microvascular in nature and is widely considered an important complication of diabetes. The present study was carried out to determine the efficacy of camel milk in controlling diabetic nephropathy. Twenty-four type-1 diabetic patients were randomly recruited from the outpatient diabetic clinic in PBM Hospital, Bikaner, India. All subjects gave their written consent before participation in the study. Patients with any acute metabolic complications were not included in the study. Eligible patients entered a run-in period of 1 month in which they were oriented to achieve the best possible glycemic control through standardized diet, standardized exercise regimen and insulin administration. During this period frequent monitoring of blood sugar was performed to maintain euglycemia. At the end of the run-in period, a base line evaluation was performed, then these patients were given camel milk in addition with usual care for six months. Urine microalbumin and blood sugar was measured twice a week before breakfast and dinner. There was a significant improvement in the microalbuminuria (119.48 +/- 1.68 to 22.52 +/- 2.68; p < 0.001) after receiving camel milk for 6 months. A significant reduction in the mean dose of insulin for obtaining glycemic control was achieved (41.61 +/- 3.08 to 28.32 +/- 2.66; p < 0.01). This study was performed to observe the role of camel milk in controlling microalbuminuria levels in type-1 diabetic patients. It was observed that after adding camel milk to the usual regimen an improvement in microalbuminuria was reached (119.48 +/- 1.68 to 22.52 +/- 2.68; p < 0.001). This may be due to good glycemic control or to the direct effect of camel milk. The mechanism behind this effect is still unknown.

  20. Beneficial effect of lantibiotic nisin in rabbit husbandry.

    PubMed

    Lauková, Andrea; Chrastinová, Lubica; Plachá, Iveta; Kandričáková, Anna; Szabóová, Renáta; Strompfová, Viola; Chrenková, Mária; Cobanová, Klaudia; Zitňan, Rudolf

    2014-03-01

    Nisin is a bacteriocin marketed as Nisaplin. The aim of our work was to test its in vivo effect in a rabbit model; its effect on phagocytic activity (PA) and morphometry has not so far been studied. Post-weaning rabbits (48), 5 weeks old (both sexes, Hycole breed), were divided into the experimental (E) and the control groups (C), 24 animals in each. They were fed a commercial diet with access to water ad libitum. Rabbits in E had nisin additionally administered to their drinking water (500 IU-20 μg per animal/day) for 28 days. The experiment lasted 42 days. On day 28, significant decrease in coagulase-positive (CoPS) staphylococci and coliforms was noted (p < 0.01) in faeces of group E compared with C. Pseudomonads and clostridiae were also significantly reduced (p < 0.001; p < 0.05) and slight decrease was also in CoNS and enterococci. On day 42, coliforms were still significantly reduced (p < 0.001) in faeces; slight decrease in CoPS and pseudomonads was noted. In the caecum, significant decrease in pseudomonads (p < 0.05) was noted on day 28; slight decrease in coliforms. In the appendix slight decrease in coliforms, pseudomonads was obtained on both days. PA was increased significantly in E on days 28, 42 (p < 0.001). Biochemical parameters were not influenced; nor were volatile fatty acids or lactic acid in the chymus. Nisin application did not evoke oxidative stress. In group E, an increase in average body weight gain (about 9.4 %) was noted. The villus height/crypt depth ratio was not influenced; that is, resorption surface and functionality of mucosa were not influenced.

  1. Beneficial effects of green tea--a review.

    PubMed

    Cabrera, Carmen; Artacho, Reyes; Giménez, Rafael

    2006-04-01

    Tea is the most consumed drink in the world after water. Green tea is a 'non-fermented' tea, and contains more catechins, than black tea or oolong tea. Catechins are in vitro and in vivo strong antioxidants. In addition, its content of certain minerals and vitamins increases the antioxidant potential of this type of tea. Since ancient times, green tea has been considered by the traditional Chinese medicine as a healthful beverage. Recent human studies suggest that green tea may contribute to a reduction in the risk of cardiovascular disease and some forms of cancer, as well as to the promotion of oral health and other physiological functions such as anti-hypertensive effect, body weight control, antibacterial and antivirasic activity, solar ultraviolet protection, bone mineral density increase, anti-fibrotic properties, and neuroprotective power. Increasing interest in its health benefits has led to the inclusion of green tea in the group of beverages with functional properties. However, although all the evidence from research on green tea is very promising, future studies are necessary to fully understand its contributions to human health, and advise its regular consumption in Western diets, in which green tea consumption is nowadays limited and sporadic.

  2. Beneficial effects of herbs, spices and medicinal plants on the metabolic syndrome, brain and cognitive function.

    PubMed

    Panickar, Kiran S

    2013-03-01

    Herbs and spices have been used since ancient times to not only improve the flavor of edible food but also to prevent and treat chronic health maladies. While the scientific evidence for the use of such common herbs and medicinal plants then had been scarce or lacking, the beneficial effects observed from such use were generally encouraging. It is, therefore, not surprising that the tradition of using such herbs, perhaps even after the advent of modern medicine, has continued. More recently, due to an increased interest in understanding the nutritional effects of herbs/spices more comprehensively, several studies have examined the cellular and molecular modes of action of the active chemical components in herbs and their biological properties. Beneficial actions of herbs/spices include anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anti-hypertensive, gluco-regulatory, and anti-thrombotic effects. One major component of herbs and spices is the polyphenols. Some of the aforementioned properties are attributed to the polyphenols and they are associated with attenuating the metabolic syndrome. Detrimental changes associated with the metabolic syndrome over time affect brain and cognitive function. Metabolic syndrome and type-2 diabetes are also risk factors for Alzheimer's disease and stroke. In addition, the neuroprotective effects of herbs and spices have been demonstrated and, whether directly or indirectly, such beneficial effects may also contribute to an improvement in cognitive function. This review evaluates the current evidence available for herbs/spices in potentially improving the metabolic syndrome, as well as their neuroprotective effects on the brain, and cognitive function in animal and human studies.

  3. Beneficial effects of blueberries in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Xin, Junping; Feinstein, Douglas L; Hejna, Matthew J; Lorens, Stanley A; McGuire, Susan O

    2012-06-13

    Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is an animal model of autoimmune disease that presents with pathological and clinical features similar to those of multiple sclerosis (MS) including inflammation and neurodegeneration. This study investigated whether blueberries, which possess immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory, and neuroprotective properties, could provide protection in EAE. Dietary supplementation with 1% whole, freeze-dried blueberries reduced disease incidence by >50% in a chronic EAE model (p < 0.01). When blueberry-fed mice with EAE were compared with control-fed mice with EAE, blueberry-fed mice had significantly lower motor disability scores (p = 0.03) as well as significantly greater myelin preservation in the lumbar spinal cord (p = 0.04). In a relapsing-remitting EAE model, blueberry-supplemented mice showed improved cumulative and final motor scores compared to control diet-fed mice (p = 0.01 and 0.03, respectively). These data demonstrate that blueberry supplementation is beneficial in multiple EAE models, suggesting that blueberries, which are easily administered orally and well-tolerated, may provide benefit to MS patients.

  4. Beneficial effects of Bacopa monnieri extract on opioid induced toxicity.

    PubMed

    Shahid, Muhammad; Subhan, Fazal; Ullah, Ihsan; Ali, Gowhar; Alam, Javaid; Shah, Rehmat

    2016-02-01

    The present study examined the hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity of morphine and illicit street heroin and their amelioration by a standardized methanolic extract of Bacopa monnieri (L.) (mBME) in rats. Morphine or street heroin was administered at a dose of 20 mg/kg for 14 and 21 days. mBME (40 mg/kg) or ascorbic acid (50 mg/kg) was administered two hours before morphine or street heroin. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used for the standardization of bacoside-A major components in mBME. The antioxidant potential of mBME was evaluated by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging assay. Administration of morphine and street heroin resulted in marked elevation of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and creatinine. Histopathological changes induced by morphine and street heroin after 14 days were of reversible nature while treatment for 21 days was associated with irreversible changes. Pretreatment with mBME or ascorbic acid restored the elevation of serum ALT, AST and creatinine and protected liver and kidneys from the toxicological influence of morphine and street heroin. HPLC analysis showed that mBME contained bacoside-A major components i.e. bacoside-A3 (37.5 μg/mg), bacopaside-II (4.62 μg/mg) and bacopasaponin-C (1.91 μg/mg). The EC50 for the DPPH free radical scavenging assay revealed that mBME possessed strong antioxidant potential. These results concluded that as compared to morphine, street heroin was associated with severe biochemical and histopathological changes in the liver and kidneys. Bacopa monnieri having strong antioxidant potential may provide a beneficial herbal remedy for the efficient management of opioid related hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity.

  5. Revealing the beneficial effect of protease supplementation to high gravity beer fermentations using "-omics" techniques

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Addition of sugar syrups to the basic wort is a popular technique to achieve higher gravity in beer fermentations, but it results in dilution of the free amino nitrogen (FAN) content in the medium. The multicomponent protease enzyme Flavourzyme has beneficial effect on the brewer's yeast fermentation performance during high gravity fermentations as it increases the initial FAN value and results in higher FAN uptake, higher specific growth rate, higher ethanol yield and improved flavour profile. Results In the present study, transcriptome and metabolome analysis were used to elucidate the effect on the addition of the multicomponent protease enzyme Flavourzyme and its influence on the metabolism of the brewer's yeast strain Weihenstephan 34/70. The study underlines the importance of sufficient nitrogen availability during the course of beer fermentation. The applied metabolome and transcriptome analysis allowed mapping the effect of the wort sugar composition on the nitrogen uptake. Conclusion Both the transcriptome and the metabolome analysis revealed that there is a significantly higher impact of protease addition for maltose syrup supplemented fermentations, while addition of glucose syrup to increase the gravity in the wort resulted in increased glucose repression that lead to inhibition of amino acid uptake and hereby inhibited the effect of the protease addition. PMID:21513553

  6. Beneficial Effects of Probiotic and Food Borne Yeasts on Human Health

    PubMed Central

    Moslehi-Jenabian, Saloomeh; Pedersen, Line Lindegaard; Jespersen, Lene

    2010-01-01

    Besides being important in the fermentation of foods and beverages, yeasts have shown numerous beneficial effects on human health. Among these, probiotic effects are the most well known health effects including prevention and treatment of intestinal diseases and immunomodulatory effects. Other beneficial functions of yeasts are improvement of bioavailability of minerals through the hydrolysis of phytate, folate biofortification and detoxification of mycotoxins due to surface binding to the yeast cell wall. PMID:22254033

  7. Beneficial effects of dietary EGCG and voluntary exercise on behavior in an Alzheimer's disease mouse model.

    PubMed

    Walker, Jennifer M; Klakotskaia, Diana; Ajit, Deepa; Weisman, Gary A; Wood, W Gibson; Sun, Grace Y; Serfozo, Peter; Simonyi, Agnes; Schachtman, Todd R

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive, age-dependent neurodegenerative disorder affecting specific brain regions that control memory and cognitive functions. Epidemiological studies suggest that exercise and dietary antioxidants are beneficial in reducing AD risk. To date, botanical flavonoids are consistently associated with the prevention of age-related diseases. The present study investigated the effects of 4 months of wheel-running exercise, initiated at 2-months of age, in conjunction with the effects of the green tea catechin (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) administered orally in the drinking water (50 mg/kg daily) on: (1) behavioral measures: learning and memory performance in the Barnes maze, nest building, open-field, anxiety in the light-dark box; and (2) soluble amyloid-β (Aβ) levels in the cortex and hippocampus in TgCRND8 (Tg) mice. Untreated Tg mice showed hyperactivity, relatively poor nest building behaviors, and deficits in spatial learning in the Barnes maze. Both EGCG and voluntary exercise, separately and in combination, were able to attenuate nest building and Barnes maze performance deficits. Additionally, these interventions lowered soluble Aβ1-42 levels in the cortex and hippocampus. These results, together with epidemiological and clinical studies in humans, suggest that dietary polyphenols and exercise may have beneficial effects on brain health and slow the progression of AD.

  8. The role of adipose tissue in mediating the beneficial effects of dietary fish oil

    PubMed Central

    Puglisi, Michael J.; Hasty, Alyssa H.; Saraswathi, Viswanathan

    2010-01-01

    Fish oil improves several features of metabolic syndrome such as dyslipidemia, insulin resistance and hepatic steatosis. Fish oil may mediate some of its beneficial effects by modulating the storage and/or secretory functions of adipose tissue. The storage of triglycerides in adipose tissue is regulated by the availability of free fatty acids as well as the degree of lipolysis in adipose tissue. Fish oil has been shown to reduce lipolysis in several studies indicating improved triglyceride storage. Importantly, adipose tissue secretes a variety of adipokines and fish oil feeding is associated with remarkable changes in the plasma levels of two key adipokines, adiponectin and leptin. Much attention has been focused on the contribution of adiponectin in fish oil mediated improvements in metabolic syndrome. However, emerging evidence also indicates a role of leptin in modulating the components of the metabolic syndrome upon fish oil feeding. In addition to improving the storage and secretory functions of adipose tissue, fish oil, and the n-3 fatty acids found in fish oil, has been shown to reduce inflammation in adipose tissue. These effects may be in part a result of activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ or inhibition of toll-like receptor 4. Thus, there is compelling evidence that fish oil mediates its beneficial effects on metabolic syndrome by improving adipose tissue storage and secretory functions and by reducing inflammation. PMID:21145721

  9. Prey-mediated effects of transgenic canola on a beneficial, non-target, carabid beetle.

    PubMed

    Ferry, Natalie; Mulligan, Evan A; Stewart, C Neal; Tabashnik, Bruce E; Port, Gordon R; Gatehouse, Angharad M R

    2006-08-01

    results suggest that the direct effects of Bt-producing canola on predator life history was minimal, and that predators' behavioural preferences may mitigate negative indirect effects of reduced quality of prey caused by consumption of Bt-producing plants. The results presented here therefore suggest that cultivation of Bt canola may lead to conservation of non-target predatory and scavenging organisms beneficial in pest control, such as carabids, and may therefore provide more sustainable agricultural systems than current practices. In addition, minimal impacts on beneficial carabids in agro-ecosystems suggest that Bt canola crops are likely to be compatible with integrated pest management (IPM) systems.

  10. Beneficial Effects of Marine Algal Compounds in Cosmeceuticals

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Noel Vinay; Kim, Se-Kwon

    2013-01-01

    The name “cosmeceuticals” is derived from “cosmetics and pharmaceuticals”, indicating that a specific product contains active ingredients. Marine algae have gained much importance in cosmeceutical product development due to their rich bioactive compounds. In the present review, marine algal compounds (phlorotannins, sulfated polysaccharides and tyrosinase inhibitors) have been discussed toward cosmeceutical application. In addition, atopic dermatitis and the possible role of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) in skin-related diseases have been explored extensively for cosmeceutical products. The proper development of marine algae compounds will be helpful in cosmeceutical product development and in the development of the cosmeceutical industry. PMID:23344156

  11. Potential beneficial effects of marine peptide on human neuron health.

    PubMed

    Ryu, BoMi; Kim, Se Kwon

    2013-05-01

    Marine organisms have long been recognized as rich source of bioactive material with numerous health benefit effects. Among bioactive material, proteins and peptides derived from marine organisms have been shown to inhibit the development of neuro-degenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and multiple sclerosis. The neuro-protective action of protein and peptide seem to be mediated through direct interaction of absorb protein and peptide with a numerous of cellular and molecular targets with enzyme/ion channels. This contribution presents an overview of marine proteins and peptides neuro-protective effect and their potential application in neuro-protection.

  12. Beneficial effects of honey dressings in wound management.

    PubMed

    Sharp, Ailsa

    Honey was commonly used to treat wounds until the introduction of antibiotics. However, increasing numbers of antibiotic-resistant bacteria mean that alternative treatment options, such as honey, are receiving renewed interest. This article provides an overview of the use of honey in wound management and reviews the evidence to support its effectiveness.

  13. Imitation and Creativity: Beneficial Effects of Propulsion Strategies and Specificity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mecca, Jensen T.; Mumford, Michael D.

    2014-01-01

    Prior studies examining imitation of exemplar solutions have produced a mixed pattern of findings with some studies indicating that exemplar imitation contributes to creative problem-solving and other studies indicating that it may inhibit creative problem-solving. In the present effort, it is argued that the effects of exemplar imitation on…

  14. The DASH diet may have beneficial effects on bone health.

    PubMed

    Doyle, Lorna; Cashman, Kevin D

    2004-05-01

    Recent data from an ancillary study to the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH)-Sodium trial suggest that while sodium intake had very little effect on bone metabolism, the DASH diet (over 30 days) significantly reduced markers of bone turnover. This DASH diet-induced reduction in bone turnover, if sustained, may improve bone mineral status.

  15. Beneficial Effects of Fermented Green Tea Extract in a Rat Model of Non-alcoholic Steatohepatitis.

    PubMed

    Nakamoto, Kazuo; Takayama, Fusako; Mankura, Mitsumasa; Hidaka, Yuki; Egashira, Toru; Ogino, Tetsuya; Kawasaki, Hiromu; Mori, Akitane

    2009-05-01

    Oxidative stress is frequently considered as a central mechanism of hepatocellular injury in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of fermented green tea extracts (FGTE) on NASH. Rats were fed a choline-deficient high-fat diet for 4 weeks to nutritionally generate fatty livers. NASH was induced chemically by oxidative stress using repeated intraperitoneal injections of nitrite. Rats with NASH developed steatohepatitis and liver fibrosis after 6-week of such treatment. At 10 weeks, blood and liver samples were collected from anesthetized animals and assessed for extent of OS injury and effects of FGTE, by biochemical, histological and histochemical analyses. FGTE reduced serum levels of liver enzymes, lipid peroxidation and production of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species. In addition, FGTE showed inhibition of progressions of cirrhosis. Our findings suggest that our FGTE have strong radical scavenging activity and may be beneficial in the prevention of NASH progression.

  16. Beneficial network effects of methylene blue in an amnestic model

    PubMed Central

    Riha, Penny D.; Rojas, Julio C.; Gonzalez-Lima, F.

    2010-01-01

    Posterior cingulate/retrosplenial cortex (PCC) hypometabolism is a common feature in amnestic mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer’s disease. In rats, PCC hypometabolism induced by mitochondrial dysfunction induces oxidative damage, neurodegeneration and memory deficits. USP methylene blue (MB) is a diaminophenothiazine drug with antioxidant and metabolic-enhancing properties. In rats, MB facilitates memory and prevents neurodegeneration induced by mitochondrial dysfunction. This study tested the memory-enhancing properties of systemic MB in rats that received an infusion of sodium azide, a cytochrome oxidase inhibitor, directly into the PCC. Lesion volumes were estimated with unbiased stereology. MB’s network-level mechanism of action was analyzed using graph theory and structural equation modeling based on cytochrome oxidase histochemistry-derived metabolic mapping data. Sodium azide infusions induced PCC hypometabolism and impaired visuospatial memory in a holeboard food-search task. Isolated PCC cytochrome oxidase inhibition disrupted the cingulo-thalamo-hippocampal effective connectivity, decreased the PCC functional networks and created functional redundancy within the thalamus. An intraperitoneal dose of 4 mg/kg MB prevented the memory impairment, reduced the PCC metabolic lesion volume and partially restored the cingulo-thalamo-hippocampal network effects. The effects of MB were dependent upon the local sub-network necessary for memory retrieval. The data support that MB’s metabolic-enhancing effects are contingent upon the neural context, and that MB is able to boost coherent and orchestrated adaptations in response to physical alterations to the network involved in visuospatial memory. These results implicate MB as a candidate intervention to improve memory. Because of its neuroprotective properties, MB may have disease-modifying effects in amnestic conditions associated with hypometabolism. PMID:21087672

  17. Can tobacco have a potentially beneficial effect to our health?

    PubMed

    Macek, Tomas; Surá, Martina; Pavliková, Daniela; Francová, Katerina; Scouten, William H; Szekeres, Miklos; Sylvestre, Michel; Macková, Martina

    2005-01-01

    With urgent pressure to clean up the contaminated environment, new approaches are needed. Phyto- and rhizoremediation using plants and related bacteria is a promising approach, but has its inborn limitations. To overcome the slow performance of the process, transgenic plants have been prepared specifically tailored for phytoremediation purposes. Our projects addressed a group of widespread synthetic organic xenobiotics, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and heavy metals as representatives of inorganic contaminants. Beside basic research studies in the field of phyto/rhizoremediation of the mentioned toxicants we focused on genetically modified plants as a highly promising tool for these purposes. We tried to prepare tobacco plants expressing the bacterial enzyme responsible for cleaving PCBs, coded by the gene bphC from the bacterial biphenyl operon. The expression of bphC product in fusion with the green fluorescent protein is described together with evaluation of the twice increased resistance of transgenic seeds towards PCBs. The other model is addressing improvement of cadmium accumulation by preparing plants bearing fused transgenes of metal binding protein (yeast metallothionein) with an introduced additional metal binding domain--polyhistidine anchor with high affinity to metals. The genetically modified plants exhibit 190% Cd accumulation of the control in harvestable parts, higher resistance and lower Cd content in roots. The performance of the plants in real contaminated soil is also evaluated.

  18. Beneficial effects of humic acid on micronutrient availability to wheat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mackowiak, C. L.; Grossl, P. R.; Bugbee, B. G.

    2001-01-01

    Humic acid (HA) is a relatively stable product of organic matter decomposition and thus accumulates in environmental systems. Humic acid might benefit plant growth by chelating unavailable nutrients and buffering pH. We examined the effect of HA on growth and micronutrient uptake in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grown hydroponically. Four root-zone treatments were compared: (i) 25 micromoles synthetic chelate N-(4-hydroxyethyl)ethylenediaminetriacetic acid (C10H18N2O7) (HEDTA at 0.25 mM C); (ii) 25 micromoles synthetic chelate with 4-morpholineethanesulfonic acid (C6H13N4S) (MES at 5 mM C) pH buffer; (iii) HA at 1 mM C without synthetic chelate or buffer; and (iv) no synthetic chelate or buffer. Ample inorganic Fe (35 micromoles Fe3+) was supplied in all treatments. There was no statistically significant difference in total biomass or seed yield among treatments, but HA was effective at ameliorating the leaf interveinal chlorosis that occurred during early growth of the nonchelated treatment. Leaf-tissue Cu and Zn concentrations were lower in the HEDTA treatment relative to no chelate (NC), indicating HEDTA strongly complexed these nutrients, thus reducing their free ion activities and hence, bioavailability. Humic acid did not complex Zn as strongly and chemical equilibrium modeling supported these results. Titration tests indicated that HA was not an effective pH buffer at 1 mM C, and higher levels resulted in HA-Ca and HA-Mg flocculation in the nutrient solution.

  19. Consumer perception of beneficial effects of probiotics for human health.

    PubMed

    Rijkers, G T; Bimmel, D; Grevers, D; den Haan, N; Hristova, Y

    2013-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the knowledge, perception and buying behaviour of probiotics. 72 participants in Middelburg, the Netherlands, filled out a detailed questionnaire regarding probiotics and their customer and consumer behaviour. It can be concluded from this study that the concept of probiotics is generally poorly understood. Health-conscious consumers seem to be the group most aware of the correct meaning of the term probiotics. Almost 50% of the participants did not believe that probiotics had any health effect. Independent organisations and/or government agencies appeared to be the preferred source of information on the functionality of probiotics.

  20. Influence of alignment of the pyramid on its beneficial effects.

    PubMed

    Bhat, Surekha; Rao, Guruprasad; Murthy, K Dilip; Bhat, P Gopalakrishna

    2007-05-01

    The present study was aimed to find out whether a change in the alignment of the pyramid from the north-south axis causes any variation in the effects produced by it on plasma cortisol levels and markers of oxidative stress in erythrocytes of adult-female Wistar rats. Plasma cortisol and erythrocyte TBARS levels were significantly lower whereas erythrocyte GSH was significantly higher in rats kept in pyramid that was aligned on the four cardinal points--north, east, south and west, as compared to normal control rats. Although there was a significant difference in the plasma cortisol level between normal control group and the group of rats kept in randomly aligned pyramid, there was no significant difference between these two groups for the other parameters. Erythrocyte TBARS levels in the group of rats kept in the randomly aligned pyramid was significantly higher than that in the group kept in the magnetically aligned pyramid. The results suggest that the north-south alignment of the pyramid is crucial for its expected effects.

  1. Beneficial effects of human milk oligosaccharides on gut microbiota.

    PubMed

    Musilova, S; Rada, V; Vlkova, E; Bunesova, V

    2014-09-01

    Human milk is the gold standard for nourishment of early infants because it contains a number of bioactive components, such as human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs). The high concentration and structural diversity of HMOs are unique to humans. HMOs are a group of complex and diverse glycans that are resistant to gastrointestinal digestion and reach the infant colon as the first prebiotics. N-acetyl-glucosamine containing oligosaccharides were first identified 50 years ago as the 'bifidus factor', a selective growth substrate for intestinal bifidobacteria, thus providing a conceptual basis for HMO-specific bifidogenic activity. Bifidobacterial species are the main utilisers of HMOs in the gastrointestinal tract and represent the dominant microbiota of breast-fed infants, and they may play an important role in maintaining the general health of newborn children. Oligosaccharides are also known to directly interact with the surface of pathogenic bacteria, and various oligosaccharides in milk are believed to inhibit the binding of pathogens and toxins to host cell receptors. Furthermore, HMOs are thought to contribute to the development of infant intestine and brain. Oligosaccharides currently added to infant formula are structurally different from the oligosaccharides naturally occurring in human milk and, therefore, they are unlikely to mimic some of the structure-specific effects. In this review, we describe how HMOs can modulate gut microbiota. This article summarises information up to date about the relationship between the intestinal microbiota and HMOs, and other possible indirect effects of HMOs on intestinal environment.

  2. Plasma protein loss during surgery: beneficial effects of albumin substitution.

    PubMed

    Horstick, G; Lauterbach, M; Kempf, T; Ossendorf, M; Kopacz, L; Heimann, A; Lehr, H A; Bhakdi, S; Horstick, M; Meyer, J; Kempski, O

    2001-07-01

    Plasma protein loss during abdominal surgery is a known phenomenon, but its possible pathophysiological relevance has remained unknown. The present study evaluates the effects of albumin substitution on systemic and local hemodynamics and cellular interactions in the mesenteric microcirculation. Rats underwent median laparotomy and exteriorization of an ileal loop for intravital microscopy of the mesenteric microcirculation. Plasma protein concentrations, systemic and local hemodynamics were recorded during the follow up period, with or without albumin substitution. Depending on the time course of plasma protein loss in control experiments, 80% of the calculated protein loss was infused during the first 2 h of surgery, and the other 20% over the following 5 h of intravital microscopy. The control group received a continuous infusion of normal saline. Plasma protein loss was mainly due to loss of albumin. A significant increase in adherent and rolling leukocytes was observed during the course of mesenteric exteriorization, which was almost entirely reversed by albumin replacement. Albumin substitution led to stabilisation of mean arterial pressure and abdominal blood flow and also attenuated reductions in arterial base excess. Albumin infusions to replace plasma protein loss may be a simple and effective measure to attenuate microcirculatory disturbances and may be of benefit in patients undergoing abdominal surgery.

  3. Beneficial Effects of UV-Radiation: Vitamin D and beyond

    PubMed Central

    Trummer, Christian; Pandis, Marlene; Verheyen, Nicolas; Grübler, Martin R.; Gaksch, Martin; Obermayer-Pietsch, Barbara; Tomaschitz, Andreas; Pieber, Thomas R.; Pilz, Stefan; Schwetz, Verena

    2016-01-01

    Aside from its well-known effects on bone and mineral metabolism, vitamin D may also play an important role in extra-skeletal processes like immunologic diseases, cancer, or cardiovascular diseases. Even though meta-analyses showed that vitamin D supplementation reduces fractures, falls, and overall mortality, its potential benefits did not find universal acclaim. Several health care authorities published Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) for vitamin D, most of them ranging from 600 to 800 international units (IU) per day, corresponding to a serum level of 25-hydroxyvitamin D of at least 20 ng/mL (50 nmol/L). However, studies conducted in the general population revealed a much lower overall intake of vitamin D than the proposed RDAs. Thus, strategies to increase the vitamin D intake in the general population, e.g., food fortification or vitamin D supplementation, are needed to match the existing evidence and recommendations. Therefore, several currently ongoing projects aim to investigate the effect of vitamin D supplementation in the general population and try to establish food-based solutions to improve vitamin D status. PMID:27775585

  4. Beneficial effects of softened fabrics on atopic skin.

    PubMed

    Hermanns, J F; Goffin, V; Arrese, J E; Rodriguez, C; Piérard, G E

    2001-01-01

    There is general concern about the possible cutaneous adverse effects of wearing garments treated with household laundry products, particularly on atopic skin. Our objective was to compare softened and non- softened fabrics in a forearm wet and dry test, under conditions simulating real-life conditions. Twenty atopic volunteers entered a single-blind 12-day (3 sessions per day) forearm wetting and drying test. Cotton fabrics were machine washed and liquid fabric conditioner was added or not to the final rinse. To simulate conditions of skin damage, a dilute solution of sodium lauryl sulphate was applied under occlusion to the forearm of each volunteer before the start of the study. Skin effects were evaluated by visual grading (redness, dryness and smoothness), squamometry and in vivo instrumental measurements (capacitance, transepidermal water loss and colorimetry). Rubbing of atopic skin with fabrics generally resulted in discrete to moderate alterations of the structure of the stratum corneum. Both for control and pre-irritated skin, all measured parameters indicated that softened fabric was less aggressive to the skin than unsoftened fabric. In the case of pre-irritated skin, the recovery of the skin was significantly faster when rubbed with softened than with unsoftened fabrics. In conclusion, softened fabrics help mitigate the skin condition in atopic patients.

  5. The beneficial effect on family life in treating borderline personality.

    PubMed

    Gerull, Friederike; Meares, Russell; Stevenson, Janine; Korner, Anthony; Newman, Louise

    2008-01-01

    The harmful effect of borderline patients on their families is an important but relatively neglected aspect of outcome studies. This study concerns changes in perceived quality of relationships with partners and children of 24 patients suffering Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) after 12 months of treatment with the Conversational Model (CM). They were compared to 21 parents with BPD receiving "Treatment as Usual" (TAU) from their referring clinicians for the same period. Both groups developed naturalistically giving the study a quasi-experimental design. The Social Adjustment Scale (SAS-SR) was administered on intake and again after 12 months. The subscales dealing with relationships with children, with partners and with the family unit were scored and compared between groups. It was found that the perceived relationships with children and partners improved significantly for the CM group but not for the TAU group.

  6. Beneficial effects of soy protein consumption for renal function.

    PubMed

    Anderson, James W

    2008-01-01

    Alterations in dietary protein intake have an important role in prevention and management of several forms of kidney disease. Using soy protein instead of animal protein reduces development of kidney disease in animals. Reducing protein intake preserves kidney function in persons with early diabetic kidney disease. Our clinical observations led us to the soy-protein hypothesis that "substitution of soy protein for animal protein results in less hyperfiltration and glomerular hypertension with resulting protection from diabetic nephropathy." These components of soy protein may lead to the benefits: specific peptides, amino acids, and isoflavones. Substituting soy protein for animal protein usually decreases hyperfiltration in diabetic subjects and may reduce urine albumin excretion. Limited data are available on effects of soy peptides, isoflavones, and other soy components on renal function on renal function in diabetes. Further studies are required to discern the specific benefits of soy protein and its components on renal function in diabetic subjects.

  7. Beneficial Physiological Effects With Blackcurrant Intake in Endurance Athletes.

    PubMed

    Willems, Mark Elisabeth Theodorus; Myers, Stephen David; Gault, Mandy Lucinda; Cook, Matthew David

    2015-08-01

    Blackcurrant contains anthocyanins, known to influence vasorelaxation and peripheral blood flow. We examined the effects of 7 days intake of Sujon New Zealand blackcurrant powder (6g/day) on the lactate curve, maximum oxygen uptake, and cardiovascular responses at rest and during cycling. Thirteen trained triathletes with >3 yrs experience (8 men, age: 38 ± 8 yrs, body mass: 71 ± 9 kg, BF%: 19 ± 5%, mean ± SD) performed two incremental cycling protocols with recording of physiological and cardiovascular responses (Portapres Model 2). Cardiovascular function was also measured in rest. Experimental design was double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized and cross-over (wash-out 4 wks). Data were analyzed with two-tailed t tests and 2-way ANOVA and significance accepted at p < .05. Plasma lactate was lower at 40%, 50%, 60% and 70% of maximum power by 27%, 22%, 17% and 13%. Intensity at 4 mmol · La(-1) OBLA was 6% higher with blackcurrant without effect on heart rate and oxygen uptake. Maximum values of oxygen uptake, heart rate and power were not affected by blackcurrant, but obtained with 14% lower lactate. In rest, blackcurrant increased stroke volume and cardiac output by 25% and 26%, and decreased total peripheral resistance by 16%, with no changes in blood pressure and heart rate. Cardiovascular responses during exercise at 40%, 50%, 60%, 70% and 80% intensity were not affected. Sujon New Zealand blackcurrant powder affects lactate production and/or clearance during exercise. Sujon New Zealand blackcurrant powder affects physiological and cardiovascular responses in rest and during exercise that may have implications for exercise performance.

  8. Beneficial effects of SR33805 in failing myocardium

    PubMed Central

    Ait Mou, Younss; Toth, Attila; Cassan, Cécile; Czuriga, Daniel; de Tombe, Pieter P.; Papp, Zoltan; Lacampagne, Alain; Cazorla, Olivier

    2011-01-01

    Aims SR33805, a potent Ca2+ channel blocker, increases cardiac myofilament Ca2+ sensitivity in healthy rat cardiomyocytes. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of SR33805 on contractile properties in ischaemic failing hearts after myocardial infarction (MI) in vivo and in vitro at the cellular level. Methods and results The effect of SR33805 (10 µM) was tested on the excitation–contraction coupling of cardiomyocytes isolated from rat with end-stage heart failure. Cell shortening and Ca2+ transients were measured in intact cardiomyocytes, while contractile properties were determined in Triton X-100 permeabilized myocytes. Acute treatment with SR33805 restored the MI-altered cell shortening without affecting the Ca2+ transient amplitude, suggesting an increase of myofilament Ca2+ sensitivity in MI myocytes. Indeed, a SR33805-induced sensitization of myofilament activation was found to be associated with a slight increase in myosin light chain-2 phosphorylation and a more significant decrease on troponin I (TnI) phosphorylation. Decreased TnI phosphorylation was related to inhibition of protein kinase A activity by SR33805. Finally, administration of a single intra-peritoneal bolus of SR33805 (20 mg/kg) improved end-systolic strain and fractional shortening of MI hearts. Conclusion The present study indicates that treatment with SR33805 improved contractility of ischaemic failing hearts after MI in the rat by selectively modulating the phosphorylation status of sarcomeric regulatory proteins, which then sensitized the myofilaments to Ca2+. Our results gave a proof of concept that manipulation of the Ca2+ sensitivity of sarcomeric regulatory proteins can be used to improve contractility of a failing heart. PMID:21467075

  9. Beneficial effects of synthetic KL₄ surfactant in experimental lung transplantation.

    PubMed

    Sáenz, A; Alvarez, L; Santos, M; López-Sánchez, A; Castillo-Olivares, J L; Varela, A; Segal, R; Casals, C

    2011-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether intratracheal administration of a new synthetic surfactant that includes the cationic, hydrophobic 21-residue peptide KLLLLKLLLLKLLLLKLLLLK (KL₄), might be effective in reducing ischaemia-reperfusion injury after lung transplantation. Single left lung transplantation was performed in Landrace pigs 22 h post-harvest. KL₄ surfactant at a dose of 25 mg total phospholipid·kg body weight⁻¹ (2.5 mL·kg body weight⁻¹) was instilled at 37°C to the donor left lung (n = 8) prior to explantation. Saline (2.5 mL·kg body weight⁻¹; 37°C) was instilled into the donor left lung of the untreated group (n = 6). Lung function in recipients was measured during 2 h of reperfusion. Recipient left lung bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) provided native cytometric, inflammatory marker and surfactant data. KL(4) surfactant treatment recovered oxygen levels in the recipient blood (mean ± sd arterial oxygen tension/inspiratory oxygen fraction 424 ± 60 versus 263 ± 101 mmHg in untreated group; p=0.01) and normalised alveolar-arterial oxygen tension difference. Surfactant biophysical function was also recovered in KL₄ surfactant-treated lungs. This was associated with decreased C-reactive protein levels in BAL, and recovery of surfactant protein A content, normalised protein/phospholipid ratios, and lower levels of both lipid peroxides and protein carbonyls in large surfactant aggregates. These findings suggest an important protective role for KL₄ surfactant treatment in lung transplantation.

  10. Additional disturbances as a beneficial tool for restoration of post-mining sites: a multi-taxa approach.

    PubMed

    Řehounková, Klára; Čížek, Lukáš; Řehounek, Jiří; Šebelíková, Lenka; Tropek, Robert; Lencová, Kamila; Bogusch, Petr; Marhoul, Pavel; Máca, Jan

    2016-07-01

    Open interior sands represent a highly threatened habitat in Europe. In recent times, their associated organisms have often found secondary refuges outside their natural habitats, mainly in sand pits. We investigated the effects of different restoration approaches, i.e. spontaneous succession without additional disturbances, spontaneous succession with additional disturbances caused by recreational activities, and forestry reclamation, on the diversity and conservation values of spiders, beetles, flies, bees and wasps, orthopterans and vascular plants in a large sand pit in the Czech Republic, Central Europe. Out of 406 species recorded in total, 112 were classified as open sand specialists and 71 as threatened. The sites restored through spontaneous succession with additional disturbances hosted the largest proportion of open sand specialists and threatened species. The forestry reclamations, in contrast, hosted few such species. The sites with spontaneous succession without disturbances represent a transition between these two approaches. While restoration through spontaneous succession favours biodiversity in contrast to forestry reclamation, additional disturbances are necessary to maintain early successional habitats essential for threatened species and open sand specialists. Therefore, recreational activities seem to be an economically efficient restoration tool that will also benefit biodiversity in sand pits.

  11. Beneficial effect of solubility enhancers on protein crystal nucleation and growth.

    PubMed

    Gosavi, Rajendrakumar A; Bhamidi, Venkateswarlu; Varanasi, Sasidhar; Schall, Constance A

    2009-04-21

    Crystallizing solutions of proteins often contain various nonelectrolyte additives that arise from the purification process of proteins or from the reagents employed in the screening kits. Currently, limited knowledge exists about the influence of these additives on the mechanisms underlying the crystallization process, in particular on the nucleation stage of crystals. To address this need, we studied crystallization of two proteins, D-xylose isomerase and chicken egg-white lysozyme, in small batches and in the presence of two solubility-enhancing additives, acetonitrile and glycerol. We have also measured the nucleation rates of crystals of these proteins in the presence and in the absence of acetonitrile using the method of initial rates. With the addition of the solubility enhancers, both proteins exhibited an increase in crystal nucleation at any given supersaturation. Solubility enhancing additives appear to lower the energy barrier to nucleation by influencing the strength of attraction between the protein molecules. We have characterized the quality of D-xylose isomerase crystals by determining the crystal mosaicity, which showed considerable improvement for crystals grown in the presence of additives. When compared to the crystals of chicken egg-white lysozyme, D-xylose isomerase crystals required higher supersaturations to nucleate. We attribute this result to the large size of the D-xylose isomerase molecule, which influences the energy barrier to nucleation by increasing the surface area of the critical nucleus. Contrary to the common expectation that reagents that solubilize the protein may hinder the crystallization process, our results suggest that solubility enhancers, in fact, can have a beneficial effect on the nucleation and growth of crystals. These findings are of importance in formulating successful strategies toward crystallizing new proteins.

  12. Exploiting the Adaptation Dynamics to Predict the Distribution of Beneficial Fitness Effects.

    PubMed

    John, Sona; Seetharaman, Sarada

    2016-01-01

    Adaptation of asexual populations is driven by beneficial mutations and therefore the dynamics of this process, besides other factors, depends on the distribution of beneficial fitness effects. It is known that on uncorrelated fitness landscapes, this distribution can only be of three types: truncated, exponential and power law. We performed extensive stochastic simulations to study the adaptation dynamics on rugged fitness landscapes, and identified two quantities that can be used to distinguish the underlying distribution of beneficial fitness effects. The first quantity studied here is the fitness difference between successive mutations that spread in the population, which is found to decrease in the case of truncated distributions, remains nearly a constant for exponentially decaying distributions and increases when the fitness distribution decays as a power law. The second quantity of interest, namely, the rate of change of fitness with time also shows quantitatively different behaviour for different beneficial fitness distributions. The patterns displayed by the two aforementioned quantities are found to hold good for both low and high mutation rates. We discuss how these patterns can be exploited to determine the distribution of beneficial fitness effects in microbial experiments.

  13. Growth behavior of additional offspring with a beneficial reversal allele in the asymmetric sharply-peaked landscape in the coupled discrete-time mutation-selection model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gill, Wonpyong

    2013-01-01

    The probability of additional offspring with a beneficial reversal allele for growing to a size NC for a range of population sizes N, sequence lengths L, selective advantages s, and measuring parameters C was calculated for a haploid, asexual population in the coupled discrete-time mutation-selection model in an asymmetric sharply-peaked landscape with a positive selective advantage of the reversal allele over the optimal allele. The growing probability in the stochastic region was inversely proportional to the measuring parameter when C < 1 /Ns, bent when C ≈ 1/ Ns and saturated when C > 1/ Ns. The crossing time and the time dependence of the increase in relative density of the reversal allele in the coupled discrete-time mutation-selection model was approximated using the Wright-Fisher two-allele model with the same selective advantage and corresponding effective mutation rate. The growth behavior of additional offspring with the reversal allele in the asymmetric sharply-peaked landscape in the coupled discrete-time mutation-selection model was controlled by the selective advantage of the reversal allele compared to the optimal allele and could be described by using the Wright-Fisher two-allele model, in spite of there being many other alleles with lower fitness, and in spite of there being two alleles, the optimal and reversal allele, separated by a low-fitness valley with a tunable depth and width.

  14. Beneficial effects of silicon on hydroponically grown corn salad (Valerianella locusta (L.) Laterr) plants.

    PubMed

    Gottardi, Stefano; Iacuzzo, Francesco; Tomasi, Nicola; Cortella, Giovanni; Manzocco, Lara; Pinton, Roberto; Römheld, Volker; Mimmo, Tanja; Scampicchio, Matteo; Dalla Costa, Luisa; Cesco, Stefano

    2012-07-01

    Soil-less cultivation of horticultural crops represents a fairly recent innovation to traditional agriculture which has several advantages including higher water-use efficiency. When plants are grown with this system, their roots come in contact with nutrients solely via the hydroponic solution. Although its beneficial effects have been widely demonstrated, silicon (Si) is mostly omitted from the composition of nutrient solutions. Therefore, the objective of this study was to assess the beneficial effect of Si addition to hydroponic solution on quali-quantitative aspects of edible production of two cultivars of corn salad (Valerianella locusta (L.) Laterr.) grown in soil-less floating system. Impacts on shelf life of this food were also studied. Results show that the supply of Si increased the edible yield and the quality level reducing the nitrate concentration in edible tissues. This result might be attributed to changes either in the metabolism (such as the nitrate assimilation process) or to the functionality of root mechanisms involved in the nutrient acquisition from the outer medium. In fact, our results show for the first time the ability of Si to modulate the root activity of nitrate and Fe uptake through, at least in part, a regulation of gene expression levels of the proteins involved in this phenomenon. In addition, the presence of Si decreased the levels of polyphenoloxidase gene expression at harvest and, in post-harvest, slowed down the chlorophyll degradation delaying leaf senescence and thus prolonging the shelf life of these edible tissues. In conclusion, data showed that the addition of Si to the nutrient solution can be a useful tool for improving quali-quantitatively the yield of baby leaf vegetable corn salad as well as its shelf life. Since the amelioration due to the Si has been achieved only with one cultivar, the recommendation of its inclusion in the nutrient solution does not exclude the identification of cultivars suitable for this

  15. The Mozart Effect: Additional Data.

    PubMed

    Hughes, John R.

    2002-04-01

    After the review of the Mozart effect was published in this journal (Hughes JR. Epilepsy Behav 2001;2:369-417), additional data from the music of Haydn and Liszt have been analyzed that may account for the decrease in seizure activity originally reported during Mozart music. Even with these added data Mozart music continued to score significantly higher than the selections from the other six composers in one of the important characteristics of this music, namely, the repetition of the melody. However Haydn's values were second highest among Mozart, J. S. Bach, Wagner, Beethoven, Chopin, and Liszt.

  16. Beneficial effects of fluvastatin on liver microcirculation and regeneration after massive hepatectomy in rats.

    PubMed

    Tokunaga, Takuya; Ikegami, Toru; Yoshizumi, Tomoharu; Imura, Satoru; Morine, Yuji; Shinohara, Hisamitsu; Shimada, Mitsuo

    2008-11-01

    Fluvastatin, the first entirely synthetic statin, has a significant cholesterol-lowing effect comparable with other statins. In addition, it has been shown to inhibit oxidative stress and improve vascular endothelial function. The aim of this study was to clarify the pretreatment effects of fluvastatin on liver function after massive hepatectomy in rats. Six-week-old male Wister rats were divided into two groups: a fluvastatin group (group F), pretreated with oral administration of fluvastatin (20 mg/kg per day) for 2 days before 90% hepatectomy; and a control group (group C), pretreated with vehicle for 2 days before hepatectomy. Animals were sacrificed at 0, 12, 24, 48, and 72 h after hepatectomy. The liver regeneration rate, liver function tests, and hepatic stellate cell activation were examined. The liver regeneration rate in group F was significantly higher at 72 h after hepatectomy (P < 0.05). The serum level of total bilirubin in group F was significantly lower at 48 h after hepatectomy (P < 0.05). Sinusoidal area in group F was maintained histologically. Furthermore, the expression of alpha smooth-muscle actin (alpha-SMA) protein in the liver was inhibited in group F at 48 h after hepatectomy. This study demonstrated the beneficial effects of fluvastatin in a lethal massive hepatectomy model using rats, with improved hepatic regeneration and microcirculations, by inhibiting the activation of hepatic stellate cells.

  17. Beneficial effects of natural phenolics on levodopa methylation and oxidative neurodegeneration.

    PubMed

    Kang, Ki Sung; Yamabe, Noriko; Wen, Yujing; Fukui, Masayuki; Zhu, Bao Ting

    2013-02-25

    Levodopa (L-DOPA) is widely used for symptomatic management in Parkinson's disease. We recently showed that (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate, a tea polyphenol, not only inhibits L-DOPA methylation, but also protects against oxidative hippocampal neurodegeneration. In the present study, we sought to determine several other common dietary phenolics, namely, tea catechins [(+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin] and a representative flavonoid (quercetin), for their ability to modulate L-DOPA methylation and to protect against oxidative hippocampal injury. A combination of in vitro biochemical assays, cell culture-based mechanistic analyses, and in vivo animal models was used. While both tea catechins and quercetin strongly inhibit human liver catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT)-mediated O-methylation of L-DOPA in vitro, only (+)-catechin exerts a significant inhibition of L-DOPA methylation in both peripheral compartment and striatum in rats. The stronger in vivo effect of (+)-catechin on L-DOPA methylation compared to the other dietary compounds is due to its better bioavailability in vivo. In addition, (+)-catechin strongly reduces glutamate-induced oxidative cytotoxicity in HT22 mouse hippocampal neurons in vitro through inactivation of the nuclear factor-κB signaling pathway. Administration of (+)-catechin also exerts a strong neuroprotective effect in the kainic acid-induced oxidative hippocampal neurodegeneration model in rats. In conclusion, (+)-catechin is a dietary polyphenolic that may have beneficial effects in L-DOPA-based treatment of Parkinson patients by inhibiting L-DOPA methylation plus reducing oxidative neurodegeneration.

  18. Beneficial effects of electrical stimulation on neuropathic symptoms in diabetes patients.

    PubMed

    Julka, I S; Alvaro, M; Kumar, D

    1998-01-01

    Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation is utilized for relieving pain in the diabetes peripheral neuropathy. Previous studies were short-term and did not document sustained beneficial effects. In this study, the authors evaluated long-term effectiveness of electrotherapy administered by proprietary equipment, an H-wave machine. A detailed questionnaire concerning patients' symptoms prior to and following electrotherapy was mailed to the users of H-wave machine. The responses of 34 individuals who had diabetes mellitus were analyzed (age 74.1 +/- 1.6 SEM years, body mass index 28.5 +/- 0.8 kg/m2, duration of diabetes 15.8 +/- 2.0 years and duration of neuropathic symptoms 8.0 +/- 1.8 years). Telephone interviews were conducted with 20 additional diabetes patients selected randomly from the persons who did not return the questionnaire. Forty-one (76%) patients reported a 44.0 +/- 4.0% subjective improvement in their neuropathic pain. The overall improvement in pain was also significant on an analog scale of 10 (p < .01), and correlated well with the percent amelioration data (r2 = .65). These data suggest an effectiveness of electrotherapy in managing neuropathic pain as an adjunct to the analgesics. It appears to provide continued benefit as the responders have used this nonpharmacological treatment modality for an average period of 1.7 +/- 0.3 years.

  19. Hitchhiking Effect of a Beneficial Mutation Spreading in a Subdivided Population

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yuseob; Maruki, Takahiro

    2011-01-01

    A central problem in population genetics is to detect and analyze positive natural selection by which beneficial mutations are driven to fixation. The hitchhiking effect of a rapidly spreading beneficial mutation, which results in local removal of standing genetic variation, allows such an analysis using DNA sequence polymorphism. However, the current mathematical theory that predicts the pattern of genetic hitchhiking relies on the assumption that a beneficial mutation increases to a high frequency in a single random-mating population, which is certainly violated in reality. Individuals in natural populations are distributed over a geographic space. The spread of a beneficial allele can be delayed by limited migration of individuals over the space and its hitchhiking effect can also be affected. To study this effect of geographic structure on genetic hitchhiking, we analyze a simple model of directional selection in a subdivided population. In contrast to previous studies on hitchhiking in subdivided populations, we mainly investigate the range of sufficiently high migration rates that would homogenize genetic variation at neutral loci. We provide a heuristic mathematical analysis that describes how the genealogical structure at a neutral locus linked to the locus under selection is expected to change in a population divided into two demes. Our results indicate that the overall strength of genetic hitchhiking—the degree to which expected heterozygosity decreases—is diminished by population subdivision, mainly because opportunity for the breakdown of hitchhiking by recombination increases as the spread of the beneficial mutation across demes is delayed when migration rate is much smaller than the strength of selection. Furthermore, the amount of genetic variation after a selective sweep is expected to be unequal over demes: a greater reduction in expected heterozygosity occurs in the subpopulation from which the beneficial mutation originates than in its

  20. The effect of glyphosate on potential pathogens and beneficial members of poultry microbiota in vitro.

    PubMed

    Shehata, Awad A; Schrödl, Wieland; Aldin, Alaa A; Hafez, Hafez M; Krüger, Monika

    2013-04-01

    The use of glyphosate modifies the environment which stresses the living microorganisms. The aim of the present study was to determine the real impact of glyphosate on potential pathogens and beneficial members of poultry microbiota in vitro. The presented results evidence that the highly pathogenic bacteria as Salmonella Entritidis, Salmonella Gallinarum, Salmonella Typhimurium, Clostridium perfringens and Clostridium botulinum are highly resistant to glyphosate. However, most of beneficial bacteria as Enterococcus faecalis, Enterococcus faecium, Bacillus badius, Bifidobacterium adolescentis and Lactobacillus spp. were found to be moderate to highly susceptible. Also Campylobacter spp. were found to be susceptible to glyphosate. A reduction of beneficial bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract microbiota by ingestion of glyphosate could disturb the normal gut bacterial community. Also, the toxicity of glyphosate to the most prevalent Enterococcus spp. could be a significant predisposing factor that is associated with the increase in C. botulinum-mediated diseases by suppressing the antagonistic effect of these bacteria on clostridia.

  1. Beneficial effects of a Cannabis sativa extract treatment on diabetes-induced neuropathy and oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Comelli, Francesca; Bettoni, Isabella; Colleoni, Mariapia; Giagnoni, Gabriella; Costa, Barbara

    2009-12-01

    Neuropathy is the most common complication of diabetes and it is still considered to be relatively refractory to most of the analgesics. The aim of the present study was to explore the antinociceptive effect of a controlled cannabis extract (eCBD) in attenuating diabetic neuropathic pain. Repeated treatment with cannabis extract significantly relieved mechanical allodynia and restored the physiological thermal pain perception in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats without affecting hyperglycemia. In addition, the results showed that eCBD increased the reduced glutathione (GSH) content in the liver leading to a restoration of the defence mechanism and significantly decreased the liver lipid peroxidation suggesting that eCBD provides protection against oxidative damage in STZ-induced diabetes that also strongly contributes to the development of neuropathy. Finally, the nerve growth factor content in the sciatic nerve of diabetic rats was restored to normal following the repeated treatment with eCBD, suggesting that the extract was able to prevent the nerve damage caused by the reduced support of this neurotrophin. These findings highlighted the beneficial effects of cannabis extract treatment in attenuating diabetic neuropathic pain, possibly through a strong antioxidant activity and a specific action upon nerve growth factor.

  2. Growth hormone abolishes beneficial effects of calorie restriction in long-lived Ames dwarf mice.

    PubMed

    Gesing, Adam; Al-Regaiey, Khalid A; Bartke, Andrzej; Masternak, Michal M

    2014-10-01

    Disruption of the growth hormone (GH) axis promotes longevity and delays aging. In contrast, GH over-expression may lead to accelerated aging and shorter life. Calorie restriction (CR) improves insulin sensitivity and may extend lifespan. Long-lived Ames dwarf (df/df) mice have additional extension of longevity when subjected to 30% CR. The aim of the study was to assess effects of CR or GH replacement therapy separately and as a combined (CR+GH) treatment in GH-deficient df/df and normal mice, on selected metabolic parameters (e.g., insulin, glucose, cholesterol), insulin signaling components (e.g., insulin receptor [IR] β-subunit, phosphorylated form of IR [IR pY1158], protein kinase C ζ/λ [p-PKCζ/λ] and mTOR [p-mTOR]), transcription factor p-CREB, and components of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling (p-ERK1/2, p-p38), responsible for cell proliferation, differentiation and survival. CR decreased plasma levels of insulin, glucose, cholesterol and leptin, and increased hepatic IR β-subunit and IR pY1158 levels as well as IR, IRS-1 and GLUT-2 gene expression compared to ad libitum feeding, showing a significant beneficial diet intervention effect. Moreover, hepatic protein levels of p-PKCζ/λ, p-mTOR and p-p38 decreased, and p-CREB increased in CR mice. On the contrary, GH increased levels of glucose, cholesterol and leptin in plasma, and p-mTOR or p-p38 in livers, and decreased plasma adiponectin and hepatic IR β-subunit compared to saline treatment. There were no GH effects on adiponectin in N mice. Moreover, GH replacement therapy did not affect IR, IRS-1 and GLUT-2 gene expression. GH treatment abolishes the beneficial effects of CR; it may suggest an important role of GH-IGF1 axis in mediating the CR action. Suppressed somatotrophic signaling seems to predominate over GH replacement therapy in the context of the examined parameters and signaling pathways.

  3. Beneficial effects of relaxin on motility characteristics of stored boar spermatozoa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Relaxin is detected in seminal plasma of many species and its association with sperm motility may be beneficial in some aspects of assisted reproduction. Here, we immunolocalized relaxin receptors and investigated the effects of exogenous relaxin on motility characteristics, viability, a...

  4. Testing the extreme value domain of attraction for distributions of beneficial fitness effects.

    PubMed

    Beisel, Craig J; Rokyta, Darin R; Wichman, Holly A; Joyce, Paul

    2007-08-01

    In modeling evolutionary genetics, it is often assumed that mutational effects are assigned according to a continuous probability distribution, and multiple distributions have been used with varying degrees of justification. For mutations with beneficial effects, the distribution currently favored is the exponential distribution, in part because it can be justified in terms of extreme value theory, since beneficial mutations should have fitnesses in the extreme right tail of the fitness distribution. While the appeal to extreme value theory seems justified, the exponential distribution is but one of three possible limiting forms for tail distributions, with the other two loosely corresponding to distributions with right-truncated tails and those with heavy tails. We describe a likelihood-ratio framework for analyzing the fitness effects of beneficial mutations, focusing on testing the null hypothesis that the distribution is exponential. We also describe how to account for missing the smallest-effect mutations, which are often difficult to identify experimentally. This technique makes it possible to apply the test to gain-of-function mutations, where the ancestral genotype is unable to grow under the selective conditions. We also describe how to pool data across experiments, since we expect few possible beneficial mutations in any particular experiment.

  5. Beneficial behavioral, neurochemical and molecular effects of 1-(R)-aminoindan in aged mice.

    PubMed

    Badinter, Felix; Amit, Tamar; Bar-Am, Orit; Youdim, Moussa B H; Weinreb, Orly

    2015-12-01

    Previous neuroprotective studies demonstrated that 1-(R)-aminoindan (AI), which is the major metabolite of the anti-Parkinsonian drug rasagiline, possesses beneficial pharmacological effects in various cell culture and animal models of neurodegeneration. The present study was aimed at investigating the possible neuroprotective effects of AI on cognitive impairments and neurochemical alterations in aged mice. Our findings provide evidence that following chronic systemic treatment with AI (5 mg/kg; daily; 3 months) of aged mice (24 months old), the compound exerted a significant positive impact on neuropsychiatric functions and cognitive behavior deficits, assessed in a variety of tasks (spatial learning and memory retention, working memory, learning abilities and nest building behavior) and produced an antidepressant-like effect. In addition, chronic AI treatment significantly enhanced expression levels of neurotrophins, including brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and nerve growth factor (NGF), tyrosine kinase- B (Trk-B) receptor and synaptic plasticity markers, such as synapsin-1 and growth-associated protein-43 (GAP-43) in the striatum and hippocampus in aged mice. Our results also indicate that AI treatment up-regulated the expression levels of the pro-survival Bcl-2 mRNA, increased the anti-apoptotic index Bcl-2/Bax and enhanced the activity of the antioxidant enzyme catalase in the brain of aged mice. These effects of AI were also confirmed in aged rats (24 months old). Altogether, the present findings indicate that AI can induce neuroprotective effects on age-related alterations in neurobehavioral functions and exerts neurotrophic up-regulatory and anti-apoptotic properties in aged animals.

  6. Beneficial effect of cerebrolysin on moderate and severe head injury patients: result of a cohort study.

    PubMed

    Wong, G K C; Zhu, X L; Poon, W S

    2005-01-01

    Cerebrolysin is used as a neurotrophic agent for the treatment of ischemic stroke and Alzheimer's Disease. Exploratory studies in patients with post-acute traumatic brain injury have shown that this treatment might help improve recovery. Aim of this study was to investigate whether addition of Cerebrolysin to the initial treatment regimen of moderate and severe head injury patients would improve their outcome. At 6 months, 67% of the patients (Cerebrolysin group) attained good outcome (GOS 3-5). The study group was compared with the historical cohort of patients from the hospital trauma data bank, with age, sex and admitting GCS matching. More patients tended to a good outcome in the Cerebrolysin group (P = 0.065). No significant side-effect requiring cessation of Cerebrolysin was noted. It can be concluded that the use of Cerebrolysin as part of the initial management of moderate and severe head injury is safe and well tolerated. The results suggest that Cerebrolysin is beneficial in regard to the outcome in these patients, especially in elderly patients.

  7. Beneficial effects of a polyamine biosynthesis inhibitor on lupus in MRL-lpr/lpr mice.

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, T J; Messner, R P

    1989-01-01

    Difluoromethylornithine (DFMO), an experimental drug that inactivates ornithine decarboxylase and thus reduces the production of polyamines has a beneficial effect on the mean survival time and the clinical and laboratory manifestations of murine lupus in female MRL-lpr/lpr mice. DFMO-treated mice showed a 29% increase in the mean survival time compared with age- and sex-matched control mice of the same strain. Lymphadenopathy was evident in untreated mice at 14 weeks of age, but was delayed until 19 weeks of age in DFMO-treated mice. In addition, the sera of DFMO-treated mice contained a significantly lower concentration of anti-DNA antibodies compared with untreated mice. These results open the possibility of development of a new class of therapeutic agents based on polyamine biosynthesis inhibitors for the treatment of human autoimmune disease. Possible mechanisms for the action of DFMO include its inhibitory action on cell proliferation as well as its ability to prevent DNA from assuming an immunogenic left-handed Z-DNA conformation. PMID:12412756

  8. TBC2health: a database of experimentally validated health-beneficial effects of tea bioactive compounds.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shihua; Xuan, Hongdong; Zhang, Liang; Fu, Sicong; Wang, Yijun; Yang, Hua; Tai, Yuling; Song, Youhong; Zhang, Jinsong; Ho, Chi-Tang; Li, Shaowen; Wan, Xiaochun

    2016-07-06

    Tea is one of the most consumed beverages in the world. Considerable studies show the exceptional health benefits (e.g. antioxidation, cancer prevention) of tea owing to its various bioactive components. However, data from these extensively published papers had not been made available in a central database. To lay a foundation in improving the understanding of healthy tea functions, we established a TBC2health database that currently documents 1338 relationships between 497 tea bioactive compounds and 206 diseases (or phenotypes) manually culled from over 300 published articles. Each entry in TBC2health contains comprehensive information about a bioactive relationship that can be accessed in three aspects: (i) compound information, (ii) disease (or phenotype) information and (iii) evidence and reference. Using the curated bioactive relationships, a bipartite network was reconstructed and the corresponding network (or sub-network) visualization and topological analyses are provided for users. This database has a user-friendly interface for entry browse, search and download. In addition, TBC2health provides a submission page and several useful tools (e.g. BLAST, molecular docking) to facilitate use of the database. Consequently, TBC2health can serve as a valuable bioinformatics platform for the exploration of beneficial effects of tea on human health. TBC2health is freely available at http://camellia.ahau.edu.cn/TBC2health.

  9. Dual Beneficial Effect of Interloop Disulfide Bond for Single Domain Antibody Fragments*

    PubMed Central

    Govaert, Jochen; Pellis, Mireille; Deschacht, Nick; Vincke, Cécile; Conrath, Katja; Muyldermans, Serge; Saerens, Dirk

    2012-01-01

    The antigen-binding fragment of functional heavy chain antibodies (HCAbs) in camelids comprises a single domain, named the variable domain of heavy chain of HCAbs (VHH). The VHH harbors remarkable amino acid substitutions in the framework region-2 to generate an antigen-binding domain that functions in the absence of a light chain partner. The substitutions provide a more hydrophilic, hence more soluble, character to the VHH but decrease the intrinsic stability of the domain. Here we investigate the functional role of an additional hallmark of dromedary VHHs, i.e. the extra disulfide bond between the first and third antigen-binding loops. After substituting the cysteines forming this interloop cystine by all 20 amino acids, we selected and characterized several VHHs that retain antigen binding capacity. Although VHH domains can function in the absence of an interloop disulfide bond, we demonstrate that its presence constitutes a net advantage. First, the disulfide bond stabilizes the domain and counteracts the destabilization by the framework region-2 hallmark amino acids. Second, the disulfide bond rigidifies the long third antigen-binding loop, leading to a stronger antigen interaction. This dual beneficial effect explains the in vivo antibody maturation process favoring VHH domains with an interloop disulfide bond. PMID:22128183

  10. Nutrigenomic basis of beneficial effects of chromium(III) on obesity and diabetes.

    PubMed

    Lau, Francis C; Bagchi, Manashi; Sen, Chandan K; Bagchi, Debasis

    2008-10-01

    Insulin resistance has been shown to be the major contributing factor to the metabolic syndrome, which comprises a cluster of risk factors for metabolic aberrations such as obesity, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and hyperglycemia. Additionally, insulin resistance has been associated with the occurrence of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Epidemiological studies indicate that obesity and diabetes have become alarmingly prevalent in recent years. Substantial evidence suggests that dietary interventions and regular exercise greatly improve body mass index and lipid profile as well as alleviate insulin resistance. Therefore, dietary supplements such as insulin-sensitizing agents may be beneficial in the prevention and treatment of obesity and type 2 diabetes. Numerous in vitro and in vivo studies suggest that chromium supplements, particularly niacin-bound chromium or chromium-nicotinate, may be effective in attenuating insulin resistance and lowering plasma cholesterol levels. Utilizing the powerful technology of nutrigenomics to identify the genes regulated by chromium supplementation may shed some light on the underlying mechanisms of chromium-gene interactions, and thus provide strategies to mitigate and prevent insulin-resistance-related disorders.

  11. Beneficial Effects of Traditional Seasonings on Quality Characteristics of Fermented Sausages

    PubMed Central

    Seong, Pil-Nam; Seo, Hyun-Woo; Kang, Sun-Moon; Kim, Yoon-Seok; Cho, Soo-Hyun; Kim, Jin-Hyoung; Hoa, Van-Ba

    2016-01-01

    Though traditional seasonings are widely used in many dishes, however, no attention has been paid to the investigation of their effects on quality characteristics of food products. The present investigation was undertaken to study the effects of incorporating several traditional seasonings including doenjang (fermented soybean paste), gochu-jang (red pepper paste), fresh medium-hot, and hot peppers, and fresh garlic on the lipid oxidation, cholesterol content and sensory characteristics of fermented sausages. Six fermented sausage treatments (5 with 1% (w/w) each test seasoning and 1 without added test seasoning (control) were prepared. The addition of seasonings generally had beneficial effects on the improvement of fermented sausage’s quality however the effects differed depending on the each type of seasonings added. Significant lower pH values were found in all fermented sausages made with the seasonings while, lower levels of lipid oxidation were found in the treatments with hot peppers and garlic as compared with the control (p<0.05). The treatment with seasonings did not cause color or texture defects in the products whereas the sausages made with gochu-jang had significantly higher Commission International de l’Eclairagea* (redness) value in comparison with the control. Noticeably, incorporating doenjang, medium-hot peppers, hot peppers and garlic resulted in reduction of 26.50, 32.54, 47.04, and 48.54 mg cholesterol/100 g samples, respectively (p<0.05). Higher scores for the sensory traits such as aroma, taste, color and acceptability were also given for the sausages made with seasonings. The current work demonstrates that the test seasonings represent potentially natural ingredients to be used for producing healthier fermented sausages. PMID:26954136

  12. Beneficial Effects of Traditional Seasonings on Quality Characteristics of Fermented Sausages.

    PubMed

    Seong, Pil-Nam; Seo, Hyun-Woo; Kang, Sun-Moon; Kim, Yoon-Seok; Cho, Soo-Hyun; Kim, Jin-Hyoung; Hoa, Van-Ba

    2016-08-01

    Though traditional seasonings are widely used in many dishes, however, no attention has been paid to the investigation of their effects on quality characteristics of food products. The present investigation was undertaken to study the effects of incorporating several traditional seasonings including doenjang (fermented soybean paste), gochu-jang (red pepper paste), fresh medium-hot, and hot peppers, and fresh garlic on the lipid oxidation, cholesterol content and sensory characteristics of fermented sausages. Six fermented sausage treatments (5 with 1% (w/w) each test seasoning and 1 without added test seasoning (control) were prepared. The addition of seasonings generally had beneficial effects on the improvement of fermented sausage's quality however the effects differed depending on the each type of seasonings added. Significant lower pH values were found in all fermented sausages made with the seasonings while, lower levels of lipid oxidation were found in the treatments with hot peppers and garlic as compared with the control (p<0.05). The treatment with seasonings did not cause color or texture defects in the products whereas the sausages made with gochu-jang had significantly higher Commission International de l'Eclairagea* (redness) value in comparison with the control. Noticeably, incorporating doenjang, medium-hot peppers, hot peppers and garlic resulted in reduction of 26.50, 32.54, 47.04, and 48.54 mg cholesterol/100 g samples, respectively (p<0.05). Higher scores for the sensory traits such as aroma, taste, color and acceptability were also given for the sausages made with seasonings. The current work demonstrates that the test seasonings represent potentially natural ingredients to be used for producing healthier fermented sausages.

  13. Additive Effects on Asymmetric Catalysis.

    PubMed

    Hong, Liang; Sun, Wangsheng; Yang, Dongxu; Li, Guofeng; Wang, Rui

    2016-03-23

    This review highlights a number of additives that can be used to make asymmetric reactions perfect. Without changing other reaction conditions, simply adding additives can lead to improved asymmetric catalysis, such as reduced reaction time, improved yield, or/and increased selectivity.

  14. Beneficial effects of L-arginine–nitric oxide-producing pathway in rats treated with alloxan

    PubMed Central

    Vasilijević, Ana; Buzadžić, Biljana; Korać, Aleksandra; Petrović, Vesna; Janković, Aleksandra; Korać, Bato

    2007-01-01

    In an attempt to elucidate molecular mechanisms and factors involved in β cell regeneration, we evaluated a possible role of the l-arginine–nitric oxide (NO)-producing pathway in alloxan-induced diabetes mellitus. Diabetes was induced in male Mill Hill rats with a single alloxan dose (120 mg kg−1). Both non-diabetic and diabetic groups were additionally separated into three subgroups: (i) receiving l-arginine · HCl (2.25%), (ii) receiving l-NAME · HCl (0.01%) for 12 days as drinking liquids, and (iii) control. Treatment of diabetic animals started after diabetes induction (glucose level ≥ 12 mmol l−1). We found that disturbed glucose homeostasis, i.e. blood insulin and glucose levels in diabetic rats was restored after l-arginine treatment. Immunohistochemical findings revealed that l-arginine had a favourable effect on β cell neogenesis, i.e. it increased the area of insulin-immunopositive cells. Moreover, confocal microscopy showed colocalization of insulin and pancreas duodenum homeobox-1 (PDX-1) in both endocrine and exocrine pancreas. This increase in insulin-expressing cells was accompanied by increased cell proliferation (observed by proliferating cell nuclear antigen-PCNA immunopositivity) which occurred in a regulated manner since it was associated with increased apoptosis (detected by the TUNEL method). Furthermore, l-arginine enhanced both nuclear factor-kB (NF-kB) and neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) immunopositivities. The effect of l-arginine on antioxidative defence was observed especially in restoring to control level the diabetes-induced increase in glutathione peroxidase activity. In contrast to l-arginine, diabetic pancreas was not affected by l-NAME supplementation. In conclusion, the results suggest beneficial l-arginine effects on alloxan-induced diabetes resulting from the stimulation of β cell neogenesis, including complex mechanisms of transcriptional and redox regulation. PMID:17717015

  15. Combining reduced glutathione and ascorbic acid has supplementary beneficial effects on boar sperm cryotolerance.

    PubMed

    Giaretta, Elisa; Estrada, Efrén; Bucci, Diego; Spinaci, Marcella; Rodríguez-Gil, Joan E; Yeste, Marc

    2015-02-01

    The main aim of this work was to evaluate how supplementing freezing and thawing media with reduced glutathione (GSH) and l-ascorbic acid (AA) affected the quality parameters of frozen-thawed boar spermatozoa. With this purpose, semen samples of 12 ejaculates coming from 12 boars were used. Each ejaculate was split into seven aliquots to which 5 mM of GSH and 100 μM of AA were added separately or together at two different steps of freeze-thawing. Various sperm parameters (levels of free cysteine residues in sperm nucleoproteins, sperm viability, acrosome membrane integrity, intracellular peroxide and superoxide levels [ROS], and total and progressive motility) were evaluated before freezing and at 30 and 240 minutes after thawing. Both GSH and AA significantly improved boar sperm cryotolerance when they were separately added to freezing and thawing media. However, the highest improvement was recorded when both freezing and thawing media were supplemented with 5 mM of GSH plus 100 μM of AA. This improvement was observed in sperm viability and acrosome integrity, sperm motility, and nucleoprotein structure. Although ROS levels were not much increased by freeze-thawing procedures, the addition of GSH and AA to both freezing and thawing extenders significantly decreased intracellular peroxide levels and had no impact on superoxide levels. According to our results, we can conclude that supplementation of freezing and thawing media with both GSH and AA has a combined, beneficial effect on frozen-thawed boar sperm, which is greater than that obtained with the separate addition of either GSH or AA.

