Science.gov

Sample records for additional carbon source

  1. Impacts of carbon source addition on denitrification and phosphorus uptake in enhanced biological phosphorus removal systems.

    PubMed

    Begum, Shamim A; Batista, Jacimaria R

    2013-01-01

    In this study, simultaneous denitrification and phosphorus (P) removal were investigated in batch tests using nitrified mixed liquor and secondary wastewater influent from a full-scale treatment plant and different levels of acetate and propionate as supplemental carbon sources. Without supplemental carbon source, denitrification occurred at low rate and P release and P uptake was negatively affected (i.e., P removal of only 59.7%). When acetate and propionate were supplied, denitrification and P release occurred simultaneously under anoxic conditions. For acetate and propionate at a C/N stoichiometric ratio of 7.6, P release was negatively affected by denitrification. For acetate, the percent P removal and denitrification were very similar for C/N ratios of 22 (5X stoichiometric) and 59 (10X stoichiometric). For propionate, both percent P removal and denitrification deteriorated for C/N ratios of 22 (5X stoichiometric) and 45 (10X stoichiometric). It was observed that carbon source added in excess to stoichiometric ratio was consumed in the aerobic zone, but P was not taken up. This implies that PAO bacteria may utilize the excess carbon source in the aerobic zone rather than their polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) reserves, thereby promoting deterioration of the system.

  2. [Study on degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) with different additional carbon sources in aged contaminated soil].

    PubMed

    Yin, Chun-Qin; Jiang, Xin; Wang, Fang; Wang, Cong-Ying

    2012-02-01

    This study was conducted with different additional carbon sources (such as: glucose, DL-malic acid, citrate, urea and ammonium acetate) to elucidate the degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in aged contaminated soil under an indoor simulation experiment. The results showed that the quantity of CO2 emission in different additional carbon sources treatments was obviously much more than that of check treatment in the first week, and the quantity of CO2 emission in DL-malic acid treatment was the largest. The average CO2 production decreased in an order urea > glucose approximately citrate approximately DL-malic acid approximately ammonium acetate > check. Meanwhile, the amount of volatized PAHs in applied carbon sources treatments was significantly less than that in check treatment. The amount of three volatized PAHs decreased in an order phenanthrene > fluoranthene > benzo(b)fluoranthene. Compared with the check treatment, the average degradation rates of the three PAHs were significantly augmented in the supplied carbon sources treatments, in which rates of the three PAHs were much higher in DL-malic acid and urea treatments than those in other treatments. The largest proportion of residual was benzo(b)fluoranthene (from 72% to 81%) among three PAHs compounds, followed by fluoranthene (from 53% to 70% ) and phenanthrene (from 27% to 44%).

  3. Modeling the Effect of External Carbon Source Addition under Different Electron Acceptor Conditions in Biological Nutrient Removal Activated Sludge Systems.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiang; Wisniewski, Kamil; Czerwionka, Krzysztof; Zhou, Qi; Xie, Li; Makinia, Jacek

    2016-02-16

    The aim of this study was to expand the International Water Association Activated Sludge Model No. 2d (ASM2d) to predict the aerobic/anoxic behavior of polyphosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs) and "ordinary" heterotrophs in the presence of different external carbon sources and electron acceptors. The following new aspects were considered: (1) a new type of the readily biodegradable substrate, not available for the anaerobic activity of PAOs, (2) nitrite as an electron acceptor, and (3) acclimation of "ordinary" heterotrophs to the new external substrate via enzyme synthesis. The expanded model incorporated 30 new or modified process rate equations. The model was evaluated against data from several, especially designed laboratory experiments which focused on the combined effects of different types of external carbon sources (acetate, ethanol and fusel oil) and electron acceptors (dissolved oxygen, nitrate and nitrite) on the behavior of PAOs and "ordinary" heterotrophs. With the proposed expansions, it was possible to improve some deficiencies of the ASM2d in predicting the behavior of biological nutrient removal (BNR) systems with the addition of external carbon sources, including the effect of acclimation to the new carbon source. PMID:26783836

  4. Modeling the Effect of External Carbon Source Addition under Different Electron Acceptor Conditions in Biological Nutrient Removal Activated Sludge Systems.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiang; Wisniewski, Kamil; Czerwionka, Krzysztof; Zhou, Qi; Xie, Li; Makinia, Jacek

    2016-02-16

    The aim of this study was to expand the International Water Association Activated Sludge Model No. 2d (ASM2d) to predict the aerobic/anoxic behavior of polyphosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs) and "ordinary" heterotrophs in the presence of different external carbon sources and electron acceptors. The following new aspects were considered: (1) a new type of the readily biodegradable substrate, not available for the anaerobic activity of PAOs, (2) nitrite as an electron acceptor, and (3) acclimation of "ordinary" heterotrophs to the new external substrate via enzyme synthesis. The expanded model incorporated 30 new or modified process rate equations. The model was evaluated against data from several, especially designed laboratory experiments which focused on the combined effects of different types of external carbon sources (acetate, ethanol and fusel oil) and electron acceptors (dissolved oxygen, nitrate and nitrite) on the behavior of PAOs and "ordinary" heterotrophs. With the proposed expansions, it was possible to improve some deficiencies of the ASM2d in predicting the behavior of biological nutrient removal (BNR) systems with the addition of external carbon sources, including the effect of acclimation to the new carbon source.

  5. Xylem-Transported Glucose as an Additional Carbon Source for Leaf Isoprene Formation in Quercus Robur L.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graus, M.; Kreuzwieser, J.; Schnitzler, J.; Wisthaler, A.; Hansel, A.; Rennenberg, H.

    2003-04-01

    Isoprene is emitted from mature, photosynthesizing leaves of many plant species, particularly of trees. Current interest in understanding the biochemical and physiological mechanisms controlling isoprene formation is caused by the important role isoprene plays in atmospheric chemistry. Isoprene reacts with hydroxyl radicals (OH) thereby generating oxidizing agents such as ozone and organic peroxides. Ozone causes significant deterioration in air quality and can pose threats to human health therefore its control is a major goal in Europe and the United States. In recent years, much progress has been made in elucidating the pathways of isoprene biosynthesis. Nevertheless the regulatory mechanisms controlling isoprene emission are not completely understood. Light and temperature appear to be the main factors controlling short-term variations in isoprene emission. Exposure of plants to C-13 labeled carbon dioxide showed instantaneous assimilated carbon is the primary carbon source for isoprene formation. However, variations in diurnal and seasonal isoprene fluxes, which cannot be explained by temperature, light, and leaf development led to the suggestion that alternative carbon sources may exist contributing to isoprene emissions. The aim of the present study was to test whether xylem-transported carbohydrates act as additional sources for isoprene biosynthesis. For this purpose, [U-C-13] alpha-D-glucose was fed to photosynthesizing leaves via the xylem of Quercus robur L. seedlings and the incorporation of glucose derived C-13 into emitted isoprene was monitored in real time using Proton-Transfer-Reaction Mass Spectrometry (PTR-MS). A rapid incorporation of C-13 from xylem-fed glucose into single (mass 70) and double (mass 71) C-13 labeled isoprene molecules was observed after a lag phase of approximately 5 to 10 minutes. This incorporation was temperature dependent and was highest (up to 13% C-13 of total carbon emitted as isoprene) at the temperature optimum of

  6. Xylem-transported Glucose as an Additional Carbon Source for Leaf Isoprene Formation in Quercus Robur L.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graus, M.; Wisthaler, A.; Hansel, A.; Kreuzwieser, J.; Rennenberg, H.; Schnitzler, J.

    2002-12-01

    Isoprene is emitted from mature, photosynthesizing leaves of many plant species, particularly of trees. Current interest in understanding the biochemical and physiological mechanisms controlling isoprene formation is caused by the important role isoprene plays in atmospheric chemistry. Isoprene reacts with hydroxyl radicals (OH) thereby generating oxidizing agents such as ozone and organic peroxides. Ozone causes significant deterioration in air quality and can pose threats to human health therefore its control is a major goal in Europe and the United States. In recent years, much progress has been made in elucidating the pathways of isoprene biosynthesis. Nevertheless the regulatory mechanisms controlling isoprene emission are not completely understood. Light and temperature appear to be the main factors controlling short-term variations in isoprene emission. Exposure of plants to 13CO2 showed instantaneous assimilated carbon is the primary carbon source for isoprene formation. However, variations in diurnal and seasonal isoprene fluxes, which cannot be explained by temperature, light, and leaf development led to the suggestion that alternative carbon sources may exist contributing to isoprene emissions. The aim of the present study was to test whether xylem-transported carbohydrates act as additional sources for isoprene biosynthesis. For this purpose, [U-13C]α-D-glucose was fed to photosynthesizing leaves via the xylem of {Quercus} {robur} L. seedlings and the incorporation of glucose derived 13C into emitted isoprene was monitored in real time using Proton-Transfer-Reaction Mass Spectrometry (PTR-MS). A rapid incorporation of 13C from xylem-fed glucose into single (mass 70) and double (mass 71) 13C-labeled isoprene molecules was observed after a lag phase of approximately 5 to 10 minutes. This incorporation was temperature dependent and was highest (up to 13 % 13C of total carbon emitted as isoprene) at the temperature optimum of isoprene emission (40 - 42

  7. Effect of carbon source addition on toluene biodegradation by an Escherichia coli DH5alpha transconjugant harboring the TOL plasmid.

    PubMed

    Ikuma, Kaoru; Gunsch, Claudia

    2010-10-01

    Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) of plasmids is a naturally occurring phenomenon which could be manipulated for bioremediation applications. Specifically, HGT may prove useful to enhance bioremediation through genetic bioaugmentation. However, because the transfer of a plasmid between donor and recipient cells does not always result in useful functional phenotypes, the conditions under which HGT events result in enhanced degradative capabilities must first be elucidated. The objective of this study was to determine if the addition of alternate carbon substrates could improve toluene degradation in Escherichia coli DH5alpha transconjugants. The addition of glucose (0.5-5 g/L) and Luria-Bertani (LB) broth (10-100%) resulted in enhanced toluene degradation. On average, the toluene degradation rate increased 14.1 (+/-2.1)-fold in the presence of glucose while the maximum increase was 18.4 (+/-1.7)-fold in the presence of 25% LB broth. Gene expression of xyl genes was upregulated in the presence of glucose but not LB broth, which implies different inducing mechanisms by the two types of alternate carbon source. The increased toluene degradation by the addition of glucose or LB broth was persistent over the short-term, suggesting the pulse amendment of an alternative carbon source may be helpful in bioremediation. While the effects of recipient genome GC content and other conditions must still be examined, our results suggest that changes in environmental conditions such as alternate substrate availability may significantly improve the functionality of the transferred phenotypes in HGT and therefore may be an important parameter for genetic bioaugmentation optimization.

  8. Development of wide band gap p- a-SiOxCy:H using additional trimethylboron as carbon source gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Dong-Won; Sichanugrist, Porponth; Janthong, Bancha; Khan, Muhammad Ajmal; Niikura, Chisato; Konagai, Makoto

    2016-07-01

    We report p-type a-SiOxCy:H thin films which were fabricated by introducing additional Trimethylboron (TMB, B(CH3)3) doping gas into conventional standard p-type a-SiOx:H films. The TMB addition into the condition of p-a-SiOx:H improved optical bandgap from 2.14 to 2.20 eV without deterioration of electrical conductivity, which is promising for p-type window layer of thin film solar cells. The suggested p-a-SiOxCy:H films were applied in amorphous silicon solar cells and we found an increase of quantum efficiency at short wavelength regions due to wide bandgap of the new p-layer, and thus efficiency improvement from 10.4 to 10.7% was demonstrated in a-Si:H solar cell by employing the p-a-SiOxCy:H film. In case of a-SiOx:H cell, high open circuit voltage of 1.01 V was confirmed by using the suggested the p-a-SiOxCy:H film as a window layer. This new p-layer can be highly promising as a wide bandgap window layer to improve the performance of thin film silicon solar cells. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  9. Carbon/Carbon Grids For Ion Sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garner, Charles E.

    1995-01-01

    Ion-extraction grids made of carbon/carbon composites used in spacecraft ion engines and industrial ion sources in place of molybdenum grids. In principle, carbon/carbon grids offer greater extraction efficiency and longer life. Grid fabricated by mechanical drilling, laser drilling, or electrical-discharge machining of array of holes in sheet of carbon/carbon. Advantages; better alignment and slower erosion.

  10. Strong enhancement of high-field critical current properties and irreversibility field of MgB2 superconducting wires by coronene active carbon source addition via the new B powder carbon-coating method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Shu Jun; Matsumoto, Akiyoshi; Chao Zhang, Yun; Kumakura, Hiroaki

    2014-08-01

    We report an effective carbon-containing additive, coronene (C24H12), for MgB2 superconducting wires. We used B powder coated with C24H12 to fabricate MgB2 wires using the powder-in-tube (PIT) and internal Mg diffusion (IMD) processes. The in-field critical current properties are strongly enhanced for both PIT- and IMD-processed MgB2 wires. For PIT MgB2 wires, a critical current density (Jc) value of 1.8 × 104 A cm-2 is obtained at 4.2 K and 10 T. For IMD MgB2 wires, we obtained a Jc of 1.07 × 105 A cm-2 and an engineering Jc (Je) of 1.12 × 104 A cm-2 at 4.2 K and 10 T. These Jc and Je values are similar to the highest values reported for MgB2 wires thus far. Furthermore, the irreversibility field, Birr, determined with a current density criterion of 100 A cm-2, is strongly enhanced to 25 T at 4.2 K, which is also the highest value reported for MgB2 superconducting wires thus far. Coronene is an active carbon source for MgB2 superconducting wires because (1) coronene has a high carbon content (96 wt%) with a small amount of hydrogen (impurity), (2) the decomposition temperature for coronene is near the reaction temperature between Mg and B, and (3) uniform dispersion of coronene on the B surface can be obtained due to the melting point of coronene being lower than the decomposition temperature. Carbon substitution for B caused by the coronene active carbon source is mainly responsible for the high field critical current properties and the high Birr obtained in this work.

  11. Denitrification with carbon addition--kinetic considerations.

    PubMed

    Dold, P; Takács, I; Mokhayeri, Y; Nichols, A; Hinojosa, J; Riffat, R; Bott, C; Bailey, W; Murthy, S

    2008-05-01

    The Blue Plains Advanced Wastewater Treatment Plant (Washington, D.C.) uses methanol as an external carbon source in a postdenitrification process, to achieve low effluent total nitrogen concentrations. This becomes more difficult in winter, at lower mixed liquor temperatures and higher flows, as a consequence of the kinetic behavior of the methanol-utilizing heterotrophs. The paper reports on an experimental batch test study conducted on Blue Plains postdenitrification sludge to investigate (1) the maximum specific growth rate of methanol-utilizing heterotrophs (Mu(METH)); (2) the temperature dependency of the growth rate; and (3) the efficacy of alternate substrates (ethanol, acetate, and sugar). A limited number of tests were conducted on sludge from two other treatment plants with methanol addition. PMID:18605381

  12. Kilogram-scale production of SnO(2) yolk-shell powders by a spray-drying process using dextrin as carbon source and drying additive.

    PubMed

    Choi, Seung Ho; Kang, Yun Chan

    2014-05-01

    A simple and general method for the large-scale production of yolk-shell powders with various compositions by a spray-drying process is reported. Metal salt/dextrin composite powders with a spherical and dense structure were obtained by spray drying and transformed into yolk-shell powders by simple combustion in air. Dextrin plays a key role in the preparation of precursor powders for fabricating yolk-shell powders by spray drying. Droplets containing metal salts and dextrin show good drying characteristics even in a severe environment of high humidity. Sucrose, glucose, and polyvinylpyrrolidone are widely used as carbon sources in the preparation of metal oxide/carbon composite powders; however, they are not appropriate for large-scale spray-drying processes because of their caramelization properties and adherence to the surface of the spray dryer. SnO2 yolk-shell powders were studied as the first target material in the spray-drying process. Combustion of tin oxalate/dextrin composite powders at 600 °C in air produced single-shelled SnO2 yolk-shell powders with the configuration SnO2 @void@SnO2 . The SnO2 yolk-shell powders prepared by the simple spray-drying process showed superior electrochemical properties, even at high current densities. The discharge capacities of the SnO2 yolk-shell powders at a current density of 2000 mA g(-1) were 645 and 570 mA h g(-1) for the second and 100th cycles, respectively; the corresponding capacity retention measured for the second cycle was 88 %.

  13. Dimethyl carbonate production for fuel additives

    SciTech Connect

    Okada, Y.; Kondo, T.; Asaoka, S.

    1996-12-31

    We have taken note of the transesterification reaction as a highly safe process of dimethyl carbonate (DMC) production for fuel additives. The reaction proceeds under the low corrosiveness and in the relatively mild condition. We have aimed to use an inorganic solid catalyst for this process. The inorganic solid catalyst is thermally stable and can be used in the large-scale fixed bed reactors without a catalyst separation unit. Through the transesterification of ethylene carbonate (EG) with methanol, DMC and ethylene glycol (EG) are co-generated as the products. EG is one of the bulk chemicals produced in the large scale plant comparable to one for the fuel additives. The market balance is important in the coproduction process. On the assumption that the amount of the co-production meets the market balance, the coproduction of DMC and EG is commercially viable. If we can control the amount of the EG coproduction in this process, it makes the process more flexible in the commercial production. Accordingly we have proposed a conceptual process scheme to control the amount of the EG coproduction. In this symposium, the inorganic solid catalyst system applying to the transesterification process and the conceptual process scheme how to control the amount of co-product will be discussed.

  14. Superconducting Properties of MgB2 with Addition of Other AlB2-type Diborides and Carbon Sources, Prepared Using High Energy Ball Milling and HIP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigues, Durval; Silva, Lucas B. S. da; Metzner, Vivian C. V.; Hellstrom, Eric E.

    In the present work it is described the production of MgB2 samples by using the mixture of MgB2 with other diborides, (TaB2, VB2, and AlB2) which have the same C32 hexagonal structure as the MgB2, and simultaneous addition with the diborides and SiC, that contribute with C, to replace B in the crystalline structure of the matrix. As an important result, the critical current density (Jc) was improved at low magnetic fields when just the diborides are added. However, when SiC is added simultaneously with the diborides, the result is the improvement of Jc at high fields. The critical temperature (Tc) was maintained high.

  15. Effect of Carbon and Energy Source on Bacterial Chromate Reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, William Aaron; Apel, William Arnold; Petersen, J. N.; Peyton, Brent Michael

    2002-07-01

    Studies were conducted to evaluate carbon and energy sources suitable to support hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) reduction by a bacterial consortium enriched from dichromate-contaminated aquifer sediments. The consortium was cultured under denitrifying conditions in a minimal, synthetic groundwater medium that was amended with various individual potential carbon and energy sources. The effects of these individual carbon and energy sources on Cr(VI) reduction and growth were measured. The consortium was found to readily reduce Cr(VI) with sucrose, acetate, L-asparagine, hydrogen plus carbon dioxide, ethanol, glycerol, glycolate, propylene glycol, or D-xylose as a carbon and energy source. Minimal Cr(VI) reduction was observed when the consortium was cultured with citrate, 2-ketoglutarate, L-lactate, pyruvate, succinate, or thiosulfate plus carbon dioxide as a carbon and energy source when compared with abiotic controls. The consortium grew on all of the above carbon and energy sources, with the highest cell densities reached using D-xylose and sucrose, demonstrating that the consortium is metabolically diverse and can reduce Cr(VI) using a variety of different carbon and energy sources. The results suggest that the potential exists for the enrichment of Cr(VI)-reducing microbial populations in situ by the addition of a sucrose-containing feedstock such as molasses, which is an economical and readily available carbon and energy source.

  16. Carbon additives for electrical double layer capacitor electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weingarth, D.; Cericola, D.; Mornaghini, F. C. F.; Hucke, T.; Kötz, R.

    2014-11-01

    Electrochemical double layer capacitors (EDLCs) are inherently high power devices when compared to rechargeable batteries. While capacitance and energy storage ability are mainly increased by optimizing the electrode active material or the electrolyte, the power capability could be improved by including conductive additives in the electrode formulations. This publication deals with the use of four different carbon additives - two carbon blacks and two graphites - in standard activated carbon based EDLC electrodes. The investigations include: (i) physical characterization of carbon powder mixtures such as surface area, press density, and electrical resistivity measurements, and (ii), electrochemical characterization via impedance spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry of full cells made with electrodes containing 5 wt.% of carbon additive and compared to cells made with pure activated carbon electrodes in organic electrolyte. Improved cell performance was observed in both impedance and cyclic voltammetry responses. The results are discussed considering the main characteristics of the different carbon additives, and important considerations about electrode structure and processability are drawn.

  17. Growth of graphene films from non-gaseous carbon sources

    DOEpatents

    Tour, James; Sun, Zhengzong; Yan, Zheng; Ruan, Gedeng; Peng, Zhiwei

    2015-08-04

    In various embodiments, the present disclosure provides methods of forming graphene films by: (1) depositing a non-gaseous carbon source onto a catalyst surface; (2) exposing the non-gaseous carbon source to at least one gas with a flow rate; and (3) initiating the conversion of the non-gaseous carbon source to the graphene film, where the thickness of the graphene film is controllable by the gas flow rate. Additional embodiments of the present disclosure pertain to graphene films made in accordance with the methods of the present disclosure.

  18. The Importance of Carbon Fiber to Polymer Additive Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Love, Lonnie J; Kunc, Vlastimil; Rios, Orlando; Duty, Chad E; Post, Brian K; Blue, Craig A

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing holds tremendous promise in terms of revolutionizing manufacturing. However, fundamental hurdles limit mass adoption of the technology. First, production rates are extremely low. Second, the physical size of parts is generally small, less than a cubic foot. Third, while there is much excitement about metal additive manufacturing, the major growth area is in polymer additive manufacturing systems. Unfortunately, the mechanical properties of the polymer parts are poor, limiting the potential for direct part replacement. To address this issue, we describe three benefits of blending carbon fiber with polymer additive manufacturing. First, development of carbon fiber reinforced polymers for additive manufacturing achieves specific strengths approaching aerospace quality aluminum. Second, carbon fiber radically changes the behavior of the material during deposition, enabling large scale, out-of-the-oven, high deposition rate manufacturing. Finally, carbon fiber technology and additive manufacturing complement each other. Merging the two manufacturing processes enables the construction of complex components that would not be possible otherwise.

  19. 46 CFR 151.50-40 - Additional requirements for carbon disulfide (carbon bisulfide) and ethyl ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Additional requirements for carbon disulfide (carbon... Special Requirements § 151.50-40 Additional requirements for carbon disulfide (carbon bisulfide) and ethyl... waterways at the loading and unloading points. (f) The special requirements of § 151.50-41 for...

  20. 46 CFR 151.50-40 - Additional requirements for carbon disulfide (carbon bisulfide) and ethyl ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Additional requirements for carbon disulfide (carbon... Special Requirements § 151.50-40 Additional requirements for carbon disulfide (carbon bisulfide) and ethyl... waterways at the loading and unloading points. (f) The special requirements of § 151.50-41 for...

  1. 46 CFR 151.50-40 - Additional requirements for carbon disulfide (carbon bisulfide) and ethyl ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Additional requirements for carbon disulfide (carbon... Special Requirements § 151.50-40 Additional requirements for carbon disulfide (carbon bisulfide) and ethyl... waterways at the loading and unloading points. (f) The special requirements of § 151.50-41 for...

  2. 46 CFR 151.50-40 - Additional requirements for carbon disulfide (carbon bisulfide) and ethyl ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Additional requirements for carbon disulfide (carbon... Special Requirements § 151.50-40 Additional requirements for carbon disulfide (carbon bisulfide) and ethyl... waterways at the loading and unloading points. (f) The special requirements of § 151.50-41 for...

  3. 46 CFR 151.50-40 - Additional requirements for carbon disulfide (carbon bisulfide) and ethyl ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Additional requirements for carbon disulfide (carbon... Special Requirements § 151.50-40 Additional requirements for carbon disulfide (carbon bisulfide) and ethyl... waterways at the loading and unloading points. (f) The special requirements of § 151.50-41 for...

  4. New PHA products using unrelated carbon sources

    PubMed Central

    Matias, Fernanda; de Andrade Rodrigues, Maria Filomena

    2011-01-01

    Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) are natural polyesters stored by a wide range of bacteria as carbon source reserve. Due to its chemical characteristics and biodegradability PHA can be used in chemical, medical and pharmaceutical industry for many human purposes. Over the past years, few Burkholderia species have become known for production of PHA. Aside from that, these bacteria seem to be interesting for discovering new PHA compositions which is important to different industrial applications. In this paper, we introduce two new strains which belong either to Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc) or genomovar-type, Burkholderia cepacia SA3J and Burkholderia contaminans I29B, both PHA producers from unrelated carbon sources. The classification was based on 16S rDNA and recA partial sequence genes and cell wall fatty acids composition. These two strains were capable to produce different types of PHA monomers or precursors. Unrelated carbon sources were used for growth and PHA accumulation. The amount of carbon source evaluated, or mixtures of them, was increased with every new experiment until it reaches eighteen carbon sources. As first bioprospection experiments staining methods were used with colony fluorescent dye Nile Red and the cell fluorescent dye Nile Blue A. Gas chromatography analysis coupled to mass spectrometry was used to evaluate the PHA composition on each strain cultivated on different carbon sources. The synthesized polymers were composed by short chain length-PHA (scl-PHA), especially polyhydroxybutyrate, and medium chain length-PHA (mcl-PHA) depending on the carbon source used. PMID:24031764

  5. Tracing the source of Beijing soil organic carbon: a carbon isotope approach.

    PubMed

    Guo, Qingjun; Strauss, Harald; Chen, Tong-Bin; Zhu, Guangxu; Yang, Jun; Yang, Junxing; Lei, Mei; Zhou, Xiaoyong; Peters, Marc; Xie, Yunfeng; Zhang, Hanzhi; Wei, Rongfei; Wang, Chunyu

    2013-05-01

    Bulk soil organic carbon concentration and isotopic composition characterize its sources and fate, identify the anthropogenic input of organic carbon into the soil, and trace soil carbon turnover. Coal and/or coal combustion products represent the prime anthropogenic input of organic carbon into three soil profiles located in the vicinity of a steel company. Three profiles positioned away from any direct industrial contribution display vertical pattern in soil organic carbon concentration and isotopic composition that resemble more commonly observed downward gradients in soil carbon chemistry and indicate microbial soil carbon turnover. Two additional profiles located outside of the immediate industrial area display vertical carbon isotope profiles between typical of those from industrial and non-industrial areas. Eight soil profiles and their vertical distribution of bulk organic carbon isotopic composition and concentration collected in the Beijing area reveal and distinguish both anthropogenic and natural contributions of carbon to these soils.

  6. New Potential Sources for Black Onaping Carbon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bunch, T. E.; Becker, L.; Schultz, P. H.; Wolbach, W. S.

    1997-01-01

    One intriguing and important issue of the Sudbury Structure concerns the source of the relatively large amount of C in the Onaping Formation Black member. This dilemma was recently addressed, and the conclusion was reached that an impactor could not have delivered all of the requisite C. Becker et al. have suggested that much of the C came from the impactor and reported the presence of interstellar He "caged" inside some fullerenes that may have survived the impact. So, conceivably, the C inventory in the Sudbury Structure comes from both target and impactor materials, although the known target rocks have little C. We discuss here the possibility of two terrestrial sources for at least some of the C: (1) impact evaporation/dissociation of C from carbonate target rocks and (2) the presence of heretofore-unrecognized C-rich (up to 26 wt%) siliceous "shale," fragments, which are found in the upper, reworked Black member. Experimental: Hypervelocity impact of a 0.635-diameter Al projectile into dolomite at 5.03 km/s (performed at the Ames Research Center vertical gun range) produced a thin, black layer (= 0.05 mm thick) that partially lined the crater and coated impactor remnants. Scanning electronic microscope (SEM) imagery shows this layer to be spongelike on a submicron scale and Auger spectroscopic analyses yield: 33% C, 22% Mg, 19% 0, and 9% Al (from the projectile). Elemental mapping shows that all of the available 0 is combined with Ca and Mg, Al is not oxidized, and C is in elemental form. Dissociation efficiency of C from CO2 is estimated to be <10% of crater volume. Raman spectroscopy indicates that the C is highly disorganized graphite. Another impact experiment [4] also produced highly disordered graphite from a limestone target (reducing collector), in addition to small amounts of diamond/lonsdaleite/chaoite (oxidizing collector). These experiments confirm the reduction of C from carbonates in impact vapor plumes. Observational: SEM observations and

  7. Source of released carbon fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, V. L.

    1979-01-01

    The potential for the release of carbon fibers from aircraft crashes/fires is addressed. Simulation of the conditions of aircraft crash fires in order to predict the quantities and forms of fibrous materials which might be released from civilian aircraft crashes/fires is considered. Figures are presented which describe some typical fiber release test activities together with some very preliminary results of those activities. The state of the art of carbon fiber release is summarized as well as some of the uncertainties concerning accidental fiber release.

  8. World's carbon budget: Sinks and sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Peter M.

    Interest in natural and man-made carbon dioxide production is stirred because it resides after formation in critical atmospheric zones. To determine the oncoming “greenhouse” effect, indeed to determine whether there will be a greenhouse effect, investigators have tried to sum up the global carbon cycle. In accounting for the sources and sinks of carbon dioxide produced at the earth's surface, it has been postulated that most of the unbalanced sources can be identified with the earth's biomass and not so much with man's combustion of fossil fuels (Ecol. Monogr., 53, 235, 1983). New figures on the calculated areas of tropical forests suggest otherwise.

  9. New Potential Sources for Black Onaping Carbon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bunch, T. E.; Becker, L.; Schultz, P. H.; Wolbach, W. S.

    1997-01-01

    One intriguing and important issue of the Sudbury Structure concerns the source of the relatively large amount of C in the Onaping Formation Black member. This dilemma was recently addressed, and the conclusion was reached that an impactor could not have delivered all of the requisite C. Becker et al. have suggested that much of the C came from the impactor and reported the presence of interstellar He "caged" inside some fullerenes that may have survived the impact. So, conceivably, the C inventory in the Sudbury Structure comes from both target and impactor materials, although the known target rocks have little C. We discuss here the possibility of two terrestrial sources for at least some of the C: (1) impact evaporation/dissociation of C from carbonate target rocks and (2) the presence of heretofore-unrecognized C-rich (up to 26 wt%) siliceous "shale," fragments, which are found in the upper, reworked Black member. Experimental: Hypervelocity impact of a 0.635-diameter Al projectile into dolomite at 5.03 km/s (performed at the Ames Research Center vertical gun range) produced a thin, black layer (= 0.05 mm thick) that partially lined the crater and coated impactor remnants. Scanning electronic microscope (SEM) imagery shows this layer to be spongelike on a submicron scale and Auger spectroscopic analyses yield: 33% C, 22% Mg, 19% 0, and 9% Al (from the projectile). Elemental mapping shows that all of the available 0 is combined with Ca and Mg, Al is not oxidized, and C is in elemental form. Dissociation efficiency of C from CO2 is estimated to be <10% of crater volume. Raman spectroscopy indicates that the C is highly disorganized graphite. Another impact experiment [4] also produced highly disordered graphite from a limestone target (reducing collector), in addition to small amounts of diamond/lonsdaleite/chaoite (oxidizing collector). These experiments confirm the reduction of C from carbonates in impact vapor plumes. Observational: SEM observations and

  10. Transition metal-catalyzed process for addition of amines to carbon-carbon double bonds

    DOEpatents

    Hartwig, John F.; Kawatsura, Motoi; Loeber, Oliver

    2002-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a process for addition of amines to carbon-carbon double bonds in a substrate, comprising: reacting an amine with a compound containing at least one carbon-carbon double bond in the presence a transition metal catalyst under reaction conditions effective to form a product having a covalent bond between the amine and a carbon atom of the former carbon-carbon double bond. The transition metal catalyst comprises a Group 8 metal and a ligand containing one or more 2-electron donor atoms. The present invention is also directed to enantioselective reactions of amine compounds with compounds containing carbon-carbon double bonds, and a calorimetric assay to evaluate potential catalysts in these reactions.

  11. Carbon source dependent promoters in yeasts.

    PubMed

    Weinhandl, Katrin; Winkler, Margit; Glieder, Anton; Camattari, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Budding yeasts are important expression hosts for the production of recombinant proteins.The choice of the right promoter is a crucial point for efficient gene expression, as most regulations take place at the transcriptional level. A wide and constantly increasing range of inducible, derepressed and constitutive promoters have been applied for gene expression in yeasts in the past; their different behaviours were a reflection of the different needs of individual processes.Within this review we summarize the majority of the large available set of carbon source dependent promoters for protein expression in yeasts, either induced or derepressed by the particular carbon source provided. We examined the most common derepressed promoters for Saccharomyces cerevisiae and other yeasts, and described carbon source inducible promoters and promoters induced by non-sugar carbon sources. A special focus is given to promoters that are activated as soon as glucose is depleted, since such promoters can be very effective and offer an uncomplicated and scalable cultivation procedure.

  12. Geolocating Russian sources for Arctic black carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Meng-Dawn

    2014-08-01

    To design and implement an effective emission control strategy for black carbon (BC), the locations and strength of BC sources must be identified. Lack of accurate source information from the Russian Federation has created difficulty for a range of research and policy activities in the Arctic because Russia occupies the largest landmass in the Arctic Circle. A project was initiated to resolve emission sources of BC in the Russian Federation by using the Potential Source Contribution Function (PSCF). It used atmospheric BC data from two Arctic sampling stations at Alert Nunavut, Canada, and Tiksi Bay, Russia. The geographical regions of BC emission sources in Russia were identified and summarized as follows: (1) a region surrounding Moscow, (2) regions in Eurasia stretching along the Ural Mountains from the White Sea to the Black Sea, and (3) a number of scattered areas from western Siberia to the Russian Far East. Particulate potassium ions, non-marine sulfate, and vanadium were used to assist in resolving the source types: forest fire/biomass burning, coal-fired power plant, and oil combustion. Correlating these maps with the BC map helped to resolve source regions of BC emissions and connect them to their corresponding source types. The results imply that a region south of Moscow and another north of the Ural Mountains could be significant BC sources, but none of the grid cells in these regions could be linked to forest fires, oil combustion, or coal-fired power plants based on these three markers.

  13. Carbon nanotube electron sources for electron microscopes

    SciTech Connect

    De Jonge, Niels

    2009-01-01

    Electron sources were made from individual multi-walled carbon nanotubes with closed caps and thoroughly cleaned surfaces. Nanotubes from both chemical vapor deposition growth and arc discharge growth were investigated. These emitters provide a highly stable emission current up to a threshold current of a few microamperes. At too large currents several processes take place such as splitting, breaking and cap closing. The emission process is field emission for a workfunction of 5 eV. The electron optical per-formance is highly beneficial for their use as high-brightness point sources in electron microscopes and advantageous with respect to state-of-the-art electron sources. The life-time is at least two years. We have tested the source successfully in a scanning electron microscope.

  14. Photoautotrophic microorganisms as a carbon source for temperate soil invertebrates.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Olaf; Dyckmans, Jens; Schrader, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    We tested experimentally if photoautotrophic microorganisms are a carbon source for invertebrates in temperate soils. We exposed forest or arable soils to a (13)CO2-enriched atmosphere and quantified (13)C assimilation by three common animal groups: earthworms (Oligochaeta), springtails (Hexapoda) and slugs (Gastropoda). Endogeic earthworms (Allolobophora chlorotica) and hemiedaphic springtails (Ceratophysella denticulata) were highly (13)C enriched when incubated under light, deriving up to 3.0 and 17.0%, respectively, of their body carbon from the microbial source in 7 days. Earthworms assimilated more (13)C in undisturbed soil than when the microbial material was mixed into the soil, presumably reflecting selective surface grazing. By contrast, neither adult nor newly hatched terrestrial slugs (Deroceras reticulatum) grazed on algal mats. Non-photosynthetic (13)CO2 fixation in the dark was negligible. We conclude from these preliminary laboratory experiments that, in addition to litter and root-derived carbon from vascular plants, photoautotrophic soil surface microorganisms (cyanobacteria, algae) may be an ecologically important carbon input route for temperate soil animals that are traditionally assigned to the decomposer channel in soil food web models and carbon cycling studies.

  15. Photoautotrophic microorganisms as a carbon source for temperate soil invertebrates.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Olaf; Dyckmans, Jens; Schrader, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    We tested experimentally if photoautotrophic microorganisms are a carbon source for invertebrates in temperate soils. We exposed forest or arable soils to a (13)CO2-enriched atmosphere and quantified (13)C assimilation by three common animal groups: earthworms (Oligochaeta), springtails (Hexapoda) and slugs (Gastropoda). Endogeic earthworms (Allolobophora chlorotica) and hemiedaphic springtails (Ceratophysella denticulata) were highly (13)C enriched when incubated under light, deriving up to 3.0 and 17.0%, respectively, of their body carbon from the microbial source in 7 days. Earthworms assimilated more (13)C in undisturbed soil than when the microbial material was mixed into the soil, presumably reflecting selective surface grazing. By contrast, neither adult nor newly hatched terrestrial slugs (Deroceras reticulatum) grazed on algal mats. Non-photosynthetic (13)CO2 fixation in the dark was negligible. We conclude from these preliminary laboratory experiments that, in addition to litter and root-derived carbon from vascular plants, photoautotrophic soil surface microorganisms (cyanobacteria, algae) may be an ecologically important carbon input route for temperate soil animals that are traditionally assigned to the decomposer channel in soil food web models and carbon cycling studies. PMID:26740559

  16. Biological nitrogen removal from coke plant wastewater with external carbon addition

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, M.W.; Park, J.M.

    1998-07-01

    Coke plant wastewater containing high concentrations of ammonia and toxic compounds such as phenol and cyanide was treated using a biological nitrogen removal (BNR) system comprising carbon removal, nitrification, and denitrification stages. The objective of this study was to investigate the feasibility of complete ammonia removal from the coke plant wastewater using a sequential BNR process with external carbon addition. Sodium acetate was introduced as an external carbon source to the denitrification stage after oxidation of phenol and other carbonaceous compounds in the carbon-removal stage. The efficiency of denitrification was strongly affected by the loading rate of the external carbon source, and its optimal rate was determined based on the ratio of chemical oxygen demand to nitrate- and nitrite-nitrogen (COD:NO{sub x}-N) of the denitrification stage. The overall removal efficiency of major soluble pollutants in the wastewater was greater than 95% in the BNR system. When a step input of phenol was introduced to check the stability of the overall system, the nitrification was markedly inhibited because of the incomplete degradation of phenol in the carbon-removal stage. However, after this brief inhibition, the nitrification stage recovered to its normal efficiency within 18 days.

  17. Organic carbon sources to SE Asian coastal sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennedy, H.; Gacia, E.; Kennedy, D. P.; Papadimitriou, S.; Duarte, C. M.

    2004-05-01

    The carbon, nitrogen and the stable carbon isotopic composition, δ13C, of organic matter has been used to elucidate the source(s) of this material to coastal sediments. Sediments were collected at 15 coastal locations in the Philippines and Vietnam, which broadly represented different depositional environments ranging from seagrass meadows, through seagrass meadows located near mangroves and to mangrove stands. In addition, short-term sediment traps were deployed at 12 of the sites where seagrass was present. Mean sediment organic carbon concentration and C/N increased and δ13C of organic matter decreased from seagrass to mangrove dominated settings. The organic carbon flux measured by the sediment trap deployments was very variable (32±3 to ˜700 mmol m -2 d -1) and represented only a small fraction of the total particle flux. The importance of seagrass as a source of organic matter to the sediments was assessed by using a simple mixing model and the average δ13C values for seagrass, their epiphytic community and surface water particulate matter (seston). A positive correlation between seagrass leaf biomass and sediment δ13C in seagrass dominated settings suggests that these macrophytes do significantly influence the composition of sedimentary organic matter. Seagrass was however rarely found to be the dominant source of organic matter to the underlying sediments. Both sediment trap and sediment data suggest that material of planktonic origin was the dominant source of sedimentary organic matter in these settings. At the sites dominated by mangroves the concentration of organic matter ( ˜1-13 ×10 3 mmol g-1) in the sediment is generally higher than at seagrass dominated sites due to the outwelling of organic matter from the mangrove stands. Mangrove organic matter often dominates the sedimentary input but other sources of organic matter must contribute to cause the observed range in sediment δ13C.

  18. The Source of Carbon for Root Respiration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cisneros-Dozal, L.; Trumbore, S.; Zheng, S.

    2004-12-01

    In the Enriched Background Isotope Study (EBIS) that took advantage of a whole-ecosystem radiocarbon label that occurred in the temperate forest near Oak Ridge, Tennessee, we measured the radiocarbon signature of total soil respiration, heterotrophic respiration and root respiration, at different times during the last 3 growing seasons (2002-2004). By applying a mass balance approach, the relative and absolute contributions of heterotrophic and root respiration to total soil respiration were estimated. In contrast to heterotrophic respiration, root respiration seemed to be less affected by changes in soil moisture and temperature but rather showed a link to photosynthetic activity with a very similar pattern during the growing season as that of leaf area index. The radiocarbon signature of root respiration was very dynamic with low values in spring compared to the summer. The sources of variation can include changes in the local atmospheric signature and/or changes in the source of C being respired. Two different sites with different values and patterns of local atmospheric radiocarbon signature showed the same pattern in radiocarbon signatures of root respiration indicating that the source of variation was phenological. Low values during the spring could indicate the use of stored carbohydrates switching to more recent photosynthetic products as the summer progresses. As a first attempt to elucidate the source of C respired by roots, we will compare the radiocarbon content of starch, cellulose and soluble sugars in roots to that of bulk root material and root respired CO2. These radiocarbon signatures can help us identify the pool of C that is most likely being respired by roots during the growing season. A better understanding of the source of C for root respiration has implications for understanding the role of root respiration in C cycling in temperate forests, specifically the timescale over which carbon is fixed through photosynthesis and returned to the

  19. Improvement of capacitive performances of symmetric carbon/carbon supercapacitors by addition of nanostructured polypyrrole powder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benhaddad, L.; Gamby, J.; Makhloufi, L.; Pailleret, A.; Pillier, F.; Takenouti, H.

    2016-03-01

    A nanostructured polypyrrole powder was synthesized in a previous work from the oxidation of pyrrole by a nanostructured MnO2 powder used simultaneously as an oxidizing agent and a sacrificial template in a redox heterogeneous mechanism. In this study, this original PPy powder was used as an active additive material with different ratio in carbon/carbon symmetrical supercapacitors whose performances were studied by cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) using a Swagelok-type cell. From the EIS spectra, the complex capacitance was extracted using a model involving two Cole-Cole type complex capacitances linked in series. The specific capacitance values evaluated by EIS and cyclic voltammetry are in a good agreement between them. The results show that the addition of nanostructured polypyrrole powder improves significantly the specific capacitance of the carbon electrode and consequently the performances of carbon/carbon supercapacitors. The original and versatile synthesis method used to produce this polypyrrole powder appears to be attractive for large scale production of promising additives for electrode materials of supercapacitors.

  20. Enhanced biological phosphorus removal with different carbon sources.

    PubMed

    Shen, Nan; Zhou, Yan

    2016-06-01

    Enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) process is one of the most economical and sustainable methods for phosphorus removal from wastewater. However, the performance of EBPR can be affected by available carbon sources types in the wastewater that may induce different functional microbial communities in the process. Glycogen accumulating organisms (GAOs) and polyphosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs) are commonly found by coexisting in the EBPR process. Predominance of GAO population may lead to EBPR failure due to the competition on carbon source with PAO without contributing phosphorus removal. Carbon sources indeed play an important role in alteration of PAOs and GAOs in EBPR processes. Various types of carbon sources have been investigated for EBPR performance. Certain carbon sources tend to enrich specific groups of GAOs and/or PAOs. This review summarizes the types of carbon sources applied in EBPR systems and highlights the roles of these carbon sources in PAO and GAO competition. Both single (e.g., acetate, propionate, glucose, ethanol, and amino acid) and complex carbon sources (e.g., yeast extract, peptone, and mixed carbon sources) are discussed in this review. Meanwhile, the environmental friendly and economical carbon sources that are derived from waste materials, such as crude glycerol and wasted sludge, are also discussed and compared.

  1. Enhanced biological phosphorus removal with different carbon sources.

    PubMed

    Shen, Nan; Zhou, Yan

    2016-06-01

    Enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) process is one of the most economical and sustainable methods for phosphorus removal from wastewater. However, the performance of EBPR can be affected by available carbon sources types in the wastewater that may induce different functional microbial communities in the process. Glycogen accumulating organisms (GAOs) and polyphosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs) are commonly found by coexisting in the EBPR process. Predominance of GAO population may lead to EBPR failure due to the competition on carbon source with PAO without contributing phosphorus removal. Carbon sources indeed play an important role in alteration of PAOs and GAOs in EBPR processes. Various types of carbon sources have been investigated for EBPR performance. Certain carbon sources tend to enrich specific groups of GAOs and/or PAOs. This review summarizes the types of carbon sources applied in EBPR systems and highlights the roles of these carbon sources in PAO and GAO competition. Both single (e.g., acetate, propionate, glucose, ethanol, and amino acid) and complex carbon sources (e.g., yeast extract, peptone, and mixed carbon sources) are discussed in this review. Meanwhile, the environmental friendly and economical carbon sources that are derived from waste materials, such as crude glycerol and wasted sludge, are also discussed and compared. PMID:27087523

  2. Methane and carbon at equilibrium in source rocks

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Methane in source rocks may not exist exclusively as free gas. It could exist in equilibrium with carbon and higher hydrocarbons: CH4 + C < = > Hydrocarbon. Three lines of evidence support this possibility. 1) Shales ingest gas in amounts and selectivities consistent with gas-carbon equilibrium. There is a 50% increase in solid hydrocarbon mass when Fayetteville Shale is exposed to methane (450 psi) under moderate conditions (100°C): Rock-Eval S2 (mg g-1) 8.5 = > 12.5. All light hydrocarbons are ingested, but with high selectivity, consistent with competitive addition to receptor sites in a growing polymer. Mowry Shale ingests butane vigorously from argon, for example, but not from methane under the same conditions. 2) Production data for a well producing from Fayetteville Shale declines along the theoretical curve for withdrawing gas from higher hydrocarbons in equilibrium with carbon. 3) A new general gas-solid equilibrium model accounts for natural gas at thermodynamic equilibrium, and C6-C7 hydrocarbons constrained to invariant compositions. The results make a strong case for methane in equilibrium with carbon and higher hydrocarbons. If correct, the higher hydrocarbons in source rocks are gas reservoirs, raising the possibility of substantially more gas in shales than analytically apparent, and far more gas in shale deposits than currently recognized. PMID:24330266

  3. Methane and carbon at equilibrium in source rocks.

    PubMed

    Mango, Frank D

    2013-01-01

    Methane in source rocks may not exist exclusively as free gas. It could exist in equilibrium with carbon and higher hydrocarbons: CH4 + C < = > Hydrocarbon. Three lines of evidence support this possibility. 1) Shales ingest gas in amounts and selectivities consistent with gas-carbon equilibrium. There is a 50% increase in solid hydrocarbon mass when Fayetteville Shale is exposed to methane (450 psi) under moderate conditions (100°C): Rock-Eval S2 (mg g-1) 8.5 = > 12.5. All light hydrocarbons are ingested, but with high selectivity, consistent with competitive addition to receptor sites in a growing polymer. Mowry Shale ingests butane vigorously from argon, for example, but not from methane under the same conditions. 2) Production data for a well producing from Fayetteville Shale declines along the theoretical curve for withdrawing gas from higher hydrocarbons in equilibrium with carbon. 3) A new general gas-solid equilibrium model accounts for natural gas at thermodynamic equilibrium, and C6-C7 hydrocarbons constrained to invariant compositions. The results make a strong case for methane in equilibrium with carbon and higher hydrocarbons. If correct, the higher hydrocarbons in source rocks are gas reservoirs, raising the possibility of substantially more gas in shales than analytically apparent, and far more gas in shale deposits than currently recognized. PMID:24330266

  4. Percolation model with an additional source of disorder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kundu, Sumanta; Manna, S. S.

    2016-06-01

    The ranges of transmission of the mobiles in a mobile ad hoc network are not uniform in reality. They are affected by the temperature fluctuation in air, obstruction due to the solid objects, even the humidity difference in the environment, etc. How the varying range of transmission of the individual active elements affects the global connectivity in the network may be an important practical question to ask. Here a model of percolation phenomena, with an additional source of disorder, is introduced for a theoretical understanding of this problem. As in ordinary percolation, sites of a square lattice are occupied randomly with probability p . Each occupied site is then assigned a circular disk of random value R for its radius. A bond is defined to be occupied if and only if the radii R1 and R2 of the disks centered at the ends satisfy a certain predefined condition. In a very general formulation, one divides the R1-R2 plane into two regions by an arbitrary closed curve. One defines a point within one region as representing an occupied bond; otherwise it is a vacant bond. The study of three different rules under this general formulation indicates that the percolation threshold always varies continuously. This threshold has two limiting values, one is pc(sq) , the percolation threshold for the ordinary site percolation on the square lattice, and the other is unity. The approach of the percolation threshold to its limiting values are characterized by two exponents. In a special case, all lattice sites are occupied by disks of random radii R ∈{0 ,R0} and a percolation transition is observed with R0 as the control variable, similar to the site occupation probability.

  5. Percolation model with an additional source of disorder.

    PubMed

    Kundu, Sumanta; Manna, S S

    2016-06-01

    The ranges of transmission of the mobiles in a mobile ad hoc network are not uniform in reality. They are affected by the temperature fluctuation in air, obstruction due to the solid objects, even the humidity difference in the environment, etc. How the varying range of transmission of the individual active elements affects the global connectivity in the network may be an important practical question to ask. Here a model of percolation phenomena, with an additional source of disorder, is introduced for a theoretical understanding of this problem. As in ordinary percolation, sites of a square lattice are occupied randomly with probability p. Each occupied site is then assigned a circular disk of random value R for its radius. A bond is defined to be occupied if and only if the radii R_{1} and R_{2} of the disks centered at the ends satisfy a certain predefined condition. In a very general formulation, one divides the R_{1}-R_{2} plane into two regions by an arbitrary closed curve. One defines a point within one region as representing an occupied bond; otherwise it is a vacant bond. The study of three different rules under this general formulation indicates that the percolation threshold always varies continuously. This threshold has two limiting values, one is p_{c}(sq), the percolation threshold for the ordinary site percolation on the square lattice, and the other is unity. The approach of the percolation threshold to its limiting values are characterized by two exponents. In a special case, all lattice sites are occupied by disks of random radii R∈{0,R_{0}} and a percolation transition is observed with R_{0} as the control variable, similar to the site occupation probability.

  6. Percolation model with an additional source of disorder.

    PubMed

    Kundu, Sumanta; Manna, S S

    2016-06-01

    The ranges of transmission of the mobiles in a mobile ad hoc network are not uniform in reality. They are affected by the temperature fluctuation in air, obstruction due to the solid objects, even the humidity difference in the environment, etc. How the varying range of transmission of the individual active elements affects the global connectivity in the network may be an important practical question to ask. Here a model of percolation phenomena, with an additional source of disorder, is introduced for a theoretical understanding of this problem. As in ordinary percolation, sites of a square lattice are occupied randomly with probability p. Each occupied site is then assigned a circular disk of random value R for its radius. A bond is defined to be occupied if and only if the radii R_{1} and R_{2} of the disks centered at the ends satisfy a certain predefined condition. In a very general formulation, one divides the R_{1}-R_{2} plane into two regions by an arbitrary closed curve. One defines a point within one region as representing an occupied bond; otherwise it is a vacant bond. The study of three different rules under this general formulation indicates that the percolation threshold always varies continuously. This threshold has two limiting values, one is p_{c}(sq), the percolation threshold for the ordinary site percolation on the square lattice, and the other is unity. The approach of the percolation threshold to its limiting values are characterized by two exponents. In a special case, all lattice sites are occupied by disks of random radii R∈{0,R_{0}} and a percolation transition is observed with R_{0} as the control variable, similar to the site occupation probability. PMID:27415234

  7. Source apportionment of PM10 mass and particulate carbon in the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Bong Mann; Park, Jin-Soo; Kim, Sang-Woo; Kim, Hyunjae; Jeon, Haeun; Cho, Chaeyoon; Kim, Ji-Hyoung; Hong, Seungkyu; Rupakheti, Maheswar; Panday, Arnico K.; Park, Rokjin J.; Hong, Jihyung; Yoon, Soon-Chang

    2015-12-01

    The Kathmandu Valley in Nepal is a bowl-shaped urban basin in the Himalayan foothills with a serious problem of fine particulate air pollution that impacts local health and impairs visibility. Particulate carbon concentrations have reached severe levels that threaten the health of 3.5 million local residents. Moreover, snow and ice on the Himalayan mountains are melting as a result of additional warming due to particulate carbon, especially high black carbon concentrations. To date, the sources of the Valley's particulate carbon and the impacts of different sources on particulate carbon concentrations are not well understood. Thus, before an effective control strategy can be developed, these particulate carbon sources must be identified and quantified. Our study has found that the four primary sources of particulate carbon in the Kathmandu Valley during winter are brick kilns, motor vehicles, fugitive soil dust, and biomass/garbage burning. Their source contributions are quantified using a recently developed new multivariate receptor model SMP. In contrast to other highly polluted areas such as China, secondary contribution is almost negligible in Kathmandu Valley. Brick kilns (40%), motor vehicles (37%) and biomass/garbage burning (22%) have been identified as the major sources of elemental carbon (black carbon) in the Kathmandu Valley during winter, while motor vehicles (47%), biomass/garbage burning (32%), and soil dust (13%) have been identified as the most important sources of organic carbon. Our research indicates that controlling emissions from motor vehicles, brick kilns, biomass/garbage burning, and soil dust is essential for the mitigation of the particulate carbon that threatens public health, impairs visibility, and influences climate warming within and downwind from the Kathmandu Valley. In addition, this paper suggests several useful particulate carbon mitigation methods that can be applied to Kathmandu Valley and other areas in South Asia with

  8. Reassessing carbon sequestration in the North China Plain via addition of nitrogen.

    PubMed

    Dong, Wenxu; Duan, Yongmei; Wang, Yuying; Hu, Chunsheng

    2016-09-01

    Soil inorganic carbon (SIC) exerts a strong influence on the carbon (C) sequestered in response to nitrogen (N) additions in arid and semi-arid ecosystems, but limited information is available on in situ SIC storage and dissolution at the field level. This study determined the soil organic/inorganic carbon storage in the soil profile at 0-100cm depths and the concentration of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) in soil leachate in 4N application treatments (0, 200, 400, and 600kgNha(-1)yr(-)(1)) for 15years in the North China Plain. The objectives were to evaluate the effect of nitrogen fertilizer on total amount of carbon sequestration and the uptake of atmospheric CO2 in an agricultural system. Results showed that after 15years of N fertilizer application the SOC contents at depths of 0-100cm significantly increased, whereas the SIC contents significantly decreased at depths of 0-60cm. However, the actual measured loss of carbonate was far higher than the theoretical maximum values of dissolution via protons from nitrification. Furthermore, the amount of HCO3(-) and the HCO3(-)/(Ca(2+)+Mg(2+)) ratio in soil leachate were higher in the N application treatments than no fertilizer input (CK) for the 0-80cm depth. The result suggested that the dissolution of carbonate was mainly enhanced by soil carbonic acid, a process which can absorb soil or atmosphere CO2 and less influenced by protons through the nitrification which would release CO2. To accurately evaluate soil C sequestration under N input scenarios in semi-arid regions, future studies should include both changes in SIC storage as well as the fractions of dissolution with different sources of acids in soil profiles. PMID:27135576

  9. Acidification of East Siberian Arctic Shelf waters through addition of freshwater and terrestrial carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semiletov, Igor; Pipko, Irina; Gustafsson, Örjan; Anderson, Leif G.; Sergienko, Valentin; Pugach, Svetlana; Dudarev, Oleg; Charkin, Alexander; Gukov, Alexander; Bröder, Lisa; Andersson, August; Spivak, Eduard; Shakhova, Natalia

    2016-05-01

    Ocean acidification affects marine ecosystems and carbon cycling, and is considered a direct effect of anthropogenic carbon dioxide uptake from the atmosphere. Accumulation of atmospheric CO2 in ocean surface waters is predicted to make the ocean twice as acidic by the end of this century. The Arctic Ocean is particularly sensitive to ocean acidification because more CO2 can dissolve in cold water. Here we present observations of the chemical and physical characteristics of East Siberian Arctic Shelf waters from 1999, 2000-2005, 2008 and 2011, and find extreme aragonite undersaturation that reflects acidity levels in excess of those projected in this region for 2100. Dissolved inorganic carbon isotopic data and Markov chain Monte Carlo simulations of water sources using salinity and δ18O data suggest that the persistent acidification is driven by the degradation of terrestrial organic matter and discharge of Arctic river water with elevated CO2 concentrations, rather than by uptake of atmospheric CO2. We suggest that East Siberian Arctic Shelf waters may become more acidic if thawing permafrost leads to enhanced terrestrial organic carbon inputs and if freshwater additions continue to increase, which may affect their efficiency as a source of CO2.

  10. Diagnostic Evaluation of Carbon Sources in CMAQ

    EPA Science Inventory

    Traditional monitoring networks measure only total elemental carbon (EC) and organic carbon (OC) routinely. Diagnosing model biases with such limited information is difficult. Measurements of organic tracer compounds have recently become available and allow for more detailed di...

  11. Heat conduction in double-walled carbon nanotubes with intertube additional carbon atoms.

    PubMed

    Cui, Liu; Feng, Yanhui; Tan, Peng; Zhang, Xinxin

    2015-07-01

    Heat conduction of double-walled carbon nanotubes (DWCNTs) with intertube additional carbon atoms was investigated for the first time using a molecular dynamics method. By analyzing the phonon vibrational density of states (VDOS), we revealed that the intertube additional atoms weak the heat conduction along the tube axis. Moreover, the phonon participation ratio (PR) demonstrates that the heat transfer in DWCNTs is dominated by low frequency modes. The added atoms cause the mode weight factor (MWF) of the outer tube to decrease and that of the inner tube to increase, which implies a lower thermal conductivity. The effects of temperature, tube length, and the number and distribution of added atoms were studied. Furthermore, an orthogonal array testing strategy was designed to identify the most important structural factor. It is indicated that the tendencies of thermal conductivity of DWCNTs with added atoms change with temperature and length are similar to bare ones. In addition, thermal conductivity decreases with the increasing number of added atoms, more evidently for atom addition concentrated at some cross-sections rather than uniform addition along the tube length. Simultaneously, the number of added atoms at each cross-section has a considerably more remarkable impact, compared to the tube length and the density of chosen cross-sections to add atoms.

  12. [Performance of new solid carbon source materials for denitrification].

    PubMed

    Shao, Liu; Xu, Zu-Xin; Wang, Sheng; Jin, Wei; Yin, Hai-Long

    2011-08-01

    Organic carbon is needed as the electron donor in the process of reduction of nitrate transformation to nitrogen gas, which is essential for biological denitrification. Based on previous research, agriculture wastes including corncob, rice hull, rice straw and sawdust were selected as potential carbon source for denitrification. Using the static organic material of carbon source leaching kinetics test and orthogonal experiments of external factors on carbon emission process, carbon release and its mechanism of a variety of carbon materials were studied. Study showed that release process of various types of carbon source materials follows the second dynamics formula, the release curve displayed a better double-reciprocal relationship. It revealed that release amount of rice straw was the highest and sawdust was the lowest. Results showed that corncob could better be used as carbon source for denitrification. Orthogonal test indicated that the increasing of solid-liquid ratio and water temperature would lead to an enhanced release capacity of carbon, however, the change of pH had no significant effect on release capacity of carbon; according to significant degree of water temperature, pH, solid-liquid ratio impacted on the carbon release, it was sorted by solid-liquid ratio > temperature > pH. PMID:22619957

  13. Additional muon calculations for the SLC positron source

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, W.R.; McCall, R.C.

    1985-04-23

    This note is an update to the muon calculations presented in CN-221 and takes into account: (1) a more complete muon production and transport model, including an estimate of wide angle production based on experimental data, (2) additional earth shielding that will be added on top and both sides of the 2/3 tunnel areas, and (3) a detailed analysis of the earth profile as it pertains to shielding in the direction of the SLAC site boundary. The highest annual dose at the SLAC boundary is found to be 13 mrem/year (4000 hours of operation at 50 kW), and this occurs at a horizontal angle of 0 degrees and a vertical angle of 3.6 degrees relative to the incident beam direction. Although the shielding criteria is 10 mrem/year at the site boundary, the radiation transport model becomes somewhat conservative at large distances from the shield, which should bring the 13 mrem/year number actually well below the criteria. This point is also about 28 feet above the roadway. Extension of this line may strike the ground in the Christmas tree farm beyond the SLAC boundary but there will be additional attenuation due to distance. We do not recommend that any additional shielding be added at this time. 4 refs., 1 fig.

  14. Kupier prize lecture: Sources of solar-system carbon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anders, Edward; Zinner, Ernst

    1994-01-01

    We have tried to deconvolve Solar-System carbon into its sources, on the basis of C-12/C-13 ratios (equivalent to R). Interstellar SiC in meteorites, representing greater than 4.6-Ga-old stardust from carbon stars, is isotopically heavier (bar R = 38 +/- 2) than Solar-System carbon (89), implying that the latter contains an additional, light component. A likely source are massive stars, mainly Type II supernovae and Wolf-Rayet stars, which, being O-rich, eject their C largely as CO rather than carbonaceous dust. The fraction of such light C in the Solar System depends on R(sub light) in the source. For R(sub light) = 180-1025 (as in 'Group 4' meteoritic graphite spherules, which apparently came from massive stars greater than 4.6 Ga ago), the fraction of light C is 0.79-0.61. Similar results are obtained for present-day data on red giants and interstellar gas. Although both have become enriched in C-13 due to galactic evolution (to bar-R = 20 and 57), the fraction of the light component in interstellar gas again is near 0.7. (Here bar R represents the mean of a mixture calculated via atom fractions; it is not identical to the arithmetic mean R). Interstellar graphite, unlike SiC, shows a large peak at R approximately equal 90, near the solar value. Although some of the grains may be of local origin, others show anomalies in other elements and hence are exotic. Microdiamonds, with R = 93, also are exotic on the basis of their Xe and N. Apparently R approximately 90 was a fairly common composition 4.6 Ga ago, of stars as well as the ISM.

  15. Black carbon as a carbon source for young soils in a glacier forefield?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckmeier, E.; Pichler, B.; Krebs, R.; Mavris, C.; Egli, M.

    2012-04-01

    Most evident changes in Alpine soils today occur in proglacial areas where existing young soils are continuously developing. Due to climate change, additional areas will become ice-free and subject to weathering and new soil formation. The glacier forefields of the European Alps are continuously exposed since the glaciers reached their maximum expansion in the 1850s. In these proglacial areas, initial soils have started to develop so that they may offer, under optimal conditions, a continuous chronosequence from 0 to 150 year-old soils. The buildup of organic carbon (Corg) in soil is an important factor controlling weathering and the formation of soils. Not only autochthonous but also distant (allochthonous) sources may contribute to the accumulation of soil organic carbon in young soils and surfaces of glacier forefields. Black carbon could be an important component in Alpine soils. However, only little is known about black carbon in very young soils that develop in glacier forefields. The aim of our study was to examine whether black carbon as an allochthonous source of soil organic matter can be detected in the initial soils, and to estimate its relative contribution (as a function of time) to total organic carbon. We investigated surface soil samples (topsoils, A or AO horizon) from 35 sites distributed over the whole proglacial area of Morteratsch, where ideal conditions for a soil chronosequence from 0 to 150 years can be found. Along this sequence, bare till sediments to weakly developed soils (Leptosols) can be encountered. Black carbon concentrations were determined in fine-earth using the benzene polycarboxylic acid (BPCA) marker method as described by Brodowski et al. (2005). We found that the proportion of BPCA-C to total Corg was related to the time since the surface was exposed. The youngest soils (younger than 40 years) contained the highest proportion of BPCA-C (up to 120 g BPCA-C/kg Corg). In these soils, however, the Corg concentrations were very

  16. Dopamine as a Carbon Source: The Controlled Synthesis of Hollow Carbon Spheres and Yolk-Structured Carbon Nanocomposites

    SciTech Connect

    Dai, Sheng; Liu, Rui; Mahurin, Shannon Mark; Li, Chen; Unocic, Raymond R; Idrobo Tapia, Juan C; Gao, Hongjun; Pennycook, Stephen J

    2011-01-01

    A facile and versatile synthesis using dopamine as a carbon source gives hollow carbon spheres and yolk-shell Au{at}Carbon nanocomposites. The uniform nature of dopamine coatings and their high carbon yield endow the products with high structural integrity. The Au{at}C nanocomposites are catalytically active.

  17. Enhancement of nitrate removal at the sediment-water interface by carbon addition plus vertical mixing.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xuechu; He, Shengbing; Zhang, Yueping; Huang, Xiaobo; Huang, Yingying; Chen, Danyue; Huang, Xiaochen; Tang, Jianwu

    2015-10-01

    Wetlands and ponds are frequently used to remove nitrate from effluents or runoffs. However, the efficiency of this approach is limited. Based on the assumption that introducing vertical mixing to water column plus carbon addition would benefit the diffusion across the sediment-water interface, we conducted simulation experiments to identify a method for enhancing nitrate removal. The results suggested that the sediment-water interface has a great potential for nitrate removal, and the potential can be activated after several days of acclimation. Adding additional carbon plus mixing significantly increases the nitrate removal capacity, and the removal of total nitrogen (TN) and nitrate-nitrogen (NO3(-)-N) is well fitted to a first-order reaction model. Adding Hydrilla verticillata debris as a carbon source increased nitrate removal, whereas adding Eichhornia crassipe decreased it. Adding ethanol plus mixing greatly improved the removal performance, with the removal rate of NO3(-)-N and TN reaching 15.0-16.5 g m(-2) d(-1). The feasibility of this enhancement method was further confirmed with a wetland microcosm, and the NO3(-)-N removal rate maintained at 10.0-12.0 g m(-2) d(-1) at a hydraulic loading rate of 0.5 m d(-1). PMID:25556005

  18. A comparison of black carbon measurement methods for combustion sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holder, A. L.; Pavlovic, J.; Yelverton, T.; Hagler, G.; Aurell, J.; Ebersviller, S.; Seay, B.; Jetter, J.; Gullett, B.; Hays, M. D.

    2015-12-01

    Black carbon is an important short-term climate forcer that has been linked with adverse health effects. Multiple black carbon measurement methodologies exist, but no standard measurement method or calibration material has been agreed upon. Moreover, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency uses elemental carbon in its ambient monitoring networks and in its emissions inventory, assuming that elemental carbon is equivalent to black carbon. Instrument comparisons with ambient aerosols have demonstrated considerable differences between black carbon and elemental carbon, as well as among different black carbon measurements. However, there have been few published comparable studies for source emissions. We used multiple measurement methods to quantify black carbon and elemental carbon emissions from a range of combustion sources (diesel gensets, coal fired boilers, prescribed fires and cookstoves) emitting particles of varying composition and physical characteristics. The ratio of black carbon to elemental carbon (BC/EC) ranged from 0.50 to 2.8 and depended upon the combustion source. The greatest agreement was observed for emissions from cookstoves (BC/EC = 1.1 ± 0.3). The largest differences were seen for emissions from large stationary diesel genset (BC/EC = 2.3 ± 0.5) and were most pronounced when a diesel particulate filter was used (BC/EC 2.5 ± 0.6). This suggests that this source category may be underrepresented in emissions inventories based on elemental carbon. Black carbon concentrations derived from filter-based attenuation were highly correlated with photo-acoustic absorption measurements, but were generally 50% greater. This is likely due to the choice of calibration factor, which is currently ambiguously defined. These results highlight the importance of developing a standard calibration material to improve comparability among measurements.

  19. Shunting arc plasma source for pure carbon ion beam.

    PubMed

    Koguchi, H; Sakakita, H; Kiyama, S; Shimada, T; Sato, Y; Hirano, Y

    2012-02-01

    A plasma source is developed using a coaxial shunting arc plasma gun to extract a pure carbon ion beam. The pure carbon ion beam is a new type of deposition system for diamond and other carbon materials. Our plasma device generates pure carbon plasma from solid-state carbon material without using a hydrocarbon gas such as methane gas, and the plasma does not contain any hydrogen. The ion saturation current of the discharge measured by a double probe is about 0.2 mA∕mm(2) at the peak of the pulse.

  20. Shunting arc plasma source for pure carbon ion beama)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koguchi, H.; Sakakita, H.; Kiyama, S.; Shimada, T.; Sato, Y.; Hirano, Y.

    2012-02-01

    A plasma source is developed using a coaxial shunting arc plasma gun to extract a pure carbon ion beam. The pure carbon ion beam is a new type of deposition system for diamond and other carbon materials. Our plasma device generates pure carbon plasma from solid-state carbon material without using a hydrocarbon gas such as methane gas, and the plasma does not contain any hydrogen. The ion saturation current of the discharge measured by a double probe is about 0.2 mA/mm2 at the peak of the pulse.

  1. 12 Years of NPK Addition Diminishes Carbon Sink Potential of a Nutrient Limited Peatland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larmola, T.; Bubier, J. L.; Juutinen, S.; Moore, T. R.

    2011-12-01

    Peatlands store about a third of global soil carbon. Our aim was to study whether the vegetation feedbacks of nitrogen (N) deposition lead to stronger carbon sink or source in a nutrient limited peatland ecosystem. We investigated vegetation structure and ecosystem CO2 exchange at Mer Bleue Bog, Canada, that has been fertilized for 7-12 years. We have applied 5 and 20 times ambient annual wet N deposition (0.8 g N m-2) with or without phosphorus (P) and potassium (K). Gross photosynthesis, ecosystem respiration and net CO2 exchange (NEE) were measured weekly during the growing season using chamber technique. Under the highest N(PK) treatments, the light saturated photosynthesis (PSmax) was reduced by 20-30% compared to the control treatment, whereas under moderate N and PK additions PSmax slightly increased or was similar to the control. The ecosystem respiration showed similar trends among the treatments, but changes in the rates were less pronounced. High nutrient additions led to up to 65% lower net CO2 uptake than that in the control: In the NPK plots with cumulative N additions of 70, 19, and 0 g N m-2, the daytime NEE in May-July 2011 averaged 0.8 (se. 0.3), 2.0 (se. 0.4), and 2.4 (se. 0.3) μmol m-2 s-1, respectively. In the N only plots with cumulative N additions of 45, 19, and 0 g N m-2, the daytime NEE in May-July 2011 averaged 0.8 (se. 0.2), 2.6 (se. 0.4), and 1.8 (se. 0.3) μmol m-2 s-1, respectively. The reduced plant photosynthetic capacity and diminished carbon sink potential in the highest nutrient treatments correlated with the loss of peat mosses and were not compensated for by the increased vascular plant biomass that has mainly been allocated to woody shrub stems.

  2. Comparing carbon sequestration potential of pyrogenic carbon from natural and anthropogenic sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santin, Cristina; Doerr, Stefan; Merino, Augustin

    2014-05-01

    The enhanced resistance to environmental degradation of Pyrogenic Carbon (PyC), both produced in wildfires (charcoal), and man-made (biochar), gives it the potential to sequester carbon by preventing it to be released into the atmosphere. Sustainable addition of biochar to soils is seen as a viable global approach for carbon sequestration and climate change mitigation. Also the role of its 'natural counterpart', i.e. wildfire charcoal, as a long-term carbon sink in soils is widely recognized. However, in spite of their fundamental similarities, research on the potential of 'man-made' biochar and wildfire charcoal for carbon sequestration has been carried out essentially in isolation as analogous materials for accurate comparison are not easily available. Here we assess the carbon sequestration potential of man-made biochar and wildfire charcoal generated from the same material under known production conditions: (i) charcoal from forest floor and down wood produced during an experimental boreal forest fire (FireSmart, June 2012, NWT- Canada) and (ii) biochar produced from the same feedstock by slow pyrolysis [three treatments: 2 h at 350, 500 and 650°C, respectively]. The carbon sequestration potential of these PyC materials is given by the recalcitrance index, R50, proposed by Harvey et al. (2012). R50 is based on the relative thermal stability of a given PyC material to that of graphite and is calculated using thermogravimetric analyses. Our results show highest R50 for PyC materials produced from down wood than from forest floor, which points to the importance of feedstock chemical composition in determining the C sequestration potential of PyC both from natural (charcoal) and anthropogenic (biochar) sources. Moreover, production temperature is also a major factor affecting the carbon sequestration potential of the studied PyC materials, with higher R50 for PyC produced at higher temperatures. Further investigation on the similarities and differences between man

  3. Waste tires: A future source of activated carbon?

    SciTech Connect

    1996-01-01

    Millions of used tires are disposed in the United States each year, causing major environmental problems and representing a loss of valuable resources. Currently, over 80% of discarded tires are landfilled (approximately 200 million per year). Because tires disposed in municipal landfills rarely stay buried, regulators, landfill operators, and even the general public are constantly reminded of this problem. These ever-surfacing tires can serve as a breeding ground for disease-causing mosquitoes; in addition, large mounds of tires often catch fire, causing significant air pollution. Recent research indicates that used tires may soon represent a source of carbon-based adsorbents and energy-rich liquid and gaseous hydrocarbons. Details of this research are discussed briefly in this paper. 3 refs., 2 figs.

