Science.gov

Sample records for additional capital investment

  1. 9 CFR 201.216 - Additional capital investments criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Additional capital investments... STOCKYARDS ACT Poultry-Packers and Live Poultry Dealers § 201.216 Additional capital investments criteria... or swine production contract grower make additional capital investments over the life of a...

  2. 9 CFR 201.216 - Additional capital investments criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Additional capital investments... STOCKYARDS ACT Poultry-Packers and Live Poultry Dealers § 201.216 Additional capital investments criteria... or swine production contract grower make additional capital investments over the life of a...

  3. 9 CFR 201.216 - Additional capital investments criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Additional capital investments... STOCKYARDS ACT Poultry-Packers and Live Poultry Dealers § 201.216 Additional capital investments criteria... or swine production contract grower make additional capital investments over the life of a...

  4. Capital disadvantage: America's failing capital investment system.

    PubMed

    Porter, M E

    1992-01-01

    The U.S. system of allocating investment capital is failing, putting American companies at a serious disadvantage and threatening the long-term growth of the nation's economy. The problem, says Michael Porter, goes beyond the usual formulation of the issue: accusations of "short-termism" by U.S. managers, ineffective corporate governance by directors, or a high cost of capital. The problem involves the external capital allocation system by which capital is provided to companies, as well as the system by which companies allocate capital internally. America's system is marked by fluid capital and a financial focus. Other countries--notably Japan and Germany--have systems with dedicated capital and a focus on corporate position. In global competition, where investment increasingly determines a company's capacity to upgrade and innovate, the U.S. system does not measure up. These conclusions come out of a two-year research project sponsored by the Harvard Business School and the Council on Competitiveness. Porter recommends five far-reaching reforms to make the U.S. system superior to Japan's and Germany's: 1. Improve the present macroeconomic environment. 2. Expand true ownership throughout the system so that directors, managers, employees, and even customers and suppliers hold positions as owners. 3. Align the goals of capital providers, corporations, directors, managers, employees, customers, suppliers, and society. 4. Improve the information used in decision making. 5. Foster more productive modes of interaction and influence among capital providers, corporations, and business units. PMID:10121317

  5. Capital planning: investing in excellence.

    PubMed

    Slater, G; Del Bravo, K

    1994-04-01

    Graham Slater and Kate Del Bravo describe the priorities considered and work undertaken by SETRHA to develop its capital investment strategy. Although the underlying concepts are straightforward, it represents a significant development beyond traditional NHS approaches to planning, embraces the NHS market reforms, and has reduced capital aspirations for the same service objectives by some 300m pounds. PMID:10137118

  6. Measuring Social Capital Investment: Scale Development and Examination of Links to Social Capital and Perceived Stress

    PubMed Central

    Wegner, Rhiana; Gong, Jie; Fang, Xiaoyi; Kaljee, Linda

    2014-01-01

    Individuals with greater social capital have better health outcomes. Investment in social capital likely increases one’s own social capital, bearing great implications for disease prevention and health promotion. In this study, the authors developed and validated the Social Capital Investment Inventory (SCII). Direct effects of social capital investment on perceived stress, and indirect effects through social capital were examined. 397 Participants from Beijing and Wuhan, China completed surveys. Analyses demonstrated that the SCII has a single factor structure and strong internal consistency. Structural equation modeling showed that individuals who invested more in social capital had greater bonding social capital, and subsequently less perceived stress. Results suggest that disease prevention and health promotion programs should consider approaches to encourage social capital investment; individuals may be able to reduce stress by increasing their investment in social capital. Future research is needed to provide additional empirical support for the SCII and observed structural relationships. PMID:25648725

  7. 75 FR 39492 - Major Capital Investment Projects

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-09

    ... published on June 3, 2010 (75 FR 31383), noting that additional meetings would be announced in subsequent... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Transit Administration 49 CFR Part 611 RIN 2132-AB02 Major Capital Investment Projects...

  8. 75 FR 33757 - Major Capital Investment Projects

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-15

    ... June 3, 2010 (75 FR 31383), noting that additional meetings would be announced in subsequent Federal... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Transit Administration 49 CFR Part 611 RIN 2132-AB02 Major Capital Investment Projects...

  9. 76 FR 17736 - Major Capital Investment Program-New Starts

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-30

    ... Federal Transit Administration Major Capital Investment Program--New Starts AGENCY: Federal Transit... discretionary selection of projects for funding using unallocated Major Capital Investment (New Starts) program... that have made important investments in their transportation infrastructure. ] Furthermore, the...

  10. 31 CFR 223.7 - Investment of capital and assets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Investment of capital and assets. 223... WITH THE UNITED STATES § 223.7 Investment of capital and assets. The cash capital and other funds of... periodically issue instructions for the guidance of companies with respect to investments and other...

  11. 31 CFR 223.7 - Investment of capital and assets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Investment of capital and assets. 223... WITH THE UNITED STATES § 223.7 Investment of capital and assets. The cash capital and other funds of... periodically issue instructions for the guidance of companies with respect to investments and other...

  12. 12 CFR 931.3 - Minimum investment in capital stock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Minimum investment in capital stock. 931.3 Section 931.3 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK RISK MANAGEMENT AND CAPITAL STANDARDS FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK CAPITAL STOCK § 931.3 Minimum investment in capital stock. (a)...

  13. 12 CFR 931.3 - Minimum investment in capital stock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Minimum investment in capital stock. 931.3 Section 931.3 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK RISK MANAGEMENT AND CAPITAL STANDARDS FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK CAPITAL STOCK § 931.3 Minimum investment in capital stock. (a)...

  14. 12 CFR 931.3 - Minimum investment in capital stock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Minimum investment in capital stock. 931.3 Section 931.3 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK RISK MANAGEMENT AND CAPITAL STANDARDS FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK CAPITAL STOCK § 931.3 Minimum investment in capital stock. (a)...

  15. 12 CFR 931.3 - Minimum investment in capital stock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Minimum investment in capital stock. 931.3 Section 931.3 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK RISK MANAGEMENT AND CAPITAL STANDARDS FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK CAPITAL STOCK § 931.3 Minimum investment in capital stock. (a)...

  16. 12 CFR 931.3 - Minimum investment in capital stock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minimum investment in capital stock. 931.3 Section 931.3 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK RISK MANAGEMENT AND CAPITAL STANDARDS FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK CAPITAL STOCK § 931.3 Minimum investment in capital stock. (a)...

  17. How to invest in social capital.

    PubMed

    Prusak, L; Cohen, D

    2001-06-01

    Business runs better when people within a company have close ties and trust one another. But the relationships that make organizations work effectively are under assault for several reasons. Building such "social capital" is difficult in volatile times. Disruptive technologies spawn new markets daily, and organizations respond with constantly changing structures. The problem is worsened by the virtuality of many of today's workplaces, with employees working off-site or on their own. What's more, few managers know how to invest in such social capital. The authors describe how managers can help their organizations thrive by making effective investments in social capital. For instance, companies that value social capital demonstrate a commitment to retention as a way of limiting workplace volatility. The authors cite SAS's extensive efforts to signal to employees that it sees them as human beings, not just workers. Managers can build trust by showing trust themselves, as well as by rewarding trust and sending clear signals to employees. They can foster cooperation by giving employees a common sense of purpose through good strategic communication and inspirational leadership. Johnson & Johnson's well-known credo, which says the company's first responsibility is to the people who use its products, has helped the company in time of adversity, as in 1982 when cyanide in Tylenol capsules killed seven people. Other methods of fostering cooperation include rewarding the behavior with cash and establishing rules that get people into the habit of cooperating. Social capital, once a given in organizations, is now rare and endangered. By investing in it, companies will be better positioned to seize the opportunities in today's volatile, virtual business environment. PMID:11408980

  18. Venture Capital Investment Base on Grey Relational Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xubo

    This paper builds a venture capital investment projects selection evaluation model base on risk-weight investment return using grey relational analysis. The risk and return in venture capital investment projects selection process is analyses. These risk and return mainly constricted in management ability, operation ability, market ability, exit obtain and investment cost. The 18 sub-indicators are the impact factors contributed to these five evaluation aspects. Grey relation analysis is use to evaluate the venture capital investment selection. Get the optimal solution of risk-weight double objective investment selection evaluation model. An example is used to demonstrate the model in this paper.

  19. Venture Capital Investment in the Life Sciences in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Hosang, Markus

    2014-12-01

    Innovation is one of the main driving factors for continuous and healthy economic growth and welfare. Switzerland as a resource-poor country is particularly dependent on innovation, and the life sciences, which comprise biotechnologies, (bio)pharmaceuticals, medical technologies and diagnostics, are one of the key areas of innovative strength of Switzerland. Venture capital financing and venture capitalists (frequently called 'VCs') and investors in public equities have played and still play a pivotal role in financing the Swiss biotechnology industry. In the following some general features of venture capital investment in life sciences as well as some opportunities and challenges which venture capital investors in Switzerland are facing are highlighted. In addition certain means to counteract these challenges including the 'Zukunftsfonds Schweiz' are discussed. PMID:26508600

  20. 77 FR 5750 - Major Capital Investment Projects (NPRM); Public Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-06

    ... NPRM (77 FR 3848) that proposes a new regulatory framework for evaluation and rating of New Starts and... Federal Transit Administration 49 CFR Part 611 RIN 2132-AB02 Major Capital Investment Projects (NPRM... Major Capital Investment Projects at 49 CFR 611. The docket for comments on the NPRM is open...

  1. The future for healthcare capital investments.

    PubMed

    Betz, R

    1992-03-01

    Hospitals have entered into a new era of capital planning. A number of factors will influence hospital buying behavior now that the Medicare capital regulations are being implemented. As purchasing responsibility for additional departments is continually folded into hospitals' central purchasing function there will be increased opportunities for group contracts. As resources shrink and demand for services increases, GPOs will be relied upon for their expertise and financial finesse. The emphasis will be on boosting the use of group contracts among existing members, rather then seeking additional members in a shrinking hospital market. Through effective purchasing, it is generally recognized that a hospital can recover and keep, at best, 5-10 percent of the cost of all purchased goods and services. Group purchasing organizations need to develop better strategies of cooperation with vendors, distributors and hospitals to help providers control capital costs. In this challenging environment, GPOs will aggressively target markets other than acute care as the source of their future growth, just as healthcare facilities are branching out. To accommodate changing needs, the strongest GPOs will continue their evolution into structures more like alliances, offering an array of other cooperative and support programs beyond the purchase of goods and services. PMID:10116769

  2. Investment in Human Capital. Schooling Supply Constraints in Rural Ghana.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavy, Victor

    This paper hypothesizes that the cost differential between primary school and middle or secondary schooling will affect household decisions to invest in any one schooling level in Ghana. Human capital investment is usually modeled in an intertemporal optimization framework in which households or individuals maximize the present value of life-time…

  3. provider venture capital funds: investing in innovation.

    PubMed

    Potter, Mary Jo; Wesslund, Rick

    2016-05-01

    As health systems continue to embrace disruptive innovation, they are increasingly likely to consider making a move into venture capital. Working in venture capital can benefit a health system in several ways, including: Allowing it to operate outside of bureaucracy and align projects with its core values. Encouraging innovation within the organization. Enabling it to respond quickly to changes in the market. PMID:27382708

  4. Physical activity: an underestimated investment in human capital?

    PubMed

    Bailey, Richard; Hillman, Charles; Arent, Shawn; Petitpas, Albert

    2013-03-01

    Despite the fact that physical activity is universally acknowledged to be an important part of healthy functioning and well-being, the full scope of its value is rarely appreciated. This article introduces a novel framework for understanding the relationships between physical activity (and specifically sport-related forms of physical activity) and different aspects of human development. It proposes that the outcomes of physical activity can be framed as differential 'capitals' that represent investments in domain-specific assets: Emotional, Financial, Individual, Intellectual, Physical, and Social. These investments, especially when made early in the life course, can yield significant rewards, both at that time and for years to come. The paper presents a new model-the Human Capital Model-that makes sense of these effects, outlines the different capitals, and briefly articulates the conditions necessary for the realization of Human Capital growth through physical activity. PMID:23620387

  5. Toward an American Rural Renaissance. The Role of Investment Capital in Rural Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brace, Lloyd

    This essay examines the role of investment capital in rural development. The development of government capitalism is traced. Outlined next are the premises for private and public investment. Geographic/geopolitical concerns in the formation of investment priorities are described. The need for greater availability of investment capital for small…

  6. Venture Capital Investment Selection Decision-making Base on Fuzzy Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xubo

    Venture capital investment decision-making is the most important issue in venture capital investment selection. There are higher uncertainty and complexity in venture capital investment decision-making process. This paper analysis these uncertain risk in venture capital investment decision-making base the previous studies. Attributed the venture capital candidate firms' select to fuzzy optimal decision-making. Build a risk-weight fuzzy optimal return model to avoid the decision-making risk. Get the optimal solution set.

  7. 77 FR 3847 - Major Capital Investment Projects

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-25

    ...This notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM) proposes a new regulatory framework for FTA's evaluation and rating of major new transit investments seeking funding under the discretionary ``New Starts'' and ``Small Starts'' programs. This notice of proposed rulemaking is being published concurrently with a Notice of Availability of proposed guidance that proposes new measures and methods for......

  8. Taking Human Capital Investment Seriously: Reflections on Educational Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Trivina

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents the 2002 Junior College/Upper Secondary Review in Singapore in the context of the nation-state's commitment to human capital investment. It discusses how these changes have led to a radically altered upper secondary educational landscape through the implementation of the Integrated Programme, the establishment of Specialized…

  9. Variations in Human Capital Investment Activity by Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Patricia A.; Greller, Martin M.; Stroh, Linda K.

    2002-01-01

    Late-career workers (ages 50-65) were more likely to participate in credentialing programs, targeted job-related courses, and on-the-job computer training than younger adults and received similar employer support. However, participation might be a consequence of support received. Human capital investment thus is more complex than conventional…

  10. Investing in Training and Development. Turning Interest into Capital.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pont, Tony

    This book, which is intended for individuals responsible for human resource development (HRD) programs, examines a number of issues in turning investments in training and development into human capital and examines ways of making the workplace an arena for development. The following topics are discussed: the nature and role of training and…

  11. 31 CFR 223.7 - Investment of capital and assets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Investment of capital and assets. 223.7 Section 223.7 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BUREAU OF THE FISCAL SERVICE SURETY COMPANIES DOING...

  12. 31 CFR 223.7 - Investment of capital and assets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Investment of capital and assets. 223.7 Section 223.7 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT SERVICE SURETY COMPANIES DOING...

  13. 31 CFR 223.7 - Investment of capital and assets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Investment of capital and assets. 223.7 Section 223.7 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT SERVICE SURETY COMPANIES DOING...

  14. Capital Investment by Independent and System-Affiliated Hospitals.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Nathan W; Smith, Dean G; Wheeler, John R C

    2015-01-01

    Capital expenditures are a critical part of hospitals' efforts to maintain quality of patient care and financial stability. Over the past 20 years, finding capital to fund these expenditures has become increasingly challenging for hospitals, particularly independent hospitals. Independent hospitals struggling to find ways to fund necessary capital investment are often advised that their best strategy is to join a multi-hospital system. There is scant empirical evidence to support the idea that system membership improves independent hospitals' ability to make capital expenditures. Using data from the American Hospital Association and Medicare Cost Reports, we use difference-in-difference methods to examine changes in capital expenditures for independent hospitals that joined multi-hospital systems between 1997 and 2008. We find that in the first 5 years after acquisition, capital expenditures increase by an average of almost $16,000 per bed annually, as compared with non-acquired hospitals. In later years, the difference in capital expenditure is smaller and not statistically significant. Our results do not suggest that increases in capital expenditures vary by asset age or the size of the acquiring system. PMID:26105571

  15. 12 CFR 956.4 - Risk-based capital requirement for investments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Risk-based capital requirement for investments... OFF-BALANCE SHEET ITEMS FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK INVESTMENTS § 956.4 Risk-based capital requirement for... the investments multiplied by: (a) A factor associated with the credit rating of the investments...

  16. 47 CFR 32.4520 - Additional paid-in capital.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Additional paid-in capital. 32.4520 Section 32... Additional paid-in capital. (a) This account shall include the difference between the net proceeds (including discount, premium and stock issuance expense) received from the issuance of capital stock and the...

  17. 47 CFR 32.4520 - Additional paid-in capital.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Additional paid-in capital. 32.4520 Section 32... Additional paid-in capital. (a) This account shall include the difference between the net proceeds (including discount, premium and stock issuance expense) received from the issuance of capital stock and the...

  18. The Power of Professional Capital: With an Investment in Collaboration, Teachers Become Nation Builders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hargreaves, Andrew; Fullan, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This article explores the powerful idea of capital and articulates its importance for professional work, professional capacity, and professional effectiveness. Systems that invest in professional capital recognize that education spending is an investment in developing human capital from early childhood to adulthood, leading to rewards of economic…

  19. Decision models for capital investment and financing decisions in hospitals.

    PubMed Central

    Vraciu, R A

    1980-01-01

    The literature on capital investment and financing decisions for hospitals has suggested several approaches to analyzing sets of options. In this paper, I present a taxonomy of the different approaches; analyze and compare the different elements of the taxonomy; and illustrate and discuss the information that can be gained by using each approach. I view these different analytic methods as complementary rather than competing methods of providing information to decision makers, and argue that the complex nature of hospital objectives demands the use of more than one approach. Failure to do this may lead to biased evaluations and poor decision making. PMID:6768699

  20. Improvements in ecosystem services from investments in natural capital.

    PubMed

    Ouyang, Zhiyun; Zheng, Hua; Xiao, Yi; Polasky, Stephen; Liu, Jianguo; Xu, Weihua; Wang, Qiao; Zhang, Lu; Xiao, Yang; Rao, Enming; Jiang, Ling; Lu, Fei; Wang, Xiaoke; Yang, Guangbin; Gong, Shihan; Wu, Bingfang; Zeng, Yuan; Yang, Wu; Daily, Gretchen C

    2016-06-17

    In response to ecosystem degradation from rapid economic development, China began investing heavily in protecting and restoring natural capital starting in 2000. We report on China's first national ecosystem assessment (2000-2010), designed to quantify and help manage change in ecosystem services, including food production, carbon sequestration, soil retention, sandstorm prevention, water retention, flood mitigation, and provision of habitat for biodiversity. Overall, ecosystem services improved from 2000 to 2010, apart from habitat provision. China's national conservation policies contributed significantly to the increases in those ecosystem services. PMID:27313045

  1. Trends in U.S. Venture Capital Investments Related to Energy: 1980-2007

    SciTech Connect

    Dooley, James J.

    2008-10-10

    This report documents trends in U.S. venture capital investments over the period 1980-2008. Particular attention is given to U.S. venture capital investments for “internet-specific”, biotechnology, and energy / industrial sectors over the period 1980-2007. During the early 1980s, U.S. venture capital investments in the energy / industrial area accounted for more than 20% of all venture capital investments. However subsequent periods of low energy prices and the emergence of fast growing new industries like computers (both hardware and software), biotechnology and the Internet quickly reduced the priority accorded to energy / industrial investments as by 2000 these investments accounted for only 1% of the $119 billion dollars invested that year by the U.S. venture capital community. The significant increase in the real price of oil that began in 2003-2004 correlates with renewed interest and increased investment by the venture capital community in energy / industrial investment opportunities. Venture capital investments in 2007 for the energy / industrial sector accounted for $3 billion or slightly more than 10% of all venture capital invested that year.

  2. Investment in Human Capital through Institutions of Higher Education for the Revival of Kenya's Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wawire, Nelson W.; Nafukho, Fredrick M.

    2006-01-01

    Despite economic theory postulating that increases in investment in human capital and physical capital leads to increase in economic growth, in the Kenyan case, this has not been true. This paper empirically examines the contribution of human capital and physical capital to economic growth in Kenya. Measures to be undertaken by higher education…

  3. Liquidity, Technological Opportunities, and the Stage Distribution of Venture Capital Investments

    PubMed Central

    Lahr, Henry; Mina, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the determinants of the stage distribution of European venture capital investments from 1990 to 2011. Consistent with liquidity risk theory, we find that the likelihood of investing in earlier stages increases relative to all private equity investments during liquidity crisis years. While liquidity is the main driver of acquisition investments and, to some extent, of expansion financings, technological opportunities are overall the main driver of early and late stage venture capital investments. In contrast to the dotcom crash, the recent financial crisis negatively affected the relative likelihood of expansion investments, but not of early and late stage investments. PMID:26166906

  4. 26 CFR 1.857-2 - Real estate investment trust taxable income and net capital gain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Real estate investment trust taxable income and... TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Real Estate Investment Trusts § 1.857-2 Real estate investment trust taxable income and net capital gain. (a) Real estate investment...

  5. 26 CFR 1.857-2 - Real estate investment trust taxable income and net capital gain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Real estate investment trust taxable income and... TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Real Estate Investment Trusts § 1.857-2 Real estate investment trust taxable income and net capital gain. (a) Real estate investment...

  6. 26 CFR 1.857-2 - Real estate investment trust taxable income and net capital gain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Real estate investment trust taxable income and... TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Real Estate Investment Trusts § 1.857-2 Real estate investment trust taxable income and net capital gain. (a) Real estate investment...

  7. 26 CFR 1.857-2 - Real estate investment trust taxable income and net capital gain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Real estate investment trust taxable income and... TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Real Estate Investment Trusts § 1.857-2 Real estate investment trust taxable income and net capital gain. (a) Real estate investment...

  8. Association of market, operational, and financial factors with nonprofit hospitals' capital investment.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae Hyun; McCue, Michael J

    2008-01-01

    Capital investments in the latest medical equipment and the replacement of aging facilities are critical decisions for sustaining hospitals' financial viability. A recent survey over the period 1997 to 2001 found that hospitals increased their capital expenditures by only 1%. The aim of this study is to gain insight into the changes in market, operational, and financial factors that may have influenced hospital capital investment during this period. The sample consisted of a panel of nonprofit hospitals operating between 1998 and 2001. Capital investment was measured on the basis of capital purchases for buildings, fixtures, and movable equipment during a fiscal year. The results suggest that liquidity-the availability of internal funds-is a critical determinant of capital investment in both urban and rural facilities. From a market perspective, findings indicate that growth in the over-65 population led to increases in the capital investment of rural hospitals. Financially, an increase in cash flow also was strongly related to a change in capital investment among urban facilities. Surprisingly, rural hospitals with aging plants and equipment had declining capital investment. PMID:18767385

  9. Power plant capital investment cost estimates: current trends and sensitivity to economic parameters

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-06-01

    This report describes power plant capital investment cost studies that were carried out as part of the activities of the Plans and Analysis Division, Office of Nuclear Energy Programs, US Department of Energy. The activities include investment cost studies prepared by an architect-engineer, including trends, effects of environmental and safety requirements, and construction schedules. A computer code used to prepare capital investment cost estimates under varying economic conditions is described, and application of this code is demonstrated by sensitivity studies.

  10. 26 CFR 1.851-6 - Investment companies furnishing capital to development corporations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Investment companies furnishing capital to development corporations. 1.851-6 Section 1.851-6 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... diversification of investments, made applicable to regulated investment companies by section 851(b)(4)(A)....

  11. Managing Debt and Capital Investments: A Toolbox for Private Colleges and Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Townsley, Michael K.

    2008-01-01

    All private colleges and universities make strategic capital investments and consider the use of debt to fund those investments. From the commonplace purchase of photocopiers to the construction of new academic buildings or dormitories, investment decisions that yield long-term financial benefits must follow on the heels of careful analysis. To…

  12. Does Human Capital Investment Impact the Earning Mobility of the Near Poor?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karasik, Bradley

    2012-01-01

    This secondary analysis of the earning mobility of the near poor examined the impact of human capital investment on the earning mobility of the near poor between 2005 and 2009. The theory framing this study is Human Capital Theory (Shultz, 1961). Other demographic and socioeconomic variables were included in this study to further explore factors…

  13. TAFE Diploma Graduates: Personal Capital Investments and Returns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Linde, Chris

    2008-01-01

    TAFE currently uses the NCVER Student Outcomes Survey (SOS) to determine outcomes related to TAFE diploma programs. The SOS measures TAFE outcomes in terms of three major categories: skills development, employment and further study. This study introduces the notion of personal capital as distinct from human capital. It argues that, while valuable,…

  14. Simulating the Risk of Investment in Human Capital

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartog, Joop; Van Ophem, Hans; Bajdechi, Simona Maria

    2007-01-01

    The risk of investment in schooling has largely been ignored. We mimic the investment decision facing a student and simulate risky earnings profiles in alternative options, with parameters taken from the very limited evidence. The distribution of rates of return appears positively skewed. Our best estimate of "ex ante" risk in university education…

  15. Investing in Schools: Capital Spending, Facility Conditions, and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martorell, Paco; Stange, Kevin; McFarlin, Isaac, Jr.

    2016-01-01

    Public investments in repairs, modernization, and construction of schools cost billions. However, little is known about the nature of school facility investments, whether it actually changes the physical condition of public schools, and the subsequent causal impacts on student achievement. We study the achievement effects of nearly 1,400 capital…

  16. Investments in social capital--implications of social interactions for the production of health.

    PubMed

    Bolin, Kristian; Lindgren, Björn; Lindström, Martin; Nystedt, Paul

    2003-06-01

    This paper develops a theoretical model of the family as producer of health- and social capital. There are both direct and indirect returns on the production and accumulation of health- and social capital. Direct returns (the consumption motives) result since health and social capital both enhance individual welfare per se. Indirect returns (the investment motives) result since health capital increases the amount of productive time, and social capital improves the efficiency of the production technology used for producing health capital. The main prediction of the theoretical model is that the amount of social capital is positively related to the level of health; individuals with high levels of social capital are healthier than individuals with lower levels of social capital, ceteris paribus. An empirical model is estimated, using a set of individual panel data from three different time periods in Sweden. We find that social capital is positively related to the level of health capital, which supports the theoretical model. Further, we find that the level of social capital (1) declines with age, (2) is lower for those married or cohabiting, and (3) is lower for men than for women. PMID:12742602

  17. Trends in U.S. Venture Capital Investments Related to Energy: 1980 through the Third Quarter of 2010

    SciTech Connect

    Dooley, James J.

    2010-11-08

    This report documents trends in U.S. venture capital investments over the period 1980 through the third quarter of calendar year 2010 (2010 Q1+Q2+Q3). Particular attention is given to U.S. venture capital investments in the energy/industrial sector over the period 1980-2010 Q1+Q2+Q3 as well as in the more recently created cross-cutting category of CleanTech over the period 1995-2010 Q1+Q2+Q3. During the early 1980s, U.S. venture capital investments in the energy/industrial sector accounted for more than 20% of all venture capital investments. However subsequent periods of low energy prices, the deregulation of large aspects of the energy industry, and the emergence of fast growing new industries like computers (both hardware and software), biotechnology and the Internet quickly reduced the priority accorded to energy/industrial investments. To wit, venture capital investments related to the energy/industrial sector accounted for only 1% of the $132 billion (in real 2010 US$) invested in 2000 by the U.S. venture capital community. The significant increase in the real price of oil that began in 2003-2004 correlates with renewed interest and increased investment by the venture capital community in energy/industrial investment opportunities. Venture capital investments for 2009 for the energy/industrial sector accounted for $2.4 billion or slightly more than 13% of all venture capital invested that year. The total venture capital invested in energy/industrial during the first three quarters of 2010 is close to $2.4 billion accounting for slightly less than 15% of all venture capital investments during the first three quarters of 2010. In 2009, the aggregate amount invested in CleanTech was $2.1 billion (11% of the total US venture capital invested in that lean year) and for the first three quarters of 2010 US venture capital investments in CleanTech have already exceeded $2.8 billion (18% of all US venture capital investments made during the first three quarters of

  18. Trends in U.S. Venture Capital Investments Related to Energy: 1980 through the Second Quarter of 2010

    SciTech Connect

    Dooley, James J.

    2010-07-29

    This report documents trends in U.S. venture capital investments over the period 1980 through the second quarter of calendar year 2010 (2010Q1+Q2). Particular attention is given to U.S. venture capital investments in the energy/industrial sector over the period 1980-2010Q1+Q2 as well as in the more recently created cross-cutting category of CleanTech over the period 1995-2010Q1+Q2. During the early 1980s, U.S. venture capital investments in the energy/industrial sector accounted for more than 20% of all venture capital investments. However subsequent periods of low energy prices, the deregulation of large aspects of the energy industry, and the emergence of fast growing new industries like computers (both hardware and software), biotechnology and the Internet quickly reduced the priority accorded to energy/industrial investments. To wit, venture capital investments related to the energy/industrial sector accounted for only 1% of the $119 billion dollars invested in 2000 by the U.S. venture capital community. The significant increase in the real price of oil that began in 2003-2004 correlates with renewed interest and increased investment by the venture capital community in energy/industrial investment opportunities. Venture capital investments for 2009 for the energy/industrial sector accounted for $2.1 billion or slightly more than 13% of all venture capital invested that year. The total venture capital invested in energy/industrial during the first two quarters of 2010 is close to $1.8 billion accounting for 17% of all venture capital investments during the first two quarters of 2010. In 2009, the aggregate amount invested in CleanTech was $1.8 billion (30% of the total US venture capital invested in that lean year) and for the first two quarters of 2010 US venture capital investments in CleanTech have already exceeded $1.9 billion (19% of all US venture capital investments made during the first half of 2010). Between 2004 and 2009, U.S. venture capital

  19. Investing private capital in private-public partnerships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stadd, Courtney A.

    1996-03-01

    Businesses must invest in technology to sustain and enhance their profitability over the long-term. Two of today's greatest challenges are rapidly emerging new technologies and rapidly changing customer preferences. To meet these challenges, businesses must recoup technology investments over shorter product life cycles and reduce new product development times. The associated risk is extraordinary. Businesses reduce this risk through partnerships, strategic alliances, and joint ventures; however, public sector partners are not routinely included in new technology and product development decisions. This paper discusses general decision criteria for technology investment and how decisions may be enhanced through the use of private-public partnerships.

  20. Study on Venture Capital Investment Risk Avoiding Base on Option Pricing in Agricultural Production and Processing Enterprises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xubo

    This paper uses the approaches and models of option theory to analyze two-stage venture capital investment in agricultural production and processing enterprises decision-making under uncertainty. Mathematics expressions of this two-stage venture capital investment decision-making are presented. An option value model about two-stage venture capital investment decision-making base on options pricing theory under the uncertainty is presented. Get the solution of option pricing model which we present.

  1. Capital investment requirements for greenhouse gas emissions mitigation in power generation on near term to century time scales and global to regional spatial scales

    SciTech Connect

    Chaturvedi, Vaibhav; Clarke, Leon E.; Edmonds, James A.; Calvin, Katherine V.; Kyle, G. Page

    2014-11-01

    Electrification plays a crucial role in cost-effective greenhouse gas emissions mitigation strategies. Such strategies in turn carry implications for financial capital markets. This paper explores the implication of climate mitigation policy for capital investment demands by the electric power sector on decade to century time scales. We go further to explore the implications of technology performance and the stringency of climate policy for capital investment demands by the power sector. Finally, we discuss the regional distribution of investment demands. We find that stabilizing GHG emissions will require additional investment in the electricity generation sector over and above investments that would be need in the absence of climate policy, in the range of 16 to 29 Trillion US$ (60-110%) depending on the stringency of climate policy during the period 2015 to 2095 under default technology assumptions. This increase reflects the higher capital intensity of power systems that control emissions. Limits on the penetration of nuclear and carbon capture and storage technology could increase costs substantially. Energy efficiency improvements can reduce the investment requirement by 8 to21 Trillion US$ (default technology assumptions), depending on climate policy scenario with higher savings being obtained under the most stringent climate policy. The heaviest investments in power generation were observed in the China, India, SE Asia and Africa regions with the latter three regions dominating in the second half of the 21st century.

  2. Merchant plant capital cost trades that can reduce the initial capital investment needed for APFBC repowering

    SciTech Connect

    Weinstein, R.E.; Freier, M.D.; Buchanan, T.L.; Goldstein, H.N.

