Science.gov

Sample records for additional challenges arise

  1. New challenges of the ARISE project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanc, Elisabeth

    2015-04-01

    It has been robustly demonstrated that variations in the circulation of the middle atmosphere influence weather and climate throughout the troposphere all the way to the Earth's surface. A key part of the coupling between the troposphere and stratosphere occurs through the propagation and breaking of planetary-scale Rossby waves and gravity waves. Limited observation of the middle atmosphere and these waves in particular limits the ability to faithfully reproduce the dynamics of the middle atmosphere in numerical weather prediction and climate models. The ARISE project combines for the first time international networks with complementary technologies such as infrasound, lidar and airglow. This joint network provided advanced data products that started to be used as benchmarks for weather forecast models. The ARISE network also allows enhanced and detailed monitoring of other extreme events in the Earth system such as erupting volcanoes, magnetic storms, tornadoes and tropical thunderstorms. In order to improve the ability of the network to monitor atmospheric dynamics, ARISE proposes to extend i) the existing network coverage in Africa and the high latitudes, ii) the altitude range in the stratosphere and mesosphere, iii) the observation duration using routine observation modes, and to use complementary existing infrastructures and innovative instrumentations. Data will be collected over the long term to improve weather forecasting to monthly or seasonal timescales, to monitor atmospheric extreme events and climate change. ARISE focuses on the link between models and observations for future assimilation of data by operational weather forecasting models. Among the applications, ARISE2 proposes infrasound remote volcano monitoring to provide notifications to civil aviation.

  2. Additive manufacturing in production: challenges and opportunities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahuja, Bhrigu; Karg, Michael; Schmidt, Michael

    2015-03-01

    Additive manufacturing, characterized by its inherent layer by layer fabrication methodology has been coined by many as the latest revolution in the manufacturing industry. Due to its diversification of Materials, processes, system technology and applications, Additive Manufacturing has been synonymized with terminology such as Rapid prototyping, 3D printing, free-form fabrication, Additive Layer Manufacturing, etc. A huge media and public interest in the technology has led to an innovative attempt of exploring the technology for applications beyond the scope of the traditional engineering industry. Nevertheless, it is believed that a critical factor for the long-term success of Additive Manufacturing would be its ability to fulfill the requirements defined by the traditional manufacturing industry. A parallel development in market trends and product requirements has also lead to a wider scope of opportunities for Additive Manufacturing. The presented paper discusses some of the key challenges which are critical to ensure that Additive Manufacturing is truly accepted as a mainstream production technology in the industry. These challenges would highlight on various aspects of production such as product requirements, process management, data management, intellectual property, work flow management, quality assurance, resource planning, etc. In Addition, changing market trends such as product life cycle, mass customization, sustainability, environmental impact and localized production will form the foundation for the follow up discussion on the current limitations and the corresponding research opportunities. A discussion on ongoing research to address these challenges would include topics like process monitoring, design complexity, process standardization, multi-material and hybrid fabrication, new material development, etc.

  3. Additive manufacturing of materials: Opportunities and challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Babu, Sudarsanam Suresh; Love, Lonnie J.; Dehoff, Ryan R.; Peter, William H.; Watkins, Thomas R.; Pannala, Sreekanth

    2015-11-01

    Additive manufacturing (also known as 3D printing) is considered a disruptive technology for producing components with topologically optimized complex geometries as well as functionalities that are not achievable by traditional methods. The realization of the full potential of 3D printing is stifled by a lack of computational design tools, generic material feedstocks, techniques for monitoring thermomechanical processes under in situ conditions, and especially methods for minimizing anisotropic static and dynamic properties brought about by microstructural heterogeneity. In this paper, we discuss the role of interdisciplinary research involving robotics and automation, process control, multiscale characterization of microstructure and properties, and high-performance computational tools to address each of these challenges. In addition, emerging pathways to scale up additive manufacturing of structural materials to large sizes (>1 m) and higher productivities (5–20 kg/h) while maintaining mechanical performance and geometrical flexibility are also discussed.

  4. Additive manufacturing of materials: Opportunities and challenges

    DOE PAGES

    Babu, Sudarsanam Suresh; Love, Lonnie J.; Dehoff, Ryan R.; ...

    2015-11-01

    Additive manufacturing (also known as 3D printing) is considered a disruptive technology for producing components with topologically optimized complex geometries as well as functionalities that are not achievable by traditional methods. The realization of the full potential of 3D printing is stifled by a lack of computational design tools, generic material feedstocks, techniques for monitoring thermomechanical processes under in situ conditions, and especially methods for minimizing anisotropic static and dynamic properties brought about by microstructural heterogeneity. In this paper, we discuss the role of interdisciplinary research involving robotics and automation, process control, multiscale characterization of microstructure and properties, and high-performancemore » computational tools to address each of these challenges. In addition, emerging pathways to scale up additive manufacturing of structural materials to large sizes (>1 m) and higher productivities (5–20 kg/h) while maintaining mechanical performance and geometrical flexibility are also discussed.« less

  5. Contingency bias in probability judgement may arise from ambiguity regarding additional causes.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Chris J; Griffiths, Oren; More, Pranjal; Lovibond, Peter F

    2013-09-01

    In laboratory contingency learning tasks, people usually give accurate estimates of the degree of contingency between a cue and an outcome. However, if they are asked to estimate the probability of the outcome in the presence of the cue, they tend to be biased by the probability of the outcome in the absence of the cue. This bias is often attributed to an automatic contingency detection mechanism, which is said to act via an excitatory associative link to activate the outcome representation at the time of testing. We conducted 3 experiments to test alternative accounts of contingency bias. Participants were exposed to the same outcome probability in the presence of the cue, but different outcome probabilities in the absence of the cue. Phrasing the test question in terms of frequency rather than probability and clarifying the test instructions reduced but did not eliminate contingency bias. However, removal of ambiguity regarding the presence of additional causes during the test phase did eliminate contingency bias. We conclude that contingency bias may be due to ambiguity in the test question, and therefore it does not require postulation of a separate associative link-based mechanism.

  6. Enhancing CNS repair in neurological disease: challenges arising from neurodegeneration and rewiring of the network.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaohua; Warrington, Arthur E; Bieber, Allan J; Rodriguez, Moses

    2011-07-01

    Repair of the central nervous system (CNS) constitutes an integral part of treating neurological disease and plays a crucial role in restoring CNS architecture and function. Distinct strategies have been developed to reconstruct the damaged neural tissue, with many tested preclinically in animal models. We review cell replacement-based repair strategies. By taking spinal cord injury, cerebral ischaemia and degenerative CNS disorders as examples for CNS repair, we discuss progress and potential problems in utilizing embryonic stem cells and adult neural/non-neural stem cells to repair cell loss in the CNS. Nevertheless, CNS repair is not simply a matter of cell transplantation. The major challenge is to induce regenerating neural cells to integrate into the neural network and compensate for damaged neural function. The neural cells confront an environment very different from that of the developmental stage in which these cells differentiate to form interwoven networks. During the repair process, one of the challenges is neurodegeneration, which can develop from interrupted innervations to/from the targets, chronic inflammation, ischaemia, aging or idiopathic neural toxicity. Neurodegeneration, which occurs on the basis of a characteristic vascular and neural web, usually presents as a chronically progressive process with unknown aetiology. Currently, there is no effective treatment to stop or slow down neurodegeneration. Pathological changes from patients with Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis indicate a broken homeostasis in the CNS. We discuss how the blood-brain barrier and neural networks are formed to maintain CNS homeostasis and their contribution to neurodegeneration in diseased conditions. Another challenge is that some inhibitors produced by CNS injury do not facilitate the regenerating neural cells to incorporate into a pre-existing network. We review glial responses to CNS injury. Of note, the reactive astrocytes

  7. ARISE to the Challenge: Partnering with Urban Youth to Improve Educational Research and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Tara M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines Action Research into School Exclusion (Project ARISE), a two-year research partnership between K-12 students and university researchers. Based on the principles of participatory action research (PAR), the project intentionally brought together university researchers, K-12 students, and pre-service teachers to bridge research…

  8. Navigating the Challenges Arising from University-School Collaborative Action Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yuan, Rui; Mak, Pauline

    2016-01-01

    Despite increasing evidence showing the benefits language teachers can reap from university-school collaborative action research (CAR), scant attention has been given to how university researchers collaborate with language teachers, what challenges they might encounter, and how they navigate such challenges in CAR. To fill the gap, this study…

  9. Future consequences and challenges for dairy cow production systems arising from climate change in Central Europe - a review.

    PubMed

    Gauly, M; Bollwein, H; Breves, G; Brügemann, K; Dänicke, S; Daş, G; Demeler, J; Hansen, H; Isselstein, J; König, S; Lohölter, M; Martinsohn, M; Meyer, U; Potthoff, M; Sanker, C; Schröder, B; Wrage, N; Meibaum, B; von Samson-Himmelstjerna, G; Stinshoff, H; Wrenzycki, C

    2013-05-01

    It is well documented that global warming is unequivocal. Dairy production systems are considered as important sources of greenhouse gas emissions; however, little is known about the sensitivity and vulnerability of these production systems themselves to climate warming. This review brings different aspects of dairy cow production in Central Europe into focus, with a holistic approach to emphasize potential future consequences and challenges arising from climate change. With the current understanding of the effects of climate change, it is expected that yield of forage per hectare will be influenced positively, whereas quality will mainly depend on water availability and soil characteristics. Thus, the botanical composition of future grassland should include species that are able to withstand the changing conditions (e.g. lucerne and bird's foot trefoil). Changes in nutrient concentration of forage plants, elevated heat loads and altered feeding patterns of animals may influence rumen physiology. Several promising nutritional strategies are available to lower potential negative impacts of climate change on dairy cow nutrition and performance. Adjustment of feeding and drinking regimes, diet composition and additive supplementation can contribute to the maintenance of adequate dairy cow nutrition and performance. Provision of adequate shade and cooling will reduce the direct effects of heat stress. As estimated genetic parameters are promising, heat stress tolerance as a functional trait may be included into breeding programmes. Indirect effects of global warming on the health and welfare of animals seem to be more complicated and thus are less predictable. As the epidemiology of certain gastrointestinal nematodes and liver fluke is favourably influenced by increased temperature and humidity, relations between climate change and disease dynamics should be followed closely. Under current conditions, climate change associated economic impacts are estimated to be

  10. Global nuclear industry views: challenges arising from the evolution of the optimisation principle in radiological protection.

    PubMed

    Saint-Pierre, S

    2012-01-01

    Over the last few decades, the steady progress achieved in reducing planned exposures of both workers and the public has been admirable in the nuclear sector. However, the disproportionate focus on tiny public exposures and radioactive discharges associated with normal operations came at a high price, and the quasi-denial of a risk of major accident and related weaknesses in emergency preparedness and response came at an even higher price. Fukushima has unfortunately taught us that radiological protection (RP) for emergency and post-emergency situations can be much more than a simple evacuation that lasts 24-48 h, with people returning safely to their homes soon afterwards. On optimisation of emergency and post-emergency exposures, the only 'show in town' in terms of international RP policy improvements has been the issuance of the 2007 Recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). However, no matter how genuine these improvements are, they have not been 'road tested' on the practical reality of severe accidents. Post-Fukushima, there is a compelling case to review the practical adequacy of key RP notions such as optimisation, evacuation, sheltering, and reference levels for workers and the public, and to amend these notions with a view to making the international RP system more useful in the event of a severe accident. On optimisation of planned exposures, the reality is that, nowadays, margins for further reductions of public doses in the nuclear sector are very small, and the smaller the dose, the greater the extra effort needed to reduce the dose further. If sufficient caution is not exercised in the use of RP notions such as dose constraints, there is a real risk of challenging nuclear power technologies beyond safety reasons. For nuclear new build, it is the optimisation of key operational parameters of nuclear power technologies (not RP) that is of paramount importance to improve their overall efficiency. In pursuing

  11. Nursing education challenges: students with English as an additional language.

    PubMed

    Starr, Kimberly

    2009-09-01

    Nurse educators are challenged by students who did not learn Standard American English as a primary language. It is not only language that makes these students stand out-cultural beliefs, values and practices need to be appreciated as well. The purpose of this article is to synthesize the current qualitative literature on challenges faced in nursing education for students with English as an additional language. Ten qualitative studies regarding educational issues of nursing students with EAL were included in the synthesis. The study was conducted using the ethnographic metasynthesis model of Noblit and Hare. Two major reciprocal translations of educational issues emerged: challenges and reinforcements. Challenges included language, academics, resources, and culture. Reinforcements included resources, academics, and culture. The results may be used by nurse educators for developing interventions to help culturally diverse students succeed. Interventions are directed toward issues surrounding language and culture.

  12. ARISE antenna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chmielewski, Arthur B.; Noca, Muriel; Ulvestad, James

    2000-03-01

    Supermassive black holes are among the most spectacular objects in the Universe, and are laboratories for physics in extreme conditions. Understanding the physics of massive black holes and related phenomena is a primary goal of the ARISE mission. The scientific goals of the mission are described in detail on the ARISE web site http://arise.ipl.nasa.gov and in the ARISE Science Goals document. The following paper, as the title suggests, is not intended to be a comprehensive description of ARISE, but deals only with one aspect of the ARISE mission-the inflatable antenna which is the key element of the ARISE spacecraft. This spacecraft,due to the extensive reliance on inflatables, may be considered as the first generation Gossamer spacecraft

  13. Additional copies of the proteolipid protein gene causing Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease arise by separate integration into the X chromosome.

    PubMed

    Hodes, M E; Woodward, K; Spinner, N B; Emanuel, B S; Enrico-Simon, A; Kamholz, J; Stambolian, D; Zackai, E H; Pratt, V M; Thomas, I T; Crandall, K; Dlouhy, S R; Malcolm, S

    2000-07-01

    The proteolipid protein gene (PLP) is normally present at chromosome Xq22. Mutations and duplications of this gene are associated with Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease (PMD). Here we describe two new families in which males affected with PMD were found to have a copy of PLP on the short arm of the X chromosome, in addition to a normal copy on Xq22. In the first family, the extra copy was first detected by the presence of heterozygosity of the AhaII dimorphism within the PLP gene. The results of FISH analysis showed an additional copy of PLP in Xp22.1, although no chromosomal rearrangements could be detected by standard karyotype analysis. Another three affected males from the family had similar findings. In a second unrelated family with signs of PMD, cytogenetic analysis showed a pericentric inversion of the X chromosome. In the inv(X) carried by several affected family members, FISH showed PLP signals at Xp11.4 and Xq22. A third family has previously been reported, in which affected members had an extra copy of the PLP gene detected at Xq26 in a chromosome with an otherwise normal banding pattern. The identification of three separate families in which PLP is duplicated at a noncontiguous site suggests that such duplications could be a relatively common but previously undetected cause of genetic disorders.

  14. Non-equilibrium fluctuations and metastability arising from non-additive interactions in dissipative multi-component Rydberg gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutiérrez, Ricardo; Garrahan, Juan P.; Lesanovsky, Igor

    2016-09-01

    We study the out-of-equilibrium dynamics of dissipative gases of atoms excited to two or more high-lying Rydberg states. This situation bears interesting similarities to classical binary (in general p-ary) mixtures of particles. The effective forces between the components are determined by the inter-level and intra-level interactions of Rydberg atoms. These systems permit to explore new parameter regimes which are physically inaccessible in a classical setting, for example one in which the mixtures exhibit non-additive interactions. In this situation the out-of-equilibrium evolution is characterized by the formation of metastable domains that reach partial equilibration long before the attainment of stationarity. In experimental settings with mesoscopic sizes, this collective behavior may in fact take the appearance of dynamic symmetry breaking.

  15. Modeling of additive manufacturing processes for metals: Challenges and opportunities

    DOE PAGES

    Francois, Marianne M.; Sun, Amy; King, Wayne E.; ...

    2017-01-09

    Here, with the technology being developed to manufacture metallic parts using increasingly advanced additive manufacturing processes, a new era has opened up for designing novel structural materials, from designing shapes and complex geometries to controlling the microstructure (alloy composition and morphology). The material properties used within specific structural components are also designable in order to meet specific performance requirements that are not imaginable with traditional metal forming and machining (subtractive) techniques.

  16. Monitoring global rates of biodiversity change: challenges that arise in meeting the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) 2010 goals

    PubMed Central

    Dobson, Andy

    2005-01-01

    By agreeing to strive for ‘a significant reduction in the current rate of loss of biological diversity’ by the year 2010, political leaders at the 2002 World Summit on Sustainable Development (held in Johannesburg, South Africa) presented conservation scientists with a great opportunity, but also one of their most significant challenges. This is an extremely exciting and laudable development, but this reporting process could be made yet more powerful if it incorporates, from the outset, independent scientific assessment of the measures, how they are analysed, and practical ways of plugging key gaps. This input is crucial if the measures are to be widely owned, credible and robust to the vigorous external scrutiny to which they will doubtless be exposed. Assessing how rates of biodiversity loss have changed from current levels by 2010 will require that a given attribute has been measured at least three times; however, most habitats, species, populations and ecosystem services have not been assessed even once. Furthermore, the best data on which to base estimates of biodiversity loss are biased towards the charismatic vertebrate species; unfortunately, these supply minimal services to the human economy. We have to find ways to redress this taxonomic imbalance and expand our analyses to consider the vast diversity of invertebrate, fungal and microbial species that play a role in determining human health and economic welfare. In the first part of this paper I will use examples from local and regional monitoring of biological diversity to examine the desired properties of ‘ideal indicators’. I will then change focus and examine an initial framework that asks how we might monitor changes in the economic goods and services provided by natural ecosystems. I will use this exercise to examine how the set of possible indicators given by the Convention on Biological Diversity might be modified in ways that provide a more critical assay of the economic value of

  17. Additional challenges for uncertainty analysis in river engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berends, Koen; Warmink, Jord; Hulscher, Suzanne

    2016-04-01

    The management of rivers for improving safety, shipping and environment requires conscious effort on the part of river managers. River engineers design hydraulic works to tackle various challenges, from increasing flow conveyance to ensuring minimal water depths for environmental flow and inland shipping. Last year saw the completion of such large scale river engineering in the 'Room for the River' programme for the Dutch Rhine River system, in which several dozen of human interventions were built to increase flood safety. Engineering works in rivers are not completed in isolation from society. Rather, their benefits - increased safety, landscaping beauty - and their disadvantages - expropriation, hindrance - directly affect inhabitants. Therefore river managers are required to carefully defend their plans. The effect of engineering works on river dynamics is being evaluated using hydraulic river models. Two-dimensional numerical models based on the shallow water equations provide the predictions necessary to make decisions on designs and future plans. However, like all environmental models, these predictions are subject to uncertainty. In recent years progress has been made in the identification of the main sources of uncertainty for hydraulic river models. Two of the most important sources are boundary conditions and hydraulic roughness (Warmink et al. 2013). The result of these sources of uncertainty is that the identification of single, deterministic prediction model is a non-trivial task. This is this is a well-understood problem in other fields as well - most notably hydrology - and known as equifinality. However, the particular case of human intervention modelling with hydraulic river models compounds the equifinality case. The model that provides the reference baseline situation is usually identified through calibration and afterwards modified for the engineering intervention. This results in two distinct models, the evaluation of which yields the effect of

  18. Effects of feed additives on rumen and blood profiles during a starch and fructose challenge.

    PubMed

    Golder, H M; Celi, P; Rabiee, A R; Lean, I J

    2014-02-01

    We evaluated the effect of feed additives on the risk of ruminal acidosis in Holstein heifers (n = 40) fed starch and fructose in a challenge study. Heifers were randomly allocated to feed additive groups (n = 8 heifers/group): (1) control (no additives); (2) virginiamycin (VM); (3) monensin + tylosin (MT); (4) monensin + live yeast (MLY); and (5) sodium bicarbonate + magnesium oxide (BUF). Heifers were fed 2.5% of body weight (BW) dry matter intake (DMI) per day of a total mixed ration (62:38 forage:concentrate) and feed additives for a 20-d adaptation period. Fructose (0.1% of BW/d) was included for the last 10d of the adaptation period. On d 21, heifers were fed to target a DMI of 1.0% of BW of wheat, fructose at 0.2% of BW, and their feed additives. Rumen fluid samples obtained by stomach tube and blood samples were collected weekly as well as during a 3.6-h period on challenge day (d 21). Virginiamycin and BUF groups maintained a consistently high DMI across the 20-d adaptation period. The MLY heifers had low DMI of the challenge ration. Average daily gain and feed conversion ratio were not affected by feed additives. All rumen and plasma measures changed weekly over adaptation and over the challenge sampling period with the exception of rumen total lactate and histamine concentrations, plasma oxidative stress index, and ceruloplasmin. Substantial within- and between-group variation was observed in rumen and plasma profiles at challenge sampling. No significant group changes were observed in rumen total volatile fatty acids, propionate, acetate-to-propionate ratio, isobutyrate, caproate, isovalerate, total lactate, d- and l-lactate, and pH measures on challenge day. Acetate concentration was increased in the BUF and control groups on challenge day. Butyrate concentration was lower in the MLY and MT groups compared with other groups at challenge. Valerate concentrations were lowest in the control, VM, and BUF groups and lactate concentrations were numerically

  19. Cochlear Implantation among Deaf Children with Additional Disabilities: Parental Perceptions of Benefits, Challenges, and Service Provision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaidman-Zait, Anat; Curle, Deirdre; Jamieson, Janet R.; Chia, Ruth; Kozak, Frederick K.

    2015-01-01

    Although increasing numbers of children with additional disabilities are receiving cochlear implants (CIs), little is known about family perspectives of the benefits and the challenges of cochlear implantation in this pediatric population. This study examines perceptions among parents of deaf children with additional disabilities regarding…

  20. Cost-Effective Additive Manufacturing in Space: HELIOS Technology Challenge Guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeVieneni, Alayna; Velez, Carlos Andres; Benjamin, David; Hollenbeck, Jay

    2012-01-01

    Welcome to the HELIOS Technology Challenge Guide. This document is intended to serve as a general road map for participants of the HELIOS Technology Challenge [HTC] Program and the associated inaugural challenge: HTC-01: Cost-Effective Additive Manufacturing in Space. Please note that this guide is not a rule book and is not meant to hinder the development of innovative ideas. Its primary goal is to highlight the objectives of the HTC-01 Challenge and to describe possible solution routes and pitfalls that such technology may encounter in space. Please also note that participants wishing to demonstrate any hardware developed under this program during any future HELIOS Technology Challenge showcase event(s) may be subject to event regulations to be published separately at a later date.

  1. Microstructural Development and Technical Challenges in Laser Additive Manufacturing: Case Study with a 316L Industrial Part

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marya, Manuel; Singh, Virendra; Marya, Surendar; Hascoet, Jean Yves

    2015-08-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) brings disruptive changes to the ways parts, and products are designed, fabricated, tested, qualified, inspected, marketed, and sold. These changes introduce novel technical challenges and concerns arising from the maturity and diversity of today's AM processes, feedstock materials, and process parameter interactions. AM bears a resemblance with laser and electron beam welding in the so-called conduction mode, which involves a multitude of dynamic physical events between the projected feedstock and a moving heat source that eventually influence AM part properties. For this paper, an air vent was selected for its thin-walled, hollow, and variable cross section, and limited size. The studied air vents, randomly selected from a qualification batch, were fabricated out of 316L stainless steel using a 4 kW fiber laser powder-fed AM system, referred to as construction laser additive direct (CLAD). These were systematically characterized by microhardness indentation, visual examination, optical and scanning electron microscopy, and electron-back-scattering diffraction in order to determine AM part suitability for service and also broadly discuss metallurgical phenomena. The paper then briefly expands the discussion to include additional engineering alloys and further analyze relationships between AM process parameters and AM part properties, consistently utilizing past experience with the same powder-fed CLAD 3D printer, the well-established science and technology of welding and joining, and recent publications on additive manufacturing.

  2. Arise the systems physician.

    PubMed

    Scott, I; Phelps, G; Dalton, S

    2014-12-01

    Healthcare in Australia faces significant challenges. Variations in care, suboptimal safety and reliability, fragmentation of care and unsustainable cost increases are compounded by substantial overuse and underuse of clinical interventions. These problems arise not from intentional actions of individual clinicians, but from deficiencies in the design, operations and governance of systems of care. Physicians play an important role in optimising systems of care and, in doing so, must rely on enhanced skills in a range of domains. These include: how to evaluate and improve quality and safety of clinical processes; analyse and interpret clinical and administrative data in ways that can be used to enhance care delivery; build and lead cohesive multidisciplinary teams capable of solving operational defects and inefficient workarounds; and implement new and effective innovations in clinical service delivery. While clinical skills are essential in individual patient care, skills that improve systems of care targeting whole patient populations will become increasingly desirable and recognised as core skills.

  3. Catheter Ablation of Idiopathic Ventricular Arrhythmias Arising From the Cardiac Outflow Tracts - Recent Insights and Techniques for the Successful Treatment of Common and Challenging Cases.

    PubMed

    Heeger, Christian-Hendrik; Hayashi, Kentaro; Kuck, Karl-Heinz; Ouyang, Feifan

    2016-04-25

    Ventricular arrhythmias (VA), like premature ventricular contractions (PVC) and ventricular tachycardia (VT) in patients without structural heart disease (idiopathic VA), mainly arise from the right and left ventricular outflow tracts (RVOT/LVOT). The prognosis for OT VA is generally good in the majority of patients, but there is potential for developing dilated cardiomyopathies from the high burden of VA, as well as a certain risk for sudden cardiac death because of fast monomorphic VT or polymorphic VT triggered by short-coupling PVC. Radiofrequency catheter ablation (RFCA) has evolved into a widely accepted treatment strategy for patients suffering from VAs. A detailed knowledge of surface ECGs and complex cardiac anatomy, especially within the ventricular OTs, is essential for the understanding of cardiac OT-VAs and highly related to safe and successful RFCA procedures. This review article focuses on RFCA of idiopathic VA arising from the cardiac OT as well as adjacent regions and will illustrate recent insights and technical issues. (Circ J 2016; 80: 1073-1086).

  4. Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smalheer, C. V.

    1973-01-01

    The chemistry of lubricant additives is discussed to show what the additives are chemically and what functions they perform in the lubrication of various kinds of equipment. Current theories regarding the mode of action of lubricant additives are presented. The additive groups discussed include the following: (1) detergents and dispersants, (2) corrosion inhibitors, (3) antioxidants, (4) viscosity index improvers, (5) pour point depressants, and (6) antifouling agents.

  5. Laser powder bed fusion additive manufacturing of metals; physics, computational, and materials challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, W. E.; Anderson, A. T.; Ferencz, R. M.; Hodge, N. E.; Kamath, C.; Khairallah, S. A.; Rubenchik, A. M.

    2015-12-01

    The production of metal parts via laser powder bed fusion additive manufacturing is growing exponentially. However, the transition of this technology from production of prototypes to production of critical parts is hindered by a lack of confidence in the quality of the part. Confidence can be established via a fundamental understanding of the physics of the process. It is generally accepted that this understanding will be increasingly achieved through modeling and simulation. However, there are significant physics, computational, and materials challenges stemming from the broad range of length and time scales and temperature ranges associated with the process. In this paper, we review the current state of the art and describe the challenges that need to be met to achieve the desired fundamental understanding of the physics of the process.