  4. Microbial Diversity Indexes Can Explain Soil Carbon Dynamics as a Function of Carbon Source

    PubMed Central

    Maron, Pierre-Alain; Menasseri-Aubry, Safya; Sarr, Amadou; Lévêque, Jean; Mathieu, Olivier; Jolivet, Claudy; Leterme, Philippe; Viaud, Valérie

    2016-01-01

    Mathematical models do not explicitly represent the influence of soil microbial diversity on soil organic carbon (SOC) dynamics despite recent evidence of relationships between them. The objective of the present study was to statistically investigate relationships between bacterial and fungal diversity indexes (richness, evenness, Shannon index, inverse Simpson index) and decomposition of different pools of soil organic carbon by measuring dynamics of CO2 emissions under controlled conditions. To this end, 20 soils from two different land uses (cropland and grassland) were incubated with or without incorporation of 13C-labelled wheat-straw residue. 13C-labelling allowed us to study residue mineralisation, basal respiration and the priming effect independently. An innovative data-mining approach was applied, based on generalized additive models and a predictive criterion. Results showed that microbial diversity indexes can be good covariates to integrate in SOC dynamics models, depending on the C source and the processes considered (native soil organic carbon vs. fresh wheat residue). Specifically, microbial diversity indexes were good candidates to help explain mineralisation of native soil organic carbon, while priming effect processes seemed to be explained much more by microbial composition, and no microbial diversity indexes were found associated with residue mineralisation. Investigation of relationships between diversity and mineralisation showed that higher diversity, as measured by the microbial diversity indexes, seemed to be related to decreased CO2 emissions in the control soil. We suggest that this relationship can be explained by an increase in carbon yield assimilation as microbial diversity increases. Thus, the parameter for carbon yield assimilation in mathematical models could be calculated as a function of microbial diversity indexes. Nonetheless, given limitations of the methods used, these observations should be considered with caution and

  5. Microbial Diversity Indexes Can Explain Soil Carbon Dynamics as a Function of Carbon Source.

    PubMed

    Louis, Benjamin P; Maron, Pierre-Alain; Menasseri-Aubry, Safya; Sarr, Amadou; Lévêque, Jean; Mathieu, Olivier; Jolivet, Claudy; Leterme, Philippe; Viaud, Valérie

    2016-01-01

    Mathematical models do not explicitly represent the influence of soil microbial diversity on soil organic carbon (SOC) dynamics despite recent evidence of relationships between them. The objective of the present study was to statistically investigate relationships between bacterial and fungal diversity indexes (richness, evenness, Shannon index, inverse Simpson index) and decomposition of different pools of soil organic carbon by measuring dynamics of CO2 emissions under controlled conditions. To this end, 20 soils from two different land uses (cropland and grassland) were incubated with or without incorporation of 13C-labelled wheat-straw residue. 13C-labelling allowed us to study residue mineralisation, basal respiration and the priming effect independently. An innovative data-mining approach was applied, based on generalized additive models and a predictive criterion. Results showed that microbial diversity indexes can be good covariates to integrate in SOC dynamics models, depending on the C source and the processes considered (native soil organic carbon vs. fresh wheat residue). Specifically, microbial diversity indexes were good candidates to help explain mineralisation of native soil organic carbon, while priming effect processes seemed to be explained much more by microbial composition, and no microbial diversity indexes were found associated with residue mineralisation. Investigation of relationships between diversity and mineralisation showed that higher diversity, as measured by the microbial diversity indexes, seemed to be related to decreased CO2 emissions in the control soil. We suggest that this relationship can be explained by an increase in carbon yield assimilation as microbial diversity increases. Thus, the parameter for carbon yield assimilation in mathematical models could be calculated as a function of microbial diversity indexes. Nonetheless, given limitations of the methods used, these observations should be considered with caution and

  6. Microbial Diversity Indexes Can Explain Soil Carbon Dynamics as a Function of Carbon Source.

    PubMed

    Louis, Benjamin P; Maron, Pierre-Alain; Menasseri-Aubry, Safya; Sarr, Amadou; Lévêque, Jean; Mathieu, Olivier; Jolivet, Claudy; Leterme, Philippe; Viaud, Valérie

    2016-01-01

    Mathematical models do not explicitly represent the influence of soil microbial diversity on soil organic carbon (SOC) dynamics despite recent evidence of relationships between them. The objective of the present study was to statistically investigate relationships between bacterial and fungal diversity indexes (richness, evenness, Shannon index, inverse Simpson index) and decomposition of different pools of soil organic carbon by measuring dynamics of CO2 emissions under controlled conditions. To this end, 20 soils from two different land uses (cropland and grassland) were incubated with or without incorporation of 13C-labelled wheat-straw residue. 13C-labelling allowed us to study residue mineralisation, basal respiration and the priming effect independently. An innovative data-mining approach was applied, based on generalized additive models and a predictive criterion. Results showed that microbial diversity indexes can be good covariates to integrate in SOC dynamics models, depending on the C source and the processes considered (native soil organic carbon vs. fresh wheat residue). Specifically, microbial diversity indexes were good candidates to help explain mineralisation of native soil organic carbon, while priming effect processes seemed to be explained much more by microbial composition, and no microbial diversity indexes were found associated with residue mineralisation. Investigation of relationships between diversity and mineralisation showed that higher diversity, as measured by the microbial diversity indexes, seemed to be related to decreased CO2 emissions in the control soil. We suggest that this relationship can be explained by an increase in carbon yield assimilation as microbial diversity increases. Thus, the parameter for carbon yield assimilation in mathematical models could be calculated as a function of microbial diversity indexes. Nonetheless, given limitations of the methods used, these observations should be considered with caution and

  7. Stable Gold(III) Catalysts by Oxidative Addition of a Carbon-Carbon Bond

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Chung-Yeh; Horibe, Takahiro; Jacobsen, Christian Borch

    2014-01-01

    Whereas low-valent late transition metal catalysis has become indispensible for chemical synthesis, homogeneous high-valent transition metal catalysis is underdeveloped, mainly due to the reactivity of high-valent transition metal complexes and the challenges associated with synthesizing them. In this manuscript, we report a mild carbon-carbon bond cleavage reaction by a Au(I) complex that generates a stable Au(III) cationic complex. Complementary to the well-established soft and carbophilic Au(I) catalyst, this Au(III) complex exhibits hard, oxophilic Lewis acidity. This is exemplified by catalytic activation of α,β-unsaturated aldehydes towards selective conjugate additions as well as activation of an unsaturated aldehyde-allene for a [2 + 2] cycloaddition reaction. The origin of the regioselectivity and catalytic activity was elucidated by X-ray crystallographic analysis of an isolated Au(III)-activated cinnamaldehyde intermediate. The concepts revealed in this study provide a strategy for accessing high-valent transition metal catalysis from readily available precursors. PMID:25612049

  8. Stable gold(III) catalysts by oxidative addition of a carbon-carbon bond.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chung-Yeh; Horibe, Takahiro; Jacobsen, Christian Borch; Toste, F Dean

    2015-01-22

    Low-valent late transition-metal catalysis has become indispensable to chemical synthesis, but homogeneous high-valent transition-metal catalysis is underdeveloped, mainly owing to the reactivity of high-valent transition-metal complexes and the challenges associated with synthesizing them. Here we report a carbon-carbon bond cleavage at ambient conditions by a Au(i) complex that generates a stable Au(iii) cationic complex. In contrast to the well-established soft and carbophilic Au(i) catalyst, this Au(iii) complex exhibits hard, oxophilic Lewis acidity. For example, we observed catalytic activation of α,β-unsaturated aldehydes towards selective conjugate additions as well as activation of an unsaturated aldehyde-allene for a [2 + 2] cycloaddition reaction. The origin of the regioselectivity and catalytic activity was elucidated by X-ray crystallographic analysis of an isolated Au(iii)-activated cinnamaldehyde intermediate. The concepts revealed suggest a strategy for accessing high-valent transition-metal catalysis from readily available precursors.

  9. Stable gold(III) catalysts by oxidative addition of a carbon-carbon bond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Chung-Yeh; Horibe, Takahiro; Jacobsen, Christian Borch; Toste, F. Dean

    2015-01-01

    Low-valent late transition-metal catalysis has become indispensable to chemical synthesis, but homogeneous high-valent transition-metal catalysis is underdeveloped, mainly owing to the reactivity of high-valent transition-metal complexes and the challenges associated with synthesizing them. Here we report a carbon-carbon bond cleavage at ambient conditions by a Au(I) complex that generates a stable Au(III) cationic complex. In contrast to the well-established soft and carbophilic Au(I) catalyst, this Au(III) complex exhibits hard, oxophilic Lewis acidity. For example, we observed catalytic activation of α,β-unsaturated aldehydes towards selective conjugate additions as well as activation of an unsaturated aldehyde-allene for a [2 + 2] cycloaddition reaction. The origin of the regioselectivity and catalytic activity was elucidated by X-ray crystallographic analysis of an isolated Au(III)-activated cinnamaldehyde intermediate. The concepts revealed suggest a strategy for accessing high-valent transition-metal catalysis from readily available precursors.

  10. A Novel Airborne Carbon Isotope Analyzer for Methane and Carbon Dioxide Source Fingerprinting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berman, E. S.; Huang, Y. W.; Owano, T. G.; Leifer, I.

    2014-12-01

    Recent field studies on major sources of the important greenhouse gas methane (CH4) indicate significant underestimation of methane release from fossil fuel industrial (FFI) and animal husbandry sources, among others. In addition, uncertainties still exist with respect to carbon dioxide (CO2) measurements, especially source fingerprinting. CO2 isotopic analysis provides a valuable in situ measurement approach to fingerprint CH4 and CO2as associated with combustion sources, leakage from geologic reservoirs, or biogenic sources. As a result, these measurements can characterize strong combustion source plumes, such as power plant emissions, and discriminate these emissions from other sources. As part of the COMEX (CO2 and MEthane eXperiment) campaign, a novel CO2 isotopic analyzer was installed and collected data aboard the CIRPAS Twin Otter aircraft. Developing methods to derive CH4 and CO2 budgets from remote sensing data is the goal of the summer 2014 COMEX campaign, which combines hyperspectral imaging (HSI) and non-imaging spectroscopy (NIS) with in situ airborne and surface data. COMEX leverages the synergy between high spatial resolution HSI and moderate spatial resolution NIS. The carbon dioxide isotope analyzer developed by Los Gatos Research (LGR) uses LGR's patented Off-Axis ICOS (Integrated Cavity Output Spectroscopy) technology and incorporates proprietary internal thermal control for high sensitivity and optimal instrument stability. This analyzer measures CO2 concentration as well as δ13C, δ18O, and δ17O from CO2 at natural abundance (100-3000 ppm). The laboratory accuracy is ±1.2 ppm (1σ) in CO2 from 370-1000 ppm, with a long-term (1000 s) precision of ±0.012 ppm. The long-term precision for both δ13C and δ18O is 0.04 ‰, and for δ17O is 0.06 ‰. The analyzer was field-tested as part of the COWGAS campaign, a pre-cursor campaign to COMEX in March 2014, where it successfully discriminated plumes related to combustion processes associated with

  11. Enhanced life ion source for germanium and carbon ion implantation

    SciTech Connect

    Hsieh, Tseh-Jen; Colvin, Neil; Kondratenko, Serguei

    2012-11-06

    Germanium and carbon ions represent a significant portion of total ion implantation steps in the process flow. Very often ion source materials that used to produce ions are chemically aggressive, especially at higher temperatures, and result in fast ion source performance degradation and a very limited lifetime [B.S. Freer, et. al., 2002 14th Intl. Conf. on Ion Implantation Technology Proc, IEEE Conf. Proc., p. 420 (2003)]. GeF{sub 4} and CO{sub 2} are commonly used to generate germanium and carbon beams. In the case of GeF{sub 4} controlling the tungsten deposition due to the de-composition of WF{sub 6} (halogen cycle) is critical to ion source life. With CO{sub 2}, the materials oxidation and carbon deposition must be controlled as both will affect cathode thermionic emission and anti-cathode (repeller) efficiencies due to the formation of volatile metal oxides. The improved ion source design Extended Life Source 3 (Eterna ELS3) together with its proprietary co-gas material implementation has demonstrated >300 hours of stable continuous operation when using carbon and germanium ion beams. Optimizing cogas chemistries retard the cathode erosion rate for germanium and carbon minimizes the adverse effects of oxygen when reducing gas is introduced for carbon. The proprietary combination of hardware and co-gas has improved source stability and the results of the hardware and co-gas development are discussed.

  12. Evaluation of phenyl carbonates as electrolyte additives in lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petibon, R.; Rotermund, L. M.; Dahn, J. R.

    2015-08-01

    The impact of the electrolyte additives methyl phenyl carbonate, ethyl phenyl carbonate, and diphenyl carbonate was evaluated in Li[Ni0.33Mn0.33Co0.33]O2/graphite pouch cells with or without 2% vinylene carbonate. Experiments included high precision coulometry, automated storage, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy on symmetric cells and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis, electrochemical studies during the first charge and impedance spectroscopy on symmetric cells indicated that phenyl carbonates act as solid electrolyte interphase modifiers rather than formers. High precision coulometry showed that cells containing 1-4 wt% methyl phenyl carbonate, ethyl phenyl carbonate or diphenyl carbonate had similar coulombic efficiencies and charge-endpoint capacity slippage as cells filled with 2 wt% vinylene carbonate. Impedance spectroscopy showed that cells containing phenyl carbonates have substantially lower impedance than cells filled with 2 wt% vinylene carbonate and produced minimal volumes of gas during cell use. Results presented in the report show that phenyl carbonates are competitive additives for 4.2 V class cells and should lead to good cycle life, low polarization and low gas evolution during normal use. Phenyl carbonates can also be used as gas-producing safety agents (to trip pressure activated disconnects) in combination with vinylene carbonate in cylindrical or prismatic cells without adverse effects.

  13. Source contributions to atmospheric fine carbon particle concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrew Gray, H.; Cass, Glen R.

    A Lagrangian particle-in-cell air quality model has been developed that facilitates the study of source contributions to atmospheric fine elemental carbon and fine primary total carbon particle concentrations. Model performance was tested using spatially and temporally resolved emissions and air quality data gathered for this purpose in the Los Angeles area for the year 1982. It was shown that black elemental carbon (EC) particle concentrations in that city were dominated by emissions from diesel engines including both on-highway and off-highway applications. Fine primary total carbon particle concentrations (TC=EC+organic carbon) resulted from the accumulation of small increments from a great variety of emission source types including both gasoline and diesel powered highway vehicles, stationary source fuel oil and gas combustion, industrial processes, paved road dust, fireplaces, cigarettes and food cooking (e.g. charbroilers). Strategies for black elemental carbon particle concentration control will of necessity need to focus on diesel engines, while controls directed at total carbon particle concentrations will have to be diversified over a great many source types.

  14. Highly oriented carbon fiber–polymer composites via additive manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Tekinalp, Halil L.; Kunc, Vlastimil; Velez-Garcia, Gregorio M.; Duty, Chad E.; Love, Lonnie J.; Naskar, Amit K.; Blue, Craig A.; Ozcan, Soydan

    2014-10-16

    Additive manufacturing, diverging from traditional manufacturing techniques, such as casting and machining materials, can handle complex shapes with great design flexibility without the typical waste. Although this technique has been mainly used for rapid prototyping, interest is growing in using this method to directly manufacture actual parts of complex shape. To use 3D-printing additive manufacturing in wide spread applications, the technique and the feedstock materials require improvements to meet the mechanical requirements of load-bearing components. Thus, we investigated the short fiber (0.2 mm to 0.4 mm) reinforced acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene composites as a feedstock for 3D-printing in terms of their processibility, microstructure and mechanical performance; and also provided comparison with traditional compression molded composites. The tensile strength and modulus of 3D-printed samples increased ~115% and ~700%, respectively. 3D-printer yielded samples with very high fiber orientation in printing direction (up to 91.5 %), whereas, compression molding process yielded samples with significantly less fiber orientation. Microstructure-mechanical property relationships revealed that although the relatively high porosity is observed in the 3D-printed composites as compared to those produced by the conventional compression molding technique, they both exhibited comparable tensile strength and modulus. Furthermore, this phenomena is explained based on the changes in fiber orientation, dispersion and void formation.

  15. Highly oriented carbon fiber–polymer composites via additive manufacturing

    DOE PAGES

    Tekinalp, Halil L.; Kunc, Vlastimil; Velez-Garcia, Gregorio M.; Duty, Chad E.; Love, Lonnie J.; Naskar, Amit K.; Blue, Craig A.; Ozcan, Soydan

    2014-10-16

    Additive manufacturing, diverging from traditional manufacturing techniques, such as casting and machining materials, can handle complex shapes with great design flexibility without the typical waste. Although this technique has been mainly used for rapid prototyping, interest is growing in using this method to directly manufacture actual parts of complex shape. To use 3D-printing additive manufacturing in wide spread applications, the technique and the feedstock materials require improvements to meet the mechanical requirements of load-bearing components. Thus, we investigated the short fiber (0.2 mm to 0.4 mm) reinforced acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene composites as a feedstock for 3D-printing in terms of their processibility, microstructuremore » and mechanical performance; and also provided comparison with traditional compression molded composites. The tensile strength and modulus of 3D-printed samples increased ~115% and ~700%, respectively. 3D-printer yielded samples with very high fiber orientation in printing direction (up to 91.5 %), whereas, compression molding process yielded samples with significantly less fiber orientation. Microstructure-mechanical property relationships revealed that although the relatively high porosity is observed in the 3D-printed composites as compared to those produced by the conventional compression molding technique, they both exhibited comparable tensile strength and modulus. Furthermore, this phenomena is explained based on the changes in fiber orientation, dispersion and void formation.« less

  16. Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smalheer, C. V.

    1973-01-01

    The chemistry of lubricant additives is discussed to show what the additives are chemically and what functions they perform in the lubrication of various kinds of equipment. Current theories regarding the mode of action of lubricant additives are presented. The additive groups discussed include the following: (1) detergents and dispersants, (2) corrosion inhibitors, (3) antioxidants, (4) viscosity index improvers, (5) pour point depressants, and (6) antifouling agents.

  17. Comparison of aerobic denitrifying activity among three cultural species with various carbon sources.

    PubMed

    Otani, Y; Hasegawa, K; Hanaki, K

    2004-01-01

    Abilities of three aerobic denitrifiers such as Alcaligenes faecalis, Microvirgula aerodenitrificans and Paracoccus pantotrophus were compared from the viewpoints of nitrate removal efficiency and organic matter utilization. First, the effect of carbon source was investigated. Although nitrate reduction was observed in all strains under aerobic conditions, a change of carbon source considerably affected the denitrification ability. In the case of P. pantotrophus, nitrate and nitrite were completely removed in three days under sodium acetate or leucine as a carbon source. In the case of A. faecalis, sufficient nitrate removal was observed only when sodium acetate or ethanol was added. P. pantotrophus and A. faecalis showed a higher ability of nitrate removal than that of M. aerodenitrificans. Therefore, P. pantotrophus was selected in order to investigate the effects of concentration and repetitive addition of carbon. Sodium acetate was used as a sole carbon source. Nitrate was not reduced when the carbon concentration was below 500 mgC/L. However, when carbon source was added repeatedly, nitrate was reduced under 100 mgC/L after the optical density of the bacterium reached above 1.0. This result indicated that a high enough level of bacterial density was necessary to express aerobic denitrification activity. PMID:15566182

  18. [Influence of carbon source on EBPR metabolism and microorganism communities].

    PubMed

    Wu, Chang-Yong; Peng, Yong-Zhen; Wan, Chun-Li; Li, Xiao-Ling; Yuan, Zhi-Guo

    2009-07-15

    A SBR was used in this study for investigating the influence of carbon source on EBPR metabolism and microorganism communities when feeding with acetate and propionate. The SBR was operated with a cycle time of 8 h and each cycle consisted of 4 min feeding, 2 h anaerobic period, 5 h aerobic period, 35 min setting, 15 min decanting and 6 min waiting. The COD of influent was kept at 300 mg/L during the experiment. Acetate and propionate were used as the sole carbon source for operation of 60 days, respectively. The phosphorus release/ COD consumption in the end of anaerobic phase were 0.35 and 0.27 when acetate and propionate were used as the carbon source, respectively. The PHA composition was different when different carbon source was dosed. PHB accounted for 92.6% in the end of anaerobic phase but the value for PHV was only 7.4% when acetate was selected as the carbon source. No PH2MV was detected during this process. The compositions of PHA were PHB (10.2%), PHV (35.8%) and PH2MV (54.0%) in the end of anaerobic cycle when propionate was used as the sole carbon source. There was variation of microorganism communities during this process for the results of DGGE combined with SEM micrographs and PHA staining. Coccus morphotype PAOs were accumulated in acetate-fed phase and rod morphotype PAOs were accumulated in propionate-fed stage. Different PAOs were accumulated and the metabolic pathways were different when different carbon sources were used, but good EBPR could be achieved during all these conditions.

  19. Intensified nitrogen removal in immobilized nitrifier enhanced constructed wetlands with external carbon addition.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Ding, Yi; Wang, Yuhui; Song, Xinshan; Ambrose, Richard F; Ullman, Jeffrey L

    2016-10-01

    Nitrogen removal performance response of twelve constructed wetlands (CWs) to immobilized nitrifier pellets and different influent COD/N ratios (chemical oxygen demand: total nitrogen in influent) were investigated via 7-month experiments. Nitrifier was immobilized on a carrier pellet containing 10% polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), 2.0% sodium alginate (SA) and 2.0% calcium chloride (CaCl2). A batch experiment demonstrated that 73% COD and 85% ammonia nitrogen (NH4-N) were degraded using the pellets with immobilized nitrifier cells. In addition, different carbon source supplement strategies were applied to remove the nitrate (NO3-N) transformed from NH4-N. An increase in COD/N ratio led to increasing reduction in NO3-N. Efficient nitrification and denitrification promoted total nitrogen (TN) removal in immobilized nitrifier biofortified constructed wetlands (INB-CWs). The results suggested that immobilized nitrifier pellets combined with high influent COD/N ratios could effectively improve the nitrogen removal performance in CWs.

  20. The source of carbon dioxide for gastric acid production.

    PubMed

    Steer, Howard

    2009-01-01

    The source of carbon dioxide for the chemical reaction leading to the production of gastric acid is unknown. The decarboxylation of an amino acid releases carbon dioxide. Pepsinogens provide a rich source of the amino acid arginine. Both the source of carbon dioxide, arginine, and the consequence of arginine decarboxylation, agmatine, have been studied. The site of carbon dioxide production has been related to the survival of the parietal cell. An immunohistochemical study has been carried out on glycol methacrylate embedded gastric biopsies from the normal stomach of 38 adult patients. The sections have been stained using polyclonal antibody to pepsinogen II, polyclonal antibody to agmatine, and polyclonal antibody to Helicobacter pylori. Pepsinogen II and agmatine are found in the parietal cell canaliculi. This is consistent with the production of carbon dioxide from arginine in the parietal cell canaliculi. Evidence is presented for the decarboxylation of arginine derived from the activation segment of pepsinogen as the source of carbon dioxide for the production of gastric acid. The production of carbon dioxide by the decarboxylation of arginine in the parietal cell canaliculus enables the extracellular hydration of carbon dioxide at the known site of carbonic anhydrase activity. The extracellular production of acid in the canaliculus together with the presence of agmatine helps to explain why the parietal cells are not destroyed during the formation of gastric acid. Agmatine is found in the mucus secreting cells of the stomach and its role in acid protection of the stomach is discussed. Anat Rec, 2009. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. PMID:18951509

  1. Effect of carbon source type on intracellular stored polymers during endogenous denitritation (ED) treating landfill leachate.

    PubMed

    Miao, Lei; Wang, Shuying; Li, Baikun; Cao, Tianhao; Zhang, Fangzhai; Wang, Zhong; Peng, Yongzhen

    2016-09-01

    Glycogen accumulating organisms (GAOs) capable of storing organic compounds as polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) have been used for endogenous denitritation (ED), but the effect of carbon sources type on nitrogen removal performance of GAOs treating landfill leachate is unclear. In this study, a successful ED system treating landfill leachate (COD/NH4(+)-N (C/N): 4) without external carbon source addition was applied. The mature leachate with C/N of 1 was used as the feeding base solution, with acetate, propionate, and glucose examined as the carbon sources, and their effects on yields and compositions of PHA produced by GAOs were determined and associated with nitrogen removal performance. In the case of sole carbon source, acetate was much easier to be stored than propionate and glucose, which led to a higher nitrogen removal efficiency. Glucose had the lowest amount of PHA storage and led to the lowest performance. In the case of composite carbon sources (two scenarios: acetate + propionate; acetate + propionate + glucose), GAOs stored sufficient PHA and exhibited similar nitrogen removal efficiencies. Moreover, type of carbon source influenced the compositions of PHA. The polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) fraction in PHA was far more than polyhydroxyvalerate (PHV) in all tests. PHV was synthesized only when acetate existed in carbon source. The microbial diversity analysis revealed that Proteobacteria was the most abundant phylum. Among the 108 genera detected in this ED system, the genera responsible for denitritation were Thauera, Paracoccus, Ottowia and Comamonadaceae_unclassified, accounting for 46.21% of total bacteria. Especially, Paracoccus and Comamonadaceae_unclassified transformed the carbon source into PHA for denitritation, and carried out endogenous denitritation. PMID:27232984

  2. Tracing organic matter sources and carbon burial in mangrove sediments over the past 160 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonneea, Meagan Eagle; Paytan, Adina; Herrera-Silveira, Jorge A.

    2004-10-01

    Mangrove ecosystems may be a source of organic carbon and nutrients to adjacent coastal systems on one hand and provide a sedimentary sink for organic carbon on the other. The balance between these two functions may be sensitive to both natural and anthropogenically induced variability, yet these effects have not been thoroughly evaluated in mangrove ecosystems. We determine organic matter sources and carbon burial rates over the past 160 years in three lagoons on the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico. Carbon isotopes and C/N elemental ratios are utilized to trace the three sources contributing to sedimentary organic matter, mangroves, seagrasses and phytoplankton, while nitrogen isotopes are used to elucidate potential post-depositional biogeochemical transformations in mangrove lagoon sediments. All three organic matter sources contribute to organic carbon burial. Phytoplankton and mangroves are the dominant sources of organic matter in lagoon bank sediments and seagrasses are a significant source to central lagoon sediments. Organic carbon burial rates are higher at the lagoon fringes, where mangrove vegetation dominates, than in seagrass-dominated mid-lagoon areas. A reduction in mangrove contribution to the sedimentary organic matter pool concurrent with reduced total organic carbon burial rates is observed in the recent past at all three lagoons studied. Natural cycles in sediment organic matter source over the past 160 years are observed in a high-resolution core. These fluctuations correspond to climatic variability in this region, as recorded in deep-sea foraminiferal assemblages. Additional work is required in order to differentiate between recent anthropogenic perturbations and natural variability in organic carbon sources and burial rates within these ecosystems.

  3. Development of a stationary carbon emission inventory for Shanghai using pollution source census data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xianzhe; Jiang, Ping; Zhang, Yan; Ma, Weichun

    2016-03-01

    This study utilizes 521,631 activity data points from the 2007 Shanghai Pollution Source Census to compile a stationary carbon emission inventory for Shanghai. The inventory generated from our dataset shows that a large portion of Shanghai's total energy use consists of coal-oriented energy consumption. The electricity and heat production industries, iron and steel mills, and the petroleum refining industry are the main carbon emitters. In addition, most of these industries are located in Baoshan District, which is Shanghai's largest contributor of carbon emissions. Policy makers can use the enterpriselevel carbon emission inventory and the method designed in this study to construct sound carbon emission reduction policies. The carbon trading scheme to be established in Shanghai based on the developed carbon inventory is also introduced in this paper with the aim of promoting the monitoring, reporting and verification of carbon trading. Moreover, we believe that it might be useful to consider the participation of industries, such as those for food processing, beverage, and tobacco, in Shanghai's carbon trading scheme. Based on the results contained herein, we recommend establishing a comprehensive carbon emission inventory by inputting data from the pollution source census used in this study.

  4. Contribution of Different Carbon Sources to Isoprene Biosynthesis in Poplar Leaves1

    PubMed Central

    Schnitzler, Jörg-Peter; Graus, Martin; Kreuzwieser, Jürgen; Heizmann, Ulrike; Rennenberg, Heinz; Wisthaler, Armin; Hansel, Armin

    2004-01-01

    This study was performed to test if alternative carbon sources besides recently photosynthetically fixed CO2 are used for isoprene formation in the leaves of young poplar (Populus × canescens) trees. In a 13CO2 atmosphere under steady state conditions, only about 75% of isoprene became 13C labeled within minutes. A considerable part of the unlabeled carbon may be derived from xylem transported carbohydrates, as may be shown by feeding leaves with [U-13C]Glc. As a consequence of this treatment approximately 8% to 10% of the carbon emitted as isoprene was 13C labeled. In order to identify further carbon sources, poplar leaves were depleted of leaf internal carbon pools and the carbon pools were refilled with 13C labeled carbon by exposure to 13CO2. Results from this treatment showed that about 30% of isoprene carbon became 13C labeled, clearly suggesting that, in addition to xylem transported carbon and CO2, leaf internal carbon pools, e.g. starch, are used for isoprene formation. This use was even increased when net assimilation was reduced, for example by abscisic acid application. The data provide clear evidence of a dynamic exchange of carbon between different cellular precursors for isoprene biosynthesis, and an increasing importance of these alternative carbon pools under conditions of limited photosynthesis. Feeding [1,2-13C]Glc and [3-13C]Glc to leaves via the xylem suggested that alternative carbon sources are probably derived from cytosolic pyruvate/phosphoenolpyruvate equivalents and incorporated into isoprene according to the predicted cleavage of the 3-C position of pyruvate during the initial step of the plastidic deoxyxylulose-5-phosphate pathway. PMID:15122010

  5. What's on the menu? Assessing microbial carbon sources and cycling in soils using natural abundance radiocarbon analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmoudi, N.; Burns, L.; Mancini, S.; Fulthorpe, R.; Slater, G. F.

    2011-12-01

    Organic matter in soils is composed of diverse materials in various stages of decomposition. Soil organic matter is not in a single pool but rather in multiple carbon pools with different intrinsic turnover times that can be on annual to decadal and even millennial timescales. Microorganisms can influence the total amount of carbon stored in soils and the turnover rates of these different pools. However, the links between microbes and their ability to utilize these various carbon pools are not well understood. Moreover, microbes have been shown to co-utilize a number of available carbon sources rather than a single carbon source under soil conditions which creates difficulties in identifying microbial carbon sources in the natural environment. Compound-specific radiocarbon analysis of microbial phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA) has become a useful tool in elucidating microbial carbon sources in complex environments with multiple carbon sources. We investigated microbial carbon cycling at an industrial site in Ontario which included a variety of carbon sources including vegetation, PAHs and natural organic matter (NOM). Using this approach, the 14C content of microbial membrane lipids (which reflects their carbon source) can be compared to surrounding carbon sources in order to assess which carbon source they are metabolizing and incorporating into their lipids. In addition, we assessed microbial community structure and diversity by analyzing amplified bacterial, eukaryotic and archaeal rDNA fragments with denaturing gel gradient electrophoresis (DGGE). The Δ14C value for PLFAs ranged from +54 to -697% which indicates that microbial carbon sources across soils differ. The Δ14CPLFA for some soils is consistent with modern carbon sources while Δ14CPLFA for other soils is consistent with natural organic matter including older pools of carbon. The microbial communities at this site are not metabolizing PAHs but rather they are utilizing various pools of natural organic

  6. Denitrification of high nitrate concentration wastewater using alternative carbon sources.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Nava, Y; Marañón, E; Soons, J; Castrillón, L

    2010-01-15

    The use of different organic carbon sources in the denitrification of wastewater containing 2500 mg nitrates/L in a SBR was studied. Three alternative sources of carbon were tested: wastewater from a sweet factory, a residue from a soft drinks factory and a residue from a dairy plant. The first two are sugar-rich, whereas the third presents a high content in lactic acid. Maximum specific denitrification rates of between 42 and 48 mg NO(3)-N/g VSS h were obtained. The effluents were nitrate-free and very low COD concentrations were obtained in 4-6h reaction time, especially with the sugar-rich carbon sources. The values of the denitrifier net yield coefficient were higher than when using methanol (0.93-1.75 g VSS(formed)/g NO(x)-N(reduced)). The lowest value was obtained using the lactic acid-rich residue. The optimum COD/N ratios varied between 4.6 for the lactic acid-rich carbon source and 5.5-6.5 for the sugar-rich carbon sources. PMID:19782470

  7. Effect of Additives and pH on the Formation of Carbonate Mineral by CO2 Sequestration of Cement Paste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, J. H.; Hwang, J.; Lee, H.; Son, B. S.; Oh, J.

    2015-12-01

    CO2 in the atmosphere causes a global warming that is a big issue nowadays. Many studies of CO2 capture and storage (CCS) technologies have been studied all over the world. Waste cement is a good source for aqueous carbonation because it is rich in calcium. Therefore, this study was performed to develop the aqueous carbonation method for waste cement powder. Cement paste was made with water/cement ratio of 6:4 and cured for 28 days in water bath. The cement paste was pulverized into a fine powder sizing less than 0.15 mm. To study effect of additives and pH on the formation of carbonate minerals, aqueous carbonation experiments were conducted. The mineral compositions and morphology of carbonate mineral were identified by XRD and SEM/EDS analysis. 1.0 M NaCl and 0.25 M MgCl2 were applied as additives. Aqueous carbonation experiment was conducted with injecting pure CO2 gas (99.9%) to a reactor containing 200 ㎖ of reacting solution. The pH of reacting solution was controled to determine formational condition of carbonate minerals. In 0.25 M MgCl2 solution, calcite was dominant mineral at high pH. More aragonite, however, formed as decreasing pH of solution with injection of CO2. The presence of Mg2+ in solution makes aragonite more dominant than calcite. Aragonite was mainly formed at the high pH of solution with 1.0 M NaCl additive, whereas calcite was more preponderant mineral than aragonite as falling pH. It show that unstable aragonite transformed to calcite as decreasing pH. In no additive solution, vaterite was dominantly formed at the initial stage of experiement, but unstable vaterite transformed to well crystallized calcite with further carbonation.

  8. IMPROVING SOURCE PROFILES AND APPORTIONMENT OF COMBUSTION SOURCES USING THERMAL CARBON FRACTIONS IN MULTIVARIATE RECEPTOR MODELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this study was to improve combustion source profiles and apportionment of a PM2.5 urban aerosol by using 7 individual organic and elemental carbon thermal fractions in place of total organic and elemental carbon. This study used 3 years (96-99) of speciated data...

  9. Carbon materials as additives to WO3 for an enhanced conversion of simulated solar light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carmona, Rocío; Velasco, Leticia; Laurenti, Enzo; Maurino, Valter; Ania, Conchi

    2016-02-01

    We have explored the impact of the incorporation of nanoporous carbons as additives to tungsten oxide on the photocatalytic degradation of two recalcitrant pollutants: rhodamine B and phenol, under simulated solar light. For this purpose, WO3/carbon mixtures were prepared using three carbon materials with different properties (in terms of porosity, structural order and surface chemistry). Despite the low carbon content used (2 wt. %), a significant increase in the photocatalytic performance of the semiconductor was observed for all the catalysts. Moreover, the influence of the carbon additive on the performance of the photocatalysts was found to be very different for the two pollutants. Carbon additives of hydrophobic nature increased the photodegradation yield of phenol compared to bare WO3, likely due to the higher affinity and stronger interactions of phenol molecules towards basic nanoporous carbons. Oppositely, the use of acidic carbon additives led to higher rhodamine B conversions due to increased acidity of the WO3/carbon mixtures and the stronger affinity of the pollutant for acidic catalyst’s surfaces. As a result, the photooxidation of rhodamine B is favored by means of a coupled (photosensitized and photocatalytic) degradation mechanism. All these results highlight the importance of favoring the interactions of the pollutant with the catalyst’s surface through a detailed design of the features of the photocatalyst.

  10. Carbon-14 in methane sources and in atmospheric methane - The contribution from fossil carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wahlen, M.; Tanaka, N.; Henry, R.; Deck, B.; Zeglen, J.

    1989-07-01

    Measurements of carbon-14 in small samples of methane from major biogenic sources, from biomass burning, and in clean air samples from both the Northern and Southern hemispheres reveal that methane from ruminants contains contemporary carbon, whereas that from wetlands, peat bogs, rice fields, and tundra, is somewhat depleted in carbon-14. Atmospheric (C-14)H4 seems to have increased from 1986 to 1987, and levels at the end of 1987 were 123.3 + or - 0.8 percent modern carbon in the Northern Hemisphere and 120.0 + or - 0.7 percent modern carbon in the Southern Hemisphere.

  11. Carbon-14 in methane sources and in atmospheric methane - The contribution from fossil carbon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wahlen, M.; Tanaka, N.; Henry, R.; Deck, B.; Zeglen, J.

    1989-01-01

    Measurements of carbon-14 in small samples of methane from major biogenic sources, from biomass burning, and in clean air samples from both the Northern and Southern hemispheres reveal that methane from ruminants contains contemporary carbon, whereas that from wetlands, peat bogs, rice fields, and tundra, is somewhat depleted in carbon-14. Atmospheric (C-14)H4 seems to have increased from 1986 to 1987, and levels at the end of 1987 were 123.3 + or - 0.8 percent modern carbon in the Northern Hemisphere and 120.0 + or - 0.7 percent modern carbon in the Southern Hemisphere.

  12. A series of tufted carbon fiber cathodes designed for different high power microwave sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Lie; Li, Limin; Zhang, Jun; Zhang, Xiaoping; Wen, Jianchun; Liu, Yonggui

    2008-06-01

    We report the fabrication technique of tufted carbon fiber cathodes for different microwave sources. Three carbon fiber cathodes were constructed, including a planar cathode, an annular cathode, and a cylindrical cathode for radial emission. Experimental investigations on these cathodes were performed in a reflex triode virtual cathode oscillator (vircator), a backward wave oscillator (BWO), and a magnetically insulated transmission line oscillator (MILO), respectively. The pulse duration of microwave emission from the reflex triode vircator was lengthened by using the planar carbon fiber cathode. In the BWO with the annular carbon fiber cathode, the uniform electron beam with a kA /cm2 current density was observed. In addition, carbon fiber has great promise as field emitter for MILOs. These results show that the carbon fiber cathodes can be utilized for electron emission in high power diodes with different structures.

  13. A series of tufted carbon fiber cathodes designed for different high power microwave sources.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lie; Li, Limin; Zhang, Jun; Zhang, Xiaoping; Wen, Jianchun; Liu, Yonggui

    2008-06-01

    We report the fabrication technique of tufted carbon fiber cathodes for different microwave sources. Three carbon fiber cathodes were constructed, including a planar cathode, an annular cathode, and a cylindrical cathode for radial emission. Experimental investigations on these cathodes were performed in a reflex triode virtual cathode oscillator (vircator), a backward wave oscillator (BWO), and a magnetically insulated transmission line oscillator (MILO), respectively. The pulse duration of microwave emission from the reflex triode vircator was lengthened by using the planar carbon fiber cathode. In the BWO with the annular carbon fiber cathode, the uniform electron beam with a kA/cm(2) current density was observed. In addition, carbon fiber has great promise as field emitter for MILOs. These results show that the carbon fiber cathodes can be utilized for electron emission in high power diodes with different structures.

  14. USE OF FATTY ACID STABLE CARBON ISOTOPE RATIO TO INDICATE MICROBIAL CARBON SOURCE IN TROPICAL SOILS

    EPA Science Inventory


    We use measurements of the concentration and stable carbon isotope ratio of individual microbial phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) in soils as indicators of live microbial biomass levels, broad microbial community structure, and microbial carbon source. For studies of soil o...

  15. Biotemplate synthesis of carbon nanostructures using bamboo as both the template and the carbon source

    SciTech Connect

    Ye, Xiaodan; Yang, Qian; Zheng, Yifan; Mo, Weimin; Hu, Jianguan; Huang, Wanzhen

    2014-03-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • A new method for the in situ growth of carbon nanostructures was demonstrated. • The bamboo was selected as both the green carbon source and the biotemplate. • Four distinct structural types of carbon nanostructure have been identified. • The corresponding growth mechanism of each carbon nanostructure was proposed. - Abstract: A series of carbon nanostructures were prepared via a biotemplate method by catalytic decomposition of bamboo impregnated with ferric nitrate. The natural nanoporous bamboo was used as both the green carbon source and the template for the in situ growth of carbon nanostructures. Scanning electron microscope, field emission transmission electron microscope and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscope were used to characterize the product. Four distinct structural types of carbon nanostructures have been identified, namely nanofibers, hollow carbon nanospheres, herringbone and bamboo-shaped nanotubes. The effect of reaction temperature (from 600 to 900 °C) on the growth behavior of carbon nanostructures was investigated and the corresponding growth mechanism was proposed. At low temperature the production of nanofibers was favored, while higher temperature led to bamboo-shaped nanostructures.

  16. Chemical and biological consequences of using carbon dioxide versus acid additions in ocean acidification experiments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yates, Kimberly K.; DuFore, Christopher M.; Robbins, Lisa L.

    2013-01-01

    Use of different approaches for manipulating seawater chemistry during ocean acidification experiments has confounded comparison of results from various experimental studies. Some of these discrepancies have been attributed to whether addition of acid (such as hydrochloric acid, HCl) or carbon dioxide (CO2) gas has been used to adjust carbonate system parameters. Experimental simulations of carbonate system parameter scenarios for the years 1766, 2007, and 2100 were performed using the carbonate speciation program CO2SYS to demonstrate the variation in seawater chemistry that can result from use of these approaches. Results showed that carbonate system parameters were 3 percent and 8 percent lower than target values in closed-system acid additions, and 1 percent and 5 percent higher in closed-system CO2 additions for the 2007 and 2100 simulations, respectively. Open-system simulations showed that carbonate system parameters can deviate by up to 52 percent to 70 percent from target values in both acid addition and CO2 addition experiments. Results from simulations for the year 2100 were applied to empirically derived equations that relate biogenic calcification to carbonate system parameters for calcifying marine organisms including coccolithophores, corals, and foraminifera. Calculated calcification rates for coccolithophores, corals, and foraminifera differed from rates at target conditions by 0.5 percent to 2.5 percent in closed-system CO2 gas additions, from 0.8 percent to 15 percent in the closed-system acid additions, from 4.8 percent to 94 percent in open-system acid additions, and from 7 percent to 142 percent in open-system CO2 additions.

  17. Ultrasmooth submicrometer carbon spheres as lubricant additives for friction and wear reduction.

    PubMed

    Alazemi, Abdullah A; Etacheri, Vinodkumar; Dysart, Arthur D; Stacke, Lars-Erik; Pol, Vilas G; Sadeghi, Farshid

    2015-03-11

    Ultrasmooth submicrometer carbon spheres are demonstrated as an efficient additive for improving the tribological performance of lubricating oils. Carbon spheres with ultrasmooth surfaces are fabricated by ultrasound assisted polymerization of resorcinol and formaldehyde followed by controlled heat treatment. The tribological behavior of the new lubricant mixture is investigated in the boundary and mixed lubrication regimes using a pin-on-disk apparatus and cylinder-on-disk tribometer, respectively. The new lubricant composition containing 3 wt % carbon spheres suspended in a reference SAE 5W30 engine oil exhibited a substantial reduction in friction and wear (10-25%) compared to the neat oil, without change in the viscosity. Microscopic and spectroscopic investigation of the carbon spheres after the tribological experiments illustrated their excellent mechanical and chemical stability. The significantly better tribological performance of the hybrid lubricant is attributed to the perfectly spherical shape and ultrasmooth surface of carbon sphere additive filling the gap between surfaces and acting as a nanoscale ball bearing.

  18. A mobile light source for carbon/nitrogen cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trower, W. P.; Karev, A. I.; Melekhin, V. N.; Shvedunov, V. I.; Sobenin, N. P.

    1995-05-01

    The pulsed light source for carbon/nitrogen cameras developed to image concealed narcotics/explosives is described. This race-track microtron will produce 40 mA pulses of 70 MeV electrons, have minimal size and weight, and maximal ruggedness and reliability, so that it can be transported on a truck.

  19. Vegetation feedbacks of nutrient addition lead to a weaker carbon sink in an ombrotrophic bog.

    PubMed

    Larmola, Tuula; Bubier, Jill L; Kobyljanec, Christine; Basiliko, Nathan; Juutinen, Sari; Humphreys, Elyn; Preston, Michael; Moore, Tim R

    2013-12-01

    To study vegetation feedbacks of nutrient addition on carbon sequestration capacity, we investigated vegetation and ecosystem CO2 exchange at Mer Bleue Bog, Canada in plots that had been fertilized with nitrogen (N) or with N plus phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) for 7-12 years. Gross photosynthesis, ecosystem respiration, and net CO2 exchange were measured weekly during May-September 2011 using climate-controlled chambers. A substrate-induced respiration technique was used to determine the functional ability of the microbial community. The highest N and NPK additions were associated with 40% less net CO2 uptake than the control. In the NPK additions, a diminished C sink potential was due to a 20-30% increase in ecosystem respiration, while gross photosynthesis rates did not change as greater vascular plant biomass compensated for the decrease in Sphagnum mosses. In the highest N-only treatment, small reductions in gross photosynthesis and no change in ecosystem respiration led to the reduced C sink. Substrate-induced microbial respiration was significantly higher in all levels of NPK additions compared with control. The temperature sensitivity of respiration in the plots was lower with increasing cumulative N load, suggesting more labile sources of respired CO2 . The weaker C sink potential could be explained by changes in nutrient availability, higher woody : foliar ratio, moss loss, and enhanced decomposition. Stronger responses to NPK fertilization than to N-only fertilization for both shrub biomass production and decomposition suggest that the bog ecosystem is N-P/K colimited rather than N-limited. Negative effects of further N-only deposition were indicated by delayed spring CO2 uptake. In contrast to forests, increased wood formation and surface litter accumulation in bogs seem to reduce the C sink potential owing to the loss of peat-forming Sphagnum.

  20. Distribution of organic carbon and petroleum source rock potential of Cretaceous and lower Tertiary carbonates, South Florida Basin: preliminary results

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Palacas, James George

    1978-01-01

    Analyses of 134 core samples from the South Florida Basin show that the carbonates of Comanchean age are relatively richer in average organic carbon (0.41 percent) than those of Coahuilan age (0.28 percent), Gulfian age (0.18 percent) and Paleocene age (0.20 percent). They are also nearly twice as rich as the average world, wide carbonate (average 0.24 percent). The majority of carbonates have organic carbons less than 0.30 percent but the presence of many relatively organic rich beds composed of highly bituminous, argillaceous, highly stylolitic, and algal-bearing limestones and dolomites accounts for the higher percentage of organic carbon in some of the stratigraphic units. Carbonate rocks that contain greater than 0.4 percent organic carbon and that might be considered as possible petroleum sources were noted in almost each subdivision of the Coahuilan and Comanchean Series but particularly the units of Fredericksburg 'B', Trinity 'A', Trinity 'F', and Upper Sunniland. Possible source rocks have been ascribed by others to the Lower Sunniland, but lack of sufficient samples precluded any firm assessment in this initial report. In the shallower section of the basin, organic-rich carbonates containing as much as 3.2 percent organic carbon were observed in the lowermost part of the Gulfian Series and carbonate rocks with oil staining or 'dead' and 'live oil' were noted by others in the uppermost Gulfian and upper Cedar Keys Formation. It is questionable whether these shallower rocks are of sufficient thermal maturity to have generated commercial oil. The South Florida basin is still sparsely drilled and produces only from the Sunniland Limestone at an average depth of 11,500 feet (3500 m). Because the Sunniland contains good reservoir rocks and apparently adequate source rocks, and because the success rate of new oil field discoveries has increased in recent years, the chances of finding additional oil reserves in the Sunniland are promising. Furthermore, the

  1. Tracing the sources of organic carbon in freshwater systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glendell, Miriam; Meersmans, Jeroen; Barclay, Rachel; Yvon-Durocher, Gabriel; Barker, Sam; Jones, Richard; Hartley, Iain; Dungait, Jennifer; Quine, Timothy

    2016-04-01

    Quantifying the lateral fluxes of carbon from land to inland waters is critical for the understanding of the global carbon cycle and climate change mitigation. However, the crucial role of rivers in receiving, transporting and processing the equivalent of terrestrial net primary production in their watersheds has only recently been recognised. In addition, the fluxes of carbon from land to ocean, and the impact of anthropogenic perturbation, are poorly quantified. Therefore, a mechanistic understanding of the processes involved in the loss and preservation of C along the terrestrial-aquatic continuum is required to predict the present and future contribution of aquatic C fluxes to the global C budget. This pilot study examines the effect of land use on the fate of organic matter within two headwater catchments in Cornwall (UK) in order to develop a methodological framework for investigating C-cycling across the entire terrestrial-aquatic continuum. To this end, we aim to characterise the spatial heterogeneity of soil erosion driven lateral fluxes of SOC to identify areas of erosion and deposition using 137Cs radio-isotope and trace the terrestrial versus aquatic origin of C along the river reaches and in lake sediments at the catchment outlet. The 3D spatial distribution of SOC has been investigated by sampling three depth increments (i.e. 0-15cm, 15-30cm and 30-50cm) along 14 hillslope transects within two sub-catchments of ˜km2 each. In total, 80 terrestrial sites were monitored and analysed for total C and N, and bulk stable 13C/15N isotope values, while 137Cs was used to obtain a detailed understanding of the spatial - temporal variability in erosion driven lateral fluxes of SOC within the catchments. The relative contribution of terrestrial and aquatic C was examined along the river reaches as well as in lake sediments at the catchment outlet by considering n-alkane signatures. By linking the C accumulation rates in lake sediments over decadal timescales from

  2. Different carbon sources affect PCB accumulation by marine bivalves.

    PubMed

    Laitano, M V; Silva Barni, M F; Costa, P G; Cledón, M; Fillmann, G; Miglioranza, K S B; Panarello, H O

    2016-02-01

    Pampean creeks were evaluated in the present study as potential land-based sources of PCB marine contamination. Different carbon and nitrogen sources from such creeks were analysed as boosters of PCB bioaccumulation by the filter feeder bivalve Brachidontes rodriguezii and grazer limpet Siphonaria lessoni. Carbon of different source than marine and anthropogenic nitrogen assimilated by organisms were estimated through their C and N isotopic composition. PCB concentration in surface sediments and mollusc samples ranged from 2.68 to 6.46 ng g(-1) (wet weight) and from 1074 to 4583 ng g(-1) lipid, respectively, reflecting a punctual source of PCB contamination related to a landfill area. Thus, despite the low flow of creeks, they should not be underestimated as contamination vectors to the marine environment. On the other hand, mussels PCB bioaccumulation was related with the carbon source uptake which highlights the importance to consider this factor when studying PCB distribution in organisms of coastal systems.

  3. Different carbon sources affect PCB accumulation by marine bivalves.

    PubMed

    Laitano, M V; Silva Barni, M F; Costa, P G; Cledón, M; Fillmann, G; Miglioranza, K S B; Panarello, H O

    2016-02-01

    Pampean creeks were evaluated in the present study as potential land-based sources of PCB marine contamination. Different carbon and nitrogen sources from such creeks were analysed as boosters of PCB bioaccumulation by the filter feeder bivalve Brachidontes rodriguezii and grazer limpet Siphonaria lessoni. Carbon of different source than marine and anthropogenic nitrogen assimilated by organisms were estimated through their C and N isotopic composition. PCB concentration in surface sediments and mollusc samples ranged from 2.68 to 6.46 ng g(-1) (wet weight) and from 1074 to 4583 ng g(-1) lipid, respectively, reflecting a punctual source of PCB contamination related to a landfill area. Thus, despite the low flow of creeks, they should not be underestimated as contamination vectors to the marine environment. On the other hand, mussels PCB bioaccumulation was related with the carbon source uptake which highlights the importance to consider this factor when studying PCB distribution in organisms of coastal systems. PMID:26606107

  4. Possibilities of Application of Carbon-Fluorine Containing Additions in Submerged-Arc Welding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozyrev, N. A.; Kryukov, N. E.; Kryukov, R. E.; Igushev, V. F.; Kovalskii, I. I.

    2015-09-01

    The paper provides results of comparative analysis of the effect of carbonaceous components introduced into welding fluxes on molten metal - slag interaction. A positive influence of carbonaceous additives on gas content and mechanical properties of welds is demonstrated. Carbon and fluorine containing additives are emphasized to be promising for automatic submerged arc welding.

  5. Organic carbon sources and sinks in San Francisco Bay: variability induced by river flow

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jassby, Alan D.; Powell, T.M.; Cloern, James E.

    1993-01-01

    Sources and sinks of organic carbon for San Francisco Bay (California, USA) were estimated for 1980. Sources for the southern reach were dominated by phytoplankton and benthic microalgal production. River loading of organic matter was an additional important factor in the northern reach. Tidal marsh export and point sources played a secondary role. Autochthonous production in San Francisco Bay appears to be less than the mean for temperate-zone estuaries, primarily because turbidity limits microalgal production and the development of seagrass beds. Exchange between the Bay and Pacific Ocean plays an unknown but potentially important role in the organic carbon balance. Interannual variability in the organic carbon supply was assessed for Suisun Bay, a northern reach subembayment that provides habitat for important fish species (delta smelt Hypomesus transpacificus and larval striped bass Morone saxatilus). The total supply fluctuated by an order of magnitude; depending on the year, either autochthonous sources (phytoplankton production) or allochthonous sources (riverine loading) could be dominant. The primary cause of the year-to-year change was variability of freshwater inflows from the Sacramento and San Joaquin rivers, and its magnitude was much larger than long-term changes arising from marsh destruction and point source decreases. Although interannual variability of the total organic carbon supply could not be assessed for the southern reach, year-to-year changes in phytoplankton production were much smaller than in Suisun Bay, reflecting a relative lack of river influence.

  6. Identification of haze-creating sources from fine particulate matter in Dhaka aerosol using carbon fractions.

    PubMed

    Begum, Bilkis A; Hopke, Philip K

    2013-09-01

    Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) samples were simultaneously collected on Teflon and quartz filters between February 2010 and February 2011 at an urban monitoring site (CAMS2) in Dhaka, Bangladesh. The samples were collected using AirMetrics MiniVol samplers. The samples on Teflon filters were analyzed for their elemental composition by PIXE and PESA. Particulate carbon on quartz filters was analyzed using the IMPROVE thermal optical reflectance (TOR) method that divides carbon into four organic carbons (OC), pyrolized organic carbon (OP), and three elemental carbon (EC) fractions. The data were analyzed by positive matrix factorization using the PMF2 program. Initially, only total OC and total EC were included in the analysis and five sources, including road dust, sea salt and Zn, soil dust, motor vehicles, and brick kilns, were obtained. In the second analysis, the eight carbon fractions (OC1, OC2, OC3, OC4, OP, EC1, EC2, EC3) were included in order to ascertain whether additional source information could be extracted from the data. In this case, it is possible to identify more sources than with only total OC and EC. The motor vehicle source was separated into gasoline and diesel emissions and a fugitive Pb source was identified. Brick kilns contribute 7.9 microg/m3 and 6.0 microg/m3 of OC and EC, respectively, to the fine particulate matter based on the two results. From the estimated mass extinction coefficients and the apportioned source contributions, soil dust, brick kiln, diesel, gasoline, and the Pb sources were found to contribute most strongly to visibility degradation, particularly in the winter. PMID:24151680

  7. Investigation of organic carbon transformation in soils of dominant dissolved organic carbon source zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pissarello, Anna; Miltner, Anja; Oosterwoud, Marieke; Fleckenstein, Jan; Kästner, Matthias

    2014-05-01

    Over the past 20 years both a decrease in soil organic matter (SOM) and an increase in the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations in surface water bodies, including drinking water reservoirs, have been recorded in the northern hemisphere. This development has severe consequences for soil fertility and for drinking water purification. As both processes occur simultaneously, we assume that microbial SOM degradation, which transforms SOM into CO2 and DOC, is a possible source of the additional DOC in the surface water. In addition we speculate that both processes are initially triggered by physical mechanisms, resulting in a modification of the organic matter solubility equilibria and thus in higher SOM availability and DOC mobilization. The general hypothesis of the study is therefore that SOM loss and DOC increase are combined consequences of enhanced microbial degradation of SOM and that this is a result of climate variations and global change, e.g. the increase of the temperature, the alteration of the water regime (i.e. increase of the frequency of drying and rewetting cycles and a higher number of heavy rain events), but also the decrease of the atmospheric acid deposition resulting in an increase of soil pH values. The general goal of the study is the identification of the dominant processes and controlling factors involved in soil microbial carbon turnover and mobilization of DOC in soils from catchment areas that contribute DOC to the receiving waters and the downstream Rappbode reservoir, which showed a pronounced increase in DOC concentration in recent years. This reservoir is the source of drinking water for about one million people in northern Germany. Preliminary screening experiments, consisting of 65-day soil batch incubation experiments, have been conducted in order to select the parameters (and the parameter ranges) of relevance for further in-depth experiments. During the experiments, different soil systems were exposed to different

  8. Carbon Sources for Polyhydroxyalkanoates and an Integrated Biorefinery.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Guozhan; Hill, David J; Kowalczuk, Marek; Johnston, Brian; Adamus, Grazyna; Irorere, Victor; Radecka, Iza

    2016-07-19

    Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are a group of bioplastics that have a wide range of applications. Extensive progress has been made in our understanding of PHAs' biosynthesis, and currently, it is possible to engineer bacterial strains to produce PHAs with desired properties. The substrates for the fermentative production of PHAs are primarily derived from food-based carbon sources, raising concerns over the sustainability of their production in terms of their impact on food prices. This paper gives an overview of the current carbon sources used for PHA production and the methods used to transform these sources into fermentable forms. This allows us to identify the opportunities and restraints linked to future sustainable PHA production. Hemicellulose hydrolysates and crude glycerol are identified as two promising carbon sources for a sustainable production of PHAs. Hemicellulose hydrolysates and crude glycerol can be produced on a large scale during various second generation biofuels' production. An integration of PHA production within a modern biorefinery is therefore proposed to produce biofuels and bioplastics simultaneously. This will create the potential to offset the production cost of biofuels and reduce the overall production cost of PHAs.

  9. Carbon Sources for Polyhydroxyalkanoates and an Integrated Biorefinery.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Guozhan; Hill, David J; Kowalczuk, Marek; Johnston, Brian; Adamus, Grazyna; Irorere, Victor; Radecka, Iza

    2016-01-01

    Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are a group of bioplastics that have a wide range of applications. Extensive progress has been made in our understanding of PHAs' biosynthesis, and currently, it is possible to engineer bacterial strains to produce PHAs with desired properties. The substrates for the fermentative production of PHAs are primarily derived from food-based carbon sources, raising concerns over the sustainability of their production in terms of their impact on food prices. This paper gives an overview of the current carbon sources used for PHA production and the methods used to transform these sources into fermentable forms. This allows us to identify the opportunities and restraints linked to future sustainable PHA production. Hemicellulose hydrolysates and crude glycerol are identified as two promising carbon sources for a sustainable production of PHAs. Hemicellulose hydrolysates and crude glycerol can be produced on a large scale during various second generation biofuels' production. An integration of PHA production within a modern biorefinery is therefore proposed to produce biofuels and bioplastics simultaneously. This will create the potential to offset the production cost of biofuels and reduce the overall production cost of PHAs. PMID:27447619

  10. Carbon Sources for Polyhydroxyalkanoates and an Integrated Biorefinery

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Guozhan; Hill, David J.; Kowalczuk, Marek; Johnston, Brian; Adamus, Grazyna; Irorere, Victor; Radecka, Iza

    2016-01-01

    Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are a group of bioplastics that have a wide range of applications. Extensive progress has been made in our understanding of PHAs’ biosynthesis, and currently, it is possible to engineer bacterial strains to produce PHAs with desired properties. The substrates for the fermentative production of PHAs are primarily derived from food-based carbon sources, raising concerns over the sustainability of their production in terms of their impact on food prices. This paper gives an overview of the current carbon sources used for PHA production and the methods used to transform these sources into fermentable forms. This allows us to identify the opportunities and restraints linked to future sustainable PHA production. Hemicellulose hydrolysates and crude glycerol are identified as two promising carbon sources for a sustainable production of PHAs. Hemicellulose hydrolysates and crude glycerol can be produced on a large scale during various second generation biofuels’ production. An integration of PHA production within a modern biorefinery is therefore proposed to produce biofuels and bioplastics simultaneously. This will create the potential to offset the production cost of biofuels and reduce the overall production cost of PHAs. PMID:27447619

  11. Enhanced production of green tide algal biomass through additional carbon supply.

    PubMed

    de Paula Silva, Pedro H; Paul, Nicholas A; de Nys, Rocky; Mata, Leonardo

    2013-01-01

    Intensive algal cultivation usually requires a high flux of dissolved inorganic carbon (Ci) to support productivity, particularly for high density algal cultures. Carbon dioxide (CO2) enrichment can be used to overcome Ci limitation and enhance productivity of algae in intensive culture, however, it is unclear whether algal species with the ability to utilise bicarbonate (HCO3 (-)) as a carbon source for photosynthesis will benefit from CO2 enrichment. This study quantified the HCO3 (-) affinity of three green tide algal species, Cladophora coelothrix, Cladophora patentiramea and Chaetomorpha linum, targeted for biomass and bioenergy production. Subsequently, we quantified productivity and carbon, nitrogen and ash content in response to CO2 enrichment. All three species had similar high pH compensation points (9.7-9.9), and grew at similar rates up to pH 9, demonstrating HCO3 (-) utilization. Algal cultures enriched with CO2 as a carbon source had 30% more total Ci available, supplying twenty five times more CO2 than the control. This higher Ci significantly enhanced the productivity of Cladophora coelothrix (26%), Chaetomorpha linum (24%) and to a lesser extent for Cladophora patentiramea (11%), compared to controls. We demonstrated that supplying carbon as CO2 can enhance the productivity of targeted green tide algal species under intensive culture, despite their clear ability to utilise HCO3 (-).

  12. Enhanced Production of Green Tide Algal Biomass through Additional Carbon Supply

    PubMed Central

    de Paula Silva, Pedro H.; Paul, Nicholas A.; de Nys, Rocky; Mata, Leonardo

    2013-01-01

    Intensive algal cultivation usually requires a high flux of dissolved inorganic carbon (Ci) to support productivity, particularly for high density algal cultures. Carbon dioxide (CO2) enrichment can be used to overcome Ci limitation and enhance productivity of algae in intensive culture, however, it is unclear whether algal species with the ability to utilise bicarbonate (HCO3−) as a carbon source for photosynthesis will benefit from CO2 enrichment. This study quantified the HCO3− affinity of three green tide algal species, Cladophora coelothrix, Cladophora patentiramea and Chaetomorpha linum, targeted for biomass and bioenergy production. Subsequently, we quantified productivity and carbon, nitrogen and ash content in response to CO2 enrichment. All three species had similar high pH compensation points (9.7–9.9), and grew at similar rates up to pH 9, demonstrating HCO3− utilization. Algal cultures enriched with CO2 as a carbon source had 30% more total Ci available, supplying twenty five times more CO2 than the control. This higher Ci significantly enhanced the productivity of Cladophora coelothrix (26%), Chaetomorpha linum (24%) and to a lesser extent for Cladophora patentiramea (11%), compared to controls. We demonstrated that supplying carbon as CO2 can enhance the productivity of targeted green tide algal species under intensive culture, despite their clear ability to utilise HCO3−. PMID:24324672

  13. Treatment of Scumming Effects of Pottery Clay by Sodium Carbonate Addition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wasanapiarnpong, T.; Thueploy, A.; Nilpairach, S.; Arayaphong, D.

    2011-10-01

    Earthenware pottery products made by using red plastic clay in Ratchaburi province of Thailand and fired at 850-1000 °C, always shows some blemishes, caused by scumming on the surface. This scumming contains calcium sulfate, contaminated in the raw clay as gypsum form. The addition of barium carbonate is a suggested solution to prevent this white stain. However, it is difficult for barium carbonate to spread throughout the clay so that it takes a long time to complete the reaction. This research aims to find the solution by using sodium carbonate as an alternative chemical. Sodium carbonate was mixed in the clay at 1wt% dissolved in distilled water controlled the moisture at 22 % by wet weight. The mixture was kneaded and aged for 24 h, then formed, dried and fired at 850-950 °C. The types and quantities of ion in mixed clay and deposited on the surface product were determined after drying. It was found that the white stain areas were diminished, as same as the result from the addition of barium carbonate. Moreover, the sample after firing at 950 °C had lower water absorption as 12.22 %, higher three point bending strength as 32.53 MPa when compared to the addition of barium carbonate, which had higher water absorption as 15.58 % and lower three point bending strength as 25.25 MPa.

  14. Intensified nitrogen removal in immobilized nitrifier enhanced constructed wetlands with external carbon addition.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Ding, Yi; Wang, Yuhui; Song, Xinshan; Ambrose, Richard F; Ullman, Jeffrey L

    2016-10-01

    Nitrogen removal performance response of twelve constructed wetlands (CWs) to immobilized nitrifier pellets and different influent COD/N ratios (chemical oxygen demand: total nitrogen in influent) were investigated via 7-month experiments. Nitrifier was immobilized on a carrier pellet containing 10% polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), 2.0% sodium alginate (SA) and 2.0% calcium chloride (CaCl2). A batch experiment demonstrated that 73% COD and 85% ammonia nitrogen (NH4-N) were degraded using the pellets with immobilized nitrifier cells. In addition, different carbon source supplement strategies were applied to remove the nitrate (NO3-N) transformed from NH4-N. An increase in COD/N ratio led to increasing reduction in NO3-N. Efficient nitrification and denitrification promoted total nitrogen (TN) removal in immobilized nitrifier biofortified constructed wetlands (INB-CWs). The results suggested that immobilized nitrifier pellets combined with high influent COD/N ratios could effectively improve the nitrogen removal performance in CWs. PMID:27396293

  15. Effect of carbon and nitrogen source amendment on synthetic dyes decolourizing efficiency of white-rot fungus, Phanerochaete chrysosporium.

    PubMed

    Pant, Deepak; Singh, Anoop; Satyawali, Yamini; Gupta, R K

    2008-01-01

    Decolourization activity of Phanerochaete chrysosporium for three synthetic dyes viz., congo red, malachite green and crystal violet and impact of additional carbon and nitrogen supply on decolourization capacity of fungus were investigated. Maximum decolourizing capacity was observed up to 15 ppm. Addition of urea as nitrogen source and glucose as carbon source significantly enhanced decolourizing capacity (up to 87%) of fungus. In all the cases, both colour and COD were reduced more in non-sterilized treatments as compared to sterilized ones. Significant reductions in COD content of dye solutions (79-84%) were recorded by fungus supplied with additional carbon and nitrogen. A highly significant correlation (r = 0.78, p < 0.001) between colour and COD of dye solutions was recorded. Thus, a readily available carbon and nitrogen source is imperative to enhance the bioremediation activity of this fungus which has been the most suitable for synthetic dyes and textile industry wastewater treatment.

  16. Carbon-14 in methane sources and in atmospheric methane: The contribution from fossil carbon

    SciTech Connect

    Wahlen, M.; Tanaka, N.; Henry, R.; Deck, B.; Zeglen, J. ); Vogel, J.S.; Southon, J. ); Shemesh, A.; Fairbanks, R.; Broecker, W. )

    1989-07-21

    Measurements of carbon-14 in small samples of methane from major biogenic sources, from biomass burning, and in clean air samples from both the Northern and Southern hemispheres reveal that methane from ruminants contains contemporary carbon, whereas that from wetlands, peat bogs, rice fields, and tundra is somewhat, depleted in carbon-14. Atmospheric {sup 14}CH{sub 4} seems to have increased from 1986 to 1987, and levels at the end of 1987 were 123.3 {plus minus} 0.8% modern carbon (pMC) in the Northern Hemisphere and 120.0 {plus minus} 0.7 pMC in the Southern Hemisphere. Model calculations of source partitioning based on the carbon-14 data, CH{sub 4} concentrations, and {delta}{sup 13}C in CH{sub 4} indicate that 21 {plus minus} 3% of atmospheric CH{sub 4} was derived from fossil carbon at the end of 1987. The data also indicate that pressurized water reactors are an increasingly important source of {sup 14}CH{sub 4}. 38 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Climatic variability, hydrologic anomaly, and methane emission can turn productive freshwater marshes into net carbon sources.

    PubMed

    Chu, Housen; Gottgens, Johan F; Chen, Jiquan; Sun, Ge; Desai, Ankur R; Ouyang, Zutao; Shao, Changliang; Czajkowski, Kevin

    2015-03-01

    Freshwater marshes are well-known for their ecological functions in carbon sequestration, but complete carbon budgets that include both methane (CH4 ) and lateral carbon fluxes for these ecosystems are rarely available. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first full carbon balance for a freshwater marsh where vertical gaseous [carbon dioxide (CO2 ) and CH4 ] and lateral hydrologic fluxes (dissolved and particulate organic carbon) have been simultaneously measured for multiple years (2011-2013). Carbon accumulation in the sediments suggested that the marsh was a long-term carbon sink and accumulated ~96.9 ± 10.3 (±95% CI) g C m(-2)  yr(-1) during the last ~50 years. However, abnormal climate conditions in the last 3 years turned the marsh to a source of carbon (42.7 ± 23.4 g C m(-2)  yr(-1) ). Gross ecosystem production and ecosystem respiration were the two largest fluxes in the annual carbon budget. Yet, these two fluxes compensated each other to a large extent and led to the marsh being a CO2 sink in 2011 (-78.8 ± 33.6 g C m(-2)  yr(-1) ), near CO2 -neutral in 2012 (29.7 ± 37.2 g C m(-2)  yr(-1) ), and a CO2 source in 2013 (92.9 ± 28.0 g C m(-2)  yr(-1) ). The CH4 emission was consistently high with a three-year average of 50.8 ± 1.0 g C m(-2)  yr(-1) . Considerable hydrologic carbon flowed laterally both into and out of the marsh (108.3 ± 5.4 and 86.2 ± 10.5 g C m(-2)  yr(-1) , respectively). In total, hydrologic carbon fluxes contributed ~23 ± 13 g C m(-2)  yr(-1) to the three-year carbon budget. Our findings highlight the importance of lateral hydrologic inflows/outflows in wetland carbon budgets, especially in those characterized by a flow-through hydrologic regime. In addition, different carbon fluxes responded unequally to climate variability/anomalies and, thus, the total carbon budgets may vary drastically among years.

  18. Impact ignition of aluminum-teflon based energetic materials impregnated with nano-structured carbon additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kappagantula, Keerti; Pantoya, Michelle L.; Hunt, Emily M.

    2012-07-01

    The inclusion of graphene into composite energetic materials to enhance their performance is a new area of interest. Studies have shown that the addition of graphene significantly enhances the thermal transport properties of an energetic composite, but how graphene influences the composite's ignition sensitivity has not been studied. The objective of this study is to examine the influence of carbon additives in composite energetic material composed of aluminum and polytetrafluoroethylene (Teflon™) on ignition sensitivity due to low velocity, drop weight impact. Specifically, three forms of carbon additives were investigated and selected based on different physical and structural properties: spherically shaped amorphous nano particles of carbon, cylindrically shaped multi walled carbon nanotubes, and sheet like graphene flakes. Results show an interesting trend: composites consisting of carbon nanotubes are significantly more sensitive to impact ignition and require the lowest ignition energy. In contrast, graphene is least sensitive to ignition exhibiting negligible reduction in ignition energy with low concentrations of graphene additive. While graphene does not significantly sensitize the energetic composite to ignition, graphene does, however, result in greater overall reactivity as observed through images of the reaction. The enhanced thermal transport properties of graphene containing composites may promote greater energy transport once ignited, but those properties do not also increase ignition sensitivity. These results and the understanding of the structural arrangement of particles within a composite as a key parameter affecting impact ignition sensitivity will have an impact on the safe handling and use of composite energetic materials.

  19. CO2 mitigation potential of mineral carbonation with industrial alkalinity sources in the United States.

    PubMed

    Kirchofer, Abby; Becker, Austin; Brandt, Adam; Wilcox, Jennifer

    2013-07-01

    The availability of industrial alkalinity sources is investigated to determine their potential for the simultaneous capture and sequestration of CO2 from point-source emissions in the United States. Industrial alkalinity sources investigated include fly ash, cement kiln dust, and iron and steel slag. Their feasibility for mineral carbonation is determined by their relative abundance for CO2 reactivity and their proximity to point-source CO2 emissions. In addition, the available aggregate markets are investigated as possible sinks for mineral carbonation products. We show that in the U.S., industrial alkaline byproducts have the potential to mitigate approximately 7.6 Mt CO2/yr, of which 7.0 Mt CO2/yr are CO2 captured through mineral carbonation and 0.6 Mt CO2/yr are CO2 emissions avoided through reuse as synthetic aggregate (replacing sand and gravel). The emission reductions represent a small share (i.e., 0.1%) of total U.S. CO2 emissions; however, industrial byproducts may represent comparatively low-cost methods for the advancement of mineral carbonation technologies, which may be extended to more abundant yet expensive natural alkalinity sources. PMID:23738892

  20. Fluorescently tuned nitrogen-doped carbon dots from carbon source with different content of carboxyl groups

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Hao; Wang, Yun; Dai, Xiao; Zou, Guifu E-mail: zouguifu@suda.edu.cn; Gao, Peng; Zhang, Ke-Qin E-mail: zouguifu@suda.edu.cn; Du, Dezhuang; Guo, Jun

    2015-08-01

    In this study, fluorescent nitrogen-doped carbon dots (NCDs) were tuned via varying the sources with different number of carboxyl groups. Owing to the interaction between amino and carboxyl, more amino groups conjugate the surface of the NCDs by the source with more carboxyl groups. Fluorescent NCDs were tuned via varying the sources with different content of carboxyl groups. Correspondingly, the nitrogen content, fluorescence quantum yields and lifetime of NCDs increases with the content of carboxyl groups from the source. Furthermore, cytotoxicity assay and cell imaging test indicate that the resultant NCDs possess low cytotoxicity and excellent biocompatibility.

  1. [High Throughput Screening Analysis of Preservatives and Sweeteners in Carbonated Beverages Based on Improved Standard Addition Method].

    PubMed

    Wang, Su-fang; Liu, Yun; Gong, Li-hua; Dong, Chun-hong; Fu, De-xue; Wang, Guo-qing

    2016-02-01

    Simulated water samples of 3 kinds of preservatives and 4 kinds of sweeteners were formulated by using orthogonal design. Kernel independent component analysis (KICA) was used to process the UV spectra of the simulated water samples and the beverages added different amounts of the additive standards, then the independent components (ICs), i. e. the UV spectral profiles of the additives, and the ICs' coefficient matrices were used to establish UV-KICA-SVR prediction model of the simulated preservatives and sweeteners solutions using support vector regression (SVR) analysis. The standards added beverages samples were obtained by adding different amounts level of additives in carbonated beverages, their UV spectra were processed by KICA, then IC information represented to the additives and other sample matrix were obtained, and the sample background can be deducted by removing the corresponding IC, other ICs' coefficient matrices were used to estimate the amounts of the additives in the standard added beverage samples based on the UV-KICA-SVR model, while the intercept of linear regression equation of predicted amounts and the added amounts in the standard added samples is the additive content in the raw beverage sample. By utilization of chemometric "blind source separation" method for extracting IC information of the tested additives in the beverage and other sample matrix, and using SVR regression modeling to improve the traditional standard addition method, a new method was proposed for the screening of the preservatives and sweeteners in carbonated beverages. The proposed UV-KICA-SVR method can be used to determine 3 kinds of preservatives and 4 kinds of sweetener in the carbonate beverages with the limit of detection (LOD) are located with the range 0.2-1.0 mg · L⁻¹, which are comparable to that of the traditional high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method. PMID:27209754

  2. [High Throughput Screening Analysis of Preservatives and Sweeteners in Carbonated Beverages Based on Improved Standard Addition Method].