    1999-07-01

    Earlier evaluations provided concept evaluation estimates of the performance and cost for repowering two power stations with advanced circulating pressurized fluidized bed combustion combined cycles (APFBC). Each APFBC repowering evaluation used a Foster Wheeler APFBC island supplying a single APFBC-modified Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation W501F gas turbine, retaining the use of the existing station's steam turbine/generator. These evaluations found that there are significant opportunities from repowering these units. Unit energy efficiency improves dramatically, output from the site is increased, and very significant environmental emission improvements occur. The low production cost of such plants is excellent, and both power companies found their projected use of this type of plant would make these aging units flagships in baseload dispatch, among the first coal-fired units in the dispatch order. Since then, two additional repowering concept evaluations are underway, adding to the base of information on PPFBC repowering costs, and cost trades involved in the initial design of these units. This paper discusses completed work, and work in progress that evaluates merchant plant cost reduction opportunities compared to baseline regulated utility APFBC repowering designs. It shows how plant design might be changed to reduce capital cost with only slight losses in reliability and flexibility, but at no compromise in environmental quality. The paper gives estimates of the levels of cost reduction possible with these design changes, and discusses the design and economic implications to the plant owner of these initial design decisions.

  3. Outward Foreign Direct Investment and Human Capital Development: A Small Country Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonnell, Anthony

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the pattern of outward foreign direct investment (FDI) by Irish MNCs, and more specifically, to investigate their approach to human capital development and how these correspond to foreign MNCs in Ireland. In particular, it seeks to investigate training and development expenditure, adoption of…

  4. Life Expectancy and Human Capital Investments: Evidence from Maternal Mortality Declines. NBER Working Paper No. 13947

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jayachandran, Seema; Lleras-Muney, Adriana

    2008-01-01

    Longer life expectancy should encourage human capital accumulation, since a longer time horizon increases the value of investments that pay out over time. Previous work has been unable to determine the empirical importance of this life-expectancy effect due to the difficulty of isolating it from other effects of health on education. We examine a…

  5. Education as an Investment in Human Capital and Manufacturing Employment Growth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNamara, Kevin T.; And Others

    Recent studies of rural manufacturing employment have presented conflicting evidence about the relationship between human capital and local economic development at a time when competing claims for local investment funds could potentially undermine support for public education. The purpose of this paper is to: (1) develop the conceptual linkage…

  6. Education and the Labour Market: Subjective Aspects of Human Capital Investment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Killeen, John; Turton, Richard; Diamond, Wayne; Dosnon, Odile; Wach, Monique

    1999-01-01

    Explores subjective aspects of human-capital investment decisions in education. Explores connections that 11th- and 13th-year British students perceive between their education and the labor market, and between qualifications mechanisms and life chances. Most students believe education plays a market-signaling role and a marginal role in raising…

  7. Resource adequacy, capital adequacy and investment uncertainty in the Australian power market

    SciTech Connect

    Simshauser, Paul

    2010-01-15

    Ignoring the importance of capital markets risks overlooking one of the most fundamental drivers of investment and price in the utilities industry. While the worst effects of the financial crisis are beginning to subside, the residual fallout will be more than a passing fad for energy utilities. (author)

  8. Retaining Educational Fundraisers: Reducing Turnover by Investing in Human Capital Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Christy

    2010-01-01

    This article outlines an approach to reducing gift officer turnover during comprehensive campaigns by investing in the human capital management (HCM) program. While many universities have begun to create HCM programs, I suggest creating a position specifically focused on the retention of gift offices to ensure that universities and non-profits can…

  9. 76 FR 61769 - Destra Capital Investments LLC and Destra Unit Investment Trust; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-05

    ... other holders of the Unaffiliated Fund's shares. 2. No Series or its Depositor, promoter, principal... and the Unaffiliated Fund or its investment adviser(s), sponsor, promoter, principal underwriter,...

  10. Geography and the costs of urban energy infrastructure: The case of electricity and natural gas capital investments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senyel, Muzeyyen Anil

    Investments in the urban energy infrastructure for distributing electricity and natural gas are analyzed using (1) property data measuring distribution plant value at the local/tax district level, and (2) system outputs such as sectoral numbers of customers and energy sales, input prices, company-specific characteristics such as average wages and load factor. Socio-economic and site-specific urban and geographic variables, however, often been neglected in past studies. The purpose of this research is to incorporate these site-specific characteristics of electricity and natural gas distribution into investment cost model estimations. These local characteristics include (1) socio-economic variables, such as income and wealth; (2) urban-related variables, such as density, land-use, street pattern, housing pattern; (3) geographic and environmental variables, such as soil, topography, and weather, and (4) company-specific characteristics such as average wages, and load factor. The classical output variables include residential and commercial-industrial customers and sales. In contrast to most previous research, only capital investments at the local level are considered. In addition to aggregate cost modeling, the analysis focuses on the investment costs for the system components: overhead conductors, underground conductors, conduits, poles, transformers, services, street lighting, and station equipment for electricity distribution; and mains, services, regular and industrial measurement and regulation stations for natural gas distribution. The Box-Cox, log-log and additive models are compared to determine the best fitting cost functions. The Box-Cox form turns out to be superior to the other forms at the aggregate level and for network components. However, a linear additive form provides a better fit for end-user related components. The results show that, in addition to output variables and company-specific variables, various site-specific variables are statistically

  11. Rising Inequality and Intergenerational Mobility: The Role of Public Investments in Human Capital.

    PubMed

    Aizer, Anna

    2014-06-01

    One consequence of the rise in inequality witnessed over the past 40 years is its potentially negative impact on intergenerational mobility if parents at the bottom of the income distribution invest significantly less in their children's human capital. I consider whether public investments in children can potentially offset the inequality of private investments. Specifically, examining changes in public spending in 25 Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development countries over the period 2000-2009, I find that increases in spending on health are most strongly associated with reductions in the importance of family background and declines in inequality in the production of child human capital as measured by the Program for International Student Assessment test scores among 15-year-olds. Public spending on family support, housing, and education are also moderately related. In contrast, increased spending on the elderly is associated with increases in the importance of parental background and inequality of child test scores. These results suggest that public investments in child human capital have the potential to offset the potentially negative impact of increasing income inequality on intergenerational mobility and inequality of the next generation. Further research firmly establishing a causal relationship is needed. PMID:25419203

  12. Rising Inequality and Intergenerational Mobility: The Role of Public Investments in Human Capital

    PubMed Central

    Aizer, Anna

    2014-01-01

    One consequence of the rise in inequality witnessed over the past 40 years is its potentially negative impact on intergenerational mobility if parents at the bottom of the income distribution invest significantly less in their children's human capital. I consider whether public investments in children can potentially offset the inequality of private investments. Specifically, examining changes in public spending in 25 Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development countries over the period 2000–2009, I find that increases in spending on health are most strongly associated with reductions in the importance of family background and declines in inequality in the production of child human capital as measured by the Program for International Student Assessment test scores among 15-year-olds. Public spending on family support, housing, and education are also moderately related. In contrast, increased spending on the elderly is associated with increases in the importance of parental background and inequality of child test scores. These results suggest that public investments in child human capital have the potential to offset the potentially negative impact of increasing income inequality on intergenerational mobility and inequality of the next generation. Further research firmly establishing a causal relationship is needed. PMID:25419203

  13. The impact of activity based cost accounting on health care capital investment decisions.

    PubMed

    Greene, J K; Metwalli, A

    2001-01-01

    For the future survival of the rural hospitals in the U.S., there is a need to make sound financial decisions. The Activity Based Cost Accounting (ABC) provides more accurate and detailed cost information to make an informed capital investment decision taking into consideration all the costs and revenue reimbursement from third party payors. The paper analyzes, evaluates and compares two scenarios of acquiring capital equipment and attempts to show the importance of utilizing the ABC method in making a sound financial decision as compared to the traditional cost method. PMID:11794757

  14. Venture Capital Investments for Life Sciences Start-ups in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Gantenbein, Pascal; Herold, Nils

    2014-12-01

    Despite its economic and technological importance, the Swiss life sciences sector faces severe challenges in attracting enough venture capital for its own development. Although biotechnology and medical technology have been the most important areas of venture financing from 1999 through 2012 according to our own data, average investment volumes nevertheless remain on a low level of only 0.05 percent of Swiss GDP. After 2008, there was a pronounced shift away from early-stage financing. While business angels still play an important role at the early stage, venture capitalists are the most important investor type by volumes having their main focus on expansion financing. The industry faces predominant challenges in securing capital availability for entrepreneurs, in transforming the highly skewed and back-loaded payoff profile of investments into a more stable return stream, and in defining appropriate business and collaboration models. PMID:26508597

  15. Interaction among fertility, income investment in human capital, female labor force participation, and industrialization in Korea.

    PubMed

    Ro, K K; Huh, J

    1982-01-01

    This study focuses on analyzing how the determinants of fertility are formed by demographic and other background (exogenous) variables selected, endogenizing most of the determinants of fertility in analyzing their impacts on fertility, examining the feedback effects of fertility on some of its determinants, and using cross-sectional data of Korea where the unit of observation is a city or gun (county). The conceptual model used in this study postulates that the exogenous variables have a varying degreee of impact on the fertility rate by influencing the intermediate variables. The variables representing the intensity of family planning program are included as intermediate variables. The model is tested with 2-stage least squares and uses the regressions of log linear forms weighted by the population sizes of individual cities and guns. The effects of exogenous variables on the intermediate variables are estimated through the 1st stage multiple regressions. The effects on the fertility rate of the intermediate variables, which are estimated by the 1st stage regressions, are estimated by the 2nd stage least squares. Data used are of 33 cities and 144 guns of Korea for 1978. The data collected are classified into 6 categories: demographic; socioeconomic; education; health variables; contraceptive efficiency variables; and industrialization and occupation variables. The principal study finding was the rediscovery of the importance of the investment in human capital in affecting fertility behavior. A distinctive study feature was to bring out health as an indispensible component of human capital. The education and health equations showed that an increase in income, urbanization, and declining death rate would all contribute to increasing the investment in education. The investment in health appeared to be a substitute for that in education in the 1ststage education equation but a complementary good in health equation. The 2nd stage fertility equations indicated that an

  16. Exploring Best Practice Skills to Predict Uncertainties in Venture Capital Investment Decision-Making

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blum, David Arthur

    Algae biodiesel is the sole sustainable and abundant transportation fuel source that can replace petrol diesel use; however, high competition and economic uncertainties exist, influencing independent venture capital decision making. Technology, market, management, and government action uncertainties influence competition and economic uncertainties in the venture capital industry. The purpose of this qualitative case study was to identify the best practice skills at IVC firms to predict uncertainty between early and late funding stages. The basis of the study was real options theory, a framework used to evaluate and understand the economic and competition uncertainties inherent in natural resource investment and energy derived from plant-based oils. Data were collected from interviews of 24 venture capital partners based in the United States who invest in algae and other renewable energy solutions. Data were analyzed by coding and theme development interwoven with the conceptual framework. Eight themes emerged: (a) expected returns model, (b) due diligence, (c) invest in specific sectors, (d) reduced uncertainty-late stage, (e) coopetition, (f) portfolio firm relationships, (g) differentiation strategy, and (h) modeling uncertainty and best practice. The most noteworthy finding was that predicting uncertainty at the early stage was impractical; at the expansion and late funding stages, however, predicting uncertainty was possible. The implications of these findings will affect social change by providing independent venture capitalists with best practice skills to increase successful exits, lessen uncertainty, and encourage increased funding of renewable energy firms, contributing to cleaner and healthier communities throughout the United States..

  17. 76 FR 50813 - Major Capital Investment Projects; Guidance on News Starts/Small Starts Policies and Procedures

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Transit Administration Major Capital Investment Projects; Guidance on News Starts/Small Starts Policies and Procedures AGENCY: Federal Transit Administration (FTA), DOT. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY:...

  18. The association of debt financing with not-for-profit hospitals' operational and capital-investment efficiency.

    PubMed

    Magnus, Stephen A; Wheeler, John R C; Smith, Dean G

    2004-01-01

    Increased debt in companies can motivate both operational and capital-investment efficiency. This positive influence of debt is attributed to creditors' oversight of corporate behavior and the need to generate cash flows to service debt. Our study investigates whether debt has a similar relationship with efficiency in not-for-profit hospitals. Using statistical analysis of a database of audited financial statements of not-for-profit hospitals, we test whether debt is associated with six distinct measures of operational and capital-investment efficiency. We find that debt either has no association with efficiency or predicts decreased efficiency. Possible explanations are that creditors' oversight is less tight in the not-for-profit setting and that debt may at times motivate excessive capital investment because of a legal requirement to tie tax-exempt debt with a capital-investment project. PMID:15682951

  19. Administrative and policy issues in reimbursement for nursing home capital investment.

    PubMed

    Boerstler, H; Carlough, T; Schlenker, R E

    1991-01-01

    The way in which states reimburse for nursing home capital costs can create incentives for nursing home owners to use the home primarily as a vehicle for real estate speculation, with potentially adverse consequences for patient care. In order to help promote and control the stability, adequacy, and quality of capital investment in long-term care, an increasing number of states are using a fair-rental approach for calculating capital reimbursement. In this article we compare the fair-rental approach with traditional cost-based capital reimbursement in terms of administration and policy. We discuss issues of concern to the state (cost and reimbursement design options) and the investor (after-tax cash flows, rate of return, etc.). Our analysis suggests that fair-rental systems may be superior to traditional cost-based reimbursement in promoting and controlling industry stability, while at the same time providing an adequate return to investors, without incurring long-term increases in the costs of administering programs. PMID:1761827

  20. The missing technology: an international comparison of human capital investment in healthcare.

    PubMed

    Frogner, Bianca K

    2010-01-01

    This article explores human capital investment to understand cross-sectional variation and differences in growth of health spending among the US, Australia and Canada. Using a human capital model developed by Mincer, the article examines how rate of return to schooling and years of schooling impact wage rate levels in healthcare. The model is extended to approximate the probable trajectory of healthcare wage rate growth and thus the impact on health spending. The results suggest that a higher rate of return to schooling and a more educated healthcare workforce in the US may contribute to higher healthcare wage rates and thus contribute to higher health spending levels than in Canada and Australia. The results also suggest that average healthcare wage rates are growing at the rate of potential GDP; healthcare wage rates are not driving the growth of health spending. PMID:21043537

  1. User's manual for the INDCEPT code for estimating industrial steam boiler plant capital investment costs

    SciTech Connect

    Bowers, H I; Fuller, L C; Hudson, II, C R

    1982-09-01

    The INDCEPT computer code package was developed to provide conceptual capital investment cost estimates for single- and multiple-unit industrial steam boiler plants. Cost estimates can be made as a function of boiler type, size, location, and date of initial operation. The output includes a detailed breakdown of the estimate into direct and indirect costs. Boiler plant cost models are provided to reflect various types and sources of coal and alternate means of sulfur and particulate removal. Cost models are also included for low-Btu and medium-Btu gas produced in coal gasification plants.

  2. 26 CFR 1.612-2 - Allowable capital additions in case of mines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Allowable capital additions in case of mines. 1.612-2 Section 1.612-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Natural Resources § 1.612-2 Allowable capital additions in case of mines. (a) In...

  3. Natural Capital Management: An Evolutionary Paradigm for Sustainable Restoration Investment - 13455

    SciTech Connect

    Koetz, Maureen T.

    2013-07-01

    capacity and value generated by EM projects and other investment and operational programming can be recorded and then allocated to mission and/or ecosystem needs as part of overall site, complex, and Federal decision-making. NCAM{sup TM} can also document post-restoration asset capability and value for use in weighing loss mitigation and ecosystem damage claims arising from past operational activities. A prototype NCAM{sup TM} evaluation developed at the Savannah River Site (SRS) demonstrates use of this framework as an advanced paradigm for NCA accounting and decision-making for the larger DOE complex and other enterprise using natural capital in operations. Applying a quantified value paradigm, the framework catalogues the results of activities that sustain, restore, and modernize natural assets for enterprise-wide value beyond that of compliance milestones. Capturing and assigning recapitalization value using NCAM{sup TM} concepts and tools improves effective reuse of taxpayer-sustained assets, records ecosystem service value, enables mission and enterprise optimization, and assures the sustainability of shared natural capital assets in regional pools vital to both complex sites and local and regional economies. (authors)

  4. 42 CFR 411.362 - Additional requirements concerning physician ownership and investment in hospitals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Additional requirements concerning physician ownership and investment in hospitals. 411.362 Section 411.362 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID... Health Services § 411.362 Additional requirements concerning physician ownership and investment...

  5. The impact of hospital regulatory programs on per capita costs, utilization, and capital investment.

    PubMed

    Ashby, J L

    1984-01-01

    Regulatory programs are widely used to exert disciplinary force on rising health care costs. This study assessed the impact of three widely used regulatory schemes in the hospital sector between 1971 and 1977: prospective rate setting, certificate of need, and professional standards review organizations. Strong evidence was found that neither voluntary rate setting nor CON review exerted any constraining effect on costs per capita, utilization, and capital investment. A negative but statistically insignificant influence on costs was documented for mandatory rate setting. A substantial cost moderating effect was, however, documented for PSROs. Utilization review may thus be a useful mechanism to counterbalance the incentive of per case rate setting to increase admissions. PMID:6232216

  6. 26 CFR 1.612-2 - Allowable capital additions in case of mines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Allowable capital additions in case of mines. 1.612-2 Section 1.612-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Natural Resources § 1.612-2 Allowable capital...

  7. Promoting and Disseminating Good Practice in the Planning and Management of Educational Facilities: Capital Investment Strategic Planning - A Case Study, Gold Coast Institute of TAFE, Queensland, Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crump, Kelvin

    This paper presents a case study of the process of capital investment strategic planning at the Gold Coast Institute of Technical and Further Education (TAFE), Queensland, Australia. Capital investment strategic planning is a means of contributing to success by providing strategies to ensure that assets are managed efficiently, effectively, and…

  8. Evolution of Gender Differences in Post-Secondary Human Capital Investments: College Majors. Working Paper #03-11

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gemici, Ahu; Wiswall, Matthew

    2011-01-01

    Over the past 40 years, the level of human capital investments has changed substantially for men and women. Changes in the intensive margin of college major selection have been also been substantial, as the number of graduates in humanities, social science, and teaching has declined, and the number in science, engineering, and business has…

  9. Are Returns to Investment Lower for the Poor? Human and Physical Capital Interactions in Rural Vietnam. Policy Research Working Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van de Walle, Dominique

    Unless disparities in education are addressed, market-oriented reforms in Vietnam will generate inequitable agricultural growth. It is argued that if the marginal gains from investment in physical capital depend positively on knowledge, but a household cannot hire skilled labor to compensate for low skills, then even if it has access to credit,…

  10. Limiting the financial risks of electricity generation capital investments under carbon constraints: Applications and opportunities for public policies and private investments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newcomer, Adam

    Increasing demand for electricity and an aging fleet of generators are the principal drivers behind an increasing need for a large amount of capital investments in the US electric power sector in the near term. The decisions (or lack thereof) by firms, regulators and policy makers in response to this challenge have long lasting consequences, incur large economic and environmental risks, and must be made despite large uncertainties about the future operating and business environment. Capital investment decisions are complex: rates of return are not guaranteed; significant uncertainties about future environmental legislation and regulations exist at both the state and national levels---particularly about carbon dioxide emissions; there is an increasing number of shareholder mandates requiring public utilities to reduce their exposure to potentially large losses from stricter environmental regulations; and there are significant concerns about electricity and fuel price levels, supplies, and security. Large scale, low carbon electricity generation facilities using coal, such as integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) facilities coupled with carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) technologies, have been technically proven but are unprofitable in the current regulatory and business environment where there is no explicit or implicit price on carbon dioxide emissions. The paper examines two separate scenarios that are actively discussed by policy and decision makers at corporate, state and national levels: a future US electricity system where coal plays a role; and one where the role of coal is limited or nonexistent. The thesis intends to provide guidance for firms and policy makers and outline applications and opportunities for public policies and for private investment decisions to limit financial risks of electricity generation capital investments under carbon constraints.

  11. The decline of venture capital investment in early-stage life sciences poses a challenge to continued innovation.

    PubMed

    Fleming, Jonathan J

    2015-02-01

    A key element required for translating new knowledge into effective therapies is early-stage venture capital that finances the work needed to identify a lead molecule or medical device prototype and to develop it to the proof-of-concept stage. This early investment is distinguished by great uncertainty over whether the molecule or prototype is safe and effective, the stability of the regulatory standards to which clinical trials are designed, and the likelihood that large follow-on investments for commercial development can be secured. Regulatory and reimbursement policies have a profound impact on the amount of capital and the types of life science projects that investors pursue. In this article I analyze several recent trends in early-stage venture capital funding, describe how these trends are influenced by regulatory and reimbursement policies, and discuss the role of policy makers in bringing new treatments to market. Policy makers can foster renewed private investment into critically needed early-stage products by increasing Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) funding and public support for clinical trials in targeted areas of interest; creating regulatory pathways to enable early testing of experimental compounds in limited populations; and offering economic incentives for investors and developers in designated therapeutic areas. PMID:25646107

  12. Assessment of PNGV fuels infrastructure. Phase 1 report: Additional capital needs and fuel-cycle energy and emissions impacts

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, M.; Stork, K.; Vyas, A.; Mintz, M.; Singh, M.; Johnson, L.

    1997-01-01

    This report presents the methodologies and results of Argonne`s assessment of additional capital needs and the fuel-cycle energy and emissions impacts of using six different fuels in the vehicles with tripled fuel economy (3X vehicles) that the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles is currently investigating. The six fuels included in this study are reformulated gasoline, low-sulfur diesel, methanol, ethanol, dimethyl ether, and hydrogen. Reformulated gasoline, methanol, and ethanol are assumed to be burned in spark-ignition, direct-injection engines. Diesel and dimethyl ether are assumed to be burned in compression-ignition, direct-injection engines. Hydrogen and methanol are assumed to be used in fuel-cell vehicles. The authors have analyzed fuels infrastructure impacts under a 3X vehicle low market share scenario and a high market share scenario. The assessment shows that if 3X vehicles are mass-introduced, a considerable amount of capital investment will be needed to build new fuel production plants and to establish distribution infrastructure for methanol, ethanol, dimethyl ether, and hydrogen. Capital needs for production facilities will far exceed those for distribution infrastructure. Among the four fuels, hydrogen will bear the largest capital needs. The fuel efficiency gain by 3X vehicles translates directly into reductions in total energy demand, fossil energy demand, and CO{sub 2} emissions. The combination of fuel substitution and fuel efficiency results in substantial petroleum displacement and large reductions in emissions of nitrogen oxide, carbon monoxide, volatile organic compounds, sulfur oxide, and particulate matter of size smaller than 10 microns.

  13. Investing in People: Building Social Capital. Profiles of Excellence in Business and Education Leadership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larsen, Ralph S.

    One of the challenges that faces business and education leaders today is creating an environment in their workplaces and classrooms that is conducive to the "New Realities of Learning." Social capital is a third asset that should be added to the list of key competitive advantages that includes knowledge and human capital. Social capital refers to…

  14. 12 CFR 956.4 - Risk-based capital requirement for investments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... credit risk of all investments that are not rated by an NRSRO, or are rated or have a putative rating below the second highest credit rating, in an amount equal to or greater than the outstanding balance of the investments multiplied by: (a) A factor associated with the credit rating of the investments...

  15. 26 CFR 1.612-2 - Allowable capital additions in case of mines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Allowable capital additions in case of mines. 1... in case of mines. (a) In general. Expenditures for improvements and for replacements, not including... the recession of the working faces of the mine and which: (1) Do not increase the value of the...

  16. Rolling capital: managing investments in a value-based care world.

    PubMed

    Jasuta, Lynette

    2016-06-01

    The importance of capital planning is increasing as the healthcare industry moves toward value-based care. Replacing unwieldy and inflexible traditional capital planning processes with a rolling capital planning approach can result in: Greater standardization, facilitating better strategic planning across the whole system. Reduced labor intensity in the planning and budgeting process. Reduced costs through being able to plan better for replacement purchases and take advantage of group purchasing and bundling opportunities. Increased transparency in the decision-making process. PMID:27451571

  17. State Education as High-Yield Investment: Human Capital Theory in European Policy Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillies, Donald

    2011-01-01

    Human Capital Theory has been an increasingly important phenomenon in economic thought over the last 50 years. The central role it affords to education has become even more marked in recent years as the concept of the "knowledge economy" has become a global concern. In this paper, the prevalence of Human Capital Theory within European…

  18. Investing in People: The Human Capital Needs of Rural America. Rural Studies Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaulieu, Lionel J., Ed.; Mulkey, David, Ed.

    This book provides an overview of existing human resource conditions in rural America; examines key economic, social, and technological forces shaping the future viability of rural areas; describes human capital issues for rural women and minority groups; and outlines strategies to strengthen rural human capital resources. Chapters are: (1) "Human…

  19. 26 CFR 1.857-2 - Real estate investment trust taxable income and net capital gain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... by which the net income from foreclosure property exceeds the tax imposed on such income by section... TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Real Estate Investment Trusts § 1.857-2 Real..., if a real estate investment trust has net income from foreclosure property for a taxable year...

  20. Investment Avenues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, Priyanka

    2012-11-01

    Investors are a heterogeneous group, they may be large or small, rich or poor, expert or lay man and not all investors need equal degree of protection (Mayya, 1996). An investor has three objectives while investing his money, namely safety of invested money, liquidity position of invested money and return on investment. The return on investment may further be divided into capital gain and the rate of return on investment as interest or dividend. Among all investment options available, securities are considered the most challenging as well as rewarding. Securities include shares, debentures, derivatives, units of mutual funds, Government securities etc. An investor may be an individual or corporate legal entity investing funds with a view to derive maximum economic advantage from investment such as rate of return, capital appreciation, marketability, tax advantage and convenience of investment.The Capital market facilitates mobilization of savings of individuals and pools them into reservoir of capital which can be used for the economic development of a country. An efficient capital market is essential for raising capital by the corporate sector of the economy and for the protection of the interest of investors in corporate securities. There arises a need to strike a balance between raising of capital for economic development on one side and protection of investors on the other. Unless the interests of investors are protected, raising of capital, by corporates is not possible. Like, the primary objective of a senior citizenís asset allocation is the generation of regular income.

  1. Capital investment in semiconductors: The lifeblood of the US semiconductor industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finan, William F.

    1990-09-01

    An analysis is given of four proposals designed to improve capital formation for U.S. industry in general, and the semiconductor industry in particular. The National Advisory Committee on Semiconductors recommendations were to make the current research and experimentation (R and E) tax credit more effective, to reduce taxes on capital gains, to increase personal savings incentives, and to improve semiconductor manufacturing equipment depreciation rules. The results of the qualitative analysis of the proposals as well as a description of the methodology employed are given.

  2. States' Investment in Human Capital: Higher Education Funding Effort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrison, Elena

    2012-01-01

    Diminishing state support for higher education threatens human capital development. This quantitative study undertook to determine the state factors that influence higher education funding and to what degree they do so, what level of funding is required to satisfy higher education expenditure need, and what can help to ensure that those funding…

  3. National HRD and Investment in Human Capital: Opportunity Costs of U.S. Postsecondary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornachione, Edgard; Daugherty, Jenny

    2008-01-01

    This study explores opportunity costs of postsecondary education in the U.S. in the past three decades. Based on human capital theory, data from the U.S. Census, along with parameters for high education achievement (involving bachelors and advanced degrees), were fed into a forecasting model developed for this purpose. Beyond descriptive…

  4. The Strategic Management of Human Capital: Making the Smart Investments in Teachers and Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, Barnett

    2009-01-01

    In this paper the author summarizes some of the most relevant issues, evidence, and divergent thinking relative to the strategic management of human capital in education. This paper has been built upon the most recent research, interviews with 20 of the leading experts around the nation, and structured conversations with leading-edge educators in…

  5. Foreign Direct Investment in U.S. Energy

    EIA Publications

    2009-01-01

    This report describes the role of direct foreign ownership of U.S. energy enterprises with respect to their energy operations, capital investments, and net foreign investment flows (including net loans). In addition, since energy investments are made in a global context, the report examines patterns of direct investment in foreign energy enterprises by U.S.-based companies.

  6. Michigan's Infrastructure: Priorities for the Future. Capital Investment Needs 1985-1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan Infrastructure Coalition, Lansing.

    The Michigan Infrastructure Coalition was formed to review needs and make judgments concerning priorities for future infrastructure investments in Michigan. This report describes the coalition's findings and is intended to serve as the guidelines for state elected officials. Contents include: (1) an introduction (specifying priority areas); (2)…

  7. 12 CFR 1267.5 - Risk-based capital requirements for investments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... rated by an NRSRO, or are rated or have a putative rating below the second highest credit rating, in an... associated with the credit rating of the investments as determined by FHFA on a case-by-case basis for rated assets to be sufficient to raise the credit quality of the asset to the second highest credit...

  8. 12 CFR 1267.5 - Risk-based capital requirements for investments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... rated by an NRSRO, or are rated or have a putative rating below the second highest credit rating, in an... associated with the credit rating of the investments as determined by FHFA on a case-by-case basis for rated assets to be sufficient to raise the credit quality of the asset to the second highest credit...

  9. 12 CFR 1267.5 - Risk-based capital requirements for investments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... rated by an NRSRO, or are rated or have a putative rating below the second highest credit rating, in an... associated with the credit rating of the investments as determined by FHFA on a case-by-case basis for rated assets to be sufficient to raise the credit quality of the asset to the second highest credit...

  10. Credit Enhancements and Capital Markets to Fund Solar Deployment: Leveraging Public Funds to Open Private Sector Investment

    SciTech Connect

    Mendelsohn, M.; Urdanick, M.; Joshi, J.

    2015-02-01

    Credit enhancements represent a variety of financial support structures that are designed to reduce risk to those holding the debt, including debt raised via a securitization process, and thus lower the required yield associated with the security. The purpose of all forms of credit enhancement is to increase the collateral against which notes are secured (Lin,1999). The following section evaluates is not guaranteed. Perceived risks of the solar asset class--including those related to technology, offtaker creditworthiness, and regulatory policy--can increase the required yield, increase probability of investor loss of interest and/or principal, or both. In many cases, this is a cyclical phenomenon: risk perception is fed by lack of historical knowledge, which is in turn fed by risk perception. Therefore, successful access to capital market investment in order to spur low-cost solar deployment depends on the success of this initial fledgling period.

  11. Evaluation of NASA-sponsored research on capital investment decision making in the civil aviation industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donovan, D. J.

    1977-01-01

    Significant findings of three studies undertaken to provide the NASA Aircraft Energy Efficiency (ACEE) Office with information regarding how aircraft manufacturers and commercial airlines make investment decisions concerning the acquisition of new and derivative technology are analyzed and their general implications explored. Topics discussed include: the market for airline aircraft, factors affecting the corporate decision making process of air transport manufacturers, and flight equipment purchasing practices of representative air carriers.

  12. 26 CFR 1.46-9 - Requirements for taxpayers electing an extra one-half percent additional investment credit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Requirements for taxpayers electing an extra one-half percent additional investment credit. 1.46-9 Section 1.46-9 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY INCOME TAX INCOME TAXES Rules for Computing Credit for Investment in Certain Depreciable Property §...

  13. 26 CFR 1.46-7 - Statutory provisions; plan requirements for taxpayers electing additional investment credit, etc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Statutory provisions; plan requirements for taxpayers electing additional investment credit, etc. 1.46-7 Section 1.46-7 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY INCOME TAX INCOME TAXES Rules for Computing Credit for Investment in Certain Depreciable Property §...

  14. Investing in human capital: an academic-service partnership to address the nursing shortage.

    PubMed

    Clark, Rebecca Culver; Allison-Jones, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    The well-documented shortage of nurses and the impact of educational preparation of nurses on patient care outcomes provide a compelling argument for the need to increase the number of registered nurses and to advance their educational preparation. This article describes the application of human capital theory in a creative venture between a health system and a school of nursing that has demonstrated success in addressing these issues. A tuition advancement program was developed to support interested personnel in attaining the associate degree in nursing and to support current RNs in attaining the baccalaureate degree. The venture included support for graduate preparation of nurses interested in becoming faculty. PMID:21473476

  15. Human Capital Formation and Foreign Direct Investment in Developing Countries. OECD Development Centre Working Paper No. 211 (Formerly Technical Paper No. 211)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miyamoto, Koji

    2003-01-01

    This paper synthesises the existing literature on human capital formation and foreign direct investment (FDI) in developing countries. The aim is to take a bird's eye view of the complex linkages between the activities of multinational enterprises (MNEs) and policies of host developing countries. In doing so, general trends, best practices and…

  16. 76 FR 9057 - Capital International, Inc., et al.;

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-16

    ... COMMISSION Capital International, Inc., et al.; Notice of Application February 10, 2011. AGENCY: Securities...'') formed for the benefit of eligible employees of Capital International, Inc. (``Capital'') and its.... (``CGPE V''), Capital International Investments IV, LLC (``CII IV''), Capital International Investments...