  6. Laser powder bed fusion additive manufacturing of metals; physics, computational, and materials challenges

    SciTech Connect

    King, W. E.; Anderson, A. T.; Ferencz, R. M.; Hodge, N. E.; Kamath, C.; Khairallah, S. A.; Rubencik, A. M.

    2015-12-29

    The production of metal parts via laser powder bed fusion additive manufacturing is growing exponentially. However, the transition of this technology from production of prototypes to production of critical parts is hindered by a lack of confidence in the quality of the part. Confidence can be established via a fundamental understanding of the physics of the process. It is generally accepted that this understanding will be increasingly achieved through modeling and simulation. However, there are significant physics, computational, and materials challenges stemming from the broad range of length and time scales and temperature ranges associated with the process. In this study, we review the current state of the art and describe the challenges that need to be met to achieve the desired fundamental understanding of the physics of the process.

  7. Laser powder bed fusion additive manufacturing of metals; physics, computational, and materials challenges

    SciTech Connect

    King, W. E.; Anderson, A. T.; Ferencz, R. M.; Hodge, N. E.; Khairallah, S. A.; Kamath, C.; Rubenchik, A. M.

    2015-12-15

    The production of metal parts via laser powder bed fusion additive manufacturing is growing exponentially. However, the transition of this technology from production of prototypes to production of critical parts is hindered by a lack of confidence in the quality of the part. Confidence can be established via a fundamental understanding of the physics of the process. It is generally accepted that this understanding will be increasingly achieved through modeling and simulation. However, there are significant physics, computational, and materials challenges stemming from the broad range of length and time scales and temperature ranges associated with the process. In this paper, we review the current state of the art and describe the challenges that need to be met to achieve the desired fundamental understanding of the physics of the process.

  8. Laser powder bed fusion additive manufacturing of metals; physics, computational, and materials challenges

    DOE PAGES

    King, W. E.; Anderson, A. T.; Ferencz, R. M.; ...

    2015-12-29

    The production of metal parts via laser powder bed fusion additive manufacturing is growing exponentially. However, the transition of this technology from production of prototypes to production of critical parts is hindered by a lack of confidence in the quality of the part. Confidence can be established via a fundamental understanding of the physics of the process. It is generally accepted that this understanding will be increasingly achieved through modeling and simulation. However, there are significant physics, computational, and materials challenges stemming from the broad range of length and time scales and temperature ranges associated with the process. In thismore » study, we review the current state of the art and describe the challenges that need to be met to achieve the desired fundamental understanding of the physics of the process.« less

  9. Dietary addition of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG impairs the health of Escherichia coli F4-challenged piglets.

    PubMed

    Trevisi, P; Casini, L; Coloretti, F; Mazzoni, M; Merialdi, G; Bosi, P

    2011-08-01

    Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) is a probiotic for humans and is normally not found in pigs; however, it has been shown to protect the human-derived intestinal Caco-2 cells against the damage induced by an important intestinal pathogen, enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli F4 (ETEC). An experiment was conducted to test whether the dietary addition of LGG improves the growth and health of weaned pigs when orally challenged by E. coli F4. Thirty-six pigs were weaned at 21 days and assigned to a standard weaning diet with or without 1010 CFU LGG (ATCC 53103) per day. The pigs, individually penned, were orally challenged with 1.5 ml of a 1010 CFU E. coli F4 suspension on day 7 and slaughtered on day 12 or 14. With the addition of LGG, the average daily gain and the average daily feed intake were reduced after the challenge with ETEC and for the entire trial (P < 0.05). The average faecal score tended to worsen from day 11 to the end of the trial and the concentration of ETEC in the faeces tended to increase (P = 0.07) with the LGG supplementation. The counts of lactic acid bacteria, enterobacteria and yeasts in the colonic digesta were not affected. The pH values in ileal, colonic and caecal digesta, and the small intestine size were also unchanged. Regardless of the site of measurement (duodenum, jejunum or ileum), a trend of decreased villus height was seen with LGG (P = 0.10). Crypt depth and villus to crypt ratio were unchanged by the diet. A gradual increase of total seric IgA was seen after 1 week and after the challenge, in the control (P < 0.05), but not in the treated group. After the challenge, the LGG reduced the total IgA in the blood serum (P < 0.05), v. the control. The total IgA in the saliva and in the jejunum secretion were not affected by the diet. The F4-specific IgA activity was not affected by the diet at all the samplings. Our result shows that, the administration of LGG do not prevent or reduce the detrimental effect of the E. coli F4 infection on

  10. Charge transfer excitations from particle-particle random phase approximation—Opportunities and challenges arising from two-electron deficient systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yang; Dominguez, Adriel; Zhang, Du; Lutsker, Vitalij; Niehaus, Thomas A.; Frauenheim, Thomas; Yang, Weitao

    2017-03-01

    The particle-particle random phase approximation (pp-RPA) is a promising method for studying charge transfer (CT) excitations. Through a detailed analysis on two-electron deficient systems, we show that the pp-RPA is always able to recover the long-distance asymptotic -1/R trend for CT excitations as a result of the concerted effect between orbital energies and the pp-RPA kernel. We also provide quantitative results for systems with relatively short donor-acceptor distances. With conventional hybrid or range-separated functionals, the pp-RPA performs much better than time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT), although it still gives underestimated results which are not as good as TDDFT with system-dependent tuned functionals. For pp-RPA, there remain three great challenges in dealing with CT excitations. First, the delocalized frontier orbitals in strongly correlated systems often lead to difficulty with self-consistent field convergence as well as an incorrect picture with about half an electron transferred. Second, the commonly used density functionals often underestimate the energy gap between the highest occupied molecular orbital and the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) for the two-electron deficient species, resulting in systems with delocalized orbitals. Third, the performance of pp-RPA greatly depends on the energy difference between the LUMO and a higher virtual orbital. However, the meaning of the orbital energies for higher virtual orbitals is still not clear. We also discuss the performance of an approximate pp-RPA scheme that uses density functional tight binding (pp-DFTB) as reference and demonstrate that the aforementioned challenges can be overcome by adopting suitable range-separated hybrid functionals. The pp-RPA and pp-DFTB are thus promising general approaches for describing charge transfer excitations.

  11. Additive Manufacturing of Silicon Carbide-Based Ceramic Matrix Composites: Technical Challenges and Opportunities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Mrityunjay; Halbig, Michael C.; Grady, Joseph E.

    2016-01-01

    Advanced SiC-based ceramic matrix composites offer significant contributions toward reducing fuel burn and emissions by enabling high overall pressure ratio (OPR) of gas turbine engines and reducing or eliminating cooling air in the hot-section components, such as shrouds, combustor liners, vanes, and blades. Additive manufacturing (AM), which allows high value, custom designed parts layer by layer, has been demonstrated for metals and polymer matrix composites. However, there has been limited activity on additive manufacturing of ceramic matrix composites (CMCs). In this presentation, laminated object manufacturing (LOM), binder jet process, and 3-D printing approaches for developing ceramic composite materials are presented. For the laminated object manufacturing (LOM), fiber prepreg laminates were cut into shape with a laser and stacked to form the desired part followed by high temperature heat treatments. For the binder jet, processing optimization was pursued through silicon carbide powder blending, infiltration with and without SiC nano powder loading, and integration of fibers into the powder bed. Scanning electron microscopy was conducted along with XRD, TGA, and mechanical testing. Various technical challenges and opportunities for additive manufacturing of ceramics and CMCs will be presented.

  12. Zanamivir-resistant influenza viruses with Q136K or Q136R neuraminidase residue mutations can arise during MDCK cell culture creating challenges for antiviral susceptibility monitoring.

    PubMed

    Little, Karen; Leang, Sook-Kwan; Butler, Jeff; Baas, Chantal; Harrower, Bruce; Mosse, Jenny; Barr, Ian G; Hurt, Aeron C

    2015-01-01

    Surveillance of circulating influenza strains for antiviral susceptibility is important to ensure patient treatment guidelines remain appropriate. Influenza A(H3N2) and A(H1N1)pdm09 virus isolates containing mutations at the Q136 residue of the neuraminidase (NA) that conferred reduced susceptibility to the NA inhibitor (NAI) zanamivir were detected during antiviral susceptibility monitoring. Interestingly, the mutations were not detectable in the viruses from respective clinical specimens, only in the cultured isolates. We showed that variant viruses containing the Q136K and Q136R NA mutations were preferentially selected in Madin-Darby canine kidney epithelial (MDCK) cells, but were less well supported in MDCK-SIAT1 cells and embryonated eggs. The effect of Q136K, Q136R, Q136H and Q136L substitutions in NA subtypes N1 and N2 on NAI susceptibility and in vitro viral fitness was assessed. This study highlights the challenges that cell culture derived mutations can pose to the NAI susceptibility analysis and interpretation and reaffirms the need to sequence viruses from respective clinical specimens to avoid misdiagnosis. However, we also demonstrate that NA mutations at residue Q136 can confer reduced zanamivir, peramivir or laninamivir susceptibility, and therefore close monitoring of viruses for mutations at this site from patients being treated with these antivirals is important.

  13. 2015 Summer Design Challenge: Team A&E (2241) Additively Manufactured Discriminator.

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Sarah E.; Moore, Brandon James

    2016-11-01

    Current discriminator designs are based on historical designs and traditional manufacturing methods. The goal of this project was to form non-traditional groups to create novel discriminator designs by taking advantage of additive manufacturing. These designs would expand current discriminator designs and provide insight on the applicability of additive manufacturing for future projects. Our design stretched the current abilities of additive manufacturing and noted desired improvements for the future. Through collaboration with NSC, we noted several additional technologies which work well with additive manufacturing such as topology optimization and CT scanning and determined how these technologies could be improved to better combine with additive manufacturing.

  14. Additional Support Needs Policy in Scotland: Challenging or Reinforcing Social Inequality?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riddell, Sheila; Weedon, Elisabet

    2016-01-01

    This paper focuses on Scottish policy on additional support needs and its material outcomes. The central question addressed is the extent to which the Scottish additional support needs system undermines or reinforces existing social and economic inequalities. Administrative data highlight the inflation of the additional support needs category,…

  15. Sensitization to Food Additives in Patients with Allergy: A Study Based on Skin Test and Open Oral Challenge.

    PubMed

    Moghtaderi, Mozhgan; Hejrati, Zinatosadat; Dehghani, Zahra; Dehghani, Faranak; Kolahi, Niloofar

    2016-06-01

    There has been a great increase in the consumption of various food additives in recent years. The purpose of this study was to identify the incidence of sensitization to food additives by using skin prick test in patients with allergy and to determine the concordance rate between positive skin tests and oral challenge in hypersensitivity to additives. This cross-sectional study included 125 (female 71, male 54) patients aged 2-76 years with allergy and 100 healthy individuals. Skin tests were performed in both patient and control groups with 25 fresh food additives. Among patients with allergy, 22.4% showed positive skin test at least to one of the applied materials. Skin test was negative to all tested food additives in control group. Oral food challenge was done in 28 patients with positive skin test, in whom 9 patients showed reaction to culprit (Concordance rate=32.1%). The present study suggested that about one-third of allergic patients with positive reaction to food additives showed positive oral challenge; it may be considered the potential utility of skin test to identify the role of food additives in patients with allergy.

  16. High-Challenge Teaching for Senior English as an Additional Language Learners in Times of Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alford, Jennifer; Jetnikoff, Anita

    2011-01-01

    This paper will present a brief overview of the recent shifts within English and EAL/D (English as an additional language/dialect) curriculum documents and their focus on critical literacy, using the Queensland context as a case in point. The English syllabus landscape in Queensland has continued to morph in recent years. From 2002 to 2009,…

  17. Synchronous melanomas arising within nevus spilus*

    PubMed Central

    de Brito, Maria Helena Toda Sanches; Dionísio, Cecília Silva Nunes de Moura; Fernandes, Cândida Margarida Branco Martins; Ferreira, Joana Cintia Monteiro; Rosa, Maria Joaninha Madalena de Palma Mendonça da Costa; Garcia, Maria Manuela Antunes Pecegueiro da Silva

    2017-01-01

    Nevus spilus is a melanocytic cutaneous lesion consisting of a light brown background macule with numerous superimposed darker maculopapular speckles. Melanoma arising from a nevus spilus is rare, with less than 40 cases reported to date. The absolute risk for malignant transformation is not well defined, lacking a standardized management approach. We report a new case of melanoma arising from nevus spilus, with the additional peculiarity of multifocality. We offer our recommendations for the management of the condition. PMID:28225967

  18. Synchronous melanomas arising within nevus spilus.

    PubMed

    Brito, Maria Helena Toda Sanches de; Dionísio, Cecília Silva Nunes de Moura; Fernandes, Cândida Margarida Branco Martins; Ferreira, Joana Cintia Monteiro; Rosa, Maria Joaninha Madalena de Palma Mendonça da Costa; Garcia, Maria Manuela Antunes Pecegueiro da Silva

    2017-01-01

    Nevus spilus is a melanocytic cutaneous lesion consisting of a light brown background macule with numerous superimposed darker maculopapular speckles. Melanoma arising from a nevus spilus is rare, with less than 40 cases reported to date. The absolute risk for malignant transformation is not well defined, lacking a standardized management approach. We report a new case of melanoma arising from nevus spilus, with the additional peculiarity of multifocality. We offer our recommendations for the management of the condition.

  19. A synopsis of the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) investment in additive manufacture and what challenges remain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maher, Michael; Smith, Adrien; Margiotta, Jesse

    2014-03-01

    DARPA's interest in additive manufacture dates back to the mid-80s with seedling programs that developed the foundational knowledge and equipment that led to the Solid Freeform Fabrication program in 1990. The drivers for this program included reducing development times by enabling "tool-less" manufacturing as well as integration of design and fabrication tools. DARPA consistently pushed the boundaries of additive manufacture with follow-on programs that expanded the material suite available for 3-D printing as well as new processes that expanded the technology's capability base. Programs such as the Mesoscopic Integrated Conformal Electronics (MICE) program incorporated functionality to the manufacturing processes through direct write of electronics. DARPA's investment in additive manufacture continues to this day but the focus has changed. DARPA's early investments were focused on developing and demonstrating the technology's capabilities. Now that the technology has been demonstrated, there is serious interest in taking advantage of the attributes unique to the processing methodology (such as customization and new design possibilities) for producing production parts. Accordingly, today's investment at DARPA addresses the systematic barriers to implementation rather than the technology itself. The Open Manufacturing program is enabling rapid qualification of new technologies for the manufacturing environment through the development of new modeling and informatics tools. While the technology is becoming more mainstream, there are plenty of challenges that need to be addressed. And as the technology continues to mature, the agency will continue to look for those "DARPA-hard" challenges that enable revolutionary changes in capability and performance for the Department of Defense.

  20. Mars - Destination and challenge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aldrich, Arnold D.

    A general evaluation is conducted of the challenges associated with prospective Mars exploration efforts. The technical challenge posed stems from the unforgiving physical environment of space travel, and such peculiarities of Mars as its great orbital eccentricity and 15-year cyclic variation in transfer energy. Additional considerations arise from the 'architecture' of NASA's Space Exploration Initiative, encompassing the determination of a Mars exploration effort's purpose, scope, and schedule. Finally, numerous unresolved issues arise from the definition of detailed scientific experimentation that is to be done for the sake of the greatest long-term benefit to an understanding of Mars, and the rallying of political support behind a major new exploration initiative.

  1. Mars - Destination and challenge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aldrich, Arnold D.

    1992-01-01

    A general evaluation is conducted of the challenges associated with prospective Mars exploration efforts. The technical challenge posed stems from the unforgiving physical environment of space travel, and such peculiarities of Mars as its great orbital eccentricity and 15-year cyclic variation in transfer energy. Additional considerations arise from the 'architecture' of NASA's Space Exploration Initiative, encompassing the determination of a Mars exploration effort's purpose, scope, and schedule. Finally, numerous unresolved issues arise from the definition of detailed scientific experimentation that is to be done for the sake of the greatest long-term benefit to an understanding of Mars, and the rallying of political support behind a major new exploration initiative.

  2. Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Thomas R.

    1975-01-01

    Domestic and international challenges facing the National Society for the Prevention of Blindness are discussed; and U.S. and Russian programs in testing and correcting children's vision, developing eye safety programs in agriculture and industry, and disseminating information concerning the detection and treatment of cataracts are compared. (SB)

  3. Challenger

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allday, Jonathan

    2002-01-01

    The events that led to the spectacular destruction of the Space Shuttle "Challenger" in 1986 are detailed here. They show how NASA should have heeded engineers' worries over materials problems resulting from a launch in cold weather. Suggestions are made of how pupils could also learn from this tragedy. (Contains 4 figures and 2 footnotes.)

  4. An oral lipid challenge and acute intake of caffeinated coffee additively decrease glucose tolerance in healthy men.

    PubMed

    Beaudoin, Marie-Soleil; Robinson, Lindsay E; Graham, Terry E

    2011-04-01

    Lipid-induced insulin resistance has been investigated primarily with i.v. infusions, and caffeine-induced insulin resistance, with alkaloid caffeine. The effects of orally consumed lipids and coffee have not been established and to our knowledge have never been simultaneously investigated. The goals of this study were to determine whether an oral lipid challenge and caffeinated coffee would disrupt glucose homeostasis and to characterize their respective incretin responses. It was hypothesized that oral ingestion of saturated lipids would impair glucose tolerance and that caffeinated coffee would further hinder glucose management. Ten young, healthy males participated in 5 trials in a randomized, cross-over design. At time 0 h, they underwent an oral fat tolerance test (OFTT: 1 g lipid/kg body weight) or consumed water, followed 5 h later by caffeinated (5 mg/kg) coffee, decaffeinated coffee, or water. At 6 h, volunteers underwent an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Consumption of the OFTT increased glucose concentrations (P < 0.05) after a subsequent OGTT. At 7 h, caffeinated coffee produced the highest glucose concentrations (P < 0.05). Glucagon-like peptide-1 active (GLP-1a) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) were both increased for up to 6 h in all OFTT trials (P < 0.05). Compared to all other treatments, caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee produced higher GLP-1a response at 6.25 h (P < 0.05), whereas only caffeinated coffee increased GIP secretion (P < 0.05). These results show that oral consumption of lipids and caffeinated coffee can independently and additively decrease glucose tolerance. Incretin hormones could explain at least in part this impaired glucose homeostasis.

  5. Interleukin-10 neutralizing antibody for detection of intestinal luminal levels and as a dietary additive in Eimeria challenged broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Arendt, Maria K; Sand, Jordan M; Marcone, Taylor M; Cook, Mark E

    2016-02-01

    Interleukin-10 (IL-10) mRNA levels are increased within intestinal mucosa after Eimeria infection. IL-10 apical receptor presence on enterocytes suggests IL-10 is secreted into the intestinal lumen. Increased IL-10 has been shown to be central to the pathogenesis of numerous intracellular pathogens; we hypothesize luminal secretion of IL-10 enables Eimeria spp. infection in chickens. This study examines intestine luminal IL-10 levels and performance in broilers challenged with Eimeria when fed an anti-IL-10 antibody. Chicks were fed a diet (1 to 21 d) with control or anti-IL-10 antibody (0.34 g egg yolk antibody powder/Kg diet) with a saline or 10× dose of Advent coccidiosis vaccine on d 3. One chick per pen was euthanized on days 2, 4, 7, 10, 13, 16, and 19 post-challenge, bled, and intestines were collected for luminal fluid IL-10 concentrations. Body weight and feed intake were measured on d 21, and oocyst shedding was assessed on d 7 post-challenge. A significant Eimeria × antibody interaction on d 21 body weight (P < 0.05) showed chicks fed control antibody, but not anti-IL-10, had significant reductions in body weight when challenged with Eimeria spp. Oocyst shedding was increased with Eimeria challenge, but dietary antibody had no effect. Plasma carotenoid levels were reduced in Eimeria challenged chicks 4, 7, 10, and 16 days post-challenge compared to unchallenged chicks. Lack of an Eimeria × antibody interaction showed anti-IL-10 was not protective against Eimeria-induced decreases in plasma carotenoids. Eimeria challenge increased intestine luminal IL-10 on days 4 and 7 post-challenge in the cecum and jejunum, respectively, compared to unchallenged. Dietary anti-IL-10 decreased luminal IL-10 in the ileum on day 2 post-challenge when compared to control antibody fed chicks. No interaction between Eimeria challenge and antibody was observed on intestine luminal contents of IL-10, suggesting anti-IL-10 was ineffective at preventing increased Eimeria

  6. Gut Health of Pigs: Challenge Models and Response Criteria with a Critical Analysis of the Effectiveness of Selected Feed Additives — A Review

    PubMed Central

    Adewole, D. I.; Kim, I. H.; Nyachoti, C. M.

    2016-01-01

    The gut is the largest organ that helps with the immune function. Gut health, especially in young pigs has a significant benefit to health and performance. In an attempt to maintain and enhance intestinal health in pigs and improve productivity in the absence of in-feed antibiotics, researchers have evaluated a wide range of feed additives. Some of these additives such as zinc oxide, copper sulphate, egg yolk antibodies, mannan-oligosaccharides and spray dried porcine plasma and their effectiveness are discussed in this review. One approach to evaluate the effectiveness of these additives in vivo is to use an appropriate disease challenge model. Over the years, researchers have used a number of challenge models which include the use of specific strains of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli, bacteria lipopolysaccharide challenge, oral challenge with Salmonella enteric serotype Typhimurium, sanitation challenge, and Lawsonia intercellularis challenge. These challenge models together with the criteria used to evaluate the responses of the animals to them are also discussed in this review. PMID:26954144

  7. Kapteyn series arising in radiation problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lerche, I.; Tautz, R. C.

    2008-01-01

    In discussing radiation from multiple point charges or magnetic dipoles, moving in circles or ellipses, a variety of Kapteyn series of the second kind arises. Some of the series have been known in closed form for a hundred years or more, others appear not to be available to analytic persuasion. This paper shows how 12 such generic series can be developed to produce either closed analytic expressions or integrals that are not analytically tractable. In addition, the method presented here may be of benefit when one has other Kapteyn series of the second kind to consider, thereby providing an additional reason to consider such series anew.

  8. 21 CFR 1404.735 - Under what conditions do I get an additional opportunity to challenge the facts on which the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Under what conditions do I get an additional opportunity to challenge the facts on which the suspension is based? 1404.735 Section 1404.735 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION...

  9. 21 CFR 1404.735 - Under what conditions do I get an additional opportunity to challenge the facts on which the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Under what conditions do I get an additional opportunity to challenge the facts on which the suspension is based? 1404.735 Section 1404.735 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION...

  10. 21 CFR 1404.830 - Under what conditions do I get an additional opportunity to challenge the facts on which a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Under what conditions do I get an additional opportunity to challenge the facts on which a proposed debarment is based? 1404.830 Section 1404.830 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION...

  11. 21 CFR 1404.830 - Under what conditions do I get an additional opportunity to challenge the facts on which a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Under what conditions do I get an additional opportunity to challenge the facts on which a proposed debarment is based? 1404.830 Section 1404.830 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION...

  12. 21 CFR 1404.735 - Under what conditions do I get an additional opportunity to challenge the facts on which the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Under what conditions do I get an additional opportunity to challenge the facts on which the suspension is based? 1404.735 Section 1404.735 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION...

  13. 21 CFR 1404.830 - Under what conditions do I get an additional opportunity to challenge the facts on which a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Under what conditions do I get an additional opportunity to challenge the facts on which a proposed debarment is based? 1404.830 Section 1404.830 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION...

  14. Confronting the Care Delivery Challenges Arising from Precision Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Kohn, Elise C.; Ivy, S. Percy

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the biology of cancer at the cellular and molecular levels, and the application of such knowledge to the patient, has opened new opportunities and uncovered new obstacles to quality cancer care delivery. Benefits include our ability to now understand that many, if not most, cancers are not one-size-fits-all. Cancers are a variety of diseases for which intervention may be very different. This approach is beginning to bear fruit in gynecologic cancers where we are investigating therapeutic optimization at a more focused level, that while not yet precision care, is perhaps much improved. Obstacles to quality care for patients come from many directions. These include incomplete understanding of the role of the mutant proteins in the cancers, the narrow spectrum of agents, broader mutational profiles in solid tumors, and sometimes overzealous application of the findings of genetic testing. This has been further compromised by the unbridled use of social media by all stakeholders in cancer care often without scientific qualification, where anecdote sometimes masquerades as a fact. The only current remedy is to wave the flag of caution, encourage all patients who undergo genetic testing, either germline or somatic, to do so with the oversight of genetic counselors and physician scientists knowledgeable in the pathways involved. This aspiration is accomplished with well-designed clinical trials that inform next steps in this complex and ever evolving process. PMID:27200294

  15. Confronting the Care Delivery Challenges Arising from Precision Medicine.

    PubMed

    Kohn, Elise C; Ivy, S Percy

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the biology of cancer at the cellular and molecular levels, and the application of such knowledge to the patient, has opened new opportunities and uncovered new obstacles to quality cancer care delivery. Benefits include our ability to now understand that many, if not most, cancers are not one-size-fits-all. Cancers are a variety of diseases for which intervention may be very different. This approach is beginning to bear fruit in gynecologic cancers where we are investigating therapeutic optimization at a more focused level, that while not yet precision care, is perhaps much improved. Obstacles to quality care for patients come from many directions. These include incomplete understanding of the role of the mutant proteins in the cancers, the narrow spectrum of agents, broader mutational profiles in solid tumors, and sometimes overzealous application of the findings of genetic testing. This has been further compromised by the unbridled use of social media by all stakeholders in cancer care often without scientific qualification, where anecdote sometimes masquerades as a fact. The only current remedy is to wave the flag of caution, encourage all patients who undergo genetic testing, either germline or somatic, to do so with the oversight of genetic counselors and physician scientists knowledgeable in the pathways involved. This aspiration is accomplished with well-designed clinical trials that inform next steps in this complex and ever evolving process.

  16. ‘Double Trouble’: Diagnostic Challenges in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy in Patients with an Additional Hereditary Skeletal Dysplasia

    PubMed Central

    Donkervoort, Sandra; Schindler, Alice; Tesi-Rocha, Carolina; Schreiber, Allison; Leach, Meganne E.; Dastgir, Jahannaz; Hu, Ying; Mankodi, Ami; Wagner, Kathryn R.; Friedman, Neil R.; Bönnemann, Carsten G.

    2015-01-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is caused by mutations Dystrophin and affects 1 in 3600-6000 males. It is characterized by progressive weakness, leading to loss of ambulation, respiratory insufficiency, cardiomyopathy, and scoliosis. We describe the unusual phenotype of 3 patients with skeletal dysplasias in whom an additional diagnosis of DMD was later established. Two unrelated boys presented with osteogenesis imperfecta due to point mutations in COL1A1 and were both subsequently found to have a 1bp frameshift deletion in the Dystrophin gene at age 3 and age 15, respectively. The third patient had a diagnosis of pseudoachondroplasia caused by a mutation in the COMP gene and was found to have a deletion of exons 48-50 in Dystrophin at age 9. We discuss the atypical presentation caused by the concomitant presence of 2 conditions affecting the musculoskeletal system, emphasizing aspects that may confound the presentation of a well-characterized disease like DMD. Additional series of patients with DMD and a secondary inherited condition are necessary to establish the natural history in this “double trouble” population. The recognition and accurate diagnosis of patients with two independent genetic disease processes is essential for management, prognosis, genetic risk assessment, and discussion regarding potential therapeutic interventions. PMID:24070816

  17. Effects of a Dissostichus mawsoni-CaM recombinant proteins feed additive on the juvenile orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides) under the acute low temperature challenge.