    PubMed

    Wang, Su-fang; Liu, Yun; Gong, Li-hua; Dong, Chun-hong; Fu, De-xue; Wang, Guo-qing

    2016-02-01

    Simulated water samples of 3 kinds of preservatives and 4 kinds of sweeteners were formulated by using orthogonal design. Kernel independent component analysis (KICA) was used to process the UV spectra of the simulated water samples and the beverages added different amounts of the additive standards, then the independent components (ICs), i. e. the UV spectral profiles of the additives, and the ICs' coefficient matrices were used to establish UV-KICA-SVR prediction model of the simulated preservatives and sweeteners solutions using support vector regression (SVR) analysis. The standards added beverages samples were obtained by adding different amounts level of additives in carbonated beverages, their UV spectra were processed by KICA, then IC information represented to the additives and other sample matrix were obtained, and the sample background can be deducted by removing the corresponding IC, other ICs' coefficient matrices were used to estimate the amounts of the additives in the standard added beverage samples based on the UV-KICA-SVR model, while the intercept of linear regression equation of predicted amounts and the added amounts in the standard added samples is the additive content in the raw beverage sample. By utilization of chemometric "blind source separation" method for extracting IC information of the tested additives in the beverage and other sample matrix, and using SVR regression modeling to improve the traditional standard addition method, a new method was proposed for the screening of the preservatives and sweeteners in carbonated beverages. The proposed UV-KICA-SVR method can be used to determine 3 kinds of preservatives and 4 kinds of sweetener in the carbonate beverages with the limit of detection (LOD) are located with the range 0.2-1.0 mg · L⁻¹, which are comparable to that of the traditional high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method.

  3. Control of ordering and structure in soft templated mesoporous carbon films by use of selective solvent additives.

    PubMed

    Qiang, Zhe; Xue, Jiachen; Stein, Gila E; Cavicchi, Kevin A; Vogt, Bryan D

    2013-07-01

    The structure of ordered mesoporous carbons fabricated using poly(styrene-block-N,N,-dimethyl-n-octadecylamine p-styrenesulfonate) (PS-b-PSS-DMODA) as the template and phenolic resin (resol) as the carbon source can be easily manipulated by inclusion of low concentrations of low volatility selective solvents in the casting solution. Casting from neat methyl ethyl ketone yields a disordered structure even upon thermal annealing. However, addition of both dioctyl phthalate (DOP, PS selective) and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO, resol and PSS-DMODA selective) at modest concentrations to this casting solution provides sufficient mobility to produce highly ordered films with cylindrical mesopores. The DOP acts to swell the hydrophobic domain and can more than double the mesopore size, while the DMSO acts to swell the resol phase. Moreover, the surface area of the mesoporous carbons increases significantly as the meosopore size increases. This is a result of the decrease in wall thickness, which can be ascertained by the constant d-spacing of the mesostructure as the pore size increases. This behavior is counter to the typical effect of pore swelling agents that increase the pore size and decrease the surface area. Moreover, with only 4 wt % DOP/DMSO in the solution (20 wt % relative to solids), the scattering profiles exhibit many orders of diffraction, even upon carbonization, which is not typically observed for soft templated films. Variation in the concentration of DOP and DMSO during casting enables facile tuning of the structure of mesoporous carbon films. PMID:23738851

  4. Critical review of black carbon and elemental carbon source apportionment in Europe and the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briggs, Nicole L.; Long, Christopher M.

    2016-11-01

    An increasing number of air pollution source apportionment studies in Europe and the United States have focused on the black carbon (BC) fraction of ambient particulate matter (PM) given its linkage with adverse public health and climate impacts. We conducted a critical review of European and US BC source apportionment studies published since 2003. Since elemental carbon (EC) has been used as a surrogate measure of BC, we also considered source apportionment studies of EC measurements. This review extends the knowledge presented in previous ambient PM source apportionment reviews because we focus on BC and EC and critically examine the differences between source apportionment results for different methods and source categories. We identified about 50 BC and EC source apportionment studies that have been conducted in either Europe or the US since 2003, finding a striking difference in the commonly used source apportionment methods between the two regions and variations in the assigned source categories. Using three dominant methodologies (radiocarbon, aethalometer, and macro-tracer methods) that only allow for BC to be broadly apportioned into either fossil fuel combustion or biomass burning source categories, European studies generally support fossil fuel combustion as the dominant ambient BC source, but also show significant biomass burning contributions, in particular in wintertime at non-urban locations. Among US studies where prevailing methods such as chemical mass balance (CMB) and positive matrix factorization (PMF) models have allowed for estimation of more refined source contributions, there are fewer findings showing the significance of biomass burning and variable findings on the relative proportion of BC attributed to diesel versus gasoline emissions. Overall, the available BC source apportionment studies provide useful information demonstrating the significance of both fossil fuel combustion and biomass burning BC emission sources in Europe and the US

  5. The effect of additional high dose carbon implantation on the tribological properties of titanium implanted steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, Kazunori; Sasaki, Jun; Ichiko, Osami; Hashiguchi, Yoshihiro

    1996-08-01

    The tribological properties and the structural changes of hardened steel implanted with titanium followed by carbon were investigated as a function of additional carbon dose. The dose of Ti was 5×10 17 Ti cm -2 and the additional C doses were 0, 4×10 17, 8×10 17 and 1.2×10 18 C cm -2. After Ti implantation, the steel surface transformed to a FeTiC ternary amorphous phase. Additional implantation of carbon to a dose of 4×10 17 C cm -2 produced fine TiC precipitates dispersed in the ternary amorphous matrix. When the additional C dose exceeded 8×10 17 C cm -2, very fine graphite precipitates appeared in the ternary amorphous phase. The steel surface with very fine graphite precipitates exhibited superior tribological properties. The benefits provided by additional high dose carbon implantation are considered as follows: strengthening of the amorphous phase, thickening of the modified layer, dispersion strengthening of the implanted layer by very fine graphite precipitates and lubrication effect by graphite particles. Comparing the friction properties of Ti+C implanted steel with that of C implanted steel, the role of Ti implantation is to reduce the friction of the surface during sliding and the role of C implantation is to increase the lifetime of the surface against wear.

  6. Copper(I)-catalyzed regioselective addition of nucleophilic silicon across terminal and internal carbon-carbon triple bonds.

    PubMed

    Hazra, Chinmoy K; Fopp, Carolin; Oestreich, Martin

    2014-10-01

    The copper(I) alkoxide-catalyzed release of a silicon-based cuprate reagent from a silicon-boron pronucleophile is applied to the addition across carbon-carbon triple bonds. Commercially available CuBr⋅Me2S was found to be a general precatalyst that secures high regiocontrol for both aryl- and alkyl-substituted terminal as well as internal alkynes. The solvent greatly influences the regioisomeric ratio, favoring the linear regioisomer with terminal acceptors. This facile protocol even allows for the transformation of internal acceptors with remarkable levels of regio- and diastereocontrol.

  7. Carbon and black carbon in Yosemite National Park soils: sources, prescribed fire impacts, and policies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrestha, G.; Traina, S. J.

    2012-12-01

    We investigated the chemical and radiocarbon properties of black carbon recently deposited and accumulated in surface soils of six sites along an altitudinal gradient in Yosemite National Park, central California. The effect of prescribed (or controlled) forest burning on existing carbon and black carbon in surface soils was assessed to illuminate the role of this forest management and wildfire control strategy in the soil carbon cycle. The proportional contribution of fossil fuel or radiocarbon dead carbon versus biomass sources on these black carbon materials was analyzed to elucidate their origin, estimate their ages and explore the possible effects of prescribed burning on the amount of black carbon produced recently as well as historically. Supplementing these field results, we conducted a comparative spatial analysis of recent prescribed burn and wildfire coverage in Central California's San Joaquin Valley to approximate the effectiveness of prescribed burning for wildfire prevention. Federal and California policies pertaining to prescribed forest fires and/or black carbon were then evaluated for their effectiveness, air quality considerations, and environmental benefits. 13C NMR spectrum of soil surface char from study sites Prescribed burn coverage versus wildfires in central California

  8. Role of metabolite transporters in source-sink carbon allocation

    PubMed Central

    Ludewig, Frank; Flügge, Ulf-Ingo

    2013-01-01

    Plants assimilate carbon dioxide during photosynthesis in chloroplasts. Assimilated carbon is subsequently allocated throughout the plant. Generally, two types of organs can be distinguished, mature green source leaves as net photoassimilate exporters, and net importers, the sinks, e.g., roots, flowers, small leaves, and storage organs like tubers. Within these organs, different tissue types developed according to their respective function, and cells of either tissue type are highly compartmentalized. Photoassimilates are allocated to distinct compartments of these tissues in all organs, requiring a set of metabolite transporters mediating this intercompartmental transfer. The general route of photoassimilates can be briefly described as follows. Upon fixation of carbon dioxide in chloroplasts of mesophyll cells, triose phosphates either enter the cytosol for mainly sucrose formation or remain in the stroma to form transiently stored starch which is degraded during the night and enters the cytosol as maltose or glucose to be further metabolized to sucrose. In both cases, sucrose enters the phloem for long distance transport or is transiently stored in the vacuole, or can be degraded to hexoses which also can be stored in the vacuole. In the majority of plant species, sucrose is actively loaded into the phloem via the apoplast. Following long distance transport, it is released into sink organs, where it enters cells as source of carbon and energy. In storage organs, sucrose can be stored, or carbon derived from sucrose can be stored as starch in plastids, or as oil in oil bodies, or – in combination with nitrogen – as protein in protein storage vacuoles and protein bodies. Here, we focus on transport proteins known for either of these steps, and discuss the implications for yield increase in plants upon genetic engineering of respective transporters. PMID:23847636

  9. Role of metabolite transporters in source-sink carbon allocation.

    PubMed

    Ludewig, Frank; Flügge, Ulf-Ingo

    2013-01-01

    Plants assimilate carbon dioxide during photosynthesis in chloroplasts. Assimilated carbon is subsequently allocated throughout the plant. Generally, two types of organs can be distinguished, mature green source leaves as net photoassimilate exporters, and net importers, the sinks, e.g., roots, flowers, small leaves, and storage organs like tubers. Within these organs, different tissue types developed according to their respective function, and cells of either tissue type are highly compartmentalized. Photoassimilates are allocated to distinct compartments of these tissues in all organs, requiring a set of metabolite transporters mediating this intercompartmental transfer. The general route of photoassimilates can be briefly described as follows. Upon fixation of carbon dioxide in chloroplasts of mesophyll cells, triose phosphates either enter the cytosol for mainly sucrose formation or remain in the stroma to form transiently stored starch which is degraded during the night and enters the cytosol as maltose or glucose to be further metabolized to sucrose. In both cases, sucrose enters the phloem for long distance transport or is transiently stored in the vacuole, or can be degraded to hexoses which also can be stored in the vacuole. In the majority of plant species, sucrose is actively loaded into the phloem via the apoplast. Following long distance transport, it is released into sink organs, where it enters cells as source of carbon and energy. In storage organs, sucrose can be stored, or carbon derived from sucrose can be stored as starch in plastids, or as oil in oil bodies, or - in combination with nitrogen - as protein in protein storage vacuoles and protein bodies. Here, we focus on transport proteins known for either of these steps, and discuss the implications for yield increase in plants upon genetic engineering of respective transporters.

  10. Role of metabolite transporters in source-sink carbon allocation.

    PubMed

    Ludewig, Frank; Flügge, Ulf-Ingo

    2013-01-01

    Plants assimilate carbon dioxide during photosynthesis in chloroplasts. Assimilated carbon is subsequently allocated throughout the plant. Generally, two types of organs can be distinguished, mature green source leaves as net photoassimilate exporters, and net importers, the sinks, e.g., roots, flowers, small leaves, and storage organs like tubers. Within these organs, different tissue types developed according to their respective function, and cells of either tissue type are highly compartmentalized. Photoassimilates are allocated to distinct compartments of these tissues in all organs, requiring a set of metabolite transporters mediating this intercompartmental transfer. The general route of photoassimilates can be briefly described as follows. Upon fixation of carbon dioxide in chloroplasts of mesophyll cells, triose phosphates either enter the cytosol for mainly sucrose formation or remain in the stroma to form transiently stored starch which is degraded during the night and enters the cytosol as maltose or glucose to be further metabolized to sucrose. In both cases, sucrose enters the phloem for long distance transport or is transiently stored in the vacuole, or can be degraded to hexoses which also can be stored in the vacuole. In the majority of plant species, sucrose is actively loaded into the phloem via the apoplast. Following long distance transport, it is released into sink organs, where it enters cells as source of carbon and energy. In storage organs, sucrose can be stored, or carbon derived from sucrose can be stored as starch in plastids, or as oil in oil bodies, or - in combination with nitrogen - as protein in protein storage vacuoles and protein bodies. Here, we focus on transport proteins known for either of these steps, and discuss the implications for yield increase in plants upon genetic engineering of respective transporters. PMID:23847636

  11. Trace Metal Source Terms in Carbon Sequestration Environments

    SciTech Connect

    Karamalidis, Athanasios; Torres, Sharon G.; Hakala, Jacqueline A.; Shao, Hongbo; Cantrell, Kirk J.; Carroll, Susan A.

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Carbon dioxide sequestration in deep saline and depleted oil geologic formations is feasible and promising; however, possible CO2 or CO2-saturated brine leakage to overlying aquifers may pose environmental and health impacts. The purpose of this study was to experimentally define to provide a range of concentrations that can be used as the trace element source term for reservoirs and leakage pathways in risk simulations. Storage source terms for trace metals are needed to evaluate the impact of brines leaking into overlying drinking water aquifers. The trace metal release was measured from cements and sandstones, shales, carbonates, evaporites, and basalts from the Frio, In Salah, Illinois Basin, Decatur, Lower Tuscaloosa, Weyburn-Midale, Bass Islands, and Grand Ronde carbon sequestration geologic formations. Trace metal dissolution was tracked by measuring solution concentrations over time under conditions (e.g., pressures, temperatures, and initial brine compositions) specific to the sequestration projects. Existing metrics for maximum contaminant levels (MCLs) for drinking water as defined by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) were used to categorize the relative significance of metal concentration changes in storage environments because of the presence of CO2. Results indicate that Cr and Pb released from sandstone reservoir and shale cap rocks exceed the MCLs byan order of magnitude, while Cd and Cu were at or below drinking water thresholds. In carbonate reservoirs As exceeds the MCLs by an order of magnitude, while Cd, Cu, and Pb were at or below drinking water standards. Results from this study can be used as a reasonable estimate of the trace element source term for reservoirs and leakage pathways in risk simulations to further evaluate the impact of leakage on groundwater quality.

  12. Trace metal source terms in carbon sequestration environments.

    PubMed

    Karamalidis, Athanasios K; Torres, Sharon G; Hakala, J Alexandra; Shao, Hongbo; Cantrell, Kirk J; Carroll, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Carbon dioxide sequestration in deep saline and depleted oil geologic formations is feasible and promising; however, possible CO(2) or CO(2)-saturated brine leakage to overlying aquifers may pose environmental and health impacts. The purpose of this study was to experimentally define a range of concentrations that can be used as the trace element source term for reservoirs and leakage pathways in risk simulations. Storage source terms for trace metals are needed to evaluate the impact of brines leaking into overlying drinking water aquifers. The trace metal release was measured from cements and sandstones, shales, carbonates, evaporites, and basalts from the Frio, In Salah, Illinois Basin, Decatur, Lower Tuscaloosa, Weyburn-Midale, Bass Islands, and Grand Ronde carbon sequestration geologic formations. Trace metal dissolution was tracked by measuring solution concentrations over time under conditions (e.g., pressures, temperatures, and initial brine compositions) specific to the sequestration projects. Existing metrics for maximum contaminant levels (MCLs) for drinking water as defined by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) were used to categorize the relative significance of metal concentration changes in storage environments because of the presence of CO(2). Results indicate that Cr and Pb released from sandstone reservoir and shale cap rocks exceed the MCLs by an order of magnitude, while Cd and Cu were at or below drinking water thresholds. In carbonate reservoirs As exceeds the MCLs by an order of magnitude, while Cd, Cu, and Pb were at or below drinking water standards. Results from this study can be used as a reasonable estimate of the trace element source term for reservoirs and leakage pathways in risk simulations to further evaluate the impact of leakage on groundwater quality. PMID:23215015

  13. Trace Metal Source Terms in Carbon Sequestration Environments

    SciTech Connect

    Karamalidis, Athanasios K; Torres, Sharon G; Hakala, J Alexandra; Shao, Hongbo; Cantrell, Kirk J; Carroll, Susan

    2012-02-05

    Carbon dioxide sequestration in deep saline and depleted oil geologic formations is feasible and promising, however, possible CO₂ or CO₂-saturated brine leakage to overlying aquifers may pose environmental and health impacts. The purpose of this study was to experimentally define trace metal source terms from the reaction of supercritical CO₂, storage reservoir brines, reservoir and cap rocks. Storage reservoir source terms for trace metals are needed to evaluate the impact of brines leaking into overlying drinking water aquifers. The trace metal release was measured from sandstones, shales, carbonates, evaporites, basalts and cements from the Frio, In Salah, Illinois Basin – Decatur, Lower Tuscaloosa, Weyburn-Midale, Bass Islands and Grand Ronde carbon sequestration geologic formations. Trace metal dissolution is tracked by measuring solution concentrations over time under conditions (e.g. pressures, temperatures, and initial brine compositions) specific to the sequestration projects. Existing metrics for Maximum Contaminant Levels (MCLs) for drinking water as defined by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) were used to categorize the relative significance of metal concentration changes in storage environments due to the presence of CO₂. Results indicate that Cr and Pb released from sandstone reservoir and shale cap rock exceed the MCLs by an order of magnitude while Cd and Cu were at or below drinking water thresholds. In carbonate reservoirs As exceeds the MCLs by an order of magnitude, while Cd, Cu, and Pb were at or below drinking water standards. Results from this study can be used as a reasonable estimate of the reservoir and caprock source term to further evaluate the impact of leakage on groundwater quality.

  14. Trace metal source terms in carbon sequestration environments.

    PubMed

    Karamalidis, Athanasios K; Torres, Sharon G; Hakala, J Alexandra; Shao, Hongbo; Cantrell, Kirk J; Carroll, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Carbon dioxide sequestration in deep saline and depleted oil geologic formations is feasible and promising; however, possible CO(2) or CO(2)-saturated brine leakage to overlying aquifers may pose environmental and health impacts. The purpose of this study was to experimentally define a range of concentrations that can be used as the trace element source term for reservoirs and leakage pathways in risk simulations. Storage source terms for trace metals are needed to evaluate the impact of brines leaking into overlying drinking water aquifers. The trace metal release was measured from cements and sandstones, shales, carbonates, evaporites, and basalts from the Frio, In Salah, Illinois Basin, Decatur, Lower Tuscaloosa, Weyburn-Midale, Bass Islands, and Grand Ronde carbon sequestration geologic formations. Trace metal dissolution was tracked by measuring solution concentrations over time under conditions (e.g., pressures, temperatures, and initial brine compositions) specific to the sequestration projects. Existing metrics for maximum contaminant levels (MCLs) for drinking water as defined by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) were used to categorize the relative significance of metal concentration changes in storage environments because of the presence of CO(2). Results indicate that Cr and Pb released from sandstone reservoir and shale cap rocks exceed the MCLs by an order of magnitude, while Cd and Cu were at or below drinking water thresholds. In carbonate reservoirs As exceeds the MCLs by an order of magnitude, while Cd, Cu, and Pb were at or below drinking water standards. Results from this study can be used as a reasonable estimate of the trace element source term for reservoirs and leakage pathways in risk simulations to further evaluate the impact of leakage on groundwater quality.

  15. Immune response and disease resistance of shrimp fed biofloc grown on different carbon sources.

    PubMed

    Ekasari, Julie; Hanif Azhar, Muhammad; Surawidjaja, Enang H; Nuryati, Sri; De Schryver, Peter; Bossier, Peter

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this study was to document the immunological effects of growing shrimp in biofloc systems. The experiment consisted of four types of biofloc systems in which bioflocs were produced by daily supplementation of four different carbon sources, i.e. molasses, tapioca, tapioca-by-product, and rice bran, at an estimated C/N ratio of 15 and a control system without any organic carbon addition. Each biofloc system was stocked with Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) juveniles that were reared for 49 days. The use of tapioca-by-product resulted in a higher survival (93%) of the shrimp as compared to the other carbon sources and the control. The highest yield and protein assimilation was observed when tapioca was used as the carbon source. After 49 days, phenoloxidase (PO) activity of the shrimp grown in all biofloc systems was higher than that of the shrimp from the control system. Following a challenge test by injection with infectious myonecrosis virus (IMNV), the levels of PO and respiratory burst (RB) activity in the shrimp of all biofloc treatments were higher than that of the challenged shrimp from the control treatment. An increased immunity was also suggested by the survival of the challenged shrimp from the experimental biofloc groups that was significantly higher as compared to the challenged shrimp from the control treatment, regardless of the organic carbon source used to grow the bioflocs. Overall, this study demonstrated that the application of biofloc technology may contribute to the robustness of cultured shrimp by immunostimulation and that this effect is independent of the type of carbon source used to grow the flocs.

  16. Immune response and disease resistance of shrimp fed biofloc grown on different carbon sources.

    PubMed

    Ekasari, Julie; Hanif Azhar, Muhammad; Surawidjaja, Enang H; Nuryati, Sri; De Schryver, Peter; Bossier, Peter

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this study was to document the immunological effects of growing shrimp in biofloc systems. The experiment consisted of four types of biofloc systems in which bioflocs were produced by daily supplementation of four different carbon sources, i.e. molasses, tapioca, tapioca-by-product, and rice bran, at an estimated C/N ratio of 15 and a control system without any organic carbon addition. Each biofloc system was stocked with Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) juveniles that were reared for 49 days. The use of tapioca-by-product resulted in a higher survival (93%) of the shrimp as compared to the other carbon sources and the control. The highest yield and protein assimilation was observed when tapioca was used as the carbon source. After 49 days, phenoloxidase (PO) activity of the shrimp grown in all biofloc systems was higher than that of the shrimp from the control system. Following a challenge test by injection with infectious myonecrosis virus (IMNV), the levels of PO and respiratory burst (RB) activity in the shrimp of all biofloc treatments were higher than that of the challenged shrimp from the control treatment. An increased immunity was also suggested by the survival of the challenged shrimp from the experimental biofloc groups that was significantly higher as compared to the challenged shrimp from the control treatment, regardless of the organic carbon source used to grow the bioflocs. Overall, this study demonstrated that the application of biofloc technology may contribute to the robustness of cultured shrimp by immunostimulation and that this effect is independent of the type of carbon source used to grow the flocs. PMID:25218685

  17. Sources and sinks of carbon dioxide in the Arctic regions

    SciTech Connect

    Gosink, T. A.; Kelley, J. J.

    1982-01-01

    The data base required to adequately ascertain seasonal source and sink strengths in the arctic regions is difficult to obtain. However, there are now a reasonable quantity of data for this polar region to estimate sources and sinks within the Arctic which may contribute significantly to the annual tropospheric CO/sub 2/ concentration fluctuation. The sea-ice-air and the sea-air interfaces account for most of the contribution to the sources and sinks for carbon dioxide. Although the arctic and subarctic region is small in extent, it certainly is not impervious and ice sealed. Our estimate, based on historical data and current research, indicates that the Arctic, which is about 4% of the earth's surface, is an annual net sink for approx. 10/sup 15/ g CO/sub 2/ accounting for an equivalent of approx. 3% of the annual anthropogenic contribution of CO/sub 2/ to the troposphere.

  18. Optical performance of carbon-nanotube electron sources.

    PubMed

    de Jonge, Niels; Allioux, Myriam; Oostveen, Jim T; Teo, Kenneth B K; Milne, William I

    2005-05-13

    The figure of merit for the electron optical performance of carbon-nanotube (CNT) electron sources is presented. This figure is given by the relation between the reduced brightness and the energy spread in the region of stable emission. It is shown experimentally that a CNT electron source exhibits a highly stable emission process that follows the Fowler-Nordheim theory for field emission, fixing the relationship among the energy spread, the current, and the radius. The performance of the CNT emitter under realistic operating conditions is compared with state-of-the-art electron point sources. It is demonstrated that the reduced brightness is a function of the tunneling parameter, a measure of the energy spread at low temperatures, only, independent of the geometry of the emitter. PMID:15904397

  19. Optical Performance of Carbon-Nanotube Electron Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Jonge, Niels; Allioux, Myriam; Oostveen, Jim T.; Teo, Kenneth B.; Milne, William I.

    2005-05-01

    The figure of merit for the electron optical performance of carbon-nanotube (CNT) electron sources is presented. This figure is given by the relation between the reduced brightness and the energy spread in the region of stable emission. It is shown experimentally that a CNT electron source exhibits a highly stable emission process that follows the Fowler-Nordheim theory for field emission, fixing the relationship among the energy spread, the current, and the radius. The performance of the CNT emitter under realistic operating conditions is compared with state-of-the-art electron point sources. It is demonstrated that the reduced brightness is a function of the tunneling parameter, a measure of the energy spread at low temperatures, only, independent of the geometry of the emitter.

  20. A Carbon Nanotube Electron Source Based Ionization Vacuum Gauge

    SciTech Connect

    Changkun Dong; Ganapati Myneni

    2003-10-01

    The results of fabrication and performance of an ionization vacuum gauge using a carbon nanotube (CNT) electron source are presented. The electron source was constructed with multi-wall nanotubes (MWNT), which were grown using thermal chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process. The electron emission of the source was stable in vacuum pressure up to 10-7 Torr, which is better than the metal field emitters. The measurement linearity of the gauge was better than {+-}10% from 10-6 to 10-10 Torr. The gauge sensitivity of 4 Torr-1 was achieved under 50 {micro}A electron emission in nitrogen. The gauge is expected to find applications in vacuum measurements from 10-7 Torr to below 10-11 Torr.

  1. Impacts of biochar (black carbon) additions on the sorption and efficacy of herbicides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is renewed interest in the soil application of charcoal (biochar) as a means of increasing carbon sequestration and combating climate change. The land areas that are targeted for biochar applications are agricultural land, due to the potential positive impacts that charcoal additions have on o...

  2. Comparisons of short carbon nanotubes containing conductive additives of cathode for lithium ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Qingtang; Wang, Xiaomei; Lu, Wenjiang; Tang, Fuling; Guo, Junhong; Yu, Weiyuan; Qu, Meizhen; Yu, Zuolong

    2013-08-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Short carbon nanotubes (SCNT) containing conductive additives were used. • SCNT/graphite powder (GP) mixture is better than SCNT/mesoporous carbon mixture. • SCNT connect many isolated GP particles to form a more valid conductive network. • SCNT absorb some electrolyte solution allowing quick electrochemical reactions. - Abstract: Short carbon nanotubes (SCNT) containing conductive additives, i.e. SCNT/graphite powder (GP) mixture (SCNTGP) and SCNT/mesoporous carbon (MC) mixture (SCNTMC) were employed as conductive additives for LiCoO{sub 2} cathode. GP and MC have similar particle size, but GP has lower specific surface area and higher electronic conductivity. Electrochemical measurements indicate that SCNTGP is more effective in improving the electrochemical performance of LiCoO{sub 2} composite cathode under the same conditions. The reason is described as follows. SCNT connect the isolated GP particles to form a more valid conductive network. In addition, SCNT has a certain specific mesoporous surface area, which can absorb some electrolyte solution and then provide buffer lithium ions for quick electrochemical reactions. Consequently, the combination of these two factors would be responsible to the improvement in the electrochemical performance of the SCNTGP loaded cathode.

  3. Rare Potassium-Bearing Mica in Allan Hills 84001: Additional Constraints on Carbonate Formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brearley, A. J.

    1998-01-01

    There have been presented several intriguing observations suggesting evidence of fossil life in martian orthopyroxenite ALH 84001. These exciting and controversial observations have stimulated extensive debate over the origin and history of ALH 84001, but many issues still remain unresolved. Among the most important is the question of the temperature at which the carbonates, which host the putative microfossils, formed. Oxygen- isotopic data, while showing that the carbonates are generally out of isotopic equilibria with the host rock, cannot constrain their temperature of formation. Both low- and high-temperature scenarios are plausible depending on whether carbonate growth occurred in an open or closed system. Petrographic arguments have generally been used to support a high-temperature origin but these appear to be suspect because they assume equilibrium between carbonate compositions that are not in contact. Some observations appear to be consistent with shock mobilization and growth from immiscible silicate-carbonate melts at high temperatures. Proponents of a low-temperature origin for the carbonates are hampered by the fact that there is currently no evidence of hydrous phases that would indicate low temperatures and the presence of a hydrous fluid during the formation of the carbonates. However, the absence of hydrous phases does not rule out carbonate formation at low temperatures, because the carbonate forming fluids may have been extremely CO2 rich, such that hydrous phases would not have been stabilized. In this study, I have carried out additional Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies of ALH-84001 and have found evidence of very rare phyllosilicates, which appear to be convincingly of pre-terrestrial origin. At present these observations are limited to one occurrence: further studies are in progress to determine if the phyllosilicates are more widespread.

  4. Proteome-wide quantitative multiplexed profiling of protein expression: carbon-source dependency in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Paulo, Joao A.; O’Connell, Jeremy D.; Gaun, Aleksandr; Gygi, Steven P.

    2015-01-01

    The global proteomic alterations in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae due to differences in carbon sources can be comprehensively examined using mass spectrometry–based multiplexing strategies. In this study, we investigate changes in the S. cerevisiae proteome resulting from cultures grown in minimal media using galactose, glucose, or raffinose as the carbon source. We used a tandem mass tag 9-plex strategy to determine alterations in relative protein abundance due to a particular carbon source, in triplicate, thereby permitting subsequent statistical analyses. We quantified more than 4700 proteins across all nine samples; 1003 proteins demonstrated statistically significant differences in abundance in at least one condition. The majority of altered proteins were classified as functioning in metabolic processes and as having cellular origins of plasma membrane and mitochondria. In contrast, proteins remaining relatively unchanged in abundance included those having nucleic acid–related processes, such as transcription and RNA processing. In addition, the comprehensiveness of the data set enabled the analysis of subsets of functionally related proteins, such as phosphatases, kinases, and transcription factors. As a resource, these data can be mined further in efforts to understand better the roles of carbon source fermentation in yeast metabolic pathways and the alterations observed therein, potentially for industrial applications, such as biofuel feedstock production. PMID:26399295

  5. Proteome-wide quantitative multiplexed profiling of protein expression: carbon-source dependency in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Paulo, Joao A; O'Connell, Jeremy D; Gaun, Aleksandr; Gygi, Steven P

    2015-11-01

    The global proteomic alterations in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae due to differences in carbon sources can be comprehensively examined using mass spectrometry-based multiplexing strategies. In this study, we investigate changes in the S. cerevisiae proteome resulting from cultures grown in minimal media using galactose, glucose, or raffinose as the carbon source. We used a tandem mass tag 9-plex strategy to determine alterations in relative protein abundance due to a particular carbon source, in triplicate, thereby permitting subsequent statistical analyses. We quantified more than 4700 proteins across all nine samples; 1003 proteins demonstrated statistically significant differences in abundance in at least one condition. The majority of altered proteins were classified as functioning in metabolic processes and as having cellular origins of plasma membrane and mitochondria. In contrast, proteins remaining relatively unchanged in abundance included those having nucleic acid-related processes, such as transcription and RNA processing. In addition, the comprehensiveness of the data set enabled the analysis of subsets of functionally related proteins, such as phosphatases, kinases, and transcription factors. As a resource, these data can be mined further in efforts to understand better the roles of carbon source fermentation in yeast metabolic pathways and the alterations observed therein, potentially for industrial applications, such as biofuel feedstock production.

  6. Validating a nondestructive optical method for apportioning colored particulate matter into black carbon and additional components

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Beizhan; Kennedy, Daniel; Miller, Rachel L.; Cowin, James P.; Jung, Kyung-hwa; Perzanowski, Matt; Balletta, Marco; Perera, Federica P.; Kinney, Patrick L.; Chillrud, Steven N.

    2011-01-01

    Exposure of black carbon (BC) is associated with a variety of adverse health outcomes. A number of optical methods for estimating BC on Teflon filters have been adopted but most assume all light absorption is due to BC while other sources of colored particulate matter exist. Recently, a four-wavelength-optical reflectance measurement for distinguishing second hand cigarette smoke (SHS) from soot-BC was developed (Brook et al., 2010; Lawless et al., 2004). However, the method has not been validated for soot-BC nor SHS and little work has been done to look at the methodological issues of the optical reflectance measurements for samples that could have SHS, BC, and other colored particles. We refined this method using a lab-modified integrating sphere with absorption measured continuously from 350 nm to 1000 nm. Furthermore, we characterized the absorption spectrum of additional components of particulate matter (PM) on PM2.5 filters including ammonium sulfate, hematite, goethite, and magnetite. Finally, we validate this method for BC by comparison to other standard methods. Use of synthesized data indicates that it is important to optimize the choice of wavelengths to minimize computational errors as additional components (more than 2) are added to the apportionment model of colored components. We found that substantial errors are introduced when using 4 wavelengths suggested by Lawless et al. to quantify four substances, while an optimized choice of wavelengths can reduce model-derived error from over 10% to less than 2%. For environmental samples, the method was sensitive for estimating airborne levels of BC and SHS, but not mass loadings of iron oxides and sulfate. Duplicate samples collected in NYC show high reproducibility (points consistent with a 1:1 line, R2 = 0.95). BC data measured by this method were consistent with those measured by other optical methods, including Aethalometer and Smoke-stain Reflectometer (SSR); although the SSR looses sensitivity at

  7. Validating a nondestructive optical method for apportioning colored particulate matter into black carbon and additional components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Beizhan; Kennedy, Daniel; Miller, Rachel L.; Cowin, James P.; Jung, Kyung-hwa; Perzanowski, Matt; Balletta, Marco; Perera, Federica P.; Kinney, Patrick L.; Chillrud, Steven N.

    2011-12-01

    Exposure of black carbon (BC) is associated with a variety of adverse health outcomes. A number of optical methods for estimating BC on Teflon filters have been adopted but most assume all light absorption is due to BC while other sources of colored particulate matter exist. Recently, a four-wavelength-optical reflectance measurement for distinguishing second hand cigarette smoke (SHS) from soot-BC was developed (Brook et al., 2010; Lawless et al., 2004). However, the method has not been validated for soot-BC nor SHS and little work has been done to look at the methodological issues of the optical reflectance measurements for samples that could have SHS, BC, and other colored particles. We refined this method using a lab-modified integrating sphere with absorption measured continuously from 350 nm to 1000 nm. Furthermore, we characterized the absorption spectrum of additional components of particulate matter (PM) on PM 2.5 filters including ammonium sulfate, hematite, goethite, and magnetite. Finally, we validate this method for BC by comparison to other standard methods. Use of synthesized data indicates that it is important to optimize the choice of wavelengths to minimize computational errors as additional components (more than 2) are added to the apportionment model of colored components. We found that substantial errors are introduced when using 4 wavelengths suggested by Lawless et al. to quantify four substances, while an optimized choice of wavelengths can reduce model-derived error from over 10% to less than 2%. For environmental samples, the method was sensitive for estimating airborne levels of BC and SHS, but not mass loadings of iron oxides and sulfate. Duplicate samples collected in NYC show high reproducibility (points consistent with a 1:1 line, R2 = 0.95). BC data measured by this method were consistent with those measured by other optical methods, including Aethalometer and Smoke-stain Reflectometer (SSR); although the SSR looses sensitivity at

  8. Carbon Isotopic Constraints on Arctic Methane Sources, 2008-2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, R. E.; Lowry, D.; Lanoiselle, M.; Sriskantharajah, S.; Nisbet, E. G.

    2010-12-01

    Arctic methane source strengths are particularly vulnerable to large changes with year-to year meteorological variations and with climatic change. A global increase in methane seen in 2007 (Dlugokencky et al., 2009) may have been in part be due to elevated wetland emissions caused by a warm, wet summer over large parts of Siberia. In 2010 wildfires over large areas of Russia will have added methane to the Arctic atmosphere. Carbon isotopic composition of methane in air from the Arctic arriving at a measurement station can be used to identify sources of the gas. Measurement of methane δ13C in air close to sources, including wetlands, permafrost, pine forest and submarine methane clathrate has extended the available data of source signatures of methane from northern sources. Keeling plot analysis of diurnal records from field campaigns in Arctic wetlands show that bulk wetland methane emissions are typically close to δ13CCH4 -69±1 ‰. Air samples from Zeppelin (Spitsbergen, Norway), Pallas (Finland) and Barra (Outer Hebrides, Scotland) have been regularly analysed for methane δ13C. Summer campaigns at Zeppelin point to a 13C depleted bulk Arctic source of dominantly biogenic origin, at -67‰. In spring, while the wetlands are still frozen, the source signature is more enriched, -53‰, with trajectory analysis implying a large contribution from onshore gas fields. Arctic methane emissions respond rapidly to warming with strong positive feedbacks. With rapid warming there is the potential to release large stores of carbon from permafrost and methane hydrates. Isotopic data are powerful discriminants of sources. High frequency, ideally continuous, monitoring of methane δ13C from a number of Arctic sites, onshore and offshore, coupled with back-trajectory analysis and regional modelling, will be important if future changes in Arctic source strengths are to be quantified. Reference: Dlugokencky, E. J., et al. (2009), Observational constraints on recent increases

  9. Russia's black carbon emissions: focus on diesel sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kholod, Nazar; Evans, Meredydd; Kuklinski, Teresa

    2016-09-01

    Black carbon (BC) is a significant climate forcer with a particularly pronounced forcing effect in polar regions such as the Russian Arctic. Diesel combustion is a major global source of BC emissions, accounting for 25-30 % of all BC emissions. While the demand for diesel is growing in Russia, the country's diesel emissions are poorly understood. This paper presents a detailed inventory of Russian BC emissions from diesel sources. Drawing on a complete Russian vehicle registry with detailed information about vehicle types and emission standards, this paper analyzes BC emissions from diesel on-road vehicles. We use the COPERT emission model (COmputer Programme to calculate Emissions from Road Transport) with Russia-specific emission factors for all types of on-road vehicles. On-road diesel vehicles emitted 21 Gg of BC in 2014: heavy-duty trucks account for 60 % of the on-road BC emissions, while cars represent only 5 % (light commercial vehicles and buses account for the remainder). Using Russian activity data and fuel-based emission factors, the paper also presents BC emissions from diesel locomotives and ships, off-road engines in industry, construction and agriculture, and generators. The study also factors in the role of superemitters in BC emissions from diesel on-road vehicles and off-road sources. The total emissions from diesel sources in Russia are estimated to be 49 Gg of BC and 17 Gg of organic carbon (OC) in 2014. Off-road diesel sources emitted 58 % of all diesel BC in Russia.

  10. Kinetics of dechlorination by Dehalococcoides mccartyi using different carbon sources.

    PubMed

    Schneidewind, Uwe; Haest, Pieter Jan; Atashgahi, Siavash; Maphosa, Farai; Hamonts, Kelly; Maesen, Miranda; Calderer, Montse; Seuntjens, Piet; Smidt, Hauke; Springael, Dirk; Dejonghe, Winnie

    2014-02-01

    Stimulated anaerobic dechlorination is generally considered a valuable step for the remediation of aquifers polluted with chlorinated ethenes (CEs). Correct simulation and prediction of this process in situ, however, require good knowledge of the associated biological reactions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the dechlorination reaction in an aquifer contaminated with trichloroethene (TCE) and its daughter products, discharging into the Zenne River. Different carbon sources were used in batch cultures and these were related to the dechlorination reaction, together with the monitored biomarkers. Appropriate kinetic formulations were assessed. Reductive dechlorination of TCE took place only when external carbon sources were added to microcosms, and occurred concomitant with a pronounced increase in the Dehalococcoides mccartyi cell count as determined by 16S rRNA gene-targeted qPCR. This indicates that native dechlorinating bacteria are present in the aquifer of the Zenne site and that the oligotrophic nature of the aquifer prevents a complete degradation to ethene. The type of carbon source, the cell number of D. mccartyi or the reductive dehalogenase genes, however, did not unequivocally explain the observed differences in degradation rates or the extent of dechlorination. Neither first-order, Michaelis-Menten nor Monod kinetics could perfectly simulate the dechlorination reactions in TCE spiked microcosms. A sensitivity analysis indicated that the inclusion of donor limitation would not significantly enhance the simulations without a clear process understanding. Results point to the role of the supporting microbial community but it remains to be verified how the complexity of the microbial (inter)actions should be represented in a model framework.

  11. North Siberian lakes: A methane source fueled by Pleistocene carbon

    SciTech Connect

    Zimov, S.A.; Davidov, S.P.; Prosiannikov, S.F.; Trumbore, S.

    1997-08-08

    The sizes of major sources and sinks of atmospheric methane (CH{sub 4}), an important greenhouse gas, are poorly known. CH{sub 4} from north Siberian lakes contributes {approximately}1.5 teragrams CH{sub 4} year{sup -1} to observed winter increases in atmospheric CH{sub 4} concentration at high northern latitudes. CH{sub 4} emitted from these lakes in winter had a radiocarbon age of 27,200 years and was derived largely from Pleistocene-aged carbon.

  12. When Forest become carbon sources: Impact of herbivory on carbon balance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schafer, K. V.; Clark, K. L.; Skowronski, N. S.

    2008-12-01

    Traditionally forests are thought to be carbon sinks and are becoming important trading commodities in the carbon trading markets. However, disturbances such as fire, hurricanes and herbivory can lead to forests being sources rather than sinks of carbon. Here, we investigate the carbon balance of an oak/pine forest in the New Jersey Pine Barrens under herbivory attack in summer 2007. Net primary productivity (NPP) was reduced to ca 70% of previous year NPP (535 g m-2 a-1 in 2006) and canopy net assimilation (AnC), as modeled with the Canopy Conductance Constrained Carbon Assimilation model (4C-A), was reduced to ca 65 % of previous year (1335 g m-2 a-1 in 2006) AnC or ca 1015 g C m-2 a-1. Although the trees were defoliated for only 15 % of the normal annual growing season, the impact amounted to ca 30 % of C accumulation loss when integrated over the year. Overall NPP in 2007 was ca 378 g C m-2 a-1 with 50 % of NPP being allocated to foliage production which constitutes a short term carbon pool. On an ecosystem level net ecosystem exchange amounted to a release of 293 g C m-2 a-1 thus becoming a carbon source over the course of the year rather than being a sink for C. The overall impact of the defoliation spanned 21% of upland forests (320 km2) in the New Jersey Pine Barrens thus representing a significant amount of overall C being emitted back to the atmosphere rather than being accumulated in the biosphere.

  13. Optimization of membrane bioreactors by the addition of powdered activated carbon.

    PubMed

    Ng, Choon Aun; Sun, Darren; Bashir, Mohammed J K; Wai, Soon Han; Wong, Ling Yong; Nisar, Humaira; Wu, Bing; Fane, Anthony G

    2013-06-01

    It was found that with replenishment, powdered activated carbon (PAC) in the membrane bioreactor (MBR) would develop biologically activated carbon (BAC) which could enhance filtration performance of a conventional MBR. This paper addresses two issues (i) effect of PAC size on MBR (BAC) performance; and (ii) effect of sludge retention time (SRT) on the MBR performance with and without PAC. To interpret the trends, particle/floc size, concentration of mixed liquor suspended solid (MLSS), total organic carbon (TOC), short-term filtration properties and transmembrane pressure (TMP) versus time are measured. The results showed improved fouling control with fine, rather than coarse, PAC provided the flux did not exceed the deposition flux for the fine PAC. Without PAC, the longer SRT operation gave lower fouling at modest fluxes. With PAC addition, the shorter SRT gave better fouling control, possibly due to greater replenishment of the fresh PAC. PMID:23612160

  14. Hydrology & isotope tools to quantify carbon sources and sinks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barth, Johannes A. C.; Lischeid, Gunnar; Gessler, Arthur

    2010-05-01

    covariance methods, which usually yield local information. Furthermore, eddy covariance methods yield valuable information about ecosystem respiration. The latter needs to be subtracted from carbon uptake to determine net ecosystem CO2 exchange and to define sources or sinks. Eddy covariance and their upscaling combined with area-integrating water isotope methods thus provide cross validation of large scale carbon budgets with independent approaches. This combination may therefore provide new insights into relations between carbon and water balance of the biosphere as affected by various environmental conditions.

  15. Analysis of the benefits of carbon credits to hydrogen addition to midsize gas turbine feedstocks.

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, J.; Towns, B.; Keller, Jay O.; Schefer, Robert W.; Skolnik, Edward G.

    2006-02-01

    The addition of hydrogen to the natural gas feedstocks of midsize (30-150 MW) gas turbines was analyzed as a method of reducing nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) and CO{sub 2} emissions. In particular, the costs of hydrogen addition were evaluated against the combined costs for other current NO{sub x} and CO{sub 2} emissions control technologies for both existing and new systems to determine its benefits and market feasibility. Markets for NO{sub x} emissions credits currently exist in California and the Northeast States and are expected to grow. Although regulations are not currently in place in the United States, several other countries have implemented carbon tax and carbon credit programs. The analysis thus assumes that the United States adopts future legislation similar to these programs. Therefore, potential sale of emissions credits for volunteer retrofits was also included in the study. It was found that hydrogen addition is a competitive alternative to traditional emissions abatement techniques under certain conditions. The existence of carbon credits shifts the system economics in favor of hydrogen addition.

  16. Quantification of carbon sources for isoprene emission in poplar leaves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreutzwieseer, J.; Graus, M.; Schnitzler, J. P.; Heizmann, U.; Rennenberg, H.; Hansel, A.

    2003-12-01

    Isoprene is the most abundant volatile organic compound emitted by plants and in particular by trees. Current interest in understanding its biosynthesis in chloroplasts is forced by the important role isoprene plays in atmospheric chemistry. Leaf isoprene formation is closely linked to photosynthesis by a dynamic use of recently fixed photosynthetic precursors in the chloroplast. Under steady state conditions in [13C]CO2 atmosphere approximately 75 % of isoprene became labeled within minutes. The source of unlabeled C is suggested to be of extra-chloroplastidic and/or from starch degradation. In order to test whether these alternative carbon sources - leaf internal C-pools and xylem-transported carbohydrates, contribute to leaf isoprene formation in poplar (Populus tremula x P. alba) on-line proton-transfer-reaction-mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) was used to follow 13C-labeling kinetics.

  17. Regional prediction of carbon isotopes in soil carbonates for Asian dust source tracer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Bing; Cui, Xinjuan; Wang, Yaqiang

    2016-10-01

    Dust particles emitted from deserts and semi-arid lands in northern China cause particulate pollution that increases the burden of disease particularly for urban population in East Asia. The stable carbon isotopes (δ13C) of carbonates in soils and dust aerosols in northern China were investigated. We found that the δ13C of carbonates in surface soils in northern China showed clearly the negative correlation (R2 = 0.73) with Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). Using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite-derived NDVI, we predicted the regional distribution of δ13C of soil carbonates in deserts, sandy lands, and steppe areas. The predictions show the mean δ13C of -0.4 ± 0.7‰ in soil carbonates in Taklimakan Desert and Gobi Deserts, and the isotope values decrease to -3.3 ± 1.1‰ in sandy lands. The increase in vegetation coverage depletes 13C in soil carbonates, thus the steppe areas are predicted by the lowest δ13C levels (-8.1 ± 1.7‰). The measurements of atmospheric dust samples at eight sites showed that the Asian dust sources were well assigned by the 13C mapping in surface soils. Predicting 13C in large geographical areas with fine resolution offers a cost-effective tracer to monitor dust emissions from sandy lands and steppe areas which show an increasing role in Asian dust loading driven by climate change and human activities.

  18. NEWLY IDENTIFIED CARBON STARS FROM SOURCES WITH UNUSUAL IRAS LOW-RESOLUTION SPECTRA

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, P. S.; Shan, H. G.

    2012-07-15

    The 11.2 {mu}m SiC feature in either emission or absorption in the infrared is an important indicator for identification of carbon stars. Sources whose infrared spectra are sorted in Group U of the Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) low-resolution spectrum (LRS) are good samples for finding objects with the 11.2 {mu}m SiC feature. Therefore, we have carefully checked all spectra in Group U of the LRS. We have found 13 new objects, which probably have SiC emission, sometimes with unusually broad features, that are presumed to be carbon-rich objects. In addition, their evolutionary types are also estimated from IRAS and Two Micron All Sky Survey two-color diagrams. Besides finding 13 new carbon-rich objects, another important result in this paper is that four sources are estimated as new extreme carbon stars (ECSs) and five previously known carbon stars sorted in the Group U of the IRAS LRS are also estimated as ECSs.

  19. Influence of carbon source on alpha-amylase production by Aspergillus oryzae.

    PubMed

    Carlsen, M; Nielsen, J

    2001-10-01

    The influence of the carbon source on alpha-amylase production by Aspergillus oryzae was quantified in carbon-limited chemostat cultures. The following carbon sources were investigated: maltose, maltodextrin (different chain lengths), glucose, fructose, galactose, sucrose, glycerol, mannitol and acetate. A. oryzae did not grow on galactose as the sole carbon source, but galactose was co-metabolized together with glucose. Relative to that on low glucose concentration (below 10 mg/l), productivity was found to be higher during growth on maltose and maltodextrins, whereas it was lower during growth on sucrose, fructose, glycerol, mannitol and acetate. During growth on acetate there was no production of alpha-amylase, whereas addition of small amounts of glucose resulted in alpha-amylase production. A possible induction by alpha-methyl-D-glucoside during growth on glucose was also investigated, but this compound was not found to be a better inducer of a-amylase production than glucose. The results strongly indicate that besides acting as a repressor via the CreA protein, glucose acts as an inducer.

  20. Stable carbon isotopic composition of the wine and CO2 bubbles of sparkling wines: detecting C4 sugar additions.

    PubMed

    Martinelli, Luiz A; Moreira, Marcelo Z; Ometto, Jean P H B; Alcarde, André R; Rizzon, Luiz A; Stange, Erik; Ehleringer, James R

    2003-04-23

    Sparkling wines have become a popular beverage in recent years, and the production of these wines is subject to adulteration during fermentation. This study investigated the stable carbon isotopic composition (expressed as delta(13)C) of the wine and of the CO(2) bubbles produced during the second fermentation for a number of sparkling wines produced in different countries around the world. Carbon isotope ratio analyses were used to estimate the addition of sugar obtained from C(4) plants (sugar cane or corn). The average delta(13)C values of the Brazilian brut, demi-sec, and doux sparkling wines were -20.5 +/- 1.2 per thousand (n = 18), -18.1 +/- 1.3 per thousand (n = 9), and -15.8 per thousand (n = 1), respectively. These values were statistically heavier (more positive carbon isotope ratio values) than the average delta(13)C of sparkling wines produced in other parts of South America (Argentina and Chile, -26.1 +/- 1.6 per thousand, n = 5) and Europe (France, Germany, Italy, Portugal, and Spain, -25.5 +/- 1.2 per thousand, n = 12), but not statistically different from sparkling wines produced in the United States or Australia. The most likely explanation for differences in the carbon isotope ratios of wines from these different regions is the addition of C(4) sugar during the production of some sparkling wines from Australia, Brazil, and the United States. The isotopic composition of the CO(2) bubbles (delta(13)C-CO(2)) followed similar trends. The average delta(13)C-CO(2) of most of the Brazilian and Argentine sparkling wines was -10.8 +/- 1.2 per thousand (n = 23), indicating that the likely source of carbon for the second fermentation was sugar cane. Conversely, the average delta(13)C-CO(2) of most of the sparkling wines produced in Chile and Europe was -22.0 +/- 1.2 per thousand (n = 13), suggesting that a different sugar (most likely sugar beet) was most used in the second fermentation. It was concluded that in many cases, the carbon isotope ratios of

  1. High temperature hydrogen sulfide adsorption on activated carbon - I. Effects of gas composition and metal addition

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cal, M.P.; Strickler, B.W.; Lizzio, A.A.

    2000-01-01

    Various types of activated carbon sorbents were evaluated for their ability to remove H2S from a simulated coal gas stream at a temperature of 550 ??C. The ability of activated carbon to remove H2S at elevated temperature was examined as a function of carbon surface chemistry (oxidation, thermal desorption, and metal addition), and gas composition. A sorbent prepared by steam activation, HNO3 oxidation and impregnated with Zn, and tested in a gas stream containing 0.5% H2S, 50% CO2 and 49.5% N2, had the greatest H2S adsorption capacity. Addition of H2, CO, and H2O to the inlet gas stream reduced H2S breakthrough time and H2S adsorption capacity. A Zn impregnated activated carbon, when tested using a simulated coal gas containing 0.5% H2S, 49.5% N2, 13% H2, 8.5% H2O, 21% CO, and 7.5% CO2, had a breakthrough time of 75 min, which was less than 25 percent of the length of breakthrough for screening experiments performed with a simplified gas mixture of 0.5% H2S, 50% CO2, and 49.5% N2.

  2. Barrow Black Carbon Source and Impact Study Final Campaign Report

    SciTech Connect

    Barrett, Tate

    2014-07-01

    The goal of the Barrow Black Carbon Source and Impact (BBCSI) Study was to characterize the concentration and isotopic composition of carbonaceous atmospheric particulate matter (PM) at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement site in Barrow, AK. The carbonaceous component was characterized via measurement of the organic and black carbon (OC and BC) components of the total PM. To facilitate complete characterization of the particulate matter, filter-based collections were used, including a medium volume PM2.5 sampler and a high volume PM10 sampler. Thirty-eight fine (PM2.5) and 49 coarse (PM10) particulate matter fractions were collected at weekly and bi-monthly intervals. The PM2.5 sampler operated with minimal maintenance during the 12 month campaign. The PM10 sampler used for the BBCSI used standard Tisch hi-vol motors which have a known lifetime of ~1 month under constant use; this necessitated monthly maintenance and it is suggested that the motors be upgraded to industrial blowers for future deployment in the Arctic. The BBCSI sampling campaign successfully collected and archived 87 ambient atmospheric particulate matter samples from Barrow, AK from July 2012 to June 2013. Preliminary analysis of the organic and black carbon concentrations has been completed. This campaign confirmed known trends of high BC lasting from the winter through to spring haze periods and low BC concentrations in the summer.

  3. Redox responses in yeast to acetate as the carbon source.

    PubMed

    Minard, Karyl I; McAlister-Henn, L

    2009-03-01

    Following a shift to medium with acetate as the carbon source, a parental yeast strain exhibited a transient moderate 20% reduction in total cellular [NAD(+)+NADH] but showed a approximately 10-fold increase in the ratio of [NAD(+)]:[NADH] after 36h. A mutant strain (idhDelta) lacking the tricarboxylic acid cycle enzyme isocitrate dehydrogenase had 50% higher cellular levels of [NAD(+)+NADH] relative to the parental strain but exhibited similar changes in cofactor concentrations following a shift to acetate medium, despite an inability to grow on that carbon source; essentially all of the cofactor was in the oxidized form within 36h. The salvage pathway for NAD(H) biosynthesis was found to be particularly important for viability during early transition of the parental strain to stationary phase in acetate medium. However, oxygen consumption was not affected, suggesting that the NAD(H) produced during this time may support other cellular functions. The idhDelta mutant exhibited increased flux through the salvage pathway in acetate medium but was dependent on the de novo pathway for viability. Long-term chronological lifespans of the parental and idhDelta strains were similar, but viability of the mutant strain was dependent on both pathways for NAD(H) biosynthesis.

  4. Multiple Phosphatases Regulate Carbon Source-Dependent Germination and Primary Metabolism in Aspergillus nidulans.

    PubMed

    de Assis, Leandro José; Ries, Laure Nicolas Annick; Savoldi, Marcela; Dinamarco, Taisa Magnani; Goldman, Gustavo Henrique; Brown, Neil Andrew

    2015-03-11

    Aspergillus nidulans is an important mold and a model system for the study of fungal cell biology. In addition, invasive A. nidulans pulmonary infections are common in humans with chronic granulomatous disease. The morphological and biochemical transition from dormant conidia into active, growing, filamentous hyphae requires the coordination of numerous biosynthetic, developmental, and metabolic processes. The present study exhibited the diversity of roles performed by seven phosphatases in regulating cell cycle, development, and metabolism in response to glucose and alternative carbon sources. The identified phosphatases highlighted the importance of several signaling pathways regulating filamentous growth, the action of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex as a metabolic switch controlling carbon usage, and the identification of the key function performed by the α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase during germination. These novel insights into the fundamental roles of numerous phosphatases in germination and carbon sensing have provided new avenues of research into the identification of inhibitors of fungal germination, with implications for the food, feed, and pharmaceutical industries.

  5. Barrow Black Carbon Source and Impact Study Final Campaign Report

    SciTech Connect

    Barrett, Tate

    2014-07-01

    The goal of the Barrow Black Carbon Source and Impact campaign was to characterize the concentration and isotopic composition of carbonaceous atmospheric particulate matter (PM) at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility site in Barrow, Alaska. The carbonaceous component was characterized by measuring the organic and black carbon (OC and BC) components of the total PM. To facilitate complete characterization of the PM, filter-based collections were used, including a medium volume PM2.5 sampler and a high volume PM10 sampler. Thirty-eight fine PM fractions (PM2.5) and 49 coarse (PM10) PM fractions were collected at weekly and bi-monthly intervals. The PM2.5 sampler operated with minimal maintenance during the 12 month campaign. The PM10 sampler used for the Barrow Black Carbon Source and Impact (BBCSI) study used standard Tisch “hi-vol” motors that have a known lifetime of approximately 1 month under constant use; this necessitated monthly maintenance, and it is suggested that, for future deployment in the Arctic, the motors be upgraded to industrial blowers. The BBCSI sampling campaign successfully collected and archived 87 ambient atmospheric PM samples from Barrow, Alaska, from July 2012 to June 2013. Preliminary analysis of the OC and BC concentrations has been completed. This campaign confirmed known trends of high BC lasting from the winter through to spring haze periods and low BC concentrations in the summer. However, the annual OC concentrations had a very different seasonal pattern with the highest concentrations during the summer, lowest concentrations during the fall, and increased concentrations during the winter and spring (Figure 1).

  6. Analysis of Tank 43H Samples at the Conclusion of Uranyl Carbonate Addition

    SciTech Connect

    Oji, L.N.

    2002-10-15

    Tank 43H serves as the feed Tank to the 2H evaporator. In the months of July and August 2001, about 21,000 gallons of a depleted uranyl carbonate solution were added to Tank 43H and agitated with two Flygt mixers. The depleted uranium addition served to decrease the U-235 enrichment in the Tank 43H supernate so that the supernate could be evaporated with no risk of accumulating enriched uranium.

  7. PCB bioavailability control in Lumbriculus variegatus through different modes of activated carbon addition to sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Xueli Sun; Upal Ghosh

    2007-07-01

    PCB bioavailability to a freshwater oligochaete (Lumbriculus variegatus) was studied using sediments from a PCB-impacted river that was treated with different modes of granular activated carbon (GAC) addition. The GAC used was bituminous coal-based type TOP. For sediment treated with 2.6% GAC and mixed for 2 min prior to L. variegatus addition, the reduction in total PCB biouptake was 70% for 75-300 {mu}m size carbon, and 92% for the 45-180 {mu}m size carbon. For the case where the GAC was placed as a thin layer on top of the sediments without mixing, the reduction in total PCB uptake was 70%. PCB biouptake kinetics study using treated and untreated sediment showed that the maximum PCB uptake in tissue was achieved at 28 days and decreased after that time. Although the absolute uptake of PCB changed over time, the percent reduction in total PCB uptake upon GAC amendment remained constant after the first few days. Our results indicated that PCB bioavailability was reduced upon the addition and little or no mixing of GAC into sediments. PCB aqueous equilibrium concentration and desorption rates were greatly reduced after GAC amendment, indicating reductions in the two primary mechanisms of PCB bioavailability in sediments: chemical activity and chemical accessibility. 29 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Diagnostic air quality model evaluation of source-specific primary and secondary fine particulate carbon.

    PubMed

    Napelenok, Sergey L; Simon, Heather; Bhave, Prakash V; Pye, Havala O T; Pouliot, George A; Sheesley, Rebecca J; Schauer, James J

    2014-01-01

    Ambient measurements of 78 source-specific tracers of primary and secondary carbonaceous fine particulate matter collected at four midwestern United States locations over a full year (March 2004-February 2005) provided an unprecedented opportunity to diagnostically evaluate the results of a numerical air quality model. Previous analyses of these measurements demonstrated excellent mass closure for the variety of contributing sources. In this study, a carbon-apportionment version of the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model was used to track primary organic and elemental carbon emissions from 15 independent sources such as mobile sources and biomass burning in addition to four precursor-specific classes of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) originating from isoprene, terpenes, aromatics, and sesquiterpenes. Conversion of the source-resolved model output into organic tracer concentrations yielded a total of 2416 data pairs for comparison with observations. While emission source contributions to the total model bias varied by season and measurement location, the largest absolute bias of -0.55 μgC/m(3) was attributed to insufficient isoprene SOA in the summertime CMAQ simulation. Biomass combustion was responsible for the second largest summertime model bias (-0.46 μgC/m(3) on average). Several instances of compensating errors were also evident; model underpredictions in some sectors were masked by overpredictions in others.

  9. Diagnostic air quality model evaluation of source-specific primary and secondary fine particulate carbon.

    PubMed

    Napelenok, Sergey L; Simon, Heather; Bhave, Prakash V; Pye, Havala O T; Pouliot, George A; Sheesley, Rebecca J; Schauer, James J

    2014-01-01

    Ambient measurements of 78 source-specific tracers of primary and secondary carbonaceous fine particulate matter collected at four midwestern United States locations over a full year (March 2004-February 2005) provided an unprecedented opportunity to diagnostically evaluate the results of a numerical air quality model. Previous analyses of these measurements demonstrated excellent mass closure for the variety of contributing sources. In this study, a carbon-apportionment version of the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model was used to track primary organic and elemental carbon emissions from 15 independent sources such as mobile sources and biomass burning in addition to four precursor-specific classes of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) originating from isoprene, terpenes, aromatics, and sesquiterpenes. Conversion of the source-resolved model output into organic tracer concentrations yielded a total of 2416 data pairs for comparison with observations. While emission source contributions to the total model bias varied by season and measurement location, the largest absolute bias of -0.55 μgC/m(3) was attributed to insufficient isoprene SOA in the summertime CMAQ simulation. Biomass combustion was responsible for the second largest summertime model bias (-0.46 μgC/m(3) on average). Several instances of compensating errors were also evident; model underpredictions in some sectors were masked by overpredictions in others. PMID:24245475

  10. Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotube Functionalization by Radical Addition Using Hydroxymethylene Groups.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Jiménez, Rubén; Alonso-Núñez, Gabriel; Paraguay-Delgado, Francisco; Espinoza-Gómez, Heriberto; Vélez-López, Ernesto; Rogel-Hernández, Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    Synthetic methodology and characterization of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) function- alized with hydroxymethylene groups are reported. The MWCNTs were synthesized by the spray pyrolysis technique using toluene as carbon source and ferrocene as catalyst. Hydroxymethylation of MWCNTs was carried out by methanol using benzoyl peroxide (BPO) at different quantities (300 to 900 mg); the optimum BPO quantity was 300 mg. The resulting materials were characterized by FT-IR, Raman Spectroscopy, Thermal Gravimetric Analysis (TGA) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). The presence of the hydroxymethylene group on the MWCNTs surface was demonstrated by FT-IR, Raman Spectroscopy, TGA, EDS, TEM and Mass Spectrometry. The func- tionalized MWCNTs were not damaged by this methodology. PMID:27398563

  11. Does the Use of Diamond-Like Carbon Coating and Organophosphate Lubricant Additive Together Cause Excessive Tribochemical Material Removal?

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Yan; Leonard, Donovan N.; Meyer, Harry M.; Luo, Huimin; Qu, Jun

    2015-08-22

    We observe unexpected wear increase on a steel surface that rubbed against diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings only when lubricated by phosphate-based antiwear additives. Contrary to the literature hypothesis of a competition between zinc dialkyldithiophosphate produced tribofilms and DLC-induced carbon transfer, here a new wear mechanism based on carbon-catalyzed tribochemical interactions supported by surface characterization is proposed

  12. Wood decomposition in Amazonian hydropower reservoirs: An additional source of greenhouse gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abril, Gwenaël; Parize, Marcelo; Pérez, Marcela A. P.; Filizola, Naziano

    2013-07-01

    Amazonian hydroelectric reservoirs produce abundant carbon dioxide and methane from large quantities of flooded biomass that decompose anaerobically underwater. Emissions are extreme the first years after impounding and progressively decrease with time. To date, only water-to-air fluxes have been considered in these estimates. Here, we investigate in two Amazonian reservoirs (Balbina and Petit Saut) the fate of above water standing dead trees, by combining a qualitative analysis of wood state and density through time and a quantitative analysis of the biomass initially flooded. Dead wood was much more decomposed in the Balbina reservoir 23 years after flooding than in the Petit Saut reservoir 10 years after flooding. Termites apparently played a major role in wood decomposition, occurring mainly above water, and resulting in a complete conversion of this carbon biomass into CO2 and CH4 at a timescale much shorter than reservoir operation. The analysis of pre-impounding wood biomass reveals that above-water decomposition in Amazonian reservoirs is a large, previously unrecognized source of carbon emissions to the atmosphere, representing 26-45% of the total reservoir flux integrated over 100 years. Accounting for both below- and above-water fluxes, we could estimate that each km2 of Amazonian forest converted to reservoir would emit over 140 Gg CO2-eq in 100 years. Hydropower plants in the Amazon should thus generate 0.25-0.4 MW h per km2 flooded area to produce lower greenhouse gas emissions than gas power plants. They also have the disadvantage to emit most of their greenhouse gases the earliest years of operation.

  13. Carbon isotope ratios suggest no additional methane from boreal wetlands during the rapid Greenland Interstadial 21.2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sperlich, Peter; Schaefer, Hinrich; Mikaloff Fletcher, Sara E.; Guillevic, Myriam; Lassey, Keith; Sapart, Célia J.; Röckmann, Thomas; Blunier, Thomas

    2015-11-01

    Samples from two Greenland ice cores (NEEM and NGRIP) have been measured for methane carbon isotope ratios (δ13C-CH4) to investigate the CH4 mixing ratio anomaly during Greenland Interstadial (GI) 21.2 (85,000 years before present). This extraordinarily rapid event occurred within 150 years, comprising a CH4 mixing ratio pulse of 150 ppb (˜25%). Our new measurements disclose a concomitant shift in δ13C-CH4 of 1‰. Keeling plot analyses reveal the δ13C of the additional CH4 source constituting the CH4 anomaly as -56.8 ± 2.8‰, which we confirm by means of a previously published box model. We propose tropical wetlands as the most probable additional CH4 source during GI-21.2 and present independent evidence that suggests that tropical wetlands in South America and Asia have played a key role. We find no evidence that boreal CH4 sources, such as permafrost degradation, contributed significantly to the atmospheric CH4 increase, despite the pronounced warming in the Northern Hemisphere during GI-21.2.

  14. Stable carbon isotope analysis in a South Texas cave: Investigating sources of CO2 production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Reece

    Studies of interactions between modern local climate, cave atmosphere, and ?13C ratios are needed to determine sources of CO2 in caves, and the cycles of seasonal variations that alter karst geochemistry. A seasonal study, focusing on the analysis of stable isotopes collected from a modern cave system, was conducted in Robber Baron Cave (RBC) in order to identify sources of CO2 in its atmosphere. Determining what conditions affect cave morphology and the transfer path of carbon through a cave system is necessary in order to assess the role of caves in the carbon cycle and correctly interpret past ecological changes. This study investigates the extent that stable isotopic values of carbon in CO2 are affected by CO2 sourced from soils, bedrock, atmospheric air, and vegetation, and how ?13C signals are transmitted in a modern cave system. This study also measures how ventilation affects CO2 concentration and ?13C on seasonal scales. In-cave air grab samples were collected monthly at various transects located in RBC in order to measure CO2 composition in addition to factors such as temperature, and barometric pressure. Soil gas and limestone bedrock were also collected and tested for ?13C composition. Air samples were analyzed using an Ambient Air-Model G2101-I Picarro Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy Analyzer for both the concentration and ?13C isotopic value of CO2. These values were then compared to isotopic values of known sources of CO2 in order to determine possible sources of CO2 that result in high CO2 concentrations found in RBC. The background stable isotopic value of carbon from CO2 measured in RBC is -19.1‰ VPDB.

  15. The Effect of Carbon Additions on the Creep Resistance of Fe-25Al-5Zr Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobeš, Ferdinand; Vodičková, Věra; Veselý, Jozef; Kratochvíl, Petr

    2016-09-01

    Creep experiments were conducted on Fe-25 at. pct Al-5 at. pct Zr alloy with carbon additions at the temperatures of 973 K and 1173 K (700 °C and 900 °C). The alloys were tested in two different states: (i) cast and (ii) annealed at 1273 K (1000 °C) for 50 hours. Stress exponents and activation energies were estimated. The values of the stress exponent n could be explained by the dislocation motion controlled by climb. The increased values of n in the high-carbon alloy at the temperature of 1173 K (900 °C) can be described by means of the threshold stress concept. The creep resistance at 973 K (700 °C) decreased with the increasing content of carbon. This result is discussed in terms of the ratio of zirconium to carbon in the alloy. An increase of the creep resistance with increasing ratio Zr:C is in agreement with the behavior observed previously in alloys with substantially lower concentrations of zirconium.

  16. Soluble organic additive effects on stress development during drying of calcium carbonate suspensions.

    PubMed

    Wedin, Pär; Lewis, Jennifer A; Bergström, Lennart

    2005-10-01

    The effect of polymer, plasticizer, and surfactant additives on stress development during drying of calcium carbonate particulate coatings was studied using a controlled-environment apparatus that simultaneously monitors drying stress, weight loss, and relative humidity. We found that the calcium carbonate coatings display a drying stress evolution typical of granular films, which is characterized by a sharp capillary-induced stress rise followed by a rapid stress relaxation. The addition of a soluble polymer to the CaCO3 suspension resulted in a two-stage stress evolution process. The initial stress rise stems from capillary-pressure-induced stresses within the film, while the second, larger stress rise occurs due to solidification and shrinkage of the polymeric species. Measurements on the corresponding pure polymer solutions established a clear correlation between the magnitude of residual stress in both the polymer and CaCO3-polymer films to the physical properties of the polymer phase, i.e. its glass transition temperature, T(g), and Young's modulus. The addition of small organic molecules can reduce the residual stress observed in the CaCO3-polymer films; e.g., glycerol, which acts as a plasticizer, reduces the drying stress by lowering T(g), while surfactant additions reduce the surface tension of the liquid phase, and, hence, the magnitude of the capillary pressure within the film.

  17. Tuning the oscillation of nested carbon nanotubes by insertion of an additional inner tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motevalli, B.; Liu, Jefferson Z.

    2013-12-01

    Different mechanisms of nano-oscillators with telescopic oscillations have attracted lots of attention due to the possible generation of GHz frequencies. In particular, nested carbon nanotubes are of special interest for which different mechanisms have been examined. In this paper, we will show that insertion of an additional inner tube into a conventional double walled carbon nanotube (DWCNT) oscillator not only can increase the oscillatory frequency considerably but also provides a wide range of system parameters for tuning the oscillatory behavior as well as its frequency. The insertion of an additional tube results in a number of different vdW force profiles (which only depend on the length ratios of the three tubes). Being subject to these different vdW force profiles and trigged with different initial velocity, an oscillating tube can exhibit various types of motions. We use a phase division diagram to discriminate the system parameters according to the different types of motions. Accordingly, a comprehensive study of the oscillatory frequency is also carried out. To perceive an insight into the effectiveness of insertion, a comparison is also made with the counterpart DWCNT oscillator. It is observed that this new mechanism offers a number of new possibilities in designing and characterizing a carbon nanotube based oscillator.

  18. Addressing sources of uncertainty in a global terrestrial carbon model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Exbrayat, J.; Pitman, A. J.; Zhang, Q.; Abramowitz, G.; Wang, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Several sources of uncertainty exist in the parameterization of the land carbon cycle in current Earth System Models (ESMs). For example, recently implemented interactions between the carbon (C), nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) cycles lead to diverse changes in land-atmosphere C fluxes simulated by different models. Further, although soil organic matter decomposition is commonly parameterized as a first-order decay process, the formulation of the microbial response to changes in soil moisture and soil temperature varies tremendously between models. Here, we examine the sensitivity of historical land-atmosphere C fluxes simulated by an ESM to these two major sources of uncertainty. We implement three soil moisture (SMRF) and three soil temperature (STRF) respiration functions in the CABLE-CASA-CNP land biogeochemical component of the coarse resolution CSIRO Mk3L climate model. Simulations are undertaken using three degrees of biogeochemical nutrient limitation: C-only, C and N, and C and N and P. We first bring all 27 possible combinations of a SMRF with a STRF and a biogeochemical mode to a steady-state in their biogeochemical pools. Then, transient historical (1850-2005) simulations are driven by prescribed atmospheric CO2 concentrations used in the fifth phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5). Similarly to some previously published results, representing N and P limitation on primary production reduces the global land carbon sink while some regions become net C sources over the historical period (1850-2005). However, the uncertainty due to the SMRFs and STRFs does not decrease relative to the inter-annual variability in net uptake when N and P limitations are added. Differences in the SMRFs and STRFs and their effect on the soil C balance can also change the sign of some regional sinks. We show that this response is mostly driven by the pool size achieved at the end of the spin-up procedure. Further, there exists a six-fold range in the level

  19. Acetic Acid bacteria: physiology and carbon sources oxidation.

    PubMed

    Mamlouk, Dhouha; Gullo, Maria

    2013-12-01

    Acetic acid bacteria (AAB) are obligately aerobic bacteria within the family Acetobacteraceae, widespread in sugary, acidic and alcoholic niches. They are known for their ability to partially oxidise a variety of carbohydrates and to release the corresponding metabolites (aldehydes, ketones and organic acids) into the media. Since a long time they are used to perform specific oxidation reactions through processes called "oxidative fermentations", especially in vinegar production. In the last decades physiology of AAB have been widely studied because of their role in food production, where they act as beneficial or spoiling organisms, and in biotechnological industry, where their oxidation machinery is exploited to produce a number of compounds such as l-ascorbic acid, dihydroxyacetone, gluconic acid and cellulose. The present review aims to provide an overview of AAB physiology focusing carbon sources oxidation and main products of their metabolism.