  17. Intellectual Capital: For 20 Years, American Indian College Fund Has Been Investing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horwedel, Dina M.

    2009-01-01

    For 20 years, the American Indian College Fund (the Fund) has been helping students to afford a higher education. In addition to providing more than 4,000 scholarships for American Indian students last year, it also provides tribal colleges with funding and programmatic support. The Fund was created in 1989 by the tribal colleges and universities…

  18. 77 FR 11618 - Solutions Capital I, L.P.; Notice Seeking Exemption Under the Small Business Investment Act...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-27

    ... from MCG Capital Corporation in Advanced Sleep Concepts, Inc., 195 Chatillon Road NE., Rome, GA, 30162... Solutions Capital I, L.P., has a greater than 10% equity interest in Advanced Sleep Concepts, Inc., thereby making Advanced Sleep Concepts, Inc., an Associate of Solutions Capital I, L.P., as defined in Sec....

  19. H.R. 599: A Bill to provide for the reconstitution of outstanding repayment obligations of the Administrator of the Bonneville Power Administration for the appropriated capital investments in the Federal Columbia River Power System. Introduced in the House of Representatives, One Hundred Fourth Congress, First session

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    This bill proposes to give the administrator of the Bonneville Power Administration the rights to refinance certain capital investments in the Federal Columbia River Power System. The act spells out how to distinguish old and new capital investments, how new principal amounts for old investments are calculated, interest rates and repayment dates. It also deals with interest rates for new capital investments during and after construction, appropriations for the Colville Reservation Grand Coulee Dam Settlement Act, and suggested contract provisions regarding future contracts.

  20. African-American Communities in Economic Crisis: Adult Educators Investing in the Human Capital Development of the Urban Poor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Mattyna L.

    2010-01-01

    Through discourse analysis the research will unearth the tension between the Theories of Human Capital (HCT) and the Work First Policy (WFP), Policies Informing Education (PIE), and Human Capital Development (HCD) as they relate to the labor market. The application of discourse analysis demonstrates how the tenants of HCT are missing components…

  1. Financing Human Capital.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juffras, Jason; Sawhill, Isabel V.

    This paper examines the government's role in financing human capital investments. It first examines why private investments in education, training, and other forms of human capital are likely to fall short of socially desirable levels. It then reviews past trends in public support for human resource investments. Finally, it discusses current…

  2. 76 FR 17180 - KLH Capital II, L.P.; Notice Seeking Exemption Under Section 312 of the Small Business Investment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-28

    ... Act, Conflicts of Interest Notice is hereby given that KLH Capital, L.P., 101 East Kennedy Boulevard... Section 312 of the Act and Section 107.730, Financings which Constitute Conflicts of Interest of the...

  3. 75 FR 3502 - KLH Capital, L.P.; Notice Seeking Exemption Under 312 of the Small Business Investment Act...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-21

    ..., Conflicts of Interest Notice is hereby given that KLH Capital, L.P., 101 East Kennedy Boulevard, Suite 3925... 312 of the Act and section 107.730, Financings which Constitute Conflicts of Interest of the...

  4. A three pronged approach to community scale renewable energy: Education, incremental capital investment and smart grid technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demeo, Anna E.

    ; first hand exposure to technology, providing a sense of independence that strengthens communities, and developing a direct link between the energy people use and how that energy is created. Ultimately community scale renewable energy projects help bolster support for large-scale projects that are imperative to making real and lasting progress towards reducing emissions. Finally, technological advancements in renewable energy generation, energy storage and distribution systems, are imperative to replacing fossil fuels. The shift towards a higher penetration of renewable energy into the electric grid can be realized with the implementation of a more sophisticated smart grid, which uses dynamic demand response to alter demand to follow generation. Introduction of tidal power can serve to further stabilize the grid and reduce the amount of storage required. This work describes an interdisciplinary approach to addressing issues of energy, and thereby climate, through substantive efforts in three concentrations; energy literacy education, community driven renewable energy projects based on incremental capital investment and a smart, micro grid encompassing tidal power and other renewable energy source.

  5. How venture capital works.

    PubMed

    Zider, B

    1998-01-01

    The popular mythology surrounding the U.S. venture-capital industry derives from a previous era. Venture capitalists who nurtured the computer industry in its infancy were legendary both for their risk taking and for their hands-on operating experience. But today things are different, and separating the myths from the realities is crucial to understanding this important piece of the U.S. economy. Today's venture capitalists are more like conservative bankers than the risk takers of days past. They have carved out a specialized niche in the capital markets, filling a void that other institutions cannot serve. They are the linch-pins in an efficient system for meeting the needs of institutional investors looking for high returns, of entrepreneurs seeking funding, and of investment bankers looking for companies to sell. Venture capitalists must earn a consistently superior return on investments in inherently risky businesses. The myth is that they do so by investing in good ideas and good plans. In reality, they invest in good industries--that is, industries that are more competitively forgiving than the market as a whole. And they structure their deals in a way that minimizes their risk and maximizes their returns. Although many entrepreneurs expect venture capitalists to provide them with sage guidance as well as capital, that expectation is unrealistic. Given a typical portfolio of ten companies and a 2,000-hour work year, a venture capital partner spends on average less than two hours per week on any given company. In addition to analyzing the current venture-capital system, the author offers practical advice to entrepreneurs thinking about venture funding. PMID:10187243

  6. Urban College Graduates: Their Investments in and Returns for Strong Quantitative Skills, Social Capital Skills, and Soft Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haynes, Marie Ellen

    2010-01-01

    This case study examined strong quantitative skills, social capital skills, and soft skills of urban college graduates using data from the Multi-City Study of Urban Inequality Household Survey. The urban college graduates lived in Atlanta, Boston, or Los Angeles and had bachelor's, master's, PhD, and professional degrees. Among the three skills…

  7. A synopsis of the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) investment in additive manufacture and what challenges remain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maher, Michael; Smith, Adrien; Margiotta, Jesse

    2014-03-01

    DARPA's interest in additive manufacture dates back to the mid-80s with seedling programs that developed the foundational knowledge and equipment that led to the Solid Freeform Fabrication program in 1990. The drivers for this program included reducing development times by enabling "tool-less" manufacturing as well as integration of design and fabrication tools. DARPA consistently pushed the boundaries of additive manufacture with follow-on programs that expanded the material suite available for 3-D printing as well as new processes that expanded the technology's capability base. Programs such as the Mesoscopic Integrated Conformal Electronics (MICE) program incorporated functionality to the manufacturing processes through direct write of electronics. DARPA's investment in additive manufacture continues to this day but the focus has changed. DARPA's early investments were focused on developing and demonstrating the technology's capabilities. Now that the technology has been demonstrated, there is serious interest in taking advantage of the attributes unique to the processing methodology (such as customization and new design possibilities) for producing production parts. Accordingly, today's investment at DARPA addresses the systematic barriers to implementation rather than the technology itself. The Open Manufacturing program is enabling rapid qualification of new technologies for the manufacturing environment through the development of new modeling and informatics tools. While the technology is becoming more mainstream, there are plenty of challenges that need to be addressed. And as the technology continues to mature, the agency will continue to look for those "DARPA-hard" challenges that enable revolutionary changes in capability and performance for the Department of Defense.

  8. Conceptual HALT (Hydrate Addition at Low Temperature) scaleup design: Capital and operating costs: Part 5. [Hydrate addition at low temperature for the removal of SO/sub 2/

    SciTech Connect

    Babu, M.; Kerivan, D.; Hendrick, C.; Kosek, B.; Tackett, D.; Golightley, M.

    1988-12-01

    Hydrate addition at low temperature (or the HALT process) is a retrofit option for moderate SO/sub 2/ removal efficiency in coal burning utility plants. This dry FGD process involves injecting calcium based dry hydrate particles into flue gas ducting downstream of the air preheater where the flue gas temperature is typically in the range of 280-325/degree/F. This report is comprised of the conceptual scaleup design of the HALT process to a 180 MW and a 500 MW coal fired utility station followed by detailed capital and operating cost estimates. A cost sensitivity analysis of major process variables for the 500 MW unit is also included. 1 fig.

  9. 13 CFR 120.462 - What are SBA's additional requirements on capital maintenance for SBA Supervised Lenders?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... until differences between the two calculations are resolved. (e) Capital restoration plan. (1) Filing requirement. An SBA Supervised Lender must file a written capital restoration plan with SBA within 45 days of... Supervised Lender charged with carrying out the capital restoration plan. (3) SBA response. SBA will...

  10. 13 CFR 120.462 - What are SBA's additional requirements on capital maintenance for SBA Supervised Lenders?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... until differences between the two calculations are resolved. (e) Capital restoration plan. (1) Filing requirement. An SBA Supervised Lender must file a written capital restoration plan with SBA within 45 days of... Supervised Lender charged with carrying out the capital restoration plan. (3) SBA response. SBA will...

  11. 13 CFR 120.462 - What are SBA's additional requirements on capital maintenance for SBA Supervised Lenders?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... until differences between the two calculations are resolved. (e) Capital restoration plan. (1) Filing requirement. An SBA Supervised Lender must file a written capital restoration plan with SBA within 45 days of... Supervised Lender charged with carrying out the capital restoration plan. (3) SBA response. SBA will...

  12. 13 CFR 120.462 - What are SBA's additional requirements on capital maintenance for SBA Supervised Lenders?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... until differences between the two calculations are resolved. (e) Capital restoration plan. (1) Filing requirement. An SBA Supervised Lender must file a written capital restoration plan with SBA within 45 days of... Supervised Lender charged with carrying out the capital restoration plan. (3) SBA response. SBA will...

  13. Fuzzy inference systems, ASKE, knowledge value added, and Monte Carlo risk simulation for evaluating intangible human capital investments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mun, Johnathan; de Albuquerque, Nelson R.; Liong, Choong-Yeun; Salleh, Abdul Razak

    2013-04-01

    This paper presents the ASKE-Risk method, coupled with Fuzzy Inference Systems, and Monte Carlo Risk Simulation to measure and prioritize Individual Technical Competence of a value chain to assess changes in the human capital of a company. ASKE is an extension of the method Knowledge Value Added, which proposes the use of a proxy variable for measuring the flow of knowledge used in a key process, creating a relationship between the company's financial results and the resources used in each of the business processes.

  14. 12 CFR 652.35 - Eligible non-program investments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...) You may not invest more than 25 percent of your regulatory capital in eligible investments issued by... agencies or Government agencies. You may not invest more than 100 percent of your regulatory capital in...

  15. capital planning for a new era.

    PubMed

    Hegwer, Laura Ramos

    2016-05-01

    Capital planning has become more centralized at many health systems. Managing the capital budget for IT continues to be a challenge. The arrival of value-based payment is influencing some organizations' strategic capital investments. PMID:27382709

  16. 12 CFR 211.9 - Investment procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Investment procedures. 211.9 Section 211.9... Investment procedures. (a) General provisions. 5 Direct and indirect investments shall be made in accordance... investments in excess of the limitations therein based on capital and surplus. (1) Minimum capital...

  17. 12 CFR 211.9 - Investment procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Investment procedures. 211.9 Section 211.9... Investment procedures. (a) General provisions. 5 Direct and indirect investments shall be made in accordance... investments in excess of the limitations therein based on capital and surplus. (1) Minimum capital...

  18. 12 CFR 211.9 - Investment procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Investment procedures. 211.9 Section 211.9... Investment procedures. (a) General provisions. 5 Direct and indirect investments shall be made in accordance... investments in excess of the limitations therein based on capital and surplus. (1) Minimum capital...

  19. 12 CFR 211.9 - Investment procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Investment procedures. 211.9 Section 211.9... Investment procedures. (a) General provisions. 5 Direct and indirect investments shall be made in accordance... investments in excess of the limitations therein based on capital and surplus. (1) Minimum capital...

  20. 76 FR 55237 - Use of Derivatives by Investment Companies Under the Investment Company Act of 1940

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-07

    ... achieves the right to a return on a capital base that exceeds the investment which he has personally..., competition, and capital formation.'' A fund that invests in derivatives must take into consideration various... on the initial amount of capital invested. For example, an initial 5% collateral deposit on the...

  1. The Economic Importance of Human Capital in Modernization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schultz, Theodore W.

    1993-01-01

    Human capital invests in new forms of physical capital, hence, human capital is key to economic progress. Lists eight attributes of human capital; for example, human capital cannot be separated from person who has it, and human capital is not visible. Human capital is necessary component when attempting to improve a person's income and welfare in…

  2. 26 CFR 1.46-7 - Statutory provisions; plan requirements for taxpayers electing additional investment credit, etc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY INCOME TAX INCOME TAXES Rules for Computing Credit for...) must be a defined contribution plan established in writing which— (A) Is a stock bonus plan, a stock bonus and a money purchase pension plan, or a profit-sharing plan, (B) Is designed to invest...

  3. Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smalheer, C. V.

    1973-01-01

    The chemistry of lubricant additives is discussed to show what the additives are chemically and what functions they perform in the lubrication of various kinds of equipment. Current theories regarding the mode of action of lubricant additives are presented. The additive groups discussed include the following: (1) detergents and dispersants, (2) corrosion inhibitors, (3) antioxidants, (4) viscosity index improvers, (5) pour point depressants, and (6) antifouling agents.

  4. 76 FR 48929 - American Capital, Ltd.; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-09

    ... the Investment Company Act of 1940 (the ``Act''). Summary of Application: Applicant, American Capital... COMMISSION American Capital, Ltd.; Notice of Application August 3, 2011. AGENCY: Securities and Exchange... Management, Office of Investment Company Regulation). SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The following is a...

  5. Applying Organizational Commitment and Human Capital Theories to Emigration Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verkhohlyad, Olga; McLean, Gary N.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to bring some additional insight into the issue of emigration by establishing a relationship between emigration and psychic return of citizens to their human capital investment in the country. Design/methodology/approach: The article adopts a quantitative research strategy. It applies organizational commitment and human…

  6. 76 FR 17180 - C3 Capital Partners II, L.P.; Notice Seeking Exemption Under 312 of the Small Business Investment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-28

    ... Act, Conflicts of Interest Notice is hereby given that C3 Capital Partners IT, L.P., 4520 Main Street... an exemption under section 312 of the Act and section 107.730, Financings Which Constitute...

  7. 77 FR 5613 - C3 Capital Partners II, L.P.; Notice Seeking Exemption Under 312 of the Small Business Investment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-03

    ... Act, Conflicts of Interest Notice is hereby given that C3 Capital Partners II, L.P., 4520 Main Street... exemption under section 312 of the Act and section 107.730, Financings Which Constitute Conflicts...

  8. 75 FR 57310 - American Capital, Ltd.; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-20

    ... the Investment Company Act of 1940 (the ``Act''). SUMMARY: Summary of Application: Applicant, American... COMMISSION American Capital, Ltd.; Notice of Application September 14, 2010. AGENCY: Securities and Exchange... of Investment Management, Office of Investment Company Regulation). SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION:...

  9. 42 CFR 413.157 - Return on equity capital of proprietary providers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... computing the allowable return, the provider's equity capital means— (i) The provider's investment in plant... equity capital. In computing the amount of equity capital upon which a return is allowable, investment in... computing the allowable return, the amount of equity capital is the average investment during the...

  10. 42 CFR 413.157 - Return on equity capital of proprietary providers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... computing the allowable return, the provider's equity capital means— (i) The provider's investment in plant... equity capital. In computing the amount of equity capital upon which a return is allowable, investment in... computing the allowable return, the amount of equity capital is the average investment during the...

  11. 26 CFR 1.46-8 - Requirements for taxpayers electing additional one-percent investment credit (TRASOP's).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Requirements for taxpayers electing additional... 1975 (“1975 TRA”). The plan must meet the formal requirements of paragraph (d), and the operational... of section 301 (d) and (f) of the 1975 TRA. Section 301 Section 1.46-8 Subject (d)(1) (c)(7)(i),...

  12. 26 CFR 1.46-9 - Requirements for taxpayers electing an extra one-half percent additional investment credit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Requirements for taxpayers electing an extra one... (e) of the Tax Reduction Act of 1975 (“1975 TRA”). The plan must meet the additional formal... 1975 TRA and this subparagraph (3) of TRASOP securities contributed by the employer. These...

  13. The most influential investment.

    PubMed

    Summers, L

    1993-01-01

    Investment in women's education possibly has a greater return than investing in areas such as power generation. Education is an economic issue. When the self-fulfilling prophecy of girls' lack of education yielding lower economic worth is compared with the self-fulfilling prophecy of educated women having healthy children and greater earning ability, there is no doubt which scenario is more beneficial to the individual and society. Wages of educated female workers rise by 20%, and personal hygiene and public health improvements contribute to lower fertility and infant mortality. In Pakistan, educating an additional 1000 girls/year would cost $40,000 in 1990 prices. Each year of schooling would reduce the under-5 year child mortality rate by 10%. 1000 women with an extra year of schooling would prevent 60 infant deaths, which if prevented through health care interventions would cost an estimated $48,000. Female fertility would be reduced by about 10% for an extra year of schooling, and thus would avert 660 births or a saving $43,000. Social improvement alone is worth the extra cost. Investing in female education means establishing scholarship funds, providing more free books and other supplies, adapting curricula to cultural and practical concerns, and hiring female teachers. Increasing female primary school enrollment to equal boys enrollment in low income countries would mean educating an extra 25 million girls every/year at a total cost of about $938 million. Equalizing secondary school enrollment would entail educating an extra 21 million girls at a cost of $1.4 billion. The total cost of $2.4 billion constitutes less than .25% of the gross domestic product of low income countries, less than 1% of investment in new capital goods, and less than 10% of defense spending. Investment statistics on power plants in a sample of 57 developing countries showed a return on physical plant assets of less than 4% over the past 3 years and less than 6% over the past 10 years

  14. How Performance Information Affects Human-Capital Investment Decisions: The Impact of Test-Score Labels on Educational Outcomes. NBER Working Paper No. 17120

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papay, John P.; Murnane, Richard J.; Willett, John B.

    2011-01-01

    Students receive abundant information about their educational performance, but how this information affects future educational-investment decisions is not well understood. Increasingly common sources of information are state-mandated standardized tests. On these tests, students receive a score and a label that summarizes their performance. Using a…

  15. 17 CFR 240.17i-7 - Calculations of allowable capital and risk allowances or alternative capital assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... capital and risk allowances or alternative capital assessment. 240.17i-7 Section 240.17i-7 Commodity and... alternative capital assessment. (a) Computation of allowable capital. The supervised investment bank holding... capital by the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve (12 CFR 225, Appendix A); (iii) Other...

  16. Universities Venture into Venture Capitalism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Desruisseaux, Paul

    2000-01-01

    Reports that some universities are starting their own venture-capital funds to develop campus companies, or are investing endowment funds with established venture-capital firms inclined to finance potential spinoffs from campus research. Examples cited are from the University of Alabama, Vanderbilt University (Tennessee), University of…

  17. Intellectual Capital.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Herbert W.; Pierce, Jennifer Burek

    2002-01-01

    This review focuses on intellectual capital and its relationship to information professionals. Discusses asset recognition; national practices and the acceptance of intellectual capital; definitions of intellectual capital; measuring intellectual capital, including multiple and single variable measures; managing intellectual capital; and knowledge…

  18. Allocating capital systemwide. Who gets how much and why.

    PubMed

    Albertina, R M; Bakewell, T F

    1989-05-01

    The maturing of multi-institutional healthcare systems has created a need for systemwide approaches to managing investment in capital expenditures. Historically, hospitals have allocated capital using traditional capital budgeting techniques, including discounted cash flow, net present value, and internal rate of return methodologies. Now systems can use a multifactored model to allocate capital among member hospitals. This approach uses historical and projected financial and statistical information to quantify the risks member hospitals face. At the system level, capital allocation decisions should start with the strategic and financial planning processes. Catholic systems face an additional caveat: The system's mission statement drives the planning processes. Conceptually, the capital allocation plan is an attempt to value each hospital as a going, or viable, concern. From this perspective, value is understood as a function of expected return, the certainty of the return, and the return offered by similar investments in other hospital markets. Despite the many determinants of business and financial risk, much of the variance in asset market value can be explained through five assessment criteria: market demographics, position within the market, historical and projected financial performance, historical utilization, and third-party reimbursement mix. PMID:10303454

  19. 47 CFR 69.310 - Capital leases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Capital leases. 69.310 Section 69.310 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) ACCESS CHARGES Apportionment of Net Investment § 69.310 Capital leases. Capital Leases in Account 2680 shall be...

  20. 47 CFR 69.310 - Capital leases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Capital leases. 69.310 Section 69.310 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) ACCESS CHARGES Apportionment of Net Investment § 69.310 Capital leases. Capital Leases in Account 2680 shall be...

  1. Investment in Green Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das Gupta, Supratim

    Since the middle of the 1970's, there has been considerable research about how to deal with exhaustible natural resources which are essential to production. In the absence of substitution possibilities, the finite stock of these resources acts as a limiting factor to continued growth of output and hence consumption possibilities. In our first chapter, we combine a finite natural resource and human capital in the production function and look at the possibility of maintaining a non-declining or sustainable level of consumption for an infinite horizon. Our results show that the return to human capital accumulation plays a key role in ensuring this objective. In our model without physical capital, we obtain a similar result where this return must be such that the fraction of time devoted to acquiring human capital each period is at least as much as the share of natural resources in output. Our second chapter focuses on the transition from a relatively cheap exhaustible natural resource (coal, gasoline) to an expensive alternative technology assumed to be in nearly unlimited supply (wind, solar). Due to significant cost differences between fossil-fuel based energy sources and these alternative (backstop) technologies, their use is not as widespread. Public subsidies to research can however bring about innovation through cheaper production techniques which would significantly reduce the operating costs of these backstop technologies. But without sufficient incentives for investment and patent protections, individual firms typically underinvest in backstop technologies relative to the socially optimal level. In our paper, we find that this underinvestment in the backstop also leads to an under-extraction of the exhaustible natural resource. This imply firms would conserve the natural resource for too long and switch later to the alternative technology relative to the socially optimal solution. We extend the chapter to include pollution as a flow variable. Pollution from

  2. 12 CFR Appendix A to Part 325 - Statement of Policy on Risk-Based Capital

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... addition, although securities subsidiaries established pursuant to 12 CFR 337.4 are consolidated for Report...) Investments in securities subsidiaries established pursuant to 12 CFR 337.4. The FDIC may also consider... uniform net capital requirements for brokers and dealers (17 CFR 240.15c3-1). (13) Recourse means...

  3. Factor investing based on Musharakah principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, Shahril; Omar, Mohd; Lazam, Norazliani Md; Amin, Mohd Nazrul Mohd

    2015-10-01

    Shariah stock investing has become a widely discussed topic in financial industry as part of today's investment strategy. The strategy primarily applies market capitalization allocations. However, some researchers have argued that market capitalization weighting is inherently flawed and have advocated replacing market capitalization allocations with factor allocations. In this paper, we discuss the rationale for factor investing based on Musharakah principle. The essential elements or factors of Musharakah principle such as business sector, management capability, profitability growth and capital efficiency are embedded in the Shariah-compliant stock. We then transform these factors into indexation for better analysis and performance measurement. Investment universe for this research covers Malaysian stocks for the period of January 2009 to December 2013. We found out that these factor indexes have historically earned excess returns over market capitalization weighted indexes and experienced higher Sharpe Ratios.

  4. 12 CFR 567.4 - Capital directives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Capital directives. 567.4 Section 567.4 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CAPITAL Regulatory Capital Requirements § 567.4 Capital directives. (a) Issuance of a Capital Directive—(1) Purpose. In addition to...

  5. 12 CFR 567.4 - Capital directives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Capital directives. 567.4 Section 567.4 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CAPITAL Regulatory Capital Requirements § 567.4 Capital directives. (a) Issuance of a Capital Directive—(1) Purpose. In addition to...

  6. 13 CFR 107.200 - Adequate capital for Licensees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Adequate capital for Licensees... INVESTMENT COMPANIES Qualifying for an SBIC License Capitalizing An Sbic § 107.200 Adequate capital for... Licensee, and to receive Leverage. (a) You must have enough Regulatory Capital to provide...

  7. 13 CFR 107.200 - Adequate capital for Licensees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Adequate capital for Licensees... INVESTMENT COMPANIES Qualifying for an SBIC License Capitalizing An Sbic § 107.200 Adequate capital for... Licensee, and to receive Leverage. (a) You must have enough Regulatory Capital to provide...

  8. 42 CFR 412.302 - Introduction to capital costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... related to old capital indebtedness to the total loan principal. (v) Investment income, excluding income... 42 Public Health 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Introduction to capital costs. 412.302 Section 412... Inpatient Hospital Capital Costs General Provisions § 412.302 Introduction to capital costs. (a) New...

  9. 42 CFR 412.302 - Introduction to capital costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... related to old capital indebtedness to the total loan principal. (v) Investment income, excluding income... 42 Public Health 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Introduction to capital costs. 412.302 Section 412... Inpatient Hospital Capital Costs General Provisions § 412.302 Introduction to capital costs. (a) New...

  10. 42 CFR 412.302 - Introduction to capital costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... related to old capital indebtedness to the total loan principal. (v) Investment income, excluding income... 42 Public Health 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Introduction to capital costs. 412.302 Section 412... Inpatient Hospital Capital Costs General Provisions § 412.302 Introduction to capital costs. (a) New...

  11. 42 CFR 412.302 - Introduction to capital costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... related to old capital indebtedness to the total loan principal. (v) Investment income, excluding income... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Introduction to capital costs. 412.302 Section 412... Inpatient Hospital Capital Costs General Provisions § 412.302 Introduction to capital costs. (a) New...

  12. 42 CFR 412.302 - Introduction to capital costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... related to old capital indebtedness to the total loan principal. (v) Investment income, excluding income... 42 Public Health 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Introduction to capital costs. 412.302 Section 412... Inpatient Hospital Capital Costs General Provisions § 412.302 Introduction to capital costs. (a) New...

  13. 13 CFR 107.210 - Minimum capital requirements for Licensees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES Qualifying for an SBIC License Capitalizing An Sbic § 107.210 Minimum capital... reasonably projecting profitable operations; and (iii) Has a reasonable timetable for achieving...

  14. 13 CFR 107.210 - Minimum capital requirements for Licensees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES Qualifying for an SBIC License Capitalizing An Sbic § 107.210 Minimum capital... reasonably projecting profitable operations; and (iii) Has a reasonable timetable for achieving...

  15. Capital cost estimate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The capital cost estimate for the nuclear process heat source (NPHS) plant was made by: (1) using costs from the current commercial HTGR for electricity production as a base for items that are essentially the same and (2) development of new estimates for modified or new equipment that is specifically for the process heat application. Results are given in tabular form and cover the total investment required for each process temperature studied.

  16. Allergy Capitals

    MedlinePlus

    ... Allergy Capitals Anaphylaxis in America Extreme Allergies and Climate Change Access to Pseudoephedrine Consensus Study on Food Allergies ... Allergy Capitals Anaphylaxis in America Extreme Allergies and Climate Change Access to Pseudoephedrine Consensus Study on Food Allergies ...

  17. Intellectual Capital.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Horn, Royal

    2001-01-01

    According to Thomas Stewart's book, intellectual capital comprises three broad categories: human, structural, and customer. Structural, or organizational capital, is knowledge that does not leave at night (with workers, or human capital). Developing a "best practices" database using Lotus Notes software would preserve and access schools'…

  18. Investment in different sized SMRs: Economic evaluation of stochastic scenarios by INCAS code

    SciTech Connect

    Barenghi, S.; Boarin, S.; Ricotti, M. E.

    2012-07-01

    Small Modular LWR concepts are being developed and proposed to investors worldwide. They capitalize on operating track record of GEN II LWR, while introducing innovative design enhancements allowed by smaller size and additional benefits from the higher degree of modularization and from deployment of multiple units on the same site. (i.e. 'Economy of Multiple' paradigm) Nevertheless Small Modular Reactors pay for a dis-economy of scale that represents a relevant penalty on a capital intensive investment. Investors in the nuclear power generation industry face a very high financial risk, due to high capital commitment and exceptionally long pay-back time. Investment risk arise from uncertainty that affects scenario conditions over such a long time horizon. Risk aversion is increased by current adverse conditions of financial markets and general economic downturn, as is the case nowadays. This work investigates both the investment profitability and risk of alternative investments in a single Large Reactor or in multiple SMR of different sizes drawing information from project's Internal Rate of Return stochastic distribution. multiple SMR deployment on a single site with total power installed, equivalent to a single LR. Uncertain scenario conditions and stochastic input assumptions are included in the analysis, representing investment uncertainty and risk. Results show that, despite the combination of much larger number of stochastic variables in SMR fleets, uncertainty of project profitability is not increased, as compared to LR: SMR have features able to smooth IRR variance and control investment risk. Despite dis-economy of scale, SMR represent a limited capital commitment and a scalable investment option that meet investors' interest, even in developed and mature markets, that are traditional marketplace for LR. (authors)

  19. ICT, complementary investment, and firm performance in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Linlin; Ding, Juan; Fan, Maoqing

    2011-12-01

    Using China firm data about ICT, we provide some insight into the link between ICT, productivity and complementary investment. The results show that the contribution of ICT capital deepening is raised when firms combine ICT use and some complementary investment (human capital, innovation and organization change).

  20. Human Capital, (Human) Capabilities and Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Le Grange, L.

    2011-01-01

    In this article I initiate a debate into the (de)merits of human capital theory and human capability theory and discuss implications of the debate for higher education. Human capital theory holds that economic growth depends on investment in education and that economic growth is the basis for improving the quality of human life. Human capable…

  1. Fueling innovation in medical devices (and beyond): venture capital in health care.

    PubMed

    Ackerly, D Clay; Valverde, Ana M; Diener, Lawrence W; Dossary, Kristin L; Schulman, Kevin A

    2009-01-01

    Innovation in health care requires new ideas and the capital to develop and commercialize those ideas into products or services. The necessary capital is often "venture capital," but the link between public policy and the venture capital industry has not been well examined. In this paper we explore the link between venture capital and innovation in health care, and we present new descriptive data from a survey of health care venture capital fund managers. Respondents generally viewed policy levers (for example, reimbursement and regulations) as important risks to venture capital investments, potentially affecting their ability to raise capital for early-stage investment funds. PMID:19049999

  2. 78 FR 1991 - Major Capital Investment Projects

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-09

    ... Proposed Rulemaking (ANPRM) published on June 3, 2010 (75 FR 31383), which posed a series of questions... FR 3848), that proposed changes to the regulatory text. FTA also published on January 25, 2012, a...; universities; local or regional community organizations; private citizens; and businesses. Please note that...

  3. 75 FR 31383 - Major Capital Investment Projects

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-03

    ... review DOT's complete Privacy Act Statement in the Federal Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR... available in the Federal Register at 74 FR 37763; it is also set forth in Appendix B of FTA's ``FY 2011... Executive Order 12866 and the Regulatory Policies and Procedures of the Department of Transportation (44...

  4. Applying temporal network analysis to the venture capital market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xin; Feng, Ling; Zhu, Rongqian; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2015-10-01

    Using complex network theory to study the investment relationships of venture capital firms has produced a number of significant results. However, previous studies have often neglected the temporal properties of those relationships, which in real-world scenarios play a pivotal role. Here we examine the time-evolving dynamics of venture capital investment in China by constructing temporal networks to represent (i) investment relationships between venture capital firms and portfolio companies and (ii) the syndication ties between venture capital investors. The evolution of the networks exhibits rich variations in centrality, connectivity and local topology. We demonstrate that a temporal network approach provides a dynamic and comprehensive analysis of real-world networks.

  5. Economic Perspectives on Investments in Teacher Quality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plecki, Margaret L.

    2000-01-01

    Reviews and critiques the ways in which researchers have used both productivity theory and human capital theory in efforts to measure the returns on investments in improving teacher quality. Also discusses strategies for improving investigations of the returns on investments in improving teacher quality. (Author/SLD)

  6. 78 FR 72393 - Net Investment Income Tax

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-02

    ... rulemaking in the Federal Register (REG-130507-11; 77 FR 72612) relating to the Net Investment Income Tax. On January 31, 2013, corrections to the proposed regulations were published in the Federal Register (78 FR...(c)(2). Section 1411(c)(3) provides that income on the investment of working capital is not...