    PubMed

    Luo, Sheng-Wei; Wang, Wei-Na; Cai, Luo; Qi, Zeng-Hua; Wang, Cong; Liu, Yuan; Peng, Chang-Lian; Chen, Liang-Biao

    2015-10-01

    The effects of Dissostichus mawsoni-Calmodulin (Dm-CaM) on growth performance, enzyme activities, respiratory burst, MDA level and immune-related gene expressions of the orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides) exposed to the acute low temperature stress were evaluated. The commercial diet supplemented with Dm-CaM protein was fed to the groupers for 6 weeks. No significant difference was observed in the specific growth rates, weight gains and survivals. After the feeding trial, the groupers were exposed to acute low temperature challenge. The groupers fed with Dm-CaM additive diet showed a significant decrease in the respiratory burst activity, while the blood cell number increased significantly at 25 °C by comparing with the control and additive control group. The enzymatic activity of SOD, ACP and ALP increased significantly in Dm-CaM additive group, while MDA level maintained stable with the lowest value. qRT-PCR analysis indicated that the up-regulated transcript expressions of CaM, C3, SOD2, LysC and HSPA4 were observed in Dm-CaM additive group. These results indicated that Dm-CaM additive diet may regulate the grouper immune response to the acute low temperature challenge.

  18. Molecules in the mirror: how SERS backgrounds arise from the quantum method of images† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Additional derivation of eqn (5). See DOI: 10.1039/c4cp00093e Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Barnett, Stephen M.; Harris, Nadine

    2014-01-01

    The Raman coupling of light to molecular vibrations is strongly modified when they are placed near a plasmonic metal surface, with the appearance of a strong broad continuum background in addition to the normal surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) peaks. Using a quantum method of images approach, we produce a simple but quantitative explanation of the inevitable presence of the background, due to the resistive damping of the image molecule. This model thus suggests new strategies for enhancing the SERS peak to background ratio. PMID:24584480

  19. Apocrine carcinoma arising in a complex fibroadenoma: a case report.

    PubMed

    Mele, Marco; Vahl, Pernille; Funder, Jonas Amstrup; Sorensen, Anne Schmidt; Jensen, Vibeke

    2014-01-01

    A carcinoma arising in a fibroadenoma is a rare event, which often entails a diagnostic challenge. The most common type is the lobular carcinoma and secondary a ductal carcinoma. We present an extremely rare case of malignant development of an invasive apocrine carcinoma in a complex fibroadenoma and underline the importance for clinicians to recognize the possibility of benign and malignant co-existence especially in older women.

  20. The effect of phytogenic feed additives to substitute in-feed antibiotics on growth traits and blood biochemical parameters in broiler chicks challenged with Salmonella typhimurium.

    PubMed

    Abudabos, Alaeldein M; Alyemni, Abdullah H; Dafalla, Yousif M; Khan, Rifat Ullah

    2016-12-01

    There is a growing concern over the use of antibiotics due to the increased resistance of pathogens in broiler. The present study was designed to find the comparative effect of an antibiotic, and some phytogenic on performance traits, blood biochemical parameters, and antioxidant status during starter phase exposed to Salmonella typhimurium challenge. A total of 560-day-old broiler chicks (Ross 308) were randomly allocated to seven treatments (eight replicates). Control (basal diet); T1, infected with Salmonella enterica subsp. typhimurium; T2, infected + avilamycin at the rate of 0.2 g/kg; T3, infected + essential oil of thymol; T4, infected + phytogenic; T5, infected + anti-Salmonella organic acid; and T6, infected + essential oils of thyme, anise, and other components. Body weight gain and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were significantly (P < 0.05) high in the T2 and T5 at the end of the first and the second week and similar to T4. During the second week, European production efficiency factor (EPEF) was also significantly (P < 0.05) high in T2, T4 and T5. Blood albumin increased significantly (P < 0.05) in birds of T2 in the first week, while during the second week, blood glucose and triglyceride concentration decreased significantly (P < 0.05) in T5. Blood ALT concentration decreased significantly (P < 0.05) in T6 compared to other treatments in the second week. Total antioxidant capacity (at the end of the second week) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) did not change significantly. From the results of the present study, it was concluded that different feed additives could be substituted with antibiotics in the feed of broiler exposed to S. typhimurium challenge.

  1. Squamous cell carcinoma arising in a meningomyelocele.

    PubMed Central

    Saksun, J. M.; Fisher, B. K.

    1978-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma developed in the meningomyelocele of a 25-year-old man. This is the third such case reported. The possibility of malignant disease arising in this congenital defect must be taken into account when treatment is being considered. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2 FIG. 3 PMID:709475

  2. ARISE: American renaissance in science education

    SciTech Connect

    1998-09-14

    The national standards and state derivatives must be reinforced by models of curricular reform. In this paper, ARISE presents one model based on a set of principles--coherence, integration of the sciences, movement from concrete ideas to abstract ones, inquiry, connection and application, sequencing that is responsive to how people learn.

  3. Foals raised on pasture with or without daily pyrantel tartrate feed additive: comparison of parasite burdens and host responses following experimental challenge with large and small strongyle larvae.

    PubMed

    Monahan, C M; Chapman, M R; Taylor, H W; French, D D; Klei, T R

    1997-12-31

    Three groups of foals were raised under different management programs in this study: Group 1 (n = 6) and Group 2 (n = 6) were raised with their dams on pasture; Group 3 foals (n = 5) were raised under parasite-free conditions. Mares and foals of Group 1 received daily pyrantel tartrate (PT) treatment with their pelleted feed ration, whereas mares and foals of Groups 2 and 3 received only the pelleted ration. Pasture-reared foals were weaned and moved to a heavily contaminated pasture for 5 weeks. Group 1 foals continued to receive daily PT treatment whereas Group 2 foals received only the pelleted feed ration. Following this period, all foals were moved into box stalls. Half of each group was challenged with 10(3) Strongylus vulgaris infective third-stage larvae (L3), 5 x 10(3) Strongylus edentatus L3 and 10(5) mixed cyathostome L3; the remaining half served as unchallenged controls. Necropsy examinations were performed 6-week post-challenge for evaluation of parasite burdens and lesions. Daily PT treatment of Group 1 reduced the patent cyathostome infections of both mares and foals and was effective in reducing pasture burdens of infective larvae. Daily treatment of Group 1 foals during weaning continued to suppress EPG levels; however, it did not prevent large strongyle infections during the weaning period. Group 1 foals were more sensitive to challenge than Group 2 foals, which did not exhibit any post-challenge disturbances. Group 1 foals were equally susceptible to challenge as parasite-free foals.

  4. Eccrine Poroma Arising within Nevus Sebaceous

    PubMed Central

    Girdwichai, Natnicha; Chanprapaph, Kumutnart; Vachiramon, Vasanop

    2016-01-01

    Nevus sebaceous is a congenital, benign hamartomatous lesion, characterized by a yellowish to skin-colored, hairless, verrucous plaque on the head and neck region. In later life, a secondary tumor, either benign or malignant, can develop within nevus sebaceous. Eccrine poroma developing on nevus sebaceous is extremely rare. There are few case reports of eccrine poroma developing within nevus sebaceous. We report a case of a 30-year-old female who presented with a congenital, hairless, verrucous, yellowish lesion on the scalp and an erythematous nodule arising within the yellowish lesion for 8 months. Her clinical presentation and histopathological findings were compatible with nevus sebaceous and eccrine poroma. PMID:27194975

  5. Glomangiosarcoma Arising from a Prior Biopsy Site

    PubMed Central

    Maselli, Amy M.; Jambhekar, Amani V.

    2017-01-01

    Summary: Glomangiosarcoma represents a rare malignant variant of the benign glomus tumor that typically presents as a tender, slowly growing nodule with a predilection for the lower extremities. Unlike their benign counterparts, glomangiosarcomas may display aggressive characteristics such as large size, local invasion, and a tendency to recur after excision. Although wide local excision remains the treatment of choice, rare cases of systemic metastasis have been previously reported. We present a case of glomangiosarcoma arising at a prior biopsy site after excision of an unknown soft tissue lesion. PMID:28203514

  6. Mathematical problems arising in interfacial electrohydrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tseluiko, Dmitri

    In this work we consider the nonlinear stability of thin films in the presence of electric fields. We study a perfectly conducting thin film flow down an inclined plane in the presence of an electric field which is uniform in its undisturbed state, and normal to the plate at infinity. In addition, the effect of normal electric fields on films lying above, or hanging from, horizontal substrates is considered. Systematic asymptotic expansions are used to derive fully nonlinear long wave model equations for the scaled interface motion and corresponding flow fields. For the case of an inclined plane, higher order terms are need to be retained to regularize the problem in the sense that the long wave approximation remains valid for long times. For the case of a horizontal plane the fully nonlinear evolution equation which is derived at the leading order, is asymptotically correct and no regularization procedure is required. In both physical situations, the effect of the electric field is to introduce a non-local term which arises from the potential region above the liquid film, and enters through the electric Maxwell stresses at the interface. This term is always linearly destabilizing and produces growth rates proportional to the cubic power of the wavenumber - surface tension is included and provides a short wavelength cut-off, that is, all sufficiently short waves are linearly stable. For the case of film flow down an inclined plane, the fully nonlinear equation can produce singular solutions (for certain parameter values) after a finite time, even in the absence of an electric field. This difficulty is avoided at smaller amplitudes where the weakly nonlinear evolution is governed by an extension of the Kuramoto-Sivashinsky (KS) equation. Global existence and uniqueness results are proved, and refined estimates of the radius of the absorbing ball in L2 are obtained in terms of the parameters of the equations for a generalized class of modified KS equations. The

  7. Uniform Asymptotics of Orthogonal Polynomials Arising from Coherent States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Dan; Hu, Weiying; Wang, Xiang-Sheng

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, we study a family of orthogonal polynomials {φ_n(z)} arising from nonlinear coherent states in quantum optics. Based on the three-term recurrence relation only, we obtain a uniform asymptotic expansion of φ_n(z) as the polynomial degree n tends to infinity. Our asymptotic results suggest that the weight function associated with the polynomials has an unusual singularity, which has never appeared for orthogonal polynomials in the Askey scheme. Our main technique is the Wang and Wong's difference equation method. In addition, the limiting zero distribution of the polynomials φ_n(z) is provided.

  8. Leiomyosarcoma arising from the inferior mesenteric vein

    PubMed Central

    Clemente, Gennaro; Sarno, Gerardo; Barbaro, Brunella; Nuzzo, Gennaro

    2009-01-01

    Leyomiosarcomas arising from the portal/mesenteric venous system are very rare tumours, and only a few cases have been reported in the global literature. As the other leyomiosarcomas of vascular origin, they are associated with a poor prognosis. The present report describes the case of a 66-year-old woman with a leyomiosarcoma of the inferior mesenteric vein, unexpectedly found during a CT scan performed for another indication. A brief review of the literature is also given. The patient underwent radical surgical excision and enjoys a good health, without radiological signs of recurrence, 24 months after surgery. In this case, an early incidental diagnosis determined an early treatment and, probably, a favourable prognosis. This is the second case of leyomiosarcoma of the inferior mesenteric vein reported in the literature. PMID:21686492

  9. Microbial diversity arising from thermodynamic constraints

    PubMed Central

    Großkopf, Tobias; Soyer, Orkun S

    2016-01-01

    The microbial world displays an immense taxonomic diversity. This diversity is manifested also in a multitude of metabolic pathways that can utilise different substrates and produce different products. Here, we propose that these observations directly link to thermodynamic constraints that inherently arise from the metabolic basis of microbial growth. We show that thermodynamic constraints can enable coexistence of microbes that utilise the same substrate but produce different end products. We find that this thermodynamics-driven emergence of diversity is most relevant for metabolic conversions with low free energy as seen for example under anaerobic conditions, where population dynamics is governed by thermodynamic effects rather than kinetic factors such as substrate uptake rates. These findings provide a general understanding of the microbial diversity based on the first principles of thermodynamics. As such they provide a thermodynamics-based framework for explaining the observed microbial diversity in different natural and synthetic environments. PMID:27035705

  10. 32 CFR 536.112 - Settlement authority for claims arising under international agreements (for those claims arising...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Settlement authority for claims arising under international agreements (for those claims arising in the United States). 536.112 Section 536.112 National... arising under international agreements (for those claims arising in the United States)....

  11. Fibrous dysplasia arising from the calcaneus.

    PubMed

    Isefuku, S; Hatori, M; Ehara, S; Hosaka, M; Ito, K; Kokubun, S

    1999-11-01

    A case of an 18-year-old woman with fibrous dysplasia arising in the calcaneus, which is extremely rare, is reported, with the emphasis placed on differential diagnosis from low-grade central osteosarcoma. She had a severe pain in her left ankle after sprain. Plain radiographs showed a radiolucent lesion measuring 6.3 x 2.5 cm with a sclerotic margin in the left calcaneus. CT scans showed a well-defined lytic lesion with disruption of the lateral cortex and an ossification or calcification in its center. On MR imaging, the lesion had isointensities and high intensities on T1 and T2 weighted images, respectively, but its central portions showed lower intensities both on T1 and T2 weighted images. The lesion was enhanced with gadolinium except for the central portions. The specimen obtained by open biopsy consisted of fibrous tissue and foci of irregular woven bone. None of the nuclear atypia, mitoses, longitudinal stream of bone or invasive nature of growth was detected. The diagnosis of fibrous dysplasia was histologically made. The lesion was curetted and packed with autogenous bone chips. No evidence of recurrence was noted postoperatively.

  12. Chemodectomas arising in temporal bone structures

    SciTech Connect

    Dickens, W.J.; Million, R.R.; Cassisi, N.J.; Singleton, G.T.

    1982-02-01

    Eighteen patients with chemodectomas arising in temporal bone structures were evaluated and treated at the University of Florida. Seventeen patients have each been followed a minimum of 3 years. Patients were retrospectively staged as having ''local'' or ''advanced'' disease, depending on the presence or absence of bone destruction and/or cranial nerve involvement. Fourteen of the patients received radiation therapy as all or part of their therapy; 6 patients were treated with radiation therapy alone, 3 patients were irradiated immediately postoperatively for residual disease, and 5 patients had radiation therapy for recurrence after operation. They were treated with cobalt-60 radiation with doses ranging from 3760 to 5640 rad. All irradiated patients demonstrated evidence of tumor regression, and none have had tumor recurrence with followup of 3-12 years. Of the 8 patients with cranial nerve paralysis prior to therapy, 5 had return of function of 1 or more cranial nerves. One of 6 patients treated initially with radiation therapy had a complication, while 6 of 8 patients irradiated postoperatively had complications. None of the complications were fatal. Three patients treated by operation for early disease limited to the hypotympanum had the disease controlled for 11-12 years. Guidelines for the selection of initial therapy are discussed.

  13. [Chemical hazards arising from shale gas extraction].

    PubMed

    Pakulska, Daria

    2015-01-01

    The development of the shale industry is gaining momentum and hence the analysis of chemical hazards to the environment and health of the local population is extreiely timely and important. Chemical hazards are created during the exploitation of all minerals, but in the case of shale gas production, there is much more uncertainty as regards to the effects of new technologies application. American experience suggests the increasing risk of environmental contamination, mainly groundwater. The greatest, concern is the incomplete knowledge of the composition of fluids used for fracturing shale rock and unpredictability of long-term effects of hydraulic fracturing for the environment and health of residents. High population density in the old continent causes the problem of chemical hazards which is much larger than in the USA. Despite the growing public discontent data on this subject are limited. First of all, there is no epidemiological studies to assess the relationship between risk factors, such as air and water pollution, and health effects in populations living in close proximity to gas wells. The aim of this article is to identify and discuss existing concepts on the sources of environmental contamination, an indication of the environment elements under pressure and potential health risks arising from shale gas extraction.

  14. Giant cell tumor of soft tissue arising in breast.

    PubMed

    May, Steve A; Deavers, Michael T; Resetkova, Erika; Johnson, Deborah; Albarracin, Constance T

    2007-10-01

    Primary giant cell tumor of soft tissue (GCT-ST) arising in breast is exceedingly rare. We report a case of a 60-year-old woman with a primary breast giant cell tumor that appeared histologically identical to giant cell tumor of bone and had a clinically malignant course. The patient presented with a cystic mass of the breast, suspected on imaging to be an organizing hematoma, possibly related to previous injury. Histopathological evaluation revealed a neoplasm composed of mononuclear cells admixed with osteoclast-like giant cells resembling giant cell tumor of bone. Immunohistochemical staining was positive for CD68, smooth muscle actin, and vimentin, but was negative for a panel of epithelial and additional muscle markers. These features were most consistent with GCT-ST, an uncommon neoplasm of low malignant potential. Despite aggressive surgical treatment achieving clear surgical margins, the patient expired with pulmonary metastases within a year of her initial presentation. This case demonstrates the difficulty of predicting clinical behavior of GCT-ST of breast on the basis of histological features and depth of tumor alone. To our knowledge, this is the first case report of a GCT-ST arising in the breast associated with a fatal outcome. The distinction of this entity from other more common primary breast tumors with giant cell morphology is also emphasized.

  15. 32 CFR 536.110 - Notification of incidents arising under international agreements (for claims arising in the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Notification of incidents arising under international agreements (for claims arising in the United States). 536.110 Section 536.110 National Defense... Claims Cognizable Under International Agreements § 536.110 Notification of incidents arising...

  16. Rhabdomyosarcoma arising in the hand or foot: a clinicopathologic analysis.

    PubMed

    Miller, Dylan V; Coffin, Cheryl M; Zhou, Holly

    2004-01-01

    Rhabdomyosarcomas (RMS) arising at different anatomic sites have distinct clinicopathologic features that affect prognosis and outcome. RMS arising in the extremities generally have a worse prognosis. Case reports and anecdotal experience suggests the possibility that RMS of the hand or foot (RMSHF) may behave even more aggressively than RMS elsewhere in the extremities. This study describes clinicopathologic features and outcome of RMSHF. Charts and pathologic material from RMSHF cases from institutional files over a 32-year interval were reviewed. Additional cases from published reports and series over a 42-year interval were identified by a MEDLINE search. Pertinent clinicopathologic features for each case were compiled. Survival analysis and other data from these patients were compared with previously reported statistics in the literature for RMS at other anatomic sites, including elsewhere in the extremities. Six patients from the institutional files and 46 from published reports were identified. A number of adverse prognostic indicators were observed in the majority of these patients including alveolar morphology (86%) and distant metastasis at presentation (63%). Despite the aggressive nature of these tumors, the majority were smaller than 5 cm (61%). A propensity was observed for metastases to unusual sites such as breast, ovary, testis, pancreas, and kidney. The median survival was 19 months, and the 5-year survival was 27%. While these may reflect a constellation of findings related to site, it is also possible that alveolar histology is the main influence. RMSHF can present as a very small primary tumor with clinically evident or occult metastatic disease. Whether this reflects the location, the predominantly alveolar histologic type, or a molecular genetic subtype will require further analysis. Patients presenting with RMSHF should be thoroughly evaluated for occult metastases at the time of diagnosis and followed closely throughout treatment for

  17. A rare case of parotid gland lipoma arising from the deep lobe of the parotid gland

    PubMed Central

    Paparo, Francesco; Massarelli, Mauro; Giuliani, Giorgio

    2016-01-01

    Lipomas are the most commonly encountered benign mesenchymal tumors, but their occurrence in the head and neck is rare, even more at the level of the parotid region where they can be found nearby the parotid capsule, inside the capsule, or within the gland. In addition, lipomas involving the deep parotid lobe are extremely unusual. That is why lipomas are not often considered for differential diagnosis of parotid lumps. Concerning diagnostic tools, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is nowadays considered as the main imaging examination for parotid lipomas due to a characteristic signal intensity on T1- and T2-weighted images. Furthermore, even if the cost of MRI is nearly three times that of computed tomography, MRI is accurate, safe, and has few biological costs for the patient. In this reported case, MRI provided all information for either diagnosis or preoperative planning being the best diagnostic tool regarding tumor margin characteristics and surrounding tissues’ involvement. Concerning treatment, surgical excision of parotid masses is always mandatory for definitive diagnosis, but it is challenging because of the facial nerve. For this reason, a well-established surgical technique is mandatory for success. The authors present a rare case of parotid gland lipoma arising from the deep lobe and discuss diagnostic tools and surgical technique.

  18. Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans arising at a Rho(D) immune globulin injection site.

    PubMed

    Hirano, Stefanie A; Torosky, Cyndi M

    2012-11-01

    Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans (DFSP) is a rare soft tissue tumor arising in the dermis. It is notorious for high rates of local recurrence despite its low metastatic potential. Although the etiology is unknown, DFSP often is considered to arise within scars and at sites of prior vaccination or trauma. Clinically, DFSP can be highly variable and mimic other soft tissue proliferations. We present a case of recurrent DFSP arising at the site of a Rho(D) immune globulin (Rhlg) injection that was administered 7 years prior. We also discuss the diagnostic challenges of DFSP as well as the indolent and locally recurrent nature of the tumor. This case serves to remind dermatologists of the highly variable clinical appearance of DFSP as well as to warn against presumptive diagnoses of lesions that mimic keloids and hypertrophic scars.

  19. Spitz nevus arising upon a congenital glomuvenous malformation.

    PubMed

    Arica, Deniz A; Arica, Ibrahim E; Yayli, Savas; Cobanoglu, Umit; Akay, Bengu N; Anadolu, Rana; Bahadir, Sevgi

    2013-01-01

    There are several reports of the collision of vascular and pigmentary anomalies (e.g., phakomatosis pigmentovascularis) and the association between congenital melanocytic nevi and infantile hemangiomas. We report a case of Spitz nevus arising in skin overlying a congenital plaque-like glomuvenous malformation (GVM). This is the first report of a Spitz nevus arising in direct contiguity to a GVM.

  20. 32 CFR 537.19 - Demands arising from maritime claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Demands arising from maritime claims. 537.19 Section 537.19 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY CLAIMS AND ACCOUNTS CLAIMS ON BEHALF OF THE UNITED STATES § 537.19 Demands arising from maritime claims. (a) It...

  1. 12 CFR 221.110 - Questions arising under this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Questions arising under this part. 221.110 Section 221.110 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL... CARRYING MARGIN STOCK (REGULATION U) Interpretations § 221.110 Questions arising under this part. (a)...

  2. Contribution to irradiation creep arising from gas-driven bubbles

    SciTech Connect

    Woo, C.H.; Garner, F.A.

    1998-03-01

    In a previous paper the relationship was defined between void swelling and irradiation creep arising from the interaction of the SIPA and SIG creep-driven deformation and swelling-driven deformation was highly interactive in nature, and that the two contributions could not be independently calculated and then considered as directly additive. This model could be used to explain the recent experimental observation that the creep-swelling coupling coefficient was not a constant as previously assumed, but declined continuously as the swelling rate increased. Such a model thereby explained the creep-disappearance and creep-damping anomalies observed in conditions where significant void swelling occurred before substantial creep deformation developed. At lower irradiation temperatures and high helium/hydrogen generation rates, such as found in light water cooled reactors and some fusion concepts, gas-filled cavities that have not yet exceeded the critical radius for bubble-void conversion should also exert an influence on irradiation creep. In this paper the original concept is adapted to include such conditions, and its predictions then compared with available data. It is shown that a measurable increase in the creep rate is expected compared to the rate found in low gas-generating environments. The creep rate is directly related to the gas generation rate and thereby to the neutron flux and spectrum.

  3. HIV-1 Populations in Semen Arise through Multiple Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Dibben, Oliver; Jabara, Cassandra B.; Arney, Leslie; Kincer, Laura; Tang, Yuyang; Hobbs, Marcia; Hoffman, Irving; Kazembe, Peter; Jones, Corbin D.; Borrow, Persephone; Fiscus, Susan; Cohen, Myron S.; Swanstrom, Ronald

    2010-01-01

    HIV-1 is present in anatomical compartments and bodily fluids. Most transmissions occur through sexual acts, making virus in semen the proximal source in male donors. We find three distinct relationships in comparing viral RNA populations between blood and semen in men with chronic HIV-1 infection, and we propose that the viral populations in semen arise by multiple mechanisms including: direct import of virus, oligoclonal amplification within the seminal tract, or compartmentalization. In addition, we find significant enrichment of six out of nineteen cytokines and chemokines in semen of both HIV-infected and uninfected men, and another seven further enriched in infected individuals. The enrichment of cytokines involved in innate immunity in the seminal tract, complemented with chemokines in infected men, creates an environment conducive to T cell activation and viral replication. These studies define different relationships between virus in blood and semen that can significantly alter the composition of the viral population at the source that is most proximal to the transmitted virus. PMID:20808902

  4. HIV-1 Populations in Semen Arise through Multiple Mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Jeffrey A; Ping, Li-Hua; Dibben, Oliver; Jabara, Cassandra B; Arney, Leslie; Kincer, Laura; Tang, Yuyang; Hobbs, Marcia; Hoffman, Irving; Kazembe, Peter; Jones, Corbin D; Borrow, Persephone; Fiscus, Susan; Cohen, Myron S; Swanstrom, Ronald

    2010-08-19

    HIV-1 is present in anatomical compartments and bodily fluids. Most transmissions occur through sexual acts, making virus in semen the proximal source in male donors. We find three distinct relationships in comparing viral RNA populations between blood and semen in men with chronic HIV-1 infection, and we propose that the viral populations in semen arise by multiple mechanisms including: direct import of virus, oligoclonal amplification within the seminal tract, or compartmentalization. In addition, we find significant enrichment of six out of nineteen cytokines and chemokines in semen of both HIV-infected and uninfected men, and another seven further enriched in infected individuals. The enrichment of cytokines involved in innate immunity in the seminal tract, complemented with chemokines in infected men, creates an environment conducive to T cell activation and viral replication. These studies define different relationships between virus in blood and semen that can significantly alter the composition of the viral population at the source that is most proximal to the transmitted virus.

  5. Food additives

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Michael

    1974-01-01

    Food additives are discussed from the food technology point of view. The reasons for their use are summarized: (1) to protect food from chemical and microbiological attack; (2) to even out seasonal supplies; (3) to improve their eating quality; (4) to improve their nutritional value. The various types of food additives are considered, e.g. colours, flavours, emulsifiers, bread and flour additives, preservatives, and nutritional additives. The paper concludes with consideration of those circumstances in which the use of additives is (a) justified and (b) unjustified. PMID:4467857

  6. 32 CFR 536.111 - Investigation of claims arising under international agreements (for those claims arising in the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Investigation of claims arising under international agreements (for those claims arising in the United States). 536.111 Section 536.111 National... UNITED STATES Claims Cognizable Under International Agreements § 536.111 Investigation of claims...