  20. Effect of carbon source on pyrimidine biosynthesis in Pseudomonas oryzihabitans.

    PubMed

    West, Thomas P

    2010-08-01

    The effect of carbon source on the regulation of pyrimidine biosynthesis in the opportunistic human pathogen Pseudomonas oryzihabitans was studied at the level of enzyme synthesis. Although pyrimidine supplementation of glucose-grown Ps. oryzihabitans cells produced a slight but statistically significant effect on the de novo pyrimidine biosynthetic pathway enzyme activities, catabolite repression of the enzyme activities by glucose appeared to be occurring. Pyrimidine limitation experiments undertaken using an orotidine 5'-monophosphate decarboxylase mutant strain grown on glucose indicated that repression of enzyme synthesis by pyrimidines was occurring. Following pyrimidine limitation of the mutant strain cells, dihydroorotase and dihydroorotate dehydrogenase activities were found to about double while aspartate transcarbamoylase and orotate phosphoribosyltransferase activities were slightly elevated compared to their activities in the mutant strain cells grown on excess uracil.

  1. Apicomplexan Energy Metabolism: Carbon Source Promiscuity and the Quiescence Hyperbole.

    PubMed

    Jacot, Damien; Waller, Ross F; Soldati-Favre, Dominique; MacPherson, Dougal A; MacRae, James I

    2016-01-01

    The nature of energy metabolism in apicomplexan parasites has been closely investigated in the recent years. Studies in Plasmodium spp. and Toxoplasma gondii in particular have revealed that these parasites are able to employ enzymes in non-traditional ways, while utilizing multiple anaplerotic routes into a canonical tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle to satisfy their energy requirements. Importantly, some life stages of these parasites previously considered to be metabolically quiescent are, in fact, active and able to adapt their carbon source utilization to survive. We compare energy metabolism across the life cycle of malaria parasites and consider how this varies in other apicomplexans and related organisms, while discussing how this can be exploited for therapeutic intervention in these diseases.

  2. Assembling x-ray sources by carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sessa, V.; Lucci, M.; Toschi, F.; Orlanducci, S.; Tamburri, E.; Terranova, M. L.; Ciorba, A.; Rossi, M.; Hampai, D.; Cappuccio, G.

    2007-05-01

    By the use of a chemical vapour deposition technique a series of metal wires (W, Ta, Steel ) with differently shaped tips have been coated by arrays of single wall carbon nanotubes (SWNT). The field emission properties of the SWNT deposits have been measured by a home made apparatus working in medium vacuum (10 -6- 10 -7 mbar) and the SWNT-coated wires have been used to fabricate tiny electron sources for X-ray tubes. To check the efficiency of the nanotube coated wires for X-ray generation has, a prototype X-ray tube has been designed and fabricated. The X-ray tube works at pressures about 10 -6 mbar. The target ( Al film) is disposed on a hole in the stainless steel sheath: this configuration makes unnecessary the usual Be window and moreover allows us to use low accelerating potentials (< 6 kV).

  3. Effect of carbon source on pyrimidine biosynthesis in Pseudomonas oryzihabitans.

    PubMed

    West, Thomas P

    2010-08-01

    The effect of carbon source on the regulation of pyrimidine biosynthesis in the opportunistic human pathogen Pseudomonas oryzihabitans was studied at the level of enzyme synthesis. Although pyrimidine supplementation of glucose-grown Ps. oryzihabitans cells produced a slight but statistically significant effect on the de novo pyrimidine biosynthetic pathway enzyme activities, catabolite repression of the enzyme activities by glucose appeared to be occurring. Pyrimidine limitation experiments undertaken using an orotidine 5'-monophosphate decarboxylase mutant strain grown on glucose indicated that repression of enzyme synthesis by pyrimidines was occurring. Following pyrimidine limitation of the mutant strain cells, dihydroorotase and dihydroorotate dehydrogenase activities were found to about double while aspartate transcarbamoylase and orotate phosphoribosyltransferase activities were slightly elevated compared to their activities in the mutant strain cells grown on excess uracil. PMID:20473969

  4. Carbon Nanotube/Magnesium Composite as a Hydrogen Source.

    PubMed

    Yu, Min Kyu; Se, Kwon Oh; Kim, Min Joong; Hwang, Jae Won; Yoon, Byoung Young; Kwon, Hyuk Sang

    2015-11-01

    Hydrogen produced using the steam reforming process contains sulfur and carbon monoxide that are harmful to the Pt catalyst in proton-exchange-membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). However, CO-free hydrogen can be generated from the hydrolysis of either Al in strongly alkaline water or Mg in neutral water with chlorides such as sea water. The hydrogen generation rate from the hydrolysis of Mg is extremely slow and linearly proportional to the corrosion rate of Mg in chloride water. In this work, we fabricated a carbon nanotube (CNT)--reinforced Mg--matrix composite by Spark Plasma Sintering as a fast hydrogen generation source for a PEMFC. The CNTs distributed in the Mg matrix act as numerous local cathodes, and hence cause severe galvanic corrosion between the Mg-matrix anode and CNT-cathode in NaCl solution. It was found that the hydrogen generation rate from the hydrolysis of the 5 vol.% CNT/Mg composite is 3300 times faster than that of the Mg without CNTs due primarily to the galvanic corrosion effect. PMID:26726603

  5. Trends in the sources and sinks of carbon dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Le Quere, Corrine; Raupach, Mike; Canadell, J.G.; Marland, Gregg; Bopp, Laurent; Ciais, Philippe; Friedlingstein, Pierre; Viovy, Nicolas; Conway, T.J.; Doney, Scott C.; Feely, R. A.; Foster, Pru; House, Joanna I; Prentice, Colin I.; Gurney, Kevin; Houghton, R.A.; Huntingford, Chris; Levy, Peter E.; Lomas, M. R.; Woodward, F. I.; Majkut, Joseph; Sarmiento, Jorge L.; Metzl, Nicolas; Ometto, Jean P; Randerson, James T.; Peters, Glen P; Running, Steven; Sitch, Stephen; Takahashi, Taro; Van der Werf, Guido

    2009-12-01

    Efforts to control climate change require the stabilization of atmospheric CO2 concentrations. This can only be achieved through a drastic reduction of global CO2 emissions. Yet fossil fuel emissions increased by 29% between 2000 and 2008, in conjunction with increased contributions from emerging economies, from the production and international trade of goods and services, and from the use of coal as a fuel source. In contrast, emissions from land-use changes were nearly constant. Between 1959 and 2008, 43% of each year's CO2 emissions remained in the atmosphere on average; the rest was absorbed by carbon sinks on land and in the oceans. In the past 50 years, the fraction of CO2 emissions that remains in the atmosphere each year has likely increased, from about 40% to 45%, and models suggest that this trend was caused by a decrease in the uptake of CO2 by the carbon sinks in response to climate change and variability. Changes in the CO2 sinks are highly uncertain, but they could have a significant influence on future atmospheric CO2 levels. It is therefore crucial to reduce the uncertainties.

  6. Carbon Nanotube/Magnesium Composite as a Hydrogen Source.

    PubMed

    Yu, Min Kyu; Se, Kwon Oh; Kim, Min Joong; Hwang, Jae Won; Yoon, Byoung Young; Kwon, Hyuk Sang

    2015-11-01

    Hydrogen produced using the steam reforming process contains sulfur and carbon monoxide that are harmful to the Pt catalyst in proton-exchange-membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). However, CO-free hydrogen can be generated from the hydrolysis of either Al in strongly alkaline water or Mg in neutral water with chlorides such as sea water. The hydrogen generation rate from the hydrolysis of Mg is extremely slow and linearly proportional to the corrosion rate of Mg in chloride water. In this work, we fabricated a carbon nanotube (CNT)--reinforced Mg--matrix composite by Spark Plasma Sintering as a fast hydrogen generation source for a PEMFC. The CNTs distributed in the Mg matrix act as numerous local cathodes, and hence cause severe galvanic corrosion between the Mg-matrix anode and CNT-cathode in NaCl solution. It was found that the hydrogen generation rate from the hydrolysis of the 5 vol.% CNT/Mg composite is 3300 times faster than that of the Mg without CNTs due primarily to the galvanic corrosion effect.

  7. Effect of conductive additives to gel electrolytes on activated carbon-based supercapacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barzegar, Farshad; Dangbegnon, Julien K.; Bello, Abdulhakeem; Momodu, Damilola Y.; Johnson, A. T. Charlie; Manyala, Ncholu

    2015-09-01

    This article is focused on polymer based gel electrolyte due to the fact that polymers are cheap and can be used to achieve extended potential window for improved energy density of the supercapacitor devices when compared to aqueous electrolytes. Electrochemical characterization of a symmetric supercapacitor devices based on activated carbon in different polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) based gel electrolytes was carried out. The device exhibited a maximum energy density of 24 Wh kg-1 when carbon black was added to the gel electrolyte as conductive additive. The good energy density was correlated with the improved conductivity of the electrolyte medium which is favorable for fast ion transport in this relatively viscous environment. Most importantly, the device remained stable with no capacitance lost after 10,000 cycles.

  8. Distinct carbon sources indicate strong differentiation between tropical forest and farmland bird communities.

    PubMed

    Ferger, Stefan W; Böhning-Gaese, Katrin; Wilcke, Wolfgang; Oelmann, Yvonne; Schleuning, Matthias

    2013-02-01

    The conversion of forest into farmland has resulted in mosaic landscapes in many parts of the tropics. From a conservation perspective, it is important to know whether tropical farmlands can buffer species loss caused by deforestation and how different functional groups of birds respond to land-use intensification. To test the degree of differentiation between farmland and forest bird communities across feeding guilds, we analyzed stable C and N isotopes in blood and claws of 101 bird species comprising four feeding guilds along a tropical forest-farmland gradient in Kenya. We additionally assessed the importance of farmland insectivores for pest control in C(4) crops by using allometric relationships, C stable isotope ratios and estimates of bird species abundance. Species composition differed strongly between forest and farmland bird communities. Across seasons, forest birds primarily relied on C(3) carbon sources, whereas many farmland birds also assimilated C(4) carbon. While C sources of frugivores and omnivores did not differ between forest and farmland communities, insectivores used more C(4) carbon in the farmland than in the forest. Granivores assimilated more C(4) carbon than all other guilds in the farmland. We estimated that insectivorous farmland birds consumed at least 1,000 kg pest invertebrates km(-2) year(-1). We conclude that tropical forest and farmland understory bird communities are strongly separated and that tropical farmlands cannot compensate forest loss for insectivorous forest understory birds. In tropical farmlands, insectivorous bird species provide a quantitatively important contribution to pest control. PMID:22898920

  9. Distinct carbon sources indicate strong differentiation between tropical forest and farmland bird communities.

    PubMed

    Ferger, Stefan W; Böhning-Gaese, Katrin; Wilcke, Wolfgang; Oelmann, Yvonne; Schleuning, Matthias

    2013-02-01

    The conversion of forest into farmland has resulted in mosaic landscapes in many parts of the tropics. From a conservation perspective, it is important to know whether tropical farmlands can buffer species loss caused by deforestation and how different functional groups of birds respond to land-use intensification. To test the degree of differentiation between farmland and forest bird communities across feeding guilds, we analyzed stable C and N isotopes in blood and claws of 101 bird species comprising four feeding guilds along a tropical forest-farmland gradient in Kenya. We additionally assessed the importance of farmland insectivores for pest control in C(4) crops by using allometric relationships, C stable isotope ratios and estimates of bird species abundance. Species composition differed strongly between forest and farmland bird communities. Across seasons, forest birds primarily relied on C(3) carbon sources, whereas many farmland birds also assimilated C(4) carbon. While C sources of frugivores and omnivores did not differ between forest and farmland communities, insectivores used more C(4) carbon in the farmland than in the forest. Granivores assimilated more C(4) carbon than all other guilds in the farmland. We estimated that insectivorous farmland birds consumed at least 1,000 kg pest invertebrates km(-2) year(-1). We conclude that tropical forest and farmland understory bird communities are strongly separated and that tropical farmlands cannot compensate forest loss for insectivorous forest understory birds. In tropical farmlands, insectivorous bird species provide a quantitatively important contribution to pest control.

  10. Do Vermont's Floodplains Constitute an Important Source of Labile Carbon?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perdrial, J. N.; Dolan, A.; Kemsley, M.

    2014-12-01

    Floodplains are extremely heterogeneous landscapes with respect to soil and sediment composition and can present an important source of carbon (C) during floods. For example, stream bank soils and sediments are zones of active erosion and deposition of sediment associated C. Due to the presence of plants, riparian soils contain high amounts of C that is exchanged between stream waters and banks. Abandoned channels and meander wetlands that remain hydrologically connected to the main channel contain high amounts of organic matter that can be flushed into the stream during high discharge. This heterogeneity, result of floodplain geomorphology, land cover and use, can profoundly impact the amount and type of dissolved organic matter (DOM) introduced into streams. In order to assess DOM characteristics leached from heterogeneous floodplain soils, aqueous soil extracts were performed on soil samples representative of different land covers (n=20) at four depths. Extracts were analyzed for dissolved organic C and total dissolved nitrogen with a Shimadzu C analyzer. Colored dissolved organic matter characteristics was measured with the Aqualog Fluorescence Spectrometer and quantified with parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC). Preliminary data from three floodplains in Vermont (Connecticut, Missisquoi and Mad River) show a 3D variability of longitudinal, lateral, and vertical extents on water-extractable, mobile C. Dissolved organic carbon concentrations in meander swamp samples were found up to 9 times higher than in those of soils from agricultural field indicative of an important C source. Although C concentrations in adjacent fields were low, high abundance of labile C (indicated by tryptophan-like fluorescence) in water extracts from fields indicates recent biological production of C. This labile C is easily processed by microbes and transformed to the greenhouse gas CO2. These results provide important information on the contribution and lability of different floodplain

  11. Charcoal addition to soils in NE England: a carbon sink with environmental co-benefits?

    PubMed

    Bell, M J; Worrall, F

    2011-04-01

    Interest in the application of biochar (charcoal produced during the pyrolysis of biomass) to agricultural land is increasing across the world, recognised as a potential way to capture and store atmospheric carbon. Its interest is heightened by its potential co-benefits for soil quality and fertility. The majority of research has however been undertaken in tropical rather than temperate regions. This study assessed the potential for lump-wood charcoal addition (as a substitute for biochar) to soil types which are typically under arable and forest land-use in North East England. The study was undertaken over a 28 week period and found: i) No significant difference in net ecosystem respiration (NER) between soils containing charcoal and those without, other than in week 1 of the trial. ii) A significantly higher dissolved organic carbon (DOC) flux from soils containing large amounts of charcoal than from those untreated, when planted with ryegrass. iii) That when increased respiration or DOC loss did occur, neither was sufficiently large to alter the carbon sink benefits of charcoal application. iv) That charcoal incorporation resulted in a significantly lower nitrate flux in soil leachate from mineral soils. v) That charcoal incorporation caused significant increases in soil pH, from 6.98 to 7.22 on bare arable soils when 87,500 kg charcoal/ha was applied. Consideration of both the carbon sink and environmental benefits observed here suggests that charcoal application to temperate soils typical of North East England should be considered as a method of carbon sequestration. Before large scale land application is encouraged, further large scale trials should be undertaken to confirm the positive results of this research.

  12. Effects of Nitrogen and Phosphorus Additions on Carbon Cycling of Tropical Mountain Rainforests in Hainan, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, J.

    2015-12-01

    Nitrogen (N) and Phosphorus (P) deposition is projected to increase significantly in tropical regions in the coming decades, which has changed and will change the structure and function of ecosystems, and affects on ecosystem Carbon (C) cycle. As an important part in global C cycle, how the C cycle of tropical rainforests will be influenced by the N and P deposition should be focused on. This study simulated N and P deposition in a primary and secondary forest of tropical mountain rainforest in Jianfengling, Hainan, China, during five-year field experiment to evaluate the effects of N and P deposition on C cycling processes and relate characteristics. Six levels of N and P treatments were treated: Control, Low-N, Medium-N, High-N, P and N+P. The relative growth rates (RGR) of tree layer in treatment plots were different from that in control plots after years of N and P addition. Simulated N and P deposition also increased ANPP in primary forest. N and P addition changed the growth of trees by altering soil nutrient and microbial activities. N and P addition increased soil organic carbon (SOC) and total N (TN) content, and significantly increased soil total P (TP) content, not changing soil pH. During the whole process of N and P addition, as net nitrification rate and net N mineralization rate were promoted by N and P addition, and effective N content (nitrate) of soil increased in the plot treated with N treatments compared to the control treatment. The microbial P content was increased by N and P addition, and microbial N was not changed. The increasing N deposition may enhance soil nutrient and stimulate growth of trees, which will lead to an increase of the C sequestration.

  13. Soil microbial community structure and nitrogen cycling responses to agroecosystem management and carbon substrate addition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berthrong, S. T.; Buckley, D. H.; Drinkwater, L. E.

    2011-12-01

    Fertilizer application in conventional agriculture leads to N saturation and decoupled soil C and N cycling, whereas organic practices, e.g. complex rotations and legume incorporation, often results in increased SOM and tightly coupled cycles of C and N. These legacy effects of management on soils likely affect microbial community composition and microbial process rates. This project tested if agricultural management practices led to distinct microbial communities and if those communities differed in ability to utilize labile plant carbon substrates and to produce more plant available N. We addressed several specific questions in this project. 1) Do organic and conventional management legacies on similar soils produce distinct soil bacterial and fungal community structures and abundances? 2) How do these microbial community structures change in response to carbon substrate addition? 3) How do the responses of the microbial communities influence N cycling? To address these questions we conducted a laboratory incubation of organically and conventionally managed soils. We added C-13 labelled glucose either in one large dose or several smaller pulses. We extracted genomic DNA from soils before and after incubation for TRFLP community fingerprinting. We measured C in soil pools and respiration and N in soil extracts and leachates. Management led to different compositions of bacteria and fungi driven by distinct components in organic soils. Biomass did not differ across treatments indicating that differences in cycling were due to composition rather than abundance. C substrate addition led to convergence in bacterial communities; however management still strongly influenced the difference in communities. Fungal communities were very distinct between managements and plots with substrate addition not altering this pattern. Organic soils respired 3 times more of the glucose in the first week than conventional soils (1.1% vs 0.4%). Organic soils produced twice as much

  14. National Dioxin Study Tier 4 - combustion sources: final test report - Site 9, carbon-regeneration furnace CRF-A

    SciTech Connect

    Jamgochian, C.L.; Keller, L.E.; Kelly, W.

    1987-04-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency is assessing the potential for the emissions of dioxin/furans from combustion sources under Tier 4 of the National Dioxin Study. If any of the combustion sources are found to emit dioxins, the secondary purpose of the Tier 4 study is to quantify these emissions and, if possible, related the emissions to combustion parameters. Carbon-regeneration furnaces are 1 of 8 source categories that have been included in the field test program. Carbon-regeneration furnaces reactivate spent carbon from industrial or municipal water-treatment facilities. The spent carbon may contain absorbed chlorinated compounds. The report presents the results of an emission-test program conducted by Radian during May 28-31, 1985, at an industrial carbon-regeneration furnace designated as Site CRF-A. The furnace was selected after an initial information screening and a pretest survey visit. The facility is considered representative of other carbon-regeneration furnaces in the United States. Furnace CRF-A regenerates spent carbon from more than 20 plants that use activated carbon for industrial wastewater treatment. Data presented in the report include dioxin (tetra through octa homologue +2378 TCDF) and furan (tetra through octa homologue +2378 TCDF) results for both stack samples and ash samples. In addition, process data collected during sampling are also presented.

  15. Sources and distribution of organic and carbonate carbon in surface sediments of Pyramid Lake, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Tenzer, G.E.; Meyers, P.A.; Knoop, P.

    1997-09-01

    Surface sediment samples from 32 sites in Pyramid Lake, Nevada, have been studied to investigate the sources and distribution of carbon within a large, terminal lake basin. The origins of organic and inorganic carbon in the sediments of this lake are predominantly from in-lake sources. Dilution of these sedimentary materials by land-derived clastic components occurs near the mouth of the Truckee River, the only perennial river entering the lake. Total organic carbon (TOC) concentrations and CaCO{sub 3} concentrations and {delta}{sup 18}O values increase while organic matter C/N atomic ratios and {delta}{sup 13}C values decrease with increasing distance from the river mouth as the proportion of river-derived components decreases. Aragonite precipitates from lake water and dominates CaCO{sub 3} deposition in most parts of the lake, except near underlake springs, where calcite precipitates. TOC concentrations increase as water depth increases, reflecting grain sorting as smaller particles are resuspended and focused toward the deep basin center.

  16. Cassava stillage and its anaerobic fermentation liquid as external carbon sources in biological nutrient removal*

    PubMed Central

    Bu, Fan; Hu, Xiang; Xie, Li; Zhou, Qi

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of one kind of food industry effluent, cassava stillage and its anaerobic fermentation liquid, on biological nutrient removal (BNR) from municipal wastewater in anaerobic-anoxic-aerobic sequencing batch reactors (SBRs). Experiments were carried out with cassava stillage supernatant and its anaerobic fermentation liquid, and one pure compound (sodium acetate) served as an external carbon source. Cyclic studies indicated that the cassava by-products not only affected the transformation of nitrogen, phosphorus, poly-β-hydroxyalkanoates (PHAs), and glycogen in the BNR process, but also resulted in higher removal efficiencies for phosphorus and nitrogen compared with sodium acetate. Furthermore, assays for phosphorus accumulating organisms (PAOs) and denitrifying phosphorus accumulating organisms (DPAOs) demonstrated that the proportion of DPAOs to PAOs reached 62.6% (Day 86) and 61.8% (Day 65) when using cassava stillage and its anaerobic fermentation liquid, respectively, as the external carbon source. In addition, the nitrate utilization rates (NURs) of the cassava by-products were in the range of 5.49–5.99 g N/(kg MLVSS∙h) (MLVSS is mixed liquor volatile suspended solids) and 6.63–6.81 g N/(kg MLVSS∙h), respectively. The improvement in BNR performance and the reduction in the amount of cassava stillage to be treated in-situ make cassava stillage and its anaerobic fermentation liquid attractive alternatives to sodium acetate as external carbon sources for BNR processes. PMID:25845364

  17. [Effect of carbon source and nitrate concentration on denitrifying dephosphorus removal and variation of ORP].

    PubMed

    Wang, Ya-yi; Peng, Yong-zhen; Wagn, Shu-ying; Song, Xue-qi; Wagn, Shao-po

    2004-07-01

    Effect of added carbon source and nitrate concentration on the denitrifying phosphorus removal by SBR process was systematicaly studied, at the same time the variation of oxidation reductiun potential (ORP) was investigated. The results showed the phosphate release rate and the denitrifying and dephosphorus uptake rate in anoxic phase increased with the high carbon source concentration under anaerobic condition (100-300mg/L). However when the carbon source added in anaerobic phase was high to 300mg/L, the residual COD inhibited the succeed denitrifying dephosphorus uptake. High nitrate concentration (5, 15, 40mg/L) in anoxic phase increased the initial denitrifying dephosphorus rate. Once the nitrate depletes, phosphate uptake changed to phosphate release. Moreover, the time of the turning point occurred later with the higher nitrate addition. ORP can be used as a control parameter of phosphorus release, and it can also indicate the denitrificaiton react degree during the anoxic phosphorus removal but can't be used as control parameter of phosphorus uptake.

  18. Cassava stillage and its anaerobic fermentation liquid as external carbon sources in biological nutrient removal.

    PubMed

    Bu, Fan; Hu, Xiang; Xie, Li; Zhou, Qi

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of one kind of food industry effluent, cassava stillage and its anaerobic fermentation liquid, on biological nutrient removal (BNR) from municipal wastewater in anaerobic-anoxic-aerobic sequencing batch reactors (SBRs). Experiments were carried out with cassava stillage supernatant and its anaerobic fermentation liquid, and one pure compound (sodium acetate) served as an external carbon source. Cyclic studies indicated that the cassava by-products not only affected the transformation of nitrogen, phosphorus, poly-β-hydroxyalkanoates (PHAs), and glycogen in the BNR process, but also resulted in higher removal efficiencies for phosphorus and nitrogen compared with sodium acetate. Furthermore, assays for phosphorus accumulating organisms (PAOs) and denitrifying phosphorus accumulating organisms (DPAOs) demonstrated that the proportion of DPAOs to PAOs reached 62.6% (Day 86) and 61.8% (Day 65) when using cassava stillage and its anaerobic fermentation liquid, respectively, as the external carbon source. In addition, the nitrate utilization rates (NURs) of the cassava by-products were in the range of 5.49-5.99 g N/(kg MLVSS⋅h) (MLVSS is mixed liquor volatile suspended solids) and 6.63-6.81 g N/(kg MLVSS⋅h), respectively. The improvement in BNR performance and the reduction in the amount of cassava stillage to be treated in-situ make cassava stillage and its anaerobic fermentation liquid attractive alternatives to sodium acetate as external carbon sources for BNR processes. PMID:25845364

  19. Cassava stillage and its anaerobic fermentation liquid as external carbon sources in biological nutrient removal.

    PubMed

    Bu, Fan; Hu, Xiang; Xie, Li; Zhou, Qi

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of one kind of food industry effluent, cassava stillage and its anaerobic fermentation liquid, on biological nutrient removal (BNR) from municipal wastewater in anaerobic-anoxic-aerobic sequencing batch reactors (SBRs). Experiments were carried out with cassava stillage supernatant and its anaerobic fermentation liquid, and one pure compound (sodium acetate) served as an external carbon source. Cyclic studies indicated that the cassava by-products not only affected the transformation of nitrogen, phosphorus, poly-β-hydroxyalkanoates (PHAs), and glycogen in the BNR process, but also resulted in higher removal efficiencies for phosphorus and nitrogen compared with sodium acetate. Furthermore, assays for phosphorus accumulating organisms (PAOs) and denitrifying phosphorus accumulating organisms (DPAOs) demonstrated that the proportion of DPAOs to PAOs reached 62.6% (Day 86) and 61.8% (Day 65) when using cassava stillage and its anaerobic fermentation liquid, respectively, as the external carbon source. In addition, the nitrate utilization rates (NURs) of the cassava by-products were in the range of 5.49-5.99 g N/(kg MLVSS⋅h) (MLVSS is mixed liquor volatile suspended solids) and 6.63-6.81 g N/(kg MLVSS⋅h), respectively. The improvement in BNR performance and the reduction in the amount of cassava stillage to be treated in-situ make cassava stillage and its anaerobic fermentation liquid attractive alternatives to sodium acetate as external carbon sources for BNR processes.

  20. Fluxes of carbon, phosphorylation, and redox intermediates during growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae on different carbon sources

    SciTech Connect

    Cortassa, S.; Aon, J.C.; Aon, M.A.

    1995-07-20

    In the present work the authors developed a method for estimating anabolic fluxes when yeast are growing on various carbon substrates (glucose, glycerol, lactate, pyruvate, acetate, or ethanol) in minimal medium. Fluxes through the central amphibolic pathways were calculated from the product of the total required amount of a specified carbon intermediate times the growth rate. The required amount of each carbon intermediate was estimated from the experimentally determined macromolecular composition of cells grown in each carbon source and the monomer composition of macromolecules. Substrates sharing most metabolic pathways such as ethanol and acetate, despite changes in the macromolecular composition, namely carbohydrate content, did not show large variations in the overall fluxes through the main amphibolic pathways. For instance, in order to supply anabolic precursors to sustain growth rates in the range of 0.16/h to 0.205/h, similar large fluxes through Acetyl CoA synthase were required by acetate or ethanol. The V{sub max} activities of key enzymes of the main amphibolic pathways measured in permeabilized yeast cells allowed to confirm, qualitatively, the operation of those pathways for all substrates and were consistent on most substrates with the estimate fluxes required to sustain growth.

  1. [Effects of nitrogen and carbon addition and arbuscular mycorrhiza on alien invasive plant Ambrosia artemisiifolia].

    PubMed

    Huang, Dong; Sang, Wei-guo; Zhu, Li; Song, Ying-ying; Wang, Jin-ping

    2010-12-01

    A greenhouse control experiment was conducted to explore the effects of nitrogen and carbon addition and arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) on the growth of alien invasive plant Ambrosia artemisiifolia (common ragweed). Nitrogen addition had no significant effects on the morphological indices, biomass and its allocation, and absolute growth rate of A. artemisiifolia, but increased the nitrogen content in the aboveground and underground parts of the plant significantly. Carbon addition increased the content of soil available nitrogen. In this case, the biomass allocation in root system for nutrient (nitrogen) absorption promoted, resulting in a remarkable decrease of branch number, total leaf area, specific leaf area (SLA), and leaf mass ratio. As a result, the total biomass decreased significantly. The symbiosis of A. artemisiifolia and AM fungi had great influence on the common ragweed's soil nitrogen acclimation, which enhanced its resource-capture by the increase of SLA, and this effect was more significant when the soil nitrogen content was low. AM fungi played an important role in the growth of A. artemisiifolia in low-nitrogen environment.

  2. Tribological properties of graphene oxide and carbon spheres as lubricating additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Haojie; Wang, Zhiqiang; Yang, Jin

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of this paper was to investigate the tribological properties of carbon materials with various morphologies [i.e., graphene oxide (GO) and carbon spheres (CSs)] utilized as lubricating additives on a ball-plate tribotester. The morphology and spectroscopy characterization of GO and CSs were investigated by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectrometry, and thermogravimetric analysis. Friction and wear properties of the sunflower seed oil filled with GO and CSs were investigated by using a MS-T3000 ball-on-disk apparatus. Results show that the sunflower seed oil containing 0.3 wt% GO nanosheets exhibited a substantial diminution in friction and wear compared with the 3.0 wt% CSs as sunflower seed oil additives. Formation of low-shear strength tribofilms containing GO and its self-lubricating behavior was the key factor in reduction of the friction and prevention from wear and deformation. In addition, friction mechanism of CSs was also discussed.

  3. Plant interspecific differences in arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization as a result of soil carbon addition.

    PubMed

    Eschen, René; Müller-Schärer, Heinz; Schaffner, Urs

    2013-01-01

    Soil nutrient availability and colonization by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi are important and potentially interacting factors shaping vegetation composition and succession. We investigated the effect of carbon (C) addition, aimed at reducing soil nutrient availability, on arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization. Seedlings of 27 plant species with different sets of life-history traits (functional group affiliation, life history strategy and nitrophilic status) were grown in pots filled with soil from a nutrient-rich set-aside field and amended with different amounts of C. Mycorrhizal colonization was progressively reduced along the gradient of increasing C addition in 17 out of 27 species, but not in the remaining species. Grasses had lower colonization levels than forbs and legumes and the decline in AM fungal colonization was more pronounced in legumes than in other forbs and grasses. Mycorrhizal colonization did not differ between annual and perennial species, but decreased more rapidly along the gradient of increasing C addition in plants with high Ellenberg N values than in plants with low Ellenberg N values. Soil C addition not only limits plant growth through a reduction in available nutrients, but also reduces mycorrhizal colonization of plant roots. The effect of C addition on mycorrhizal colonization varies among plant functional groups, with legumes experiencing an overproportional reduction in AM fungal colonization along the gradient of increasing C addition. We therefore propose that for a better understanding of vegetation succession on set-aside fields one may consider the interrelationship between plant growth, soil nutrient availability and mycorrhizal colonization of plant roots.

  4. Stimulation of terrestrial ecosystem carbon storage by nitrogen addition: a meta-analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yue, Kai; Peng, Yan; Peng, Changhui; Yang, Wanqin; Peng, Xin; Wu, Fuzhong

    2016-01-01

    Elevated nitrogen (N) deposition alters the terrestrial carbon (C) cycle, which is likely to feed back to further climate change. However, how the overall terrestrial ecosystem C pools and fluxes respond to N addition remains unclear. By synthesizing data from multiple terrestrial ecosystems, we quantified the response of C pools and fluxes to experimental N addition using a comprehensive meta-analysis method. Our results showed that N addition significantly stimulated soil total C storage by 5.82% ([2.47%, 9.27%], 95% CI, the same below) and increased the C contents of the above- and below-ground parts of plants by 25.65% [11.07%, 42.12%] and 15.93% [6.80%, 25.85%], respectively. Furthermore, N addition significantly increased aboveground net primary production by 52.38% [40.58%, 65.19%] and litterfall by 14.67% [9.24%, 20.38%] at a global scale. However, the C influx from the plant litter to the soil through litter decomposition and the efflux from the soil due to microbial respiration and soil respiration showed insignificant responses to N addition. Overall, our meta-analysis suggested that N addition will increase soil C storage and plant C in both above- and below-ground parts, indicating that terrestrial ecosystems might act to strengthen as a C sink under increasing N deposition.

  5. Stimulation of terrestrial ecosystem carbon storage by nitrogen addition: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Yue, Kai; Peng, Yan; Peng, Changhui; Yang, Wanqin; Peng, Xin; Wu, Fuzhong

    2016-01-01

    Elevated nitrogen (N) deposition alters the terrestrial carbon (C) cycle, which is likely to feed back to further climate change. However, how the overall terrestrial ecosystem C pools and fluxes respond to N addition remains unclear. By synthesizing data from multiple terrestrial ecosystems, we quantified the response of C pools and fluxes to experimental N addition using a comprehensive meta-analysis method. Our results showed that N addition significantly stimulated soil total C storage by 5.82% ([2.47%, 9.27%], 95% CI, the same below) and increased the C contents of the above- and below-ground parts of plants by 25.65% [11.07%, 42.12%] and 15.93% [6.80%, 25.85%], respectively. Furthermore, N addition significantly increased aboveground net primary production by 52.38% [40.58%, 65.19%] and litterfall by 14.67% [9.24%, 20.38%] at a global scale. However, the C influx from the plant litter to the soil through litter decomposition and the efflux from the soil due to microbial respiration and soil respiration showed insignificant responses to N addition. Overall, our meta-analysis suggested that N addition will increase soil C storage and plant C in both above- and below-ground parts, indicating that terrestrial ecosystems might act to strengthen as a C sink under increasing N deposition. PMID:26813078

  6. Utilization of glyphosate as phosphate source: biochemistry and genetics of bacterial carbon-phosphorus lyase.

    PubMed

    Hove-Jensen, Bjarne; Zechel, David L; Jochimsen, Bjarne

    2014-03-01

    After several decades of use of glyphosate, the active ingredient in weed killers such as Roundup, in fields, forests, and gardens, the biochemical pathway of transformation of glyphosate phosphorus to a useful phosphorus source for microorganisms has been disclosed. Glyphosate is a member of a large group of chemicals, phosphonic acids or phosphonates, which are characterized by a carbon-phosphorus bond. This is in contrast to the general phosphorus compounds utilized and metabolized by microorganisms. Here phosphorus is found as phosphoric acid or phosphate ion, phosphoric acid esters, or phosphoric acid anhydrides. The latter compounds contain phosphorus that is bound only to oxygen. Hydrolytic, oxidative, and radical-based mechanisms for carbon-phosphorus bond cleavage have been described. This review deals with the radical-based mechanism employed by the carbon-phosphorus lyase of the carbon-phosphorus lyase pathway, which involves reactions for activation of phosphonate, carbon-phosphorus bond cleavage, and further chemical transformation before a useful phosphate ion is generated in a series of seven or eight enzyme-catalyzed reactions. The phn genes, encoding the enzymes for this pathway, are widespread among bacterial species. The processes are described with emphasis on glyphosate as a substrate. Additionally, the catabolism of glyphosate is intimately connected with that of aminomethylphosphonate, which is also treated in this review. Results of physiological and genetic analyses are combined with those of bioinformatics analyses.

  7. Utilization of Glyphosate as Phosphate Source: Biochemistry and Genetics of Bacterial Carbon-Phosphorus Lyase

    PubMed Central

    Zechel, David L.; Jochimsen, Bjarne

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY After several decades of use of glyphosate, the active ingredient in weed killers such as Roundup, in fields, forests, and gardens, the biochemical pathway of transformation of glyphosate phosphorus to a useful phosphorus source for microorganisms has been disclosed. Glyphosate is a member of a large group of chemicals, phosphonic acids or phosphonates, which are characterized by a carbon-phosphorus bond. This is in contrast to the general phosphorus compounds utilized and metabolized by microorganisms. Here phosphorus is found as phosphoric acid or phosphate ion, phosphoric acid esters, or phosphoric acid anhydrides. The latter compounds contain phosphorus that is bound only to oxygen. Hydrolytic, oxidative, and radical-based mechanisms for carbon-phosphorus bond cleavage have been described. This review deals with the radical-based mechanism employed by the carbon-phosphorus lyase of the carbon-phosphorus lyase pathway, which involves reactions for activation of phosphonate, carbon-phosphorus bond cleavage, and further chemical transformation before a useful phosphate ion is generated in a series of seven or eight enzyme-catalyzed reactions. The phn genes, encoding the enzymes for this pathway, are widespread among bacterial species. The processes are described with emphasis on glyphosate as a substrate. Additionally, the catabolism of glyphosate is intimately connected with that of aminomethylphosphonate, which is also treated in this review. Results of physiological and genetic analyses are combined with those of bioinformatics analyses. PMID:24600043

  8. Sources and distribution of carbon within the Yangtze River system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Y.; Zhang, J.; Liu, S. M.; Zhang, Z. F.; Yao, Q. Z.; Hong, G. H.; Cooper, L.

    2007-01-01

    Dissolved, particulate, soil and plant samples were collected from the Yangtze River (Changjiang) system in May 1997 and May 2003 to determine the sources and distribution of organic and inorganic matter within the river system. Average dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations within the main stream were 105 μM C in 1997 and 108 μM C in 2003. Particulate organic carbon (POC) ranged from 0.5% to 2.5% of total suspended matter (TSM). Both dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and particulate inorganic carbon (PIC) concentrations decreased from upper to lower reaches of the river, within the ranges 1.2-2.7 mM and 0.08-4.3% of TSM, respectively. δ13C and δ15N values for tributaries and the main stream varied from -26.8‰ to -25.1‰ and 2.8‰ to 6.0‰, respectively. A large spatial variation in particulate organic matter (POM) is recorded along the main stream, probably due to the contributions of TSM from major tributaries and POM input from local vegetation sources. The dominance of C-3 plants throughout the entire basin is indicated by δ13C and δ15N values, which range from -28.8‰ to -24.3‰ and from -0.9‰ to 5.5‰, respectively. The δ13C and δ15N values of organic matter within surface soil from alongside tributaries and the main stream vary from -28.9‰ to -24.3‰ and 2.7‰ to 4.5‰, respectively. Although these differences are subtle, there is a slight enrichment of 15N in soils along the main stream. Various approaches, such as C/N and stable isotopes, were used to trace the sources of organic matter within the river. Riverine POM is mostly derived from soil; the contribution from phytoplankton is minor and difficult to trace via the composition of particles. POC flux has decreased from >5 × 10 6 t yr -1 during the period 1960-1980 to about 2 × 10 6 t yr -1 in 1997. This trend can be explained by decreasing sediment load within the Yangtze River. The export of TOC from the Yangtze River at the end of the 20th Century is approximately

  9. Source forensics of black carbon aerosols from China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bing; Andersson, August; Lee, Meehye; Kirillova, Elena N; Xiao, Qianfen; Kruså, Martin; Shi, Meinan; Hu, Ke; Lu, Zifeng; Streets, David G; Du, Ke; Gustafsson, Örjan

    2013-08-20

    The limited understanding of black carbon (BC) aerosol emissions from incomplete combustion causes a poorly constrained anthropogenic climate warming that globally may be second only to CO2 and regionally, such as over East Asia, the dominant driver of climate change. The relative contribution to atmospheric BC from fossil fuel versus biomass combustion is important to constrain as fossil BC is a stronger climate forcer. The source apportionment is the underpinning for targeted mitigation actions. However, technology-based "bottom-up" emission inventories are inconclusive, largely due to uncertain BC emission factors from small-scale/household combustion and open burning. We use "top-down" radiocarbon measurements of atmospheric BC from five sites including three city sites and two regional sites to determine that fossil fuel combustion produces 80 ± 6% of the BC emitted from China. This source-diagnostic radiocarbon signal in the ambient aerosol over East Asia establishes a much larger role for fossil fuel combustion than suggested by all 15 BC emission inventory models, including one with monthly resolution. Our results suggest that current climate modeling should refine both BC emission strength and consider the stronger radiative absorption associated with fossil-fuel-derived BC. To mitigate near-term climate effects and improve air quality in East Asia, activities such as residential coal combustion and city traffic should be targeted. PMID:23844635

  10. Dissolved organic carbon source integration in an agricultural watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernes, P. J.; Spencer, R. G.; Dyda, R. Y.; Pellerin, B. A.; Bachand, P. A.; Bergamaschi, B. A.

    2012-12-01

    The dissolved organic carbon (DOC) chemistry and concentration at the mouth of a watershed represents an integrated signal of all sources and process that occur upstream of the mouth, however, the relative contributions of all those sources and processes to the chemistry and concentration is not equal. We sampled an agricultural watershed in the Sacramento River valley in California synoptically on multiple occasions in order to better identify the most important contributors to DOC chemistry. Our samples included headwater samples from native grasslands in three sub-catchments, samples within the agricultural portions of those sub-watersheds, samples near the conjunctions, and irrigation field inputs and outputs. DOC concentrations increase considerably in the agricultural portion of the watershed, demonstrating the impacts of anthropogenic disturbance of landscapes as well as the potential for local landscapes to contribute significantly to the overall DOC concentration and chemistry. The central sub-catchment in particular had significantly greater DOC concentrations, which appears to correspond to the much greater proportion of flood irrigation land management in this portion, as our field runoff measurements indicate much higher added DOC during flood irrigation than during furrow irrigation. Flow-weighted averaging of the three sub-catchment DOC concentrations does not replicate concentrations at the mouth (1-6 km downstream of the confluences), indicating the importance of in-stream processing and/or source inputs from riparian zones even along the mainstem. Optical characterization of DOC demonstrates changing chemistry from season to season, and differences in chemistry from different areas of the catchment. The storm-influenced spring sampling yielded higher carbon-specific UV absorbance at 254 nm (SUVA254), indicating a higher proportion of aromaticity, while the southern sub-catchment consistently yielded the highest spectral slope values, which

  11. Preparation and Physicochemical Evaluation of Controlled-release Carbon Source Tablet for Groundwater in situ Denitrification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Y.; Kang, J. H.; Yeum, Y.; Han, K. J.; Kim, D. W.; Park, C. W.

    2015-12-01

    Nitric nitrogen could be the one of typical pollution source such asNO3-through domestic sewage, livestock and agricultural wastewater. Resident microflorain aquifer has known to remove the nitric nitrogen spontaneously following the denitration process with the carbon source (CS) as reactant. However, it could be reacted very slowly with the rack of CS and there have been some studies for controlled addition of CS (Ref #1-3). The aim of this study was to prepare the controlled-release carbon source (CR-CS) tablet and to evaluate in vitro release profile for groundwater in situ denitrification. CR-CS tablet could be manufactured by direct compression method using hydraulic laboratory press (Caver® 3850) with 8 mm rounded concave punch/ die.Seven kinds of CR-CS tablet were prepared to determine the nature of the additives and their ratio such as sodium silicate, dicalcium phosphate, bentonite and sand#8.For each formulation, the LOD% and flowability of pre-mixed powders and the hardness of compressed tablets were analyzed. In vitro release study was performed to confirm the dissolution profiles following the USP Apparatus 2 method with Distilled water of 900mL, 20 °C. As a result, for each lubricated powders, they were compared in terms of ability to give an acceptable dry pre-mixed powder for tableting process. The hardness of the compressed tablets is acceptable whatever the formulations tested. After in vitro release study, it could confirm that the different formulations of CR-CS tablet have a various release rate patterns, which could release 100% at 3 hrs, 6 hrs and 12 hrs. The in vitro dissolution profiles were in good correlation of Higuchi release kinetic model. In conclusion, this study could be used as a background for development and evaluation of the controlled-release carbon source (CR-CS) tablet for the purification of groundwater following the in situ denitrification.

  12. Towards a Carbon Nanotube Ionization Source for Planetary Atmosphere Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oza, A. V.; Leblanc, F.; Berthelier, J. J.; Becker, J.; Coulomb, R.; Gilbert, P.; Hong, N. T.; Lee, S.; Vettier, L.

    2015-12-01

    The characterization of planetary exospheres today, relies on the development of a highly efficient ionization source, due to the scant neutral molecules (n < 108 cm -3) present in diffuse planetary coronae. These tenuous atmospheres provide insight on to physical processes known to occur such as: space weathering, magneto-atmosphere interactions, as well as atmospheric escape mechanisms, all of which are being heavily investigated via current 3D Monte Carlo simulations (Turc et al. 2014, Leblanc et al. 2016 in prep) at LATMOS. Validation of these studies will rely on in-situ observations in the coming decades. Neutral detection strongly depends on electron-impact ionization which via conventional cathode-sources, such as thermal filaments (heated up to 2000 K), may only produce the target ionization essential for energy-measurements with large power consumption. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) however are ideal low-power, cold cathodes, when subject to moderate electric fields (E ~ 1 MV / m). We present our current device, a small CNT chip, of emission area 15 mm2, emitting electrons that pass through an anode grid and subsequent electrostatic analyzer. The device currently extracts hundreds of µAmperes with applied external voltages ~ -150 Volts, approaching minimum power consumption < 0.1 Watts. The 3D modeling of field effect electrons ionizing a standard influx of neutrals is shown, using the multiphysics suite COMSOL. To better anticipate the species an ideal in-situ spacecraft equipped with such an ionization source would observe, we discuss Europa's exosphere. Europa's environment is largely shaped by the Jovian plasma sputtering the icy regolith with heavy ions and electrons (keV < E < MeV), producing predominately molecular oxygen (Johnson et al. 2002).

  13. Evidence for an Additional Heat Source in the Warm Ionized Medium of Galaxies.

    PubMed

    Reynolds; Haffner; Tufte

    1999-11-01

    Spatial variations of the [S ii]/Halpha and [N ii]/Halpha line intensity ratios observed in the gaseous halo of the Milky Way and other galaxies are inconsistent with pure photoionization models. They appear to require a supplemental heating mechanism that increases the electron temperature at low densities, ne. This would imply that in addition to photoionization, which has a heating rate per unit volume proportional to n2e, there is another source of heat with a rate per unit volume proportional to a lower power of ne. One possible mechanism is the dissipation of interstellar plasma turbulence, which, according to Minter & Spangler, heats the ionized interstellar medium in the Milky Way at a rate of approximately 1x10-25ne ergs cm-3 s-1. If such a source were present, it would dominate over photoionization heating in regions where ne less, similar0.1 cm-3, producing the observed increases in the [S ii]/Halpha and [N ii]/Halpha intensity ratios at large distances from the galactic midplane as well as accounting for the constancy of [S ii]/[N ii], which is not explained by pure photoionization. Other supplemental heating sources, such as magnetic reconnection, cosmic rays, or photoelectric emission from small grains, could also account for these observations, provided they supply approximately 10-5 ergs s-1 per square centimeter of the Galactic disk to the warm ionized medium.

  14. Controlling a toxic shock of pentachlorophenol (PCP) to anaerobic digestion using activated carbon addition.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Yeyuan; De Araujo, Cecilia; Sze, Chun Chau; Stuckey, David C

    2015-04-01

    Several powdered and granular activated carbons (PACs and GACs) were tested for adsorption of pentachlorophenol (PCP) in bench-scale anaerobic digestion reactors to control the toxicity of PCP to acetoclastic methanogenesis. Results showed that the adsorption capacities of PAC were reduced by 21-54%, depending on the PAC addition time, in the presence of the methanogenic sludge compared to the controls without sludge. As a preventive measure, PAC at a low dose of 20% (mass ratio to the VSS) added 24 h prior to, or simultaneously with, the addition of PCP could completely eliminate the toxic effects of PCP. At the same dose, PAC also enabled methanogenesis to recover immediately after the sludge had been exposed to PCP for 24h. GAC was not effective in enabling the recovery of methanogenesis due to its slow adsorption kinetics; however, at a dose of 80% it could partially ameliorate the toxic shock of PCP. PMID:25665874

  15. DISCOVERY OF THE SECOND WARM CARBON-CHAIN-CHEMISTRY SOURCE, IRAS15398 - 3359 IN LUPUS

    SciTech Connect

    Sakai, Nami; Yamamoto, Satoshi; Sakai, Takeshi; Hirota, Tomoya; Burton, Michael

    2009-05-20

    We have conducted a search for carbon-chain molecules toward 16 protostars with the Mopra 22 m and Nobeyama 45 m telescopes, and have detected high excitation lines from several species, such as C{sub 4}H (N = 9-8), C{sub 4}H{sub 2}(J = 10{sub 0,10}-9{sub 0,9}), CH{sub 3}CCH(J = 5-4, K = 2), and HC{sub 5}N(J = 32-31), toward the low-mass protostar, IRAS15398 - 3359 in Lupus. The C{sub 4}H line is as bright as 2.4 K measured with the Nobeyama 45 m telescope. The kinetic temperature is derived to be 12.6 {+-} 1.5 K from the K = 1 and K = 2 lines of CH{sub 3}CCH. These results indicate that the carbon-chain molecules exist in a region of warm and dense gas near the protostar. The observed features are similar to those found toward IRAS04368+2557 in L1527, which shows warm carbon-chain chemistry (WCCC). In WCCC, carbon-chain molecules are produced efficiently by the evaporation of CH{sub 4} from the grain mantles in a lukewarm region near the protostar. Our data clearly indicate that WCCC is no longer specific to L1527, but occurs in IRAS15398 - 3359. In addition, we draw attention to a remarkable contrast between WCCC and hot corino chemistry in low-mass star-forming regions. Carbon-chain molecules are deficient in hot corino sources like NGC1333 IRAS4B, whereas complex organic molecules seem to be less abundant in the WCCC sources. A possible origin for such source-to-source chemical variations is suggested to arise from the timescale of the starless-core phase in each source. If this is the case, the chemical composition provides an important clue to explore the variation of star formation processes between sources and/or molecular clouds.

  16. Stream restoration and sewers impact sources and fluxes of water, carbon, and nutrients in urban watersheds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pennino, Michael J.; Kaushal, Sujay S.; Mayer, Paul M.; Utz, Ryan M.; Cooper, Curtis A.

    2016-08-01

    An improved understanding of sources and timing of water, carbon, and nutrient fluxes associated with urban infrastructure and stream restoration is critical for guiding effective watershed management globally. We investigated how sources, fluxes, and flowpaths of water, carbon (C), nitrogen (N), and phosphorus (P) shift in response to differences in urban stream restoration and sewer infrastructure. We compared an urban restored stream with two urban degraded streams draining varying levels of urban development and one stream with upland stormwater management systems over a 3-year period. We found that there was significantly decreased peak discharge in response to precipitation events following stream restoration. Similarly, we found that the restored stream showed significantly lower (p < 0.05) monthly peak runoff (9.4 ± 1.0 mm day-1) compared with two urban degraded streams (ranging from 44.9 ± 4.5 to 55.4 ± 5.8 mm day-1) draining higher impervious surface cover, and the stream-draining stormwater management systems and less impervious surface cover in its watershed (13.2 ± 1.9 mm day-1). The restored stream exported most carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus at relatively lower streamflow than the two more urban catchments, which exported most carbon and nutrients at higher streamflow. Annual exports of total carbon (6.6 ± 0.5 kg ha-1 yr-1), total nitrogen (4.5 ± 0.3 kg ha-1 yr-1), and total phosphorus (161 ± 15 kg ha-1 yr-1) were significantly lower in the restored stream compared to both urban degraded streams (p < 0.05), but statistically similar to the stream draining stormwater management systems, for N exports. However, nitrate isotope data suggested that 55 ± 1 % of the nitrate in the urban restored stream was derived from leaky sanitary sewers (during baseflow), statistically similar to the urban degraded streams. These isotopic results as well as additional tracers, including fluoride (added to drinking water) and iodide (contained in dietary salt

  17. On the effect of carbon monoxide addition on soot formation in a laminar ethylene/air coflow diffusion flame

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Hongsheng; Thomson, Kevin A.; Smallwood, Gregory J.

    2009-06-15

    The effect of carbon monoxide addition on soot formation in an ethylene/air diffusion flame is investigated by experiment and detailed numerical simulation. The paper focuses on the chemical effect of carbon monoxide addition by comparing the results of carbon monoxide and nitrogen diluted flames. Both experiment and simulation show that although overall the addition of carbon monoxide monotonically reduces the formation of soot, the chemical effect promotes the formation of soot in an ethylene/air diffusion flame. The further analysis of the details of the numerical result suggests that the chemical effect of carbon monoxide addition may be caused by the modifications to the flame temperature, soot surface growth and oxidation reactions. Flame temperature increases relative to a nitrogen diluted flame, which results in a higher surface growth rate, when carbon monoxide is added. Furthermore, the addition of carbon monoxide increases the concentration of H radical owing to the intensified forward rate of the reaction CO + OH = CO{sub 2} + H and therefore increases the surface growth reaction rates. The addition of carbon monoxide also slows the oxidation rate of soot because the same reaction CO + OH = CO{sub 2} + H results in a lower concentration of OH. (author)

  18. Accelerated Source-Encoding Full-Waveform Inversion with Additional Constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boehm, C.; Fichtner, A.; Ulbrich, M.

    2014-12-01

    We present a flexible framework of Newton-type methods for constrained full-waveform inversion in the time domain. Our main goal is (1) to incorporate additional prior knowledge by using general constraints on the model parameters and (2) to reduce the computational costs of solving the inverse problem by tailoring source-encoding strategies to Newton-type methods.In particular, we apply the Moreau-Yosida regularization to handle the constraints and use a continuation strategy to adjust the regularization parameter. Furthermore, we propose a semismooth Newton method with a trust-region globalization that relies on second-order adjoints to compute the Newton system with a matrix-free preconditioned conjugate gradient solver. The costs of conventional FWI approaches scale proportionally with the number of seismic sources. Here, source-encoding strategies that trigger different sources simultaneously have been proven to be a successful tool to trade a small loss of information for huge savings of computational time to solve the inverse problem. This is particularly interesting for our setting as one iteration of Newton's methods using the full Hessian is considerably more expensive than quasi-Newton methods like L-BFGS. To this end, we discuss a sample average approximation model that is accelerated by using inexact Hessian information based on mini-batches of the samples. Furthermore, we compare its performance with stochastic descent schemes. Here, the classical stochastic gradient method is accelerated by an L-BFGS preconditioner and moreover, the stability of this stochastic preconditioner is enhanced by using the Hessian instead of only gradient information.Numerical results are presented for problems in geophysical exploration on reservoir-scale.

  19. Role of Carbon-Addition and Hydrogen-Migration Reactions in Soot Surface Growth.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hong-Bo; Hou, Dingyu; Law, Chung K; You, Xiaoqing

    2016-02-11

    Using density functional theory and master equation modeling, we have studied the kinetics of small unsaturated aliphatic molecules reacting with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules having a diradical character. We have found that these reactions follow the mechanism of carbon addition and hydrogen migration (CAHM) on both spin-triplet and open-shell singlet potential energy surfaces at a rate that is about ten times those of the hydrogen-abstraction-carbon-addition (HACA) reactions at 1500 K in the fuel-rich postflame region. The results also show that the most active reaction sites are in the center of the zigzag edges of the PAHs. Furthermore, the reaction products are more likely to form straight rather than branched aliphatic side chains in the case of reacting with diacetylene. The computed rate constants are also found to be independent of pressure at conditions of interest in soot formation, and the activation barriers of the CAHM reactions are linearly correlated with the diradical characters.

  20. Role of Carbon-Addition and Hydrogen-Migration Reactions in Soot Surface Growth.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hong-Bo; Hou, Dingyu; Law, Chung K; You, Xiaoqing

    2016-02-11

    Using density functional theory and master equation modeling, we have studied the kinetics of small unsaturated aliphatic molecules reacting with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules having a diradical character. We have found that these reactions follow the mechanism of carbon addition and hydrogen migration (CAHM) on both spin-triplet and open-shell singlet potential energy surfaces at a rate that is about ten times those of the hydrogen-abstraction-carbon-addition (HACA) reactions at 1500 K in the fuel-rich postflame region. The results also show that the most active reaction sites are in the center of the zigzag edges of the PAHs. Furthermore, the reaction products are more likely to form straight rather than branched aliphatic side chains in the case of reacting with diacetylene. The computed rate constants are also found to be independent of pressure at conditions of interest in soot formation, and the activation barriers of the CAHM reactions are linearly correlated with the diradical characters. PMID:26799641

  1. Dual-Carbon sources fuel the OCS deep-reef Community, a stable isotope investigation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sulak, Kenneth J.; Berg, J.; Randall, Michael; Dennis, George D.; Brooks, R.A.

    2008-01-01

    The hypothesis that phytoplankton is the sole carbon source for the OCS deep-reef community (>60 m) was tested. Trophic structure for NE Gulf of Mexico deep reefs was analyzed via carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes. Carbon signatures for 114 entities (carbon sources, sediment, fishes, and invertebrates) supported surface phytoplankton as the primary fuel for the deep reef. However, a second carbon source, the macroalga Sargassum, with its epiphytic macroalgal associate, Cladophora liniformis, was also identified. Macroalgal carbon signatures were detected among 23 consumer entities. Most notably, macroalgae contributed 45 % of total carbon to the 13C isotopic spectrum of the particulate-feeding reef-crest gorgonian Nicella. The discontinuous spatial distribution of some sessile deep-reef invertebrates utilizing pelagic macroalgal carbon may be trophically tied to the contagious distribution of Sargassum biomass along major ocean surface features.

  2. Biomass burning sources of nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, and non-methane hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Atherton, C.S.

    1995-11-01

    Biomass burning is an important source of many key tropospheric species, including aerosols, carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub {times}}=NO+NO{sub 2}), carbon monoxide (CO), methane (CH{sub 4}), nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O), methyl bromide (CH{sub 3}Br), ammonia (NH{sub 3}), non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) and other species. These emissions and their subsequent products act as pollutants and affect greenhouse warming of the atmosphere. One important by-product of biomass burning is tropospheric ozone, which is a pollutant that also absorbs infrared radiation. Ozone is formed when CO, CH{sub 4}, and NMHCs react in the presence of NO{sub {times}} and sunlight. Ozone concentrations in tropical regions (where the bulk of biomass burning occurs) may increase due to biomass burning. Additionally, biomass burning can increase the concentration of nitric acid (HNO{sub 3}), a key component of acid rain.

  3. Mineral elements of subtropical tree seedlings in response to elevated carbon dioxide and nitrogen addition.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wenjuan; Zhou, Guoyi; Liu, Juxiu; Zhang, Deqiang; Liu, Shizhong; Chu, Guowei; Fang, Xiong

    2015-01-01

    Mineral elements in plants have been strongly affected by increased atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations and nitrogen (N) deposition due to human activities. However, such understanding is largely limited to N and phosphorus in grassland. Using open-top chambers, we examined the concentrations of potassium (K), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), aluminum (Al), copper (Cu) and manganese (Mn) in the leaves and roots of the seedlings of five subtropical tree species in response to elevated CO2 (ca. 700 μmol CO2 mol(-1)) and N addition (100 kg N ha(-1) yr(-1)) from 2005 to 2009. These mineral elements in the roots responded more strongly to elevated CO2 and N addition than those in the leaves. Elevated CO2 did not consistently decrease the concentrations of plant mineral elements, with increases in K, Al, Cu and Mn in some tree species. N addition decreased K and had no influence on Cu in the five tree species. Given the shifts in plant mineral elements, Schima superba and Castanopsis hystrix were less responsive to elevated CO2 and N addition alone, respectively. Our results indicate that plant stoichiometry would be altered by increasing CO2 and N deposition, and K would likely become a limiting nutrient under increasing N deposition in subtropics. PMID:25794046

  4. A study of the ocean source of carbon disulphide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Huixiang

    1999-11-01

    The environmental importance of atmospheric carbon disulphide (CS 2) is recognised by its potential role as a major precursor of carbonyl Sulphide (OCS). The ocean is believed to emit CS2 to air, but large uncertainty may exist in the assessments of sea-to-air fluxes of this compound partly due to the meager database we currently have for CS2 in the ocean. This work is intended to re-assess the flux estimates and to identify and evaluate the potential Sources for Oceanic CS2. CS2 was measured in both the surface and subsurface waters during three cruises: two in the North Atlantic and one in the Pacific Ocean. All the investigated waters were supersaturated in CS2 relative to the atmosphere. Two distinct types of vertical profiles were observed: one in the cool waters of the North Atlantic, characterized by gradual reduction in CS2 with depth, and another in the warm waters of the North Pacific central are. showing the coexistence of subsurface CS2 and chlorophyll maxima. Solar UV-initiated photochemical reactions were identified as a significant source for oceanic CS2. The photo-production rate of CS2 is positively correlated with absorbance at 350 run, suggesting that the reactions are mediated by coloured dissolved organic matter. Laboratory irradiations confirmed that cysteine and cystine are efficient precursors of CS2 and that OH radicals are likely to be important intermediates. CS2 data were collected from axenic monocultures of six species of marine phytoplankton: Chaetoceros calcitrans, Phaeodactylum tricornutum, Phaeocystis sp., Porphyridium purpureum, Synechococcus sp. and Isochrysis sp. For a period of between two weeks and forty days, substantial accumulation Of CS2 was found in the cultures of C. calcitrans, P. tricornutum and Phaeocystis sp. C. calcitrans has a potential for CS2 production about 10 times higher than P. tricornutum or Phaeocystis sp. CS2 formation was strongly dependent on the growth stage of the cultured species. (Abstract shortened

  5. In silico carbon molecular beam epitaxial growth of graphene on the h-BN substrate: carbon source effect on van der Waals epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jonghoon; Varshney, Vikas; Park, Jeongho; Farmer, Barry L.; Roy, Ajit K.

    2016-05-01

    Against the presumption that hexagonal boron-nitride (h-BN) should provide an ideal substrate for van der Waals (vdW) epitaxy to grow high quality graphene films, carbon molecular beam epitaxy (CMBE) techniques using solid carbon sublimation have reported relatively poor quality of the graphene. In this article, the CMBE growth of graphene on the h-BN substrate is numerically studied in order to identify the effect of the carbon source on the quality of the graphene film. The carbon molecular beam generated by the sublimation of solid carbon source materials such as graphite and glassy carbon is mostly composed of atomic carbon, carbon dimers and carbon trimers. Therefore, the graphene film growth becomes a complex process involving various deposition characteristics of a multitude of carbon entities. Based on the study of surface adsorption and film growth characteristics of these three major carbon entities comprising graphite vapour, we report that carbon trimers convey strong traits of vdW epitaxy prone to high quality graphene growth, while atomic carbon deposition is a surface-reaction limited process accompanied by strong chemisorption. The vdW epitaxial behaviour of carbon trimers is found to be substantial enough to nucleate and develop into graphene like planar films within a nanosecond of high flux growth simulation, while reactive atomic carbons tend to impair the structural integrity of the crystalline h-BN substrate upon deposition to form an amorphous interface between the substrate and the growing carbon film. The content of reactive atomic carbons in the molecular beam is suspected to be the primary cause of low quality graphene reported in the literature. A possible optimization of the molecular beam composition towards the synthesis of better quality graphene films is suggested.Against the presumption that hexagonal boron-nitride (h-BN) should provide an ideal substrate for van der Waals (vdW) epitaxy to grow high quality graphene films, carbon

  6. Global Transcriptomic Analysis of Desulfovibrio vulgaris Grown on Different Carbon Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Weiwen; Culley, David E.; Scholten, Johannes C.; Hogan, Mike; Vitiritti, Luigi; Brockman, Fred J.

    2006-02-01

    Abstract Whole-genome microarrays of Desulfovibrio vulgaris were used to determine relative transcript levels in cells grown to exponential or stationary phase on a minimal medium containing either lactate or formate as electron donor. The results showed that 158 and 477 genes were differentially expressed when comparing exponential to stationary phase in lactate- or formate-based media, respectively; and 505 and 355 genes were responsive to the electron donor used at exponential or stationary phase, respectively. Functional analyses suggested that genes differentially regulated were involved in almost every aspect of cellular metabolism, with the genes involved in protein synthesis, carbon, and energy metabolism being the most regulated. The results suggested that hynAB-1 might function as a primary periplasmic hydrogenase responsible for oxidation of H2 inked to the proton gradient in lactate-based medium, while several periplasmic hydrogenases including hynAB-1 and hyd might carry out this role in formate-based medium. The results also indicated the proton gradient pathway catalyzed by alcohol dehydrogenase and heterodisulfide reductase might be actively functioning for ATP synthesis in D. vulgaris. The possible pathways for ethanol generation from lactate and formate metabolism were also discussed. In addition, hierarchical clustering analysis using expression data across carbon sources and growth phases allowed the identification of the common change specifically associated with the exponential to stationary phase transition, and that specifically associated with the carbon source change from lactate to formate. The study provides the first global description and a functional interpretation of transcriptomic response to growth phase and carbon source in D. vulgaris.

  7. Effect of various carbon and nitrogen sources on decolorization of textile dye remazol golden yellow using bacterial species.

    PubMed

    Palanivelan, R; Rajakumar, S; Ayyasamy, P M

    2014-09-01

    Textile dyes with different chemical structures are consistently used in textile industries and they are being recalcitrant xenobiotic in nature. The aim of present research is directed to finding the preference of striking carbon and nitrogen sources on remazol golden yellow decolorization. Bacterial strains were isolated, screened and tested for dye degradation of remazol golden yellow in basal medium amended with different carbon and nitrogen sources. This study was carried out for the period of 12 d at 37 degrees C. Among various carbon and nitrogen sources, starch and yeast extracts promote maximum decolorization in the medium inoculated with Bacillus. sp. (ESL-52). Nevertheless, the rate of decolorization was less in the medium amended with various carbon and nitrogen sources in the presence of Bacillus sp. (TSL-9), Micrococcus sp. (TSL-7), Pseudomonas sp. (M-1) and Staphylococcus sp. (ES-37) respectively. The results clearly showed that addition of significant organic carbon and nitrogen sources are only desirable co-substrates for bacterial dye decolorization process.

  8. Styrofoam Debris as a Source of Hazardous Additives for Marine Organisms.

    PubMed

    Jang, Mi; Shim, Won Joon; Han, Gi Myung; Rani, Manviri; Song, Young Kyoung; Hong, Sang Hee

    2016-05-17

    There is growing concern over plastic debris and their fragments as a carrier for hazardous substances in marine ecosystem. The present study was conducted to provide field evidence for the transfer of plastic-associated chemicals to marine organisms. Hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs), brominated flame retardants, were recently detected in expanded polystyrene (styrofoam) marine debris. We hypothesized that if styrofoam debris acts as a source of the additives in the marine environment, organisms inhabiting such debris might be directly influenced by them. Here we investigated the characteristics of HBCD accumulation by mussels inhabiting styrofoam. For comparison, mussels inhabiting different substrates, such as high-density polyethylene (HDPE), metal, and rock, were also studied. The high HBCD levels up to 5160 ng/g lipid weight and the γ-HBCD dominated isomeric profiles in mussels inhabiting styrofoam strongly supports the transfer of HBCDs from styrofoam substrate to mussels. Furthermore, microsized styrofoam particles were identified inside mussels, probably originating from their substrates.

  9. Styrofoam Debris as a Source of Hazardous Additives for Marine Organisms.

    PubMed

    Jang, Mi; Shim, Won Joon; Han, Gi Myung; Rani, Manviri; Song, Young Kyoung; Hong, Sang Hee

    2016-05-17

    There is growing concern over plastic debris and their fragments as a carrier for hazardous substances in marine ecosystem. The present study was conducted to provide field evidence for the transfer of plastic-associated chemicals to marine organisms. Hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs), brominated flame retardants, were recently detected in expanded polystyrene (styrofoam) marine debris. We hypothesized that if styrofoam debris acts as a source of the additives in the marine environment, organisms inhabiting such debris might be directly influenced by them. Here we investigated the characteristics of HBCD accumulation by mussels inhabiting styrofoam. For comparison, mussels inhabiting different substrates, such as high-density polyethylene (HDPE), metal, and rock, were also studied. The high HBCD levels up to 5160 ng/g lipid weight and the γ-HBCD dominated isomeric profiles in mussels inhabiting styrofoam strongly supports the transfer of HBCDs from styrofoam substrate to mussels. Furthermore, microsized styrofoam particles were identified inside mussels, probably originating from their substrates. PMID:27100560

  10. Effects of auxiliary carbon sources and electron acceptors on methanogenic degradation of chlorinated phenols

    SciTech Connect

    Haeggblom, M.M.; Rivera, M.D.; Young, L.Y. )

    1993-08-01

    The authors studied the degradation of chlorinated phenols under methanogenic conditions by establishing enrichment cultures on 4-chlorophenol and 2,4-dichlorophenol with or without a supplementary substrate. p-Cresol was chosen as a nonchlorinated aromatic compound structurally similar to the chlorophenols, and propionate was chosen as a readily utilizable carbon source. 2,4-Dichlorophenol was dechlorinated to 4-chlorophenol, which was degraded without further detection of metabolites. The rates of chlorophenols and supplementary substrates. The addition of p-cresol or propionate as an auxiliary carbon source enhanced the rate of 4-chlorophenol degradation. Methanogenic cultures capable of ortho dechlorination were repeatedly subcultured by dilution into fresh media and refeeding of 2,6-dichlorophenol and either p-cresol or propionate as auxiliary substrates. 2,6-Dichlorophenol was sequentially dechlorinated to 2-chlorophenol and phenol and ultimately mineralized to methane and carbon dioxide. Cultures adapted to 2,4- or 2,6-dichlorophenol also readily dechlorinated other dichlorophenols containing an ortho chlorine. The alternative electron acceptors nitrate, sulfite, and thiosulfate completely inhibited dechlorination of 2,6-dichlorophenol, whereas sulfate slowed the dechlorination rate.

  11. Impact of source water quality on multiwall carbon nanotube coagulation.

    PubMed

    Holbrook, R David; Kline, Carly N; Filliben, James J

    2010-02-15

    Potable water treatment facilities may become an important barrier in limiting human exposure to engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) as ENPs begin to contaminate natural aquatic systems. Coagulation of ENPs will likely be a major process that controls the ENP fate and the subsequent removal in the aqueous phase. The influence that source water quality has on ENP coagulation is still relatively unknown. The current study uses a 2(3) x 2(4-1) fractional factorial design to identify seven key surface water constituents that affect multiwall carbon nanotube (MWCNT) coagulation. These seven factors include: influent concentrations of kaolin, organic matter (OM), alginate, and MWCNTs; type and dosage of coagulant; and method of MWCNT stabilization. MWCNT removal was most affected by coagulant type and dosage, with alum outperforming ferric chloride at circumneutral pH. None of the other factors were universally significant but instead depended on coagulant type, dose, and method of stabilization. In all cases where factors were found to have a significant impact on MWCNT removal, however, the relationship was consistent: higher influent concentrations of kaolin and alginate improved MWCNT removal while higher influent concentrations of OM hindered MWCNT coagulation. Once MWCNTs are released into the natural environment, their coagulation behavior will be determined by the type and quantity of pollutants (i.e., factors) present in the aquatic environment and are governed by the same mechanisms that influence the colloidal stability of "natural" nanoparticles. PMID:20092299

  12. Carbon nanotube based field emission X-ray sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Yuan

    This dissertation describes the development of field emission (FE) x-ray sources with a carbon-nanotube (CNT) cathode. Field emission x-rays have advantages over conventional x-rays by replacing the thermionic cathode with a cold cathode so that electrons are emitted at room temperature and emission is voltage controllable. CNTs are found to be excellent electron emitters with low threshold fields and high current density which makes them ideal for generate field emission x-rays. Macroscopic CNT cold cathodes are prepared and the parameters to tune their field emission properties are studied: structure and morphology of CNT cathodes, temperature as well as electronic work function of CNT. Macroscopic CNT cathodes with optimized performance are chosen to build a high-resolution x-ray imaging system. The system can readily generate x-ray radiation with continuous variation of temporal resolution up to nanoseconds and spatial resolution down to 10 micron. Its potential applications for dynamic x-ray imaging and micro-computed tomography are also demonstrated. The performance characteristics of this compact and versatile system are promising for non-destructive testing and for non-invasive small-animal imaging for biomedical research.

  13. Tannery effluent as a carbon source for biological sulphate reduction.

    PubMed

    Boshoff, G; Duncan, J; Rose, P D

    2004-06-01

    Tannery effluent was assessed as a carbon source for biological sulphate reduction in a pilot-scale upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB), stirred tank reactor (STR) and trench reactor (TR). Sulphate removals of between 60-80% were obtained in all three reactors at total sulphate feed levels of up to 1800 mg l(-1). Sulphate removal in the TR (400-500 mg SO4 l(-1) day(-1)) and UASB (up to 600 mg SO4 l(-1) day(-1)) were higher than those obtained in the STR (250 mg SO4 l(1) day(-1)). A change in operation mode from a UASB to a STR had a large impact on chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiencies. COD removal rates decreased by 25% from 600-700 mg COD l(-1) day(-1) to 200-600 mg COD l(-1) day(-1). The TR had an average COD removal rate of 500 mg COD l(-1) day(-1). Large quantities of sulphide were produced in the reactors (up to 1500 mg l(-1)). However due to the elevated pH in the reactor, only a small amount was in the form of H2S and thus the odour problem normally associated with biological sulphate reduction was not present.

  14. Anaerobic biogranulation using phenol as the sole carbon source

    SciTech Connect

    Tay, J.H.; He, Y.X.; Yan, Y.G.

    2000-04-01

    The granulation process was extensively examined using phenol as sole carbon source in a 2-L laboratory upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor. The study was conducted mesophilically at 35 C. Anaerobically digested sludge was used as seed after a 14-day activation period with glucose feed. Massive initial granules were developed after 3 months of startup, grew at an accelerated pace for 6 months, then became fully grown. The granulation process can be broken into three phases: acclimation, granulation, and maturation. However, granulation with phenol proceeded more slowly than it did in UASB reactors fed with readily biodegradable carbohydrates studied previously. The granular sludge cultivated had a median diameter of 1.8 mm, phenol-degrading activity of 0.65 g chemical oxygen demand (COD)/g volatile suspended solids (VSS){sm_bullet}d, and a sludge volume index of 14 mL/g. Phenol COD removal efficiency of 86% was achieved when the reactor was operating at an influent phenol concentration of 1,260 mg/L (corresponding to 3,000 mg COD/L), hydraulic retention time of 12 hours, and volumetric loading rate of 6 g COD/L{sm_bullet}d. However, the lower-than-expected phenol COD removal efficiency could be attributed to inhibition by the high influent phenol concentration or loading. The batch test demonstrated that the sludge methanogenic activity was reduced by 52 and 75% at phenol concentrations of 420 and 840 mg/L, respectively.