  7. Investment appraisal of technology innovations on dairy farm electricity consumption.

    PubMed

    Upton, J; Murphy, M; De Boer, I J M; Groot Koerkamp, P W G; Berentsen, P B M; Shalloo, L

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to conduct an investment appraisal for milk-cooling, water-heating, and milk-harvesting technologies on a range of farm sizes in 2 different electricity-pricing environments. This was achieved by using a model for electricity consumption on dairy farms. The model simulated the effect of 6 technology investment scenarios on the electricity consumption and electricity costs of the 3 largest electricity-consuming systems within the dairy farm (i.e., milk-cooling, water-heating, and milking machine systems). The technology investment scenarios were direct expansion milk-cooling, ice bank milk-cooling, milk precooling, solar water-heating, and variable speed drive vacuum pump-milking systems. A dairy farm profitability calculator was combined with the electricity consumption model to assess the effect of each investment scenario on the total discounted net income over a 10-yr period subsequent to the investment taking place. Included in the calculation were the initial investments, which were depreciated to zero over the 10-yr period. The return on additional investment for 5 investment scenarios compared with a base scenario was computed as the investment appraisal metric. The results of this study showed that the highest return on investment figures were realized by using a direct expansion milk-cooling system with precooling of milk to 15°C with water before milk entry to the storage tank, heating water with an electrical water-heating system, and using standard vacuum pump control on the milking system. Return on investment figures did not exceed the suggested hurdle rate of 10% for any of the ice bank scenarios, making the ice bank system reliant on a grant aid framework to reduce the initial capital investment and improve the return on investment. The solar water-heating and variable speed drive vacuum pump scenarios failed to produce positive return on investment figures on any of the 3 farm sizes considered on either the day and night

  8. Maximum Capital Project Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Matt

    2002-01-01

    Describes the stages of capital project planning and development: (1) individual capital project submission; (2) capital project proposal assessment; (3) executive committee; and (4) capital project execution. (EV)

  9. Investing in People: Schooling in Low Income Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schultz, Theodore W.

    1989-01-01

    Surveys research on the role of schooling and human capital in fostering productivity and economic growth. Argues that the returns to human capital are extremely large, compared with returns to most types of physical capital. Urges increased grants by international donors for investment in primary schooling. Includes 18 notes. (MLH)

  10. Social Capital as Exchange: Its Contribution to Morale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheung, Chau-kiu; Chan, Raymond Kwok-hong

    2010-01-01

    A way to clarify the measurement of social capital is the differentiation of its bases on opportunity and exchange. Social capital based on opportunity incorporates organizational participation, network strength, trust, helping and continuing relationships, whereas social capital based on exchange consists of the investment and reciprocation of…

  11. 47 CFR 32.3410 - Accumulated amortization-capitalized leases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accumulated amortization-capitalized leases. 32... Accounts § 32.3410 Accumulated amortization—capitalized leases. (a) This account shall include the accumulated amortization associated with the investment contained in Account 2681, Capital Leases. (b)...

  12. Increasing Returns to Education and the Impact on Social Capital

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leeves, Gareth D.

    2014-01-01

    The returns to education have been increasing. It is suggested that high-skilled workers' social capital investment has been adversely affected by the increasing incentives to devote human capital to career development. Lower social capital is linked to reduced economic growth and innovation and higher transaction costs and is detrimental to…

  13. 78 FR 45592 - DeltaPoint Capital IV, LP;

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-29

    ... ADMINISTRATION DeltaPoint Capital IV, LP; Notice Seeking Exemption Under Section 312 of the Small Business Investment Act, Conflicts of Interest Notice is hereby given that DeltaPoint Capital IV, L.P., 45 East Avenue... Business Administration (``SBA'') Rules and Regulations (13 CFR 107.730). DeltaPoint Capital IV,...

  14. Modeling regulated water utility investment incentives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padula, S.; Harou, J. J.

    2014-12-01

    This work attempts to model the infrastructure investment choices of privatized water utilities subject to rate of return and price cap regulation. The goal is to understand how regulation influences water companies' investment decisions such as their desire to engage in transfers with neighbouring companies. We formulate a profit maximization capacity expansion model that finds the schedule of new supply, demand management and transfer schemes that maintain the annual supply-demand balance and maximize a companies' profit under the 2010-15 price control process in England. Regulatory incentives for costs savings are also represented in the model. These include: the CIS scheme for the capital expenditure (capex) and incentive allowance schemes for the operating expenditure (opex) . The profit-maximizing investment program (what to build, when and what size) is compared with the least cost program (social optimum). We apply this formulation to several water companies in South East England to model performance and sensitivity to water network particulars. Results show that if companies' are able to outperform the regulatory assumption on the cost of capital, a capital bias can be generated, due to the fact that the capital expenditure, contrarily to opex, can be remunerated through the companies' regulatory capital value (RCV). The occurrence of the 'capital bias' or its entity depends on the extent to which a company can finance its investments at a rate below the allowed cost of capital. The bias can be reduced by the regulatory penalties for underperformances on the capital expenditure (CIS scheme); Sensitivity analysis can be applied by varying the CIS penalty to see how and to which extent this impacts the capital bias effect. We show how regulatory changes could potentially be devised to partially remove the 'capital bias' effect. Solutions potentially include allowing for incentives on total expenditure rather than separately for capex and opex and allowing

  15. 78 FR 21491 - DeltaPoint Capital IV, L.P., DeltaPoint Capital IV (New York), L.P.; Notice Seeking Exemption...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-10

    ... ADMINISTRATION DeltaPoint Capital IV, L.P., DeltaPoint Capital IV (New York), L.P.; Notice Seeking Exemption Under Section 312 of the Small Business Investment Act, Conflicts of Interest Notice is hereby given that DeltaPoint Capital IV, L.P. and DeltaPoint Capital IV (New York), L.P., 45 East Avenue, 6th...

  16. 12 CFR 956.2 - Authorized investments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Authorized investments. 956.2 Section 956.2... ITEMS FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK INVESTMENTS § 956.2 Authorized investments. In addition to assets... securities of any small business investment company formed pursuant to 15 U.S.C. 681(d), to the extent...

  17. 12 CFR 956.2 - Authorized investments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Authorized investments. 956.2 Section 956.2... ITEMS FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK INVESTMENTS § 956.2 Authorized investments. In addition to assets... securities of any small business investment company formed pursuant to 15 U.S.C. 681(d), to the extent...

  18. 7 CFR 4290.1830 - RBIC's Capital Impairment definition and general requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... INVESTMENT COMPANY (âRBICâ) PROGRAM RBIC's Noncompliance With Terms of Leverage Computation of Rbic's Capital... to determine RBIC's Capital Impairment condition. The Secretary may make his or her own...

  19. 7 CFR 4290.1830 - RBIC's Capital Impairment definition and general requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... INVESTMENT COMPANY (âRBICâ) PROGRAM RBIC's Noncompliance With Terms of Leverage Computation of Rbic's Capital... to determine RBIC's Capital Impairment condition. The Secretary may make his or her own...

  20. 7 CFR 4290.1830 - RBIC's Capital Impairment definition and general requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... INVESTMENT COMPANY (âRBICâ) PROGRAM RBIC's Noncompliance With Terms of Leverage Computation of Rbic's Capital... to determine RBIC's Capital Impairment condition. The Secretary may make his or her own...

  1. 7 CFR 4290.1830 - RBIC's Capital Impairment definition and general requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... INVESTMENT COMPANY (âRBICâ) PROGRAM RBIC's Noncompliance With Terms of Leverage Computation of Rbic's Capital... to determine RBIC's Capital Impairment condition. The Secretary may make his or her own...

  2. 7 CFR 4290.1830 - RBIC's Capital Impairment definition and general requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... INVESTMENT COMPANY (âRBICâ) PROGRAM RBIC's Noncompliance With Terms of Leverage Computation of Rbic's Capital... to determine RBIC's Capital Impairment condition. The Secretary may make his or her own...

  3. Investing in children's health: what are the economic benefits?

    PubMed Central

    Belli, Paolo C.; Bustreo, Flavia; Preker, Alexander

    2005-01-01

    This paper argues that investing in children's health is a sound economic decision for governments to take, even if the moral justifications for such programmes are not considered. The paper also outlines dimensions that are often neglected when public investment decisions are taken. The conclusion that can be drawn from the literature studying the relationship between children's health and the economy is that children's health is a potentially valuable economic investment. The literature shows that making greater investments in children's health results in better educated and more productive adults, sets in motion favourable demographic changes, and shows that safeguarding health during childhood is more important than at any other age because poor health during children's early years is likely to permanently impair them over the course of their life. In addition, the literature confirms that more attention should be paid to poor health as a mechanism for the intergenerational transmission of poverty. Children born into poor families have poorer health as children, receive lower investments in human capital, and have poorer health as adults. As a result, they will earn lower wages as adults, which will affect the next generation of children who will thus be born into poorer families. PMID:16283055

  4. Reaping benefits from intellectual capital.

    PubMed

    Weston, Marla J; Estrada, Nicolette A; Carrington, Jane

    2007-01-01

    The wealth and value of organizations are increasingly based on intellectual capital. Although acquiring talented individuals and investing in employee learning adds value to the organization, reaping the benefits of intellectual capital involves translating the wisdom of employees into reusable and sustained actions. This requires a culture that creates employee commitment, encourages learning, fosters sharing, and involves employees in decision making. An infrastructure to recognize and embed promising and best practices through social networks, evidence-based practice, customization of innovations, and use of information technology results in increased productivity, stronger financial performance, better patient outcomes, and greater employee and customer satisfaction. PMID:17198112

  5. 29 CFR 2510.3-101 - Definition of “plan assets”-plan investments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... venture capital investment in connection with: (1) A public offering of securities of the operating... of a plan with respect to a plan's investment in another entity for purposes of subtitle A, and parts.... (2) Generally, when a plan invests in another entity, the plan's assets include its investment,...

  6. 29 CFR 2510.3-101 - Definition of “plan assets”-plan investments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... venture capital investment in connection with: (1) A public offering of securities of the operating... of a plan with respect to a plan's investment in another entity for purposes of subtitle A, and parts.... (2) Generally, when a plan invests in another entity, the plan's assets include its investment,...

  7. 29 CFR 2510.3-101 - Definition of “plan assets”-plan investments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... venture capital investment in connection with: (1) A public offering of securities of the operating... of a plan with respect to a plan's investment in another entity for purposes of subtitle A, and parts.... (2) Generally, when a plan invests in another entity, the plan's assets include its investment,...

  8. 29 CFR 2510.3-101 - Definition of “plan assets”-plan investments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... venture capital investment in connection with: (1) A public offering of securities of the operating... of a plan with respect to a plan's investment in another entity for purposes of subtitle A, and parts.... (2) Generally, when a plan invests in another entity, the plan's assets include its investment,...

  9. 77 FR 12892 - Medley Capital Corporation, et al.; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-02

    ...-invest with certain affiliated investment funds in portfolio companies. Applicants: Medley Capital... the capacity to, and elect to, co-invest with the Company are referred to as ``Participating Funds... consideration. The Company will co-invest with a Participating Fund only if, prior to the Company's and...

  10. The social architecture of capitalism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, Ian

    2005-02-01

    A dynamic model of the social relations between workers and capitalists is introduced. The model self-organises into a dynamic equilibrium with statistical properties that are in close qualitative and in many cases quantitative agreement with a broad range of known empirical distributions of developed capitalism, including the power-law firm size distribution, the Laplace firm and GDP growth distribution, the lognormal firm demises distribution, the exponential recession duration distribution, the lognormal-Pareto income distribution, and the gamma-like firm rate-of-profit distribution. Normally these distributions are studied in isolation, but this model unifies and connects them within a single causal framework. The model also generates business cycle phenomena, including fluctuating wage and profit shares in national income about values consistent with empirical studies. The generation of an approximately lognormal-Pareto income distribution and an exponential-Pareto wealth distribution demonstrates that the power-law regime of the income distribution can be explained by an additive process on a power-law network that models the social relation between employers and employees organised in firms, rather than a multiplicative process that models returns to investment in financial markets. A testable consequence of the model is the conjecture that the rate-of-profit distribution is consistent with a parameter-mix of a ratio of normal variates with means and variances that depend on a firm size parameter that is distributed according to a power-law.

  11. Capital Campaigns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalessandro, David; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Eight articles focus on capital campaigns including setting goals (D. Dalessandro), the lead gift (D. A. Campbell), motivating trustees (J. J. Ianolli, Jr.), alumni associations (W. B. Adams), role of public relations officers (R. L. Williams), special events( H.R. Gilbert), the campaign document (R. King), and case statements (D. R. Treadwell,…

  12. Banking services aid tax-exempt investments.

    PubMed

    Forbes, R W; Leonard, P A

    1987-04-01

    Many not-for-profit hospitals are facing a severe capital shortage. Their traditional sources of funding--government grants, philanthropy, and appropriations--have dramatically declined. Increasingly, these hospitals are turning to the tax-exempt bond market for their capital. It is important for the financial manager to understand the elements and the process of tax-exempt financing. One crucial element is the investment banker who handles the project's financing. This article focuses on the financing services investment banking firms provide to hospitals and explains how much these services will cost. PMID:10280840

  13. Taking a deep breath over capital payments.

    PubMed

    Herr, W W

    1991-04-01

    As the Congressional deadline nears for incorporating Medicare payment for capital investments into the prospective payment system, a number of healthcare groups are renewing their opposition to the initiative. They insist that a payment method cannot be constructed to equitably account for geographic influences, different capital cycles among healthcare facilities, and other factors. Opponents of the initiative say this failure will impose further stress on hospitals already burdened by less than adequate Medicare payments for operating expenses. PMID:10145414

  14. Foreign investment

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-06-01

    This report focuses on the effects of foreign direct investment in the United States. GAO examines foreign investment in four industries: baking, where possible control over bank lending is of concern; petroleum, where questions about increased dependence on foreign oil have arisen; chemicals, where the foreign-owned share of U.S. assets is among the highest of all industry sectors; and biotechnology, an emerging sector of potentially strategic commercial importance. In this report, GAO spells out the policy concerns in each sector, identifies the data available to analyze these concerns, and evaluates the concerns.

  15. 75 FR 7339 - Secondary Capital Accounts

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-19

    ... capital (``SC'') from non-natural person members and nonmembers. 61 FR 50696 (Sept. 27, 1996). The Board intended that SC accounts provide LICUs with additional means to accumulate capital. 61 FR 3788 (Feb. 2, 1996); 71 FR 4234 (Jan. 26, 2006). Accumulated capital could be used to expand lending and...

  16. Harnessing the Power of Intellectual Capital.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bassi, Laurie J.

    1997-01-01

    Describes intellectual capital--employees' brainpower, know-how, knowledge, and processes--and knowledge management--the processes by which a company creates and leverages intellectual capital--as the primary sources of competitive advantage in many industries. Offers ways to measure intellectual capital, a glossary, and additional resources. (JOW)

  17. Institutional Venture Capital for the Space Industry: Providing Risk Capital for Space Companies that Provide Investor Returns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Roscoe M., III

    2002-01-01

    provided by an institution. Those institutions tend to be Banks, Pension Funds, Insurance Funds, Corporations, and other incorporated entities that are obligated to earn a return on their invested capital. These institutions invest in a venture capital firm for the sole purpose of getting their money back with a healthy profit - within a set period of time. The venture capital firm is responsible for investing in and managing companies whose risk and return are higher than other less risky classes of investment. The venture capital firm's primary skill is its ability to manage the high risk of its venture investments while maintaining the high return potential of its venture investments. to businesses for the purpose of providing the above-mentioned Institutions a substantial return on their invested capital. Institutional Venture Capital for the Space Industry cannot be provided to projects or companies whose philosophy or intention is not to increase shareholder equity value within a set time period. efficiently when tied up in companies that intend to spend billions of dollars before the first dollar of revenue is generated. If 2 billion dollars of venture capital is invested in the equity of a Space Company for a minority equity position, then that Space Company must build that minority shareholder's equity value to a minimum investment return of 4 to 8 billion dollars. There are not many start-up companies that are able to reach public market equity valuations in the tens of billions of dollars within reasonable time horizons. Foundations, Manufacturers, and Strategic Investors can invest in projects that cannot realistically provide a substantial return on their equity to their investors within a reasonable period (5-7 years) of time. Venture Capitalists have to make money. Venture capitalists have made money on Satellite Television, Satellite Radio, Fixed Satellite Services, and other businesses. Venture capitalists have not made money on stand

  18. Abundance in Capital: Global Risk Sharing and Insurance in a Changing Financial Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michel, Gero; Schaper, Christopher

    2014-05-01

    Insurance has played a viable role in the hedging of homeowners and commercial risks around the world. Countries that have significant penetration in insurance have in addition performed better after large regional or over-regional catastrophic losses. Insurance has hence increased the resilience of western societies. This is opposed to emerging or developing markets with low insurance penetration which have suffered significant drawbacks in their development after large catastrophic events. Examples include the recent Typhoon(s) in the Philippines and the 2010 Haiti earthquake. This presentation will provide insights into the opportunities, views and risk management features a global reinsurance company must assume in order to hedge and mitigate risk across the world. During the past year, an unprecedented amount of new capital has been entering the insurance market, looking for profitable investments outside the much wider capital market. Catastrophe insurance is seen as a valuable alternative to investing in assets that that have shown low returns and high correlation in the recent financial meltdown. The new capital is mostly deployed - or competing with already deployed capital - in the US where insurance penetration is already high. This is opposed to more than half of the world including all developing and most emerging countries which have low insurance penetration and often lack infrastructure hindering new capital to be deployed effectively. What is needed to overcome this obvious deficiency in capital supply and demand? One reason why it is difficult to deploy capital in developing countries is the lack of available exposure information and catastrophe models. This presentation sheds light on the potential science needs of our market and gives an overview of what is being done at Montpelier, a global reinsurance company, to understand catastrophe risk around the globe.

  19. Caring relationships: an investment in health?

    PubMed Central

    Gorski, P A

    2000-01-01

    Although the US has created the most expensive, technologically advanced medical system in the world, health outcomes are not commensurate with investment. The author argues that providers and policy makers have neglected the effect of human relationships on health, citing research showing that better relationships lead to better health. The author concludes with recommendations for improving public health by supporting society's investments in social capital. Images p145-a p149-a PMID:10968746

  20. 7 CFR 4290.210 - Minimum capital requirements for RBICs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...-COOPERATIVE SERVICE AND RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RURAL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANY... Leverageable Capital of at least $500,000, to become a RBIC. (b) Exception. (1) The Secretary in his or...

  1. Fertility, Human Capital, and Economic Growth over the Demographic Transition

    PubMed Central

    Mason, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    Do low fertility and population aging lead to economic decline if couples have fewer children, but invest more in each child? By addressing this question, this article extends previous work in which the authors show that population aging leads to an increased demand for wealth that can, under some conditions, lead to increased capital per worker and higher per capita consumption. This article is based on an overlapping generations (OLG) model which highlights the quantity–quality tradeoff and the links between human capital investment and economic growth. It incorporates new national level estimates of human capital investment produced by the National Transfer Accounts project. Simulation analysis is employed to show that, even in the absence of the capital dilution effect, low fertility leads to higher per capita consumption through human capital accumulation, given plausible model parameters. PMID:20495605

  2. Private equity investment in health care services.

    PubMed

    Robbins, Catherine J; Rudsenske, Todd; Vaughan, James S

    2008-01-01

    Sophisticated private equity investors in health services provide venture capital for early-stage companies, growth capital for mid-stage companies, and equity capital for buyouts of mid-stage and mature companies. They pursue opportunities in provider sectors that are large and have a stable reimbursement environment, such as acute care services; sectors with room to execute consolidation strategies, such as labs; alternative-site sectors, such as "storefront" medicine; and clinical services, such as behavioral health, that are subject to profitably increasing quality and lowering costs. The innovations created through private equity investments could challenge established health services organizations. PMID:18780929

  3. Capital expenditure trends in California hospitals: 2002-2007.

    PubMed

    McCue, Michael J

    2011-01-01

    From 1997 to 2001, hospitals expanded their capital expenditures by only 1% while future capital investment was expected to grow by 14% (Healthcare Financial Management Association 2004). Analyzing California hospital data from 2002 to 2004 to 2005 to 2007, the author identified and classified capital expenditures into 4 major types. Between the 2 study periods, growth in capital purchases exceeded 23% for medical equipment, expansion, and maintenance types of projects. Large nonprofit hospitals capturing a greater share of the market and serving fewer uninsured and government payers had a greater number of these types of capital purchases. PMID:21360384

  4. H. R. 5593: A Bill to maintain the viability of the domestic oil industry by enhancing capital investment and ensuring future oil and gas exploration, and for other purposes. Introduced in the House of Representatives, One Hundredth First Congress, Second Session, September 12, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    This bill would maintain the viability of the domestic oil industry by enhancing capital investment and ensuring future oil and gas exploration by amending certain sections of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986. The bill describes the following provisions under the title, Percentage depletion and intangible drilling costs: increase in percentage depletion; percentage depletion permitted after transfer of proven property; percentage depletion allowed for stripper well production of integrated producers; net income limitation not to apply to oil or gas wells; and definitions of intangible drilling costs. Under Title II, Domestic energy improvement tax credits, the following tax credits are described: marginal production; exploring for oil or gas; vehicles fueled by clean-burning fuels, property converting vehicles to be so fueled, and facilities for the retail delivery of such fuels; conversion to natural gas equipment; clean fuel alternatives research; and tertiary recovery methods research.

  5. Reducing the cost of health care capital.

    PubMed

    Silberman, R

    1984-08-01

    Although one may ask four financial experts their opinion on the future of the hospital capital market and receive five answers, the blatant need for financial strategic planning is evident. Clearly, the hospital or system with sound financial management will be better positioned to gain and/or maintain an edge in the competitive environment of the health care sector. The trends of the future include hospitals attempting to: Maximize the efficiency of invested capital. Use the expertise of Board members. Use alternative capital sources. Maximize rate of return on investments. Increase productivity. Adjust to changes in reimbursements. Restructure to use optimal financing for capital needs, i.e., using short-term to build up debt capacity if long-term financing is needed in the future. Take advantage of arbitrage (obtain capital and reinvest it until the funds are needed). Delay actual underwriting until funds are to be used. Better management of accounts receivable and accounts payable to avoid short-term financing for cash flow shortfalls. Use for-profit subsidiaries to obtain venture capital by issuing stock. Use product line management. Use leasing to obtain balance sheet advantages. These trends indicate a need for hospital executives to possess a thorough understanding of the capital formation process. In essence, the bottom line is that the short-term viability and long-term survival of a health care organization will greatly depend on the financial expertise of its decision-makers. PMID:10268147

  6. Measuring Social Capital and Its Differentials by Family Structures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ravanera, Zenaida R.; Rajulton, Fernando

    2010-01-01

    Social capital has often been invoked to explain differences in children's well-being by family structure. That is, developmental outcome for children in lone or step parent family is not at par with that of children from intact family because parental investments on children may be lower not only in financial and human capital but also in social…

  7. 76 FR 36584 - Highmark Funds and Highmark Capital Management, Inc.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-22

    ... COMMISSION Highmark Funds and Highmark Capital Management, Inc. June 16, 2011. AGENCY: Securities and...: Applicants request an order to permit open-end management investment companies relying on rule 12d1-2 under...Mark Capital Management, Inc. (``HCM,'' and together with the Trust, ``Applicants''). Filing Dates:...

  8. The Treatment of Capital Costs in Educational Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bezeau, Lawrence

    1975-01-01

    Failure to account for the cost and depreciation of capital leads to suboptimal investments in education, specifically to excessively capital intensive instructional technologies. This type of error, which is particularly serious when planning for developing countries, can be easily avoided. (Author)

  9. 17 CFR 270.19b-1 - Frequency of distribution of capital gains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... securities (as defined in Rule 14a-3(b) (17 CFR 270.14a-3(b)) under this Act); Provided, That: (1) The... capital gains. 270.19b-1 Section 270.19b-1 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE... distribution of capital gains. (a) No registered investment company which is a “regulated investment...

  10. Human Capital Development and Poverty Alleviation in Nigeria: A Symbiotic Overview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asaju, Kayode

    2012-01-01

    Human Capital development through education is a long time investment made by the state to enhance the well being of her citizenry. By investing in education, well educated individuals bring to bear their talents, knowledge, skills and experiences as they function in the various sectors of the economy. Human Capital development is therefore a…

  11. Does human capital matter? A meta-analysis of the relationship between human capital and firm performance.

    PubMed

    Crook, T Russell; Todd, Samuel Y; Combs, James G; Woehr, David J; Ketchen, David J

    2011-05-01

    Theory at both the micro and macro level predicts that investments in superior human capital generate better firm-level performance. However, human capital takes time and money to develop or acquire, which potentially offsets its positive benefits. Indeed, extant tests appear equivocal regarding its impact. To clarify what is known, we meta-analyzed effects drawn from 66 studies of the human capital-firm performance relationship and investigated 3 moderators suggested by resource-based theory. We found that human capital relates strongly to performance, especially when the human capital in question is not readily tradable in labor markets and when researchers use operational performance measures that are not subject to profit appropriation. Our results suggest that managers should invest in programs that increase and retain firm-specific human capital. PMID:21244126

  12. Does Human Capital Matter? A Meta-Analysis of the Relationship between Human Capital and Firm Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crook, T. Russell; Todd, Samuel Y.; Combs, James G.; Woehr, David J.; Ketchen, David J., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    Theory at both the micro and macro level predicts that investments in superior human capital generate better firm-level performance. However, human capital takes time and money to develop or acquire, which potentially offsets its positive benefits. Indeed, extant tests appear equivocal regarding its impact. To clarify what is known, we…

  13. Years and Intensity of Schooling Investment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leibowitz, Arleen

    1976-01-01

    Calculates human capital earnings functions over 20 years for 822 men (the Terman sample) and argues that the percentage of gross earnings invested in education may fall below 100 percent well before school ends. (Available from the Secretary's Office, American Economic Association, 1313 21st Ave., South, Nashville, Tennessee 37212) (Author/JG)

  14. 77 FR 4885 - Rural Business Investment Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-01

    ..., the Agency published an Interim Rule for the Rural Business Investment Program (RBIP) (69 FR 32200... to meet the capital requirements. On December 23, 2011 (76 FR 80217), the Agency published an amended... / Wednesday, February 1, 2012 / Rules and Regulations#0;#0; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Rural...

  15. 12 CFR 1777.23 - Capital restoration plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    .... An Enterprise shall file a capital restoration plan in writing with OFHEO within ten days of... a capital restoration plan approved by OFHEO under this part is not required to submit an additional capital restoration plan based on a subsequent notice of capital classification, unless OFHEO notifies...

  16. 12 CFR 1777.23 - Capital restoration plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    .... An Enterprise shall file a capital restoration plan in writing with OFHEO within ten days of... a capital restoration plan approved by OFHEO under this part is not required to submit an additional capital restoration plan based on a subsequent notice of capital classification, unless OFHEO notifies...

  17. 12 CFR 1777.23 - Capital restoration plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    .... An Enterprise shall file a capital restoration plan in writing with OFHEO within ten days of... a capital restoration plan approved by OFHEO under this part is not required to submit an additional capital restoration plan based on a subsequent notice of capital classification, unless OFHEO notifies...

  18. 12 CFR 1777.23 - Capital restoration plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    .... An Enterprise shall file a capital restoration plan in writing with OFHEO within ten days of... a capital restoration plan approved by OFHEO under this part is not required to submit an additional capital restoration plan based on a subsequent notice of capital classification, unless OFHEO notifies...

  19. 12 CFR 5.37 - Investment in bank premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... as defined in 12 CFR part 6 and will continue to be well capitalized after the investment or loan is... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Investment in bank premises. 5.37 Section 5.37 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY RULES, POLICIES,...

  20. 12 CFR 5.37 - Investment in bank premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... as defined in 12 CFR part 6 and will continue to be well capitalized after the investment or loan is... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Investment in bank premises. 5.37 Section 5.37 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY RULES, POLICIES,...

  1. 12 CFR 5.37 - Investment in bank premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... as defined in 12 CFR part 6 and will continue to be well capitalized after the investment or loan is... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Investment in bank premises. 5.37 Section 5.37 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY RULES, POLICIES,...

  2. 12 CFR 5.37 - Investment in bank premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... as defined in 12 CFR part 6 and will continue to be well capitalized after the investment or loan is... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Investment in bank premises. 5.37 Section 5.37 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY RULES, POLICIES,...

  3. 12 CFR 5.37 - Investment in bank premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... as defined in 12 CFR part 6 and will continue to be well capitalized after the investment or loan is... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Investment in bank premises. 5.37 Section 5.37 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY RULES, POLICIES,...

  4. Federal Public Investment Spending and Economic Development in Appalachia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mencken, F. Carson; Tolbert, Charles M., II

    2005-01-01

    This analysis examines the relationship between federal public investment spending and economic development in the special case of Appalachia. We propose that the effects of federal public investment spending on economic development operate indirectly through private capital accumulation. We use a spatial lag regression model to test our ideas for…

  5. Return on Investment for Workplace Training: The Canadian Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Percival, Jennifer C.; Cozzarin, Brian P.; Formaneck, Steven D.

    2013-01-01

    One of the central problems in managing technological change and maintaining a competitive advantage in business is improving the skills of the workforce through investment in human capital and a variety of training practices. This paper explores the evidence on the impact of training investment on productivity in 14 Canadian industries from 1999…

  6. 76 FR 30869 - Promoting Transmission Investment Through Pricing Reform

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-27

    ... Transmission Investment through Pricing Reform, Order No. 679, 71 FR 43294 (Jul. 31, 2006), FERC Stats. & Regs. ] 31,222 (2006), order on reh'g, Order No. 679-A, 72 FR 1152 (Jan. 10, 2007), FERC Stats. & Regs. ] 31... and generation of electricity by promoting capital investment in the enlargement,...

  7. How to choose the right capitalization option.

    PubMed

    Vaughan, J; Wise, J

    1996-12-01

    Physician group practices and networks must have ready access to capital to finance their working capital needs, capital equipment acquisitions, and real estate purchases, as well as to fund the acquisition of additional practices. At least three options for capitalization are available to group practices and networks: debt financing, equity financing, or a combination of the two. The best option for physician group practices and networks depends on the costs of capital and the impact the strategy will have on decision making and governance. PMID:10163009

  8. 77 FR 74230 - PNC Capital Advisors, LLC, et al.; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-13

    ... COMMISSION PNC Capital Advisors, LLC, et al.; Notice of Application December 6, 2012. AGENCY: Securities and... the Act to invest in certain financial instruments. Applicants: PNC Capital Advisors, LLC (``PNC Capital Advisors''), PNC Funds and PNC Advantage Funds (together, the ``Trusts''), and PNC...

  9. Enhancing Natural Capital across the Biosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daily, G.; Tallis, H.; Goldstein, J.; Nelson, E.; Polasky, S.

    2008-12-01

    Over the past decade, efforts to value and protect ecosystem services have been promoted by many as the best hope for making conservation mainstream - attractive and commonplace worldwide. Yet, in promising a return (of services) on investments in natural capital, the scientific community needs to deliver knowledge and tools to quantify and forecast this return. To help address this challenge, we have developed a suite of models for integrated valuation of ecosystem services and tradeoffs (InVEST). Based on future scenarios of resource use, climate, and human population, InVEST projects the future provision of services in biophysical and economic terms. The outputs of InVEST provide decision-makers with maps and other spatially explicit information about costs, benefits, tradeoffs, and synergies of alternative investments in natural capital and ecosystem service provision. InVEST is now being used in major resource decisions in Bolivia, Brazil, China, Colombia, Ecuador, Mexico, Peru, Tanzania, and the United States (California, Hawai'i, Oregon, and Washington). To meet increasing demand for this tool and related approaches, the science of ecosystem service provision must be advanced rapidly.

  10. The Role of Capital Productivity in British Airways' Financial Recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrell, Peter

    1999-01-01

    British Airways (BA) was privatized in 1987, but its financial recovery occurred a number of years earlier, This recovery was sustained throughout the early 1990s economic recession, a period when few major airlines were operating profitably. This paper examines the role of productivity developments at British Airways from the early 1980s through 1996. The emphasis is on capital productivity and investment, but changes in capital intensity and labour productivity are also evaluated. Various measures are considered for both capital and labour productivity: outputs are measured in available tonne-kms (ATKs) and revenue tonne-kms (RTKs), with the former preferred over the latter two measures, after adjustment for work performed by BA for others. Capital inputs are measured in equivalent lease costs adjusted to constant prices with a different treatment of flight and ground equipment or assets. Labour inputs are derived from total payroll costs deflated by a UK wage price index. The airline made considerable capital investments over the period and at the same time went through two major processes of labour restructuring. This resulted in a gradual increase in capital intensity, relative high labour productivity growth, but poor capital productivity performance, However, capital investment played an important role in the airline's sustained labour and total factor productivity over the whole period.