  7. Tenosynovial Giant Cell Tumor Arising on the Scapular Region

    PubMed Central

    Fukuda, Asako; Ueno, Takashi; Takayama, Ryoko; Ansai, Shin-ichi; Futagami, Ayako; Kawana, Seiji

    2013-01-01

    Tenosynovial giant cell tumor (TSGCT) is a benign soft tissue tumor arising from the synovial membrane that composes the lining of joints, tendons and bursae. TSGCT is a common tumor occurring in the hands and fingers, and also consecutively in the knees, ankles, feet and hips. It is rarely found in the scapular region. To the best of our knowledge, only 2 cases arising on the upper back have been reported. This report presents the case of a 44-year-old Japanese female with a TSGCT arising on her right scapular region. PMID:24403889

  8. New transmission lines: The challenge

    SciTech Connect

    Pierobon, J.R. |

    1995-03-15

    Increasing competition in the electric power industry is likely to entail a little-recognized major complication---difficulty in siting of transmission lines. The stakes will often be greater, the competition could be stronger, and both put a premium on finding a process that can win public acceptance cost-effectively. There are at least three major reasons why siting new lines will become more difficult: (1) More communities in the paths of the new lines will not be served by them and will see no benefit to offset the nuisance, (2) In addition to the perceived health threats of electric and magnetic fields, opposition will arise based on claims about siting of lines in low-income or minority neighborhoods, and (3) Electric power companies that stand to lose market share if the lines are completed may align themselves with the opposition. This article is a review of the challenges that utilities may face in their efforts.

  9. Preliminary Downlink Design and Performance Assessment for Advanced Radio Interferometry Between Space and Earth (ARISE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, T.-Y.; Wang, C. C.; Gray, A.; Hemmati, H.; Mittskus, A.; Golshan, N.; Noca, M.

    1998-10-01

    Advanced Radio Interferometry Between Space and Earth (ARISE) is a space very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) mission with a nominal launch date of 2008. It consists of an inflatable 25-m radio telescope circulating in a highly elliptical Earth orbit with a perigee of 5,000 km and an apogee of 40,000 km. The objective is to observe in conjunction with Earth-based telescopes to obtain high-resolution maps of quasars and active galactic nuclei for science investigations. ARISE requires an 8-Gb/s downlink of science data, which is a challenge using today's technology. In this article, 8-Gb/s systems using both traditional radio frequency (RF) and laser communication are proposed with the goal of minimizing both the cost and the risk of the design. Either option requires appropriate technology investments. The RF system requires the use of dual polarization, high-order modulations such as 32-quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM), and spectrally efficient square-root raised-cosine (SRRC) filters to meet the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) spectral allocation. If additional bandwidth is allocated by the FCC, constant-envelope modulations such as cross-correlated trellis-coded quadrature modulation (XTCQM) can be used in place of SRRC filters and QAM to reduce the power required on the spacecraft. The proposed laser communication system uses on-off keying (OOK) and wavelength division multiplexing (WDM). The wavelength of 1550 nm has the advantage of lower background light subtended at the ground receiver for downlink communications. The critical components of the system are based on mature fiber-optic technologies. The downlink transceiver terminal will be a modified Optical Communications Demonstrator (OCD) that has been in development at JPL over the past 3 years. This article includes a road map on how the 8-Gb/s RF and laser communication systems can be developed with a series of demonstrations between now and the launch date. The demonstrations are

  10. Marketing retail health clinics: challenges and controversies arising from a health care innovation.

    PubMed

    Williams, Cheryl-Ann N; Khanfar, Nile M; Harrington, Catherine; Loudon, David

    2011-01-01

    Since their founding in 2000, retail-based health care clinics, also called convenient care clinics, have flourished but continue to generate controversy. This article examines the literature with respect to the industry's background, establishment of industry standards, types of services offered, marketing of retail health clinics, industry growth with new target markets, and patient demographics. It also examines the growing relationship with insurers and third-party payers, quality-of-care concerns by medical associations, and legal regulations and their potential impact on industry growth nationwide.

  11. Young Voices: The Challenges and Opportunities That Arise in Early Childhood Environmental Education Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boileau, Elizabeth Yvonne Shaw

    2013-01-01

    The number of early childhood environmental education programs are on the rise in Canada and although young children have been quite marginalized from environmental education research, better understanding young children's relationships with the natural world is increasingly seen as important. Including young children themselves in research is…

  12. Challenges and surprises that arise with nucleic acids during model building and refinement.

    PubMed

    Scott, William G

    2012-04-01

    The process of building and refining crystal structures of nucleic acids, although similar to that for proteins, has some peculiarities that give rise to both various complications and various benefits. Although conventional isomorphous replacement phasing techniques are typically used to generate an experimental electron-density map for the purposes of determining novel nucleic acid structures, it is also possible to couple the phasing and model-building steps to permit the solution of complex and novel RNA three-dimensional structures without the need for conventional heavy-atom phasing approaches.

  13. Parkinson's disease and alpha-synucleinopathies: from arising pathways to therapeutic challenge.

    PubMed

    Miraglia, Fabiana; Betti, Laura; Palego, Lionella; Giannaccini, Gino

    2015-01-01

    Parkinson's Disease (PD) and alpha synucleinopathies are multifactorial disorders, which manifest through motor symptoms and non-motor symptoms involving the Central Nervous System (CNS), the Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) and, recently, also the Enteric Nervous System (ENS). The typical hallmarks of alpha synucleinopathies are proteinaceous inclusions of alpha synuclein (αS). In PD they are known as Lewy Bodies (LBs) and Lewy Neurites (LNs), discovered in dopaminergic neurons of substantia nigra (pars compacta) as well as in other regions of the central and peripheral nervous systems. Despite the clear causes which lead to LBs/LNs are still unknown, according to Braak's theory, these inclusions appear first in PNS to spread, following neuronal innervation, towards the CNS in a spatio- temporal dissemination described in a staging procedure. In line with these observations, several animal models have been used with the purpose to reproduce PD as well as to propose new therapeutic approaches. Different pathways can cooperate to neurodegeneration in PD such as genetic mutations of αS gene, mitochondrial dysfunctions, neuroinflammation. The present review highlights αS as the key-word for PD pathology and alpha synucleinopathies and a main target in PD research. Several therapeutic approaches can be proposed, however all of them are addressed in advanced stages of the pathology. Our focus will be the alteration of αS physiological pathway, which allows to address therapy in early stages at intracellular or extracellular level, such as the use of anti ER-stress compounds and innovative immunotherapy, which could be promising tools to reduce neuronal degeneration and to halt PD progression.

  14. Food additives

    MedlinePlus

    ... or natural. Natural food additives include: Herbs or spices to add flavor to foods Vinegar for pickling ... Certain colors improve the appearance of foods. Many spices, as well as natural and man-made flavors, ...

  15. Special Issue featuring invited articles arising from UK Semiconductors 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarke, Edmund; Wada, Osamu

    2013-07-01

    Semiconductor research has formed the basis of many technological advances over the past 50 years, and the field is still highly active, as new material systems and device concepts are developed to address new applications or operating conditions. In addition to the development of traditional semiconductor devices, the wealth of experience with these materials also allows their use as an ideal environment for testing new physics, leading to new classes of devices exploiting quantum mechanical effects that can also benefit from the advantages of existing semiconductor technology in scalability, compactness and ease of mass production. This special issue features papers arising from the UK Semiconductors 2012 Conference, held at the University of Sheffield. The annual conference covers all aspects of semiconductor research, from crystal growth, through investigations of the physics of semiconductor structures to realization of semiconductor devices and their application in emerging technologies. The 2012 conference featured over 150 presentations, including plenary sessions on interband cascade lasers for the 3-6 µm spectral band, efficient single photon sources based on InAs quantum dots embedded in GaAs photonic nanowires, nitride-based quantum dot visible lasers and single photon sources, and engineering of organic light-emitting diodes. The seven papers collected here highlight current research advances, taken from across the scope of the conference. The papers feature growth of novel nitride-antimonide material systems for mid-infrared sources and detectors, use of semiconductor nanostructures for charge-based memory and visible lasers, optimization of device structures either to reduce losses in solar cells or achieve low noise amplification in transistors, design considerations for surface-emitting lasers incorporating photonic crystals and an assessment of laser power convertors for power transfer. The editors of this special issue and the conference

  16. A safe transoral surgical approach to parapharyngeal tumor arising from deep lobe of parotid gland.

    PubMed

    Casale, Manuele; Capuano, Francesco; Sabatino, Lorenzo; Pace, Annalisa; Oliveto, Giuseppe; Vella, Paola; Moffa, Antonio; Salvinelli, Fabrizio

    2016-01-01

    The management of parapharyngeal tumor is surgical, but the approach remains a challenge. Attention should be paid to avoidance intra-operative bleeding or cranial nerves damage. We report a case of a 67-year-old male complaining of left-ear fullness. A submucosal mass arising from the lateral wall of oropharynx on the left side was observed. Magnetic resonance imaging detected a mass arising from the parotid gland, in particular from the deep lobe, and a fine needle biopsy was compatible with "Warthin tumor." We performed a mini-invasive transoral approach under magnification, previous isolation of homolateral vessels. The decision on which surgical approach to be used is determined by site, size vascularity, and histology of the tumor. A literature review of the main surgical approaches was performed. We performed a combined transoral dissection under magnification with cervicotomic exposure of the neck vascular bundle allowing to dissect the tumor and manage any intra-operative complications.

  17. Embedding international benchmarks of proficiency in English in undergraduate nursing programmes: challenges and strategies in equipping culturally and linguistically diverse students with English as an additional language for nursing in Australia.

    PubMed

    Glew, Paul J

    2013-01-01

    To meet the expected shortfalls in the number of registered nurses throughout the coming decade Australian universities have been recruiting an increasing number of students from culturally and linguistically diverse (CaLD) backgrounds. Given that international and domestic students who use English as an additional language (EAL) complement the number of native English speaking nursing students, they represent a valuable nurse education investment. Although university programmes are in a position to meet the education and learning needs of native English speaking nursing students, they can experience considerable challenges in effectively equipping EAL students with the English and academic language skills for nursing studies and registration in Australia. However, success in a nursing programme and in preparing for nurse registration can require EAL students to achieve substantial literacy skills in English and academic language through their engagement with these tertiary learning contexts. This paper discusses the education implications for nursing programmes and EAL students of developing literacy skills through pre-registration nursing studies to meet the English language skills standard for nurse registration and presents intervention strategies for nursing programmes that aim to build EAL student capacity in using academic English.

  18. Polylactides in additive biomanufacturing.

    PubMed

    Poh, Patrina S P; Chhaya, Mohit P; Wunner, Felix M; De-Juan-Pardo, Elena M; Schilling, Arndt F; Schantz, Jan-Thorsten; van Griensven, Martijn; Hutmacher, Dietmar W

    2016-12-15

    New advanced manufacturing technologies under the alias of additive biomanufacturing allow the design and fabrication of a range of products from pre-operative models, cutting guides and medical devices to scaffolds. The process of printing in 3 dimensions of cells, extracellular matrix (ECM) and biomaterials (bioinks, powders, etc.) to generate in vitro and/or in vivo tissue analogue structures has been termed bioprinting. To further advance in additive biomanufacturing, there are many aspects that we can learn from the wider additive manufacturing (AM) industry, which have progressed tremendously since its introduction into the manufacturing sector. First, this review gives an overview of additive manufacturing and both industry and academia efforts in addressing specific challenges in the AM technologies to drive toward AM-enabled industrial revolution. After which, considerations of poly(lactides) as a biomaterial in additive biomanufacturing are discussed. Challenges in wider additive biomanufacturing field are discussed in terms of (a) biomaterials; (b) computer-aided design, engineering and manufacturing; (c) AM and additive biomanufacturing printers hardware; and (d) system integration. Finally, the outlook for additive biomanufacturing was discussed.

  19. Potlining Additives

    SciTech Connect

    Rudolf Keller

    2004-08-10

    In this project, a concept to improve the performance of aluminum production cells by introducing potlining additives was examined and tested. Boron oxide was added to cathode blocks, and titanium was dissolved in the metal pool; this resulted in the formation of titanium diboride and caused the molten aluminum to wet the carbonaceous cathode surface. Such wetting reportedly leads to operational improvements and extended cell life. In addition, boron oxide suppresses cyanide formation. This final report presents and discusses the results of this project. Substantial economic benefits for the practical implementation of the technology are projected, especially for modern cells with graphitized blocks. For example, with an energy savings of about 5% and an increase in pot life from 1500 to 2500 days, a cost savings of $ 0.023 per pound of aluminum produced is projected for a 200 kA pot.

  20. Phosphazene additives

    DOEpatents

    Harrup, Mason K; Rollins, Harry W

    2013-11-26

    An additive comprising a phosphazene compound that has at least two reactive functional groups and at least one capping functional group bonded to phosphorus atoms of the phosphazene compound. One of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with cellulose and the other of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with a resin, such as an amine resin of a polycarboxylic acid resin. The at least one capping functional group is selected from the group consisting of a short chain ether group, an alkoxy group, or an aryloxy group. Also disclosed are an additive-resin admixture, a method of treating a wood product, and a wood product.

  1. Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor Arising From a Gastric Duplication Cyst

    PubMed Central

    Machicado, Jorge; Davogustto, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    Gastric duplication cysts (GDC) are rarely diagnosed in adults, but previous cases have been associated with malignancy. We present a case of gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) arising from a GDC in a 71-year-old woman who presented with 3 years of early satiety, anorexia, abdominal distention, and weight loss. Abdominal CT showed a 9.3 x 5.2 x 9.5-cm well-circumscribed cystic mass arising 3 cm above the gastroduodenal junction. The cyst was resected, and histopathology was consistent with GDC. Future studies are needed to clarify the malignant potential of GDC and the molecular pathways for its development. PMID:27144196

  2. Papillary serous carcinoma arising from adenomyosis presenting as intramural leiomyoma.

    PubMed

    Izadi-Mood, Narges; Samadi, Nasrin; Sarmadi, Soheila; Eftekhar, Zahra

    2007-04-01

    Adenocarcinoma arising from adenomyosis uteri is rare. Herein, we reported a patient with papillary serous carcinoma arising from adenomyosis. The patient was a 61-year-old woman who received tamoxifen for treatment of her breast cancer over the past five years. In hysterectomy specimen taken for investigating her uncontrolled bleeding with suspicion of uterine myoma, multiple adenomyotic foci were found in the uterine wall. In one of these foci, papillary serous carcinoma was found. No evidence of tumor was seen in endometrial surface, peritoneum, and both adnexa.

  3. Transcultural Knowledge and Skills Transfer: Issues Arising from Evaluation Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Anita J.; Holloway, David G.

    2007-01-01

    The transfer of knowledge, policy and practice between nations increasingly involves knowledge of the theory and practice of evaluation. This article examines issues arising from the transcultural evaluation of a drug and alcohol misuse knowledge and skills transfer programme for nurses, nurse teachers and medical staff in the narcology service in…

  4. 5 CFR 359.404 - Removal: Conditions arising before appointment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... of Career Appointees During Probation § 359.404 Removal: Conditions arising before appointment. (a) Coverage. (1) This section covers the removal of a career appointee from the SES during the probationary...) This section does not apply, however, when the career appointee was covered under 5 U.S.C....

  5. 5 CFR 359.404 - Removal: Conditions arising before appointment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... of Career Appointees During Probation § 359.404 Removal: Conditions arising before appointment. (a) Coverage. (1) This section covers the removal of a career appointee from the SES during the probationary...) This section does not apply, however, when the career appointee was covered under 5 U.S.C....

  6. 5 CFR 359.404 - Removal: Conditions arising before appointment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... of Career Appointees During Probation § 359.404 Removal: Conditions arising before appointment. (a) Coverage. (1) This section covers the removal of a career appointee from the SES during the probationary...) This section does not apply, however, when the career appointee was covered under 5 U.S.C....

  7. 5 CFR 359.404 - Removal: Conditions arising before appointment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... of Career Appointees During Probation § 359.404 Removal: Conditions arising before appointment. (a) Coverage. (1) This section covers the removal of a career appointee from the SES during the probationary...) This section does not apply, however, when the career appointee was covered under 5 U.S.C....

  8. 5 CFR 359.404 - Removal: Conditions arising before appointment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... of Career Appointees During Probation § 359.404 Removal: Conditions arising before appointment. (a) Coverage. (1) This section covers the removal of a career appointee from the SES during the probationary...) This section does not apply, however, when the career appointee was covered under 5 U.S.C....

  9. Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors of the eighth cranial nerve arising without prior irradiation.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Matthew L; Jacob, Jeffrey T; Habermann, Elizabeth B; Glasgow, Amy E; Raghunathan, Aditya; Link, Michael J

    2016-11-01

    OBJECTIVE Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs) of the eighth cranial nerve (CN) are exceedingly rare. To date the literature has focused on MPNSTs occurring after radiation therapy for presumed benign vestibular schwannomas (VSs), while MPNSTs arising without prior irradiation have received little attention. The objectives of the current study are to characterize the epidemiology, clinical presentation, disease course, and outcome using a large national cancer registry database and a systematic review of the English literature. Additionally, a previously unreported case is presented. METHODS The authors conducted an analysis of the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database, a systematic review of the literature, and present a case report. Data from all patients identified in the SEER database with a diagnosis of MPNST involving the eighth CN, without a history of prior radiation, were analyzed. Additionally, all cases reported in the English literature between January 1980 and March 2015 were reviewed. Finally, 1 previously unreported case is presented. RESULTS The SEER registries identified 30 cases between 1992 and 2012. The average incidence was 0.017 per 1 million persons per year (range 0.000-0.0687 per year). The median age at diagnosis was 55 years, and 16 (53%) were women. Thirteen cases were diagnosed upon autopsy. Of the 17 cases diagnosed while alive, the median follow-up was 118 days, with 3 deaths (18%) observed. When compared with the incidence of benign VS, 1041 VSs present for every 1 MPNST arising from the eighth CN. Including a previously unreported case from the authors' center, a systematic review of the English literature yielded 24 reports. The median age at diagnosis was 44 years, 50% were women, and the median tumor size at diagnosis was 3 cm. Eleven patients (46%) reported isolated audiovestibular complaints typical for VS while 13 (54%) exhibited facial paresis or other signs of a more aggressive process

  10. 12 CFR 615.5460 - Additional provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Additional provisions. 615.5460 Section 615.5460 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM FUNDING AND FISCAL AFFAIRS, LOAN... Additional provisions. (a) Additional requirements. In any case or any class of cases arising under...

  11. Dynamics of the middle atmosphere as observed by the ARISE project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanc, E.

    2015-12-01

    It has been strongly demonstrated that variations in the circulation of the middle atmosphere influence weather and climate all the way to the Earth's surface. A key part of this coupling occurs through the propagation and breaking of planetary and gravity waves. However, limited observations prevent to faithfully reproduce the dynamics of the middle atmosphere in numerical weather prediction and climate models. The main challenge of the ARISE (Atmospheric dynamics InfraStructure in Europe) project is to combine existing national and international observation networks including: the International infrasound monitoring system developed for the CTBT (Comprehensive nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty) verification, the NDACC (Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Changes) lidar network, European observation infrastructures at mid latitudes (OHP observatory), tropics (Maïdo observatory), high latitudes (ALOMAR and EISCAT), infrasound stations which form a dense European network and satellites. The ARISE network is unique by its coverage (polar to equatorial regions in the European longitude sector), its altitude range (from troposphere to mesosphere and ionosphere) and the involved scales both in time (from seconds to tens of years) and space (from tens of meters to thousands of kilometers). Advanced data products are produced with the scope to assimilate data in the Weather Prediction models to improve future forecasts over weeks and seasonal time scales. ARISE observations are especially relevant for the monitoring of extreme events such as thunderstorms, volcanoes, meteors and at larger scales, deep convection and stratospheric warming events for physical processes description and study of long term evolution with climate change. Among the applications, ARISE fosters integration of innovative methods for remote detection of non-instrumented volcanoes including distant eruption characterization to provide notifications with reliable confidence indices to the

  12. Analysis of the vibratory excitation arising from spiral bevel gears

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mark, William D.

    1987-01-01

    Tools required to understand and predict in terms of its underlying causes the vibratory excitation arising from meshing spiral bevel gears are developed. A generalized three component transmission error of meshing spiral bevel gears is defined. Equations are derived that yield the three components of the generalized transmission error in terms of deviations of tooth running surfaces from equispaced perfect spherical involute surfaces and tooth/gearbody elastic deformations arising from the three components of the generalized force transmitted by the meshing gears. A method for incorporating these equations into the equations of motion of a gear system is described. Equations are derived for the three components of the generalized force transmitted by the gears which are valid whenever inertial effects of the meshing gears and their supports are negligible. Bearing offsets from the positions occupied by the shaft centerlines of perfect spherical involute bevel gears and bearing/bearing support flexibilities enter into the computation of these forces.

  13. A Rare Nasopharyngeal Teratoma Arising From the Vomer.

    PubMed

    Pang, Xiaoxiao; Kwon, Hyuk-Jae; Shi, Bing; Li, Chenghao

    2016-03-01

    Teratomas are rare germ cell neoplasms derived from the 3 germinal layers (ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm). Nasopharyngeal teratoma is a very rare teratoma arising anywhere from the oronasal cavity, regarded as an expanding, avity filling lesion, with a high mortality rate because of severe airway obstruction, especially in the neonatal period and make up only 2% of all teratomas. The authors present a case of an infant girl with a single, finger-like, hairy teratoma arising from the vomer and protruding from the mouth with bilateral complete cleft palate, cleft lip, and cleft alveolus. Complete intraoral resection of the teratoma and cleft lip repair was conducted simultaneously. Reconstruction of the cleft palate was performed at a later stage. Recurrence occurred 9 months after surgery and extended complete surgical excision was performed after recurrence, with no recurrence observed again to date. Histopathologic examination confirmed the diagnosis of congenital mature teratoma.

  14. A Primary Ossifying Intracranial Myxoma Arising from the Ethmoid Sinus

    PubMed Central

    Ryu, Je Il; Kim, Jae Min; Kim, Choong Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Myxomas are rare benign tumors that originate from mesenchymal tissue. They usually develop in the atrium of the heart, the skin, subcutaneous tissue, or bone. Involvement of the skull base with an intracranial extension is very rare and not well-described in the literature. We report a rare case of primary intracranial ossifying myxoma arising from the anterior skull base and mimicking a huge chondrosarcoma, and we review the relevant literature. PMID:26539274

  15. Squamous cell carcinoma arising in previously burned or irradiated skin

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, M.J.; Hirsch, R.M.; Broadwater, J.R.; Netscher, D.T.; Ames, F.C.

    1989-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) arising in previously burned or irradiated skin was reviewed in 66 patients treated between 1944 and 1986. Healing of the initial injury was complicated in 70% of patients. Mean interval from initial injury to diagnosis of SCC was 37 years. The overwhelming majority of patients presented with a chronic intractable ulcer in previously injured skin. The regional relapse rate after surgical excision was very high, 58% of all patients. Predominant patterns of recurrence were in local skin and regional lymph nodes (93% of recurrences). Survival rates at 5, 10, and 20 years were 52%, 34%, and 23%, respectively. Five-year survival rates in previously burned and irradiated patients were not significantly different (53% and 50%, respectively). This review, one of the largest reported series, better defines SCC arising in previously burned or irradiated skin as a locally aggressive disease that is distinct from SCC arising in sunlight-damaged skin. An increased awareness of the significance of chronic ulceration in scar tissue may allow earlier diagnosis. Regional disease control and survival depend on surgical resection of all known disease and may require radical lymph node dissection or amputation.

  16. Reporting and Publishing Narrative Inquiry in TESOL: Challenges and Rewards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Jill Sinclair

    2011-01-01

    Although every research method has its challenges, there are some specific challenges to the reporting and publishing of narrative inquiry that seem to differ from those encountered in other methods. Some of these arise out of the epistemology of narrative, with its focus on individual experience and interpretive storying, and some arise from the…

  17. Automatic detection of EEG artefacts arising from head movements using EEG and gyroscope signals.

    PubMed

    O'Regan, Simon; Faul, Stephen; Marnane, William

    2013-07-01

    Contamination of EEG signals by artefacts arising from head movements has been a serious obstacle in the deployment of automatic neurological event detection systems in ambulatory EEG. In this paper, we present work on categorizing these head-movement artefacts as one distinct class and on using support vector machines to automatically detect their presence. The use of additional physical signals in detecting head-movement artefacts is also investigated by means of support vector machines classifiers implemented with gyroscope waveforms. Finally, the combination of features extracted from EEG and gyroscope signals is explored in order to design an algorithm which incorporates both physical and physiological signals in accurately detecting artefacts arising from head-movements.

  18. Retrieval of high-fidelity memory arises from distributed cortical networks.

    PubMed

    Wais, Peter E; Jahanikia, Sahar; Steiner, Daniel; Stark, Craig E L; Gazzaley, Adam

    2017-04-01

    Medial temporal lobe (MTL) function is well established as necessary for memory of facts and events. It is likely that lateral cortical regions critically guide cognitive control processes to tune in high-fidelity details that are most relevant for memory retrieval. Here, convergent results from functional and structural MRI show that retrieval of detailed episodic memory arises from lateral cortical-MTL networks, including regions of inferior frontal and angular gyrii. Results also suggest that recognition of items based on low-fidelity, generalized information, rather than memory arising from retrieval of relevant episodic details, is not associated with functional connectivity between MTL and lateral cortical regions. Additionally, individual differences in microstructural properties in white matter pathways, associated with distributed MTL-cortical networks, are positively correlated with better performance on a mnemonic discrimination task.

  19. Syphilitic gumma arising in association with foreign material.

    PubMed

    Boyd, Alan S

    2016-11-01

    Until recently the number of patients with syphilis has been diminishing. Although that trend has reversed cases of tertiary syphilis are rare and often difficult to diagnose as a substantial number of patients will have a negative rapid plasma reagin. Histologically, cutaneous lesions in late stage syphilis exist in two forms, noduloulcerative and gummatous. Silver stains for spirochetes are almost invariably negative and, surprisingly, immunohistochemical stains are problematic as most lesions contain few, if any organisms. Presented here is a case of gummatous tertiary syphilis arising in association with foreign material deposited after a motor vehicle accident.

  20. Poorly differentiated carcinoma arising from adenolymphoma of the parotid gland

    PubMed Central

    Ferrero, Stefano; Cattaneo, Laura; Peri, Andrea; Braidotti, Paola; Cioffi, Ugo; Scaramellini, Gabriele; Ciulla, Michele M; De Simone, Matilde; Arizzi, Carmelo; Pignataro, Lorenzo

    2003-01-01

    Background There is only one previous case report of a poorly differentiated carcinoma arising from an adenolymphoma of the parotid gland (Warthin's tumour). The absence of clinical symptoms, and the aspecificity of the radiological pattern make the diagnosis very difficult. Case presentation We here report the case of a 73-year-old man with Warthin's tumour who was brought to our attention because of a swelling in the parotid region. Conclusions In this case with an atypical clinical presentation, the intra-operative examination of a frozen section of the parotid mass allowed us to diagnose the malignant tumour correctly and consequently undertake its radical excision. PMID:12533195

  1. Parabolic Perturbation of a Nonlinear Hyperbolic Problem Arising in Physiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colli, P.; Grasselli, M.

    We study a transport-diffusion initial value problem where the diffusion codlicient is "small" and the transport coefficient is a time function depending on the solution in a nonlinear and nonlocal way. We show the existence and the uniqueness of a weak solution of this problem. Moreover we discuss its asymptotic behaviour as the diffusion coefficient goes to zero, obtaining a well-posed first-order nonlinear hyperbolic problem. These problems arise from mathematical models of muscle contraction in the framework of the sliding filament theory.