  15. Microbial production of poly(hydroxybutyrate) from C₁ carbon sources.

    PubMed

    Khosravi-Darani, Kianoush; Mokhtari, Zahra-Beigom; Amai, Tomohito; Tanaka, Kenji

    2013-02-01

    Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) is an attractive substitute for petrochemical plastic due to its similar properties, biocompatibility, and biodegradability. The cost of scaled-up PHB production inhibits its widespread usage. Intensive researches are growing to reduce costs and improve thermomechanical, physical, and processing properties of this green biopolymer. Among cheap substrates which are used for reducing total cost of PHB production, some C₁ carbon sources, e.g., methane, methanol, and CO₂ have received a great deal of attention due to their serious role in greenhouse problem. This article reviews the fundamentals of strategies for reducing PHA production and moves on to the applications of several cheap substrates with a special emphasis on methane, methanol, and CO₂. Also, some explanation for involved microorganisms including the hydrogen-oxidizing bacteria and methanotrophs, their history, culture condition, and nutritional requirements are given. After description of some important strains among the hydrogen-oxidizing and methanotrophic producers of PHB, the article is focused on limitations, threats, and opportunities for application and their future trends.

  16. Compound specific radiocarbon analyses to apportion sources of combustion products in sedimentary pyrogenic carbon deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanke, Ulrich M.; Schmidt, Michael W. I.; McIntyre, Cameron P.; Reddy, Christopher M.; Wacker, Lukas; Eglinton, Timothy I.

    2016-04-01

    Pyrogenic carbon (PyC) is a collective term for carbon-rich residues comprised of a continuum of products generated during biomass burning and fossil fuel combustion. PyC is a key component of the global carbon cycle due to its slow intrinsic decomposition rate and its ubiquity in the environment. It can originate from natural or anthropogenic vegetation fires, coal mining, energy production, industry and transport. Subsequently, PyC can be transported over long distances by wind and water and can eventually be buried in sediments. Information about the origin of PyC (biomass burning vs. fossil fuel combustion) deposited in estuarine sediments is scarce. We studied the highly anoxic estuarine sediments of the Pettaquamscutt River (Rhode Island, U.S.) in high temporal resolution over 250 years and found different combustion proxies reflect local and regional sources of PyC (Hanke et al. in review; Lima et al. 2003). The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) originate from long-range atmospheric transport, whereas bulk PyC, detected as benzene polycarboxylic acids (BPCA), mainly stems from local catchment run-off. However, to unambiguously apportion PyC sources, we need additional information, such as compound specific radiocarbon (14C) measurements. We report 14C data for individual BPCA including error analysis and for combustion-related PAH. First results indicate that biomass burning is the main source of PyC deposits, with additional minor contributions from fossil fuel combustion. References Hanke U.M., T.I. Eglinton, A.L.L. Braun, C. Reddy, D.B. Wiedemeier, M.W.I. Schmidt. Decoupled sedimentary records of combustion: causes and implications. In review. Lima, A. L.; Eglinton, T. I.; Reddy, C. M., High-resolution record of pyrogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon deposition during the 20th century. ES&T, 2003, 37 (1), 53-61.

  17. Preliminary study on preparation of BCNO phosphor particles using citric acid as carbon source

    SciTech Connect

    Nuryadin, Bebeh W.; Pratiwi, Tripuspita; Faryuni, Irfana D.; Iskandar, Ferry Abdullah, Mikrajuddin; Khairurrijal; Ogi, Takashi; Okuyama, Kikuo

    2015-04-16

    A citric acid was used as a carbon source in the preparation of boron carbon oxy-nitride (BCNO) phosphor particles by a facile process. The preparation process was conducted at relatively low temperature 750 °C and at ambient pressure. The prepared BCNO phosphors showed a high photoluminescence (PL) performance at peak emission wavelength of 470 nm under excitation by a UV light 365 nm. The effects of carbon/boron and nitrogen/boron molar ratios on the PL properties were also investigated. The result showed that the emission spectra with a wavelength peak ranging from 444 nm to 496 nm can be obtained by varying carbon/boron ratios from 0.1 to 0.9. In addition, the observations showed that the BCNO phosphor material has two excitation peaks located at the 365 nm (UV) and 420 nm (blue). Based on these observations, we believe that the citric acid derived BCNO phosphor particles can be a promising inexpensive material for phosphor conversion-based white LED.

  18. USE OF STABLE CARBON ISOTOPE RATIOS OF FATTY ACIDS TO EVALUATE MICROBIAL CARBON SOURCES IN TERRESTRIAL ENVIRONMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    We use measurements of the concentration and stable carbon isotopic ratio (D 13C) of individual microbial phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) in soils as indicators of live microbial biomass levels and microbial carbon source. We found that intensive sugar cane cultivation leads to ...

  19. Interactions of Carbon Gain and Nitrogen Addition in a Temperate Forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bazzaz, F. A.

    2001-12-01

    In plants, carbon and nitrogen are intimately related. The plant gains carbon using nitrogen because it is a major constituent of both the light reaction (chlorophyll) and dark reaction (Rubisco and PEP carboxylase). The plant also gains more nitrogen by using carbon to grow roots that can forage for nitrogen, especially the less mobile (NH4+). Rising CO2 and increased nitrogen deposition are important elements of global change, both of which may affect ecosystem structure and function. They may cause a particularly large shift in species composition in systems where contrasting groups of species co-occur, e.g. evergreen coniferous and deciduous broad-leaved tree species. We studied the impact of nitrogen deposition in a mixed forest in central Massachusetts (Harvard Forest). We found that the early-successional broad-leaved species, yellow birch (Betula alleghaniensis) and red maple (Acer rubrum), both showed large increases in biomass, while the late successional species sugar maple (Acer saccharum) and all the coniferous species, hemlock (Tsuga canadensis), red spruce (Picea rubens) and white pine (Pinus strobus), only showed slight increases. As a result, when these species wre grown together, there was a decrease in species diversity. There was a significant correlation between species growth rate and the growth enhancement following nitrogen addition. We used SORTIE, a spatially explicit forest model to speculate about the future of this community. In both hemlock and red oak stands, nitrogen deposition led to shift in forest composition towards further dominance of young forests by yellow birch. We conclude that seedling physiological and demographic responses to increased nitrogen availability will scale up to exaggerate successional dynamics in mixed temperate forests in the future

  20. Young organic matter as a source of carbon dioxide outgassing from Amazonian rivers

    SciTech Connect

    Mayorga, E; Aufdenkampe, A K; Masiello, C A; Krusche, A V; Hedges, J I; Quay, P D; Richey, J E; Brown, T A

    2005-06-23

    Rivers are generally supersaturated with respect to carbon dioxide, resulting in large gas evasion fluxes that can be a significant component of regional net carbon budgets. Amazonian rivers were recently shown to outgas more than ten times the amount of carbon exported to the ocean in the form of total organic carbon or dissolved inorganic carbon. High carbon dioxide concentrations in rivers originate largely from in situ respiration of organic carbon, but little agreement exists about the sources or turnover times of this carbon. Here we present results of an extensive survey of the carbon isotope composition ({sup 13}C and {sup 14}C) of dissolved inorganic carbon and three size-fractions of organic carbon across the Amazonian river system. We find that respiration of contemporary organic matter (less than 5 years old) originating on land and near rivers is the dominant source of excess carbon dioxide that drives outgassing in mid-size to large rivers, although we find that bulk organic carbon fractions transported by these rivers range from tens to thousands of years in age. We therefore suggest that a small, rapidly cycling pool of organic carbon is responsible for the large carbon fluxes from land to water to atmosphere in the humid tropics.

  1. Young organic matter as a source of carbon dioxide outgassing from Amazonian rivers.

    PubMed

    Mayorga, Emilio; Aufdenkampe, Anthony K; Masiello, Caroline A; Krusche, Alex V; Hedges, John I; Quay, Paul D; Richey, Jeffrey E; Brown, Thomas A

    2005-07-28

    Rivers are generally supersaturated with respect to carbon dioxide, resulting in large gas evasion fluxes that can be a significant component of regional net carbon budgets. Amazonian rivers were recently shown to outgas more than ten times the amount of carbon exported to the ocean in the form of total organic carbon or dissolved inorganic carbon. High carbon dioxide concentrations in rivers originate largely from in situ respiration of organic carbon, but little agreement exists about the sources or turnover times of this carbon. Here we present results of an extensive survey of the carbon isotope composition (13C and 14C) of dissolved inorganic carbon and three size-fractions of organic carbon across the Amazonian river system. We find that respiration of contemporary organic matter (less than five years old) originating on land and near rivers is the dominant source of excess carbon dioxide that drives outgassing in medium to large rivers, although we find that bulk organic carbon fractions transported by these rivers range from tens to thousands of years in age. We therefore suggest that a small, rapidly cycling pool of organic carbon is responsible for the large carbon fluxes from land to water to atmosphere in the humid tropics.

  2. Nutrient additions to a tropical rain forest drive substantial soil carbon dioxide losses to the atmosphere

    PubMed Central

    Cleveland, Cory C.; Townsend, Alan R.

    2006-01-01

    Terrestrial biosphere–atmosphere carbon dioxide (CO2) exchange is dominated by tropical forests, where photosynthetic carbon (C) uptake is thought to be phosphorus (P)-limited. In P-poor tropical forests, P may also limit organic matter decomposition and soil C losses. We conducted a field-fertilization experiment to show that P fertilization stimulates soil respiration in a lowland tropical rain forest in Costa Rica. In the early wet season, when soluble organic matter inputs to soil are high, P fertilization drove large increases in soil respiration. Although the P-stimulated increase in soil respiration was largely confined to the dry-to-wet season transition, the seasonal increase was sufficient to drive an 18% annual increase in CO2 efflux from the P-fertilized plots. Nitrogen (N) fertilization caused similar responses, and the net increases in soil respiration in response to the additions of N and P approached annual soil C fluxes in mid-latitude forests. Human activities are altering natural patterns of tropical soil N and P availability by land conversion and enhanced atmospheric deposition. Although our data suggest that the mechanisms driving the observed respiratory responses to increased N and P may be different, the large CO2 losses stimulated by N and P fertilization suggest that knowledge of such patterns and their effects on soil CO2 efflux is critical for understanding the role of tropical forests in a rapidly changing global C cycle. PMID:16793925

  3. Enhancing the adsorption of ionic liquids onto activated carbon by the addition of inorganic salts

    PubMed Central

    Neves, Catarina M. S. S.; Lemus, Jesús; Freire, Mara G.; Palomar, Jose; Coutinho, João A. P.

    2014-01-01

    Most ionic liquids (ILs) are either water soluble or present a non-negligible miscibility with water that may cause some harmful effects upon their release into the environment. Among other methods, adsorption of ILs onto activated carbon (AC) has shown to be an effective technique to remove these compounds from aqueous solutions. However, this method has proved to be viable only for hydrophobic ILs rather than for the hydrophilic that, being water soluble, have a larger tendency for contamination. In this context, an alternative approach using the salting-out ability of inorganic salts is here proposed to enhance the adsorption of hydrophilic ILs onto activated carbon. The effect of the concentrations of Na2SO4 on the adsorption of five ILs onto AC was investigated. A wide range of ILs that allow the inspection of the IL cation family (imidazolium- and pyridinium-based) and the anion nature (accounting for its hydrophilicity and fluorination) through the adsorption onto AC was studied. In general, it is shown that the use of Na2SO4 enhances the adsorption of ILs onto AC. In particular, this effect is highly relevant when dealing with hydrophilic ILs that are those that are actually poorly removed by AC. In addition, the COnductor like Screening MOdel for Real Solvents (COSMO-RS) was used aiming at complementing the experimental data obtained. This work contributes with the development of novel methods to remove ILs from water streams aiming at creating “greener” processes. PMID:25516713

  4. Mechanical properties of SiB6 addition of carbon sintered body

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Samon; Fukushima, Noriyuki; Matsushita, Jun-ichi; Akatsu, T.; Niihara, K.; Yasuda, E.

    2001-04-01

    Boride material is said as the useful material, which has high melting point and high strength. B4C in carbide is very hard at the next of the diamond and cubic-BN in the Mohs hardness and B4C has excellent chemical stability and high strength. B4C is being used as the polishing material from the hardness. However, it is difficult to make sintered body from high melting point (2623 K). Several silicon boride phases such as SiB4, SiB6, SiB6-x, SiB6+x, and Si11B31, were previously reported. Silicon hexaboride (SiB6) has proved to be a potentially useful material because of its high degree of hardness, moderate melting point (2123 K), and low specific gravity. We studied the preparation of SiB6-B4C-SiC sintered body in this report. We knew experientially that SiB6 reacts with carbon at the high temperature, and forms B4C or SiC. Carbon addition SiB6 sintered body produced by hot pressing and reaction sintering that sintering condition was 1973 K for 3.6 ks in vacuum under a pressure of 25 MPa. The relative density of sintered bodies (SiB6-0,5,10,15 wt%C) was approximately 100%. Characterization of mechanical properties was used indentation, Vickers hardness and thermal

  5. Effect of Addition of Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes on the Piezoelectric Properties of Polypropylene Filaments.

    PubMed

    Bayramol, D Vatansever; Soin, N; Hadimani, R L; Shah, T H; Siores, E

    2015-09-01

    The effect of addition of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) on the piezoelectric properties of polypropylene (PP) monofilaments has been investigated. Various amounts of CNTs (0%, 0.01%, 0.1% and 1% weight ratios) were melt-blended with PP and the resulting nanocomposites were extruded in a continuous process with simultaneous on-line poling to produce monofilaments. Concurrent stretching at a draw ratio of 5:1 and polarisation at applied electric fields of 15 kV of PP/CNT filaments was observed to enhance the piezoelectric properties. The microstructure and crystallinity of the filaments was analysed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) techniques. Voltage generation by the CNT-modified PP filaments was determined by the application of predetermined load impact. The results show that the incorporation of CNTs in the PP fibre structure has a considerable impact on the enhancement of piezoelectric properties of the PP filament obtained that the peak voltage generation was almost four fold (from 0.76 V to 2.92 V) when 0.1 wt% of CNTs added into the polymer. This is owing to the fact that carbon nanotubes act as nucleating agent for enhancing the crystallisation during the melt extrusion process.

  6. Effect of Addition of Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes on the Piezoelectric Properties of Polypropylene Filaments.

    PubMed

    Bayramol, D Vatansever; Soin, N; Hadimani, R L; Shah, T H; Siores, E

    2015-09-01

    The effect of addition of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) on the piezoelectric properties of polypropylene (PP) monofilaments has been investigated. Various amounts of CNTs (0%, 0.01%, 0.1% and 1% weight ratios) were melt-blended with PP and the resulting nanocomposites were extruded in a continuous process with simultaneous on-line poling to produce monofilaments. Concurrent stretching at a draw ratio of 5:1 and polarisation at applied electric fields of 15 kV of PP/CNT filaments was observed to enhance the piezoelectric properties. The microstructure and crystallinity of the filaments was analysed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) techniques. Voltage generation by the CNT-modified PP filaments was determined by the application of predetermined load impact. The results show that the incorporation of CNTs in the PP fibre structure has a considerable impact on the enhancement of piezoelectric properties of the PP filament obtained that the peak voltage generation was almost four fold (from 0.76 V to 2.92 V) when 0.1 wt% of CNTs added into the polymer. This is owing to the fact that carbon nanotubes act as nucleating agent for enhancing the crystallisation during the melt extrusion process. PMID:26716297

  7. Effect of carbon nanotube addition on the wear behavior of basalt/epoxy woven composites.

    PubMed

    Kim, M T; Rhee, K Y; Lee, B H; Kim, C J

    2013-08-01

    The effect of acid-treated carbon nanotube (CNT) addition on the wear and dynamic mechanical thermal properties of basalt/epoxy woven composites was investigated in this study. Basalt/CNT/epoxy composites were fabricated by impregnating woven basalt fibers into epoxy resin mixed with 1 wt% CNTs which were acid-treated. Wear and DMA (dynamic mechanical analyzer) tests were performed on basalt/epoxy composites and basalt/CNT/epoxy composites. The results showed that the addition of the acid-treated CNTs improved the wear properties of basalt/epoxy woven composites. Specifically, the friction coefficient of the basalt/epoxy composite was stabilized in the range of 0.5-0.6 while it fell in the range of 0.3-0.4 for basalt/CNT/epoxy composites. The wear volume loss of the basalt/CNT/epoxy composites was approximately 68% lower than that of the basalt/epoxy composites. The results also showed that the glass transition temperature of basalt/CNT/epoxy composites was higher than that of basalt/epoxy composites. The improvement of wear properties of basalt/epoxy composites by the addition of acid-treated CNTs was caused by the homogeneous load transfer between basalt fibers and epoxy matrix due to the reinforcement of CNTs.

  8. Additive-induced morphological tuning of self-assembled silica-barium carbonate crystal aggregates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kellermeier, Matthias; Glaab, Fabian; Carnerup, Anna M.; Drechsler, Markus; Gossler, Benjamin; Hyde, Stephen T.; Kunz, Werner

    2009-04-01

    Crystallisation of barium carbonate from alkaline silica solutions results in the formation of extraordinary micron-scale architectures exhibiting non-crystallographic curved shapes, such as helical filaments and worm-like braids. These so-called "silica biomorphs" consist of a textured assembly of uniform elongated witherite nanocrystallites, which is occasionally sheathed by a skin of amorphous silica. Although great efforts have been devoted to clarifying the physical origin of these fascinating materials, to date little is known about the processes underlying the observed self-organisation. Herein, we describe the effect of two selected additives, a cationic surfactant and a cationic polymer, on the morphology of the forming crystal aggregates, and relate changes to experiments conducted in the absence of additives. Minor amounts of both substances are shown to exert a significant influence on the growth process, leading to the formation of predominantly flower-like spherulitic aggregates. The observed effects are discussed in terms of feasible morphogenesis pathways. Based on the assumption of a template membrane steering biomorph formation, it is proposed that the two additives are capable of performing specific bridging functions promoting the aggregation of colloidal silica which constitutes the membrane. Morphological changes are tentatively ascribed to varying colloid coordination effecting distinct membrane curvatures.

  9. Flux enhancement with powdered activated carbon addition in the membrane anaerobic bioreactor

    SciTech Connect

    Park, H.; Choo, K.H.; Lee, C.H.

    1999-10-01

    The effect of powdered activated carbon (PAC) addition on the performance of a membrane-coupled anaerobic bioreactor (MCAB) was investigated in terms of membrane filterability and treatability through a series of batch and continuous microfiltration (MF) experiments. In both batch and continuous MF of the digestion broth, a flux improvement with PAC addition was achieved, especially when a higher shear rate and/or a higher PAC dose were applied. Both the fouling and cake layer resistances decreased continuously with increasing the PAC dose up to 5 g/L. PAC played an important role in substantially reducing the biomass cake resistance due to its incompressible nature and higher backtransport velocities. PAC might have a scouring effect for removing the deposited biomass cake from the membrane surface while sorbing and/or coagulating dissolved organics and colloidal particles in the broth. The chemical oxygen demand and color in the effluent were much removed with PAC addition, and the system was also more stable against shock loading.

  10. Carbon Nanotube/Conductive Additive/Space Durable Polymer Nanocomposite Films for Electrostatic Charge Dissipation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Joseph G., Jr.; Watson, Kent A.; Delozier, Donavon M.; Connell, John W.

    2003-01-01

    Thin film membranes of space environmentally stable polymeric materials possessing low color/solar absorptivity (alpha) are of interest for potential applications on Gossamer spacecraft. In addition to these properties, sufficient electrical conductivity is required in order to dissipate electrostatic charge (ESC) build-up brought about by the charged orbital environment. One approach to achieve sufficient electrical conductivity for ESC mitigation is the incorporation of single wall carbon nanotubes (SWNTs). However, when the SWNTs are dispersed throughout the polymer matrix, the nanocomposite films tend to be significantly darker than the pristine material resulting in a higher alpha. The incorporation of conductive additives in combination with a decreased loading level of SWNTs is one approach for improving alpha while retaining conductivity. Taken individually, the low loading level of conductive additives and SWNTs is insufficient in achieving the percolation level necessary for electrical conductivity. When added simultaneously to the film, conductivity is achieved through a synergistic effect. The chemistry, physical, and mechanical properties of the nanocomposite films will be presented.

  11. The Effect of Carbon Source and Fluoride Concentrations in the "Streptococcus Mutans" Biofilm Formation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulino, Tony P.; Andrade, Ricardo O.; Bruschi-Thedei, Giuliana C. M.; Thedei, Geraldo, Jr.; Ciancaglini, Pietro

    2004-01-01

    The main objective of this class experiment is to show the influence of carbon source and of different fluoride concentrations on the biofilm formation by the bacterium "Streptococcus mutans." The observation of different biofilm morphology as a function of carbon source and fluoride concentration allows an interesting discussion regarding the…

  12. Layered growth of crayfish gastrolith: about the stability of amorphous calcium carbonate and role of additives.

    PubMed

    Habraken, Wouter J E M; Masic, Admir; Bertinetti, Luca; Al-Sawalmih, Ali; Glazer, Lilah; Bentov, Shmuel; Fratzl, Peter; Sagi, Amir; Aichmayer, Barbara; Berman, Amir

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies on pre-molt gastroliths have shown a typical onion-like morphology of layers of amorphous mineral (mostly calcium carbonate) and chitin, resulting from the continuous deposition and densification of amorphous mineral spheres on a chitin-matrix during time. To investigate the consequences of this layered growth on the local structure and composition of the gastrolith, we performed spatially-resolved Raman, X-ray and SEM-EDS analysis on complete pre-molt gastrolith cross-sections. Results show that especially the abundance of inorganic phosphate, phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP)/citrate and proteins is not uniform throughout the organ but changes from layer to layer. Based on these results we can conclude that ACC stabilization in the gastrolith takes place by more than one compound and not by only one of these additives.

  13. Carbon–carbon bond activation of cyclobutenones enabled by the addition of chiral organocatalyst to ketone

    PubMed Central

    Li, Bao-Sheng; Wang, Yuhuang; Jin, Zhichao; Zheng, Pengcheng; Ganguly, Rakesh; Chi, Yonggui Robin

    2015-01-01

    The activation of carbon–carbon (C–C) bonds is an effective strategy in building functional molecules. The C–C bond activation is typically accomplished via metal catalysis, with which high levels of enantioselectivity are difficult to achieve due to high reactivity of metal catalysts and the metal-bound intermediates. It remains largely unexplored to use organocatalysis for C–C bond activation. Here we describe an organocatalytic activation of C–C bonds through the addition of an NHC to a ketone moiety that initiates a C–C single bond cleavage as a key step to generate an NHC-bound intermediate for chemo- and stereo-selective reactions. This reaction constitutes an asymmetric functionalization of cyclobutenones using organocatalysts via a C–C bond activation process. Structurally diverse and multicyclic compounds could be obtained with high optical purities via an atom and redox economic process. PMID:25652912

  14. Mechanism of wiggling enhancement due to HBr gas addition during amorphous carbon etching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kofuji, Naoyuki; Ishimura, Hiroaki; Kobayashi, Hitoshi; Une, Satoshi

    2015-06-01

    The effect of gas chemistry during etching of an amorphous carbon layer (ACL) on wiggling has been investigated, focusing especially on the changes in residual stress. Although the HBr gas addition reduces critical dimension loss, it enhances the surface stress and therefore increases wiggling. Attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy revealed that the increase in surface stress was caused by hydrogenation of the ACL surface with hydrogen radicals. Three-dimensional (3D) nonlinear finite element method analysis confirmed that the increase in surface stress is large enough to cause the wiggling. These results also suggest that etching with hydrogen compound gases using an ACL mask has high potential to cause the wiggling.

  15. The effects of carbon nanotube addition and oxyfluorination on the glucose-sensing capabilities of glucose oxidase-coated carbon fiber electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Im, Ji Sun; Yun, Jumi; Kim, Jong Gu; Bae, Tae-Sung; Lee, Young-Seak

    2012-01-01

    Glucose-sensing electrodes were constructed from carbon fibers by electrospinning and heat treatment. By controlling the pore size, the specific surface area and pore volume of the electrospun carbon fibers were increased for efficient immobilization of the glucose oxidase. Carbon nanotubes were embedded as an electrically conductive additive to improve the electrical property of the porous carbon fibers. In addition, the surface of the porous carbon fibers was modified with hydrophilic functional groups by direct oxyfluorination to increase the affinity between the hydrophobic carbon surface and the hydrophilic glucose oxidase molecules. The porosity of the carbon fibers was improved significantly with approximately 28- and 35-fold increases in the specific surface area and pore volume, respectively. The number of chemical bonds between carbon and oxygen were increased with higher oxygen content during oxyfluorination based on the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results. Glucose sensing was carried out by current voltagram and amperometric methods. A high-performance glucose sensor was obtained with high sensitivity and rapid response time as a result of carbon nanotube addition, physical activation and surface modification. The mechanism of the highly sensitive prepared glucose sensor was modeled by an enzyme kinetics study using the Michaelis-Menten equation.

  16. Production of bacterial cellulose using different carbon sources and culture media.

    PubMed

    Mohammadkazemi, Faranak; Azin, Mehrdad; Ashori, Alireza

    2015-03-01

    In this work, the effects of carbon sources and culture media on the production and structural properties of bacterial cellulose (BC) have been studied. BC nanofibers were synthesized using Gluconacetobacter xylinus strain PTCC 1734. Media used were Hestrin-Schramm (H), Yamanaka (Y), and Zhou (Z). Five different carbon sources, namely date syrup, glucose, mannitol, sucrose, and food-grade sucrose were used in these media. All the produced BC pellicles were characterized in terms of dry weight production, biomass yield, thermal stability, crystallinity and morphology by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), x-ray diffraction (XRD), and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). The obtained results showed that mannitol lead to the highest yield, followed by sucrose. The highest production efficiency of mannitol might be due to the nitrogen source, which plays an important role. The maximum improvement on the thermal stability of the composites was achieved when mannitol was used in H medium. In addition, the crystallinity was higher in BC formed in H medium compared to other media. FE-SEM micrographs illustrated that the BC pellicles, synthesized in the culture media H and Z, were stable, unlike those in medium Y that were unstable. The micrographs of BC produced in media containing mannitol and sucrose provided evidence of the strong interfacial adhesion between the BC fibers without noticeable aggregates. PMID:25498666

  17. Production of bacterial cellulose using different carbon sources and culture media.

    PubMed

    Mohammadkazemi, Faranak; Azin, Mehrdad; Ashori, Alireza

    2015-03-01

    In this work, the effects of carbon sources and culture media on the production and structural properties of bacterial cellulose (BC) have been studied. BC nanofibers were synthesized using Gluconacetobacter xylinus strain PTCC 1734. Media used were Hestrin-Schramm (H), Yamanaka (Y), and Zhou (Z). Five different carbon sources, namely date syrup, glucose, mannitol, sucrose, and food-grade sucrose were used in these media. All the produced BC pellicles were characterized in terms of dry weight production, biomass yield, thermal stability, crystallinity and morphology by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), x-ray diffraction (XRD), and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). The obtained results showed that mannitol lead to the highest yield, followed by sucrose. The highest production efficiency of mannitol might be due to the nitrogen source, which plays an important role. The maximum improvement on the thermal stability of the composites was achieved when mannitol was used in H medium. In addition, the crystallinity was higher in BC formed in H medium compared to other media. FE-SEM micrographs illustrated that the BC pellicles, synthesized in the culture media H and Z, were stable, unlike those in medium Y that were unstable. The micrographs of BC produced in media containing mannitol and sucrose provided evidence of the strong interfacial adhesion between the BC fibers without noticeable aggregates.

  18. Enhanced biotransformation of carbon tetrachloride by Acetobacterium woodii upon addition of hydroxocobalamin and fructose

    SciTech Connect

    Hashsham, S.A.; Freedman, D.L.

    1999-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of hydroxocobalamin (OH-Cbl) on transformation of high concentrations of carbon tetrachloride (CT) by Acetobacterium woodii. Complete transformation of 470 {micro}M CT was achieved by A. woodii within 2.5 days, when 10 {micro}M OH-Cbl was added along with 25.2 mM fructose. This was approximately 30 times faster than A. woodii cultures and medium that did not receive OH-Cbl and 5 times faster than those controls that did receive OH-Cbl, but either live A. woodii or fructose was missing. CT transformation in treatments with only OH-Cbl was indicative of the important contribution of nonenzymatic reactions. Besides increasing the rate of CT transformation, addition of fructose and OH-Cbl to live cultures increased the percentage of [{sup 14}C]CT transformed to {sup 14}CO{sub 2} and {sup 14}C-labeled soluble materials, while decreasing the percentage of CT reduced to chloroform and abiotically transformed to carbon disulfide. {sup 14}CS{sub 2} represented more than 35% of the [{sup 14}C]CT in the presence of reduced medium and OH-Cbl. Conversion of CT to CO was a predominant pathway in formation of CO{sub 2} in the presence of live cells and added fructose and OH-Cbl. These results indicate that the rate and distribution of products during cometabolic transformation of CT by A. woodii can be improved by the addition of fructose and OH-Cbl.

  19. Nitrogen Additions Increase the Diversity of Carbon Compounds Degraded by Fungi in Boreal Forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gartner, T. B.; Turner, K. M.; Treseder, K. K.

    2004-12-01

    Boreal forest soils in North America harbor a large reservoir of organic C, and this region is increasingly exposed to long-range atmospheric N transport from Eurasia. By examining the responses of decomposers to N deposition in these forests, we hope to improve predictions of the fate of boreal carbon pools under global change. We tested the hypothesis that the functional diversity of decomposer fungi would increase under N fertilization in boreal forests where fungal growth was otherwise N-limited, owing to a reduction in competitive exclusion of fungal groups. We collected soil and leaf litter from three Alaskan sites that represent different successional stages at 5, 17, or 80 years following severe forest fire. Each site had been exposed for two years to nitrogen and phosphorus fertilization in a factorial design, with four plots per treatment. Nutrient limitation of fungal growth varied depending on successional stage. The standing hyphal length of decomposer fungi in soil (i.e. Ascomycota and Basidiomycota) responded to neither N nor P in the 5-year old site, increased under N fertilization in the 17-year old site, and increased where N and P was added simultaneously in the 80-year old site (site x N x P interaction: P = 0.001). We used BIOLOG microplates for filamentous fungi to obtain an index of the diversity of carbon use by decomposer fungi; each of 95 wells of these plates contains a different carbon-based compound, as well as a dye that changes color upon metabolism of the compound. Saline leaf litter extracts were mixed with fungal growth medium and then added to the microplates. The number of wells displaying metabolic activity was counted following incubation for five days. We found that N fertilization raised the average number of positive wells per plate from 14 to 27 (P = 0.012), with no significant differences in responses among sites. Phosphorus additions did not alter functional diversity of fungi in any site. Since increases in functional

  20. Production of cellulase from Trichoderma reesei in fed-batch fermentation from soluble carbon sources

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, A.L.; Mortensen, R.E.

    1981-11-01

    The use of a soluble carbon source in lieu of cellulose for the production of cellulase would allow greater control of the fermentation, since growth and enzyme production would no longer be dependent upon cellulose hydrolysis. Where carbon limitation is a requirement, fed-batch fermentation has proved successful. This article describes cellulase production from Trichoderma reesei using five different carbon sources, sophorose appearing to be a more likely candidate than cellobiose. (Refs. 22).

  1. Brines as Possible Cation Sources for Biomimetic Carbon Dioxide Sequestration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bond, G. M.; Abel, A.; McPherson, B. J.; Stringer, J.

    2002-12-01

    The utility industry is currently producing 2.1 x 109 tonnes of CO2 per year from burning coal. The amounts of CO2 produced by a single coal-burning station are typically around 0.1 tonnes/MW/h for a coal burn of 0.04 tonnes/MW/h. These large fixed sources of CO2 constitute an obvious target for carbon sequestration to minimize greenhouse-gas emissions. The generally favored approach in present sequestration research is to achieve a CO2 stream that is highly concentrated, compress it, and transport it to geologic sequestration sites, such as deep saline aquifers. The volume of the CO2 is of some interest here. Supercritical CO2, as supplied for example from natural wells to enhanced oil recovery (EOR) sites, has a density of approximately 0.9, and is relatively incompressible, which means that the volume of sequestered supercritical CO2 will be somewhat greater than that of the coal from which it was formed. The volume of water displaced by CO2 injection into aquifers would be closely comparable to the volume of the CO2 itself. An alternative path, which we have been following, would capture the gas as calcium carbonate, CaCO3, in a biomimetic approach that offers some obvious advantages. Sequestration, in this case, is in the form of a safe, stable, environmentally benign product. On a geologic timeframe, considerable amounts of CO2 have been sequestered as, for example, oolitic limestone deposits and dolomite deposits, suggesting that very long-lived or even permanent sequestration is possible in solid carbonate form. Not only would our approach remove the costly steps of concentrating and compressing the CO2, but also it is anticipated that it would remove the need for long-term monitoring to check for CO2 leakage. In a separate collaborative study detailed by Abel and others (this volume), ramifications of geologic sequestration of CO2 and/or bicarbonate-enriched brines are evaluated with laboratory flow experiments and computer model simulations. Porosity and

  2. Investigating effectiveness of activated carbons of natural sources on various supercapacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faisal, Md. Shahnewaz Sabit; Rahman, Muhammad M.; Asmatulu, Ramazan

    2016-04-01

    Activated carbon can be produced from natural sources, such as pistachio and acorn shells, which can be an inexpensive and sustainable sources of natural wastes for the energy storage devices, such as supercapacitors. The carbonaceous materials used in this study were carbonized at the temperatures of 700°C and 900°C after the stabilization process at 240°C for two hours. These shells showed approximately 60% carbon yield. Carbonized nutshells were chemically activated using1wt% potassium hydroxide (KOH). Activated carbon powders with polyvinylidene fluoride (PVdF) were used to construct carbon electrodes. A 1M of tetraethylammonium tetrafluoroborate (TEABF4) and propylene carbonate (PC) were used as electrolytes. Electrochemical techniques, such as cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) were used for the characterization of the supercapacitors. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to inspect the surface texture of the activated carbons. Activated pistachio shells carbonized at 700°C showed more porous surface texture than those carbonized at 900°C. Effects of the carbonization temperatures were studied for their electrochemical characteristics. The shells carbonized at 700°C showed better electrochemical characteristics compared to those carbonized at 900°C. The test results provided about 27,083 μF/g specific capacitance at a scan rate of 10mV/s. This study showed promising results for using these activated carbons produced from the natural wastes for supercapacitor applications.

  3. North American rivers a sizable source of atmospheric carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, Colin

    2012-04-01

    To fulfill the need for an ever more granular, accurate, and complete understanding of the flow of carbon through the Earth system, a flurry of research has taken place in the past decade on previously overlooked aspects of the carbon cycle. Researchers have investigated the roles of rivers, lakes, and streams in transporting carbon, often with mixed, or only broadly constrained, results. Further, many investigations have traditionally focused on a small number of sites. Although such focused measurements are important for pinning down spatial and temporal changes in the local exchange of carbon, they make expanding the results to broader regions difficult.

  4. Modulation of the Reactivity of a WO3/Al Energetic Material with Graphitized Carbon Black as Additive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bach, Arnaud; Gibot, Pierre; Vidal, Loïc; Gadiou, Roger; Spitzer, Denis

    2015-10-01

    Although pyrotechnic performance is fundamental, the strong mechanical and electrostatic intrinsic sensitivities of nanothermite energetic composites represent an obstacle to their development. The addition of a ternary component to the classical binary energetic composite appears to be a promising idea to overcome the problem. A carbon black additive (V3G) was used on a WO3/Al nanothermite. The effect of the pristine and modified carbon particles on the mechanical and electrical sensitivities of the composites was measured together with the pyrotechnic properties. The results show a complete desensitization to friction with a ball-milled carbon when the combustion velocity is slightly reduced.

  5. Carbon Dioxide Capture and Separation Techniques for Gasification-based Power Generation Point Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Pennline, H.W.; Luebke, D.R.; Jones, K.L.; Morsi, B.I.; Heintz, Y.J.; Ilconich, J.B.

    2007-06-01

    The capture/separation step for carbon dioxide (CO2) from large-point sources is a critical one with respect to the technical feasibility and cost of the overall carbon sequestration scenario. For large-point sources, such as those found in power generation, the carbon dioxide capture techniques being investigated by the in-house research area of the National Energy Technology Laboratory possess the potential for improved efficiency and reduced costs as compared to more conventional technologies. The investigated techniques can have wide applications, but the research has focused on capture/separation of carbon dioxide from flue gas (post-combustion from fossil fuel-fired combustors) and from fuel gas (precombustion, such as integrated gasification combined cycle or IGCC). With respect to fuel gas applications, novel concepts are being developed in wet scrubbing with physical absorption; chemical absorption with solid sorbents; and separation by membranes. In one concept, a wet scrubbing technique is being investigated that uses a physical solvent process to remove CO2 from fuel gas of an IGCC system at elevated temperature and pressure. The need to define an ideal solvent has led to the study of the solubility and mass transfer properties of various solvents. Pertaining to another separation technology, fabrication techniques and mechanistic studies for membranes separating CO2 from the fuel gas produced by coal gasification are also being performed. Membranes that consist of CO2-philic ionic liquids encapsulated into a polymeric substrate have been investigated for permeability and selectivity. Finally, dry, regenerable processes based on sorbents are additional techniques for CO2 capture from fuel gas. An overview of these novel techniques is presented along with a research progress status of technologies related to membranes and physical solvents.

  6. Effect of Different Carbon Sources on the Growth of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube from MCM-41 Containing Nickel

    SciTech Connect

    Chen,Y.; Wang, B.; Li, L.; Yang, Y.; Ciuparu, D.; Lim, S.; Haller, G.; Pfefferle, L.

    2007-01-01

    Chemical vapor deposition growth of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) was studied using three representative carbon source sources: CO, ethanol, and methane, and a catalyst of Ni ions incorporated in MCM-41. The resulting SWCNTs were compared for similar reaction conditions. Carbon deposits were analyzed by multi-excitation wavelength Raman, TGA, TEM and AFM. Catalytic particles in the Ni-MCM-41 catalysts were characterized by TEM and synchrotron light source X-ray absorption spectroscopy. Under similar synthesis conditions, SWCNTs produced from CO had a relatively smaller diameter, while those from ethanol had a larger diameter. Methane could not produce SWCNTs on Ni-MCM-41 under the conditions used in this research. These results demonstrate that three carbon sources affect the dynamic balances between metallic cluster formation and carbon deposition/precipitation on the metallic cluster surface. Controlling SWCNT diameter relies on precisely regulating this dynamic process. Using different carbon sources we are able to shift this dynamic balance and produce SWCNTs with different mean diameters.

  7. Additive Manufacturing of Multifunctional Components Using High Density Carbon Nanotube Yarn Filaments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, John M.; Sauti, Godfrey; Kim, Jae-Woo; Cano, Roberto J.; Wincheski, Russell A.; Stelter, Christopher J.; Grimsley, Brian W.; Working, Dennis C.; Siochi, Emilie J.

    2016-01-01

    Additive manufacturing allows for design freedom and part complexity not currently attainable using traditional manufacturing technologies. Fused Filament Fabrication (FFF), for example, can yield novel component geometries and functionalities because the method provides a high level of control over material placement and processing conditions. This is achievable by extrusion of a preprocessed filament feedstock material along a predetermined path. However if fabrication of a multifunctional part relies only on conventional filament materials, it will require a different material for each unique functionality printed into the part. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are an attractive material for many applications due to their high specific strength as well as good electrical and thermal conductivity. The presence of this set of properties in a single material presents an opportunity to use one material to achieve multifunctionality in an additively manufactured part. This paper describes a recently developed method for processing continuous CNT yarn filaments into three-dimensional articles, and summarizes the mechanical, electrical, and sensing performance of the components fabricated in this way.

  8. Carbon and nitrogen additions induce distinct priming effects along an organic-matter decay continuum

    PubMed Central

    Qiao, Na; Xu, Xingliang; Hu, Yuehua; Blagodatskaya, Evgenia; Liu, Yongwen; Schaefer, Douglas; Kuzyakov, Yakov

    2016-01-01

    Decomposition of organic matter (OM) in soil, affecting carbon (C) cycling and climate feedbacks, depends on microbial activities driven by C and nitrogen (N) availability. However, it remains unknown how decomposition of various OMs vary across global supplies and ratios of C and N inputs. We examined OM decomposition by incubating four types of OM (leaf litter, wood, organic matter from organic and mineral horizons) from a decay continuum in a subtropical forest at Ailao Mountain, China with labile C and N additions. Decomposition of wood with high C:N decreased for 3.9 to 29% with these additions, while leaf decomposition was accelerated only within a narrow C:N range of added C and N. Decomposition of OM from organic horizon was accelerated by high C:N and suppressed by low C:N, but mineral soil was almost entirely controlled by high C:N. These divergent responses to C and N inputs show that mechanisms for priming (i.e. acceleration or retardation of OM decomposition by labile inputs) vary along this decay continuum. We conclude that besides C:N ratios of OM, those of labile inputs control the OM decay in the litter horizons, while energy (labile C) regulates decomposition in mineral soil. This suggests that OM decomposition can be predicted from its intrinsic C:N ratios and those of labile inputs. PMID:26806914

  9. Carbon and nitrogen additions induce distinct priming effects along an organic-matter decay continuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiao, Na; Xu, Xingliang; Hu, Yuehua; Blagodatskaya, Evgenia; Liu, Yongwen; Schaefer, Douglas; Kuzyakov, Yakov

    2016-01-01

    Decomposition of organic matter (OM) in soil, affecting carbon (C) cycling and climate feedbacks, depends on microbial activities driven by C and nitrogen (N) availability. However, it remains unknown how decomposition of various OMs vary across global supplies and ratios of C and N inputs. We examined OM decomposition by incubating four types of OM (leaf litter, wood, organic matter from organic and mineral horizons) from a decay continuum in a subtropical forest at Ailao Mountain, China with labile C and N additions. Decomposition of wood with high C:N decreased for 3.9 to 29% with these additions, while leaf decomposition was accelerated only within a narrow C:N range of added C and N. Decomposition of OM from organic horizon was accelerated by high C:N and suppressed by low C:N, but mineral soil was almost entirely controlled by high C:N. These divergent responses to C and N inputs show that mechanisms for priming (i.e. acceleration or retardation of OM decomposition by labile inputs) vary along this decay continuum. We conclude that besides C:N ratios of OM, those of labile inputs control the OM decay in the litter horizons, while energy (labile C) regulates decomposition in mineral soil. This suggests that OM decomposition can be predicted from its intrinsic C:N ratios and those of labile inputs.

  10. Sensitivity of Arctic Permafrost Carbon in the Mackenzie River Basin: A substrate addition and incubation experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hedgpeth, A.; Beilman, D.; Crow, S. E.

    2014-12-01

    Arctic soil organic matter (SOM) mineralization processes are fundamental to the functioning of high latitude soils in relation to nutrients, stability, and feedbacks to atmospheric CO2 and climate. The arctic permafrost zone covers 25% of the northern hemisphere and contains 1672Pg of soil carbon (C). 88% of this C currently resides in frozen soils that are vulnerable to environmental change. For instance, arctic growing seasons may be lengthened, resulting in an increase in plant productivity and rate of below ground labile C inputs as root exudates. Understanding controls on Arctic SOM dynamics requires recognition that labile C inputs have the potential to significantly affect mineralization of previously stable SOM, also known as 'priming effects'. We conducted a substrate addition incubation experiment to quantify and compare respiration in highly organic (42-48 %C) permafrost soils along a north-south transect in western Canada. Near surface soils (10-20 cm) were collected from permafrost peatland sites in the Mackenzie River Basin from 69.2-62.6°N. The surface soils are fairly young (Δ14C values > -140.0) and can be assumed to contain relatively reactive soil carbon. To assess whether addition of labile substrate alters SOM decomposition dynamics, 4.77-11.75 g of permafrost soil were spiked with 0.5 mg D-glucose g-1 soil and incubated at 5°C. A mass balance approach was used to determin substrate-induced respiration and preliminary results suggest a potential for positive priming in these C-rich soils. Baseline respiration rates from the three sites were similar (0.067-0.263 mg CO2 g-1 soil C) yet show some site-specific trends. The rate at which added substrate was utilized within these soils suggests that other factors besides temperature and soil C content are controlling substrate consumption and its effect on SOM decomposition. Microbial activity can be stimulated by substrate addition to such an extent that SOM turnover is enhanced, suggesting that

  11. The combination of different carbon sources enhances bacterial growth efficiency in aquatic ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Fonte, Ellen S; Amado, André M; Meirelles-Pereira, Frederico; Esteves, Francisco A; Rosado, Alexandre S; Farjalla, Vinicius F

    2013-11-01

    The dissolved organic carbon (DOC) pool is composed of several organic carbon compounds from different carbon sources. Each of these sources may support different bacterial growth rates, but few studies have specifically analyzed the effects of the combination of different carbon sources on bacterial metabolism. In this study, we evaluated the response of several metabolic parameters, including bacterial biomass production (BP), bacterial respiration (BR), bacterial growth efficiency (BGE), and bacterial community structure, on the presence of three DOC sources alone and in combination. We hypothesized that the mixture of different DOC sources would increase the efficiency of carbon use by bacteria (BGE). We established a full-factorial substitutive design (seven treatments) in which the effects of the number and identity of DOC sources on bacterial metabolism were evaluated. We calculated the expected metabolic rates of the combined DOC treatments based on the single-DOC treatments and observed a positive interaction on BP, a negative interaction on BR, and, consequently, a positive interaction on BGE for the combinations. The bacterial community composition appeared to have a minor impact on differences in bacterial metabolism among the treatments. Our data indicate that mixtures of DOC sources result in a more efficient biological use of carbon. This study provides strong evidence that the mixture of different DOC sources is a key factor affecting the role of bacteria in the carbon flux of aquatic ecosystems. PMID:23963223

  12. The CERN antiproton source: Controls aspects of the additional collector ring and fast sampling devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chohan, V.

    1990-08-01

    The upgrade of the CERN antiproton source, meant to gain an order of magnitude in antiproton flux, required the construction of an additional ring to complement the existing antiproton accumulator (AA) and an entire rebuild of the target zone. The AA also needed major modifications to handle the increased flux and perform purely as an accumulator, preceded by collection in the collector ring (AC). The upgrade, known as the ACOL (antiproton collector) project, was approved under strict time and budgetary constraints and the existing AA control system, based on the Proton Synchrotron (PS) Divisional norms of CAMAC and Norsk-Data computers, had to be extended in the light of this. The limited (9 months) installation period for the whole upgrade meant that substantial preparatory and planning activities had to be carried out during the normal running of the AA. Advantage was taken of the upgrade to improve and consolidate the AA. Some aspects of the control system related to this upgrade are discussed together with the integration of new applications and instrumentation. The overall machine installation and running-in was carried out within the defined milestones and the project has now achieved the physics design goals.

  13. Elite sport is not an additional source of distress for adolescents with high stress levels.

    PubMed

    Gerber, Markus; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Pühse, Uwe; Brand, Serge

    2011-04-01

    This study examined whether participation in elite sport interacts with stress in decreasing or increasing symptoms of depression and anxiety among adolescents, and further, whether the interplay between participation in high-performance sport and stress is related to the perceived quality of sleep. 434 adolescents (278 girls, 156 boys; age: M = 17.2 yr.) from 15 "Swiss Olympic Sport Classes" and 9 conventional classes answered a questionnaire and completed a 7-day sleep log. Analyses of covariance showed that heightened stress was related to more depressive symptoms and higher scores for trait-anxiety. Moreover, those classified as having poor sleep by a median split cutoff reported higher levels of depressive symptoms. No significant (multivariate) main effects were found for high-performance sport athletes. Similarly, no significant two- or three-way interaction effects were found. These results caution against exaggerated expectations concerning sport participation as a stress buffer. Nevertheless, participation in high-performance sport was not found to be an additional source of distress for adolescents who reported high stress levels despite prior research that has pointed toward such a relationship.

  14. Sources and Residence Times of Exported Organic Carbon From High-standing Tropical Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hemingway, J. D.; Galy, V.; Hilton, R. G.; Hovius, N.

    2015-12-01

    Steep, mountainous rivers draining high standing islands within the ITCZ export a disproportionately high amount of sediment given their small area - up to 20% of global export in 3% of the total exorheic land area. Typhoons strongly influence climate in this region, leading to increased sediment discharge, hyperpycnal flow, and efficient burial of terrestrial particulate organic carbon (POC) in marine sediments. Here, we investigate the exported POC from high-resolution (~hours) sampling on the LiWu River, Taiwan, during three sequential typhoons in 2008 as well as from soil profiles taken throughout the catchment. We utilize the recently developed Ramped Pyrox technique to investigate the chemical structure and isotopic distribution (14C, δ13C) of different OC sources by separating OC components based on thermo-stability. We show that even the most labile OCbio can exhibit protracted storage in soils (up to ca. 2000 14C years), and that soil OC displays a large increase in apparent age with increasing thermal stability, likely due to contribution by microbially re-worked petrogenic carbon. Additionally, exported POCbio is too depleted and POCpetro too enriched in δ13C to be sourced from upper-catchment soil biomass. Rather, exported POC during large storm events can be best explained by a downstream source. Our results therefore offer an updated view on the mechanisms of organic carbon export from steep mountainous rivers by showing that: (i.) high erosion rates do not preclude significant pre-ageing of soil OC and (ii.) exported POC during large storm events is dominated by a local, downstream signal.

  15. EFFECT OF CARBON SOURCES ON FORMATION OF ALPHA-AMYLASE BY BACILLUS STEAROTHERMOPHILUS.

    PubMed

    WELKER, N E; CAMPBELL, L L

    1963-10-01

    Welker, N. E. (Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio) and L. Leon Campbell. Effect of carbon sources on formation of alpha-amylase by Bacillus stearothermophilus. J. Bacteriol. 86:681-686. 1963.-A chemically defined medium was devised for use in alpha-amylase induction studies. The addition of 0.1% casein hydrolysate to the chemically defined medium permitted growth on fructose, and with glucose, sucrose, maltose, starch, and glycerol it shortened the lag period and increased both the growth rate and the total enzyme produced. Growth did not occur when gluconate, acetate, or succinate were used as carbon sources. alpha-Amylase was produced during the logarithmic phase of growth; the amount produced was inversely proportional to the rate of growth. The poorer the carbon source for growth (glycerol, k = 0.24; glucose, k = 0.26; sucrose, k = 0.42), the higher was the amount of enzyme produced (glycerol, 109 units/ml; glucose, 103 units/ml; sucrose, 45 units/ml). Cells grown on technical-grade maltose (k = 0.26) or starch (k = 0.42) did not conform to this relationship in that unusually large amounts of alpha-amylase were produced (362 and 225 units/ml, respectively). Cells grown on fructose or sucrose had the same growth rate (k = 0.42), but smaller amounts of alpha-amylase were produced on fructose (fructose, 0 to 4 units/ml; sucrose, 45 units/ml). An intracellular alpha-amylase was not detected in Bacillus stearothermophilus.

  16. Mechanism of hydrofluoric acid formation in ethylene carbonate electrolytes with fluorine salt additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tebbe, Jonathon L.; Fuerst, Thomas F.; Musgrave, Charles B.

    2015-11-01

    We utilized density functional theory to examine HF generation in lithium-ion battery electrolytes from reactions between H2O and the decomposition products of three electrolyte additives: LiPF6, LiPOF4, and LiAsF6. Decomposition of these additives produces PF5, AsF5, and POF3 along with LiF precipitates. We found PF5 and AsF5 react with H2O in two sequential steps to form two HF molecules and POF3 and AsOF3, respectively. PF5 (or AsF5) complexes with H2O and undergoes ligand exchange to form HF and PF4OH (AsF4OH) with an activation barrier of 114.2 (30.5) kJ mol-1 and reaction enthalpy of 14.6 (-11.3) kJ mol-1. The ethylene carbonate (EC) electrolyte forms a Lewis acid-base complex with the PF4OH (AsF4OH) product, reducing the barrier to HF formation. Reactions of POF3 were examined and are not characterized by complexation of POF3 with H2O or EC, while PF5 and AsF5 complex favorably with H2O and EC. HF formation from POF3 occurs with a reaction enthalpy of -3.8 kJ mol-1 and a 157.7 kJ mol-1 barrier, 43.5 kJ mol-1 higher than forming HF from PF5. HF generation in electrolytes employing LiPOF4 should be significantly lower than those using LiPF6 or LiAsF6 and LiPOF4 should be further investigated as an alternative electrolyte additive.

  17. Badlands and the Carbon cycle: a significant source of petrogenic organic carbon in rivers and marine environments?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Copard, Yoann; Eyrolle-Boyer, Frederique; Radakovitch, Olivier; Poirel, Alain; Raimbault, Patrick; Lebouteiller, Caroline; Gairoard, Stéphanie; Di-Giovanni, Christian

    2016-04-01

    A key issue in the study of carbon biogeochemical cycle is to well constrain each carbon origin in term of fluxes between all C-reservoirs. From continental surfaces to oceans, rivers convey particulate organic carbon originate from the biomass (biospheric OC) and /or from the sedimentary rocks (petrogenic OC). Existence and importance of this petrogenic OC export to oceans was debated for several decades (see Copard et al., 2007 and ref.), but it is now assumed that 20% of the global carbon export to ocean has a geological origin (Galy et al., 2015). The main current challenge is to constrain the major contributors to this petrogenic OC flux. Amongst the expected sedimentary sources of petrogenic OC in rivers, sedimentary rocks forming badlands can be rightly considered as some viable candidates. Indeed these rocks show a strong erosion rate, may exceed 50 kt km-2 y-1 and in addition, shales, marls and argillaceous rocks, frequently forming badlands (see Nadal-Romero et al., 2011 for the Mediterranean area), contain a significant amount of petrogenic OC (frequently over 0.50 wt. %, Ronov and Yaroshevsky 1976). Our work illustrates the contribution of badlands, mainly distributed within the Durance catchment (a main tributary of the Rhône river), in the petrogenic OC export to the Mediterranean Sea. The approach is based on (i) the use of previous and new data on radiogenic carbon, (ii) bulk organic geochemistry (Rock-Eval pyrolysis), (iii) optical quantification of particulate OM (palynofacies), performed on suspended sediments from the Durance, the Rhône rivers and from small rivers draining the badlands. A mean erosion rate of badlands, previously calculated for instrumented catchments (SOERE Draix-Bléone, Graz et al., 2012) was also applied to the badlands disseminated within the Durance catchment. These different methodologies converge to a petrogenic contribution of the OC export to the Mediterranean Sea close to 30 %. Badlands from the Durance catchment

  18. High-field properties of carbon-doped MgB2 thin films by hybrid physical-chemical vapor deposition using different carbon sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Wenqing; Ferrando, V.; Pogrebnyakov, A. V.; Wilke, R. H. T.; Chen, Ke; Weng, Xiaojun; Redwing, Joan; Wung Bark, Chung; Eom, Chang-Beom; Zhu, Y.; Voyles, P. M.; Rickel, Dwight; Betts, J. B.; Mielke, C. H.; Gurevich, A.; Larbalestier, D. C.; Li, Qi; Xi, X. X.

    2011-12-01

    We have studied the high-field properties of carbon-doped MgB2 thin films prepared by hybrid physical-chemical vapor deposition (HPCVD). Carbon doping was accomplished by adding carbon-containing gas, such as bis(methylcyclopentadienyl)magnesium and trimethylboron, into the hydrogen carrier gas during the deposition. In both cases, Tc drops slowly and residual resistivity increases considerably with carbon doping. Both the a and c lattice constants increase with carbon content in the films, a behavior different from that of bulk carbon-doped MgB2 samples. The films heavily doped with trimethylboron show very high parallel Hc2 over 70 T at low temperatures and a large temperature derivative -\\rmd H_{ {c2}}^{\\parallel } /\\rmd T near Tc. These behaviors are found to depend on the unique microstructure of the films, which consists of MgB2 layers a few-nanometers thick separated by non-superconducting MgB2C2 layers. This leads to an increase in the parallel Hc2 by the geometrical effect, which is in addition to the significant enhancement of Hc2 due to changes in the scattering rates within and between the two bands present in films doped using both carbon sources. The high Hc2 and high-field Jc(H) values observed in this work are very promising for the application of MgB2 in high magnetic fields.

  19. Carbon flux from plants to soil microbes is highly sensitive to nitrogen addition and biochar amendment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaiser, C.; Solaiman, Z. M.; Kilburn, M. R.; Clode, P. L.; Fuchslueger, L.; Koranda, M.; Murphy, D. V.

    2012-04-01

    The release of carbon through plant roots to the soil has been recognized as a governing factor for soil microbial community composition and decomposition processes, constituting an important control for ecosystem biogeochemical cycles. Moreover, there is increasing awareness that the flux of recently assimilated carbon from plants to the soil may regulate ecosystem response to environmental change, as the rate of the plant-soil carbon transfer will likely be affected by increased plant C assimilation caused by increasing atmospheric CO2 levels. What has received less attention so far is how sensitive the plant-soil C transfer would be to possible regulations coming from belowground, such as soil N addition or microbial community changes resulting from anthropogenic inputs such as biochar amendments. In this study we investigated the size, rate and sensitivity of the transfer of recently assimilated plant C through the root-soil-mycorrhiza-microbial continuum. Wheat plants associated with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi were grown in split-boxes which were filled either with soil or a soil-biochar mixture. Each split-box consisted of two compartments separated by a membrane which was penetrable for mycorrhizal hyphae but not for roots. Wheat plants were only grown in one compartment while the other compartment served as an extended soil volume which was only accessible by mycorrhizal hyphae associated with the plant roots. After plants were grown for four weeks we used a double-labeling approach with 13C and 15N in order to investigate interactions between C and N flows in the plant-soil-microorganism system. Plants were subjected to an enriched 13CO2 atmosphere for 8 hours during which 15NH4 was added to a subset of split-boxes to either the root-containing or the root-free compartment. Both, 13C and 15N fluxes through the plant-soil continuum were monitored over 24 hours by stable isotope methods (13C phospho-lipid fatty acids by GC-IRMS, 15N/13C in bulk plant

  20. Oxygen vectors used for S-adenosylmethionine production in recombinant Pichia pastoris with sorbitol as supplemental carbon source.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jian-Guo; Wang, Xue-Dong; Zhang, Ji-Ning; Wei, Dong-Zhi

    2008-04-01

    In order to increase the yield of S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) in recombinant Pichia pastoris, a strategy of adding oxygen vectors and supplemental carbon sources was described. Three organic solutions were used as oxygen vectors for SAM accumulation at different concentrations and addition times. Firstly, n-hexane (0.5%) or n-heptane (1.0%) was added after 72 h of cultivation to improve SAM production. Carbon metabolism was scarce during the induction phase because of low methanol concentration. Secondly, sorbitol (1.2%), selected from three candidates (glycerol, lactic acid, and sorbitol), was used as the supplemental carbon source. The yield of SAM was improved significantly (53.26%) at 1.0%n-heptane added at 72 h (48 h induction), 1.2% sorbitol added at 72, 96, and 120 h of cultivation and 1.0% methanol added every 24 h during cultivation.

  1. The roles of inoculants' carbon source use in the biocontrol of potato scab disease.

    PubMed

    Sun, Pingping; Zhao, Xinbei; Shangguan, Nini; Chang, Dongwei; Ma, Qing

    2015-04-01

    Despite the application of multiple strains in the biocontrol of plant diseases, multistrain inoculation is still constrained by its inconsistency in the field. Nutrients, especially carbons, play an important role in the biocontrol processes. However, little work has been done on the systematic estimation of inoculants' carbon source use on biocontrol efficacies in vivo. In the present study, 7 nonpathogenic Streptomyces strains alone and in different combinations were inoculated as biocontrol agents against the potato scab disease, under field conditions and greenhouse treatments. The influence of the inoculants' carbon source use properties on biocontrol efficacies was investigated. The results showed that increasing the number of inoculated strains did not necessarily result in greater biocontrol efficacy in vivo. However, single strains with higher growth rates or multiple strains with less carbon source competition had positive effects on the biocontrol efficacies. These findings may shed light on optimizing the consistent biocontrol of plant disease with the consideration of inoculants' carbon source use properties. PMID:25756527

  2. Dissolved black carbon in Antarctic lakes: Chemical signatures of past and present sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Alia L.; Jaffé, Rudolf; Ding, Yan; McKnight, Diane M.

    2016-06-01

    The perennially ice-covered, closed-basin lakes in the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica, serve as sentinels for understanding the fate of dissolved black carbon from glacial sources in aquatic ecosystems. Here we show that dissolved black carbon can persist in freshwater and saline surface waters for thousands of years, while preserving the chemical signature of the original source materials. The ancient brines of the lake bottom waters have retained dissolved black carbon with a woody chemical signature, representing long-range transport of black carbon from wildfires. In contrast, the surface waters are enriched in contemporary black carbon from fossil fuel combustion. Comparison of samples collected 25 years apart from the same lake suggests that the enrichment in anthropogenic black carbon is recent. Differences in the chemical composition of dissolved black carbon among the lakes are likely due to biogeochemical processing such as photochemical degradation and sorption on metal oxides.

  3. Modeling external carbon addition in biological nutrient removal processes with an extension of the international water association activated sludge model.

    PubMed

    Swinarski, M; Makinia, J; Stensel, H D; Czerwionka, K; Drewnowski, J

    2012-08-01

    The aim of this study was to expand the International Water Association Activated Sludge Model No. 2d (ASM2d) to account for a newly defined readily biodegradable substrate that can be consumed by polyphosphate-accumulating organisms (PAOs) under anoxic and aerobic conditions, but not under anaerobic conditions. The model change was to add a new substrate component and process terms for its use by PAOs and other heterotrophic bacteria under anoxic and aerobic conditions. The Gdansk (Poland) wastewater treatment plant (WWTP), which has a modified University of Cape Town (MUCT) process for nutrient removal, provided field data and mixed liquor for batch tests for model evaluation. The original ASM2d was first calibrated under dynamic conditions with the results of batch tests with settled wastewater and mixed liquor, in which nitrate-uptake rates, phosphorus-release rates, and anoxic phosphorus uptake rates were followed. Model validation was conducted with data from a 96-hour measurement campaign in the full-scale WWTP. The results of similar batch tests with ethanol and fusel oil as the external carbon sources were used to adjust kinetic and stoichiometric coefficients in the expanded ASM2d. Both models were compared based on their predictions of the effect of adding supplemental carbon to the anoxic zone of an MUCT process. In comparison with the ASM2d, the new model better predicted the anoxic behaviors of carbonaceous oxygen demand, nitrate-nitrogen (NO3-N), and phosphorous (PO4-P) in batch experiments with ethanol and fusel oil. However, when simulating ethanol addition to the anoxic zone of a full-scale biological nutrient removal facility, both models predicted similar effluent NO3-N concentrations (6.6 to 6.9 g N/m3). For the particular application, effective enhanced biological phosphorus removal was predicted by both models with external carbon addition but, for the new model, the effluent PO4-P concentration was approximately one-half of that found from

  4. Natural sources of greenhouse gases: carbon dioxide emissions from volcanoes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gerlach, Terrence

    1990-01-01

    Volcanic degassing of carbon dioxide plays an important role in keeping the atmosphere-ocean portion of the carbon geochemical cycle in balance. The atmosphere-ocean carbon deficit requires replenishment of 6??1012 mol CO2/yr, and places an upper limit on the output of carbon dioxide from volcanoes. The CO2 output of the global mid-oceanic ridge system is ca. 0.7??1012 mol/yr, thus supplying only a fraction of the amount needed to balance the carbon deficit. The carbon dioxide flux from subaerial volcanoes is poorly known, but it appears to be at least as large as the mid-oceanic ridge flux. Much (perhaps most) of the CO2 emitted from volcanoes is degassed noneruptively. This mode of degassing may lead to impacts on the environment and biosphere that are fundamentally different in character from those envisioned in published scenarios, which are based on the assumption that CO2 degassing occurs predominantly by eruptive processes. Although the flux of carbon dioxide from volcanoes is poorly constrained at present, it is clearly two orders of magnitude lower than the anthropogenic output of CO2.

  5. Solar neutrinos and the influences of opacity, thermal instability, additional neutrino sources, and a central black hole on solar models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stothers, R. B.; Ezer, D.

    1972-01-01

    Significant quantities that affect the internal structure of the sun are examined for factors that reduce the temperature near the sun's center. The four factors discussed are: opacity, central black hole, thermal instability, and additional neutrino sources.

  6. Sources of dissolved inorganic carbon to the Canada Basin halocline: A multitracer study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Kristina A.; McLaughlin, Fiona; Tortell, Philippe D.; Yamamoto-Kawai, Michiyo; Francois, Roger

    2016-05-01

    We examine the dissolved inorganic carbon maximum in the Canada Basin halocline using a suite of geochemical tracers to gain insight into the factors that contribute to the persistence of this feature. Hydrographic and geochemical samples were collected in the upper 500 m of the southwestern Canada Basin water column in the summer of 2008 and fall of 2009. These observations were used to identify conservative and nonconservative processes that contribute dissolved inorganic carbon to halocline source waters, including shelf sediment organic matter remineralization, air-sea gas exchange, and sea-ice brine export. Our results indicate that the remineralization of organic matter that occurs along the Bering and Chukchi Sea shelves is the overwhelming contributor of dissolved inorganic carbon to Pacific Winter Water that occupies the middle halocline in the southwestern Canada Basin. Nonconservative contributions from air-sea exchange and sea-ice brine are not significant. The broad salinity range associated with the DIC maximum, compared to the narrow salinity range of the nutrient maximum, is due to mixing between Pacific and Atlantic water and not abiotic addition of DIC.

  7. Multiple Phosphatases Regulate Carbon Source-Dependent Germination and Primary Metabolism in Aspergillus nidulans

    PubMed Central

    de Assis, Leandro José; Ries, Laure Nicolas Annick; Savoldi, Marcela; Dinamarco, Taisa Magnani; Goldman, Gustavo Henrique; Brown, Neil Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Aspergillus nidulans is an important mold and a model system for the study of fungal cell biology. In addition, invasive A. nidulans pulmonary infections are common in humans with chronic granulomatous disease. The morphological and biochemical transition from dormant conidia into active, growing, filamentous hyphae requires the coordination of numerous biosynthetic, developmental, and metabolic processes. The present study exhibited the diversity of roles performed by seven phosphatases in regulating cell cycle, development, and metabolism in response to glucose and alternative carbon sources. The identified phosphatases highlighted the importance of several signaling pathways regulating filamentous growth, the action of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex as a metabolic switch controlling carbon usage, and the identification of the key function performed by the α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase during germination. These novel insights into the fundamental roles of numerous phosphatases in germination and carbon sensing have provided new avenues of research into the identification of inhibitors of fungal germination, with implications for the food, feed, and pharmaceutical industries. PMID:25762568

  8. Meta-code for systematic analysis of chemical addition (SACHA): application to fluorination of C70 and carbon nanostructure growth.

    PubMed

    Ewels, Christopher P; Lier, Gregory Van; Geerlings, Paul; Charlier, Jean-Christophe

    2007-01-01

    We present a new computer program able to systematically study chemical addition to and growth or evolution of carbon nanostructures. SACHA is a meta-code able to exploit a wide variety of pre-existing molecular structure codes, automating the otherwise onerous task of constructing, running, and analyzing the large number of input files that are required when exploring structural isomers and addition paths. By way of examples we consider fluorination of the fullerene cage C70 and carbon nanostructure growth through C2 addition. We discuss the possibilities for extension of this technique to rapidly and efficiently explore structural energy landscapes and application to other areas of chemical and materials research.

  9. Biosurfactant production by Pseudomonas aeruginosa A41 using palm oil as carbon source.

    PubMed

    Thaniyavarn, Jiraporn; Chongchin, Aree; Wanitsuksombut, Nopparat; Thaniyavarn, Suthep; Pinphanichakarn, Pairoh; Leepipatpiboon, Natthanant; Morikawa, Masaaki; Kanaya, Shigenori

    2006-08-01

    Biosurfactant production by Pseudomonas aeruginosa A41, a strain isolated from seawater in the gulf of Thailand, was examined when grown in defined medium containing 2% vegetable oil or fatty acid as a carbon source in the presence of vitamins, trace elements and 0.4% NH(4)NO(3), at pH 7 and 30 degrees C with 200 rpm-shaking for 7 days. The yield of biosurfactant steadily increased even after a stationary phase. Under such conditions the surface tension of the medium was lowered from 55-70 mN/m to 27.8-30 mN/m with every carbon source tested. However, types of carbon sources were found to affect biosurfactant yield. The yields of rhamnolipid biosurfactant were 6.58 g/L, 2.91 g/L and 2.93 g/L determined as rhamnose content when olive oil, palm oil and coconut oil, respectively, were used as a carbon source. Among them, biosurfactant obtained from palm oil was the best in lowering surface tension of the medium. Increase in biosurfactant activities in terms of oil displacement test and rhamnose content were observed to be higher with shorter chain fatty acids than that of the longer chains (C12>C14>C16). In addition, we found that C18:2, highly unsaturated fatty acid, showed higher oil displacement activity and rhamnose content than that of C18:1. The optimal oil displacement activity was found at pH 7-9 and in the presence of 0.5-3% NaCl. The oil displacement activity was stable to temperatures up to 100 degrees C for 15 h. Surface tension reduction activity was relatively stable at pH 2-12 and 0-5% of NaCl. Emusification activity tested with various types of hydrocarbons and vegetable oils showed similarity of up to 60% stability. The partially purified biosurfactant via TLC and silica gel column chromatography gave three main peaks on HPLC with mass spectra of 527, 272, and 661 m/z respectively, corresponding to sodium-monorhamnodecanoate, hydroxyhexadecanoic acid and an unknown compound, respectively. PMID:17116970

  10. Health effects of carbon-containing particulate matter: focus on sources and recent research program results.

    PubMed

    Rohr, Annette; McDonald, Jacob

    2016-02-01

    Air pollution is a complex mixture of gas-, vapor-, and particulate-phase materials comprised of inorganic and organic species. Many of these components have been associated with adverse health effects in epidemiological and toxicological studies, including a broad spectrum of carbonaceous atmospheric components. This paper reviews recent literature on the health impacts of organic aerosols, with a focus on specific sources of organic material; it is not intended to be a comprehensive review of all the available literature. Specific emission sources reviewed include engine emissions, wood/biomass combustion emissions, biogenic emissions and secondary organic aerosol (SOA), resuspended road dust, tire and brake wear, and cooking emissions. In addition, recent findings from large toxicological and epidemiological research programs are reviewed in the context of organic PM, including SPHERES, NPACT, NERC, ACES, and TERESA. A review of the extant literature suggests that there are clear health impacts from emissions containing carbon-containing PM, but difficulty remains in apportioning responses to certain groupings of carbonaceous materials, such as organic and elemental carbon, condensed and gas phases, and primary and secondary material. More focused epidemiological and toxicological studies, including increased characterization of organic materials, would increase understanding of this issue.

  11. Properties of amorphous carbon-silicon alloys deposited by a high plasma density source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Racine, B.; Ferrari, A. C.; Morrison, N. A.; Hutchings, I.; Milne, W. I.; Robertson, J.

    2001-11-01

    The addition of silicon to hydrogenated amorphous carbon can have the advantageous effect of lowering the compressive stress, improving the thermal stability of its hydrogen, and maintaining a low friction coefficient up to high humidity. Most experiments to date have been on hydrogenated amorphous carbon-silicon alloys (a-C1-xSix:H) deposited by rf plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. This method gives alloys with sizeable hydrogen content and only moderate hardness. Here we use a high plasma density source known as the electron cyclotron wave resonance source to prepare films with higher sp3 content and lower hydrogen content. The composition and bonding in the alloys is determined by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Rutherford backscattering, elastic recoil detection analysis, visible and ultraviolet (UV) Raman spectroscopy, infrared spectroscopy, and x-ray reflectivity. We find that it is possible to produce relatively hard, low stress, low friction, almost humidity insensitive a-C1-xSix:H alloys with a good optical transparency and a band gap well over 2.5 eV. The friction behavior and friction mechanism of these alloys are studied and compared with that of a-C:H, ta-C:H, and ta-C. We show how UV Raman spectroscopy allows the direct detection of Si-C, Si-Hx, and C-Hx vibrations, not seen in visible Raman spectra.

  12. Health effects of carbon-containing particulate matter: focus on sources and recent research program results.

    PubMed

    Rohr, Annette; McDonald, Jacob

    2016-02-01

    Air pollution is a complex mixture of gas-, vapor-, and particulate-phase materials comprised of inorganic and organic species. Many of these components have been associated with adverse health effects in epidemiological and toxicological studies, including a broad spectrum of carbonaceous atmospheric components. This paper reviews recent literature on the health impacts of organic aerosols, with a focus on specific sources of organic material; it is not intended to be a comprehensive review of all the available literature. Specific emission sources reviewed include engine emissions, wood/biomass combustion emissions, biogenic emissions and secondary organic aerosol (SOA), resuspended road dust, tire and brake wear, and cooking emissions. In addition, recent findings from large toxicological and epidemiological research programs are reviewed in the context of organic PM, including SPHERES, NPACT, NERC, ACES, and TERESA. A review of the extant literature suggests that there are clear health impacts from emissions containing carbon-containing PM, but difficulty remains in apportioning responses to certain groupings of carbonaceous materials, such as organic and elemental carbon, condensed and gas phases, and primary and secondary material. More focused epidemiological and toxicological studies, including increased characterization of organic materials, would increase understanding of this issue. PMID:26635181

  13. Reduction of nitrous oxide emissions from partial nitrification process by using innovative carbon source (mannitol).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xinwen; Wang, Xiaoqing; Zhang, Jian; Huang, Xiaoyu; Wei, Dong; Lan, Wei; Hu, Zhen

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of mannitol as carbon source on nitrogen removal and nitrous oxide (N2O) emission during partial nitrification (PN) process. Laboratory-scale PN sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) were operated with mannitol and sodium acetate as carbon sources, respectively. Results showed that mannitol could remarkably reduce N2O-N emission by 41.03%, without influencing the removal efficiency of NH4(+)-N. However, it has a significant influence on nitrite accumulation ratio (NAR) and TN removal, which were 19.97% and 13.59% lower than that in PN with sodium acetate, respectively. Microbial analysis showed that the introduction of mannitol could increase the abundance of bacteria encoding nosZ genes. In addition, anti-oxidant enzymes (T-SOD, POD and CAT) activities were significantly reduced and the dehydrogenase activity had an obvious increase in mannitol system, indicating that mannitol could alleviate the inhibition of N2O reductase (N2OR) activities caused by high NO2(-)-N concentration. PMID:27423546

  14. Source-related variables for the description of the oceanic carbon system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walin, G.; Hieronymus, J.; Nycander, J.