  11. The Role of Capital Productivity in British Airways' Financial Recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrell, Peter

    1999-01-01

    British Airways (BA) was privatised in 1987, but its financial recovery occurred a number of years earlier. This recovery was sustained throughout the early 1990s economic recession, a period when few major airlines were operating profitably. This paper examines the role of productivity developments at British Airways from the early 1980s through 1996. The emphasis is on capital productivity and investment, but changes in capital intensity and labour productivity are also evaluated. Various measures are considered for both capital and labour productivity: outputs are measured in available tonne-kms (ATKS) and revenue tonne-kms (RTKs), with the former preferred over the latter two measures, after adjustment for work performed by BA for others. Capital inputs are measured in equivalent lease costs adjusted to constant prices with a different treatment of flight and ground equipment or assets. Labour inputs are derived from total payroll costs deflated by a UK wage price index. The airline made considerable capital investments over the period and at the same time went through two major processes of labour restructuring. This resulted in a gradual increase in capital intensity, relative high labour productivity growth, but poor capital productivity performance. However, capital investment played an important role in the airline's sustained labour and total factor productivity over the whole period.

  12. 26 CFR 1.1247-1 - Election by foreign investment companies to distribute income currently.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Investment Company Act of 1940. See section 8(a) of such Act (15 U.S.C. 80a-8(a)) and 17 CFR 274.10. A... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Election by foreign investment companies to... Determining Capital Gains and Losses § 1.1247-1 Election by foreign investment companies to distribute...

  13. 26 CFR 1.1247-1 - Election by foreign investment companies to distribute income currently.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Investment Company Act of 1940. See section 8(a) of such Act (15 U.S.C. 80a-8(a)) and 17 CFR 274.10. A... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Election by foreign investment companies to... Determining Capital Gains and Losses § 1.1247-1 Election by foreign investment companies to distribute...

  14. 26 CFR 1.1247-1 - Election by foreign investment companies to distribute income currently.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Investment Company Act of 1940. See section 8(a) of such Act (15 U.S.C. 80a-8(a)) and 17 CFR 274.10. A... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Election by foreign investment companies to... Determining Capital Gains and Losses § 1.1247-1 Election by foreign investment companies to distribute...

  15. 26 CFR 1.1247-1 - Election by foreign investment companies to distribute income currently.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Investment Company Act of 1940. See section 8(a) of such Act (15 U.S.C. 80a-8(a)) and 17 CFR 274.10. A... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Election by foreign investment companies to... Determining Capital Gains and Losses § 1.1247-1 Election by foreign investment companies to distribute...

  16. Building Social Capital: Steps towards a Learning Society. Occasional Papers Series: No. 11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuller, Tom

    Although it is true that education is an investment, there are risks associated with relying too strongly on the metaphor of education as investment. The main problems with the investment metaphor are as follows: (1) it pushes aside the notion of education as a consumption good that people want for its own sake; (2) the human capital approach can…

  17. Social capital in engineering education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Shane

    A theoretical argument is presented to suggest that engineering curriculum be designed to develop social capital. Additionally, the value of social capital in the retention of students in the College of Engineering, and the development, role, and value of social capital in an electrical engineering laboratory is evaluated. Data collected includes participant observations, informal and formal student interviews, and a researcher-designed survey. Social capital consists of interaction among individuals (networks), social rules that encourage interactions such as trust and reciprocity (norms), and the value of these networks and norms to the individual and the group. A large body of evidence suggests that social capital is valuable in terms of retention and multiple measures of academic achievement. The importance of social capital in retention was verified by students that have left engineering and those that remain, in terms of interactions with peers, teaching assistants, and engineering faculty; and a lack of sense of community in freshman engineering courses. Students that have left engineering differed in their perceptions of social capital from those that remain in their frustrations with teaching methods that encourage little discussion or opportunities to ask questions about assumptions or approaches. The open-ended nature of laboratory assignments, extensive required troubleshooting, and lack of specific directions from the teaching assistants were found to encourage the development of social capital in the laboratory setting. Degree centrality, a network measure of social capital as the number of ties an individual has within a social network, was found to be positively correlated with laboratory grade. Student perceptions of the importance of interactions with other students on success in the laboratory setting has a negative model effect on academic achievement in the laboratory. In contrast, student perceptions of the quality of interactions with

  18. Achieving Investment Autonomy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flynn, Jeffrey B.

    1988-01-01

    Public investors can lower commissions through investment autonomy, that is, implementing the investment decision process without outside input. Details some techniques for fine-tuning the investment process. (MLF)

  19. 31 CFR 203.20 - Investment account requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Investment account requirements. 203... TREASURY TAX AND LOAN PROGRAM Investment Program and Collateral Security Requirements for TT&L Depositaries § 203.20 Investment account requirements. (a) Additions. Treasury will invest funds in obligations...

  20. 31 CFR 203.20 - Investment account requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Investment account requirements. 203... TREASURY TAX AND LOAN PROGRAM Investment Program and Collateral Security Requirements for TT&L Depositaries § 203.20 Investment account requirements. (a) Additions. Treasury will invest funds in obligations...

  1. 31 CFR 203.20 - Investment account requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Investment account requirements. 203... TREASURY TAX AND LOAN PROGRAM Investment Program and Collateral Security Requirements for TT&L Depositaries § 203.20 Investment account requirements. (a) Additions. Treasury will invest funds in obligations...

  2. The dynamics of social capital and health.

    PubMed

    Lavalle, Tiziana; Omosebi, Charles Damimola; Desmarteau, Robert H

    2015-01-01

    In the wake of Robert Putnam's arrival in Italy to study regionalization, this review of the literature on social capital aimed to establish whether current knowledge, social or socio-anthropological research have yielded new findings on how social capital is built and maintained or developed in a community and to what extent this influences social well-being. This is particularly important for those working in the health sector to make sure that health-related decision-making and behaviour foster rather than destroy the development of social capital. Our literature search was based on specific articles published in scientific journals in the humanist, managerial and medical fields, book titles or subtitles containing references to "social capital or social cooperation or reciprocity". Our findings led us to the conclusion that a complex series of coordinated actions are required for social capital to develop and that, once developed, social capital has a positive impact on social relations, economic results and social stability. In addition, we understood why it is useful to retain three stages, conditioning, development and capitalization, in modelling the development of social capital. Conditioning requires transparency, pragmatism and long-term vision. Development and capitalization require the predominant variables to be chosen. The development of social capital is part of a good strategy for health promotion and prevention. PMID:26828341

  3. Measuring the value of groundwater and other forms of natural capital

    PubMed Central

    Fenichel, Eli P.; Abbott, Joshua K.; Bayham, Jude; Boone, Whitney; Haacker, Erin M. K.; Pfeiffer, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    Valuing natural capital is fundamental to measuring sustainability. The United Nations Environment Programme, World Bank, and other agencies have called for inclusion of the value of natural capital in sustainability metrics, such as inclusive wealth. Much has been written about the importance of natural capital, but consistent, rigorous valuation approaches compatible with the pricing of traditional forms of capital have remained elusive. We present a guiding quantitative framework enabling natural capital valuation that is fully consistent with capital theory, accounts for biophysical and economic feedbacks, and can guide interdisciplinary efforts to measure sustainability. We illustrate this framework with an application to groundwater in the Kansas High Plains Aquifer, a rapidly depleting asset supporting significant food production. We develop a 10-y time series (1996−2005) of natural capital asset prices that accounts for technological, institutional, and physical changes. Kansas lost approximately $110 million per year (2005 US dollars) of capital value through groundwater withdrawal and changes in aquifer management during the decade spanning 1996–2005. This annual loss in wealth is approximately equal to the state’s 2005 budget surplus, and is substantially more than investments in schools over this period. Furthermore, real investment in agricultural capital also declined over this period. Although Kansas’ depletion of water wealth is substantial, it may be tractably managed through careful groundwater management and compensating investments in other natural and traditional assets. Measurement of natural capital value is required to inform management and ongoing investments in natural assets. PMID:26858431

  4. Measuring the value of groundwater and other forms of natural capital.

    PubMed

    Fenichel, Eli P; Abbott, Joshua K; Bayham, Jude; Boone, Whitney; Haacker, Erin M K; Pfeiffer, Lisa

    2016-03-01

    Valuing natural capital is fundamental to measuring sustainability. The United Nations Environment Programme, World Bank, and other agencies have called for inclusion of the value of natural capital in sustainability metrics, such as inclusive wealth. Much has been written about the importance of natural capital, but consistent, rigorous valuation approaches compatible with the pricing of traditional forms of capital have remained elusive. We present a guiding quantitative framework enabling natural capital valuation that is fully consistent with capital theory, accounts for biophysical and economic feedbacks, and can guide interdisciplinary efforts to measure sustainability. We illustrate this framework with an application to groundwater in the Kansas High Plains Aquifer, a rapidly depleting asset supporting significant food production. We develop a 10-y time series (1996-2005) of natural capital asset prices that accounts for technological, institutional, and physical changes. Kansas lost approximately $110 million per year (2005 US dollars) of capital value through groundwater withdrawal and changes in aquifer management during the decade spanning 1996-2005. This annual loss in wealth is approximately equal to the state's 2005 budget surplus, and is substantially more than investments in schools over this period. Furthermore, real investment in agricultural capital also declined over this period. Although Kansas' depletion of water wealth is substantial, it may be tractably managed through careful groundwater management and compensating investments in other natural and traditional assets. Measurement of natural capital value is required to inform management and ongoing investments in natural assets. PMID:26858431

  5. Providing capital for physician group practices: new opportunities for hospitals.

    PubMed

    Coddington, D C; Moore, K D; Clarke, R L

    1999-12-01

    As physician group practices grow and consolidate, they have an increasing interest in developing close capital partnerships to ensure access to capital. Yet as many healthcare organizations have sought to divest poorly performing acquired physician practices, physicians have seen their pool of potential capital partners shrink. Under these conditions, hospitals have a new opportunity to present themselves to physician group practices as attractive capital partners. To understand the nature of this opportunity, one needs to know why group practices seek capital, how groups approach their investment strategies, and what criteria they use to compare prospective capital partners. To build stronger relationships with physicians, hospitals should focus on turning around their poorly performing acquired physician practices and pursue strategies such as collaborating with physician practice management companies and developing new models for partnering with physicians (e.g., special purchase agreements and more advanced management services organizations). PMID:11066695

  6. Queer Cultural Capital: Implications for Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennell, Summer Melody

    2016-01-01

    This article takes the concept of cultural capital from Yosso's (2005) work and transforms the model for queer communities. While Yosso identified five forms of cultural capital in communities of color (familial, aspirational, navigational, resistant, and linguistic), the author identifies an additional form: transgressive. Queer cultural capital…

  7. Japanese direct investment in the US high-technology industry: background, strategies, trends, impact, and alternative responses

    SciTech Connect

    Kavner, A.G.

    1986-01-01

    Growth of foreign direct investment in the US, exceeding 1000% since 1970, has raised important issues regarding US policies toward foreign trade and domestic economic management. Japan, with its significant direct investment in America's high-technology industry, is often perceived as the most threatening of the foreign investors. This study was undertaken to determine the background, extent, and impact of Japanese direct investment in the US high-technology industry. Examination of patterns of foreign direct investment in the US since 1950 shows that Japan's participation has been governed largely by US monetary policies (e.g., revaluation of currency) and the proposed or actual imposition of protectionist measures (e.g., import quotas). Additional factors include US economic-growth potential, lenient tax laws, stable political structure, and many incentives at the state level, all of which provide an attractive environment for foreign investors. Results suggest that the problems associated with foreign direct investment in the US are far outweighed by its benefits of capital inflow and creation of new jobs. An optimum trade policy, in conjunction with the opening of Japan's trade and investment markets, would eliminate trade barriers and support a stabilization of currency.

  8. The Investment Paradigm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perna, Mark C.

    2005-01-01

    Is marketing an expense or an investment? Most accountants will claim that marketing is an expense, and clearly that seems true when cutting the checks to fund these efforts. When it is done properly, marketing is the best investment. A key principle to Smart Marketing is the Investment Paradigm. The Investment Paradigm is understanding that every…

  9. 76 FR 28843 - Emergence Capital Partners SBIC, L.P.; Notice Seeking Exemption Under Section 312 of the Small...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-18

    ... Fashion Island Blvd., Suite 500, San Mateo, CA 94404. The financing is contemplated for working capital... ADMINISTRATION Emergence Capital Partners SBIC, L.P.; Notice Seeking Exemption Under Section 312 of the Small Business Investment Act, Conflicts of Interest Notice is hereby given that Emergence Capital Partners...

  10. 75 FR 39588 - Emergence Capital Partners SBIC, L.P.; Notice Seeking Exemption Under Section 312 of the Small...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-09

    .... Market Street, Suite 600, San Jose, California 95113. The financing is contemplated for working capital... ADMINISTRATION Emergence Capital Partners SBIC, L.P.; Notice Seeking Exemption Under Section 312 of the Small Business Investment Act, Conflicts of Interest Notice is hereby given that Emergence Capital Partners...

  11. Slipped capital femoral epiphysis

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000972.htm Slipped capital femoral epiphysis To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A slipped capital femoral epiphysis is a separation of the ball ...

  12. Capital at Home and at School: Effects on Student Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parcel, Toby L.; Dufur, Mikaela J.

    2001-01-01

    Analysis of longitudinal data on over 2,000 elementary school students found that reading and mathematics achievement were modestly affected by financial and social capital at school and more strongly affected by indicators of family capital; combinations of school and family capital boosted or modified additive findings. (Contains 69 references.)…

  13. 12 CFR 165.5 - Capital restoration plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ....5 Capital restoration plans. (a) Schedule for filing plan—(1) In general. A Federal savings association shall file a written capital restoration plan with the OCC within 45 days of the date that the... restoration plan solely by virtue of the reclassification. (2) Additional capital restoration...

  14. 12 CFR 565.5 - Capital restoration plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... § 565.5 Capital restoration plans. (a) Schedule for filing plan—(1) In general. A savings association shall file a written capital restoration plan with the appropriate Regional Office within 45 days of the... a capital restoration plan solely by virtue of the reclassification. (2) Additional...

  15. 12 CFR 565.5 - Capital restoration plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... § 565.5 Capital restoration plans. (a) Schedule for filing plan—(1) In general. A savings association shall file a written capital restoration plan with the appropriate Regional Office within 45 days of the... a capital restoration plan solely by virtue of the reclassification. (2) Additional...

  16. 12 CFR 565.5 - Capital restoration plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... § 565.5 Capital restoration plans. (a) Schedule for filing plan—(1) In general. A savings association shall file a written capital restoration plan with the appropriate Regional Office within 45 days of the... a capital restoration plan solely by virtue of the reclassification. (2) Additional...

  17. 12 CFR 165.5 - Capital restoration plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ....5 Capital restoration plans. (a) Schedule for filing plan—(1) In general. A Federal savings association shall file a written capital restoration plan with the OCC within 45 days of the date that the... restoration plan solely by virtue of the reclassification. (2) Additional capital restoration...

  18. 12 CFR 565.5 - Capital restoration plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... § 565.5 Capital restoration plans. (a) Schedule for filing plan—(1) In general. A savings association shall file a written capital restoration plan with the appropriate Regional Office within 45 days of the... a capital restoration plan solely by virtue of the reclassification. (2) Additional...

  19. An Examination of Capital Outlay Funding Mechanisms in Oklahoma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Carl; Maiden, Jeffrey

    2010-01-01

    This study was designed to explore fiscal interrelationships that underlay capital outlay funding, including the differences between rural and non-rural school districts. The study additionally focused on the relationships between various capital outlay funding components (capital outlay expenditures per pupil, net assessed valuation per pupil,…

  20. Effects of the provisions of the corporate and personal income tax codes on solar investment decisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sedmak, M. R.

    The effects of the provisions of the existing corporate and personal income tax codes on solar investment decisions are analyzed. It is shown that the provisions of a tax code do not discriminate against investment in solar technologies if the present value of depreciation and interest expense tax deductions over the relevant decision period is equal to the present value of actual capital expenses. However, on the basis of a quantitative analyses, it is concluded that the existing corporate income tax code does discriminate against solar investments for the majority of corporations, although the 25 percent tax credit available to businesses for solar investments is sufficient to alleviate the distortion in most cases. In contrast, the provisions of the existing personal income tax code favor solar investments over investments in less capital intensive energy generating units, as the interest paid on loads used to finance solar investments made by individuals is tax deductible, while conventional fuel expenses are not deductible.

  1. Commercial launch systems: A risky investment?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dupnick, Edwin; Skratt, John

    1996-03-01

    A myriad of evolutionary paths connect the current state of government-dominated space launch operations to true commercial access to space. Every potential path requires the investment of private capital sufficient to fund the commercial venture with a perceived risk/return ratio acceptable to the investors. What is the private sector willing to invest? Does government participation reduce financial risk? How viable is a commercial launch system without government participation and support? We examine the interplay between various forms of government participation in commercial launch system development, alternative launch system designs, life cycle cost estimates, and typical industry risk aversion levels. The boundaries of this n-dimensional envelope are examined with an ECON-developed business financial model which provides for the parametric assessment and interaction of SSTO design variables (including various operational scenarios with financial variables including debt/equity assumptions, and commercial enterprise burden rates on various functions. We overlay this structure with observations from previous ECON research which characterize financial risk aversion levels for selected industrial sectors in terms of acceptable initial lump-sum investments, cumulative investments, probability of failure, payback periods, and ROI. The financial model allows the construction of parametric tradeoffs based on ranges of variables which can be said to actually encompass the ``true'' cost of operations and determine what level of ``true'' costs can be tolerated by private capitalization.

  2. 77 FR 65234 - Notice of Intention To Cancel Registrations of Certain Investment Advisers Pursuant to the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-25

    ... LTD 801-71953 ONYX INVESTMENT ADVISORS 801-67259 ORACLE FINANCIAL SERVICES, LLC 801-68545 OSAGE ENERGY... FINANCIAL ADVISORS LLC. 801-62975 THUNDERSTORM CAPITAL LLC 801-47405 TONG ROBERT WAI 801-65028...

  3. How a Venture Capitalist Approaches an Investment Decision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colbert, Daniel

    2012-02-01

    In this talk, I will provide a high-level overview of the venture capital history, structure, process and approaches to investing in early-stage companies. I will discuss what VCs look for, and share some dos and don'ts for entrepreneurs looking for venture funding. I will close with a description of the Tatarstand CleanTech Fund, and some examples of deals we invested in and passed over and why.

  4. 12 CFR 702.105 - Weighted-average life of investments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., as defined in 17 CFR 270.2a-7, and collective investment funds operated in accordance with short-term investment fund rules set forth in 12 CFR 9.18(b)(4)(ii)(B)(1)-(3), the weighted-average life is defined as...-in capital and membership capital in corporate credit unions, as defined in 12 CFR 704.2,...

  5. 12 CFR 702.105 - Weighted-average life of investments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., as defined in 17 CFR 270.2a-7, and collective investment funds operated in accordance with short-term investment fund rules set forth in 12 CFR 9.18(b)(4)(ii)(B)(1)-(3), the weighted-average life is defined as...-in capital and membership capital in corporate credit unions, as defined in 12 CFR 704.2,...

  6. Long-range hospital capital requirements planning: the state of the art, a proposal for change.

    PubMed

    Hogan, A J

    1984-01-01

    A Hospital Capital Requirements Planning System is proposed to channel competition through the use of a regional planning model. This model would help to reduce the social deadweight loss arising from competition-induced uncertainty. The system would increase the internal long-range planning capacity of hospitals and improve the quality of the applications presented for Certificate of Need review. Both health systems planners and investment bankers should have better information with which to evaluate hospital capital investment proposals. PMID:10269910

  7. Measuring human capital cost through benchmarking in health care environment.

    PubMed

    Kocakülâh, Mehmet C; Harris, Donna

    2002-01-01

    Each organization should seek to maximize its human capital investments, which ultimately lead to increased profits and asset efficiency. Service companies utilize less capital equipment and more human productivity, customer service, and/or delivery of service as the product. With the measurement of human capital, one can understand what is happening, exercise some degree of control, and make positive changes. Senior management lives or dies by the numbers and if Human Resources (HR) really wants to be a strategic business partner, HR must be judged by the same standards as everyone else in the health care organization. PMID:12462657

  8. 12 CFR 324.403 - Capital measures and capital category definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... OCC to increase its capital equivalency deposit pursuant to 12 CFR 28.15, or to comply with asset maintenance requirements pursuant to 12 CFR 28.20; or (B) The FDIC to pledge additional assets pursuant to... 38 of the FDI Act and this subpart H, the relevant capital measures shall be: (1) The total...

  9. 12 CFR 324.11 - Capital conservation buffer and countercyclical capital buffer amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    .... Additional limitations on distributions may apply to an FDIC-supervised institution under 12 CFR 303.241 and... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Capital conservation buffer and countercyclical capital buffer amount. 324.11 Section 324.11 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE...

  10. 12 CFR 217.11 - Capital conservation buffer and countercyclical capital buffer amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... distributions. Additional limitations on distributions may apply to a Board-regulated institution under 12 CFR 225.4, 12 CFR 225.8, and 12 CFR 263.202. (b) Countercyclical capital buffer amount. (1) General. An... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Capital conservation buffer and...

  11. A Capital Idea.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geber, Beverly

    1992-01-01

    The Department of Labor is considering changing accounting rules to allow companies to treat training expenditures as investments rather than expenses. Human asset accounting could be a powerful incentive to increase business investment in training. (SK)

  12. Social Capital in an Outdoor Recreation Context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mann, Marilynne; Leahy, Jessica

    2010-02-01

    This study examined social capital development in three all-terrain vehicles (ATV) clubs in Maine using an adapted version of Lin’s (2001) social capital theory model. The structural components of social capital identified included collective assets and individual assets in the form of normative behavior and trust relationships. Also identified were counter-norms for individual ATV riders identified as having divergent norms from club members. The second component of social capital is access to and mobilization of network contacts and resources. Access networks in the context of the ATV clubs studied were identified as community and landowner relations while mobilization of resources was existent in club membership attempts toward self-governance and efforts of the statewide “umbrella” organization. Instrumental outcomes benefit society and expressive outcomes benefit the individual. Both types of returns are present in the data suggesting that ATV clubs are creating social capital. This is important information to clubs who desire to market themselves, improve their reputations, and enhance their volunteer association. It is of further interest to state governments who fund clubs through trail grants as proof that a return on investment is being realized. Theoretical and applied implications for these and other types of recreation-based volunteer associations (e.g., clubs, friends groups, advocacy groups) are presented.

  13. Social capital in an outdoor recreation context.

    PubMed

    Mann, Marilynne; Leahy, Jessica

    2010-02-01

    This study examined social capital development in three all-terrain vehicles (ATV) clubs in Maine using an adapted version of Lin's (2001) social capital theory model. The structural components of social capital identified included collective assets and individual assets in the form of normative behavior and trust relationships. Also identified were counter-norms for individual ATV riders identified as having divergent norms from club members. The second component of social capital is access to and mobilization of network contacts and resources. Access networks in the context of the ATV clubs studied were identified as community and landowner relations while mobilization of resources was existent in club membership attempts toward self-governance and efforts of the statewide "umbrella" organization. Instrumental outcomes benefit society and expressive outcomes benefit the individual. Both types of returns are present in the data suggesting that ATV clubs are creating social capital. This is important information to clubs who desire to market themselves, improve their reputations, and enhance their volunteer association. It is of further interest to state governments who fund clubs through trail grants as proof that a return on investment is being realized. Theoretical and applied implications for these and other types of recreation-based volunteer associations (e.g., clubs, friends groups, advocacy groups) are presented. PMID:20016986

  14. Investment recovery program at Niagara Mohawk Power Corporation

    SciTech Connect

    Kotcamp, R.T. )

    1993-01-01

    Niagara Mohawk Power Company's pioneering investment recovery program was initiated in 1984, Its mission is to dispose of company assets classified as obsolete, scrap, surplus, or retired capital equipment that results from company operations or work projects. These assets include items such as scrap wire, pipe, line hardware, transformers, power station equipment, crates of dusty telephone modems and computer monitors, pallets of residential gas and electric meters, a box of toilet paper holders, burned-out light bulbs, chunks of electric cable, brass and copper valves, electric bills from 1952, and a dozen tattered office chairs. It was risky for Niagara Mohawk to commit money to a program that created a scrap company inside a utility and is not the core business. No one regrets the decision to create and expand investment recovery. The program has contributed more than $35,000,000 ($8,140,585 nuclear division) of cash receipts with an additional $5,000,000 of cost avoidance since its inception. The program has credited these dollars back to the operating departments, which has reduced operating costs thereby improving the [open quotes]bottom line.[close quotes

  15. Bringing human, social, and natural capital to life: practical consequences and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Fisher, William P

    2011-01-01

    Capital is defined mathematically as the abstract meaning brought to life in the two phases of the development of "transferable representations," which are the legal, financial, and scientific instruments we take for granted in almost every aspect of our daily routines. The first, conceptual and gestational, and the second, parturitional and maturational, phases in the creation and development of capital are contrasted. Human, social, and natural forms of capital should be brought to life with at least the same amounts of energy and efficiency as have been invested in manufactured and liquid capital, and property. A mathematical law of living capital is stated. Two examples of well-measured human capital are offered. The paper concludes with suggestions for the ways that future research might best capitalize on the mathematical definition of capital. PMID:21512213

  16. The Capabilities Approach: Rethinking Agency, Freedom, and Capital in Early Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buzzelli, Cary A.

    2015-01-01

    This article presents an overview of the human capital approach to human development and how it has been used for evaluating early education programs. It critiques the human capital approach by considering how its focus on measurable returns on economic investments limits an understanding of the full and complex contribution of early education to…

  17. 76 FR 24541 - HighMark Capital Management, Inc., et al.,

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-02

    ... COMMISSION HighMark Capital Management, Inc., et al., Notice of Application April 26, 2011. AGENCY... 17(a) of the Act. Applicants: HighMark Capital Management, Inc. (``HCM'' or ``Adviser''),\\1\\ HighMark... existing or future registered management investment companies and their series that are advised...

  18. Venture Capital in Ohio Schools: Building Commitment and Capacity for School Renewal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Dept. of Education, Columbus.

    This publication describes Venture Capital grants, which are awarded to Ohio schools for school-improvement efforts. Originating in the business sector, the concept of Venture Capital represented corporate earning or individual savings invested in a new or fresh enterprise. The grants are designed to be long-term, evolving efforts focused on a…

  19. 17 CFR 275.203(l)-1 - Venture capital fund defined.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    .... 275.203(l)-1 Section 275.203(l)-1 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) RULES AND REGULATIONS, INVESTMENT ADVISERS ACT OF 1940 § 275.203(l)-1 Venture capital fund defined. (a) Venture capital fund defined. For purposes of section 203(l) of the Act (15...

  20. 17 CFR 275.203(l)-1 - Venture capital fund defined.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    .... 275.203(l)-1 Section 275.203(l)-1 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) RULES AND REGULATIONS, INVESTMENT ADVISERS ACT OF 1940 § 275.203(l)-1 Venture capital fund defined. (a) Venture capital fund defined. For purposes of section 203(l) of the Act (15...

  1. 17 CFR 275.203(l)-1 - Venture capital fund defined.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    .... 275.203(l)-1 Section 275.203(l)-1 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) RULES AND REGULATIONS, INVESTMENT ADVISERS ACT OF 1940 § 275.203(l)-1 Venture capital fund defined. (a) Venture capital fund defined. For purposes of section 203(l) of the Act (15...

  2. Carbon investment funds

    SciTech Connect

    2007-01-15

    The report is a study of the development of funds to invest in the purchase of carbon credits. It takes a look at the growing market for carbon credits, the rise of carbon investment funds, and the current state of carbon investing. Topics covered in the report include: Overview of climate change, greenhouse gases, and the Kyoto Protocols. Analysis of the alternatives for reducing carbon emissions including nitrous oxide reduction, coal mine methane capture and carbon capture and storage; Discussion of the different types of carbon credits; Discussion of the basics of carbon trading; Evaluation of the current status of carbon investing; and Profiles of 37 major carbon investment funds worldwide.

  3. Investing in acute health services: is it time to change the paradigm?

    PubMed

    Kerr, Rhonda; Hendrie, Delia V; Moorin, Rachael

    2014-11-01

    Objective Capital is an essential enabler of contemporary public hospital services funding hospital buildings, medical equipment, information technology and communications. Capital investment is best understood within the context of the services it is designed and funded to facilitate. The aim of the present study was to explore the information on capital investment in Australian public hospitals and the relationship between investment and acute care service delivery in the context of efficient pricing for hospital services. Methods This paper examines the investment in Australian public hospitals relative to the growth in recurrent hospital costs since 2000-01 drawing from the available data, the grey literature and the reports of six major reviews of hospital services in Australia since 2004. Results Although the average annual capital investment over the decade from 2000-01 represents 7.1% of recurrent expenditure on hospitals, the most recent estimate of the cost of capital consumed delivering services is 9% per annum. Five of six major inquiries into health care delivery required increased capital funding to bring clinical service delivery to an acceptable standard. The sixth inquiry lamented the quality of information on capital for public hospitals. In 2012-13, capital investment was equivalent to 6.2% of recurrent expenditure, 31% lower than the cost of capital consumed in that year. Conclusions Capital is a vital enabler of hospital service delivery and innovation, but there is a poor alignment between the available information on the capital investment in public hospitals and contemporary clinical requirements. The policy to have capital included in activity-based payments for hospital services necessitates an accurate value for capital at the diagnosis-related group (DRG) level relevant to contemporary clinical care, rather than the replacement value of the asset stock. What is known about the topic? Deeble's comprehensive hospital-based review of

  4. Capital Investment and Market Segmentation: Making Movies for Mormon Audiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Newell D.; Larsen, Val

    2014-01-01

    Is there a commercially viable market in the United States for movies made for Mormons? David "Dutch" Richards, a graduate of Brigham Young University's School of Film, thinks there is. He believes that in the Western United States, especially in Utah and the Intermountain West, there are enough Mormons who would pay to watch a film…

  5. Creating American Jobs Through Foreign Capital Investment Act

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Sen. Leahy, Patrick J. [D-VT

    2011-03-17

    12/07/2011 Committee on the Judiciary. Hearings held. (All Actions) Notes: For further action, see S.3245, which became Public Law 112-176 on 9/28/2012. Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  6. Locus of Control and Human Capital Investment Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cebi, Merve

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines the effect of teenagers' outlooks--specified as their locus of control--on educational attainment and labor market outcomes. I replicate the study of Coleman and DeLeire (2003) and test the predictions of their theoretical model using a different data set--National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY). The findings fail to…

  7. Investment in Human Capital: Vocational vs. Academic Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orkodashvili, Mariam

    2008-01-01

    The dilemma of providing effective education particularly in developing countries with limited resources and ambiguous calculations of rates of return due to unstable economies and labour market fluctuations makes it an absolute necessity to consider costs and benefits associated both with academic and vocational education. Through argumentation…

  8. Creating American Jobs Through Foreign Capital Investment Act

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. Larsen, Rick [D-WA-2

    2011-09-20

    09/23/2011 Referred to the Subcommittee on Immigration Policy and Enforcement. (All Actions) Notes: For further action, see S.3245, which became Public Law 112-176 on 9/28/2012. Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  9. International Investment in Human Capital: Overseas Education for Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, Craufurd D., Ed.

    This document contains 10 essays based on papers presented at a 1991 conference on the changed role of overseas education in development. The book discusses the impact of the end of the Cold War and a rapidly changing economic environment on the rationale for international student and faculty mobility. The practice in developing nations of…

  10. Lumina Foundation for Education 2009 Annual Report: A Capital Investment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brennan, Patricia L.; Powell, David S.

    2010-01-01

    Today's students--as exemplified by the three inspiring people on this report--are a remarkably diverse group with unlimited potential. America is home to tens of millions of these 21st century students, and their success is vital to the nation's future. For the United States to thrive in the rapidly changing global economy, the full potential of…

  11. The Impact of Education Investment on Sri Lankan Economic Growth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ganegodage, K. Renuka; Rambaldi, Alicia N.