  2. Endometrioid adenocarcinoma arising from endometriosis of the rectosigmoid.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Shigeru; Sasaki, Morio; Goto, Tatsuya; Asakage, Naoki; Sekine, Masayuki; Suzuki, Takahisa; Tsukada, Kenji; Yamasaki, Shigetaka; Ukawa, Shiro

    2010-01-01

    A case of endometrioid adenocarcinoma supposedly arising from endometriosis of the rectum is reported. Malignant transformation is uncommon but a well-known complication of endometriosis. In the present case, it was proved by histopathological findings and immunophenotype such as cytokeratin7+/cytokeratin20-/estrogen receptor+. The cause of rectal endometriosis in this case might have been related with previously received hormone replacement therapy for ovarian endometriosis. Following surgical removal of the lesion, this patient underwent adjuvant chemotherapy with paclitaxel and carboplatin, although this kind of therapy is still controversial as to its effectiveness.

  3. Squamous cell carcinoma arising in a multiple verrucous epidermal nevus*

    PubMed Central

    Yarak, Samira; Machado, Taila Yuri Siqueira; Ogawa, Marilia Marufuji; Almeida, Mirian Luzia da Silva; Enokihara, Milvia Maria Simões e Silva; Porro, Adriana Maria

    2016-01-01

    Verrucous epidermal nevi are hamartomatous lesions of the epidermis that, unlike other epidermal nevi (such as sebaceous nevus or nevus comedonicus), are rarely associated with malignant neoplasms. The majority of squamous cell carcinoma develop in linear or multiple epidermal nevus and rarely in solitary epidermal nevus. In general, the prognosis is favorable. We report a case of well-differentiated invasive squamous cell carcinoma arising from a multiple verrucous epidermal nevus. Although there is no consensus on prophylactic removal of epidermal nevus, its removal and biopsy should be considered if changes occur. PMID:28300931

  4. Analytical challenges: bridging the gap from regulation to enforcement.

    PubMed

    Van den Eede, Guy; Kay, Simon; Anklam, Elke; Schimmel, Heinz

    2002-01-01

    An overview is presented of the analytical steps that may be needed to determine the presence of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) or for analysis of GMO-derived produce. The analytical aspects necessary for compliance with labeling regulations are discussed along with bottlenecks that may develop when a plant product or a food sample is analyzed for conformity with current European Union GMO legislation. In addition to sampling and testing, other topics deal with complications that arise from biological and agricultural realities that may influence testing capabilities. The issues presented are intended to serve as elements to examine the different challenges that enforcement laboratories might face.

  5. ELN implementation challenges.

    PubMed

    Drake, David J

    2007-08-01

    Electronic Laboratory Notebooks are becoming foundation platforms within many pharmaceutical companies because of the benefits that they offer to both the business and the scientists alike. Implementing an ELN within an established organisation presents challenges for the project team, both in terms of managing the impact on the scientists and the technical requirements for integration and data management. Implementation of a commercial ELN is not exempt from such challenges, and working with a third party supplier offers both advantages and additional challenges.

  6. Sebaceous carcinoma arising in mature cystic teratoma of ovary.

    PubMed

    An, Hyo Jeong; Jung, Yong Han; Yoon, Hye Kyoung; Jung, Soo Jin

    2013-08-01

    Roughly 1% of mature cystic teratomas undergo malignant transformation. In particular, cutaneous-type adnexal neoplasms may occur in mature cystic teratomas. Sebaceous carcinomas, which arise from mature cystic teratomas, have rarely been observed, with only seven cases previously reported. Here, we present a case of a 69-year-old female who had pelvic pain for two weeks and who subsequently underwent bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy and hysterectomy. Her left ovary showed a unilocular cyst, measuring 22.0 cm in diameter, filled with sebaceous material and a few hairs. A luminally-protruding solid mass measuring 4.0 cm in diameter was also noted. Microscopic findings revealed lobular or diffusely arranged basophilic, atypical sebaceous cells connected to a typical mature cystic teratoma. Tumor cells demonstrated positive immunoreactivity for high molecular weight cytokeratin, cytokeratin 7, cytokeratin 19, epithelial membrane antigen, and carcinoembryonic antigen. Here, we present a case of sebaceous carcinoma arising from a mature cystic teratoma along with a review of previously published reports.

  7. Multiple ectopic hepatocellular carcinomas arising in the abdominal cavity.

    PubMed

    Miyake, Toru; Hoshino, Seiichiro; Yoshida, Yoichiro; Aisu, Naoya; Tanimura, Syu; Hisano, Satoshi; Kuno, Nobuaki; Sohda, Tetsuro; Sakisaka, Shotaro; Yamashita, Yuichi

    2012-09-01

    Ectopic hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a very rare clinical entity that is defined as HCC arising from extrahepatic liver tissue. This report presents a case of ectopic multiple HCC arising in the abdominal cavity. A 42-year-old otherwise healthy male presented with liver dysfunction at a general health checkup. Both HCV antibody and hepatitis B surface antigen were negative. Laboratory examination showed elevations in serum alpha-fetoprotein and PIVKA-II. Ultrasonography and computed tomography revealed multiple nodular lesions in the abdominal cavity with ascites without a possible primary tumor. Exploratory laparoscopy was performed, which revealed bloody ascites and multiple brown nodular tumors measuring approximately 10 mm in size that were disseminated on the perineum and mesentery. A postoperative PET-CT scan was performed but it did not reveal any evidence of a tumor in the liver. The tumors resected from the peritoneum were diagnosed as HCC. The present case of HCC was thought to have possibly developed from ectopic liver on the peritoneum or mesentery.

  8. High-Grade Leiomyosarcoma Arising in a Previously Replanted Limb

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Tiffany J.; Pantanowitz, Liron; Weiss, Kurt R.

    2015-01-01

    Sarcoma development has been associated with genetics, irradiation, viral infections, and immunodeficiency. Reports of sarcomas arising in the setting of prior trauma, as in burn scars or fracture sites, are rare. We report a case of a leiomyosarcoma arising in an arm that had previously been replanted at the level of the elbow joint following traumatic amputation when the patient was eight years old. He presented twenty-four years later with a 10.8 cm mass in the replanted arm located on the volar forearm. The tumor was completely resected and pathology examination showed a high-grade, subfascial spindle cell sarcoma diagnosed as a grade 3 leiomyosarcoma with stage pT2bNxMx. The patient underwent treatment with brachytherapy, reconstruction with a free flap, and subsequently chemotherapy. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report of leiomyosarcoma developing in a replanted extremity. Development of leiomyosarcoma in this case could be related to revascularization, scar formation, or chronic injury after replantation. The patient remains healthy without signs of recurrence at three-year follow-up. PMID:26366310

  9. Trichoepithelioma Arising in an Ovarian Mature Cystic Teratoma

    PubMed Central

    Nakayama, Satoru; Muto, Haruka; Shimizu, Shinichi; Otsuki, Yoshiro; Adachi, Hiroshi; Murakoshi, Takeshi

    2016-01-01

    Here, we report an extremely rare case of trichoepithelioma (TE)—a benign epithelial tumor originating from the outer root sheath of a hair follicle—arising in an ovarian mature cystic teratoma (MCT) with fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) findings. A 48-year-old Japanese woman presented to our hospital for her annual follow-up of adenomyosis. Ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging revealed a left ovarian tumor with irregular-shaped septum, which was suspicious of malignancy. However, tumor marker levels were within normal range. On FDG-PET, the maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) of the tumor was 2.9. Laparotomy with left salpingooophorectomy was performed. Pathologic examination revealed the probability of TE, rather than basal cell carcinoma (BCC), arising in an ovarian MCT. After five years of follow-up, the patient had no sign of recurrence. The FDG-PET SUVmax was low in TE, as with other benign tumor. However, future investigation is needed to evaluate the findings of FDG-PET imaging in TE cases. PMID:28127486

  10. Vascular leiomyoma of the lung arising from pulmonary artery.

    PubMed

    Terada, Tadashi

    2013-01-01

    Leiomyoma of the lung is extremely rare. The entity is not described in WHO blue book. Less than 100 cases of leiomyoma of the lung have been reported in the literature. However, vascular leiomyoma has not been reported in the literature, to the author's best knowledge. Herein reported is the first case of vascular leiomyoma of the lung arising from smooth muscles of the pulmonary artery. A 62-year-old woman (non-smoker) was found to have a small tumor in the upper lobe in the right lung in routine check. Imaging modalities including CT demonstrated no metastatic lesions. Although clinical cytology and biopsy revealed no malignant cell, right upper lobectomy was performed under the clinical diagnosis of lung carcinoma. Grossly, a white tumor of 1 x 0.8 cm was recognized in the lung. Microscopically, the tumor was connected to the pulmonary arteries. The tumor was composed of mature smooth muscles. Small pulmonary arteries are embedded in the tumor. No lymphatics were seen. Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells were poisitive for alpha-smooth muscle actin, vimentin and Ki-67 (labeling 2%). However, they were negative for cytokeratin (CK) AE1/3, CK CAM5.2, desmin, S100 protein, p53, CD34, KIT, HMB45, estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, and myoglobin. A pathological diagnosis of primary vascular leiomyoma arising from the smooth muscle of pulmonary artery was made. The patient is now free from tumor, and is now alive 10 year after the operation.

  11. Basal Cell Carcinoma Arising in a Breast Augmentation Scar.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Lisa R; Cresce, Nicole D; Russell, Mark A

    2017-04-01

    We report a case of a 46-year-old female who presented with a persistent lesion on the inferior right breast. The lesion was located within the scar from a breast augmentation procedure 12 years ago. The lesion had been treated as several conditions with no improvement. Biopsy revealed a superficial and nodular basal cell carcinoma, and the lesion was successfully removed with Mohs micrographic surgery. Basal cell carcinoma arising in a surgical scar is exceedingly rare with only 13 reported cases to date. This is the first reported case of basal cell carcinoma arising in a breast augmentation scar. We emphasize the importance of biopsy for suspicious lesions or those refractory to treatment, particularly those lesions that form within a scar. Level of Evidence V This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266 .

  12. Nanotechnology: Opportunities and Challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyyappan, Meyya

    2003-01-01

    Nanotechnology seeks to exploit novel physical, chemical, biological, mechanical, electrical, and other properties, which arise primarily due to the nanoscale nature of certain materials. A key example is carbon nanotubes (CNTs) which exhibit unique electrical and extraordinary mechanical properties and offer remarkable potential for revolutionary applications in electronics devices, computing, and data storage technology, sensors, composites, nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS), and as tip in scanning probe microscopy (SPM) for imaging and nanolithography. Thus the CNT synthesis, characterization, and applications touch upon all disciplines of science and engineering. This presentation will provide an overview and progress report on this and other major research candidates in Nanotechnology and address opportunities and challenges ahead.

  13. Biomolecular Crowding Arising from Small Molecules, Molecular Constraints, Surface Packing, and Nano-Confinement.

    PubMed

    Hilaire, Mary Rose; Abaskharon, Rachel M; Gai, Feng

    2015-07-02

    The effect of macromolecular crowding on the structure, dynamics, and reactivity of biomolecules is well established and the relevant research has been extensively reviewed. Herein, we focus our discussion on crowding effects arising from small cosolvent molecules and densely packed surface conditions. In addition, we highlight recent efforts that capitalize on the excluded volume effect for various tailored biochemical and biophysical applications. Specifically, we discuss how a targeted increase in local mass density can be exploited to gain insight into the folding dynamics of the protein of interest and how confinement via reverse micelles can be used to study a range of biophysical questions, from protein hydration dynamics to amyloid formation.

  14. A safe transoral surgical approach to parapharyngeal tumor arising from deep lobe of parotid gland

    PubMed Central

    Casale, Manuele; Capuano, Francesco; Sabatino, Lorenzo; Pace, Annalisa; Oliveto, Giuseppe; Vella, Paola; Moffa, Antonio; Salvinelli, Fabrizio

    2016-01-01

    The management of parapharyngeal tumor is surgical, but the approach remains a challenge. Attention should be paid to avoidance intra-operative bleeding or cranial nerves damage. We report a case of a 67-year-old male complaining of left-ear fullness. A submucosal mass arising from the lateral wall of oropharynx on the left side was observed. Magnetic resonance imaging detected a mass arising from the parotid gland, in particular from the deep lobe, and a fine needle biopsy was compatible with “Warthin tumor.” We performed a mini-invasive transoral approach under magnification, previous isolation of homolateral vessels. The decision on which surgical approach to be used is determined by site, size vascularity, and histology of the tumor. A literature review of the main surgical approaches was performed. We performed a combined transoral dissection under magnification with cervicotomic exposure of the neck vascular bundle allowing to dissect the tumor and manage any intra-operative complications. PMID:28228953

  15. Extravasation Mucocele Arising from a Lingual Thyroglossal Duct Remnant

    PubMed Central

    Nakahira, Mitsuhiko; Nakatani, Hiroaki

    2015-01-01

    Although a thyroglossal duct cyst is a congenital anomaly, it can also appear in adults. Despite the presence of embryological remnants, it is still unclear why the cyst should suddenly develop later in life. We report a case of a 46-year-old male with an extravasation mucocele arising from a long-standing lingual thyroglossal duct remnant. MRI demonstrated a lingual cystic lesion near the hyoid bone associated with a suprahyoid tract-like structure masquerading as a thyroglossal duct cyst. However, histopathological examination demonstrated a mucocele secondary to a rupture of a thyroglossal duct remnant with numerous intramural heterotopic salivary glands. We propose a new mechanism of an acquired cystic formation of this congenital disease that excessive production of mucus from heterotopic salivary glands and a physical trauma such as swallowing may lead to extravasation of mucus from the thyroglossal duct. PMID:25861502

  16. Syringocystadenoma Papilliferum of the Scalp Arising from a Nevus Sebaceous

    PubMed Central

    Chandramouli, Mathangi; Sarma, Digvijay; Tejaswy, Kapil; Rodrigues, Gabriel

    2016-01-01

    Syringocystadenoma papilliferum (SCAP) is a rare, benign tumour with varied presentations that arises from the apocrine glands and at times can lead to a diagnostic dilemma. A 53-year-old male presented with a 40-year history of a scalp nodule and a recent 2-year change in its character, and a sanguinopurulent discharge. Examination revealed a 4 cm × 2 cm firm nodule upon left side of the scalp vertex, actively discharging pus and blood. No regional lymph nodes were noticeably palpable. Incision biopsy performed elsewhere showed evidence of a squamous cell carcinoma-in-situ. He underwent a wide local excision with a bilobed flap reconstruction. Histopathologically, the lesion was reported to be SCAP. On follow-up, the patient has since remained asymptomatic with an acceptable cosmetic recovery. PMID:27761094

  17. Irregular activity arises as a natural consequence of synaptic inhibition

    SciTech Connect

    Terman, D.; Rubin, J. E.; Diekman, C. O.

    2013-12-15

    Irregular neuronal activity is observed in a variety of brain regions and states. This work illustrates a novel mechanism by which irregular activity naturally emerges in two-cell neuronal networks featuring coupling by synaptic inhibition. We introduce a one-dimensional map that captures the irregular activity occurring in our simulations of conductance-based differential equations and mathematically analyze the instability of fixed points corresponding to synchronous and antiphase spiking for this map. We find that the irregular solutions that arise exhibit expansion, contraction, and folding in phase space, as expected in chaotic dynamics. Our analysis shows that these features are produced from the interplay of synaptic inhibition with sodium, potassium, and leak currents in a conductance-based framework and provides precise conditions on parameters that ensure that irregular activity will occur. In particular, the temporal details of spiking dynamics must be present for a model to exhibit this irregularity mechanism and must be considered analytically to capture these effects.

  18. Melanotic neuroectodermal tumor of infancy arising in the temporal bone.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jian-guo; Zhao, Rui-jiao; Kong, Ling-fei

    2015-04-01

    Melanotic neuroectodermal tumor of infancy is a rare melanin-containing neoplasm with locally aggressive and rapid expansile growth, usually involving the maxilla, skull, and mandible of early infancy. Radical surgery is critical for a long-term outcome. We present a case of 14-month-old girl with rapid-growing subcutaneous mass arising in the right temporal bone and extending intracranially on computed tomographic scan. Radical surgery was performed. A brownish-black tumor composed of large pigmented epithelioid cells, positive for cytokeratins and HMB-45, and nests of small neuroblast-like cells positive for neuron-specific enolase and synaptophysin, was diagnosed as melanotic neuroectodermal tumor of infancy. The patient remained well without evidence of recurrence for 1 year after surgery. Clinicopathological features, management alternatives and outcome were discussed.

  19. Cesium vapor thermionic converter anomalies arising from negative ion emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasor, Ned S.

    2016-08-01

    Compelling experimental evidence is given that a longstanding limit encountered on cesium vapor thermionic energy converter performance improvement and other anomalies arise from thermionic emission of cesium negative ions. It is shown that the energy that characterizes thermionic emission of cesium negative ions is 1.38 eV and, understandably, is not the electron affinity 0.47 eV determined for the photodetachment threshold of the cesium negative ion. The experimental evidence includes measurements of collector work functions and volt-ampere characteristics in quasi-vacuum cesium vapor thermionic diodes, along with reinterpretation of the classic Taylor-Langmuir S-curve data on electron emission in cesium vapor. The quantitative effects of negative ion emission on performance in the ignited, unignited, and quasi-vacuum modes of cesium vapor thermionic converter operation are estimated.

  20. Lymphatic vessels arise from specialized angioblasts within a venous niche.

    PubMed

    Nicenboim, J; Malkinson, G; Lupo, T; Asaf, L; Sela, Y; Mayseless, O; Gibbs-Bar, L; Senderovich, N; Hashimshony, T; Shin, M; Jerafi-Vider, A; Avraham-Davidi, I; Krupalnik, V; Hofi, R; Almog, G; Astin, J W; Golani, O; Ben-Dor, S; Crosier, P S; Herzog, W; Lawson, N D; Hanna, J H; Yanai, I; Yaniv, K

    2015-06-04

    How cells acquire their fate is a fundamental question in developmental and regenerative biology. Multipotent progenitors undergo cell-fate restriction in response to cues from the microenvironment, the nature of which is poorly understood. In the case of the lymphatic system, venous cells from the cardinal vein are thought to generate lymphatic vessels through trans-differentiation. Here we show that in zebrafish, lymphatic progenitors arise from a previously uncharacterized niche of specialized angioblasts within the cardinal vein, which also generates arterial and venous fates. We further identify Wnt5b as a novel lymphatic inductive signal and show that it also promotes the ‘angioblast-to-lymphatic’ transition in human embryonic stem cells, suggesting that this process is evolutionarily conserved. Our results uncover a novel mechanism of lymphatic specification, and provide the first characterization of the lymphatic inductive niche. More broadly, our findings highlight the cardinal vein as a heterogeneous structure, analogous to the haematopoietic niche in the aortic floor.

  1. Sphenoid esthesioneuroblastoma arising from the hindmost olfactory filament.

    PubMed

    Matsunaga, Mami; Nakagawa, Takayuki; Sakamoto, Tatsunori; Ito, Juichi

    2015-04-01

    Esthesioneuroblastoma (ENB), or olfactory neuroblastoma, is a rare malignant neoplasm arising from the olfactory neuroepithelium. Typically, ENBs are found in the olfactory cleft with extension to the ethmoid sinuses or anterior skull base. Here we report a case of ENB located in the sphenoid sinus, which had been considered as an ectopic ENB. However, endoscopic resection revealed the continuity of the tumor with the hindmost olfactory filament. The present case suggests that an ENB in the sphenoid sinus was not ectopic, but arose from the normal olfactory neuroepithelium. This continuity of the ENB with this filament indicated that the tumor was not ectopic, and that there was possible tumor invasion into the olfactory neuroepithelium in the cribriform niche. Therefore, pathological examination of the olfactory neuroepithelium in the cribriform niche may be necessary in case of sphenoid ENBs.

  2. Transversely isotropic poroelasticity arising from thin isotropic layers

    SciTech Connect

    Berryman, J.G.

    1996-11-01

    Percolation phenomena play central roles in the field of poroelasticity, where two distinct sets of percolating continua intertwine. A connected solid frame forms the basis of the elastic behavior of a poroelastic medium in the presence of confining forces, while connected pores permit a percolating fluid (if present) to influence the mechanical response of the system from within. The present paper discusses isotropic and anisotropic poroelastic media and establishes general formulas for the behavior of transversely isotropic poroelasticity arising from laminations of isotropic components. The Backus averaging method is shown to provide elementary means of constructing general formulas. The results for confined fluids are then compared with the more general Gassmann formulas that must be satisfied by any anisotropic poroelastic medium and found to be in complete agreement.

  3. Contextuality Scenarios Arising from Networks of Stochastic Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iglesias, Rodrigo; Tohmé, Fernando; Auday, Marcelo

    2016-10-01

    An empirical model is a generalization of a probability space. It consists of a simplicial complex of subsets of a class 𝒳 of random variables such that each simplex has an associated probability distribution. The ensuing marginalizations are coherent, in the sense that the distribution on a face of a simplex coincides with the marginal of the distribution over the entire simplex. An empirical model is called contextual if its distributions cannot be obtained by marginalizing a joint distribution over 𝒳. Contextual empirical models arise naturally in quantum theory, giving rise to some of its counter -intuitive statistical consequences. In this paper, we present a different and classical source of contextual empirical models: the interaction among many stochastic processes. We attach an empirical model to the ensuing network in which each node represents an open stochastic process with input and output random variables. The statistical behaviour of the network in the long run makes the empirical model generically contextual and even strongly contextual.

  4. Surprises and pitfalls arising from (pseudo)symmetry

    SciTech Connect

    Zwart, Peter H.; Grosse-Kunstleve, Ralf W.; Lebedev, Andrey A.; Murshudov, Garib N.; Adams, Paul D.

    2008-01-01

    The presence of pseudosymmetry can cause problems in structure determination and refinement. The relevant background and representative examples are presented. It is not uncommon for protein crystals to crystallize with more than a single molecule per asymmetric unit. When more than a single molecule is present in the asymmetric unit, various pathological situations such as twinning, modulated crystals and pseudo translational or rotational symmetry can arise. The presence of pseudosymmetry can lead to uncertainties about the correct space group, especially in the presence of twinning. The background to certain common pathologies is presented and a new notation for space groups in unusual settings is introduced. The main concepts are illustrated with several examples from the literature and the Protein Data Bank.

  5. Child protection reports: key issues arising for public health nurses.

    PubMed

    Hanafin, Sinead

    2013-10-01

    Similar to other countries, there have been a number of high-profile reports into past and recent cases of child abuse and neglect in Ireland. The most recent of these have been the Monageer Inquiry, the Ryan Report, the Roscommon Child Care Case and the Report of the Independent Child Death Review Group. An analysis of these reports highlights the critical role played by public health nurses with troubled families. It also makes explicit key issues that consistently emerge as problematic in terms of professional practice. This paper summarises the main findings of the reports as they relate to the public health nursing service and identifies key themes emerging along with recommendations arising. The emerging themes relate to assessment, early intervention, record keeping, communication and interdisciplinary working and the role of public health nursing management.

  6. Estimation of measurement uncertainty arising from manual sampling of fuels.

    PubMed

    Theodorou, Dimitrios; Liapis, Nikolaos; Zannikos, Fanourios

    2013-02-15

    Sampling is an important part of any measurement process and is therefore recognized as an important contributor to the measurement uncertainty. A reliable estimation of the uncertainty arising from sampling of fuels leads to a better control of risks associated with decisions concerning whether product specifications are met or not. The present work describes and compares the results of three empirical statistical methodologies (classical ANOVA, robust ANOVA and range statistics) using data from a balanced experimental design, which includes duplicate samples analyzed in duplicate from 104 sampling targets (petroleum retail stations). These methodologies are used for the estimation of the uncertainty arising from the manual sampling of fuel (automotive diesel) and the subsequent sulfur mass content determination. The results of the three methodologies statistically differ, with the expanded uncertainty of sampling being in the range of 0.34-0.40 mg kg(-1), while the relative expanded uncertainty lying in the range of 4.8-5.1%, depending on the methodology used. The estimation of robust ANOVA (sampling expanded uncertainty of 0.34 mg kg(-1) or 4.8% in relative terms) is considered more reliable, because of the presence of outliers within the 104 datasets used for the calculations. Robust ANOVA, in contrast to classical ANOVA and range statistics, accommodates outlying values, lessening their effects on the produced estimates. The results of this work also show that, in the case of manual sampling of fuels, the main contributor to the whole measurement uncertainty is the analytical measurement uncertainty, with the sampling uncertainty accounting only for the 29% of the total measurement uncertainty.

  7. Additive lattice kirigami.

    PubMed

    Castle, Toen; Sussman, Daniel M; Tanis, Michael; Kamien, Randall D

    2016-09-01

    Kirigami uses bending, folding, cutting, and pasting to create complex three-dimensional (3D) structures from a flat sheet. In the case of lattice kirigami, this cutting and rejoining introduces defects into an underlying 2D lattice in the form of points of nonzero Gaussian curvature. A set of simple rules was previously used to generate a wide variety of stepped structures; we now pare back these rules to their minimum. This allows us to describe a set of techniques that unify a wide variety of cut-and-paste actions under the rubric of lattice kirigami, including adding new material and rejoining material across arbitrary cuts in the sheet. We also explore the use of more complex lattices and the different structures that consequently arise. Regardless of the choice of lattice, creating complex structures may require multiple overlapping kirigami cuts, where subsequent cuts are not performed on a locally flat lattice. Our additive kirigami method describes such cuts, providing a simple methodology and a set of techniques to build a huge variety of complex 3D shapes.

  8. Additive lattice kirigami

    PubMed Central

    Castle, Toen; Sussman, Daniel M.; Tanis, Michael; Kamien, Randall D.

    2016-01-01

    Kirigami uses bending, folding, cutting, and pasting to create complex three-dimensional (3D) structures from a flat sheet. In the case of lattice kirigami, this cutting and rejoining introduces defects into an underlying 2D lattice in the form of points of nonzero Gaussian curvature. A set of simple rules was previously used to generate a wide variety of stepped structures; we now pare back these rules to their minimum. This allows us to describe a set of techniques that unify a wide variety of cut-and-paste actions under the rubric of lattice kirigami, including adding new material and rejoining material across arbitrary cuts in the sheet. We also explore the use of more complex lattices and the different structures that consequently arise. Regardless of the choice of lattice, creating complex structures may require multiple overlapping kirigami cuts, where subsequent cuts are not performed on a locally flat lattice. Our additive kirigami method describes such cuts, providing a simple methodology and a set of techniques to build a huge variety of complex 3D shapes. PMID:27679822

  9. Differential diagnosis of BPOP arising in relation to patella

    PubMed Central

    Pal, Jitendra Nath; Kar, Maitreyee; Hazra, Sunit; Basu, Anindya

    2015-01-01

    bizarre parosteal osteochondromatous proliferation’. There is no recurrence in five years of follow up. Conclusion: When exostosis like lesions arise from unusual site and at an unusual age group, other rare conditions need to be investigated. Though the final diagnosis of BPOP is obtained after careful histo-pathological examination, the clinico-radiological findings are also relevant. As literature search indicates, this is possibly second incidence where BPOP arised from sesamoid bone and first from patella. PMID:27299085

  10. Impedance control reduces instability that arises from motor noise.

    PubMed

    Selen, Luc P J; Franklin, David W; Wolpert, Daniel M

    2009-10-07

    There is ample evidence that humans are able to control the endpoint impedance of their arms in response to active destabilizing force fields. However, such fields are uncommon in daily life. Here, we examine whether the CNS selectively controls the endpoint impedance of the arm in the absence of active force fields but in the presence of instability arising from task geometry and signal-dependent noise (SDN) in the neuromuscular system. Subjects were required to generate forces, in two orthogonal directions, onto four differently curved rigid objects simulated by a robotic manipulandum. The endpoint stiffness of the limb was estimated for each object curvature. With increasing curvature, the endpoint stiffness increased mainly parallel to the object surface and to a lesser extent in the orthogonal direction. Therefore, the orientation of the stiffness ellipses did not orient to the direction of instability. Simulations showed that the observed stiffness geometries and their pattern of change with instability are the result of a tradeoff between maximizing the mechanical stability and minimizing the destabilizing effects of SDN. Therefore, it would have been suboptimal to align the stiffness ellipse in the direction of instability. The time course of the changes in stiffness geometry suggests that modulation takes place both within and across trials. Our results show that an increase in stiffness relative to the increase in noise can be sufficient to reduce kinematic variability, thereby allowing stiffness control to improve stability in natural tasks.