    2014-09-01

    oceanic carbon system is commonly described in terms of the two state variables total carbon, DIC, and alkalinity, Alk. Here we suggest the use of alternative source adapted state variables, Acidic Carbon, AC and Basic Carbon, BC, defined by and related to (DIC, Alk) with a simple linear transformation. (AC, BC) can be interpreted as representing respectively the supply to the system of carbon dioxide and dissolved carbonate, keeping in mind that supply of hydrogen ions acts to transform from basic carbon to acidic carbon. Accordingly these variables tell us how much carbon dioxide or dissolved carbonate we actually have in the water, despite the fact that the major part of the carbon resides in bicarbonate ions. We claim that using these source-related variables as a compliment to the traditional variables, offers a number of advantages in the formulation of continuity equations, as well as in the interpretation of observations and modeling results. The traditional definition of alkalinity is related to a measuring procedure rather than to the supply of material to the system. Here we demonstrate that alkalinity, though defined in the traditional way, may be interpreted in terms of sources and sinks acting on the system. In the case of ocean water this amounts to twice the supply of dissolved carbonate minus the net supply of free hydrogen ions. We argue that this interpretation is a useful complement to the traditional definition. Every process that affects the state of the carbon system may be quantified in terms of supply of carbon dioxide, Fa, carbonate ions, Fb, or hydrogen ions, E.

  15. Effects of nitrogen additions on above- and belowground carbon dynamics in two tropical forests

    SciTech Connect

    Cusack, D.; Silver, W.L.; Torn, M.S.; McDowell, W.H.

    2011-04-15

    Anthropogenic nitrogen (N) deposition is increasing rapidly in tropical regions, adding N to ecosystems that often have high background N availability. Tropical forests play an important role in the global carbon (C) cycle, yet the effects of N deposition on C cycling in these ecosystems are poorly understood. We used a field N-fertilization experiment in lower and upper elevation tropical rain forests in Puerto Rico to explore the responses of above- and belowground C pools to N addition. As expected, tree stem growth and litterfall productivity did not respond to N fertilization in either of these Nrich forests, indicating a lack of N limitation to net primary productivity (NPP). In contrast, soil C concentrations increased significantly with N fertilization in both forests, leading to larger C stocks in fertilized plots. However, different soil C pools responded to N fertilization differently. Labile (low density) soil C fractions and live fine roots declined with fertilization, while mineral-associated soil C increased in both forests. Decreased soil CO2 fluxes in fertilized plots were correlated with smaller labile soil C pools in the lower elevation forest (R2 = 0.65, p\\0.05), and with lower live fine root biomass in the upper elevation forest (R2 = 0.90, p\\0.05). Our results indicate that soil C storage is sensitive to N deposition in tropical forests, even where plant productivity is not N-limited. The mineral-associated soil C pool has the potential to respond relatively quickly to N additions, and can drive increases in bulk soil C stocks in tropical forests.

  16. Soil carbon sequestration in prairie grasslands increased by chronic nitrogen addition.

    PubMed

    Fornara, Dario A; Tilman, David

    2012-09-01

    Human-induced increases in nitrogen (N) deposition are common across many terrestrial ecosystems worldwide. Greater N availability not only reduces biological diversity, but also affects the biogeochemical coupling of carbon (C) and N cycles in soil ecosystems. Soils are the largest active terrestrial C pool and N deposition effects on soil C sequestration or release could have global importance. Here, we show that 27 years of chronic N additions to prairie grasslands increased C sequestration in mineral soils and that a potential mechanism responsible for this C accrual was an N-induced increase in root mass. Greater soil C sequestration followed a dramatic shift in plant community composition from native-species-rich C4 grasslands to naturalized-species-rich C3 grasslands, which, despite lower soil C gains per unit of N added, still acted as soil C sinks. Since both high plant diversity and elevated N deposition may increase soil C sequestration, but N deposition also decreases plant diversity, more research is needed to address the long-term implications for soil C storage of these two factors. Finally, because exotic C3 grasses often come to dominate N-enriched grasslands, it is important to determine if such N-dependent soil C sequestration occurs across C3 grasslands in other regions worldwide.

  17. Magnetically anisotropic additive for scalable manufacturing of polymer nanocomposite: iron-coated carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Namiko; Manohara, Harish; Platzman, Ellen

    2016-02-01

    Novel nanoparticles additives for polymer nanocomposites were prepared by coating carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with ferromagnetic iron (Fe) layers, so that their micro-structures can be bulk-controlled by external magnetic field application. Application of magnetic fields is a promising, scalable method to deliver bulk amount of nanocomposites while maintaining organized nanoparticle assembly throughout the uncured polymer matrix. In this work, Fe layers (˜18 nm thick) were deposited on CNTs (˜38 nm diameter and ˜50 μm length) to form thin films with high aspect ratio, resulting in a dominance of shape anisotropy and thus high coercivity of ˜50-100 Oe. The Fe-coated CNTs were suspended in water and applied with a weak magnetic field of ˜75 G, and yet preliminary magnetic assembly was confirmed. Our results demonstrate that the fabricated Fe-coated CNTs are magnetically anisotropic and effectively respond to magnetic fields that are ˜103 times smaller than other existing work (˜105 G). We anticipate this work will pave the way for effective property enhancement and bulk application of CNT-polymer nanocomposites, through controlled micro-structure and scalable manufacturing.

  18. Mass spectrometry of refractory black carbon particles from six sources: carbon-cluster and oxygenated ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corbin, J. C.; Sierau, B.; Gysel, M.; Laborde, M.; Keller, A.; Kim, J.; Petzold, A.; Onasch, T. B.; Lohmann, U.; Mensah, A. A.

    2014-03-01

    We discuss the major mass spectral features of different types of refractory carbonaceous particles, ionized after laser vaporization with an Aerodyne high-resolution soot-particle aerosol mass spectrometer (SP-AMS). The SP-AMS was operated with a switchable 1064 nm laser and a 600 °C thermal vaporizer, yielding respective measurements of the refractory and non-refractory particle components. Six samples were investigated, all of which were composed primarily of refractory material: fuel-rich and fuel-lean propane/air diffusion-flame combustion particles; graphite-spark-generated particles; a commercial fullerene-enriched soot; Regal Black, a commercial carbon black; and nascent aircraft-turbine combustion particles. All samples exhibited a spectrum of carbon-cluster ions Cxn+ in their refractory mass spectrum. Smaller clusters (x < 6) were found to dominate the Cxn+ distribution. For fullerene soot, fuel-rich-flame particles and spark-generated particles, significant Cxn+ clusters at x ≫ 6 were present, with significant contributions from multiply charged ions (n > 1). In all six cases, the ions C1+ and C3+ contributed over 60% to the total C1 5 were present. When such signals were present, C1+ / C3+ was close to 1. When absent, C1+ / C3+ was < 0.8. This ratio may therefore serve as a proxy to distinguish between the two types of spectra in atmospheric SP-AMS measurements. Significant refractory oxygenated ions such as CO+ and CO2+ were also observed for all samples. We discuss these signals in detail for Regal Black, and describe their formation via decomposition of oxygenated moieties incorporated into the refractory carbon structure. These species may be of importance in atmospheric processes such as water uptake and heterogeneous chemistry. If atmospherically stable, these oxidized species may be useful for distinguishing

  19. Degraded peatlands as a source of riverine organic carbon and enhanced river outgassing in Sumatra, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wit, Francisca; Rixen, Tim

    2014-05-01

    Sumatra, Indonesia, is well known for its widespread tropical peat lands. However, silvi- and agricultural purposes are currently inducing large-scale degradation of peat lands, transforming the landscape into mainly palm-oil plantations. The degradation induces loss of carbon via direct CO2 emissions, but also via riverine outflow of dissolved and particulate organic carbon (DOC and POC, respectively) due to leaching. This organic carbon is then decomposed along the way towards the coast and is hypothesized to enhance coastal and river outgassing of CO2. In the framework of SPICE III, Science for the Protection of Indonesian Coastal Ecosystems, we are quantifying these carbon budgets and fluxes in the rivers and coastal areas of northeast Sumatra. Using underway instruments, we have gathered continuous measurements of various parameters, including pCO2, pH, temperature, salinity and oxygen. In addition, water samples were obtained for DOC, POC, δ13CDIC, alkalinity and nutrient analyses. The results of the first analyses show that pCO2 values in the coastal areas range between 400-600 μatm. However, in the vicinity of the rivers pCO2 concentrations increase tremendously, ranging from 600 near the estuaries to a staggering 9000 μatm further upstream. These values are much higher than the marine pCO2 value of 390 μatm in the South China Sea. When adding carbon isotope results into the story, while knowing that upstream river life is greatly reduced due to oxygen depletion as a result of high DOC decomposition, it appears to be clear from the values, which range between -20 to -24‰ δ13CDIC, that the main source of the organic carbon is indeed originating from the degrading peat lands. In conclusion, our hypothesis can be deemed correct: degrading peat lands enhance organic carbon outflow and therefore elevated decomposition in the rivers, which results in increased river outgassing of CO2. Further analyses will be conducted to precisely quantify the budgets and

  20. Artificial stimulation of soil amine production by addition of organic carbon and nitrogen transforming enzymes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kieloaho, Antti-Jussi; Parshintsev, Jevgeni; Riekkola, Marja-Liisa; Kulmala, Markku; Pumpanen, Jukka; Heinonsalo, Jussi

    2013-04-01

    The major part of nitrogen (N) in boreal forest soil is in organic form (Soil Organic Nitrogen, SON). One of the main pathways for amine production is the decay of SON in soil. Amino acids react with specific decarboxylase enzymes which transform them to amines. Amino acid turnover time in forest soil is relatively fast (in hours) because amino acids can be used as N and C source by plants and microbes. Therefore, amino acid production by protease enzymes might be the critical step for amine production and release from forest soil. The aim of the study was to artificially introduce enzymes responsible for protein transformation into amino acids (proteases) as well as soil organic matter (SOM) decomposition (laccase and manganese peroxidase) in order to increase SON transformation and amine synthesis. Glucose addition has been shown to induce natural soil protease activity. Bovine serum albumin (BSA) was used as control protein. Treatments were conducted both in Scots pine seedlings containing as well as non-planted microcosms. N transformations were examined, as well as amine concentration in soil. The experiment consisted of eight different treatments; two as controls concerning enzyme addition, four treatments were planted with one year old nursery grown Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seedlings and four were non-planted. The experiment lasted approximately six months and the treatments with the additions were conducted within one more month. The protease activity was discovered more commonly after the treatment with protease or glucose additions. In planted BSA-control some natural protease activity was found but not in non-planted controls. Different substrate additions did not cause any differences in total N percentage, but the presence of the seedlings diminished soil N% by approximately 20%. In addition, the same effect was clearly seen in dissolved N, NH4+ and NO3-. Plant has exploited the soluble N forms almost entirely from the system, irrespective of

  1. The influence of polyaspartate additive on the growth and morphology of calcium carbonate crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gower, Laurie Anne

    The addition of low levels of polyaspartate to a supersaturated calcium carbonate (CaCOsb3) solution leads to unusual morphologies in the inorganic phase. Spherulitic vaterite aggregates with helical protrusions, and distorted calcite crystals that contain spiral pits, have been produced. The helical particles are coated with an inorganic membrane that appears to be responsible for the helical twist. The polymer also causes deposition of thin CaCOsb3 tablets and films on the glass substrate. Two distinct types of films are deposited; the first is a mosaic of calcite crystals, and the second is spherulitic vaterite. In situ observations of the crystallization reaction have determined that the thin-film morphology is a result of the phase separation of a hydrated CaCOsb3/polymer liquid-precursor, whereby accumulation of isotropic droplets creates a coating on the substrate, and subsequent dehydration and crystallization yields birefringent CaCOsb3 films. During the amorphous to crystalline transition, incremental growth steps lead to "transition bars" and sectored calcite tablets. This in vitro system was originally modeled after certain aspects of CaCOsb3 biomineralization, in which the soluble proteins extracted from biominerals tend to have high levels of aspartic acid residues. Based on the similarities between features exhibited by the products of this system and those in biominerals, an argument has been presented to suggest that this polymer-induced liquid-precursor (PILP) process is involved in the morphogenesis of CaCOsb3 biominerals. These features include the following: thin CaCOsb3 tablets that grow laterally; tablets that express unstable crystallographic faces; non-faceted single crystals with curved surfaces; spatially-delineated single crystals; sectored calcite tablets; hollow-shell spheres; calcium carbonate cements; and magnesium-bearing calcites. This work has demonstrated that a means of morphological control can be accomplished through non

  2. Topsoil organic carbon content of Europe, a new map based on a generalised additive model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Brogniez, Delphine; Ballabio, Cristiano; Stevens, Antoine; Jones, Robert J. A.; Montanarella, Luca; van Wesemael, Bas

    2014-05-01

    There is an increasing demand for up-to-date spatially continuous organic carbon (OC) data for global environment and climatic modeling. Whilst the current map of topsoil organic carbon content for Europe (Jones et al., 2005) was produced by applying expert-knowledge based pedo-transfer rules on large soil mapping units, the aim of this study was to replace it by applying digital soil mapping techniques on the first European harmonised geo-referenced topsoil (0-20 cm) database, which arises from the LUCAS (land use/cover area frame statistical survey) survey. A generalized additive model (GAM) was calibrated on 85% of the dataset (ca. 17 000 soil samples) and a backward stepwise approach selected slope, land cover, temperature, net primary productivity, latitude and longitude as environmental covariates (500 m resolution). The validation of the model (applied on 15% of the dataset), gave an R2 of 0.27. We observed that most organic soils were under-predicted by the model and that soils of Scandinavia were also poorly predicted. The model showed an RMSE of 42 g kg-1 for mineral soils and of 287 g kg-1 for organic soils. The map of predicted OC content showed the lowest values in Mediterranean countries and in croplands across Europe, whereas highest OC content were predicted in wetlands, woodlands and in mountainous areas. The map of standard error of the OC model predictions showed high values in northern latitudes, wetlands, moors and heathlands, whereas low uncertainty was mostly found in croplands. A comparison of our results with the map of Jones et al. (2005) showed a general agreement on the prediction of mineral soils' OC content, most probably because the models use some common covariates, namely land cover and temperature. Our model however failed to predict values of OC content greater than 200 g kg-1, which we explain by the imposed unimodal distribution of our model, whose mean is tilted towards the majority of soils, which are mineral. Finally, average

  3. Metabolomics reveals differences of metal toxicity in cultures of Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes KF707 grown on different carbon sources

    PubMed Central

    Booth, Sean C.; Weljie, Aalim M.; Turner, Raymond J.

    2015-01-01

    Co-contamination of metals and organic pollutants is a global problem as metals interfere with the metabolism of complex organics by bacteria. Based on a prior observation that metal tolerance was altered by the sole carbon source being used for growth, we sought to understand how metal toxicity specifically affects bacteria using an organic pollutant as their sole carbon source. To this end metabolomics was used to compare cultures of Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes KF707 grown on either biphenyl (Bp) or succinate (Sc) as the sole carbon source in the presence of either aluminum (Al) or copper (Cu). Using multivariate statistical analysis it was found that the metals caused perturbations to more cellular processes in the cultures grown on Bp than those grown on Sc. Al induced many changes that were indicative of increased oxidative stress as metabolites involved in DNA damage and protection, the Krebs cycle and anti-oxidant production were altered. Cu also caused metabolic changes that were indicative of similar stress, as well as appearing to disrupt other key enzymes such as fumarase. Additionally, both metals caused the accumulation of Bp degradation intermediates indicating that they interfered with Bp metabolism. Together these results provide a basic understanding of how metal toxicity specifically affects bacteria at a biochemical level during the degradation of an organic pollutant and implicate the catabolism of this carbon source as a major factor that exacerbates metal toxicity. PMID:26347721

  4. Metabolomics reveals differences of metal toxicity in cultures of Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes KF707 grown on different carbon sources.

    PubMed

    Booth, Sean C; Weljie, Aalim M; Turner, Raymond J

    2015-01-01

    Co-contamination of metals and organic pollutants is a global problem as metals interfere with the metabolism of complex organics by bacteria. Based on a prior observation that metal tolerance was altered by the sole carbon source being used for growth, we sought to understand how metal toxicity specifically affects bacteria using an organic pollutant as their sole carbon source. To this end metabolomics was used to compare cultures of Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes KF707 grown on either biphenyl (Bp) or succinate (Sc) as the sole carbon source in the presence of either aluminum (Al) or copper (Cu). Using multivariate statistical analysis it was found that the metals caused perturbations to more cellular processes in the cultures grown on Bp than those grown on Sc. Al induced many changes that were indicative of increased oxidative stress as metabolites involved in DNA damage and protection, the Krebs cycle and anti-oxidant production were altered. Cu also caused metabolic changes that were indicative of similar stress, as well as appearing to disrupt other key enzymes such as fumarase. Additionally, both metals caused the accumulation of Bp degradation intermediates indicating that they interfered with Bp metabolism. Together these results provide a basic understanding of how metal toxicity specifically affects bacteria at a biochemical level during the degradation of an organic pollutant and implicate the catabolism of this carbon source as a major factor that exacerbates metal toxicity. PMID:26347721

  5. A time resolved metabolomics study: the influence of different carbon sources during growth and starvation of Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Hanna; Weidmann, Hendrikje; Mäder, Ulrike; Hecker, Michael; Völker, Uwe; Lalk, Michael

    2014-07-01

    In its natural environment, the soil, the Gram-positive model bacterium Bacillus subtilis frequently encounters nutrient limitation and other stress factors. Efficient adaptation mechanisms are necessary to cope with this wide range of environmental challenges. The ability to utilize diverse carbon sources represents a key adaptation process that allows B. subtilis to thrive in its natural habitat. To gain a comprehensive insight into the metabolism of B. subtilis, global metabolite analyses were performed during growth with glucose alone or glucose with either malate, fumarate or citrate as carbon/energy sources. Furthermore, to achieve a comprehensive coverage of a wide range of chemically different metabolites, complementary GC-MS, LC-MS and (1)H-NMR analyses were applied. This study reveals that the availability of different carbon sources results in different extracellular metabolite profiles whereas a regulated intracellular metabolite equilibrium was observed. In addition, the typical energy-starvation induced activation of the general stress sigma factor σ(B) was only observed upon entry into the stationary phase with glucose or glucose and malate as carbon sources.

  6. Forced and natural carbonation of lime-based mortars with and without additives: Mineralogical and textural changes

    SciTech Connect

    Cultrone, G.

    2005-12-15

    We have studied the carbonation process in different types of mortars, with and without pozzolana or air-entraining additives, subject to a CO{sub 2}-rich atmosphere and compared the results with those of similar naturally carbonated mortars. We used X-ray diffraction technique to demonstrate that high CO{sub 2} concentrations favour a faster, more complete carbonation process with 8 days being sufficient to convert portlandite into 90 wt.% calcite. Full carbonation, however, is not reached during the life-span of the tests, not even in forced carbonation experiments. This could be due to at least one of the following phenomena: a premature drying of samples during carbonation reaction, the temperature at which the carbonation process was carried out or the reduction of pore volume occupied by newly formed calcite crystals. This last option seems to be the least probable. We observed a more prolific development of calcite crystals in the pores and fissures through which the carbonic anhydride flows. Under natural conditions, carbonation is much slower and similar levels are not reached for 6 months. These differences suggest that the carbonation process is influenced by the amount of CO{sub 2} used. Both the mineralogy and texture of mortars vary depending on the type of additive used but the speed of the portlandite-calcite transformation does not change significantly. Pozzolana produces hydraulic mortars although the quantity of calcium aluminosilicate crystals is low. The air-entraining agent significantly alters the texture of the mortars creating rounded pores and eliminating or reducing the drying cracks.

  7. Plant-Soil Relationships of Bromus tectorum L.: Interactions among Labile Carbon Additions, Soil Invasion Status, and Fertilizer.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Invasion of western North America by the annual exotic grass Bromus tectorum L. (cheatgrass) has been an ecological disaster. High soil bioavailability of nitrogen is a contributing factor in the invasive potential of B. tectorum. Application of labile carbon sources to the soil can immobilize soil ...

  8. A review of exposure and toxicological aspects of carbon nanotubes, and as additives to fire retardants in polymers.

    PubMed

    Christou, Antonis; Stec, Anna A; Ahmed, Waqar; Aschberger, Karin; Amenta, Valeria

    2016-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have attracted considerable interest due to their unique physical, chemical, optical and electrical properties opening avenues for a large number of industrial applications. They have shown potential as fire retardant additives in polymers, reducing heat release rate and increasing time to ignition in a number of polymers. Relevant work on the types, properties and applications has been reviewed particularly considering their application in fire situations. There are concerns over the health risks associated with CNTs and many papers have likened CNTs to the health problems associated with asbestos. There are contradictions relating to the toxicity of CNTs with some papers reporting that they are toxic while others state the opposite. Directly comparing various studies is difficult because CNTs come in many combinations of size, type, purity levels and source. CNTs can potentially be released from polymers during the combustion process where human exposure may occur. While this review has shed some light regarding issues relating to toxicity under different fire scenarios much more thorough work is needed to investigate toxicity of CNTs and their evolution from CNT-polymer nanocomposites in order to reach firm conclusions.

  9. Sources of greenhouse gases and carbon monoxide in central London (UK)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helfter, Carole; Tremper, Anja; Zazzeri, Giulia; Barlow, Janet F.; Nemitz, Eiko

    2015-04-01

    Biosphere-atmosphere exchange of carbon dioxide (CO2) has been on the scientific agenda for several decades and new technology now also allows for high-precision, continuous monitoring of fluxes of methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O). Compared to the natural environment, flux measurements in the urban environment, which is home to over 50% of the population globally, are still rare despite high densities of anthropogenic sources of pollutants. We report on over three years of measurements atop a 192 m tower in central London (UK), Europe's largest city, which started in October 2011. Fluxes of methane, carbon monoxide (CO) and carbon dioxide are measured by eddy-covariance (EC) at the British Telecom tower (51° 31' 17.4' N 0° 8' 20.04' W). In addition to the long-term measurements, EC fluxes of nitrous oxide (N2O) were measured in February 2014. All four trace gases exhibit diurnal trends consistent with anthropogenic activities with minimum emissions at night and early afternoon maxima. Segregating emissions by wind direction reveals heterogeneous source distributions with temporal patterns and source strengths that differ between compounds. The lowest emissions for CO, CO2 and CH4 were recorded for NW winds. The highest emissions of methane were in the SE sector, in the NE for CO2 and in the W for CO. Fluxes of all 3 gases exhibited marked seasonal trends characterised by a decrease in emissions in summer (63% reduction for CO, 36% for CO2 and 22% for CH4). Monthly fluxes of CO and CO2 were linearly correlated to air temperature (R2 = 0.7 and 0.59 respectively); a weaker dependence upon temperature was also observed for CH4 (R2 = 0.31). Diurnal and seasonal emissions of CO and CO2 are mainly controlled by local fossil fuel combustion and vehicle cold starts are thought to account for 20-30% of additional emissions of CO during the winter. Fugitive emissions of CH4 from the natural gas distribution network are thought to be substantial, which is consistent

  10. Food sources and carbon dudget of chinese prawn Penaeus chinensis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Shuang-Lin; Zhang, Shuo; Wang, Fang

    2002-03-01

    This study deals with contribution of artificial food pellet and natural food to Chinese prawn ( Penaeus orientalis) growth in a semi-intensive culture pond. The prawn carbon consumption, budget, and the effects of some factors on the budget were investigated. The results showed that 26.2% of P. orientalis growth carbon came from formulated feed at the initial culture stage (when the prawns were 0.06±0.01 g in wet weight), and was 62.5% when the prawns were 9.56±1.04 g. The remaining part of the growth carbon was derived from organic fertilizer and natural food. The highest growth rate occurred at 20×10-3 salinity. Suitable salinity for culturing Chinese prawn was (20 28)×10-3.

  11. Quasi-steady carbon plasma source for neutral beam injector.

    PubMed

    Koguchi, H; Sakakita, H; Kiyama, S; Shimada, T; Sato, Y; Hirano, Y

    2014-02-01

    Carbon plasma is successfully sustained during 1000 s without any carrier gas in the bucket type ionization chamber with cusp magnetic field. Every several seconds, seed plasmas having ∼3 ms duration time are injected into the ionization chamber by a shunting arch plasma gun. The weakly ionized carbon plasma ejected from the shunting arch is also ionized by 2.45 GHz microwave at the electron cyclotron resonance surface and the plasma can be sustained even in the interval of gun discharges. Control of the gun discharge interval allows to keep high pressure and to sustain the plasma for long duration.

  12. Quasi-steady carbon plasma source for neutral beam injector

    SciTech Connect

    Koguchi, H. Sakakita, H.; Kiyama, S.; Shimada, T.; Sato, Y.; Hirano, Y.

    2014-02-15

    Carbon plasma is successfully sustained during 1000 s without any carrier gas in the bucket type ionization chamber with cusp magnetic field. Every several seconds, seed plasmas having ∼3 ms duration time are injected into the ionization chamber by a shunting arch plasma gun. The weakly ionized carbon plasma ejected from the shunting arch is also ionized by 2.45 GHz microwave at the electron cyclotron resonance surface and the plasma can be sustained even in the interval of gun discharges. Control of the gun discharge interval allows to keep high pressure and to sustain the plasma for long duration.

  13. Fossil and modern sources of aerosol carbon in the Netherlands - A year-long radiocarbon study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dusek, Ulrike; Monaco, Mattia; Kappetijn, Arthur; Meijer, Harro A. J.; Szidat, Sönke; Röckmann, Thomas

    2013-04-01

    Measurement of the radioactive carbon isotope 14C in aerosols can provide a direct estimate of the contribution of fossil fuel sources to aerosol carbon. In aerosol science, measurements of 14C/12C ratios are usually reported as fraction modern (fm). The radiocarbon signature gives a clear distinction between 'modern' carbon sources (fm around 1.1-1.2 for biomass burning and around 1.05 for biogenic secondary organic aerosol) and 'fossil' carbon sources (fm =0 for primary and secondary formation from fossil fuel combustion). Due to the high cost of 14C analyses very few long-term studies have been conducted to date. The data that will be presented offer a unique insight into the seasonal variation of source contributions to the carbonaceous aerosol in a highly industrialized region. High volume filter samples have been collected roughly twice per month from February 2011 - July 2012 at Cabauw, a rural location in the Netherlands surrounded by major urban centers and highways. This site provides a regional background aerosol contamination in the Netherlands. We report measurements of fm for total carbon (TC), organic carbon (OC), water insoluble OC (WIOC) and thermally refractory carbon (RC) as a proxy for elemental carbon. The fraction modern of OC lies between 0.65 - 1 and shows only a moderate seasonal variation with highest values in the spring and lowest values in the summer. Elemental carbon is generally dominated by fossil fuel emissions, but shows a distinct seasonal variation with higher contribution of modern sources from November - Mai. This contribution is attributed to wood combustion. It is low when air masses arrive from the ocean and high for air masses with European continental origin, pointing to a main source outside the Netherlands. Water soluble organic carbon is dominated by modern sources throughout the year. For TC concentrations between 1.2 and 8 μg/m3, fm(TC) increases with TC concentration. A Keeling plot implies that synoptic scale

  14. [Kinetic simulation of enhanced biological phosphorus removal with fermentation broth as carbon source].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chao; Chen, Yin-Guang

    2013-07-01

    As a high-quality carbon source, fermentation broth could promote the phosphorus removal efficiency in enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR). The transformation of substrates in EBPR fed with fermentation broth was well simulated using the modified activated sludge model No. 2 (ASM2) based on the carbon source metabolism. When fermentation broth was used as the sole carbon source, it was found that heterotrophic bacteria acted as a promoter rather than a competitor to the phosphorus accumulating organisms (PAO). When fermentation broth was used as a supplementary carbon source of real municipal wastewater, the wastewater composition was optimized for PAO growth; and the PAO concentration, which was increased by 3.3 times compared to that in EBPR fed with solely real municipal wastewater, accounting for about 40% of the total biomass in the reactor.

  15. Review: role of carbon sources for in vitro plant growth and development.

    PubMed

    Yaseen, Mehwish; Ahmad, Touqeer; Sablok, Gaurav; Standardi, Alvaro; Hafiz, Ishfaq Ahmad

    2013-04-01

    In vitro plant cells, tissues and organ cultures are not fully autotrophic establishing a need for carbohydrates in culture media to maintain the osmotic potential, as well as to serve as energy and carbon sources for developmental processes including shoot proliferation, root induction as well as emission, embryogenesis and organogenesis, which are highly energy demanding developmental processes in plant biology. A variety of carbon sources (both reducing and non-reducing) are used in culture media depending upon genotypes and specific stages of growth. However, sucrose is most widely used as a major transport-sugar in the phloem sap of many plants. In micropropagation systems, morphogenetic potential of plant tissues can greatly be manipulated by varying type and concentration of carbon sources. The present article reviews the past and current findings on carbon sources and their sustainable utilization for in vitro plant tissue culture to achieve better growth rate and development.

  16. Sources and Transformations of Carbon and Nitrogen in the Potomac River Estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pennino, M. J.; Kaushal, S.; Murthy, S.

    2011-12-01

    , but more protein-like organic matter is present below the treatment plant. However, this fluorescence signal from wastewater organic matter disappears within 2-4 km downriver, indicating rapid processing of the labile organic matter within the river. Nitrate isotope data for both upriver and downriver samples show a signal from manure or sewage inputs, indicating a potential influence from animal farms upstream in the Potomac. However, only the downriver samples show evidence for denitrification. Additionally, the higher 15N isotope levels of nitrate, which are characteristic of wastewater sources, disappear by 20 km downriver. Majors rivers like the Potomac may have a huge capacity for transforming and processing large carbon and nitrogen inputs within a short distance. Greater knowledge of how land management and climate change impacts these transformations will be important in predicting changes in the amounts, forms, and stoichiometry of nutrient loads to coastal waters.

  17. The effect of oligo(trimethylene carbonate) addition on the stiffness of acrylic bone cement

    PubMed Central

    Persson, Cecilia; López, Alejandro; Fathali, Hoda; Hoess, Andreas; Rojas, Ramiro; Ott, Marjam Karlsson; Hilborn, Jöns; Engqvist, Håkan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract With the increasing elderly population an increase in the number of bony fractures associated to age-related diseases such as osteoporosis also follows. The relatively high stiffness of the acrylic bone cements used in these patients has been suggested to give raise to a suboptimal load distribution surrounding the cement in vivo, and hence contribute to clinical complications, such as additional fractures. The aim of this study was to develop a low-modulus bone cement, based on currently used, commercially available poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) cements for vertebroplasty. To this end, acrylate end-functionalized oligo(trimethylene carbonate) (oTMC) was incorporated into the cements, and the resulting compressive mechanical properties were evaluated, as well as the cytotoxic and handling properties of selected formulations. Sixteen wt%oTMC was needed in the vertebroplastic cement Osteopal V to achieve an elastic modulus of 1063 MPa (SD 74), which gave a corresponding compressive strength of 46.1 MPa (SD 1.9). Cement extracts taken at 1 and 12 hours gave a reduced MG-63 cell viability in most cases, while extracts taken at 24 hours had no significant effect on cell behavior. The modification also gave an increase in setting time, from 14.7 min (SD 1.7) to 18.0 min (SD 0.9), and a decrease in maximum polymerization temperature, from 41.5°C (SD 3.4) to 30.7°C (SD 1.4). While further evaluation of other relevant properties, such as injectability and in vivo biocompatibility, remains to be done, the results presented herein are promising in terms of approaching clinically applicable bone cements with a lower stiffness. PMID:26727581

  18. Laboratory Evaluation of Selected Ways for Determining Black Carbon Source Emissions

    EPA Science Inventory

    A number of studies have been conducted which compare various methods for the determination of black carbon in the atmosphere. Relatively little attention has been paid, however, to similar measurements of black carbon from different types of emission sources. Of particular int...

  19. Regulation of Soil Microbial Carbon-use Efficiency by Soil Moisture, Substrate Addition, and Incubation Time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stark, J.

    2015-12-01

    Microbial carbon-use efficiency (CUE) is a key variable in biogeochemical cycling that regulates soil C sequestration, greenhouse gas emissions, and retention of inorganic nutrients. Microbial CUE is the fraction of C converted to biomass rather than respired as CO2. Biogeochemical models have been shown to be highly sensitive to variation in CUE; however, we currently have a poor understanding of how CUE responds to environmental variables such as soil moisture and nutrient limitations. We examined the effect of soil moisture and C supply on CUE in soil from a western hemlock / sitka spruce forest in Oregon, USA, using a novel technique which supplies 13C and 15N substrates through the gas phase so that water addition is not necessary. Soil samples (28 g oven-dry equiv. wt) at two water potentials (-0.03 and -3.55 MPa) were exposed to 13C-acetic acid vapor for either 6 or 30 sec to provide two different concentrations of acetate to soil microbial communities. The soils were also injected with small amounts of 15NH3 gas to allow quantification of microbial N assimilation rates and to provide an alternate method of calculating CUE. Rates of 13CO2 respiration were measured continuously during a 48-h incubation using cavity ring-down spectroscopy. Soil samples were extracted at seven time intervals (0, 0.5, 1.5, 4.5, 12, 24, and 48 h) in 0.5 M K2SO4 and analyzed for DO13C, microbial 13C, DO15N, inorganic 15N, and microbial 15N to calculate how gross rates of C and N assimilation and microbial CUE change with incubation time. As expected, microbial C and N assimilation rates and CUE increased with soil moisture and the quantity of acetate added; however, C:N assimilated was higher at lower soil moisture, suggesting that either C-storage compounds were being created, or that fungal communities were responsible for a greater proportion of the assimilation in drier soils. Assimilation rates and CUE also changed with incubation time, demonstrating that estimates of CUE

  20. [Spatiotemporal pattern of carbon sources and sinks in Yangtze River Delta region, China].

    PubMed

    Yi, Bai-lu; Han, Ji; Zhou, Xiang; Yang, Fang; Meng, Xing; Cao, Wu-xing; Huang, Lu-xia; Xiang, Wei-ning

    2015-04-01

    Yangtze River Delta region is the world's sixth and China's largest urban agglomeration. Its rapid and massive urbanization has also caused a series of ecological and environmental impacts. This paper accounted the inventory of carbon sources and sinks in Yangtze River Delta region during 1995-2010 and analyzed their spatiotemporal patterns. It was found that the carbon sinks increased by 9.43 million tons from 1995 to 2010, in which forest ecosystem net production in Zhejiang Province was the largest contributor. The "grain for green" policy implemented since 2003 in China played a significant role in increasing the forest area and the carbon sinks. The carbon sources increased by 327 million tons, and energy consumption and industrial processes based emissions accounted for 96% of total carbon sources in 2010. Due to the large share of manufacturing and heavy industries in economy and their dependence on the high carbon intensity energy, either the amount or the growth speed of carbon emissions in Jiangsu Province was the top one in the whole region. Moreover, because the growth speed of net carbon emissions that occurred upon the built-up land was much faster than the sprawl speed of urban built-up land, the net carbon emission intensity kept increasing in the whole region, in which Jiangsu Province demonstrated the fastest increase.

  1. [Spatiotemporal pattern of carbon sources and sinks in Yangtze River Delta region, China].

    PubMed

    Yi, Bai-lu; Han, Ji; Zhou, Xiang; Yang, Fang; Meng, Xing; Cao, Wu-xing; Huang, Lu-xia; Xiang, Wei-ning

    2015-04-01

    Yangtze River Delta region is the world's sixth and China's largest urban agglomeration. Its rapid and massive urbanization has also caused a series of ecological and environmental impacts. This paper accounted the inventory of carbon sources and sinks in Yangtze River Delta region during 1995-2010 and analyzed their spatiotemporal patterns. It was found that the carbon sinks increased by 9.43 million tons from 1995 to 2010, in which forest ecosystem net production in Zhejiang Province was the largest contributor. The "grain for green" policy implemented since 2003 in China played a significant role in increasing the forest area and the carbon sinks. The carbon sources increased by 327 million tons, and energy consumption and industrial processes based emissions accounted for 96% of total carbon sources in 2010. Due to the large share of manufacturing and heavy industries in economy and their dependence on the high carbon intensity energy, either the amount or the growth speed of carbon emissions in Jiangsu Province was the top one in the whole region. Moreover, because the growth speed of net carbon emissions that occurred upon the built-up land was much faster than the sprawl speed of urban built-up land, the net carbon emission intensity kept increasing in the whole region, in which Jiangsu Province demonstrated the fastest increase. PMID:26259436

  2. Optimization of an Atmospheric Carbon Source for Extremophile Cyanobacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beaubien, Courtney

    This thesis examines the use of the moisture swing resin materials employed at the Center for Negative Carbon Emissions (CNCE) in order to provide carbon dioxide from ambient air to photobioreactors containing extremophile cyanobacteria cultured at the Arizona Center for Algae Technology and Innovation (AzCATI). For this purpose, a carbon dioxide feeding device was designed, built, and tested. The results indicate how much resin should be used with a given volume of algae medium: approximately 500 grams of resin can feed 1% CO2 at about three liters per minute to a ten liter medium of the Galdieria sulphuraria 5587.1 strain for one hour (equivalent to about 0.1 grams of carbon dioxide per hour per seven grams of algae). Using the resin device, the algae grew within their normal growth range: 0.096 grams of ash-free dry weight per liter over a six hour period. Future applications in which the resin-to-algae process can be utilized are discussed.

  3. [Concentration and Source of Dissolved Organic Carbon in Snowpits of the Tibetan Plateau].

    PubMed

    Yan, Fang-ping; Kang, Shi-chang; Chen, Peng-fei; Bai, Jian-kun; Li, Yang; Hu, Zhao-fu; Li, Chao-liu

    2015-08-01

    Snowpit samples of three glaciers (Laohugou NO. 12 Glacier (LHG), Small Dongkemadi Glacier on Mount Tanggula (TGL) and East Ronghuk Glacier on Mount Everest (ZF)) in the Tibetan Plateau were collected. Concentrations of DOC and major ions were analyzed. The results showed that average DOC concentrations of the snowpits of LHG, TGL and ZF were (250.30 +/- 157.10), (216.92 +/- 142.82) and (152.50 +/- 56.11) microg x L(-1), respectively. DOC of TGL and ZF accounted for large parts of total values of DOC and ions. Correspondingly, DOC of LHG accounted for small part (only 5%), because LHG was located at north China and intensively influenced by natural mineral dust, which caused high concentrations of Ca2+ (the highest value could reach 5299.18 microg x L(-1)) and consequently low percentage of DOC of snowpit samples. Correlation and PCA analyses were used to study the sources of DOC. DOC was significantly correlated with Ca2+, Mg2+, K+ and SO4(2-). Additionally, PCA further indicated that the main potential source of DOC was the natural source of mineral dust. Meanwhile, anthropogenic pollutants (e.g., biomass, fossil combustion and agricultural related pollutants) could also not be ignored. Moreover, the carbon depositional fluxes of three snowpits were roughly estimated, and the values of LHG, TGL and ZF snowpits were 189.23, 132.76 and 128.44 mg (m2 x a)(-1), respectively, which played a significant role in the carbon cycle in this region and was also helpful for the study of glaciers fluctuation. PMID:26592009

  4. [Concentration and Source of Dissolved Organic Carbon in Snowpits of the Tibetan Plateau].

    PubMed

    Yan, Fang-ping; Kang, Shi-chang; Chen, Peng-fei; Bai, Jian-kun; Li, Yang; Hu, Zhao-fu; Li, Chao-liu

    2015-08-01

    Snowpit samples of three glaciers (Laohugou NO. 12 Glacier (LHG), Small Dongkemadi Glacier on Mount Tanggula (TGL) and East Ronghuk Glacier on Mount Everest (ZF)) in the Tibetan Plateau were collected. Concentrations of DOC and major ions were analyzed. The results showed that average DOC concentrations of the snowpits of LHG, TGL and ZF were (250.30 +/- 157.10), (216.92 +/- 142.82) and (152.50 +/- 56.11) microg x L(-1), respectively. DOC of TGL and ZF accounted for large parts of total values of DOC and ions. Correspondingly, DOC of LHG accounted for small part (only 5%), because LHG was located at north China and intensively influenced by natural mineral dust, which caused high concentrations of Ca2+ (the highest value could reach 5299.18 microg x L(-1)) and consequently low percentage of DOC of snowpit samples. Correlation and PCA analyses were used to study the sources of DOC. DOC was significantly correlated with Ca2+, Mg2+, K+ and SO4(2-). Additionally, PCA further indicated that the main potential source of DOC was the natural source of mineral dust. Meanwhile, anthropogenic pollutants (e.g., biomass, fossil combustion and agricultural related pollutants) could also not be ignored. Moreover, the carbon depositional fluxes of three snowpits were roughly estimated, and the values of LHG, TGL and ZF snowpits were 189.23, 132.76 and 128.44 mg (m2 x a)(-1), respectively, which played a significant role in the carbon cycle in this region and was also helpful for the study of glaciers fluctuation.

  5. Wintertime ecosystem respiration shifts tundra from carbon sink to carbon source at tundra warming experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webb, E.; Schuur, E. A.; Natali, S.; Bracho, R.

    2013-12-01

    Northern latitude ecosystems play a significant role in the global carbon (C) budget due to the roughly 1700 Pg of C stored in permafrost soils. As high latitudes warm, previously frozen C is expected to decompose, thereby increasing CO2 fluxes to the atmosphere and potentially creating a positive feedback to climate warming. While warming has been shown to increase plant C uptake during the growing season, these seasonal C gains may be offset on an annual basis by ecosystem respiration (Reco) during the remaining seven months of the year. Here we present research from the Carbon in Permafrost Experimental Heating Research (CiPEHR) project, a tundra ecosystem warming experiment in interior Alaska. We partitioned the non-growing season into three segments: fall (October 1 until first snow), winter (snow-covered period until spring), and spring (snow depth less than 30cm until melt out). During fall, we measured net ecosystem exchange and Reco using a static flux chamber. In winter, we measured Reco using chamber measurements and soda lime. For spring, we modeled fluxes based on known relationships between snow depth and photosynthetic rate of arctic evergreen species. We found that ecosystem warming caused plants to photosynthesize later in fall and increased C uptake during spring but also enhanced respiration during the long winter. We combined these off-season estimates with measurements from growing season auto-chamber data and found that despite the C gained during the growing season, ecosystem warming resulted in net annual C loss for the two years measured. This annual C loss was dependent on the magnitude of wintertime Reco. Our results indicate that snow depth, soil temperature, and day of season are the major determinants of wintertime Reco. Some climate models predict that arctic ecosystems will experience warmer winters with more snow. Thus, despite increased plant productivity during the growing season, we document that increased wintertime temperatures

  6. [Carbon source metabolic diversity of soil microbial community under different climate types in the area affected by Wenchuan earthquake].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guang-Shuai; Lin, Yong-Ming; Ma, Rui-Feng; Deng, Hao-Jun; Du, Kun; Wu, Cheng-Zhen; Hong, Wei

    2015-02-01

    The MS8.0 Wenchuan earthquake in 2008 led to huge damage to land covers in northwest Sichuan, one of the critical fragile eco-regions in China which can be divided into Semi-arid dry hot climate zone (SDHC) and Subtropical humid monsoon climate zone (SHMC). Using the method of Bilog-ECO-microplate technique, this paper aimed to determine the functional diversity of soil microbial community in the earthquake-affected areas which can be divided into undamaged area (U), recover area (R) and damaged area without recovery (D) under different climate types, in order to provide scientific basis for ecological recovery. The results indicated that the average-well-color-development (AWCD) in undamaged area and recovery area showed SDHC > SHMC, which was contrary to the AWCD in the damaged area without recovery. The AWCD of damaged area without recovery was the lowest in both climate zones. The number of carbon source utilization types of soil microbial in SHMC zone was significantly higher than that in SDHC zone. The carbon source utilization types in both climate zones presented a trend of recover area > undamaged area > damaged area without recovery. The carbon source metabolic diversity characteristic of soil microbial community was significantly different in different climate zones. The diversity index and evenness index both showed a ranking of undamaged area > recover area > damaged area without recovery. In addition, the recovery area had the highest richness index. The soil microbial carbon sources metabolism characteristic was affected by soil nutrient, aboveground vegetation biomass and vegetation coverage to some extent. In conclusion, earthquake and its secondary disasters influenced the carbon source metabolic diversity characteristic of soil microbial community mainly through the change of aboveground vegetation and soil environmental factors.

  7. Dynamic balancing of isoprene carbon sources reflects photosynthetic and photorespiratory responses to temperature stress.

    PubMed

    Jardine, Kolby; Chambers, Jeffrey; Alves, Eliane G; Teixeira, Andrea; Garcia, Sabrina; Holm, Jennifer; Higuchi, Niro; Manzi, Antonio; Abrell, Leif; Fuentes, Jose D; Nielsen, Lars K; Torn, Margaret S; Vickers, Claudia E

    2014-12-01

    The volatile gas isoprene is emitted in teragrams per annum quantities from the terrestrial biosphere and exerts a large effect on atmospheric chemistry. Isoprene is made primarily from recently fixed photosynthate; however, alternate carbon sources play an important role, particularly when photosynthate is limiting. We examined the relative contribution of these alternate carbon sources under changes in light and temperature, the two environmental conditions that have the strongest influence over isoprene emission. Using a novel real-time analytical approach that allowed us to examine dynamic changes in carbon sources, we observed that relative contributions do not change as a function of light intensity. We found that the classical uncoupling of isoprene emission from net photosynthesis at elevated leaf temperatures is associated with an increased contribution of alternate carbon. We also observed a rapid compensatory response where alternate carbon sources compensated for transient decreases in recently fixed carbon during thermal ramping, thereby maintaining overall increases in isoprene production rates at high temperatures. Photorespiration is known to contribute to the decline in net photosynthesis at high leaf temperatures. A reduction in the temperature at which the contribution of alternate carbon sources increased was observed under photorespiratory conditions, while photosynthetic conditions increased this temperature. Feeding [2-(13)C]glycine (a photorespiratory intermediate) stimulated emissions of [(13)C1-5]isoprene and (13)CO2, supporting the possibility that photorespiration can provide an alternate source of carbon for isoprene synthesis. Our observations have important implications for establishing improved mechanistic predictions of isoprene emissions and primary carbon metabolism, particularly under the predicted increases in future global temperatures.

  8. Investigating the Vertical Distribution and Source Attribution of Black Carbon over the Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, J.; Liu, J.; Ban-Weiss, G. A.; Tao, S.

    2014-12-01

    Long-range transport of black carbon (BC) aerosols to the Pacific Ocean can potentially play a significant role in changing the marine climate through influences on temperature and cloud profiles and the top-of-atmosphere and surface energy balance. Therefore, quantitatively understanding sources of BC over the Pacific, particularly at different altitudes, is of great importance. In this study, we simulate the transport of thirteen continental BC tracers with a variety of e-folding aging times (few hours to 1 month) using the global chemical transport model MOZART-4. We then optimize BC aging rate according to different source regions by constraining the vertical profile of BC concentrations to the HAIPER Polo-to-Pole Observations (HIPPO). We find that for all HIPPO deployments, a shorter BC aging timescale (less than half day) for tropical and mid-latitude tracers and a longer aging timescale (2-10 days) for high-latitude tracers (except summer) in most cases significantly reduces model biases. By comparing the source-receptor relationship between the optimized BC tracers over the Pacific, we find that during 2009-2011, East Asia contributes most to the BC loading over the Northern Pacific in all seasons except summer, while South American, African and Australian tracers dominate the BC loadings over the Southern Pacific. In addition, unlike other tracers, African BC is a dominant contributor over a larger area in the free troposphere versus the boundary layer. Our findings indicate that the aging rate of BC strongly depends on source location and season, which may significantly influence the contribution of different source regions to BC forcing over the Pacific Ocean.

  9. Estimating the seasonal carbon source-sink geography of a natural, steady-state terrestrial biosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Box, Elgene O.

    1988-01-01

    The estimation of the seasonal dynamics of biospheric-carbon sources and sinks to be used as an input to global atmospheric CO2 studies and models is discussed. An ecological biosphere model is given and the advantages of the model are examined. Monthly maps of estimated biospheric carbon source and sink regions and estimates of total carbon fluxes are presented for an equilibrium terrestrial biosphere. The results are compared with those from other models. It is suggested that, despite maximum variations of atmospheric CO2 in boreal latitudes, the enormous contributions of tropical wet-dry regions to global atmospheric CO2 seasonality can not be ignored.

  10. Carbon Sources to Authigenic Carbonate Rock at Chemosynthetic Communities: Lower Slope of the Gulf of Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sassen, R.; Jung, W.; Zhang, C.; Defreitas, D. A.

    2004-12-01

    Flux of biogenic methane, crude oil and associated hydrocarbon gases occurs from the deep subsurface to the seafloor, water column, and atmosphere of the Gulf of Mexico slope. Chemosynthetic communities occur at sites of relatively high gas flux, frequently with gas hydrate, but always with authigenic carbonate rock \\(ACR\\). ACR contains carbonate carbon derived from microbial hydrocarbon oxidation that geologically sequesters much fossil carbon, perturbing the carbon cycle. ACR was collected using the ALVIN from sites with chemosynthetic communities in Alaminos Canyon, Atwater Valley, and the Florida Escarpment areas at water depths as much as 3.3 km. Bulk δ 13C was measured and carbonate petrology used to identify carbonate cements, normal marine carbonate, and non-carbonate components such as metal oxides and sulfides. ACR is depleted in 13C. However, the δ 13C of major hydrocarbon types is typically more depleted in 13C than the associated ACR. For example, the mean δ 13C of biogenic methane seeps in the Gulf slope is -74.0\\permil PDB but the lightest bulk ACR measured in the study area is -46.6\\permil PDB. Carbonate cements from hydrocarbon oxidation are shown to enclose skeletal remains of chemosynthetic fauna such as mussels, clams, as well as other fauna characterized by normal marine carbonate \\(\\sim 0\\permil PDB\\). The best explanation of why the δ 13C of ACR does not closely correspond to that of the hydrocarbon starting products is that normal marine carbon dilutes the δ 13C from hydrocarbon oxidation and thus affects the bulk isotopic properties of ACR.

  11. Could 4 degrees warming change Arctic tundra from carbon sink to carbon source?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torn, M. S.; Abramoff, R. Z.; Chafe, O.; Curtis, J. B.; Smith, L. J.; Wullschleger, S. D.

    2015-12-01

    We have set up a controlled, active warming experiment in permafrost tundra on the North Slope of Alaska. The aim of this micro-warming experiment is to investigate the direct effect of soil warming on microbial decomposition of soil organic matter. We are testing the feasibility of small, short-term, in situ warming that can be run off batteries for distributed deployment and that preserves plant-soil relations and natural variability in wind, temperature, and precipitation. Based on preliminary results, the approach looks promising. One resistance heater cable per plot (25 cm diameter plots) was inserted vertically to 50 cm, spanning the full active layer (maximum thaw depth was 40 cm in 2014). Heaters were turned on August 1, 2015, and heated plots reached the 4ºC warming target within 1-3 days. We are measuring soil microclimate, thaw depth, CO2 and CH4 fluxes, and 14CO2, and microbial composition, as part of the DOE Next Generation Ecosystem Experiments (NGEE-Arctic). Ecosystem respiration increased immediately in the heated plots, and net ecosystem exchange under clear chambers changed from net uptake to net CO2 source in two of the four plots. CH4 flux shifted toward reduced net emissions or greater net uptake in all plots. These rapid responses demonstrate direct changes in decomposition without complications from microbial acclimation, altered community structure or changes in substrate availability. However, future Arctic tundra carbon balance will depend on both short term and long term microbial responses, as well as the links between warming, decomposition, nitrogen mineralization, and plant growth. Thus, we envision that distributed micro-warming plots could be combined with new approaches to aboveground passive warming being developed in NGEE, gradient studies, and modeling.

  12. Soil carbon sequestration in semi-arid soil through the addition of fuel gas desulfurization gypsum (FGDG)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Young-Soo; Tokunaga, Tetsu; Oh, Chamteut

    2014-05-01

    This study investigated a new strategy for increasing carbon retention in slightly alkaline soils through addition of fuel gas desulfurization gypsum (FGDG, CaSO4•2H2O). FGDG is moderately soluble and thus the FGDG amendment may be effective to reduce microbial respiration, to accelerate calcite (CaCO3) precipitation, and to promote soil organic carbon (SOC) complexation on mineral surfaces, but rates of these processes need to be understood. The effects of FGDG addition were tested in laboratory soil columns with and without FGDG-amended layers, and in greenhouse soil columns planted with switchgrass, a biofuel crop. The results of laboratory column experiments demonstrated that additions of FGDG promote soil carbon sequestration through suppressing microbial respiration to the extent of ~200 g per m2 soil per m of supplied water, and promoting calcite precipitation at similar rates. The greenhouse experiments showed that the FGDG treatments did not adversely affect biomass yield (~600 g dry biomass/m2/harvest) at the higher irrigation rate (50 cm/year), but substantially reduced recoverable biomass under the more water-limited conditions (irrigation rate = 20 cm/year). The main achievements of this study are (1) the identification of conditions in which inorganic and organic carbon sequestration is practical in semi-arid and arid soils, (2) development of a method for measuring the total carbon balance in unsaturated soil columns, and (3) the quantification of different pathways for soil carbon sequestration in response to FGDG amendments. These findings provide information for evaluating land use practices for increased soil carbon sequestration under semi-arid region biofuel crop production.

  13. Additive-Driven Self-Assembly of Well Ordered Mesoporous Carbon/Iron Oxide Nanoparticle Composites for Supercapacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Ying; Wang, Xinyu; Qian, Gang; Watkins, James; Department of Polymer Science and Engineering, University of Massachusetts Amherst Team

    2014-03-01

    Supercapacitors have attracted significant attention as energy storage devices for applications to meet the requirements of fast charge and discharge, high power density, and long cycle life. Recent research efforts demonstrate that the metal oxide- mesoporous carbon nanocomposite materials are indeed a class of promising electrode materials for high performance supercapacitors. However several major drawbacks for metal oxide-carbon nanocomposite materials remain, such as relatively low loadings of the metal oxide, aggregation of nanoparticles, and the lack of an ordered mesoporous structure. Here we demonstrate that well ordered mesoporous carbon/iron oxide composites can be prepared through simple carbonization of blends of block copolymers serving as the source of carbon and a porogen, e.g., poly(t-butyl acrylate)-block-polyacrylonitrile (PtBA-b-PAN), and iron oxide nanoparticles (NPs). Strong interactions between phenol-functionalized iron oxide NPs and polyacrylonitrile result in a preferential dispersion of the nanoparticles within the PAN domains and leads to ordered nanostructured mesoporous carbon framework containing upto 30 wt This work was supported by the NSF Center for Hierarchical Manufacturing at the University of Massachusetts (CMMI-1025020).

  14. Stabilization and Destabilization of Soil Carbon with Nitrogen Additions in Two Tropical Forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cusack, D. F.; Silver, W.; Torn, M.; McDowell, W. H.

    2008-12-01

    Nitrogen (N) deposition is known to effect carbon (C) cycling in temperate ecosystems, but less is known about the effects of added N in tropical forests, where N is not generally limiting to plant growth. We examined changes in soil C dynamics with N fertilization in two tropical forest types (lower elevation and montane) in the Luquillo Mountains, Puerto Rico. We hypothesized that increased N would accelerate the decomposition of labile C pools, while decreasing losses of more recalcitrant C compounds. We measured C and C:N in bulk soil C and C fractions (free light, occluded light, and heavy fractions) as measures of C content and chemical properties in fertilized and control plots. To address our hypotheses, we conducted several measures of microbial activity, including extracellular enzyme activities and respiration during a long-term soil incubation. We included measurements of 14C of CO2 respired during the soil incubation to determine whether added N changed the age of respired C. After 3.5 years of N fertilization, plots with added N had higher C content (42.3 ± 6.8 and 40.7 ± 4.7 g/cm2, lower elevation and montane respectively) than control plots (34.2 ± 5.9 and 34.3 ± 1.3 g/cm2) at 0 - 10 cm depth. While the labile fraction of C declined with added N as a proportion of total soil weight, the C concentration of the heavy fraction increased in fertilized plots (2.9 ± 0.3 and 4.0 ± 0.7%) relative to control plots (2.6 ± 0.4 and 2.8 ± 0.5 %), helping explain the increase in bulk soil C content. The soil incubation revealed changes in microbial respiration with added N, and a trend toward higher 14C of CO2 in fertilized plots for the lower elevation forest. Together, these results indicate that rates of C stabilization in the heavy fraction exceeded the increase in respiration of older C with N additions.

  15. Enhancement of carbon sequestration in soil in the temperature grasslands of northern China by addition of nitrogen and phosphorus.

    PubMed

    He, Nianpeng; Yu, Qiang; Wang, Ruomeng; Zhang, Yunhai; Gao, Yang; Yu, Guirui

    2013-01-01

    Increased nitrogen (N) deposition is common worldwide. Questions of where, how, and if reactive N-input influences soil carbon (C) sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems are of great concern. To explore the potential for soil C sequestration in steppe region under N and phosphorus (P) addition, we conducted a field experiment between 2006 and 2012 in the temperate grasslands of northern China. The experiment examined 6 levels of N (0-56 g N m(-2) yr(-1)), 6 levels of P (0-12.4 g P m(-2) yr(-1)), and a control scenario. Our results showed that addition of both N and P enhanced soil total C storage in grasslands due to significant increases of C input from litter and roots. Compared with control plots, soil organic carbon (SOC) in the 0-100 cm soil layer varied quadratically, from 156.8 to 1352.9 g C m(-2) with N addition gradient (R(2) = 0.99, P < 0.001); and logarithmically, from 293.6 to 788.6 g C m(-2) with P addition gradient (R(2) = 0.56, P = 0.087). Soil inorganic carbon (SIC) decreased quadratically with N addition. The net C sequestration on grassland (including plant, roots, SIC, and SOC) increased linearly from -128.6 to 729.0 g C m(-2) under N addition (R(2) = 0.72, P = 0.023); and increased logarithmically, from 248.5 to 698 g C m(-2)under P addition (R(2) = 0.82, P = 0.014). Our study implies that N addition has complex effects on soil carbon dynamics, and future studies of soil C sequestration on grasslands should include evaluations of both SOC and SIC under various scenarios.

  16. Subsurface Intertidal Microbes: A Cryptic Source Of Organic Carbon For Beach Ecosystems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothschild, Lynn J.; Giver, Lorraine J.; Alvarez, Teresa (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Some freshwater, marine or hotspring beaches have no visible source of primary production, yet beneath the surface is an interstitial photosynthetic microbial community. To assess the significance of this source of organic carbon, we measured in situ carbon fixation rates in an intertidal marine beach through a diurnal cycle. Gross fixation for a transect (99 x 1 m) perpendicular to the shore was approx. 4041 mg C fixed/ day, or approx. 41 mg C fixed/ sq m day. In contrast, an adjacent well-established cyanobacterial (Lyngbya) mat was approx. 12 x as productive (approx. 490 mg C fixed/sq m day). Thus, subsurface sand mats may be an overlooked, yet important, endogenous source of organic carbon for intertidal ecosystems, as well as a sink in the global carbon cycle.

  17. Straw application in paddy soil enhances methane production also from other carbon sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Q.; Pump, J.; Conrad, R.

    2013-08-01

    Flooded rice fields are an important source of the greenhouse gas methane. Methane is produced from rice straw (RS), soil organic matter (SOM), and rice root organic carbon (ROC). Addition of RS is widely used for ameliorating soil fertility. However, this practice provides additional substrate for CH4 production and results in increased CH4 emission. Here, we found that decomposing RS is not only a substrate of CH4 production, but in addition stimulates CH4 production from SOM and ROC. Apart from accelerating the creation of reduced conditions in the soil environment, RS decomposition exerted a positive priming effect on SOM-derived CH4 production. In particular, hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis from SOM-derived CO2 was stimulated, presumably by H2 released from RS decomposition. On the other hand, the positive priming effect of RS on ROC-derived CH4 production was probably caused by the significant increase of the abundance of methanogenic archaea in the RS treatment compared with the untreated control. Our results show that traditional management of rice residues exerts a positive feedback on CH4 production from rice fields, thus exacerbating its effect on the global CH4 budget.

  18. Straw application in paddy soil enhances methane production also from other carbon sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Q.; Pump, J.; Conrad, R.

    2014-01-01

    Flooded rice fields are an important source of the greenhouse gas methane. Methane is produced from rice straw (RS), soil organic matter (SOM), and rice root organic carbon (ROC). Addition of RS is widely used for ameliorating soil fertility. However, this practice provides additional substrate for CH4 production and results in increased CH4 emission. Here, we found that decomposing RS is not only a substrate of CH4 production, but in addition stimulates CH4 production from SOM and ROC. Apart from accelerating the creation of reduced conditions in the soil environment, RS decomposition resulted in enhancement of SOM-derived CH4 production. In particular, hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis from SOM-derived CO2 was stimulated, presumably by H2 released from RS decomposition. On the other hand, the enhancement of ROC-derived CH4 production after RS application was probably caused by the significant increase of the abundance of methanogenic Archaea in the RS treatment compared with the untreated control. Our results show that traditional management of rice residues exerts a positive feedback on CH4 production from rice fields, thus exacerbating its effect on the global CH4 budget.

  19. Biosynthesis of poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate and exopolysaccharides on Azotobacter chroococcum strain 6B utilizing simple and complex carbon sources.

    PubMed

    Quagliano, J C; Miyazaki, S S

    1999-12-01

    Coproduction of poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) and exopolysaccharides (EPS) was investigated with Azotobacter chroococcum strain 6B isolated from soil samples. The bacterium was cultured using various carbon sources solely or with 0.1 g/L of ammonium sulfate. Ammonium addition resulted in reduced PHB and EPS production with glucose, fructose, and sucrose media, but cellular mass remained constant except for sucrose. Protein was nearly twofold higher in ammonium-grown cultures. Glucose and fructose alone biosynthesized high amounts of EPS (maximum 2.1 and 1.1 g/L, respectively, at 72 h), whereas PHB was accumulated only in glucose-grown cells. Sucrose almost did not produce EPS. Conversely, PHB content was the highest obtained from all experimented conditions (1.1 g/L at 48 h, 40% cell dry wt). When a complex carbon source such as sugar cane molasses was utilized, PHB was accumulated concomitant with EPS production from the initial time to 48 h (0.75 g/L, 37% cell dry wt and 0.6 g/L, respectively), and then PHB decayed at 72 h (0.2 g/L). On the other hand, EPS continued to be biosynthesized (1.1 g/L, 72 h). PHB fractions of total intra- and extracellular biopolymers were calculated. Sucrose-modified Burk's medium without ammonium addition is suggested as a medium capable of diverting the carbon source for the production of intracellular PHB rather than EPS with A. chroococcum 6B.

  20. Microbiological and Mineralogical Characterization of Columbia River Basalts Prior to Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Addition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colwell, F. S.; Fisk, M. R.; Yip, H.; Schwartz, A.; Briggs, B. R.; Spane, F.

    2009-12-01

    Deep geologic sequestration of supercritical carbon dioxide can remove excess carbon dioxide from the atmosphere but will cause profound changes to the geochemistry and microorganisms in the deep strata where it is injected. Here we report the original subsurface microbial constituents in basalt aquifers where supercritical carbon dioxide will be injected as part of the DOE Big Sky Regional Partnership field pilot investigation. Microbial cells were acquired by filtration of water from five discrete depth intervals in the Columbia River basalts during drilling of the borehole in eastern Washington state. Microbes were present in all five of the groundwater samples collected. DNA extracted from the cells was successfully amplified using 16S rRNA gene primers for bacteria, but not archaea. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism suggested that microbial communities in aquifers from the upper Grand Ronde basalt flows (518 to 553 m) were similar to each other, but distinct from those present in groundwater from the shallower, overlying Wanapum and deeper Grand Ronde basalt flows. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction directed at the 16S rRNA gene indicated that the aquifers had approximately 10,000 cells per ml. To date, our analysis demonstrates the presence of diverse microbial communities at and above the depths where a limited field test carbon dioxide injection (ca. 1,000 metric tons) is planned for early in 2010. A variety of secondary mineral assemblages (mainly clay minerals, silicates and carbonates) have been observed in thin section, and X-ray diffraction examination of the basalt cuttings from the pilot characterization borehole. This pre-injection study supports our inquiry of how indigenous microbial communities may be altered by supercritical carbon dioxide injection, and possible processes that may increase basalt reaction/weathering and re-precipitation of carbonate minerals. Microbial communities that become established after the carbon

  1. A shift of thermokarst lakes from carbon sources to sinks during the Holocene epoch.

    PubMed

    Anthony, K M Walter; Zimov, S A; Grosse, G; Jones, M C; Anthony, P M; Chapin, F S; Finlay, J C; Mack, M C; Davydov, S; Frenzel, P; Frolking, S

    2014-07-24

    Thermokarst lakes formed across vast regions of Siberia and Alaska during the last deglaciation and are thought to be a net source of atmospheric methane and carbon dioxide during the Holocene epoch. However, the same thermokarst lakes can also sequester carbon, and it remains uncertain whether carbon uptake by thermokarst lakes can offset their greenhouse gas emissions. Here we use field observations of Siberian permafrost exposures, radiocarbon dating and spatial analyses to quantify Holocene carbon stocks and fluxes in lake sediments overlying thawed Pleistocene-aged permafrost. We find that carbon accumulation in deep thermokarst-lake sediments since the last deglaciation is about 1.6 times larger than the mass of Pleistocene-aged permafrost carbon released as greenhouse gases when the lakes first formed. Although methane and carbon dioxide emissions following thaw lead to immediate radiative warming, carbon uptake in peat-rich sediments occurs over millennial timescales. We assess thermokarst-lake carbon feedbacks to climate with an atmospheric perturbation model and find that thermokarst basins switched from a net radiative warming to a net cooling climate effect about 5,000 years ago. High rates of Holocene carbon accumulation in 20 lake sediments (47 ± 10 grams of carbon per square metre per year; mean ± standard error) were driven by thermokarst erosion and deposition of terrestrial organic matter, by nutrient release from thawing permafrost that stimulated lake productivity and by slow decomposition in cold, anoxic lake bottoms. When lakes eventually drained, permafrost formation rapidly sequestered sediment carbon. Our estimate of about 160 petagrams of Holocene organic carbon in deep lake basins of Siberia and Alaska increases the circumpolar peat carbon pool estimate for permafrost regions by over 50 per cent (ref. 6). The carbon in perennially frozen drained lake sediments may become vulnerable to mineralization as permafrost disappears

  2. A shift of thermokarst lakes from carbon sources to sinks during the Holocene epoch.

    PubMed

    Anthony, K M Walter; Zimov, S A; Grosse, G; Jones, M C; Anthony, P M; Chapin, F S; Finlay, J C; Mack, M C; Davydov, S; Frenzel, P; Frolking, S

    2014-07-24

    Thermokarst lakes formed across vast regions of Siberia and Alaska during the last deglaciation and are thought to be a net source of atmospheric methane and carbon dioxide during the Holocene epoch. However, the same thermokarst lakes can also sequester carbon, and it remains uncertain whether carbon uptake by thermokarst lakes can offset their greenhouse gas emissions. Here we use field observations of Siberian permafrost exposures, radiocarbon dating and spatial analyses to quantify Holocene carbon stocks and fluxes in lake sediments overlying thawed Pleistocene-aged permafrost. We find that carbon accumulation in deep thermokarst-lake sediments since the last deglaciation is about 1.6 times larger than the mass of Pleistocene-aged permafrost carbon released as greenhouse gases when the lakes first formed. Although methane and carbon dioxide emissions following thaw lead to immediate radiative warming, carbon uptake in peat-rich sediments occurs over millennial timescales. We assess thermokarst-lake carbon feedbacks to climate with an atmospheric perturbation model and find that thermokarst basins switched from a net radiative warming to a net cooling climate effect about 5,000 years ago. High rates of Holocene carbon accumulation in 20 lake sediments (47 ± 10 grams of carbon per square metre per year; mean ± standard error) were driven by thermokarst erosion and deposition of terrestrial organic matter, by nutrient release from thawing permafrost that stimulated lake productivity and by slow decomposition in cold, anoxic lake bottoms. When lakes eventually drained, permafrost formation rapidly sequestered sediment carbon. Our estimate of about 160 petagrams of Holocene organic carbon in deep lake basins of Siberia and Alaska increases the circumpolar peat carbon pool estimate for permafrost regions by over 50 per cent (ref. 6). The carbon in perennially frozen drained lake sediments may become vulnerable to mineralization as permafrost disappears

  3. A shift of thermokarst lakes from carbon sources to sinks during the Holocene epoch

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walter Anthony, K. M.; Zimov, S. A.; Grosse, G.; Jones, Miriam C.; Anthony, P.; Chapin, F. S.; Finlay, J. C.; Mack, M. C.; Davydov, S.; Frenzel, P.F.; Frolking, S.

    2014-01-01

    Thermokarst lakes formed across vast regions of Siberia and Alaska during the last deglaciation and are thought to be a net source of atmospheric methane and carbon dioxide during the Holocene epoch1,2,3,4. However, the same thermokarst lakes can also sequester carbon5, and it remains uncertain whether carbon uptake by thermokarst lakes can offset their greenhouse gas emissions. Here we use field observations of Siberian permafrost exposures, radiocarbon dating and spatial analyses to quantify Holocene carbon stocks and fluxes in lake sediments overlying thawed Pleistocene-aged permafrost. We find that carbon accumulation in deep thermokarst-lake sediments since the last deglaciation is about 1.6 times larger than the mass of Pleistocene-aged permafrost carbon released as greenhouse gases when the lakes first formed. Although methane and carbon dioxide emissions following thaw lead to immediate radiative warming, carbon uptake in peat-rich sediments occurs over millennial timescales. We assess thermokarst-lake carbon feedbacks to climate with an atmospheric perturbation model and find that thermokarst basins switched from a net radiative warming to a net cooling climate effect about 5,000 years ago. High rates of Holocene carbon accumulation in 20 lake sediments (47±10 grams of carbon per square metre per year; mean±standard error) were driven by thermokarst erosion and deposition of terrestrial organic matter, by nutrient release from thawing permafrost that stimulated lake productivity and by slow decomposition in cold, anoxic lake bottoms. When lakes eventually drained, permafrost formation rapidly sequestered sediment carbon. Our estimate of about 160petagrams of Holocene organic carbon in deep lake basins of Siberia and Alaska increases the circumpolar peat carbon pool estimate for permafrost regions by over 50 per cent (ref. 6). The carbon in perennially frozen drained lake sediments may become vulnerable to mineralization as permafrost disappears7

  4. Mesozoic black shales, source mixing and carbon isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suan, Guillaume

    2016-04-01

    Over the last decades, considerable attention has been devoted to the paleoenvironmental and biogeochemical significance of Mesozoic black shales. Black shale-bearing successions indeed often display marked changes in the organic carbon isotope composition (δ13Corg), which have been commonly interpreted as evidence for dramatic perturbations of global carbon budgets and CO2 levels. Arguably the majority of these studies have discarded some more "local" explanations when interpreting δ13Corg profiles, most often because comparable profiles occur on geographically large and distant areas. Based on newly acquired data and selected examples from the literature, I will show that the changing contribution of organic components with distinct δ13C signatures exerts a major but overlooked influence of Mesozoic δ13Corg profiles. Such a bias occurs across a wide spectrum of sedimentological settings and ages, as shown by the good correlation between δ13Corg values and proxies of kerogen proportions (such as rock-eval, biomarker, palynofacies and palynological data) recorded in Mesozoic marginal to deep marine successions of Triassic, Jurassic and Cretaceous age. In most of these successions, labile, 12C-enriched amorphous organic matter of marine origin dominates strata deposited under anoxic conditions, while oxidation-resistant, 13C-rich terrestrial particles dominate strata deposited under well-oxygenated conditions. This influence is further illustrated by weathering profiles of Toarcian (Lower Jurassic) black shales from France, where weathered areas dominated by refractory organic matter show dramatic 13C-enrichment (and decreased total organic carbon and pyrite contents) compared to non-weathered portions of the same horizon. The implications of these results for chemostratigraphic correlations and pCO2 reconstructions of Mesozoic will be discussed, as well as strategies to overcome this major bias.

  5. Effect of different carbon sources on decolourisation of an industrial textile dye under alkaline-saline conditions.

    PubMed

    Ottoni, Cristiane; Lima, Luis; Santos, Cledir; Lima, Nelson

    2014-01-01

    White-rot fungal strains of Trametes versicolor and Phanerochaete chrysosporium were selected to study the decolourisation of the textile dye, Reactive Black 5, under alkaline-saline conditions. Free and immobilised T. versicolor cells showed 100 % decolourisation in the growth medium supplemented with 15 g l(-1) NaCl, pH 9.5 at 30 °C in liquid batch culture. Continuous culture experiments were performed in a fixed-bed reactor using free and immobilised T. versicolor cells and allowed 85-100 % dye decolourisation. The immobilisation conditions for the biomass and the additional supply of carbon sources improved the decolourisation performance during a long-term trial of 40 days. Lignin peroxidase, laccase and glyoxal oxidase activities were detected during the experiments. The laccase activity varied depending on carbon source utilized and glycerol-enhanced laccase activity compared to sucrose during extended growth.

  6. Additional development of large diameter carbon monofilament. [from boron, hydrogen, and methane gas mixture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacob, B. A.; Veltri, R. D.

    1974-01-01

    The chemical vapor process for preparing a large diameter carbon-base monofilament from a BCl3, Ch4 and H2 gas mixture with a carbon substrate fiber was studied. The effect of reactor geometry, total gas flows and deposition temperature on the tensile strength of the monofilament were investigated. It was noted that consistent results could only be obtained when the carbon substrate fiber was cleaned. The strength of the monofilament was found to depend on the highest temperature and the temperature profile of the monofilament in the reactor. The strength of monofilament produced in the dc and RF reactors were found to be similar and similar alloy compositions in the monofilament were attained when the same gas ratios were used. The tensile strength of the monofilament at 500 C was found to be 60 to 70% of the room temperature tensile strength. No degradation was noted after exposure to molten aluminum.

  7. A radio/optical reference frame. 5: Additional source positions in the mid-latitude southern hemisphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, J. L.; Reynolds, J. E.; Jauncey, D. L.; De Vegt, C.; Zacharias, N.; Ma, C.; Fey, A. L.; Johnston, K. J.; Hindsley, R.; Hughes, J. A.