  16. The Beneficial Effect of Ginsenoside Rg1 on Schwann Cells Subjected to Hydrogen Peroxide Induced Oxidative Injury

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Junxiong; Liu, Jun; Wang, Qi; Yu, Hailong; Chen, Yu; Xiang, Liangbi

    2013-01-01

    Ginsenoside Rg1 (GRg1) has been considered to have therapeutic potential in promoting peripheral nerve regeneration and functional recovery after sciatic nerve injuries. However, the mechanism underlying the beneficial effect of GRg1 on peripheral nerve regeneration is currently unclear. The possible effect of GRg1 on Schwann cells (SCs), which were subjected to oxidative injury after nerve injury, might contribute to the beneficial effect of GRg1 on nerve regeneration. The present study was designed to investigate the potential beneficial effect of GRg1 on SCs exposed to oxidative injury. The oxidative injury to SCs was induced by hydrogen peroxide. The effect of GRg1 (50 μM) on SCs exposed to oxidative injury was measured by the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione (GSH) and catalase (CAT) in SCs. The cell number and cell viability of SCs were evaluated through fluorescence observation and MTT assay. The apoptosis of SCs induced by oxidative injury was evaluated by an apoptosis assay. The expression and secretion of nerve growth factor (NGF) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) were evaluated using RT-PCR, Western blotting, and an ELISA method. We found that GRg1 significantly up-regulated the level of SOD, GSH and CAT, and decreased the level of MDA in SCs treated with hydrogen peroxide. In addition, GRg1 has been shown to be able to inhibit the proapoptotic effect of hydrogen peroxide, as well as inhibit the detrimental effect of hydrogen peroxide on cell number and cell viability. Furthermore, GRg1 also increased the mRNA levels, protein levels and secretion of NGF and BDNF in SCs after incubation of hydrogen peroxide. Further study showed that preincubation with H89 (a PKA inhibitor) significantly inhibited the effects induced by hydrogen peroxide, indicating that the PKA pathway might be involved in the antioxidant effect and neurotrophic factors (NTFs) promoting effect of GRg1. In addition, a short-term in vivo

  17. Beneficial effects of mild stress (hormetic effects): dietary restriction and health.

    PubMed

    Kouda, Katsuyasu; Iki, Masayuki

    2010-01-01

    Hormesis is defined as a dose-response phenomenon characterized by low-dose stimulation and high-dose inhibition, and has been recognized as representing an overcompensation for mild environmental stress. The beneficial effects of mild stress on aging and longevity have been studied for many years. In experimental animals, mild dietary stress (dietary restriction, DR) without malnutrition delays most age-related physiological changes, and extends maximum and average lifespan. Animal studies have also demonstrated that DR can prevent or lessen the severity of cancer, stroke, coronary heart disease, autoimmune disease, allergy, Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease. The effects of DR are considered to result from hormetic mechanisms. These effects were reported by means of various DR regimens, such as caloric restriction, total-nutrient restriction, alternate-day fasting, and short-term fasting. Mild dietary stress, including restriction of amount or frequency of intake, is the essence of DR. For more than 99% of their history, humans lived as hunter-gatherers and adapted to restrictions in their food supply. On the other hand, an oversufficiency of food for many today has resulted in the current global epidemic of obesity and obesity-related diseases. DR may be used, therefore, as a novel approach for therapeutic intervention in several diseases, when detailed information about effects of mild dietary stress on human health is obtained from clinical trials.

  18. [Beneficial effect of preferred music on cognitive functions in minimally conscious state patients].

    PubMed

    Verger, J; Ruiz, S; Tillmann, B; Ben Romdhane, M; De Quelen, M; Castro, M; Tell, L; Luauté, J; Perrin, F

    2014-11-01

    Several studies have shown that music can boost cognitive functions in normal and brain-damaged subjects. A few studies have suggested a beneficial effect of music in patients with a disorder of consciousness but it is difficult to conclude since they did not use quantified measures and a control condition/group. The aim of the present study was to compare the effect of music to that of a continuous sound on the relational behavior of patients in a minimally conscious state (MCS). Behavioral responses of six MCS patients were evaluated using items from the Coma Recovery Scale-Revised. Weekly evaluation sessions were carried out, over four weeks, under two conditions: following the presentation of either the patient's preferred music, or following a continuous sound (control condition). Qualitative and quantitative analyses showed that twelve of the eighteen sessions (66.6%) showed a better result for the music condition than for the control condition. This new protocol suggests that preferred music has a beneficial effect on the cognitive abilities of MCS patients. The results further suggest that cerebral plasticity may be enhanced in autobiographical (emotional and familiar) contexts. These findings should now be further extended with an increased number of patients to further validate the hypothesis of the beneficial effect of music on cognitive recovery.

  19. SIDE-EFFECTS OF COMMONLY USED CROP PROTECTION PRODUCTS IN PEAR ON TWO BENEFICIAL MIRIDAE BUGS.

    PubMed

    Vrancken, K; Belien, T; Bylemans, D

    2015-01-01

    Anthocoris nemoralis, Anthocoris nemorum and Orius spp. are not the only beneficial predatory bugs inhabiting pear orchards in Belgium. Quite often, the Miridae bugs Heterotoma spp. and Pilophorus spp. can be found during spring and summer in these orchards, thereby feeding on several pests such as psyllids, aphids, spider mites, ... . Side-effects are usually assessed on Anthocoris and Orius spp., but due to the potential importance of Miridae bugs in pest reduction, we tested some commonly used crop protection products used in pear cultivation on Heterotoma planicornis and Pilophorus perplexus (residue-based tests in petri-dishes). One day after treatment, mortalities already could be observed for some products. Seven days after treatment, abamectin, deltamethrin and thiacloprid were considered the most toxic products as stated by the IOBC classification. This outcome was then analysed with regard to different treatment schedules, providing insights in potential side-effects on crop protection treatments on the composition of beneficial fauna in pear orchards.

  20. Anthocyanins in Strawberry Polyphenolic Extract Enhance the Beneficial Effects of Diets with Fructooligosaccharides in the Rat Cecal Environment

    PubMed Central

    Fotschki, Bartosz; Juśkiewicz, Jerzy; Jurgoński, Adam; Kołodziejczyk, Krzysztof; Milala, Joanna; Kosmala, Monika; Zduńczyk, Zenon

    2016-01-01

    The administration of fructooligosaccharides (FOS) beneficially modulates gastrointestinal functions and may enhance the metabolism of polyphenols. However, different polyphenolic components in the diet may have different influences on the activities of the digestive enzymes and microbiota in the gastrointestinal tract. Therefore, a 4-week study of forty-eight male Wistar rats was conducted to investigate the physiological response of the rat cecal environment to diets without and with FOS that contained two different strawberry polyphenolic extracts, specifically EP (polyphenolic profile 60, 35, 5, and 0% ellagitannins, proanthocyanidins, flavonols, anthocyanins, respectively) and EPA (polyphenolic profile: 50, 35, 6, and 9%, respectively). When combined with FOS, both extracts beneficially enhanced the acidification of the cecal digesta (P≤0.05 vs the groups without extracts), but the dietary combination of EPA and FOS elicited the greatest reduction in putrefactive short-chain fatty acid production and the lowest fecal β-glucuronidase activity in the cecum (P≤0.05 vs group EP). Moreover, the addition of dietary FOS elevated the metabolism of the examined strawberry extracts in the cecum and thereby increased the concentrations of the metabolites in the cecal digesta and urine (P≤0.05 vs the group with cellulose). Overall, both strawberry extracts modulated the effects of FOS in the gastrointestinal tract; however, the combination with EPA extract that contained anthocyanins exhibited greater beneficial effects in the lower gut environment than the EP extract. PMID:26882456

  1. Mechanism of beneficial effect of tantalum in hot corrosion of nickel-base superalloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fryburg, G. C.; Stearns, C. A.; Kohl, F. J.

    1977-01-01

    X-ray diffraction and electron microprobe analyses were used to examine a prominent NaTaO3 pattern formed in a number of nickel-base superalloys. It is found that a beneficial effect of tantalum with respect to hot corrosion attack arises from the ability of Ta2O5 to tie up Na2O and prevent the formation of a molten Na2MoO4 phase.

  2. SF-1 expression in the hypothalamus is required for beneficial metabolic effects of exercise

    PubMed Central

    Fujikawa, Teppei; Castorena, Carlos M; Pearson, Mackenzie; Kusminski, Christine M; Ahmed, Newaz; Battiprolu, Pavan K; Kim, Ki Woo; Lee, Syann; Hill, Joseph A; Scherer, Philipp E; Holland, William L; Elmquist, Joel K

    2016-01-01

    Exercise has numerous beneficial metabolic effects. The central nervous system (CNS) is critical for regulating energy balance and coordinating whole body metabolism. However, a role for the CNS in the regulation of metabolism in the context of the exercise remains less clear. Here, using genetically engineered mice we assessed the requirement of steroidogenic factor-1 (SF-1) expression in neurons of the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus (VMH) in mediating the beneficial effects of exercise on metabolism. We found that VMH-specific deletion of SF-1 blunts (a) the reductions in fat mass, (b) improvements in glycemia, and (c) increases in energy expenditure that are associated with exercise training. Unexpectedly, we found that SF-1 deletion in the VMH attenuates metabolic responses of skeletal muscle to exercise, including induction of PGC-1α expression. Collectively, this evidence suggests that SF-1 expression in VMH neurons is required for the beneficial effects of exercise on metabolism. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.18206.001 PMID:27874828

  3. Beneficial effects of pro-/antioxidant-based nutraceuticals in the skin rejuvenation techniques.

    PubMed

    de Luca, C; Deeva, I; Mikhal'Chik, E; Korkina, L

    2007-04-15

    Modern technologies of skin rejuvenation include many physical and chemical intervention tools--laser irradiation, oxygen and ozone therapy, chemical peels, plastic surgery operations--affecting by different mechanisms the sensitive physiological free radical/antioxidant balance in the skin. All these interventions induce from mild to severe tissue damage, providing beneficial biochemical stimuli for skin re-epithelization and rejuvenation. Paradoxically, free radical production in the course of tissue inflammation helps to combat free radical damage consequent to the ageing process. We have studied two animal models (experimental burn and trichloracetic peeling), reproducing on the Wistar rat the effects generated by the commonly practiced aesthetic medicine procedures of laser resurfacing and chemical peels, demonstrating that the severe oxidative stress induced both systemically and on skin can be modulated by the oral pre- and post treatment administration of specific nutraceutical formulations. Potent antioxidants (RRR-alpha-tocopherol, coenzyme Q10), enhancing antioxidant defences, coupled with mild pro-oxidants, enhancers of a specific immune defense (soy phospholipids, L-methionine), at the blood and the skin levels, proved in fact to be beneficial in vivo, on the rat, for skin healing, trophism and accelerated re-epithelization. Data obtained allow us to predict the possibility of innovative protocols for dermocosmetology, enabling successful lowering of the risk of permanent adverse effects, and prolonging the duration of the beneficial effects of dermocosmetologic procedures.

  4. HDAC inhibition imparts beneficial transgenerational effects in Huntington's disease mice via altered DNA and histone methylation

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Haiqun; Morris, Charles D.; Williams, Roy M.; Loring, Jeanne F.; Thomas, Elizabeth A.

    2015-01-01

    Increasing evidence has demonstrated that epigenetic factors can profoundly influence gene expression and, in turn, influence resistance or susceptibility to disease. Epigenetic drugs, such as histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors, are finding their way into clinical practice, although their exact mechanisms of action are unclear. To identify mechanisms associated with HDAC inhibition, we performed microarray analysis on brain and muscle samples treated with the HDAC1/3-targeting inhibitor, HDACi 4b. Pathways analyses of microarray datasets implicate DNA methylation as significantly associated with HDAC inhibition. Further assessment of DNA methylation changes elicited by HDACi 4b in human fibroblasts from normal controls and patients with Huntington’s disease (HD) using the Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip revealed a limited, but overlapping, subset of methylated CpG sites that were altered by HDAC inhibition in both normal and HD cells. Among the altered loci of Y chromosome-linked genes, KDM5D, which encodes Lys (K)-specific demethylase 5D, showed increased methylation at several CpG sites in both normal and HD cells, as well as in DNA isolated from sperm from drug-treated male mice. Further, we demonstrate that first filial generation (F1) offspring from drug-treated male HD transgenic mice show significantly improved HD disease phenotypes compared with F1 offspring from vehicle-treated male HD transgenic mice, in association with increased Kdm5d expression, and decreased histone H3 Lys4 (K4) (H3K4) methylation in the CNS of male offspring. Additionally, we show that overexpression of Kdm5d in mutant HD striatal cells significantly improves metabolic deficits. These findings indicate that HDAC inhibitors can elicit transgenerational effects, via cross-talk between different epigenetic mechanisms, to have an impact on disease phenotypes in a beneficial manner. PMID:25535382

  5. Beneficial Effects of a Flavonoid Fraction of Herba Epimedii on Bone Metabolism in Ovariectomized Rats.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Bing-jie; Wang, Jing; Song, Jie; Wang, Chun-fei; Gu, Jun-fei; Yuan, Jia-rui; Zhang, Li; Jiang, Jun; Feng, Liang; Jia, Xiao-bin

    2016-03-01

    A flavonoid fraction of Herba Epimedii, including eight flavonoid glycoside compounds, epimedoside A, ikarisoside F, baohuoside II, sagittatoside A, sagittatoside B, 7-O-rhamnosyl icariside II, 2"-O-rhamnosyl icariside II, and baohuoside I, was isolated and prepared from the leaves of Herba Epimedii. This study was conducted to assess the potential effect of the flavonoid fraction of Herba Epimedii on osteoporosis in ovariectomized rats. Rats received repeated administration of a vehicle (ovariectomized), the flavonoid fraction of Herba Epimedii (7.5, 15, 30 mg/kg/d), and ipriflavone (200 mg/kg/d) once a day for 8 weeks, beginning 4 weeks after ovariectomization. Then, the bone turnover markers, bone biomechanical properties, trabecular architecture, and related protein expressions were evaluated by biochemical assay kits, mechanical testing, microcomputed tomography, immunohistochemical evaluation, and Western blot analysis. Treatment with the flavonoid fraction of Herba Epimedii (15, 30 mg/kg/d) and ipriflavone (200 mg/kg/d) significantly increased bone strength while dramatically inhibiting the serum alkaline phosphatase and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase levels in ovariectomized rats. Furthermore, the flavonoid fraction of Herba Epimedii also increased osteoprotegerin protein expression and reduced the receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand protein expression compared with ovariectomized rats. In addition, the microcomputed tomography results showed that the flavonoid fraction of Herba Epimedii treatment significantly improved trabecular bone mineral density and restored the bone microarchitecture in ovariectomized rats. Therefore, our results indicated that the flavonoid fraction of Herba Epimedii might be beneficial for improving postmenopausal osteoporosis and should be considered as a promising candidate for treating postmenopausal osteoporosis.

  6. Beneficial effects of melatonin on in vitro bovine embryonic development are mediated by melatonin receptor 1.

    PubMed

    Wang, Feng; Tian, XiuZhi; Zhang, Lu; Gao, Chao; He, ChangJiu; Fu, Yao; Ji, PengYun; Li, Yu; Li, Ning; Liu, GuoShi

    2014-04-01

    In the current study, a fundamental question, that is, the mechanisms related to the beneficial effects of melatonin on mammalian embryonic development, was addressed. To examine the potential beneficial effects of melatonin on bovine embryonic development, different concentrations of melatonin (10(-11), 10(-9), 10(-7), 10(-5), 10(-3) M) were incubated with fertilized embryos. Melatonin in the range of 10(-11) to 10(-5) M significantly promoted embryonic development both in early culture medium (CR1aa +3 mg/mL BSA) and in later culture medium (CR1aa + 6%FBS). The most effective concentrations applied in the current studies were 10(-9) and 10(-7) M. Using quantitative real-time PCR with immunofluorescence and Western blot assays, the expression of melatonin receptor MT1 and MT2 genes was identified in bovine embryos. Further studies indicate that the beneficial effects of melatonin on bovine embryo development were mediated by the MT1 receptor. This is based on the facts that luzindole, a nonselective MT1 and MT2 antagonist, blocked the effect on melatonin-induced embryo development, while 4-P-PDOT, a selective MT2 antagonist, had little effect. Mechanistic explorations uncovered that melatonin application during bovine embryonic development significantly up-regulated the expression of antioxidative (Gpx4, SOD1, bcl-2) and developmentally important genes (SLC2A1, DNMT1A, and DSC2) while down-regulating expression of pro-apoptotic genes (P53, BAX, and Caspase-3). The results obtained from the current studies provide new information regarding the mechanisms by which melatonin promotes bovine embryonic development under both in vitro and in vivo conditions.

  7. Beneficial effects of Monascus purpureus NTU 568-fermented products: a review.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yeu-Ching; Pan, Tzu-Ming

    2011-05-01

    Monascus-fermented products have been used in food, medicine, and industry dating back over a thousand years in Asian countries. Monascus-fermented products contained several bioactive metabolites such as pigments, polyketide monacolins, dimerumic acid, and γ-aminobutyric acid. Scientific reports showed that Monascus-fermented products proved to be effective for the management of blood cholesterol, diabetes, blood pressure, obesity, Alzheimer's disease, and prevention of cancer development. This review article describes the beneficial effects about using Monascus-fermented products in human beings and animals.

  8. Distractor Detection and Suppression Have a Beneficial Effect on Attentional Blink

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jing; Li, Hong; Ding, Cody; Chen, Antao

    2012-01-01

    Background Attentional blink (AB) is a phenomenon that describes the difficulty individuals have in reporting the second of two masked targets if the second target (T2) arrives 200–500 ms after the first target (T1). Recent studies explain the AB from cognitive resources limitation to distractors interference. For example, the temporary loss of control (TLC) hypothesis suggests that the AB is conduced by distractors disrupting the input filter for target processing. The inhibition models suggest that the T1+1 distractor triggers a suppression mechanism which could be beneficial for T1 processing but would suppress T2 at short T1–T2 lags. These models consider that the AB is caused by the appearance of distractors. However, in the present study, two methods were taken to help individuals to detect the distractors more effectively. An attenuated AB deficit was found when the distractors could be excluded or suppressed in time. We consider that under an appropriate condition the distractors detection and suppression have a beneficial effect on attentional blink. Methodology/Principal Findings Two methods were employed to help individuals to detect the distractors more effectively: enlarging the low-level-physical characteristic difference between targets and distractors (Experiment 1) and restricting the sets of distractors (Experiment 2). Attenuated AB deficits were found as using the above manipulations. Conclusions/Significance The present study found when the distractors are detected or identified quickly, they could be effectively suppressed, in order to reduce the interference from the targets and result in a smaller AB deficit. We suggest that the suppression mechanism for distractors have a beneficial effect on AB. PMID:22984558

  9. Polluter-financed environmentally beneficial expenditures: Effective use or improper abuse of citizen suits under the Clean Water Act

    SciTech Connect

    Mann, D.S. )

    1991-01-01

    In 1970, recognizing the cumbersome and often ineffective enforcement mechanisms in existing federal water and air pollution statutes, Congress passed the first citizen suit provision. This provision of the Clean Water Act was the subject of intense debate and underwent several transitions before it was finally adopted. With the advent of citizen suits in environmental legislation, Congress opened the courts to the public. Citizen suit provisions allowed private citizens to serve as watch-dogs of both industry and government, creating an additional check in the enforcement schemes established by Congress. But the provisions allowed only for enforcement, not for the right to sue for damages. The remedies available to citizen-plaintiffs were injunctive relief and, in the case of the Clean Water Act, civil penalties payable to the US Treasury. Focusing on the Clean Water Act, this Comment explores the use of alternative payments as settlement of Clean Water Act citizen suits: polluter-financed environmentally beneficial expenditures. As established through consent decrees, these expenditures go to local cleanup, research, and educational projects in the area of Clean Water Act violations, in lieu of or in addition to civil penalties. While the US Department of Justice has objected to the use of such settlements, one apellate court has ratified their use. This essay postulates that environmentally beneficial expenditures established through consent decrees are an important and effective use of the Clean Water Act's citizen suit provision, serving the dual goals of deterring polluters and mitigating the effects of past violations.

  10. Coffee: A Selected Overview of Beneficial or Harmful Effects on the Cardiovascular System?

    PubMed

    Whayne, Thomas F

    2015-01-01

    With a history that began in 800 A.D., coffee is the most popular drink known and as a result, the issues regarding its physiologic effects deserve attention. Maintaining alertness is a wellknown benefit and in addition, the cardiovascular (CV) effects of the active compounds, which include polyphenols and caffeine, must be considered. Genetics are relevant and where slow caffeine metabolism is inherent, the risk of nonfatal myocardial (MI) has been shown to be increased. Overall risk for coronary heart disease (CHD) is not supported and unless there is excessive intake, congestive heart failure (CHF) is not adversely affected; in moderation, there may be some benefit for CHF. There is no apparent increased risk of sudden cardiac death (SCD). Overall, there also appears to be a beneficial inverse association with all-cause mortality, although this is not absolute for extra heavy intake. Benefit in reducing stroke also has supportive evidence. Hypertension is not increased by coffee. Boiled and unfiltered coffee appears to increase plasma cholesterol and triglycerides but for the overall metabolic syndrome, there appears to be benefit. There is also some evidence that paper-filtered coffee results in an increase in some markers of inflammation. Association of coffee with arrhythmias has been a major concern though in moderation it is not a significant overall problem. Therefore, only if a patient were to associate major arrhythmic symptoms with coffee would cessation have to be advised. Where coffee clearly shines from a CV standpoint is in the established decrease in onset of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). Any benefit or harm has always been attributed to caffeine as the apparent major component. However, coffee contains a myriad of compounds, including polyphenols. These other substances may be most relevant for potential benefit or harm and some of these may be partially removed or altered by coffee preparation methods such as paper filtration. Multiple studies

  11. Beneficial effect of shallot (Allium ascalonicum L.) extract on cyclosporine nephrotoxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Wongmekiat, O; Leelarugrayub, N; Thamprasert, K

    2008-05-01

    The clinical use of an immunosuppressive cyclosporine A (CsA) is limited by its serious nephrotoxic effect. Evidences have suggested the role of oxidative stress in its pathogenesis. Shallot (Allium ascalonicum L.) has recently been shown to possess antioxidative and free radical scavenging abilities. The present study was undertaken to investigate the possible beneficial effect of shallot extract on renal injury caused by CsA. Male Wistar rats were treated orally with vehicle, CsA (25 mg/kg), shallot extract (1 g/kg), and CsA plus shallot extract for 21 days. Renal function, histopathology, tissue malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione (GSH) levels were evaluated 24 h after the last treatment. CsA-induced nephrotoxicity was evidenced by increased blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine, but decreased urea and creatinine clearance. The kidney of CsA treated rats exhibited severe vacuolations and tubular necrosis. CsA also induced oxidative stress, as indicated by increased renal MDA and reduced GSH concentrations. Administration of shallot extract along with CsA counteracted the deleterious effects of CsA on renal dysfunction, oxidative stress markers, and morphological changes. These data indicate the protective potential of shallot extract against CsA nephrotoxicity and suggest a significant contribution of its antioxidant property to this beneficial effect.

  12. Beneficial effects of nicotine, cotinine and its metabolites as potential agents for Parkinson’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Barreto, George E.; Iarkov, Alexander; Moran, Valentina Echeverria

    2015-01-01

    Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder, which is characterized by neuroinflammation, dopaminergic neuronal cell death and motor dysfunction, and for which there are no proven effective treatments. The negative correlation between tobacco consumption and PD suggests that tobacco-derived compounds can be beneficial against PD. Nicotine, the more studied alkaloid derived from tobacco, is considered to be responsible for the beneficial behavioral and neurological effects of tobacco use in PD. However, several metabolites of nicotine, such as cotinine, also increase in the brain after nicotine administration. The effect of nicotine and some of its derivatives on dopaminergic neurons viability, neuroinflammation, and motor and memory functions, have been investigated using cellular and rodent models of PD. Current evidence shows that nicotine, and some of its derivatives diminish oxidative stress and neuroinflammation in the brain and improve synaptic plasticity and neuronal survival of dopaminergic neurons. In vivo these effects resulted in improvements in mood, motor skills and memory in subjects suffering from PD pathology. In this review, we discuss the potential benefits of nicotine and its derivatives for treating PD. PMID:25620929

  13. Adverse and beneficial effects of plant extracts on skin and skin disorders.

    PubMed

    Mantle, D; Gok, M A; Lennard, T W

    2001-06-01

    Plants are of relevance to dermatology for both their adverse and beneficial effects on skin and skin disorders respectively. Virtually all cultures worldwide have relied historically, or continue to rely on medicinal plants for primary health care. Approximately one-third of all traditional medicines are for treatment of wounds or skin disorders, compared to only 1-3% of modern drugs. The use of such medicinal plant extracts for the treatment of skin disorders arguably has been based largely on historical/anecdotal evidence, since there has been relatively little data available in the scientific literature, particularly with regard to the efficacy of plant extracts in controlled clinical trials. In this article therefore, adverse and beneficial aspects of medicinal plants relating to skin and skin disorders have been reviewed, based on recently available information from the peer-reviewed scientific literature. Beneficial aspects of medicinal plants on skin include: healing of wounds and burn injuries (especially Aloe vera); antifungal, antiviral, antibacterial and acaricidal activity against skin infections such as acne, herpes and scabies (especially tea tree (Melaleuca alternifolia) oil); activity against inflammatory/immune disorders affecting skin (e.g. psoriasis); and anti-tumour promoting activity against skin cancer (identified using chemically-induced two-stage carcinogenesis in mice). Adverse effects of plants on skin reviewed include: irritant contact dermatitis caused mechanically (spines, irritant hairs) or by irritant chemicals in plant sap (especially members of the Ranunculaceae, Euphorbiaceae and Compositae plant families); phytophotodermatitis resulting from skin contamination by plants containing furocoumarins, and subsequent exposure to UV light (notably members of the Umbelliferae and Rutaceae plant families); and immediate (type I) or delayed hypersensitivity contact reactions mediated by the immune system in individuals sensitized to plants

  14. Beneficial Effects of Dietary Nitrate on Endothelial Function and Blood Pressure Levels

    PubMed Central

    d'El-Rei, Jenifer; Cunha, Ana Rosa; Trindade, Michelle; Neves, Mario Fritsch

    2016-01-01

    Poor eating habits may represent cardiovascular risk factors since high intake of fat and saturated fatty acids contributes to dyslipidemia, obesity, diabetes mellitus, and hypertension. Thus, nutritional interventions are recognized as important strategies for primary prevention of hypertension and as adjuvants to pharmacological therapies to reduce cardiovascular risk. The DASH (Dietary Approach to Stop Hypertension) plan is one of the most effective strategies for the prevention and nonpharmacological management of hypertension. The beneficial effects of DASH diet on blood pressure might be related to the high inorganic nitrate content of some food products included in this meal plan. The beetroot and other food plants considered as nitrate sources account for approximately 60–80% of the daily nitrate exposure in the western population. The increased levels of nitrite by nitrate intake seem to have beneficial effects in many of the physiological and clinical settings. Several clinical trials are being conducted to determine the broad therapeutic potential of increasing the bioavailability of nitrite in human health and disease, including studies related to vascular aging. In conclusion, the dietary inorganic nitrate seems to represent a promising complementary therapy to support hypertension treatment with benefits for cardiovascular health. PMID:27088010

  15. Working memory capacity predicts the beneficial effect of selective memory retrieval.

    PubMed

    Schlichting, Andreas; Aslan, Alp; Holterman, Christoph; Bäuml, Karl-Heinz T

    2015-01-01

    Selective retrieval of some studied items can both impair and improve recall of the other items. This study examined the role of working memory capacity (WMC) for the two effects of memory retrieval. Participants studied an item list consisting of predefined target and nontarget items. After study of the list, half of the participants performed an imagination task supposed to induce a change in mental context, whereas the other half performed a counting task which does not induce such context change. Following presentation of a second list, memory for the original list's target items was tested, either with or without preceding retrieval of the list's nontarget items. Consistent with previous work, preceding nontarget retrieval impaired target recall in the absence of the context change, but improved target recall in its presence. In particular, there was a positive relationship between WMC and the beneficial, but not the detrimental effect of memory retrieval. On the basis of the view that the beneficial effect of memory retrieval reflects context-reactivation processes, the results indicate that individuals with higher WMC are better able to capitalise on retrieval-induced context reactivation than individuals with lower WMC.

  16. Beneficial Effects of Dietary Nitrate on Endothelial Function and Blood Pressure Levels.

    PubMed

    d'El-Rei, Jenifer; Cunha, Ana Rosa; Trindade, Michelle; Neves, Mario Fritsch

    2016-01-01

    Poor eating habits may represent cardiovascular risk factors since high intake of fat and saturated fatty acids contributes to dyslipidemia, obesity, diabetes mellitus, and hypertension. Thus, nutritional interventions are recognized as important strategies for primary prevention of hypertension and as adjuvants to pharmacological therapies to reduce cardiovascular risk. The DASH (Dietary Approach to Stop Hypertension) plan is one of the most effective strategies for the prevention and nonpharmacological management of hypertension. The beneficial effects of DASH diet on blood pressure might be related to the high inorganic nitrate content of some food products included in this meal plan. The beetroot and other food plants considered as nitrate sources account for approximately 60-80% of the daily nitrate exposure in the western population. The increased levels of nitrite by nitrate intake seem to have beneficial effects in many of the physiological and clinical settings. Several clinical trials are being conducted to determine the broad therapeutic potential of increasing the bioavailability of nitrite in human health and disease, including studies related to vascular aging. In conclusion, the dietary inorganic nitrate seems to represent a promising complementary therapy to support hypertension treatment with benefits for cardiovascular health.

  17. A Review of Fermented Foods with Beneficial Effects on Brain and Cognitive Function

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Binna; Hong, Veronica Minsu; Yang, Jeongwon; Hyun, Heejung; Im, Jooyeon Jamie; Hwang, Jaeuk; Yoon, Sujung; Kim, Jieun E.

    2016-01-01

    Around the world, fermentation of foods has been adopted over many generations, primarily due to their commercial significance with enriched flavors and high-profile nutrients. The increasing application of fermented foods is further promoted by recent evidence on their health benefits, beyond the traditionally recognized effects on the digestive system. With recent advances in the understanding of gut-brain interactions, there have also been reports suggesting the fermented food’s efficacy, particularly for cognitive function improvements. These results are strengthened by the proposed biological effects of fermented foods, including neuroprotection against neurotoxicity and reactive oxygen species. This paper reviews the beneficial health effects of fermented foods with particular emphasis on cognitive enhancement and neuroprotective effects. With an extensive review of fermented foods and their potential cognitive benefits, this paper may promote commercially feasible applications of fermented foods as natural remedies to cognitive problems. PMID:28078251

  18. Beneficial effects of lysosome-modulating and other pharmacological and nanocarrier agents on amyloid-beta-treated cells.

    PubMed

    Kanazirska, Marie V; Fuchs, Philipp M; Chen, Liping; Lal, Sumit; Verma, Jyoti; Vassilev, Peter M

    2012-12-01

    The progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is accompanied by disturbances of the endosome/lysosome (EL) system and there is accumulation of peptides of the AD-associated amyloid beta (Abeta) type in EL vesicles of affected neurons. EL modulating agents partially ameliorate the Abeta-mediated cell abnormalities. However, no extensive studies on the potential pharmaceutical applications of combinations of such agents and their synergistic effects have been performed. This study shows the beneficial anti-amyloid effects of several combinations of lysosomal modulators and other pharmacological and new nanobiotechnological agents. Some agents potentiated each other's action and some of them facilitated the anti-amyloid actions of memantine, a modifier of Ca2+-permeable channels involved in AD and one of the few drugs used for treatment of AD. Another compound used in nanobiotechnology ameliorated as a nanocarrier the beneficial effects of some of these potential pharmaceutical agents. They may be considered as additional drugs to improve the efficacy of the therapeutic approaches for AD and related neurodegenerative disorders.

  19. Beneficial effects of quercetin-iron complexes on serum and tissue lipids and redox status in obese rats.

    PubMed

    Imessaoudene, Asmahan; Merzouk, Hafida; Berroukeche, Farid; Mokhtari, Nassima; Bensenane, Bachir; Cherrak, Sabri; Merzouk, Sid Ahmed; Elhabiri, Mourad

    2016-03-01

    Obesity is characterized by iron deficiency, carbohydrate and fat alterations as well as oxidative stress. Iron status monitoring is recommended because of the conventional oral iron preparations that frequently exacerbate the already present oxidative stress. Iron complexation by natural antioxidants can be exploited. We herein investigated the metabolic effects of quercetin (25 mg/kg/day), iron (2.5 mg Fe/kg/day) or quercetin-iron complexes (molar ratio 5:1; 25 mg/2.5 mg/kg/day) in animal models of obesity. Our results emphasized that obese rats displayed metabolic alterations that were worsened by iron supplementation. In contrast, quercetin used alone or as iron complex clearly prevented adipose fat accumulation and alleviated the hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, liver steatosis and oxidative stress. In addition, it induced a modulation of lipase activities in obese rats. Interestingly, quercetin-iron complexes showed enhanced beneficial effects such as a corrected iron deficiency in obese rats when compared to quercetin alone. In conclusion, antianemic, hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic and antioxidative effects of the quercetin-iron complexes shed a light on their beneficial use against obesity-related metabolic alterations.

  20. Unravelling the beneficial role of microbial contributors in reducing the allelopathic effects of weeds.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Sandhya; Upadhyay, Ram Sanmukh; Nautiyal, Chandra Shekhar

    2013-07-01

    The field of allelopathy is one of the most fascinating but controversial processes in plant ecology that offers an exciting, interdisciplinary, complex, and challenging study. In spite of the established role of soil microbes in plant health, their role has also been consolidated in studies of allelopathy. Moreover, allelopathy can be better understood by incorporating soil microbial ecology that determines the relevance of allelopathy phenomenon. Therefore, while discussing the role of allelochemicals in plant-plant interactions, the dynamic nature of soil microbes should not be overlooked. The occurrence and toxicity of allelochemicals in soil depend on various factors, but the type of microflora in the surroundings plays a crucial role because it can interfere with its allelopathic nature. Such microbes could be of prime importance for biological control management of weeds reducing the cost and ill effects of chemical herbicides. Among microbes, our main focus is on bacteria--as they are dominant among other microbes and are being used for enhancing crop production for decades--and fungi. Hence, to refer to both bacteria and fungi, we have used the term microbes. This review discusses the beneficial role of microbes in reducing the allelopathic effects of weeds. The review is mainly focused on various functions of bacteria in (1) reducing allelopathic inhibition caused by weeds to reduce crop yield loss, (2) building inherent defense capacity in plants against allelopathic weed, and (3) deciphering beneficial rhizospheric process such as chemotaxis/biofilm, degradation of toxic allelochemicals, and induced gene expression.

  1. Respiratory Antiviral Immunity and Immunobiotics: Beneficial Effects on Inflammation-Coagulation Interaction during Influenza Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Zelaya, Hortensia; Alvarez, Susana; Kitazawa, Haruki; Villena, Julio

    2016-01-01

    Influenza virus (IFV) is a major respiratory pathogen of global importance, and the cause of a high degree of morbidity and mortality, especially in high-risk populations such as infants, elderly, and immunocompromised hosts. Given its high capacity to change antigenically, acquired immunity is often not effective to limit IFV infection and therefore vaccination must be constantly redesigned to achieve effective protection. Improvement of respiratory and systemic innate immune mechanisms has been proposed to reduce the incidence and severity of IFV disease. In the last decade, several research works have demonstrated that microbes with the capacity to modulate the mucosal immune system (immunobiotics) are a potential alternative to beneficially modulate the outcome of IFV infection. This review provides an update of the current status on the modulation of respiratory immunity by orally and nasally administered immunobiotics, and their beneficial impact on IFV clearance and inflammatory-mediated lung tissue damage. In particular, we describe the research of our group that investigated the influence of immunobiotics on inflammation–coagulation interactions during IFV infection. Studies have clearly demonstrated that hostile inflammation is accompanied by dysfunctional coagulation in respiratory IFV disease, and our investigations have proved that some immunobiotic strains are able to reduce viral disease severity through their capacity to modulate the immune-coagulative responses in the respiratory tract. PMID:28066442

  2. Good morning creativity: task reactivation during sleep enhances beneficial effect of sleep on creative performance.

    PubMed

    Ritter, Simone M; Strick, Madelijn; Bos, Maarten W; van Baaren, Rick B; Dijksterhuis, Ap

    2012-12-01

    Both scientists and artists have suggested that sleep facilitates creativity, and this idea has received substantial empirical support. In the current study, we investigate whether one can actively enhance the beneficial effect of sleep on creativity by covertly reactivating the creativity task during sleep. Individuals' creative performance was compared after three different conditions: sleep-with-conditioned-odor; sleep-with-control-odor; or sleep-with-no-odor. In the evening prior to sleep, all participants were presented with a problem that required a creative solution. In the two odor conditions, a hidden scent-diffuser spread an odor while the problem was presented. In the sleep-with-conditioned-odor condition, task reactivation during sleep was induced by means of the odor that was also presented while participants were informed about the problem. In the sleep-with-control-odor condition, participants were exposed to a different odor during sleep than the one diffused during problem presentation. In the no odor condition, no odor was presented. After a night of sleep with the conditioned odor, participants were found to be: (i) more creative; and (ii) better able to select their most creative idea than participants who had been exposed to a control odor or no odor while sleeping. These findings suggest that we do not have to passively wait until we are hit by our creative muse while sleeping. Task reactivation during sleep can actively trigger creativity-related processes during sleep and thereby boost the beneficial effect of sleep on creativity.

  3. Beneficial effect of long term intravenous bisphosphonate treatment of osteogenesis imperfecta

    PubMed Central

    Astrom, E; Soderhall, S

    2002-01-01

    Aim: To find an effective symptomatic treatment for osteogenesis imperfecta (OI). Methods: In a prospective observational study disodium pamidronate (APD) was given as monthly intravenous infusions to 28 children and adolescents (aged 0.6–18 years) with severe OI or a milder form of the disease, but with spinal compression fractures. Results: During treatment for 2–9 years, dual energy x ray absorptiometry measurements of the total body and of the lumbar spine showed a gradual increase in bone density. All bone metabolism variables in serum (alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin, procollagen 1 C-terminal peptide, collagen 1 teleopeptide) and urine (deoxypyridinoline) indicated that there was a decrease in bone turnover. All patients experienced beneficial effects and the younger patients reported a major improvement in wellbeing, pain, and mobility without significant side effects. Vertebral remodelling was also seen. Conclusions: APD seems to be an efficient symptomatic treatment for children and adolescents with OI. PMID:11970931

  4. Analyzing Beneficial Effects of Nutritional Supplements on Intestinal Epithelial Barrier Functions During Experimental Colitis.

    PubMed

    Vargas Robles, Hilda; Castro Ochoa, Karla Fabiola; Nava, Porfirio; Silva Olivares, Angélica; Shibayama, Mineko; Schnoor, Michael

    2017-01-05

    Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), including Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, are chronic relapsing disorders of the intestines. They cause severe problems, such as abdominal cramping, bloody diarrhea, and weight loss, in affected individuals. Unfortunately, there is no cure yet, and treatments only aim to alleviate symptoms. Current treatments include anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive drugs that may cause severe side effects. This warrants the search for alternative treatment options, such as nutritional supplements, that do not cause side effects. Before their application in clinical studies, such compounds must be rigorously tested for effectiveness and security in animal models. A reliable experimental model is the dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) colitis model in mice, which reproduces many of the clinical signs of ulcerative colitis in humans. We recently applied this model to test the beneficial effects of a nutritional supplement containing vitamins C and E, L-arginine, and ω3-polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). We analyzed various disease parameters and found that this supplement was able to ameliorate edema formation, tissue damage, leukocyte infiltration, oxidative stress, and the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, leading to an overall improvement in the disease activity index. In this article, we explain in detail the correct application of nutritional supplements using the DSS colitis model in C57Bl/6 mice, as well as how disease parameters such as histology, oxidative stress, and inflammation are assessed. Analyzing the beneficial effects of different diet supplements may then eventually open new avenues for the development of alternative treatment strategies that alleviate IBD symptoms and/or that prolong the phases of remission without causing severe side effects.

  5. Exposure to cigarette smoke abrogates the beneficial effect of ischemic postconditioning.

    PubMed

    Bibli, Sofia-Iris; Andreadou, Ioanna; Glynos, Constantinos; Chatzianastasiou, Athanasia; Toumpanakis, Dimitris; Zakynthinos, Spyros; Vasilakopoulos, Theodoros; Iliodromitis, Efstathios K; Papapetropoulos, Andreas

    2016-11-01

    Cigarette smoking is one of the risk factors for coronary artery disease. Although conditioning decreases infarct size in hearts from healthy animals, comorbidities may render it ineffective. We investigated the effects of cigarette smoke (CS) exposure on intracellular myocardial signaling, infarct size after ischemia-reperfusion, and the potential interference with ischemic conditioning. Exposure of mice to CS increased blood pressure, caused cardiac hypertrophy, and upregulated the nitric oxide synthatse (NOS)/soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC)/cGMP pathway. To test the effect of CS exposure on the endogenous cardioprotective mechanisms, mice were subjected to regional myocardial ischemia and reperfusion with no further intervention or application of preconditioning (PreC) or postconditioning (PostC). Exposure to CS did not increase the infarction compared with the room air (RA)-exposed group. PreC was beneficial for both CS and RA vs. nonconditioned animals. PostC was effective only in RA animals, while the infarct size-limiting effect was not preserved in the CS group. Differences in oxidative stress markers, Akt, and endothelial NOS phosphorylation and cGMP levels were observed between RA and CS groups subjected to PostC. In conclusion, exposure to CS does not per se increase infarct size. The beneficial effect of ischemic PreC is preserved in mice exposed to CS, as it does not affect the cardioprotective signaling; in contrast, PostC fails to protect CS-exposed mice due to impaired activation of the Akt/eNOS/cGMP axis that occurs in parallel to enhanced oxidative stress.

  6. Beneficial effects of melatonin on bovine oocytes maturation: a mechanistic approach.

    PubMed

    Tian, XiuZhi; Wang, Feng; He, ChangJiu; Zhang, Lu; Tan, DunXian; Reiter, Russel J; Xu, Jing; Ji, PengYun; Liu, GuoShi

    2014-10-01

    This study was performed to investigate the effect of melatonin on bovine oocyte maturation and subsequent embryonic development in vitro. The endogenous melatonin concentration in bovine follicular fluid is approximately 10(-11) M. To examine the potential beneficial effects of melatonin on bovine oocyte maturation in vitro, germinal vesicle (GV) oocytes were incubated with different concentrations of melatonin (10(-11), 10(-9), 10(-7), 10(-5), 10(-3) M). Melatonin supplementation at suitable concentrations significantly promoted oocyte maturation. The development of embryos and the mean cell number/blastocyst produced after in vitro fertilization were remarkably improved. The most effective melatonin concentrations obtained from the studies ranged from 10(-9) to 10(-7) M. The expression of melatonin receptor MT1 and MT2 genes was identified in cumulus cells, granulosa cells, and oocytes using reverse transcription PCR, immunofluorescence, and Western blot. The mechanistic studies show that the beneficial effects of melatonin on bovine oocyte maturation are mediated via melatonin membrane receptors as the melatonin receptor agonist (IIK7) promotes this effect while the melatonin receptor antagonist (luzindole) blocks this action. Mechanistic explorations revealed that melatonin supplementation during bovine oocyte maturation significantly up-regulated the expressions of oocyte maturation-associated genes (GDF9, MARF1, and DNMT1a) and cumulus cells expansion-related gene (PTX3, HAS1/2) and that LHR1/2, EGFR are involved in signal transduction and epigenetic reprogramming. The results obtained from the studies provide new information regarding the mechanisms by which melatonin promotes bovine oocyte maturation in vitro and provide an important reference for in vitro embryo production of bovine and the human-assisted reproductive technology.

  7. The beneficial effect of testing: an event-related potential study

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Cheng-Hua; Bridger, Emma K.; Zimmer, Hubert D.; Mecklinger, Axel

    2015-01-01

    The enhanced memory performance for items that are tested as compared to being restudied (the testing effect) is a frequently reported memory phenomenon. According to the episodic context account of the testing effect, this beneficial effect of testing is related to a process which reinstates the previously learnt episodic information. Few studies have explored the neural correlates of this effect at the time point when testing takes place, however. In this study, we utilized the ERP correlates of successful memory encoding to address this issue, hypothesizing that if the benefit of testing is due to retrieval-related processes at test then subsequent memory effects (SMEs) should resemble the ERP correlates of retrieval-based processing in their temporal and spatial characteristics. Participants were asked to learn Swahili-German word pairs before items were presented in either a testing or a restudy condition. Memory performance was assessed immediately and 1-day later with a cued recall task. Successfully recalling items at test increased the likelihood that items were remembered over time compared to items which were only restudied. An ERP subsequent memory contrast (later remembered vs. later forgotten tested items), which reflects the engagement of processes that ensure items are recallable the next day were topographically comparable with the ERP correlate of immediate recollection (immediately remembered vs. immediately forgotten tested items). This result shows that the processes which allow items to be more memorable over time share qualitatively similar neural correlates with the processes that relate to successful retrieval at test. This finding supports the notion that testing is more beneficial than restudying on memory performance over time because of its engagement of retrieval processes, such as the re-encoding of actively retrieved memory representations. PMID:26441577

  8. Volunteering as reciprocity: beneficial and harmful effects of social policies to encourage contribution in older age.

    PubMed

    Stephens, Christine; Breheny, Mary; Mansvelt, Juliana

    2015-04-01

    Social policy applications of 'active ageing' ideals have recently focussed on volunteering as a beneficial and valuable contribution that older people can make to their communities. In this paper we draw attention to the positive and negative effects of a general imperative to contribute. Understanding the benefits of contribution in terms of the moral force of reciprocity recognises that older people do need and want to contribute to society and these contributions are beneficial for their sense of identity and wellbeing. However, older people vary greatly in their health, financial resources, and social networks and should not be seen as a homogenous group whose members must contribute in the same way. A policy focus on the imperative to contribute as a participating citizen can be oppressive and lead to withdrawal from social engagement by those who are the most in need of support to participate. Priorities for social and organisational policies must include support for the many ways older people are able to be involved in their communities and to provide structures necessary to support their preferences. A focus on individual responsibility for active engagement in society, which does not take account of individual circumstances or past contributions, can be harmful.

  9. Effect of ground cover vegetation on the abundance and diversity of beneficial arthropods in citrus orchards.

    PubMed

    Silva, E B; Franco, J C; Vasconcelos, T; Branco, M

    2010-08-01

    The effect of ground cover upon the communities of beneficial arthropods established in the canopy of lemon trees was investigated, by comparing three ground-cover management treatments applied: RV, resident vegetation; S, sowed selected species; and BS, bare soil by controlling weeds with herbicide. Over two consecutive years, arthropod communities in the tree canopy were sampled periodically by beating and suction techniques. Significantly higher numbers of beneficial arthropods were found in the RV and S treatments in comparison with bare soil. Spiders and parasitoid wasps were the two most common groups, representing, respectively, 70% and 19% of all catches in beating samples and 33% and 53% in suction samples. For the RV and S treatments, significant seasonal deviations from the bare soil treatment were observed using principal response curves. Similar seasonal patterns were observed over the two years. The RV and S treatments showed significant positive deviations from the BS treatment in late spring and summer, accounted for the higher numbers of parasitoid wasps, coccinelids and lacewings present. By contrast, the seasonal deviations observed for the spider community differed from those of the remaining arthropods. During late winter and early spring, the RV and S treatments presented a higher abundance of spiders in the tree canopy, in comparison with bare soil, whereas in the summer significantly more spiders were found in the bare soil treatment. Spider movements between tree canopy and ground vegetation layers may justify this result.

  10. The phenolic compounds of olive oil: structure, biological activity and beneficial effects on human health.

    PubMed

    Tripoli, Elisa; Giammanco, Marco; Tabacchi, Garden; Di Majo, Danila; Giammanco, Santo; La Guardia, Maurizio

    2005-06-01

    The Mediterranean diet is rich in vegetables, cereals, fruit, fish, milk, wine and olive oil and has salutary biological functions. Epidemiological studies have shown a lower incidence of atherosclerosis, cardiovascular diseases and certain kinds of cancer in the Mediterranean area. Olive oil is the main source of fat, and the Mediterranean diet's healthy effects can in particular be attributed not only to the high relationship between unsaturated and saturated fatty acids in olive oil but also to the antioxidant property of its phenolic compounds. The main phenolic compounds, hydroxytyrosol and oleuropein, which give extra-virgin olive oil its bitter, pungent taste, have powerful antioxidant activity both in vivo and in vitro. The present review focuses on recent works analysing the relationship between the structure of olive oil polyphenolic compounds and their antioxidant activity. These compounds' possible beneficial effects are due to their antioxidant activity, which is related to the development of atherosclerosis and cancer, and to anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial activity.

  11. Beneficial Effects of Vildagliptin on Metabolic Parameters in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Shimodaira, Masanori; Niwa, Tomohiro; Nakajima, Koji; Kobayashi, Mutsuhiro

    2015-01-01

    Blood pressure and lipid profile are important determinants of cardiovascular risk in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). To identify the pleiotropic effects of vildagliptin other than blood glucose lowering effect, a retrospective study was conducted in 128 patients with T2DM treated with vildagliptin 50 mg twice daily. The patients were separated into two groups: patients who were initiated with vildagliptin as monotherapy or add-on therapy (add-on group, n = 66) and patients who were switched from sitagliptin 100 mg once daily to vildagliptin (switching group, n = 62). Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), body mass index (BMI), systolic/diastolic blood pressure, lipid profiles, and uric acid (UA) at 3, 6, and 12 months of vildagliptin therapy were compared with those at baseline in each group. At baseline, there were no significant differences in HbA1c, BMI, blood pressures, lipid profiles, and UA levels between the two groups. After vildagliptin initiation, HbA1c decreased significantly but BMI and blood pressure did not change in both groups. Only in the add-on group, total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein cholesterol decreased significantly from baseline to 3, 6, and 12 months. On the other hand, triglyceride and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol did not change in both groups. Serum UA levels decreased only in the switching group from baseline to 3, 6, and 12 months. These results indicate that vildagliptin add-on treatment may have beneficial effects on lipid profiles, and switching from sitagliptin to vildagliptin reduces UA in patients with T2DM; these are important findings linked to the beneficial effects of vildagliptin on lipid and UA metabolisms in the treatment of T2DM.

  12. Beneficial effects of an Integrated Psychostimulation Program in patients with Alzheimer’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Ibarria, Marta; Alegret, Montserrat; Valero, Sergi; Morera, Amèrica; Guitart, Marina; Cañabate, Pilar; Moreno, Mariola; Lara, Susana; Diego, Susana; Hernández, Joan; Tantinyà, Natàlia; Vera, Maribel; Hernández, Isabel; Becker, James T.; Ruíz, Agustín; Boada, Mercè; Tárraga, Lluís

    2016-01-01

    Background The existing pharmacological treatments for Alzheimer disease (AD) can only slow the progression of symptoms or delay admission to long-term care facilities. The beneficial effects of non-drug treatments are poorly studied. Objective To describe the effects of an Integrated Psychostimulation Program (IPP) in patients with mild-moderate AD treated with acetylcholinesterase inhibitors; and to identify factors related to greater benefit of the IPP. Methods 206 patients (mean age= 75.9 years; MMSE= 19.6) were evaluated before starting the IPP and 3, 6, 9 and 12 months later. Measures included: Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Cognitive Subscale of Alzheimer’s Disease Assessment Scale (ADAS-Cog), Rapid Disability Rating Scale (RDRS-2) and Neuropsychiatric Inventory Questionnaire (NPI-Q). Results Patients remained cognitively stable (MMSE/ADAS-Cog) for more than 6 months and significantly worsened at 9-month and 12-month follow-ups, without clinically significant functional changes (RDRS-2) or psychiatric symptoms (NPI-Q). The mean annual change on MMSE and ADAS-Cog were 2.06 and 3.56 points, respectively, lower than the annual decline demonstrated previously in similar patients (2.4 and 4.5, respectively). 42.7% of patients maintained or improved global cognitive scores between baseline and 12-month follow-up. The patients who maintained cognitive functions were older than those who did not (77.5 vs. 74.7 years). Conclusions The IPP may be an effective treatment to maintain cognition, functionality and psychiatric symptoms in AD patients pharmacologically treated, and older age seems to increase beneficial effects of IPP. PMID:26757182

  13. Beneficial effects of ω-3 PUFA in children on cardiovascular risk factors during childhood and adolescence.

    PubMed

    Bonafini, Sara; Antoniazzi, Franco; Maffeis, Claudio; Minuz, Pietro; Fava, Cristiano

    2015-07-01

    Omega-3 polyunsatured fatty acids (ω-3 PUFA) are essential nutrients mainly derived from fish and seafood but present also in vegetables such as nuts and seed-oils. Some epidemiological and clinical studies indicate a protection of ω-3 FA against cardiovascular disease and a favourable effect on cardiovascular risk factors control in adults. The evidences of their effects in children and adolescents are scanty but a possible beneficial role, especially for insulin sensitivity and blood pressure control, has been proposed. In this review we want to focus especially on the evidences, which could justify the assumption of ω-3 in children and adolescents, and to underline the aspects which need further investigation. Mechanisms through which ω-3 FA act are manifolds and still a matter of investigation: beside their interaction with ion channel and their influence on plasma membrane fluidity, probably the main effect is acting as competitor for cytochrome P-450 (CYP) with respect to ω-6 FA. Thus, they can modulate the biosynthesis of eicosanoids and other lipid mediators, which likely exert a protective action. Another suggestive hypothesis is that their beneficial effect is not dependent only on the intake of ω-3 FA, but also on the complex interaction between different nutrients including ω-3 and other FAs with polymorphisms in genes involved in ω-3 FA modulation. This complex interaction has seldom been explored in children and adolescents. Further studies are needed to investigate all these points in order to find a better collocation of ω-3 FA on the available armamentarium for preventive, possibly individualized, medicine.

  14. Serotonin mediates beneficial effects of Hypericum perforatum on nicotine withdrawal signs.

    PubMed

    Mannucci, C; Pieratti, A; Firenzuoli, F; Caputi, A P; Calapai, G

    2007-10-01

    Antidepressants may be effective treatment for smoking cessation and new evidence on relationship between smoking and depression is emerging. Extracts of the plant Hypericum perforatum possess antidepressant activity in humans and reduce nicotine withdrawal signs in mice. Both nicotine and H. perforatum administration elicit changes in serotonin (5-HT) formation in the brain. On this basis, we investigated the possible involvement of 5-HT in the beneficial effects of H. perforatum on nicotine withdrawal signs. With the aim to induce nicotine dependence, nicotine (2 mg/kg, four intraperitoneal injections daily) was administered for 14 days to mice (NM). Saline (controls, M) or H. perforatum extract (Ph 50, 500 mg/kg) were orally administered immediately after the last nicotine injection for 30 days after nicotine withdrawal. Another group of animals treated with nicotine (14 days) and successively with H. perforatum extract was intraperitoneally co-administered with selective 5-HT receptorial antagonist WAY 100635 (WAY) (1 mg/kg). All animals were evaluated for locomotor activity and abstinence signs, 24 after nicotine withdrawal. Brain 5-HT metabolism was evaluated in the cortex of mice sacrificed 30 days after nicotine withdrawal through evaluation of 5-HT, 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) and 5-HIAA/5-HT ratio. After nicotine withdrawal measurement of 5-HT metabolism in the cortex showed a reduction of 5-HT content while animals treated only with Hypericum extract showed a significant reduction of total abstinence score compared to controls. WAY inhibited the reduction of total abstinence score induced by H. perforatum. Moreover, 5-HT1A expression has been evaluated 30 days after nicotine withdrawal. Our results, show a significant increase of cortical 5-HT content in NM treated with H. perforatum, with a concomitant significant increase of 5-HT1A receptor. So, it is possible to suggest an involvement of 5-HT in beneficial effects of H. perforatum on suffering

  15. Novel small-molecule AMPK activator orally exerts beneficial effects on diabetic db/db mice

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Yuan-Yuan; Yu, Li-Fang; Zhang, Li-Na; Qiu, Bei-Ying; Su, Ming-Bo; Wu, Fang; Chen, Da-Kai; Pang, Tao; Gu, Min; Zhang, Wei; Ma, Wei-Ping; Jiang, Hao-Wen; Li, Jing-Ya Nan, Fa-Jun Li, Jia

    2013-12-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), which is a pivotal guardian of whole-body energy metabolism, has become an attractive therapeutic target for metabolic syndrome. Previously, using a homogeneous scintillation proximity assay, we identified the small-molecule AMPK activator C24 from an optimization based on the original allosteric activator PT1. In this paper, the AMPK activation mechanism of C24 and its potential beneficial effects on glucose and lipid metabolism on db/db mice were investigated. C24 allosterically stimulated inactive AMPK α subunit truncations and activated AMPK heterotrimers by antagonizing autoinhibition. In primary hepatocytes, C24 increased the phosphorylation of AMPK downstream target acetyl-CoA carboxylase dose-dependently without changing intracellular AMP/ATP ratio, indicating its allosteric activation in cells. Through activating AMPK, C24 decreased glucose output by down-regulating mRNA levels of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) and glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase) in primary hepatocytes. C24 also decreased the triglyceride and cholesterol contents in HepG2 cells. Due to its improved bioavailability, chronic oral treatment with multiple doses of C24 significantly reduced blood glucose and lipid levels in plasma, and improved the glucose tolerance of diabetic db/db mice. The hepatic transcriptional levels of PEPCK and G6Pase were reduced. These results demonstrate that this orally effective activator of AMPK represents a novel approach to the treatment of metabolic syndrome. - Highlights: • C24 activates AMPK through antagonizing autoinhibition within α subunit. • C24 activates AMPK in hepatocytes and decreases glucose output via AMPK. • C24 exerts beneficial effects on diabetic db/db mice. • C24 represents a novel therapeutic for treatment of metabolic syndrome.

  16. Endothelial dysfunction, oxidative stress and inflammation in atherosclerosis: beneficial effects of statins.

    PubMed

    Lahera, Vicente; Goicoechea, Marian; de Vinuesa, Soledad García; Miana, María; de las Heras, Natalia; Cachofeiro, Victoria; Luño, José

    2007-01-01

    Atherosclerosis and its complications represent the major cause of death in developed countries. Statins are inhibitors of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A [HMGCoA] reductase and consequently inhibitors of cholesterol biosynthesis. Statins have been described as the most potent class of drugs to reduce serum cholesterol levels. In clinical trials, statins are beneficial in primary and secondary prevention of coronary heart disease. Statins, were initially designed as cholesterol-lowering drugs. However, these drugs, besides their lipid-lowering properties, exert a number of protective effects on the cardiovascular system that emerged over the past years. The benefits observed with statin treatment appear to be greater than that might be expected from reduction in lipid levels alone, suggesting effects beyond cholesterol lowering. These cholesterol-independent effects have been called "pleiotropic". The cholesterol-independent or "pleiotropic" effects of statins involve improvement of endothelial function, stability of atherosclerotic plaques, decrease of oxidative stress and inflammation, and inhibition of thrombogenic response. These pleiotropic effects of statins have been proposed as key properties of these drugs to reduce cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The present review will emphasize the molecular mechanisms underlying the effects of statins on endothelial function and oxidative stress. In particular, inhibition of small GTP-binding proteins, Rho, Ras and Rac, which are regulated by isoprenoids [farnesyl pyrophosphate and geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate], seems to play an important role in mediating the pleiotropic effects of statins.

  17. Beneficial effect of botulinum A toxin in blepharospasm: 16 months' experience with 16 cases.

    PubMed

    Maurri, S; Brogelli, S; Alfieri, G; Barontini, F

    1988-08-01

    After introducing the problem of blepharospasm, we report our experience on treatment with purified botulinum A toxin in 16 cases of blepharospasm, symptomatic in two and essential in 14, than had not responded to drugs. The changes in intensity and frequency of spasm after treatment were evaluated on a clinical scale and by review of videotapes. The beneficial effect appeared within a week in most patients, lasting from 6 to 28 weeks (mean 13), and reached the maximum at the third-seventh week. Mild spasms and female patients responded better. Repeated injections were followed by better response to the drug. Complications, exclusively local, were represented by transient corneal exposure, ptosis, lacrimation or diplopia.

  18. Homophily of Vocabulary Usage: Beneficial Effects of Vocabulary Similarity on Online Health Communities Participation.

    PubMed

    Park, Albert; Hartzler, Andrea L; Huh, Jina; McDonald, David W; Pratt, Wanda

    2015-01-01

    Online health communities provide popular platforms for individuals to exchange psychosocial support and form ties. Although regular active participation (i.e., posting to interact with other members) in online health communities can provide important benefits, sustained active participation remains challenging for these communities. Leveraging previous literature on homophily (i.e., "love of those who are like themselves"), we examined the relationship between vocabulary similarity (i.e., homophily of word usage) of thread posts and members' future interaction in online health communities. We quantitatively measured vocabulary similarity by calculating, in a vector space model, cosine similarity between the original post and the first reply in 20,499 threads. Our findings across five online health communities suggest that vocabulary similarity is a significant predictor of members' future interaction in online health communities. These findings carry practical implications for facilitating and sustaining online community participation through beneficial effects of homophily in the vocabulary of essential peer support.

  19. The beneficial effect of plasmapheresis in mixed connective tissue disease with coexisting antiphospholipid syndrome.

    PubMed

    Szodoray, P; Hajas, A; Toth, L; Szakall, S; Nakken, B; Soltesz, P; Bodolay, E

    2014-09-01

    The authors report a rare case of a female patient with mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD) with coexisting antiphospholipid syndrome (APS). Five years after the diagnosis of MCTD high concentrations of anticardiolipin (anti-CL) and anti-β2-glycoprotein (anti-β2GPI) autoantibodies were present in the patient's serum without thrombotic events. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) reactivation provoked APS, with the clinical manifestations of livedo reticularis, digital gangrene and leg ulcers. Skin biopsy from the necrotic area showed multiple fibrin microthrombi in the superficial vessels. Corticosteroid pulse therapy, and plasma exchange in combination with synchronized cyclophosphamide was administered, which led to improvement of the digital gangrenes, while no new lesions developed. The number of CD27high plasma cells decreased, and the previous high levels of autoantibodies also normalized in the peripheral blood. In the case of MCTD with coexisting APS combination therapy, including plasmapheresis has beneficial effects.

  20. Beneficial Effects of Camellia Oil (Camellia oleifera Abel.) on Hepatoprotective and Gastroprotective Activities.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yu-Ting; Lu, Chi-Cheng; Yen, Gow-Chin

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown that increased dietary intake of natural antioxidants is beneficial for health because of their bioactivities, including antioxidant and anti-inflammation actions. Camellia oil made from tea seed (Camellia oleifera Abel.) is commonly used as an edible oil and a traditional medicine in Taiwan and China. Until now, the camellia oil has been widely considered as a dietary oil for heath. In this review, we summarize the protective effects of camellia oil with antioxidant activity against oxidative stress leading to hepatic damage and gastrointestinal ulcers. The information in this review leads to the conclusion that camellia oil is not only an edible oil but also a vegetable oil with a potential function for human health.

  1. Plant beneficial effect of two strains of Proteus vulgaris isolated from tea plantations.

    PubMed

    Barthakur, M; Bezbaruah, B

    1999-09-01

    Two strains of Proteus isolated from tea plantation soil were tested for their ability to colonise the roots of gram (Cicer arietinum), bean (Phaseolus radiatus) and mung (Phaseolus mungo) using a gnotobiotic system. Seeds bacterized with the two strains grew faster and showed significant increase in root and shoot enlargement of the plants tested. The bioactive fractions obtained from the culture filtrates and separated through HPLC showed that the plant growth promoting fractions were not always fungicidal and that the insecticidal fraction which was found only in RRLJ 16 was not plant growth promoting. These results suggest that the plant growth promotion effect of the plant beneficial bacteria may not always be due to disease suppression.

  2. Olive tree (Olea europaea) leaves: potential beneficial effects on human health.

    PubMed

    El, Sedef N; Karakaya, Sibel

    2009-11-01

    Olive tree (Olea europaea L.) leaves have been widely used in traditional remedies in European and Mediterranean countries such as Greece, Spain, Italy, France, Turkey, Israel, Morocco, and Tunisia. They have been used in the human diet as an extract, an herbal tea, and a powder, and they contain many potentially bioactive compounds that may have antioxidant, antihypertensive, antiatherogenic, anti-inflammatory, hypoglycemic, and hypocholesterolemic properties. One of these potentially bioactive compounds is the secoiridoid oleuropein, which can constitute up to 6-9% of dry matter in the leaves. Other bioactive components found in olive leaves include related secoiridoids, flavonoids, and triterpenes. The evidence supporting the potentially beneficial effects of olive leaves on human health are presented in this brief review.

  3. Colonization and beneficial effects on annual ryegrass by mixed inoculation with plant growth promoting bacteria.

    PubMed

    Castanheira, Nádia L; Dourado, Ana Catarina; Pais, Isabel; Semedo, José; Scotti-Campos, Paula; Borges, Nuno; Carvalho, Gilda; Barreto Crespo, Maria Teresa; Fareleira, Paula

    2017-05-01

    Multi-strain inoculants have increased potential to accomplish a diversity of plant needs, mainly attributed to its multi-functionality. This work evaluated the ability of a mixture of three bacteria to colonize and induce a beneficial response on the pasture crop annual ryegrass. Pseudomonas G1Dc10 and Paenibacillus G3Ac9 were previously isolated from annual ryegrass and were selected for their ability to perform multiple functions related to plant growth promotion. Sphingomonas azotifigens DSMZ 18530(T) was included due to nitrogen fixing ability. The effects of the bacterial mixture were assessed in gnotobiotic plant inoculation assays and compared with single and dual inoculation treatments. Triple inoculation with 3×10(8) bacteria significantly increased plant dry weight and leaf pigments, indicating improved photosynthetic performance. Plant lipid biosynthesis was enhanced by 65%, mainly due to the rise of linolenic acid, an omega-3 fatty acid with high dietary value. Electrolyte leakage, an indicator of plant membrane stability under stress, was decreased pointing to a beneficial effect by inoculation. Plants physiological condition was more favoured by triple inoculation than by single, although benefits on biomass were only evident relative to non-inoculated plants. The colonization behaviour and coexistence in plant tissues were assessed using FISH and GFP-labelling, combined with confocal microscopy and a cultivation-based approach for quantification. The three strains occupied the same sites, localizing preferentially along root hairs and in stem epidermis. Endophytic colonization was observed as bacteria entered root and stem inner tissues. This study reveals the potential of this mixture of strains for biofertilization, contributing to improve crop productivity and nutritional value.

  4. Partial Splenic Embolization has Beneficial Effects for the Management of Gastroesophageal Variceal Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ping; Liu, Ruibo; Tong, Liquan; Zhang, Yangjing; Yue, Tongyun; Qiao, Haiquan; Zhang, Feng; Sun, Xueying

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims: Partial splenic embolization (PSE) is used in the management of gastroesophageal variceal hemorrhage (GEVH). However, it is uncertain whether it has beneficial effects for GEVH patients in preventing variceal recurrence and variceal hemorrhage, as well as promoting overall survival (OS), when it is combined with conventional therapies. Materials and Methods: The databases including PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, Google scholar, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched up to 11th of November, 2015. Meta-analyses were performed by using Review Manager 5.3 software for analyzing the risk of bias, Newcastle-Ottawa Scale for assessing the bias of cohort studies, and GRADEprofiler software for assessing outcomes obtained from the meta-analyses. Results: A total of 1505 articles were reviewed, and 1 randomized controlled trial and 5 cohort studies with 244 participants were eligible for inclusion. The pooled hazard ratio (HR) of variceal recurrence is 0.50 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.37, 0.68; P< 0.00001; I2 = 0%). The pooled HR of variceal hemorrhage is 0.24 (95% CI 0.15, 0.39; P< 0.00001; I2 = 0%). The pooled HR of OS is 0.50 (95% CI 0.33, 0.67; P< 0.00001; I2 = 0%). Meta-analyses demonstrated statistically significant superiority of combinational therapies over conventional therapies in preventing variceal recurrence and variceal hemorrhage and prolonging OS. The complications related to PSE were mild or moderate and nonfatal. Conclusions: The results indicate that PSE has beneficial effects for GEVH patients, however, future investigation with a larger number of subjects in clinical trials is warranted. PMID:27976634

  5. Regular caffeine consumption: a balance of adverse and beneficial effects for mood and psychomotor performance.

    PubMed

    Rogers, P J; Dernoncourt, C

    1998-04-01

    It has often been pointed out that caffeine is the most widely "used" psychoactive substance in the world, and accordingly, there is a very large amount of research available on the effects of caffeine on body and mind. In particular, a psychostimulant action of caffeine is generally accepted as well established; for example, caffeine has been found to quicken reaction time and enhance vigilance performance, and to increase self-rated alertness and improve mood. There is, however, a real difficulty in determining the net effects of caffeine. In a typical experiment the subjects have a history of regular caffeine consumption, and they are tested on caffeine and a placebo after a period of caffeine deprivation (often overnight). The problem with relying solely on this approach is that it leaves open the question as to whether the results obtained are due to beneficial effects of caffeine or to deleterious effects of caffeine deprivation. The present article briefly reviews this evidence on the psychostimulant effects of caffeine, and presents some new data testing the hypothesis that caffeine may enhance cognitive performance to a greater extent in older adults than in young adults. No age-related differences in the effects of caffeine on psychomotor performance were found. We conclude that overall there is little unequivocal evidence to show that regular caffeine use is likely to substantially benefit mood or performance. Indeed, one of the significant factors motivating caffeine consumption appears to be "withdrawal relief."