  11. A Stochastic Problem Arising in the Storage of Radioactive Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, M.M.R.

    2004-07-15

    Nuclear waste drums can contain a collection of radioactive components of uncertain activity and randomly dispersed in position. This implies that the dose-rate at the surface of different drums in a large assembly of similar drums can have significant variations according to the physical makeup and configuration of the waste components. The present paper addresses this problem by treating the drum, and its waste, as a stochastic medium. It is assumed that the sources in the drum contribute a dose-rate to some external point. The strengths and positions are chosen by random numbers, the dose-rate is calculated and, from several thousand realizations, a probability distribution for the dose-rate is obtained. It is shown that a very close approximation to the dose-rate probability function is the log-normal distribution. This allows some useful statistical indicators, which are of environmental importance, to be calculated with little effort.As an example of a practical situation met in the storage of radioactive waste containers, we study the problem of 'hotspots'. These arise in drums in which most of the activity is concentrated on one radioactive component and hence can lead to the possibility of large surface dose-rates. It is shown how the dose-rate, the variance, and some other statistical indicators depend on the relative activities on the sources. The results highlight the importance of such hotspots and the need to quantify their effect.

  12. Novel ethical dilemmas arising in geriatric clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Calleja-Sordo, Elisa Constanza; de Hoyos, Adalberto; Méndez-Jiménez, Jorge; Altamirano-Bustamante, Nelly F; Islas-Andrade, Sergio; Valderrama, Alejandro; García-Peña, Carmen; Altamirano-Bustamante, Myriam M

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine empirically the state of the art of the medical care, when healthcare personal is confronted with ethical dilemmas related with the care they give to the geriatric population. An observational, longitudinal, prospective and qualitative study was conducted by analyzing the correlation between healthcare personnel-patient relationship, and ethical judgments regarding dilemmas that arise in daily clinical practice with geriatric patients. Mexican healthcare personnel with current active practices were asked to write up an ethical dilemma that arose frequently or that had impacted their medical practice. From the narrative input, we were able to draw up a database with 421 dilemmas, and those corresponding to patients 60 years and older were selected (n = 54, 12.8 %). The axiological analysis of the narrative dilemmas of geriatric patients was made using dialectical empiricism. The axiological analysis values found most frequently were classified into three groups: the impact of healthcare, the roles of the physician, and refusal of therapy; the healthcare role of educator, caring for the patients' life and the risk of imminent death where the values found more often. The persistence and universality of certain dilemmas in geriatrics calls for awareness and requires a good training in the ethical discernment of these dilemmas. This would help to improve substantially the care and the life quality of this population.

  13. Sound radiation quantities arising from a resilient circular radiator.

    PubMed

    Aarts, Ronald M; Janssen, Augustus J E M

    2009-10-01

    Power series expansions in ka are derived for the pressure at the edge of a radiator, the reaction force on the radiator, and the total radiated power arising from a harmonically excited, resilient, flat, circular radiator of radius a in an infinite baffle. The velocity profiles on the radiator are either Stenzel functions (1-(sigma/a)2)n, with sigma the radial coordinate on the radiator, or linear combinations of Zernike functions Pn(2(sigma/a)2-1), with Pn the Legendre polynomial of degree n. Both sets of functions give rise, via King's integral for the pressure, to integrals for the quantities of interest involving the product of two Bessel functions. These integrals have a power series expansion and allow an expression in terms of Bessel functions of the first kind and Struve functions. Consequently, many of the results in [M. Greenspan, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 65, 608-621 (1979)] are generalized and treated in a unified manner. A foreseen application is for loudspeakers. The relation between the radiated power in the near-field on one hand and in the far field on the other is highlighted.

  14. Thyroid gland metastasis arising from breast cancer: A case report.

    PubMed

    Yang, Mei; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Chenfang

    2013-06-01

    The thyroid gland is an uncommon site for metastasis to develop and thus metastases arising from breast cancer are rarely observed. In the present study, we describe a case of a 45-year-old female with a three-year history of breast cancer who presented with a thyroid mass that was diagnosed as metastatic breast carcinoma by histopathological analysis of the subtotal thyroidectomy specimen. To ascertain the diagnosis of metastatic breast cancer, we evaluated two types of markers; those that possessed a similar expression status in the original and metastatic lesions [ER, PR and CerbB-2 (HER2/neu)], and those that are capable of differentiating between metastatic lesions and the surrounding thyroid components (TG and TTF-1). The results showed that ER, PR and CerbB-2 demonstrated a similar expression pattern in primary breast carcinoma and thyroid lesions. Meanwhile, in the thyroid lesions, the malignant cells showed negative staining for TG and TTF-1, which confirmed that lesions were not thyroid in origin. This case may prompt clinicians that although thyroid gland are uncommon metastatic site, a diagnosis of metastatic disease should be considered when new aggregates are identified in the thyroid glands and histopathological analysis may aid the diagnosis.

  15. Risk analysis for renewable energy projects due to constraints arising

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prostean, G.; Vasar, C.; Prostean, O.; Vartosu, A.

    2016-02-01

    Starting from the target of the European Union (EU) to use renewable energy in the area that aims a binding target of 20% renewable energy in final energy consumption by 2020, this article illustrates the identification of risks for implementation of wind energy projects in Romania, which could lead to complex technical implications, social and administrative. In specific projects analyzed in this paper were identified critical bottlenecks in the future wind power supply chain and reasonable time periods that may arise. Renewable energy technologies have to face a number of constraints that delayed scaling-up their production process, their transport process, the equipment reliability, etc. so implementing these types of projects requiring complex specialized team, the coordination of which also involve specific risks. The research team applied an analytical risk approach to identify major risks encountered within a wind farm project developed in Romania in isolated regions with different particularities, configured for different geographical areas (hill and mountain locations in Romania). Identification of major risks was based on the conceptual model set up for the entire project implementation process. Throughout this conceptual model there were identified specific constraints of such process. Integration risks were examined by an empirical study based on the method HAZOP (Hazard and Operability). The discussion describes the analysis of our results implementation context of renewable energy projects in Romania and creates a framework for assessing energy supply to any entity from renewable sources.

  16. Mycobacterium fortuitum infection arising in a new tattoo.

    PubMed

    Philips, Rebecca C; Hunter-Ellul, Lindsey A; Martin, Julie E; Wilkerson, Michael G

    2014-06-15

    We report an uncommon case of a cutaneous infection with Mycobacterium fortuitum arising in a new tattoo. A 29-year-old man presented with a several month history of a non-pruritic papular eruption within a tattoo; the papules developed 1-to-2 weeks after the tattoo procedure. He denied similar symptoms with previous tattoos. He had been treated unsuccessfully with cephalexin. Histopathologic examination revealed perifollicular chronic and granulomatous inflammation, consistent with chronic folliculitis. Acid-fast bacilli culture identified Mycobacterium fortuitum complex. The patient was treated with a 2-month course of oral trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (160mg/800mg twice daily) and ciprofloxacin (250 mg twice daily), with clinical improvement at follow up after three weeks of the antibiotic regimen. Rapidly growing mycobacteria have emerged as a cause of tattoo-associated cutaneous infection in recent years. Diagnosis and treatment can be difficult without clinical suspicion. M. fortuitum and other rapidly growing mycobacteria should be considered in the differential diagnosis of tattoo-associated dermatologic complications.

  17. Sparse Gamma Rhythms Arising through Clustering in Adapting Neuronal Networks

    PubMed Central

    Kilpatrick, Zachary P.; Ermentrout, Bard

    2011-01-01

    Gamma rhythms (30–100 Hz) are an extensively studied synchronous brain state responsible for a number of sensory, memory, and motor processes. Experimental evidence suggests that fast-spiking interneurons are responsible for carrying the high frequency components of the rhythm, while regular-spiking pyramidal neurons fire sparsely. We propose that a combination of spike frequency adaptation and global inhibition may be responsible for this behavior. Excitatory neurons form several clusters that fire every few cycles of the fast oscillation. This is first shown in a detailed biophysical network model and then analyzed thoroughly in an idealized model. We exploit the fact that the timescale of adaptation is much slower than that of the other variables. Singular perturbation theory is used to derive an approximate periodic solution for a single spiking unit. This is then used to predict the relationship between the number of clusters arising spontaneously in the network as it relates to the adaptation time constant. We compare this to a complementary analysis that employs a weak coupling assumption to predict the first Fourier mode to destabilize from the incoherent state of an associated phase model as the external noise is reduced. Both approaches predict the same scaling of cluster number with respect to the adaptation time constant, which is corroborated in numerical simulations of the full system. Thus, we develop several testable predictions regarding the formation and characteristics of gamma rhythms with sparsely firing excitatory neurons. PMID:22125486

  18. Strategies to Address Common Challenges When Teaching in an Active Learning Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petersen, Christina I.; Gorman, Kristen S.

    2014-01-01

    This chapter provides practical strategies for addressing common challenges that arise for teachers in active learning classrooms. Our strategies come from instructors with experience teaching in these environments.

  19. Medical Coverage of Ultramarathons and Its Unique Challenges.

    PubMed

    Larson, Hanh Huynh; Khalili-Borna, Dennis; Uzosike, Eze; Sugiyama, David

    2016-01-01

    Medical coverage of ultramarathons must take into account unique logistical, environmental, and psychological components in addition to the medical conditions that may arise. Each ultramarathon is unique and carries with it distinct specific challenges with regard to appropriate planning and organizing. The medical issues encountered with ultramarathons can overlap with those seen in other endurance events, but the extreme and protracted nature of ultramarathons also lends itself to various other medical challenges not frequently encountered in other aspects of sports medicine. This article gives an overview of logistical considerations that go into the medical planning, as well as information regarding diagnosis and acute management of some of the most common and most important conditions that one might encounter when covering an ultramarathon.

  20. Assessing Hurricane Vulnerability Changes Arising from Climate Variability and Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holland, G. J.; Done, J.; Bruyere, C.; NESL Regional Climate Research Group

    2011-12-01

    The vulnerability of a community to hurricane impacts depends on a diverse array of factors. At the community level these include: the quality of their infrastructure and its ability to withstand a hurricane impact, their level of preparedness and ability to respond appropriately to a threat, and their capacity to recover after an impact. Developing and maintaining these at an appropriate level requires a dedicated and sustained effort that results in considerable cost to the community. This cost must be balanced against the likely damage from an impact and its frequency of occurrence. And therein lies the rub; traditional assessment techniques use past cyclone data that: are subject to various levels of data deficiencies, cannot account for changes that might arise from climate change, may cover too short a time period to adequately account for long-term climate variability or to enable assessment of the very rare extreme events. This talk will address current approaches to assessing these deficiencies. We will first discuss the cyclone parameters that are important to assessing impact and show that intensity alone is only one part. For wind it is duration, extent and gustiness that are crucial, and often the rainfall is the dominant impact. These also depend on hurricane size, translation speed and local terrain; and the level of storm surge is also dependent on bathymetry and coastline details. Second, We will address how numerical models are becoming a valuable tool in assessing these features for future climate. The talk will conclude with a summary of the current state of agreement, and disagreement, on likely future changes.

  1. Transversely isotropic elasticity and poroelasticity arising from thin isotropic layers

    SciTech Connect

    Berryman, J.G.

    1997-07-01

    Since the classic work of Postma [1955] and Backus [1962], much has been learned about elastic constants in vertical transversely isotropic (VTI) media when the anisotropy is due to fine layering of isotropic elastic materials. However, new results are still being discovered. For example, the P-wave anisotropy parameter c{sub 11}/c{sub 33} lies in the range 1/4 {<=} c{sub 11}/c{sub 33} {<=} <{lambda}+2{mu}><1/({lambda}+2{mu})>, when the layers are themselves composed of isotropic elastic materials with Lame constants {lambda} and {mu} and the vertical average of the layers is symbolized by <{center_dot}>. The lower bound corrects a result of Postma. For porous layers, a connected solid frame forms the basis of the elastic behavior of a poroelastic medium in the presence of confining forces, while connected pores permit a percolating fluid (if present) to influence the mechanical response of the system from within. For isotropic and anisotropic poroelastic media, we establish general formulas for the behavior of transversely isotropic poroelasticity arising from laminations of isotropic components. The Backus averaging method is shown to provide elementary means of constructing general formulas. The results for confined fluids are then compared with the more general Gassmann [1951] formulas that must be satisfied by any anisotropic poroelastic medium and found to be in complete agreement. Such results are important for applications to oil exploration using AVO (amplitude versus offset) since the presence or absence of a fluid component, as well as the nature of the fluid, is the critical issue and the ways in which the fluid influences seismic reflection data still need to be better understood.

  2. Obesity, the Endocannabinoid System, and Bias Arising from Pharmaceutical Sponsorship

    PubMed Central

    McPartland, John M.

    2009-01-01

    Background Previous research has shown that academic physicians conflicted by funding from the pharmaceutical industry have corrupted evidence based medicine and helped enlarge the market for drugs. Physicians made pharmaceutical-friendly statements, engaged in disease mongering, and signed biased review articles ghost-authored by corporate employees. This paper tested the hypothesis that bias affects review articles regarding rimonabant, an anti-obesity drug that blocks the central cannabinoid receptor. Methods/Principal Findings A MEDLINE search was performed for rimonabant review articles, limited to articles authored by USA physicians who served as consultants for the company that manufactures rimonabant. Extracted articles were examined for industry-friendly bias, identified by three methods: analysis with a validated instrument for monitoring bias in continuing medical education (CME); analysis for bias defined as statements that ran contrary to external evidence; and a tally of misrepresentations about the endocannabinoid system. Eight review articles were identified, but only three disclosed authors' financial conflicts of interest, despite easily accessible information to the contrary. The Takhar CME bias instrument demonstrated statistically significant bias in all the review articles. Biased statements that were nearly identical reappeared in the articles, including disease mongering, exaggerating rimonabant's efficacy and safety, lack of criticisms regarding rimonabant clinical trials, and speculations about surrogate markers stated as facts. Distinctive and identical misrepresentations regarding the endocannabinoid system also reappeared in articles by different authors. Conclusions The findings are characteristic of bias that arises from financial conflicts of interest, and suggestive of ghostwriting by a common author. Resolutions for this scenario are proposed. PMID:19333392

  3. Dracunculiasis eradication--finishing the job before surprises arise.

    PubMed

    Visser, Benjamin Jelle

    2012-07-01

    Dracunculiasis (Guinea worm disease) is a preventable waterborne parasitic disease that affects the poorest people living in remote rural areas in sub-Saharan African countries, who do not have access to safe drinking water. The Guinea Worm Eradication Program, a 25-year old campaign to rid the world of Guinea Worm disease has now reached its final stage accelerating to zero cases in all endemic countries. During the 19th and 20th centuries, dracunculiasis was common in much of Southern Asia and the African continent. The overall number of cases has been reduced tremendously by ≥99%, from the 3.32 million cases estimated to have occurred in 1986 in Africa to only 1,797 cases reported in 2010 reported in only five countries (Sudan, Mali, Ethiopia, Chad and Ghana) and Asia free of the disease. This achievement is unique in its kind--the only previously eradicated disease is smallpox, a viral infection for which vaccination was possible--and it has been achieved through primary community-based prevention and health education programs. Most efforts need to be taken in two countries, South Sudan (comprising 94% or 1,698 out of 1,797 of the cases reported world-wide in 2010) and Mali because of frequent movements of nomads in a vast area inside and outside Mali's borders. All factors favourable to dracunculiasis eradication are available including adequate financial resources, community and political support and high levels of advocacy. Thus there is no reason that this disabling parasitic disease cannot be eradicated soon before surprises arise such as new civil conflicts in currently endemic countries.

  4. Movement Timing and Invariance Arise from Several Geometries

    PubMed Central

    Bennequin, Daniel; Fuchs, Ronit; Berthoz, Alain; Flash, Tamar

    2009-01-01

    Human movements show several prominent features; movement duration is nearly independent of movement size (the isochrony principle), instantaneous speed depends on movement curvature (captured by the 2/3 power law), and complex movements are composed of simpler elements (movement compositionality). No existing theory can successfully account for all of these features, and the nature of the underlying motion primitives is still unknown. Also unknown is how the brain selects movement duration. Here we present a new theory of movement timing based on geometrical invariance. We propose that movement duration and compositionality arise from cooperation among Euclidian, equi-affine and full affine geometries. Each geometry posses a canonical measure of distance along curves, an invariant arc-length parameter. We suggest that for continuous movements, the actual movement duration reflects a particular tensorial mixture of these canonical parameters. Near geometrical singularities, specific combinations are selected to compensate for time expansion or compression in individual parameters. The theory was mathematically formulated using Cartan's moving frame method. Its predictions were tested on three data sets: drawings of elliptical curves, locomotion and drawing trajectories of complex figural forms (cloverleaves, lemniscates and limaçons, with varying ratios between the sizes of the large versus the small loops). Our theory accounted well for the kinematic and temporal features of these movements, in most cases better than the constrained Minimum Jerk model, even when taking into account the number of estimated free parameters. During both drawing and locomotion equi-affine geometry was the most dominant geometry, with affine geometry second most important during drawing; Euclidian geometry was second most important during locomotion. We further discuss the implications of this theory: the origin of the dominance of equi-affine geometry, the possibility that the brain

  5. Urban surface water pollution problems arising from misconnections.

    PubMed

    Revitt, D Michael; Ellis, J Bryan

    2016-05-01

    The impacts of misconnections on the organic and nutrient loadings to surface waters are assessed using specific household appliance data for two urban sub-catchments located in the London metropolitan region and the city of Swansea. Potential loadings of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), soluble reactive phosphorus (PO4-P) and ammoniacal nitrogen (NH4-N) due to misconnections are calculated for three different scenarios based on the measured daily flows from specific appliances and either measured daily pollutant concentrations or average pollutant concentrations for relevant greywater and black water sources obtained from an extensive review of the literature. Downstream receiving water concentrations, together with the associated uncertainties, are predicted from derived misconnection discharge concentrations and compared to existing freshwater standards for comparable river types. Consideration of dilution ratios indicates that these would need to be of the order of 50-100:1 to maintain high water quality with respect to BOD and NH4-N following typical misconnection discharges but only poor quality for PO4-P is likely to be achievable. The main pollutant loading contributions to misconnections arise from toilets (NH4-N and BOD), kitchen sinks (BOD and PO4-P) washing machines (PO4-P and BOD) and, to a lesser extent, dishwashers (PO4-P). By completely eliminating toilet misconnections and ensuring misconnections from all other appliances do not exceed 2%, the potential pollution problems due to BOD and NH4-N discharges would be alleviated but this would not be the case for PO4-P. In the event of a treatment option being preferred to solve the misconnection problem, it is shown that for an area the size of metropolitan Greater London, a sewage treatment plant with a Population Equivalent value approaching 900,000 would be required to efficiently remove BOD and NH4-N to safely dischargeable levels but such a plant is unlikely to have the capacity to deal

  6. Does motor interference arise from mirror system activation? The effect of prior visuo-motor practice on automatic imitation.

    PubMed

    Capa, Rémi L; Marshall, Peter J; Shipley, Thomas F; Salesse, Robin N; Bouquet, Cédric A

    2011-03-01

    Action perception may involve a mirror-matching system, such that observed actions are mapped onto the observer's own motor representations. The strength of such mirror system activation should depend on an individual's experience with the observed action. The motor interference effect, where an observed action interferes with a concurrently executed incongruent action, is thought to arise from mirror system activation. However, this view was recently challenged. If motor interference arises from mirror system activation, this effect should be sensitive to prior sensorimotor experience with the observed action. To test this prediction, we measured motor interference in two groups of participants observing the same incongruent movements. One group had received brief visuo-motor practice with the observed incongruent action, but not the other group. Action observation induced a larger motor interference in participants who had practiced the observed action. This result thus supports a mirror system account of motor interference.

  7. Featherweight Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Love, Tyler S.; Ryan, Larry

    2012-01-01

    As science, technology education, and engineering programs suffer budget cuts, educators continue to seek cost-effective activities that engage students and reinforce standards. The featherweight challenge is a hands-on activity that challenges students to continually refine their design while not breaking the budget. This activity uses one of the…

  8. Facing Multiculturalism's Challenges in Korean Education and Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olneck, Michael R.

    2011-01-01

    Multicultural policy in South Korea faces variants of challenges endemic to multiculturalism. These challenges are "dilemmas of difference," "variable terms of inclusion," and "legitimacy." In Korea, these challenges arise in a setting in which ethnic diversity is of relatively recent origin, an ideology of ethnic…

  9. Red cell antibodies arising from solid organ transplants.

    PubMed

    Ramsey, G

    1991-01-01

    RBC antibodies arising from transplanted organs and directed against recipient RBCs represent a well-established immunohematologic complication of solid organ transplantation. In ABO-unmatched organs, the frequency and severity of graft antibodies and hemolysis generally increase with the size (lymphoid content) of the organ, from kidney to liver to heart-lung transplants. In the cases reviewed here, the frequency of hemolysis increased in cyclosporine-treated kidney transplant recipients and O-to-A liver transplant recipients and decreased in group AB liver transplant recipients and kidney transplant recipients receiving azathioprine or low-dose postoperative graft irradiation. Available data cannot otherwise distinguish which cyclosporine-treated recipients of ABO-unmatched kidneys and livers (30-40% of total) will develop graft antibody. There has been no conclusive effect to date of the age, race, or gender of the donor or the recipient, of cadaver versus living kidney donors, or of patients' A2 or secretor status. In a few cases of living-donor kidney grafts, the donor was the patient's mother or wife who had been exposed to the recipient's RBC antigens via pregnancy. The ABO antibodies are typically IgG, appear 7 to 10 days after transplantation, and last for about a month. If immediate-spin crossmatching is done routinely, DATs are recommended in compatibility testing after ABO-unmatched transplants. Changes in the immunosuppressive regimen, such as a change from cyclosporine therapy, have not affected the duration of these antibodies. Most patients require only transfusions for this self-limited process, but six cases of hemolysis-induced acute renal failure have been reported, and one death was attributed to complications of hemolysis. RBC or plasma exchange has been performed in a few fulminant cases. RBCs of the donor's blood type are given when antibody appears. Some workers recommend such transfusion as prophylaxis at the time of surgery, although in

  10. Can the Baryon Asymmetry Arise From Initial Conditions?

    SciTech Connect

    Krnjaic, Gordan

    2016-06-16

    In this letter, we quantify the challenge of explaining the baryon asymmetry using initial conditions in a universe that undergoes inflation. Contrary to lore, we find that such an explanation is possible if net $B-L$ number is stored in a light bosonic field with hyper-Planckian initial displacement and a delicately chosen field velocity prior to inflation. However, such a construction may require extremely tuned coupling constants to ensure that this asymmetry is viably communicated to the Standard Model after reheating; the large field displacement required to overcome inflationary dilution must not induce masses for Standard Model particles or generate dangerous washout processes. While these features are inelegant, this counterexample nonetheless shows that there is no theorem against such an explanation. We also comment on potential observables in the double $\\beta$-decay spectrum and on model variations that may allow for more natural realizations.

  11. Interleukin-27 signaling promotes immunity against endogenously arising murine tumors.

    PubMed

    Natividad, Karlo D T; Junankar, Simon R; Mohd Redzwan, Norhanani; Nair, Radhika; Wirasinha, Rushika C; King, Cecile; Brink, Robert; Swarbrick, Alexander; Batten, Marcel

    2013-01-01

    Interleukin-27 (IL-27) is a pleiotropic cytokine but its immunosuppressive effects predominate during many in vivo immunological challenges. Despite this, evidence from tumor cell line transfer models suggested that IL-27 could promote immune responses in the tumor context. However, the role of IL-27 in immunity against tumors that develop in situ and in tumor immunosurveillance remain undefined. In this study, we demonstrate that tumor development and growth are accelerated in IL-27 receptor α (Il27ra)-deficient mice. Enhanced tumor growth in both carcinogen-induced fibrosarcoma and oncogene-driven mammary carcinoma was associated with decreased interferon-γ production by CD4 and CD8 T cells and increased numbers of regulatory T-cells (Treg). This is the first study to show that IL-27 promotes protective immune responses against endogenous tumors, which is critical as the basis for future development of an IL-27 based therapeutic agent.

  12. Interleukin-27 Signaling Promotes Immunity against Endogenously Arising Murine Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Natividad, Karlo D. T.; Junankar, Simon R.; Mohd Redzwan, Norhanani; Nair, Radhika; Wirasinha, Rushika C.; King, Cecile; Brink, Robert; Swarbrick, Alexander; Batten, Marcel

    2013-01-01

    Interleukin-27 (IL-27) is a pleiotropic cytokine but its immunosuppressive effects predominate during many in vivo immunological challenges. Despite this, evidence from tumor cell line transfer models suggested that IL-27 could promote immune responses in the tumor context. However, the role of IL-27 in immunity against tumors that develop in situ and in tumor immunosurveillance remain undefined. In this study, we demonstrate that tumor development and growth are accelerated in IL-27 receptor α (Il27ra)-deficient mice. Enhanced tumor growth in both carcinogen-induced fibrosarcoma and oncogene-driven mammary carcinoma was associated with decreased interferon-γ production by CD4 and CD8 T cells and increased numbers of regulatory T-cells (Treg). This is the first study to show that IL-27 promotes protective immune responses against endogenous tumors, which is critical as the basis for future development of an IL-27 based therapeutic agent. PMID:23554861

  13. 32 CFR 536.131 - Limitations on assessments arising from UCMJ claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Limitations on assessments arising from UCMJ... Military Justice § 536.131 Limitations on assessments arising from UCMJ claims. (a) Limitations on amount... provisions of Rule for Courts-Martial 1107 in a court-martial arising out of the same incident would...

  14. 28 CFR 45.2 - Disqualification arising from personal or political relationship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Disqualification arising from personal or... RESPONSIBILITIES § 45.2 Disqualification arising from personal or political relationship. (a) Unless authorized... campaign organization, arising from service as a principal adviser thereto or a principal official...

  15. 32 CFR 536.115 - Claims procedures for claims arising overseas under international agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Claims procedures for claims arising overseas... Under International Agreements § 536.115 Claims procedures for claims arising overseas under... services or other Army JA offices responsible for claims that arise in countries bound by SOFA or...

  16. 32 CFR 536.107 - Scope for international agreements claims arising in the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Scope for international agreements claims arising... International Agreements § 536.107 Scope for international agreements claims arising in the United States. This... claims arising out of any acts or omissions of members of a foreign military force or civilian...

  17. 32 CFR 536.136 - Scope for claims arising under the Foreign Claims Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Scope for claims arising under the Foreign Claims....136 Scope for claims arising under the Foreign Claims Act. (a) Application. This subpart, which is..., or property damage caused by service members or civilian employees, or claims that arise incident...