    1994-01-01

    We report new accurate radio position measurements for 30 sources, preliminary positions for two sources, improved radio postions for nine additional sources which had limited previous observations, and optical positions and optical-radio differences for six of the radio sources. The Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) observations are part of the continuing effort to establish a global radio reference frame of about 400 compact, flat spectrum sources, which are evenly distributed across the sky. The observations were made using Mark III data format in four separate sessions in 1988-89 with radio telescopes at Tidbinbilla, Australia, Kauai, USA, and Kashima, Japan. We observed a total of 54 sources, including ten calibrators and three which were undetected. The 32 new source positions bring the total number in the radio reference frame catalog to 319 (172 northern and 147 southern) and fill in the zone -25 deg greater than delta greater than -45 deg which, prior to this list, had the lowest source density. The VLBI positions have an average formal precision of less than 1 mas, although unknown radio structure effects of about 1-2 mas may be present. The six new optical postion measurements are part of the program to obtain positions of the optical counterparts of the radio reference frame source and to map accurately the optical on to the radio reference frames. The optical measurements were obtained from United States Naval Observatory (USNO) Black Birch astrograph plates and source plates from the AAT, and Kitt Peak National Observatory (KPNO) 4 m, and the European Southern Observatory (ESO) Schmidt. The optical positions have an average precision of 0.07 sec, mostly due to the zero point error when adjusted to the FK5 optical frame using the IRS catalog. To date we have measured optical positions for 46 sources.

  8. Turnover of soil carbon pools following addition of switchgrass-derived biochar to four soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The amendment of soils with biochar may improve plant growth and sequester carbon, especially in marginal soils not suitable for the majority of commodity production. While biochar can persist in soils, it is not clear whether its persistence is affected by soil type. Moreover, we know little of how...

  9. Effect of powdered activated carbon (PAC) on MBR performance and effluent trihalomethane formation: At the initial stage of PAC addition.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yue; Ma, Defang; Yue, Qinyan; Gao, Baoyu; Huang, Xia

    2016-09-01

    In this study, the MBR was used to treat municipal wastewater for reuse. Effects of powdered activated carbon (PAC) addition on MBR system in terms of effluent water quality, trihalomethane (THM) formation and membrane organic fouling tendency of MBR sludge supernatant at the initial stage of PAC addition were investigated. Effects of chlorine dose and contact time on THM formation and speciation were also studied. PAC addition enhanced the removal of organic matters, especially aromatic components, which improved the UV254 removal rate from 34% to 83%. PAC addition greatly reduced the membrane organic fouling tendency of MBR sludge supernatant. PAC addition reduced the MBR effluent trihalomethane formation potential (THMFP) from 351.29 to 241.95μg/L, while increased THM formation reactivity by 42%. PAC addition enhanced the formation of higher toxic bromine-containing THMs. High chlorine dose and contact time resulted in higher THM formation but lower proportion of bromine-containing THMs. PMID:27318162

  10. Soil Organic Carbon Sources of Respired CO2 in a Mid-successional North Temperate Forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medina, N. L.; Hatton, P. J.; Le Moine, J.; Nadelhoffer, K. J.

    2015-12-01

    Given that soil organic matter (SOM) is the largest global terrestrial carbon (C) pool, some fractions of which have turnover times of centuries to millennia, it is critical to understand the mechanisms by which higher net primary productivity (NPP) and higher litter inputs, in the future, as predicted by some models, might alter the potentials of forest soils to serve as long-term C sinks. Here, we use a 10-year-old site in the DIRT (Detritus Input and Removal Treatments) network of litter manipulations to compare plots in a forested, northern-temperate sandy soil that were subjected to double-leaf-litter additions (DL) and both root- and leaf-litter removals (no inputs, NI) to non-manipulated controls. Previous data show that rather than increasing soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks, plots receiving doubled litter inputs lose SOC at rates similar to losses in Control soils. To trace the source of extra mineralized SOC, we analyzed field CO2 effluxes for δ13C and characterized SOC of varying degrees of organo-mineral association with sequential density fractionations. Soils in DL plots respired significantly faster (p=0.095) and proportionally more (p=0.015) than control soils over the course of July, August, and October 2014. This suggests a greater fresh litter contribution to soil efflux in DL than in Control plots after 10 years of treatment. Preliminary data show that intermediate (1.85 - 2.4 g/mL) and dense (>2.4 g/mL) fractions are relatively larger in DL than in Control soils. This suggests that the addition C from doubled litter could be more rapidly transferred into those more dense fractions, or that higher litter inputs prime the decomposition of lighter particulate SOC forms, leading to a relative increase of the dense organo-mineral associations. Using δ13C values to parameterize a multi-source mixing model, we partition the fate of both fresh litter and partially-decomposed SOC and will present on the modeled relative contributions of various

  11. [Carbon sources metabolic characteristics of airborne microbial communities in constructed wetlands].

    PubMed

    Song, Zhi-Wen; Wang, Lin; Xu, Ai-Ling; Wu, Deng-Deng; Xia, Yan

    2015-02-01

    Using BIOLOG-GN plates, this article describes the carbon sources metabolic characteristics of airborne microbial communities in a free surface-flow constructed wetland in different seasons and clarify the correlation between airborne microbial metabolic functions and environmental factors. The average well color development (AWCD), carbon metabolic profiles and McIntosh values of airborne microbial communities in different seasons were quite different. Analysis of the variations showed that AWCD in spring and summer differed significantly from that in autumn and winter (P < 0.01). In the same season, the degree of utilization of different types of carbon by airborne microbes was different. Summer had a significant difference from other seasons (P < 0.05). Dominant communities of airborne microbes in four seasons were carboxylic acids metabolic community, carbohydrates metabolic community, polymers metabolic community and carboxylic acids metabolic community respectively. Principal component analysis showed that the carbon metabolic characteristics of airborne microbial community in autumn were similar to those in winter but different from those in spring and summer. The characteristics of carbon metabolism revealed differences between summer and spring, autumn, or winter. These differences were mainly caused by amines or amides while the differences between spring and autumn or winter were mainly caused by carboxylic acids. Environmental factors, including changes in wind speed, temperature, and humidity acted to influence the carbon sources metabolic properties of airborne microbial community. The dominant environmental factors that acted to influence the carbon sources metabolic properties of airborne microbial community varied between different seasons.

  12. Comparison of denitrification performances using PLA/starch with different mass ratios as carbon source.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chuanfu; Tang, Danqi; Wang, Qunhui; Wang, Juan; Liu, Jianguo; Guo, Yan; Liu, Shu

    2015-01-01

    A suitable carbon source is significant for biological nitrate removal from groundwater. In this study, slow-release carbon sources containing polylactic acid (PLA) and starch at 8:2, 7:3, 6:4, 5:5, 4:6, and 3:7 ratios were prepared using a blending and fusing technique. The PLA/starch blend was then used as a solid carbon source for biological nitrate removal. The carbon release rate of PLA/starch was found to increase with increased starch content in leaching experiments. PLA/starch at 5:5 mass ratio was found to have the highest denitrification performance and organic carbon consumption efficiency in semi-continuous denitrification experiments, and was also revealed to support complete denitrification at 50 mg-N/L influent nitrate concentration in continuous experiments. The effluent nitrate concentration was <2 mg NO(3)(-)-N/L, which met the national standard (GB 14848-93) for groundwater. Scanning electron microscopy results further showed that the surface roughness of PLA/starch increased with prolonged experimental time, which may be conducive to microorganism attachment. Therefore, PLA/starch was a suitable carbon source and biofilm carrier for groundwater remediation.

  13. Mechanical and Electrical Properties of a Polyimide Film Significantly Enhanced by the Addition of Single-Wall Carbon Nanotubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meador, Michael A.

    2005-01-01

    Single-wall carbon nanotubes have been shown to possess a combination of outstanding mechanical, electrical, and thermal properties. The use of carbon nanotubes as an additive to improve the mechanical properties of polymers and/or enhance their thermal and electrical conductivity has been a topic of intense interest. Nanotube-modified polymeric materials could find a variety of applications in NASA missions including large-area antennas, solar arrays, and solar sails; radiation shielding materials for vehicles, habitats, and extravehicular activity suits; and multifunctional materials for vehicle structures and habitats. Use of these revolutionary materials could reduce vehicle weight significantly and improve vehicle performance and capabilities.

  14. Methane hydrate-bearing seeps as a source of aged dissolved organic carbon to the oceans

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pohlman, J.W.; Bauer, J.E.; Waite, W.F.; Osburn, C.L.; Chapman, N.R.

    2011-01-01

    Marine sediments contain about 500-10,000 Gt of methane carbon, primarily in gas hydrate. This reservoir is comparable in size to the amount of organic carbon in land biota, terrestrial soils, the atmosphere and sea water combined, but it releases relatively little methane to the ocean and atmosphere. Sedimentary microbes convert most of the dissolved methane to carbon dioxide. Here we show that a significant additional product associated with microbial methane consumption is methane-derived dissolved organic carbon. We use ??14 C and ??13 C measurements and isotopic mass-balance calculations to evaluate the contribution of methane-derived carbon to seawater dissolved organic carbon overlying gas hydrate-bearing seeps in the northeastern Pacific Ocean. We show that carbon derived from fossil methane accounts for up to 28% of the dissolved organic carbon. This methane-derived material is much older, and more depleted in 13 C, than background dissolved organic carbon. We suggest that fossil methane-derived carbon may contribute significantly to the estimated 4,000-6,000 year age of dissolved organic carbon in the deep ocean, and provide reduced organic matter and energy to deep-ocean microbial communities. ?? 2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  15. Electricity generation from wastewaters with starch as carbon source using a mediatorless microbial fuel cell.

    PubMed

    Herrero-Hernandez, E; Smith, T J; Akid, R

    2013-01-15

    Microbial fuel cells represent a new method for producing electricity from the oxidation of organic matter. A mediatorless microbial fuel cell was developed using Escherichia coli as the active bacterial component with synthetic wastewater of potato extract as the energy source. The two-chamber fuel cell, with a relation of volume between anode and cathode chamber of 8:1, was operated in batch mode. The response was similar to that obtained when glucose was used as the carbon source. The performance characteristics of the fuel cell were evaluated with two different anode and cathode shapes, platinised titanium strip or mesh; the highest maximum power density (502mWm(-2)) was achieved in the microbial fuel cell with mesh electrodes. In addition to electricity generation, the MFC exhibited efficient treatment of wastewater so that significant reduction of initial oxygen demand of wastewater by 61% was observed. These results demonstrate that potato starch can be used for power generation in a mediatorless microbial fuel cell with high removal efficiency of chemical oxygen demand.

  16. Fossil-fueled power plants as a source of atmospheric carbon monoxide.

    PubMed

    Nicks, D K; Holloway, J S; Ryerson, T B; Dissly, R W; Parrish, D D; Frost, G J; Trainer, M; Donnelly, S G; Schauffler, S; Atlas, E L; Hübler, G; Sueper, D T; Fehsenfeld, F C

    2003-02-01

    Elevated carbon monoxide (CO) mixing ratios in excess of those derived from emissions inventories have been observed in plumes from one gas- and coal-fired power plant and three of four lignite coal-fired electric utility power plants observed in east and central Texas. Observations of elevated CO on days characterized by differing wind directions show that CO emissions from the lignite plants were relatively constant over time and cannot be ascribed to separate sources adjacent to the power plants. These three plants were found to be emitting CO at rates 22 to 34 times those tabulated in State and Federal emissions inventories. Elevated CO emissions from the gas- and coal-fired plant were highly variable on time scales of hours to days, in one case changing by a factor of 8 within an hour. Three other fossil-fueled power plants, including one lignite-fired plant observed during this study, did not emit substantial amounts of CO, suggesting that a combination of plant operating conditions and the use of lignite coal may contribute to the enhanced emissions. Observed elevated CO emissions from the three lignite plants, if representative of average operating conditions, represent an additional 30% of the annual total CO emissions from point sources for the state of Texas.

  17. Detritus derived from eelgrass and macroalgae as potential carbon source for Mytilus edulis in Kiel Fjord, Germany: a preliminary carbon isotopic study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiedemeyer, W. L.; Schwamborn, R.

    1996-09-01

    Stable carbon isotope ratios were measured for the muscle tissue of blue mussel Mytilus edulis, eelgrass Zostera marina, macroalgae Fucus vesiculosus, and phytoplankton in two areas in Kiel Fjord, Germany. Carbon isotope evidence is presented to show the predominance of phytoplanktonic production as a carbon source for M. edulis tissue carbon. Via decomposition processes for both eelgrass and macroalgal primary production, each contributed 0.5 6.5% to mussel carbon.

  18. Electron string ion sources for carbon ion cancer therapy accelerators.

    PubMed

    Boytsov, A Yu; Donets, D E; Donets, E D; Donets, E E; Katagiri, K; Noda, K; Ponkin, D O; Ramzdorf, A Yu; Salnikov, V V; Shutov, V B

    2015-08-01

    The type of the Electron String Ion Sources (ESIS) is considered to be the appropriate one to produce pulsed C(4+) and C(6+) ion beams for cancer therapy accelerators. In fact, the new test ESIS Krion-6T already now provides more than 10(10) C(4+) ions per pulse and about 5 × 10(9) C(6+) ions per pulse. Such ion sources could be suitable to apply at synchrotrons. It has also been found that Krion-6T can provide more than 10(11) C(6+) ions per second at the 100 Hz repetition rate, and the repetition rate can be increased at the same or larger ion output per second. This makes ESIS applicable at cyclotrons as well. ESIS can be also a suitable type of ion source to produce the (11)C radioactive ion beams. A specialized cryogenic cell was experimentally tested at the Krion-2M ESIS for pulse injection of gaseous species into the electron string. It has been shown in experiments with stable methane that the total conversion efficiency of methane molecules to C(4+) ions reached 5%÷10%. For cancer therapy with simultaneous irradiation and precise dose control (positron emission tomography) by means of (11)C, transporting to the tumor with the primary accelerated (11)C(4+) beam, this efficiency is preliminarily considered to be large enough to produce the (11)C(4+) beam from radioactive methane and to inject this beam into synchrotrons.

  19. Electron string ion sources for carbon ion cancer therapy accelerators.

    PubMed

    Boytsov, A Yu; Donets, D E; Donets, E D; Donets, E E; Katagiri, K; Noda, K; Ponkin, D O; Ramzdorf, A Yu; Salnikov, V V; Shutov, V B

    2015-08-01

    The type of the Electron String Ion Sources (ESIS) is considered to be the appropriate one to produce pulsed C(4+) and C(6+) ion beams for cancer therapy accelerators. In fact, the new test ESIS Krion-6T already now provides more than 10(10) C(4+) ions per pulse and about 5 × 10(9) C(6+) ions per pulse. Such ion sources could be suitable to apply at synchrotrons. It has also been found that Krion-6T can provide more than 10(11) C(6+) ions per second at the 100 Hz repetition rate, and the repetition rate can be increased at the same or larger ion output per second. This makes ESIS applicable at cyclotrons as well. ESIS can be also a suitable type of ion source to produce the (11)C radioactive ion beams. A specialized cryogenic cell was experimentally tested at the Krion-2M ESIS for pulse injection of gaseous species into the electron string. It has been shown in experiments with stable methane that the total conversion efficiency of methane molecules to C(4+) ions reached 5%÷10%. For cancer therapy with simultaneous irradiation and precise dose control (positron emission tomography) by means of (11)C, transporting to the tumor with the primary accelerated (11)C(4+) beam, this efficiency is preliminarily considered to be large enough to produce the (11)C(4+) beam from radioactive methane and to inject this beam into synchrotrons. PMID:26329182

  20. A simple and clean source of low-energy atomic carbon

    SciTech Connect

    Krasnokutski, S. A.; Huisken, F.

    2014-09-15

    A carbon source emitting low-energy carbon atoms from a thin-walled, sealed tantalum tube via thermal evaporation has been constructed. The tube is made from a 0.05 mm thick tantalum foil and filled with {sup 12}C or {sup 13}C carbon powder. After being sealed, it is heated by direct electric current. The solvated carbon atoms diffuse to the outer surface of the tube and, when the temperature rises over 2200 K, the evaporation of atomic carbon from the surface of the tantalum tube is observed. As the evaporated species have low energy they are well-suited for the incorporation into liquid helium droplets by the pick-up technique. Mass analysis of the incorporated species reveals the dominant presence of atomic carbon and very low abundances of C{sub 2} and C{sub 3} molecules (<1%). This is in striking contrast to the thermal evaporation of pure carbon, where C{sub 3} molecules are found to be the dominant species in the gas phase. Due to the thermal evaporation and the absence of high-energy application required for the dissociation of C{sub 2} and C{sub 3} molecules, the present source provides carbon atoms with rather low energy.

  1. The effects of fire severity on black carbon additions to forest soils - 10 years post fire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poore, R.; Wessman, C. A.; Buma, B.

    2013-12-01

    Wildfires play an active role in the global carbon cycle. While large amounts of carbon dioxide are released, a small fraction of the biomass consumed by the fire is only partially combusted, yielding soot and charcoal. These products, also called black carbon (BC) make up only 1-5% of the biomass burnt, yet they can have a disproportionate effect on both the atmosphere and fluxes in long-term carbon pools. This project specifically considers the fraction that is sequestered in forest soils. Black carbon is not a specific compound, and exists along a continuum ranging from partially burned biomass to pure carbon or graphite. Increasing aromaticity as the result of partial combustion means charcoal is highly resistant to oxidation. Although debated, most studies indicate a turnover time on the order of 500-1,000 years in warm, wet, aerobic soils. Charcoal may function as a long-term carbon sink, however its overall significance depends on its rate of formation and loss. At the landscape level, fire characteristics are one of the major factors controlling charcoal production. A few studies suggest that charcoal production increases with cooler, less-severe fires. However, there are many factors to tease apart, partly because of a lack of specificity in how fire severity is defined. Within this greater context, our lab has been working on a landscape-level study within Routt National Forest, north of Steamboat Springs, Colorado. In 2002, a large fire swept through a subalpine spruce, fir and lodgepole pine forest. In 2011-2013 we sampled BC pools in 44 plots across a range of fire severities from unburned to severe crown We hypothesized that charcoal stocks will be higher in areas of low severity fire as compared to high severity because of decreased re-combustion of charcoal in the organic soil and increased overall charcoal production due to lower temperatures. In each of our plots we measured charcoal on snags and coarse woody debris, sampled the entire organic

  2. Mineral Carbonation Potential of CO2 from Natural and Industrial-based Alkalinity Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilcox, J.; Kirchofer, A.

    2014-12-01

    Mineral carbonation is a Carbon Capture and Storage (CSS) technology where gaseous CO2 is reacted with alkaline materials (such as silicate minerals and alkaline industrial wastes) and converted into stable and environmentally benign carbonate minerals (Metz et al., 2005). Here, we present a holistic, transparent life cycle assessment model of aqueous mineral carbonation built using a hybrid process model and economic input-output life cycle assessment approach. We compared the energy efficiency and the net CO2 storage potential of various mineral carbonation processes based on different feedstock material and process schemes on a consistent basis by determining the energy and material balance of each implementation (Kirchofer et al., 2011). In particular, we evaluated the net CO2 storage potential of aqueous mineral carbonation for serpentine, olivine, cement kiln dust, fly ash, and steel slag across a range of reaction conditions and process parameters. A preliminary systematic investigation of the tradeoffs inherent in mineral carbonation processes was conducted and guidelines for the optimization of the life-cycle energy efficiency are provided. The life-cycle assessment of aqueous mineral carbonation suggests that a variety of alkalinity sources and process configurations are capable of net CO2 reductions. The maximum carbonation efficiency, defined as mass percent of CO2 mitigated per CO2 input, was 83% for CKD at ambient temperature and pressure conditions. In order of decreasing efficiency, the maximum carbonation efficiencies for the other alkalinity sources investigated were: olivine, 66%; SS, 64%; FA, 36%; and serpentine, 13%. For natural alkalinity sources, availability is estimated based on U.S. production rates of a) lime (18 Mt/yr) or b) sand and gravel (760 Mt/yr) (USGS, 2011). The low estimate assumes the maximum sequestration efficiency of the alkalinity source obtained in the current work and the high estimate assumes a sequestration efficiency

  3. Impacts of Additional HONO Sources on Concentrations and Deposition of NOy in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Region of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ying; An, Junling; Kajino, Mizuo; Li, Jian; Qu, Yu

    2015-04-01

    Reactive nitrogen-containing compounds (NOy) are involved in many important chemical processes in the atmosphere, including aerosol formation as well as ozone (O3) production and destruction. As NOy deposition was increasing rapidly in China during 1980s ~ 2000s, great effort is urgently needed to reduce N deposition. HONO, an important component of NOy, is a significant precursor of the hydroxyl radical (OH) that drives the formation of O3 and fine particles (PM2.5). Nevertheless, the detailed formation mechanisms of HONO and strength of its sources remain unclear. Unknown HONO sources and their potential impacts on air quality have gained extensive interests but to our current knowledge, the impact of HONO sources on regional-scale deposition of NOy has not been quantified up to date. The goal of this work is to evaluate the effects of the additional HONO sources on concentrations and deposition of individual NOy species as well as the NOy budget in the northern Chinese regions being affected by heavy pollution. Simulations of HONO contributions over Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region (BTH) during summer and winter periods of 2007 using the fully coupled Weather Research and Forecasting /Chemistry (WRF/Chem) model are performed by including three additional HONO sources: 1) the reaction of photo-excited nitrogen dioxide (NO2*) with water vapor, 2) NO2 heterogeneous reaction at the aerosol surfaces, and 3) HONO emissions. The model results show that the three additional HONO sources produce a 20%~40% (> 100%) increase in monthly-mean OH concentrations in many urban areas in August (February), leading to a 10%~40% (10%~100%) variation in monthly-mean concentrations of NOx, nitrate and PAN, a 5%~10% (10%~40%) increase in the total dry deposition of NOy, and an enhancement of 1.4 Gg N (1.5 Gg N) in the total of dry and wet deposition of NOy over this region in August (February). These results suggest that the additional HONO sources aggravate regional-scale acid deposition

  4. Effects of porous carbon additives and induced fluorine on low dielectric constant polyimide synthesized with an e-beam

    SciTech Connect

    Im, Ji Sun; Bae, Tae-Sung; Lee, Sung Kyu; Lee, Sei-Hyun; Jeong, Euigyung; Kang, Phil Hyun; Lee, Young-Seak

    2010-11-15

    We report the synthesis of a polyimide matrix with a low dielectric constant for application as an intercalation material between metal interconnections in electronic devices. Porous activated carbon was embedded in the polyimide to reduce the dielectric constant, and a thin film of the complex was obtained using the spin-coating and e-beam irradiation methods. The surface of the thin film was modified with fluorine functional groups to impart water resistance and reduce the dielectric constant further. The water resistance was significantly improved by the modification with hydrophobic fluorine groups. The dielectric constant was effectively decreased by porous activated carbon. The fluorine modification also resulted in a low dielectric constant on the polyimide surface by reducing the polar surface free energy. The dielectric constant of polyimide film decreased from 2.98 to 1.9 by effects of porous activated carbon additive and fluorine surface modification.

  5. Electron string ion sources for carbon ion cancer therapy accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Boytsov, A. Yu.; Donets, D. E.; Donets, E. D.; Donets, E. E.; Ponkin, D. O.; Ramzdorf, A. Yu.; Salnikov, V. V.; Shutov, V. B.; Katagiri, K.; Noda, K.

    2015-08-15

    The type of the Electron String Ion Sources (ESIS) is considered to be the appropriate one to produce pulsed C{sup 4+} and C{sup 6+} ion beams for cancer therapy accelerators. In fact, the new test ESIS Krion-6T already now provides more than 10{sup 10} C{sup 4+} ions per pulse and about 5 × 10{sup 9} C{sup 6+} ions per pulse. Such ion sources could be suitable to apply at synchrotrons. It has also been found that Krion-6T can provide more than 10{sup 11} C{sup 6+} ions per second at the 100 Hz repetition rate, and the repetition rate can be increased at the same or larger ion output per second. This makes ESIS applicable at cyclotrons as well. ESIS can be also a suitable type of ion source to produce the {sup 11}C radioactive ion beams. A specialized cryogenic cell was experimentally tested at the Krion-2M ESIS for pulse injection of gaseous species into the electron string. It has been shown in experiments with stable methane that the total conversion efficiency of methane molecules to C{sup 4+} ions reached 5%÷10%. For cancer therapy with simultaneous irradiation and precise dose control (positron emission tomography) by means of {sup 11}C, transporting to the tumor with the primary accelerated {sup 11}C{sup 4+} beam, this efficiency is preliminarily considered to be large enough to produce the {sup 11}C{sup 4+} beam from radioactive methane and to inject this beam into synchrotrons.

  6. Synergistic catalysis: highly diastereoselective benzoxazole addition to Morita-Baylis-Hillman carbonates.

    PubMed

    Ceban, Victor; Putaj, Piotr; Meazza, Marta; Pitak, Mateusz B; Coles, Simon J; Vesely, Jan; Rios, Ramon

    2014-07-18

    An expedited method has been developed for the diastereoselective synthesis of highly functionalized alkyl-azaarene systems with good yields and high diastereoselectivities (>15 : 1 dr). The methodology includes a synergistic catalysis event involving organometallic (10 mol% AgOAc) activation of an alkyl azaarene and Lewis base (10 mol% DABCO) activation of a Morita-Baylis-Hillman carbonate. The structure and relative configuration of a representative product were confirmed by X-ray analysis.

  7. Carbon Sequestration through Sustainably Sourced Algal Fertilizer: Deep Ocean Water.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherman, M. T.

    2014-12-01

    Drawing down carbon from the atmosphere happens in the oceans when marine plants are growing due to the use of carbon dioxide for biological processes and by raising the pH of the water. Macro- and microscopic marine photosynthesizers are limited in their growth by the availability of light and nutrients (nitrogen, phosphorous, iron, etc.) Deep ocean water (DOW), oceanic water from bellow about 1000m, is a natural medium for marine algae, which contains all (except in rare circumstances) necessary components for algal growth and represents over 90% of the volume of the ocean. The introduction of DOW to a tropical or summer sea can increase chlorophyll from near zero to 60 mg per M3 or more. The form of the utilization infrastructure for DOW can roughly be divided into two effective types; the unconstrained release and the open pond system. Unconstrained release has the advantage of having relatively low infrastructure investment and is available to any area of the ocean. The open pond system has high infrastructure costs but enables intensive use of DOW for harvesting macro- and microalgae and sustainable mariculture. It also enables greater concomitant production of DOW's other potential products such as electricity or potable water. However, unlike an unconstrained release the open pond system can capture much of the biomaterial from the water and limits the impact to the surrounding ecosystem. The Tidal Irrigation and Electrical System (TIESystem), is an open pond that is to be constructed on a continental shelf. It harnesses the tidal flux to pump DOW into the pond on the rising tide and then uses the falling tide to pump biologically rich material out of the pond. This biomaterial represents fixed CO2 and can be used for biofuel or fertilizers. The TIESystem benefits from an economy of scale that increases at a rate that is roughly equal to the relationship of the circumference of a circle (the barrier that creates the open pond) to the area of the pond

  8. Inorganic carbon and fossil organic carbon are source of bias for quantification of sequestered carbon in mine spoil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vindušková, Olga; Frouz, Jan

    2016-04-01

    Carbon sequestration in mine soils has been studied as a possibility to mitigate the rising atmospheric CO2 levels and to improve mine soil quality (Vindu\\vsková and Frouz, 2013). Moreover, these soils offer an unique opportunity to study soil carbon dynamics using the chronosequence approach (using a set of sites of different age on similar parent material). However, quantification of sequestered carbon in mine soils is often complicated by fossil organic carbon (e.g., from coal or kerogen) or inorganic carbon present in the spoil. We present a methodology for quantification of both of these common constituents of mine soils. Our recommendations are based on experiments done on post-mining soils in Sokolov basin, Czech Republic. Here, fossil organic carbon is present mainly as kerogen Type I and II and represents 2-6 wt.% C in these soils. Inorganic carbon in these soils is present mainly as siderite (FeCO3), calcite (CaCO3), and dolomite (CaMg(CO3)2). All of these carbonates are often found in the overburden of coal seams thus being a common constituent of post-mining soils in the world. Vindu\\vsková O, Frouz J, 2013. Soil carbon accumulation after open-cast coal and oil shale mining in Northern Hemisphere: a quantitative review. ENVIRONMENTAL EARTH SCIENCES, 69: 1685-1698. Vindu\\vsková O, Dvořáček V, Prohasková A, Frouz J. 2014. Distinguishing recent and fossil organic matter - A critical step in evaluation of post-mining soil development - using near infrared spectroscopy. ECOLOGICAL ENGINEERING. 73: 643-648. Vindu\\vsková O, Sebag D, Cailleau G, Brus J, Frouz J. 2015. Methodological comparison for quantitative analysis of fossil and recently derived carbon in mine soils with high content of aliphatic kerogen. ORGANIC GEOCHEMISTRY, 89-90:14-22.

  9. Carbon-14 Source Terms and Generation in Fusion Power Cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khripunov, V. I.; Kurbatov, D. K.; Subbotin, M. L.

    2008-12-01

    A consecutive study of the source terms of 14C as the major contributor to the external costs of fusion and its production rate was performed by system and neutron activation analysis. It shows that the specific 14C activity induced in the low activation structural materials, coolants and breeders suggested for future fusion power reactor cores is significantly dependent upon the assumption for nitrogen content. The determined range of the specific 14C activity ˜2-20 TBq/GW(e)a induced by the near-term water-cooled, gas-cooled and advanced liquid lithium and lithium-lead self-cooled fusion power reactors is given in the paper regarding the values for natural 14C background and artificial 14C sources as fission power reactors and nuclear tests. It is definitely recommended to minimize the nitrogen content below 0.01 wt.% in the beryllium multipliers and in the structural materials, SiC/SiC composite including. Then due to environmental and waste disposal reasons the 14C generation in fusion power blankets will have negligible impact on the cost.

  10. Carbon Source Preference in Chemosynthetic Hot Spring Communities

    PubMed Central

    Urschel, Matthew R.; Kubo, Michael D.; Hoehler, Tori M.; Peters, John W.

    2015-01-01

    Rates of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), formate, and acetate mineralization and/or assimilation were determined in 13 high-temperature (>73°C) hot springs in Yellowstone National Park (YNP), Wyoming, in order to evaluate the relative importance of these substrates in supporting microbial metabolism. While 9 of the hot spring communities exhibited rates of DIC assimilation that were greater than those of formate and acetate assimilation, 2 exhibited rates of formate and/or acetate assimilation that exceeded those of DIC assimilation. Overall rates of DIC, formate, and acetate mineralization and assimilation were positively correlated with spring pH but showed little correlation with temperature. Communities sampled from hot springs with similar geochemistries generally exhibited similar rates of substrate transformation, as well as similar community compositions, as revealed by 16S rRNA gene-tagged sequencing. Amendment of microcosms with small (micromolar) amounts of formate suppressed DIC assimilation in short-term (<45-min) incubations, despite the presence of native DIC concentrations that exceeded those of added formate by 2 to 3 orders of magnitude. The concentration of added formate required to suppress DIC assimilation was similar to the affinity constant (Km) for formate transformation, as determined by community kinetic assays. These results suggest that dominant chemoautotrophs in high-temperature communities are facultatively autotrophic or mixotrophic, are adapted to fluctuating nutrient availabilities, and are capable of taking advantage of energy-rich organic substrates when they become available. PMID:25819970

  11. Sources and sinks of carbon in boreal ecosystems of interior Alaska: a review

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Douglas, Thomas A.; Jones, Miriam C.; Hiemstra, Christopher A.

    2014-01-01

    Boreal regions store large quantities of carbon but are increasingly vulnerable to carbon loss due to disturbance and climate warming. The boreal region, underlain by discontinuous permafrost, presents a challenging landscape for itemizing current and potential carbon sources and sinks in the boreal soil and vegetation. The roles of fire, forest succession, and the presence (or absence) of permafrost on carbon cycle, vegetation, and hydrologic processes have been the focus of multidisciplinary research in this area for the past 20 years. However, projections of a warming future climate, an increase in fire severity and extent, and the potential degradation of permafrost could lead to major landscape process changes over the next 20 to 50 years. This provides a major challenge for predicting how the interplay between land management activities and impacts of climate warming will affect carbon sources and sinks in Interior Alaska. To assist land managers in adapting and managing for potential changes in the Interior Alaska carbon cycle we developed this review paper incorporating an overview of the climate, ecosystem processes, vegetation types, and soil regimes in Interior Alaska with a focus on ramifications for the carbon cycle. Our objective is to provide a synthesis of the most current carbon storage estimates and measurements to support policy and land management decisions on how to best manage carbon sources and sinks in Interior Alaska. To support this we have surveyed relevant peer reviewed estimates of carbon stocks in aboveground and belowground biomass for Interior Alaska boreal ecosystems. We have also summarized methane and carbon dioxide fluxes from the same ecosystems. These data have been converted into the same units to facilitate comparison across ecosystem compartments. We identify potential changes in the carbon cycle with climate change and human disturbance including how compounding disturbances can affect the boreal system. Finally, we provide

  12. Effects of experimental fuel additions on fire intensity and severity: unexpected carbon resilience of a neotropical forest.

    PubMed

    Brando, Paulo M; Oliveria-Santos, Claudinei; Rocha, Wanderley; Cury, Roberta; Coe, Michael T

    2016-07-01

    Global changes and associated droughts, heat waves, logging activities, and forest fragmentation may intensify fires in Amazonia by altering forest microclimate and fuel dynamics. To isolate the effects of fuel loads on fire behavior and fire-induced changes in forest carbon cycling, we manipulated fine fuel loads in a fire experiment located in southeast Amazonia. We predicted that a 50% increase in fine fuel loads would disproportionally increase fire intensity and severity (i.e., tree mortality and losses in carbon stocks) due to multiplicative effects of fine fuel loads on the rate of fire spread, fuel consumption, and burned area. The experiment followed a fully replicated randomized block design (N = 6) comprised of unburned control plots and burned plots that were treated with and without fine fuel additions. The fuel addition treatment significantly increased burned area (+22%) and consequently canopy openness (+10%), fine fuel combustion (+5%), and mortality of individuals ≥5 cm in diameter at breast height (dbh; +37%). Surprisingly, we observed nonsignificant effects of the fuel addition treatment on fireline intensity, and no significant differences among the three treatments for (i) mortality of large trees (≥30 cm dbh), (ii) aboveground forest carbon stocks, and (iii) soil respiration. It was also surprising that postfire tree growth and wood increment were higher in the burned plots treated with fuels than in the unburned control. These results suggest that (i) fine fuel load accumulation increases the likelihood of larger understory fires and (ii) single, low-intensity fires weakly influence carbon cycling of this primary neotropical forest, although delayed postfire mortality of large trees may lower carbon stocks over the long term. Overall, our findings indicate that increased fine fuel loads alone are unlikely to create threshold conditions for high-intensity, catastrophic fires during nondrought years. PMID:26750627

  13. Effects of experimental fuel additions on fire intensity and severity: unexpected carbon resilience of a neotropical forest.

    PubMed

    Brando, Paulo M; Oliveria-Santos, Claudinei; Rocha, Wanderley; Cury, Roberta; Coe, Michael T

    2016-07-01

    Global changes and associated droughts, heat waves, logging activities, and forest fragmentation may intensify fires in Amazonia by altering forest microclimate and fuel dynamics. To isolate the effects of fuel loads on fire behavior and fire-induced changes in forest carbon cycling, we manipulated fine fuel loads in a fire experiment located in southeast Amazonia. We predicted that a 50% increase in fine fuel loads would disproportionally increase fire intensity and severity (i.e., tree mortality and losses in carbon stocks) due to multiplicative effects of fine fuel loads on the rate of fire spread, fuel consumption, and burned area. The experiment followed a fully replicated randomized block design (N = 6) comprised of unburned control plots and burned plots that were treated with and without fine fuel additions. The fuel addition treatment significantly increased burned area (+22%) and consequently canopy openness (+10%), fine fuel combustion (+5%), and mortality of individuals ≥5 cm in diameter at breast height (dbh; +37%). Surprisingly, we observed nonsignificant effects of the fuel addition treatment on fireline intensity, and no significant differences among the three treatments for (i) mortality of large trees (≥30 cm dbh), (ii) aboveground forest carbon stocks, and (iii) soil respiration. It was also surprising that postfire tree growth and wood increment were higher in the burned plots treated with fuels than in the unburned control. These results suggest that (i) fine fuel load accumulation increases the likelihood of larger understory fires and (ii) single, low-intensity fires weakly influence carbon cycling of this primary neotropical forest, although delayed postfire mortality of large trees may lower carbon stocks over the long term. Overall, our findings indicate that increased fine fuel loads alone are unlikely to create threshold conditions for high-intensity, catastrophic fires during nondrought years.

  14. A NMR-Based Carbon-Type Analysis of Diesel Fuel Blends From Various Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Bays, J. Timothy; King, David L.

    2013-05-10

    In collaboration with participants of the Coordinating Research Council (CRC) Advanced Vehicle/Fuels/Lubricants (AVFL) Committee, and project AVFL-19, the characteristics of fuels from advanced and renewable sources were compared to commercial diesel fuels. The main objective of this study was to highlight similarities and differences among the fuel types, i.e. ULSD, renewables, and alternative fuels, and among fuels within the different fuel types. This report summarizes the carbon-type analysis from 1H and 13C{1H} nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) of 14 diesel fuel samples. The diesel fuel samples come from diverse sources and include four commercial ultra-low sulfur diesel fuels (ULSD), one gas-to-liquid diesel fuel (GTL), six renewable diesel fuels (RD), two shale oil-derived diesel fuels, and one oil sands-derived diesel fuel. Overall, the fuels examined fall into two groups. The two shale oil-derived samples and the oil-sand-derived sample closely resemble the four commercial ultra-low sulfur diesels, with SO1 and SO2 most closely matched with ULSD1, ULSD2, and ULSD4, and OS1 most closely matched with ULSD3. As might be expected, the renewable diesel fuels, with the exception of RD3, do not resemble the ULSD fuels because of their very low aromatic content, but more closely resemble the gas-to-liquid sample (GTL) in this respect. RD3 is significantly different from the other renewable diesel fuels in that the aromatic content more closely resembles the ULSD fuels. Fused-ring aromatics are readily observable in the ULSD, SO, and OS samples, as well as RD3, and are noticeably absent in the remaining RD and GTL fuels. Finally, ULSD3 differs from the other ULSD fuels by having a significantly lower aromatic carbon content and higher cycloparaffinic carbon content. In addition to providing important comparative compositional information regarding the various diesel fuels, this report also provides important information about the capabilities of NMR

  15. Biotechnological Production of Docosahexaenoic Acid Using Aurantiochytrium limacinum: Carbon Sources Comparison And Growth Characterization.

    PubMed

    Abad, Sergi; Turon, Xavier

    2015-12-01

    Aurantiochytrium limacinum, a marine heterotrophic protist/microalga has shown interesting yields of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) when cultured with different carbon sources: glucose, pure and crude glycerol. A complete study in a lab-scale fermenter allowed for the characterization and comparison of the growth kinetic parameters corresponding to each carbon source. Artificial Marine Medium (AMM) with glucose, pure and crude glycerol offered similar biomass yields. The net growth rates (0.10-0.12 h(-1)), biomass (0.7-0.8 g cells/g Substrate) and product (0.14-0.15 g DHA/g cells) yields, as well as DHA productivity were similar using the three carbon sources. Viable potential applications to valorize crude glycerol are envisioned to avoid an environmental problem due to the excess of byproduct. PMID:26690180

  16. [Effect of PLA/starch slow-release carbon source on biological denitrification].

    PubMed

    Tang, Dan-Qi; Wang, Juan; Zheng, Tian-Long; Liu, Jian-Guo; Wang, Qun-Hui

    2014-06-01

    We used polylactic acid (PLA) and starch to develop a slow-release carbon source and biofilm carrier by blending and fusing techniques for removing nitrate contamination from groundwater, investigated the changes of nitrate, nitrite concentrations and COD in denitrification process supplied by the slow-release carbon source in different mass ratios [PLA/starch (P: S) were 8:2, 7:3, 6:4, 5:5, respectively]. The experimental results demonstrated that the best mass ratio of PLA/starch was 5:5, resulting in a nitrate removal rate of more than 99%. A high denitrification performance was achieved in continuous fixed-bed reactor, the effluent nitrate concentration was below 2 mg x L(-1). These experiments provide scientific basis for the development of environmentally-friendly and controllable slow-release carbon source.

  17. Biotechnological Production of Docosahexaenoic Acid Using Aurantiochytrium limacinum: Carbon Sources Comparison And Growth Characterization

    PubMed Central

    Abad, Sergi; Turon, Xavier

    2015-01-01

    Aurantiochytrium limacinum, a marine heterotrophic protist/microalga has shown interesting yields of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) when cultured with different carbon sources: glucose, pure and crude glycerol. A complete study in a lab-scale fermenter allowed for the characterization and comparison of the growth kinetic parameters corresponding to each carbon source. Artificial Marine Medium (AMM) with glucose, pure and crude glycerol offered similar biomass yields. The net growth rates (0.10–0.12 h−1), biomass (0.7–0.8 g cells/g Substrate) and product (0.14–0.15 g DHA/g cells) yields, as well as DHA productivity were similar using the three carbon sources. Viable potential applications to valorize crude glycerol are envisioned to avoid an environmental problem due to the excess of byproduct. PMID:26690180

  18. Optimization of VFAs and ethanol production with waste sludge used as the denitrification carbon source.

    PubMed

    Guo, Liang; Zhang, Jiawen; Yin, Li; Zhao, Yangguo; Gao, Mengchun; She, Zonglian

    2015-01-01

    An acidification metabolite such as volatile fatty acids (VFAs) and ethanol could be used as denitrification carbon sources for solving the difficult problem of carbon source shortages and low nitrogen removal efficiency. A proper control of environmental factors could be essential for obtaining the optimal contents of VFAs and ethanol. In this study, suspended solids (SS), oxidation reduction potential (ORP) and shaking rate were chosen to investigate the interactive effects on VFAs and ethanol production with waste sludge. It was indicated that T-VFA yield could be enhanced at lower ORP and shaking rate. Changing the SS, ORP and shaking rate could influence the distribution of acetic, propionic, butyric, valeric acids and ethanol. The optimal conditions for VFAs and ethanol production used as a denitrification carbon source were predicted by analyzing response surface methodology (RSM).

  19. Behavior of solid carbon sources for biological denitrification in groundwater remediation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jianmei; Feng, Chuanping; Hong, Siqi; Hao, Huiling; Yang, Yingnan

    2012-01-01

    The present study was conducted to compare the behavior of wheat straw, sawdust and biodegradable plastic (BP) as potential carbon sources for denitrification in groundwater remediation. The results showed that a greater amount of nitrogen compounds were released from wheat straw and sawdust than from BP in leaching experiments. In batch experiments, BP showed higher nitrate removal efficiency and longer service life than wheat straw and sawdust, which illustrated that BP is the most appropriate carbon source for stimulation of denitrification activity. In column experiments, BP was able to support complete denitrification at influent nitrate concentrations of 50, 60, 70, 80, and 90 mg NO(3)(-)-N/L, showing corresponding denitrification rates of 0.12, 0.14, 0.17, 0.19, and 0.22 mg NO(3)(-)-N.L(-1).d(-1).g(-1), respectively. These findings indicate that BP is applicable for use as a carbon source for nitrate-polluted groundwater remediation.

  20. Carbon Storages in Plantation Ecosystems in Sand Source Areas of North Beijing, China

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiuping; Zhang, Wanjun; Cao, Jiansheng; Shen, Huitao; Zeng, Xinhua; Yu, Zhiqiang; Zhao, Xin

    2013-01-01

    Afforestation is a mitigation option to reduce the increased atmospheric carbon dioxide levels as well as the predicted high possibility of climate change. In this paper, vegetation survey data, statistical database, National Forest Resource Inventory database, and allometric equations were used to estimate carbon density (carbon mass per hectare) and carbon storage, and identify the size and spatial distribution of forest carbon sinks in plantation ecosystems in sand source areas of north Beijing, China. From 2001 to the end of 2010, the forest areas increased more than 2.3 million ha, and total carbon storage in forest ecosystems was 173.02 Tg C, of which 82.80 percent was contained in soil in the top 0–100 cm layer. Younger forests have a large potential for enhancing carbon sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems than older ones. Regarding future afforestation efforts, it will be more effective to increase forest area and vegetation carbon density through selection of appropriate tree species and stand structure according to local climate and soil conditions, and application of proper forest management including land-shaping, artificial tending and fencing plantations. It would be also important to protect the organic carbon in surface soils during forest management. PMID:24349223

  1. Carbon storages in plantation ecosystems in sand source areas of north Beijing, China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiuping; Zhang, Wanjun; Cao, Jiansheng; Shen, Huitao; Zeng, Xinhua; Yu, Zhiqiang; Zhao, Xin

    2013-01-01

    Afforestation is a mitigation option to reduce the increased atmospheric carbon dioxide levels as well as the predicted high possibility of climate change. In this paper, vegetation survey data, statistical database, National Forest Resource Inventory database, and allometric equations were used to estimate carbon density (carbon mass per hectare) and carbon storage, and identify the size and spatial distribution of forest carbon sinks in plantation ecosystems in sand source areas of north Beijing, China. From 2001 to the end of 2010, the forest areas increased more than 2.3 million ha, and total carbon storage in forest ecosystems was 173.02 Tg C, of which 82.80 percent was contained in soil in the top 0-100 cm layer. Younger forests have a large potential for enhancing carbon sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems than older ones. Regarding future afforestation efforts, it will be more effective to increase forest area and vegetation carbon density through selection of appropriate tree species and stand structure according to local climate and soil conditions, and application of proper forest management including land-shaping, artificial tending and fencing plantations. It would be also important to protect the organic carbon in surface soils during forest management.

  2. An in situ generated carbon as integrated conductive additive for hierarchical negative plate of lead-acid battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saravanan, M.; Ganesan, M.; Ambalavanan, S.

    2014-04-01

    In this work, we report an in situ generated carbon from sugar as additive in the Negative Active Mass (NAM) which enhances the charge-discharge characteristics of the lead-acid cells. In situ formed sugar derived carbon (SDC) with leady oxide (LO) provides a conductive network and excellent protection against NAM irreversible lead sulfation. The effect of SDC and carbon black (CB) added negative plates are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), galvanostatic charge-discharge, cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), respectively. The results show that subtle changes in the addition of carbon to NAM led to subsequent changes on the performance during partial-state-of-charge (PSoC) operations in lead-acid cells. Furthermore, SDC added cells exhibit remarkable improvement in the rate capability, active material utilization, cycle performance and charge acceptance compared to that of the conventional CB added cells. The impact of SDC with LO at various synthesis conditions on the electrochemical performance of the negative plate is studied systematically.

  3. Influence of natural and novel organic carbon sources on denitrification in forest, degraded urban, and restored streams

    EPA Science Inventory

    Organic carbon is important in regulating ecosystem function, and its source and abundance may be altered by urbanization. We investigated shifts in organic carbon quantity and quality associated with urbanization and ecosystem restoration, and its potential effects on denitrific...

  4. Additive effect on reductive decomposition and binding of carbonate-based solvent toward solid electrolyte interphase formation in lithium-ion battery.

    PubMed

    Ushirogata, Keisuke; Sodeyama, Keitaro; Okuno, Yukihiro; Tateyama, Yoshitaka

    2013-08-14

    The solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI) formed through the reductive decomposition of solvent molecules plays a crucial role in the stability and capability of a lithium-ion battery (LIB). Here we investigated the effects of adding vinylene carbonate (VC) to ethylene carbonate (EC) solvent, a typical electrolyte in LIBs, on the reductive decomposition. We focused on both thermodynamics and kinetics of the possible processes and used density functional theory-based molecular dynamics with explicit solvent and Blue-moon ensemble technique for the free energy change. We considered Li(+) in only EC solvent (EC system) and in EC solvent with a VC additive (EC/VC system) to elucidate the additive effects. In addition to clarifying the equilibrium properties, we evaluated the free energy changes along several EC or VC decomposition pathways under one-electron (1e) reduction condition. Two-electron (2e) reduction and attacks of anion radicals to intact molecules were also examined. The present results completely reproduce the gaseous products observed in the experiments. We also found a new mechanism involving the VC additive: the VC additive preferentially reacts with the EC anion radical to suppress the 2e reduction of EC and enhance the initial SEI formation, contrary to the conventional scenario in which VC additive is sacrificially reduced and its radical oligomerization becomes the source of SEI. Because our mechanism needs only 1e reduction, the irreversible capacity at the SEI formation will decrease, which is also consistent with the experimental observations. These results reveal the primary role of VC additive in the EC solvent.

  5. Innovative slow-release organic carbon-source material for groundwater in situ denitrification.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dayi; Zhang, Xu; Wang, Yun; Zhou, Guizhong; Li, Guanghe

    2015-01-01

    Slow-release organic carbon-source (SOC) material, a new kind of electron donor for in situ groundwater denitrification, was prepared and evaluated in this study. With starch as a biologically utilized carbon source and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) as a frame, this material performed controllable carbon release rates and demonstrated stable behaviour during the simulated denitrification process. Raman spectrum analysis showed that the PVA skeleton formed cross-linking network structures for hydrogen-bonded water molecules reset in low temperatures, and the starchy molecules filled in the interspace of the skeleton to form a two-phase interlocking/disperse phase structure. In a static system, carbon release processes followed the Fickian law with (1.294-6.560)×10(-3) mg g(-1) s(-1/2) as the release coefficient. Under domestication and in situ groundwater simulation conditions, SOC material played a favourable role during denitrification, with 1.049±0.165 as an average carbon-nitrogen ratio. The denitrification process followed the law of zero-order kinetics, while the dynamics parameter kN was 0.563-8.753 gN m(-3) d(-1). Generally, SOC material was suggested to be a potential carbon source (electron donor) suitable for in situ groundwater denitrification.

  6. Enhanced bacterial decomposition with increasing addition of autochthonous to allochthonous carbon without any effect on bacterial community composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Attermeyer, K.; Hornick, T.; Kayler, Z. E.; Bahr, A.; Zwirnmann, E.; Grossart, H.-P.; Premke, K.

    2014-03-01

    Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations - mainly of terrestrial origin - are increasing worldwide in inland waters. Heterotrophic bacteria are the main consumers of DOC and thus determine DOC temporal dynamics and availability for higher trophic levels. Our aim was to study bacterial carbon (C) turnover with respect to DOC quantity and chemical quality using both allochthonous and autochthonous DOC sources. We incubated a natural bacterial community with allochthonous C (13C-labeled beech leachate) and increased concentrations and pulses (intermittent occurrence of organic matter input) of autochthonous C (phytoplankton lysate). We then determined bacterial C consumption, activities, and community composition together with the C flow through bacteria using stable C isotopes. The chemical analysis of single sources revealed differences in aromaticity and low- and high-molecular-weight substance fractions (LMWS and HMWS, respectively) between allochthonous and autochthonous C sources. Both DOC sources (allochthonous and autochthonous DOC) were metabolized at a high bacterial growth efficiency (BGE) around 50%. In treatments with mixed sources, rising concentrations of added autochthonous DOC resulted in a further, significant increase in bacterial DOC consumption of up to 68% when nutrients were not limiting. This rise was accompanied by a decrease in the humic substance (HS) fraction and an increase in bacterial biomass. Changes in DOC concentration and consumption in mixed treatments did not affect bacterial community composition (BCC), but BCC differed in single vs. mixed incubations. Our study highlights that DOC quantity affects bacterial C consumption but not BCC in nutrient-rich aquatic systems. BCC shifted when a mixture of allochthonous and autochthonous C was provided simultaneously to the bacterial community. Our results indicate that chemical quality rather than source of DOC per se (allochthonous vs. autochthonous) determines bacterial DOC turnover.

  7. Special role of corn flour as an ideal carbon source for aerobic denitrification with minimized nitrous oxide emission.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Shuangyue; Zheng, Maosheng; Li, Can; Gui, Mengyao; Chen, Qian; Ni, Jinren

    2015-06-01

    Much effort has been made for reducing nitrous oxide (N2O) emission in wastewater treatment processes. This paper presents an interesting way to minimize N2O in aerobic denitrification by strain Pseudomonas stutzeri PCN-1 with help of corn flour as cheaper additional carbon source. Experimental results showed that maximal N2O accumulation by strain PCN-1 was only 0.02% of removed nitrogen if corn flour was used as sole carbon source, which was significantly reduced by 52.07-99.81% comparing with others such as succinate, glucose, acetate and citrate. Sustained release of reducing sugar from starch and continuous expression of nosZ coding for N2O reductase contributed to the special role of corn flour as the ideal carbon source for strain PCN-1. Further experiments in sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) demonstrated similarly efficient nitrogen removal with much less N2O emission due to synergy of the novel strain and activated sludge, which was then confirmed by quantitative PCR analysis. PMID:25802047

  8. Industrial wastewater as an external carbon source for optimization of nitrogen removal at the Wschod WWTP in Gdansk (Poland).

    PubMed

    Swinarski, M; Makinia, J; Czerwionka, K; Chrzanowska, M

    2009-01-01

    Carbon source alternatives for denitrification belong to the highest research area priorities as they allow to optimize N removal within the existing capacities. In particular, some food industry effluents appear to be good candidates for such alternatives due to their high C/N ratios and high content of readily biodegradable organic fraction. The aim of this study was to determine the immediate effects of dosing different types of industrial wastewater on the denitrification capability of process biomass originating from the "Wschod" WWTP in Gdansk (northern Poland). Three types of industrial wastewater (effluents from a distillery, brewery and fish-pickling factory) were tested in two kinds of batch experiments. The results of this study revealed that the investigated industrial wastewater can be a potential external carbon source to improve denitrification efficiency. The observed single nitrate utilization rates (NURs) were ranging from 2.4 to 6.0 g N/(kg VSS.h) and were comparable to the rates associated with the utilization of readily biodegradable COD in the settled wastewater. When the NURs were measured during anoxic P uptake, the P uptake rates did not appear to be adversely affected by the addition of any carbon source. PMID:19151486

  9. Carbon source utilization by the marine Dendryphiella species D. arenaria and D. salina.

    PubMed

    dela Cruz, Thomas Edison E; Schulz, Barbara E; Kubicek, Christian P; Druzhinina, Irina S

    2006-12-01

    Carbon utilization by the marine Dendryphiella species, D. arenaria and D. salina, was investigated to detect differences in utilization and traits associated with their adaptation to the marine habitat. Fifty-four strains were isolated world-wide and tested for the utilization of various carbon sources using BIOLOG phenotype MicroArray (PM) and for the production of extracellular enzymes on solid culture media and on API ZYM assay strips. PM analysis showed that the fastest growth occurred on several monosaccharides and amino acids, 2-keto-d-gluconic acid, succinamide and turanose. Some polyols were poor carbon sources. However, the two species differed in their utilization rates of carbon sources, forming three major clusters: two separate clusters for D. arenaria and D. salina and a third cluster in which strains of the two species formed separate subclades that correlated with geographic origin. Several carbon sources were also found useful in differentiating the two speices. Dendryphiella salina did not utilize xylitol and quinic acid, whereas D. arenaria grew well on these substrates. The latter failed to grow on sorbitol and grew slowly on mannitol, both were good substrates for the former. There were also no qualitative differences between the extracellular enzymes produced, although laccase and peroxidase activities were confined only to some strains. The physiological similarities exhibited by the two species support the close relationship between D. arenaria and D. salina.

  10. Evaluation of Natural Materials as Exogenous Carbon Sources for Biological Treatment of Low Carbon-to-Nitrogen Wastewater

    PubMed Central

    Ramírez-Godínez, Juan; Beltrán-Hernández, Icela; Álvarez-Hernández, Alejandro; Coronel-Olivares, Claudia; Contreras-López, Elizabeth; Quezada-Cruz, Maribel; Vázquez-Rodríguez, Gabriela

    2015-01-01

    In the bacterial processes involved in the mitigation of nitrogen pollution, an adequately high carbon-to-nitrogen (C : N) ratio is key to sustain denitrification. We evaluated three natural materials (woodchips, barley grains, and peanut shells) as carbon sources for low C : N wastewater. The amount of organic matter released from these materials to aqueous media was evaluated, as well as their pollution swapping potential by measuring the release of total Kjeldahl nitrogen, N-NH4+, NO2−, and NO3−, and total phosphorous. Barley grains yielded the highest amount of organic matter, which also showed to be the most easily biodegradable. Woodchips and peanut shells released carbon rather steadily and so they would not require frequent replenishment from biological reactors. These materials produced eluates with lower concentrations of nutrients than the leachates from barley grains. However, as woodchips yielded lower amounts of suspended solids, they constitute an adequate exogenous source for the biological treatment of carbon-deficient effluents. PMID:26495313

  11. Evaluation of natural materials as exogenous carbon sources for biological treatment of low carbon-to-nitrogen wastewater.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Godínez, Juan; Beltrán-Hernández, Icela; Álvarez-Hernández, Alejandro; Coronel-Olivares, Claudia; Contreras-López, Elizabeth; Quezada-Cruz, Maribel; Vázquez-Rodríguez, Gabriela

    2015-01-01

    In the bacterial processes involved in the mitigation of nitrogen pollution, an adequately high carbon-to-nitrogen (C : N) ratio is key to sustain denitrification. We evaluated three natural materials (woodchips, barley grains, and peanut shells) as carbon sources for low C : N wastewater. The amount of organic matter released from these materials to aqueous media was evaluated, as well as their pollution swapping potential by measuring the release of total Kjeldahl nitrogen, N-NH4 (+), NO2 (-), and NO3 (-), and total phosphorous. Barley grains yielded the highest amount of organic matter, which also showed to be the most easily biodegradable. Woodchips and peanut shells released carbon rather steadily and so they would not require frequent replenishment from biological reactors. These materials produced eluates with lower concentrations of nutrients than the leachates from barley grains. However, as woodchips yielded lower amounts of suspended solids, they constitute an adequate exogenous source for the biological treatment of carbon-deficient effluents. PMID:26495313

  12. Aerobic biodegradation of cis-1,2-dichloroethene as sole carbon source: Stable carbon isotope fractionation and growth characteristics.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Kathrin R; Augenstein, Tobias; Heidinger, Michael; Ertl, Siegmund; Tiehm, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    Cis-1,2-dichloroethene (cDCE) is a compound of concern at many chloroethene-contaminated sites, since it tends to accumulate during reductive dechlorination of the higher chlorinated ethenes. Stable carbon isotope fractionation during aerobic cDCE biodegradation was observed in groundwater microcosms under varying incubation conditions (room temperature/groundwater temperature; with/without inorganic nutrients), and resulted in an average stable carbon isotope enrichment factor of -15.2+/-0.5 per thousand. A new enrichment culture, obtained from groundwater microcosms, degraded cDCE concentrations up to 100mgL(-1), was active at temperatures between 4 and 23 degrees C, had a pH optimum of approximately 7, and could withstand prolonged periods (250d) of starvation. Microbial growth during degradation of cDCE as sole carbon and energy source was demonstrated by protein formation in mineral medium not containing any known auxiliary substrate. The obtained growth yield was 12.5+/-1.9g of proteinMol(-1) of cDCE, with a doubling time of 53+/-2h at 23 degrees C. Aerobic degradation of cDCE as sole carbon and energy source appears to be a promising biological process for site remediation.

  13. Evaluation of natural materials as exogenous carbon sources for biological treatment of low carbon-to-nitrogen wastewater.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Godínez, Juan; Beltrán-Hernández, Icela; Álvarez-Hernández, Alejandro; Coronel-Olivares, Claudia; Contreras-López, Elizabeth; Quezada-Cruz, Maribel; Vázquez-Rodríguez, Gabriela

    2015-01-01

    In the bacterial processes involved in the mitigation of nitrogen pollution, an adequately high carbon-to-nitrogen (C : N) ratio is key to sustain denitrification. We evaluated three natural materials (woodchips, barley grains, and peanut shells) as carbon sources for low C : N wastewater. The amount of organic matter released from these materials to aqueous media was evaluated, as well as their pollution swapping potential by measuring the release of total Kjeldahl nitrogen, N-NH4 (+), NO2 (-), and NO3 (-), and total phosphorous. Barley grains yielded the highest amount of organic matter, which also showed to be the most easily biodegradable. Woodchips and peanut shells released carbon rather steadily and so they would not require frequent replenishment from biological reactors. These materials produced eluates with lower concentrations of nutrients than the leachates from barley grains. However, as woodchips yielded lower amounts of suspended solids, they constitute an adequate exogenous source for the biological treatment of carbon-deficient effluents.

  14. Remediation of nitrate-contaminated wastewater using denitrification biofilters with straws of ornamental flowers added as carbon source.

    PubMed

    Chang, Junjun; Ma, Luyao; Zhou, Yuanyang; Zhang, Shenghua; Wang, Weilu

    2016-01-01

    Straws of four ornamental flowers (carnation, rose, lily, and violet) were added into denitrification biofilters using gravel as matrix through vertically installed perforated polyvinylchloride pipes to provide organic carbon for the treatment of nitrate-contaminated wastewater operating in batch mode. Removal efficiencies of nitrate and phosphate, as well as temporal variations of nitrogen and carbon during batches 10 and 19, were investigated and assessed. Nitrate removal was efficiently enhanced by the addition of flower straws, but decreased gradually as the organic substances were consumed. Phosphate removal was also improved, although this very limited. High nitrate removal rates were achieved during the initial 12 h in the two batches each lasting for 3 days, along with the depletion of influent dissolved oxygen due to aerobic degradation of the organic compounds. NO2(-)-N of 0.01-2.83 mg/L and NH4(+)-N of 0.02-1.69 mg/L were formed and both positively correlated to the nitrate reduced. Inorganic carbon (IC) concentrations increased during the batches and varied conversely with the nitrate contents, and could be indicative of nitrate removal due to the highly significant positive correlation between NO3(-)-N removed and IC concentration (r(2) = 0.881, p < 0.0001). It is feasible and economical to use the denitrification biofilter to treat nitrate-contaminated wastewater, although further optimization of carbon source addition is still required. PMID:27438246

  15. Remediation of nitrate-contaminated wastewater using denitrification biofilters with straws of ornamental flowers added as carbon source.

    PubMed

    Chang, Junjun; Ma, Luyao; Zhou, Yuanyang; Zhang, Shenghua; Wang, Weilu

    2016-01-01

    Straws of four ornamental flowers (carnation, rose, lily, and violet) were added into denitrification biofilters using gravel as matrix through vertically installed perforated polyvinylchloride pipes to provide organic carbon for the treatment of nitrate-contaminated wastewater operating in batch mode. Removal efficiencies of nitrate and phosphate, as well as temporal variations of nitrogen and carbon during batches 10 and 19, were investigated and assessed. Nitrate removal was efficiently enhanced by the addition of flower straws, but decreased gradually as the organic substances were consumed. Phosphate removal was also improved, although this very limited. High nitrate removal rates were achieved during the initial 12 h in the two batches each lasting for 3 days, along with the depletion of influent dissolved oxygen due to aerobic degradation of the organic compounds. NO2(-)-N of 0.01-2.83 mg/L and NH4(+)-N of 0.02-1.69 mg/L were formed and both positively correlated to the nitrate reduced. Inorganic carbon (IC) concentrations increased during the batches and varied conversely with the nitrate contents, and could be indicative of nitrate removal due to the highly significant positive correlation between NO3(-)-N removed and IC concentration (r(2) = 0.881, p < 0.0001). It is feasible and economical to use the denitrification biofilter to treat nitrate-contaminated wastewater, although further optimization of carbon source addition is still required.

  16. North America carbon dioxide sources and sinks: magnitude, attribution, and uncertainty

    SciTech Connect

    King, Anthony W.; Hayes, Daniel J.; Huntzinger, Deborah N.; West, Tristram O.; Post, W. M.

    2012-12-01

    North America is both a source and sink of atmospheric CO2. Sources, predominately fossil-fuel combustion in the United States along with contributions from deforestation in Mexico, add CO2 to the atmosphere. Most North America ecosystems, particularly regrowing forests in the United States, are sinks for atmospheric CO2. CO2 is removed from the atmosphere in photosynthesis, converted into biomass and stored as carbon in vegetation, soil and wood products. Fossil-fuel emissions dominate the North American source-sink balance. North America is a net source of atmospheric CO2 with ecosystem sinks balancing approximately 35% of fossil-fuel CO2 emissions from North America.

  17. Controlling the Electrostatic Discharge Ignition Sensitivity of Composite Energetic Materials Using Carbon Nanotube Additives

    SciTech Connect

    Kade H. Poper; Eric S. Collins; Michelle L. Pantoya; Michael Daniels

    2014-10-01

    Powder energetic materials are highly sensitive to electrostatic discharge (ESD) ignition. This study shows that small concentrations of carbon nanotubes (CNT) added to the highly reactive mixture of aluminum and copper oxide (Al + CuO) significantly reduces ESD ignition sensitivity. CNT act as a conduit for electric energy, bypassing energy buildup and desensitizing the mixture to ESD ignition. The lowest CNT concentration needed to desensitize ignition is 3.8 vol.% corresponding to percolation corresponding to an electrical conductivity of 0.04 S/cm. Conversely, added CNT increased Al + CuO thermal ignition sensitivity to a hot wire igniter.

  18. Light source with carbon nanotubes field emission cathode and rare-earth doped nanocrystalline phosphors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Psuja, P.; Strek, W.

    2007-09-01

    In this work we report a new carbon nanotubes field emission (CNT-FED) light source with nanocrystalline phosphors. The nanocrystalline powders of cerium doped yttrium aluminum garnet were obtained by modified Pechini method. The phosphor has been electrophoretically deposited on ITO-glass substrates. The cathode composed of carbon nanotubes was fabricated in the same manner. A light source was assembled and tested. Low-voltage cathodoluminescent spectra and I-V characteristics of fabricated cathodes were measured. A possibility of application of Ce doped nanocrystalline YAG phosphor in the field emission displays (FEDs) was discussed.

  19. The effect of various carbon sources on the growth of single-celled cyanophyta

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Avilov, I. A.; Sidorenkova, E. S.

    1983-01-01

    In 19 strains of unicellular blue-green algae, belonging to general Synechococcus, Synechocystis, Aphanocapsa and Aphanothece, the capacity of growth under mixotrophic conditions in mineral media with organic carbon sources (carbohydrates, polyols) was investigated. At moderate light intensity (1200 lx) and 0.5% of carbon source there was revealed: (1) Stimulation of growth; (2) Partial or complete inhibition of growth; (3) No influence of carbohydrate and polyols on the growth of some algae strains. Three physiological groups for the investigated strains have been outlined on the basis of data obtained. The possibility of using the differences revealed in classification of unicellular blue-green algae is discussed.

  20. Carbon source recovery from waste activated sludge by alkaline hydrolysis and gamma-ray irradiation for biological denitrification.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tak-Hyun; Nam, Youn-Ku; Park, Chulhwan; Lee, Myunjoo

    2009-12-01

    The recovery of an organic carbon source from a waste activated sludge by using alkaline hydrolysis and radiation treatment was studied, and the feasibility of the solubilized sludge carbon source for a biological denitrification was also investigated. The effects of an alkaline treatment and gamma-ray irradiation on a biodegradability enhancement of the sludge were also studied. A modified continuous bioreactor for a denitrification (MLE reactor) was operated by using a synthetic wastewater for 47 days. Alkaline treatment of pH 10 and gamma-ray irradiation of 20 kGy were found to be the optimum carbon source recovery conditions. COD removal of 84% and T-N removal of 51% could be obtained by using the solubilized sludge carbon source through the MLE denitrification process. It can be concluded that the carbon source recovered from the waste activated sludge was successfully employed as an alternative carbon source for a biological denitrification.

  1. Carbon isotope based aerosol source apportionment in Eastern European city Vilnius

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garbaras, Andrius; Sapolaite, Justina; Garbariene, Inga; Ezerinskis, Zilvinas; Pocevicius, Matas; Krikscikas, Laurynas; Jacevicius, Sarunas; Plukis, Arturas; Remeikis, Vidmantas

    2016-04-01

    We present carbonaceous aerosol source apportionment results in Eastern European city Vilnius (capital of Lithuania) using stable carbon isotope ratio (δ13C) and radiocarbon (14C) methods. The aerosol sampling campaigns were performed in 2014-2016 winter seasons in Vilnius. PM1 particles were collected on quartz fiber filters using high volume sampler, while PM10 and size segregated aerosol particles were collected using low volume and MOUDI 128 cascade impactor respectively. δ13C values were measured with EA-IRMS system while radiocarbon analysis was performed using Single Stage Accelerator Mass Spectrometer (SSAMS). For the AMS analysis, filters (or aluminium foils from cascade impactor) were graphitized using Automated Graphitization Equipment. It was estimated that dominant carbonaceous aerosol source in Vilnius was of biogenic/biomass origin (60-90 %). Fossil fuel sources accounted for up to 23 % of total carbon fraction. Combining stable carbon and radiocarbon isotope analysis we were able to quantify the amount of coal derived aerosol particles. The contribution of coal burning emissions were up to 14 %. We will present the applicability of dual carbon (13C and 14C) isotope ratio method for the aerosol source apportionment in different regions of Europe, also the perspectives of using MOUDI cascade impactors to make source apportionment in size segregated aerosol particles.

  2. Biofuels from pyrolysis in perspective: trade-offs between energy yields and soil-carbon additions.

    PubMed

    Woolf, Dominic; Lehmann, Johannes; Fisher, Elizabeth M; Angenent, Largus T

    2014-06-01

    Coproduction of biofuels with biochar (the carbon-rich solid formed during biomass pyrolysis) can provide carbon-negative bioenergy if the biochar is sequestered in soil, where it can improve fertility and thus simultaneously address issues of food security, soil degradation, energy production, and climate change. However, increasing biochar production entails a reduction in bioenergy obtainable per unit biomass feedstock. Quantification of this trade-off for specific biochar-biofuel pathways has been hampered by lack of an accurate-yet-simple model for predicting yields, product compositions, and energy balances from biomass slow pyrolysis. An empirical model of biomass slow pyrolysis was developed and applied to several pathways for biochar coproduction with gaseous and liquid biofuels. Here, we show that biochar production reduces liquid biofuel yield by at least 21 GJ Mg(-1) C (biofuel energy sacrificed per unit mass of biochar C), with methanol synthesis giving this lowest energy penalty. For gaseous-biofuel production, the minimum energy penalty for biochar production is 33 GJ Mg(-1) C. These substitution rates correspond to a wide range of Pareto-optimal system configurations, implying considerable latitude to choose pyrolysis conditions to optimize for desired biochar properties or to modulate energy versus biochar yields in response to fluctuating price differentials for the two commodities.

  3. Sources of Below-Ground Respired Carbon in a Northern Minnesota Ombrotrophic Spruce Bog and the Influence of Heating Manipulations.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guilderson, T. P.; McFarlane, K. J.; McNicol, G.; Hanson, P. J.; Chanton, J.; Wilson, R.; Bosworth, R.; Singleton, M. J.

    2015-12-01

    A significant uncertainty in future land-surface carbon budgets is the response of wetlands to climate change. A related question is the future net climate (radiative) forcing impact due to ecosystem and environmental change in wetlands. Active wetlands emit both CO2 and CH4 to the atmosphere. CH4 is, over a few decades, a much more potent greenhouse gas than CO2 whereas as a consequence of a much longer atmospheric lifetime, CO2 has a longer 'tail' to its influence. Whether wetlands are a net source or sink of atmospheric carbon under future climate change will depend on the response of the ecosystem to rising temperatures and elevated CO2. The largest uncertainty in future wetland budgets, and its climate forcing, is the stability of the large belowground carbon stocks, often in the form of peat, and the partitioning of CO2 and CH4released via ecosystem respiration. We have characterized the isotopic signatures (14,13C of CO2 and CH4, D-CH4) of the respired carbon used for the production of CO2 and CH4 from the DOE Spruce and Peatland Responses Under Climatic and Environmental Change (SPRUCE) site in the Marcell Experimental Forest, which contains replicated mesocosm manipulations including above/below ground warming and elevated CO2. Deep warming (1-2 m) was initiated in July of 2014 and above ground heating will be initiated in July 2015. Comparison of the respired CO2 and CH4with recently fixed photosynthate, below-ground peat (up to 11,000 years old), and dissolved organic carbon allow us to determine the primary substrates used by the microbial community. Control and pre-perturbed plots are characterized by the consumption and respiration of recently fixed photosynthate and recent (few years to 15 yr) carbon. Although CH4 fluxes have begun to respond to deep-heating, the source of carbon remains similar in the control and perturbed plots. Respired CO2 remains consistent with being sourced from carbon only a few years old. We will present additional data

  4. Source Distribution Method for Unsteady One-Dimensional Flows With Small Mass, Momentum, and Heat Addition and Small Area Variation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mirels, Harold

    1959-01-01

    A source distribution method is presented for obtaining flow perturbations due to small unsteady area variations, mass, momentum, and heat additions in a basic uniform (or piecewise uniform) one-dimensional flow. First, the perturbations due to an elemental area variation, mass, momentum, and heat addition are found. The general solution is then represented by a spatial and temporal distribution of these elemental (source) solutions. Emphasis is placed on discussing the physical nature of the flow phenomena. The method is illustrated by several examples. These include the determination of perturbations in basic flows consisting of (1) a shock propagating through a nonuniform tube, (2) a constant-velocity piston driving a shock, (3) ideal shock-tube flows, and (4) deflagrations initiated at a closed end. The method is particularly applicable for finding the perturbations due to relatively thin wall boundary layers.

  5. Energy budgeting and carbon footprint of transgenic cotton-wheat production system through peanut intercropping and FYM addition.

    PubMed

    Singh, Raman Jeet; Ahlawat, I P S

    2015-05-01

    Two of the most pressing sustainability issues are the depletion of fossil energy resources and the emission of atmospheric green house gases like carbon dioxide to the atmosphere. The aim of this study was to assess energy budgeting and carbon footprint in transgenic cotton-wheat cropping system through peanut intercropping with using 25-50% substitution of recommended dose of nitrogen (RDN) of cotton through farmyard manure (FYM) along with 100% RDN through urea and control (0 N). To quantify the residual effects of previous crops and their fertility levels, a succeeding crop of wheat was grown with varying rates of nitrogen, viz. 0, 50, 100, and 150 kg ha(-1). Cotton + peanut-wheat cropping system recorded 21% higher system productivity which ultimately helped to maintain higher net energy return (22%), energy use efficiency (12%), human energy profitability (3%), energy productivity (7%), carbon outputs (20%), carbon efficiency (17%), and 11% lower carbon footprint over sole cotton-wheat cropping system. Peanut addition in cotton-wheat system increased the share of renewable energy inputs from 18 to 21%. With substitution of 25% RDN of cotton through FYM, share of renewable energy resources increased in the range of 21% which resulted into higher system productivity (4%), net energy return (5%), energy ratio (6%), human energy profitability (74%), energy productivity (6%), energy profitability (5%), and 5% lower carbon footprint over no substitution. The highest carbon footprint (0.201) was recorded under control followed by 50 % substitution of RDN through FYM (0.189). With each successive increase in N dose up to 150 kg N ha(-1) to wheat, energy productivity significantly reduced and share of renewable energy inputs decreased from 25 to 13%. Application of 100 kg N ha(-1) to wheat maintained the highest grain yield (3.71 t ha(-1)), net energy return (105,516 MJ ha(-1)), and human energy profitability (223.4) over other N doses applied to wheat

  6. Energy budgeting and carbon footprint of transgenic cotton-wheat production system through peanut intercropping and FYM addition.