    2011-01-01

    We evaluate the contribution of investment on education to Sri Lanka's economic growth during the period 1959-2008. Physical capital, economic policy changes and the ethnic war are also evaluated due to their substantial importance. This study uses a framework encompassing both the neoclassical and endogenous growth model. The impact of education…

  12. Shared Savings Financing for College and University Energy Efficiency Investments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Business Officer, 1984

    1984-01-01

    Shared savings arrangements for campus energy efficient investments are discussed. Shared savings is a term for an agreement in which a private company offers to implement an energy efficiency program, including capital improvements, in exchange for a portion of the energy cost savings. Attention is directed to: types of shared savings…

  13. Inner-City Students Are Bullish on Investing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowe, Patricia

    1987-01-01

    Describes a "hands-on" economic/business education project called the Stock Project in which fifth- and sixth-grade students at Amidon Elementary School in Washington D.C. become familiar with the stock market and investments--the Dow Jones Industrial Averages, capital gains and losses, and stock market fluctuation. (Author/BB)

  14. Human Capital, HRD and VET: The Case of India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomé, Eduardo; Goyal, Apoorva

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to analyze the role of human capital (HC), human resource development (HRD) and vocational educational and training (VET) in the emerging Indian economy. How may we define the HC, HRD and VET in India? To what extent and how as HRD investments in India contributed to India's recent economic development? What were the…

  15. The Role of Capital in Improving Productivity and Creating Jobs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carnoy, Martin

    Causes of the significant decrease in productivity growth and dramatic increase in unemployment in the United States since the mid-1960's are examined in order to test the underlying assumption of current economic policies that increasing capital savings and investments will create fuller and more productive employment. Data on trends in…

  16. Educating Lone Wolves: Pedagogical Implications of Human Capital Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baptiste, Ian

    2001-01-01

    Educational practices based on human capital theory are unlikely to alleviate social inequities because the theory views people as isolated materialists driven by desire for goods and security. It assumes an educational meritocracy in which socioeconomic status is limited only by educational investment, and more educated people are presumed to be…

  17. 77 FR 77122 - Pyxis Capital, L.P., et al.;

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-31

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Pyxis Capital, L.P., et al.; Notice of Application December 21, 2012. AGENCY: Securities and Exchange Commission (the ``Commission''). ACTION: Notice of an application for an order under section 6(c) of the Investment Company Act of 1940...

  18. Coalition in New York studies improving access to capital.

    PubMed

    Pallarito, K

    1992-11-16

    A coalition convened by the Greater New York Hospital Association is studying ways to improve access to capital, an area of healthcare reform the group says has been largely overlooked. The group, including representatives from hospitals, investment banking, accounting firms and the state, will issue a report outlining its recommendations. The findings also will be presented to the White House. PMID:10122217

  19. 77 FR 14447 - Kohlberg Capital Corporation; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Kohlberg Capital Corporation; Notice of Application March 5, 2012. AGENCY: Securities and Exchange Commission (``Commission''). ACTION: Notice of application for an order under section 6(c) of the Investment Company Act of 1940 (the...

  20. 7 CFR 4290.210 - Minimum capital requirements for RBICs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minimum capital requirements for RBICs. 4290.210 Section 4290.210 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE AND RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RURAL BUSINESS INVESTMENT...

  1. Hours Invested in Professional Development during Late Career as a Function of Career Motivation and Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greller, Martin M.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The study was undertaken to determine and understand the career investment behavior of workers in late career (ages 50-70). Design/methodology/approach: The common wisdom, supported by economic theory, is that human capital investments in late career workers are of negligible value. Yet, recent evidence suggests that older workers do…

  2. 26 CFR 1.1291-0T - Passive foreign investment company-table of contents (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Passive foreign investment company-table of contents (temporary). 1.1291-0T Section 1.1291-0T Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... Capital Gains and Losses § 1.1291-0T Passive foreign investment company—table of contents...

  3. The Policy Determinants of Investment in Tertiary Education. OECD Economics Department Working Papers, No. 576

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martins, Joaquim Oliveira; Boarini, Romina; Strauss, Hubert; de la Maisonneuve, Christine; Saadi, Clarice

    2007-01-01

    This paper assesses how policies and institutions affect private returns to invest in tertiary human capital, the ability of individuals to finance this investment and the institutional characteristics of tertiary education systems. Focusing on core tertiary education services, the paper presents new measures of private returns to tertiary…

  4. 26 CFR 1.852-2 - Method of taxation of regulated investment companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Method of taxation of regulated investment... Trusts § 1.852-2 Method of taxation of regulated investment companies. (a) Imposition of normal tax and... for partially tax-exempt interest provided by section 242. (b) Taxation of capital gains—(1)...

  5. 26 CFR 1.1243-1 - Loss of small business investment company.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Loss of small business investment company. 1.1243-1 Section 1.1243-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Special Rules for Determining Capital Gains and Losses § 1.1243-1 Loss of small business investment company....

  6. 12 CFR 702.105 - Weighted-average life of investments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., as defined in 17 CFR 270.2a-7, and collective investment funds operated in accordance with short-term investment fund rules set forth in 12 CFR 9.18(b)(4)(ii)(B)(1)-(3), the weighted-average life is defined as... and nonperpetual capital in corporate credit unions, as defined in 12 CFR 704.2, the...

  7. 12 CFR 702.105 - Weighted-average life of investments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., as defined in 17 CFR 270.2a-7, and collective investment funds operated in accordance with short-term investment fund rules set forth in 12 CFR 9.18(b)(4)(ii)(B)(1)-(3), the weighted-average life is defined as... and nonperpetual capital in corporate credit unions, as defined in 12 CFR 704.2, the...

  8. 12 CFR 702.105 - Weighted-average life of investments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., as defined in 17 CFR 270.2a-7, and collective investment funds operated in accordance with short-term investment fund rules set forth in 12 CFR 9.18(b)(4)(ii)(B)(1)-(3), the weighted-average life is defined as... and nonperpetual capital in corporate credit unions, as defined in 12 CFR 704.2, the...

  9. Scale determinants of fiscal investment in geological exploration: evidence from China.

    PubMed

    Lu, Linna; Lei, Yalin

    2013-01-01

    With the continued growth in demand for mineral resources and China's efforts in increasing investment in geological prospecting, fiscal investment in geological exploration becomes a research hotspot. This paper examines the yearly relationship among fiscal investment in geological exploration of the current term, that of the last term and prices of mining rights over the period 1999-2009. Hines and Catephores' investment acceleration model is applied to describe the scale determinants of fiscal investment in geological exploration which are value-added of mining rights, value of mining rights and fiscal investment in the last term. The results indicate that when value-added of mining rights, value of mining rights or fiscal investment in the last term moves at 1 unit, fiscal investment in the current term will move 0.381, 1.094 or 0.907 units respectively. In order to determine the scale of fiscal investment in geological exploration for the current year, the Chinese government should take fiscal investment in geological exploration for the last year and the capital stock of the previous investments into account. In practice, combination of government fiscal investment in geological exploration with its performance evaluation can create a virtuous circle of capital management mechanism. PMID:24204652

  10. Survival of the Supported: Social Capital Networks and the Finish Line

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alfred, Mary V.; Nanton, Carmela R.

    2009-01-01

    Social capital connotes concepts such as assets, wealth, resources, and investments. Applying economic-value terminology to relationships highlights the considerable potential benefits and liabilities (social and economical) that have resulted from women's penchant for investment in social networks, whether they are in society, the workplace, the…

  11. Fertility timing, wages, and human capital.

    PubMed

    Blackburn, M L; Bloom, D E; Neumark, D

    1993-02-01

    This theoretical model posits that women who delay child bearing will be more likely to invest in human capital (training that enhances productivity but is costly). This investment is conditioned by a greater discount rate than an economy-wide growth rate of wages for non-human capital investor women. The aim of the model is to present a more unified view of relationships between wages and fertility timing identified in earlier research. The empirical analyses, using ordinary least squares techniques, was based on data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Young Women, 1968-82 annually, for a sample of 1817 White working women aged 28-38 in 1982. Data were available for wages, education, work experience, age, number of children, and the percentage in occupations (manager, professional, administrative, service, and blue collar). First wages of women not in school and without a first birth were obtained for 991 women in the sample. Descriptive statistics revealed that the average early wage of late child bearers was 37% higher than the average early wage of early child bearers and 43% higher for 1982 wages. Childless women, compared to early child bearers, experienced a growth in wages from 31-38%. The assumptions in the theoretical model were 1) that all women were equally productive in the labor market in the beginning; 2) that women bore only one child; 3) that women worked continuously for a period of time, except for time out for child bearing; 4) that all women had the option of investing in one type of human capital, which cost the same for all women; 5) that the only source of income was the woman's own earnings; and 6) that a woman's lifetime utility was a function of the present value of her lifetime income and the intervening time period for child birth. Differences in education, experience, tenure, and wages were strongly associated with differences in fertility timing. The results revealed that wages were higher for delayed child bearers, primarily

  12. 31 CFR 203.20 - Investment account requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Investment account requirements. 203.20 Section 203.20 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued... § 203.20 Investment account requirements. (a) Additions. Treasury will invest funds in obligations...

  13. 31 CFR 203.20 - Investment account requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Investment account requirements. 203.20 Section 203.20 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued... § 203.20 Investment account requirements. (a) Additions. Treasury will invest funds in obligations...

  14. 12 CFR 1267.2 - Authorized investments and transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Authorized investments and transactions. 1267.2... BANK INVESTMENTS § 1267.2 Authorized investments and transactions. (a) In addition to assets enumerated....S.C. 1454 or 1455); (5) Stock, obligations, or other securities of any small business...

  15. 12 CFR 1267.2 - Authorized investments and transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Authorized investments and transactions. 1267.2... BANK INVESTMENTS § 1267.2 Authorized investments and transactions. (a) In addition to assets enumerated....S.C. 1454 or 1455); (5) Stock, obligations, or other securities of any small business...

  16. 12 CFR 1267.2 - Authorized investments and transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Authorized investments and transactions. 1267... HOME LOAN BANK INVESTMENTS § 1267.2 Authorized investments and transactions. (a) In addition to assets....S.C. 1454 or 1455); (5) Stock, obligations, or other securities of any small business...

  17. 77 FR 23429 - Examples of Program-Related Investments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-19

    ... investment that jeopardizes the carrying out of any of the private foundation's exempt purposes (a ``jeopardizing investment''). Section 4944(a) also imposes an excise tax on foundation managers who knowingly participate in the making of a jeopardizing investment. Section 4944(b) imposes additional excise taxes...

  18. The Study on Stage Financing Model of IT Project Investment

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Sheng-hua; Xiong, Neal N.

    2014-01-01

    Stage financing is the basic operation of venture capital investment. In investment, usually venture capitalists use different strategies to obtain the maximum returns. Due to its advantages to reduce the information asymmetry and agency cost, stage financing is widely used by venture capitalists. Although considerable attentions are devoted to stage financing, very little is known about the risk aversion strategies of IT projects. This paper mainly addresses the problem of risk aversion of venture capital investment in IT projects. Based on the analysis of characteristics of venture capital investment of IT projects, this paper introduces a real option pricing model to measure the value brought by the stage financing strategy and design a risk aversion model for IT projects. Because real option pricing method regards investment activity as contingent decision, it helps to make judgment on the management flexibility of IT projects and then make a more reasonable evaluation about the IT programs. Lastly by being applied to a real case, it further illustrates the effectiveness and feasibility of the model. PMID:25147845

  19. The study on stage financing model of IT project investment.

    PubMed

    Chen, Si-hua; Xu, Sheng-hua; Lee, Changhoon; Xiong, Neal N; He, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Stage financing is the basic operation of venture capital investment. In investment, usually venture capitalists use different strategies to obtain the maximum returns. Due to its advantages to reduce the information asymmetry and agency cost, stage financing is widely used by venture capitalists. Although considerable attentions are devoted to stage financing, very little is known about the risk aversion strategies of IT projects. This paper mainly addresses the problem of risk aversion of venture capital investment in IT projects. Based on the analysis of characteristics of venture capital investment of IT projects, this paper introduces a real option pricing model to measure the value brought by the stage financing strategy and design a risk aversion model for IT projects. Because real option pricing method regards investment activity as contingent decision, it helps to make judgment on the management flexibility of IT projects and then make a more reasonable evaluation about the IT programs. Lastly by being applied to a real case, it further illustrates the effectiveness and feasibility of the model. PMID:25147845

  20. Return to nursing home investment: Issues for public policy

    PubMed Central

    Baldwin, Carliss Y.; Bishop, Christine E.

    1984-01-01

    Because Government policy does much to determine the return available to nursing home investment, the profitability of the nursing home industry has been a subject of controversy since Government agencies began paying a large portion of the Nation's nursing home bill. Controversy appears at several levels. First is the rather narrow concern, often conceived in accounting terms, of the appropriate reimbursement of capital-related expense under Medicaid and Medicare. Second is the concern about how return to capital affects the flow of investment into nursing homes, leading either to inadequate access to care or to over-capacity. Third is the concern about how-sources of return to nursing home investment affect the pattern of nursing home ownership and the amount of equity held by owners since the pattern of ownership and amount of equity have been linked to quality of care. PMID:10310945

  1. 78 FR 32294 - Escalate Capital Partners SBIC I, L.P., License No. 06/06-0335; Notice Seeking Exemption Under...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-29

    ... ADMINISTRATION Escalate Capital Partners SBIC I, L.P., License No. 06/06-0335; Notice Seeking Exemption Under... Escalate Capital Partners SBIC I, L.P., 300 W. 6th Street, Suite 2250, Austin, TX 78701, a Federal Licensee... Regulations (13 CFR 107.730). Escalate Capital Partners SBIC I, L.P. proposes to make a debt investment...

  2. Slipped capital femoral epiphysis

    MedlinePlus

    A slipped capital femoral epiphysis is a separation of the ball of the hip joint from the thigh bone (femur) at ... A slipped capital femoral epiphysis may affect both hips. An epiphysis is an area at the end of a long bone . ...

  3. Productivity and Capital Goods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zicht, Barbara, Ed.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Providing teacher background on the concepts of productivity and capital goods, this document presents 3 teaching units about these ideas for different grade levels. The grade K-2 unit, "How Do They Do It?," is designed to provide students with an understanding of how physical capital goods add to productivity. Activities include a field trip to…

  4. Linguistic Capital Pays Dividends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linse, Caroline

    2013-01-01

    Some 37 million U.S. residents speak Spanish at home and more than 55% of them say they also speak English. That creates what is called linguistic capital. Although linguistic capital is difficult to quantify, it is enormously valuable and is determined by an individual's language competency, and is too frequently wasted instead of being…

  5. Social capital and health – implications for health promotion

    PubMed Central

    Eriksson, Malin

    2011-01-01

    This article is a review of the PhD Thesis of Malin Eriksson, entitled ‘Social capital, health and community action – implications for health promotion.’ The article presents a theoretical overview of social capital and its relation to health, reviews empirical findings of the links between social capital and (self-rated) health, and discusses the usefulness of social capital in health promotion interventions at individual and community levels. Social capital, conceptualized as an individual characteristic, can contribute to the field of health promotion by adding new knowledge on how social network interventions may best be designed to meet the needs of the target group. The distinction of different forms of social capital, i.e. bonding, bridging, and linking, can be useful in mapping the kinds of networks that are available and health-enhancing (or damaging) and for whom. Further, social capital can advance social network interventions by acknowledging the risk for unequal distribution of investments and returns from social network involvement. Social capital, conceptualized as characterizing whole communities, provides a useful framework for what constitutes health-supporting environments and guidance on how to achieve them. Mapping and mobilization of social capital in local communities may be one way of achieving community action for health promotion. Social capital is context-bound by necessity. Thus, from a global perspective, it cannot be used as a ‘cookbook’ on how to achieve supportive environments and community action smoothly. However, social capital can provide new ideas on the processes that influence human interactions, cooperation, and community action for health promotion in various contexts. PMID:21311607

  6. Socially responsible investing. Is it successful?

    PubMed

    Camey, B F

    1994-11-01

    Socially responsible investing (SRI) has been defined as "the integration of social or ethical criteria into the investment decision-making process." Based on the values they hold, investors distinguish socially responsible investments from those which are not by implementing social screens: nonfinancial criteria applied in the decision-making process. Socially responsible investors typically follow one of three approaches to ethical investing: avoidance of businesses whose activities they do not support, a positive approach where they seek investments that will enhance the quality of life, and an activist approach where they attempt to influence the company's activities. In addition to individuals, many institutional investors are heavily involved with SRI. Activist investors can judge their investments' performance by the success of their shareholder activities. Investors might also look at the societal effects of their investments. If investors are seeking to change the corporation or society, SRI has proven to be successful. Empirical studies have shown mixed results with respect to the financial performance of SRI, but the findings tend to show that SRI has minimal impact, either positively or negatively, on investment returns. Nevertheless, many factors indicate that SRI may be here to stay. PMID:10137947

  7. What's your real cost of capital?

    PubMed

    McNulty, James J; Yeh, Tony D; Schulze, William S; Lubatkin, Michael H

    2002-10-01

    In valuing any investment project or corporate acquisition, executives must decide what discount rate to use in their estimates of future cash flows. The traditional approach is to apply the capital asset pricing model (CAPM), which has remained fundamentally unchanged for 40 years. But the formula--in particular, its beta element--has long been a source of frustration. In fact, corporate executives and investment bankers routinely fudge their CAPM estimates, say the authors, because experience and intuition tell them the model produces inappropriate discount rates. CAPM has three main problems: First, beta is a measure of both a stock's correlation and its volatility; second, beta is based on historical data; and third, CAPM rates don't take into account the term of the investment. These factors together result in discount rates that defy common sense. As an alternative to CAPM and its beta element, the authors developed a forward-looking approach to calculating a company's cost of capital, the market-derived capital pricing model (MCPM). It does not incorporate any measure of historical stock-to-market correlation, relying instead on estimates of future volatility derived from the options market. This is helpful since investor expectations from the options market are built into a company's current stock price. Using GE as an example, the authors give step-by-step instructions for how to calculate discount rates with MCPM. They also offer evidence from a range of industries to show that MCPM's discount rates are more realistic--especially from the corporate investor's perspective--than are CAPM's. PMID:12389465

  8. Stranded investment and non-utility generation

    SciTech Connect

    Dismukes, D.E. . Center for Energy Studies); Maloney, M.T. )

    1999-06-01

    Stranded cost recovery continues to be a focal point of electricity deregulation. Restructuring has ground to a halt in many places largely due to the contentiousness of the issue, and even where there has been action states have granted substantial stranded cost recovery to utilities, vitiating much of the price reductions that competition is forecast to bring. While a surprisingly large amount of non-utility generation capacity already has been shut down due to obsolescence, this has not choked off capital investment. The example suggests that stranded-cost recovery is neither warranted nor necessary.

  9. Regenerative nanomedicines: an emerging investment prospective?

    PubMed Central

    Prescott, Catherine

    2010-01-01

    Cells respond to their structural surrounding and within nanostructures exhibit unique proliferative and differentiation properties. The application of nanotechnologies to the field of regenerative medicine offers the potential to direct cell fate, target the delivery of cells and reduce immune rejection (via encapsulation), thereby supporting the development of regenerative medicines. The overall objective of any therapy is the delivery of the product not just into the clinic but also to patients on a routine basis. Such a goal typically requires a commercial vehicle and substantial levels of investment in scientific, clinical, regulatory and business expertise, resources, time and funding. Therefore, this paper focuses on some of the challenges facing this emerging industry, including investment by the venture capital community. PMID:20826478

  10. Regenerative nanomedicines: an emerging investment prospective?

    PubMed

    Prescott, Catherine

    2010-12-01

    Cells respond to their structural surrounding and within nanostructures exhibit unique proliferative and differentiation properties. The application of nanotechnologies to the field of regenerative medicine offers the potential to direct cell fate, target the delivery of cells and reduce immune rejection (via encapsulation), thereby supporting the development of regenerative medicines. The overall objective of any therapy is the delivery of the product not just into the clinic but also to patients on a routine basis. Such a goal typically requires a commercial vehicle and substantial levels of investment in scientific, clinical, regulatory and business expertise, resources, time and funding. Therefore, this paper focuses on some of the challenges facing this emerging industry, including investment by the venture capital community. PMID:20826478

  11. Capitated contracting of integrated health provider organizations.

    PubMed

    Bazzoli, G J; Dynan, L; Burns, L R

    This paper examines global capitation of integrated health provider organizations that link physicians and hospitals, such as physician-hospital organizations and management service organizations. These organizations have proliferated in recent years, but their contracting activity has not been studied. We develop a conceptual model to understand the capitated contracting bargaining process. Exploratory multivariate analysis suggests that global capitation of these organizations is more common in markets with high health maintenance organization (HMO) market share, greater numbers of HMOs, and fewer physician group practices. Additionally, health provider organizations with more complex case mix, nonprofit status, more affiliated physicians, health system affiliations, and diversity in physician organizational arrangements are more likely to have global capitation. Finally, state regulation of provider contracting with self-insured employers appears to have spillover effects on health plan risk contracting with health providers. PMID:10711318

  12. 12 CFR 559.5 - How much may a savings association invest in service corporations or lower-tier entities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...(c)(4)(B) of the HOLA, you may invest up to 3% of your assets in the capital stock, obligations, and... under other provisions of section 5(c) of the HOLA and part 560 of this chapter, and available...

  13. 12 CFR 559.5 - How much may a savings association invest in service corporations or lower-tier entities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...(c)(4)(B) of the HOLA, you may invest up to 3% of your assets in the capital stock, obligations, and... under other provisions of section 5(c) of the HOLA and part 560 of this chapter, and available...

  14. 12 CFR 559.5 - How much may a savings association invest in service corporations or lower-tier entities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...(c)(4)(B) of the HOLA, you may invest up to 3% of your assets in the capital stock, obligations, and... under other provisions of section 5(c) of the HOLA and part 560 of this chapter, and available...

  15. 12 CFR 559.5 - How much may a savings association invest in service corporations or lower-tier entities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...(c)(4)(B) of the HOLA, you may invest up to 3% of your assets in the capital stock, obligations, and... under other provisions of section 5(c) of the HOLA and part 560 of this chapter, and available...

  16. 12 CFR 559.5 - How much may a savings association invest in service corporations or lower-tier entities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...(c)(4)(B) of the HOLA, you may invest up to 3% of your assets in the capital stock, obligations, and... under other provisions of section 5(c) of the HOLA and part 560 of this chapter, and available...

  17. 78 FR 77770 - Aldine Capital Fund II, L.P.; Notice Seeking Exemption Under Section 312 of the Small Business...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-24

    ... Investment Act, Conflicts of Interest Notice is hereby given that Aldine Capital Fund II, L.P., 30 West... exemption under Section 312 of the Act and Section 107.730, Financings which Constitute Conflicts...

  18. 76 FR 68803 - Escalate Capital Partners SBIC I, L.P.; Notice Seeking Exemption Under Section 312 of the Small...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-07

    ... Business Investment Act, Conflicts of Interest Notice is hereby given that Escalate Capital Partners, SBIC... Constitute Conflicts of Interest of the Small Business Administration (``SBA'') Rules and Regulations (13...

  19. 77 FR 14853 - Emergence Capital Partners SBIC, L.P.; Notice Seeking Exemption Under Section 312 of the Small...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-13

    ... Business Investment Act, Conflicts of Interest Notice is hereby given that Emergence Capital Partners SBIC... Conflicts of Interest, of the Small Business Administration (``SBA'') Rules and Regulations (13 CFR...

  20. 75 FR 32230 - Solutions Capital I, L.P.; Notice Seeking Exemption Under Section 312 of the Small Business...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-07

    ... Investment Act, Conflicts of Interest Notice is hereby given that Solutions Capital I, L.P., 1100 Wilson Blvd... Section 312 of the Act and Section 107.730, Financings which Constitute Conflicts of Interest, of...

  1. 76 FR 74115 - Emergence Capital Partners SBIC, L.P.; Notice Seeking Exemption Under Section 312 of the Small...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-30

    ... Business Investment Act, Conflicts of Interest Notice is hereby given that Emergence Capital Partners SBIC... Conflicts of Interest of the Small Business Administration (``SBA'') Rules and Regulations (13 CFR...

  2. 76 FR 619 - Escalate Capital Partners SBIC I, L.P.; Notice Seeking Exemption Under Section 312 of the Small...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-05

    ... Business Investment Act, Conflicts of Interest Notice is hereby given that Escalate Capital Partners, SBIC... Constitute Conflicts of Interest of the Small Business Administration (``SBA'') Rules and Regulations (13...

  3. 77 FR 42353 - Escalate Capital Partners SBIC I, L.P.; Notice Seeking Exemption Under Section 312 of the Small...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-18

    ... Business Investment Act, Conflicts of Interest Notice is hereby given that Escalate Capital Partners SBIC I... Conflicts ] of Interest of the Small Business Administration (``SBA'') Rules and Regulations (13 CFR...

  4. 78 FR 62931 - Emergence Capital Partners SBIC, L.P.; Notice Seeking Exemption Under Section 312 of the Small...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-22

    ... Business Investment Act, Conflicts of Interest Notice is hereby given that Emergence Capital Partners SBIC... Conflicts of Interest of the Small Business Administration (``SBA'') Rules and Regulations (13 CFR...

  5. 75 FR 45178 - Escalate Capital Partners SBIC I, L.P.; Notice Seeking Exemption Under Section 312 of the Small...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-02

    ... Business Investment Act, Conflicts of Interest Notice is hereby given that Escalate Capital Partners SBIC I... Conflicts of Interest of the Small Business Administration (``SBA'') Rules and Regulations (13 CFR...

  6. 75 FR 22435 - Pharos Capital Partners II, L.P.; Notice Seeking Exemption Under Section 312 of the Small...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-28

    ... Investment Act, Conflicts of Interest Notice is hereby given that Pharos Capital Partners II, L.P., 1 Burton..., has sought an exemption under Section 312 of the Act and Section 107.730, which Constitute...

  7. 76 FR 21936 - Emergence Capital Partners SBIC, L.P.; Notice Seeking Exemption Under Section 312 of the Small...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-19

    ... Business Investment Act, Conflicts of Interest Notice is hereby given that Emergence Capital Partners SBIC... Conflicts of Interest, of the Small Business Administration (``SBA'') Rules and Regulations (13 CFR...

  8. 75 FR 32230 - Emergence Capital Partners SBIC, L.P.; Notice Seeking Exemption Under Section 312 of the Small...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-07

    ... Business Investment Act, Conflicts of Interest Notice is hereby given that Emergence Capital Partners SBIC... Conflicts of Interest of the Small Business Administration (``SBA'') Rules and Regulations (13 CFR...

  9. Gambling on change. Five big systems buy into a venture capital fund to try to reap profits from the transformation of healthcare.

    PubMed

    Evans, Melanie

    2011-01-31

    Five healthcare systems have financed a venture-capital fund with hopes for a financial and operational return. Executives say the investment is a way to influence technological developments and evaluate products and software. James Bosscher, chief investment officer at Trinity Health, left, said Heritage fund investments will target health information technology. PMID:21370624

  10. Considerations in Duplex Investment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Arthur; Goen, Tom

    Problems of duplex investment are noted in the introduction to this booklet designed to provide a technique by which the investment decision can be approached, develop estimates of typical costs and returns under differing conditions, and encourage investors to analyze objectives and conditions before the decision to buy or build is made. A…

  11. Investing in Innovation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Governors Association, 2007

    2007-01-01

    "Investing in Innovation" provides a snapshot of trends in the states and identifies a wide range of strategies now employed. California's big investments, such as $3 billion for stem cell research, have already grabbed national headlines. But states like Arizona, Indiana and North Dakota, which haven't historically been big research and…

  12. Investing in Faculty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Directions for Higher Education, 2002

    2002-01-01

    Discusses why it is essential to look at costs related to science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) faculty not simply as a critical expense, but as part of an intentional investment strategy meant to produce an important and significant value-added benefit. Offers advice on planning, financing, and assessing this investment. (EV)

  13. The Investment Policy Statement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griswold, John S.; Jarvis, William F.

    2011-01-01

    Successful investing for long-term funds requires a strategic plan. This is true despite--indeed, because of--the fact that the future is unknowable. The plan must be specific, embodying in concrete terms the best thinking of the board of trustees about the investment pool, its goals and purposes; but it also needs to be sufficiently flexible to…

  14. Investment in Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinstein, Margery

    2010-01-01

    Operating a financial investment company in an unstable economy is not easy. But the right training at Vanguard ensures satisfied customers. The company made an investment of its own in learning and development that paid off big in 2009. The learning offerings, both innovative and efficient, keep its workers updated on strategies that bring…

  15. 77 FR 27499 - Destra Capital Investments LLC and Destra Unit Investment Trust; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE... between the Depositor and a banking institution or trust company as trustee (``Trustee''). 2. The.... AGENCY: Securities and Exchange Commission (``Commission''). ACTION: Notice of an application under...

  16. The effectiveness of AMT investment in UK metal component manufacture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamblin, David; Nugent, Edward

    1991-11-01

    The aim of the research was to investigate the effectiveness of capital investment, particularly investment in Advanced Manufacturing Technology (AMT). AMT encompasses not only production, but also design and administration areas. The intention was to make recommendations for the future direction of investment in the industry. The structure of the industry which comprises 54 companies is outlined. In order to obtain sufficiently detailed and accurate data, each company was visited. Discussions were held with managers covering the areas of production, engineering, finance, design, sales and marketing, quality and other strategic issues affecting investment decision making. The study conclusions and recommendations are presented. An overview of the industry and the survey sample are given. Company performance, practice relationships which link practice, and performance are discussed.

  17. Investing in Threatened Species Conservation: Does Corruption Outweigh Purchasing Power?

    PubMed Central

    Garnett, Stephen T.; Joseph, Liana N.; Watson, James E. M.; Zander, Kerstin K.

    2011-01-01

    In many sectors, freedom in capital flow has allowed optimization of investment returns through choosing sites that provide the best value for money. These returns, however, can be compromised in countries where corruption is prevalent. We assessed where the best value for money might be obtained for investment in threatened species that occur at a single site, when taking into account corruption. We found that the influence of corruption on potential investment decisions was outweighed by the likely value for money in terms of pricing parity. Nevertheless global conservation is likely to get best returns in terms of threatened species security by investing in “honest” countries than in corrupt ones, particularly those with a high cost of living. PMID:21818383

  18. Investing in threatened species conservation: does corruption outweigh purchasing power?

    PubMed

    Garnett, Stephen T; Joseph, Liana N; Watson, James E M; Zander, Kerstin K

    2011-01-01

    In many sectors, freedom in capital flow has allowed optimization of investment returns through choosing sites that provide the best value for money. These returns, however, can be compromised in countries where corruption is prevalent. We assessed where the best value for money might be obtained for investment in threatened species that occur at a single site, when taking into account corruption. We found that the influence of corruption on potential investment decisions was outweighed by the likely value for money in terms of pricing parity. Nevertheless global conservation is likely to get best returns in terms of threatened species security by investing in "honest" countries than in corrupt ones, particularly those with a high cost of living. PMID:21818383

  19. Investing in the future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlowicz, Michael

    In order to “restore the high priority that science and technology had previously been afforded in the federal budget,” and “to invest in the future of the United States,” Senator Phil Gramm (R-Texas) recently proposed that the U.S. government double its investment in “basic” science and biomedical research. On January 21, Gramm introduced the National Research Investment Act of 1997 (S. 124), a bill to increase funding for nondefense research from $32.5 billion in 1997 to $65 billion by 2007.

  20. Measuring the Economic Impacts of Federal Investments in Research

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, S; Merrill, S

    2011-08-31

    greenhouse gas emissions at the global level. In principle, these benefits can be measured as a return on research investments, with appropriate consideration of time lags to research outcomes and attribution to private as well as public expenditure. With appropriate metrics, the same could be true for benefits to public health, environmental quality, and food productivity and security. Federal funding of research leads to the development of human capital that is deployed in a variety of occupations with economic and social impacts. Research also produces information that is used in formal (e.g., regulatory and judicial) and informal (e.g., firm and consumer) decision making processes. In addition to reviewing the range of work (by academics, consultants, and research agencies themselves) that has been done in measuring research outcomes and providing a forum to discuss their methods, this report also considers the different methodologies used across fields of research (e.g., agriculture and energy research) to identifies which are applicable to a range of federal S&T funding.

  1. 75 FR 77190 - Exemptions for Advisers to Venture Capital Funds, Private Fund Advisers With Less Than $150...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-10

    ... capital as ``a type of private equity investment that provides capital to new or growing businesses... to financing the start-up of a new business''); Anna T. Pinedo & James R. Tanenbaum, Exempt and... taxes assumes the hiring of employees, despite the fact that many new business ventures are...