  18. 32 CFR 536.114 - Scope for claims arising overseas under international agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Scope for claims arising overseas under... International Agreements § 536.114 Scope for claims arising overseas under international agreements. (a) This section sets forth guidance on claims arising from any act or omission of soldiers or members of...

  19. Are neighborhoods causal? Complications arising from the 'stickiness' of ZNA.

    PubMed

    Glass, Thomas A; Bilal, Usama

    2016-10-01

    Are neighborhoods causal? The answer remains elusive. Armed with new multilevel methods, enthusiasm for neighborhoods research surged at the turn of the century. However, a wave of skepticism has arisen based on the difficulty of drawing causal inferences from observational studies in which selection to neighborhoods is non-random. Researchers have sought answers from experimental and quasi-experimental studies of movers vs. stayers. We develop two related concepts in this essay in the hopes of shedding light on this problem. First, the inceptive environment into which persons are born (which we term ZNA for Zip code Nativity Area) exerts a potentially powerful causal impact on health. Detecting that causal effect is challenging for reasons similar that obtain in other fields (including genetics). Second, we explicate the problem of neighborhood 'stickiness' in terms of the persistence of neighborhood treatment assignment, and argue that under-appreciation of stickiness has led to systematic bias in causal estimates of neighborhoods proportional to the degree of stickiness. In sticky contexts, failure to account for the lasting influences of ZNA by adjusting for intermediate individual socioeconomic and health variables on the causal pathway can result in neighborhood effects estimates that are biased toward the null. We follow with an example drawn from evidence of neighborhood 'stickiness' and obesity. The stickiness of ZNA cautions us that experimental evidence may be insufficient or misleading as a solution to causal inference problems in neighborhood research.

  20. Limits in decision making arise from limits in memory retrieval

    PubMed Central

    Giguère, Gyslain; Love, Bradley C.

    2013-01-01

    Some decisions, such as predicting the winner of a baseball game, are challenging in part because outcomes are probabilistic. When making such decisions, one view is that humans stochastically and selectively retrieve a small set of relevant memories that provides evidence for competing options. We show that optimal performance at test is impossible when retrieving information in this fashion, no matter how extensive training is, because limited retrieval introduces noise into the decision process that cannot be overcome. One implication is that people should be more accurate in predicting future events when trained on idealized rather than on the actual distributions of items. In other words, we predict the best way to convey information to people is to present it in a distorted, idealized form. Idealization of training distributions is predicted to reduce the harmful noise induced by immutable bottlenecks in people’s memory retrieval processes. In contrast, machine learning systems that selectively weight (i.e., retrieve) all training examples at test should not benefit from idealization. These conjectures are strongly supported by several studies and supporting analyses. Unlike machine systems, people’s test performance on a target distribution is higher when they are trained on an idealized version of the distribution rather than on the actual target distribution. Optimal machine classifiers modified to selectively and stochastically sample from memory match the pattern of human performance. These results suggest firm limits on human rationality and have broad implications for how to train humans tasked with important classification decisions, such as radiologists, baggage screeners, intelligence analysts, and gamblers. PMID:23610402

  1. Therapeutic options for peritoneal metastasis arising from colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Glockzin, Gabriel; Schlitt, Hans J; Piso, Pompiliu

    2016-01-01

    Peritoneal metastasis is a common sign of advanced tumor stage, tumor progression or tumor recurrence in patients with colorectal cancer. Due to the improvement of systemic chemotherapy, the development of targeted therapy and the introduction of additive treatment options such as cytoreductive surgery (CRS) and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC), the therapeutic approach to peritoneal metastatic colorectal cancer (pmCRC) has changed over recent decades, and patient survival has improved. Moreover, in contrast to palliative systemic chemotherapy or best supportive care, the inclusion of CRS and HIPEC as inherent components of a multidisciplinary treatment regimen provides a therapeutic approach with curative intent. Although CRS and HIPEC are increasingly accepted as the standard of care for selected patients and have become part of numerous national and international guidelines, the individual role, optimal timing and ideal sequence of the different systemic, local and surgical treatment options remains a matter of debate. Ongoing and future randomized controlled clinical trials may help clarify the impact of the different components, allow for further improvement of patient selection and support the standardization of oncologic treatment regimens for pmCRC. The addition of further therapeutic options such as neoadjuvant intraperitoneal chemotherapy or pressurized intraperitoneal aerosol chemotherapy, should be investigated to optimize therapeutic regimens and further improve the oncological outcome. PMID:27602235

  2. Error in total ozone measurements arising from aerosol attenuation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, R. W. L.; Basher, R. E.

    1979-01-01

    A generalized least squares method for deducing both total ozone and aerosol extinction spectrum parameters from Dobson spectrophotometer measurements was developed. An error analysis applied to this system indicates that there is little advantage to additional measurements once a sufficient number of line pairs have been employed to solve for the selected detail in the attenuation model. It is shown that when there is a predominance of small particles (less than about 0.35 microns in diameter) the total ozone from the standard AD system is too high by about one percent. When larger particles are present the derived total ozone may be an overestimate or an underestimate but serious errors occur only for narrow polydispersions.

  3. Lymphatic Vessel Abnormalities Arising from Disorders of Ras Signal Transduction

    PubMed Central

    Sevick-Muraca, Eva M.; King, Philip D.

    2013-01-01

    A number of genetic diseases in man have been described in which abnormalities in the development and function of the lymphatic vascular (LV) system are prominent features. The genes that are mutated in these diseases are varied and include genes that encode lymphatic endothelial cell (LEC) growth factor receptors and their ligands and transcription factors that control LEC fate and function. In addition, an increasing number of genes have been identified that encode components of the Ras signal transduction pathway that conveys signals from cell surface receptors to regulate cell growth, proliferation and differentiation. Gene targeting studies performed in mice have confirmed that the LV system is particularly susceptible to perturbations in the Ras pathway. PMID:24183794

  4. Educational Game as Supplemental Learning Tool: Benefits, Challenges, and Tensions Arising from Use in an Elementary School Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, Scott; Dondlinger, Mary Jo; Stein, Richard; Barab, Sasha

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the qualitative findings from a mixed-methods comparison study of the use of an online multi-user virtual environment called Anytown which supplemented face-to-face writing instruction in a fourth grade classroom to determine implications for the design of such environments and the reported impact of this design on students…

  5. Introducing E-Learning in a South African Higher Education Institution: Challenges Arising from an Intervention and Possible Responses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bharuthram, Sharita; Kies, Carolynn

    2013-01-01

    This article draws on research conducted at a tertiary institution in South Africa as part of the redesigning of an English for Educational Development (EED) course to include an e-learning online discussion component. The subject material used was based on HIV/AIDS topics that students had to debate within an online discussion forum. Framed by…

  6. Doing Qualitative Comparative Research on Teaching: Challenges and Benefits of Working with Grounded Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rupp, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    The last decades have seen the completion of an increasing number of qualitative comparative research projects on teaching. Challenges and benefits which might arise from a qualitative international comparative research design have been considered. However, very little has been published on challenges and benefits which may arise from using…

  7. Environmental challenge

    SciTech Connect

    Conable, B.; Warford, J.; Partow, Z.; Lutz, E.; Munasinghe, M.

    1991-09-01

    The contents include the following: Development and the Environment: A Global Balance; Evolution of the World Bank's Environmental Policy; Accounting for the Environment; Public Policy and the Environment; Managing Drylands; Environmental Action Plans in Africa; Agroforestry in Sub-Saharan Africa; Irrigation and the Environmental Challenge; Curbing Pollution in Developing Countries; Global Warming and the Developing World; and The Global Environment Facility.

  8. Challenging Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reichle, Joe, Ed.; DePaepe, Paris, Ed.

    1991-01-01

    The articles in this feature or theme issue describe successful approaches to positive, community-based management of severe challenging behavior. Programs include: a train-the-trainer strategy for inservice training used across the country; the use of student volunteers as community integration facilitators; a school-based intervention project…

  9. Quill Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Lori

    2006-01-01

    Teaching high school students the "grammar" of art--the principles and elements of art and design--while also teaching them about creativity and concept can be difficult. This author has found that combining beginning lessons in line, shape, value, texture, form, and color with projects requiring innovation and inspiration, though challenging, is…

  10. Classroom Management Challenges in the Dance Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Dawn

    2007-01-01

    Teaching dance can be a challenge because of the unique classroom-management situations that arise from the dynamic nature of the class content. Management is a delicate navigation of advance planning; rule setting; the establishment and implementation of daily protocols, routines, and interventions; and the teacher's own presentation. This…

  11. Serous endometrial intraepithelial carcinoma arising in adenomyosis: a report of 5 cases.

    PubMed

    Abushahin, Nisreen; Zhang, Tingguo; Chiang, Sarah; Zhang, Xiangsheng; Hatch, Kenneth; Zheng, Wenxin

    2011-05-01

    Serous endometrial intraepithelial carcinoma (serous EIC) arising in adenomyosis is rare. It may be underrecognized because of its deceiving morphology when embedded in the foci of adenomyosis. Although there is no connection to peritoneal cavity, some cases may be associated with extrauterine disease. It is currently unknown what the etiology for such a disease is. More studies are in need to elucidate the pathogenesis of such a grave malady. We report a series of 5 cases of serous EIC, which may arise in adenomyosis. The 5 cases are in 5 different patients or whom on histopathological examination of their hysterectomy specimens, the finding of adenomyosis involved with serous intraepithelial neoplasia was identified. The finding of interest was the presence of multifoci of adenomyosis; some of those foci were involved in serous EIC. In addition to EIC, lesions of endometrial glandular dysplasia were present in the foci of adenomyosis. To rule out the possibility of endometrial serous carcinoma (ESC) invading into the areas of the adenomyosis, all of the 5 uteri were extensively examined. Among the 5 uteri, the eutopic endometirum showed 1 invasive ESC, 2 serous EIC, and 2 benign resting endometrium without any cancer or precancerous lesions. In 1 uterus with ESC, we did not see any direct spatial connection between the invasive component of ESC and the areas of EIC in the foci of adenomyosis. In 2 uteri with serous EIC within the endometrial cavity, there was a distance of at least 0.5 cm between the lesions within the endometrial cavity and the serous EIC in adenomyosis. The remaining 2 uteri showed no evidence of endometrial malignancy in the endometrial cavity, whereas serous EIC was present only in areas of adenomyosis. Clinicopathologic data including characterized immunohistochemical stainings and p53 gene sequence analysis are presented and clinical significance is discussed.

  12. Serous carcinoma arising in endometrial polyps: clinicopathologic study of 4 cases.

    PubMed

    Idrees, Romana; Din, Nasir Ud; Fatima, Saira; Kayani, Naila

    2013-06-01

    Uterine serous carcinoma (USC) is a rare variant of endometrial cancer that is not related to increased estrogen level; rather, it arises in a background of atrophic endometrium. Our aim was to describe clinicopathologic features of 4 cases of USC arising in endometrial polyps (EPs). The mean age of the patients at presentation was 53 years (range, 50-61 years). All patients presented with postmenopausal bleeding. In 3 patients, endometrial curretings were done before surgery, which was reported as EP with superficial foci of USC, EP with few clusters of atypical cells, and high-grade serous carcinoma, respectively. All patients underwent hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy and omental sampling. The uterine cavity showed an EP in all cases ranging in size from 2 to 3.5 cm (mean, 3 cm). The hysterectomy specimens revealed USC in EP as well as the adjacent endometrium in 3 patients. The nonneoplastic endometrium was atrophic in all cases. Residual tumor was not found in the endometrium in 1 case. Omental metastatic deposits were found in all cases. Tumor deposits were also seen in the serosa of uterus, fallopian tubes, and parametrium in 1 case. Two patients died of disease 2 years after diagnosis. The remaining 2 patients are alive after a follow-up of 3 years, respectively. In conclusion, USC is a rare aggressive tumor, and to establish the diagnosis, it is important to look for the small foci of the tumor in the atrophic endometrium and on the surface of the polyps as these patients are likely to harbor additional disease in the uterus or extrauterine sites. The postmenopausal group is at high risk for developing these tumors; therefore, all the endometrial biopsies/curettings and the EPs in this age group should be thoroughly sampled.

  13. Gliosarcomas arising from the pineal gland region: uncommon localization and rare tumors.

    PubMed

    Sugita, Yasuo; Terasaki, Mizuhiko; Tanigawa, Ken; Ohshima, Koichi; Morioka, Motohiro; Higaki, Koichi; Nakagawa, Setsuko; Shimokawa, Shoko; Nakashima, Susumu

    2016-02-01

    Gliosarcomas are a variant of glioblastomas and present a biphasic pattern, with coexisting glial and mesenchymal components. In this study, two unusual cases are presented. Case 1 is a 52-year-old woman with a headache and memory disturbance for a month. Case 2 is an 18-year-old man with a headache lasting two weeks. In both cases, an MRI revealed enhancing T1-low to iso, T2-iso to high intensity lesions in the pineal gland region. Histologically, in case 1, the tumor showed spindle cell proliferation with disorganized fascicles and cellular pleomorphism. Tumor cells variously exhibited oncocytic transformation. Immunohistochemically, most of the spindle tumor cells were positive for myoglobin and desmin. Some of the tumor cells were positive for GFAP and S-100 protein. On the other hand, all tumor cells were positive for CD133, Musashi1, and SOX-2 which are the markers of neural stem cells. In case 2, the tumor showed monotonous proliferation of short spindle cells with disorganized fascicles and cellular atypism. The morphological distinction between glial and mesenchymal components was not apparent. Immunohistochemically, most of the spindle tumor cells were positive for desmin. Glial tumor cells that were dispersed within the sarcoma as single cells were positive for GFAP. In addition, all tumor cells were positive for CD133, Musashi1 and SOX-2. Based on these microscopic appearances, and immunohistochemical findings, these cases were diagnosed as gliosarcomas arising from the pineal gland region. These results also indicated that pluripotential cancer stem cells differentiated into glial and muscle cell lines at the time of tumor growth. In a survey of previous publications on gliosarcoma arising from the pineal gland, these cases are the second and third reports found in English scientific writings.

  14. Hepaticojejunostomy for the management of sump syndrome arising from choledochoduodenostomy in a patient who underwent bariatric Roux-en-Y gastric bypass: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Alqahtani, Mohammed S.; Alshammary, Shadi A.; Alqahtani, Enas M.; Bojal, Shoukat A.; Alaidh, Amal; Osian, Gelu

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Rapid weight loss following bariatric surgery is associated with high incidence of gallstones and complications that may need bilioenteric diversion. This presents a specific challenge in the management of this group of patients. Case presentation A 37 years old female underwent a Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) in 2008 for morbid obesity. In 2009 she presented with obstructive jaundice and was diagnosed with choledocholithiasis successfully managed by open cholecystectomy and choledochoduodenostomy. In the following years, she developed recurrent attacks of fever, chills, jaundice, and right upper quadrant pain and her weight loss was not satisfactory. Imaging of the liver showed multiple cholangitic abscesses. Reflux at the choledochoduodenostomy site was suggestive of sump syndrome as a cause of her recurrent cholangitis and a definitive surgical treatment was indicated. Intraoperative findings confirmed sump at the choledochoduodenostomy site and also revealed the presence of a large superficial accessory duct arising from segment four of the liver with separate drainage into the duodenum distal to the choledochoduodenostomy site. A formal hepaticojejunostomy was done after ductoplasty. The Roux limb was created by transecting the jejunum 40 cm distal to the foot anastomosis of the RYGB. The gastric limb was lengthened as part of this procedure which afforded the patient the additional benefit of weight loss. Conclusion Choledochoduodenostomy should be avoided in patients with RYGB due to the risk of sump syndrome which requires conversion to a formal hepaticojejunostomy. PMID:26921534

  15. 7 CFR 1230.639 - Additional absentee voter challenge period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... PORK PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Procedures for the Conduct of Referendum Referendum..., tax records, or other similar documents proving that the person owned and sold hogs or pigs during...

  16. 7 CFR 1230.639 - Additional absentee voter challenge period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... PORK PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Procedures for the Conduct of Referendum Referendum..., tax records, or other similar documents proving that the person owned and sold hogs or pigs during...

  17. Statistical and computational challenges in physical mapping

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, D.O.; Speed, T.P.

    1994-06-01

    One of the great success stories of modern molecular genetics has been the ability of biologists to isolate and characterize the genes responsible for serious inherited diseases like Huntington`s disease, cystic fibrosis, and myotonic dystrophy. Instrumental in these efforts has been the construction of so-called {open_quotes}physical maps{close_quotes} of large regions of human chromosomes. Constructing a physical map of a chromosome presents a number of interesting challenges to the computational statistician. In addition to the general ill-posedness of the problem, complications include the size of the data sets, computational complexity, and the pervasiveness of experimental error. The nature of the problem and the presence of many levels of experimental uncertainty make statistical approaches to map construction appealing. Simultaneously, however, the size and combinatorial complexity of the problem make such approaches computationally demanding. In this paper we discuss what physical maps are and describe three different kinds of physical maps, outlining issues which arise in constructing them. In addition, we describe our experience with powerful, interactive statistical computing environments. We found that the ability to create high-level specifications of proposed algorithms which could then be directly executed provided a flexible rapid prototyping facility for developing new statistical models and methods. The ability to check the implementation of an algorithm by comparing its results to that of an executable specification enabled us to rapidly debug both specification and implementation in an environment of changing needs.

  18. 31 CFR 535.335 - Claim arising out of events in Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Claim arising out of events in Iran... General Definitions § 535.335 Claim arising out of events in Iran. For purposes of § 535.216, a claim is one “arising out of events” of the type specified only if such event is the specific act that is...

  19. 31 CFR 535.335 - Claim arising out of events in Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Claim arising out of events in Iran... General Definitions § 535.335 Claim arising out of events in Iran. For purposes of § 535.216, a claim is one “arising out of events” of the type specified only if such event is the specific act that is...

  20. 31 CFR 535.335 - Claim arising out of events in Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Claim arising out of events in Iran... General Definitions § 535.335 Claim arising out of events in Iran. For purposes of § 535.216, a claim is one “arising out of events” of the type specified only if such event is the specific act that is...

  1. 31 CFR 535.335 - Claim arising out of events in Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Claim arising out of events in Iran... General Definitions § 535.335 Claim arising out of events in Iran. For purposes of § 535.216, a claim is one “arising out of events” of the type specified only if such event is the specific act that is...

  2. 31 CFR 535.335 - Claim arising out of events in Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Claim arising out of events in Iran... General Definitions § 535.335 Claim arising out of events in Iran. For purposes of § 535.216, a claim is one “arising out of events” of the type specified only if such event is the specific act that is...

  3. Intracranial germinoma in the pineal region arising after subtotal resection of epidermoid cyst: case report.

    PubMed

    Walker, Amanda J; Huynh-Le, Minh-Phuong; Nauen, David; Malayeri, Ashkan A; Jallo, George; Terezakis, Stephanie A

    2014-05-01

    We present an unusual case of a germinoma of the pineal region arising adjacent to an epidermoid cyst in a 16-year-old male. Initial imaging findings were classic for epidermoid cyst. The patient underwent two partial resections at an outside institution, each specimen demonstrating pure epidermoid cyst. Follow-up imaging over a period of 24 months showed an area of progressive contrast enhancement adjacent to the initial lesion, suggesting the development of a neoplasm. Given the area of contrast enhancement in addition to worsening headaches and visual changes, he underwent a third and final resection at our institution. Pathology revealed a mixed germ cell tumor with prominent germinoma component in addition to a well-differentiated epidermoid cyst. Details of his imaging and pathologic findings are presented, and possible explanations for these findings are explored, the most likely of which is lack of complete resection at the onset failed to identify the whole of the neoplasm. We conclude that pediatric epidermoid cysts of the pineal region should always receive close follow-up, particularly when total resection is not performed.

  4. Radiological protection issues arising during and after the Fukushima nuclear reactor accident.

    PubMed

    González, Abel J; Akashi, Makoto; Boice, John D; Chino, Masamichi; Homma, Toshimitsu; Ishigure, Nobuhito; Kai, Michiaki; Kusumi, Shizuyo; Lee, Jai-Ki; Menzel, Hans-Georg; Niwa, Ohtsura; Sakai, Kazuo; Weiss, Wolfgang; Yamashita, Shunichi; Yonekura, Yoshiharu

    2013-09-01

    Following the Fukushima accident, the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) convened a task group to compile lessons learned from the nuclear reactor accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant in Japan, with respect to the ICRP system of radiological protection. In this memorandum the members of the task group express their personal views on issues arising during and after the accident, without explicit endorsement of or approval by the ICRP. While the affected people were largely protected against radiation exposure and no one incurred a lethal dose of radiation (or a dose sufficiently large to cause radiation sickness), many radiological protection questions were raised. The following issues were identified: inferring radiation risks (and the misunderstanding of nominal risk coefficients); attributing radiation effects from low dose exposures; quantifying radiation exposure; assessing the importance of internal exposures; managing emergency crises; protecting rescuers and volunteers; responding with medical aid; justifying necessary but disruptive protective actions; transiting from an emergency to an existing situation; rehabilitating evacuated areas; restricting individual doses of members of the public; caring for infants and children; categorising public exposures due to an accident; considering pregnant women and their foetuses and embryos; monitoring public protection; dealing with 'contamination' of territories, rubble and residues and consumer products; recognising the importance of psychological consequences; and fostering the sharing of information. Relevant ICRP Recommendations were scrutinised, lessons were collected and suggestions were compiled. It was concluded that the radiological protection community has an ethical duty to learn from the lessons of Fukushima and resolve any identified challenges. Before another large accident occurs, it should be ensured that inter alia: radiation risk coefficients of potential

  5. Ethical and legal issues arising from complex genetic disorders. DOE final report

    SciTech Connect

    Andrews, Lori

    2002-10-09

    The project analyzed the challenges raised by complex genetic disorders in genetic counselling, for clinical practice, for public health, for quality assurance, and for protection against discrimination. The research found that, in some settings, solutions created in the context of single gene disorders are more difficult to apply to complex disorders. In other settings, the single gene solutions actually backfired and created additional problems when applied to complex genetic disorders. The literature of five common, complex genetic disorders--Alzheimer's, asthma, coronary heart disease, diabetes, and psychiatric illnesses--was evaluated in depth.

  6. 26 CFR 301.6230(c)-1 - Claim arising out of erroneous computation, etc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Claim arising out of erroneous computation, etc. 301.6230(c)-1 Section 301.6230(c)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE....6230(c)-1 Claim arising out of erroneous computation, etc. (a) In general. A claim for refund...

  7. 5 CFR 4001.106 - Restrictions arising from the employment of relatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Restrictions arising from the employment of relatives. 4001.106 Section 4001.106 Administrative Personnel FARM CREDIT SYSTEM INSURANCE... CORPORATION § 4001.106 Restrictions arising from the employment of relatives. When the spouse of a...

  8. 5 CFR 4101.106 - Restrictions arising from the employment of relatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Restrictions arising from the employment of relatives. 4101.106 Section 4101.106 Administrative Personnel FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION... Restrictions arising from the employment of relatives. When the spouse of a covered employee, or other...

  9. 32 CFR 536.116 - Responsibilities as to claims arising overseas under international agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Responsibilities as to claims arising overseas under international agreements. 536.116 Section 536.116 National Defense Department of Defense... Under International Agreements § 536.116 Responsibilities as to claims arising overseas...

  10. Development of a Mental Health Nursing Simulation: Challenges and Solutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kidd, Lori I.; Morgan, Karyn I.; Savery, John R.

    2012-01-01

    Nursing education programs are proliferating rapidly in the United States in an effort to meet demand for nurse professionals. Multiple challenges arise from this rapid expansion. One challenge is finding sufficient clinical sites to accommodate students. Increased competition for scarce resources requires creativity in clinical contracting. This…

  11. Time to Decide? Dynamical Analysis Predicts Partial Tip/Stalk Patterning States Arise during Angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Venkatraman, Lakshmi; Regan, Erzsébet Ravasz; Bentley, Katie

    2016-01-01

    Angiogenesis is a highly dynamic morphogenesis process; however, surprisingly little is known about the timing of the different molecular processes involved. Although the role of the VEGF-notch-DLL4 signaling pathway has been established as essential for tip/stalk cell competition during sprouting, the speed and dynamic properties of the underlying process at the individual cell level has not been fully elucidated. In this study, using mathematical modeling we investigate how specific, biologically meaningful, local conditions around and within an individual cell can influence their unique tip/stalk phenotype switching kinetics. To this end we constructed an ordinary differential equation model of VEGF-notch-DLL4 signaling in a system of two, coupled endothelial cells (EC). Our studies reveal that at any given point in an angiogenic vessel the time it takes a cell to decide to take on a tip or stalk phenotype may be drastically different, and this asynchrony of tip/stalk cell decisions along vessels itself acts to speed up later competitions. We unexpectedly uncover intermediate "partial" yet stable states lying between the tip and stalk cell fates, and identify that internal cellular factors, such as NAD-dependent deacetylase sirtuin-1 (Sirt1) and Lunatic fringe 1 (Lfng1), can specifically determine the length of time a cell spends in these newly identified partial tip/stalk states. Importantly, the model predicts that these partial EC states can arise during normal angiogenesis, in particular during cell rearrangement in sprouts, providing a novel two-stage mechanism for rapid adaptive behavior to the cells highly dynamic environment. Overall, this study demonstrates that different factors (both internal and external to EC) can be used to modulate the speed of tip/stalk decisions, opening up new opportunities and challenges for future biological experiments and therapeutic targeting to manipulate vascular network topology, and our basic understanding of

  12. Time to Decide? Dynamical Analysis Predicts Partial Tip/Stalk Patterning States Arise during Angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Regan, Erzsébet Ravasz; Bentley, Katie

    2016-01-01

    Angiogenesis is a highly dynamic morphogenesis process; however, surprisingly little is known about the timing of the different molecular processes involved. Although the role of the VEGF-notch-DLL4 signaling pathway has been established as essential for tip/stalk cell competition during sprouting, the speed and dynamic properties of the underlying process at the individual cell level has not been fully elucidated. In this study, using mathematical modeling we investigate how specific, biologically meaningful, local conditions around and within an individual cell can influence their unique tip/stalk phenotype switching kinetics. To this end we constructed an ordinary differential equation model of VEGF-notch-DLL4 signaling in a system of two, coupled endothelial cells (EC). Our studies reveal that at any given point in an angiogenic vessel the time it takes a cell to decide to take on a tip or stalk phenotype may be drastically different, and this asynchrony of tip/stalk cell decisions along vessels itself acts to speed up later competitions. We unexpectedly uncover intermediate “partial” yet stable states lying between the tip and stalk cell fates, and identify that internal cellular factors, such as NAD-dependent deacetylase sirtuin-1 (Sirt1) and Lunatic fringe 1 (Lfng1), can specifically determine the length of time a cell spends in these newly identified partial tip/stalk states. Importantly, the model predicts that these partial EC states can arise during normal angiogenesis, in particular during cell rearrangement in sprouts, providing a novel two-stage mechanism for rapid adaptive behavior to the cells highly dynamic environment. Overall, this study demonstrates that different factors (both internal and external to EC) can be used to modulate the speed of tip/stalk decisions, opening up new opportunities and challenges for future biological experiments and therapeutic targeting to manipulate vascular network topology, and our basic understanding of

  13. The legal and ethical concerns that arise from using complex predictive analytics in health care.

    PubMed

    Cohen, I Glenn; Amarasingham, Ruben; Shah, Anand; Xie, Bin; Lo, Bernard

    2014-07-01

    Predictive analytics, or the use of electronic algorithms to forecast future events in real time, makes it possible to harness the power of big data to improve the health of patients and lower the cost of health care. However, this opportunity raises policy, ethical, and legal challenges. In this article we analyze the major challenges to implementing predictive analytics in health care settings and make broad recommendations for overcoming challenges raised in the four phases of the life cycle of a predictive analytics model: acquiring data to build the model, building and validating it, testing it in real-world settings, and disseminating and using it more broadly. For instance, we recommend that model developers implement governance structures that include patients and other stakeholders starting in the earliest phases of development. In addition, developers should be allowed to use already collected patient data without explicit consent, provided that they comply with federal regulations regarding research on human subjects and the privacy of health information.