  6. Statins in HIV-Infected Patients: Potential Beneficial Effects and Clinical Use.

    PubMed

    Bernal, Enrique; Masiá, Mar; Marín, Irene; Gutiérrez, Félix

    2017-02-09

    Patients living with HIV have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease that is considered to be the result of an interaction between traditional cardiovascular risk factors, particularly smoking and dyslipidemia, and persistent chronic inflammation and immune activation associated with HIV infection, along with side effects of antiretroviral therapy. In the general population, the administration of statins has been associated with a reduction in cardiovascular disease-associated mortality, and these drugs are among the most common class of medication prescribed in high-income countries. The beneficial effect of statins extends beyond reducing cholesterol levels as they have been shown to have anti- inflammatory, antithrombotic, antioxidant, immunomodulatory, and vasodilatory effects, and to improve endothelial function. Despite the widespread use of statins in the general population, cohort studies show that these drugs are underutilized in HIV-infected patients, probably due to safety concerns by clinicians and limited data evaluating clinical outcomes in patients on antiretroviral therapy. In this article we review and update the most important clinical studies of statins in HIV- infected patients, describe their side effects and interaction profiles, and discuss the anti-atherosclerotic and pleiotropic effects of these drugs. Finally, we propose recommendations for clinical use of statins in patients living with HIV.

  7. The Beneficial Effects of Additional Task Load, Positive Affect, and Instruction on the Attentional Blink

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olivers, Christian N. L.; Nieuwenhuis, Sander

    2006-01-01

    The attentional blink reflects the impaired ability to identify the 2nd of 2 targets presented in close succession--a phenomenon that is generally thought to reflect a fundamental cognitive limitation. However, the fundamental nature of this impairment has recently been called into question by the counterintuitive finding that task-irrelevant…

  8. The effect of crop protection strategy on pest and beneficials incidence in protected crops.

    PubMed

    Lourenço, I; Rodrigues, S; Figueiredo, E; Godinho, M C; Marques, C; Amaro, F; Mexia, A

    2002-01-01

    differences are related to different levels of beneficial populations due to different secondary effects of the pesticides applied.

  9. Beneficial effects of exogenous iodine in lettuce plants subjected to salinity stress.

    PubMed

    Leyva, Rocio; Sánchez-Rodríguez, Eva; Ríos, Juan J; Rubio-Wilhelmi, María M; Romero, Luis; Ruiz, Juan M; Blasco, Begoña

    2011-08-01

    Salinity inhibits plant growth due to ionic and osmotic effects on metabolic processes and nutritional balance, leading to impaired physiological functions. Selenium (Se) and silicon (Si) can be partially alleviated by the effects wrought by NaCl on the plant metabolism. Iodine (I), applied as iodate (IO(3)(-)) in biofortification programmes, has been confirmed to improve the antioxidant response in lettuce plants. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine whether the application of IO(3)(-) can improve the response to severe salinity stress in lettuce (Lactuca sativa cv. Philipus). In this work, the application of IO(3)(-) (20-80 μM) in lettuce plants under salinity stress (100mM of NaCl) exerted a significantly positive effect on biomass and raised the levels of soluble sugars while lowering the Na(+) and Cl(-) concentrations as well as boosting the activity of antioxidant enzymes such as SOD, APX, DHAR and GR. Therefore, IO(3)(-) could be considered a possibly beneficial element to counteract the harmful effects of salinity stress.

  10. Sarcopenia: current theories and the potential beneficial effect of creatine application strategies.

    PubMed

    Candow, Darren G

    2011-08-01

    Sarcopenia, defined as the age-related loss of muscle mass, subsequently has a negative effect on strength, metabolic rate and functionality leading to a reduced quality of life. With the projected increase in life expectancy, the incidence of muscle loss may rise and further drain the health care system, with greater need for hospitalization, treatment, and rehabilitation. Without effective strategies to counteract aging muscle loss, a global health care crisis may be inevitable. Resistance training is well established to increase aging muscle mass and strength. However, muscle and strength loss is still evident in older adults who have maintained resistance training for most of their life, suggesting that other factors such as nutrition may affect aging muscle biology. Supplementing with creatine, a high-energy compound found in red meat and seafood, during resistance training has a beneficial effect on aging muscle. Emerging evidence now suggests that the timing and dosage of creatine supplementation may be important factors for aging muscle accretion. Unfortunately, the long-term effects of different creatine application strategies on aging muscle are relatively unknown.

  11. The beneficial effects of massage therapy for insomnia in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Hachul, H; Oliveira, D S; Bittencourt, L R A; Andersen, M L; Tufik, S

    2014-06-01

    With increases life expectancy, the incidence of undesirable manifestations of menopause has increased as well. The effects of lost ovarian function include progressive decrease in estradiol secretion, trophic changes in the breast, vasomotor symptoms, anxiety, depression, and sleep disorders. Insomnia, which has physiological consequences and can result in a loss of quality of life, is prevalent in women after menopause. Hormone therapy has been widely used to reduce menopausal symptoms, but its use in recent years has been questioned because of the reported risks of cardiovascular events and increased incidence of tumors. This controversy has generated significant interest in non-hormonal treatments among both physicians and patients. Our previous research has shown a positive effect of massage therapy on menopausal symptoms. We explored the hypothesis that massage therapy would produce beneficial effects in postmenopausal women through inflammatory and immunological changes. Recent results from self-report questionnaires have shown improvements in sleep pattern and quality of life following massage therapy. These findings demonstrate the effectiveness of massage therapy for the treatment of postmenopausal symptoms, particularly insomnia, and indicate that it is a promising line of research.

  12. The beneficial effects of massage therapy for insomnia in postmenopausal women☆

    PubMed Central

    Hachul, H.; Oliveira, D.S.; Bittencourt, L.R.A.; Andersen, M.L.; Tufik, S.

    2014-01-01

    With increases life expectancy, the incidence of undesirable manifestations of menopause has increased as well. The effects of lost ovarian function include progressive decrease in estradiol secretion, trophic changes in the breast, vasomotor symptoms, anxiety, depression, and sleep disorders. Insomnia, which has physiological consequences and can result in a loss of quality of life, is prevalent in women after menopause. Hormone therapy has been widely used to reduce menopausal symptoms, but its use in recent years has been questioned because of the reported risks of cardiovascular events and increased incidence of tumors. This controversy has generated significant interest in non-hormonal treatments among both physicians and patients. Our previous research has shown a positive effect of massage therapy on menopausal symptoms. We explored the hypothesis that massage therapy would produce beneficial effects in postmenopausal women through inflammatory and immunological changes. Recent results from self-report questionnaires have shown improvements in sleep pattern and quality of life following massage therapy. These findings demonstrate the effectiveness of massage therapy for the treatment of postmenopausal symptoms, particularly insomnia, and indicate that it is a promising line of research. PMID:26483913

  13. Beneficial therapeutic effects of Nigella sativa and/or Zingiber officinale in HCV patients in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Moneim, Adel; Morsy, Basant M; Mahmoud, Ayman M; Abo-Seif, Mohamed A; Zanaty, Mohamed I

    2013-01-01

    Hepatitis C is a major global health burden and Egypt has the highest prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) worldwide. The current study was designed to evaluate the beneficial therapeutic effects of ethanolic extracts of Nigella sativa, Zingiber officinale and their mixture in Egyptian HCV patients. Sixty volunteer patients with proven HCV and fifteen age matched healthy subjects were included in this study. Exclusion criteria included patients on interferon alpha (IFN-α) therapy, infection with hepatitis B virus, drug-induced liver diseases, advanced cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) or other malignancies, blood picture abnormalities and major severe illness. Liver function enzymes, albumin, total bilirubin, prothrombin time and concentration, international normalized ratio, alpha fetoprotein and viral load were all assessed at baseline and at the end of the study. Ethanolic extracts of Nigella sativa and Zingiber officinale were prepared and formulated into gelatinous capsules, each containing 500 mg of Nigella sativa and/or Zingiber officinale. Clinical response and incidence of adverse drug reactions were assessed initially, periodically, and at the end of the study. Both extracts as well as their mixture significantly ameliorated the altered viral load, alpha fetoprotein, liver function parameters; with more potent effect for the combined therapy. In conclusion, administration of Nigella sativa and/or Zingiber officinale ethanolic extracts to HCV patients exhibited potential therapeutic benefits via decreasing viral load and alleviating the altered liver function, with more potent effect offered by the mixture.

  14. Beneficial Effects of Schisandrin B on the Cardiac Function in Mice Model of Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Pengsheng; Pang, Sisi; Yang, Naiquan; Meng, Haoyu; Liu, Jia; Zhou, Ningtian; Zhang, Min; Xu, Zhihui; Gao, Wei; Chen, Bo; Tao, Zhengxian; Wang, Liansheng; Yang, Zhijian

    2013-01-01

    The fruit of Schisandra chinensis has been used in the traditional Chinese medicine for thousands of years. Accumulating evidence suggests that Schisandrin B (Sch B) has cardioprotection effect on myocardial ischemia in vitro. However, it is unclear whether Sch B has beneficial effects on continuous myocardial ischemia in vivo. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether Sch B could improve cardiac function and attenuate myocardial remodeling after myocardial infarction (MI) in mice. Mice model of MI was established by permanent ligation of the left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery. Then the MI mice were randomly treated with Sch B or vehicle alone. After treatment for 3 weeks, Sch B could increase survival rate, improve heart function and decrease infarct size compared with vehicle. Moreover, Sch B could down-regulate some inflammatory cytokines, activate eNOS pathway, inhibit cell apoptosis, and enhance cell proliferation. Further in vitro study on H9c2 cells showed similar effects of Sch B on prevention of hypoxia-induced inflammation and cell apoptosis. Taken together, our results demonstrate that Sch B can reduce inflammation, inhibit apoptosis, and improve cardiac function after ischemic injury. It represents a potential novel therapeutic approach for treatment of ischemic heart disease. PMID:24260217

  15. Bifidobacterium infantis has a beneficial effect on 5-fluorouracil-induced intestinal mucositis in rats.

    PubMed

    Yuan, K-T; Yu, H-L; Feng, W-D; Chong, P; Yang, T; Xue, C-L; Yu, M; Shi, H-P

    2015-03-01

    Intestinal mucositis is a common toxic side effect in cancer patients receiving high-dose chemotherapy. This study aimed to evaluate the beneficial effects of Bifidobacterium infantis in a rat model of intestinal mucositis induced by 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). Thirty male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups: control, 5-FU, and 5-FU + B. infantis. A single intraperitoneal injection of 5-FU (150 mg/kg) was used to induce intestinal mucositis. B. infantis (1×109 cfu) was administered for 11 days, starting from 7 days before 5-FU injection. Intestinal mucositis was evaluated based on body weight, villus height, immunohistological expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and nuclear factor kappa beta (NF-κB), levels of the pro-inflammatory factors interleukin 1 beta and tumour necrosis factor alpha, and myeloperoxidase (MPO) concentration. The results showed that the 5-FU + B. infantis group demonstrated a higher body weight and villus height, increased expression of PCNA, reduced expression of NF-κB and pro-inflammatory factors, and lower MPO concentration compared to the 5-FU group. These data suggest that probiotic B. infantis is effective in reducing chemotherapy-induced intestinal mucositis in rats.

  16. Dual Beneficial Effects of (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-Gallate on Levodopa Methylation and Hippocampal Neurodegeneration: In Vitro and In Vivo Studies

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Ki Sung; Wen, Yujing; Yamabe, Noriko; Fukui, Masayuki; Bishop, Stephanie C.; Zhu, Bao Ting

    2010-01-01

    Background A combination of levodopa (L-DOPA) and carbidopa is the most commonly-used treatment for symptom management in Parkinson's disease. Studies have shown that concomitant use of a COMT inhibitor is highly beneficial in controlling the wearing-off phenomenon by improving L-DOPA bioavailability as well as brain entry. The present study sought to determine whether (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), a common tea polyphenol, can serve as a naturally-occurring COMT inhibitor that also possesses neuroprotective actions. Methodology/Principal Findings Using both in vitro and in vivo models, we investigated the modulating effects of EGCG on L-DOPA methylation as well as on chemically induced oxidative neuronal damage and degeneration. EGCG strongly inhibited human liver COMT-mediated O-methylation of L-DOPA in a concentration-dependent manner in vitro, with an average IC50 of 0.36 µM. Oral administration of EGCG moderately lowered the accumulation of 3-O-methyldopa in the plasma and striatum of rats treated with L-DOPA + carbidopa. In addition, EGCG also reduced glutamate-induced oxidative cytotoxicity in cultured HT22 mouse hippocampal neuronal cells through inactivation of the nuclear factor κB-signaling pathway. Under in vivo conditions, administration of EGCG exerted a strong protective effect against kainic acid-induced oxidative neuronal death in the hippocampus of rats. Conclusions/Significance These observations suggest that oral administration of EGCG may have significant beneficial effects in Parkinson's patients treated with L-DOPA and carbidopa by exerting a modest inhibition of L-DOPA methylation plus a strong neuroprotection against oxidative damage and degeneration. PMID:20700524

  17. Does nicotine have beneficial effects in the treatment of certain diseases?

    PubMed

    Birtwistle, J; Hall, K

    Although tobacco smoking has long been associated with diseases of the lungs and cardiovascular system, numerous studies have demonstrated a negative association between tobacco smoking and ulcerative colitis, and the neurodegenerative diseases, Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD). The evidence suggests that nicotine--the main pharmacologically active ingredient of tobacco--appears to be responsible for this effect. Pure nicotine has no known carcinogenic properties and can be administered in numerous ways including transdermal patches and tablets. As a therapeutic agent, its association with tobacco can be likened to morphine and opium smoking. There is ample clinical evidence to suggest that nicotine could be beneficial in the treatment of some patients with diseases. Pharmacologically, nicotine acts on cholinergic (nicotinic-specific) receptors which are depleted in AD and PD. Nicotinic receptors also interact closely with several neurotransmitters including dopamine, which is implicated in both PD and Gilles de la Tourettes's syndrome. There is no doubt that tobacco smoking can be harmful and no-one should be encouraged to smoke. However, although nicotine has many harmful side-effects, it may have therapeutic value or at the very least be a useful tool for future drug development.

  18. Beneficial effects of caffeine in a transgenic model of Alzheimer's disease-like tau pathology.

    PubMed

    Laurent, Cyril; Eddarkaoui, Sabiha; Derisbourg, Maxime; Leboucher, Antoine; Demeyer, Dominique; Carrier, Sébastien; Schneider, Marion; Hamdane, Malika; Müller, Christa E; Buée, Luc; Blum, David

    2014-09-01

    Tau pathology found in Alzheimer's disease (AD) is crucial in cognitive decline. Epidemiologic evidences support that habitual caffeine intake prevents memory decline during aging and reduces the risk to develop Alzheimer's disease. So far, experimental studies addressed the impact of caffeine in models mimicking the amyloid pathology of AD. However, in vivo effects of caffeine in a model of AD-like tauopathy remain unknown. Here, we evaluated effects of chronic caffeine intake (0.3 g/L through drinking water), given at an early pathologic stage, in the THY-Tau22 transgenic mouse model of progressive AD-like tau pathology. We found that chronic caffeine intake prevents from the development of spatial memory deficits in tau mice. Improved memory was associated with reduced hippocampal tau phosphorylation and proteolytic fragments. Moreover, caffeine treatment mitigated several proinflammatory and oxidative stress markers found upregulated in the hippocampus of THY-Tau22 animals. Together, our data support that moderate caffeine intake is beneficial in a model of AD-like tau pathology, paving the way for future clinical evaluation in AD patients.

  19. Beneficial effect of supplemental lipoic acid on diabetes-induced pregnancy loss in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Padmanabhan, Rengasamy; Mohamed, Shafiullah; Singh, Sarabjit

    2006-11-01

    Uncontrolled diabetes mellitus (DM) is an etiological factor for recurrent pregnancy loss, fetal growth disorders, and major congenital malformations in the offspring. Antioxidant therapy has been advocated to overcome the oxidant-antioxidant disequilibrium inherent in diabetes. The objective of this article was to evaluate the beneficial effects of alpha-lipoic acid (LA) on fetal outcome in a mouse model of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced DM. Timed pregnant mice were made diabetic by intraperitoneal (IP) injection of a single dose of STZ (200 mg/kg) on gestation day (GD) 2. Diabetic animals were supplemented daily with an IP injection of 15 mg/kg of LA starting on GD 4 and continued through GD 12. Fetuses were examined on GD 18 for malformations and growth restriction. Some diabetic mice injected with Evans blue were examined on GD 3.5 and GD 6.5 to evaluate frequency of implantations. STZ-treated mice had all cardinal signs of DM. LA treatment did not normalize blood glucose levels of DM mice. Rates of pregnancy in saline control, DM, and DM + LA groups were 90%, 28%, and 64%, respectively, indicating that LA promotes pregnancy in DM animals. However, postimplantation resorption showed a threefold increase in the DM + LA group. Rates of intrauterine growth restriction and major congenital malformations were also augmented thus indicating that the interaction between DM and LA has deleterious effects on postimplantation embryos.

  20. The beneficial effects of pentoxifylline on caerulein-induced acute pancreatitis in rats.

    PubMed

    Gül, Mehmet; Eşrefoğlu, Mukaddes; Oztürk, Feral; Ateş, Burhan; Otlu, Ali

    2009-03-01

    In this study we aimed to investigate the effect of pentoxifylline on caerulein-induced acute pancreatitis (AP) by detecting oxidative stress markers and performing histopathological examination. Twenty-one adult female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups as follows: control, caerulein, and caerulein + pentoxifylline groups. Pancreatic tissues of rats from all groups were removed for light and electron microscopic examination and determination of oxidative stress markers. Pancreatic oxidative stress markers were evaluated by the measurements of malondialdehyde (MDA), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and total glutathione (GSH). Serum amylase and lipase levels were determined spectrophotometrically. The pancreatic damage score was significantly increased (P < 0.005) in the caerulein group, whereas it was decreased (P < 0.05) in the caerulein+ with pentoxifylline group. MDA levels, CAT, SOD, GPx, and GSH activities were significantly altered (P < 0.05, P < 0.005) in the caerulein group and indicated increased oxidative stress. Oxidative stress markers were normalized with pentoxifylline administration. Caerulein administration resulted in significant increase (P < 0.05) in amylase and lipase levels; pentoxifylline reduced the levels of these enzymes. Pentoxifylline is potentially capable of limiting pancreatic damage produced during AP by restoring the fine structure of acinar cells and tissue antioxidant enzyme activities. We concluded that pentoxifylline may have beneficial effects in the treatment of caerulein-induced AP.

  1. The beneficial effect of blocking Kv1.3 in the psoriasiform SCID mouse model.

    PubMed

    Gilhar, Amos; Bergman, Reuven; Assay, Bedia; Ullmann, Yehuda; Etzioni, Amos

    2011-01-01

    The Kv1.3 channel is important in the activation and function of effector memory T cells. Recently, specific blockers of the Kv1.3 channel have been developed as a potential therapeutic option for diverse autoimmune diseases. In psoriatic lesions, most lymphocytes are memory effector T cells. The aim of the present study was to detect the expression of Kv1.3 channels in these cells in psoriatic lesions as well as in human psoriasiform skin grafts using the severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mouse model. Histological and immunohistochemical staining for Kv1.3 expression and various inflammatory markers was performed in sections obtained from six psoriatic patients and 18 beige-SCID mice with psoriasiform human skin grafts. Six grafted mice were treated with Stichodactyla helianthus neurotoxin (ShK), a known Kv1.3 blocker. The results showed an increased number of Kv1.3+ cells in the psoriatic skin as well as in the psoriasiform skin grafts as compared with normal skin and normal skin grafts. Injections of ShK showed a marked therapeutic effect in three of six psoriasiform skin grafts. A significantly decreased number of Kv1.3+ cells was observed in the responders compared with the control grafts. This pilot study, although performed in a small number of mice, reveals the possible beneficial effect of Kv1.3 blockers in psoriasis patients.

  2. Beneficial health effects of milk and fermented dairy products--review.

    PubMed

    Ebringer, L; Ferencík, M; Krajcovic, J

    2008-01-01

    Milk is a complex physiological liquid that simultaneously provides nutrients and bioactive components that facilitate the successful postnatal adaptation of the newborn infant by stimulating cellular growth and digestive maturation, the establishment of symbiotic microflora, and the development of gut-associated lymphoid tissues. The number, the potency, and the importance of bioactive compounds in milk and especially in fermented milk products are probably greater than previously thought. They include certain vitamins, specific proteins, bioactive peptides, oligosaccharides, organic (including fatty) acids. Some of them are normal milk components, others emerge during digestive or fermentation processes. Fermented dairy products and probiotic bacteria decrease the absorption of cholesterol. Whey proteins, medium-chain fatty acids and in particular calcium and other minerals may contribute to the beneficial effect of dairy food on body fat and body mass. There has been growing evidence of the role that dairy proteins play in the regulation of satiety, food intake and obesity-related metabolic disorders. Milk proteins, peptides, probiotic lactic acid bacteria, calcium and other minerals can significantly reduce blood pressure. Milk fat contains a number of components having functional properties. Sphingolipids and their active metabolites may exert antimicrobial effects either directly or upon digestion.

  3. Tumor necrosis factor and interleukin 1 as mediators of endotoxin-induced beneficial effects

    SciTech Connect

    Urbaschek, R.; Urbaschek, B.

    1987-09-01

    Bacterial lipopolysaccharides or endotoxins are known to induce tumor necrosis; enhanced nonspecific resistance to bacterial, viral, and parasitic infections and to radiation sickness; and tolerance to lethal doses of endotoxin. These beneficial effects are achieved by pretreatment with minute amounts of endotoxin. Recombinant tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and interleukin 1 (IL-1) are among the mediators capable of invoking radioprotection or resistance to the consequences of cecal ligation and puncture. Both cytokines are potent inducers of serum colony-stimulating factor (CSF) in C3H/HeJ mice (low responders to endotoxin). The number of splenic granulocyte-macrophage precursors was found to increase 5 days after injection of TNF in these mice. Although with IL-1 no increase in the number of granulocyte-macrophage colonies occurred in culture in the presence of serum CSF, a marked stimulation was observed when TNF was added. This stimulation of myelopoiesis observed in vivo and in vitro may be related to the radioprotective effect of TNF. The data presented suggest that TNF and IL-1 released after injection of endotoxin participate in the mediation of endotoxin-induced enhancement of nonspecific resistance and stimulation of hematopoiesis. 76 references.

  4. Effect of a chromium-containing fuel additive on hot corrosion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowell, C. E.; Deadmore, D. L.

    1976-01-01

    Four superalloys were tested at 900 C in high velocity combustion gases containing synthetic sea salt and, in some cases, a chromium containing fuel additive. While the additive reduced hot corrosion of the alloys over the 100 hour test period, the attack was not eliminated nor was the mode of attack changed. Reduction of the number of thermal cycles had as large a beneficial effect as the Cr additive. Intermittent washing during testing had either small beneficial or adverse effects depending on the alloy.

  5. Beneficial effect of oleoylated lipids on paraoxonase 1: protection against oxidative inactivation and stabilization.

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Su Duy; Sok, Dai-Eun

    2003-01-01

    The effect of lipids on PON1 (paraoxonase 1), one of antioxidant proteins in high-density lipoprotein, was investigated in respect to inhibition, protection against oxidative inactivation, and stabilization. When the effect of lipids on the PON1 activity was examined, a remarkable inhibition was expressed by polyenoic fatty acids (C18:2-C20:5). Linoleic acid, the most potent ( K(i), 3.8 microM), showed competitive inhibition. Next, various lipids were examined for prevention against the inactivation of PON1 by ascorbate/Cu2+, which caused a remarkable (>or =90%) inactivation of PON1. Compared with saturated fatty acids (C6-C18), exhibiting a modest protection (9-40%), monoenoic acids (C16:1-C20:1) showed a greater maximal protective effect (Emax, 70-82%), with oleic acid being the most effective (EC50, 2.7 microM). In contrast, polyenoic acids showed no protection. Noteworthy, linoleic acid prohibited the protective action of oleic acid non-competitively. In the structure-activity relationship, a negatively charged group seems to be required for the protective action. Consistent with this, dioleoylphosphatidylglycerol, negatively charged, was more protective than dioleoylphosphatidylcholine. These data, together with requirement of Ca2+ (EC50, 0.6 microM) for the protective action, may support the existence of a specific site responsible for the protective action. A similar protective action of lipids was also observed in the inactivation of PON1 by ascorbate/Fe2+, peroxides or p -hydroxymercuribenzoate. Separately, PON1 was stabilized by oleic acid or oleoylated phospholipids, in combination with Ca2+, but not linoleic acid. These results suggest that in contrast to an adverse action of linoleic acid, monoenoic acids or their phospholipid derivatives play a beneficial role in protecting PON1 from oxidative inactivation as well as in stabilizing PON1. PMID:12871208

  6. Handle region peptide counteracts the beneficial effects of the Renin inhibitor aliskiren in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    van Esch, Joep H M; van Veghel, Richard; Garrelds, Ingrid M; Leijten, Frank; Bouhuizen, Angelique M; Danser, A H Jan

    2011-04-01

    To investigate whether the putative (pro)renin receptor blocker, the handle region peptide (HRP), exerts effects on top of the blood pressure-lowering and cardioprotective effects of the renin inhibitor aliskiren, spontaneously hypertensive rats were implanted with telemetry transmitters to monitor heart rate and mean arterial pressure (MAP). After a 2-week recovery period, vehicle, aliskiren, HRP (100 and 1 mg/kg per day, respectively), and HRP+aliskiren were infused for 3 weeks using osmotic minipumps. Subsequently, the heart was removed to study coronary function according to Langendorff. Baseline MAP and heart rate in vehicle-treated rats were 146±3 mm Hg and 326±4 bpm. HRP did not affect MAP, whereas aliskiren and HRP+aliskiren lowered MAP (by maximally 29±2 and 20±1 mm Hg, respectively) without affecting heart rate. Aliskiren significantly reduced MAP throughout the 3-week infusion period, whereas the blood pressure-lowering effect of HRP+aliskiren returned to baseline within 2 weeks of treatment. In comparison with vehicle, aliskiren increased the endothelium-dependent response to bradykinin and decreased the response to angiotensin II in the coronary circulation, whereas these responses were not altered after treatment with HRP or HRP+aliskiren. HRP did not alter plasma renin activity, plasma angiotensin levels, or the renal angiotensin content, either alone or on top of aliskiren, nor did it alter the aliskiren-induced decrease in renal Ang II type 1 receptor expression. Yet, it did reverse the aliskiren-induced reduction in cardiomyocyte area, without affecting this area when given alone. In conclusion, HRP counteracts the beneficial effects of aliskiren on blood pressure, coronary function, and cardiac hypertrophy in an angiotensin-independent manner.

  7. Peripheral Signals Mediate the Beneficial Effects of Gastric Surgery in Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Barja-Fernández, Silvia; Folgueira, Cintia; Castelao, Cecilia; Leis, Rosaura; Casanueva, Felipe F.; Seoane, Luisa M.

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is nowadays a public health problem both in the industrialized world and developing countries. The different treatments to fight against obesity are not very successful with the exception of gastric surgery. The mechanism behind the achievement of this procedure remains unclear although the modifications in the pattern of gastrointestinal hormones production appear to be responsible for the beneficial effect. The gastrointestinal tract has emerged in the last time as an endocrine organ in charge of response to the different stimulus related to nutritional status by the modulation of more than 30 signals acting at central level to modulate food intake and body weight. The production of some of these gastric derived signals has been proved to be altered in obesity (ghrelin, CCK, and GLP-1). In fact, bariatric surgery modifies the production of both gastrointestinal and adipose tissue peripheral signals beyond the gut microbiota composition. Through this paper the main peripheral signals altered in obesity will be reviewed together with their modifications after bariatric surgery. PMID:25960740

  8. Peripheral signals mediate the beneficial effects of gastric surgery in obesity.

    PubMed

    Barja-Fernández, Silvia; Folgueira, Cintia; Castelao, Cecilia; Leis, Rosaura; Casanueva, Felipe F; Seoane, Luisa M

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is nowadays a public health problem both in the industrialized world and developing countries. The different treatments to fight against obesity are not very successful with the exception of gastric surgery. The mechanism behind the achievement of this procedure remains unclear although the modifications in the pattern of gastrointestinal hormones production appear to be responsible for the beneficial effect. The gastrointestinal tract has emerged in the last time as an endocrine organ in charge of response to the different stimulus related to nutritional status by the modulation of more than 30 signals acting at central level to modulate food intake and body weight. The production of some of these gastric derived signals has been proved to be altered in obesity (ghrelin, CCK, and GLP-1). In fact, bariatric surgery modifies the production of both gastrointestinal and adipose tissue peripheral signals beyond the gut microbiota composition. Through this paper the main peripheral signals altered in obesity will be reviewed together with their modifications after bariatric surgery.

  9. Beneficial effects of low dose radiation in response to the oncogenic KRAS induced cellular transformation

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Rae-Kwon; Kim, Min-Jung; Seong, Ki Moon; Kaushik, Neha; Suh, Yongjoon; Yoo, Ki-Chun; Cui, Yan-Hong; Jin, Young Woo; Nam, Seon Young; Lee, Su-Jae

    2015-01-01

    Recently low dose irradiation has gained attention in the field of radiotherapy. For lack of understanding of the molecular consequences of low dose irradiation, there is much doubt concerning its risks on human beings. In this article, we report that low dose irradiation is capable of blocking the oncogenic KRAS-induced malignant transformation. To address this hypothesis, we showed that low dose irradiation, at doses of 0.1 Gray (Gy); predominantly provide defensive response against oncogenic KRAS -induced malignant transformation in human cells through the induction of antioxidants without causing cell death and acts as a critical regulator for the attenuation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Importantly, we elucidated that knockdown of antioxidants significantly enhanced ROS generation, invasive and migratory properties and abnormal acini formation in KRAS transformed normal as well as cancer cells. Taken together, this study demonstrates that low dose irradiation reduces the KRAS induced malignant cellular transformation through diminution of ROS. This interesting phenomenon illuminates the beneficial effects of low dose irradiation, suggesting one of contributory mechanisms for reducing the oncogene induced carcinogenesis that intensify the potential use of low dose irradiation as a standard regimen. PMID:26515758

  10. Beneficial Metabolic Effects of a Probiotic via Butyrate-induced GLP-1 Hormone Secretion*

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Hariom; Lee, Ji-Hyeon; Lloyd, John; Walter, Peter; Rane, Sushil G.

    2013-01-01

    Obesity and diabetes are associated with excess caloric intake and reduced energy expenditure resulting in a negative energy balance. The incidence of diabetes has reached epidemic proportions, and childhood diabetes and obesity are increasing alarmingly. Therefore, it is important to develop safe, easily deliverable, and economically viable treatment alternatives for these diseases. Here, we provide data supporting the candidacy of probiotics as such a therapeutic modality against obesity and diabetes. Probiotics are live bacteria that colonize the gastrointestinal tract and impart beneficial effects for health. However, their widespread prescription as medical therapies is limited primarily because of the paucity of our understanding of their mechanism of action. Here, we demonstrate that the administration of a probiotic, VSL#3, prevented and treated obesity and diabetes in several mouse models. VSL#3 suppressed body weight gain and insulin resistance via modulation of the gut flora composition. VSL#3 promoted the release of the hormone GLP-1, resulting in reduced food intake and improved glucose tolerance. The VSL#3-induced changes were associated with an increase in the levels of a short chain fatty acid (SCFA), butyrate. Using a cell culture system, we demonstrate that butyrate stimulated the release of GLP-1 from intestinal L-cells, thereby providing a plausible mechanism for VSL#3 action. These findings suggest that probiotics such as VSL#3 can modulate the gut microbiota-SCFA-hormone axis. Moreover, our results indicate that probiotics are of potential therapeutic utility to counter obesity and diabetes. PMID:23836895

  11. Beneficial effects of omega-3 fatty acids in the proteome of high-density lipoprotein proteome

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Omega-3 poly-unsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFAs) have demonstrated to be beneficial in the prevention of cardiovascular disease, however, the mechanisms by which they perform their cardiovascular protection have not been clarified. Intriguingly, some of these protective effects have also been linked to HDL. The hypothesis of this study was that ω-3 PUFAs could modify the protein cargo of HDL particle in a triglyceride non-dependent mode. The objective of the study was to compare the proteome of HDL before and after ω-3 PUFAs supplemented diet. Methods A comparative proteomic analysis in 6 smoker subjects HDL before and after a 5 weeks ω-3 PUFAs enriched diet has been performed. Results Among the altered proteins, clusterin, paraoxonase, and apoAI were found to increase, while fibronectin, α-1-antitrypsin, complement C1r subcomponent and complement factor H decreased after diet supplementation with ω-3 PUFAs. Immunodetection assays confirmed these results. The up-regulated proteins are related to anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-atherosclerotic properties of HDL, while the down-regulated proteins are related to regulation of complement activation and acute phase response. Conclusions Despite the low number of subjects included in the study, our findings demonstrate that ω-3 PUFAs supplementation modifies lipoprotein containing apoAI (LpAI) proteome and suggest that these protein changes improve the functionality of the particle. PMID:22978374

  12. Beneficial effects of low dose radiation in response to the oncogenic KRAS induced cellular transformation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Rae-Kwon; Kim, Min-Jung; Seong, Ki Moon; Kaushik, Neha; Suh, Yongjoon; Yoo, Ki-Chun; Cui, Yan-Hong; Jin, Young Woo; Nam, Seon Young; Lee, Su-Jae

    2015-10-30

    Recently low dose irradiation has gained attention in the field of radiotherapy. For lack of understanding of the molecular consequences of low dose irradiation, there is much doubt concerning its risks on human beings. In this article, we report that low dose irradiation is capable of blocking the oncogenic KRAS-induced malignant transformation. To address this hypothesis, we showed that low dose irradiation, at doses of 0.1 Gray (Gy); predominantly provide defensive response against oncogenic KRAS -induced malignant transformation in human cells through the induction of antioxidants without causing cell death and acts as a critical regulator for the attenuation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Importantly, we elucidated that knockdown of antioxidants significantly enhanced ROS generation, invasive and migratory properties and abnormal acini formation in KRAS transformed normal as well as cancer cells. Taken together, this study demonstrates that low dose irradiation reduces the KRAS induced malignant cellular transformation through diminution of ROS. This interesting phenomenon illuminates the beneficial effects of low dose irradiation, suggesting one of contributory mechanisms for reducing the oncogene induced carcinogenesis that intensify the potential use of low dose irradiation as a standard regimen.

  13. Beneficial effects of noni (Morinda citrifolia L.) juice on livers of high-fat dietary hamsters.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yi-Ling; Chang, Yuan-Yen; Yang, Deng-Jye; Tzang, Bor-Show; Chen, Yi-Chen

    2013-09-01

    Polyphenols in noni juice (NJ) are mainly composed of phenolic acids, mainly gentisic, p-hydroxybenoic, and chlorogenic acids. To investigate the beneficial effects of NJ on the liver, hamsters were fed with two diets, normal-fat and high-fat diets. Furthermore, high-fat dietary hamsters were received distilled water, and 3, 6, and 9 mL NJ/kg BW, respectively. After a 6-week feeding period, the increased (p<0.05) sizes of liver and visceral fat in high-fat dietary hamsters compared to the control hamsters were ameliorated (p<0.05) by NJ supplementation. NJ also decreased (p<0.05) serum/liver lipids but enhanced (p<0.05) daily faecal lipid/bile acid outputs in the high-fat dietary hamsters. High-fat dietary hamsters supplemented with NJ had higher (p<0.05) liver antioxidant capacities but lowered (p<0.05) liver iNOS, COX-2, TNF-α, and IL-1β expressions, gelatinolytic levels of MMP9, and serum ALT values compared to those without NJ. Hence, NJ protects liver against a high-fat dietary habit via regulations of antioxidative and anti-inflammatory responses.

  14. Beneficial metabolic effects of a probiotic via butyrate-induced GLP-1 hormone secretion.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Hariom; Lee, Ji-Hyeon; Lloyd, John; Walter, Peter; Rane, Sushil G

    2013-08-30

    Obesity and diabetes are associated with excess caloric intake and reduced energy expenditure resulting in a negative energy balance. The incidence of diabetes has reached epidemic proportions, and childhood diabetes and obesity are increasing alarmingly. Therefore, it is important to develop safe, easily deliverable, and economically viable treatment alternatives for these diseases. Here, we provide data supporting the candidacy of probiotics as such a therapeutic modality against obesity and diabetes. Probiotics are live bacteria that colonize the gastrointestinal tract and impart beneficial effects for health. However, their widespread prescription as medical therapies is limited primarily because of the paucity of our understanding of their mechanism of action. Here, we demonstrate that the administration of a probiotic, VSL#3, prevented and treated obesity and diabetes in several mouse models. VSL#3 suppressed body weight gain and insulin resistance via modulation of the gut flora composition. VSL#3 promoted the release of the hormone GLP-1, resulting in reduced food intake and improved glucose tolerance. The VSL#3-induced changes were associated with an increase in the levels of a short chain fatty acid (SCFA), butyrate. Using a cell culture system, we demonstrate that butyrate stimulated the release of GLP-1 from intestinal L-cells, thereby providing a plausible mechanism for VSL#3 action. These findings suggest that probiotics such as VSL#3 can modulate the gut microbiota-SCFA-hormone axis. Moreover, our results indicate that probiotics are of potential therapeutic utility to counter obesity and diabetes.

  15. Beneficial effects of adiponectin on periodontal ligament cells under normal and regenerative conditions.

    PubMed

    Nokhbehsaim, Marjan; Keser, Sema; Nogueira, Andressa Vilas Boas; Cirelli, Joni Augusto; Jepsen, Søren; Jäger, Andreas; Eick, Sigrun; Deschner, James

    2014-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes and obesity are increasing worldwide and linked to periodontitis, a chronic disease which is characterized by the irreversible destruction of the tooth-supporting tissues, that is, periodontium. The mechanisms underlying the association of diabetes mellitus and obesity with periodontal destruction and compromised periodontal healing are not well understood, but decreased plasma levels of adiponectin, as found in diabetic and obese individuals, might be a critical mechanistic link. The aim of this in vitro study was to examine the effects of adiponectin on periodontal ligament (PDL) cells under normal and regenerative conditions, and to study the regulation of adiponectin and its receptors in these cells. Adiponectin stimulated significantly the expression of growth factors and extracellular matrix, proliferation, and in vitro wound healing, reduced significantly the constitutive tumor necrosis factor-α expression, and caused a significant upregulation of its own expression. The beneficial actions of enamel matrix derivative on a number of PDL cell functions critical for periodontal regeneration were partially enhanced by adiponectin. The periodontopathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis inhibited the adiponectin expression and stimulated the expression of its receptors. In conclusion, reduced levels of adiponectin, as found in type 2 diabetes and obesity, may compromise periodontal health and healing.

  16. Beyond Synchrony: Joint Action in a Complex Production Task Reveals Beneficial Effects of Decreased Interpersonal Synchrony

    PubMed Central

    Mitkidis, Panagiotis; Roepstorff, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    A variety of joint action studies show that people tend to fall into synchronous behavior with others participating in the same task, and that such synchronization is beneficial, leading to greater rapport, satisfaction, and performance. It has been noted that many of these task environments require simple interactions that involve little planning of action coordination toward a shared goal. The present study utilized a complex joint construction task in which dyads were instructed to build model cars while their hand movements and heart rates were measured. Participants built these models under varying conditions, delimiting how freely they could divide labor during a build session. While hand movement synchrony was sensitive to the different tasks and outcomes, the heart rate measure did not show any effects of interpersonal synchrony. Results for hand movements show that the more participants were constrained by a particular building strategy, the greater their behavioral synchrony. Within the different conditions, the degree of synchrony was predictive of subjective satisfaction and objective product outcomes. However, in contrast to many previous findings, synchrony was negatively associated with superior products, and, depending on the constraints on the interaction, positively or negatively correlated with higher subjective satisfaction. These results show that the task context critically shapes the role of synchronization during joint action, and that in more complex tasks, not synchronization of behavior, but rather complementary types of behavior may be associated with superior task outcomes. PMID:27997558

  17. Beneficial effects of nitric oxide breathing in adult patients with sickle cell crisis.

    PubMed

    Head, C Alvin; Swerdlow, Paul; McDade, William A; Joshi, Ratan Mani; Ikuta, Tohru; Cooper, Melanie L; Eckman, James R

    2010-10-01

    Pain from vaso-occlusive crisis (VOC) is the major cause of hospitalization in patients with sickle cell disease (SCD). The beneficial therapeutic effects of inhaled nitric oxide (NO) on the pathophysiology of SCD have been reported. A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial was conducted to determine whether NO breathing reduces acute VOC pain in adult patients and to study the safety of inhaled NO. Twenty-three patients experiencing acute VOC were enrolled. After randomization but before treatment, five were found to not meet final eligibility criteria. Nine patients were assigned to inhaled NO (80 ppm) and nine to placebo (21% O2). Primary outcome was the mean change in pain scores after 4 hr of inhalation, measured on a 10-cm visual analog scale (VAS). Both groups had similar baseline VAS pain scores but inhaled NO significantly reduced pain scores compared with placebo (P 5 0.02) at the end of NO inhalation. Secondary outcome was parenteral morphine use at baseline, 4, and 6 hr. Parenteral morphine use was lower in the inhaled NO group, but the difference was not statistically significant.Safety assessments included systolic blood pressure measurements,pulse oximetry readings, concentration of delivered nitrogen dioxide, and concentration of methemoglobin (metHb). None of these NO toxicities was observed.

  18. Beneficial Effects of Yogasanas and Pranayama in limiting the Cognitive decline in Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Rajani, Santhakumari; Archana, Rajagopalan; Indla, Yogananda Reddy; Rajesh, P

    2016-01-01

    Background Out of many complications that were observed in type 2 diabetes, cognitive impairment is the most neglected. Aim and Objectives The aim of the present study is to assess the cognitive decline in type 2 diabetes and to observe the role of yogasanas and pranayama in ameliorating the cognitive decline. Materials and methods Sixty eight type 2 diabetic subjects were recruited in the study, 34 of them did specific yogasanas and pranayama (test group) for six months and the remaining age and sex matched 34 subjects were recruited as (control group) who were not on any specific exercise regimen. Glycaemic index was estimated by measuring the glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) concentration with Bio-Rad apparatus and cognition was assessed by using Addenbrook’s Cognitive Examination-Revised (ACE-R), which is a neuropsychological battery. Statistical analysis Data was analysed with unpaired student t test. P value<0.05 is considered as statistically significant. Validity was assessed by receiver operating characteristics Results Analysis of data indicated more cognitive scores in the test group when compared with the control group. In test group six months practice of yogasanas and pranayama has also significantly brought down the high glycaemic values which were observed in the control group. Conclusion These findings allow the study to conclude that regular practice of yogasanas and pranayama has a beneficial effect on cognitive performance in type 2 diabetic subjects by stabilizing blood glucose.

  19. Beneficial Effects of an 8-Week, Very Low Carbohydrate Diet Intervention on Obese Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Yunjuan; Yu, Haoyong; Li, Yuehua; Ma, Xiaojing; Lu, Junxi; Yu, Weihui; Xiao, Yunfeng; Bao, Yuqian; Jia, Weiping

    2013-01-01

    Aim. To investigate the effects of weight loss during an 8-week very low carbohydrate diet (VLCD) on improvement of metabolic parameters, adipose distribution and body composition, and insulin resistance and sensitivity in Chinese obese subjects. Methods. Fifty-three healthy obese volunteers were given an 8-week VLCD. The outcomes were changes in anthropometry, body composition, metabolic profile, abdominal fat distribution, liver fat percent (LFP), and insulin resistance and sensitivity. Results. A total of 46 (86.8%) obese subjects completed the study. The VLCD caused a weight loss of −8.7 ± 0.6 kg (mean ± standard error (SE), P < 0.0001) combined with a significant improvement of metabolic profile. In both male and female, nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) significantly decreased (−166.2 ± 47.6 μmol/L, P = 0.001) and β-hydroxybutyric acid (BHA) increased (0.15 ± 0.06 mmol/L, P = 0.004) after eight weeks of VLCD intervention. The significant reductions in subcutaneous fat area (SFA), visceral fat area (VFA), and LFP were −66.5 ± 7.9 cm2, −35.3 ± 3.9 cm2, and −16.4 ± 2.4%, respectively (all P values P < 0.0001). HOMA IR and HOMA β significantly decreased while whole body insulin sensitivity index (WBISI) increased (all P values P < 0.001). Conclusion. Eight weeks of VLCD was an effective intervention in obese subjects. These beneficial effects may be associated with enhanced hepatic and whole-body lipolysis and oxidation. PMID:23573151

  20. Beneficial effects of quercetin on sperm parameters in streptozotocin-induced diabetic male rats.

    PubMed

    Khaki, Arash; Fathiazad, Fatemeh; Nouri, Mohammad; Khaki, Amirafshin; Maleki, Navid A; Khamnei, Hossein Jabbari; Ahmadi, Porya

    2010-09-01

    Quercetin (QR) is a strong antioxidant and has been shown to reduce oxidative stress in the long-term treatment of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes in animal models. Antioxidants have significant effects on spermatogenesis, sperm biology and oxidative stress, and changes in antioxidant capacity are considered to be involved in the pathogenesis of chronic diabetes mellitus. The present study aims to examine the influence of QR on spermatogenesis in STZ-induced diabetes in male Wistar rats. Animals (n = 50) were allocated into five groups: Group 1: Control rats given 0.5 ml of 20% glycerol in 0.9% normal saline. Group 2: Control rats given buffer (pH4.0).Group 3: diabetic controls. Group 4: rats given QR 15 mg/kg/day (i.p.). Group 5: STZ + QR rats. Animals were kept in standard conditions. At the end of the experiment (28th day), blood samples were taken for determination of testosterone, total antioxidant capacity, and levels of malondialdehyde and oxidized low-density lipoprotein. All rats were euthanized, testes were dissected out and spermatozoa were collected from the epididymis for analysis. Sperm numbers, percentages of sperm viability and motility, and total serum testosterone increased significantly in QR-treated diabetic rats (P < 0.05) compared with control groups. In histopathology, degeneration and inflammation in testes cells associated with diabetes were improved and testes weights in the QR-treated diabetic group decreased significantly in comparison with controls (P < 0.05). We conclude that QR has significant beneficial effects on the sperm viability, motility, and serum total testosterone and could be effective for maintaining healthy sperm parameters and male reproductive function in diabetic rats.

  1. Beneficial Effects of Sodium Phenylbutyrate Administration during Infection with Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium

    PubMed Central

    Jellbauer, Stefan; Perez Lopez, Araceli; Behnsen, Judith; Gao, Nina; Nguyen, Thao; Murphy, Clodagh; Edwards, Robert A.

    2016-01-01

    Sodium phenylbutyrate (PBA) is a derivative of the short-chain fatty acid butyrate and is approved for treatment of urea cycle disorders and progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis type 2. Previously known functions include histone deacetylase inhibitor, endoplasmic reticulum stress inhibitor, ammonia sink, and chemical chaperone. Here, we show that PBA has a previously undiscovered protective role in host mucosal defense during infection. Administration of PBA to Taconic mice resulted in the increase of intestinal Lactobacillales and segmented filamentous bacteria (SFB), as well as an increase of interleukin 17 (IL-17) production by intestinal cells. This effect was not observed in Jackson Laboratory mice, which are not colonized with SFB. Because previous studies showed that IL-17 plays a protective role during infection with mucosal pathogens, we hypothesized that Taconic mice treated with PBA would be more resistant to infection with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium). By using the streptomycin-treated mouse model, we found that Taconic mice treated with PBA exhibited significantly lower S. Typhimurium intestinal colonization and dissemination to the reticuloendothelial system, as well as lower levels of inflammation. The lower levels of S. Typhimurium gut colonization and intestinal inflammation were not observed in Jackson Laboratory mice. Although PBA had no direct effect on bacterial replication, its administration reduced S. Typhimurium epithelial cell invasion and lowered the induction of the proinflammatory cytokine IL-23 in macrophage-like cells. These effects likely contributed to the better outcome of infection in PBA-treated mice. Overall, our results suggest that PBA induces changes in the microbiota and in the mucosal immune response that can be beneficial to the host during infection with S. Typhimurium and possibly other enteric pathogens. PMID:27382022

  2. Beneficial effects of a N-terminally modified GIP agonist on tissue-level bone material properties.

    PubMed

    Mabilleau, Guillaume; Mieczkowska, Aleksandra; Irwin, Nigel; Simon, Yannick; Audran, Maurice; Flatt, Peter R; Chappard, Daniel

    2014-06-01

    Bone remodeling is under complex regulation from nervous, hormonal and local signals, including gut hormones. Among the gut hormones, a role for the glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) has been suggested. However, the rapid degradation of GIP in the bloodstream by the ubiquitous enzyme dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) precludes therapeutic use. To circumvent this problem, a series of N-terminally modified GIP agonists have been developed, with N-AcGIP being the most promising. The aims of the present study were to investigate the effects of N-AcGIP on bone at the micro-level using trabecular and cortical microstructural morphology, and at the tissue-level in rats. Copenhagen rats were randomly assigned into control or N-AcGIP-treated groups and received daily injection for 4 weeks. Bone microstructural morphology was assessed by microCT and dynamic histomorphometry and tissue-level properties by nanoindentation, qBEI and infra-red microscopy. Four week treatment with N-AcGIP did not alter trabecular or cortical microstructural morphology. In addition, no significant modifications of mechanical response and properties at the tissue-level were observed in trabecular bone. However, significant augmentations in maximum load (12%), hardness (14%), indentation modulus (13%) and dissipated energy (16%) were demonstrated in cortical bone. These beneficial modifications of mechanical properties at the tissue-level were associated with increased mineralization (22%) and collagen maturity (13%) of the bone matrix. Taken together, the results support a beneficial role of GIP, and particularly stable analogs such as N-AcGIP, on tissue material properties of bone.

  3. BENEFICIAL EFFECTS OF MINERALOCORTICOID RECEPTOR BLOCKADE IN EXPERIMENTAL NON-ALCOHOLIC STEATOHEPATITIS

    PubMed Central

    Pizarro, Margarita; Solís, Nancy; Quintero, Pablo; Barrera, Francisco; Cabrera, Daniel; Santiago, Pamela Rojasde; Arab, Juan Pablo; Padilla, Oslando; Roa, Juan Carlos; Moshage, Han; Wree, Alexander; Inzaugarat, Eugenia; Feldstein, Ariel E.; Fardella, Carlos E.; Baudrand, Rene; Riquelme, Arnoldo; Arrese, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Background Therapeutic options to treat Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) are limited. Mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) activation could play a role in hepatic fibrogenesis and its modulation could be beneficial for NASH. Aim To investigate whether eplerenone, a specific MR antagonist, ameliorates liver damage in experimental NASH. Methods C57bl6 mice were fed a choline-deficient-amino-acid–defined (CDAA) diet for 22 weeks with or without eplerenone supplementation. Serum levels of aminotransferases and aldosterone were measured and hepatic steatosis, inflammation, and fibrosis scored histologically. Hepatic triglyceride content (HTC) and hepatic mRNA levels of pro-inflammatory pro-fibrotic, oxidative stress-associated genes and of MR were also assessed. Results CDAA diet effectively induced fibrotic NASH, and increased the hepatic expression of pro-inflammatory, pro-fibrotic and oxidative stress-associated genes. Hepatic MR mRNA levels significantly correlated with the expression of pro-inflammatory and pro-fibrotic genes and were significantly increased in hepatic stellate cells obtained from CDAA-fed animals. Eplerenone administration was associated to a reduction in histological steatosis and attenuation of liver fibrosis development, which was associated to a significant decrease in the expression of collagen-α1, collagen type III, alpha 1 and Matrix metalloproteinase-2. Conclusion The expression of MR correlates with inflammation and fibrosis development in experimental NASH. Specific MR blockade with eplerenone has hepatic anti-steatotic and anti-fibrotic effects. These data identifies eplerenone as a potential novel therapy for NASH. Considering its safety and FDA-approved status, human studies are warranted PMID:25646700

  4. Beneficial effects by intake of Euphausiacea pacifica on high-fat diet-induced obesity.

    PubMed

    Sadzuka, Yasuyuki; Sugiyama, Ikumi; Miyashita, Michiko; Ueda, Tomohiro; Kikuchi, Sayaka; Oshiro, Eriko; Yano, Akira; Yamada, Hidetoshi

    2012-01-01

    Obesity is a major health problem showing increased incidence in developed and developing countries. We examined the effect of Euphausia pacifica (E. pacifica) (Pacific Krill) on high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity in C57BL/6 mice. No significant differences were observed in average food intake between the HFD and HFD with E. pacifica group, or the low-fat diet (LFD) and LFD with E. pacifica group for 18 weeks. The increased ratio of body weight in the HFD containing E. pacifica group was significantly reduced, being 10% lower than that with HFD group in the 18th week (HFD, 298.6±18.8% vs. HFD with E. pacifica, 267.8±16.2%; p<0.05), while the ratio for the LFD containing E. pacifica group was reduced by 4% compared with LFD group (LFD, 244.2±11.6% vs. LFD with E. pacifica, 234.1±18.0%). There were no effects of E. pacifica on total cholesterol levels in serum and liver, whereas the supplement of E. pacifica tended to decrease triglyceride levels in the HFD groups. The leptin level in serum was significantly decreased in the HFD group (p<0.01) by E. pacifica. The adipocyte area (1926±1275 μm(2)) in the HFD containing E. pacifica group was significantly reduced by 20% (p<0.001) compared with the HFD group. These results suggested that E. pacifica supplementation in the diet is beneficial for the prevention of HFD-induced obesity.

  5. Exercise in obese female rats has beneficial effects on maternal and male and female offspring metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Vega, Claudia C; Reyes-Castro, Luis A; Bautista, Claudia J; Larrea, Fernando; Nathanielsz, Peter W; Zambrano, Elena

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Maternal obesity (MO) impairs maternal and offspring health. Mechanisms and interventions to prevent adverse maternal and offspring outcomes need to be determined. Human studies are confounded by socio-economic status providing the rationale for controlled animal data on effects of maternal exercise (MEx) intervention on maternal (F0) and offspring (F1) outcomes in MO. HYPOTHESIS MO produces metabolic and endocrine dysfunction, increases maternal and offspring glucocorticoid exposure, oxidative stress and adverse offspring outcomes by postnatal day (PND) 36. MEx prevents these outcomes. METHODS F0 female rats ate either control or obesogenic diet from weaning through lactation. Half of each group wheel ran (from day ninety of life through pregnancy beginning day 120) providing four groups (n=8/group) – i) controls, ii) obese, iii) exercised controls and iv) exercised obese. After weaning, PND 21, F1 offspring ate a control diet. Metabolic parameters of F0 prepregnancy and end of lactation and F1 offspring at PND 36 were analyzed. RESULTS Exercise did not change maternal weight. Before breeding, MO elevated F0 glucose, insulin, triglycerides, cholesterol, leptin, fat and oxidative stress. Exercise completely prevented the triglyceride rise and partially glucose, insulin, cholesterol and oxidative stress increases. MO decreased fertility, recovered by exercise. At the end of lactation, exercise returned all metabolic variables except leptin to control levels. Exercise partially prevented MO elevated corticosterone. F1 Offspring weights were similar at birth. At PND 36 MO increased F1 male but not female offspring leptin, triglycerides and fat mass. In controls exercise reduced male and female offspring glucose, prevented the offspring leptin increase and partially the triglyceride rise. CONCLUSIONS MEx before and during pregnancy has beneficial effects on maternal and offspring metabolism and endocrine function occurring with no weight change in mothers

  6. Pantoea agglomerans: a mysterious bacterium of evil and good. Part IV. Beneficial effects.

    PubMed

    Dutkiewicz, Jacek; Mackiewicz, Barbara; Lemieszek, Marta Kinga; Golec, Marcin; Milanowski, Janusz

    2016-06-02

    Pantoea agglomerans, a gammaproteobacterium of plant origin, possesses many beneficial traits that could be used for the prevention and/or treatment of human and animal diseases, combating plant pathogens, promotion of plant growth and bioremediation of the environment. It produces a number of antibiotics (herbicolin, pantocins, microcin, agglomerins, andrimid, phenazine, among others) which could be used for combating plant, animal and human pathogens or for food preservation. Japanese researchers have demonstrated that the low-molecular-mass lipopolysaccharide of P. agglomerans isolated by them and described as 'Immunopotentiator from Pantoea agglomerans 1 (IP-PA1)' reveals the extremely wide spectrum of healing properties, mainly due to its ability for the maintenance of homeostasis by macrophage activation. IP-PA1 was proved to be effective in the prevention and treatment of a broad range of human and animal disorders, such as tumours, hyperlipidaemia, diabetes, ulcer, various infectious diseases, atopic allergy and stress-induced immunosuppression; it also showed a strong analgesic effect. It is important that most of these effects could be achieved by the safe oral administration of IP-PA1. Taking into account that P. agglomerans occurs commonly as a symbiont of many species of insects, including mosquitoes transmitting the Plasmodium parasites causing malaria, successful attempts were made to apply the strategy of paratransgenesis, in which bacterial symbionts are genetically engineered to express and secrete anti-Plasmodium effector proteins. This strategy shows prospects for a successful eradication of malaria, a deadly disease killing annually over one million people, as well as of other vector-borne diseases of humans, animals and plants. Pantoea agglomerans has been identified as an antagonist of many plant pathogens belonging to bacteria and fungi, as a result of antibiotic production, competition mechanisms or induction of plant resistance. Its use as

  7. Amorphastilbol exerts beneficial effects on glucose and lipid metabolism in mice consuming a high-fat-diet.

    PubMed

    Lee, Woojung; Ham, Jungyeob; Kwon, Hak Cheol; Yoon, Goo; Bae, Gyu-Un; Kim, Yong Kee; Kim, Su-Nam

    2015-08-01

    In the present study, the anti-diabetic effects of amorphastilbol (APH) from Amorpha fruticosa (AF) were evaluated in high-fat-diet (HFD) mice. HFD-induced blood glucose and insulin levels are significantly reduced in AF extract or APH treatment groups. HFD-induced weight gain was reduced by AF treatment, which is accompanied by reduction of fat mass and adipocyte size and number in white adipose tissues. Furthermore, total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels are decreased in AF- or APH-treated mice. In addition, AF and APH are able to improve insulin sensitivity through inhibition of protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B, a negative regulator of the insulin-signaling pathway. Taken together, the data suggest that AF has beneficial effects on glucose and lipid metabolism and its pharmacological effects are driven, in part, by its active component, APH. Therefore, AF and APH can be used as potential therapeutic agents against type 2 diabetes and associated metabolic disorders, including obesity, by enhancing glucose and lipid metabolism.

  8. Effect of glutathione addition in sparkling wine.

    PubMed

    Webber, Vanessa; Dutra, Sandra Valduga; Spinelli, Fernanda Rodrigues; Marcon, Ângela Rossi; Carnieli, Gilberto João; Vanderlinde, Regina

    2014-09-15

    This study aims to evaluate the effect of the addition of glutathione (GSH) on secondary aromas and on the phenolic compounds of sparkling wine elaborated by traditional method. It was added 10 and 20 mg L(-1) of GSH to must and to base wine. The determination of aroma compounds was performed by gas chromatography. Phenolic compounds and glutathione content were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography. Sparkling wines with addition of GSH to must showed lower levels of total phenolic compounds and hydroxycinnamic acids. Furthermore, the sparkling wine with addition of GSH to must showed higher levels of 2-phenylethanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol and diethyl succinate, and lower concentrations of ethyl decanoate, octanoic and decanoic acids. The GSH addition to the must show a greater influence on sparkling wine than to base wine, however GSH addition to base wine seems retain higher SO2 free levels. The concentration of GSH added showed no significant difference.

  9. The Fates of Mutant Lineages and the Distribution of Fitness Effects of Beneficial Mutations in Laboratory Budding Yeast Populations

    PubMed Central

    Frenkel, Evgeni M.; Good, Benjamin H.; Desai, Michael M.

    2014-01-01

    The outcomes of evolution are determined by which mutations occur and fix. In rapidly adapting microbial populations, this process is particularly hard to predict because lineages with different beneficial mutations often spread simultaneously and interfere with one another’s fixation. Hence to predict the fate of any individual variant, we must know the rate at which new mutations create competing lineages of higher fitness. Here, we directly measured the effect of this interference on the fates of specific adaptive variants in laboratory Saccharomyces cerevisiae populations and used these measurements to infer the distribution of fitness effects of new beneficial mutations. To do so, we seeded marked lineages with different fitness advantages into replicate populations and tracked their subsequent frequencies for hundreds of generations. Our results illustrate the transition between strongly advantageous lineages that decisively sweep to fixation and more moderately advantageous lineages that are often outcompeted by new mutations arising during the course of the experiment. We developed an approximate likelihood framework to compare our data to simulations and found that the effects of these competing beneficial mutations were best approximated by an exponential distribution, rather than one with a single effect size. We then used this inferred distribution of fitness effects to predict the rate of adaptation in a set of independent control populations. Finally, we discuss how our experimental design can serve as a screen for rare, large-effect beneficial mutations. PMID:24514901

  10. The fates of mutant lineages and the distribution of fitness effects of beneficial mutations in laboratory budding yeast populations.

    PubMed

    Frenkel, Evgeni M; Good, Benjamin H; Desai, Michael M

    2014-04-01

    The outcomes of evolution are determined by which mutations occur and fix. In rapidly adapting microbial populations, this process is particularly hard to predict because lineages with different beneficial mutations often spread simultaneously and interfere with one another's fixation. Hence to predict the fate of any individual variant, we must know the rate at which new mutations create competing lineages of higher fitness. Here, we directly measured the effect of this interference on the fates of specific adaptive variants in laboratory Saccharomyces cerevisiae populations and used these measurements to infer the distribution of fitness effects of new beneficial mutations. To do so, we seeded marked lineages with different fitness advantages into replicate populations and tracked their subsequent frequencies for hundreds of generations. Our results illustrate the transition between strongly advantageous lineages that decisively sweep to fixation and more moderately advantageous lineages that are often outcompeted by new mutations arising during the course of the experiment. We developed an approximate likelihood framework to compare our data to simulations and found that the effects of these competing beneficial mutations were best approximated by an exponential distribution, rather than one with a single effect size. We then used this inferred distribution of fitness effects to predict the rate of adaptation in a set of independent control populations. Finally, we discuss how our experimental design can serve as a screen for rare, large-effect beneficial mutations.

  11. Accounting for Beneficial Effects of Worked Examples in Tutored Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salden, Ron J. C. M.; Koedinger, Kenneth R.; Renkl, Alexander; Aleven, Vincent; McLaren, Bruce M.

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies have tested the addition of worked examples to tutored problem solving, a more effective instructional approach than the untutored problem solving used in prior worked example research. These studies involved Cognitive Tutors, software designed to support problem solving while minimizing extraneous cognitive load by providing…

  12. Beneficial effects of IL-37 after spinal cord injury in mice

    PubMed Central

    Coll-Miró, Marina; Francos-Quijorna, Isaac; Santos-Nogueira, Eva; Torres-Espin, Abel; Bufler, Philip; Dinarello, Charles A.; López-Vales, Rubèn

    2016-01-01

    IL-37, a member of the IL-1 family, broadly reduces innate inflammation as well as acquired immunity. Whether the antiinflammatory properties of IL-37 extend to the central nervous system remains unknown, however. In the present study, we subjected mice transgenic for human IL-37 (hIL-37tg) and wild-type (WT) mice to spinal cord contusion injury and then treated them with recombinant human IL-37 (rIL-37). In the hIL-37tg mice, the expression of IL-37 was barely detectable in the uninjured cords, but was strongly induced at 24 h and 72 h after the spinal cord injury (SCI). Compared with WT mice, hIL-37tg mice exhibited increased myelin and neuronal sparing and protection against locomotor deficits, including 2.5-fold greater speed in a forced treadmill challenge. Reduced levels of cytokines (e.g., an 80% reduction in IL-6) were observed in the injured cords of hIL-37tg mice, along with lower numbers of blood-borne neutrophils, macrophages, and activated microglia. We treated WT mice with a single intraspinal injection of either full-length or processed rIL-37 after the injury and found that the IL-37–treated mice had significantly enhanced locomotor skills in an open field using the Basso Mouse Scale, as well as supported faster speed on a mechanical treadmill. Treatment with both forms of rIL-37 led to similar beneficial effects on locomotor recovery after SCI. This study presents novel data indicating that IL-37 suppresses inflammation in a clinically relevant model of SCI, and suggests that rIL-37 may have therapeutic potential for the treatment of acute SCI. PMID:26787859

  13. Beneficial effects of multisensory and cognitive stimulation in institutionalized elderly: 12-months follow-up.

    PubMed

    de Macedo, Liliane Dias E Dias; De Oliveira, Thaís Cristina Galdino; Soares, Fernanda Cabral; Bento-Torres, João; Bento-Torres, Natáli Valim Oliver; Anthony, Daniel Clive; Picanço-Diniz, Cristovam Wanderley

    2015-01-01

    We previously demonstrated the beneficial effects of a multisensory and cognitive stimulation program, consisting of 48 sessions, twice a week, to improve the cognition of elderly subjects living either in long-term care institutions (institutionalized - I) or in communities with their families (noninstitutionalized - NI). In the present study, we evaluated these subjects after the end of the intervention and compared the rate of age-related cognitive decline of those living in an enriched community environment (NI group, n=15, 74.1±3.9 years old) with those living in the impoverished environment of long-term care institutions (I group, n=20, 75.1±6.8 years old). Both groups participated fully in our stimulation program. Over 1 year, we conducted revaluations at five time points (2 months, 4 months, 6 months, 8 months, and 12 months) after the completion of the intervention. Both elderly groups were evaluated with the mini-mental state examination and selected language tests. Progressive cognitive decline was observed in both groups over the period. Indeed, it took only 4-6 months after the end of the stimulation program for significant reductions in language test scores to become apparent. However, earlier reductions in test scores were mainly associated with I group, and linguistic prosody test scores were significantly affected by institutionalization and time, two variables that interacted and reduced these scores. Moreover, I group reduced the Montréal cognitive assessment battery language tests scores 4 months before NI group. It remains to be investigated what mechanisms may explain the earlier and more intense language losses in institutionalized elderly.

  14. Beneficial effects of multisensory and cognitive stimulation in institutionalized elderly: 12-months follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Dias E Dias de Macedo, Liliane; De Oliveira, Thaís Cristina Galdino; Soares, Fernanda Cabral; Bento-Torres, João; Bento-Torres, Natáli Valim Oliver; Anthony, Daniel Clive; Picanço-Diniz, Cristovam Wanderley

    2015-01-01

    We previously demonstrated the beneficial effects of a multisensory and cognitive stimulation program, consisting of 48 sessions, twice a week, to improve the cognition of elderly subjects living either in long-term care institutions (institutionalized – I) or in communities with their families (noninstitutionalized – NI). In the present study, we evaluated these subjects after the end of the intervention and compared the rate of age-related cognitive decline of those living in an enriched community environment (NI group, n=15, 74.1±3.9 years old) with those living in the impoverished environment of long-term care institutions (I group, n=20, 75.1±6.8 years old). Both groups participated fully in our stimulation program. Over 1 year, we conducted revaluations at five time points (2 months, 4 months, 6 months, 8 months, and 12 months) after the completion of the intervention. Both elderly groups were evaluated with the mini-mental state examination and selected language tests. Progressive cognitive decline was observed in both groups over the period. Indeed, it took only 4–6 months after the end of the stimulation program for significant reductions in language test scores to become apparent. However, earlier reductions in test scores were mainly associated with I group, and linguistic prosody test scores were significantly affected by institutionalization and time, two variables that interacted and reduced these scores. Moreover, I group reduced the Montréal cognitive assessment battery language tests scores 4 months before NI group. It remains to be investigated what mechanisms may explain the earlier and more intense language losses in institutionalized elderly. PMID:26316730

  15. Effects of mood state on divided attention in patients with bipolar disorder: evidence for beneficial effects of subclinical manic symptoms.

    PubMed

    Koenders, Manja A; Spijker, Annet T; Hoencamp, Erik; Haffmans, Judith P M; Zitman, Frans G; Giltay, Erik J

    2014-12-15

    A relatively small number of studies have been dedicated to the differential effects of the current mood state on cognition in patients with a bipolar disorder (BD). The aim of the current study was to investigate the effect of current mood state on divided attention (DA) performance, and specifically examine possible beneficial effects of the (hypo-) manic state. Over a maximum period of 24 months, medication use, divided attention test (a subtest of the Test for Attentional Performance (TAP)) was assessed every 6 months in 189 outpatients with BD. Data were analyzed with multilevel regression analysis (i.e. linear mixed models). DA performance varied considerable over time within patients. Corrected for psychotropic medication a significant quadratic relationship between manic symptoms and DA performance was found, with mild hypomanic symptoms having a positive influence on divided attention scores and moderate to severe manic symptoms having a negative influence. No association between depressive symptoms and DA performance was found. In future research on mania and cognition as well as in the clinical practice both the beneficial and negative effects of mania should be taken into account.

  16. No beneficial effects evident for Enterococcus faecium NCIMB 10415 in weaned pigs infected with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium DT104.

    PubMed

    Kreuzer, Susanne; Janczyk, Pawel; Assmus, Jens; Schmidt, Michael F G; Brockmann, Gudrun A; Nöckler, Karsten

    2012-07-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium DT 104 is the major pathogen for salmonellosis outbreaks in Europe. We tested if the probiotic bacterium Enterococcus faecium NCIMB 10415 can prevent or alleviate salmonellosis. Therefore, piglets of the German Landrace breed that were treated with E. faecium (n = 16) as a feed additive and untreated controls (n = 16) were challenged with S. Typhimurium 10 days after weaning. The presence of salmonellae in feces and selected organs, as well as the immune response, were investigated. Piglets treated with E. faecium gained less weight than control piglets (P = 0.05). The feeding of E. faecium had no effect on the fecal shedding of salmonellae and resulted in a higher abundance of the pathogen in tonsils of all challenged animals. The specific (anti-Salmonella IgG) and nonspecific (haptoglobin) humoral immune responses as well as the cellular immune response (T helper cells, cytotoxic T cells, regulatory T cells, γδ T cells, and B cells) in the lymph nodes, Peyer's patches of different segments of the intestine (jejunal and ileocecal), the ileal papilla, and in the blood were affected in the course of time after infection (P < 0.05) but not by the E. faecium treatment. These results led to the conclusion that E. faecium may not have beneficial effects on the performance of weaned piglets in the case of S. Typhimurium infection. Therefore, we suggest a critical discussion and reconsideration of E. faecium NCIMB 10415 administration as a probiotic for pigs.

  17. Beneficial Effect of Metformin on Nerve Regeneration and Functional Recovery After Sciatic Nerve Crush Injury in Diabetic Rats.