  2. 77 FR 6606 - DoubleLine Capital LP and DoubleLine Funds Trust; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-08

    ... COMMISSION DoubleLine Capital LP and DoubleLine Funds Trust; Notice of Application February 2, 2012. AGENCY... relying on rule 12d1-2 under the Act to invest in certain financial instruments. APPLICANTS: DoubleLine Capital LP (``DoubleLine'') and DoubleLine Funds Trust (``Trust''). FILING DATE: The application was...

  3. Venture capital on a shoestring: Bioventures’ pioneering life sciences fund in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Since 2000, R&D financing for global health has increased significantly, with innovative proposals for further increases. However, although venture capital (VC) funding has fostered life sciences businesses across the developed world, its application in the developing world and particularly in Africa is relatively new. Is VC feasible in the African context, to foster the development and application of local health innovation? As the most industrially advanced African nation, South Africa serves as a test case for life sciences venture funding. This paper analyzes Bioventures, the first VC company focused on life sciences investment in sub-Saharan Africa. The case study method was used to analyze the formation, operation, and investment support of Bioventures, and to suggest lessons for future health venture funds in Africa that aim to develop health-oriented innovations. Discussion The modest financial success of Bioventures in challenging circumstances has demonstrated a proof of concept that life sciences VC can work in the region. Beyond providing funds, support given to investees included board participation, contacts, and strategic services. Bioventures had to be proactive in finding and supporting good health R&D. Due to the fund’s small size, overhead and management expenses were tightly constrained. Bioventures was at times unable to make follow-on investments, being forced instead to give up equity to raise additional capital, and to sell health investments earlier than might have been optimal. With the benefit of hindsight, the CFO of Bioventures felt that partnering with a larger fund might benefit similar future funds. Being better linked to market intelligence and other entrepreneurial investors was also seen as an unmet need. Summary BioVentures has learned lessons about how the traditional VC model might evolve to tackle health challenges facing Africa, including how to raise funds and educate investors; how to select, value, and support

  4. 12 CFR 325.104 - Capital restoration plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... filing plan—(1) In general. A bank shall file a written capital restoration plan with the appropriate... supervisory actions as if the bank were undercapitalized is not required to submit a capital restoration plan... restoration plan approved under section 38 and this subpart is not required to submit an additional...

  5. 12 CFR 325.104 - Capital restoration plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... filing plan—(1) In general. A bank shall file a written capital restoration plan with the appropriate... supervisory actions as if the bank were undercapitalized is not required to submit a capital restoration plan... restoration plan approved under section 38 and this subpart is not required to submit an additional...

  6. 12 CFR 325.104 - Capital restoration plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... filing plan—(1) In general. A bank shall file a written capital restoration plan with the appropriate... supervisory actions as if the bank were undercapitalized is not required to submit a capital restoration plan... restoration plan approved under section 38 and this subpart is not required to submit an additional...

  7. 12 CFR 325.104 - Capital restoration plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... filing plan—(1) In general. A bank shall file a written capital restoration plan with the appropriate... supervisory actions as if the bank were undercapitalized is not required to submit a capital restoration plan... restoration plan approved under section 38 and this subpart is not required to submit an additional...

  8. You have more capital than you think.

    PubMed

    Merton, Robert C

    2005-11-01

    Senior executives typically delegate the responsibility for managing a firm's derivatives portfolio to in-house financial experts and the company's financial advisers. That's a strategic blunder, argues this Nobel laureate, because the inventiveness of modern financial markets makes it possible for companies to double or even triple their capacity to invest in their strategic assets and competencies. Risks fall into two categories: either a company adds value by assuming them on behalf of its shareholders or it does not. By hedging or insuring against non-value-adding risks with derivative securities and contracts, thereby removing them from what the author calls the risk balance sheet, managers can release equity capital for assuming more value-adding risk. This is not just a theoretical possibility. One innovation-the interest rate swap, introduced about 20 years ago-has already enabled the banking industry to dramatically increase its capacity for adding value to each dollar of invested equity capital. With the range of derivative instruments growing, there is no reason why other companies could not similarly remove strategic risks, potentially creating billions of dollars in shareholder value. The possibilities are especially important for private companies that have no access to public equity markets and therefore cannot easily increase their equity capital by issuing more shares. The author describes how derivative contracts of various kinds are already being employed strategically to mitigate or eliminate various risks. He also shows how companies can use the risk balance sheet to identify risks they should not bear directly and to determine how much equity capacity they can release for assuming more value-adding risk. PMID:16299963

  9. Endowments: Investing in Education's Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Ronald A.

    1996-01-01

    A discussion of college endowment fund management looks at a trend toward successful investments in the last year and focuses on the increasing financial sophistication of historically black institutions. Trends include less conservative investing, more trustee involvement in investment decision making, and use of investment counselors. (MSE)

  10. Effect of the FDA on health care investments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cleary, David J.

    1994-12-01

    The cost of securing FDA approval has long been an important consideration in funding projects involving new medical technologies, but the more stringent regulatory behavior of the FDA in the past few years has led to a discernable decrease in the funding of start-up medical device companies. An abundance of anecdotal evidence, supported with surveys of venture capital firms, investment groups and medical device corporations, indicates a serious shortage of funds available for the development of certain medical technologies.

  11. Investment Evaluation of RFID TechnologyApplications: An Evolution Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimakopoulou, Andriana; Pramatari, Katerina; Karagiannaki, Angeliki; Papadopoulos, George; Paraskevopoulos, Antonis

    Prior empirical research on the evaluation of RFID technologytreats and assesses individual RFID applications independently and in isolation from each other. However, literature on investment evaluation of information technologies has recognised and utilised the significance of evaluating "interdependent" information systems (IS) projects with synergies. Moreover, previous studies when appraising the business value of an RFID investment ignore its opportunity to offer and evolve into additional follow-on investments in the future. Nevertheless, the importance of this notion has been acknowledged by the pertinent literature for the evaluation of other information technologies. This chapter proposes an approach for the investment evaluation of RFID applications considering them rather as a bundle of interdependent and sequential investments than as stand-alone ones. The results from a case study demonstrate how the proposed approach can be employed for the evaluation of RFID projects and offering an additional insight into evaluating investments in RFID applications.

  12. Investing in High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Daniel G.

    2012-01-01

    Strapped for cash, a Massachusetts high school creates its own venture capital fund to incentivize teachers to create programs that improve student learning. The result has been higher test scores and higher job satisfaction. One important program is credited with helping close the achievement gap at the school, while others have helped ambitious…

  13. Solar Access to Public Capital (SAPC) Mock Securitization Project

    SciTech Connect

    Mendelsohn, Michael; Lowder, Travis; Rottman, Mary; Borod, Ronald; Gabig, Nathan; Henne, Stephen; Caplin, Conrad; Notte, Quentin

    2015-12-21

    In late 2012, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) initiated the Solar Access to Public Capital (SAPC) working group. Backed by a three-year funding facility from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), NREL set out to organize the solar, legal, banking, capital markets, engineering, and other relevant stakeholder communities in order to open lower-cost debt investment for solar asset deployment. SAPC engaged its members to standardize contracts, develop best practices, and comprehend how the rating agencies perceive solar project portfolios as an investment asset class. Rating agencies opine on the future creditworthiness of debt obligations. Issuers often seek investment-grade ratings from the rating agencies in order to satisfy the desires of their investors. Therefore, for the solar industry to access larger pools of capital at a favorable cost, it is critical to increase market participants' understanding of solar risk parameters. The process provided valuable information to address rating agency perceptions of risk that, without such information, could require costly credit enhancement or higher yields to attract institutional investors. Two different securities were developed--one for a hypothetical residential solar portfolio and one for a hypothetical commercial solar portfolio. Five rating agencies (Standard and Poor's, Moody's, KBRA, Fitch, and DBRS) participated and provided extensive feedback, some through conversations that extended several months. The findings represented in this report are a composite summary of that feedback and do not indicate any specific feedback from any single rating agency.

  14. Corporal and capital punishment of juveniles.

    PubMed

    Frazier, H C

    1990-01-01

    There is a previously unobserved connection between corporal punishment of public school children and capital punishment of juveniles. Both are barometers of acceptable levels of violent punishment and their elimination is a hallmark of a maturing and decent society. Within a majority of the eighteen states where school authorities most frequently strike children are housed 25 of the nation's 28 juvenile death row inmates. On average, the homicide rates of these jurisdictions are two and a half times greater than those that have abolished both state-sanctioned corporal and capital punishment or limit death sentences to those age eighteen and older at the time of their crime(s). Most of the eighteen state abolitions of corporal punishment occurred in the 1980's. The US Supreme Court has ruled both corporal and capital punishment of juveniles constitutional. Additional state legislative abolition of both is anticipated in the 1990s. PMID:2122167

  15. The opportunity cost of capital: development of new pharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Chit, Ayman; Chit, Ahmad; Papadimitropoulos, Manny; Krahn, Murray; Parker, Jayson; Grootendorst, Paul

    2015-01-01

    The opportunity cost of the capital invested in pharmaceutical research and development (R&D) to bring a new drug to market makes up as much as half the total cost. However, the literature on the cost of pharmaceutical R&D is mixed on how, exactly, one should calculate this "hidden" cost. Some authors attempt to adopt models from the field of finance, whereas other prominent authors dismiss this practice as biased, arguing that it artificially inflates the R&D cost to justify higher prices for pharmaceuticals. In this article, we examine the arguments made by both sides of the debate and then explain the cost of capital concept and describe in detail how this value is calculated. Given the significant contribution of the cost of capital to the overall cost of new drug R&D, a clear understanding of the concept is critical for policy makers, investors, and those involved directly in the R&D. PMID:25933615

  16. Building Family Capital

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamb, Penny

    2007-01-01

    The family is centre stage of many current policy agendas and this is an exciting time to expand the understanding of the wider benefits of learning as a family and in a family. This article aims to open up new discussions and debate on using the concept of "family capital". The author states that as the debate on the social value of learning and…

  17. Manage "Human Capital" Strategically

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odden, Allan

    2011-01-01

    To strategically manage human capital in education means restructuring the entire human resource system so that schools not only recruit and retain smart and capable individuals, but also manage them in ways that support the strategic directions of the organization. These management practices must be aligned with a district's education improvement…

  18. Planning for Capital Reinvestment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biedenweg, Frederick; Weisburg-Swanson, Lynda; Gardner, Catherine

    1998-01-01

    Describes and evaluates four alternatives for planning and budgeting for capital reinvestment for college and university facilities: physical plant auditing; a depreciation-based approach; percentage of current replacement value; and facility subsystem modeling, or life-cycle modeling. Each has advantages and limitations in budgeting for and…

  19. Creating Schools without Capital.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolke, Mark

    2001-01-01

    A shortage of capital and appropriate education facilities prompted the Edmonton (Alberta) Public Schools to explore creative solutions such as leasing retrofitted facilities to house new academic programs. Landlords generally like school districts, considering them reliable, long-term tenants for hard-to-rent larger buildings. (MLH)

  20. Towards Transnational Academic Capitalism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kauppinen, Ilkka

    2012-01-01

    This paper contributes to current debates on the relationship between globalisation and higher education. The main argument of the paper is that we are currently witnessing transnationalisation of academic capitalism. This argument is illustrated by examining the collaboration between transnational corporations and research universities, and how…

  1. Reggio Social Capital

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stejzygier, Aneta

    2009-01-01

    The paper presents the social capital as the essential element of success of the Reggio Emilia preschools known for their unique approach to the early childhood education. The collaborative effort is introduced through examples of the currently ongoing "Reggio Narrates" project of Reggio preschools, the "Dialogue with the Places" and "The…

  2. 78 FR 44147 - Proposed Information Collection; National Capital Region Application for Public Gathering

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-23

    ... National Park Service Proposed Information Collection; National Capital Region Application for Public... additional information about this IC, contact Robbin Owen, National Capital Region, National Park Service... events and demonstrations) held on NPS property within the National Capital Region. Regulations at 36...

  3. Development of a Scale to Measure Academic Capital in High-Risk College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winkler, Christa; Sriram, Rishi

    2015-01-01

    This study presents a psychometric instrument that measures academic capital in college students. Academic capital is a set of social processes that aid students in acquiring the knowledge and support necessary to access and navigate higher education. This study establishes the validity and reliability of the Academic Capital Scale. In addition to…

  4. Invest in Family*

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Nilesh; De Sousa, Avinash

    2015-01-01

    The family is an integral part of one's life. It is very essential that every individual employed or unemployed invests time therein. The family is a source of support and growth for an individual, and the lack of family support or loneliness may be a causative factor in the genesis of psychiatric disorders, especially depression. In India, family plays a paramount role when it comes to mental health of the individual. Tips on how one should invest time in one's family along with the role of a family in one's personal and social structure are discussed. PMID:25838732

  5. Combination of real options and game-theoretic approach in investment analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arasteh, Abdollah

    2016-02-01

    Investments in technology create a large amount of capital investments by major companies. Assessing such investment projects is identified as critical to the efficient assignment of resources. Viewing investment projects as real options, this paper expands a method for assessing technology investment decisions in the linkage existence of uncertainty and competition. It combines the game-theoretic models of strategic market interactions with a real options approach. Several key characteristics underlie the model. First, our study shows how investment strategies rely on competitive interactions. Under the force of competition, firms hurry to exercise their options early. The resulting "hurry equilibrium" destroys the option value of waiting and involves violent investment behavior. Second, we get best investment policies and critical investment entrances. This suggests that integrating will be unavoidable in some information product markets. The model creates some new intuitions into the forces that shape market behavior as noticed in the information technology industry. It can be used to specify best investment policies for technology innovations and adoptions, multistage R&D, and investment projects in information technology.

  6. Capital versus talent. The battle that's reshaping business.

    PubMed

    Martin, Roger L; Moldoveanu, Mihnea C

    2003-07-01

    For much of the twentieth century, labor and capital fought bitterly for control of the industrialized economy. The titans of industry ultimately won a resounding victory over the unions, but the story doesn't end there. In today's economy, value is largely the product of knowledge and information. Companies cannot generate profits without the ideas, skills, and leadership capabilities of knowledge workers. It's these factors--not technologies, not factories, and certainly not capital--that give the most successful companies their unique advantages. As knowledge workers come to realize this, and see that the demand for their talent outstrips the supply, they are steadily wresting more and more of the profits from shareholders. This time the battle is between the sources of capital and the producers of value, and how it will end is far from clear. The roots of the current conflict lie in the twentieth-century shift from industrial to managerial capitalism and the creation of a new class of professional talent, the authors explain. Since the arrival of the information-based economy in the past decade, tensions have escalated. The dramatic rise of CEO pay--and the public fire it has drawn--is a telling symptom. With this new battle, we're also witnessing a fundamental change in the political alignment of capital. The Left is now siding with "the common shareholder" against the well-compensated top tier of the labor pool. Shareholders seeing an unprecedented proportion of the return on their investments siphoned off to employees may well ask, is there no end to it? Increasingly, it's human capital that is the basis of value, and financial capital has become far more generic than shareholders would like to believe. The growing tensions between shareholders and managers cannot be ignored, and capitalism is at a crossroads--again. PMID:12858709

  7. Intellectual Capital: Comparison and Contrast.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madsen, Susan R.

    2001-01-01

    Suggests that one of the most important keys for improving individual and organizational performance is in developing and strengthening intellectual capital (IC) and explores the similarities and differences between the concepts of intellectual capital, human capital, and knowledge management. Presents four IC characteristics and addresses the…

  8. 76 FR 74631 - Capital Plans

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-01

    ... (Pillar 2) Related to the Implementation of the Basel II Advanced Capital Framework, 73 FR 44620 (July 31... Owners' Loan Act. See 76 FR 22662, 22665 (April 22, 2011). The Board may extend the capital plan rule's... in extensive dialogue with these non-CCAR firms to communicate its expectations on capital...

  9. Improved Estimates of Capital Formation in the National Health Expenditure Accounts

    PubMed Central

    Sensenig, Arthur L.; Donahoe, Gerald F.

    2006-01-01

    The National Health Expenditure Accounts (NHEA) were revised with the release of the 2004 estimates. The largest revision was the incorporation of a more comprehensive measure of investment in medical sector capital. The revision raised total health expenditures' share of gross domestic product (GDP) from 15.4 to 15.8 percent in 2003. The improved measure encompasses investment in moveable equipment and software, as well as expenditures for the construction of structures used by the medical sector. PMID:17290665

  10. Improved estimates of capital formation in the National Health Expenditure Accounts.

    PubMed

    Sensenig, Arthur L; Donahoe, Gerald F

    2006-01-01

    The National Health Expenditure Accounts (NHEA) were revised with the release of the 2004 estimates. The largest revision was the incorporation of a more comprehensive measure of investment in medical sector capital. The revision raised total health expenditures' share of gross domestic product (GDP) from 15.4 to 15.8 percent in 2003. The improved measure encompasses investment in moveable equipment and software, as well as expenditures for the construction of structures used by the medical sector. PMID:17290665

  11. Investing in Youth: Latvia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing, 2015

    2015-01-01

    The series Investing in Youth builds on the expertise of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) on youth employment, social support and skills. It covers both OECD countries and countries in the process of accession to the OECD, as well as some emerging economies. This report provides a detailed diagnosis of the youth…

  12. Strategic Investments Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Comstock, Doug

    2004-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation provides an overview of the organizational hierarchy for strategic management and strategic investments at NASA. The presentation also relates these topics to the budgets it submits to Congress, strategies for space exploration research and development, and systems analysis.

  13. Energy Investment: Beyond Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tosti, Donald T.; Amarant, John

    2005-01-01

    People vary considerably in their work performance as well as their overall approach to work. At one extreme are the outstanding performers, who approach work with enthusiasm and energy, and, at the other extreme, are those who seem to do only what is necessary to get by. Organizatins often invest a good deal of energy in trying to improve the…

  14. Investing in Youth: Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing, 2014

    2014-01-01

    The series Investing in Youth builds on the expertise of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) on youth employment, social support and skills. It covers both OECD countries and countries in the process of accession to the OECD, as well as some emerging economies. This report provides a detailed diagnosis of the youth…

  15. Beyond the Investment Narrative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moss, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The current policy interest in early childhood education and care is driven by an investment narrative, a story of quality and high returns emerging from a dominant neoliberal political economy. This short note expresses deep reservations about this narrative, and hints at another narrative that foregrounds democracy, experimentation and…

  16. Gaining an Investment Edge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spitz, William T.

    2000-01-01

    Recommendations for investing college/university endowment funds focus on identifying structural and skill-based competitive advantages. These include the long institutional time horizon and the ability to endure short-term volatility. Implications for endowment management are applied to selecting an endowment manager and asset allocation. (DB)

  17. Investing in Youth: Lithuania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing, 2016

    2016-01-01

    The series Investing in Youth builds on the expertise of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) on youth employment, social support and skills. It covers both OECD countries and countries in the process of accession to the OECD, as well as some emerging economies. The present report on Lithuania is the fourth of a new…

  18. Capital requirements for the transportation of energy materials: 1979 arc estimates

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-08-29

    Summaries of transportation investment requirements through 1990 are given for the low, medium and high scenarios. Total investment requirements for the three modes and the three energy commodities can accumulate to a $46.3 to $47.0 billion range depending on the scenario. The high price of oil, following the evidence of the last year, is projected to hold demand for oil below the recent past. Despite the overall decrease in traffic some investment in crude oil and LPG pipelines is necessary to reach new sources of supply. Although natural gas production and consumption is projected to decline through 1990, new investments in carrying capacity also are required due to locational shifts in supply. The Alaska Natural Gas Transportation System is the dominant investment for energy transportation in the next ten years. This year's report focuses attention on waterborne coal transportation to the northeast states in keeping with a return to significant coal consumption projected for this area. A resumption of such shipments will require a completely new fleet. The investment estimates given in this report identify capital required to transport projected energy supplies to market. The requirement is strategic in the sense that other reasonable alternatives do not exist or that a shared load of new growth can be expected. Not analyzed or forecasted are investments in transportation facilities made in response to local conditions. The total investment figures, therefore, represent a minimum necessary capital improvement to respond to changes in interregional supply conditions.

  19. The Investment Case for Education and Equity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wils, Annababette; Bonnet, Gabrielle

    2015-01-01

    Education is in crisis worldwide. Millions of children, especially the most marginalized, are excluded from school. Many millions more attend school, but they do not learn basic reading and math skills. In addition, international funding for education is on the decline. "The Investment Case for Education and Equity" explains the global…

  20. 78 FR 55339 - Regulatory Capital Rules: Regulatory Capital, Implementation of Basel III, Capital Adequacy...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-10

    ...). \\10\\ See 77 FR 52856 (August 30, 2012). The NPR titled ``Regulatory Capital Rules: Advanced Approaches... Provisions, Prompt Corrective Action, Standardized Approach for Risk-weighted Assets, Market Discipline and Disclosure Requirements, Advanced Approaches Risk-Based Capital Rule, and Market Risk Capital Rule;...

  1. 67 FR 47451 - Real Estate Mortgage Investment Conduits

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2002-07-19

    ... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Parts 1 and 602 RIN 1545-AW98 Real Estate Mortgage Investment Conduits... contains final regulations relating to safe harbor transfers of noneconomic residual interests in real estate mortgage investment conduits (REMICs). The final regulations provide additional limitations on...

  2. 12 CFR 23.4 - Investment in personal property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Investment in personal property. 23.4 Section... Provisions § 23.4 Investment in personal property. (a) General rule. A national bank may acquire specific... additional holding period is necessary. The bank must value off-lease property at the lower of current...

  3. 31 CFR Appendix C to Part 356 - Investment Considerations

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Investment Considerations C Appendix C..., App. C Appendix C to Part 356—Investment Considerations I. Inflation-Protected Securities A. Principal... may be enhanced over time as we issue additional amounts or more entities participate in the market....

  4. Impact of Real-world Factors Influencing Investment Decisions on the Costs and Distribution of Climate Change Mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edmonds, J.; Iyer, G.; McJeon, H. C.; Leon, C.; Hultman, N.

    2015-12-01

    Strategies to mitigate dangerous anthropogenic climate change require a dramatic transformation of the energy system to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, that in turn requires large-scale investments. Investment decisions depend not only on investment capital availability but also on investment risks. A number of factors such as national policy environments, quality of public and private institutions, sector, firm and technology specific characteristics can affect investors' assessments of risks, leading to a wide variation in the business climate for investment. Such heterogeneity in investment risks can have important implications, as investors usually respond to risks by requiring higher returns for riskier projects; delaying or forgoing the investments; or preferring to invest in existing, familiar projects. We study the impact of variation in investment risks on regional patterns of emissions mitigation, the cost of emissions mitigation and patterns of technology deployment. We modify an integrated assessment model, widely used in global climate policy analyses (the Global Change Assessment Model) and incorporate decisions on investments based on risks along two dimensions. Along the first dimension, we vary perceived risks associated with particular technologies. To do so, we assign a higher cost of capital for investment in low-carbon technologies as these involve intrinsically higher levels of regulatory and market risk. The second dimension uses a proxy to vary investment risks across regions, based on an institutional quality metric published by the World Economic Forum. Explicit representation of investment risks has two major effects. First, it raises the cost of emissions mitigation relative to a world with uniform investment risks. Second, it shifts the pattern of emissions mitigation, with industrialized countries mitigating more, and developing countries mitigating less. Our results suggest that institutional reforms aimed at lowering investment

  5. Public funding and private investment for R&D: a survey in China’s pharmaceutical industry

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In recent years, China has experienced tremendous growth in its pharmaceutical industry. Both the Chinese government and private investors are motivated to invest into pharmaceutical research and development (R&D). However, studies regarding the different behaviors of public and private investment in pharmaceutical R&D are scarce. Therefore, this paper aims to investigate the current situation of public funding and private investment into Chinese pharmaceutical R&D. Methods The primary data used in the research were obtained from the China High-tech Industry Statistics Yearbook (2002–2012) and China Statistical Yearbook of Science and Technology (2002–2012). We analyzed public funding and private investment in five aspects: total investment in the industry, funding sources of the whole industry, differences between provinces, difference in subsectors, and private equity/venture capital investment. Results The vast majority of R&D investment was from private sources. There is a significantly positive correlation between public funding and private investment in different provinces of China. However, public funding was likely to be invested into less developed provinces with abundant natural herbal resources. Compared with the chemical medicine subsector, traditional Chinese medicine and biopharmaceutical subsectors obtained more public funding. Further, the effect of the government was focused on private equity and venture capital investment although private fund is the mainstream of this type of investment. Conclusions Public funding and private investment play different but complementary roles in pharmaceutical R&D in China. While being less than private investment, public funding shows its significance in R&D investment. With rapid growth of the industry, the pharmaceutical R&D investment in China is expected to increase steadily from both public and private sources. PMID:24925505

  6. Clinical capital equipment acquisition: decision-making at the executive level.

    PubMed

    Greisler, D S; Stupak, R J

    1999-01-01

    Capital investment in the United States health care industry is one of the components of the system that has historically fueled cost increases and complicated the quality/cost/access conundrum. This article is concerned with capital development focused on clinical equipment acquisition in acute care hospitals. The research findings suggest that decision-makers are abandoning two approaches to decision-making known as Quantitative Decision-Making and Mixed Scanning in favor of two models known as Rational Decision-Making and Political Decision-Making. While this is the case, a method of decision-making known as Idea Sets (developed and labeled by James March as Garbage Can Decision-Making) is the most widely used approach. Equipment acquisition criteria used by the decision-makers are shifting away from concerns of enhancing existing clinical programs and/or adding new clinical programs. Acquisition criteria are shifting toward procuring equipment which will decrease institutional expense, improve organizational efficiency, and galvanize operational effectiveness. In addition to the technical findings of the research, further insights about ourselves and our colleagues are gleaned. Accordingly, we understand more completely the human dynamics surrounding decisions and thus are able to dialogue more richly about issues. Meaningful dialogue such as this will have the dual benefit of advancing teamwork and facilitating decision-making. PMID:10848195

  7. Designing a successful investment program.

    PubMed

    Karpinski, J P

    1997-02-01

    Healthcare organizations have various asset pool funds that can be invested to increase nonoperating revenues. In order to maximize the long-term success of investment efforts, healthcare organizations need to develop comprehensive investment management programs. Such programs identify the assets that can be invested, establish the level of risk each asset type can be exposed to, and match long-term and short-term investment opportunities to the appropriate asset pool. Programs can be managed internally or outsourced to investment management firms with objectives and procedures that are compatible with those of the healthcare organizations' investment policies and guidelines. These policies and guidelines must address asset allocation. Oversight committees must be established to monitor investment performance and reallocate assets, as needed, to take advantage of market movements. PMID:10164878

  8. Topological properties and community detection of venture capital network: Evidence from China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Yonghong; Zhang, Qi; Li, Sai-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Financial networks have been extensively studied as examples of real world complex networks. Based on the data from Chinese GEM and SME board, we establish a venture capital (VC) network to study the statistical properties, topological properties and community structure of the Chinese venture capital network. The result shows that there are no dominant venture capital firms in China which act as hubs in the VC network, and multi-company syndication is not popular in China, meaning that the relationships among venture capital companies are weak. The network is robust under either random or intentional attack, and possesses small world property. We also find from its community structure that, venture capital companies are more concentrated in developed districts but the links within the same district are scarce as compared to the links between different developed districts, indicating that venture capital companies are more willing to syndicate with companies in other developed districts. Furthermore, venture capital companies which invest in the same industry have closer relations within their communities than those which do not invest in the same industry.

  9. Venezuelan ``apertura`` invites private exploration capital

    SciTech Connect

    Carnevali, J.

    1995-10-09

    The Congress of the Republic of Venezuela on July 4, 1995, approved the conditions for an Exploration Association Contract. This action opened Venezuela to exploration for light and medium crudes by private companies in association with a special-purpose affiliate of Petroleos de Venezuela (Pdvsa). The objective of the apertura, or opening, is to attract private capital to Venezuela`s petroleum sector and thereby accelerate exploration and development of light and medium crude oil. An important parallel objective is for this incremental investment into the country to stimulate the domestic economy and encourage development and growth across all sectors. The paper discusses the geology of the four primary sedimentary basins in Venezuela, source rocks and maturity, and the costs and terms of Venezuela`s contract.

  10. A synthetic biosocial model of fertility transition: testing the relative contribution of embodied capital theory, changing cultural norms, and women's labor force participation.

    PubMed

    Snopkowski, Kristin; Kaplan, Hillard

    2014-07-01

    This article presents a biosocial model of fertility decline, which integrates ecological-economic and informational-cultural hypotheses of fertility transition in a unified theoretical framework. The model is then applied to empirical data collected among 500 women from San Borja, Bolivia, a population undergoing fertility transition. Using a combination of event history analysis, multiple regression, and structural equation modeling, we examine the pathways by which education responds to birth cohort, parental education and network ties, and how age at first birth and total fertility, in turn, respond to birth cohort, social network ties, education, expectations about parental investment, work, and contraceptive use. We find that in addition to secular trends in education, respondent's education is associated with the education of parents, the investment she received from them, and the education of older siblings. Total fertility has dropped over time, partly in response to increased education; moreover, the behavior of other women in a woman's social network predicts both initiation of reproduction and total fertility, while expected parental investment in offspring negatively predicts total fertility. Involvement in paid work that is incompatible with childcare is associated with a later age of first reproduction, but not subsequent fertility. Contraceptive use partially mediates the effect of education and birth cohort on total fertility, but is not a mediator of the effect of social network or expected parental investment on total fertility. Overall, the empirical results provide support for a biosocial model of fertility decline, particularly the embodied capital and cultural pathways. PMID:24633654

  11. Policy approaches to renewable energy investment in the Mediterranean region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patt, A.; Komendantova, N.; Battaglini, A.; Lilliestam, J.; Williges, K.

    2009-04-01

    suited to achieving such growth quickly and smoothly? What bottlenecks—in terms of supply chains, human capital, finance, and transmission capacity—need to be anticipated and addressed if the rate of capacity growth is to be sustained over several decades? What model of governance would create a safe investment climate in consistence with new EU legislation (i.e. EU Renewable Energy Directive) as well as expected post-Kyoto targets and mechanisms? The material that we present here is based on a series of workshops held between November 2008 and January 2009, in which a wide range of stakeholders expressed their views about the fundamental needs for policy intervention. Supplementing the results from these workshops have been additional expert interviews, and basic financial modeling. One of the interesting results from this research is the need for a multi-pronged approach. First, there is a need for a support scheme, potentially compatible with in all cases supplementing the EU REN Directive, that would create a stable market for North African electricity in Europe. Second, there is a need for policies that facilitate the formation of public private partnerships in North Africa, as the specific investment vehicle, as a way to manage some of the uncertainties associated with large-scale investments in the region. Third, attention has to be paid to the development of supply chains within the Mediterranean region, as a way of ensuring the compatibility of such investments with sustainable development.

  12. Values beyond value? Is anything beyond the logic of capital?

    PubMed

    Skeggs, Bev

    2014-03-01

    We are living in a time when it is frequently assumed that the logic of capital has subsumed every single aspect of our lives, intervening in the organization of our intimate relations as well as the control of our time, including investments in the future (e.g. via debt). The theories that document the incursion of this logic (often through the terms of neoliberalism and/or governmentality) assume that this logic is internalized, works and organizes everything including our subjectivity. These theories performatively reproduce the very conditions they describe, shrinking the domain of values and making it subject to capital's logic. All values are reduced to value. Yet values and value are always dialogic, dependent and co-constituting. In this paper I chart the history by which value eclipses values and how this shrinks our sociological imagination. By outlining the historical processes that institutionalized different organizations of the population through political economy and the social contract, producing ideas of proper personhood premised on propriety, I detail how forms of raced, gendered and classed personhood was formed. The gaps between the proper and improper generate significant contradictions that offer both opportunities to and limits on capitals' lines of flight. It is the lacks, the residues, and the excess that cannot be captured by capital's mechanisms of valuation that will be explored in order to think beyond the logic of capital and show how values will always haunt value. PMID:24571532

  13. Social Capital and Health: A Review of Prospective Multilevel Studies

    PubMed Central

    Murayama, Hiroshi; Fujiwara, Yoshinori; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2012-01-01

    Background This article presents an overview of the concept of social capital, reviews prospective multilevel analytic studies of the association between social capital and health, and discusses intervention strategies that enhance social capital. Methods We conducted a systematic search of published peer-reviewed literature on the PubMed database and categorized studies according to health outcome. Results We identified 13 articles that satisfied the inclusion criteria for the review. In general, both individual social capital and area/workplace social capital had positive effects on health outcomes, regardless of study design, setting, follow-up period, or type of health outcome. Prospective studies that used a multilevel approach were mainly conducted in Western countries. Although we identified some cross-sectional multilevel studies that were conducted in Asian countries, including Japan, no prospective studies have been conducted in Asia. Conclusions Prospective evidence from multilevel analytic studies of the effect of social capital on health is very limited at present. If epidemiologic findings on the association between social capital and health are to be put to practical use, we must gather additional evidence and explore the feasibility of interventions that build social capital as a means of promoting health. PMID:22447212

  14. 78 FR 73915 - Solutions Capital I, L.P., License No. 03/03-0247; Notice Seeking Exemption Under Section 312 of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-09

    ... the Small Business Investment Act, Conflicts of Interest Notice is hereby given that Solutions Capital... Constitute Conflicts of Interest of the Small Business Administration (``SBA'') Rules and Regulations (13 CFR... Capital I, L.P. Therefore this transaction is considered a financing constituting a conflict of...