    PubMed

    Singh, Raman Jeet; Ahlawat, I P S

    2015-05-01

    Two of the most pressing sustainability issues are the depletion of fossil energy resources and the emission of atmospheric green house gases like carbon dioxide to the atmosphere. The aim of this study was to assess energy budgeting and carbon footprint in transgenic cotton-wheat cropping system through peanut intercropping with using 25-50% substitution of recommended dose of nitrogen (RDN) of cotton through farmyard manure (FYM) along with 100% RDN through urea and control (0 N). To quantify the residual effects of previous crops and their fertility levels, a succeeding crop of wheat was grown with varying rates of nitrogen, viz. 0, 50, 100, and 150 kg ha(-1). Cotton + peanut-wheat cropping system recorded 21% higher system productivity which ultimately helped to maintain higher net energy return (22%), energy use efficiency (12%), human energy profitability (3%), energy productivity (7%), carbon outputs (20%), carbon efficiency (17%), and 11% lower carbon footprint over sole cotton-wheat cropping system. Peanut addition in cotton-wheat system increased the share of renewable energy inputs from 18 to 21%. With substitution of 25% RDN of cotton through FYM, share of renewable energy resources increased in the range of 21% which resulted into higher system productivity (4%), net energy return (5%), energy ratio (6%), human energy profitability (74%), energy productivity (6%), energy profitability (5%), and 5% lower carbon footprint over no substitution. The highest carbon footprint (0.201) was recorded under control followed by 50 % substitution of RDN through FYM (0.189). With each successive increase in N dose up to 150 kg N ha(-1) to wheat, energy productivity significantly reduced and share of renewable energy inputs decreased from 25 to 13%. Application of 100 kg N ha(-1) to wheat maintained the highest grain yield (3.71 t ha(-1)), net energy return (105,516 MJ ha(-1)), and human energy profitability (223.4) over other N doses applied to wheat

  7. Novel carbon-rich additives preparation by degradative solvent extraction of biomass wastes for coke-making.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xianqing; Li, Xian; Xiao, Li; Zhang, Xiaoyong; Tong, Shan; Wu, Chao; Ashida, Ryuichi; Liu, Wenqiang; Miura, Kouichi; Yao, Hong

    2016-05-01

    In this work, two extracts (Soluble and Deposit) were produced by degradative solvent extraction of biomass wastes from 250 to 350°C. The feasibilities of using Soluble and Deposit as additives for coke-making were investigated for the first time. The Soluble and Deposit, having significantly higher carbon content, lower oxygen content and extremely lower ash content than raw biomasses. All Solubles and most of Deposits can melt completely at the temperature ranged from 80 to 120°C and 140 to 180°C, respectively. The additions of Soluble or Deposit into the coke-making coal significantly improved their thermoplastic properties with as high as 9°C increase of the plastic range. Furthermore, the addition of Deposit or Soluble also markedly enhanced the coke quality through increasing coke strength after reaction (CSR) and reducing coke reactivity index (CRI). Therefore, the Soluble and Deposit were proved to be good additives for coke-making.

  8. Impacts of powdered activated carbon addition on trihalomethane formation reactivity of dissolved organic matter in membrane bioreactor effluent.

    PubMed

    Ma, Defang; Gao, Yue; Gao, Baoyu; Wang, Yan; Yue, Qinyan; Li, Qian

    2014-12-01

    Characteristics and trihalomethane (THM) formation reactivity of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in effluents from two membrane bioreactors (MBRs) with and without powdered activated carbon (PAC) addition (referred to as PAC/MBR and MBR, respectively) were examined to investigate the effects of PAC addition on THM formation of MBR effluent during chlorination. PAC addition increased the specific UV absorbance. Hydrophobic DOM especially hydrophobic acids in PAC/MBR effluent (50%) were more than MBR effluent (42%). DOM with molecular weight <1 kDa constituted 12% of PAC/MBR effluent DOM, which was less than that of MBR effluent (16%). Data obtained from excitation and emission matrix fluorescence spectroscopy revealed that PAC/MBR effluent DOM contained more simple aromatic protein, but had less fulvic acid-like and soluble microbial by-product-like. PAC addition reduced the formation of bromine-containing THMs during chlorination of effluents, but increased THM formation reactivity of effluent DOM. PMID:25150685

  9. Exploring the Sensitivity of Terrestrial Carbon Sources and Sinks to Nitrogen Cycle Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kheshgi, H. S.; Yang, X.; Jain, A.

    2009-12-01

    The sensitivity of terrestrial carbon sources and sinks to modeled nitrogen-cycle processes is explored and observational constraints considered to advance understanding of model differences and the uncertainty of CO2 projections. The magnitude of worldwide terrestrial carbon sources and sinks driven by changing climate and CO2 fertilization have been found to be attenuated by the dynamics of the nitrogen cycle, with the strength of this attenuation effect differing between coupled nitrogen-carbon-cycle models (Jain et al., GBC in press, 2009; Sokolov et al., J. of Climate, 2008; Thornton et al., GBC, 2007). In this study, a terrestrial nitrogen-carbon-cycle model (Yang et al., GBC in press, 2009) was used to evaluate how the nitrogen cycle influences terrestrial carbon sinks and sources in response to observation-based changes in atmospheric CO2, climate, nitrogen inputs, and land use over the 20th century and scenarios for these drivers over the 21st century. Modeled global carbon uptake by the terrestrial biosphere is found to be sensitive to, for example, the extent of nitrogen limitation in the tropics, the extent plant C/N ratio increase under nitrogen limitation and its consequent effects on productivity, and the change of rates of nitrogen inputs (e.g. biological nitrogen fixation and nitrogen deposition) and outputs (e.g. leaching and denitrification). Greater nitrogen limitation in tropical regions, reduced ability of plants to grow with increased C/N ratio, and decreased rates of nitrogen inputs and outputs (equal in equilibrium) each strengthen the nitrogen cycle’s effect of reducing carbon sinks and sources. Application of observation-based constraints to these nitrogen-cycle processes gives an estimate of the contribution of uncertainty in these processes to the uncertainty of CO2 projections.

  10. Carbon allocation, source-sink relations and plant growth: do we need to revise our carbon centric concepts?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Körner, Christian

    2014-05-01

    Since the discovery that plants 'eat air' 215 years ago, carbon supply was considered the largely unquestioned top driver of plant growth. The ease at which CO2 uptake (C source activity) can be measured, and the elegant algorithms that describe the responses of photosynthesis to light, temperature and CO2 concentration, explain why carbon driven growth and productivity became the starting point of all process based vegetation models. Most of these models, nowadays adopt other environmental drivers, such as nutrient availability, as modulating co-controls, but the carbon priority is retained. Yet, if we believe in the basic rules of stoichometry of all life, there is an inevitable need of 25-30 elements other then carbon, oxygen and hydrogen to build a healthy plant body. Plants compete for most of these elements, and their availability (except for N) is finite per unit land area. Hence, by pure plausibility, it is a highly unlikely situation that carbon plays the rate limiting role of growth under natural conditions, except in deep shade or on exceptionally fertile soils. Furthermore, water shortage and low temperature, both act directly upon tissue formation (meristems) long before photosynthetic limitations come into play. Hence, plants will incorporate C only to the extent other environmental drivers permit. In the case of nutrients and mature ecosystems, this sink control of plant growth may be masked in the short term by a tight, almost closed nutrient cycle or by widening the C to other element ratio. Because source and sink activity must match in the long term, it is not possible to identify the hierarchy of growth controls without manipulating the environment. Dry matter allocation to C rich structures and reserves may provide some stoichimetric leeway or periodic escapes from the more fundamental, long-term environmental controls of growth and productivity. I will explain why carbon centric explanations of growth are limited or arrive at plausible answers

  11. Alteration of belowground carbon dynamics by nitrogen addition in southern California mixed conifer forests

    SciTech Connect

    Nowinski, Nicole S.; Trumbore, Susan E.; Jimenez, Gloria; Fenn, Mark E.

    2009-04-01

    Nitrogen deposition rates in southern California are the highest in North America and have had substantial effects on ecosystem functioning. We document changes in the belowground C cycle near ponderosa pine trees experiencing experimental nitrogen (N) addition (50 and 150 kg N ha 1 a 1 as slow release urea since 1997) at two end member sites along a pollution gradient in the San Bernardino Mountains, California. Despite considerable differences in N deposition between the two sites, we observed parallel changes in microbial substrate use and soil enzyme activity with N addition. 14C measurements indicate that the mean age of C respired by the Oa horizon declined 10 15 years with N addition at both sites. N addition caused an increase in cellulolytic enzyme activity at the polluted site and a decrease in ligninolytic enzyme activity at the unpolluted site. Given the likely differences in lignin and cellulose ages, this could explain the difference in the age of microbial respiration with N addition. Measurements of fractionated soil organic matter did not show the same magnitude of changes in response to N addition as were observed for respired C. This lesser response was likely because the soils are mostly composed of C having turnover times of decades to centuries, and 9 years of N amendment were not enough to affect this material. Consequently, 14C of respired CO2 provided a more sensitive indicator of the effects of N addition than other methods. Results suggest that enhanced N deposition alone may not result in increased soil C storage in xeric ecosystems.

  12. Sorption of phthalate acid esters on black carbon from different sources.

    PubMed

    Xia, Xinghui; Dai, Zhineng; Zhang, Ju

    2011-10-01

    Black carbon (BC) is known as a strong sorbent for the sorption of planar hydrophobic organic compounds (HOCs), but there is very little information about the sorption of nonplanar HOCs on BC. In this study, the sorption of di-(2-ethyl-hexyl) phthalate (DEHP), one kind of nonplanar phthalate acid ester (PAE), by environmental BC collected from river sediments and pure BC (char-wood, char-stalk and soot-ash) was investigated. Strong and nonlinear sorption was observed for the sorption of DEHP on both pure BC and environmental BC with the Freundlich exponent ranging from 0.55 to 0.75 except for soot-ash, and the measured K(BC) (BC-water partition coefficient) of DEHP was about one order of magnitude higher than its organic carbon-water partition coefficient. There was a significant difference in sorption capacity among the environmental and pure BC. The presence of di-methyl phthalate (DMP) could significantly decrease the sorption of DEHP on BC, especially for environmental BC. In addition, the contribution of BC to the total sorption of DEHP on original river sediments was more than 50% when the equilibrium concentration of DEHP was less than 10 μg L(-1). This study indicated that ortho-substituted nonplanar PAEs could also be strongly sorbed by BC, and the difference in sorption among the BC samples revealed that it is important to take the source of BC into account when assessing its effects on the fate of HOCs in aquatic environment.

  13. Eutrophication and carbon sources in Chesapeake Bay over the last 2700 yr: Human impacts in context

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bratton, J.F.; Colman, Steven M.; Seal, R.R.

    2003-01-01

    To compare natural variability and trends in a developed estuary with human-influenced patterns, stable isotope ratios (??13C and ??15N) were measured in sediments from five piston cores collected in Chesapeake Bay. Mixing of terrestrial and algal carbon sources primarily controls patterns of ??13Corg profiles, so this proxy shows changes in estuary productivity and in delivery of terrestrial carbon to the bay. Analyses of ??15N show periods when oxygen depletion allowed intense denitrification and nutrient recycling to develop in the seasonally stratified water column, in addition to recycling taking place in surficial sediments. These conditions produced 15N-enriched (heavy) nitrogen in algal biomass, and ultimately in sediment. A pronounced increasing trend in ??15N of +4??? started in about A.D. 1750 to 1800 at all core sites, indicating greater eutrophication in the bay and summer oxygen depletion since that time. The timing of the change correlates with the advent of widespread land clearing and tillage in the watershed, and associated increases in erosion and sedimentation. Isotope data show that the region has experienced up to 13 wet-dry cycles in the last 2700 yr. Relative sea-level rise and basin infilling have produced a net freshening trend overprinted with cyclic climatic variability. Isotope data also constrain the relative position of the spring productivity maximum in Chesapeake Bay and distinguish local anomalies from sustained changes impacting large regions of the bay. This approach to reconstructing environmental history should be generally applicable to studies of other estuaries and coastal embayments impacted by watershed development. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Eutrophication and carbon sources in Chesapeake Bay over the last 2700 yr: human impacts in context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bratton, John F.; Colman, Steven M.; Seal, Robert R.

    2003-09-01

    To compare natural variability and trends in a developed estuary with human-influenced patterns, stable isotope ratios (δ 13C and δ 15N) were measured in sediments from five piston cores collected in Chesapeake Bay. Mixing of terrestrial and algal carbon sources primarily controls patterns of δ 13C org profiles, so this proxy shows changes in estuary productivity and in delivery of terrestrial carbon to the bay. Analyses of δ 15N show periods when oxygen depletion allowed intense denitrification and nutrient recycling to develop in the seasonally stratified water column, in addition to recycling taking place in surficial sediments. These conditions produced 15N-enriched (heavy) nitrogen in algal biomass, and ultimately in sediment. A pronounced increasing trend in δ 15N of +4‰ started in about A.D. 1750 to 1800 at all core sites, indicating greater eutrophication in the bay and summer oxygen depletion since that time. The timing of the change correlates with the advent of widespread land clearing and tillage in the watershed, and associated increases in erosion and sedimentation. Isotope data show that the region has experienced up to 13 wet-dry cycles in the last 2700 yr. Relative sea-level rise and basin infilling have produced a net freshening trend overprinted with cyclic climatic variability. Isotope data also constrain the relative position of the spring productivity maximum in Chesapeake Bay and distinguish local anomalies from sustained changes impacting large regions of the bay. This approach to reconstructing environmental history should be generally applicable to studies of other estuaries and coastal embayments impacted by watershed development.

  15. Effects of Water and Nitrogen Addition on Ecosystem Carbon Exchange in a Meadow Steppe

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yunbo; Jiang, Qi; Yang, Zhiming; Sun, Wei; Wang, Deli

    2015-01-01

    A changing precipitation regime and increasing nitrogen deposition are likely to have profound impacts on arid and semiarid ecosystem C cycling, which is often constrained by the timing and availability of water and nitrogen. However, little is known about the effects of altered precipitation and nitrogen addition on grassland ecosystem C exchange. We conducted a 3-year field experiment to assess the responses of vegetation composition, ecosystem productivity, and ecosystem C exchange to manipulative water and nitrogen addition in a meadow steppe. Nitrogen addition significantly stimulated aboveground biomass and net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE), which suggests that nitrogen availability is a primary limiting factor for ecosystem C cycling in the meadow steppe. Water addition had no significant impacts on either ecosystem C exchange or plant biomass, but ecosystem C fluxes showed a strong correlation with early growing season precipitation, rather than whole growing season precipitation, across the 3 experimental years. After we incorporated water addition into the calculation of precipitation regimes, we found that monthly average ecosystem C fluxes correlated more strongly with precipitation frequency than with precipitation amount. These results highlight the importance of precipitation distribution in regulating ecosystem C cycling. Overall, ecosystem C fluxes in the studied ecosystem are highly sensitive to nitrogen deposition, but less sensitive to increased precipitation. PMID:26010888

  16. Use of pyrolyzed carbon black as additive in hot mix asphalt

    SciTech Connect

    Park, T.; Lee, K.; Salgado, R.; Lovell, C.W.; Coree, B.J.

    1997-11-01

    This paper deals with the performance of mixtures of asphalt, pyrolyzed carbon black (CB{sub p}), and two aggregates (limestone and slag). Marshall mix design was performed to determine the optimum binder content at 5% of air voids. The range of the optimum binder content was 4.2%--5.5% for limestone mixtures and 6.3%--7.8% for slag mixtures, respectively. Dynamic confined creep tests, gyratory tests, resilient modulus tests, indirect tensile tests, and Hamburg wheel tracking tests were carried out using mixtures at the optimum binder content. The test results indicate that the use of CB{sub p} in asphalt pavements increases Marshall stability, decreases permanent strain, decreases the mix strain rate at 50 C and 138 kPa confinement, increases resilient modulus and tensile strength, and increases the stripping inflection point. These results suggest that CB{sub p} improves asphalt pavement performance.

  17. Design of a Soil Science practical exercise to understand the soil carbon sequestration after biochar addition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gascó, Gabriel; Cely, Paola; Saa-Requejo, Antonio; Mendez, Ana; Antón, Jose Manuel; Sánchez, Elena; Moratiel, Ruben; Tarquis, Ana M.

    2014-05-01

    The adaptation of the Universities to European Higher Education Area (EHEA) involves changes in the learning system. Students must obtain specific capabilities in the different degrees or masters. For example, in the degree of Agronomy at the Universidad Politécnica de Madrid (UPM, Spain), they must command Soil science, Mathematics or English. Sometimes, There is not a good communication between teachers and it causes that students do not understand the importance of the different subjects of a career. For this reason, teachers of the Soil Science and Mathematics Departments of the UPM designed a common practice to teach to the students the role of soil on the carbon sequestration. The objective of this paper is to explain the followed steps to the design of the practice. Acknowledgement to Universidad Politécnica de Madrid for the Projects in Education Innovation IE12_13-02009 and IE12_13-02012.

  18. Tracking Nonpoint Source Nitrogen and Carbon in Watersheds of Chesapeake Bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaushal, S.; Pennino, M. J.; Duan, S.; Blomquist, J.

    2012-12-01

    Humans have altered nitrogen and carbon cycles in rivers regionally with important impacts on coastal ecosystems. Nonpoint source nitrogen pollution is a leading contributor to coastal eutrophication and hypoxia. Shifts in sources of carbon impact downstream ecosystem metabolism and fate and transport of contaminants in coastal zones. We used a combination of stable isotopes and optical tracers to investigate fate and transport of nitrogen and carbon sources in tributaries of the largest estuary in the U.S., the Chesapeake Bay. We analyzed isotopic composition of water samples from major tributaries including the Potomac River, Susquehanna River, Patuxent River, and Choptank River during routine and storm event sampling over multiple years. A positive correlation between δ15N-NO3- and δ18O-NO3- in the Potomac River above Washington D.C. suggested denitrification or biological uptake in the watershed was removing agriculturally-derived N during summer months. In contrast, the Patuxent River in Maryland showed elevated δ15N-NO3- (5 - 12 per mil) with no relationship to δ18O-NO3- suggesting the importance of wastewater sources. From the perspective of carbon sources, there were distinct isotopic values of the δ13C-POM of particulate organic matter and fluorescence excitation emission matrices (EEMS) for rivers influenced by their dominant watershed land use. EEMS showed that there were increases in the humic and fulvic fractions of dissolved organic matter during spring floods, particularly in the Potomac River. Stable isotopic values of δ13C-POM also showed rapid depletion suggesting terrestrial carbon "pulses" in the Potomac River each spring. The δ15N-POM peaked to 10 - 15 per mil each spring suggested a potential manure source or result of biological processing within the watershed. Overall, there were considerable changes in sources and transformations of nitrogen and carbon that varied across rivers and that contribute to nitrogen and carbon loads

  19. Evaluation of different carbon sources for growth and biosurfactant production by Pseudomonas fluorescens isolated from wastewaters.

    PubMed

    Stoimenova, Emilia; Vasileva-Tonkova, Evgenia; Sotirova, Anna; Galabova, Danka; Lalchev, Zdravko

    2009-01-01

    The indigenous strain Pseudomonas fluorescens, isolated from industrial wastewater, was able to produce glycolipid biosurfactants from a variety of carbon sources, including hydrophilic compounds, hydrocarbons, mineral oils, and vegetable oils. Hexadecane, mineral oils, vegetable oils, and glycerol were preferred carbon sources for growth and biosurfactant production by the strain. Biosurfactant production was detected by measuring the surface and interfacial tension, rhamnose concentration and emulsifying activity. The surface tension of supernatants varied from 28.4 mN m(-1) with phenanthrene to 49.6 mN m(-1) with naphthalene and heptane as carbon sources. The interfacial tension has changed in a narrow interval between 6.4 and 7.6 mN m(-1). The emulsifying activity was determined to be highest in media with vegetable oils as substrates. The biosurfactant production on insoluble carbon sources contributed to a significant increase of cell hydrophobicity and correlated with an increased growth of the strain on these substrates. Based on these results, a mechanism of biosurfactant-enhanced interfacial uptake of hydrophobic substrates could be proposed as predominant for the strain. With hexadecane as a carbon source, the pH value of 7.0-7.2 and temperature of (28 +/- 2) degrees C were optimum for growth and biosurfactant production by P. fluorescens cells. The increased specific protein and biosurfactant release during growth of the strain on hexadecane in the presence of NaCl at contents up to 2% could be due to increased cell permeability. The capability of P. fluorescens strain HW-6 to adapt its own metabolism to use different nutrients as energy sources and to keep up relatively high biosurfactant levels in the medium during the stationary phase is a promising feature for its possible application in biological treatments.

  20. A Carbon Nano Tube electron impact ionisation source for low-power, compact spacecraft mass spectrometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheridan, S.; Bardwell, M. W.; Morse, A. D.; Morgan, G. H.

    2012-04-01

    A novel ionisation source which uses commercially available Carbon Nano Tube devices is demonstrated as a replacement for a filament based ionisation source in an ion trap mass spectrometer. The carbon nanotube ion source electron emission was characterised and exhibited typical emission of 30 ± 1.7 μA with an applied voltage differential of 300 V between the carbon nanotube tips and the extraction grid. The ion source was tested for longevity and operated under a condition of continuous emission for a period of 44 h; there was an observed reduction in emission current of 26.5% during operation. Spectra were generated by installing the ion source into a Finnigan Mat ITD700 ion trap mass spectrometer; the spectra recorded showed all of the characteristic m/z peaks from m/z 69 to m/z 219. Perfluorotributylamine spectra were collected and averaged contiguously for a period of 48 h with no significant signal loss or peak mass allocation shift. The low power requirements and low mass of this novel ionisation source are considered be of great value to future space missions where mass spectrometric technology will be employed.

  1. Short-term nitrogen additions can shift a coastal wetland from a sink to a source of N2O

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moseman-Valtierra, Serena; Gonzalez, Rosalinda; Kroeger, Kevin D.; Tang, Jianwu; Chao, Wei Chun; Crusius, John; Bratton, John; Green, Adrian; Shelton, James

    2011-01-01

    Coastal salt marshes sequester carbon at high rates relative to other ecosystems and emit relatively little methane particularly compared to freshwater wetlands. However, fluxes of all major greenhouse gases (N2O, CH4, and CO2) need to be quantified for accurate assessment of the climatic roles of these ecosystems. Anthropogenic nitrogen inputs (via run-off, atmospheric deposition, and wastewater) impact coastal marshes. To test the hypothesis that a pulse of nitrogen loading may increase greenhouse gas emissions from salt marsh sediments, we compared N2O, CH4 and respiratory CO2fluxes from nitrate-enriched plots in a Spartina patens marsh (receiving single additions of NaNO3 equivalent to 1.4 g N m−2) to those from control plots (receiving only artificial seawater solutions) in three short-term experiments (July 2009, April 2010, and June 2010). In July 2009, we also compared N2O and CH4 fluxes in both opaque and transparent chambers to test the influence of light on gas flux measurements. Background fluxes of N2O in July 2009 averaged −33 μmol N2O m−2 day−1. However, within 1 h of nutrient additions, N2O fluxes were significantly greater in plots receiving nitrate additions relative to controls in July 2009. Respiratory rates and CH4 fluxes were not significantly affected. N2O fluxes were significantly higher in dark than in transparent chambers, averaging 108 and 42 μmol N2O m−2 day−1 respectively. After 2 days, when nutrient concentrations returned to background levels, none of the greenhouse gas fluxes differed from controls. In April 2010, N2O and CH4 fluxes were not significantly affected by nitrate, possibly due to higher nitrogen demands by growing S. patens plants, but in June 2010 trends of higher N2O fluxes were again found among nitrate-enriched plots, indicating that responses to nutrient pulses may be strongest during the summer. In terms of carbon equivalents, the highest average N2O and CH4 fluxes observed, exceeded half

  2. Short-term nitrogen additions can shift a coastal wetland from a sink to a source of N2O

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moseman-Valtierra, S.; Gonzalez, R.; Kroeger, K.D.; Tang, J.; Chao, W.C.; Crusius, J.; Bratton, J.; Green, A.; Shelton, J.

    2011-01-01

    Coastal salt marshes sequester carbon at high rates relative to other ecosystems and emit relatively little methane particularly compared to freshwater wetlands. However, fluxes of all major greenhouse gases (N2O, CH4, and CO2) need to be quantified for accurate assessment of the climatic roles of these ecosystems. Anthropogenic nitrogen inputs (via run-off, atmospheric deposition, and wastewater) impact coastal marshes. To test the hypothesis that a pulse of nitrogen loading may increase greenhouse gas emissions from salt marsh sediments, we compared N2O, CH4 and respiratory CO2 fluxes from nitrate-enriched plots in a Spartina patens marsh (receiving single additions of NaNO3 equivalent to 1.4 g N m-2) to those from control plots (receiving only artificial seawater solutions) in three short-term experiments (July 2009, April 2010, and June 2010). In July 2009, we also compared N2O and CH4 fluxes in both opaque and transparent chambers to test the influence of light on gas flux measurements. Background fluxes of N2O in July 2009 averaged -33 ??mol N2O m-2 day-1. However, within 1 h of nutrient additions, N2O fluxes were significantly greater in plots receiving nitrate additions relative to controls in July 2009. Respiratory rates and CH4 fluxes were not significantly affected. N2O fluxes were significantly higher in dark than in transparent chambers, averaging 108 and 42 ??mol N2O m-2 day-1 respectively. After 2 days, when nutrient concentrations returned to background levels, none of the greenhouse gas fluxes differed from controls. In April 2010, N2O and CH4 fluxes were not significantly affected by nitrate, possibly due to higher nitrogen demands by growing S. patens plants, but in June 2010 trends of higher N2O fluxes were again found among nitrate-enriched plots, indicating that responses to nutrient pulses may be strongest during the summer. In terms of carbon equivalents, the highest average N2O and CH4 fluxes observed, exceeded half the magnitude of typical

  3. Short-term nitrogen additions can shift a coastal wetland from a sink to a source of N 2O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moseman-Valtierra, Serena; Gonzalez, Rosalinda; Kroeger, Kevin D.; Tang, Jianwu; Chao, Wei Chun; Crusius, John; Bratton, John; Green, Adrian; Shelton, James

    2011-08-01

    Coastal salt marshes sequester carbon at high rates relative to other ecosystems and emit relatively little methane particularly compared to freshwater wetlands. However, fluxes of all major greenhouse gases (N 2O, CH 4, and CO 2) need to be quantified for accurate assessment of the climatic roles of these ecosystems. Anthropogenic nitrogen inputs (via run-off, atmospheric deposition, and wastewater) impact coastal marshes. To test the hypothesis that a pulse of nitrogen loading may increase greenhouse gas emissions from salt marsh sediments, we compared N 2O, CH 4 and respiratory CO 2 fluxes from nitrate-enriched plots in a Spartina patens marsh (receiving single additions of NaNO 3 equivalent to 1.4 g N m -2) to those from control plots (receiving only artificial seawater solutions) in three short-term experiments (July 2009, April 2010, and June 2010). In July 2009, we also compared N 2O and CH 4 fluxes in both opaque and transparent chambers to test the influence of light on gas flux measurements. Background fluxes of N 2O in July 2009 averaged -33 μmol N 2O m -2 day -1. However, within 1 h of nutrient additions, N 2O fluxes were significantly greater in plots receiving nitrate additions relative to controls in July 2009. Respiratory rates and CH 4 fluxes were not significantly affected. N 2O fluxes were significantly higher in dark than in transparent chambers, averaging 108 and 42 μmol N 2O m -2 day -1 respectively. After 2 days, when nutrient concentrations returned to background levels, none of the greenhouse gas fluxes differed from controls. In April 2010, N 2O and CH 4 fluxes were not significantly affected by nitrate, possibly due to higher nitrogen demands by growing S. patens plants, but in June 2010 trends of higher N 2O fluxes were again found among nitrate-enriched plots, indicating that responses to nutrient pulses may be strongest during the summer. In terms of carbon equivalents, the highest average N 2O and CH 4 fluxes observed, exceeded half

  4. Old fronds serve as a vernal carbon source in the wintergreen fern Dryopteris intermedia (Aspleniaceae).

    PubMed

    Tessier, Jack T; Bornn, Matthew P

    2007-01-01

    Maintaining green leaves beyond the growing season has been hypothesized to benefit plants by supplying either a nutrient or a carbon source. Understanding such ecophysiological aspects of plants will help us to appreciate how a species functions in its environment and predict how it might be affected by future changes in that environment. The wintergreen fern species Dryopteris intermedia does not retranslocate nitrogen and phosphorus from old fronds in spring, but photosynthesis does take place in the old fronds during this season. To determine if carbon fixed in the old fronds is translocated to other parts of the plant, we labeled old fronds with (13)C via photosynthetic uptake and examined old fronds, new fronds, fine roots, and rhizomes for (13)C content 1 day and 1 month after labeling the old fronds. Vernally fixed carbon was translocated to the new fronds but not significantly to the below ground tissues. Old fronds in this species, therefore, serve as a carbon source for vernal growth of new fronds. This is the first study in which a fern was labeled with (13)C to track vernally fixed carbon from old fronds to the rest of the plant in a wintergreen species. Future research should examine the precise timing of this carbon movement and examine other species for a similar or contrasting strategy.

  5. Deep-sea hydrocarbon seep communities: evidence for energy and nutritional carbon sources

    SciTech Connect

    Brooks, J.M.; Kennicutt, M.C. II; Fisher, C.R.; Macko, S.A.; Cole, K.; Childress, J.J.; Bidigare, R.R.; Vetter, R.D.

    1987-11-20

    Mussels, clams, and tube worms collected in the vicinity of hydrocarbon seeps on the Louisiana slope contain mostly dead carbon, indicating that dietary carbon is largely derived from seeping oil and gas. Enzyme assays, elemental sulfur analysis, and carbon dioxide fixation studies demonstrate that vestimentiferan tube worms and three clam species contain intracellular, autotrophic sulfur bacterial symbionts. Carbon isotopic ratios of 246 individual animal tissues were used to differentiate heterotrophic (delta/sup 14/C = -14 to -20 per mil), sulfur-based (delta/sup 14/C = -30 to -42 per mil), and methane-based (delta/sup 13/C = <-40 per mil) energy sources. Mussels with symbiotic methanotrophic bacteria reflect the carbon isotopic composition of the methane source. Isotopically light nitrogen and sulfur confirm the chemoautotrophic nature of the seep animals. Sulfur-based chemosynthetic animals contain isotopically light sulfur, whereas methane-based symbiotic mussels more closely reflect the heavier oceanic sulfate pool. The nitrogen requirement of some seep animals may be supported by nitrogen-fixing bacteria. Some grazing neogastropods have isotopic values characteristic of chemosynthetic animals, suggesting the transfer of carbon into the background deep-sea fauna.

  6. Nitrogen-addition effects on leaf traits and photosynthetic carbon gain of boreal forest understory shrubs.

    PubMed

    Palmroth, Sari; Bach, Lisbet Holm; Nordin, Annika; Palmqvist, Kristin

    2014-06-01

    Boreal coniferous forests are characterized by fairly open canopies where understory vegetation is an important component of ecosystem C and N cycling. We used an ecophysiological approach to study the effects of N additions on uptake and partitioning of C and N in two dominant understory shrubs: deciduous Vaccinium myrtillus in a Picea abies stand and evergreen Vaccinium vitis-idaea in a Pinus sylvestris stand in northern Sweden. N was added to these stands for 16 and 8 years, respectively, at rates of 0, 12.5, and 50 kg N ha(-1) year(-1). N addition at the highest rate increased foliar N and chlorophyll concentrations in both understory species. Canopy cover of P. abies also increased, decreasing light availability and leaf mass per area of V. myrtillus. Among leaves of either shrub, foliar N content did not explain variation in light-saturated CO2 exchange rates. Instead photosynthetic capacity varied with stomatal conductance possibly reflecting plant hydraulic properties and within-site variation in water availability. Moreover, likely due to increased shading under P. abies and due to water limitations in the sandy soil under P. sylvestris, individuals of the two shrubs did not increase their biomass or shift their allocation between above- and belowground parts in response to N additions. Altogether, our results indicate that the understory shrubs in these systems show little response to N additions in terms of photosynthetic physiology or growth and that changes in their performance are mostly associated with responses of the tree canopy.

  7. Hierarchy of Carbon Source Selection in Paracoccus pantotrophus: Strict Correlation between Reduction State of the Carbon Substrate and Aerobic Expression of the nap Operon

    PubMed Central

    Ellington, M. J. K.; Bhakoo, K. K.; Sawers, G.; Richardson, D. J.; Ferguson, S. J.

    2002-01-01

    Paracoccus pantotrophus can express a periplasmic nitrate reductase (Nap) during aerobic growth. A proposed role for this enzyme is the dissipation of excess redox energy during oxidative metabolism of reduced carbon substrates. To investigate the regulation of nap expression, a transcriptional fusion between the nap promoter region of P. pantotrophus and the lacZ gene was constructed. When this fusion was used, analyses showed that transcription from the nap promoter increases as the average reduction state of the carbon atoms increases. Thus, β-galactosidase activities increase as the carbon source changes in the order succinate-acetate-butyrate. This result was obtained regardless of which of the three carbon sources was used for culture of the inoculum. If two carbon sources were presented together, the β-galactosidase activity was always the same as it was when the least-reduced carbon source was added alone. This suggests that the regulation is dependent upon metabolism of the more-reduced carbon sources rather than just their presence in the medium. Analysis of culture medium by 1H nuclear magnetic resonance showed that for aerobic growth P. pantotrophus strictly selected its carbon source in the order succinate-acetate-butyrate. This was reflected by diauxic growth kinetics on medium containing mixed carbon substrates. The regulatory mechanism underpinning such a selection is unknown but is likely to be related to the mechanism which controls the transcription of the nap operon. PMID:12169601

  8. Effect of geological carbon sources on eddy covariance measurements: analysis and possible correction approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papale, D.; Rey, A.; Belelli-Marchesini, L.; Etiope, G.; Pegoraro, E.

    2013-12-01

    A recent set of studies carried out in the SE of Spain highlighted the need to consider geological carbon sources when estimating the net ecosystem carbon balance (NECB) of terrestrial ecosystems located in areas potentially affected by geofluid circulation. In this study we present the mechanisms and propose a new methodology using physical parameters of the atmospheric boundary layer to quantify the CO2 coming from deep origin. To test our approach, we compare NECB estimates with seasonal patterns of soil CO2 efflux and vegetation activity measured by satellite images (NDVI) over two-year period at this site (2007/2008). According with the eddy covariance measurements the alpha grass ecosystem was a net carbon source (93.7 and 145.0 g C m-2, for the years 2007 and 2008, respectively) particularly as a result of large amounts of carbon released over the dry period. This relevant CO2 emission (reaching up to 15 umol m-2 s-1) was however not related to ecosystem activities as confirmed by measurements of soil CO2 efflux using chambers (ca. 0.5 umol m-2 s-1) and plant productivity that was minimal during this period. A simple correction based on a linear relationship between NECB and wind speed for different stability conditions and wind sectors has been used to estimate the geological flux FGEO and subtracted it from the NECB to obtain the biological flux FBIO. We then partitioned FBIO into gross primary productivity and ecosystem respiration and proved that, after removing FGEO, ecosystem and soil respiration followed similar temporal patterns. The annual contribution of the geological component to NECB was 49.6 and 46.7 % for the year 2007 and 2008, respectively. Therefore, potential contribution of geological carbon sources should be tested and quantified in those ecosystems located in areas with potential natural emission of geologic gases to the surface. References: REY A., BELELLI MARCHESINI L., WERE A., SERRANO ORTIZ P., ETIOPE G., PAPALE D, DOMINGO F

  9. Lead acid battery performance and cycle life increased through addition of discrete carbon nanotubes to both electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugumaran, Nanjan; Everill, Paul; Swogger, Steven W.; Dubey, D. P.

    2015-04-01

    Contemporary applications are changing the failure mechanisms of lead acid batteries. Sulfation at the negative electrode, acid stratification, and dendrite formation now precede positive electrode failures such as grid corrosion and active material shedding. To attenuate these failures, carbon has been explored as a negative electrode additive to increase charge acceptance, eliminate sulfation, and extend cycle life. Frequently, however, carbon incorporation decreases paste density and hinders manufacturability. Discrete carbon nanotubes (dCNT), also known as Molecular Rebar®, are lead acid battery additives which can be stably incorporated into either electrode to increase charge acceptance and cycle life with no change to paste density and without impeding the manufacturing process. Here, full-scale automotive batteries containing dCNT in the negative electrode or both negative and positive electrodes are compared to control batteries. dCNT batteries show little change to Reserve Capacity, improved Cold Cranking, increased charge acceptance, and enhanced overall system efficiency. Life cycle tests show >60% increases when dCNT are incorporated into the negative electrode (HRPSoC/SBA) and up to 500% when incorporated into both electrodes (SBA), with water loss per cycle reduced >20%. Failure modes of cycled batteries are discussed and a hypothesis of dCNT action is introduced: the dCNT/Had Overcharge Reaction Mechanism.

  10. Can we afford to waste carbon dioxide? Carbon dioxide as a valuable source of carbon for the production of light olefins.

    PubMed

    Centi, Gabriele; Iaquaniello, Gaetano; Perathoner, Siglinda

    2011-09-19

    Concerns about climate change have increased the amount of activity on carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) as one of the solutions to the problem of rising levels of CO(2) in the troposphere, while the reuse of CO(2) (carbon capture and recycling; CCR) has only recently received more attention. CCR is focused on the possibility of using CO(2) as a cheap (or even negative-value) raw material. This Concept paper analyzes this possibility from a different perspective: In a sustainable vision, can we afford to waste CO(2) as a source of carbon in a changing world faced with a fast depletion of natural carbon sources and in need of a low-carbon, resource-efficient economy? One of the points emerging from this discussion concerns the use of CO(2) for the production of olefins (substituting into or integrating with current energy-intensive methodologies that start from oil or syngas from other fossil fuel resources) if H(2) from renewable resources were available at competitive costs. This offers an opportunity to accelerate the introduction of renewable energy into the chemical production chain, and thus to improve resource efficiency in this important manufacturing sector. PMID:21922678

  11. Can we afford to waste carbon dioxide? Carbon dioxide as a valuable source of carbon for the production of light olefins.

    PubMed

    Centi, Gabriele; Iaquaniello, Gaetano; Perathoner, Siglinda

    2011-09-19

    Concerns about climate change have increased the amount of activity on carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) as one of the solutions to the problem of rising levels of CO(2) in the troposphere, while the reuse of CO(2) (carbon capture and recycling; CCR) has only recently received more attention. CCR is focused on the possibility of using CO(2) as a cheap (or even negative-value) raw material. This Concept paper analyzes this possibility from a different perspective: In a sustainable vision, can we afford to waste CO(2) as a source of carbon in a changing world faced with a fast depletion of natural carbon sources and in need of a low-carbon, resource-efficient economy? One of the points emerging from this discussion concerns the use of CO(2) for the production of olefins (substituting into or integrating with current energy-intensive methodologies that start from oil or syngas from other fossil fuel resources) if H(2) from renewable resources were available at competitive costs. This offers an opportunity to accelerate the introduction of renewable energy into the chemical production chain, and thus to improve resource efficiency in this important manufacturing sector.

  12. Biological nitrate removal using a food waste-derived carbon source in synthetic wastewater and real sewage.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Haowei; Jiang, Jianguo; Li, Menglu; Yan, Feng; Gong, Changxiu; Wang, Quan

    2016-01-15

    The production of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) from food waste to improve biological nutrient removal has drawn much attention. In this study, acidogenic liquid from food waste was used as an alternative carbon source for synthetic wastewater treatment. C/N ratios of 5 and 6 were suitable for denitrification, and the change in acidogenic liquid composition had no negative effect on denitrification. The denitrification rates using optimal carbon-to-nitrate ratios of acidogenic liquid were more than 25 mg NO3-N/(gVSS·h). At the same time, acidogenic liquid was used to improve nutrient removal from summer and winter sewage. C/N ratios of 5 and 6 were acceptable for summer sewage treatment. Total nitrogen in the final effluent was less than 7 mg/L. Two additional hours were required for winter sewage treatment, and the C/N ratio had to be >6.

  13. Biological nitrate removal using a food waste-derived carbon source in synthetic wastewater and real sewage.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Haowei; Jiang, Jianguo; Li, Menglu; Yan, Feng; Gong, Changxiu; Wang, Quan

    2016-01-15

    The production of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) from food waste to improve biological nutrient removal has drawn much attention. In this study, acidogenic liquid from food waste was used as an alternative carbon source for synthetic wastewater treatment. C/N ratios of 5 and 6 were suitable for denitrification, and the change in acidogenic liquid composition had no negative effect on denitrification. The denitrification rates using optimal carbon-to-nitrate ratios of acidogenic liquid were more than 25 mg NO3-N/(gVSS·h). At the same time, acidogenic liquid was used to improve nutrient removal from summer and winter sewage. C/N ratios of 5 and 6 were acceptable for summer sewage treatment. Total nitrogen in the final effluent was less than 7 mg/L. Two additional hours were required for winter sewage treatment, and the C/N ratio had to be >6. PMID:26547269

  14. BACTERIOPLANKTON DYNAMICS IN PENSACOLA BAY, FL, USA: ROLE OF PHYTOPLANKTON AND DETRIAL CARBON SOURCES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bacterioplankton Dynamics in Pensacola Bay, FL, USA: Role of Phytoplankton and Detrital Carbon Sources (Abstract). To be presented at the16th Biennial Conference of the Estuarine Research Foundation, ERF 2001: An Estuarine Odyssey, 4-8 November 2001, St. Pete Beach, FL. 1 p. (ER...

  15. Carbon source and irrigation evaluation for anaerobic soil disinfestation in southern California

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Water use efficiency and utilization of feasible carbon sources have been important factors for successful implementation and adoption of ASD in California and are the focus of current research. In the 2014-15 study at Santa Paula, CA we compared ASD with 9 t of rice bran bed-incorporated with eith...

  16. FOREST HARVESTS AND WOOD PRODUCTS: SOURCES AND SINKS OF ATMOSPHERIC CARBON DIOXIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Changes in the net carbon(c)sink-source balance related to a country's forest harvesting and use of wood products is an important component in making country-level inventories of greenhouse gas emissions,a current activity within many signatory nations to the UN Framework Convent...

  17. PCDD/F FORMATION RATES FROM FLY ASH AND METHANE COMBUSTION CARBON SOURCES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The abstract discusses polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDD,F) from fly ash and methane combustion carbon sources. (NOTE: PCDD,Fs are formed in trace quantities in combustion processes via two primary mechanisms: de novo synthesis in which they ...

  18. Silica-Based Carbon Source Delivery for In-situ Bioremediation Enhancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, L.; Lee, M. H.; Lee, B.; Yang, S.

    2015-12-01

    Colloidal silica aqueous suspensions undergo viscosity increasing and gelation over time under favorable geochemical conditions. This property of silica suspension can potentially be applied to deliver remedial amendments to the subsurface and establish slow release amendment sources for enhanced remediation. In this study, silica-based delivery of carbon sources for in-situ bioremediation enhancement is investigated. Sodium lactate, vegetable oil, ethanol, and molasses have been studied for the interaction with colloidal silica in aqueous suspensions. The rheological properties of the carbon source amendments and silica suspension have been investigated. The lactate-, ethanol-, and molasses-silica suspensions exhibited controllable viscosity increase and eventually became gels under favorable geochemical conditions. The gelation rate was a function of the concentration of silica, salinity, amendment, and temperature. The vegetable oil-silica suspensions increased viscosity immediately upon mixing, but did not perform gelation. The carbon source release rate from the lactate-, ethanol-, and molasses-silica gels was determined as a function of silica, salinity, amendment concentration. The microbial activity stimulation and in-situ bioremediation enhancement by the slow-released carbon from the amendment-silica gels will be demonstrated in future investigations planned in this study.

  19. Influence of carbon source amendment on effectiveness of anaerobic soil disinfestation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Anaerobic soil disinfestation (ASD; also termed biological soil disinfestation or soil reductive sterilization) is a non-chemical soil disinfestation process which includes 1) soil incorporation of a labile carbon (C) source, 2) mulching with a polyethylene film to limit gas exchange, and 3) drip ir...

  20. Enhancement of post-anoxic denitrification for biological nutrient removal: effect of different carbon sources.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hong-bo; Wang, Dong-bo; Li, Xiao-ming; Yang, Qi; Zeng, Guang-ming

    2015-04-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that post-anoxic denitrification and biological nutrient removal could be achieved in the oxic/anoxic/extended-idle wastewater treatment regime. This study further investigated the effect of different carbon sources on post-anoxic denitrification and biological nutrient removal. Acetate, propionate (volatile fatty acids (VFAs)), glucose (carbohydrate), methanol, and ethanol (alcohol) were used as the sole carbon source, respectively. The experimental results showed that VFA substrates led to an improvement in nitrogen and phosphorus removal. The total nitrogen and phosphorus removal efficiency values driven by acetate achieved 93 and 99%, respectively. In contrast, glucose present in mixed liquor deteriorated total nitrogen and phosphorus removal efficiency values to 72 and 54%. In the reactors cultured with methanol and ethanol, 66 and 63% of the total nitrogen were removed, and phosphorus removal efficiency values were 78 and 71%, respectively. The mechanism studies revealed that different carbon sources affected the transformations of intracellular polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) and glycogen. PHAs are the dominant storages for microorganisms cultured with VFA substrates. Though glycogen is not the favorable energy and carbon source for polyphosphate-accumulating organisms, it can be consumed by microorganisms related to biological nitrogen removal and is able to serve as the electron donor for post-anoxic denitrification.

  1. SOURCE APPORTIONMENT OF SEATTLE PM 2.5 USING STN ORGANIC CARBON PEAKS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Results from the Source Apportionment of Seattle PM2.5 Using STN Organic Carbon Peaks study will be presented at the American Association for Aerosol Research (AAAR) 24th Annual Conference in Austin, Texas (Oct 17 - 21, 2005). Receptor modeling results from Seattle us...

  2. Enhanced light absorption by mixed source black and brown carbon particles in UK winter

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shang; Aiken, Allison C.; Gorkowski, Kyle; Dubey, Manvendra K.; Cappa, Christopher D.; Williams, Leah R.; Herndon, Scott C.; Massoli, Paola; Fortner, Edward C.; Chhabra, Puneet S.; Brooks, William A.; Onasch, Timothy B.; Jayne, John T.; Worsnop, Douglas R.; China, Swarup; Sharma, Noopur; Mazzoleni, Claudio; Xu, Lu; Ng, Nga L.; Liu, Dantong; Allan, James D.; Lee, James D.; Fleming, Zoë L.; Mohr, Claudia; Zotter, Peter; Szidat, Sönke; Prévôt, André S. H.

    2015-01-01

    Black carbon (BC) and light-absorbing organic carbon (brown carbon, BrC) play key roles in warming the atmosphere, but the magnitude of their effects remains highly uncertain. Theoretical modelling and laboratory experiments demonstrate that coatings on BC can enhance BC's light absorption, therefore many climate models simply assume enhanced BC absorption by a factor of ∼1.5. However, recent field observations show negligible absorption enhancement, implying models may overestimate BC's warming. Here we report direct evidence of substantial field-measured BC absorption enhancement, with the magnitude strongly depending on BC coating amount. Increases in BC coating result from a combination of changing sources and photochemical aging processes. When the influence of BrC is accounted for, observationally constrained model calculations of the BC absorption enhancement can be reconciled with the observations. We conclude that the influence of coatings on BC absorption should be treated as a source and regionally specific parameter in climate models. PMID:26419204

  3. Enhanced light absorption by mixed source black and brown carbon particles in UK winter.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shang; Aiken, Allison C; Gorkowski, Kyle; Dubey, Manvendra K; Cappa, Christopher D; Williams, Leah R; Herndon, Scott C; Massoli, Paola; Fortner, Edward C; Chhabra, Puneet S; Brooks, William A; Onasch, Timothy B; Jayne, John T; Worsnop, Douglas R; China, Swarup; Sharma, Noopur; Mazzoleni, Claudio; Xu, Lu; Ng, Nga L; Liu, Dantong; Allan, James D; Lee, James D; Fleming, Zoë L; Mohr, Claudia; Zotter, Peter; Szidat, Sönke; Prévôt, André S H

    2015-09-30

    Black carbon (BC) and light-absorbing organic carbon (brown carbon, BrC) play key roles in warming the atmosphere, but the magnitude of their effects remains highly uncertain. Theoretical modelling and laboratory experiments demonstrate that coatings on BC can enhance BC's light absorption, therefore many climate models simply assume enhanced BC absorption by a factor of ∼1.5. However, recent field observations show negligible absorption enhancement, implying models may overestimate BC's warming. Here we report direct evidence of substantial field-measured BC absorption enhancement, with the magnitude strongly depending on BC coating amount. Increases in BC coating result from a combination of changing sources and photochemical aging processes. When the influence of BrC is accounted for, observationally constrained model calculations of the BC absorption enhancement can be reconciled with the observations. We conclude that the influence of coatings on BC absorption should be treated as a source and regionally specific parameter in climate models.

  4. Free nitrous acid pretreatment of wasted activated sludge to exploit internal carbon source for enhanced denitrification.

    PubMed

    Ma, Bin; Peng, Yongzhen; Wei, Yan; Li, Baikun; Bao, Peng; Wang, Yayi

    2015-03-01

    Using internal carbon source contained in waste activated sludge (WAS) is beneficial for nitrogen removal from wastewater with low carbon/nitrogen ratio, but it is usually limited by sludge disintegration. This study presented a novel strategy based on free nitrous acid (FNA) pretreatment to intensify the release of organic matters from WAS for enhanced denitrification. During FNA pretreatment, soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD) production kept increasing when FNA increased from 0 to 2.04 mg HNO2-N/L. Compared with untreated WAS, the internal carbon source production increased by 50% in a simultaneous fermentation and denitrification reactor fed with WAS pretreated by FNA for 24 h at 2.04 mg HNO2-N/L. This also increased denitrification efficiency by 76% and sludge reduction by 87.5%. More importantly, greenhouse gas nitrous oxide production in denitrification was alleviated since more electrons could be provided by FNA pretreated WAS.

  5. Applicability of industrial wastewater as carbon source for denitrification of a sludge dewatering liquor.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jiazhong; Lee, Yoomin; Oleszkiewicz, Jan A

    2013-01-01

    The applicability of four industrial waste streams from potato processing, canola processing and oil refining, biodiesel production (glycerol), and glycol as substitutes to methanol and ethanol in denitrification of anaerobically digested sludge dewatering liquor (centrate) was evaluated in bench-scale sequencing batch reactors. It was found that glycerol was the best substitute with the specific denitrification rate (SDNR) of 13 mg NO3-N/(g VSS x h) followed by potato processing wastewater at 12mg NO3-N/(g VSS x h). Both substrates produced faster SDNR than methanol's 10mg NO3-N/(g VSS x h); however, they were inferior to ethanol's 17 mg NO3-N/(g VSS x h). Glycol had SDNR of 8 mg NO3-N/(g VSS x h) and demonstrated a very fast acclimation rate, i.e. the response in increased denitrification rate was visible in three days following glycol addition. Canola processing and oil refining wastewater was considered an inappropriate carbon source due to a low SDNR of 5 mg NO3-N/(g VSS x h) and apparent inhibitory effect on nitrification.

  6. Relative Contributions of Fossil and Contemporary Carbon sources to PM 2.5 Aerosols at Nine IMPROVE Network Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Bench, G; Fallon, S; Schichtel, B; Malm, W; McDade, C

    2006-06-26

    Particulate matter aerosols contribute to haze diminishing vistas and scenery at National Parks and Wilderness Areas within the United States. To increase understanding of the sources of carbonaceous aerosols at these settings, the total carbon loading and {sup 14}C/C ratio of PM 2.5 aerosols at nine IMPROVE (Interagency Monitoring for Protection Of Visual Environments) network sites were measured. Aerosols were collected weekly in the summer and winter at one rural site, two urban sites, five sites located in National Parks and one site located in a Wildlife Preserve. The carbon measurements together with the absence of {sup 14}C in fossil carbon materials and the known {sup 14}C/C levels in contemporary carbon materials were used to derive contemporary and fossil carbon contents of the particulate matter. Contemporary and fossil carbon aerosol loadings varied across the sites and suggest different percentages of carbon source inputs. The urban sites had the highest fossil carbon loadings that comprised around 50% of the total carbon aerosol loading. The Wildlife Preserve and National Park sites together with the rural site had much lower fossil carbon loading components. At these sites, variations in the total carbon aerosol loading were dominated by non-fossil carbon sources. This suggests that reduction of anthroprogenic sources of fossil carbon aerosols may result in little decrease in carbonaceous aerosol loading at many National Parks and rural areas.

  7. Stream restoration and sewers impact sources and fluxes of water,carbon, and nutrients in urban watersheds

    EPA Science Inventory

    An improved understanding of sources and timing of water and nutrient fluxes associated with urban stream restoration is critical for guiding effective watershed management. We investigated how sources, fluxes, and flowpaths of water, carbon (C), nitrogen (N), and phosphorus (P)...

  8. Geochemistry of dissolved inorganic carbon in a Coastal Plain aquifer. 2. Modeling carbon sources, sinks, and δ13C evolution

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McMahon, Peter B.; Chapelle, Francis H.

    1991-01-01

    Stable isotope data for dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), carbonate shell material and cements, and microbial CO2 were combined with organic and inorganic chemical data from aquifer and confining-bed pore waters to construct geochemical reaction models along a flowpath in the Black Creek aquifer of South Carolina. Carbon-isotope fractionation between DIC and precipitating cements was treated as a Rayleigh distillation process. Organic matter oxidation was coupled to microbial fermentation and sulfate reduction. All reaction models reproduced the observed chemical and isotopic compositions of final waters. However, model 1, in which all sources of carbon and electron-acceptors were assumed to be internal to the aquifer, was invalidated owing to the large ratio of fermentation CO2 to respiration CO2 predicted by the model (5–49) compared with measured ratios (two or less). In model 2, this ratio was reduced by assuming that confining beds adjacent to the aquifer act as sources of dissolved organic carbon and sulfate. This assumption was based on measured high concentrations of dissolved organic acids and sulfate in confining-bed pore waters (60–100 μM and 100–380 μM, respectively) relative to aquifer pore waters (from less than 30 μM and 2–80 μM, respectively). Sodium was chosen as the companion ion to organic-acid and sulfate transport from confining beds because it is the predominant cation in confining-bed pore waters. As a result, excessive amounts of Na-for-Ca ion exchange and calcite precipitation (three to four times more cement than observed in the aquifer) were required by model 2 to achieve mass and isotope balance of final water. For this reason, model 2 was invalidated. Agreement between model-predicted and measured amounts of carbonate cement and ratios of fermentation CO2 to respiration CO2 were obtained in a reaction model that assumed confining beds act as sources of DIC, as well as organic acids and sulfate. This assumption was

  9. Radiocarbon Analysis Source Apportionment of Fossil and Modern Atmospheric Carbon from DISCOVER-AQ Houston

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortiz, S. M.; Yoon, S.; Barrett, T. E.; Usenko, S.; Sheesley, R. J.

    2015-12-01

    DISCOVER-AQ (Deriving Information on Surface Conditions from Column and Vertically Resolved Observations Resolved Observations Relevant to Air Quality) is a sampling campaign aimed to monitor regional atmospheric pollutants within a collection of cities across the United States. In September 2013, ground-based air samplers were placed selectively to represent the city of Houston: Moody Tower (downtown; urban) and Manvel Croix (southern; suburb), Conroe (far north; suburb) and La Porte (east; urban industrial), with the goal of understanding particulate matter sources and composition and exposure in urban communities. Radiocarbon analysis was conducted on TSP (total suspended particulate matter) and PM2.5 (particulate matter less than 2.5 μm in aerodynamic diameter) from ground-based samplers. Radiocarbon is used to determine the contributions of contemporary and fossil sources to carbonaceous aerosol in Houston. Contemporary sources of atmospheric carbon in TSP and PM2.5 include primary biogenic emissions, biomass combustion and SOA produced in the atmosphere from biogenic- and biomass combustion-derived volatile organic carbon. Fossil sources of atmospheric carbon in PM2.5 and TSP include all types of primary fossil fuel combustion and SOA produced in the atmosphere from fossil-derived volatile organic carbon. Results from the last week of the campaign, September 21-28th, displayed a PM2.5 contemporary carbon fraction of 48-78% for Moody Tower, 59-86% for Manvel Croix, 66-89% for Conroe. Ambient TSP had contemporary carbon fractions of 51-65% for Moody Tower and 51-83% for La Porte.

  10. Culture medium pH influence on Gluconacetobacter physiology: Cellulose production rate and yield enhancement in presence of multiple carbon sources.

    PubMed

    Yassine, Fatima; Bassil, Nathalie; Flouty, Roula; Chokr, Ali; Samrani, Antoine El; Boiteux, Gisèle; Tahchi, Mario El

    2016-08-01

    Gluconacetobacter genera are valued for bacterial cellulose (BC) and acetic acid production. BC is produced at optimal yields in classical microbiological media that are expensive for a large scale of production. In addition, BC usage for industrial purposes is limited due to low conversion rate into cellulose and to long incubation duration. In this paper, Gluconacetobacter isolated from apple vinegar was kinetically studied to evaluate cellulose production in presence of different carbon sources. Acetic and citric acid effect on Gluconacetobacter metabolism is clarified. It was shown that Gluconacetobacter uses glucose as a primary carbon source for cells growth and products formation. Acetic acid employment as a co-carbon source in Hestrin Schramm medium showed an increase of 17% in BC yield with a moderate decrease in the crystallite size of the resulting polymer.

  11. Culture medium pH influence on Gluconacetobacter physiology: Cellulose production rate and yield enhancement in presence of multiple carbon sources.

    PubMed

    Yassine, Fatima; Bassil, Nathalie; Flouty, Roula; Chokr, Ali; Samrani, Antoine El; Boiteux, Gisèle; Tahchi, Mario El

    2016-08-01

    Gluconacetobacter genera are valued for bacterial cellulose (BC) and acetic acid production. BC is produced at optimal yields in classical microbiological media that are expensive for a large scale of production. In addition, BC usage for industrial purposes is limited due to low conversion rate into cellulose and to long incubation duration. In this paper, Gluconacetobacter isolated from apple vinegar was kinetically studied to evaluate cellulose production in presence of different carbon sources. Acetic and citric acid effect on Gluconacetobacter metabolism is clarified. It was shown that Gluconacetobacter uses glucose as a primary carbon source for cells growth and products formation. Acetic acid employment as a co-carbon source in Hestrin Schramm medium showed an increase of 17% in BC yield with a moderate decrease in the crystallite size of the resulting polymer. PMID:27112876

  12. The efficiency of quartz addition on electric arc furnace (EAF) carbon steel slag stability.

    PubMed

    Mombelli, D; Mapelli, C; Barella, S; Gruttadauria, A; Le Saout, G; Garcia-Diaz, E

    2014-08-30

    Electric arc furnace slag (EAF) has the potential to be re-utilized as an alternative to stone material, however, only if it remains chemically stable on contact with water. The presence of hydraulic phases such as larnite (2CaO SiO2) could cause dangerous elements to be released into the environment, i.e. Ba, V, Cr. Chemical treatment appears to be the only way to guarantee a completely stable structure, especially for long-term applications. This study presents the efficiency of silica addition during the deslagging period. Microstructural characterization of modified slag was performed by SEM and XRD analysis. Elution tests were performed according to the EN 12457-2 standard, with the addition of silica and without, and the obtained results were compared. These results demonstrate the efficiency of the inertization process: the added silica induces the formation of gehlenite, which, even in caustic environments, does not exhibit hydraulic behaviour. PMID:25113518

  13. The efficiency of quartz addition on electric arc furnace (EAF) carbon steel slag stability.

    PubMed

    Mombelli, D; Mapelli, C; Barella, S; Gruttadauria, A; Le Saout, G; Garcia-Diaz, E

    2014-08-30

    Electric arc furnace slag (EAF) has the potential to be re-utilized as an alternative to stone material, however, only if it remains chemically stable on contact with water. The presence of hydraulic phases such as larnite (2CaO SiO2) could cause dangerous elements to be released into the environment, i.e. Ba, V, Cr. Chemical treatment appears to be the only way to guarantee a completely stable structure, especially for long-term applications. This study presents the efficiency of silica addition during the deslagging period. Microstructural characterization of modified slag was performed by SEM and XRD analysis. Elution tests were performed according to the EN 12457-2 standard, with the addition of silica and without, and the obtained results were compared. These results demonstrate the efficiency of the inertization process: the added silica induces the formation of gehlenite, which, even in caustic environments, does not exhibit hydraulic behaviour.

  14. Diamond crystallization in a CO2-rich alkaline carbonate melt with a nitrogen additive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khokhryakov, Alexander F.; Palyanov, Yuri N.; Kupriyanov, Igor N.; Nechaev, Denis V.

    2016-09-01

    Diamond crystallization was experimentally studied in a CO2-bearing alkaline carbonate melt with an increased content of nitrogen at pressure of 6.3 GPa and temperature of 1500 °C. The growth rate, morphology, internal structure of overgrown layers, and defect-impurity composition of newly formed diamond were investigated. The type of growth patterns on faces, internal structure, and nitrogen content were found to be controlled by both the crystallographic orientation of the growth surfaces and the structure of the original faces of diamond seed crystals. An overgrown layer has a uniform structure on the {100} plane faces of synthetic diamond and a fibrillar (fibrous) structure on the faceted surfaces of a natural diamond cube. The {111} faces have a polycentric vicinal relief with numerous twin intergrowths and micro twin lamellae. The stable form of diamond growth under experimental conditions is a curved-face hexoctahedron with small cube faces. The nitrogen impurity concentration in overgrown layers varies depending on the growth direction and surface type, from 100 to 1100 ppm.

  15. Influence of carbon nanotube addition on sliding wear behaviour of pulse electrodeposited cobalt (Co)-phosphorus (P) coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edward Anand, E.; Natarajan, S.

    2015-09-01

    This work examines the sliding wear behaviour of nanostructured cobalt-phosphorus (Co-P) alloy electrodeposits reinforced with multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). Nanocrystalline cobalt-phosphorus alloy coatings reinforced with carbon nanotubes were produced by pulse electrodeposition from an aqueous bath. Tribological properties of the coatings with and without MWCNT addition were characterized. Anisotropic tribological behaviour was observed for the coatings reinforced with MWCNTs when slided against hard steel counterparts. The nanocrystalline Co-P-CNT coatings display better wear resistance and friction reduction compared with the nanocrystalline Co-P coating. The friction coefficients and wear rates of the nanocrystalline Co-P-CNT coating are influenced by the test conditions including the applied load, sliding speed and more importantly the alignment of MWCNTs in the deposits. The wear mechanisms of the nanocrystalline Co-P and Co-P-CNT alloy coatings involved in different sliding conditions are explained related to their friction and wear properties.

  16. Hot isostatic pressing of silicon nitride with boron nitride, boron carbide, and carbon additions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mieskowski, Diane M.; Sanders, William A.

    1989-01-01

    Si3N4 test bars containing additions of BN, B4C, and C, were hot isostatically pressed in Ta cladding at 1900 and 2050 C to 98.9 percent to 99.5 percent theoretical density. Room-temperature strength data on specimens containing 2 wt pct BN and 0.5 wt pct C were comparable to data obtained for Si3N4 sintered with Y2O3, Y2O3 and Al2O3, or ZrO2. The 1370 C strengths were less than those obtained for additions of Y2O3 or ZrO2 but greater than those obtained from a combination of Y2O3 and Al2O3. SEM fractography indicated that, as with other types of Si3N4, room-temperature strength was controlled by processing flaws. The decrease in strength at 1370 C was typical of Si3N4 having an amorphous grain-boundary phase. The primary advantage of nonoxide additions appears to be in facilitating specimen removal from the Ta cladding.

  17. Nutrient removal in wastewater treatment high rate algal ponds with carbon dioxide addition.

    PubMed

    Park, J B K; Craggs, R J

    2011-01-01

    The influence of CO2 addition to high rate algal ponds (HRAPS) on nitrogen removal was investigated using two pilot-scale HRAPs operated with different hydraulic retention times (HRT: 4 and 8 days), and was compared to the nitrogen removal by the 8-day HRT pond before CO2 addition was installed. Nitrogen balances were calculated by partitioning total nitrogen into organic and inorganic nitrogen (NH4+-N and NO3--N), and by separation of the organic nitrogen into particulate (PON) and dissolved organic nitrogen (DON). PON was further divided into algal organic nitrogen (AON) and bacteria organic nitrogen (BON) to investigate nitrogen mass flow in the HRAPS. This research shows that the proportion of algae in the algal/bacterial biomass in the longer 8-day HRT HRAP8d (55.6%) was appreciably lower than that in the shorter 4-day HRT HRAP4d (80.5%) when CO2 was added to control the maximum pH to <8.0 during the summer. Higher bacterial biomass in the longer 8-day HRT HRAP corresponded with higher nitrification rates, indicating that the longer 8-day HRT in the summer was detrimental for two reasons: lower algal productivity and increased nitrogen loss through nitrification/denitrification. Overall nitrogen removal of approximately 60% in the HRAPS with CO2 addition was mainly achieved by algal assimilation followed by sedimentation in the settling unit.

  18. Methane-derived authigenic carbonates of mid-Cretaceous age in southern Tibet: Types of carbonate concretions, carbon sources, and formation processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Huimin; Chen, Xi; Wang, Chengshan; Zhao, Dekun; Weissert, Helmut

    2016-01-01

    Methane-derived authigenic carbonates with distinctive structures and morphologies have been documented worldwide, but they are rarely found from ancient strata in the Eastern Tethys Ocean. The methane-derived authigenic carbonates found in southern Tibet are developed in calcareous or silty shales of mid-Cretaceous age in the Xigaze forearc basin and in the Tethyan Himalaya tectonic zone. The morphology, mineralogy, elemental geochemistry and composition of carbon and oxygen isotopes of these carbonates are studied in detail. The carbonates have nodular, tubular, and tabular morphologies. They are primarily composed of carbonate cement that binds and partly replaces host sediment grains; host siliciclastic sediments are composed mainly of quartz and plagioclase feldspar; a few foraminifers; and framboidal or subhedral to euhedral pyrite. Carbonate cements dominantly are micritic calcite, with minor contribution of dolomite. Nodular concretions are characterized by depleted δ13C values, commonly ranging from -30‰ to -5‰. The δ13C values show a gradual decrease from the periphery to the center, and the CaO, SiO2, Fe2O3, Al2O3, K2O, and TiO2 contents generally show a gradual change. These features indicate that the nodular concretions grew from an early-formed center toward the periphery, and that the carbon source of the nodular concretions was derived from a mixture of methane, methanogenic CO2, and seawater-dissolved inorganic carbon. The tubular concretions are characterized by δ13C values of -8.85‰ to -3.47‰ in the Shangba Section, and -27.37‰ to -23.85‰ in the upper Gamba Section. Unlike the nodular concretions, the tubular concretions show central conduits, which are possible pathways of methane-rich fluids, suggesting that the cementation of tubular concretions begins at the periphery and proceeds inward. Moreover, the tubular concretions show morphological similarity with the methane-derived carbonate chimneys, pipes and slabs reported in

  19. 40 CFR 458.16 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard establishes the quantity or... GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) CARBON BLACK MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Carbon Black...

  20. 40 CFR 458.16 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard establishes the quantity or... GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) CARBON BLACK MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Carbon Black...

  1. 40 CFR 458.16 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard establishes the quantity or... GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) CARBON BLACK MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Carbon Black...

  2. 40 CFR 458.26 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard establishes the quantity or... GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) CARBON BLACK MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Carbon Black...

  3. 40 CFR 458.26 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard establishes the quantity or... GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) CARBON BLACK MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Carbon Black...

  4. Internal carbon source from sludge pretreated by microwave-H2O2 for nutrient removal in A2/O-membrane bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Xu, Rongle; Zhang, Qing; Tong, Juan; Wei, Yuansong; Fan, Yaobo

    2015-01-01

    To improve the nutrient removal, the feasibility was studied for the organics released from sludge pretreated by microwave-H2O2 process (MHP) to be used as internal carbon source in two A2/O-membrane bioreactors (MBRs). The experiments were conducted for the nutrient removal and the membrane fouling. The results showed that the removal efficiencies of TN and TP were improved by 11% and 28.34%, respectively, as C/N ratio was adjusted to 8 by adding the internal carbon source, and the ratio of soluble chemical oxygen demand (sCOD) consumed easily for denitrification was about 46% of the total sCOD in the internal carbon source. The addition of the internal carbon sources did not lead to severe membrane fouling in the experimental A2/O-MBR. It is implied that the organics released from sludge pretreated by MHP could be used as the internal carbon source to enhance the nutrient removal in A2/O-MBRs.

  5. Advanced Electron Beam Ion Sources (EBIS) for 2-nd generation carbon radiotherapy facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shornikov, A.; Wenander, F.

    2016-04-01

    In this work we analyze how advanced Electron Beam Ion Sources (EBIS) can facilitate the progress of carbon therapy facilities. We will demonstrate that advanced ion sources enable operation of 2-nd generation ion beam therapy (IBT) accelerators. These new accelerator concepts with designs dedicated to IBT provide beams better suited for therapy and, are more cost efficient than contemporary IBT facilities. We will give a sort overview of the existing new IBT concepts and focus on those where ion source technology is the limiting factor. We will analyse whether this limitation can be overcome in the near future thanks to ongoing EBIS development.

  6. Mass spectrometry of refractory black carbon particles from six sources: carbon-cluster and oxygenated ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corbin, J. C.; Sierau, B.; Gysel, M.; Laborde, M.; Keller, A.; Kim, J.; Petzold, A.; Onasch, T. B.; Lohmann, U.; Mensah, A. A.

    2013-10-01

    We discuss the major mass spectral features of different types of refractory carbonaceous particles, ionized after laser vapourization with an Aerodyne High-Resolution Soot-Particle Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (SP-AMS). The SP-AMS was operated with a switchable 1064 nm laser and a 600 °C thermal vapourizer, yielding respective measurements of the refractory and non-refractory particle components. Six samples were investigated, all of which were composed primarily of refractory material: fuel-rich and fuel-lean propane/air diffusion-flame combustion particles; graphite-spark-generated particles; a commercial Fullerene-enriched Soot; Regal Black, a commercial carbon black; and nascent aircraft-turbine combustion particles. All samples exhibited a spectrum of carbon-cluster ions Cxn+ in their refractory mass spectrum. Smaller clusters (x<6) were found to dominate the Cxn+ distribution. For Fullerene Soot, fuel-rich-flame particles and spark-generated particles, significant Cxn+ clusters at x≫6 were present, with significant contributions from multiply-charged ions (n>1). In all six cases, the ions C1+ and C3+ contributed over 60% to the total C15 were present. When such signals were present, C1+/C3+ was close to 1. When absent, C1+/C3+ was <0.8. This ratio may therefore serve as a proxy to distinguish between the two types of spectra in atmospheric SP-AMS measurements. Significant refractory oxygenated ions such as CO+ and CO2+ were also observed for all samples. We discuss these signals in detail for Regal Black, and describe their formation via decomposition of oxygenated moieties incorporated into the refractory carbon structure. These species may be of importance in atmospheric processes such as water uptake, aging and heterogeneous chemistry.

  7. Evaluating microbial carbon sources in Athabasca oil sands tailings ponds using natural abundance stable and radiocarbon isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahad, J. M.; Pakdel, H.

    2013-12-01

    Natural abundance stable (δ13C) and radiocarbon (Δ14C) isotopes of phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) were used to evaluate the carbon sources utilized by the active microbial populations in surface sediments from Athabasca oil sands tailings ponds. The absence of algal-specific PLFAs at three of the four sites investigated, in conjunction with δ13C signatures for PLFAs that were generally within ~3‰ of that reported for oil sands bitumen (~ -30‰), indicated that the microbial communities growing on petroleum constituents were dominated by aerobic heterotrophs. The Δ14C values of PLFAs ranged from -906 to -586‰ and pointed to a significant uptake of fossil carbon (up to ~90% of microbial carbon derived from petroleum), particularly in PLFAs (e.g., cy17:0 and cy19:0) often associated with petroleum hydrocarbon degrading bacteria. The comparatively higher levels of 14C in other, less specific PLFAs (e.g., 16:0) indicated the preferential uptake of younger organic matter by the general microbial population (~50-80% of microbial carbon derived from petroleum). Since the main carbon pools in tailings sediment were essentially 'radiocarbon dead' (i.e., no detectable 14C), the principal source for this modern carbon is considered to be the Athabasca River, which provides the bulk of the water used in the bitumen extraction process. The preferential uptake of the minor amount of young and presumably more biodegradable material present in systems otherwise dominated by recalcitrant petroleum constituents has important implications for remediation strategies. On the one hand, it implies that mining-related organic contaminants could persist in the environment long after tailings pond reclamation has begun. Alternatively, it may be that the young, labile organic matter provided by the Athabasca River plays an important role in stimulating or supporting the microbial utilization of petroleum carbon in oil sands tailings ponds via co-metabolism or priming processes

  8. Kinetics and bioenergetics of Spirulina platensis cultivation by fed-batch addition of urea as nitrogen source.

    PubMed

    Sassano, Carlos E N; Carvalho, João C M; Gioielli, Luiz A; Sato, Sunao; Torre, Paolo; Converti, Attilio

    2004-03-01

    The cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis was cultivated in bench-scale miniponds on bicarbonate/carbonate solutions using urea as nitrogen source. To minimize limitation and inhibition phenomena, urea was supplied semicontinuously using exponentially increasing feeding rates. The average growth rates obtained alternately varying the total mass of urea added per unit reactor volume (275 < mT < 725 mg/L) and the total feeding time (9 < tT < 15 d) clearly evidenced nitrogen limitation for mT< 500 mg/L and excess nitrogen inhibition above this threshold. The time behavior of the specific growth rate at variable urea feeding patterns allowed estimation of the time-dependent Gibbs energy dissipation for cell growth under the actual depletion conditions of fed-batch cultivations. Comparison of the yield of growth on Gibbs energy obtained using either urea or KNO3 pointed to the preference of S. platensis for the former nitrogen source, likely o