    PubMed

    Ma, Junxiong; Liu, Jun; Yu, Hailong; Chen, Yu; Wang, Qi; Xiang, Liangbi

    2016-05-01

    Neuroprotective effects of metformin have been increasingly recognized in both diabetic and non-diabetic conditions. Thus far, no information has been available on the potential beneficial effects of metformin on peripheral nerve regeneration in diabetes mellitus. The present study was designed to investigate such a possibility. Diabetes was established by a single injection of streptozotocin at 50 mg/kg in rats. After sciatic nerve crush injury, the diabetic rats were intraperitoneally administrated daily for 4 weeks with metformin (30, 200 and 500 mg/kg), or normal saline, respectively. The axonal regeneration was investigated by morphometric analysis and retrograde labeling. The functional recovery was evaluated by electrophysiological studies and behavioral analysis. It was found that metformin significantly enhanced axonal regeneration and functional recovery compared to saline after sciatic nerve injury in diabetic rats. In addition, metformin at 200 and 500 mg/kg showed better performance than that at 30 mg/kg. Taken together, metformin is capable of promoting nerve regeneration after sciatic nerve injuries in diabetes mellitus, highlighting its therapeutic values for peripheral nerve injury repair in diabetes mellitus.

  18. No Beneficial Effects Evident for Enterococcus faecium NCIMB 10415 in Weaned Pigs Infected with Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium DT104

    PubMed Central

    Kreuzer, Susanne; Aßmus, Jens; Schmidt, Michael F. G.; Brockmann, Gudrun A.; Nöckler, Karsten

    2012-01-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium DT 104 is the major pathogen for salmonellosis outbreaks in Europe. We tested if the probiotic bacterium Enterococcus faecium NCIMB 10415 can prevent or alleviate salmonellosis. Therefore, piglets of the German Landrace breed that were treated with E. faecium (n = 16) as a feed additive and untreated controls (n = 16) were challenged with S. Typhimurium 10 days after weaning. The presence of salmonellae in feces and selected organs, as well as the immune response, were investigated. Piglets treated with E. faecium gained less weight than control piglets (P = 0.05). The feeding of E. faecium had no effect on the fecal shedding of salmonellae and resulted in a higher abundance of the pathogen in tonsils of all challenged animals. The specific (anti-Salmonella IgG) and nonspecific (haptoglobin) humoral immune responses as well as the cellular immune response (T helper cells, cytotoxic T cells, regulatory T cells, γδ T cells, and B cells) in the lymph nodes, Peyer's patches of different segments of the intestine (jejunal and ileocecal), the ileal papilla, and in the blood were affected in the course of time after infection (P < 0.05) but not by the E. faecium treatment. These results led to the conclusion that E. faecium may not have beneficial effects on the performance of weaned piglets in the case of S. Typhimurium infection. Therefore, we suggest a critical discussion and reconsideration of E. faecium NCIMB 10415 administration as a probiotic for pigs. PMID:22544257

  19. Beneficial effects of exercise on offspring obesity and insulin resistance are reduced by maternal high-fat diet

    PubMed Central

    Schreiber, Saskia; Klaus, Susanne; Kanzleiter, Isabel

    2017-01-01

    Scope We investigated the long-term effects of maternal high-fat consumption and post-weaning exercise on offspring obesity susceptibility and insulin resistance. Methods C57BL/6J dams were fed either a high-fat (HFD, 40% kcal fat) or low-fat (LFD, 10% kcal fat) semi-synthetic diet during pregnancy and lactation. After weaning, male offspring of both maternal diet groups (mLFD; mHFD) received a LFD. At week 7, half of the mice got access to a running wheel (+RW) as voluntary exercise training. To induce obesity, all offspring groups (mLFD +/-RW and mHFD +/-RW) received HFD from week 15 until week 25. Results Compared to mLFD, mHFD offspring were more prone to HFD-induced body fat gain and exhibited an increased liver mass which was not due to increased hepatic triglyceride levels. RW improved the endurance capacity in mLFD, but not in mHFD offspring. Additionally, mHFD offspring +RW exhibited higher plasma insulin levels during glucose tolerance test and an elevated basal pancreatic insulin production compared to mLFD offspring. Conclusion Taken together, maternal HFD reduced offspring responsiveness to the beneficial effects of voluntary exercise training regarding the improvement of endurance capacity, reduction of fat mass gain, and amelioration of HFD-induced insulin resistance. PMID:28235071

  20. The Two Faces of Selective Memory Retrieval: Recall Specificity of the Detrimental but Not the Beneficial Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bäuml, Karl-Heinz T.; Dobler, Ina M.

    2015-01-01

    Depending on the degree to which the original study context is accessible, selective memory retrieval can be detrimental or beneficial for the recall of other memories (Bäuml & Samenieh, 2012). Prior work has shown that the detrimental effect of memory retrieval is typically recall specific and does not arise after restudy trials, whereas…

  1. Beneficial effect of coenzyme Q10 injection on nitric oxide -related dilation of the rat aorta.

    PubMed

    Kozaeva, Larisa P; Gorodetskaya, Evgeniya A; Ruuge, Enno K; Kalenikova, Elena I; Medvedev, Oleg S

    2017-01-05

    This study examined whether coenzyme Q10 can improve nitric oxide (NO)-dependent vasodilatation in the rat aorta after pre-incubation or intravenous administration. In initial experiments, intact isolated aortic rings were incubated with coenzyme Q10 or L-arginine. In further experiments, coenzyme Q10 was administered intravenously in anesthetized rats, then in 2h aorta was isolated. In both cases, after preliminary preparation the isolated aortic rings were tested for acetylcholine-induced NO-dependent relaxation. Acetylcholine elicited concentration-dependent relaxation of phenylephine precontracted aortic rings. Relaxant responses to acetylcholine were markedly potentiated after pre-incubation with coenzyme Q10 or L-arginine. The maximum relaxant responses (%) were significantly increased from 64.1±5.3 (control) to 89.8±3.0 and 83.6±3.0 (coenzyme Q10 and L-arginine, respectively). pD2 (-lgEC50) value in control study was 5.81±0.28, after pretreatment with coenzyme Q10 or L-arginine were 7.59±0.16 and 7.26±0.32, respectively. There was no difference between coenzyme Q10 and L-arginine groups. After intravenous administration, the relaxant responses to acetylcholine were significantly increased in coenzyme Q10-treated group (94.2±2.0) compared with controls (68.1±4.4). pD2 values were also different between control and treatment groups (5.79±0.29 vs. 8.14±0.65, respectively). Thus, coenzyme Q10 improved NO-mediated vasodilation in rat aorta in magnitude close to the effects of L-arginine - substrate for eNOS. Our data first show that exogenous coenzyme Q10 through intravenous administration is able to improve rapidly NO-dependent vasodilation in rat aorta, likely due to accumulation of coenzyme Q10 in the vessel wall. Improvement of endothelial function can contribute, at least in part, to beneficial effects of coenzyme Q10 in cardiovascular diseases associated with endothelial dysfunction.

  2. Impact of Viral Infections on Hematopoiesis: From Beneficial to Detrimental Effects on Bone Marrow Output

    PubMed Central

    Pascutti, Maria Fernanda; Erkelens, Martje N.; Nolte, Martijn A.

    2016-01-01

    The ability of the bone marrow (BM) to generate copious amounts of blood cells required on a daily basis depends on a highly orchestrated process of proliferation and differentiation of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs). This process can be rapidly adapted under stress conditions, such as infections, to meet the specific cellular needs of the immune response and the ensuing physiological changes. This requires a tight regulation in order to prevent either hematopoietic failure or transformation. Although adaptation to bacterial infections or systemic inflammation has been studied and reviewed in depth, specific alterations of hematopoiesis to viral infections have received less attention so far. Viruses constantly pose a significant health risk and demand an adequate, balanced response from our immune system, which also affects the BM. In fact, both the virus itself and the ensuing immune response can have a tremendous impact on the hematopoietic process. On one hand, this can be beneficial: it helps to boost the cellular response of the body to resolve the viral infection. But on the other hand, when the virus and the resulting antiviral response persist, the inflammatory feedback to the hematopoietic system will become chronic, which can be detrimental for a balanced BM output. Chronic viral infections frequently have clinical manifestations at the level of blood cell formation, and we summarize which viruses can lead to BM pathologies, like aplastic anemia, pancytopenia, hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis, lymphoproliferative disorders, and malignancies. Regarding the underlying mechanisms, we address specific effects of acute and chronic viral infections on blood cell production. As such, we distinguish four different levels in which this can occur: (1) direct viral infection of HSPCs, (2) viral recognition by HSPCs, (3) indirect effects on HSPCs by inflammatory mediators, and (4) the role of the BM microenvironment on hematopoiesis upon virus

  3. Beneficial effects of an intradialytic cycling training program in patients with end-stage kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Groussard, Carole; Rouchon-Isnard, Myriam; Coutard, Céline; Romain, Fanny; Malardé, Ludivine; Lemoine-Morel, Sophie; Martin, Brice; Pereira, Bruno; Boisseau, Nathalie

    2015-06-01

    In chronic kidney disease (CKD), oxidative stress (OS) plays a central role in the development of cardiovascular diseases. This pilot program aimed to determine whether an intradialytic aerobic cycling training protocol, by increasing physical fitness, could reduce OS and improve other CKD-related disorders such as altered body composition and lipid profile. Eighteen hemodialysis patients were randomly assigned to either an intradialytic training (cycling: 30 min, 55%-60% peak power, 3 days/week) group (EX; n = 8) or a control group (CON; n = 10) for 3 months. Body composition (from dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry), physical fitness (peak oxygen uptake and the 6-minute walk test (6MWT)), lipid profile (triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein, and low-density lipoprotein (LDL)), and pro/antioxidant status (15-F2α-isoprostanes (F2-IsoP) and oxidized LDL in plasma; superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and reduced/oxidized glutathione in erythrocytes) were determined at baseline and 3 months later. The intradialytic training protocol did not modify body composition but had significant effects on physical fitness, lipid profile, and pro/antioxidant status. Indeed, at 3 months: (i) performance on the 6MWT was increased in EX (+23.4%, p < 0.001) but did not change in CON, (ii) plasma TG were reduced in EX (-23%, p < 0.03) but were not modified in CON, and (iii) plasma F2-IsoP concentrations were lower in EX than in CON (-35.7%, p = 0.02). In conclusion, our results show that 30 min of intradialytic training, 3 times per week for 3 months, are enough to exert beneficial effects on the most sensitive and reliable marker of lipid peroxidation (IsoP) while improving CKD-associated disorders (lipid profile and physical fitness). Intradialytic aerobic cycling training represents a useful and easy strategy to reduce CKD-associated disorders. These results need to be confirmed with a larger randomized study.

  4. The Additive Effects of Choice and Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karbowski, Joseph; And Others

    In separate research studies, students who were given a choice of learning materials or who had control over aversive noise, demonstrated higher motivation and better task performance. To investigate the additive effects of choice and control on perception of control, 80 male and female college students participated in a 2 (choice vs. no-choice) X…

  5. High Fat Diet Decreases Beneficial Effects of Estrogen on Serotonin-Related Gene Expression in Marmosets

    PubMed Central

    Bethea, Cynthia L; Reddy, Arubala P; Flowers, Matthew; Shapiro, Robert A.; Colman, Ricki J; Abbott, David H; Levine, Jon E

    2015-01-01

    The administration of estradiol-17β (E) to animal models after loss of ovarian steroid production has many beneficial effects on neural functions, particularly in the serotonin system in nonhuman primates (NHPs). E also has anorexic effects, although the mechanism of action is not well defined. In the US, obesity has reached epidemic proportions, and blame is partially directed at the Western style diet, which is high in fat and sugar. This study examined the interaction of E and diet in surgically menopausal nonhuman primates with a 2 × 2 block design. Marmosets (Callithrix jacchus; n=4/group) were placed on control-low fat diet (LFD; 14%kcal from fat) or high fat diet (HFD; 28%kcal from fat) 1 month prior to ovariectomy (Ovx). Empty (placebo) or E-filled Silastic capsules were implanted immediately following Ovx surgery. Treatments extended 6 months. The established groups were: placebo+LFD; E+LFD; placebo+HFD, or E+HFD. At necropsy, the brain was flushed with saline and harvested. The midbrain was dissected and a small block containing the dorsal raphe nucleus was processed for qRT-PCR using Evagreen (Biotinum). Genes previously found to impact serotonin neural functions were examined. Results were compared with 2-way ANOVA followed by Bonferroni post-hoc tests or Cohen’s D analysis. There was a significant effect of treatment on tryptophan hydroxylase 2 (TPH2) across the groups (p=0.019). E stimulated TPH2 expression and HFD prevented E-stimulated TPH2 expression (p<0.01). Treatment differentially affected monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B) across the groups (p=0.05). E increased MAO-B with LFD, and this stimulatory effect was prevented by HFD (p<0.05). There was a significant difference between treatments in corticotrophin releasing factor-receptor 2 (CRF-R2) expression (p=0.012). E increased CRF-R2 and this stimulatory effect was blocked by HFD (p<0.01). Regardless of diet, E increased Fev mRNA (p=0.028) and decreased CRF-receptor 1 (CRF-R1) mRNA (p=0.04). HFD

  6. Beneficial effects of prolonged blood pressure control after carotid artery stenting

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Anna; Hung, Huei-Fong; Hsieh, Fang-I; Chen, Wei-Hung; Yeh, Hsu-Ling; Yeh, Jiann-Horng; Chiu, Hou-Chang; Lien, Li-Ming

    2017-01-01

    Objectives The main purpose of this study was to investigate whether carotid artery stenting (CAS) plus medicine in patients with severe carotid artery stenosis provide a better long-term blood pressure (BP) control compared to other medical treatments alone. The other aim was to explore the correlation between post-CAS hypotension within 6 h and long-term BP reductions after CAS. Materials and methods Patients with severe carotid stenosis were recruited either in the CAS group or in the medication group. BPs and the number of classes of antihypertensive agents were recorded at baseline, 6, and 12 months. Extra BP information was collected at 6 h, 3 days, and 1 month after CAS. Univariate and multivariate linear regressions were performed to test the relationship of BP changes among CAS and medication groups after 6 and 12 months of follow-up. Univariate linear regressions were also used to determine the correlations between the mean or maximal systolic BP (SBP) reductions at 6 h and 1 year post-CAS. Results In total, 72 members in the CAS group and 82 members in the medication group were recruited. Compared with the medication group, patients in the CAS group had greater BP reductions at 6 and 12 months of follow-up after adjusting for confounding factors (13.56 mmHg at 6 months, P=0.0002; 16.98 mmHg at 12 months, P<0.0001). This study also shows significant positive correlations between the mean or maximal SBP reductions 6 h post-CAS and SBP reductions 1 year post-CAS (β =0.20±0.07, P=0.0067 and β =0.47±0.10, P<0.0001, respectively). Conclusion As compared to medical treatment alone, CAS may provide significant beneficial effect on long-term BP control 1 year post-CAS. Furthermore, SBP reductions 6 h post-CAS may predict the SBP reductions 1 year post-CAS. PMID:28123290

  7. Insulin-sensitizing and beneficial lipid-metabolic effects of the water-soluble melanin complex extracted from Inonotus obliquus.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jung-Han; Hyun, Chang-Kee

    2014-09-01

    Inonotus obliquus has been traditionally used for treatment of metabolic diseases; however, the mechanism remains to be elucidated. In this study, we found that the water-soluble melanin complex extracted from I. obliquus improved insulin sensitivity and reduced adiposity in high fat (HF)-fed obese mice. When the melanin complex was treated to 3T3-L1 adipocytes, insulin-stimulated glucose uptake was increased significantly, and its phosphoinositide 3-kinase-dependent action was proven with wortmannin treatment. Additionally, dose-dependent increases in Akt phosphorylation and glucose transporter 4 translocation into the plasma membrane were observed in melanin complex-treated cells. Adiponectin gene expression in 3T3-L1 cells incubated with melanin complex increased which was corroborated by increased AMP-activated protein kinase phosphorylation in HepG2 and C2C12 cells treated with conditioned media from the 3T3-L1 culture. Melanin complex-treated 3T3-L1 cells showed no significant change in expression of several lipogenic genes, whereas enhanced expressions of fatty acid oxidative genes were observed. Similarly, the epididymal adipose tissue of melanin complex-treated HF-fed mice had higher expression of fatty acid oxidative genes without significant change in lipogenic gene expression. Together, these results suggest that the water-soluble melanin complex of I. obliquus exerts antihyperglycemic and beneficial lipid-metabolic effects, making it a candidate for promising antidiabetic agent.

  8. Beneficial effects of an anabolic steroid during cytotoxic chemotherapy for metastatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Spiers, A S; DeVita, S F; Allar, M J; Richards, S; Sedransk, N

    1981-01-01

    To investigate the effects of concurrent administration of an anabolic steroid upon hematopoiesis and metabolism in patients with cancer who were receiving cytotoxic chemotherapy, a randomized trial was conducted. Thirty-three evaluable patients received intensive multiple-agent chemotherapy: 17 received in addition nandrolone decanoate ("Deca-Durabolin"), 200 mg intramuscularly each week. The nandrolone-treated patients showed significantly better maintenance of hemoglobin concentrations and body weight, and a highly significant reduction in number of blood transfusions. Improved survival in the androgen-treated patients did not achieve significance. There were no differences in neutrophil or platelet counts or in tolerance of cytotoxic drugs. Toxicity from nandrolone therapy was minimal.

  9. Intraperitoneal insulin infusion: treatment option for type 1 diabetes resulting in beneficial endocrine effects beyond glycaemia.

    PubMed

    van Dijk, P R; Logtenberg, S J J; Gans, R O B; Bilo, H J G; Kleefstra, N

    2014-10-01

    Continuous intraperitoneal insulin infusion (CIPII) is a treatment option for patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus who fail to reach adequate glycaemic control despite intensive subcutaneous (SC) insulin therapy. CIPII has clear advantages over SC insulin administration in terms of pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties and has been shown to improve glycaemic regulation. Due to the delivery of insulin predominantly in the portal vein, as opposed to systemically, CIPII offers a unique research model to investigate the effects of insulin on endocrine and metabolic parameters in vivo. The aim of the present article is to provide an overview of the literature with respect to the effects of CIPII on glucose management, quality of life, complications and costs, with additional focus on metabolic and endocrine aspects. Finally, future use and research objectives are discussed.

  10. A blessing, not a curse: experimental evidence for beneficial effects of visual aesthetics on performance.

    PubMed

    Moshagen, Morten; Musch, Jochen; Göritz, Anja S

    2009-10-01

    The present experiment investigated the effect of visual aesthetics on performance. A total of 257 volunteers completed a series of search tasks on a website providing health-related information. Four versions of the website were created by manipulating visual aesthetics (high vs. low) and usability (good vs. poor) in a 2 x 2 between-subjects design. Task completion times and error rates were used as performance measures. A main effect of usability on both error rates and completion time was observed. Additionally, a significant interaction of visual aesthetics and usability revealed that high aesthetics enhanced performance under conditions of poor usability. Thus, in contrast to the notion that visual aesthetics may worsen performance, visual aesthetics even compensated for poor usability by speeding up task completion. The practical and theoretical implications of this finding are discussed.

  11. Beneficial effects of pet ownership on some aspects of human health and behaviour.

    PubMed

    Serpell, J

    1991-12-01

    A 10-month prospective study was carried out which examined changes in behaviour and health status in 71 adult subjects following the acquisition of a new pet (either dogs or cats). A group of 26 subjects without pets served as a comparison over the same period. Both pet-owning groups reported a highly significant reduction in minor health problems during the first month following pet acquisition, and this effect was sustained in dog owners through to 10 months. The pet-acquiring groups also showed improvements in their scores on the 30-item General Health Questionnaire over the first 6 months and, in dog owners, this improvement was maintained until 10 months. In addition, dog owners took considerably more physical exercise while walking their dogs than the other two groups, and this effect continued throughout the period of study. The group without pets exhibited no statistically significant changes in health or behaviour, apart from a small increase in recreational walking. The results provide evidence that pet acquisition may have positive effects on human health and behaviour, and that in some cases these effects are relatively long term.

  12. Intermittent fasting dissociates beneficial effects of dietary restriction on glucose metabolism and neuronal resistance to injury from calorie intake.

    PubMed

    Anson, R Michael; Guo, Zhihong; de Cabo, Rafael; Iyun, Titilola; Rios, Michelle; Hagepanos, Adrienne; Ingram, Donald K; Lane, Mark A; Mattson, Mark P

    2003-05-13

    Dietary restriction has been shown to have several health benefits including increased insulin sensitivity, stress resistance, reduced morbidity, and increased life span. The mechanism remains unknown, but the need for a long-term reduction in caloric intake to achieve these benefits has been assumed. We report that when C57BL6 mice are maintained on an intermittent fasting (alternate-day fasting) dietary-restriction regimen their overall food intake is not decreased and their body weight is maintained. Nevertheless, intermittent fasting resulted in beneficial effects that met or exceeded those of caloric restriction including reduced serum glucose and insulin levels and increased resistance of neurons in the brain to excitotoxic stress. Intermittent fasting therefore has beneficial effects on glucose regulation and neuronal resistance to injury in these mice that are independent of caloric intake.

  13. Berberine suppresses intestinal disaccharidases with beneficial metabolic effects in diabetic states, evidences from in vivo and in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Liu, Li; Yu, Yun-Li; Yang, Jian-Song; Li, Yang; Liu, Yao-Wu; Liang, Yan; Liu, Xiao-Dong; Xie, Lin; Wang, Guang-Ji

    2010-04-01

    Clinical reports have demonstrated that berberine is a potential antidiabetic agent, but the underlying mechanism is unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate if berberine exerts its hypoglycemic action via inhibiting intestinal disaccharidases using in vivo and in vitro experiments. Streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats received berberine (100 or 200 mg/kg) orally once daily or acarbose (40 mg/kg) orally twice daily for 5 weeks. Disaccharidase activities and sucrase-isomaltase (SI) complex messenger RNA (mRNA) expression in intestinal regions were assessed. The same treatment was operated in normal rats. Sucrose and maltose loading tests were also documented. In addition, Caco-2 cells were cultured in medium containing berberine or berberine plus chelerythrine. Compound C or H-89 for 5 days, disaccharidase activities, and SI complex mRNA levels were measured. The animal experiments showed that berberine significantly decreased the disaccharidase activities and SI complex mRNA expression both in diabetic rats and normal rats. Berberine can also significantly lower postprandial blood glucose levels induced by sucrose or maltose loading in normal rats. The cellular results showed that berberine may suppress disaccharidase activities and downregulate SI complex mRNA expression in a concentration-dependent manner. Only H-89, an inhibitor of protein kinase A (PKA), may reverse the decrease in disaccharidase activities and SI complex mRNA expression induced by berberine. In conclusion, berberine suppresses disaccharidase activities and SI complex mRNA expression with beneficial metabolic effects in diabetic states. The inhibitory effect, at least partly, involves the PKA-dependent pathway.

  14. The unexpected beneficial effect of the L-valley population on the electron mobility of GaAs nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Marin, E. G. E-mail: franruiz@ugr.es Ruiz, F. G. E-mail: franruiz@ugr.es Godoy, A. E-mail: franruiz@ugr.es Tienda-Luna, I. M.; Gámiz, F.

    2015-01-12

    The impact of the L-valley population on the transport properties of GaAs cylindrical nanowires (NWs) is analyzed by numerically calculating the electron mobility under the momentum relaxation time approximation. In spite of its low contribution to the electron mobility (even for high electron populations in small NWs), it is demonstrated to have a beneficial effect, since it significantly favours the Γ-valley mobility by screening the higher Γ-valley energy subbands.

  15. "Weighing" the effects of exercise and intrinsic aerobic capacity: are there beneficial effects independent of changes in weight?

    PubMed

    Thyfault, John P; Wright, David C

    2016-09-01

    It has been known for centuries that regularly performed exercise has beneficial effects on metabolic health. Owing to its central role in locomotion and the fact that it accounts for a large majority of whole-body glucose disposal and fatty acid oxidation, the effects of exercise on skeletal muscle has been a central focus in exercise physiology research. With this being said it is becoming increasingly well recognized that both adipose tissue and liver metabolism are robustly modified by exercise, especially in conditions of obesity and insulin resistance. One of the difficult questions to address is if the effects of exercise are direct or occur secondary to exercise-induced weight loss. The purpose of this review is to highlight recent work that has attempted to tease out the protective effects of exercise, or intrinsic aerobic capacity, against metabolic and inflammatory challenges as it relates to the treatment and prevention of obesity and insulin resistance. Recent studies reporting improvements in liver and adipose tissue insulin action following a single bout of exercise will also be discussed. The research highlighted in this review sheds new insight into protective, anti-inflammatory effects of exercise that occur largely independent of changes in adiposity and body weight.

  16. Beneficial effects of chrysin and benzoflavone on virility in 2-year-old male rats.

    PubMed

    Dhawan, Kamaldeep; Kumar, Suresh; Sharma, Anupam

    2002-01-01

    This work describes the potential usefulness of bioflavonoids for countering the deleterious effects of aging on male sexuality in 2-year-old rats. A flavone chrysin from Passiflora caerulea Linn. and a benzoflavone moiety (BZF) recently isolated from Passiflora incarnata Linn. were administered to 2-year-old male rats for a period of 30 days. After cessation of these treatments, there was a significant improvement in overall sexual functions in the rats given bioflavonoids, compared with control rats. The rats receiving chrysin (1 mg/kg) and BZF (10 mg/kg) exhibited increased libido when they were allowed to interact with nonestrous female rats. Additionally, both treated groups had increased sperm count, greater fertilization potential, and greater litter size when they were allowed to interact with proven proestrous female rats of a similar strain. BZF was more potent than chrysin as an antiaromatase agent and exhibited better effects on the sexual system of the 2-year-old male rats. Plant flavonoids have great potential for clinical and therapeutic applications against the physiological and biochemical effects of aging.

  17. Modification in the diet can induce beneficial effects against breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Aragón, Felix; Perdigón, Gabriela; de Moreno de LeBlanc, Alejandra

    2014-01-01

    The population tends to consume foods that in addition to their nutritional values can offer some benefits to their health. There are many epidemiological evidences and research studies in animal models suggesting that diet plays an important role in breast cancer prevention or progression. This review summarized some of the relevant researches about nutrition and cancer during the last years, especially in breast cancer. The analysis of probiotics and fermented products containing lactic acid bacteria in cancer prevention and/or treatment was especially discussed. It was observed that a balance of fatty acids similar to those of traditional Mediterranean diet, the consumption of fruits and vegetables, dietary fiber intake, vitamin supplementation are, along with the intake of probiotic products, the most extensively studied by the negative association to breast cancer risk. The consumption of probiotics and fermented products containing lactic acid bacteria was associated to reduce breast cancer risk in some epidemiological studies. The use of animal models showed the modulation of the host’s immune response as one of the important effects associated to the benefices observed with most probiotics. However; future assays in human are very important before the medical community can accept the addition of probiotic or fermented milks containing lactic acid bacteria as supplements for cancer patients. PMID:25114859

  18. Mechanisms Involved in the Beneficial Effects of Spironolactone after Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Minicucci, Marcos F.; dos Santos, Priscila P.; Rafacho, Bruna P. M.; Gonçalves, Andrea F.; Silva, Renata A. C.; Chiuso-Minicucci, Fernanda; Azevedo, Paula S.; Polegato, Bertha F.; Okoshi, Katashi; Pereira, Elenize J.; Paiva, Sergio A. R.; Zornoff, Leonardo A. M.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Our objective was to analyze the effect of spironolactone on cardiac remodeling after experimental myocardial infarction (MI), assessed by matricellular proteins levels, cardiac collagen amount and distribution, myocardial tissue metalloproteinase inhibitor-1(TIMP-1) concentration, myocyte hypertrophy, left ventricular architecture, and in vitro and in vivo cardiac function. Methods Wistar rats were assigned to 4 groups: control group, in which animals were submitted to simulated surgery (SHAM group; n=9); group that received spironolactone and in which animals were submitted to simulated surgery (SHAM-S group, n=9); myocardial infarction group, in which animals were submitted to coronary artery ligation (MI group, n=15); and myocardial infarction group with spironolactone supplementation (MI-S group, n=15). The rats were observed for 3 months. Results The MI group had higher values of left cardiac chambers and mass index and lower relative wall thicknesses compared with the SHAM group. In addition, diastolic and systolic functions were worse in the MI groups. However, spironolactone did not influence any of these variables. The MI-S group had a lower myocardial hydroxyproline concentration and myocyte cross-sectional area compared with the MI group. Myocardial periostin and collagen type III were lower in the MI-S group compared with the MI-group. In addition, TIMP-1 concentration in myocardium was higher in the MI-S group compared with the MI group. Conclusions The predominant consequence of spironolactone supplementation after MI is related to reductions in collagens, with discrete attenuation of other remodeling variables. Importantly, this effect may be modulated by periostin and TIMP-1 levels. PMID:24098808

  19. Beneficial protective effect of pramipexole on light-induced retinal damage in mice.

    PubMed

    Shibagaki, Keiichi; Okamoto, Kazuyoshi; Katsuta, Osamu; Nakamura, Masatsugu

    2015-10-01

    We investigated the effects of pramipexole, a potent dopamine receptor D2/D3 agonist, on light-induced retinal damage in mice, H2O2-induced retinal pigment epithelium ARPE-19 cell injury in humans, and hydroxyl radical scavenging activity in a cell-free system. Pramipexole (0.1 and 1 mg/kg body weight) was orally administered to mice 1 h before light exposure (5000 lux, 2 h). Electrophysiological and morphologic studies were performed to evaluate the effects of the pramipexole on light-induced retinal damage in mice. Pramipexole significantly prevented the reduction of the a- and b-wave electroretinogram (ERG) amplitudes caused by light exposure in a dose-dependent manner. In parallel, damage to the inner and outer segments (IS/OS) of the photoreceptors, loss of photoreceptor nuclei, and the number of Tdt-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL)-positive cells in the outer nuclear layer (ONL) caused by light exposure were notably ameliorated by pramipexole. Additionally, pramipexole suppressed H2O2-induced ARPE-19 cell death in vitro in a concentration-dependent manner. The effect of pramipexole was significant at concentrations of 10(-6) M or higher. Pramipexole also significantly prevented H2O2-induced activation of caspases-3/7 and the intracellular accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in a concentration-dependent manner ranging from 10(-5) to 10(-3) M. Furthermore, pramipexole increased the scavenging activity toward a hydroxyl radical generated from H2O2 in a Fenton reaction. Our results suggest that pramipexole protects against light-induced retinal damage as an antioxidant and that it may be a novel and effective therapy for retinal degenerative disorders, such as dry age-related macular degeneration.

  20. Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smalheer, C. V.

    1973-01-01

    The chemistry of lubricant additives is discussed to show what the additives are chemically and what functions they perform in the lubrication of various kinds of equipment. Current theories regarding the mode of action of lubricant additives are presented. The additive groups discussed include the following: (1) detergents and dispersants, (2) corrosion inhibitors, (3) antioxidants, (4) viscosity index improvers, (5) pour point depressants, and (6) antifouling agents.

  1. Beneficial Effect of Erythropoietin Short Peptide on Acute Traumatic Brain Injury.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bo; Kang, Mitchell; Marchese, Michelle; Rodriguez, Esther; Lu, Wei; Li, Xintong; Maeda, Yasuhiro; Dowling, Peter

    2016-04-01

    There is currently no effective medical treatment for traumatic brain injury (TBI). Beyond the immediate physical damage caused by the initial impact, additional damage evolves due to the inflammatory response that follows brain injury. Here we show that therapy with JM4, a low molecular weight 19-amino acid nonhematopoietic erythropoietin (EPO) peptidyl fragment, containing amino acids 28-46 derived from the first loop of EPO, markedly reduces acute brain injury. Mice underwent controlled cortical injury and received either whole molecule EPO, JM4, or sham-treatment with phosphate-buffered saline. Animals treated with JM4 peptide exhibited a large decrease in number of dead neural cells and a marked reduction in lesion size at both 3 and 8 days postinjury. Therapy with JM4 also led to improved functional recovery and we observed a treatment window for JM4 peptide that remained open for at least 9 h postinjury. The full-length EPO molecule was divided into a series of 6 contiguous peptide segments; the JM4-containing segment and the adjoining downstream region contained the bulk of the death attenuating effects seen with intact EPO molecule following TBI. These findings indicate that the JM4 molecule substantially blocks cell death and brain injury following acute brain trauma and, as such, presents an excellent opportunity to explore the therapeutic potential of a small-peptide EPO derivative in the medical treatment of TBI.

  2. Beneficial effects of nonpharmacological interventions in the management of essential hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Vamvakis, Anastasios; Triantafyllou, Areti; Gavriilaki, Eleni; Douma, Stella

    2017-01-01

    Essential hypertension is a major health problem causing excess cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Management of essential hypertension consists of pharmacological and nonpharmacological interventions. In order to prevent and/or treat hypertension, parameters like nutrition, body weight, and physical exercise should be evaluated and taken under consideration for improvement. A large body of evidence clearly support that the role of salt, alcohol, fruits, and vegetables is important for high blood pressure. Furthermore, maintaining a normal body weight should be succeeded along with physical activity few times per week if not daily. Nonpharmacological intervention is rather a dynamic procedure that takes a multilevel approach with repeated training of the hypertensives by a team of expert physicians, rather than a single based guidance. Additionally, it should be based on a profile customization and personalized approach. Intensive interventions aiming at lifestyle changes through educational meetings are considered more effective in lowering high blood pressure. This consists of a lifestyle modification with a permanent basis for patient’s daily schedule and eventually should become a philosophy for a better quality of life through improvement of nutritional and exercise behavior. Further studies are needed so intervention guideline models can be even more effective for patients with essential hypertension. PMID:28228940

  3. Beneficial Effects of the Genus Aloe on Wound Healing, Cell Proliferation, and Differentiation of Epidermal Keratinocytes

    PubMed Central

    Uda, Junki; Kubo, Hirokazu; Nakajima, Yuka; Goto, Arisa; Akaki, Junji; Yoshida, Ikuyo; Matsuoka, Nobuya; Hayakawa, Takao

    2016-01-01

    Aloe has been used as a folk medicine because it has several important therapeutic properties. These include wound and burn healing, and Aloe is now used in a variety of commercially available topical medications for wound healing and skin care. However, its effects on epidermal keratinocytes remain largely unclear. Our data indicated that both Aloe vera gel (AVG) and Cape aloe extract (CAE) significantly improved wound healing in human primary epidermal keratinocytes (HPEKs) and a human skin equivalent model. In addition, flow cytometry analysis revealed that cell surface expressions of β1-, α6-, β4-integrin, and E-cadherin increased in HPEKs treated with AVG and CAE. These increases may contribute to cell migration and wound healing. Treatment with Aloe also resulted in significant changes in cell-cycle progression and in increases in cell number. Aloe increased gene expression of differentiation markers in HPEKs, suggesting roles for AVG and CAE in the improvement of keratinocyte function. Furthermore, human skin epidermal equivalents developed from HPEKs with medium containing Aloe were thicker than control equivalents, indicating the effectiveness of Aloe on enhancing epidermal development. Based on these results, both AVG and CAE have benefits in wound healing and in treatment of rough skin. PMID:27736988

  4. Beneficial effects of interleukin-6 in neonatal mouse models of group B streptococcal disease.

    PubMed Central

    Mancuso, G; Tomasello, F; Migliardo, M; Delfino, D; Cochran, J; Cook, J A; Teti, G

    1994-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) plays a pathophysiologic role in sepsis induced in rat pups by group B streptococci (GBS). In this model, TNF-alpha is also partially responsible for the induction of interleukin-6 (IL-6). The present study was undertaken to investigate the role of IL-6 in neonatal BALB/c mice infected with type III GBS. The effect of anti-IL-6 monoclonal antibodies and recombinant IL-6 on lethality and TNF-alpha production was investigated. In mouse pups infected with GBS strain COH1, plasma IL-6 reached levels of 3,067 +/- 955 and 1,923 +/- 891 U/ml when measured at 22 and 48 h, respectively (P < 0.05 compared with uninfected controls). Pretreatment with 25 micrograms of anti-IL-6 antibodies totally prevented the increase in circulating IL-6 bioactivity at both 22 and 48 h after infection (P < 0.05). Treatment with anti-IL-6 also induced a moderate decrease in survival time of mice infected with lethal doses of strains COH1 and COH31, as evidenced by increased lethality (P < 0.05) at 24 to 48 h but not at 96 h. Mouse recombinant IL-6 (12,500 U) given 6 h before challenge with strains COH1 and COH31 consistently increased survival time, as evidenced by decreased (P < 0.05) lethality at 48 to 72 h but not at 96 h. The effects of IL-6 pretreatment were dose dependent, since no protection was observed with doses lower than 12,500 U. In addition, no effects on lethality were noted when IL-6 was given at the time of challenge or at later times. TNF-alpha elevations (P < 0.05 compared with uninfected controls) were measured at 12, 22, and 48 h after challenge with strain COH1 (68 +/- 28, 233 +/- 98, and 98 +/- 34 U, respectively). Pretreatment with IL-6 significantly (P < 0.05) decreased plasma TNF-alpha levels at 12 and 22 h, with 55 and 69% inhibitions, respectively. Anti-IL-6 had an opposite effect, as evidenced by a 145% increase (P < 0.05) in TNF-alpha levels at 48 h after challenge. Collectively, our data are

  5. Effect of coal beneficiation process on rheology/atomization of coal water slurries. Final report, October 1, 1992--July 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Ohene, F.

    1997-05-01

    To examine the factors that govern fine spray production during atomization of coal water slurries, an experimental study of the effect of coal beneficiation and their rheological properties on atomization of clean slurries was proposed. The objective of this study was to understand the effect of low shear, high shear rheology, and viscoelastic behavior on the atomization of beneficiated slurries.

  6. Beneficial effects of microwave-assisted heating versus conventional heating in noble metal nanoparticle synthesis.

    PubMed

    Dahal, Naween; García, Stephany; Zhou, Jiping; Humphrey, Simon M

    2012-11-27

    An extensive comparative study of the effects of microwave versus conventional heating on the nucleation and growth of near-monodisperse Rh, Pd, and Pt nanoparticles has revealed distinct and preferential effects of the microwave heating method. A one-pot synthetic method has been investigated, which combines nucleation and growth in a single reaction via precise control over the precursor addition rate. Using this method, microwave-assisted heating enables the convenient preparation of polymer-capped nanoparticles with improved monodispersity, morphological control, and higher crystallinity, compared with samples heated conventionally under otherwise identical conditions. Extensive studies of Rh nanoparticle formation reveal fundamental differences during the nucleation phase that is directly dependent on the heating method; microwave irradiation was found to provide more uniform seeds for the subsequent growth of larger nanostructures of desired size and surface structure. Nanoparticle growth kinetics are also markedly different under microwave heating. While conventional heating generally yields particles with mixed morphologies, microwave synthesis consistently provides a majority of tetrahedral particles at intermediate sizes (5-7 nm) or larger cubes (8+ nm) upon further growth. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy indicates that Rh seeds and larger nanoparticles obtained from microwave-assisted synthesis are more highly crystalline and faceted versus their conventionally prepared counterparts. Microwave-prepared Rh nanoparticles also show approximately twice the catalytic activity of similar-sized conventionally prepared particles, as demonstrated in the vapor-phase hydrogenation of cyclohexene. Ligand exchange reactions to replace polymer capping agents with molecular stabilizing agents are also easily facilitated under microwave heating, due to the excitation of polar organic moieties; the ligand exchange proceeds with excellent retention of

  7. Beneficial effects of calcium oral coadministration in gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Stojiljkovic, Nenad; Stoiljkovic, Milan; Mihailovic, Dragan; Randjelovic, Pavle; Ilic, Sonja; Gocmanac-Ignjatovic, Marija; Veljkovic, Milica

    2012-01-01

    Frequent therapeutical use of an aminoglycoside antibiotic gentamicin (GM) is limited by its nephrotoxic effects often characterized by both morphological and functional alterations of kidney leading to acute renal failure. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of dietary calcium supplementation on GM-induced nephrotoxicity in rats. Experiments were performed on 30 adult male Wistar rats divided into three groups of 10 animals each. G-group received GM intraperitoneally at a dose of 100 mg/kg; GCa-group received the same dose of GM concomitantly with 1 g/kg calcium carbonate given orally; and C-group, serving as control, received 1 mL/day of normal saline. All groups were treated during 8 consecutive days. Quantitative evaluation of GM-induced structural and functional changes of kidney was performed by histopathological, morphometrical, and biochemical analyses. Compared with control, G-group of rats were found to have diffusely and unequally thickened glomerular basement membrane with neutrophil cells infiltration. In addition, vacuolization of cytoplasm of proximal tubule cells with coagulation-type necrosis was observed. These GM-induced pathological lesions were significantly reduced in the rats of GCa-group. Morphometric analysis revealed statistically significant differences in the size of glomeruli (area, major and minor axes, perimeter), optical density, and roundness of glomeruli (p < 0.05) between G and GCa groups. Biochemical analysis showed significant elevation in blood urea and serum creatinine concentrations, whereas potassium concentration was lowered in G-group compared with the other groups (p < 0.01). It is concluded that oral supplementation of calcium during treatment with GM resulted in significant reduction of morphological and functional kidney alterations.

  8. Absence of beneficial effects on rabbit sperm cell cryopreservation by several antioxidant agents.

    PubMed

    Maya-Soriano, M J; Taberner, E; Sabés-Alsina, M; Piles, M; Lopez-Bejar, M

    2015-02-01

    The generation of reactive oxygen species associated with cryopreservation could be responsible for mammalian sperm damage and the limitable value of stored semen in artificial insemination. The aim of this study was to assess several antioxidant agents supplemented in a commercial freezing extender (Gent B®) in order to improve post-thaw rabbit sperm quality. Ejaculates of 26 New Zealand White rabbit bucks were collected, evaluated and frozen using a conventional protocol. Antioxidant agents were tested at different concentrations: bovine serum albumin (BSA; 5, 30 or 60 mg/ml), retinol (RO; 50, 100 or 200 μM) and retinyl (RI; 0.282 or 2.82 μg/ml). Per cent viability, morphological abnormalities and intact acrosomes were determined using eosin-nigrosin staining. Motility and progressivity were analyzed by computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA). In general, all sperm quality parameters were negatively affected by the cryopreservation process, the largest effect seen was for total motility. The addition of antioxidant agents did not improve thaw sperm quality. Furthermore, for RI groups a significant decrease in sperm quality parameters was recorded. In conclusion, rabbit sperm quality is negatively affected by the cryopreservation process. To our knowledge this report is the first using these antioxidants to supplement rabbit freezing extender. BSA and RO at concentrations used in the study did not improve sperm quality parameters after thawing, whereas RI supplementation appeared to be toxic. More studies are required to find the appropriate antioxidants necessary and their most effective concentrations to improve rabbit post-thaw sperm quality.

  9. Beneficial properties of maraviroc on neuropathic pain development and opioid effectiveness in rats.

    PubMed

    Kwiatkowski, Klaudia; Piotrowska, Anna; Rojewska, Ewelina; Makuch, Wioletta; Jurga, Agnieszka; Slusarczyk, Joanna; Trojan, Ewa; Basta-Kaim, Agnieszka; Mika, Joanna

    2016-01-04

    Targeting chemokine signaling pathways is crucial in neuropathy development. In this study, we investigated the influence of chronic administration of maraviroc (CCR5 antagonist) on nociception and opioid effectiveness during neuropathy, which develops as a result of chronic constriction injury (CCI) of the sciatic nerve. To investigate the mechanism of action of maraviroc, we measured the expression of glial cell markers, CCR5 and certain CCR5 ligands (CCL3, CCL4, CCL5, CCL7, CCL11), in the spinal cord and dorsal root ganglia (DRG) of vehicle- and maraviroc-treated, CCI-exposed rats. Our results demonstrate that chronic intrathecal administration of maraviroc diminished neuropathic pain symptoms on day 7 post-CCI. Western blot analysis showed that maraviroc diminished protein level of Iba-1 and GFAP and reversed the up-regulated CCR5 expression observed in spinal cord and DRG after CCI. Additionally, using qRT-PCR, we demonstrated that CCR5 and some of its pronociceptive ligands (CCL3, CCL4, CCL5) increased in the spinal cord after nerve injury, and maraviroc effectively diminished those changes. However, CCL11 spinal expression was undetectable, even after injury. In vitro primary culture studies showed that CCL3, CCL4, CCL5 and CCL7 (but not CCL11) were of microglial and astroglial origin and were up-regulated after LPS stimulation. Our results indicate that maraviroc not only attenuated the development of neuropathic pain symptoms due to significant modulation of neuroimmune interactions but also intensified the analgesic properties of morphine and buprenorphine. In sum, our results suggest the pharmacological modulation of CCR5 by maraviroc as a novel therapeutic approach for co-treatment of patients receiving opioid therapy for neuropathy.

  10. The beneficial effects of ranolazine on cardiac function after myocardial infarction are greater in diabetic than in nondiabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Mourouzis, Iordanis; Mantzouratou, Polixeni; Galanopoulos, Georgios; Kostakou, Erietta; Dhalla, Arvinder K; Belardinelli, Luiz; Pantos, Constantinos

    2014-09-01

    Ranolazine (RAN) is known to exert both anti-ischemic and antidiabetic actions. Thus, this study has explored the hypothesis that RAN would have greater effect on the recovery of cardiac function in diabetic mellitus (DM) rat hearts following myocardial infarction (MI). Myocardial infarction was induced in nondiabetic (MI, n = 14) and diabetic (streptozotocin induced; DM-MI, n = 13) Wistar rats by permanent ligation of the left coronary artery. Cardiac function was evaluated using echocardiography (left ventricular ejection fraction %) and in isolated heart preparations by measuring left ventricular developed pressure (LVDP), and the positive and negative first derivative of LVDP (± dp/dt). Ranolazine (20 mg/kg, ip once a day) was administered 24 hours after surgical procedure for 4 weeks to nondiabetic (MI + RAN, n = 17) and diabetic rats (DM-MI + RAN, n = 15). The RAN improved the recovery of function in both the nondiabetic and the diabetic postinfarcted hearts but this effect was greater and achieved statistical significance only in the diabetic group. The RAN resulted in increased levels of phosphorylated protein kinase B (Akt) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR, a component of Akt signaling) in both nondiabetic and diabetic infarcted hearts without changes in the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs; p38 MAPK, c-Jun N-terminal kinase, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase). In addition, in diabetic hearts, RAN resulted in a significant increase in the ratio of sarcoplasmic Ca(2+)-ATPase/phospholamban (a target of Akt signaling, 2.0-fold increase) and increased levels of phosphorylated calcium-regulated adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK; 2.0-fold increase). In diabetic animals, RAN increased insulin and lowered glucose levels in serum. In conclusion, the beneficial effect of RAN on the recovery of cardiac function after MI was greater in DM rats. This response was associated with activation of Akt/mTOR and AMPK

  11. Beneficial effect of a novel pentadecapeptide BPC 157 on gastric lesions induced by restraint stress, ethanol, indomethacin, and capsaicin neurotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Sikirić, P; Seiwerth, S; Grabarević, Z; Rucman, R; Petek, M; Jagić, V; Turković, B; Rotkvić, I; Mise, S; Zoricić, I; Gjurasin, M; Konjevoda, P; Separović, J; Ljubanović, D; Artuković, B; Bratulić, M; Tisljar, M; Jurina, L; Buljat, G; Miklić, P; Marović, A

    1996-08-01

    Very recently, the integrity of capsaicin somatosensory neurons and their protection were suggested to be related to the activity in nociception of a newly discovered 15-amino acid peptide, BPC 157, shown to have strong beneficial effect on intestinal and liver lesions. Therefore, from this viewpoint, we have studied the gastroprotective effect of the pentadecapeptide BPC 157, on gastric lesions produced in rats by 96% ethanol, restraint stress, and indomethacin. The possible involvement of sensory neurons in the salutary actions of BPC 157 (10 micrograms/kg, 10 ng/kg intraperitoneally) was studied with capsaicin, which has differential effects on sensory neurons: a high dose in adult (125 mg/kg subcutaneously, 3 months old) or administration (50 mg/kg subcutaneously) to neonatal animals (age of the 7 days) destroys sensory fibers, whereas a low dose (500 micrograms/kg intraperitoneally) activates neurotransmitter release and protective effects on the mucosa. In the absence of capsaicin, BPC 157 protected gastric mucosa against ethanol, restraint, and indomethacin application. In the presence of neurotoxic doses of capsaicin, the negative influence of capsaicin on restraint, ethanol, or indomethacin lesions consistently affected salutary activity of BPC 157. However, BPC 157 protection was still evident in the capsaicin-treated rats (either treated as adults or as newborns) in all of these assays. Interestingly, after neonatal capsaicin treatment, a complete abolition of BPC gastroprotection was noted if BPC 157 was applied as a single nanogram-regimen, but the mucosal protection was fully reversed when the same dose was used daily. In line with the excitatory dose of capsaicin the beneficial effectiveness of BPC 157 appears to be increased as well. Taken together, these data provide evidence for complex synergistic interaction between the beneficial effectiveness of BPC 157 and peptidergic sensory afferent neuron activity.

  12. Beneficial Effects of Ethanolic and Hexanic Rice Bran Extract on Mitochondrial Function in PC12 Cells and the Search for Bioactive Components.

    PubMed

    Hagl, Stephanie; Berressem, Dirk; Bruns, Bastian; Sus, Nadine; Frank, Jan; Eckert, Gunter P

    2015-09-11

    Mitochondria are involved in the aging processes that ultimately lead to neurodegeneration and the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD). A healthy lifestyle, including a diet rich in antioxidants and polyphenols, represents one strategy to protect the brain and to prevent neurodegeneration. We recently reported that a stabilized hexanic rice bran extract (RBE) rich in vitamin E and polyphenols (but unsuitable for human consumption) has beneficial effects on mitochondrial function in vitro and in vivo (doi:10.1016/j.phrs.2013.06.008, 10.3233/JAD-132084). To enable the use of RBE as food additive, a stabilized ethanolic extract has been produced. Here, we compare the vitamin E profiles of both extracts and their effects on mitochondrial function (ATP concentrations, mitochondrial membrane potential, mitochondrial respiration and mitochondrial biogenesis) in PC12 cells. We found that vitamin E contents and the effects of both RBE on mitochondrial function were similar. Furthermore, we aimed to identify components responsible for the mitochondria-protective effects of RBE, but could not achieve a conclusive result. α-Tocotrienol and possibly also γ-tocotrienol, α-tocopherol and δ-tocopherol might be involved, but hitherto unknown components of RBE or a synergistic effect of various components might also play a role in mediating RBE's beneficial effects on mitochondrial function.

  13. Beneficial effects of the olive oil phenolic components oleuropein and hydroxytyrosol: focus on protection against cardiovascular and metabolic diseases

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The overall health beneficial action of olive oil phenolic components is well established. Recent studies have elucidated the biological effects of two isolated compounds, namely oleuropein and hydroxytyrosol, with particular attention on their antioxidant activity. Thus, a protective action has been demonstrated in preclinical studies against several diseases, especially cardiovascular and metabolic disorders. The present review will describe the biological effects of oleuropein and hydroxytyrosol, with particular attention on the molecular mechanism underlying the protective action on cardiovascular and metabolic alterations, as demonstrated by in vitro and in vivo experimental studies performed with the isolated compounds. PMID:25086598

  14. Beneficial Properties of Probiotics

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Lye Huey; Balakrishnan, Kunasundari; Thiagarajah, Kokila; Mohd Ismail, Nor Ismaliza; Yin, Ooi Shao

    2016-01-01

    Probiotics are live microorganisms that can be found in fermented foods and cultured milk, and are widely used for the preparation of infant food. They are well-known as “health friendly bacteria”, which exhibit various health beneficial properties such as prevention of bowel diseases, improving the immune system, for lactose intolerance and intestinal microbial balance, exhibiting antihypercholesterolemic and antihypertensive effects, alleviation of postmenopausal disorders, and reducing traveller’s diarrhoea. Recent studies have also been focused on their uses in treating skin and oral diseases. In addition to that, modulation of the gut-brain by probiotics has been suggested as a novel therapeutic solution for anxiety and depression. Thus, this review discusses on the current probiotics-based products in Malaysia, criteria for selection of probiotics, and evidences obtained from past studies on how probiotics have been used in preventing intestinal disorders via improving the immune system, acting as an antihypercholesterolemic factor, improving oral and dermal health, and performing as anti-anxiety and anti-depressive agents. PMID:27688852

  15. Mechanisms of the beneficial effect of NHE1 inhibitor in traumatic hemorrhage: inhibition of inflammatory pathways.

    PubMed

    Wu, Dongmei; Qi, Jiansong

    2012-06-01

    This study evaluated the effects of sodium-hydrogen exchanger (NHE1) inhibition on enhancing fluid resuscitation outcomes in traumatic hemorrhagic shock, and examined the mechanisms related to NHE1 inhibitor-induced protection and recovery from hemorrhagic shock. Traumatic hemorrhage was modeled in anesthetized pigs by producing tibia fractures followed by hemorrhage of 25 ml/kg for 20 min, and then a 4mm hepatic arterial tear with surgical repair after 20 min. Animals then underwent low volume fluid resuscitation with either hextend (n=6) or 3mg/kg BIIB513 (NHE1 inhibitor)+hextend (n=6). The experiment was terminated 6h after the beginning of resuscitation. In association with traumatic hemorrhagic shock, there was a decrease in cardiac index, stimulation of the inflammatory response, myocardial, liver and kidney injury. The administration of the NHE1 inhibitor at the time of resuscitation attenuated shock-resuscitation-induced myocardial hypercontracture and resulted in a significant increase in stroke volume index, compared to vehicle-treated controls. NHE1 inhibition also reduced the inflammatory response, and lessened myocardial, liver and kidney injury. In addition, NHE1 inhibition reduced NF-κB activation and iNOS expression, and attenuated of ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Results from the present study indicate that NHE1 inhibition prevents multiple organ injury by attenuating shock-resuscitation-induced myocardial hypercontracture and by inhibiting NF-κB activation and neutrophil infiltration, reducing iNOS expression and ERK1/2 phosphorylation, thereby, reducing systemic inflammation and thus multi-organ injury.

  16. Beneficial Effect of Moderate Exercise in Kidney of Rat after Chronic Consumption of Cola Drinks

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Gabriel; González, Julián; Müller, Angélica; Ottaviano, Graciela; Ambrosio, Giuseppe; Toblli, Jorge E.; Milei, José

    2016-01-01

    Aim The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of moderate intensity exercise on kidney in an animal model of high consumption of cola soft drinks. Methods Forty-eight Wistar Kyoto rats (age: 16 weeks; weight: 350–400 g) were assigned to the following groups: WR (water runners) drank water and submitted to aerobic exercise; CR (cola runners) drank cola and submitted to aerobic exercise; WS (water sedentary) and CS (cola sedentary), not exercised groups. The aerobic exercise was performed for 5 days per week throughout the study (24 weeks) and the exercise intensity was gradually increased during the first 8 weeks until it reached 20 meters / minute for 30 minutes. Body weight, lipid profile, glycemia, plasma creatinine levels, atherogenic index of plasma (AIP) and systolic blood pressure (SBP) were determined. After 6 months all rats were sacrificed. A kidney histopathological score was obtained using a semiquantitative scale. Glomerular size and glomerulosclerosis were estimated by point-counting. The oxidative stress and pro-inflammatory status were explored by immunohistochemistry. A one way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with Tukey-Kramer post-hoc test or the Kruskal-Wallis test with Dunn’s post-hoc test was used for statistics. A value of p < 0.05 was considered significant. Results At 6 months, an increased consumption of cola soft drink was shown in CS and CR compared with water consumers (p<0.0001). Chronic cola consumption was associated with increased plasma triglycerides, AIP, heart rate, histopathological score, glomerulosclerosis, oxidative stress and pro-inflammatory status. On the other hand, moderate exercise prevented these findings. No difference was observed in the body weight, SBP, glycemia, cholesterol and plasma creatinine levels across experimental groups. Conclusions This study warns about the consequences of chronic consumption of cola drinks on lipid metabolism, especially regarding renal health. Additionally, these findings

  17. Superoxide production pathways in aortas of diabetic rats: beneficial effects of insulin therapy and endurance training.

    PubMed

    Malardé, L; Rebillard, A; Le Douairon-Lahaye, S; Vincent, S; Zguira, M S; Lemoine-Morel, S; Gratas-Delamarche, A; Groussard, C

    2014-04-01

    Superoxide (O 2 (·-) ) overproduction, by decreasing the nitric oxide ((·)NO) bioavailability, contributes to vascular complications in type 1 diabetes. In this disease, the vascular O 2 (·-) can be produced by the NADPH oxidase (NOX), nitric oxide synthase (NOS), and xanthine oxidase (XO). This study aimed to determine the contribution of each enzymatic pathway in hyperglycemia-induced O 2 (·-) overproduction, and the effects of an endurance training program and insulin therapy, associated or not, on the O 2 (·-) production (amount and related enzymes) in diabetic rats. Forty male Wistar rats were divided into diabetic (D), diabetic treated with insulin (D-Ins), diabetic trained (D-Tr), or diabetic insulin-treated and trained (D-Ins + Tr) groups. An additional healthy group was used as control. Insulin therapy (Glargine Lantus, Sanofi) and endurance training (treadmill run: 60 min/day, 25 m/min, 5 days/week) started 1 week after diabetes induction by streptozotocin (45 mg/kg), and lasted for 8 weeks. At the end of the protocol, the O 2 (·-) production in aorta rings was evaluated by histochemical analyses (DHE staining). Each production pathway was studied by inhibiting NOX (apocynin), NOS (L-Name), or XO (allopurinol) before DHE staining. Diabetic rats exhibited hyperglycemia-induced O 2 (·-) overproduction, resulting from NOX, NOS, and XO activation. Insulin therapy and endurance training, associated or not, decreased efficiently and similarly the O 2 (·-) overproduction. Insulin therapy reduced the hyperglycemia and decreased the three enzymatic pathways implicated in the O 2 (·-) production. Endurance training decreased directly the NOS and XO activity. While both therapeutic strategies activated different pathways, their association did not reduce the O 2 (·-) overproduction more significantly.

  18. The Unexpected Effects of Beneficial and Adverse Social Experiences during Adolescence on Anxiety and Aggression and Their Modulation by Genotype

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Neele; Richter, S. Helene; Schreiber, Rebecca S.; Kloke, Vanessa; Kaiser, Sylvia; Lesch, Klaus-Peter; Sachser, Norbert

    2016-01-01

    Anxiety and aggression are part of the behavioral repertoire of humans and animals. However, in their exaggerated form both can become maladaptive and result in psychiatric disorders. On the one hand, genetic predisposition has been shown to play a crucial modulatory role in anxiety and aggression. On the other hand, social experiences have been implicated in the modulation of these traits. However, so far, mainly experiences in early life phases have been considered crucial for shaping anxiety-like and aggressive behavior, while the phase of adolescence has largely been neglected. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to elucidate how levels of anxiety-like and aggressive behavior are shaped by social experiences during adolescence and serotonin transporter (5-HTT) genotype. For this purpose, male mice of a 5-HTT knockout mouse model including all three genotypes (wildtype, heterozygous and homozygous 5-HTT knockout mice) were either exposed to an adverse social situation or a beneficial social environment during adolescence. This was accomplished in a custom-made cage system where mice experiencing the adverse environment were repeatedly introduced to the territory of a dominant opponent but had the possibility to escape to a refuge cage. Mice encountering beneficial social conditions had free access to a female mating partner. Afterwards, anxiety-like and aggressive behavior was assessed in a battery of tests. Surprisingly, unfavorable conditions during adolescence led to a decrease in anxiety-like behavior and an increase in exploratory locomotion. Additionally, aggressive behavior was augmented in animals that experienced social adversity. Concerning genotype, homozygous 5-HTT knockout mice were more anxious and less aggressive than heterozygous 5-HTT knockout and wildtype mice. In summary, adolescence is clearly an important phase in which anxiety-like and aggressive behavior can be shaped. Furthermore, it seems that having to cope with challenge during

  19. Beneficial effects of nitric oxide on outcomes after cardiac arrest and cardiopulmonary resuscitation in hypothermia-treated mice

    PubMed Central

    Kida, Kotaro; Shirozu, Kazuhiro; Yu, Binglan; Mandeville, Joseph B.; Bloch, Kenneth D.; Ichinose, Fumito

    2015-01-01

    Background Therapeutic hypothermia (TH) improves neurological outcomes after cardiac arrest (CA) and cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Although nitric oxide prevents organ injury induced by ischemia and reperfusion, role of nitric oxide during TH after CPR remains unclear. Here, we examined the impact of endogenous nitric oxide synthesis on the beneficial effects of hypothermia after CA/CPR. We also examined whether or not inhaled nitric oxide during hypothermia further improves outcomes after CA/CPR in mice treated with TH. Methods Wild-type (WT) mice and mice deficient for nitric oxide synthase 3 (NOS3−/−) were subjected to CA at 37°C and then resuscitated with chest compression. Body temperature was maintained at 37°C (normothermia) or reduced to 33°C (TH) for 24 hours after resuscitation. Mice breathed air or air mixed with nitric oxide at 10, 20, 40, 60, or 80 ppm during hypothermia. To evaluate brain injury and cerebral blood flow, magnetic resonance imaging was performed in WT mice after CA/CPR. Results Hypothermia up-regulated the NOS3-dependent signaling in the brain (n=6–7). Deficiency of NOS3 abolished the beneficial effects of hypothermia after CA/CPR (n=5–6). Breathing nitric oxide at 40 ppm improved survival rate in hypothermia-treated NOS3−/− mice (n=6) after CA/CPR compared to NOS3−/− mice that were treated with hypothermia alone (n=6, P<0.05). Breathing nitric oxide at 40 (n=9) or 60 (n=9) ppm markedly improved survival rates in TH-treated WT mice (n=51) (both P<0.05 vs TH-treated WT mice). Inhaled nitric oxide during TH (n=7) prevented brain injury compared to TH alone (n=7) without affecting cerebral blood flow after CA/CPR (n=6). Conclusions NOS3 is required for the beneficial effects of TH. Inhaled nitric oxide during TH remains beneficial and further improves outcomes after CA/CPR. Nitric oxide breathing exerts protective effects after CA/CPR even when TH is ineffective due to impaired endogenous nitric oxide production

  20. Depressive Symptoms Negate the Beneficial Effects of Physical Activity on Mortality Risk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Pai-Lin

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to: (1) compare the association between various levels of physical activity (PA) and mortality; and (2) examine the potential modifying effect of depressive symptoms on the PA-mortality associations. Previous large scale randomized studies rarely assess the association in conjunction with modifying effects of depressive…

  1. Evaluating the beneficial and detrimental effects of bile pigments in early and later life.

    PubMed

    Dennery, Phyllis A

    2012-01-01

    The heme degradation pathway has been conserved throughout phylogeny and allows for the removal of a pro-oxidant and the generation of unique molecules including bile pigments with important cellular functions. The impact of bile pigments on health and disease are reviewed, as is the special circumstance of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia. In addition, the importance of promoter polymorphisms in the UDP-glucuronosyl transferase gene (UGTA1), which is key to the elimination of excess bilirubin and to the prevention of its toxicity, are discussed. Overall, the duality of bile pigments as either cytoprotective or toxic molecules is highlighted.

  2. Beneficial Effect of Dexamethasone in Decreasing the Lethality of Acute T-2 Toxicosis,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-11-07

    lethality of T-2 toxin. Steroidal agents, assessed at equivalent doses for ant i-inf lammatory activity, were all effective, with dexamethasone being more...effective than either mthylprednisolone or hydrocor- tisone. The doses of dexamethasone producing the highest efficacy were 1.0 mg/kg and 12.5 mg/kg for...Bdte-4 2 The mean time to 4eath, mean survival time, and percent lethality were deter- (A amined for untreated and dexamethasone -treated mice injected

  3. Beneficial Effects of Multitarget Iron Chelator on Central Nervous System and Gastrocnemius Muscle in SOD1(G93A) Transgenic ALS Mice.

    PubMed

    Golko-Perez, Sagit; Amit, Tamar; Youdim, Moussa B H; Weinreb, Orly

    2016-08-01

    Accumulation of evidence has demonstrated high levels of iron in the central nervous system of both sporadic and familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients and in ALS mouse models. In accordance, iron chelation therapy was found to exert beneficial effects on ALS mice. Our group has designed and synthesized series of multifunctional non-toxic, brain permeable iron-chelating compounds for neurodegenerative diseases. Recent study has shown that co-administration of one of these drugs, VAR10303 with high calorie/energy-supplemented diet (VAR-ced), initiated after the appearance of disease symptoms improved motor performance, extended survival, and attenuated iron accumulation and motoneuron loss in SOD1(G93A) mice. Since VAR was found to exert diverse pharmacological properties associated with mitochondrial biogenesis in the gastrocnemius (GNS) muscle, we further assessed in the current study the impact of VAR-ced on additional neurorescue-associated molecular targets in the GNS and frontal cortex in SOD1(G93A) mice. The results show that VAR-ced treatment upregulated the expression of various HIF-1α-target glycolytic genes and elevated the levels of Bcl-2, neurotrophic factors, and AKT/GSK3β signaling in the GNS and frontal cortex of SOD1(G93A) mice, suggesting that these protective regulatory parameters regulated by VAR-ced treatment may be associated with the beneficial effects of the drug observed on ALS mice.

  4. Beneficial effect of testosterone in the treatment of chronic autoimmune thyroiditis in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmed, S.A.; Young, P.R.; Penhale, W.J.

    1986-01-01

    Early thymectomy and sublethal irradiation of normal rats consistently induces a sex-dependent chronic autoimmune thyroiditis. Females are much more susceptible to this autoimmune disorder than are males. The possible therapeutic effects of testosterone (Te) on established autoimmune thyroiditis has been investigated in this model. The pathologic condition of the gland before treatment was monitored by a thyroid grafting and extirpation techniques. Te administration by either parenteral injection or implantation caused significant regression of established thyroiditis. Repeated doses of Te ester in oil were found to be more effective than powdered free-Te given by implantation, and frequently produced complete resolution of chronic lesions involving the entire gland. In these thyroids, there was reappearance of normal thyroid architecture and complete absence of mononuclear cellular infiltration. However, no inhibitory effect on serum autoantibody production to thyroglobulin was noted with any form of Te treatment. These observations strengthen the concept that cellular rather than humoral mechanisms are involved in the pathogenesis of thyroiditis.

  5. Cardiovascular and Hepatic Toxicity of Cocaine: Potential Beneficial Effects of Modulators of Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Graziani, Manuela; Antonilli, Letizia; Togna, Anna Rita; Grassi, Maria Caterina; Badiani, Aldo; Saso, Luciano

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative stress (OS) is thought to play an important role in the pharmacological and toxic effects of various drugs of abuse. Herein we review the literature on the mechanisms responsible for the cardiovascular and hepatic toxicity of cocaine with special focus on OS-related mechanisms. We also review the preclinical and clinical literature concerning the putative therapeutic effects of OS modulators (such as N-acetylcysteine, superoxide dismutase mimetics, nitroxides and nitrones, NADPH oxidase inhibitors, xanthine oxidase inhibitors, and mitochondriotropic antioxidants) for the treatment of cocaine toxicity. We conclude that available OS modulators do not appear to have clinical efficacy. PMID:26823954

  6. Phytochemicals in quinoa and amaranth grains and their antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and potential health beneficial effects: a review.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yao; Tsao, Rong

    2017-02-26

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) and amaranth (Amaranthus cruentus L.) are pseudocereal grains rich in both macronutrients and micronutrients including vitamins and minerals. The proteins are particularly of high nutritional quality due to the outstanding balance of essential amino acids. However, recent research strongly suggests that the essential nutrients such as phytochemicals of quinoa and amaranth may also with potential health beneficial effects. This review focuses on the phytochemical composition of quinoa and amaranth seeds, the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of hydrophilic (e.g. phenolics, betacyanins) and lipophilic (e.g. fatty acids, tocopherols, and carotenoids) nutrients, and how these contribute to the potential health benefits, especially in lowering the risk of the oxidative stress related diseases e.g. cancer, cardiovascular disease, diabetes and obesity. The gap between current knowledge and future research needs to be identified. Summary Quinoa and amaranth are pseudocereal grains rich in nutrients and phytochemicals. This paper reviews recent advances in research related to phytochemical composition of the two grains, the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of the bioactives and their role in lowering the risk of the oxidative stress related diseases. Bioactives in these two grains are indeed beneficial. Future research needs were identified. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  7. Beneficial effects of Neotyphodium tembladerae and Neotyphodium pampeanum on a wild forage grass

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Asexual, vertically transmitted fungal endophytes of the genus Neotyphodium are considered to enhance growth, stress resistance and competitiveness of agronomic grasses, but have been suggested to have neutral or deleterious effects on wild grasses. We studied whether the associations between Bromus...

  8. Beneficial effects of neotyphodium tembladerae and neotyphodium pampeanum on a wild forage grass

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Asexual, vertically transmitted fungal endophytes of the genus Neotyphodium are considered to enhance growth, stress resistance and competitiveness of agronomic grasses, but have been suggested to have neutral or deleterious effects on wild grasses. We studied whether the associations between Bromus...

  9. Regional disparities in the beneficial effects of rising CO2 concentrations on crop water productivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deryng, Delphine; Elliott, Joshua; Folberth, Christian; Müller, Christoph; Pugh, Thomas A. M.; Boote, Kenneth J.; Conway, Declan; Ruane, Alex C.; Gerten, Dieter; Jones, James W.; Khabarov, Nikolay; Olin, Stefan; Schaphoff, Sibyll; Schmid, Erwin; Yang, Hong; Rosenzweig, Cynthia

    2016-08-01

    Rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations ([CO2]) are expected to enhance photosynthesis and reduce crop water use. However, there is high uncertainty about the global implications of these effects for future crop production and agricultural water requirements under climate change. Here we combine results from networks of field experiments and global crop models to present a spatially explicit global perspective on crop water productivity (CWP, the ratio of crop yield to evapotranspiration) for wheat, maize, rice and soybean under elevated [CO2] and associated climate change projected for a high-end greenhouse gas emissions scenario. We find CO2 effects increase global CWP by 10[047]%-27[737]% (median[interquartile range] across the model ensemble) by the 2080s depending on crop types, with particularly large increases in arid regions (by up to 48[25;56]% for rainfed wheat). If realized in the fields, the effects of elevated [CO2] could considerably mitigate global yield losses whilst reducing agricultural consumptive water use (4-17%). We identify regional disparities driven by differences in growing conditions across agro-ecosystems that could have implications for increasing food production without compromising water security. Finally, our results demonstrate the need to expand field experiments and encourage greater consistency in modelling the effects of rising [CO2] across crop and hydrological modelling communities.

  10. OZONE AMBIENT AIR QUALITY STANDARD HAS BENEFICIAL EFFECT ON PONDEROSA PINE IN CALIFORNIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ambient air quality standards and control strategies are implemented to protect humans and vegetation from adverse effects. However, to date there has not been a simple and objective method to determine if the standards and resultant control strategies have reduced O3 impacts on ...