  15. 76 FR 55720 - BB&T Capital Partners Mezzanine Fund II, L.P.; Notice Seeking Exemption Under Section 312 of the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION BB&T Capital Partners Mezzanine Fund II, L.P.; Notice Seeking Exemption Under Section 312 of the Small Business Investment Act, Conflicts of Interest Notice is hereby given that BB&T Capital...

  16. 78 FR 2313 - CapitalSpring SBIC, L.P., License No. 09/79-0454, Notice Seeking Exemption Under the Small...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-10

    ... ADMINISTRATION CapitalSpring SBIC, L.P., License No. 09/79-0454, Notice Seeking Exemption Under the Small Business Investment Act, Conflicts of Interest Notice is hereby given that CapitalSpring SBIC, L.P., 950...Spring Partners SBIC, L.P. proposes to provide debt security financing to LBE Holdings, LLC., 5305...

  17. 78 FR 69516 - DeltaPoint Capital IV, L.P.; License No. 02/02-0662; Notice Seeking Exemption Under the Small...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-19

    ... ADMINISTRATION DeltaPoint Capital IV, L.P.; License No. 02/02-0662; Notice Seeking Exemption Under the Small Business Investment Act, Conflicts of Interest Notice is hereby given that DeltaPoint Capital IV, L.P., 45... interest of the Small Business Administration (``SBA'') Rules and Regulations (13 CFR 107.730)....

  18. Capital in the twenty-first century: a critique.

    PubMed

    Soskice, David

    2014-12-01

    I set out and explain Piketty's model of the dynamics of capitalism based on two equations and the r > g inequality (his central contradiction of capitalism). I then take issue with Piketty's analysis of the rebuilding of inequality from the 1970s to the present on three grounds: First, his model is based on the (neo-classical) assumption that companies are essentially passive actors who invest the amount savers choose to accumulate at equilibrium output - leading to the counterintuitive result that companies respond to the secular fall in growth (and hence their product markets) from the 1970s on by increasing their investment relative to output; this does indeed imply increased inequality on Piketty's β measure, the ratio of capital to output. I suggest a more realistic model in which businesses determine investment growth based on their expectations of output growth, with monetary policy bringing savings into line with business-determined investment; the implication of this model is that β does not change at all. And in fact as other recent empirical work which I reference has noted, β has not changed significantly over these recent decades. Hence Piketty's central analysis of the growth of contemporary inequality requires rethinking. Second, despite many references to the need for political economic analysis, Piketty's analysis of the growth of inequality in the period from the 1970s to the present is almost devoid of it, his explanatory framework being purely mathematical. I sketch what a political economic framework might look like during a period when politics was central to inequality. Third, inequality in fact rose on a variety of dimensions apart from β (including poverty which Piketty virtually makes no reference to in this period), but it is unclear what might explain why inequality rose in these other dimensions. PMID:25516344

  19. Inner structure of capital control networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battiston, Stefano

    2004-07-01

    We study the topological structure of the network of shareholding relationships in the Italian stock market (MIB) and in two US stock markets (NYSE and NASDAQ). The portfolio diversification and the wealth invested on the market by economical agents have been shown in our previous work to have all a power law behavior. However, a further investigation shows that the inner structure of the capital control network are not at all the same across markets. The shareholding network is a weighted graph, therefore we introduce two quantities analogous to in-degree and out-degree for weighted graphs which measure, respectively: the number of effective shareholders of a stock and the number of companies effectively controlled by a single holder. Combining the information carried by the distributions of these two quantities we are able to extract the backbone of each market and we find that while the MIB splits into several separated groups of interest, the US markets is characterized by very large holders sharing control on overlapping subsets of stocks. This method seems promising for the analysis of the topology of capital control networks in general and not only in the stock market.

  20. Food additives

    MedlinePlus

    Food additives are substances that become part of a food product when they are added during the processing or making of that food. "Direct" food additives are often added during processing to: Add nutrients ...

  1. FY95 capital asset implementation plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-12-01

    The Waste Isolation Division (WID) is committed to providing good stewardship for the capital assets under its operational and physical control. To achieve this goal, the WID has developed the Capital Asset Implementation Plan (CAIP) to continue to implement for FY95 Department of Energy (DOE) Order 4320.2A, Capital Asset Management Process (CAMP). The Order provides policy and elements needed to establish a credible, consistent, auditable, and technically sound process for the DOE to forecast, plan, and budget for capital assets on a functional unit level. The objective of the WIPP CAMP program is to meet the goals of DOE Order 4320.2A in the most effective and efficient manner possible in support of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) mission. As a result, this CAIP provides a way to implement the CAMP Program using a graded approach. Continued implementation will be accomplished by improving the existing process, and establishing future goals to promote growth for the CAMP Program. The CAIP is issued annually by the WID with quarterly progress reports submitted to the DOE. This document describes the current-year program staffing, roles, responsibilities, funding, and near-term milestones. In addition, the results of past goals are discussed.

  2. Food additives

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Michael

    1974-01-01

    Food additives are discussed from the food technology point of view. The reasons for their use are summarized: (1) to protect food from chemical and microbiological attack; (2) to even out seasonal supplies; (3) to improve their eating quality; (4) to improve their nutritional value. The various types of food additives are considered, e.g. colours, flavours, emulsifiers, bread and flour additives, preservatives, and nutritional additives. The paper concludes with consideration of those circumstances in which the use of additives is (a) justified and (b) unjustified. PMID:4467857

  3. 26 CFR 1.857-7 - Earnings and profits of a real estate investment trust.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... foreclosure property for the taxable year over the tax imposed thereon by section 857(b)(4)(A). (Sec. 856(d)(4... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Real Estate Investment Trusts § 1.857-7 Earnings and profits..., the amount (if any) of the net capital gain for the taxable year, or (ii) in the case of a...

  4. 76 FR 75939 - Revocation of License of Small Business Investment Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-05

    ... ADMINISTRATION Revocation of License of Small Business Investment Company Pursuant to the authority granted to the United States Small Business Administration by the Wind-Up Order of the United States District... Small Business Administration hereby revokes the license of First Growth Capital, Inc. a...

  5. 77 FR 32167 - Surrender of License of Small Business Investment Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-31

    ... ADMINISTRATION Surrender of License of Small Business Investment Company Pursuant to the authority granted to the United States Small Business Administration by the Wind-Up Order of the United States District Court of... Small Business Administration hereby surrender the license of Capital Across America, L.P. a...

  6. 12 CFR 225.172 - What are the holding periods permitted for merchant banking investments?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... applicable under the Board's capital adequacy rules or guidelines (see 12 CFR 225 appendix A) to merchant... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false What are the holding periods permitted for merchant banking investments? 225.172 Section 225.172 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM...

  7. Stakeholders' Perception on the Investment in Higher Education in South-West Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babalola, J. B.; Olaiya, Foluke M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews the perceptions of stakeholders on investment in higher education and economic development in south-west Nigeria. The study was based on the argument that despite the fact that Nigeria celebrates her wealth of human capital and boasts of her educated labour force, there is still widespread ignorance and poverty with no…

  8. 26 CFR 1.1298-0T - Passive foreign investment company-table of contents (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Passive foreign investment company-table of contents (temporary). 1.1298-0T Section 1.1298-0T Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Special Rules for Determining Capital Gains and Losses §...

  9. 13 CFR 108.510 - SBA approval of NMVC Company's Investment Adviser/Manager.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION NEW MARKETS VENTURE CAPITAL (âNMVCâ) PROGRAM Managing the Operations of a NMVC Company Management and Compensation § 108.510 SBA approval of NMVC Company's Investment Adviser/Manager. You may employ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false SBA approval of NMVC...

  10. 26 CFR 1.1242-1 - Losses on small business investment company stock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Losses on small business investment company stock. 1.1242-1 Section 1.1242-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Special Rules for Determining Capital Gains and Losses § 1.1242-1 Losses on small business...

  11. 13 CFR 108.530 - Restrictions on investments of idle funds by NMVC Companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION NEW MARKETS VENTURE CAPITAL (âNMVCâ) PROGRAM Managing the Operations of a NMVC Company Cash Management by A Nmvc Company § 108.530 Restrictions on investments of idle funds by NMVC Companies. (a... regulations of the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, as amended (12 CFR 325.103). (2) Exception: You...

  12. Increased use of Renewable Energy in Africa through a Program of Energy Enterprise Development and Investment

    SciTech Connect

    Christine Eibs Singer

    2005-03-11

    To provide training in enterprise development and technical applications, local partner capacity building, individualized enterprise development services and seed capital investment to catalyze the creation of sustainable renewable energy enterprises that deliver clean energy services to households and businesses in South Africa, Ethiopia and Tanzania.

  13. 12 CFR 225.172 - What are the holding periods permitted for merchant banking investments?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... applicable under the Board's capital adequacy rules or guidelines (see 12 CFR 225 appendix A) to merchant... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What are the holding periods permitted for merchant banking investments? 225.172 Section 225.172 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM...

  14. Use of a Faculty Investment Model To Attain the Goals of a College of Nursing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnick, Ann F.; Halstead, Lois

    2001-01-01

    A nursing school's faculty investment model, which included strategic planning, benchmarking, continuous quality improvement, and management by objectives, was developed through goal determination, market understanding, and resource allocation. It achieved 10% labor savings, 3% revenue enhancement, and a human capital pool equal to 12% full-time…

  15. The Involvement of Migrant Mothers in Their Children's Education: Cultural Capital and Transnational Class Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jamal Al-deen, Taghreed; Windle, Joel

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyses the kinds of capital, practices and investments that are implicated in the participation of migrant mothers in the educational careers of their children, drawing on a Bourdieusian framework. We present findings of a study of Muslim Iraqi mothers with school-aged children in Australia, based on 47 interviews with 25…

  16. Congratulations or Condolences? The Role of Human Capital in the Cultivation of a University Administrator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDowell, John; Singell, Larry D., Jr.; Stater, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Administrative skill is essential to organizational effectiveness. Yet, few studies examine how human capital investments over a career affect selection into administration. We use panel data for economists to estimate the probability of choosing administration over a pure academic track. The results show that, while research-specific human…

  17. 13 CFR 107.585 - Voluntary decrease in Licensee's Regulatory Capital.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Voluntary decrease in Licensee's Regulatory Capital. 107.585 Section 107.585 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES Managing the Operations of a Licensee Voluntary Decrease in...

  18. Ecological Footprints and Appropriated Carrying Capacity: Measuring the Natural Capital Requirements of the Human Economy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ress, William E.; Wackernagel, Mathis

    1996-01-01

    Contrasts conventional economic rationality with economic principles. Develops an empirical approach based on a reinterpretation of carrying capacity that can account for technological advances and trade. Discusses the necessity of diverting much of the present consumption to investment in the maintenance of natural capital stocks. (AIM)

  19. Human Capital or Human Connections? The Cultural Meanings of Education in Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartlett, Lesley

    2007-01-01

    Background/Context: In the field of educational research, conventional wisdom holds that primary-level schooling, specifically literacy acquisition, promotes economic mobility for individuals and economic development for the nation. This belief is rooted in human capital theory, the causal argument claiming that state investment in schooling or…

  20. 13 CFR 107.585 - Voluntary decrease in Licensee's Regulatory Capital.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Voluntary decrease in Licensee's Regulatory Capital. 107.585 Section 107.585 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES Managing the Operations of a Licensee Voluntary Decrease in...

  1. 13 CFR 107.585 - Voluntary decrease in Licensee's Regulatory Capital.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Voluntary decrease in Licensee's Regulatory Capital. 107.585 Section 107.585 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES Managing the Operations of a Licensee Voluntary Decrease in...

  2. 13 CFR 107.585 - Voluntary decrease in Licensee's Regulatory Capital.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Voluntary decrease in Licensee's Regulatory Capital. 107.585 Section 107.585 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES Managing the Operations of a Licensee Voluntary Decrease in...

  3. 13 CFR 107.585 - Voluntary decrease in Licensee's Regulatory Capital.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Voluntary decrease in Licensee's Regulatory Capital. 107.585 Section 107.585 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES Managing the Operations of a Licensee Voluntary Decrease in...

  4. Returns to Human and Research Capital, United States Agriculture, 1949-1964.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fishelson, Gideon

    This study estimated rates of return to public investments in human and research capital (formal schooling and extension and vocational agricultural education) in the United States agricultural industry. (Southern states were excluded because of demographic and educational factors that would have biased the variables.) Output per farm was defined…

  5. University Capital, Community Engagement, and Continuing Education: Blending Professional Development and Social Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Edward T.

    2010-01-01

    Extending the dialogue on community engagement, this article examines the potential of a new programming area for university continuing education (UCE) that blends professional development and social change: the investment of university capital in community projects. Increasing interest in applying social and environmental, as well as financial,…

  6. 13 CFR 107.1840 - Computation of Licensee's Capital Impairment Percentage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Computation of Licensee's Capital Impairment Percentage. 107.1840 Section 107.1840 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES Licensee's Noncompliance With Terms of Leverage Computation...

  7. Firm-Specific Marketing Capital and Job Satisfaction of Marketers: Evidence from Vietnam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, Tho D.; Nguyen, Trang T. M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Based on the resource-based view of the firm, this study aims to examine antecedents and outcomes of firm-specific marketing capital pool invested by marketers in a transition market, Vietnam. Design/methodology/approach: A sample of 528 marketers in Ho Chi Minh City was surveyed to test the theoretical model. Structural equation…

  8. 77 FR 16280 - Capital Research and Management Company, et al.; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-20

    .... APPLICANTS: American Funds Insurance Series (``AFIS''), Capital Research and Management Company (``CRMC.... Applicants' Representations 1. AFIS is organized as a Massachusetts business trust and is registered under... series of AFIS and any other existing or future registered open-end investment company or series...

  9. 77 FR 65593 - PNC Capital Advisors, LLC, et al.; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION PNC Capital Advisors, LLC, et al.; Notice of Application October 23, 2012. AGENCY: Securities and Exchange Commission (``Commission''). ACTION: Notice of an application for an order under section 12(d)(1)(J) of the Investment Company Act...

  10. Economic evaluation of distribution system smart grid investments

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Onen, Ahmet; Cheng, Danling; Broadwater, Robert P.; Scirbona, Charlie; Cocks, George; Hamilton, Stephanie; Wang, Xiaoyu; Roark, Jeffrey

    2014-12-31

    This paper investigates economic benefits of smart grid automation investments. A system consisting of 7 substations and 14 feeders is used in the evaluation. Here benefits that can be quantified in terms of dollar savings are considered, termed “hard dollar” benefits. Smart Grid investment evaluations to be considered include investments in improved efficiency, more cost effective use of existing system capacity with automated switches, and coordinated control of capacitor banks and voltage regulators. These Smart Grid evaluations are sequentially ordered, resulting in a series of incremental hard dollar benefits. Hard dollar benefits come from improved efficiency, delaying large capital equipmentmore » investments, shortened storm restoration times, and reduced customer energy use. Analyses used in the evaluation involve hourly power flow analysis over multiple years and Monte Carlo simulations of switching operations during storms using a reconfiguration for restoration algorithm. The economic analysis uses the time varying value of the Locational Marginal Price. Algorithms used include reconfiguration for restoration involving either manual or automated switches and coordinated control involving two modes of control. Field validations of phase balancing and capacitor design results are presented. The evaluation shows that investments in automation can improve performance while at the same time lowering costs.« less

  11. Economic evaluation of distribution system smart grid investments

    SciTech Connect

    Onen, Ahmet; Cheng, Danling; Broadwater, Robert P.; Scirbona, Charlie; Cocks, George; Hamilton, Stephanie; Wang, Xiaoyu; Roark, Jeffrey

    2014-12-31

    This paper investigates economic benefits of smart grid automation investments. A system consisting of 7 substations and 14 feeders is used in the evaluation. Here benefits that can be quantified in terms of dollar savings are considered, termed “hard dollar” benefits. Smart Grid investment evaluations to be considered include investments in improved efficiency, more cost effective use of existing system capacity with automated switches, and coordinated control of capacitor banks and voltage regulators. These Smart Grid evaluations are sequentially ordered, resulting in a series of incremental hard dollar benefits. Hard dollar benefits come from improved efficiency, delaying large capital equipment investments, shortened storm restoration times, and reduced customer energy use. Analyses used in the evaluation involve hourly power flow analysis over multiple years and Monte Carlo simulations of switching operations during storms using a reconfiguration for restoration algorithm. The economic analysis uses the time varying value of the Locational Marginal Price. Algorithms used include reconfiguration for restoration involving either manual or automated switches and coordinated control involving two modes of control. Field validations of phase balancing and capacitor design results are presented. The evaluation shows that investments in automation can improve performance while at the same time lowering costs.

  12. Developpement de la petite enfance: Investir dans l'avenir. Le Developpement en Marche (Early Child Development: Investing in the Future. Directions in Development).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Mary Eming

    Early childhood programs have been shown to enhance school readiness, increase the efficacy of investments in primary schools and human capital formation, foster beneficial social behavior and, thereby, lessen social welfare costs, and promote community development. The World Bank has directed investment toward young children, including supporting…

  13. Ripple effects of reform on capital financing.

    PubMed

    Arduino, Kelly

    2014-05-01

    Healthcare leaders should inventory and quantify the capital initiatives deemed critical for success under changing business models. Key considerations in planning such initiatives are opportunity costs and potential impact on productivity. Senior leaders also should create rolling five-year estimates of expenditures in addition to a one-year budget. Approaches to paying for such initiatives include borrowing from cash reserves, partnering to share cash and other resources, and developing new revenue sources derived from the initiatives themselves. PMID:24851454

  14. Investments in women, economic development, and improvements in health in low-income countries.

    PubMed

    Schultz, T P

    1989-01-01

    Investments in human resources are more likely to have higher rates of return than investments in capital resources like factories, equipment, inventories, and infrastructure. There are a variety of studies that estimate the ratio of return from primary and secondary schooling to be between 5-40% annually. The primary factor affecting return is the level of development of the country in question. Developing countries are able to achieve higher rates of return than already developed countries. Determining the rates of return on public and private health investments and related research and developments is much harder because the major improvements that have occurred in the past were accompanied by other significant improvements in trade, nutrition, and income. However, there is a growing body of evidence that suggests that improvements in health were significantly responsible for the economic growth following World War II. Analysis of education expenditures indicates that the less educated a country's women are, the lower its standard of living. 90% of the intracountry variation in enrollment rates for men and women for 80 countries between 1960-1980 indicate that this is the case. Studies conducted during the 1970s and 1980s by demographers, economists, anthropologists, and sociologists clearly show a trend in education of women and child mortality. Every additional year of female education translates to a 5-10% reduction in child mortality. It is clear that women play a central role in the health determinants of family members. The education of women is a strong, although not clearly understood, force affecting child mortality, nutrition, health, and school achievement. Household resources and maternal education must always be determined before any study of health care delivery effectiveness is conducted. The same is true for any studies of the effectiveness of local family planning expenditures. PMID:2698095

  15. 12 CFR 703.14 - Permissible investments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AND DEPOSIT ACTIVITIES § 703.14 Permissible investments. (a) Variable rate investment. A Federal credit union may invest in a variable rate investment, as long as the index is tied to domestic interest... obligation/real estate mortgage investment conduit. A Federal credit union may invest in a fixed or...

  16. 13 CFR 301.4 - Investment rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Investment rates. 301.4 Section... ELIGIBILITY, INVESTMENT RATE AND APPLICATION REQUIREMENTS Investment Rates and Matching Share Requirements § 301.4 Investment rates. (a) Minimum Investment Rate. There is no minimum Investment Rate for a...

  17. 13 CFR 301.4 - Investment rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Investment rates. 301.4 Section... ELIGIBILITY, INVESTMENT RATE AND APPLICATION REQUIREMENTS Investment Rates and Matching Share Requirements § 301.4 Investment rates. (a) Minimum Investment Rate. There is no minimum Investment Rate for a...

  18. 13 CFR 301.4 - Investment rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Investment rates. 301.4 Section... ELIGIBILITY, INVESTMENT RATE AND APPLICATION REQUIREMENTS Investment Rates and Matching Share Requirements § 301.4 Investment rates. (a) Minimum Investment Rate. There is no minimum Investment Rate for a...

  19. 13 CFR 301.4 - Investment rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Investment rates. 301.4 Section... ELIGIBILITY, INVESTMENT RATE AND APPLICATION REQUIREMENTS Investment Rates and Matching Share Requirements § 301.4 Investment rates. (a) Minimum Investment Rate. There is no minimum Investment Rate for a...

  20. 12 CFR 615.5172 - Production credit association and agricultural credit association investment in farmers' notes...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... agricultural credit association (hereinafter association(s)), such association(s) may invest in notes... total amount which an association may invest in such obligations at any one time shall not exceed 15.... In addition, the total amount which an association may invest in such obligations that are...

  1. 12 CFR 615.5172 - Production credit association and agricultural credit association investment in farmers' notes...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... agricultural credit association (hereinafter association(s)), such association(s) may invest in notes... total amount which an association may invest in such obligations at any one time shall not exceed 15.... In addition, the total amount which an association may invest in such obligations that are...

  2. 12 CFR 615.5172 - Production credit association and agricultural credit association investment in farmers' notes...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... agricultural credit association (hereinafter association(s)), such association(s) may invest in notes... total amount which an association may invest in such obligations at any one time shall not exceed 15.... In addition, the total amount which an association may invest in such obligations that are...

  3. 13 CFR 303.9 - Requirements for short-term Planning Investments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Planning Investments. 303.9 Section 303.9 Business Credit and Assistance ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE PLANNING INVESTMENTS AND COMPREHENSIVE ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT STRATEGIES § 303.9 Requirements for short-term Planning Investments. (a) In addition to providing support for...

  4. 13 CFR 303.9 - Requirements for short-term Planning Investments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Planning Investments. 303.9 Section 303.9 Business Credit and Assistance ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE PLANNING INVESTMENTS AND COMPREHENSIVE ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT STRATEGIES § 303.9 Requirements for short-term Planning Investments. (a) In addition to providing support for...

  5. 13 CFR 303.9 - Requirements for short-term Planning Investments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Planning Investments. 303.9 Section 303.9 Business Credit and Assistance ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE PLANNING INVESTMENTS AND COMPREHENSIVE ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT STRATEGIES § 303.9 Requirements for short-term Planning Investments. (a) In addition to providing support for...

  6. 13 CFR 303.9 - Requirements for short-term Planning Investments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Planning Investments. 303.9 Section 303.9 Business Credit and Assistance ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE PLANNING INVESTMENTS AND COMPREHENSIVE ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT STRATEGIES § 303.9 Requirements for short-term Planning Investments. (a) In addition to providing support for...

  7. 13 CFR 303.9 - Requirements for short-term Planning Investments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Planning Investments. 303.9 Section 303.9 Business Credit and Assistance ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE PLANNING INVESTMENTS AND COMPREHENSIVE ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT STRATEGIES § 303.9 Requirements for short-term Planning Investments. (a) In addition to providing support for...

  8. Health Inequalities through the Lens of Health Capital Theory: Issues, Solutions, and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Galama, Titus J.; van Kippersluis, Hans

    2013-01-01

    We explore what health-capital theory has to offer in terms of informing and directing research into health inequality. We argue that economic theory can help in identifying mechanisms through which specific socioeconomic indicators and health interact. Our reading of the literature, and our own work, leads us to conclude that non-degenerate versions of the Grossman model (1972a;b) and its extensions can explain many salient stylized facts on health inequalities. Yet, further development is required in at least two directions. First, a childhood phase needs to be incorporated, in recognition of the importance of childhood endowments and investments in the determination of later-life socioeconomic and health outcomes. Second, a unified theory of joint investment in skill (or human) capital and in health capital could provide a basis for a theory of the relationship between education and health. PMID:24570580

  9. Social Capital, Value, and Measure: Antonio Negri's Challenge to Capitalism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day, Ronald E.

    2002-01-01

    Considers one concept in knowledge management, that of social capital, focusing on the problem of measure and value in capitalism, specifically within the period and conditions of post-Fordist production. Discusses the work of Antonio Negri and suggests the importance of knowledge management as a symptom of a turn in political economy. (Author/LRW)

  10. 12 CFR 565.4 - Capital measures and capital category definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Capital measures and capital category... PROMPT CORRECTIVE ACTION § 565.4 Capital measures and capital category definitions. (a) Capital measures. For purposes of section 38 and this part, the relevant capital measures shall be: (1) The total...

  11. Schools, Social Capital and Space

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allan, Julie; Catts, Ralph

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on the significance of social capital in relation to education, exploring its relevance to teachers and other professionals as well as among young people. It draws on aspects of five case studies undertaken by the Schools and Social Capital Network, within the Applied Educational Research Scheme in Scotland. These case studies…

  12. Taking Capital Requirements into Account.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenny, Hans; And Others

    1982-01-01

    A comprehensive capital charge policy is recommended as an integral part of college budgeting and reporting. It includes three components: a capital renewal and replacement charge, a new equipment and library and laboratory acquisitions budget, and a debt repayment schedule using internal borrowing. (MSE)

  13. Transformative Pedagogy for Social Capital

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willis, Peter

    2007-01-01

    This paper explores ways in which pedagogy for an elaborated form of transformative learning can be a useful catalyst for the development of social capital in community and workplace groups and networks. I begin with an example and then explore ideas of learning challenges embedded in building and maintaining social capital. I consider the…

  14. Rethinking Higher Education Capital Finance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, George A.

    1988-01-01

    Capital finance in institutions of higher education is analyzed in light of changes in the Tax Reform Act of 1986 affecting the ability of institutions to finance capital projects and the likelihood of changes in the government's view of tax-exempt financing. The options for colleges and universities are analyzed in the following areas: (1)…

  15. Personality Trait Development and Social Investment in Work

    PubMed Central

    Hudson, Nathan W.; Roberts, Brent W.; Lodi-Smith, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    A longitudinal study of employed individuals was used to test the relationship between social investment at work—the act of cognitively and emotionally committing to one’s job—and longitudinal and cross-sectional personality trait development. Participants provided ratings of personality traits and social investment at work at two time-points, separated by approximately three years. Data were analyzed using latent change models. Cross-sectional results showed that extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness and emotional stability were related to social investment at work. Additionally, a positive association was found between longitudinal change in social investment in work and change in personality traits—especially conscientiousness. Finally, the correlated changes in social investment and personality traits were invariant across age groups, suggesting that personality traits remain malleable across the lifespan. PMID:22822278

  16. Capital death in the world market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avakian, Adam; Podobnik, Boris; Piskor, Manuela; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2014-03-01

    We study the gross domestic product (GDP) per capita together with the market capitalization (MCAP) per capita as two indicators of the effect of globalization. We find that g, the GDP per capita, as a function of m, the MCAP per capita, follows a power law with average exponent close to 1/3. In addition, the Zipf ranking approach confirms that the m for countries with initially lower values of m tends to grow more rapidly than for countries with initially larger values of m. If the trends over the past 20 years continue to hold in the future, then the Zipf ranking approach leads to the prediction that in about 50 years, all countries participating in globalization will have comparable values of their MCAP per capita. We call this economic state "capital death," in analogy to the physics state of "heat death" predicted by thermodynamic arguments.

  17. Food additives.

    PubMed

    Berglund, F

    1978-01-01

    The use of additives to food fulfils many purposes, as shown by the index issued by the Codex Committee on Food Additives: Acids, bases and salts; Preservatives, Antioxidants and antioxidant synergists; Anticaking agents; Colours; Emulfifiers; Thickening agents; Flour-treatment agents; Extraction solvents; Carrier solvents; Flavours (synthetic); Flavour enhancers; Non-nutritive sweeteners; Processing aids; Enzyme preparations. Many additives occur naturally in foods, but this does not exclude toxicity at higher levels. Some food additives are nutrients, or even essential nutritents, e.g. NaCl. Examples are known of food additives causing toxicity in man even when used according to regulations, e.g. cobalt in beer. In other instances, poisoning has been due to carry-over, e.g. by nitrate in cheese whey - when used for artificial feed for infants. Poisonings also occur as the result of the permitted substance being added at too high levels, by accident or carelessness, e.g. nitrite in fish. Finally, there are examples of hypersensitivity to food additives, e.g. to tartrazine and other food colours. The toxicological evaluation, based on animal feeding studies, may be complicated by impurities, e.g. orthotoluene-sulfonamide in saccharin; by transformation or disappearance of the additive in food processing in storage, e.g. bisulfite in raisins; by reaction products with food constituents, e.g. formation of ethylurethane from diethyl pyrocarbonate; by metabolic transformation products, e.g. formation in the gut of cyclohexylamine from cyclamate. Metabolic end products may differ in experimental animals and in man: guanylic acid and inosinic acid are metabolized to allantoin in the rat but to uric acid in man. The magnitude of the safety margin in man of the Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) is not identical to the "safety factor" used when calculating the ADI. The symptoms of Chinese Restaurant Syndrome, although not hazardous, furthermore illustrate that the whole ADI

  18. Advancing social and economic development by investing in women's and children's health: a new Global Investment Framework.

    PubMed

    Stenberg, Karin; Axelson, Henrik; Sheehan, Peter; Anderson, Ian; Gülmezoglu, A Metin; Temmerman, Marleen; Mason, Elizabeth; Friedman, Howard S; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; Lawn, Joy E; Sweeny, Kim; Tulloch, Jim; Hansen, Peter; Chopra, Mickey; Gupta, Anuradha; Vogel, Joshua P; Ostergren, Mikael; Rasmussen, Bruce; Levin, Carol; Boyle, Colin; Kuruvilla, Shyama; Koblinsky, Marjorie; Walker, Neff; de Francisco, Andres; Novcic, Nebojsa; Presern, Carole; Jamison, Dean; Bustreo, Flavia

    2014-04-12

    A new Global Investment Framework for Women's and Children's Health demonstrates how investment in women's and children's health will secure high health, social, and economic returns. We costed health systems strengthening and six investment packages for: maternal and newborn health, child health, immunisation, family planning, HIV/AIDS, and malaria. Nutrition is a cross-cutting theme. We then used simulation modelling to estimate the health and socioeconomic returns of these investments. Increasing health expenditure by just $5 per person per year up to 2035 in 74 high-burden countries could yield up to nine times that value in economic and social benefits. These returns include greater gross domestic product (GDP) growth through improved productivity, and prevention of the needless deaths of 147 million children, 32 million stillbirths, and 5 million women by 2035. These gains could be achieved by an additional investment of $30 billion per year, equivalent to a 2% increase above current spending. PMID:24263249

  19. NASA's Hypersonic Investment Area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hueter, Uwe; Hutt, John; McClinton, Charles

    2002-01-01

    NASA has established long term goals for access to space. The third generation launch systems are to be fully reusable and operational around 2025. The goal for third-generation launch systems represents significant reduction in cost and improved safety over the current first generation system. The Advanced Space Transportation Office (ASTP) at NASA s Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has the agency lead to develop space transportation technologies. Within ASTP, under the Hypersonic Investment Area (HIA), third generation technologies are being pursued in the areas of propulsion, airframe, integrated vehicle health management (IVHM), avionics, power, operations and system analysis. These technologies are being matured through research and both ground and flight-testing. This paper provides an overview of the HIA program plans and recent accomplishments.

  20. 78 FR 62417 - Regulatory Capital Rules: Regulatory Capital, Implementation of Basel III, Capital Adequacy...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-22

    ... comments that appeared in the Federal Register of September 10, 2013 (78 FR 55340), regarding Regulatory... NW., Washington, DC 20429. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: In FR Doc. 2013-21357, appearing on page 55518... Part 324 RIN 3064-AD95 Regulatory Capital Rules: Regulatory Capital, Implementation of Basel...