  11. The beneficial effects of berries on cognition, motor behavior, and neuronal function in aging

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previously, it has been shown that strawberry or blueberry supplementations, when fed to rats from 19-21 months of age, reverse age-related decrements in motor and cognitive performance. We have postulated that these effects may be the result of a number of positive benefits of the berry polyphenol...

  12. Regional Disparities in the Beneficial Effects of Rising CO2 Emissions on Crop Water Productivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deryng, Delphine; Elliott, Joshua; Folberth, Christian; Meuller, Christoph; Pugh, Thomas A. M.; Boote, Kenneth J.; Conway, Declan; Ruane, Alex C.; Gerten, Dieter; Jones, James W.; Khabarov, Nikolay; Olin, Stefan; Schaphoff, Sibyll; Schmid, Erwin; Yang, Hong; Rosenzweig, Cynthia

    2016-01-01

    Rising atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations are expected to enhance photosynthesis and reduce crop water use. However, there is high uncertainty about the global implications of these effects for future crop production and agricultural water requirements under climate change. Here we combine results from networks of field experiments and global crop models to present a spatially explicit global perspective on crop water productivity (CWP, the ratio of crop yield to evapotranspiration) for wheat, maize, rice and soybean under elevated carbon dioxide and associated climate change projected for a high-end greenhouse gas emissions scenario. We find carbon dioxide effects increase global CWP by 10[0;47]%-27[7;37]% (median[interquartile range] across the model ensemble) by the 2080s depending on crop types, with particularly large increases in arid regions (by up to 48[25;56]% for rain fed wheat). If realized in the fields, the effects of elevated carbon dioxide could considerably mitigate global yield losses whilst reducing agricultural consumptive water use (4-17%). We identify regional disparities driven by differences in growing conditions across agro-ecosystems that could have implications for increasing food production without compromising water security. Finally, our results demonstrate the need to expand field experiments and encourage greater consistency in modeling the effects of rising carbon dioxide across crop and hydrological modeling communities.

  13. Simulations with Elaborated Worked Example Modeling: Beneficial Effects on Schema Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meier, Debra K.; Reinhard, Karl J.; Carter, David O.; Brooks, David W.

    2008-01-01

    Worked examples have been effective in enhancing learning outcomes, especially with novice learners. Most of this research has been conducted in laboratory settings. This study examined the impact of embedding elaborated worked example modeling in a computer simulation practice activity on learning achievement among 39 undergraduate students…

  14. Experimental evidence for beneficial effects of projected climate change on hibernating amphibians

    PubMed Central

    Üveges, Bálint; Mahr, Katharina; Szederkényi, Márk; Bókony, Veronika; Hoi, Herbert; Hettyey, Attila

    2016-01-01

    Amphibians are the most threatened vertebrates today, experiencing worldwide declines. In recent years considerable effort was invested in exposing the causes of these declines. Climate change has been identified as such a cause; however, the expectable effects of predicted milder, shorter winters on hibernation success of temperate-zone Amphibians have remained controversial, mainly due to a lack of controlled experimental studies. Here we present a laboratory experiment, testing the effects of simulated climate change on hibernating juvenile common toads (Bufo bufo). We simulated hibernation conditions by exposing toadlets to current (1.5 °C) or elevated (4.5 °C) hibernation temperatures in combination with current (91 days) or shortened (61 days) hibernation length. We found that a shorter winter and milder hibernation temperature increased survival of toads during hibernation. Furthermore, the increase in temperature and shortening of the cold period had a synergistic positive effect on body mass change during hibernation. Consequently, while climate change may pose severe challenges for amphibians of the temperate zone during their activity period, the negative effects may be dampened by shorter and milder winters experienced during hibernation. PMID:27229882

  15. Beneficial effect of prolonged heme oxygenase 1 activation in a rat model of chronic heart failure

    PubMed Central

    Collino, Massimo; Pini, Alessandro; Mugelli, Niccolò; Mastroianni, Rosanna; Bani, Daniele; Fantozzi, Roberto; Papucci, Laura; Fazi, Marilena; Masini, Emanuela

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY We and others have previously demonstrated that heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) induction by acute hemin administration exerts cardioprotective effects. Here, we developed a rat model of heart failure to investigate whether a long-term induction of HO-1 by chronic hemin administration exerted protective effects. Sprague Dawley rats that underwent permanent ligation of the left coronary artery were closely monitored for survival rate analysis and sacrificed on day 28 post-operation. Administration of hemin (4 mg/kg body weight) every other day for 4 weeks induced a massive increase in HO-1 expression and activity, as shown by the increased levels of the two main metabolic products of heme degradation, bilirubin and carbon monoxide (CO). These effects were associated with significant improvement in survival and reduced the extension of myocardial damage. The ischemic hearts of the hemin-treated animals displayed reduced oxidative stress and apoptosis in comparison with the non-treated rats, as shown by the decreased levels of lipid peroxidation, free-radical-induced DNA damage, caspase-3 activity and Bax expression. Besides, chronic HO-1 activation suppressed the elevated levels of myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, interleukin 1β (IL-1β) production and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) production that were evoked by the ischemic injury, and increased the plasma level of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. Interestingly, HO-1 inhibitor zinc protoporphyrin IX (ZnPP-IX; 1 mg/kg) lowered bilirubin and CO concentrations to control values, thus abolishing all the cardioprotective effects of hemin. In conclusion, the results demonstrate that chronic HO-1 activation by prolonged administration of hemin improves survival and exerts protective effects in a rat model of myocardial ischemia by exerting a potent antioxidant activity and disrupting multiple levels of the apoptotic and inflammatory cascade. PMID:23592614

  16. Beneficial synergetic effect on gas production during co-pyrolysis of sewage sludge and biomass in a vacuum reactor.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Weijiang; Yuan, Chengyong; Xu, Jiao; Yang, Xiao

    2015-05-01

    A vacuum fixed bed reactor was used to pyrolyze sewage sludge, biomass (rice husk) and their blend under high temperature (900°C). Pyrolytic products were kept in the vacuum reactor during the whole pyrolysis process, guaranteeing a long contact time (more than 2h) for their interactions. Remarkable synergetic effect on gas production was observed. Gas yield of blend fuel was evidently higher than that of both parent fuels. The syngas (CO and H2) content and gas lower heating value (LHV) were obviously improved as well. It was highly possible that sewage sludge provided more CO2 and H2O during co-pyrolysis, promoting intense CO2-char and H2O-char gasification, which benefited the increase of gas yield and lower heating value. The beneficial synergetic effect, as a result, made this method a feasible one for gas production.

  17. Beneficial effects of Bifidobacteria in a gastroresistant seamless capsule on hyperhomocysteinemia in hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Taki, Kentaro; Takayama, Fumio; Niwa, Toshimitsu

    2005-01-01

    Intestinal microflora is deranged in hemodialysis (HD) patients as an increase in aerobic bacteria such as Escherichia coli and a decrease in anaerobic bacteria such as Bifidobacterium . Bifidobacteria ferment carbohydrates to produce acetic acid and lactic acid, which inhibit the intestinal putrefaction. Thus, intake of Bifidobacteria effectively restores the disturbed microflora to normal. However, Bifidobacteria in most medical products and healthy foods cannot usually survive because of exposure to gastric juices before it reaches the intestines. A gastroresistant seamless capsule prevents Bifidobacteria from inactivation by acidic gastric juice and allows it to be active in the intestines. We showed that the oral administration of Bifidobacterium longum in a gastroresistant seamless capsule to HD patients is effective in decreasing the pre-HD serum levels of homocysteine, indoxyl sulfate, and triglyceride. The reduction in the serum level of homocysteine is mainly attributable to the supply of folate produced by Bifidobacterium longum in the human intestines.

  18. Beneficial effects of carnosic acid on dieldrin-induced dopaminergic neuronal cell death.

    PubMed

    Park, Jeong Ae; Kim, Seung; Lee, Sook-Young; Kim, Chun-Sung; Kim, Do Kyung; Kim, Sung-Jun; Chun, Hong Sung

    2008-08-27

    Carnosic acid (CA) is one of the bioactive polyphenols present in extracts of the herb rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis). In this study, we examined possible protective effects of CA on neurotoxicity induced by dieldrin, an organochlorine pesticide implicated in sporadic Parkinson's disease, in cultured dopaminergic cells (SN4741). CA (5-10 muM) pretreatment showed potent protective effects in a concentration-related manner and prevented dieldrin (10 muM)-induced caspase-3 activation, Jun N-terminal kinase phosphorylation, and caspase-12 activation. Furthermore, dieldrin-induced downregulation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor production was significantly attenuated by CA. These results suggest that CA may safeguard dopaminergic neuronal cells from environmental neurotoxins by enhancing brain-derived neurotrophic factor and repressing apoptotic molecules.

  19. [Beneficial effect of swimming in thermal waters on muscle glycogen depletion].

    PubMed

    D'Amelio, G; Boninsegna, A; Calzavara, M; Bertolini, M

    1991-05-01

    The effect of swimming in the termal water on muscle glycogen stores was studied. After 30 min the muscle glycogen results in a diminution, but it is not depleted. On the contrary, 30 min of swimming in normal water results in a depletion of muscle glycogene stores. The glycemic homeostasis is well maintained in thermal water, and hypoglicemia occurs only after swimming in normal water.

  20. Statins have beneficial effects on platelet free radical activity and intracellular distribution of GTPases in hyperlipidaemia.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Paul K; Hughes, Sinead M T; Plumb, Richard D; Devine, Adrian; Leahey, William; Lyons, Kristopher S; Johnston, Dennis; McVeigh, Gary E

    2010-03-01

    In addition to lowering cholesterol, statins may alter endothelial release of the vasodilator NO and harmful superoxide free radicals. Statins also reduce cholesterol intermediates including isoprenoids. These are important for post-translational modification of substances including the GTPases Rho and Rac. By altering the membrane association of these molecules, statins affect intracellular positioning and hence activity of a multitude of substances. These include eNOS(endothelial NO synthase), which produces NO (inhibited by Rho), and NADPH oxidase, which produces superoxide (dependent on Rac). Statins may improve endothelial function by enhancing production of NO while decreasing superoxide production. A total of 40 hypercholesterolaemic patients were randomized to treatment with either atorvastatin or placebo; 20 normolipidaemic patients were also studied. Platelet nitrite, NO and superoxide were examined as was the cellular distribution of the GTPases Rho and Rac at baseline and after 8 weeks of treatment.Following atorvastatin therapy, platelet NO was increased (3.2 pmol/10(8) platelets) and superoxide output was attenuated [-3.4 pmol min(-1) (10(8) platelets)(-1)] when compared with placebo. The detection of both Rho and Rac was significantly reduced in the membranes of platelets, implying reduced activity. In conclusion, the results of the present study show altered NO/superoxide production following statin therapy. A potential mechanism for this is the change in the distribution of intracellular GTPases, which was considered to be secondary to decreases in isoprenoid intermediates, suggesting that the activity of the former had been affected by atorvastatin.

  1. The Beneficial Effect of Equisetum giganteum L. against Candida Biofilm Formation: New Approaches to Denture Stomatitis

    PubMed Central

    Alavarce, Rafaela A. S.; Saldanha, Luiz L.; Almeida, Nara Ligia M.; Porto, Vinicius C.; Dokkedal, Anne L.; Lara, Vanessa S.

    2015-01-01

    Equisetum giganteum L. (E. giganteum), Equisetaceae, commonly called “giant horsetail,” is an endemic plant of Central and South America and is used in traditional medicine as diuretic and hemostatic in urinary disorders and in inflammatory conditions among other applications. The chemical composition of the extract EtOH 70% of E. giganteum has shown a clear presence of phenolic compounds derived from caffeic and ferulic acids and flavonoid heterosides derived from quercitin and kaempferol, in addition to styrylpyrones. E. giganteum, mainly at the highest concentrations, showed antimicrobial activity against the relevant microorganisms tested: Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Candida albicans. It also demonstrated antiadherent activity on C. albicans biofilms in an experimental model that is similar to dentures. Moreover, all concentrations tested showed anti-inflammatory activity. The extract did not show cytotoxicity in contact with human cells. These properties might qualify E. giganteum extract to be a promising alternative for the topic treatment and prevention of oral candidiasis and denture stomatitis. PMID:26290676

  2. Beneficial effect of bilingualism on Alzheimer's disease CSF biomarkers and cognition.

    PubMed

    Estanga, Ainara; Ecay-Torres, Mirian; Ibañez, Almudena; Izagirre, Andrea; Villanua, Jorge; Garcia-Sebastian, Maite; Iglesias Gaspar, M Teresa; Otaegui-Arrazola, Ane; Iriondo, Ane; Clerigue, Monserrat; Martinez-Lage, Pablo

    2017-02-01

    Bilingualism as a component of cognitive reserve has been claimed to delay the onset of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, its effect on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) AD-biomarkers has not been investigated. We assessed cognitive performance and CSF AD-biomarkers, and potential moderation effect of bilingualism on the association between age, CSF AD-biomarkers, and cognition. Cognitively healthy middle-aged participants classified as monolinguals (n = 100, nCSF = 59), early (n = 81, nCSF = 55) and late bilinguals (n = 97, nCSF = 52) were evaluated. Models adjusted for confounders showed that bilinguals performed better than monolinguals on digits backwards (early-bilinguals p = 0.003), Judgment of Line Orientation (JLO) (early-bilinguals p = 0.018; late-bilinguals p = 0.004), and Trail Making Test-B (late-bilinguals p = 0.047). Early bilingualism was associated with lower CSF total-tau (p = 0.019) and lower prevalence of preclinical AD (NIA-AA classification) (p = 0.02). Bilingualism showed a moderation effect on the relationship between age and CSF AD-biomarkers and the relationship between age and executive function. We conclude that bilingualism contributes to cognitive reserve enhancing executive and visual-spatial functions. For the first time, this study reveals that early bilingualism is associated with more favorable CSF AD-biomarker profile.

  3. Beneficial Effect of Leptin on Spatial Learning and Memory in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ghasemi, Mohsen; Zendehbad, Bamdad; Zabihi, Hoda; Hosseini, Mahmoud; Hadjzadeh, Mousa Al Reza; Hayatdavoudi, Parichehr

    2016-01-01

    Background: Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease which may be accompanied by cognitive impairments. The expression of the obesity gene (ob) is decreased in insulin-deficient diabetic animals and increased after the administration of insulin or leptin. Plasma leptin levels are reduced in the streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Therefore, the deleterious effects of diabetes on memory may be due to the reduction of leptin. Aims: Investigate the effect of subcutaneous injection of leptin on spatial learning and memory in STZ-induced diabetic rats. Study Design: Animal experimentation. Methods: The rats were divided into three groups: 1-control, 2- diabetic, and 3- diabetic-leptin. Diabetes was induced in groups 2 and 3 by STZ injection (55 mg/kg) intraperitoneally (i.p). The animals received leptin (0.1 mg/kg) or saline subcutaneously (s.c) for 10 days before behavioral studies. Then, they were examined in the Morris water maze over 3 blocks after 3 days of the last injection of leptin. Results: The travelled path length and time spent to reach the platform significantly increased in the diabetic group (p<0.001) and decreased with leptin treatment (p<0.01 & p<0.001 respectively); also, a significant increase in path length and time was observed between the diabetic-leptin group and the diabetic group (p<0.01, p<0.001, respectively) in the probe test. Conclusion: Leptin can exert positive effects on memory impairments in diabetic rats. PMID:26966625

  4. The relevance of theobromine for the beneficial effects of cocoa consumption

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Pinilla, Eva; Oñatibia-Astibia, Ainhoa; Franco, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    Cocoa consumption began in America and in the mid sixteenth Century it quickly spread to Europe. Beyond being considered a pleasant habit due to its rich sweet lingering taste, chocolate was considered a good nutrient and even a medicine. Traditionally, health benefits of cocoa have been related with the high content of antioxidants of Theobroma cocoa beans. However, the direct psychoactive effect due to methylxanthines in cocoa is notable. Theobromine and caffeine, in the proportions found in cocoa, are responsible for the liking of the food/beverage. These compounds influence in a positive way our moods and our state of alertness. Theobromine, which is found in higher amounts than caffeine, seems to be behind several effects attributed to cocoa intake. The main mechanisms of action are inhibition of phosphodiesterases and blockade of adenosine receptors. Further mechanisms are being explored to better understand the health benefits associated to theobromine consumption. Unlike what happens in other mammals -pets- included, theobromine is safe for humans and has fewer unwanted effects than caffeine. Therefore, theobromine deserves attention as one of the most attractive molecules in cocoa. PMID:25750625

  5. Beneficial effects of Chrysin against Methotrexate-induced hepatotoxicity via attenuation of oxidative stress and apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Ali, Nemat; Rashid, Summya; Nafees, Sana; Hasan, Syed Kazim; Sultana, Sarwat

    2014-01-01

    Methotrexate (MTX), a folic acid antagonist, an effective chemotherapeutic agent is used in the treatment of a wide range of tumors and autoimmune diseases. Moreover, hepatotoxicity limits its clinical use. Several studies have already confirmed that the oxidative stress plays a major role in the pathogenesis of MTX-induced damage in the various organs especially in liver. The aim of this study was to determine the protective effect of Chrysin against MTX-induced hepatic oxidative stress and apoptosis in rats. In the present study, efficacy of Chrysin was investigated against hepatotoxicity caused by MTX in terms of biochemical investigations of antioxidant enzymes, apoptosis, and histopathological alteration in rat liver. In the MTX-treated group there was a significant increase in alanine transaminase, aspartate aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase activity and malondialdehyde content as well as decreased glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, superoxide dismutase, catalase activities and reduced glutathione content were also observed compared to the control group as a marker of oxidative stress. Histopathological alterations and apoptosis through the immunopositive staining of p53, cleaved caspases-3 and Bcl-2-associated X protein in rat liver were observed. Pretreatment of Chrysin at both doses prevents the hepatotoxicity by ameliorating oxidative stress, histopathological alterations, and apoptosis and thus our results suggest that Chrysin has a protective effect against hepatotoxicity induced by MTX and it may, therefore, improve the therapeutic index of MTX if co-administration is done.

  6. Proteins and Carbohydrates from Red Seaweeds: Evidence for Beneficial Effects on Gut Function and Microbiota.

    PubMed

    Cian, Raúl E; Drago, Silvina R; de Medina, Fermín Sánchez; Martínez-Augustin, Olga

    2015-08-20

    Based on their composition, marine algae, and namely red seaweeds, are good potential functional foods. Intestinal mucosal barrier function refers to the capacity of the intestine to provide adequate containment of luminal microorganisms and molecules. Here, we will first outline the component of seaweeds and will summarize the effects of these on the regulation of mucosal barrier function. Special attention will be paid to unique components of red seaweeds: proteins and derived peptides (e.g., phycobiliproteins, glycoproteins that contain "cellulose binding domains", phycolectins and the related mycosporine-like amino acids) together with polysaccharides (e.g., floridean starch and sulfated galactans, such as carrageenans, agarans and "dl-hybrid") and minerals. These compounds have been shown to exert prebiotic effects, to regulate intestinal epithelial cell, macrophage and lymphocyte proliferation and differentiation and to modulate the immune response. Molecular mechanisms of action of peptides and polysaccharides are starting to be elucidated, and evidence indicating the involvement of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGFR), Toll-like receptors (TLR) and signal transduction pathways mediated by protein kinase B (PKB or AKT), nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPK) will also be summarized. The need for further research is clear, but in vivo experiments point to an overall antiinflammatory effect of these algae, indicating that they can reinforce membrane barrier function.

  7. Proteins and Carbohydrates from Red Seaweeds: Evidence for Beneficial Effects on Gut Function and Microbiota

    PubMed Central

    Cian, Raúl E.; Drago, Silvina R.; Sánchez de Medina, Fermín; Martínez-Augustin, Olga

    2015-01-01

    Based on their composition, marine algae, and namely red seaweeds, are good potential functional foods. Intestinal mucosal barrier function refers to the capacity of the intestine to provide adequate containment of luminal microorganisms and molecules. Here, we will first outline the component of seaweeds and will summarize the effects of these on the regulation of mucosal barrier function. Special attention will be paid to unique components of red seaweeds: proteins and derived peptides (e.g., phycobiliproteins, glycoproteins that contain “cellulose binding domains”, phycolectins and the related mycosporine-like amino acids) together with polysaccharides (e.g., floridean starch and sulfated galactans, such as carrageenans, agarans and “dl-hybrid”) and minerals. These compounds have been shown to exert prebiotic effects, to regulate intestinal epithelial cell, macrophage and lymphocyte proliferation and differentiation and to modulate the immune response. Molecular mechanisms of action of peptides and polysaccharides are starting to be elucidated, and evidence indicating the involvement of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGFR), Toll-like receptors (TLR) and signal transduction pathways mediated by protein kinase B (PKB or AKT), nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPK) will also be summarized. The need for further research is clear, but in vivo experiments point to an overall antiinflammatory effect of these algae, indicating that they can reinforce membrane barrier function. PMID:26308006

  8. Beneficial effects of Trigonella foenum graecum and sodium orthovanadate on metabolic parameters in experimental diabetes.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Pardeep; Taha, Asia; Kale, R K; McLean, P; Baquer, Najma Zaheer

    2012-08-01

    Oxidative stress in diabetic tissues is accompanied by high-level of free radicals with simultaneously declined antioxidant enzymes status leading to cell membrane damage. The present study was carried out to observe the effect of sodium orthovanadate (SOV) and Trigonella foenum graecum seed powder (TSP) administration on blood glucose and insulin levels, antioxidant enzymes, lipid peroxidation, pyruvate kinase, lactate dehydrogenase and protein kinase C in heart, muscle and brain of the alloxan-induced diabetic rats to see whether the treatment with SOV and TSP was capable of reversing the diabetic effects. Diabetes was induced by administration of alloxan monohydrate (15 mg/100 g body weight), and rats were treated with 2 IU insulin, 0.6 mg/ml SOV, 5% TSP in the diet and a combination of 0.2 mg/ml SOV and 5% TSP separately for 21 days. Blood glucose levels increased markedly in diabetic rats, animals treated with a combined dose of SOV and TSP had glucose levels almost comparable with controls, similar results were obtained in the activities of pyruvate kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, antioxidant enzymes and protein kinase C in diabetic animals. Our results showed that lower doses of SOV (0.2 mg/ml) could be used in combination with TSP to effectively reverse diabetic alterations in experimental diabetes.

  9. Beneficial effects of sulfonamide-based gallates on osteoblasts in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Li; Jin, Pan; Lin, Xiao; Lin, Cuiwu; Zheng, Li; Zhao, Jinmin

    2017-01-01

    Effective treatments for osteoporosis remain fairly elusive; however, studies have reported that antioxidants may aid in the maintenance of reactive oxygen species at a favorable level, in order to prevent osteoporosis. Gallic acid (GA) and its derivatives are potent antioxidative and anti-inflammatory agents that affect several biochemical and pharmacological pathways; however, GA is slightly cytotoxic and suppresses cell proliferation. The present study modified GA by the introduction of sulfonamide, in order to obtain a novel compound known as JEZ-C, and investigated its effects on osteoblasts by measuring cell proliferation, viability, morphology, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, and the expression of relevant osteoblast markers. Results indicated that JEZ-C may effectively promote osteoblast growth. JEZ-C increased ALP activity, upregulated the expression of osteogenic-related genes, including runt-related transcription factor 2, bone sialoprotein, osteocalcin and alpha-1 type I collagen, thus indicating that JEZ-C enhances bone matrix production and mineralization. The recommended range of JEZ-C concentration is between 6.25×10−3 and 6.25×10−1 µg/ml, within which cell growth was promoted compared with the control. Specifically, treatment with 6.25×10−2 µg/ml JEZ-C is ideal. These findings may represent a novel approach to cell-based therapy for the treatment of osteoporosis. PMID:28138702

  10. Beneficial effects of natural Jeju groundwaters on lipid metabolism in high-fat diet-induced hyperlipidemic rats

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yan-chao; Lu, Jin-miao; Jin, Hui-zi; Ma, Ai-niu; Zhang, Jin-yang; Gong, Nian; Xiao, Qi; Zhu, Bin; Lv, Ying-fang; Yu, Na; Zhang, Wei-dong

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Groundwater is believed to possess many beneficial effects due to its natural source of various minerals. In this study, we examined the effects of natural Jeju groundwater S1 (Samdasoo™), S2 and S3 pumped up from different locations of Jeju Island, Korea, along with local tap water, on body weight gain, serum lipids and lipoproteins, and liver histopathology in high-fat diet-induced hyperlipidemic rats. MATERIALS/METHODS Rats were randomly and equally divided into 6 groups. Different water samples were supplied to the hyperlipidemic rats as their daily drinking water and the widely-used anti-hyperlipidemic drug simvastatin was used as a positive control. Body weight, serum lipids and lipoproteins were measured weekly. Liver weight, liver index and liver histopathology were examined after the execution of the rats. RESULTS After drinking Jeju groundwaters for two months, S2 but not S3 significantly reduced weight growth and serum triglycerides levels and increased high density lipoprotein-C (HDL-C) without affecting total cholesterol or LDL-C. S1 and particularly S2 significantly reduced the severity of liver hypertrophy and steatosis. All Groundwaters had much higher contents of vanadium (S3>S2>S1>>tap water) whereas S1 and S2 but not S3 markedly blocked autoxidation of ferrous ions. CONCLUSION Jeju Groundwater S1 and particularly S2 exhibit protective effects against hyperlipidemia and fatty liver and hypothesize that the beneficial effect of Jeju Groundwaters may be contributed from blockade of autoxidation of ferrous ions rather than their high contents of vanadium. PMID:24741400

  11. Beneficial Effects of Human Papillomavirus Vaccine for Prevention of Cervical Abnormalities in Miyagi, Japan.

    PubMed

    Ozawa, Nobuyoshi; Ito, Kiyoshi; Tase, Toru; Metoki, Hirohito; Yaegashi, Nobuo

    2016-01-01

    Prevention of cervical cancer has been unsuccessful in Japan because of low rates of cancer screening and vaccination. The Vaccine Adverse Review Committee of the Japanese Government investigated 2,475 adverse events and reported 617 (6.9/100,000) severe cases and 176 (2.0/100,000) cases with chronic pain. The proactive recommendation for human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination has been suspended since June 2013. In this study, we examined vaccination rate and incidence of abnormal cervical cytology in women aged 20 to 24 years attending cancer screening in Miyagi. Among the 3,272 women who underwent a health check in the fiscal year 2014 (April 2014-March 2015), 332 (10.2%) received a HPV vaccination. The HPV vaccination rates were 42.3%, 10%, 17.5%, 3.8% and 4.0% in women aged 20, 21, 22, 23 and 24 years, respectively. The rates of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US) or worse were 2.41% (8/332) in women with HPV vaccination and 5.03% (148/2,940) in those without HPV vaccination, indicating a significant decrease in vaccinated women (p = 0.03). ASC-US cases were referred to HPV DNA tests. In addition, the rates of high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) or worse were 0.30% (1/332) in women with HPV vaccination and 0.82% (24/2,940) in those without HPV vaccination, showing the marginal decrease in women who were vaccinated (p = 0.3). Thus, this study indicates that HPV vaccination is associated with a reduction in the incidence of cervical abnormalities, suggesting a need for scientific discussion of reinstatement of proactive recommendation for HPV vaccine in Japan.

  12. Effect of processing techniques at industrial scale on orange juice antioxidant and beneficial health compounds.

    PubMed

    Gil-Izquierdo, Angel; Gil, Maria I; Ferreres, Federico

    2002-08-28

    Phenolic compounds, vitamin C (L-ascorbic acid and L-dehydroascorbic acid), and antioxidant capacity were evaluated in orange juices manufactured by different techniques. Five processes at industrial scale (squeezing, mild pasteurization, standard pasteurization, concentration, and freezing) used in commercial orange juice manufacturing were studied. In addition, domestic squeezing (a hand processing technique) was compared with commercial squeezing (an industrial FMC single-strength extraction) to evaluate their influences on health components of orange juice. Whole orange juice was divided into soluble and cloud fractions after centrifugation. Total and individual phenolics were analyzed in both fractions by HPLC. Commercial squeezing extracted 22% more phenolics than hand squeezing. The freezing process caused a dramatic decrease in phenolics, whereas the concentration process caused a mild precipitation of these compounds to the juice cloud. In pulp, pasteurization led to degradation of several phenolic compounds, that is, caffeic acid derivatives, vicenin 2 (apigenin 6,8-di-C-glucoside), and narirutin (5,7,4'-trihydroxyflavanone-7-rutinoside) with losses of 34.5, 30.7, and 28%, respectively. Regarding vitamin C, orange juice produced by commercial squeezing contained 25% more of this compound than domestic squeezing. Mild and standard pasteurization slightly increased the total vitamin C content as the contribution from the orange solids parts, whereas concentration and freezing did not show significant changes. The content of L-ascorbic acid provided 77-96% of the total antioxidant capacity of orange juice. Mild pasteurization, standard pasteurization, concentration, and freezing did not affect the total antioxidant capacity of juice, but they did, however, in pulp, where it was reduced by 47%.

  13. Beneficial effect of lycopene on anti-diabetic nephropathy through diminishing inflammatory response and oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Guo, Ying; Liu, Yihui; Wang, Yuxia

    2015-04-01

    Lycopene is widely used for nutritional supplementation, but the potential benefits in diabetic nephropathy (DN) remains unknown. This study aimed to highlight the therapeutic prospect of lycopene against streptozotocin (STZ)-induced kidney injury in mice. During the process of the experiments, biochemical kits were employed to determine the diabetes-metabolic parameters in STZ-lesioned mice. Routine pathological and ultrastructural observations were screened for the histological changes of kidney tissue. Moreover, immunohistochemical staining was used to investigate the inflammatory conditions expressed in kidney tissue. Furthermore, intrarenal heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) mRNA level was assayed via RT-PCR and Western blot analyses. The results showed that lycopene alleviated the lesioned signs of DN mice induced by STZ, accompanied with the increase in body weight, reduced serum concentrations of blood sugar and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), elevated high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) level, and the decrease in urine protein content. In addition, oxidative defense patterns in the kidneys of DN mice were ameliorated, as shown in augmented bioactivities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and in turn lowered malondialdehyde (MDA) content. The immunohistochemical experiment exhibited that lycopene intake contributed to attenuation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) expressions in kidney tissue. Moreover, intrarenal HO-1 level was up-regulated in the presence of lycopene. Our findings provide the evidence that lycopene protects kidney cells from STZ-induced lesions via inhibiting NF-κB signal pathway for anti-inflammation and attenuating oxidative stress for anti-dysmetabolism.

  14. Beneficial effects of melatonin on cardiological alterations in a murine model of accelerated aging.

    PubMed

    Forman, Katherine; Vara, Elena; García, Cruz; Kireev, Roman; Cuesta, Sara; Acuña-Castroviejo, Darío; Tresguerres, J A F

    2010-10-01

    This study investigated the effect of aging-related parameters such as inflammation, oxidative stress and cell death in the heart in an animal model of accelerated senescence and analyzed the effects of chronic administration of melatonin on these markers. Thirty male mice of senescence-accelerated prone (SAMP8) and 30 senescence-accelerated-resistant mice (SAMR1) at 2 and 10 months of age were used. Animals were divided into eight experimental groups, four from each strain: two young control groups, two old untreated control groups, and four melatonin-treated groups. Melatonin was provided at two different dosages (1 and 10 mg/kg/day) in the drinking water. After 30 days of treatment, the expression of inflammatory mediators (tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin 1 and 10, NFkBp50 and NFkBp52), apoptosis markers (BAD, BAX and Bcl2) and parameters related to oxidative stress (heme oxygenases 1 and 2, endothelial and inducible nitric oxide synthases) were determined in the heart by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Inflammation, as well as, oxidative stress and apoptosis markers was increased in old SAMP8 males, when compared to its young controls. SAMR1 mice showed significantly lower basal levels of the measured parameters and smaller increases with age or no increases at all. After treatment with melatonin, these age-altered parameters were partially reversed, especially in SAMP8 mice. The results suggest that oxidative stress and inflammation increase with aging and that chronic treatment with melatonin, a potent antioxidant, reduces these parameters. The effects were more marked in the SAMP8 animals.

  15. Beneficial effect of melatonin on blastocyst in vitro production from heat-stressed bovine oocytes.

    PubMed

    Cebrian-Serrano, A; Salvador, I; Raga, E; Dinnyes, A; Silvestre, M A

    2013-10-01

    Melatonin may play an important role in protecting gametes and embryos from the potential harmful effects of oxidative stress. In this study, we first examined two different heat stress (HS) treatments for in vitro oocyte maturation (Experiment 1: 38.5 vs 41.0°C, during the first 20 h; Experiment 2: 38.5 vs 41.5°C, during the entire period) on bovine oocyte maturation and embryo development. Second, we tested different melatonin concentrations added to the maturation and culture medium (Experiment 3: 0, 10(-12) , 10(-9) , 10(-4)  m; Experiment 4: 0, 10(-3)  m), both with and without HS (38.5 or 41.5°C, respectively). In Experiment 1, the HS treatment resulted in a lower maturation rate and number of cells/blastocyst (C/B) and a higher blastocyst rate than that in the control group. In Experiment 2, oocytes/embryos from heat-stressed oocytes (HSO) had a lower maturation, cleavage and blastocyst rates, as well as a lower C/B compared with the control. In Experiment 3, in HSO groups, 10(-4)  m melatonin resulted in an increased blastocyst rate compared with 0 m melatonin, with a similar blastocyst rate to the non-HSO without melatonin. Melatonin did not have any effect in embryos from non-HSO groups compared with the control. In Experiment 4, 10(-3)  m melatonin produced lower cleavage and blastocyst rates in HSO and lower blastocyst rate in non-HSO when compared to melatonin-untreated oocytes/embryos. In conclusion, 10(-4)  m melatonin was found to alleviate bovine oocytes from the harmful effects of HS.

  16. Beneficial effects of pioglitazone on retardation of persistent atrial fibrillation progression in diabetes mellitus patients.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bing; Wang, Jiancheng; Wang, Guoxing

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the effects of pioglitazone treatment on progression from persistent atrial fibrillation (AF) to permanent atrial fibrillation in diabetes mellitus (DM) patients and to investigate the possible mechanisms involved in those effects.A total of 146 diabetes mellitus (DM) patients with firstly identified persistent AF were selected. Seventy patients were randomized into the pioglitazone (30 mg/day) group and 76 into the placebo group. Pro-collagen type I carboxyterminal peptide (PICP), advanced glycation end products (AGEs), and angiotensin II were assayed and left atrial diameter (LA diameter) was measured at the first presence of persistent AF, and at 6 and 14 months of follow-up. The time point of identification of permanent AF and the incidence of permanent AF in the patients were all recorded.Thirty-seven (49%) of the 76 patients in the placebo group and 21 (30%) of the 70 patients in the pioglitazone group progressed to permanent AF (P = 0.028). No significant differences existed in the follow-up time (20.5 ± 3.97 months for pioglitazone group versus 20.9 ± 4.14 months for placebo group) between the two groups (P = 0.535). In the pioglitazone group, no significant change was found in angiotensin II level. The PICP level did not change significantly at 6-months of follow-up, but decreased significantly at 14-months of follow-up (P = 0.032). The AGE (P = 0.037 at 6-month follow-up, P < 0.035 at 14-month follow-up) level was significantly lower at both 6 and 14-months of followup.By lowering the PICP level, pioglitazone treatment may decrease the incidence of permanent AF in DM patients with persistent AF, which may be associated with the suppressing effect of pioglitazone on AGEs.

  17. The beneficial effects of leptin on REM sleep deprivation-induced cognitive deficits in mice.

    PubMed

    Chang, Hsiao-Fu; Su, Chun-Lin; Chang, Chih-Hua; Chen, Yu-Wen; Gean, Po-Wu

    2013-05-17

    Leptin, a 167 amino acid peptide, is synthesized predominantly in the adipose tissues and plays a key role in the regulation of food intake and body weight. Recent studies indicate that leptin receptor is expressed with high levels in many brain regions that may regulate synaptic plasticity. Here we show that deprivation of rapid eye movement (REMD) sleep resulted in impairment of both cue and contextual fear memory. In parallel, surface expression of GluR1 was reduced in the amygdala. Intraperitoneal injection of leptin to the REMD mice rescued memory impairment and reversed surface GluR1 reduction. Using whole-cell recording to evaluate the synaptic function of the thalamus-lateral amygdala (LA) pathway, we found a decrease in frequency and amplitude of miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents (mEPSCs) concomitant with reduced AMPA/NMDA ratios in the REMD mice. By contrast, paired-pulse facilitation (PPF) was increased. The effects of REMD on mEPSCs and AMPA/NMDA ratio could be reversed by leptin treatment, whereas on PPR it could not. Phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN), a dual protein/lipid phosphatase, down-regulates the effect of the PI-3 kinase pathway. Fear conditioning increased whereas REMD led to a decrease in the phosphorylated states of PTEN, Akt, and glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK3β), and the effects of REMD were reversed by leptin. These results suggest that both pre- and postsynaptic functions of the thalamus-LA pathway were altered by fear conditioning and REMD in opposite directions. Leptin treatment reversed REMD-induced memory deficits primarily by a postsynaptic action by restoring surface expression of GluR1 without affecting PPR.

  18. Beneficial effects of tripterygium glycosides tablet on biomarkers in patients with ankylosing spondylitis.

    PubMed

    Ji, Wei; Chen, Yajun; Zhao, Xia; Guo, Yunke; Zhong, Lingyu; Li, Honggang; Wang, Dan; Song, Yanna

    2015-07-01

    The aim of the current study was to explore the effects and possible mechanisms of tripterygium glycosides tablet (TGT) in the treatment of active ankylosing spondylitis (AS). Thirty-six patients with active AS were given a 20 mg TGT treatment three times per day for 12 weeks, and 21 unrelated healthy controls were recruited as the control group. Efficacy measures included the Bath AS disease activity index (BASDAI), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and C-reactive protein (CRP) prior and subsequent to TGT treatment. Serum dickkopf homolog 1 (DKK1) and interleukin-17 (IL-17) levels before and after TGT treatment were assessed using reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and ELISA assay. The levels of several serum biomarkers were determined by ELISA, including receptor activator of nuclear factor κ-B ligand (RANKL), osteoprotegerin (OPG), bone alkaline phosphatase (BAP), bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2), matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP-3), cross-linked telopeptide of type II collagen (CTX-II), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). After 12 weeks of TGT treatment, the BASDAI score of the patients was significantly reduced (P<0.05), their levels of ESR and CRP were significantly reduced to a normal level (P<0.05, P<0.05), RT-PCR and ELISA showed a significant increase in the level of DKK1 expression (P<0.05) and a significant decreased IL-17 expression (P<0.05), there was a significant increase in the expression of OPG, BAP and BMP-2 (P<0.01, P<0.01, P<0.01) and a significant reduction in the expression levels of RANKL, CTX-II. MMP-3, PGE2, and VEGF (P<0.01, P<0.01, P<0.01, P<0.05, P<0.01) compared with those of the controls. TGT is effective at improving the signs and symptoms of patients with AS through the regulation of serum biomarkers, and the mechanisms may be associated with the anti-inflammatory effect, inhibition of new bone formation and potential bone-protective effects.

  19. Beneficial effects of Lagenaria siceraria (Mol.) Standley fruit epicarp in animal models.

    PubMed

    Deshpande, J R; Choudhari, A A; Mishra, M R; Meghre, V S; Wadodkar, S G; Dorle, A K

    2008-04-01

    Lagenaria siceraria (Mol.) Standley fruit (bottle gourd), a commonly used vegetable in India is described as cardiotonic and as a general tonic in Ayurveda. Keeping in view the presence of free radical scavenging activity in L. siceraria and involvement of free radicals in the development of various disorders, present studies were designed to evaluate the ethanolic extract of L. siceraria fruit against the disorders where free radicals play a major role in pathogenesis. The extract was found effective as hepatoprotective, antioxidant, antihyperglycemic, immunomodulatory, antihyperlipidemic and cardiotonic agent. The results showed that the radical scavenging capacity of L. siceraria fruit may be responsible for various biological activities studied.

  20. Some novel approaches for radioprotection and the beneficial effect of natural products.

    PubMed

    Maurya, Dharmendra K; Devasagayam, Thomas P A; Nair, Cherupally Krishnan K

    2006-02-01

    Due to the increased use of ionizing radiation in various aspects of human life especially in areas pertaining to radiotherapy of cancer, food preservation, agriculture, industry and power generation, there is a need to develop an effective and non-toxic radioprotector. The currently available ones have many drawbacks including high cost, side effects and toxicity. Several novel approaches are on to locate a potent radioprotector. These include mimics of antioxidant enzymes, nitroxides, melatonin, growth factors, gene therapy, hyperthermia apart from natural products. The latter has several advantages since they are non-toxic with proven therapeutic benefits. These can be classified as natural compounds and plant extracts; polyherbal formulations; besides natural and semi-natural compounds of plant origin. A review of the above agents, their efficacy in radioprotection and possible mechanisms responsible has been carried out. As India and many Eastern countries have an enormous heritage of vast natural dietary and time tested medicinal resources it is worth exploring the possibility of developing efficient, economically viable and clinically acceptable radioprotectors for human application from these resources.

  1. Beneficial Effect of Preferential Music on Exercise Induced Changes in Heart Rate Variability

    PubMed Central

    Mukilan, R.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Music is known to reduce pain, anxiety and fear in several stressful conditions in both males and females. Further, listening to preferred music enhances the endurance during running performance of women rather than listening to non-preferred music. In recent years Heart Rate Variability (HRV) has been used as an indicator of autonomic nervous activity. Aim This study was aimed to assess the effectiveness of preferential music on HRV after moderate exercise. Materials and Methods This was an experimental study done in 30 healthy students aged between 20-25 years, of either sex. HRV was measured at rest, 15 minutes of exercise only and 15 minutes of exercise with listening preferential music in same participants. Data was analysed by One-Way ANOVA and Tukey HSD Post-hoc Test. Statistical significance was taken to be a p-value of less than 0.05. Results Low frequency and high frequency component was significantly increased followed by only exercise. Music minimized increase in both high and low frequency component followed by exercise. However, only high frequency change was statistically significant. LF/HF ratio was significantly increased followed by only exercise. Music significantly minimized increase in LF/HF ratio. Conclusion This study provides the preliminary evidence that listening to preferential music could be an effective method of relaxation, as indicated by a shift of the autonomic balance towards the parasympathetic activity among medical students. PMID:27437208

  2. Beneficial effects of exercise in a transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease-like Tau pathology.

    PubMed

    Belarbi, Karim; Burnouf, Sylvie; Fernandez-Gomez, Francisco-Jose; Laurent, Cyril; Lestavel, Sophie; Figeac, Martin; Sultan, Audrey; Troquier, Laetitia; Leboucher, Antoine; Caillierez, Raphaëlle; Grosjean, Marie-Eve; Demeyer, Dominique; Obriot, Hélène; Brion, Ingrid; Barbot, Bérangère; Galas, Marie-Christine; Staels, Bart; Humez, Sandrine; Sergeant, Nicolas; Schraen-Maschke, Susanna; Muhr-Tailleux, Anne; Hamdane, Malika; Buée, Luc; Blum, David

    2011-08-01

    Tau pathology is encountered in many neurodegenerative disorders known as tauopathies, including Alzheimer's disease. Physical activity is a lifestyle factor affecting processes crucial for memory and synaptic plasticity. Whether long-term voluntary exercise has an impact on Tau pathology and its pathophysiological consequences is currently unknown. To address this question, we investigated the effects of long-term voluntary exercise in the THY-Tau22 transgenic model of Alzheimer's disease-like Tau pathology, characterized by the progressive development of Tau pathology, cholinergic alterations and subsequent memory impairments. Three-month-old THY-Tau22 mice and wild-type littermates were assigned to standard housing or housing supplemented with a running wheel. After 9 months of exercise, mice were evaluated for memory performance and examined for hippocampal Tau pathology, cholinergic defects, inflammation and genes related to cholesterol metabolism. Exercise prevented memory alterations in THY-Tau22 mice. This was accompanied by a decrease in hippocampal Tau pathology and a prevention of the loss of expression of choline acetyltransferase within the medial septum. Whereas the expression of most cholesterol-related genes remained unchanged in the hippocampus of running THY-Tau22 mice, we observed a significant upregulation in mRNA levels of NPC1 and NPC2, genes involved in cholesterol trafficking from the lysosomes. Our data support the view that long-term voluntary physical exercise is an effective strategy capable of mitigating Tau pathology and its pathophysiological consequences.

  3. Swimming training beneficial effects in a mice model of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Schultz, Alini; Mendonca, Leonardo S; Aguila, Marcia B; Mandarim-de-Lacerda, Carlos A

    2012-05-01

    The study aimed to investigate the effect of swimming training in reducing the nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and associated comorbidities, including the hepatic expression of fatty acid synthesis and peroxisome proliferator receptor activity-alpha. Male C57BL/6 mice were separated into two major groups according to their nutrition and studied during 22 weeks: standard chow (10% fat, SC) or high-fat chow (60% fat, HF), characterizing the sedentary groups SC-Sed and HF-Sed. In the last 10 weeks of the experiment, half of the sedentary groups were submitted to a swimming training with a progressive increase in duration, characterizing the exercised groups: SC-Ex and HF-Ex. At the end of the experiment, considering the findings in the SC-Sed group, HF-Sed group had significantly higher body mass, hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia with insulin resistance, hypertrophy of the adipocytes (with inflammatory infiltrate), hypertrophy of the pancreatic islets, dyslipidemia, altered liver enzymes and inflammatory cytokines, and NAFLD with changes in gene expression of hepatic lipogenic and oxidative proteins. The swimming program, even concomitant with the high-fat diet, reduced overweight and all the other worst findings, especially NAFLD. In conclusion, the swimming training can attenuate the morbid effects of a high-fat diet combined with sedentary lifestyle in mice. These data reinforce the notion that swimming exercise can be considered an efficient nonpharmacologic therapy in the treatment of NAFLD, obesity and insulin resistance.

  4. Beneficial effects of exogenous selenium in cucumber seedlings subjected to salt stress.

    PubMed

    Hawrylak-Nowak, Barbara

    2009-12-01

    The study was conducted in order to determine the effects of exogenous selenium (Se) supply (5, 10, or 20 μM) on the resistance of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) cv. Polan F1 seedlings to salt stress (50 mM NaCl). Plant growth was negatively affected by excessive salinity and dry mass production as well as photosynthetic pigments accumulation severely decreased. Se treatments at 5 and 10 μM significantly improved the growth rate and increased the photosynthetic pigments and proline contents in cucumber leaves subjected to salt stress. Moreover, it is concluded that Se enhanced the salt tolerance of seedlings by protecting the cell membrane against lipid peroxidation. The growth-promoting effect of low Se concentrations (5 and 10 μM) under saline conditions could be due to the antioxidative activity of Se, increase in proline accumulation and/or decrease in content of chloride ions in the shoots tissues. Thus, optimal Se supplementation presents a promising potential for use in conditions of relatively high levels of NaCl in the medium.

  5. Synergistic effect of beneficial rhizosphere microflora in biocontrol and plant growth promotion.

    PubMed

    Kannan, Vijayaragahavan; Sureendar, Raman

    2009-04-01

    Biological systems are getting more relevance than chemical control of plant pathogens as they are not only eco-friendly and economic in approach but are also involved in improving the soil consistency and maintenance of natural soil flora. Plant growth promoting rhizosphere microorganisms were isolated from three different tree rhizospheres using selective culture media. Five microorganisms were selected from each rhizosphere soil based on their efficiency and screened for their ability to promote plant growth as a consortium. Each of the developed consortium has a phosphate solubilizer, nitrogen fixer, growth hormone producer, heterotrophic member and an antagonist. The plant growth promoting ability of the microbial members present in the consortium was observed by estimating the IAA production level and also by the nitrogenase activity of the nitrogen fixers. The biocontrol potentiality of the consortium and the antagonist present in the consortium were checked by both dual plate assay and cross-streaking technique. Consortial treatments effected very good growth promotion in Lycopersicon esculentum Mill and the treated plants also developed resistance against wilt pathogen, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici though the effect was well pronounced with consortium developed from Santalum album.

  6. Beneficial effects of groundwater entry into liquid-dominated geothermal systems

    SciTech Connect

    Lippmann, M.J. ); Truesdell, A.H. )

    1990-04-01

    In all active liquid-dominated geothermal systems there is continuous circulation of mass and transfer of heat, otherwise they would slowly cool and fade away. In the natural state these systems are in dynamic equilibrium with the surrounding colder groundwater aquifers. The ascending geothermal fluids cool conductively, boil, or mix with groundwaters, and ultimately may discharge at the surface as fumaroles or hot springs. With the start of fluid production and the lowering of reservoir pressure, the natural equilibrium is disrupted and cooler groundwater tends to enter the reservoir. Improperly constructed or damaged wells, and wells located near the margins of the geothermal system, exhibit temperature reductions (and possibly scaling from mixing of chemically distinct fluids) as the cooler-water moves into the reservoir. These negative effects, especially in peripheral wells are, however, compensated by the maintenance of reservoir pressure and a reduction in reservoir boiling that might result in mineral precipitation in the formation pores and fractures. The positive effect of cold groundwater entry on the behavior of liquid-dominated system is illustrated by using simple reservoir models. The simulation results show that even though groundwater influx into the reservoir causes cooling of fluids produced from wells located near the cold-water recharge area, it also reduces pressure drawdown and boiling in the exploited zone, and sweeps the heat stored in the reservoir rocks toward production wells, thus increasing the productive life of the wells and field. 9 refs.

  7. Lower doses of isoflurane treatment has no beneficial effects in a rat model of intracerebral hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Intracerebral hemorrhage is a subtype of stroke that has a poor prognosis without an adequate therapy. Recently, the use of anesthetics such as isoflurane has been shown to be protective after cerebral ischemia. However, the potential therapeutic effect of isoflurane after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) has not been fully explored. Results In this study, male Sprague–Dawley rats (SD) were subjected to ICH and randomized into controls and 1.2% or 1.5% isoflurane posttreatment groups. Brain water content, neurological outcomes and matrix metalloproteinase-2 and -9 (MMP2-MMP9) plasma levels were quantified at 24 hours. Isoflurane treatment did not reduce brain edema compared with controls in any of the applied isoflurane concentrations. Moreover, consistent with this lack of effect on brain edema, isoflurane posttreatment did not affect neurological outcomes in any of the tests used. Plasma MMP levels did not change. Conclusion Our data suggested that there is no neuroprotection after isoflurane posttreatment in a rat model of ICH. PMID:24138708

  8. Beneficial effect of erdosteine on methotrexate-induced testicular toxicity in mice.

    PubMed

    Oktar, Süleyman; Gökçe, Ahmet; Aydin, Mehmet; Davarci, Mürsel; Meydan, Sedat; Oztürk, Oktay Hasan; Koç, Ahmet

    2010-08-01

    Methotrexate is used to treat certain types of cancer of the breast, skin, head and neck, or lung. Methotrexate can cause serious or life-threatening side effects on liver, lungs, kidneys, and immune system. Methotrexate chemotherapy causes testicular damage in humans. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible protective role of erdosteine on testicular toxicity of methotrexate in mice. Twenty-six male mice were divided into four groups as follows: group 1, control; group 2, erdosteine-treated; group 3, methotrexate-treated; and group 4, methotrexate + erdosteine treated. On the first day of experiment, a single dose of methotrexate was intraperitoneally administered to groups 3 and 4, although a daily single dose of erdosteine was orally administered to group 2 and 4 for 7 days. At the end of the experiment, the testes of the animals were removed and weighed. The levels of total antioxidant capacity and total oxidative stress, and myeloperoxidase activity in the methotrexate group were higher than the control group (p<0.05). Lipid peroxidation levels were not changed in methotrexate group compared with control group. In conclusion, erdosteine could effectively protect the testes in methotrexate-induced toxicity.

  9. Beneficial effects of melatonin on obesity and lipid profile in young Zucker diabetic fatty rats.

    PubMed

    Agil, Ahmad; Navarro-Alarcón, Miguel; Ruiz, Rosario; Abuhamadah, Sawsan; El-Mir, Mohamad-Yehia; Vázquez, Gumersindo Fernández

    2011-03-01

    The study objective was to investigate the effects of melatonin on obesity and obesity-associated systolic hypertension and dyslipidemia in young male Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats, an experimental model of the metabolic syndrome. ZDF rats (n=30) and lean littermates (ZL) (n=30) were used. At 6wk of age, both lean and fatty animals were subdivided into three groups (n=10): naive (N), vehicle-treated (V), and melatonin-treated (M) (10mg/kg/day) for 6wk. Vehicle and melatonin were added to the drinking water. Melatonin reduced mean weight gain (51±2/100g BW) versus N-ZDF group (58±3, P<0.05) without food intake differences. M-ZDF rats showed an apparent reduction in systolic hypertension that proved not to be statistically significant, and a significant improvement in dyslipidemia, with a reduction in hypertriglyceridemia from 580±40 to 420.6±40.9mg/dL (P<0.01). Melatonin raised high-density-lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol in ZDF (from 81.6±4.9 to 103.1±4.5mg/dL, P<0.01) and ZL rats (from 62.8±4.8 to 73.5±4.8mg/dL, P<0.05) and significantly reduced low-density-lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol in ZDF rats from 5.20±0.4 to 4.14±0.3 mg/dL (P<0.05) but had no effect on total cholesterol levels. To our knowledge, this is the first evidence of a positive effect of melatonin on overweight and lipid pattern of obese Zucker diabetic rats, supporting the proposition that melatonin administration may ameliorate overweight and lipid metabolism in humans. Because these benefits occurred in youth, before advanced metabolic and vascular complications, melatonin might help to prevent cardiovascular disease associated with obesity and dyslipidemia.

  10. Isosteviol Has Beneficial Effects on Palmitate-Induced α-Cell Dysfunction and Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiaoping; Hermansen, Kjeld; Xiao, Jianzhong; Bystrup, Sara Kjaergaard; O'Driscoll, Lorraine; Jeppesen, Per Bendix

    2012-01-01

    Background Long-term exposure to high levels of fatty acids impairs insulin secretion and exaggerates glucagon secretion. The aim of this study was to explore if the antihyperglycemic agent, Isosteviol (ISV), is able to counteract palmitate-induced α-cell dysfunction and to influence α-cell gene expression. Methodology/Principal Findings Long-term incubation studies with clonal α-TC1–6 cells were performed in the presence of 0.5 mM palmitate with or without ISV. We investigated effects on glucagon secretion, glucagon content, cellular triglyceride (TG) content, cell proliferation, and expression of genes involved in controlling glucagon synthesis, fatty acid metabolism, and insulin signal transduction. Furthermore, we studied effects of ISV on palmitate-induced glucagon secretion from isolated mouse islets. Culturing α-cells for 72-h with 0.5 mM palmitate in the presence of 18 mM glucose resulted in a 56% (p<0.01) increase in glucagon secretion. Concomitantly, the TG content of α-cells increased by 78% (p<0.01) and cell proliferation decreased by 19% (p<0.05). At 18 mM glucose, ISV (10−8 and 10−6 M) reduced palmitate-stimulated glucagon release by 27% (p<0.05) and 27% (p<0.05), respectively. ISV (10−6 M) also counteracted the palmitate-induced hypersecretion of glucagon in mouse islets. ISV (10−6 M) reduced α-TC1–6 cell proliferation rate by 25% (p<0.05), but ISV (10−8 and 10−6 M) had no effect on TG content in the presence of palmitate. Palmitate (0.5 mM) increased Pcsk2 (p<0.001), Irs2 (p<0.001), Fasn (p<0.001), Srebf2 (p<0.001), Acaca (p<0.01), Pax6 (p<0.05) and Gcg mRNA expression (p<0.05). ISV significantly (p<0.05) up-regulated Insr, Irs1, Irs2, Pik3r1 and Akt1 gene expression in the presence of palmitate. Conclusions/Significance ISV counteracts α-cell hypersecretion and apparently contributes to changes in expression of key genes resulting from long-term exposure to palmitate. ISV apparently acts as a glucagonostatic drug with

  11. Low concentrations of silver nanoparticles have a beneficial effect on wound healing in vitro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ambrožová, Nikola; Zálešák, Bohumil; Ulrichová, Jitka; Čížková, Kateřina; Galandáková, Adéla

    2017-03-01

    Silver has been used in medical application for its antibacterial, antifungal, and anti-inflammatory effects. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are currently in the spotlight. It was shown that their application can be useful in the management of wounds. Our study was conducted to determine whether AgNPs (average size 10.43 ± 4.74 nm) and ionic silver (Ag-I) could affect the wound healing in the in vitro model of normal human dermal fibroblasts (NHDF). We evaluated their effect on reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and the expression of key transcription factors that coordinate the cellular response to oxidative stress [nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2)] and inflammation [nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB)], expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) level. Isolated primary NHDF were scratched, heated (1 h; 42 °C), and cultured with AgNPs (0.25, 2.5, and 25 μg/ml) and Ag-I (0.025, 0.1, and 0.25 μg/ml) for 8 or 24 h. The ROS generation, Nrf2, NF-κB, and HO-1 protein expression and IL-6 protein level were then evaluated by standard methods. Non-cytotoxic concentrations of AgNPs (0.25 and 2.5 μg/ml) did not affect the ROS generation but activated the Nrf2/HO-1 pathway and decreased the NF-κB expression and IL-6 level in the in vitro wound healing model. AgNPs at concentrations of 0.25 and 2.5 μg/ml seem to be suitable for the intended application as a topical agent for wound healing, although the gene silencing technique, chemical inhibitors, and detailed time- and concentration-dependent experiments are needed for a comprehensive study of signaling pathway regulation. Further investigation is also necessary to exclude any possible adverse effects.

  12. Beneficial effects of botulinum toxin type a for patients with painful tic convulsif.

    PubMed

    Micheli, Federico; Scorticati, María Clara; Raina, Gabriela

    2002-01-01

    Botulinum toxin is a well-known therapy for patients with diverse movement disorders. Its application has been extended to other disorders. Here, we document the case of a 70-year-old man with hemifacial spasm associated to trigeminal neuralgia secondary to an ectatic basilar artery. He was treated with botulinum toxin type A, 2.5 mouse units over five sites at the orbicularis oculi and one over the buccinator muscle. After botulinum toxin injections, relief was gained not only from twitching but also from pain. When the effects of the toxin vanished, spasms and pain recurred. Further infiltrations were given every 12 weeks following the same response pattern. This observation further validates the increasing role of botulinum toxin in pain management.

  13. Beneficial anti-Parkinson effects of camel milk in Chlorpromazineinduced animal model: Behavioural and histopathological study.

    PubMed

    Khatoon, Humera; Najam, Rahela; Mirza, Talat; Sikandar, Bushra

    2016-09-01

    Potential roles of natural products have been identified for preventing or treating various diseases. Our aim was to investigate the effectiveness of camel milk in an animal model of Parkinson's disease and compare it with standard treatment (levodopa + carbidopa combination). 40 Wistar albino rats weighing 200-250 gram were divided into four groups of 10 animals each. Group I was kept on water and served as normal control, group II served as negative control, treated with chlorpromazine (5mg/kg i.p.), group III was given camel milk (33ml/kg p.o) and group IV the standard combination of levodopa + carbidopa (100+10mg/kg) respectively, 30 minutes after chlorpromazine treatment. All animals were subjected to the drugs treatment for 30 days. Catalepsy was assessed by Bar test on day 21 and day 30 at 30, 60, 90 and 120 minutes interval. On 30th day animals were sacrificed and whole brains were examined for histopathological changes. The results revealed highly significant (p<0.001) anti-cataleptic effect of camel milk on day 21 and 30 in comparison to chlorpromazine. When compared with standard therapy, the results showed that anti-Parkinson's activity of camel milk was significant (p<0.01) on day 21. However, the difference in activity was non-significant on day 30. Histopathology of the brain showed that administration of camel milk reveals intact architecture with mild degenerative changes than chlorpromazine and levodopa + carbidopa treated animals. In conclusion, camel milk possesses anti-Parkinson's activity. However, its long term efficacy and safety needs to be evaluated clinically.

  14. Beneficial effects of lycopene against haloperidol induced orofacial dyskinesia in rats: Possible neurotransmitters and neuroinflammation modulation.

    PubMed

    Datta, Swati; Jamwal, Sumit; Deshmukh, Rahul; Kumar, Puneet

    2016-01-15

    Tardive Dyskinesia is a severe side effect of chronic neuroleptic treatment consisting of abnormal involuntary movements, characterized by orofacial dyskinesia. The study was designed to investigate the protective effect of lycopene against haloperidol induced orofacial dyskinesia possibly by neurochemical and neuroinflammatory modulation in rats. Rats were administered with haloperidol (1mg/kg, i.p for 21 days) to induce orofacial dyskinesia. Lycopene (5 and 10mg/kg, p.o) was given daily 1hour before haloperidol treatment for 21 days. Behavioral observations (vacuous chewing movements, tongue protrusions, facial jerking, rotarod activity, grip strength, narrow beam walking) were assessed on 0th, 7th(,) 14th(,) 21st day after haloperidol treatment. On 22nd day, animals were killed and striatum was excised for estimation of biochemical parameters (malondialdehyde, nitrite and endogenous enzyme (GSH), pro-inflammatory cytokines [Tumor necrosis factor, Interleukin 1β, Interleukin 6] and neurotransmitters level (dopamine, serotonin, nor epinephrine, 5-Hydroxyindole acetic acid (5-HIAA), Homovanillic acid, 3,4- dihydroxyphenylacetic acid. Haloperidol treatment for 21 days impaired muscle co-ordination, motor activity and grip strength with an increased in orofacial dyskinetic movements. Further free radical generation increases MDA and nitrite levels, decreasing GSH levels in striatum. Neuroinflammatory markers were significantly increased with decrease in neurotransmitters levels. Lycopene (5 and 10mg/kg, p.o) treatment along with haloperidol significantly attenuated impairment in behavioral, biochemical, neurochemical and neuroinflammatory markers. Results of the present study attributed the therapeutic potential of lycopene in the treatment (prevented or delayed) of typical antipsychotic induced orofacial dyskinesia.

  15. The beneficial effects of Momordica charantia (bitter gourd) on wound healing of rabbit skin.

    PubMed

    Pişkin, Ahmet; Altunkaynak, Berrin Zuhal; Tümentemur, Gamze; Kaplan, Süleyman; Yazıcı, Ozgür Bülent; Hökelek, Murat

    2014-08-01

    Momordica charantia (MC; bitter gourd) is a traditional herbal commonly used for its antidiabetic, antioxidant, contraceptive and antibacterial properties. In the current study, the authors aim to observe the topical effect of MC cream on the wound-healing process in rabbits. Moreover, they compare the healing potential with conventional creams used therapeutically. Towards this aim, 28 New Zealand rabbits were divided into four groups and excision wounds (7 cm²) were made on their backs. Open wound dressing was carried out daily for 28 days among the experimental groups with the application of dekspanthenol (Bepanthen®; BP group, n = 7), nitrofurazon (Furacin®; FR group, n = 7) and olive oil extract of MC (MC group, n = 7). No application was made to the control group. At the end of day 28, areas of the skin with initial wound area were en bloc dissected and prepared for histopathological and stereological analysis. Inflammatory cells were abundant in the control group and cream application led to a decrease in the number of these cells, especially in the MC group. The highest number of fibroblasts was detected in the MC group. Furthermore, the MC group displayed the highest fractions of epidermis to papillary dermis, fibroblasts to reticular dermis and collagen fibres to reticular dermis. The MC group also presented a high density of blood vessels, moderate density of collagen fibres and mature fibroblasts. The BP group showed better epithelialisation compared with the FR group, but the latter provided more effective reorganisation of the dermis. Different cream supplements caused healthy and fast wound healing according to untreated controls and the results show that administration of the MC extract improves and accelerates the process of wound healing in rabbits in comparison with the BP and FR extracts.

  16. The beneficial antispasticity effect of botulinum toxin type A is maintained after repeated treatment cycles

    PubMed Central

    Bakheit, A; Fedorova, N; Skoromets, A; Timerbaeva, S; Bhakta, B; Coxon, L

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To study the efficacy, safety, and incidence of BtxA antibody formation with repeated treatments with BtxA in post-stroke upper limb muscle spasticity. Methods: The study was a prospective open label trial. Patients with established post-stroke upper limb spasticity received 1000 units of BtxA (Dysport) into five muscles of the affected arm on study entry. Treatment was repeated every 12, 16, or 20 weeks as clinically indicated. Each patient received a total of three treatment cycles. Efficacy of treatment was assessed using the Modified Ashworth Scale. Patients were assessed on study entry and on week 4 and 12 of each treatment cycle for all safety and efficacy parameters. Blood samples for BtxA antibody assay were taken at baseline and on completion of the trial. Results: Fifty one patients were recruited and 41 of them completed the study. Improvement from the cycle one baseline was observed in all the outcome measures. Mild to moderately severe treatment related adverse events were reported in 24% of cases. There were no serious adverse events. No BtxA antibodies were detected. Conclusion: BtxA at a dose of 1000 units Dysport was efficacious in the symptomatic treatment of post-stroke upper limb spasticity. The study suggests that this effect can be maintained with repeated injections for up to at least three treatment cycles, with duration of effect per cycle of between 12 and 20 weeks. BtxA was safe in the dose used in this study and did not induce the formation of detectable levels of neutralising BtxA antibodies. PMID:15489387

  17. From the stroke unit to the stroke competence center: corresponding beneficial clinical and financial effects.

    PubMed

    Chatzikonstantinou, A; Förster, A; Hennerici, M G; Bäzner, H

    2011-11-01

    The introduction of the diagnosis related groups (DRG) system in Germany has radically influenced the organization of in-hospital patient treatment. Case-mix-index and duration of treatment in a stroke unit (SU) play a central role. Our SU started in 1998 and was gradually extended to the current "Stroke Competence Center" (SCC), with a total capacity of 29 patients. The SCC combines acute treatment, work-up and post-stroke management by the same specialized team. We aimed primarily at demonstrating the financial effects of this concept. Data from stroke patients treated in our SU/SCC between 2004 and 2009 were analyzed. We analyzed the number of treated stroke patients, number of thrombolytic treatments, the number of cases coded with procedure codes OPS 8-981.x and the ratio of OPS 8-981.0 (24-72 h on SU) to the higher remunerated OPS 8-981.1 (>72 h on SU). The number of treated patients increased by 118.3% (from 469 in 2004 to 1024 in 2009). The number of thrombolyses per year has more than quadrupled (2004: 46, 2009: 253, i.e. 25% of SU patients). The introduction of the stroke center concept lead to a great increase in the ratio of the higher rewarded OPS 8-981.1 to OPS 8-981.0 (from 1.5 in 2005 to 5.21 in 2009). Our data demonstrates that the SCC concept leads to a greater financial potential, while offering considerable medical advantages concerning more effective stroke treatment and work-up as well as improved flow of information and enhanced individual patient-physician relationship.

  18. Beneficial effect of Oligonol supplementation on sweating response under heat stress in humans.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jeong Beom; Shin, Young Oh

    2014-10-01

    Oligonol is a low-molecular weight polyphenol that possesses antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. However, nothing is known regarding the impact of Oligonol on sudomotor activity. This study investigated the effects of Oligonol supplementation on sudomotor activity during heat load in humans. Initially, we conducted a placebo-controlled, cross-over trial where participants took a daily dose of Oligonol 200 mg or placebo for one week. After a 2 week washout period, the subjects were switched to the other study arm. As a heat load, half-body immersion into hot water (42 ± 0.5 °C for 30 min) was performed in an automated climate chamber. Tympanic and skin temperatures were measured. Sudomotor activity, including onset time, sweat rate (SR) and volume (SV), active sweat gland density (ASGD), and sweat gland output (SGO), was tested in four or eight areas of skin. When compared with placebo, Oligonol attenuated increases in tympanic and skin temperatures after the heat load. There was an increasing trend in local sweat onset time, but there was a decrease in local SR, SV, ASGD, and SGO for Oligonol compared to placebo. The mean ASGD was significantly higher in the Oligonol group than in the placebo group for 10, 20, and 30 min. This study demonstrates that Oligonol appears to be worthy of consideration as a natural supplement to support more economical use of body fluids against heat stress.

  19. Diet modification and metformin have a beneficial effect in a fly model of obesity and mucormycosis.

    PubMed

    Shirazi, Fazal; Farmakiotis, Dimitrios; Yan, Yuanqing; Albert, Nathaniel; Do, Kim-Anh; Kim-Anh, Do; Kontoyiannis, Dimitrios P

    2014-01-01

    In an experimental model of obesity and hyperglycemia in Drosophila melanogaster we studied the effect of diet modification and administration of metformin on systemic infection with Rhizopus, a common cause of mucormycosis in diabetic patients. Female Wt-type Drosophila flies were fed regular (RF) or high-fat diet (HFD; 30% coconut oil) food with or without metformin for 48 h and then injected with R. oryzae. Survival rates, glucose and triglyceride levels were compared between 1) normal-weight flies (RF), 2) obese flies (HFD), 3) obese flies fed with RF, 4) flies continuously fed on HFD + metformin, 5) flies fed on HFD + metformin, then transferred to RF, and 6) obese flies administered metformin after infection [corrected].Glucose levels were compared across groups of non-infected flies and across groups of infected flies. Survival was significantly decreased (P = 0.003) in obese flies, while post-infection glucose levels were significantly increased (P = 0.0001), compared to normal-weight flies. Diet and administration of metformin led to weight loss, normalized glucose levels during infection, and were associated with decreased mortality and tissue fungal burden. In conclusion, diet and metformin help control infection-associated hyperglycemia and improve survival in Drosophila flies with mucormycosis. Fly models of obesity bear intriguing similarities to the pathophysiology of insulin resistance and diabetes in humans, and can provide new insights into the pathogenesis and treatment of infections in obese and diabetic patients.

  20. Mechanisms of interleukin-22’s beneficial effects in acute pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Huan, Chongmin; Kim, Daniel; Ou, Peiqi; Alfonso, Antonio; Stanek, Albert

    2016-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis (AP) is a disorder characterized by parenchymal injury of the pancreas controlled by immune cell-mediated inflammation. AP remains a significant challenge in the clinic due to a lack of specific and effective treatment. Knowledge of the complex mechanisms that regulate the inflammatory response in AP is needed for the development of new approaches to treatment, since immune cell-derived inflammatory cytokines have been recognized to play critical roles in the pathogenesis of the disease. Recent studies have shown that interleukin (IL)-22, a cytokine secreted by leukocytes, when applied in the severe animal models of AP, protects against the inflammation-mediated acinar injury. In contrast, in a mild AP model, endogenous IL-22 has been found to be a predominantly anti-inflammatory mediator that inhibits inflammatory cell infiltration via the induction of Reg3 proteins in acinar cells, but does not protect against acinar injury in the early stage of AP. However, constitutively over-expressed IL-22 can prevent the initial acinar injury caused by excessive autophagy through the induction of the anti-autophagic proteins Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL. Thus IL-22 plays different roles in AP depending on the severity of the AP model. This review focuses on these recently reported findings for the purpose of better understanding IL-22’s regulatory roles in AP which could help to develop a novel therapeutic strategy. PMID:26909233

  1. Beneficial effect of glucocorticoids on the course of haematogenously acquired Staphylococcus aureus nephritis.

    PubMed

    Verba, V; Sakiniene, E; Tarkowski, A

    1997-03-01

    The effect of combined antibiotic and corticosteroid treatment on the course of haematogenously acquired Staphylococcus aureus nephritis was studied. Mice were given a single injection of S. aureus producing toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 in a dose capable of inducing a high frequency of inflammatory kidney lesions and divided into three groups according to a treatment regimen. In all untreated animals inflammatory infiltrates were seen in kidney cortex and medulla with high frequencies of glomerular (90%) and tubular damage (50%) as well as fibrotic changes (50%). The treatment with antibiotics alone reduced significantly only the occurrence of focal inflammatory infiltrates. In contrast, the mice treated with a combination of antibiotics and corticosteroids displayed in 64% of cases normal histological kidney appearance and a significant decrease in occurrence of glomerular (P<0.01) and tubular (P<0.05) lesions. Immunohistochemically, the combined treatment resulted in a more pronounced decrease in numbers of CD4, IL-2R (four to fivefold) and CD8 positive cells in kidney inflammatory lesions compared to antibiotics only treated group. Thus, glucocorticoids in association with antibiotics are shown to improve the outcome of septic murine nephritis, possibly due to suppression of kidney infiltrating T cells.

  2. Beneficial effect of pine honey on trichlorfon induced some biochemical alterations in mice.

    PubMed

    Eraslan, Gökhan; Kanbur, Murat; Silici, Sibel; Karabacak, Mürsel

    2010-07-01

    Forty-eight male BALB/c mice, weighing 30-35 g, were used in the study, and were divided into groups of 12 each. The four groups established in the study included one control group and three experimental groups. The first group served as the control group, while Groups 2, 3 and 4 were administered 1g/kg bw/day pine honey, 180 mg/kg bw/day trichlorfon ( approximately 1/5LD(50)) and 1g/kg bw/day pine honey plus 180 mg/kg bw/day trichlorfon, respectively, by the oral route using a catheter for 21 days. At the end of 21 days post-administration, blood and tissue (liver, kidney, brain and heart) samples were collected. Serum levels/activities of total protein, albumin, glucose, cholesterol, triglyceride, BUN, creatine, uric acid, magnesium, sodium, potassium, chloride, total bilirubin, GGT, LDH, AST, ALT and ALP were determined. Furthermore, tissue MDA levels and CAT, SOD and GSH-Px activities were analyzed. According to the data obtained, when administered at the indicated dose and for the indicated time period, trichlorfon was determined to lead to negative alterations in most of the biochemical parameters investigated. The administration of pine honey was determined to alleviate this effect.

  3. Increasing local blood flow by warming the application site: beneficial effects on postprandial glycemic excursions.

    PubMed

    Freckmann, Guido; Pleus, Stefan; Haug, Cornelia; Bitton, Gabriel; Nagar, Ron

    2012-07-01

    The absorption profile of rapid-acting insulin analogs delivered subcutaneously is slow compared with physiological insulin. Shorter time to peak and shorter duration of insulin action are important steps toward reducing high postprandial blood glucose concentrations in diabetes therapy and are critical for the development of a closed-loop insulin delivery system. Many attempts have been made to develop more rapid-acting insulins. Since the 1950s, different approaches, such as jet injectors and sprinkler needles, which try to increase the absorption areas of injected insulin, have been developed; however, none of them are commonly used in diabetes therapy. Massage and heat increase tissue blood perfusion and, thereby, the absorption of subcutaneously applied insulin. The main focus of this article is a novel device that allows local application of heat to human skin. The device can be connected to a regular insulin pump. This device could demonstrate a significant effect on insulin absorption and postprandial glucose excursions in multiple clinical trials.

  4. Beneficial aerodynamic effect of wing scales on the climbing flight of butterflies.

    PubMed

    Slegers, Nathan; Heilman, Michael; Cranford, Jacob; Lang, Amy; Yoder, John; Habegger, Maria Laura

    2017-01-30

    It is hypothesized that butterfly wing scale geometry and surface patterning may function to improve aerodynamic efficiency. In order to investigate this hypothesis, a method to measure butterfly flapping kinematics optically over long uninhibited flapping sequences was developed. Statistical results for the climbing flight flapping kinematics of 11 butterflies, based on a total of 236 individual flights, both with and without their wing scales, are presented. Results show, that for each of the 11 butterflies, the mean climbing efficiency decreased after scales were removed. Data was reduced to a single set of differences of climbing efficiency using are paired t-test. Results show a mean decrease in climbing efficiency of 32.2% occurred with a 95% confidence interval of 45.6%-18.8%. Similar analysis showed that the flapping amplitude decreased by 7% while the flapping frequency did not show a significant difference. Results provide strong evidence that butterfly wing scale geometry and surface patterning improve butterfly climbing efficiency. The authors hypothesize that the wing scale's effect in measured climbing efficiency may be due to an improved aerodynamic efficiency of the butterfly and could similarly be used on flapping wing micro air vehicles to potentially achieve similar gains in efficiency.

  5. Metabolic remodeling agents show beneficial effects in the dystrophin-deficient mdx mouse model

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Duchenne muscular dystrophy is a genetic disease involving a severe muscle wasting that is characterized by cycles of muscle degeneration/regeneration and culminates in early death in affected boys. Mitochondria are presumed to be involved in the regulation of myoblast proliferation/differentiation; enhancing mitochondrial activity with exercise mimetics (AMPK and PPAR-delta agonists) increases muscle function and inhibits muscle wasting in healthy mice. We therefore asked whether metabolic remodeling agents that increase mitochondrial activity would improve muscle function in mdx mice. Methods Twelve-week-old mdx mice were treated with two different metabolic remodeling agents (GW501516 and AICAR), separately or in combination, for 4 weeks. Extensive systematic behavioral, functional, histological, biochemical, and molecular tests were conducted to assess the drug(s)' effects. Results We found a gain in body and muscle weight in all treated mice. Histologic examination showed a decrease in muscle inflammation and in the number of fibers with central nuclei and an increase in fibers with peripheral nuclei, with significantly fewer activated satellite cells and regenerating fibers. Together with an inhibition of FoXO1 signaling, these results indicated that the treatments reduced ongoing muscle damage. Conclusions The three treatments produced significant improvements in disease phenotype, including an increase in overall behavioral activity and significant gains in forelimb and hind limb strength. Our findings suggest that triggering mitochondrial activity with exercise mimetics improves muscle function in dystrophin-deficient mdx mice. PMID:22908954

  6. Plant-Based and Plant-Rich Diet Patterns during Gestation: Beneficial Effects and Possible Shortcomings.

    PubMed

    Pistollato, Francesca; Sumalla Cano, Sandra; Elio, Iñaki; Masias Vergara, Manuel; Giampieri, Francesca; Battino, Maurizio

    2015-09-01

    Environmental and lifestyle factors are known to play an important role during gestation, determining newborns' health status and influencing their risk of being subject to certain noncommunicable diseases later in life. In particular, maternal nutritional patterns characterized by a low intake of plant-derived foods could increase the risk of gestation-related issues, such as preeclampsia and pregravid obesity, increase genotoxicant susceptibility, and contribute to the onset of pediatric diseases. In particular, the risk of pediatric wheeze, diabetes, neural tube defects, orofacial clefts, and some pediatric tumors seems to be reduced by maternal intake of adequate amounts of vegetables, fruits, and selected antioxidants. Nevertheless, plant-based diets, like any other diet, if improperly balanced, could be deficient in some specific nutrients that are particularly relevant during gestation, such as n-3 (ω-3) fatty acids, vitamin B-12, iron, zinc, and iodine, possibly affecting the offspring's health state. Here we review the scientific literature in this field, focusing specifically on observational studies in humans, and highlight protective effects elicited by maternal diets enriched in plant-derived foods and possible issues related to maternal plant-based diets.

  7. The beneficial effect of hydrogen on CO oxidation over Au catalysts. A computational study.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Akhtar; Gracia, Jose; Niemantsverdriet, J W; Nieuwenhuys, B E

    2011-11-16

    Density functional theory calculations have been carried out to explore the effect of hydrogen on the oxidation of CO in relation to the preferential oxidation of CO in the presence of excess hydrogen (PROX). A range of gold surfaces have been selected including the (100), stepped (310) surfaces and diatomic rows on the (100) surface. These diatomic rows on Au(100) are very efficient in H-H bond scission. O(2) hydrogenation strongly enhances the surface-oxygen interaction and assists in scission of the O-O bond. The activation energy required to make the reaction intermediate hydroperoxy (OOH) from O(2) and H is small. However, we postulate its presence on our Au models as the result of diffusion from oxide supports to the gold surfaces. The OOH on Au in turn opens many low energy cost channels to produce H(2)O and CO(2). CO is selectively oxidized in a H(2) atmosphere due to the more favorable reaction barriers while the formation of adsorbed hydroperoxy enhances the reaction rate.

  8. The beneficial effects of rehabilitation on hand function in patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Księżopolska-Orłowska, Krystyna; Kasprzak, Katarzyna; Gaszewska, Ewa; Rodkiewicz-Bogusławska, Agnieszka; Sokołowska, Beata

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The hand is one of the main elements of the rehabilitation of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) due to deformities, which occur in approximately 90% of patients. It is a serious problem, both in the psychological and functional aspect, connected with muscle strength reduction, a limited range of motion and non-acceptance of the changes in the shape of the limb. The study aimed to assess the effect of rehabilitation on the function of the hand in rheumatoid arthritis. Material and methods The study group consisted of 40 women with RA. The patients had been previously treated at the Rehabilitation Department of the National Institute of Geriatrics, Rheumatology and Rehabilitation in Warsaw. The study group underwent 3 weeks of rehabilitation involving individual therapy, exercises with equipment, patient education and physical therapy. The control group included women without a diagnosis of RA, hands pain-free and fully mobile. In both groups the hand was assessed for grip value, grip quality and manipulative ability. In the study group the basis of pain intensity was noted. The measurements were performed twice – prior to the rehabilitation and after 3 weeks of rehabilitation in women with RA and once in women without hand problems. Results The results obtained revealed marked limitation of hand function in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. The treatment resulted in an improvement of all assessed parameters except cylindrical grip, in which only a part of the findings was statistically significant. Conclusions The analysis of the study material showed that appropriately adjusted and conducted hand physiotherapy in women with rheumatoid arthritis contributed to the improvement of its function by pain reduction, improved value and quality of grip, and also increased manipulative ability. PMID:28115778

  9. Beneficial Effects of Citrus Juice Fermented with Lactobacillus plantarum YIT 0132 on Japanese Cedar Pollinosis

    PubMed Central

    HARIMA-MIZUSAWA, Naomi; IINO, Tohru; ONODERA-MASUOKA, Norie; KATO-NAGAOKA, Noriko; KIYOSHIMA-SHIBATA, Junko; GOMI, Atsushi; SHIBAHARA-SONE, Harue; KANO, Mitsuyoshi; SHIDA, Kan; SAKAI, Masashi; MIYAZAKI, Kouji; ISHIKAWA, Fumiyasu

    2014-01-01

    Recently, the prevalence of allergies in Japan has been increasing. Certain types of fruit juice and lactic acid bacteria are known to alleviate allergic symptoms. Therefore, we examined whether citrus juice fermented by a specific lactic acid bacteria can improve the symptoms of Japanese cedar pollinosis (JCPsis). Lactobacillus plantarum YIT 0132 (LP0132) was selected based on its high proliferative activity in citrus juice and anti-inflammatory interleukin-10-inducing activity. Dietary administration of heat-killed LP0132 cells or citrus juice fermented with LP0132 was found to significantly suppress nasal rubbing in a JCPsis mouse model, indicating relief of allergy symptoms. To evaluate the effects of LP0132-fermented citrus juice on pollinosis symptoms and quality of life (QOL) in humans with JCPsis, a single-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group clinical trial was conducted. The participants were 42 adults with JCPsis. They ingested 100 mL of sterilized LP0132-fermented citrus juice (active group) or unfermented citrus juice (placebo group) once daily for 8 weeks. Immediately after the pollen peak when allergy symptoms and QOL loss were most severe, itchy eyes, itchy skin, and QOL loss by JCPsis were alleviated in the active group compared with the placebo group. At 10 weeks after starting the intervention, increased the levels of blood eosinophils were significantly suppressed in the active group compared with the placebo group. We conclude that continuous ingestion of citrus juice fermented with LP0132 may help alleviate the allergy symptoms and impaired QOL caused by JCPsis. PMID:25379362

  10. Chronic Treatment with Atrial Natriuretic Peptide in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats: Beneficial Renal Effects and Sex Differences

    PubMed Central

    Romero, Mariana; Caniffi, Carolina; Bouchet, Gonzalo; Costa, María A.; Elesgaray, Rosana; Arranz, Cristina; Tomat, Analía L.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of chronic treatment with atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) on renal function, nitric oxide (NO) system, oxidative stress, collagen content and apoptosis in kidneys of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), as well as sex-related differences in the response to the treatment. Methods 10 week-old male and female SHR were infused with ANP (100 ng/h/rat) or saline (NaCl 0.9%) for 14 days (subcutaneous osmotic pumps). Systolic blood pressure (SBP) was recorded and diuresis and natriuresis were determined. After treatment, renal NO synthase (NOS) activity and eNOS expression were evaluated. Thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), glutathione concentration and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities were determined in the kidney. Collagen was identified in renal slices by Sirius red staining and apoptosis by Tunel assay. Results Female SHR showed lower SBP, oxidative stress, collagen content and apoptosis in kidney, and higher renal NOS activity and eNOS protein content, than males. ANP lowered SBP, increased diuresis, natriuresis, renal NOS activity and eNOS expression in both sexes. Renal response to ANP was more marked in females than in males. In kidney, ANP reduced TBARS, renal collagen content and apoptosis, and increased glutathione concentration and activity of GPx and SOD enzymes in both sexes. Conclusions Female SHR exhibited less organ damage than males. Chronic ANP treatment would ameliorate hypertension and end-organ damage in the kidney by reducing oxidative stress, increasing NO-system activity, and diminishing collagen content and apoptosis, in both sexes. PMID:25774801

  11. Beneficial effects of previous exercise training on renal changes in streptozotocin-induced diabetic female rats

    PubMed Central

    Amaral, Liliany S de Brito; Silva, Fernanda A; Correia, Vicente B; Andrade, Clara EF; Dutra, Bárbara A; Oliveira, Márcio V; de Magalhães, Amélia CM; Volpini, Rildo A; Seguro, Antonio C; Coimbra, Terezila M

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of aerobic exercise performed both previously and after the induction of diabetes mellitus on changes of renal function and structure in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Female wistar rats were divided into five groups: sedentary control (C + Se); trained control (C + Ex); sedentary diabetic (D + Se); trained diabetic (D + Ex) and previously trained diabetic (D + PEx). The previous exercise consisted of treadmill running for four weeks before the induction of diabetes mellitus. After induction of diabetes mellitus with streptozotocin, the D + PEx, D + Ex and C + Ex groups were submitted to eight weeks of aerobic exercise. At the end of the training protocol, we evaluate the serum glucose, insulin and 17β-estradiol levels, renal function and structure, proteinuria, and fibronectin, collagen IV and transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1) renal expressions. Induction of diabetes mellitus reduced the insulin and did not alter 17β-estradiol levels, and exercise did not affect any of these parameters. Previous exercise training attenuated the loss of body weight, the blood glucose, the increase of glomerular filtration rate and prevented the proteinuria in the D + PEx group compared to D + Se group. Previous exercise also reduced glomerular hypertrophy, tubular and glomerular injury, as well as the expressions of fibronectin and collagen IV. These expressions were associated with reduced expression of TGF-β1. In conclusion, our study shows that regular aerobic exercise especially performed previously to induction of diabetes mellitus improved metabolic control and has renoprotective action on the diabetic kidney. PMID:26490345

  12. Beneficial Effect of Insulin Treatment on Islet Transplantation Outcomes in Akita Mice

    PubMed Central

    Kikawa, Kazuhide; Sakano, Daisuke; Shiraki, Nobuaki; Tsuyama, Tomonori; Kume, Kazuhiko; Endo, Fumio; Kume, Shoen

    2014-01-01

    Islet transplantation is a promising potential therapy for patients with type 1 diabetes. The outcome of islet transplantation depends on the transplantation of a sufficient amount of β-cell mass. However, the initial loss of islets after transplantation is problematic. We hypothesized the hyperglycemic status of the recipient may negatively affect graft survival. Therefore, in the present study, we evaluated the effect of insulin treatment on islet transplantation involving a suboptimal amount of islets in Akita mice, which is a diabetes model mouse with an Insulin 2 gene missense mutation. Fifty islets were transplanted under the left kidney capsule of the recipient mouse with or without insulin treatment. For insulin treatment, sustained-release insulin implants were implanted subcutaneously into recipient mice 2 weeks before transplantation and maintained for 4 weeks. Islet transplantation without insulin treatment did not reverse hyperglycemia. In contrast, the group that received transplants in combination with insulin treatment exhibited improved fasting blood glucose levels until 18 weeks after transplantation, even after insulin treatment was discontinued. The group that underwent islet transplantation in combination with insulin treatment had better glucose tolerance than the group that did not undergo insulin treatment. Insulin treatment improved graft survival from the acute phase (i.e., 1 day after transplantation) to the chronic phase (i.e., 18 weeks after transplantation). Islet apoptosis increased with increasing glucose concentration in the medium or blood in both the in vitro culture and in vivo transplantation experiments. Expression profile analysis of grafts indicated that genes related to immune response, chemotaxis, and inflammatory response were specifically upregulated when islets were transplanted into mice with hyperglycemia compared to those with normoglycemia. Thus, the results demonstrate that insulin treatment protects islets from

  13. The Beneficial Effect of Suramin on Monocrotaline-Induced Pulmonary Hypertension in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Izikki, Mohamed; Mercier, Olaf; Lecerf, Florence; Lubert Guin, Lauriane; Hoang, Eric; Dorfmüller, Peter; Perros, Frédéric; Humbert, Marc; Simonneau, Gerald; Dartevelle, Philippe; Fadel, Elie; Eddahibi, Saadia

    2013-01-01

    Background Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a progressive disorder characterized by an increase in pulmonary artery pressure and structural changes in the pulmonary vasculature. Several observations indicate that growth factors play a key role in PH by modulating pulmonary artery smooth muscle cell (PA-SMC) function. In rats, established monocrotaline-induced PH (MCT-PH) can be reversed by blocking platelet-derived growth factor receptors (PDGF-R), epidermal growth factor receptors (EGF-R), or fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGF-R). All these receptors belong to the receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) family. Methods and Results We evaluated whether RTK blockade by the nonspecific growth factor inhibitor, suramin, reversed advanced MCT-PH in rats via its effects on growth-factor signaling pathways. We found that suramin inhibited RTK and ERK1/2 phosphorylation in cultured human PA-SMCs. Suramin inhibited PA-SMC proliferation induced by serum, PDGF, FGF2, or EGF in vitro and ex vivo. Treatment with suramin from day 1 to day 21 after monocrotaline injection attenuated PH development, as shown by lower values for pulmonary artery pressure, right ventricular hypertrophy, and distal vessel muscularization on day 21 compared to control rats. Treatment with suramin from day 21 to day 42 after monocrotaline injection reversed established PH, thereby normalizing the pulmonary artery pressure values and vessel structure. Suramin treatment suppressed PA-SMC proliferation and attenuated both the inflammatory response and the deposition of collagen. Conclusions RTK blockade by suramin can prevent MCT-PH and reverse established MCT-PH in rats. This study suggests that an anti-RTK strategy that targets multiple RTKs could be useful in the treatment of pulmonary hypertension. PMID:24143201

  14. Beneficial effects of ellagic acid against animal models of scopolamine- and diazepam-induced cognitive impairments.

    PubMed

    Mansouri, Mohammad Taghi; Farbood, Yaghoub; Naghizadeh, Bahareh; Shabani, Sohreh; Mirshekar, Mohammad Ali; Sarkaki, Alireza

    2016-10-01

    Context In a previous study, it has been shown that ellagic acid (EA), a polyphenolic compound found in pomegranate and different berries, prevents cognitive and hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) impairments induced by traumatic brain injury in rats through antioxidant and anti-inflammatory mechanisms. Objective The present study was conducted to assess the potential of EA as a memory enhancer. Materials and methods The elevated plus maze (EPM) and passive avoidance (PA) paradigm were used to evaluate learning and memory parameters. Three doses (10, 30 and 100 mg/kg, i.p.) of EA were administered to animals. Memory impairment was induced by scopolamine treatment (0.4 mg/kg, i.p.) and/or diazepam (1 mg/kg, i.p.). Acquisition trials were carried out 30 min after scopolamine treatment and retention trials were performed for 5 min 24 h after the acquisition trials. Results EA at doses 30 and 100 mg/kg significantly reversed the amnesia induced by scopolamine (0.4 mg/kg, i.p.) in the EPM and PA tests in mice. Also, EA at doses 30 and 100 mg/kg significantly antagonized the amnesia induced by diazepam (1 mg/kg, i.p.) in EPM test in rats. Moreover, chronic administration of EA at dose 30 mg/kg ameliorated the memory deficit induced by diazepam (1 mg/kg, i.p.) in rats. Discussion and conclusion This study demonstrates that ellagic acid is effective in preventing scopolamine- and diazepam-induced cognitive impairments without altering the animals' locomotion. This suggests the potential of EA application as a useful memory restorative agent in the treatment of dementia seen in elderly persons.

  15. Beneficial effects of the nutritional supplements on the development of diabetic retinopathy

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Increased oxidative stress and inflammatory mediators are implicated in the development of diabetic retinopathy, and in rats, its development can be prevented by antioxidants. Carotenoids are some of the powerful antioxidants, and diabetes decreases lutein and zeaxanthin levels in the serum and retina. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of carotenoid containing nutritional supplements (Nutr), which is in clinical trials for ‘Diabetes Vision Function’, on diabetic retinopathy. Methods Streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats (Wistar, male) were fed Purina 5001 supplemented with nutritional supplements containing zeaxanthin, lutein, lipoic acid, omega-3 fatty acids and other nutrients, or without any supplementation. Retinal function was analyzed at ~4 months of diabetes by electroretinography. After 11 months of diabetes, capillary cell apoptosis (TUNEL-staining) and histopathology (degenerative capillaries) were quantified in trypsin-digested retinal vasculature. Retina was also analyzed for mitochondrial damage (by quantifying gene expressions of mtDNA-encoded proteins of the electron transport chain), VEGF and inflammatory mediators, interleukin-1β and NF-kB. Results Diabetes impaired retinal function decreasing the amplitudes of both a- and b-waves. In the same animals, retinal capillary cell apoptosis and degenerative capillaries were increased by 3–4 fold. Gene expressions of mtDNA encoded proteins were decreased, and VEGF, interleukin-1β and NF-kB levels were elevated. Supplementation with the nutrients prevented increased capillary cell apoptosis and vascular pathology, and ameliorated these diabetes-induced retinal abnormalities. Conclusions Nutritional supplementation prevents diabetic retinopathy, and also maintains normal retinal function, mitochondrial homeostasis and inflammatory mediators. Thus, this supplementation could represent an achievable and inexpensive adjunct therapy to also inhibit retinopathy, a slow

  16. Beneficial effects of Plantago albicans on high-fat diet-induced obesity in rats.

    PubMed

    Samout, Noura; Ettaya, Amani; Bouzenna, Hafsia; Ncib, Sana; Elfeki, Abdelfattah; Hfaiedh, Najla

    2016-12-01

    Obesity is a one of the main global public health problems associated with chronic diseases such as coronary heart disease, diabetes and cancer. As a solution to obesity, we suggest Plantago albicans, which is a medicinal plant with several biological effects. This study assesses the possible anti-obesity protective properties of Plantago albicans in high fat diet-fed rats. 28 male Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups; a group which received normal diet (C), the second group was fed HDF diet (HDF), the third group was given normal diet supplemented with Plantago albicans (P.AL), and the fourth group received HDF supplemented with Plantago albicans (HDF+P.AL) (30mg/kg/day) for 7 weeks. Our results showed an increase in body weight of HDF rats by ∼16% as compared to the control group with an increase in the levels of total cholesterol (TC) as well as LDL-cholesterol, triglycerides (TG) in serum. Also, the concentration of TBARS increased in the liver and heart of HDF-fed rats as compared to the control group. The oral gavage of Plantago albicans extract to obese rats induced a reduction in their body weight, lipid accumulation in liver and heart tissue, compared to the high-fat diet control rats. The obtained results proved that the antioxidant potency of Plantago albicans extracts was correlated with their phenolic and flavonoid contents. The antioxidant capacity of the extract was evaluated by DPPH test (as EC50=250±2.12μg/mL) and FRAP tests (as EC50=27.77±0.14μg/mL). These results confirm the phytochemical and antioxidant impact of Plantago albicans extracts. Plantago albicans content was determined using validated HPLC methodology.

  17. Cooling dialysate during in-center hemodialysis: Beneficial and deleterious effects

    PubMed Central

    Toth-Manikowski, Stephanie M; Sozio, Stephen M

    2016-01-01

    The use of cooled dialysate temperatures first came about in the early 1980s as a way to curb the incidence of intradialytic hypotension (IDH). IDH was then, and it remains today, the most common complication affecting chronic hemodialysis patients. It decreases quality of life on dialysis and is an independent risk factor for mortality. Cooling dialysate was first employed as a technique to incite peripheral vasoconstriction on dialysis and in turn reduce the incidence of intradialytic hypotension. Although it has become a common practice amongst in-center hemodialysis units, cooled dialysate results in up to 70% of patients feeling cold while on dialysis and some even experience shivering. Over the years, various studies have been performed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of cooled dialysate in comparison to a standard, more thermoneutral dialysate temperature of 37 °C. Although these studies are limited by small sample size, they are promising in many aspects. They demonstrated that cooled dialysis is safe and equally efficacious as thermoneutral dialysis. Although patients report feeling cold on dialysis, they also report increased energy and an improvement in their overall health following cooled dialysis. They established that cooling dialysate temperatures improves hemodynamic tolerability during and after hemodialysis, even in patients prone to IDH, and does so without adversely affecting dialysis adequacy. Cooled dialysis also reduces the incidence of IDH and has a protective effect over major organs including the heart and brain. Finally, it is an inexpensive measure that decreases economic burden by reducing necessary nursing intervention for issues that arise on hemodialysis such as IDH. Before cooled dialysate becomes standard of care for patients on chronic hemodialysis, larger studies with longer follow-up periods will need to take place to confirm the encouraging outcomes mentioned here. PMID:26981441

  18. The Beneficial Effects of Renal Transplantation on Altered Oxidative Status of ESRD Patients

    PubMed Central

    Cerrillos-Gutiérrez, José Ignacio; Preciado-Rojas, Priscila; Gómez-Navarro, Benjamín; Sifuentes-Franco, Sonia; Carrillo-Ibarra, Sandra; Andrade-Sierra, Jorge; Rojas-Campos, Enrique; Cueto-Manzano, Alfonso Martín

    2016-01-01

    Renal transplantation (RT), has been considered the best therapeutic option for end stage renal disease (ESRD). Objective. To determine the effect of RT on the evolution of oxidative DNA status. Methods. Prospective cohort (N = 50 receptors of RT); genotoxic damage, 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), and DNA repair enzyme, human 8-oxoguanine-DNA-N- glycosylase-1 (hOGG1); and antioxidants, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), were evaluated. Results. Before RT, 8-OHdG were significantly elevated (11.04 ± 0.90 versus 4.73 ± 0.34 ng/mL) compared to healthy controls (p = 0.001), with normalization after 6 months of 4.78 ± 0.34 ng/mL (p < 0.001). The same phenomenon was observed with hOGG1 enzyme before RT with 2.14 ± 0.36 ng/mL (p = 0.01) and decreased significantly at the end of the study to 1.20 ng/mL (p < 0.001) but was higher than controls, 0.51 ± 0.07 ng/mL (p < 0.03). Antioxidant SOD was elevated at 24.09 ± 1.6 IU/mL versus healthy controls (p = 0.001) before RT; however, 6 months after RT it decreased significantly to 16.9 ± 1.6 IU/mL (p = 0.002), without achieving the levels of healthy controls (p = 0.01). The GPx, before RT, was significantly diminished with 24.09 ± 1.6 IU/mL versus healthy controls (39.0 ± 1.58) (p = 0.01), while, in the final results, levels increased significantly to 30.38 ± 3.16 IU/mL (p = 0.001). Discussion. Patients with ESRD have important oxidative damage before RT. The RT significantly reduces oxidative damage and partially regulates the antioxidant enzymes (SOD and GPx). PMID:27547292

  19. Beneficial Effects on Pregnancy Outcomes of Thyroid Hormone Replacement for Subclinical Hypothyroidism

    PubMed Central

    Eastman, Creswell J.

    2017-01-01

    Background. Hypothyroidism and raised thyroid antibody levels have been associated with adverse obstetrical outcomes. Several studies have investigated causal associations, but results have been inconsistent and few studies have reported the effects of thyroxine replacement therapy on pregnancy outcomes in hypothyroid patients. Objective. The primary study objective was to determine the outcome of pregnancies in women diagnosed with overt and subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) (serum TSH > 2.5 mIU/L) and those with elevated circulating thyroid autoantibody levels in the first trimester of pregnancy and after the institution of appropriate thyroxine replacement therapy to maintain the serum TSH ≤ 2.5 mIU/L. Study Design. This prospective observational study was undertaken between 2013 and 2016. Blood samples were taken from 1025 women at presentation for thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), anti-thyroglobulin antibodies (TGAb), and thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPOAb). Those with a TSH > 2.5 mIU/L were treated with thyroxine and managed appropriately to ensure that the TSH was maintained ≤2.5 mIU/L. Outcomes in these patients were compared to those in euthyroid patients. Maternal antenatal complications and perinatal outcomes were recorded. Results. There were a total of 1025 patients of whom 382 (37.5%) were nulliparous. 10.1% had a TSH level > 2.5 mIU/L and 18.2% had at least one raised thyroid antibody level. No differences in adverse outcomes of pregnancy were evident in women treated for SCH or overt hypothyroidism compared to the euthyroid group. There was also no association between raised thyroid antibodies and adverse pregnancy outcomes in either group. Conclusion. There were no adverse outcomes of pregnancy found in pregnant women who had been diagnosed and treated with thyroxine for SCH at the time of presentation when compared to euthyroid patients. There was also no relationship with thyroid antibodies and adverse pregnancy outcomes in the

  20. Autologous platelet gel fails to show beneficial effects on wound healing after saphenectomy in CABG patients.

    PubMed

    Buchwald, Dirk; Kaltschmidt, Christian; Haardt, Helmut; Laczkovics, Axel; Reber, Delawer

    2008-09-01

    Wound healing impairment in the leg after removal of the saphenous vein within the framework of a coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) operation represents a clinically significant problem. Patients suffer from this complication, and treatment of the wounds is costly in terms of both time and money. No method is known to date that reliably prevents postoperative wound healing disturbances. The effect of autologous platelet gel to stimulate wound healing is known from various medical disciplines. Within a prospective randomized study, we wanted to determine whether intraoperative use of autologous platelet gel on the leg during a CABG operation could reduce the incidence of postoperative wound healing disturbances. The application group (AG) included 35 patients and was compared to a control group (CG) that also had 35 patients. The platelet gel, as well as the thrombin required to activate the platelets, was prepared from autologous patient blood during the operation. Validation of the platelet gel comprised measurement of the growth factors platelet-derived growth factor AB (PDGF AB) and epidermal growth factor (EGF), as well as the thrombocyte and leukocyte counts. Wound healing was photographically documented after surgery, and the patients were contacted by telephone on day 50 after surgery to obtain information on wound healing status. After cell separation, the platelet count was 1616 +/- 845/microL, which is higher than in whole blood by a factor of 7.1 +/- 2.0, with a platelet yield of 47.0% +/- 13.2%. The PDGF AB concentration after activation of the platelets was raised by a median factor of 158 and EGF by a median factor of 64 compared with whole blood. During the primary clinical stay, no statistically significant differences were recorded in the number of hematomas, postoperative leg swelling, or pain level. Large-area hematomas were less frequent in the application group (AG, 29.4% vs. CG, 60%, p = .007). In the follow-up 51 +/- 9 days after surgery

  1. Beneficial Effects on Pregnancy Outcomes of Thyroid Hormone Replacement for Subclinical Hypothyroidism.

    PubMed

    Blumenthal, Norman J; Eastman, Creswell J

    2017-01-01

    Background. Hypothyroidism and raised thyroid antibody levels have been associated with adverse obstetrical outcomes. Several studies have investigated causal associations, but results have been inconsistent and few studies have reported the effects of thyroxine replacement therapy on pregnancy outcomes in hypothyroid patients. Objective. The primary study objective was to determine the outcome of pregnancies in women diagnosed with overt and subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) (serum TSH > 2.5 mIU/L) and those with elevated circulating thyroid autoantibody levels in the first trimester of pregnancy and after the institution of appropriate thyroxine replacement therapy to maintain the serum TSH ≤ 2.5 mIU/L. Study Design. This prospective observational study was undertaken between 2013 and 2016. Blood samples were taken from 1025 women at presentation for thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), anti-thyroglobulin antibodies (TGAb), and thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPOAb). Those with a TSH > 2.5 mIU/L were treated with thyroxine and managed appropriately to ensure that the TSH was maintained ≤2.5 mIU/L. Outcomes in these patients were compared to those in euthyroid patients. Maternal antenatal complications and perinatal outcomes were recorded. Results. There were a total of 1025 patients of whom 382 (37.5%) were nulliparous. 10.1% had a TSH level > 2.5 mIU/L and 18.2% had at least one raised thyroid antibody level. No differences in adverse outcomes of pregnancy were evident in women treated for SCH or overt hypothyroidism compared to the euthyroid group. There was also no association between raised thyroid antibodies and adverse pregnancy outcomes in either group. Conclusion. There were no adverse outcomes of pregnancy found in pregnant women who had been diagnosed and treated with thyroxine for SCH at the time of presentation when compared to euthyroid patients. There was also no relationship with thyroid antibodies and adverse pregnancy outcomes in the

  2. Beneficial effects of modern perfusion concepts in aortic valve and aortic root surgery.

    PubMed

    Kutschka, I; Skorpil, J; El Essawi, A; Hajek, T; Harringer, W

    2009-01-01

    Minimized perfusion circuits (MPC) were found to reduce side effects of standard extracorporeal circulation (ECC). We evaluated the safety and efficacy of the ROCsafe MPC for aortic valve and aortic root surgery. One hundred and seventy patients were randomized for surgery using either MPC [n = 85, 30 female/55 male, mean age: 69.8 +/- 11.8 years; aortic valve replacement (AVR): n = 40; AVR + coronary artery bypass graft (CABG): n = 31; David operation: n = 3; aortic root replacement (ARR): n = 11] or ECC [n = 85, 29 female/56 male, mean age: 67.7 +/- 9.5 years; AVR: n = 39; AVR+CABG: n = 35, David operation: n = 2; ARR: n = 9]. Neurological status, length of ICU stay, C-reactive protein (CRP), blood count, transfusion requirements and bleeding volume were analyzed. The MPC system provided ultrasound-controlled de-airing. A small roller pump and a flexible reservoir were used for left ventricular venting. As a control, we used a standard ECC with cardiotomy suction and hard-shell reservoir. Cross-clamp time (MPC: 76.5 +/- 29.5; ECC: 79.0 +/- 34.0 min) and bypass time (MPC: 103.0 +/- 37.9; ECC: 106.9 +/- 44.9 min) were comparable between groups. Transfusion requirements (red blood cells: MPC: 1.5 +/- 1.5 vs. ECC: 2.2 +/- 2.1 units [p = 0.05], frozen plasma: MPC: 1.2 +/- 1.8 vs. ECC: 1.9 +/- 2.4 units [p = 0.03]), postoperative bleeding (MPC: 521 +/- 283 vs. ECC: 615 +/- 326 ml/24 h, p = 0.09) were lower using MPC. ICU stay was shorter with MPC (1.6 +/- 1.6 days) compared to ECC (2.4 +/- 2.8 days, p = 0.001). One stroke occurred in each group. The ROCsafe MPC provides safe circulatory support for a wide range of aortic valve surgeries. Transfusion requirements, postoperative bleeding and length of ICU stay were markedly reduced compared to standard extracorporeal perfusion.

  3. Randomised clinical trial: the beneficial effects of VSL#3 in obese children with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Alisi, A.; Bedogni, G.; Baviera, G.; Giorgio, V.; Porro, E.; Paris, C.; Giammaria, P.; Reali, L.; Anania, F.; Nobili, V.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Background Gut microbiota modifiers may have beneficial effects of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) but randomised controlled trials (RCT) are lacking in children. Aim We performed a double-blind RCT of VSL#3 vs. placebo in obese children with biopsy-proven NAFLD. Methods Of 48 randomised children, 44 (22 VSL#3 and 22 placebo) completed the study. The main outcome was the change in fatty liver severity at 4 months as detected by ultrasonography. Secondary outcomes were the changes in triglycerides, insulin resistance as detected by the homoeostasis model assessment (HOMA), alanine transaminase (ALT), body mass index (BMI), glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) and activated GLP-1 (aGLP-1). Ordinal and linear models with cluster confidence intervals were used to evaluate the efficacy of VSL#3 vs. placebo at 4 months. Results At baseline, moderate and severe NAFLD were present in 64% and 36% of PLA children and in 55% and 45% of VSL#3 children. The probability that children supplemented with VSL#3 had none, light, moderate or severe FL at the end of the study was 21%, 70%, 9% and 0% respectively with corresponding values of 0%, 7%, 76% and 17% for the placebo group (P < 0.001). No between-group differences were detected in triglycerides, HOMA and ALT while BMI decreased and GLP-1 and aGLP1 increased in the VSL#3 group (P < 0.001 for all comparisons). Conclusions A 4-month supplement of VSL#3 significantly improves NAFLD in children. The VSL#3-dependent GLP-1 increase could be responsible for these beneficial effects. Trial identifier: NCT01650025 (www.clinicaltrial.gov) PMID:24738701

  4. Non-digestible oligosaccharides used as prebiotic agents: mode of production and beneficial effects on animal and human health.

    PubMed

    Grizard, D; Barthomeuf, C

    1999-01-01

    Prebiotic agents are food ingredients that are potentially beneficial to the health of consumers. The main commercial prebiotic agents consist of oligosaccharides and dietary fibres (mainly inulin). They are essentially obtained by one of three processes: 1) the direct extraction of natural polysaccharides from plants; 2) the controlled hydrolysis of such natural polysaccharides; 3) enzymatic synthesis, using hydrolases and/or glycosyl transferases. Both of these enzyme types catalyse transglycosylation reactions, allowing synthesis of small molecular weight synthetic oligosaccharides from mono- and disaccharides. Presently, in Europe, inulin-type fructans, characterised by the presence of fructosyl units bound to the beta-2,1 position of sucrose, are considered as one of the carbohydrate prebiotic references. Prebiotics escape enzymatic digestion in the upper gastrointestinal tract and enter the caecum without change to their structure. None are excreted in the stools, indicating that they are fermented by colonic flora so as to give a mixture of short-chain fatty acids (acetate, propionate and butyrate), L-lactate, carbon dioxide and hydrogen. By stimulating bifidobacteria, they may have the following implications for health: 1) potential protective effects against colorectal cancer and infectious bowel diseases by inhibiting putrefactive bacteria (Clostridium perfringens ) and pathogen bacteria (Escherichia coli, Salmonella, Listeria and Shigella ), respectively; 2) improvement of glucid and lipid metabolisms; 3) fibre-like properties by decreasing the renal nitrogen excretion; 4) improvement in the bioavailability of essential minerals; and 5) low cariogenic factor. These potential beneficial effects have been largely studied in animals but have not really been proven in humans. The development of a second generation of oligosaccharides and the putative implication of a complex bacterial trophic chain in the intestinal prebiotic fermentation process are also

  5. Complex Blunt Aortic Injury or Repair: Beneficial Effects of Cardiopulmonary Bypass Use

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Preston R.; Kortesis, Bill G.; McLaughlin, Charles A.; Chen, Michael Y. M.; Chang, Michael C.; Kon, Neal D.; Meredith, J. Wayne

    2003-01-01

    Objective To compare the outcomes and associated morbidity in patients with blunt aortic injury (BAI) repaired using cardiopulmonary bypass versus no bypass. Special consideration is given to the influence of bypass in the outcome of complex injuries or repair circumstances. Summary Background Data There are conflicting data concerning the utility of bypass techniques in the operative management of BAI, and controversy over the subject persists. During the last decade, surgeons at the authors’ institution have undergone a change in philosophy concerning management of these injuries and began almost exclusively using cardiopulmonary bypass for the repair in 1996. This project explores the effects of this change in the management of BAI. Methods The records of all patients with BAI admitted to a level 1 trauma center over a period of 12 years were reviewed for demographics, injury characteristics, operative technique, and outcome. The bypass group was compared to the no bypass group with respect to morbidity and mortality. Those with a complex injury or repair (CI/R) were examined as a subgroup. CI/R was defined as the presence of an injury with extension proximal to the subclavian artery, involvement of branch vessels, or requirement of maneuvers interfering with anastomosis construction, such as cardiac massage. Results From January 1, 1990, to December 31, 2001, 91 patients were admitted to Wake Forest University Baptist Medical Center with BAI. Sixty-five of these underwent operative repair. Sixty (32 no bypass, 28 bypass) survived to the immediate postoperative period. Injury Severity Score was similar (33 no bypass, 31 bypass, P = .48), as was admission base deficit (−9.2 m Eq/L no bypass vs. −7.0 mEq/L B, P = .13). Paraplegia occurred in four (12%) of the no bypass group as opposed to 0 of the bypass group (P = .05). No patient in the bypass group experienced complications related to heparinization, and two (7%) experienced bypass-related complications

  6. The Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor captopril inhibits poly(adp-ribose) polymerase activation and exerts beneficial effects in an ovine model of burn and smoke injury.

    PubMed

    Asmussen, Sven; Bartha, Eva; Olah, Gabor; Sbrana, Elena; Rehberg, Sebastian W; Yamamoto, Yusuke; Enkhbaatar, Perenlei; Hawkins, Hal K; Ito, Hiroshi; Cox, Robert A; Traber, Lillian D; Traber, Daniel L; Szabo, Csaba

    2011-10-01

    We investigated the effect of the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor captopril in a clinically relevant ovine model of smoke and burn injury, with special reference to oxidative stress and activation of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase, in the lung and in circulating leukocytes. Female, adult sheep (28-40 kg) were divided into three groups. After tracheostomy and under deep anesthesia, both vehicle-control-treated (n = 5) and captopril-treated (20 mg/kg per day, i.v., starting 0.5 h before the injury) (n = 5) groups were subjected to 2 × 20%, third-degree burn injury and were insufflated with 48 breaths of cotton smoke. A sham group not receiving burn/smoke was also studied (n = 5). Animals were mechanically ventilated and fluid resuscitated for 24 h in the awake state. Burn and smoke injury resulted in an upregulation of ACE in the lung, evidenced by immunohistochemical determination and Western blotting. Burn and smoke injury resulted in pulmonary dysfunction, as well as systemic hemodynamic alterations. Captopril treatment of burn and smoke animals improved PaO2/FiO2 ratio and pulmonary shunt fraction and reduced the degree of lung edema. There was a marked increase in PAR levels in circulating leukocytes after burn/smoke injury, which was significantly decreased by captopril. The pulmonary level of ACE and the elevated pulmonary levels of transforming growth factor β in response to burn and smoke injury were significantly decreased by captopril treatment. Our results suggest that the ACE inhibitor captopril exerts beneficial effects on the pulmonary function in burn/smoke injury. The effects of the ACE inhibitor may be related to the prevention of reactive oxygen species-induced poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase overactivation. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition may also exert additional beneficial effects by inhibiting the expression of the profibrotic mediator transforming growth factor β.

  7. Beneficial synergistic effects of concurrent treatment with theanine and caffeine against cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Sun, Lingyan; Tian, Xia; Gou, Lingshan; Ling, Xin; Wang, Ling; Feng, Yan; Yin, Xiaoxing; Liu, Yi

    2013-07-01

    Theanine and caffeine, 2 naturally occurring components in tea, have repeatedly been shown to deliver unique cognitive benefits when consumed in combination. In this study, we assessed the beneficial synergistic effects of concurrent treatment with theanine and caffeine against cerebral damage in rats. Theanine and caffeine had no effect on physiological variables, including pH, partial pressures of oxygen (PaO2) and carbon dioxide (PaCO2), mean arterial blood pressure, plasma glucose, or regional cerebral blood flow. Treatment with theanine (1 mg/kg body mass, intraperitoneal injection) alone significantly reduced cerebral infarction induced by cerebral ischemia-reperfusion, but caffeine (10 mg/kg, intravenous administration) alone only had a marginal effect. However, the combination of theanine plus caffeine resulted in a significant reduction of cerebral infarction and brain edema compared with theanine monotherapy. Meanwhile, increased malondialdehyde levels as well as decreased superoxide dismutase activity, glutathione peroxidase activity, and glutathione levels observed in the cerebral cortex after cerebral ischemia-reperfusion were significantly ameliorated by the combination therapy. Furthermore, the elevated inflammatory response levels observed in the cortex after cerebral ischemia-reperfusion were markedly attenuated by the combined treatment. Thus, it is suggested that the neuroprotective potential of a combination therapy with theanine and caffeine against cerebral ischemia-reperfusion is partly ascribed to their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties.

  8. Lethal and sublethal effects of seven insecticides on three beneficial insects in laboratory assays and field trials.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Maria E S; Alves, Flávia M; Pereira, Renata C; Aquino, Leonardo A; Fernandes, Flávio L; Zanuncio, José C

    2016-08-01

    Lethal and sublethal effects of insecticides on target and non-target arthropods are a concern of pest management programs. Cycloneda sanguinea, Orius insidiosus and Chauliognathus flavipes are important biological control agents for aphids, whitefly, lepidopterus eggs, thrips and mites. All three test species were subjected to a toxicity study using the insecticides acephate, bifenthrin, chlorantraniliprole, chlorpyrifos, deltamethrin, imidacloprid, and thiamethoxam. Experiments were done in the lab and field. In the laboratory we evaluated the mortality and sublethal effects of the concentration that killed 20% of the population (LC20) on feeding, repellence and reproduction of the species tested. The lethal effects of these insecticides at the recommended doses was evaluated in the field. Concentration-response bioassays indicated chlorantraniliprole had the lowest toxicity, while chlorpyrifos and acephate were the most toxic. Test species exposed to filter paper surfaces treated with pyrethroids, neonicotinoids and organophosphates were repelled. On the other hand, test species were not repelled from surfaces treated with chlorantraniliprole. Chlorantraniliprole therefore seemed to be the least dangerous insecticide for these three beneficial arthropod test species.

  9. Evaluation of Beneficial Metabolic Effects of Berries in High-Fat Fed C57BL/6J Mice

    PubMed Central

    Blanco, Narda; Sterner, Olov; Holm, Cecilia

    2014-01-01

    Objective. The aim of the study was to screen eight species of berries for their ability to prevent obesity and metabolic abnormalities associated with type 2 diabetes. Methods. C57BL/6J mice were assigned the following diets for 13 weeks: low-fat diet, high-fat diet or high-fat diet supplemented (20%) with lingonberry, blackcurrant, bilberry, raspberry, açai, crowberry, prune or blackberry. Results. The groups receiving a high-fat diet supplemented with lingonberries, blackcurrants, raspberries or bilberries gained less weight and had lower fasting insulin levels than the control group receiving high-fat diet without berries. Lingonberries, and also blackcurrants and bilberries, significantly decreased body fat content, hepatic lipid accumulation, and plasma levels of the inflammatory marker PAI-1, as well as mediated positive effects on glucose homeostasis. The group receiving açai displayed increased weight gain and developed large, steatotic livers. Quercetin glycosides were detected in the lingonberry and the blackcurrant diets. Conclusion. Lingonberries were shown to fully or partially prevent the detrimental metabolic effects induced by high-fat diet. Blackcurrants and bilberries had similar properties, but to a lower degree. We propose that the beneficial metabolic effects of lingonberries could be useful in preventing obesity and related disorders. PMID:24669315

  10. Beneficial effect of aqueous root extract of Glycyrrhiza glabra on learning and memory using different behavioral models: An experimental study

    PubMed Central

    Chakravarthi, Kosuri Kalyan; Avadhani, Ramakrishna

    2013-01-01

    Background: In the traditional system of medicine, the roots and rhizomes of Glycyrrhiza glabra (Gg) (family: Leguminosae) have been studied for their ability to improve a variety of health ailments. Aims: The present study was designed to investigate the beneficial effects of Gg root extract on learning and memory in 1-month-old male Wistar albino rats. Four doses (75, 150, 225, and 300 mg/kg) of aqueous extract of root of Gg was administered orally for six successive weeks. Materials and Methods: The aqueous extracts were evaluated for their effect on spatial learning and memory in rats using the elevated plus maze, Hebb–William maze, and Morris water maze tests which served as the exteroceptive behavioral model. Diazepam-induced amnesia served as the interoceptive behavioral model. Results: Results showed that all the doses of aqueous root extract of Gg significantly enhanced the memory; however, in the doses of 150 and 225 mg/kg, it showed a significant (P < 0.01) enhancement in learning and memory. Furthermore, Diazepam-induced amnesia was reversed by the aqueous root extract of Gg (150 and 225 mg/kg, p.o.). Conclusion: These findings suggest that the memory enhancement effects of Gg may be mediated by its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. Thus, Gg appears to be a promising drug for improving memory in the management of impaired learning, dementia, Alzheimer's disease, and other neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:24082744

  11. The beneficial effects of exercise on cartilage are lost in mice with reduced levels of ECSOD in tissues.

    PubMed

    Pate, Kathryn M; Sherk, Vanessa D; Carpenter, R Dana; Weaver, Michael; Crapo, Silvia; Gally, Fabienne; Chatham, Lillian S; Goldstrohm, David A; Crapo, James D; Kohrt, Wendy M; Bowler, Russell P; Oberley-Deegan, Rebecca E; Regan, Elizabeth A

    2015-03-15

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is associated with increased mechanical damage to joint cartilage. We have previously found that extracellular superoxide dismutase (ECSOD) is decreased in OA joint fluid and cartilage, suggesting oxidant damage may play a role in OA. We explored the effect of forced running as a surrogate for mechanical damage in a transgenic mouse with reduced ECSOD tissue binding. Transgenic mice heterozygous (Het) for the human ECSOD R213G polymorphism and 129-SvEv (wild-type, WT) mice were exposed to forced running on a treadmill for 45 min/day, 5 days/wk, over 8 wk. At the end of the running protocol, knee joint tissue was obtained for histology, immunohistochemistry, and protein analysis. Sedentary Het and WT mice were maintained for comparison. Whole tibias were studied for bone morphometry, finite element analysis, and mechanical testing. Forced running improved joint histology in WT mice. However, when ECSOD levels were reduced, this beneficial effect with running was lost. Het ECSOD runner mice had significantly worse histology scores compared with WT runner mice. Runner mice for both strains had increased bone strength in response to the running protocol, while Het mice showed evidence of a less robust bone structure in both runners and untrained mice. Reduced levels of ECSOD in cartilage produced joint damage when joints were stressed by forced running. The bone tissues responded to increased loading with hypertrophy, regardless of mouse strain. We conclude that ECSOD plays an important role in protecting cartilage from damage caused by mechanical loading.

  12. Beneficial Effects of Teucrium polium and Metformin on Diabetes-Induced Memory Impairments and Brain Tissue Oxidative Damage in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Mousavi, S. Mojtaba; Niazmand, Saeed; Hosseini, Mahmoud; Hassanzadeh, Zarha; Sadeghnia, Hamid Reza; Vafaee, Farzaneh; Keshavarzi, Zakieh

    2015-01-01

    Objective. The effects of hydroalcoholic extract of Teucrium polium and metformin on diabetes-induced memory impairment and brain tissues oxidative damage were investigated. Methods. The rats were divided into: (1) Control, (2) Diabetic, (3) Diabetic-Extract 100 (Dia-Ext 100), (4) Diabetic-Extract 200 (Dia-Ext 200), (5) Diabetic-Extract 400 (Dia-Ext 400), and (6) Diabetic-Metformin (Dia-Met). Groups 3–6 were treated by 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg of the extract or metformin, respectively, for 6 weeks (orally). Results. In passive avoidance test, the latency to enter the dark compartment in Diabetic group was lower than that of Control group (P < 0.01). In Dia-Ext 100, Dia-Ext 200, and Dia-Ext 400 and Metformin groups, the latencies were higher than those of Diabetic group (P < 0.01). Lipid peroxides levels (reported as malondialdehyde, MDA, concentration) in the brain of Diabetic group were higher than Control (P < 0.001). Treatment by all doses of the extract and metformin decreased the MDA concentration (P < 0.01). Conclusions. The results of present study showed that metformin and the hydroalcoholic extract of Teucrium polium prevent diabetes-induced memory deficits in rats. Protection against brain tissues oxidative damage might have a role in the beneficial effects of the extract and metformin. PMID:25810947

  13. PEPFAR's support for orphans and vulnerable children: some beneficial effects, but too little data, and programs spread thin.

    PubMed

    Bryant, Malcolm; Beard, Jennifer; Sabin, Lora; Brooks, Mohamad I; Scott, Nancy; Larson, Bruce A; Biemba, Godfrey; Miller, Candace; Simon, Jonathon

    2012-07-01

    Sixteen million children in developing and middle-income countries have been orphaned by HIV/AIDS, and at least another million children per year are rendered vulnerable by parental HIV/AIDS-related illness. Since 2003 the US government has provided approximately $1.6 billion to give four million of these children care and support through the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR). We conducted five studies to evaluate the effectiveness of PEPFAR's interventions for such children in East Africa and southern Africa. We found evidence of beneficial changes in school enrollment rates and on the psychosocial well-being of children. However, we could not demonstrate empirically the impact of most of the PEPFAR initiatives that we examined, primarily because of a lack of baseline data and clear outcome and impact indicators. We also found that many programs were spread so thin across a vulnerable population that little in the way of services actually reached beneficiaries, which raises questions about whether PEPFAR funds are sufficient, or if the program is attempting to do much with too few resources. We offer several recommendations, including better measuring the effect of programs for orphans and vulnerable children by collecting baseline data and conducting well-designed, rigorous outcome and impact evaluations.

  14. Beneficial effects of hydrocortisone or spironolactone coating on foreign body response to mesh biomaterial in a mouse model.

    PubMed

    Brandt, Christopher J; Kammer, Daniel; Fiebeler, Anette; Klinge, Uwe

    2011-12-01

    Prosthetic reinforcements markedly reduce the risk of hernia recurrence. However, the implantation of meshes is related to an inflammatory foreign body reaction (FBR) with serious complications (i.e., persistent seroma, wound infection, mesh migration, entrapment, chronic pain). Adrenal hormones profoundly modify inflammatory response. Their effects on FBR however, remain ill defined. We therefore studied the FBR to polyvinylidenfluoride (PVDF) mesh material that was coated with four different substances: hydrocortisone (COR) or mifepristone (MIF), which respectively stimulate and block the glucocorticoid receptor, and aldosterone (ALD) or spironolactone (SPI), which respectively stimulate and block the mineralocorticoid receptor. The coated substances were released from the meshes within 24 h. Seven, 21, and 90 days after implantation, the specimen was evaluated for collagen formation, granuloma size, inflammatory activity, and angiogenesis. COR and SPI coating protected from inflammatory response, while ALD and MIF coating showed little difference to the control group. The COR and SPI groups showed smaller granuloma sizes at all time points, as well as a reduced number of inflammatory cells (p < 0.001) at day 90, and decreased collagen formation starting after 21 days (p < 0.05). There was a negative correlation for angiogenesis with inflammation around foreign body structures. In summary, these results suggest that early and temporary stimulation of the glucocorticoid receptor or blockade of the mineralocorticoid receptor have beneficial effects on FBR in the long term.

  15. Soft tissue and intra-articular injection of bupivacaine, epinephrine, and morphine has a beneficial effect after total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Lombardi, Adolph V; Berend, Keith R; Mallory, Thomas H; Dodds, Kathleen L; Adams, Joanne B

    2004-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if an intraoperative intraarticular and soft-tissue injection of local anaesthetic, epinephrine, and morphine has a beneficial effect for total knee arthroplasty. A control group of 138 patients (181 knees) received no intraoperative injection. The study group of 171 patients (197 knees) received intraoperative injection of 0.25% bupivacaine with epinephrine and morphine with 2/3 injected into the soft tissues and 1/3 injected into the joint. Patients having bilateral simultaneous procedures received a divided dose. The pain treatment protocol otherwise was identical. Pain, sedation, rescue narcotic usage, narcotic reversal and blood loss were examined. Pain levels during the immediate postoperative period, blood loss, and bleeding indices were reduced with injection. Considerably more control patients required rescue doses of narcotics. Preemptive analgesia with soft tissue and intra-articular injection of long-acting local anesthetic with epinephrine and morphine provides better pain control in the immediate postoperative period, decreases blood loss, and decreases the need for rescue narcotics and reversal agents. This simple, inexpensive method provides an effective adjunct to a multimodal approach in improving the postoperative course of primary total knee arthroplasty.

  16. Beneficial Effects of Concomitant Neuronal and Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase Inhibition in Ovine Burn and Inhalation Injury

    PubMed Central

    Lange, Matthias; Hamahata, Atsumori; Enkhbaatar, Perenlei; Cox, Robert A.; Nakano, Yoshimitsu; Westphal, Martin; Traber, Lillian D.; Herndon, David N.; Traber, Daniel L.

    2013-01-01

    Different isoforms of nitric oxide synthase are critically involved in the development of pulmonary failure secondary to acute lung injury. Here we tested the hypothesis that simultaneous blockade of inducible and neuronal nitric oxide synthase effectively prevents the pulmonary lesions in an ovine model of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) induced by combined burn and smoke inhalation injury. Chronically instrumented sheep were allocated to a sham-injured group (n = 6), an injured and untreated group (n = 6), or an injured group treated with simultaneous infusion of selective inducible and neuronal nitric oxide synthase inhibitors (n = 5). The injury was induced by 48 breath of cotton smoke and a 3rd degree burn of 40% total body surface area. All sheep were mechanically ventilated and fluid resuscitated. The injury induced severe pulmonary dysfunction as indicated by decreases in PaO2/FiO2 ratio and increases in pulmonary shunt fraction, ventilatory pressures, lung lymph flow, and lung wet/dry weight ratio. The treatment fully prevented the elevations in lymph and plasma nitrate/nitrite levels, pulmonary shunting, ventilatory pressures, lung lymph flow, and wet/dry weight ratio and significantly attenuated the decline in PaO2/FiO2 ratio. In conclusion, simultaneous blockade of inducible and neuronal nitric oxide synthase exerts beneficial pulmonary effects in an ovine model of ARDS secondary to combined burn and smoke inhalation injury. This novel treatment strategy may represent a useful therapeutic adjunct for patients with these injuries. PMID:21263377

  17. Genome survey and characterization of endophytic bacteria exhibiting a beneficial effect on growth and development of poplar trees.

    PubMed

    Taghavi, Safiyh; Garafola, Craig; Monchy, Sébastien; Newman, Lee; Hoffman, Adam; Weyens, Nele; Barac, Tanja; Vangronsveld, Jaco; van der Lelie, Daniel

    2009-02-01

    The association of endophytic bacteria with their plant hosts has a beneficial effect for many different plant species. Our goal is to identify endophytic bacteria that improve the biomass production and the carbon sequestration potential of poplar trees (Populus spp.) when grown in marginal soil and to gain an insight in the mechanisms underlying plant growth promotion. Members of the Gammaproteobacteria dominated a collection of 78 bacterial endophytes isolated from poplar and willow trees. As representatives for the dominant genera of endophytic gammaproteobacteria, we selected Enterobacter sp. strain 638, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia R551-3, Pseudomonas putida W619, and Serratia proteamaculans 568 for genome sequencing and analysis of their plant growth-promoting effects, including root development. Derivatives of these endophytes, labeled with gfp, were also used to study the colonization of their poplar hosts. In greenhouse studies, poplar cuttings (Populus deltoides x Populus nigra DN-34) inoculated with Enterobacter sp. strain 638 repeatedly showed the highest increase in biomass production compared to cuttings of noninoculated control plants. Sequence data combined with the analysis of their metabolic properties resulted in the identification of many putative mechanisms, including carbon source utilization, that help these endophytes to thrive within a plant environment and to potentially affect the growth and development of their plant hosts. Understanding the interactions between endophytic bacteria and their host plants should ultimately result in the design of strategies for improved poplar biomass production on marginal soils as a feedstock for biofuels.

  18. Triterpenoid herbal saponins enhance beneficial bacteria, decrease sulfate-reducing bacteria, modulate inflammatory intestinal microenvironment and exert cancer preventive effects in ApcMin/+ mice

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Lei; Brar, Manreetpal S.; Leung, Frederick C. C.; Hsiao, W. L. Wendy

    2016-01-01

    Saponins derived from medicinal plants have raised considerable interest for their preventive roles in various diseases. Here, we investigated the impacts of triterpenoid saponins isolated from Gynostemma pentaphyllum (GpS) on gut microbiome, mucosal environment, and the preventive effect on tumor growth. Six-week old ApcMin/+ mice and their wild-type littermates were fed either with vehicle or GpS daily for the duration of 8 weeks. The fecal microbiome was analyzed by enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC)-PCR and 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing. Study showed that GpS treatment significantly reduced the number of intestinal polyps in a preventive mode. More importantly, GpS feeding strikingly reduced the sulfate-reducing bacteria lineage, which are known to produce hydrogen sulfide and contribute to damage the intestinal epithelium or even promote cancer progression. Meanwhile, GpS also boosted the beneficial microbes. In the gut barrier of the ApcMin/+ mice, GpS treatment increased Paneth and goblet cells, up-regulated E-cadherin and down-regulated N-cadherin. In addition, GpS decreased the pro-oncogenic β-catenin, p-Src and the p-STAT3. Furthermore, GpS might also improve the inflamed gut epithelium of the ApcMin/+ mice by upregulating the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-4, while downregulating pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-β, IL-1β and IL-18. Intriguingly, GpS markedly stimulated M2 and suppressed M1 macrophage markers, indicating that GpS altered mucosal cytokine profile in favor of the M1 to M2 macrophages switching, facilitating intestinal tissue repair. In conclusion, GpS might reverse the host's inflammatory phenotype by increasing beneficial bacteria, decreasing sulfate-reducing bacteria, and alleviating intestinal inflammatory gut environment, which might contribute to its cancer preventive effects. PMID:27121311

  19. Beneficial effect of pollen and/or propolis on the metabolism of iron, calcium, phosphorus, and magnesium in rats with nutritional ferropenic anemia.

    PubMed

    Haro, A; López-Aliaga, I; Lisbona, F; Barrionuevo, M; Alférez, M J; Campos, M S

    2000-11-01

    There has been considerable debate regarding the nutritional benefits of pollen and the propolis produced by bees, although most contributions have lacked scientific soundness. This paper describes the possible beneficial effect of their use in pharmacological products in cases of anemic syndrome. We studied the effect of these two natural products on the digestive utilization of iron, calcium, phosphorus, and magnesium, using control rats and rats with nutritional ferropenic anemia. The addition of these products to the diet produced a positive effect on weight gain; this fact could constitute a scientific basis for the application of pollen and propolis as fortifiers. They improve the digestive utilization of iron and the regeneration efficiency of hemoglobin, especially during recovery from an anemic syndrome. They also have a positive effect on phosphocalcic metabolism and maintain an appropiate level of magnesium metabolism. Furthermore, in iron-deficient rats, these natural products palliate, to a large extent, the adverse effects of iron deficiency on calcium and magnesium metabolism as a result of the improvement in the digestive utilization of these minerals.

  20. [Treatment of spastic paraparesis with botulinum toxin with reference to beneficial effects, disease severity and long-term treatment].

    PubMed

    Takenaga, S; Kawahigashi, Y; Sonoda, Y; Horikiri, T; Hirata, K; Arimura, K; Osame, M

    1995-03-01

    We administered local botulinum toxin injections on the leg adductors of 12 patients with spastic paraparesis (9 patients with HAM, 2 patients with spinal spastic paraparesis, 1 patient with an identified degenerative disease). Two of them were wheelchair-bound and the other patients could walk with or without help. The patients were assessed by the time to walk 10 m and the spasticity score which was derived from the degree of muscle tone and spasm frequency of leg adductors. After the initial injection, 7 of the 12 patients improved spasticity scores and 8 of the 10 patients could walk 10 m within a shorter time. The time to walk 10 m was markedly shortened in moderate cases. However, one patient complained of leg weakness and the time to walk 10 m was prolonged. Five of the 12 patients received injections 3 to 7 times, and were followed up for a mean of 16.2 months. In 4 of the 5 patients, repeated injections could maintain the improvement of spasticity score and time to walk 10 m. However, injection was discontinued in one patient because of leg weakness. The other side effects were pain and swelling at the injected site and dysarthria. However, these side effects were slight and transient and did not require treatment. No other systemic side effects were observed. In conclusion, the beneficial effects of botulinum injections to spastic paraparesis were (1) improvement of objective symptoms in mild cases, (2) improvement of ADL in moderate cases, and (3) improvement of objective symptoms and ease of nursing care in severe cases. Furthermore, we confirmed the long-term efficacy and safety of botulinum toxin.

  1. Mesenchymal stem cells do not exert direct beneficial effects on CNS remyelination in the absence of the peripheral immune system.

    PubMed

    Salinas Tejedor, Laura; Berner, Gabriel; Jacobsen, Kristin; Gudi, Viktoria; Jungwirth, Nicole; Hansmann, Florian; Gingele, Stefan; Prajeeth, Chittappen K; Baumgärtner, Wolfgang; Hoffmann, Andrea; Skripuletz, Thomas; Stangel, Martin

    2015-11-01

    Remyelination is the natural repair mechanism in demyelinating disorders such as multiple sclerosis (MS) and it was proposed that it might protect from axonal loss. For unknown reasons, remyelination is often incomplete or fails in MS lesions and therapeutic treatments to enhance remyelination are not available. Recently, the transplantation of exogenous mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) has emerged as a promising tool to enhance repair processes. This included the animal model experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a commonly used model for the autoimmune mechanisms of MS. However, in EAE it is not clear if the beneficial effect of MSC derives from a direct influence on brain resident cells or if this is an indirect phenomenon via modulation of the peripheral immune system. The aim of this study was to determine potential regenerative functions of MSC in the toxic cuprizone model of demyelination that allows studying direct effects on de- and remyelination without the influence of the peripheral immune system. MSC from three different species (human, murine, canine) were transplanted either intraventricularly into the cerebrospinal fluid or directly into the lesion of the corpus callosum at two time points: at the onset of oligodendrocyte progenitor cell (OPC) proliferation or the peak of OPC proliferation during cuprizone induced demyelination. Our results show that MSC did not exert any regenerative effects after cuprizone induced demyelination and oligodendrocyte loss. During remyelination, MSC did not influence the dynamics of OPC proliferation and myelin formation. In conclusion, MSC did not exert direct regenerative functions in a mouse model where peripheral immune cells and especially T lymphocytes do not play a role. We thus suggest that the peripheral immune system is required for MSC to exert their effects and this is independent from a direct influence of the central nervous system.

  2. Tumour necrosis factor-α and its receptors in the beneficial effects of vagal stimulation after myocardial infarction in rats.

    PubMed

    Kong, Shan-Shan; Liu, Jin-Jun; Hwang, Tyzh-Chang; Yu, Xiao-Jiang; Lu, Yi; Zang, Wei-Jin

    2011-05-01

    1. Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) often activates the sympathetic system and inhibits the vagal system. Long-term vagal nerve stimulation (VNS) exerts several beneficial effects on the ischaemic heart, including an anti-inflammatory effect. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether short-term VNS during AMI could inhibit tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α expression and the effect of TNF receptor (TNFR), key components in inflammatory responses to AMI, in a rodent model. 2. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups, namely a control (C), VNS (S), AMI (M) and an AMI group subjected to prior VNS (MS). In the S and MS groups, the right vagus nerve was stimulated electrically for 4 h; in the M and MS groups, AMI was induced by occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery. Haemodynamic data were monitored continuously using a multichannel physiological recorder. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage, creatine kinase (CK) leakage and infarct size were determined. The expression of TNF-α and its receptors were analysed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, western blotting and ELISA. 3. Compared with the control group, rats in the M group had low blood pressure, high left ventricular (LV) end-diastolic pressure, a depressed maximum dP/dt of LV pressure, higher LDH and CK leakage, a larger infarct size, increased TNF-α levels and an increased TNFR1/TNFR2 ratio. However, these presumably harmful effects of AMI were all significantly ameliorated by VNS during AMI (MS group). 4. In conclusion, VNS can rectify ischaemia-induced cardiac dysfunction partly via inhibition of a TNF-α-mediated signalling pathway.

  3. Beneficial effects of platelet-derived growth factor on hemorrhagic shock in rats and the underlying mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Liu, Liangming; Zhang, Jie; Zhu, Yu; Xiao, Xudong; Peng, Xiaoyong; Yang, Guangming; Zang, Jiatao; Liu, Shangqing; Li, Tao

    2014-11-01

    Studies have shown that local application of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) can be used for the treatment of acute and chronic wounds. We investigated if systemic application of PDGF has a protective effect on acute hemorrhagic shock in rats in the present study. Using hemorrhagic shock rats and isolated superior mesenteric arteries, the effects of PDGF-BB on hemodynamics, animal survival, and vascular reactivity as well as the roles of the gap junction proteins connexin (Cx)40 and Cx43, PKC, and Rho kinase were observed. PDGF-BB (1–15 μg/kg iv) significantly improved the hemodynamics and blood perfusion to vital organs (liver and kidney) as well as vascular reactivity and improved the animal survival in hemorrhagic shock rats. PDGF recovering shock-induced vascular hyporeactivity depended on the integrity of the endothelium and myoendothelial gap junction. Cx43 antisense oligodeoxynucleotide abolished these improving effects of PDGF, whereas Cx40 oligodeoxynucleotide did not. Further study indicated that PDGF increased the activity of Rho kinase and PKC as well as vascular Ca2+ sensitivity, whereas it did not interfere with the intracellular Ca2+ concentration in hypoxia-treated vascular smooth muscle cells. In conclusion, systemic application of PDGF-BB may exert beneficial effects on hemorrhagic shock, which are closely related to the improvement of vascular reactivity and hemodynamics. The improvement of PDGF-BB in vascular reactivity is vascular endothelium and myoendothelial gap junction dependent. Cx43, Rho kinase, and PKC play very important role in this process. These findings suggest that PDGF may be a potential measure to treat acute clinical critical diseases such as severe trauma, shock, and sepsis.

  4. Beneficial effects of Undaria pinnatifida ethanol extract on diet-induced-insulin resistance in C57BL/6J mice.

    PubMed

    Park, H J; Lee, M K; Park, Y B; Shin, Y C; Choi, M S

    2011-04-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the beneficial effect of Undaria pinnatifida ethanol extract (UEFx) on insulin resistance in diet-induced obese mice. A high-fat diet was supplemented with the UEFx at 0.69% (wt/wt) dose, which contains an equivalent amount of 0.02% fucoxanthin (wt/wt), or with Fx at 0.02% (wt/wt) dose in diet. After 9 weeks, both UEFx supplement significantly lowered the amount of visceral fat, the size of adipocyte, the fasting blood glucose concentration, the plasma insulin and the insulin resistance index similar to pure as shown by Fx supplement, compared to the high-fat (HF) control group. Blood glucose level was negatively correlated with hepatic glucokinase activity (r = -0.533, p < 0.05), whereas positively correlated with hepatic gluconeogenic enzyme activities (r = 0.463, p < 0.05 for glucose-6-phosphatase; r = 0.457, p < 0.05 for phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase). Ratio of hepatic glucokinase/glucose-6-phosphatase and glycogen content were significantly elevated by the UEFx and Fx supplements. Supplementation of the UEFx as well as Fx seemed to stimulate the β-oxidation activity and inhibit the phosphatidate phosphohydrolase activity resulting in a decrease in the hepatic lipid droplet accumulation. The results indicate that the UEFx can prevent insulin resistance and hepatic fat accumulation that is partly mediated by modulating the hepatic glucose and lipid homeostasis in the high fat-induced obese mice.

  5. Beneficial Effect of Bidens pilosa on Body Weight Gain, Food Conversion Ratio, Gut Bacteria and Coccidiosis in Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Cicero L. T.; Chung, Chih-Yao; Kuo, Chih-Horng; Kuo, Tien-Fen; Yang, Chu-Wen; Yang, Wen-Chin

    2016-01-01

    In the interests of food safety and public health, plants and their compounds are now re-emerging as an alternative approach to treat gastrointestinal diseases in chickens. Here, we studied the impact of the edible medicinal plant, B. pilosa, on growth performance, gut bacteria and coccidiosis in chickens. First, we found that B. pilosa significantly elevated body weight gain and lowered feed conversion ratio in chickens. Next, we showed that B. pilosa reduced cecal damage as evidenced by increased hemorrhage, villus destruction and decreased villus-to-crypt ratio in chicken ceca. We also performed pyrosequencing of the PCR ampilcons based on the 16S rRNA genes of gut bacteria in chickens. Metagenomic analysis indicated that the chicken gut bacteria belonged to 6 phyla, 6 classes, 6 orders, 9 families, and 8 genera. More importantly, we found that B. pilosa affected the composition of bacteria. This change in bacteria composition was correlated with body weight gain, feed conversion ratio and gut pathology in chickens. Collectively, this work suggests that B. pilosa has beneficial effects on growth performance and protozoan infection in chickens probably via modulation of gut bacteria. PMID:26765226

  6. Enhanced dystrophic progression in mdx mice by exercise and beneficial effects of taurine and insulin-like growth factor-1.

    PubMed

    De Luca, Annamaria; Pierno, Sabata; Liantonio, Antonella; Cetrone, Michela; Camerino, Claudia; Fraysse, Bodvael; Mirabella, Massimo; Servidei, Serenella; Rüegg, Urs T; Conte Camerino, Diana

    2003-01-01

    A preclinical screening for prompt-to-use drugs that are safer than steroids and beneficial in Duchenne muscular dystrophy was performed. Compounds able to reduce calcium-induced degeneration (taurine or creatine 10% in chow) or to stimulate regeneration [insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1); 50 or 500 microg/kg s.c.] were administered for 4 to 8 weeks to mdx mice undergoing chronic exercise on a treadmill, a protocol to worsen dystrophy progression. alpha-Methyl-prednisolone (PDN; 1 mg/kg) was used as positive control. The effects were evaluated in vivo on forelimb strength and in vitro electrophysiologically on the macroscopic chloride conductance (gCl), an index of degeneration-regeneration events in mdx muscles, and on the mechanical threshold, a calcium-sensitive index of excitation-contraction coupling. The exercise produced a significant weakness and an impairment of gCl, by further decreasing the already low value of degenerating diaphragm (DIA) and fully hampering the increase of gCl typical of regenerating extensor digitorum longus (EDL) mdx muscle. The already negative voltage threshold for contraction of mdx EDL was also slightly worsened. Taurine > creatine > IGF-1 counteracted the exercise-induced weakness. The amelioration of gCl was drug- and muscle-specific: taurine was effective in EDL, but not in DIA muscle; IGF-1 and PDN were fully restorative in both muscles, whereas creatine was ineffective. An acute effect of IGF-1 on gCl was observed in vitro in untreated, but not in IGF-1-treated exercised mdx muscles. Taurine > PDN > IGF-1, but not creatine, significantly ameliorated the negative threshold voltage values of the EDL fibers. The results predict a potential benefit of taurine and IGF-1 for treating human dystrophy.

  7. Folic acid supplemented goat milk has beneficial effects on hepatic physiology, haematological status and antioxidant defence during chronic Fe repletion.

    PubMed

    Alférez, María J M; Rivas, Emilio; Díaz-Castro, Javier; Hijano, Silvia; Nestares, Teresa; Moreno, Miguel; Campos, Margarita S; Serrano-Reina, Jose A; López-Aliaga, Inmaculada

    2015-02-01

    The aim of the current study was to asses the effect of goat or cow milk-based diets, either normal or Fe-overloaded and folic acid supplement on some aspects of hepatic physiology, enzymatic antioxidant defence and lipid peroxidation in liver, brain and erythrocyte of control and anaemic rats after chronic Fe repletion. 160 male Wistar rats were placed on 40 d in two groups, a control group receiving normal-Fe diet and the Fe-deficient group receiving low Fe diet. Lately, the rats were fed with goat and cow milk-based diets during 30 d, with normal-Fe content or Fe-overload and either with normal folic or folic acid supplemented. Fe-overload increased plasma alanine transaminase and aspartate transaminase levels when cow milk was supplied. Dietary folate supplementation reduced plasma transaminases levels in animals fed goat milk with chronic Fe overload. A remarkable increase in the superoxide dismutase activity was observed in the animals fed cow milk. Dietary folate supplement lead to a decrease on the activity of this enzyme in all the tissues studied with both milk-based diets. A concomitant increment in catalase was also observed. The increase in lipid peroxidation products levels in rats fed cow milk with Fe-overload, suggest an imbalance in the functioning of the enzymatic antioxidant defence. In conclusion, dietary folate-supplemented goat milk reduces both plasma transaminases levels, suggesting a hepatoprotective effect and has beneficial effects in situation of Fe-overload, improving the antioxidant enzymes activities and reducing lipid peroxidation.

  8. Improvement of brain energy metabolism and cholinergic functions contributes to the beneficial effects of silibinin against streptozotocin induced memory impairment.

    PubMed

    Tota, Santoshkumar; Kamat, Pradeep Kumar; Shukla, Rakesh; Nath, Chandishwar

    2011-08-01

    Recently, silibinin, a clinically used hepatoprotectant, has been reported to prevent amyloid beta induced memory impairment by reducing oxidative stress and inflammation in mice brain. However, the exact mechanism of neuroprotective effect of silibinin has not been properly studied especially in context of brain energy metabolism and cholinergic functions, the essential factors that undergo impairment in Alzheimer's disease. Therefore, the present study investigated the effect of silibinin on impairment in memory, brain energy metabolism and cholinergic function following intracerebral (IC) streptozotocin (STZ) administration in mice. STZ (0.5mg/kg), administered twice at an interval of 48h, caused significant memory impairment tested by Morris water maze. Further, STZ significantly decreased ATP and increased synaptosomal calcium level in mice brain. Increased oxidative and nitrosative stress was also observed in IC STZ injected mice brain. STZ IC induced memory impairment is associated with increased activity and mRNA expression of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and decreased α-7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α-7-nAChR) mRNA expression in mice brain. Pretreatment with silibinin (100 and 200mg/kg, po) attenuated STZ induced memory impairment by reducing oxidative and nitrosative stress and synaptosomal calcium ion level. Further, silibinin dose dependently restored ATP level indicating improvement in brain energy metabolism. The activity and mRNA expression of AChE was restored by silibinin. Moreover, α-7-nAChR mRNA expression was significantly increased by silibinin in STZ treated mice brain. The present study clearly demonstrates that beneficial effects of silibinin in STZ induced memory impairment in mice is due to improvement in brain energy metabolism and cholinergic function.

  9. Beneficial effect of diosgenin as a stimulator of NGF on the brain with neuronal damage induced by Aβ-42 accumulation and neurotoxicant injection

    PubMed Central

    Koh, Eun-Kyoung; Yun, Woo-Bin; Kim, Ji-Eun; Song, Sung-Hwa; Sung, Ji-Eun; Lee, Hyun-Ah; Seo, Eun-Ji; Jee, Seung-Wan

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the beneficial effects of diosgenin (DG) on the multiple types of brain damage induced by Aβ-42 peptides and neurotoxicants, alterations in the specific aspects of brain functions were measured in trimethyltin (TMT)-injected transgenic 2576 (TG) mice that had been pretreated with DG for 21 days. Multiple types of damage were successfully induced by Aβ-42 accumulation and TMT injection into the brains of TG mice. However, DG treatment significantly reduced the number of Aβ-stained plaques and dead cells in the granule cells layer of the dentate gyrus. Significant suppression of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity and Bax/Bcl-2 expression was also observed in the DG treated TG mice (TG+DG group) when compared with those of the vehicle (VC) treated TG mice (TG+VC group). Additionally, the concentration of nerve growth factor (NGF) was dramatically enhanced in TG+DG group, although it was lower in the TG+VC group than the non-transgenic (nTG) group. Furthermore, the decreased phosphorylation of downstream members in the TrkA high affinity receptor signaling pathway in the TG+VC group was significantly recovered in the TG+DG group. A similar pattern was observed in p75NTR expression and JNK phosphorylation in the NGF low affinity receptor signaling pathway. Moreover, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was enhanced in the TG+DG group, while the level of malondialdehyde (MDA), a marker of lipid peroxidation, was lower in the TG+DG group than the TG+VC group. These results suggest that DG could exert a wide range of beneficial activities for multiple types of brain damage through stimulation of NGF biosynthesis. PMID:27382379

  10. Long-lasting beneficial effects of central serotonin receptor 7 stimulation in female mice modeling Rett syndrome.

    PubMed

    De Filippis, Bianca; Chiodi, Valentina; Adriani, Walter; Lacivita, Enza; Mallozzi, Cinzia; Leopoldo, Marcello; Domenici, Maria Rosaria; Fuso, Andrea; Laviola, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    Rett syndrome (RTT) is a rare neurodevelopmental disorder, characterized by severe behavioral and physiological symptoms. Mutations in the methyl CpG binding protein 2 gene (MECP2) cause more than 95% of classic cases, and currently there is no cure for this devastating disorder. Recently we have demonstrated that specific behavioral and brain molecular alterations can be rescued in MeCP2-308 male mice, a RTT mouse model, by pharmacological stimulation of the brain serotonin receptor 7 (5-HT7R). This member of the serotonin receptor family-crucially involved in the regulation of brain structural plasticity and cognitive processes-can be stimulated by systemic repeated treatment with LP-211, a brain-penetrant selective 5-HT7R agonist. The present study extends previous findings by demonstrating that the LP-211 treatment (0.25 mg/kg, once per day for 7 days) rescues RTT-related phenotypic alterations, motor coordination (Dowel test), spatial reference memory (Barnes maze test) and synaptic plasticity (hippocampal long-term-potentiation) in MeCP2-308 heterozygous female mice, the genetic and hormonal milieu that resembles that of RTT patients. LP-211 also restores the activation of the ribosomal protein (rp) S6, the downstream target of mTOR and S6 kinase, in the hippocampus of RTT female mice. Notably, the beneficial effects on neurobehavioral and molecular parameters of a seven-day long treatment with LP-211 were evident up to 2 months after the last injection, thus suggesting long-lasting effects on RTT-related impairments. Taken together with our previous study, these results provide compelling preclinical evidence of the potential therapeutic value for RTT of a pharmacological approach targeting the brain 5-HT7R.

  11. Long-lasting beneficial effects of central serotonin receptor 7 stimulation in female mice modeling Rett syndrome

    PubMed Central

    De Filippis, Bianca; Chiodi, Valentina; Adriani, Walter; Lacivita, Enza; Mallozzi, Cinzia; Leopoldo, Marcello; Domenici, Maria Rosaria; Fuso, Andrea; Laviola, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    Rett syndrome (RTT) is a rare neurodevelopmental disorder, characterized by severe behavioral and physiological symptoms. Mutations in the methyl CpG binding protein 2 gene (MECP2) cause more than 95% of classic cases, and currently there is no cure for this devastating disorder. Recently we have demonstrated that specific behavioral and brain molecular alterations can be rescued in MeCP2-308 male mice, a RTT mouse model, by pharmacological stimulation of the brain serotonin receptor 7 (5-HT7R). This member of the serotonin receptor family—crucially involved in the regulation of brain structural plasticity and cognitive processes—can be stimulated by systemic repeated treatment with LP-211, a brain-penetrant selective 5-HT7R agonist. The present study extends previous findings by demonstrating that the LP-211 treatment (0.25 mg/kg, once per day for 7 days) rescues RTT-related phenotypic alterations, motor coordination (Dowel test), spatial reference memory (Barnes maze test) and synaptic plasticity (hippocampal long-term-potentiation) in MeCP2-308 heterozygous female mice, the genetic and hormonal milieu that resembles that of RTT patients. LP-211 also restores the activation of the ribosomal protein (rp) S6, the downstream target of mTOR and S6 kinase, in the hippocampus of RTT female mice. Notably, the beneficial effects on neurobehavioral and molecular parameters of a seven-day long treatment with LP-211 were evident up to 2 months after the last injection, thus suggesting long-lasting effects on RTT-related impairments. Taken together with our previous study, these results provide compelling preclinical evidence of the potential therapeutic value for RTT of a pharmacological approach targeting the brain 5-HT7R. PMID:25926782

  12. Royal jelly prevents osteoporosis in rats: beneficial effects in ovariectomy model and in bone tissue culture model.

    PubMed

    Hidaka, Saburo; Okamoto, Yoshizo; Uchiyama, Satoshi; Nakatsuma, Akira; Hashimoto, Ken; Ohnishi, S Tsuyoshi; Yamaguchi, Masayoshi

    2006-09-01

    Royal jelly (RJ) has been used worldwide for many years as medical products, health foods and cosmetics. Since RJ contains testosterone and has steroid hormone-type activities, we hypothesized that it may have beneficial effects on osteoporosis. We used both an ovariectomized rat model and a tissue culture model. Rats were divided into eight groups as follows: sham-operated (Sham), ovariectomized (OVX), OVX given 0.5% (w/w) raw RJ, OVX given 2.0% (w/w) RJ, OVX given 0.5% (w/w) protease-treated RJ (pRJ), OVX given 2.0% (w/w) pRJ, OVX given 17beta-estradiol and OVX given its vehicle, respectively. The Ovariectomy decreased tibial bone mineral density (BMD) by 24%. Administration of 17beta-estradiol to OVX rats recovered the tibial BMD decrease by 100%. Administration of 2.0% (w/w) RJ and 0.5-2.0% (w/w) pRJ to OVX rats recovered it by 85% or more. These results indicate that both RJ and pRJ are almost as effective as 17beta-estradiol in preventing the development of bone loss induced by ovariectomy in rats. In tissue culture models, both RJ and pRJ increased calcium contents in femoral-diaphyseal and femoral-metaphyseal tissue cultures obtained from normal male rats. However, in a mouse marrow culture model, they neither inhibited the parathyroid hormone (PTH)-induced calcium loss nor affected the formation of osteoclast-like cells induced by PTH in mouse marrow culture system. Therefore, our results suggest that both RJ and pRJ may prevent osteoporosis by enhancing intestinal calcium absorption, but not by directly antagonizing the action of PTH.

  13. Beneficial effects of combined olive oil ingestion and acute exercise on postprandial TAG concentrations in healthy young women.

    PubMed

    Sasahara, Chihoko; Burns, Stephen F; Miyashita, Masashi; Stensel, David J

    2012-11-28

    Foods high in monounsaturated fat, such as olive oil, and endurance exercise are both known to independently reduce postprandial TAG concentrations. We examined the combined effects of exercise and dietary fat composition on postprandial TAG concentrations in nine healthy pre-menopausal females (age 26·8 (sd 3·3) years, BMI 22·3 (sd 2·0) kg/m2). Each participant completed four, 2 d trials in a randomised order: (1) butter-no exercise, (2) olive oil-no exercise, (3) butter-exercise, (4) olive oil-exercise. On day 1 of the exercise trials, participants walked or ran on a treadmill for 60 min. On the no-exercise trials, participants rested on day 1. On day 2 of each trial, participants rested and consumed an olive oil meal (saturated fat 15 % and unsaturated fat 85 %) or a butter meal (saturated fat 71 % and unsaturated fat 29 %) for breakfast. Venous blood samples were obtained in the fasted state and for 6 h postprandially on day 2. A significant main effect on physical activity (exercise or control) was obtained for plasma TAG concentration (three-way ANOVA, P = 0·043), and the total area under the concentration v. time curve for TAG was 26 % lower on the olive oil-exercise trial (4·40 (sd 0·40) mmol × 6 h/l) than the butter-no exercise trial (5·91 (sd 1·01) mmol × 6 h/l) (one-way ANOVA, P = 0·029). These findings suggest that the combination of exercise and a preference for monounsaturated dietary fat intake in the form of olive oil may be most beneficial for reducing postprandial TAG concentrations.

  14. Effectiveness of beneficial plant-microbe interactions under hypobaric and hypoxic conditions in an advanced life support system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacIntyre, Olathe; Stasiak, Michael; Cottenie, Karl; Trevors, Jack; Dixon, Mike

    An assembled microbial community in the hydroponics solution of an advanced life support system may improve plant performance and productivity in three ways: (1) exclusion of plant pathogens from the initial community, (2) resistance to infection, and (3) plant-growth promotion. However, the plant production area is likely to have a hypobaric (low pressure) and hypoxic (low oxygen) atmosphere to reduce structural mass and atmosphere leakage, and these conditions may alter plant-microbe interactions. Plant performance and productivity of radish (Raphanus sativus L. cv. Cherry Bomb II) grown under hypobaric and hypoxic conditions were investigated at the University of Guelph's Controlled Environment Systems Research Facility. Changes in the microbial communities that routinely colonized the re-circulated nutrient solution, roots, and leaves of radishes in these experiments were quantified in terms of similarity in community composition, abundance of bacteria, and community diversity before and after exposure to hypobaric and hypoxic conditions relative to communities maintained at ambient growth conditions. The microbial succession was affected by extreme hypoxia (2 kPa oxygen partial pressure) while hypobaria as low as 10 kPa total pressure had little effect on microbial ecology. There were no correlations found between the physiological profile of these unintentional microbial communities and radish growth. The effects of hypobaric and hypoxic conditions on specific plant-microbe interactions need to be determined before beneficial gnotobiotic communities can be developed for use in space. The bacterial strains Tal 629 of Bradyrhizobium japonicum and WCS417 of Pseudomonas fluorescens, and the plant pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. raphani will be used in future experiments. B. japonicum Tal 629 promotes radish growth in hydroponics systems and P. fluorescens WCS417 induces systemic resistance to fusarium wilt (F. oxysporum f. sp. raphani) in radish under ambient

  15. Beneficial effects of an Andrographis paniculata extract and andrographolide on cognitive functions in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Thakur, Ajit Kumar; Rai, Geeta; Chatterjee, Shyam Sunder; Kumar, Vikas

    2016-09-01

    Context Andrographolide containing Andrographis paniculata (Burm. F.) Wall. Ex Nees (Acanthaceae) extracts is often used for treatments of diabetes and other inflammatory disorders commonly accompanying cognitive and other psychiatric disorders. Objective To compare the efficacies of a standardised A. paniculata extract (AP) and pure andrographolide on cognitive functions, oxidative stress and cholinergic function in diabetic rats. Materials and methods Streptozotocin-induced diabetic Charles Foster albino rats treated orally with a hydro-methanolic A. paniculata leaf extract (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg/day), or with pure andrographolide (15, 30 and 60 mg/kg/day) for 10 consecutive days, were subjected to Morris water maze test. After the test, acetylcholinesterase, superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) activities and lipid peroxidation (LPO) in brain tissues were assessed. Results Acetylcholinesterase activity in pre-frontal cortex and hippocampus of diabetic rats was 2.1 and 2.6 times higher compared to nondiabetic rats. LPO was 1.6 times higher and decreased SOD (56.3%) and CAT (44.9%) activities in pre-frontal cortex of diabetic rats compared to nondiabetic rats. AP or andrographolide treatments dose dependently attenuated cognitive deficits, reduced acetylcholinesterase activity, oxidative stress, improved diabetic hyperglycemia and insulin deficiency. All observed effects of AP were quantitatively almost equal to those expected from its analytically quantified andrographolide content. Discussion and conclusion Reported observations are the very first ones suggesting beneficial effects of andrographolide against diabetes associated cognitive deficits, increased acetylcholinesterase activity and deteriorated antioxidative status. Efforts to exploit A. paniculata extracts enriched in andrographolide as preventive measures against such disorders can be warranted.

  16. Fever: is it beneficial?

    PubMed Central

    Blatteis, C. M.

    1986-01-01

    Data obtained in lizards infected with live bacteria suggest that fever may be beneficial to their survival. An adaptive value of fever has also been inferred in mammals, but the results are equivocal. Findings that certain leukocyte functions are enhanced in vitro at high temperatures have provided a possible explanation for the alleged benefits of fever. However, serious questions exist as to whether results from experiments in ectotherms and in vitro can properly be extrapolated to in vivo endothermic conditions. Indeed, various studies have yielded results inconsistent with the survival benefits attributed to fever, and fever is not an obligatory feature of all infections under all conditions. Certainly, the widespread use of antipyretics, without apparent adverse effects on the course of disease, argues against fever having great benefit to the host. In sum, although fever is a cardinal manifestation of infection, conclusive evidence that it has survival value in mammals is still lacking. PMID:3090790

  17. Dietary β-galactomannans have beneficial effects on the intestinal morphology of chickens challenged with Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis.

    PubMed

    Brufau, M T; Martín-Venegas, R; Guerrero-Zamora, A M; Pérez-Vendrell, A M; Vilà, B; Brufau, J; Ferrer, R

    2015-01-01

    show greater (P = 0.001 and P = 0.016, respectively) villus length compared with the animals in the positive control, thus indicating the capacity of these products to increase epithelial surface area. However, no effect (P > 0.05) on microvillus dimensions was detected. In conclusion, the results obtained indicating the beneficial effects of these βGM on intestinal morphology give more evidence of the positive effects of these supplements in poultry nutrition.

  18. The beneficial effects of AMP kinase activation against oxidative stress are associated with prevention of PPARα-cyclophilin D interaction in cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Barreto-Torres, Giselle; Hernandez, Jessica Soto; Jang, Sehwan; Rodríguez-Muñoz, Adlín R; Torres-Ramos, Carlos A; Basnakian, Alexei G; Javadov, Sabzali

    2015-04-01

    AMP kinase (AMPK) plays an important role in the regulation of energy metabolism in cardiac cells. Furthermore, activation of AMPK protects the heart from myocardial infarction and heart failure. The present study examines whether or not AMPK affects the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPARα)/mitochondria pathway in response to acute oxidative stress in cultured cardiomyocytes. Cultured H9c2 rat embryonic cardioblasts were exposed to H2O2-induced acute oxidative stress in the presence or absence of metformin, compound C (AMPK inhibitor), GW6471 (PPARα inhibitor), or A-769662 (AMPK activator). Results showed that AMPK activation by metformin reverted oxidative stress-induced inactivation of AMPK and prevented oxidative stress-induced cell death. In addition, metformin attenuated reactive oxygen species generation and depolarization of the inner mitochondrial membrane. The antioxidative effects of metformin were associated with the prevention of mitochondrial DNA damage in cardiomyocytes. Coimmunoprecipitation studies revealed that metformin abolished oxidative stress-induced physical interactions between PPARα and cyclophilin D (CypD), and the abolishment of these interactions was associated with inhibition of permeability transition pore formation. The beneficial effects of metformin were not due to acetylation or phosphorylation of PPARα in response to oxidative stress. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that the protective effects of metformin-induced AMPK activation against oxidative stress converge on mitochondria and are mediated, at least in part, through the dissociation of PPARα-CypD interactions, independent of phosphorylation and acetylation of PPARα and CypD.

  19. Medium-chain triglycerides and monounsaturated fatty acids potentiate the beneficial effects of fish oil on selected cardiovascular risk factors in rats.

    PubMed

    Kondreddy, Vijay Kumar Reddy; Anikisetty, Maheswaraiah; Naidu, Kamatham Akhilender

    2016-02-01

    Fish oil (FO) rich in eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is known to reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Little information is known regarding the influence of lipid composition in the background diet on the modulatory effect of FO supplementation on CVDs. The present study was designed to investigate the influence of various background dietary lipids and FO on selected cardiovascular risk factors in rats. Adult Wistar rats were fed semisynthetic diet with FO at 1.0% or 2.0% along with other lipids, namely, medium-chain triacylglycerols (MCTs), monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs), n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and n-3 PUFAs, for 5 weeks. Some of the potent CVD risk factors were estimated in the rats. FO at 1.0% and 2.0% has significantly reduced serum lipid peroxides, total cholesterol, triglycerides (TAGs), tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6 and C-reactive protein; liver and adipose TAG and cholesterol levels in MCT, MUFA and n-6 PUFA diet groups. Notably, these alterations were comparatively higher in 1.0% FO-substituted MCT and MUFA diet groups. Interestingly, feeding of FO along with n-3 PUFAs did not show additive effect in attenuation of these factors. Serum liver EPA and DHA levels were remarkably elevated in rats fed FO-enriched MCT or MUFA diets. Our results suggest that MCTs or MUFAs in the background diet might promote the beneficial effects of FO on CVDs.

  20. Effects of mineral additions on durability and physico-mechanical properties of mortar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Logbi, A.; Kriker, A.; Snisna, Z.

    2017-02-01

    This paper consists of an experimental study of the effect of some mineral admixtures on the properties of mortar. Blast furnace Slag of El-Hadjar, natural pozzolan of Beni saf and limestone of Ghardaia, all from Algeria, are crushed in high fineness and incorporated in the cement with different contents (15 % 20 % and 10%) respectively, in order to perform the physico-mechanical characteristics and durability of the mortar. The replacement of cement by 15% of natural pozzolan, or 20% of the Blast furnace Slag improves the mechanical performances of mortar in early and long ages than the mortar without additions, but 10% of limestone fillers have a positive effect only at early age. For durability the three additions have developed a beneficial effect on mechanical resistance under the free aquifers water, while their effects are different on capillary absorption.

  1. Lactobacillus johnsonii CRL1647, isolated from Apis mellifera L. bee-gut, exhibited a beneficial effect on honeybee colonies.

    PubMed

    Audisio, M C; Benítez-Ahrendts, M R

    2011-03-01

    Lactobacillus johnsonii CRL1647, isolated from the intestinal tract of a honeybee and selected due to its high lactic acid production, was assayed as a monoculture on bee colony performance. It was delivered to the bees on a one litre of 125 g/l sugar-cane syrup with a final concentration of 105 cfu/ml lactobacilli. The bees accepted the new nourishment, which was consumed within 24-48 h and was administered in two independent trials (every 14-15 days for 3 consecutive months in one case, and once a month for 13 consecutive months in the other). From late spring - early summer (2008) the photo-records and statistical analyses revealed significant differences in the open and the operculated brood areas in the treated group compared with the control. This stimulation was observed after the first administration of the lactobacilli and maintained throughout. Also, a higher number of bees were measured in the treated group (54%) and the control (18%) with respect to the initial bees' number. Furthermore, honey storage was higher, 40% and 19%, for the treated and control groups, respectively. From December 2008 to December 2009, a similar situation was observed even though, in this trial, the lactobacilli cells were administered once a month. The in vivo results of this study are promising and indicate that a L. johnsonii CRL1647 supplement to beehives favours mainly open and operculated brood areas, demonstrating a stronger stimulation of egg-laying and will become a natural product which will assist the beekeeper both in colony management and the creation of late nuclei and/or bee packages due to its beneficial effects in the beehive colony.

  2. The leaves of Diospyros kaki exert beneficial effects on a benzalkonium chloride–induced murine dry eye model

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyung-A; Hyun, Lee Chung; Jung, Sang Hoon

    2016-01-01

    Purpose In this study, the beneficial effects of the oral administration of ethanol extract of Diospyros kaki (EEDK) were tested on a mouse dry eye model induced by benzalkonium chloride (BAC). Methods A solution of 0.2% BAC was administered topically to mouse eyes for 14 days, twice daily, to induce dry eye. Various concentrations of EEDK were administrated daily by oral gavage for 14 days after BAC treatment. Preservative-free eye drops were instilled in the positive-control group. The tear secretion volume (Schirmer’s test), tear break-up time (BUT), and fluorescein score were measured on the ocular surface. BAC-induced corneal damage was tested with hematoxylin-eosin staining. Moreover, apoptotic cell death in the corneal epithelial layer was investigated with terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) staining. The protein expression level of interleukin-1alpha (IL-1α), IL-1β, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor- alpha (TNF-α), and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) was determined with western blot analysis. Furthermore, squamous metaplasia in the corneal epithelial layer was detected with immunofluorescent staining for cytokeratine-10. The cellular proliferation in the cornea was examined with immunohistochemical staining for Ki-67. Results EEDK treatment resulted in prolonged BUT, decreased fluorescein score, increased tear volume, and smoother epithelial cells compared with BAC treatment alone in the cornea. Moreover, EEDK treatment inhibited the inflammatory response and corneal epithelial cell death in a BAC-induced murine dry eye model, and changes in squamous cells were inhibited. Proliferative activity in the corneal epithelium cells was improved with EEDK. Conclusions EEDK could be a potential therapeutic agent in the clinical treatment of dry eye. PMID:27110091

  3. Adrenal GRK2 lowering is an underlying mechanism for the beneficial sympathetic effects of exercise training in heart failure.

    PubMed

    Rengo, Giuseppe; Leosco, Dario; Zincarelli, Carmela; Marchese, Massimo; Corbi, Graziamaria; Liccardo, Daniela; Filippelli, Amelia; Ferrara, Nicola; Lisanti, Michael P; Koch, Walter J; Lymperopoulos, Anastasios

    2010-06-01

    Exercise training has been reported to exert beneficial effects on cardiac function and to reduce morbidity and mortality of chronic heart failure (HF). Augmented sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity, leading to elevated circulating catecholamine (CA) levels, is a hallmark of chronic HF that significantly aggravates this disease. Exercise training has been shown to also reduce SNS overactivity in HF, but the underlying molecular mechanism(s) remain unidentified. We recently reported that adrenal G protein-coupled receptor kinase-2 (GRK2), an enzyme that regulates the sympathoinhibitory alpha(2)-adrenoceptors (alpha(2)-ARs) present in the CA-producing adrenal medulla, is upregulated in HF, contributing to the chronically elevated CA levels and SNS activity of the disease. In the present study, we tested whether exercise training can affect the adrenal GRK2-alpha(2)-AR-CA production system in the context of HF. For this purpose, a 10-wk-long exercise training regimen of adult male Sprague-Dawley rats starting at 4 wk postmyocardial infarction (post-MI) was employed, and examination at the end of this treatment period revealed significant amelioration of beta-AR-stimulated contractility in response to exercise training, accompanied by cardiac GRK2 reduction and restoration of circulating plasma CA levels. Importantly, adrenal GRK2 expression (72 + or - 5% reduction vs. post-MI untrained) and alpha(2)-AR number were also restored after exercise training in post-MI animals. These results suggest that exercise training restores the adrenal GRK2-alpha(2)-AR-CA production axis, and this might be part of the mechanism whereby this therapeutic modality normalizes sympathetic overdrive and impedes worsening of the failing heart.

  4. Effectiveness of Low Temperature Additives for Biodiesel Blends

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-30

    UNCLASSIFIED EFFECTIVENESS OF LOW TEMPERATURE ADDITIVES FOR BIODIESEL BLENDS INTERIM REPORT TFLRF No. 428 by Steven R...Do not return it to the originator. UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED EFFECTIVENESS OF LOW TEMPERATURE ADDITIVES FOR BIODIESEL BLENDS...17-2010 – 06-30-2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Effectiveness of Low Temperature Additives for Biodiesel Blends 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W56HZV-09-C-0100

  5. Using Computers in Early Years Education: What Are the Effects on Children's Development? Some Suggestions Concerning Beneficial Computer Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theodotou, Evgenia

    2010-01-01

    Technology in education is considered in empirical and theoretical literature as both beneficial and harmful to children's development. In the field of the early years settings there is a dilemma whether or not early childhood teachers should use technology as a teaching and learning resource. This paper has a pedagogical focus, discussing the…

  6. Stormwater Non-Potable Beneficial Uses and Effects on Urban Infrastructure (WERF Report INFR3SG09)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project shows that lessons learned and successes from a wide variety of international stormwater beneficial use projects cover a range of conditions that may be found in the U.S. Examined are case studies from developing countries in both arid and wet climates, case studies...

  7. The sigma-1 receptor mediates the beneficial effects of pridopidine in a mouse model of Huntington disease

    PubMed Central

    Ryskamp, Daniel; Wu, Jun; Geva, Michal; Kusko, Rebecca; Grossman, Iris; Hayden, Michael; Bezprozvanny, Ilya

    2016-01-01

    and led to normalization of ER Ca2+ release, ER Ca2+ levels and spine SOC entry in YAC128 MSNs. This is a new potential mechanism of action for pridopidine, highlighting S1R as a potential target for HD therapy. Upregulation of striatal proteins that regulate calcium, including calbindin and homer1a, upon chronic therapy with pridopidine, may further contribute to long-term beneficial effects of pridopidine in HD. PMID:27818324

  8. The sigma-1 receptor mediates the beneficial effects of pridopidine in a mouse model of Huntington disease.

    PubMed

    Ryskamp, Daniel; Wu, Jun; Geva, Michal; Kusko, Rebecca; Grossman, Iris; Hayden, Michael; Bezprozvanny, Ilya

    2017-01-01

    and led to normalization of ER Ca(2+) release, ER Ca(2+) levels and spine SOC entry in YAC128 MSNs. This is a new potential mechanism of action for pridopidine, highlighting S1R as a potential target for HD therapy. Upregulation of striatal proteins that regulate calcium, including calbindin and homer1a, upon chronic therapy with pridopidine, may further contribute to long-term beneficial effects of pridopidine in HD.

  9. The beneficial effects of cumulus cells and oocyte-cumulus cell gap junctions depends on oocyte maturation and fertilization methods in mice.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Cheng-Jie; Wu, Sha-Na; Shen, Jiang-Peng; Wang, Dong-Hui; Kong, Xiang-Wei; Lu, Angeleem; Li, Yan-Jiao; Zhou, Hong-Xia; Zhao, Yue-Fang; Liang, Cheng-Guang

    2016-01-01

    Cumulus cells are a group of closely associated granulosa cells that surround and nourish oocytes. Previous studies have shown that cumulus cells contribute to oocyte maturation and fertilization through gap junction communication. However, it is not known how this gap junction signaling affects in vivo versus in vitro maturation of oocytes, and their subsequent fertilization and embryonic development following insemination. Therefore, in our study, we performed mouse oocyte maturation and insemination using in vivo- or in vitro-matured oocyte-cumulus complexes (OCCs, which retain gap junctions between the cumulus cells and the oocytes), in vitro-matured, denuded oocytes co-cultured with cumulus cells (DCs, which lack gap junctions between the cumulus cells and the oocytes), and in vitro-matured, denuded oocytes without cumulus cells (DOs). Using these models, we were able to analyze the effects of gap junction signaling on oocyte maturation, fertilization, and early embryo development. We found that gap junctions were necessary for both in vivo and in vitro oocyte maturation. In addition, for oocytes matured in vivo, the presence of cumulus cells during insemination improved fertilization and blastocyst formation, and this improvement was strengthened by gap junctions. Moreover, for oocytes matured in vitro, the presence of cumulus cells during insemination improved fertilization, but not blastocyst formation, and this improvement was independent of gap junctions. Our results demonstrate, for the first time, that the beneficial effect of gap junction signaling from cumulus cells depends on oocyte maturation and fertilization methods.

  10. Strength in numbers: Combining neck vibration and prism adaptation produces additive therapeutic effects in unilateral neglect

    PubMed Central

    Saevarsson, Styrmir; Kristjánsson, Árni; Halsband, Ulrike

    2010-01-01

    Unilateral neglect is a multifaceted disorder. Many authors have, for this reason, speculated that the best treatment for neglect will involve combinations of different therapeutic techniques. Two well known interventions, neck vibration (NV) and prism adaptation (PA), have often been considered to be among the most effective treatments for neglect. Here, two experiments were performed to explore possible additive benefits when these interventions are used in combination to treat chronic neglect. Both experimental groups received NV for 20 minutes, while the second group received simultaneous PA. The effects of treatment were measured with a time-restricted and feedback-based visual search task, which has previously been found to abolish the beneficial effects of PA, and with standard neglect tests. Baseline and intervention measures were performed on separate days. Findings for both groups indicated improved visual search following intervention, but the patients that underwent the combined intervention (NVPA) showed clear improvements on visual search based paper and pencil neglect tests unlike the NV-only group. Overall, our results suggest that PA strengthens the effects of NV and that feedback-based tasks do not abolish beneficial effects of PA, when NV is applied simultaneously. The results support the view that the most effective treatment for neglect will involve the combination of different treatments. PMID:20503132

  11. Implementation of Complexity Analyzing Based on Additional Effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Peng; Li, Na; Liang, Yanhong; Liu, Fang

    According to the Complexity Theory, there is complexity in the system when the functional requirement is not be satisfied. There are several study performances for Complexity Theory based on Axiomatic Design. However, they focus on reducing the complexity in their study and no one focus on method of analyzing the complexity in the system. Therefore, this paper put forth a method of analyzing the complexity which is sought to make up the deficiency of the researches. In order to discussing the method of analyzing the complexity based on additional effect, this paper put forth two concepts which are ideal effect and additional effect. The method of analyzing complexity based on additional effect combines Complexity Theory with Theory of Inventive Problem Solving (TRIZ). It is helpful for designers to analyze the complexity by using additional effect. A case study shows the application of the process.

  12. Effect of additives on the purification of urease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, X.; Wang, J.; Ulrich, J.

    2015-12-01

    The effect of additives on the purification of proteins was investigated. The target protein studied here is the enzyme urease. Studies on the purification of urease from jack bean meal were carried out. 32% (v/v) acetone was utilized to extract urease from the jack bean meal. Further purification by crystallization with the addition of 2-mercaptoethanol and EDTA disodium salt dehydrate was carried out. It was found out that the presence of additives can affect the selectivity of the crystallization. Increases in both purity and yield of the urease after crystallization were observed in the presence of additives, which were proven using both SDS-PAGE and activity. Urease crystals with a yield of 69.9% and a purity of 85.1% were obtained in one crystallization step in the presence of additives. Furthermore, the effect of additives on the thermodynamics and kinetics of urease crystallization was studied.

  13. Neurological and histological consequences induced by in vivo cerebral oxidative stress: evidence for beneficial effects of SRT1720, a sirtuin 1 activator, and sirtuin 1-mediated neuroprotective effects of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibition.

    PubMed

    Gueguen, Cindy; Palmier, Bruno; Plotkine, Michel; Marchand-Leroux, Catherine; Besson, Valérie C

    2014-01-01

    Poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase and sirtuin 1 are both NAD(+)-dependent enzymes. In vitro oxidative stress activates poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase, decreases NAD(+) level, sirtuin 1 activity and finally leads to cell death. Poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase hyperactivation contributes to cell death. In addition, poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase inhibition restores NAD(+) level and sirtuin 1 activity in vitro. In vitro sirtuin 1 induction protects neurons from cell loss induced by oxidative stress. In this context, the role of sirtuin 1 and its involvement in beneficial effects of poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase inhibition were evaluated in vivo in a model of cerebral oxidative stress induced by intrastriatal infusion of malonate in rat. Malonate promoted a NAD(+) decrease that was not prevented by 3-aminobenzamide, a poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase inhibitor, at 4 and 24 hours. However, 3-aminobenzamide increased nuclear SIRT1 activity/expression ratio after oxidative stress. Malonate induced a neurological deficit associated with a striatal lesion. Both were reduced by 3-aminobenzamide and SRT1720, a sirtuin 1 activator, showing beneficial effects of poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase inhibition and sirtuin 1 activation on oxidative stress consequences. EX527, a sirtuin 1 inhibitor, given alone, modified neither the score nor the lesion, suggesting that endogenous sirtuin 1 was not activated during cerebral oxidative stress. However, its association with 3-aminobenzamide suppressed the neurological improvement and the lesion reduction induced by 3-aminobenzamide. The association of 3-aminobenzamide with SRT1720, the sirtuin 1 activator, did not lead to a better protection than 3-aminobenzamide alone. The present data represent the first demonstration that the sirtuin 1 activator SRT1720 is neuroprotective during in vivo cerebral oxidative stress. Furthermore sirtuin 1 activation is involved in the beneficial effects of poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase inhibition after in vivo cerebral oxidative stress.

  14. A new model of an arteriovenous fistula in chronic kidney disease in the mouse: beneficial effects of upregulated heme oxygenase-1.

    PubMed

    Kang, Lu; Grande, Joseph P; Hillestad, Matthew L; Croatt, Anthony J; Barry, Michael A; Katusic, Zvonimir S; Nath, Karl A

    2016-03-15

    The arteriovenous fistula (AVF) is the preferred hemodialysis vascular access, but it is complicated by high failure rates and attendant morbidity. This study provides the first description of a murine AVF model that recapitulates two salient features of hemodialysis AVFs, namely, anastomosis of end-vein to side-artery to create the AVF and the presence of chronic kidney disease (CKD). CKD reduced AVF blood flow, observed as early as 3 days after AVF creation, and increased neointimal hyperplasia, venous wall thickness, thrombus formation, and vasculopathic gene expression in the AVF. These adverse effects of CKD could not be ascribed to preexisting alterations in blood pressure or vascular reactivity in this CKD model. In addition to vasculopathic genes, CKD induced potentially vasoprotective genes in the AVF such as heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and HO-2. To determine whether prior HO-1 upregulation may protect in this model, we upregulated HO-1 by adeno-associated viral gene delivery, achieving marked venous induction of the HO-1 protein and HO activity. Such HO-1 upregulation improved AVF blood flow and decreased venous wall thickness in the AVF. Finally, we demonstrate that the administration of carbon monoxide, a product of HO, acutely increased AVF blood flow. This study thus demonstrates: 1) the feasibility of a clinically relevant murine AVF model created in the presence of CKD and involving an end-vein to side-artery anastomosis; 2) the exacerbatory effect of CKD on clinically relevant features of this model; and 3) the beneficial effects in this model conferred by HO-1 upregulation by adeno-associated viral gene delivery.

  15. Beneficial effects of pitavastatin, a 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme a reductase inhibitor, on cardiac function in ischemic and nonischemic heart failure.

    PubMed

    Aoyagi, Teruhiko; Nakamura, Fumitaka; Tomaru, Takanobu; Toyo-Oka, Teruhiko

    2008-01-01

    HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins) have recently been reported to improve cardiac function, and decrease the incidence of heart failure (HF) in hyperlipidemic patients. However, evidence for statin treatment in patients with HF remains a subject of debate. Thus, a study was initiated to examine the effects of pitavastatin on cardiac function evaluated by echocardiographic findings and plasma brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) levels in patients with HF. Twenty-three patients with HF were treated with pitavastatin 1-2 mg/day in addition to standard therapy for 7.5 +/- 3.8 months. Left ventricular end-diastolic dimension (LVDd) and left ventricular end-systolic dimension (LVDs) were determined by echocardiography. Left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) was calculated using Teichholz's formula. Serum lipid and plasma BNP levels were also measured. During the follow-up period, LVEF was increased from 42 +/- 11 to 48 +/- 13% (P = 0.002). LVDs was reduced from 43 +/- 10 to 40 +/- 10 mm (P < 0.001), while there was no change in LVDd. E/A (n = 10) and deceleration time (n = 7), obtained in some patients, did not change significantly (0.89 +/- 0.33 to 0.77 +/- 0.17%, and 215 +/- 46 to 227 +/- 72 msec, respectively). In addition, the plasma BNP level was moderately, but significantly decreased from 94 +/- 78 to 70 +/- 56 pg/mL (P = 0.005). In subgroup analysis, LVEF was improved in both patients with ischemic and nonischemic HF. There was no significant correlation between the percent change in serum total cholesterol and the percent change in LVEF by pitavastatin treatment. Serum total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, and triglycerides decreased by 21%, 30%, and 15%, respectively, and HDL-cholesterol increased by 12%. Pitavastatin improved cardiac function in patients with HF, which generally worsens with time. The results suggest that pitavastatin may be beneficial for treatment of HF.

  16. Polymer Photooxidation: An Experiment to Demonstrate the Effect of Additives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Norman S.; McKellar, John F.

    1979-01-01

    This undergraduate experiment shows that the inclusion of an appropriate additive can have a very marked effect on the physical properties of a polymer. The polymer used is polypropylene and the additives are 2-hydroxy-4-octyloxy-benzophenone and benzophenone. (BB)

  17. Effect of Fortification and Additives on Breast Milk Osmolality.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Vijay; Job, Victoria; Thomas, Niranjan

    2016-02-01

    This study evaluated the effect of fortification and commonly used additives on the osmolality of human milk. Osmolality after fortification with milk powder and human milk fortifier increased from 303 mOsmol/kg to 397 and 373 mOsmol/kg, respectively. The maximal increase in osmolality was seen with the addition of calcium gluconate.

  18. Effects of maternal hypothyroidism during pregnancy on learning, memory and hippocampal BDNF in rat pups: Beneficial effects of exercise.

    PubMed

    Shafiee, Seyed Morteza; Vafaei, Abbas Ali; Rashidy-Pour, Ali

    2016-08-04

    Hypothyroidism during early development leads to numerous morphological, biochemical and functional changes in developing brain. In this study, we investigated the effects of voluntary and treadmill exercise on learning, memory and hippocampal BDNF levels in both hypothyroid male and female rat pups. To induce hypothyroidism in the mothers, 6-propyl-2-thiouracil (PTU) was added to their drinking water (100mg/L) from their embryonic day 6 to their postnatal day (PND) 21. For 14days, from PNDs 31 to 44, the rat pups were trained with one of the two different exercise protocols, namely the mild treadmill exercise and the voluntary wheel exercise. On PNDs 45-52, a water maze was used for testing their learning and memory ability. The rats were sacrificed one day later and their BDNF levels were then measured in the hippocampus. The findings of the present study indicate that hypothyroidism during the fetal period and the early postnatal period is associated with the impairment of spatial learning and memory and reduced hippocampal BDNF levels in both male and female rat offspring. Both the short-term treadmill exercise and the voluntary wheel exercise performed during the postnatal period reverse the behavioral and neurochemical deficits induced by developmental thyroid hormone insufficiency in both male and female rat offspring. The findings of this study thus demonstrate a marked reversibility of both behavioral and neurochemical disorders induced by developmental thyroid hormone insufficiency through the performance of exercise.

  19. Effects of various additives on sintering of aluminum nitride

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Komeya, K.; Inoue, H.; Tsuge, A.

    1982-01-01

    Effects of thirty additives on sintering A/N were investigated. The addition of alkali earth oxides and rare earth oxides gave fully densified aluminum nitride. This is due to the formation of nitrogen-containing aluminate liquid in the system aluminum nitride-alkali earth oxides or rare earth oxides. Microstructural studies of the sintered specimens with the above two types of additives suggested that the densification was due to the liquid phase sintering. Additions of silicon compounds resulted in poor densification by the formation of highly refractory compounds such as A/N polytypes.

  20. Interactive effects of nutrient additions and predation on infaunal communities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Posey, M.H.; Alphin, T.D.; Cahoon, L.; Lindquist, D.; Becker, M.E.

    1999-01-01

    Nutrient additions represent an important anthropogenic stress on coastal ecosystems. At moderate levels, increased nutrients may lead to increased primary production and, possibly, to increased biomass of consumers although complex trophic interactions may modify or mask these effects. We examined the influence of nutrient additions and interactive effects of trophic interactions (predation) on benthic infaunal composition and abundances through small-scale field experiments in 2 estuaries that differed in ambient nutrient conditions. A blocked experimental design was used that allowed an assessment of direct nutrient effects in the presence and absence of predation by epibenthic predators as well as an assessment of the independent effects of predation. Benthic microalgal production increased with experimental nutrient additions and was greater when infaunal abundances were lower, but there were no significant interactions between these factors. Increased abundances of one infaunal taxa, Laeonereis culveri, as well as the grazer feeding guild were observed with nutrient additions and a number of taxa exhibited higher abundances with predator exclusion. In contrast to results from freshwater systems there were no significant interactive effects between nutrient additions and predator exclusion as was predicted. The infaunal responses observed here emphasize the importance of both bottom-up (nutrient addition and primary producer driven) and top-down (predation) controls in structuring benthic communities. These processes may work at different spatial and temporal scales, and affect different taxa, making observation of potential interactive effects difficult.

  1. [Kinetic analysis of additive effect on desulfurization activity].

    PubMed

    Han, Kui-hua; Zhao, Jian-li; Lu, Chun-mei; Wang, Yong-zheng; Zhao, Gai-ju; Cheng, Shi-qing

    2006-02-01

    The additive effects of A12O3, Fe2O3 and MnCO3 on CaO sulfation kinetics were investigated by thermogravimetic analysis method and modified grain model. The activation energy (Ea) and the pre-exponential factor (k0) of surface reaction, the activation energy (Ep) and the pre-exponential factor (D0) of product layer diffusion reaction were calculated according to the model. Additions of MnCO3 can enhance the initial reaction rate, product layer diffusion and the final CaO conversion of sorbents, the effect mechanism of which is similar to that of Fe2O3. The method based isokinetic temperature Ts and activation energy can not estimate the contribution of additive to the sulfation reactivity, the rate constant of the surface reaction (k), and the effective diffusivity of reactant in the product layer (Ds) under certain experimental conditions can reflect the effect of additives on the activation. Unstoichiometric metal oxide may catalyze the surface reaction and promote the diffusivity of reactant in the product layer by the crystal defect and distinct diffusion of cation and anion. According to the mechanism and effect of additive on the sulfation, the effective temperature and the stoichiometric relation of reaction, it is possible to improve the utilization of sorbent by compounding more additives to the calcium-based sorbent.

  2. Effects of some polymeric additives on the cocrystallization of caffeine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Jihae; Kim, Il Won

    2011-11-01

    Effects of polymeric additives on the model cocrystallization were examined. The model cocrystal was made from caffeine and oxalic acid, and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG), poly( L-lactide) (PLLA), poly(ɛ-caprolactone) (PCL), and poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) were the additives. The cocrystals were formed as millimeter-sized crystals without additives, and they became microcrystals with PLLA and PCL, and nanocrystals with PAA. XRD and IR revealed that the cocrystal structure was unchanged despite the strong effects of the additives on the crystal morphology, although some decrease in crystallinity was observed with PAA as confirmed by DSC. The DSC study also showed that the cocrystal melted and recrystallized to form α-caffeine upon heating. The present study verified that the polymeric additives can be utilized to modulate the size and morphology of the cocrystals without interfering the intermolecular interactions essential to the integrity of the cocrystal structures.

  3. Design of pathway-preferential estrogens that provide beneficial metabolic and vascular effects without stimulating reproductive tissues

    PubMed Central

    Madak-Erdogan, Zeynep; Kim, Sung-Hoon; Gong, Ping; Zhao, Yiru C.; Zhang, Hui; Chambliss, Ken L.; Carlson, Kathryn E.; Mayne, Christopher G.; Shaul, Philip W.; Korach, Kenneth S.; Katzenellenbogen, John A.; Katzenellenbogen, Benita S.

    2016-01-01

    There is great medical need for estrogens with favorable pharmacological profiles, that support desirable activities for menopausal women such as metabolic and vascular protection but that lack stimulatory activities on the breast and uterus. Here, we report the development of structurally novel estrogens that preferentially activate a subset of estrogen receptor (ER) signaling pathways and result in favorable target tissue-selective activity. Through a process of structural alteration of estrogenic ligands that was designed to preserve their essential chemical and physical features but greatly reduced their binding affinity for ERs, we obtained “Pathway Preferential Estrogens” (PaPEs) which interacted with ERs to activate the extranuclear-initiated signaling pathway preferentially over the nuclear-initiated pathway. PaPEs elicited a pattern of gene regulation and cellular and biological processes that did not stimulate reproductive and mammary tissues or breast cancer cells. However, in ovariectomized mice, PaPEs triggered beneficial responses both in metabolic tissues (adipose tissue and liver) that reduced body weight gain and fat accumulation and in the vasculature that accelerated repair of endothelial damage. This process of designed ligand structure alteration represents a novel approach to develop ligands that shift the balance in ER-mediated extranuclear and nuclear pathways to obtain tissue-selective, non-nuclear pathway-preferential estrogens, which may be beneficial for postmenopausal hormone replacement. The approach may also have broad applicability for other members of the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily. PMID:27221711

  4. Effects of additives on the co-pyrolysis of municipal solid waste and paper sludge by using thermogravimetric analysis.

    PubMed

    Fang, Shiwen; Yu, Zhaosheng; Lin, Yan; Lin, Yousheng; Fan, Yunlong; Liao, Yanfen; Ma, Xiaoqian

    2016-06-01

    By using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), the effects of different additives (MgO, Al2O3 and ZnO) on the pyrolysis characteristics and activation energy of municipal solid waste (MSW), paper sludge (PS) and their blends in N2 atmosphere had been investigated in this study. The experiments resulted that these additives were effective in reducing the initial temperature and activation energy. However, not all the additives were beneficial to reduce the residue mass and enhance the index D. For the different ratios of MSW and PS, the same additive even had the different influences. The catalytic effects of additives were not obvious and the pyrolysis became difficult with the increase of the proportion of PS. Based on all the contrast of the pyrolysis characteristics, MgO was the best additive and 70M30P was the best ratio, respectively.

  5. Beneficial effects of metformin and irbesartan on advanced glycation end products (AGEs)-RAGE-induced proximal tubular cell injury.

    PubMed

    Ishibashi, Yuji; Matsui, Takanori; Takeuchi, Masayoshi; Yamagishi, Sho-ichi

    2012-03-01

    Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and their receptor (RAGE) axis contributes to diabetic nephropathy. An oral hypoglycemic agent, metformin may have a potential effect on the inhibition of glycation reactions. Further, since a pathophysiological crosstalk between renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and AGEs-RAGE axis is involved in diabetic nephropathy, it is conceivable that metformin and irbesartan additively could protect against the AGEs-RAGE-induced tubular cell injury. In this study, we addressed the issues. Metformin dose-dependently inhibited the formation of AGEs modification of bovine serum albumin (BSA). Compared with AGEs-modified BSA prepared without metformin (AGEs-MF0), those prepared in the presence of 30 mM or 100 mM metformin (AGEs-MF30 or AGEs-MF100) significantly reduced RAGE mRNA level, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, apoptosis, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and transforming growth factor-β mRNA level in tubular cells. Irbesartan further inhibited the harmful effects of AGEs-MF0 or AGEs-MF30 on tubular cells. Our present study suggests that combination therapy with metformin and irbesartan may have therapeutic potential in diabetic nephropathy; it could play a protective role against tubular injury in diabetes not only by inhibiting AGEs formation, but also by attenuating the deleterious effects of AGEs via down-regulating RAGE expression and subsequently suppressing ROS generation.

  6. Beneficial Effect of Higher Dietary Fiber Intake on Plasma HDL-C and TC/HDL-C Ratio among Chinese Rural-to-Urban Migrant Workers.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Quan; Wu, Jiang; Tang, Jie; Wang, Jia-Ji; Lu, Chu-Hong; Wang, Pei-Xi

    2015-04-29

    Research has shown that high-dose supplemental dietary fiber intake has beneficial effects on cardiovascular risk factors. To clarify such a relationship, we examined the association between daily dietary fiber intake and plasma lipids using a cross-sectional design including 1034 (M 502, F 532) rural-to-urban workers in China. We found a dose-response relationship between increased dietary fiber intakes and increase of HDL cholesterol in male workers. There was also a dose-response relationship between increased dietary fiber intake and decreased total cholesterol to HDL cholesterol (TC/HDL-C) ratio in both male and female workers, after adjusting for potential confounders (p for trend, all p < 0.05). When the average dietary fiber intake increased from less than 18 g/day to over 30 g/day, the average HDL cholesterol level increased by 10.1%, and the TC/HDL-C ratio decreased by 14.4% for males (p = 0.020) and by 11.1% for females (p = 0.048). In conclusion, higher daily dietary fiber consumption is associated with beneficial effect on cholesterol for rural-to-urban workers in China, suggesting its potential beneficial effect on decreasing the risk of cardiovascular diseases.

  7. Beneficial Effect of Higher Dietary Fiber Intake on Plasma HDL-C and TC/HDL-C Ratio among Chinese Rural-to-Urban Migrant Workers

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Quan; Wu, Jiang; Tang, Jie; Wang, Jia-Ji; Lu, Chu-Hong; Wang, Pei-Xi

    2015-01-01

    Research has shown that high-dose supplemental dietary fiber intake has beneficial effects on cardiovascular risk factors. To clarify such a relationship, we examined the association between daily dietary fiber intake and plasma lipids using a cross-sectional design including 1034 (M 502, F 532) rural-to-urban workers in China. We found a dose-response relationship between increased dietary fiber intakes and increase of HDL cholesterol in male workers. There was also a dose-response relationship between increased dietary fiber intake and decreased total cholesterol to HDL cholesterol (TC/HDL-C) ratio in both male and female workers, after adjusting for potential confounders (p for trend, all p < 0.05). When the average dietary fiber intake increased from less than 18 g/day to over 30 g/day, the average HDL cholesterol level increased by 10.1%, and the TC/HDL-C ratio decreased by 14.4% for males (p = 0.020) and by 11.1% for females (p = 0.048). In conclusion, higher daily dietary fiber consumption is associated with beneficial effect on cholesterol for rural-to-urban workers in China, suggesting its potential beneficial effect on decreasing the risk of cardiovascular diseases. PMID:25938914

  8. Ecotoxicological effects of activated carbon addition to sediments.

    PubMed

    Jonker, Michiel T O; Suijkerbuijk, Martin P W; Schmitt, Heike; Sinnige, Theo L

    2009-08-01

    Activated carbon (AC) addition is a recently developed technique for the remediation of sediments and soils contaminated with hydrophobic organic chemicals. Laboratory and field experiments have demonstrated that the addition of 3-4% of AC can reduce aqueous concentrations and the bioaccumulation potential of contaminants. However, one aspect of the technique that has hardly received any attention is the possible occurrence of secondary, eco(toxico)logical effects, i.e., effects of AC addition on the health, behavior, and habitat quality of local organisms. In the present study, several ecotoxicological effects were investigated in AC-water and AC-enriched (0-25%) sediment systems. It was demonstrated that (i) powdered activated carbons can be toxic to aquatic invertebrates (Lumbriculus variegatus, Daphnia magna, and Corophium volutator) based on different mechanisms and preferably should be washed prior to application; (ii) Asellus aquaticus and Corophium volutator may physically avoid AC-enriched sediments; (iii) exposure of Lumbriculus variegatus to AC-enriched sediments lead to a time and dose-dependent reduction in the worms' lipid content, which was most probably caused by the observation that (iv) worm egestion rates decreased drastically upon AC addition, indicating that the presence of AC disturbed feeding behavior; and (v) there were no obvious effects on the microbiological community structure. All in all, these results suggest potential ecotoxicological effects of powdered AC addition and stress the need for a detailed further investigation of secondary effects of the technique, prior to any large-scale field application.

  9. Additive anti-inflammatory effect of formoterol and budesonide on human lung fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Spoelstra, F; Postma, D; Hovenga, H; Noordhoek, J; Kauffman, H

    2002-01-01

    Background: It has been shown that treatment with a long acting ß2 agonist in addition to a glucocorticoid is beneficial in the treatment of asthma. In asthma inflammatory cells, particularly eosinophils, migrate into the pulmonary tissue and airway lumen by means of adhesion molecules expressed on resident tissue cells—that is, fibroblasts—and become activated by cytokines and adhesive interactions. A study was undertaken to determine whether an interaction exists between the long acting ß2 agonist formoterol and the glucocorticoid budesonide on inhibition of adhesion molecule expression, as well as chemo/cytokine production by human lung fibroblasts. Methods: Lung fibroblasts were preincubated with therapeutically relevant drug concentrations of 10-8 M to 10-10 M. Cells were stimulated with interleukin (IL)-1ß (1 or 10 U/ml) for 8 hours and supernatants were collected for measurement of GM-CSF and IL-8 concentrations. The cells were fixed and subjected to a cell surface ELISA technique to measure the expression of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1. Results: Formoterol exerted an additive effect on the inhibition of IL-1ß stimulated ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 upregulation and GM-CSF production by budesonide in concentrations of 10-9 M and above (p<0.05). IL-8 production was not influenced by formoterol. Conclusion: Formoterol exerts an additive effect on the anti-inflammatory properties of budesonide. In vitro data support the finding that the combination of budesonide and formoterol in asthma treatment strengthens the beneficial effect of either drug alone. PMID:11867828

  10. Beneficial effect of PEDF-transfected ADSCs on erectile dysfunction in a streptozotocin-diabetic rat model.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jun; Xin, Zhixiang; Zhang, Qi; Cui, Di; Xiao, Yinglong; Zhuo, Jian; Sun, Feng; Xia, Shujie; Shao, Yi

    2016-12-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is an important risk factor for erectile dysfunction. Adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) are essential for maintaining erectile function but their function is impaired during hyperglycemia. To evaluate the effects of pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF)-transfected ADSCs on the restoration of erectile function ADSCs and PEDF-transfected ADSCs were exposed to normal or high glucose levels for 72 h and the effects on cell survival and protein expression were determined. For in vivo studies, rats with streptozocin-induced DM were intravenously injected with ADSCs or PEDF-transfected ADSCs. Two weeks later, the intracavernosal pressure (ICP) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) were measured to assess erectile function, and penile tissues were harvested for further evaluation. PEDF overexpression in ADSCs protected cells against hyperglycemia-induced apoptosis (as determined by a TUNEL assay), increasing the expression of neurotrophic factors and decreasing the expression of inflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress-related proteins (as determined by western blotting and ELISA). In DM rats, transplantation with PEDF-transfected ADSCs effectively restored erectile function, as determined by the ICP/MAP ratio, compared with untreated ADSCs. PEDF overexpression also resulted in higher survival rates and decreased apoptosis of ADSCs. Promotion of neurotrophic factor expression and suppression of inflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress-related proteins were also observed after transplantation of PEDF-transfected ADSCs. Thus, our results demonstrate that transplantation of ADSCs restored erectile function in a rat model of DM, attenuating the negative effects of hyperglycemia. These findings indicate the therapeutic potential of ADSCs for treating erectile dysfunction and the additional benefits of PEDF overexpression.

  11. Combined Pioglitazone and Metformin Treatment Maintains the Beneficial Effect of Short-Term Insulin Infusion in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes: Results from a Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Musholt, Petra B.; Schöndorf, Thomas; Pfützner, Andreas; Hohberg, Cloth; Kleine, Iris; Fuchs, Winfried; Hehenwarter, Silvia; Dikta, Gerhard; Kerschgens, Benedikt; Forst, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    that a beneficial effect of a short-term intravenous insulin application on glycemic control was effectively maintained by pioglitazone/metformin treatment for at least 4 months. In addition, the oral therapy significantly improved cardiovascular risk parameters. PMID:20144400

  12. The Beneficiation of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senger, April J.

    2014-01-01

    When the challenge of adapting curriculum to meet the requirements of the Common Core State Standards were presented, this author immediately sought out the assistance of experts in another field: the school library staff. It was apparent that staff needed to practice the beneficiation of the current curriculum to meet the CCSS requirements.…

  13. The effect of chemical additives on the synthesis of ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Chuang, S.S.C.

    1990-11-01

    The objective of this research is to elucidate the role of additives on the ethanol synthesis over Rh- and Ni-based catalysts. Chemical additives used for this study will include S, P, Ag, Cu, Mn, and Na which have different electronegativities. The effect of additives on the surface state of the catalysts, heat of adsorption of reactant molecules, reaction intermediates, reaction pathways, reaction kinetics, and product distributions is/will be investigated by a series of experimental studies of NO adsorption, reaction probing, study state rate measurement, and transient kinetic study. A better understanding of the role of additive on the synthesis reaction may allow them to use chemical additives to manipulate the catalytic properties of Rh- and Ni-based catalysts for producing high yields of ethanol from syngas. 49 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. The effect of chemical additives on the synthesis of ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Chuang, S.S.C.

    1990-04-09

    The objective of this research is to elucidate the role of various chemical additives on ethanol synthesis over Rh- and Ni-based catalysts. Chemical additives used for this study will include S, P, Ag, Cu, Mn, and Na which have different electronegativities. The effect of additives on the surface state of the catalysts, heat of adsorption of reactant molecules, reaction intermediates, reaction pathways, reaction kinetics, and product distributions is/will be investigated by a series of experimental studies of NO adsorption, reaction probing, study state rate measurement, and transient kinetic study. A better understanding of the role of additive on the synthesis reaction may allow us to use chemical additives to manipulate the catalytic properties of Rh- and Ni-based catalysts for producing high yields of ethanol from syngas.

  15. The effect of chemical additives on the synthesis of ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Chuang, S.S.C.

    1990-07-01

    The objective of this research is to elucidate the role of various chemical additives on ethanol synthesis over Rh- and Ni-based catalysts. Chemical additives used for this study will include S, P, Ag, Cu, Mn, and Na which have different electronegativities. The effect of additives on the surface state of the catalysts, heat of adsorption of reactant molecules, reaction intermediates, reaction pathways, reaction kinetics, and product distributions is/will be investigated by a series of experimental studies of NO adsorption, reaction probing, study state rate measurement, and transient kinetic study. A better understanding of the role of additive on the synthesis reaction may allow us to use chemical additives to manipulate the catalytic properties of Rh- and Ni-based catalysts for producing high yields of ethanol from syngas.

  16. Beneficial effects of bacteria-plant communication based on quorum sensing molecules of the N-acyl homoserine lactone group.

    PubMed

    Schikora, Adam; Schenk, Sebastian T; Hartmann, Anton

    2016-04-01

    Bacterial quorum sensing (QS) mechanisms play a crucial role in the proper performance and ecological fitness of bacterial populations. Many key physiological processes are regulated in a QS-dependent manner by auto-inducers, like the N-acyl homoserine lactones (AHLs) in numerous Gram-negative bacteria. In addition, also the interaction between bacteria and eukaryotic hosts can be regulated by AHLs. Those mechanisms gained much attention, because of the positive effects of different AHL molecules on plants. This positive impact ranges from growth promotion to induced resistance and is quite contrasting to the rather negative effects observed in the interactions between bacterial AHL molecules and animals. Only very recently, we began to understand the molecular mechanisms underpinning plant responses to AHL molecules. In this review, we gathered the latest information in this research field. The first part gives an overview of the bacterial aspects of quorum sensing. Later we focus on the impact of AHLs on plant growth and AHL-priming, as one of the most understood phenomena in respect to the inter-kingdom interactions based on AHL-quorum sensing molecules. Finally, we discuss the potential benefits of the understanding of bacteria-plant interaction for the future agricultural applications.

  17. Beneficial effect of astragalosides on stroke condition using PC12 cells under oxygen glucose deprivation and reperfusion.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Bi-Ying; Chang, Ching-Ping; Lin, Jia-Wei; Yu, Jung-Sheng; Liu, Wen-Pin; Hsu, Yao-Chin; Lin, Mao-Tsun

    2014-08-01

    Astragalosides (AST) are reported to be neuroprotective in focal cerebral ischemic models in vivo. In this study, the direct effect of AST against oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD) including neuronal injury and the underlying mechanisms in vitro were investigated. 5 h OGD followed by 24 h of reperfusion [adding back oxygen and glucose (OGD-R)] was used to induce in vitro ischemia reperfusion injury in differentiated rat pheochromocytoma PC12 cells. AST (1, 100, and 200 µg/mL) were added to the culture after 5 h of the OGD ischemic insult and was present during the reoxygenation phases. A key finding was that OGD-R decreased cell viability, increased lactate dehydrogenase, increased reactive oxygen species, apoptosis, autophagy, functional impairment of mitochondria, and endoplasmic reticulum stress in PC12 cells, all of which AST treatment significantly reduced. In addition, AST attenuated OGD-R-induced cell loss through P38 MAPK activation a neuroprotective effect blunted by SB203580, a specific inhibitor of P38 MAPK. Our data suggest that both apoptosis and autophagy are important characteristics of OGD-R-induced PC12 death and that treating PC12 cells with AST blocked OGD-R-induced apoptosis and autophagy by suppressing intracellular oxidative stress, functional impairment of mitochondria, and endoplasmic reticulum stress. Our data provide identification of AST that can concomitantly inhibit multiple cells death pathways following OGD injuries in neural cells.

  18. Beneficial effect of the bioflavonoid quercetin on cholecystokinin-induced mitochondrial dysfunction in isolated rat pancreatic acinar cells.

    PubMed

    Weber, Heike; Jonas, Ludwig; Wakileh, Michael; Krüger, Burkhard

    2014-03-01

    The pathogenesis of acute pancreatitis (AP) is still poorly understood. Thus, a reliable pharmacological therapy is currently lacking. In recent years, an impairment of the energy metabolism of pancreatic acinar cells, caused by Ca(2+)-mediated depolarization of the inner mitochondrial membrane and a decreased ATP supply, has been implicated as an important pathological event. In this study, we investigated whether quercetin exerts protection against mitochondrial dysfunction. Following treatment with or without quercetin, rat pancreatic acinar cells were stimulated with supramaximal cholecystokinin-8 (CCK). CCK caused a decrease in the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and ATP concentration, whereas the mitochondrial dehydrogenase activity was significantly increased. Quercetin treatment before CCK application exerted no protection on MMP but increased ATP to a normal level, leading to a continuous decrease in the dehydrogenase activity. The protective effect of quercetin on mitochondrial function was accompanied by a reduction in CCK-induced changes to the cell membrane. Concerning the molecular mechanism underlying the protective effect of quercetin, an increased AMP/ATP ratio suggests that the AMP-activated protein kinase system may be activated. In addition, quercetin strongly inhibited CCK-induced trypsin activity. The results indicate that the use of quercetin may be a therapeutic strategy for reducing the severity of AP.

  19. Study on thermal effects & sulfurized additives, in lubricating greases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah, Ami Atul

    Lithium Base grease constitutes about 50% of market. The greases are developed to be able to work in multiple working conditions and have longer working life. Greases with extreme pressure additives and anti-wear additives have been developed as a solution to many of the applications. These developed greases are tested under ASTM D2266 testing conditions to meet the requirements. The actual working conditions, although, differ than the real testing conditions. The loading, speed and temperature conditions can be more harsh, or fluctuating in nature. The cyclic nature of the parameters cannot be directly related to the test performance. For this purpose studies on the performance under spectrum loading, variable speed and fluctuating temperature must be performed. This study includes tests to understand the effect of thermal variation on some of the most commonly used grease additives that perform well under ASTM D2266 testing conditions. The studied additives include most widely used industrial extreme pressure additive MoS2. Performance of ZDDP which is trying to replace MoS2 in its industrial applications has also been studied. The tests cover study of extreme pressure, anti-wear and friction modifier additives to get a general idea on the effects of thermal variation in three areas. Sulphur is the most common extreme pressure additive. Sulphur based MoS 2 is extensively used grease additive. Study to understand the tribological performance of this additive through wear testing and SEM/EDX studies has been done. This performance is also studied for other metallic sulfides like WS2 and sulphur based organic compound. The aim is to study the importance of the type of bond that sulphur shares in its additive's structure on its performance. The MoS2 film formation is found to be on the basis of the FeS formation on the substrate and protection through sacrificial monolayer deposition of the MoS2 sheared structure. The free Mo then tends to oxidise. An attempt to

  20. Beneficial effect of 17{beta}-estradiol on hyperglycemia and islet {beta}-cell functions in a streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat model

    SciTech Connect

    Yamabe, Noriko; Kang, Ki Sung; Zhu Baoting

    2010-11-15

    The modulating effect of estrogen on glucose homeostasis remains a controversial issue at present. In this study, we sought to determine the beneficial effect of 17{beta}-estradiol (E{sub 2}) on hyperglycemia and islet {beta}-cell functions in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were injected i.p. with STZ to induce a relatively mild diabetic condition. The rats were then treated with E{sub 2} orally at 500 {mu}g/kg body weight/day for 15 days to evaluate the modulating effect on hyperglycemia, insulin secretion, and islet {beta}-cell proliferation. E{sub 2} administration for 10 days significantly lowered plasma glucose levels, increased plasma insulin levels, and improved glucose tolerance by attenuating insulin response to oral glucose loading. These beneficial effects of E{sub 2} were accompanied by increases in islet number and volume, rate of islet cell proliferation, and the amount of insulin secreted. The growth-stimulatory effect of E{sub 2} on islet cells was linked to the functions of the estrogen receptor {alpha}. Notably, these protective effects of E{sub 2} on diabetic conditions were basically not observed when the STZ-treated rats had a more severe degree of islet damage and hyperglycemia. Taken together, we conclude that E{sub 2} can promote the regeneration of damaged pancreatic islets by stimulating {beta}-cell proliferation in diabetic rats, and this effect is accompanied by improvements in glucose tolerance and a decrease in plasma glucose levels. These findings suggest that oral administration of E{sub 2} may be beneficial in diabetic patients with an accelerated loss of islet {beta}-cells.

  1. Beneficial effects of a synbiotic supplement on self-perceived gastrointestinal well-being and immunoinflammatory status of healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Nova, Esther; Viadel, Blanca; Wärnberg, Julia; Carreres, Jose E; Marcos, Ascensión

    2011-01-01

    The use of synbiotics as health promoters is still poorly defined, and human intervention studies are scarce. This study was designed to evaluate the effects of a commercialized synbiotic product containing Lactobacillus acidophilus La5, Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis Bb-12, Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus, Lactobacillus paracasei ssp. paracasei, Streptococcus thermophilus, and fructooligosaccharides on the self-reported gastrointestinal well-being and the immunoinflammatory status of healthy human subjects. In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, 20 women and 16 men (25-45 years old) received either three tablets per day of the synbiotic product (2.4 × 10(9) colony-forming units/day) or placebo during 6 weeks. Gastrointestinal symptoms and bowel habits were evaluated through a self-administered questionnaire. In those subjects suffering from any kind of digestive disturbance (mild dyspepsia, flatulence, postprandial bloating, constipation, etc.), improvements in symptoms after product consumption were also evaluated. Blood lymphocyte subsets, phagocytic activity, serum C-reactive protein, ceruloplasmin, and adhesion molecules concentrations were analyzed prior and after treatment. A significant improvement in overall self-reported gastrointestinal symptoms and bowel habit was found in the synbiotic group. A marginal effect of treatment (analysis of variance P = .050) was observed with L-selectin, which showed a significant decrease in the synbiotic group (P = .019). In addition, basal L-selectin levels correlated with final intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 levels (r = 0.468; P = .050), and basal ICAM-1 levels tended to correlate negatively with final L-selectin concentration (r = -0.457; P = .056). None of these correlations was found in the placebo group. The rest of the immunological parameters studied were not modified by the intervention. In conclusion, consumption of the synbiotic

  2. Mindfulness-based interventions in multiple sclerosis: beneficial effects of Tai Chi on balance, coordination, fatigue and depression

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Patients suffering from Multiple Sclerosis (MS) experience a wide array of symptoms, including balance problems, mobility impairment, fatigue and depression. Physical exercise has recently been acknowledged as a treatment option complementary to medication. However, information regarding putative effects of structured exercise programs on neurological symptoms is sparse. Tai Chi, a Chinese martial art incorporating physical exercise and mindfulness training, has been shown to yield health benefits in various neurological groups. It seems particularly suitable for patients with motoric deficits as it challenges coordination and balance. The purpose of the current study was to explore the therapeutic value of structured Tai Chi training for coordination, balance, fatigue and depression in mildly disabled MS patients. Methods A sample of 32 MS patients (Expanded Disability Status Scale, EDSS < 5) was examined. A structured Tai Chi course was devised and a Tai Chi group participated in two weekly sessions of 90 minutes duration for six months, while a comparison group received treatment as usual (TAU). Both groups were examined prior to and following the six-months interval with regards to balance and coordination performance as well as measures of fatigue, depression and life satisfaction. Results Following the intervention, the Tai Chi group showed significant, consistent improvements in balance, coordination, and depression, relative to the TAU group (range of effect-sizes: partial η2 = 0.16 – 0.20). Additionally, life satisfaction improved (partial η2 = 0.31). Fatigue deteriorated in the comparison group, whereas it remained relatively stable in the Tai Chi group (partial η2 = 0.24). Conclusions The consistent pattern of results confirms that Tai Chi holds therapeutic potential for MS patients. Further research is needed to determine underlying working mechanisms, and to verify the results in a larger sample and different MS

  3. Oleocanthal, a Phenolic Derived from Virgin Olive Oil: A Review of the Beneficial Effects on Inflammatory Disease

    PubMed Central

    Parkinson, Lisa; Keast, Russell

    2014-01-01

    Virgin olive oil (VOO) is credited as being one of many healthful components of the Mediterranean diet. Mediterranean populations experience reduced incidence of chronic inflammatory disease states and VOO is readily consumed as part of an everyday dietary pattern. A phenolic compound contained in VOO, named oleocanthal, shares unique perceptual and anti-inflammatory characteristics with Ibuprofen. Over recent years oleocanthal has become a compound of interest in the search for naturally occurring compounds with pharmacological qualities. Subsequent to its discovery and identification, oleocanthal has been reported to exhibit various modes of action in reducing inflammatory related disease, including joint-degenerative disease, neuro-degenerative disease and specific cancers. Therefore, it is postulated that long term consumption of VOO containing oleocanthal may contribute to the health benefits associated with the Mediterranean dietary pattern. The following paper summarizes the current literature on oleocanthal, in terms of its sensory and pharmacological properties, and also discusses the beneficial, health promoting activities of oleocanthal, in the context of the molecular mechanisms within various models of disease. PMID:25019344

  4. Oleocanthal, a phenolic derived from virgin olive oil: a review of the beneficial effects on inflammatory disease.

    PubMed

    Parkinson, Lisa; Keast, Russell

    2014-07-11

    Virgin olive oil (VOO) is credited as being one of many healthful components of the Mediterranean diet. Mediterranean populations experience reduced incidence of chronic inflammatory disease states and VOO is readily consumed as part of an everyday dietary pattern. A phenolic compound contained in VOO, named oleocanthal, shares unique perceptual and anti-inflammatory characteristics with Ibuprofen. Over recent years oleocanthal has become a compound of interest in the search for naturally occurring compounds with pharmacological qualities. Subsequent to its discovery and identification, oleocanthal has been reported to exhibit various modes of action in reducing inflammatory related disease, including joint-degenerative disease, neuro-degenerative disease and specific cancers. Therefore, it is postulated that long term consumption of VOO containing oleocanthal may contribute to the health benefits associated with the Mediterranean dietary pattern. The following paper summarizes the current literature on oleocanthal, in terms of its sensory and pharmacological properties, and also discusses the beneficial, health promoting activities of oleocanthal, in the context of the molecular mechanisms within various models of disease.

  5. Can wheat germ have a beneficial effect on human health? A study protocol for a randomised crossover controlled trial to evaluate its health effects

    PubMed Central

    Moreira-Rosário, André; Pinheiro, Helder; Calhau, Conceição; Azevedo, Luís Filipe

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are the leading cause of mortality worldwide and diet is an important contributor to CVD risk. Thus, several food derivatives are being investigated for their beneficial impact on reducing cardiometabolic risk factors, either in risk groups or in healthy population as a preventive measure. Wheat germ is a food by-product with high nutritional value, especially as a concentrated source of dietary fibre and essential fatty acids, but its incorporation into the diet has been rare up to now. Previous studies do not clarify the hypothesised potential causal relationship between the consumption of wheat germ and benefits for human health. Methods and analysis We are conducting a randomised, double-blinded, crossover, placebo-controlled clinical trial designed to assess the physiological effects of daily consumption of wheat germ-enriched bread (containing 6 g of wheat germ) compared with non-enriched bread, over a 4-week period with a 15-week follow-up, in a healthy human population. A total of 55 participants (healthy volunteers, aged 18–60) have been recruited from the Porto metropolitan area in northern Portugal. Our aim is to evaluate the health effects of wheat germ on blood cholesterol and triglycerides, postprandial glycaemic response, gastrointestinal function and discomfort, and changes in intestinal microbiota and insulin resistance as secondary outcomes. The study follows the best practices for evaluating health claims in food according to the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) scientific opinion, namely random allocation, double blinding, reporting methods to measure and maximise compliance, and validated outcomes with beneficial physiological effects as recommended by EFSA. Ethics and dissemination The study has been approved by the Health Ethics Committee of São João Hospital Centre (156-15) and the Ethics Committee of Faculty of Medicine of the University of Porto (PCEDCSS-FMUP07/2015). Results will be

  6. Beneficial effects of multisensory and cognitive stimulation on age-related cognitive decline in long-term-care institutions

    PubMed Central

    De Oliveira, Thaís Cristina Galdino; Soares, Fernanda Cabral; De Macedo, Liliane Dias E Dias; Diniz, Domingos Luiz Wanderley Picanço; Bento-Torres, Natáli Valim Oliver; Picanço-Diniz, Cristovam Wanderley

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present report was to evaluate the effectiveness and impact of multisensory and cognitive stimulation on improving cognition in elderly persons living in long-term-care institutions (institutionalized [I]) or in communities with their families (noninstitutionalized [NI]). We compared neuropsychological performance using language and Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) test scores before and after 24 and 48 stimulation sessions. The two groups were matched by age and years of schooling. Small groups of ten or fewer volunteers underwent the stimulation program, twice a week, over 6 months (48 sessions in total). Sessions were based on language and memory exercises, as well as visual, olfactory, auditory, and ludic stimulation, including music, singing, and dance. Both groups were assessed at the beginning (before stimulation), in the middle (after 24 sessions), and at the end (after 48 sessions) of the stimulation program. Although the NI group showed higher performance in all tasks in all time windows compared with I subjects, both groups improved their performance after stimulation. In addition, the improvement was significantly higher in the I group than the NI group. Language tests seem to be more efficient than the MMSE to detect early changes in cognitive status. The results suggest the impoverished environment of long-term-care institutions may contribute to lower cognitive scores before stimulation and the higher improvement rate of this group after stimulation. In conclusion, language tests should be routinely adopted in the neuropsychological assessment of elderly subjects, and long-term-care institutions need to include regular sensorimotor, social, and cognitive stimulation as a public health policy for elderly persons. PMID:24600211

  7. Beneficial effects of multisensory and cognitive stimulation on age-related cognitive decline in long-term-care institutions.

    PubMed

    De Oliveira, Thaís Cristina Galdino; Soares, Fernanda Cabral; De Macedo, Liliane Dias E Dias; Diniz, Domingos Luiz Wanderley Picanço; Bento-Torres, Natáli Valim Oliver; Picanço-Diniz, Cristovam Wanderley

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present report was to evaluate the effectiveness and impact of multisensory and cognitive stimulation on improving cognition in elderly persons living in long-term-care institutions (institutionalized [I]) or in communities with their families (noninstitutionalized [NI]). We compared neuropsychological performance using language and Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) test scores before and after 24 and 48 stimulation sessions. The two groups were matched by age and years of schooling. Small groups of ten or fewer volunteers underwent the stimulation program, twice a week, over 6 months (48 sessions in total). Sessions were based on language and memory exercises, as well as visual, olfactory, auditory, and ludic stimulation, including music, singing, and dance. Both groups were assessed at the beginning (before stimulation), in the middle (after 24 sessions), and at the end (after 48 sessions) of the stimulation program. Although the NI group showed higher performance in all tasks in all time windows compared with I subjects, both groups improved their performance after stimulation. In addition, the improvement was significantly higher in the I group than the NI group. Language tests seem to be more efficient than the MMSE to detect early changes in cognitive status. The results suggest the impoverished environment of long-term-care institutions may contribute to lower cognitive scores before stimulation and the higher improvement rate of this group after stimulation. In conclusion, language tests should be routinely adopted in the neuropsychological assessment of elderly subjects, and long-term-care institutions need to include regular sensorimotor, social, and cognitive stimulation as a public health policy for elderly persons.

  8. Oxidative stress parameters in urine from patients with disorders of propionate metabolism: a beneficial effect of L:-carnitine supplementation.

    PubMed

    Ribas, Graziela S; Biancini, Giovana B; Mescka, Caroline; Wayhs, Carlos Y; Sitta, Angela; Wajner, Moacir; Vargas, Carmen R

    2012-01-01

    Propionic (PA) and methylmalonic (MMA) acidurias are inherited disorders caused by deficiency of propionyl-CoA carboxylase and methylmalonyl-CoA mutase, respectively. Affected patients present acute metabolic crises in the neonatal period and long-term neurological deficits. Treatments of these diseases include a protein restricted diet and L: -carnitine supplementation. L: -Carnitine is widely used in the therapy of these diseases to prevent secondary L: -carnitine deficiency and promote detoxification, and several recent in vitro and in vivo studies have reported antioxidant and antiperoxidative effects of this compound. In this study, we evaluated the oxidative stress parameters, isoprostane and di-tyrosine levels, and the antioxidant capacity, in urine from patients with PA and MMA at the diagnosis, and during treatment with L: -carnitine and protein-restricted diet. We verified a significant increase of isoprostanes and di-tyrosine, as well as a significant reduction of the antioxidant capacity in urine from these patients at diagnosis, as compared to controls. Furthermore, treated patients presented a marked reduction of isoprostanes and di-tyrosine levels in relation to untreated patients. In addition, patients with higher levels of protein and lipid oxidative damage, determined by di-tyrosine and isoprostanes levels, also presented lower urinary concentrations of total and free L: -carnitine. In conclusion, the present results indicate that treatment with low protein diet and L: -carnitine significantly reduces urinary biomarkers of protein and lipid oxidative damage in patients with disorders of propionate metabolism and that L: -carnitine supplementation may be specially involved in this protection.

  9. The effect of one additional driver mutation on tumor progression.

    PubMed

    Reiter, Johannes G; Bozic, Ivana; Allen, Benjamin; Chatterjee, Krishnendu; Nowak, Martin A

    2013-01-01

    Tumor growth is caused by the acquisition of driver mutations, which enhance the net reproductive rate of cells. Driver mutations may increase cell division, reduce cell death, or allow cells to overcome density-limiting effects. We study the dynamics of tumor growth as one additional driver mutation is acquired. Our models are based on two-type branching processes that terminate in either tumor disappearance or tumor detection. In our first model, both cell types grow exponentially, with a faster rate for cells carrying the additional driver. We find that the additional driver mutation does not affect the survival probability of the lesion, but can substantially reduce the time to reach the detectable size if the lesion is slow growing. In our second model, cells lacking the additional driver cannot exceed a fixed carrying capacity, due to density limitations. In this case, the time to detection depends strongly on this carrying capacity. Our model provides a quantitative framework for studying tumor dynamics during different stages of progression. We observe that early, small lesions need additional drivers, while late stage metastases are only marginally affected by them. These results help to explain why additional driver mutations are typically not detected in fast-growing metastases.

  10. Toxic effect of biosurfactant addition on the biodegradation of phenanthrene.

    PubMed

    Shin, Kyung-Hee; Ahn, Yeonghee; Kim, Kyoung-Woong

    2005-11-01

    The effect of the biosurfactant rhamnolipid on phenanthrene biodegradation and cell growth of phenanthrene degraders was investigated. To compare the effect of rhamnolipid addition, two bacterial strains, 3Y and 4-3, which were isolated from a diesel-contaminated site in Korea, were selected. Without the biosurfactant, large amounts of phenanthrene were degraded with both strains at neutral pH, with higher rates of phenanthrene degradation when the cell growth was higher. Upon the addition of 240 mg/L rhamnolipid, the phenanthrene degradation and optical density were reduced, with this inhibitory effect similar for both 3Y and 4-3. To explain this inhibition, the cell growths of both strains were monitored with various concentrations of rhamnolipid, which showed significant toxic effects toward strain 3Y, but was nontoxic toward 4-3. Combining the inhibitory and toxicity results with regard to the biodegradation, different mechanisms can be suggested for each strain. In the biodegradation experiments, the toxicity of rhamnolipid itself mainly was responsible for the inhibitory effect in the case of 3Y, whereas the toxicity of solubilized phenanthrene or the increased toxicity of rhamnolipid in the presence of solubilized phenanthrene could have resulted in the inhibitory effect in the case of 4-3. This study demonstrated that the effectiveness of biosurfactant-enhanced biodegradation can be significantly different depending on the strain, and the toxicity of the biosurfactant should be considered as an important factor.

  11. Effect of the Addition of Schisandra chinensis Powder on the Physico-chemical Characteristics of Sausage

    PubMed Central

    Jin, S. K.; Park, J. H.

    2013-01-01

    The individual and interactive effects of Schisandra chinensis powder (SCP) and sodium nitrite additions on color, pH, water holding capacity, residual nitrite, 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), volatile basic nitrogen, texture properties, fatty acids, amino acids and sensory evaluation of cooked pork sausages were investigated after 20 d of storage at 4°C. The powders (0, 0.5 and 1.0%) were added to sausages either alone or in combination with nitrite (0 and 100 ppm). SCP added-sausages showed lower L* (lightness) and W (whiteness) values, and higher b* (yellowness) values than sausage containing no nitrite, and exhibited the highest a* values at a 0.5% addition (p<0.05). Residual nitrite and TBARS values were found to be significantly reduced as the addition levels of SCP increased (p<0.05). As the addition of SCP increased, the sausage showed gradually decreased brittleness, cohesiveness, springiness, gumminess and chewiness, while adhesiveness increased. Polyunsaturated fatty acid, n-6 and n-6/n-3 fatty acid ratio concentrations were significantly higher in sausages containing SCP (p<0.05). The addition of SCP to sausage significantly (p<0.05) increased the ammonia content (by 0.5% SCP) and aromatic amino acid concentrations (by 1.0% SCP) (p<0.05). Inclusion of SCP in sausage meat resulted in a significant deterioration in quality characteristics of flavor, springiness, juiciness and overall acceptability (p<0.05). As expected, the observed changes in a*, W, pH, shear force, texture property, TBARS, fatty acid, amino acid and sensory score of sausages, depended on the rate of addition of nitrite (p<0.05). These results suggest that SCP addition is not an effective way of improving the sensory evaluation of sausages, but may beneficially affect TBARS, nitrite scavenging activity, fatty acid and amino acid content in pork sausages. PMID:25049766

  12. Tin nanoparticles as an effective conductive additive in silicon anodes

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, L.; Beaudette, C.; Guo, J.; Bozhilov, K.; Mangolini, L.

    2016-01-01

    We have found that the addition of tin nanoparticles to a silicon-based anode provides dramatic improvements in performance in terms of both charge capacity and cycling stability. Using a simple procedure and off-the-shelf additives and precursors, we developed a structure in which the tin nanoparticles are segregated at the interface between the silicon-containing active layer and the solid electrolyte interface. Even a minor addition of tin, as small as ∼2% by weight, results in a significant decrease in the anode resistance, as confirmed by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. This leads to a decrease in charge transfer resistance, which prevents the formation of electrically inactive “dead spots” in the anode structure and enables the effective participation of silicon in the lithiation reaction. PMID:27484849

  13. Effectiveness of various organometallics as antiwear additives in mineral oil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckley, D. H.

    1977-01-01

    Sliding friction experiments were conducted with 1045 steel contacting 302 stainless steel and lubricated with various organometallics in mineral oil. Auger emission spectroscopy was used to determine the element present in the wear contact zone. The results indicate that there are organometallics which are as effective an antiwear additives as the commonly used zinc dialkyl dithiophosphate. These include dimethyl cadmium, triphenyl lead thiomethoxide, and triphenyl tin chloride. The additives were examined in concentrations to 1 weight percent. With dimethyl cadmium at concentrations of 0.5 weight percent and above, cadmium was detected in the contact zone. Coincident with the detection of cadmium, a marked decrease in the friction coefficient was observed. All additives examined reduced friction, but only the aforementioned reduced wear to a level comparable to that observed with zinc dialkyl dithiophosphate.

  14. Modulation of additive and interactive effects by trial history revisited.

    PubMed

    Masson, Michael E J; Rabe, Maximilian M; Kliegl, Reinhold

    2017-04-01

    Masson and Kliegl (Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 39, 898-914, 2013) reported evidence that the nature of the target stimulus on the previous trial of a lexical decision task modulates the effects of independent variables on the current trial, including additive versus interactive effects of word frequency and stimulus quality. In contrast, recent reanalyses of previously published data from experiments that, unlike the Masson and Kliegl experiments, did not include semantic priming as a factor, found no evidence for modulation of additive effects of frequency and stimulus quality by trial history (Balota, Aschenbrenner, & Yap, Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 39, 1563-1571, 2013; O'Malley & Besner, Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 34, 1400-1411, 2013). We report two experiments that included semantic priming as a factor and that attempted to replicate the modulatory effects found by Masson and Kliegl. In neither experiment was additivity of frequency and stimulus quality modulated by trial history, converging with the findings reported by Balota et al. and O'Malley and Besner. Other modulatory influences of trial history, however, were replicated in the new experiments and reflect potential trial-by-trial alterations in decision processes.

  15. Effect of coal beneficiation process on rheology/atomization of coal water slurries. Quarterly progress report, July 1, 1995--September 30, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Ohene, F.

    1996-02-01

    The overall objective of this project is to perform experiments to understand the effect of coal beneficiation processes and high shear rheological properties on the atomization of coal-water slurries (CWS). In the atomization studies, the mean drop size of the CWS sprays will be determined at various air-to CWS. A correlation between the high shear rheological properties, particle size distributions and the atomization will be made in order to determine the influence of these parameters on the atomization of CWS.

  16. Effect of coal beneficiation process on rheology/atomization of coal water slurries. Quarterly progress report, May 1, 1993--July 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Ohene, F.

    1994-09-01

    The overall objective of this project is to perform experiments to understand the effect of coal beneficiation processes and high shear rheological properties on the atomization of coal-water slurries (CWS). In the atomization studies, the mean drop size of the CWS sprays will be determined at various air-to-CWS. A correlation between the high shear rheological properties, particle size distributions and the atomization will be made in order to determine the influence of these parameters on the atomization of CWS.

  17. Effect of coal beneficiation process on rheology/atomization of coal water slurries. Quarterly progress report, January 1--March 30, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Ohene, F.

    1995-12-31

    The overall objective of this project is to perform experiments to understand the effect of coal beneficiation processes and high shear rheological properties on the atomization of coal-water slurries (CWS). In the atomization studies, the mean drop size of the CWS sprays will be determined at various air-to CWS. A correlation between the high shear rheological properties, particle size distributions and the atomization will be made in order to determine the influence of these parameters on the atomization of CWS. Results on the rheological evaluation of CWS are presented.

  18. Effects of amino acid additives during hemodialysis of children.

    PubMed

    Abitbol, C L; Mrozinska, K; Mandel, S; McVicar, M; Wapnir, R A

    1984-01-01

    The intradialytic losses into the dialysate of free amino acids (AA) and alpha-amino nitrogen were determined during the dialysis of three children. Variations in plasma AA were determined pre- and postdialysis. The effect of these losses with the addition of an Abbott General Amino Acid Mixture to the dialysate in concentrations of 8.5, 17, and 34 mg/100 ml was studied. The major determinant of AA losses was the plasma concentration of the AA before beginning the dialysis treatment. Dialysance of individual AA varied inversely with their molecular weights. A zero flux of alpha-amino nitrogen occurred at a derived concentration of 22 mg/100 ml of the AA additive in the dialysate. Plasma concentrations of nonessential amino acids were little affected by the dialysate additive. In contrast, total essential amino acid nitrogen which fell during baseline dialyses showed significant improvement when the AA solution was added to the dialysate. This study suggests that the addition of AA to the dialysate bath may be effective in decreasing AA nitrogen losses during dialysis.

  19. Survival of free and microencapsulated Bifidobacterium: effect of honey addition.

    PubMed

    Favarin, Luciana; Laureano-Melo, Roberto; Luchese, Rosa Helena

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of honey addition on the viability of free and emulsion encapsulated cells of two strains of Bifidobacterium that underwent simulation of human upper gastrointestinal transit. In the control condition, without honey, free cells were drastically reduced after exposure to gastrointestinal conditions. The reduction was more pronounced with Bifidobacterium J7 of human origin. On the other hand, when cells were encapsulated, the viability reduction was higher for strain Bifidobacterium Bb12. The microencapsulation improved the viability maintenance of both Bifidobacterium strains, in recommended amounts for probiotic activity, after exposure to simulated gastrointestinal conditions. Moreover, suspending free cells of both Bifidobacterium strains in honey solutions resulted in a protective effect, equivalent to the plain microencapsulation with sodium alginate 3%. It is concluded that microencapsulation and the addition of honey improved the ability of Bifidobacterium to tolerate gastrointestinal conditions in vitro.

  20. Effect of the Additives on the Desulphurization Rate of Flash Hydrated and Agglomerated CFB Fly Ash

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, D. X.; Li, H. L.; Xu, M.; Lu, J. F.; Liu, Q.; Zhang, J. S.; Yue, G. X.

    CFB fly ash from separators was mixed with water or the mixture of water and additives under the temperature of 363K by use of a blender. Then, this compound of fly ash and water or additives was pumped into a CFB combustion chamber by a sludge pump. Because the temperature of flue gas was high in CFB, the fly ash was hydrated fast and agglomerated in the same time. Through this process, the size of agglomerating fly ash is larger than the original particle and the relative residence time of agglomerated fly ash in CFB becomes longer. Therefore, the rate of utility of calcium in fly ash improves and the content of carbon in fly ash decreases. This results in a low Ca/S and low operational cost for CFB boiler. The additive is one key factor, which affects the rate of desulfurization of agglomerated fly ash. Effect of different additives on rate of desulfurization is not same. Cement and limestone are beneficiated to sulfur removal of agglomerated fly ash, but sodium silicate does not devote to the rate of sulfur removal of agglomerated fly ash.

  1. Percolation phenomenon in mixed reverse micelles: the effect of additives.

    PubMed

    Paul, Bidyut K; Mitra, Rajib K

    2006-03-01

    The conductivity of AOT/IPM/water reverse micellar systems as a function of temperature, has been found to be non-percolating at three different concentrations (100, 175 and 250 mM), while the addition of nonionic surfactants [polyoxyethylene(10) cetyl ether (Brij-56) and polyoxyethylene(20) cetyl ether (Brij-58)] to these systems exhibits temperature-induced percolation in conductance in non-percolating AOT/isopropyl myristate (IPM)/water system at constant compositions (i.e., at fixed total surfactant concentration, omega and X(nonionic)). The influence of total surfactant concentration (micellar concentration) on the temperature-induced percolation behaviors of these systems has been investigated. The effect of Brij-58 is more pronounced than that of Brij-56 in inducing percolation. The threshold percolation temperature, Tp has been determined for these systems in presence of additives of different molecular structures, physical parameters and/or interfacial properties. The additives have shown both assisting and resisting effects on the percolation threshold. The additives, bile salt (sodium cholate), urea, formamide, cholesteryl acetate, cholesteryl benzoate, toluene, a triblock copolymer [(EO)13(PO)30(EO)13, Pluronic, PL64], polybutadiene, sucrose esters (sucrose dodecanoates, L-1695 and sucrose monostearate S-1670), formamide distinctively fall in the former category, whereas sodium chloride, cholesteryl palmitate, crown ether, ethylene glycol constitute the latter for both systems. Sucrose dodecanoates (L-595) had almost marginal effect on the process. The observed behavior of these additives on the percolation phenomenon has been explained in terms of critical packing parameter and/or other factors, which influence the texture of the interface and solution properties of the mixed reverse micellar systems. The activation energy, Ep for the percolation process has been evaluated. Ep values for the AOT/Brij-56 systems have been found to be lower than those of

  2. Effect of water on overbased sulfonate engine oil additives.

    PubMed

    Tavacoli, J W; Dowding, P J; Steytler, D C; Barnes, D J; Routh, A F

    2008-04-15

    The presence and effect of water on calcium carbonate nanoparticles used in engine additives, stabilized with a sulfonate surfactant, is investigated using small-angle neutron scattering, dynamic light scattering, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and rheometry. These techniques provide complementary data that suggests the formation of a layer of water around the core of the particles ensuring continued colloidal stability yet increasing the dispersion viscosity. Through the use of small-angle neutron scattering, the dimensions of this layer have been quantified to effectively one or two water molecules in thickness. The lack of a significant electrostatic repulsion is evidence that the water layer is insufficient to cause major dissociation of surface ions.

  3. Resistance to the Beneficial Metabolic Effects and Hepatic Antioxidant Defense Actions of Fibroblast Growth Factor 21 Treatment in Growth Hormone-Overexpressing Transgenic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Boparai, Ravneet K.; Arum, Oge; Miquet, Johanna G.; Masternak, Michal M.; Khardori, Romesh K.

    2015-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) modulates a diverse range of biological functions, including glucose and lipid metabolism, adaptive starvation response, and energy homeostasis, but with limited mechanistic insight. FGF21 treatment has been shown to inhibit hepatic growth hormone (GH) intracellular signaling. To evaluate GH axis involvement in FGF21 actions, transgenic mice overexpressing bovine GH were used. Expectedly, in response to FGF21 treatment control littermates showed metabolic improvements whereas GH transgenic mice resisted most of the beneficial effects of FGF21, except an attenuation of the innate hyperinsulinemia. Since FGF21 is believed to exert its effects mostly at the transcriptional level, we analyzed and observed significant upregulation in expression of various genes involved in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, energy homeostasis, and antioxidant defense in FGF21-treated controls, but not in GH transgenics. The resistance of GH transgenic mice to FGF21-induced changes underlines the necessity of normal GH signaling for the beneficial effects of FGF21. PMID:26089880

  4. Effect of additives on physicochemical properties in amorphous starch matrices.

    PubMed

    Liang, Jun; Wang, Simon; Ludescher, Richard D

    2015-03-15

    The effect of the addition of non-reducing sugars or methylcellulose on the matrix physical properties and rate of non-enzymatic browning (NBR) between exogenous glucose+lysine in a starch-based glassy matrix were studied, using the methods of luminescence and FTIR. Amorphous starch-based matrices were formulated by rapidly dehydrating potato starch gel mixed with additives at weight ratios of 7:93 (additive:starch). Data on the phosphorescence emission energy and lifetime from erythrosin B dispersed in the matrices indicated that sugars decreased starch matrix mobility in a Tg-dependent manner, except for trehalose that interacted with starch in a unique mode, while methylcellulose, the additive with the highest Tg, increased the molecular mobility. Using FTIR, we found that methylcellulose decreased the strength of hydrogen bond network and sugars enhanced the hydrogen bond strength in the order: trehalose>maltitol>sucrose. Comparing those changes with the rate of NBR between exogenous glucose+lysine, we suggest that NBR rates are primarily influenced by matrix mobility, which is modulated by the hydrogen bond network, and interactions among components.

  5. Cantaloupe melon peroxidase: characterization and effects of additives on activity.

    PubMed

    Lamikanra, O; Watson, M A

    2000-06-01

    Peroxidase in cantaloupe melon (Cucumis melo L. var. reticulatus Naud.), a fruit commonly fresh cut processed, was characterized to determine reaction pathway, optimal conditions for activity and effect of some additives on enzymatic action. Mn2+, CaCl2, NaNO2 and kinetin had partial inhibitory effects on enzyme activity. Activity was effectively inhibited by compounds capable of chelating peroxidase heme iron such as diethyldithiocarbamate and tiron, but unaffected by EDTA. Free radical scavenger, superoxide dismutase, also had no effect on reaction velocity. Enzymatic action was consistent with that of ascorbate peroxidase based on the relatively higher affinity for ascorbate over guaiacol. Optimum activity temperature was 50-55 degrees C. The enzyme was stable at temperatures below 40 degrees C and at 50 degrees C for up to 10 min. Over 90% of total activity was lost at 80 degrees C within 5 min. Broad pH optima, 5.5-7.5 at 50 degrees C and 6-7 at 30 degrees C, were obtained. Peroxidase activity in cantaloupe was higher than those in strawberry (Fragaria ananassa Duch.) and lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), suggesting a relatively high oxidative stress in fresh cut cantaloupe. The potential use of ascorbate as an additive in fresh cut cantaloupe melon was demonstrated by its ability to preserve color in minimally processed fruits for 25 days at 4 degrees C, possibly as a result of an enhanced antioxidative action of the ascorbate-peroxidase complex and trace metal ion cofactors.

  6. Beneficial effect of commercial Rhodiola extract in rats with scopolamine-induced memory impairment on active avoidance.

    PubMed

    Vasileva, Liliya V; Getova, Damianka P; Doncheva, Nina D; Marchev, Andrey S; Georgiev, Milen I

    2016-12-04

    Rhodiola rosea L., family Crassulaceae also known as Golden Root or Arctic root is one of the most widely used medicinal plants with effect on cognitive dysfunction, psychological stress and depression. The aim of the study was to examine the effect of a standardized commercial Rhodiola extract on learning and memory processes in naive rats as well as its effects in rats with scopolamine-induced memory impairment.

  7. Beneficial effects of hydro-alcoholic extract of Caralluma fimbriata against high-fat diet-induced insulin resistance and oxidative stress in Wistar male rats.

    PubMed

    Sudhakara, G; Mallaiah, P; Sreenivasulu, N; Sasi Bhusana Rao, B; Rajendran, R; Saralakumari, D

    2014-06-01

    The main aim of this study was to investigate the beneficial effects of hydro-alcoholic extract of Caralluma fimbriata (CFE) on the effects of high-fat diet feeding on insulin resistance and oxidative stress in Wistar rats. High-fat diet (60% of fat) and CFE (200 mg/kg body weight/day) were given concurrently to the rats for a period of 90 days. Feeding with high-fat diet resulted in the development of hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, hyperleptinemia, and hypertriglyceridemia and impaired insulin sensitivity (P < 0.05). Administration of CFE to high-fat diet-fed rats for 90 days resulted in a significant improvement in plasma glucose, insulin, leptin, and triglycerides. Regarding liver antioxidant status, high-fat fed rats showed higher levels of lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation and lower GSH levels and lower activities of enzymatic antioxidants, while CFE treatment prevented all these observed abnormalities. In conclusion, intake of CFE may be beneficial for the suppression of high-fat diet-induced insulin resistance and oxidative stress.

  8. Use of Bt-resistant caterpillars to assess the effect of Cry proteins on beneficial natural enemies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A concern related to the use of insect-resistant Bt-transgenic plants is their potential to harm non-target organisms, especially natural enemies of important crop pests. A few studies purporting to show negative effects of Bt plants on non-target organisms had tremendous negative effects on the per...

  9. Effects of acetylacetone additions on PZT thin film processing

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, R.W.; Assink, R.A.; Dimos, D.; Sinclair, M.B.; Boyle, T.J.; Buchheit, C.D.

    1995-02-01

    Sol-gel processing methods are frequently used for the fabrication of lead zirconate titanate (PZT) thin films for many electronic applications. Our standard approach for film fabrication utilizes lead acetate and acetic acid modified metal alkoxides of zirconium and titanium in the preparation of our precursor solutions. This report highlights some of our recent results on the effects of the addition of a second chelating ligand, acetylacetone, to this process. The authors discuss the changes in film drying behavior, densification and ceramic microstructure which accompany acetylacetone additions to the precursor solution and relate the observed variations in processing behavior to differences in chemical precursor structure induced by the acetylacetone ligand. Improvements in thin film microstructure, ferroelectric and optical properties are observed when acetylacetone is added to the precursor solution.

  10. Al addition effect of bulk MgB 2 superconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinohara, K.; Ikeda, H.; Yoshizaki, R.

    2007-10-01

    The properties of transport and magnetization have been investigated for bulk MgB2Alx superconductor with Al addition (x = 0, 0.5, 1 wt%). MgB2 bulk samples sintered at different temperatures at 650-740 °C were prepared in the undoped state. The temperature and applied field dependencies of resistivity and magnetization were measured for the samples. The sample sintered at 690 °C exhibited the highest critical current density (Jc) and the lowest resistivity. This undoped sample was chosen as a criterion sample, and the effect of Al addition on the MgB2 bulk was studied from the transport and magnetization properties in a magnetic field. For MgB2Alx bulk samples sintered at 690 °C, the resistivity increased and Jc decreased as amount of Al was increased.

  11. Effect of mixed additives on lead-acid battery electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharya, Arup; Basumallick, Indra Narayan

    This paper describes the corrosion behaviour of the positive and negative electrodes of a lead-acid battery in 5 M H 2SO 4 with binary additives such as mixtures of phosphoric acid and boric acid, phosphoric acid and tin sulphate, and phosphoric acid and picric acid. The effect of these additives is examined from the Tafel polarisation curves, double layer capacitance and percentage of inhibition efficiency. A lead salt battery has been fabricated replacing the binary mixture with an alternative electrolyte and the above electrochemical parameters have been evaluated for this lead salt battery. The results are explained in terms of H + ion transport and the morphological change of the PbSO 4 layer.

  12. High frequency stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus has beneficial antiparkinsonian effects on motor functions in rats, but less efficiency in a choice reaction time task.

    PubMed

    Darbaky, Yassine; Forni, Claude; Amalric, Marianne; Baunez, Christelle

    2003-08-01

    Chronic subthalamic nucleus high frequency stimulation (STN HFS) improves motor function in Parkinson's disease. However, its efficacy on cognitive function and the mechanisms involved are less known. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of STN HFS in hemiparkinsonian awake rats performing different specific motor tests and a cognitive operant task. Unilateral STN HFS applied in unilaterally DA-depleted rats decreased the apomorphine-induced circling behaviour and reduced catalepsy induced by the neuroleptic haloperidol. DA-depleted rats exhibited severe deficits in the operant task, among which the inability to perform the task was not alleviated by STN HFS. However, in a few animals showing less impairment, STN HFS significantly reduced the contralateral neglect induced by the lesion. These results are the first to demonstrate a beneficial effect of STN HFS applied in awake rats on basic motor functions. However, STN HFS appears to be less effective on impaired cognitive functions.

  13. Beneficial effect of protracted sterilization of lentils on phytase production by Aspergillus ficuum in solid state fermentation.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Patrick; Yang, Shang-Tian

    2012-01-01

    Water addition to the solid substrate preceding autoclaving increased substrate porosity and phytase production in solid state fermentation. In comparison with dry sterilization, the phytase activity increased 6-, 8.5-, and 10-fold when the autoclaving time was 20, 40, and 60 min, respectively. Autoclaving increased the void space of sterilized lentils, and the increase was 16% higher when water was supplemented to the lentils before sterilization. Image analysis of SEM pictures of the solid substrate showed that water supplementation presterilization portended greater micro-fissure surface area, which also increased with increasing the sterilization time. SEM pictures of the fermentation product showed that fungal growth into the center of the solid substrate was ubiquitous when water was supplemented before sterilization but was absent when water was supplemented post sterilization. Similarly, spore formation on the substrate surface for the presterilization water supplementation samples far exceeded spore formation for samples that received supplementation poststerilization. This evidence suggests that improved mass transfer into the solid substrate resulting from additional pore volume and the formation of micro-fissures on the substrate surface is responsible for the observed gains in phytase productivity in solid state fermentation.

  14. Controlling adverse and beneficial effects of solar UV radiation by wearing suitable clothes - spectral transmission of different kinds of fabrics.

    PubMed

    Sobolewski, Piotr S; Krzyścin, Janusz W; Jarosławski, Janusz; Wink, Jakub; Lesiak, Aleksandra; Narbutt, Joanna

    2014-11-01

    Humans should avoid prolonged exposure to the Sun during the warm subperiod of the year with naturally high solar UV level. One of the known recommendations to avoid excessive UV radiation is wearing clothes with UV protection additives. However there is an important question: how do we get an adequate solar UV radiation, which maintains a healthy status of vitamin D, without facing overexposure risks? It is found that some kind of 100% cotton knitted fabric, used in the production of normal daily clothing, has ∼15% transmittance of solar UV. Model studies show that a garment made of this fabric allows larger synthesis of vitamin D3 in human body without the erythema risks (skin redness). Thus the adequate level of vitamin D could be attained safely by a person exposing only small part of the body (face, palms) during the period (May-August) of the year.

  15. Beneficial effects of diminished production of hydrogen sulfide or carbon monoxide on hypertension and renal injury induced by NO withdrawal

    PubMed Central

    Wesseling, Sebastiaan; Fledderus, Joost O; Verhaar, Marianne C; Joles, Jaap A

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Whether NO, carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) compensate for each other when one or more is depleted is unclear. Inhibiting NOS causes hypertension and kidney injury. Both global depletion of H2S by cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE) gene deletion and low levels of exogenous H2S cause hypertension. Inhibiting CO-producing enzyme haeme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) makes rodents hypersensitive to hypertensive stimuli. We hypothesized that combined inhibition of NOS and HO-1 exacerbates hypertension and renal injury, but how combined inhibition of NOS and CSE affect hypertension and renal injury was unclear. Experimental Approach Rats were treated with inhibitors of NOS (L-nitroarginine; LNNA), CSE (DL-propargylglycine; PAG), or HO-1 (tin protoporphyrin; SnPP) singly for 1 or 4 weeks or in combinations for 4 weeks. Key Results LNNA always reduced NO, decreased H2S and increased CO after 4 weeks. PAG abolished H2S, always enhanced CO and reduced NO, but not when used in combination with other inhibitors. SnPP always increased NO, enhanced H2S and inhibited CO after 1 week. Rats treated with LNNA, but not PAG and SnPP, rapidly developed hypertension followed by renal dysfunction. LNNA-induced hypertension was ameliorated and renal dysfunction prevented by all additional treatments. Renal HO-1 expression was increased by LNNA in injured tubules and increased in all tubules by all other treatments. Conclusions and Implications The amelioration of LNNA-induced hypertension and renal injury by additional inhibition of H2S and/or CO-producing enzymes appeared to be associated with secondary increases in renal CO or NO production. Linked Articles This article is part of a themed section on Pharmacology of the Gasotransmitters. To view the other articles in this section visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2015.172.issue-6 PMID:24597655

  16. Neuromuscular electrical stimulation as a method to maximize the beneficial effects of muscle stem cells transplanted into dystrophic skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Distefano, Giovanna; Ferrari, Ricardo Jose; Weiss, Christopher; Deasy, Bridget M; Boninger, Michael L; Fitzgerald, G Kelley; Huard, Johnny; Ambrosio, Fabrisia

    2013-01-01

    Cellular therapy is a potential approach to improve the regenerative capacity of damaged or diseased skeletal muscle. However, its clinical use has often been limited by impaired donor cell survival, proliferation and differentiation following transplantation. Additionally, functional improvements after transplantation are all-too-often negligible. Because the host microenvironment plays an important role in the fate of transplanted cells, methods to modulate the microenvironment and guide donor cell behavior are warranted. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the use of neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) for 1 or 4 weeks following muscle-derived stem cell (MDSC) transplantation into dystrophic skeletal muscle can modulate the fate of donor cells and enhance their contribution to muscle regeneration and functional improvements. Animals submitted to 4 weeks of NMES after transplantation demonstrated a 2-fold increase in the number of dystrophin+ myofibers as compared to control transplanted muscles. These findings were concomitant with an increased vascularity in the MDSC+NMES group when compared to non-stimulated counterparts. Additionally, animals subjected to NMES (with or without MDSC transplantation) presented an increased maximal specific tetanic force when compared to controls. Although cell transplantation and/or the use of NMES resulted in no changes in fatigue resistance, the combination of both MDSC transplantation and NMES resulted in a faster recovery from fatigue, when compared to non-injected and non-stimulated counterparts. We conclude that NMES is a viable method to improve MDSC engraftment, enhance dystrophic muscle strength, and, in combination with MDSC transplantation, improve recovery from fatigue. These findings suggest that NMES may be a clinically-relevant adjunct approach for cell transplantation into skeletal muscle.

  17. Electromagnetic fields act via activation of voltage-gated calcium channels to produce beneficial or adverse effects.

    PubMed

    Pall, Martin L

    2013-08-01

    The direct targets of extremely low and microwave frequency range electromagnetic fields (EMFs) in producing non-thermal effects have not been clearly established. However, studies in the literature, reviewed here, provide substantial support for such direct targets. Twenty-three studies have shown that voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs) produce these and other EMF effects, such that the L-type or other VGCC blockers block or greatly lower diverse EMF effects. Furthermore, the voltage-gated properties of these channels may provide biophysically plausible mechanisms for EMF biological effects. Downstream responses of such EMF exposures may be mediated through Ca(2+) /calmodulin stimulation of nitric oxide synthesis. Potentially, physiological/therapeutic responses may be largely as a result of nitric oxide-cGMP-protein kinase G pathway stimulation. A well-studied example of such an apparent therapeutic response, EMF stimulation of bone growth, appears to work along this pathway. However, pathophysiological responses to EMFs may be as a result of nitric oxide-peroxynitrite-oxidative stress pathway of action. A single such well-documented example, EMF induction of DNA single-strand breaks in cells, as measured by alkaline comet assays, is reviewed here. Such single-strand breaks are known to be produced through the action of this pathway. Data on the mechanism of EMF induction of such breaks are limited; what data are available support this proposed mechanism. Other Ca(2+) -mediated regulatory changes, independent of nitric oxide, may also have roles. This article reviews, then, a substantially supported set of targets, VGCCs, whose stimulation produces non-thermal EMF responses by humans/higher animals with downstream effects involving Ca(2+) /calmodulin-dependent nitric oxide increases, which may explain therapeutic and pathophysiological effects.

  18. Electromagnetic fields act via activation of voltage-gated calcium channels to produce beneficial or adverse effects

    PubMed Central

    Pall, Martin L

    2013-01-01

    The direct targets of extremely low and microwave frequency range electromagnetic fields (EMFs) in producing non-thermal effects have not been clearly established. However, studies in the literature, reviewed here, provide substantial support for such direct targets. Twenty-three studies have shown that voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs) produce these and other EMF effects, such that the L-type or other VGCC blockers block or greatly lower diverse EMF effects. Furthermore, the voltage-gated properties of these channels may provide biophysically plausible mechanisms for EMF biological effects. Downstream responses of such EMF exposures may be mediated through Ca2+/calmodulin stimulation of nitric oxide synthesis. Potentially, physiological/therapeutic responses may be largely as a result of nitric oxide-cGMP-protein kinase G pathway stimulation. A well-studied example of such an apparent therapeutic response, EMF stimulation of bone growth, appears to work along this pathway. However, pathophysiological responses to EMFs may be as a result of nitric oxide-peroxynitrite-oxidative stress pathway of action. A single such well-documented example, EMF induction of DNA single-strand breaks in cells, as measured by alkaline comet assays, is reviewed here. Such single-strand breaks are known to be produced through the action of this pathway. Data on the mechanism of EMF induction of such breaks are limited; what data are available support this proposed mechanism. Other Ca2+-mediated regulatory changes, independent of nitric oxide, may also have roles. This article reviews, then, a substantially supported set of targets, VGCCs, whose stimulation produces non-thermal EMF responses by humans/higher animals with downstream effects involving Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent nitric oxide increases, which may explain therapeutic and pathophysiological effects. PMID:23802593

  19. Transient Beneficial Effects of Excitatory Theta Burst Stimulation in a Patient with Phonological Agraphia after Left Supramarginal Gyrus Infarction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nardone, Raffaele; De Blasi, Pierpaolo; Zuccoli, Giulio; Tezzon, Frediano; Golaszewski, Stefan; Trinka, Eugen

    2012-01-01

    We report a patient showing isolated phonological agraphia after an ischemic stroke involving the left supramarginal gyrus (SMG). In this patient, we investigated the effects of focal repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) given as theta burst stimulation (TBS) over the left SMG, corresponding to the Brodmann area (BA) 40. The patient…

  20. Prebiotic supplementation and adequate calcium intake have beneficial effects on body mass index changes during early adolescence

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Prebiotics have been shown to enhance bone and gastrointestinal health. Recent data suggest a benefit to weight maintenance as well. However, few data are available in children or adolescents. The interactive effects of prebiotic intake and calcium intake on weight maintenance are unknown. Our objec...

  1. Glucagon-like peptide 2 and its beneficial effects on gut function and health in production animals

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Numerous endocrine cell subtypes exist within the intestinal mucosa and produce peptides contributing to the regulation of critical physiological processes including appetite, energy metabolism, gut function, and gut health. The mechanisms of action and the extent of the physiological effects of the...

  2. Beneficial effects of solar UV-B radiation on soybean yield mediated by reduced insect herbivory under field conditions.

    PubMed

    Mazza, Carlos A; Giménez, Patricia I; Kantolic, Adriana G; Ballaré, Carlos L

    2013-03-01

    Ultraviolet-B radiation (UV-B: 280-315 nm) has damaging effects on cellular components and macromolecules. In plants, natural levels of UV-B can reduce leaf area expansion and growth, which can lead to reduced productivity and yield. UV-B can also have important effects on herbivorous insects. Owing to the successful implementation of the Montreal Protocol, current models predict that clear-sky levels of UV-B radiation will decline during this century in response to ozone recovery. However, because of climate change and changes in land use practices, future trends in UV doses are difficult to predict. In the experiments reported here, we used an exclusion approach to study the effects of solar UV-B radiation on soybean crops, which are extensively grown in many areas of the world that may be affected by future variations in UV-B radiation. In a first experiment, performed under normal management practices (which included chemical pest control), we found that natural levels of UV-B radiation reduced soybean yield. In a second experiment, where no pesticides were applied, we found that solar UV-B significantly reduced insect herbivory and, surprisingly, caused a concomitant increase in crop yield. Our data support the idea that UV-B effects on agroecosystems are the result of complex interactions involving multiple trophic levels. A better understanding of the mechanisms that mediate the anti-herbivore effect of UV-B radiation may be used to design crop varieties with improved adaptation to the cropping systems that are likely to prevail in the coming decades in response to agricultural intensification.

  3. Sympathetic innervation of the splanchnic region mediates the beneficial hemodynamic effects of 8-OH-DPAT in hemorrhagic shock

    PubMed Central

    Tiniakov, Ruslan; Pahan, Kalipada

    2012-01-01

    Administration of the 5-HT1A receptor agonist, 8-OH-DPAT, improves cardiovascular hemodynamics and tissue oxygenation in conscious rats subjected to hypovolemic shock. This effect is mediated by sympathetic-dependent increases in venous tone. To determine the role of splanchnic nerves in this response, effects of 8-OH-DPAT (30 nmol/kg iv) were measured following fixed-arterial blood pressure hemorrhagic shock (i.e., maintenance of 50 mmHg arterial pressure for 25 min) in rats subjected to bilateral splanchnic nerve denervation (SD). Splanchnic denervation decreased baseline venous tone as measured by mean circulatory filling pressure (MCFP) and accelerated the onset of hypotension during blood loss. Splanchnic denervation did not affect the immediate pressor effect of 8-OH-DPAT but did reverse the drug's lasting pressor effect, as well as its ability to increase MCFP and improve metabolic acidosis. Like SD, adrenal demedullation (ADMX) lowered baseline MCFP and accelerated the hypotensive response to blood withdrawal but also reduced the volume of blood withdrawal required to maintain arterial blood pressure at 50 mmHg. 8-OH-DPAT raised MCFP early after administration in ADMX rats, but the response did not persist throughout the posthemorrhage period. In a fixed-volume hemorrhage model, 8-OH-DPAT continued to raise blood pressure in ADMX rats. However, it produced only a transient and variable rise in MCFP compared with sham-operated animals. The data indicate that 8-OH-DPAT increases venoconstriction and improves acid-base balance in hypovolemic rats through activation of splanchnic nerves. This effect is due, in part, to activation of the adrenal medulla. PMID:22718805

  4. Sympathetic innervation of the splanchnic region mediates the beneficial hemodynamic effects of 8-OH-DPAT in hemorrhagic shock.

    PubMed

    Tiniakov, Ruslan; Pahan, Kalipada; Scrogin, Karie E

    2012-09-01

    Administration of the 5-HT(1A) receptor agonist, 8-OH-DPAT, improves cardiovascular hemodynamics and tissue oxygenation in conscious rats subjected to hypovolemic shock. This effect is mediated by sympathetic-dependent increases in venous tone. To determine the role of splanchnic nerves in this response, effects of 8-OH-DPAT (30 nmol/kg iv) were measured following fixed-arterial blood pressure hemorrhagic shock (i.e., maintenance of 50 mmHg arterial pressure for 25 min) in rats subjected to bilateral splanchnic nerve denervation (SD). Splanchnic denervation decreased baseline venous tone as measured by mean circulatory filling pressure (MCFP) and accelerated the onset of hypotension during blood loss. Splanchnic denervation did not affect the immediate pressor effect of 8-OH-DPAT but did reverse the drug's lasting pressor effect, as well as its ability to increase MCFP and improve metabolic acidosis. Like SD, adrenal demedullation (ADMX) lowered baseline MCFP and accelerated the hypotensive response to blood withdrawal but also reduced the volume of blood withdrawal required to maintain arterial blood pressure at 50 mmHg. 8-OH-DPAT raised MCFP early after administration in ADMX rats, but the response did not persist throughout the posthemorrhage period. In a fixed-volume hemorrhage model, 8-OH-DPAT continued to raise blood pressure in ADMX rats. However, it produced only a transient and variable rise in MCFP compared with sham-operated animals. The data indicate that 8-OH-DPAT increases venoconstriction and improves acid-base balance in hypovolemic rats through activation of splanchnic nerves. This effect is due, in part, to activation of the adrenal medulla.

  5. Eddy damping effect of additional conductors in superconducting levitation systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Zhao-Fei; Gou, Xiao-Fan

    2015-12-01

    Passive superconducting levitation systems consisting of a high temperature superconductor (HTSC) and a permanent magnet (PM) have demonstrated several fascinating applications such as the maglev system, flywheel energy storage. Generally, for the HTSC-PM levitation system, the HTSC with higher critical current density Jc can obtain larger magnetic force to make the PM levitate over the HTSC (or suspended below the HTSC), however, the process of the vibration of the levitated PM, provides very limited inherent damping (essentially hysteresis). To improve the dynamic stability of the levitated PM, eddy damping of additional conductors can be considered as the most simple and effective approach. In this article, for the HTSC-PM levitation system with an additional copper damper attached to the HTSC, we numerically and comprehensively investigated the damping coefficient c, damping ratio, Joule heating of the copper damper, and the vibration frequency of the PM as well. Furthermore, we comparatively studied four different arrangements of the copper damper, on the comprehensive analyzed the damping effect, efficiency (defined by c/VCu, in which VCu is the volume of the damper) and Joule heating, and finally presented the most advisable arrangement.

  6. Effects of Particle Additives on Acoustically Coupled Fuel Droplet Combustion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sim, Hyung Sub; Plascencia Quiroz, Miguel; Vargas, Andres; Bennewitz, John; Smith, Owen; Karagozian, Ann

    2016-11-01

    Addition of nanoscale particulates to liquid hydrocarbon fuels is suggested to have numerous benefits for combustion systems, although aggregation of metal nanoparticles can produce deleterious effects. The present experiments explore the effect of nano Aluminum (nAl) additives on the combustion of single liquid fuel droplets, with and without exposure of the droplets to standing acoustic waves. Building on prior studies, the present experiments quantify variations in the burning rate constant K for ethanol droplets with increasing concentrations of nAl in a quiescent environment. Burning fuel droplets that are continuously fed via a capillary as well as suspended (non-fed) droplets are examined. Nano Al is observed to create ejections of both particles and vapor toward the end of the burning period for non-fed droplets; this phenomenon is delayed when the droplet is replenished via continuous fuel delivery. Yet for the majority of conditions explored, increasing concentrations of nAl tend to reduce K. When ethanol droplets with nAl are exposed to standing waves, acoustic perturbations appear to delay particulate agglomeration, sustaining combustion for a longer period of time and increasing K. Supported by AFOSR Grant FA9550-15-1-0339.

  7. Beneficial effect of a low dose of ethanol on liver function and serum urate in rats fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Osaki, Aimi; Okazaki, Yukako; Kimoto, Akiko; Izu, Hanae; Kato, Norihisa

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of the consumption of 1% or 2% (v/v) ethanol in drinking water for 12 wk on rats fed a high-fat diet. Body weight gain, food intake, and fluid intake were unaffected by ethanol intake. Adipose tissue weight, and serum glucose and lipids were unaffected. Compared to the control (no ethanol), 1% ethanol intake significantly reduced serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and ammonia (p<0.05), whereas 2% ethanol intake did so to a lesser extent. Serum urate was significantly lower in both the 1% and 2% ethanol groups than that in the control group (p<0.05). The results suggest a low dose of ethanol has beneficial effects on liver function and serum urate in rats fed a high-fat diet.

  8. High-glucose diets have sex-specific effects on aging in C. elegans: toxic to hermaphrodites but beneficial to males.

    PubMed

    Liggett, Marjorie R; Hoy, Michael J; Mastroianni, Michael; Mondoux, Michelle A

    2015-06-01

    Diet and sex are important determinants of lifespan. In humans, high sugar diets, obesity, and type 2 diabetes correlate with decreased lifespan, and females generally live longer than males. The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is a classical model for aging studies, and has also proven useful for characterizing the response to high-glucose diets. However, studies on male animals are lacking. We found a surprising dichotomy: glucose regulates lifespan and aging in a sex-specific manner, with beneficial effects on males compared to toxic effects on hermaphrodites. High-glucose diet resulted in greater mobility with age for males, along with a modest increase in median lifespan. In contrast, high-glucose diets decrease both lifespan and mobility for hermaphrodites. Understanding sex-specific responses to high-glucose diets will be important for determining which evolutionarily conserved glucose-responsive pathways that regulate aging are "universal" and which are likely to be cell-type or sex-specific.

  9. Probing the "additive effect" in the proline and proline hydroxamic acid catalyzed asymmetric addition of nitroalkanes to cyclic enones.

    PubMed

    Hanessian, Stephen; Govindan, Subramaniyan; Warrier, Jayakumar S

    2005-11-01

    The effect of chirality and steric bulk of 2,5-disubstituted piperazines as additives in the conjugate addition of 2-nitropropane to cyclohexenone, catalyzed by l-proline, was investigated. Neither chirality nor steric bulk affects the enantioselectivity of addition, which gives 86-93% ee in the presence of achiral and chiral nonracemic 2,5-disubstituted piperazines. Proline hydroxamic acid is shown for the first time to be an effective organocatalyst in the same Michael reaction.

  10. Beneficial Effects of Berberine on Oxidized LDL-Induced Cytotoxicity to Human Retinal Müller Cells

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Dongxu; Yu, Jeremy Y.; Connell, Anna R.; Yang, Shihe; Hookham, Michelle B.; McLeese, Rebecca; Lyons, Timothy J.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Limited mechanistic understanding of diabetic retinopathy (DR) has hindered therapeutic advances. Berberine, an isoquinolone alkaloid, has shown favorable effects on glucose and lipid metabolism in animal and human studies, but effects on DR are unknown. We previously demonstrated intraretinal extravasation and modification of LDL in human diabetes, and toxicity of modified LDL to human retinal Müller cells. We now explore pathogenic effects of modified LDL on Müller cells, and the efficacy of berberine in mitigating this cytotoxicity. Methods Confluent human Müller cells were exposed to in vitro–modified ‘highly oxidized, glycated (HOG-) LDL versus native-LDL (N-LDL; 200 mg protein/L) for 6 or 24 hours, with/without pretreatment with berberine (5 μM, 1 hour) and/or the adenosine monophosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinase (AMPK) inhibitor, Compound C (5 μM, 1 hour). Using techniques including Western blots, reactive oxygen species (ROS) detection assay, and quantitative real-time PCR, the following outcomes were assessed: cell viability (CCK-8 assay), autophagy (LC3, Beclin-1, ATG-5), apoptosis (cleaved caspase 3, cleaved poly-ADP ribose polymerase), oxidative stress (ROS, nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2, glutathione peroxidase 1, NADPH oxidase 4), angiogenesis (VEGF, pigment epithelium-derived factor), inflammation (inducible nitric oxide synthase, intercellular adhesion molecule 1, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α), and glial cell activation (glial fibrillary acidic protein). Results Native-LDL had no effect on cultured human Müller cells, but HOG-LDL exhibited marked toxicity, significantly decreasing viability and inducing autophagy, apoptosis, oxidative stress, expression of angiogenic factors, inflammation, and glial cell activation. Berberine attenuated all the effects of HOG-LDL (all P < 0.05), and its effects were mitigated by AMPK inhibition (P < 0.05). Conclusions Berberine inhibits modified LDL-induced Müller cell injury by activating

  11. Oxidative Stress and Antioxidant Activity in Hypothermia and Rewarming: Can RONS Modulate the Beneficial Effects of Therapeutic Hypothermia?

    PubMed Central

    Alva, Norma; Palomeque, Jesús

    2013-01-01

    Hypothermia is a condition in which core temperature drops below the level necessary to maintain bodily functions. The decrease in temperature may disrupt some physiological systems of the body, including alterations in microcirculation and reduction of oxygen supply to tissues. The lack of oxygen can induce the generation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen free radicals (RONS), followed by oxidative stress, and finally, apoptosis and/or necrosis. Furthermore, since the hypothermia is inevitably followed by a rewarming process, we should also consider its effects. Despite hypothermia and rewarming inducing injury, many benefits of hypothermia have been demonstrated when used to preserve brain, cardiac, hepatic, and intestinal function against ischemic injury. This review gives an overview of the effects of hypothermia and rewarming on the oxidant/antioxidant balance and provides hypothesis for the role of reactive oxygen species in therapeutic hypothermia. PMID:24363826

  12. Beneficial effects of beta-Ecdysone on the joint, epiphyseal cartilage tissue and trabecular bone in ovariectomized rats.

    PubMed

    Kapur, P; Wuttke, W; Jarry, H; Seidlova-Wuttke, D

    2010-04-01

    Ecdysteroids are steroids found in invertebrates and plants. In mammals they have protein anabolic effects. We have recently published antiosteoporotic effects of Tinospora cordifolia (TC) extract and the search for the possible active ingredients yielded the presence of beta-Ecdysone (Ecd). Therefore, we investigated the effects of pure Ecd in ovariectomized rats on morphological changes in joint, epiphyseal cartilage and trabecular tissue. Following ovariectomy rats were fed for 1 month with Ecd containing food at a dose of 52.8 mg/day/animal. Positive and negative control animals received 17-beta Estradiol (E(2), 132 microg/day/animal) and soy free (sf) food respectively. At sacrifice, specimens consisting of upper tibiae-lower femurs and knee joint were harvested and processed for histomorphometry. The parameters measured included thickness of the joint cartilage, thickness of the whole epiphyseal growth plate and its three zones. Furthermore, the percentage of trabecular bone in the metaphysis region of tibiae was quantified. Ecd and E(2) induced a significant increase in the thickness of joint cartilage. The whole epiphyseal growth plate and its proliferative and hypertrophic zones were also increased by Ecd whereas E(2) reduced their size. The percentage of trabecular area in the metaphysis of tibia was significantly increased in Ecd and E(2) treated animals. Results provide a plausible explanation for the antiosteoporotic effects of TC. Hence, TC as well as other Ecd producing plants or pure Ecd may be of value in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis and osteoarthritis which is of increasing importance due to aging and obesity among individuals.

  13. Beneficial insulin-sensitizing and vascular effects of S15261 in the insulin-resistant JCR:LA-cp rat.

    PubMed

    Russell, J C; Ravel, D; Pégorier, J P; Delrat, P; Jochemsen, R; O'Brien, S F; Kelly, S E; Davidge, S T; Brindley, D N

    2000-11-01

    S15261, a compound developed for the oral treatment of type II diabetes, is cleaved by esterases to the fragments Y415 and S15511. The aim was to define the insulin-sensitizing effects of S15261, the cleavage products, and troglitazone and metformin in the JCR:LA-cp rat, an animal model of the obesity/insulin resistance syndrome that exhibits an associated vasculopathy and cardiovascular disease. Treatment of the animals from 8 to 12 weeks of age with S15261 or S15511 resulted in reductions in food intake and body weights, whereas Y415 had no effect. Troglitazone caused a small increase in food intake (P <.05). Treatment with S15261 or S15511 decreased plasma insulin levels in fed rats and prevented the postprandial peak in insulin levels in a meal tolerance test. Y415 had no effect on insulin levels. Troglitazone halved the insulin response to the test meal, but metformin gave no improvement. S15261 decreased the expression of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and glucose-6-phosphatase and stimulated the expression of acetyl-CoA carboxylase and acyl-CoA synthase. S15261 also reduced the expression of carnitine palmitoyltransferase I and hydroxymethyl-glutaryl-CoA synthase. S15261, but not troglitazone, reduced the exaggerated contractile response of mesenteric resistance vessels to norepinephrine, and increased the maximal nitric oxide-mediated relaxation. S15261, through S15511, increased insulin sensitivity, decreased insulin levels, and reduced the vasculopathy of the JCR:LA-cp rat. S15261 may thus offer effective treatment for the insulin resistance syndrome and its associated vascular complications.

  14. Beneficial effects of exercise on aerobic capacity and body composition in adults with Prader-Willi syndrome.

    PubMed

    Silverthorn, K H; Hornak, J E

    1993-05-01

    Adults with Prader Willi syndrome were subdivided into an experimental group (n = 6) and a control group (n = 5) to determine the effects of an aerobic exercise program. Their resting heart rate, aerobic capacity, body fat percentage, body weight, and somatotype were determined. Participants in a 6-month walking program showed statistically significant differences in all variables measuring aerobic capacity and a significant variation in weight loss over the 6-month program compared to the control group.

  15. Beneficial effects of Rhizopus oligosporus fermentation on reduction of glucosinolates, fibre and phytic acid in rapeseed (Brassica napus) meal.

    PubMed

    Vig, A P; Walia, A

    2001-07-01

    Solid state fermentation was employed using Rhizopus oligosporus to develop a fermented product from rapeseed meal (RSM). The contents of glucosinolates, thiooxazolidones, phytic acid and crude fibre declined by 43.1%, 34%, 42.4% and 25.5%, respectively, following inoculation with R. oligosporus. Fermentation also increased nitrogen and protein contents of the meal. This study may open a new prospective for a simple and cost effective technique for reduction of toxicants in RSM.

  16. Beneficial effect of botulinum toxin A on Raynaud's phenomenon in Japanese patients with systemic sclerosis: A prospective, case series study.

    PubMed

    Motegi, Sei-ichiro; Yamada, Kazuya; Toki, Sayaka; Uchiyama, Akihiko; Kubota, Yuka; Nakamura, Tetsuya; Ishikawa, Osamu

    2016-01-01

    Currently, there is no satisfactory treatment for Raynaud's phenomenon (RP) in systemic sclerosis (SSc). Recently, it has been reported that botulinum toxin A (BTX-A) injection was effective for the treatment of RP in SSc patients. The objective was to assess the efficacy and safety of BTX-A on RP in Japanese SSc patients. In the prospective, case series study, 10 Japanese SSc patients with RP received 10 U of BTX-A injections into the hand. The change in severity of RP, including the frequency of attacks/pain, color changes, duration time of RP and the severity of pain, was assessed by Raynaud's score and pain visual analog scale (VAS) at each visit during 16 weeks. The recovery of skin temperature 20 min after cold water stimulation was examined by thermography at baseline and 4 weeks after injection. The number of digital ulcers (DU) and adverse effects were assessed at each visit. BTX-A injection decreased Raynaud's score and pain VAS from 2 weeks after injection, and the suppressive effect was continued until 16 weeks after injection. Skin temperature recovery after cold water stimulation at 4 weeks after injection was significantly enhanced compared with that before injection. All DU in five patients were healed within 12 weeks after injection. Neither systemic nor local adverse effects were observed in all cases. We conclude that BTX-A injection significantly improved the activity of RP in SSc patients without any adverse events, suggesting that BTX-A may have possible long-term preventive and therapeutic potentials for RP in Japanese SSc patients.

  17. Beneficial effects of intracoronary thrombolysis up to eighteen hours after onset of pain in evolving myocardial infarction

    SciTech Connect

    Smalling, R.W.; Fuentes, F.; Freund, G.C.; Reduto, L.A.; Wanta-Matthews, M.; Gaeta, J.M.; Walker, W.; Sterling, R.; Gould, K.L.

    1982-10-01

    Coronary arteriography and intracoronary streptokinase (STK) infusion were performed on 89 patients with evolving acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Ventricular function was followed in these patients during their hospitalization by gated radionuclide ventriculography. In 35 of these patients thallium imaging was performed on admission and 4 hours after reperfusion. An additional 30 patients with AMI who either met exclusion criteria for the STK protocol or refused study served as a control group. In patients admitted 0 to 6, 6 to 12, or 12 to 18 hours after onset of pain, there was no difference in change in left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) from admission to discharge, in percent of patients with total occlusion demonstrating reperfusion, or in percent of patients demonstrating a significant increase in LVEF. The average increase in LVEF from admission to discharge in patients reperfused ws 8% (40% +/- 14% to 48% +/- 13%, p less than 0.001). No change in LVEF was demonstrated in the control population or in patients in whom coronary reperfusion was unsuccessful. Reperfusion produced an increase in thallium uptake in the infarct-related myocardium that was accompanied by an improvement in regional function. Failure of reperfusion produced no change in either thallium upt