  14. Identification of small peptides arising from hydrolysis of meat proteins in dry fermented sausages.

    PubMed

    López, Constanza M; Bru, Elena; Vignolo, Graciela M; Fadda, Silvina G

    2015-06-01

    In this study, proteolysis and low molecular weight (LMW) peptides (<3kDa) from commercial Argentinean fermented sausages were characterized by applying a peptidomic approach. Protein profiles and peptides obtained by Tricine-SDS-PAGE and RP-HPLC-MS, respectively, allowed distinguishing two different types of fermented sausages, although no specific biomarkers relating to commercial brands or quality were recognized. From electrophoresis, α-actin, myoglobin, creatine kinase M-type and L-lactate dehydrogenase were degraded at different intensities. In addition, a partial characterization of fermented sausage peptidome through the identification of 36 peptides, in the range of 1000-2100 Da, arising from sarcoplasmic (28) and myofibrillar (8) proteins was achieved. These peptides had been originated from α-actin, myoglobin, and creatine kinase M-type, but also from the hydrolysis of other proteins not previously reported. Although muscle enzymes exerted a major role on peptidogenesis, microbial contribution cannot be excluded as it was postulated herein. This work represents a first peptidomic approach for fermented sausages, thereby providing a baseline to define key peptides acting as potential biomarkers.

  15. Atmospheric dynamics Research InfraStructure in Europe: The ARISE Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanc, E.; Bittner, M.; Hauchecorne, A.; Ceranna, L.; Charlton-Perez, A. J.; Ripepe, M.; Evers, L.; Kvaerna, T.; Lastovicka, J.; Eliasson, L.; Crosby, N. B.; Blanc-Benon, P.; Le Pichon, A.; Marchetti, E.; Pilger, C.; Keckhut, P.; Schmidt, C.; Lee, C.; Smets, P.

    2013-12-01

    ARISE proposes to design a new infrastructure that integrates different station networks in order to provide a new "3D" image of the atmospheric dynamics from the ground up to the mesosphere with unprecedented spatio-temporal resolution. These networks are: - the International infrasound network developed for the verification of the Comprehensive nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). This system is unique by its quality for infrasound and atmospheric wave observations, - the Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Changes (NDACC) which uses Lidar to measure stratospheric dynamics, - the Network for the Detection of Mesopause Changes (NDMC), dedicated to airglow layer measurements in the mesosphere, and additional complementary stations and satellite data. The infrastructure extends across Europe and outlying regions, including polar and equatorial regions. The measurements will be used to improve the parameterization of gravity waves in the stratosphere to better resolve climate models. The project also concerns civil applications related to monitoring of natural hazards as volcanoes. The presentation will highlight the first results obtained in the frame of the project.

  16. The Value of Risk Pooling for Mitigating Water Utility Financial Risks Arising From Water Scarcity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baum, R.; Characklis, G. W.; Hughes, J.; Eskaf, S.

    2015-12-01

    Water utilities across the United States face growing supply risks as demand growth and extreme weather events make water scarcity more common. As it has become more difficult and expensive to build new supply capacity to accommodate these events, many utility managers respond by either imposing conservation measures, which reduces revenues, or acquiring additional water from other sources, which increases costs. These actions lead to changing financial trends that are difficult to predict and that utilities are currently ill-equipped to manage. As a result, adaptation strategies and tools are being developed to reduce utility vulnerabilities, ensuring both financial stability and continued access to low cost financing, a critical consideration for a capital intensive industry. Previous work in this area has involved the development of utility specific financial hedging tools. However, the time and informational requirements associated with developing these individualized strategies may be a limiting factor for widespread implementation. The objective of this research is to develop more generalized hedging instruments that can be applied simultaneously to multiple utilities across the United States, thereby increasing the potential for widespread implementation. This work first analyzes the financial risks of water scarcity for a large set of water utilities across the country and then proposes a financial hedging solution to mitigate these risks through hydrologic index-based financial insurance. Results provide insights into the most effective indices, the potential for risk pooling to reduce insurance costs, and the performance of these contracts in managing utility financial risk arising from drought.

  17. Nuclear Proliferation Challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Professor William Potter

    2005-11-28

    William C. Potter, Director of the Center for Non Proliferation Studies and the Center for Russian and Eurasian Studies at the Monterey Institute of International Studies, will present nuclear proliferation challenges following the 2005 Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) Review Conference. In addition to elucidating reasons for, and implications of, the conference’s failure, Dr. Potter will discuss common ground between nuclear proliferation and terrorism issues and whether corrective action can be taken.

  18. Antibiotic resistance: An ethical challenge.

    PubMed

    Littmann, Jasper; Buyx, Alena; Cars, Otto

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, we argue that antibiotic resistance (ABR) raises a number of ethical problems that have not yet been sufficiently addressed. We outline four areas in which ethical issues that arise in relation to ABR are particularly pressing. First, the emergence of multidrug-resistant and extensively drug-resistant infections exacerbates traditional ethical challenges of infectious disease control, such as the restriction of individual liberty for the protection of the public's health. Second, ABR raises issues of global distributive justice, both with regard to the overuse and lack of access to antibiotics. Third, the use of antibiotics in veterinary medicine raises serious concerns for animal welfare and sustainable farming practices. Finally, the diminishing effectiveness of antibiotics leads to questions about intergenerational justice and our responsibility for the wellbeing of future generations. We suggest that current policy discussions should take ethical conflicts into account and engage openly with the challenges that we outline in this paper.

  19. Technical challenges for dismantlement verification

    SciTech Connect

    Olinger, C.T.; Stanbro, W.D.; Johnston, R.G.; Nakhleh, C.W.; Dreicer, J.S.

    1997-11-01

    In preparation for future nuclear arms reduction treaties, including any potential successor treaties to START I and II, the authors have been examining possible methods for bilateral warhead dismantlement verification. Warhead dismantlement verification raises significant challenges in the political, legal, and technical arenas. This discussion will focus on the technical issues raised by warhead arms controls. Technical complications arise from several sources. These will be discussed under the headings of warhead authentication, chain-of-custody, dismantlement verification, non-nuclear component tracking, component monitoring, and irreversibility. The authors will discuss possible technical options to address these challenges as applied to a generic dismantlement and disposition process, in the process identifying limitations and vulnerabilities. They expect that these considerations will play a large role in any future arms reduction effort and, therefore, should be addressed in a timely fashion.

  20. 32 CFR 536.109 - Claims not payable under international agreements (for those arising in the United States).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (for those arising in the United States). 536.109 Section 536.109 National Defense Department of... those arising in the United States). The following claims are not payable: (a) Claims arising from a... objectives of a treaty authorizing their presence in the United States. (b) Claims arising from the acts...

  1. 32 CFR 536.113 - Assistance to foreign forces for claims arising under international agreements (as to claims...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Assistance to foreign forces for claims arising under international agreements (as to claims arising in the United States). 536.113 Section 536.113... forces for claims arising under international agreements (as to claims arising in the United States)....

  2. Emerging Biometric Modalities: Challenges and Opportunities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gafurov, Davrondzhon

    Recent advances in sensor technology and wide spread use of various electronics (computers, PDA, mobile phones etc.) provide new opportunities for capturing and analyses of novel physiological and behavioural traits of human beings for biometric authentication. This paper presents an overview of several such types of human characteristics that have been proposed as alternatives to traditional types of biometrics. We refer to these characteristics as emerging biometrics. We survey various types of emerging modalities and techniques, and discuss their pros and cons. Emerging biometrics faces several limitations and challenges which include subject population coverage (focusing mostly on adults); unavailability of benchmark databases; little research with respect to vulnerability/robustness against attacks; and some privacy concerns they may arise. In addition, recognition performance of emerging modalities are generally less accurate compared to the traditional biometrics. Despite all of these emerging biometrics posses their own benefits and advantages compared to traditional biometrics which makes them still attractive for research. First of all, emerging biometrics can always serve as a complementary source for identity information; they can be suitable in applications where traditional biometrics are difficult or impossible to adapt such as continuous or periodic re-verification of the user's identity etc.

  3. Asthma and anaphylactoid reactions to food additives.

    PubMed Central

    Tarlo, S. M.; Sussman, G. L.

    1993-01-01

    Presumed allergic reactions to hidden food additives are both controversial and important. Clinical manifestations include asthma, urticaria, angioedema, and anaphylactic-anaphylactoid events. Most adverse reactions are caused by just a few additives, such as sulfites and monosodium glutamate. Diagnosis is suspected from the history and confirmed by specific challenge. The treatment is specific avoidance. PMID:8499792

  4. Case report 207: Giant cell reparative granuloma of left femur arising in polyostatic fibrous dysplasia

    SciTech Connect

    De Smet, A.A.; Travers, H.; Neff, J.R.

    1982-08-01

    Diagnosis and differential diagnosis of lytic lesions in the femur are discussed. Roentgenograms, a tomogram and pathological studies of a giant cell reparative granuloma of left femur arising in polyostotic fibrous dysplasia are presented.

  5. A pair of Fibonacci-like polynomials arising from a special mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffiths, Martin; Griffiths, Jonny

    2016-02-01

    We study here a pair of sequences of polynomials that arise from a particular iterated mapping on the plane. We show how these sequences come about, and give some of their interesting mathematical properties.

  6. Right aortic arch with aberrant left innominate artery arising from Kommerell's diverticulum*

    PubMed Central

    Faistauer, Ângela; Torres, Felipe Soares; Faccin, Carlo Sasso

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of an uncommon thoracic aorta anomaly-right aortic arch with aberrant left innominate artery arising from Kommerell's diverticulum-that went undiagnosed until adulthood. PMID:27777481

  7. Variational iteration method for Bratu-like equation arising in electrospinning.

    PubMed

    He, Ji-Huan; Kong, Hai-Yan; Chen, Rou-Xi; Hu, Ming-sheng; Chen, Qiao-ling

    2014-05-25

    This paper points out that the so called enhanced variational iteration method (Colantoni & Boubaker, 2014) for a nonlinear equation arising in electrospinning and vibration-electrospinning process is the standard variational iteration method. An effective algorithm using the variational iteration algorithm-II is suggested for Bratu-like equation arising in electrospinning. A suitable choice of initial guess results in a relatively accurate solution by one or few iteration.

  8. Antibodies to pre-S and X determinants arise during natural infection with ground squirrel hepatitis virus.

    PubMed Central

    Persing, D H; Varmus, H E; Ganem, D

    1986-01-01

    The DNA sequence of the ground squirrel hepatitis virus (GSHV) genome predicts the existence of several proteins in addition to the major surface (S) and core antigens. These include the pre-S1 and pre-S2 proteins, initiated at sites within the open reading frame preceding and continuous with the coding region for the S gene product, and the X protein, the putative product of an independent reading frame. Using an antibody directed against a peptide predicted by codons 130 to 143 of the pre-S1 reading frame, we identified a 43-kilodalton product of the pre-S1 coding region in preparations of GSHV surface antigen purified from the sera of infected animals. In addition, by immunoprecipitation of S- and pre-S-specific in vitro translation products with ground squirrel sera obtained after GSHV infection, we determined that antibodies arise to both S and pre-S determinants. The antibody response to pre-S includes, in some cases, reactivity to pre-S1-specific domains and is not always associated with an anti-S response. Similarly, by production of the viral X gene product in vitro followed by immunoprecipitation with ground squirrel sera, we showed that antibodies to this viral gene product also arise during infection, indicating that X antigenic determinants are synthesized during viral infection and are recognized by the host immune system. Images PMID:2427746

  9. Additive Similarity Trees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sattath, Shmuel; Tversky, Amos

    1977-01-01

    Tree representations of similarity data are investigated. Hierarchical clustering is critically examined, and a more general procedure, called the additive tree, is presented. The additive tree representation is then compared to multidimensional scaling. (Author/JKS)

  10. Polyimide processing additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pratt, J. R.; St. Clair, T. L.; Burks, H. D.; Stoakley, D. M.

    1987-01-01

    A method has been found for enhancing the melt flow of thermoplastic polyimides during processing. A high molecular weight 422 copoly(amic acid) or copolyimide was fused with approximately 0.05 to 5 pct by weight of a low molecular weight amic acid or imide additive, and this melt was studied by capillary rheometry. Excellent flow and improved composite properties on graphite resulted from the addition of a PMDA-aniline additive to LARC-TPI. Solution viscosity studies imply that amic acid additives temporarily lower molecular weight and, hence, enlarge the processing window. Thus, compositions containing the additive have a lower melt viscosity for a longer time than those unmodified.

  11. [Food additives and healthiness].

    PubMed

    Heinonen, Marina

    2014-01-01

    Additives are used for improving food structure or preventing its spoilage, for example. Many substances used as additives are also naturally present in food. The safety of additives is evaluated according to commonly agreed principles. If high concentrations of an additive cause adverse health effects for humans, a limit of acceptable daily intake (ADI) is set for it. An additive is a risk only when ADI is exceeded. The healthiness of food is measured on the basis of nutrient density and scientifically proven effects.

  12. Characteristics of proton beams and secondary neutrons arising from two different beam nozzles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Yeon-Gyeong; Kim, Yu-Seok

    2015-10-01

    A tandem or a Van de Graaff accelerator with an energy of 3 MeV is typically used for Proton Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) analysis. In this study, the beam line design used in the PIXE analysis, instead of the typical low-energy accelerator, was used to increase the production of isotopes from a 13-MeV cyclotron. For the PIXE analysis, the proton beam should be focused at the target through a nozzle after degrading the proton beams energy from 13 MeV to 3 MeV by using an energy degrader. Previous studies have been conducted to determine the most appropriate material for and the thickness of the energy degrader. From the energy distribution of the degraded proton beam and the neutron occurrence rate at the degrader, an aluminum nozzle of X thickness was determined to be the most appropriate nozzle construction. Neutrons are created by the collision of 3-MeV protons in the nozzle after passage through the energy degrader. In addition, a proton beam of sufficient intensity is required for a non-destructive PIXE analysis. Therefore, if nozzle design is to be optimized, the number of neutrons that arise from the collision of protons inside the nozzle, as well as the track direction of the generated secondary neutrons, must be considered, with the primary aim of ensuring that a sufficient number of protons pass through the nozzle as a direct beam. A number of laboratories are currently conducting research related to the design of nozzles used in accelerator fields, mostly medical fields. This paper presents a comparative analysis of two typical nozzle shapes in order to minimize the loss of protons and the generation of secondary neutrons. The neutron occurrence rate and the number of protons that pass through the nozzle were analyzed by using a Particle and Heavy Ion Transport code System (PHITS) program in order to identify the nozzle that generated the strongest proton beam.

  13. Genomic instability and DNA damage responses in progeria arising from defective maturation of prelamin A.

    PubMed

    Musich, Phillip R; Zou, Yue

    2009-01-01

    Progeria syndromes have in common a premature aging phenotype and increased genome instability. The susceptibility to DNA damage arises from a compromised repair system, either in the repair proteins themselves or in the DNA damage response pathways. The most severe progerias stem from mutations affecting lamin A production, a filamentous protein of the nuclear lamina. Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS) patients are heterozygous for aLMNA gene mutation while Restrictive Dermopathy (RD) individuals have a homozygous deficiency in the processing protease Zmpste24. These mutations generate the mutant lamin A proteins progerin and FC-lamina A, respectively, which cause nuclear deformations and chromatin perturbations. Genome instability is observed even though genome maintenance and repair genes appear normal. The unresolved question is what features of the DNA damage response pathways are deficient in HGPS and RD cells. Here we review and discuss recent findings which resolve some mechanistic details of how the accumulation of progerin/FC-lamin A proteins may disrupt DNA damage response pathways in HGPS and RD cells. As the mutant lamin proteins accumulate they sequester replication and repair factors, leading to stalled replication forks which collapse into DNA double-strand beaks (DSBs). In a reaction unique to HGPS and RD cells these accessible DSB termini bind Xeroderma pigmentosum group A (XPA) protein which excludes normal binding by DNA DSB repair proteins. The bound XPA also signals activation of ATM and ATR, arresting cell cycle progression, leading to arrested growth. In addition, the effective sequestration of XPA at these DSB damage sites makes HGPS and RD cells more sensitive to ultraviolet light and other mutagens normally repaired by the nucleotide excision repair pathway of which XPA is a necessary and specific component.

  14. Clinical characteristics of papillary thyroid carcinoma arising from the pyramidal lobe

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Sang Gab; Yi, Jin Wook; Seong, Chan-Yong; Kim, Jong-Kyu; Kim, Su-Jin; Chai, Young Jun; Choi, June Young

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) arising from the pyramidal lobe is rare; therefore, clinicopathologic evaluation is lacking. In addition, the rate of occult malignancy in the pyramidal lobe after thyroid surgery is unclear. This study is to evaluate the clinical characteristics of PTCs that involve the pyramidal lobe. Methods The study enrolled 1,107 patients who underwent thyroid surgery for PTC at Seoul National University Hospital from 2006 to 2015. Pyramidal lobe status in pathologic reports was clear in all cases. “Pyramidal lobe-dominant PTC” was defined as single pyramidal lobe cancer or multifocal cancer with larger pyramidal lobe tumor. “Incidental pyramidal lobe PTC” was defined as occult cancer identified after thyroidectomy or as multifocal cancer with smaller pyramidal lobe tumor. Results Ten patients were included in the pyramidal lobe-dominant PTC group. The mean age was 58 ± 12.5 years, and the mean tumor size was 0.7 ± 0.7 cm. Cervical lymph node metastasis was found in 5 patients (50%). Three patients had microscopic lymphatic invasion, and 7 had advanced American Joint Comitee on Cancer (AJCC) stage disease (5 with stage III and 2 with stage IV). Compared with conventional PTC (n = 1,058), pyramidal lobe-dominant PTC was significantly associated with lymphatic invasion (P = 0.031) and advanced AJCC stage (P = 0.022). The prevalence of incidental pyramidal lobe PTC was 3.56%. Conclusion Pyramidal lobe PTC is relatively small in size; however, the rate of extrathyroidal extension and lymph node metastasis is high. Preoperative evaluation of nodal status is important, and the extent of surgery should be determined in accordance with the preoperative diagnosis. PMID:28289665

  15. Transition, coexistence, and interaction of vector localized waves arising from higher-order effects

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Chong; Yang, Zhan-Ying; Zhao, Li-Chen; Yang, Wen-Li

    2015-11-15

    We study vector localized waves on continuous wave background with higher-order effects in a two-mode optical fiber. The striking properties of transition, coexistence, and interaction of these localized waves arising from higher-order effects are revealed in combination with corresponding modulation instability (MI) characteristics. It shows that these vector localized wave properties have no analogues in the case without higher-order effects. Specifically, compared to the scalar case, an intriguing transition between bright–dark rogue waves and w-shaped–anti-w-shaped solitons, which occurs as a result of the attenuation of MI growth rate to vanishing in the zero-frequency perturbation region, is exhibited with the relative background frequency. In particular, our results show that the w-shaped–anti-w-shaped solitons can coexist with breathers, coinciding with the MI analysis where the coexistence condition is a mixture of a modulation stability and MI region. It is interesting that their interaction is inelastic and describes a fusion process. In addition, we demonstrate an annihilation phenomenon for the interaction of two w-shaped solitons which is identified essentially as an inelastic collision in this system. -- Highlights: •Vector rogue wave properties induced by higher-order effects are studied. •A transition between vector rogue waves and solitons is obtained. •The link between the transition and modulation instability (MI) is demonstrated. •The coexistence of vector solitons and breathers coincides with the MI features. •An annihilation phenomenon for the vector two w-shaped solitons is presented.

  16. Understanding Leadership in Schools Facing Challenging Circumstances: A Chilean Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahumada, Luis; Galdames, Sergio; Clarke, Simon

    2016-01-01

    During the last 10 years, research into schools facing challenging circumstances has attracted the attention of researchers around the world. The aim of this study was to understand the challenges that school leaders face as they per form their work, the nature of the context in which these challenges arise, the strategies school leaders adopt to…

  17. Current Challenges in Bayesian Model Choice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clyde, M. A.; Berger, J. O.; Bullard, F.; Ford, E. B.; Jefferys, W. H.; Luo, R.; Paulo, R.; Loredo, T.

    2007-11-01

    Model selection (and the related issue of model uncertainty) arises in many astronomical problems, and, in particular, has been one of the focal areas of the Exoplanet working group under the SAMSI (Statistics and Applied Mathematical Sciences Institute) Astrostatistcs Exoplanet program. We provide an overview of the Bayesian approach to model selection and highlight the challenges involved in implementing Bayesian model choice in four stylized problems. We review some of the current methods used by statisticians and astronomers and present recent developments in the area. We discuss the applicability, computational challenges, and performance of suggested methods and conclude with recommendations and open questions.

  18. Extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma arising in the femoral vein: a case report.

    PubMed

    Oike, Naoki; Ogose, Akira; Kawashima, Hiroyuki; Umezu, Hajime; Inagawa, Shoichi

    2014-10-01

    Soft tissue tumors arising in deep veins of the extremities are uncommon, although a few cases of synovial sarcoma or leiomyosarcoma arising in the femoral vein have been documented. However, to the best of our knowledge, an extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma (EMC) arising in the femoral vein has not been reported in the English literature. We report a case of EMC arising in the femoral vein of a 70-year-old man who presented with right leg edema and was diagnosed with a deep venous thrombosis (DVT) by computed tomography (CT). Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a mass in the right proximal thigh that was diagnosed as myxomatous sarcoma by aspiration cytology, and anticoagulant therapy was initiated. The mass was surgically resected en bloc, including the femoral vein and surrounding soft tissue, and the femoral artery was preserved. The femoral vein was not reconstructed. The histologic diagnosis was an extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma. The patient received postoperative local radiation treatment, with a total dose of 60 Gy, and is currently doing well with no evidence of local recurrence or metastasis at 8 months after surgery. In summary, this case report shows that EMC can arise in the femoral vein, and that reconstruction of the femoral vein is not always necessary during surgery for soft tissue tumors.

  19. Additive Manufactured Product Integrity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waller, Jess; Wells, Doug; James, Steve; Nichols, Charles

    2017-01-01

    NASA is providing key leadership in an international effort linking NASA and non-NASA resources to speed adoption of additive manufacturing (AM) to meet NASA's mission goals. Participants include industry, NASA's space partners, other government agencies, standards organizations and academia. Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) is identified as a universal need for all aspects of additive manufacturing.

  20. Challenging times ahead.

    PubMed

    While, Alison

    2008-07-01

    The global economic challenges will not only affect the banks but also healthcare staff and their patients. Indeed, no-one will be unaffected. At this moment community nurses are not being properly reimbursed for the cost of using their cars to deliver care in the home as the price of petrol rises ever higher and older people are counting the cost of ever rising energy and food costs. Additionally there will be less extra money available to fund public services as the government attempts to balance its expenditure against tax receipts without further increasing government debt.

  1. Adverse reactions to the sulphite additives

    PubMed Central

    Misso, Neil LA

    2012-01-01

    Sulphites are widely used as preservative and antioxidant additives in the food and pharmaceutical industries. Exposure to sulphites has been reported to induce a range of adverse clinical effects in sensitive individuals, ranging from dermatitis, urticaria, flushing, hypotension, abdominal pain and diarrhoea to life-threatening anaphylactic and asthmatic reactions. Exposure to the sulphites arises mainly from the consumption of foods and drinks that contain these additives; however exposure may also occur through the use of pharmaceutical products, as well as in occupational settings. Most studies report a prevalence of sulphite sensitivity of 3 to 10% among asthmatic subjects who ingest these additives. However, the severity of these reactions varies, and steroid-dependent asthmatics, those with marked airway hyperresponsiveness, and children with chronic asthma, appear to be at greater risk. Although a number of potential mechanisms have been proposed, the precise mechanisms underlying sulphite sensitivity remain unclear. PMID:24834193

  2. Cutaneous horn arising from an area of discoid lupus erythematosus on the scalp.

    PubMed

    Fatani, Mohammad Ibrahim; Hussain, Waleed Mohd; Baltow, Badee; Alsharif, Sahar

    2014-04-03

    A cutaneous horn is a rare clinical condition characterised by a conical projection of hyperkeratotic epidermis. Cutaneous horns most commonly arise from sun-exposed skin in elderly men, but may arise from any part of the body at any age in men and women. When a cutaneous horn forms, it is important to determine the underlying cause. Various skin diseases may present with cutaneous horns including viral warts, actinic keratosis, keratoacanthoma, seborrhoeic keratosis, pyogenic granuloma, discoid lupus erythematosus, verruca vulgaris, Bowen's disease, basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma. The underlying pathology is benign in 61.1% of cases, premalignant in 23.2% of cases and malignant in 15.7% of cases. We report a patient with a cutaneous horn arising from an area of discoid lupus erythematosus on the scalp.

  3. Superficial malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor arising from diffuse neurofibroma in a neurofibromatosis type 1 patient.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Takuya; Kuwashiro, Maki; Misago, Noriyuki; Narisawa, Yutaka

    2014-07-01

    Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNST) are regarded as sarcomas that arise from peripheral nerves or that display differentiation along the lines of the various elements of the nerve sheath. These tumors occur in deep soft tissues, but superficial primary MPNST with a cutaneous or subcutaneous origin have rarely been reported. A 70-year-old woman presented with a 3-4-year history of a slowly enlarging soft nodule on the left side of her neck. The histopathological diagnosis of the nodule was low-grade MPNST arising from diffuse neurofibroma. There was increased cellularity, but no necrosis or mitotic activity. These histopathological findings pose difficulties in differential diagnosis from a neurofibroma with atypical histological features. We report a rare case of superficial MPNST arising from diffuse neurofibroma associated with underlying occipital bone dysplasia in a neurofibromatosis type 1 patient.

  4. Osteosarcoma arising from a haemangioma: case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Mallınson, Paul; Coupal, Tyler; Hayes, Malcolm; Clarkson, Paul; Munk, Peter; Ouellette, Hugue

    2014-01-01

    To create awareness of the benign lesions from which osteosarcoma may arise. Osteosarcoma is a rare tumour of bone the etiology of which is poorly understood, but it may arise from benign lesions. Malignant transformation in hemangiomas, in the absence of prior radiation, is exceedingly rare and the resulting neoplasm is usually an angiosarcoma. We report the case of a 30-year-old woman where investigation for thigh pain revealed a distal femoral hemangioma. She represented with pain and mass 18 years later, leading to a confirmed diagnosis of osteosarcoma at the same site. Osteosarcomas may arise from a variety of benign lesions. In this article we report the case of a histologically confirmed hemangioma which subsequently underwent malignant change into an osteosarcoma.

  5. The First Case of HER2+ Invasive Ductal Carcinoma Arising From a Breast Hamartoma and Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Baer, Lea; Rogers, Sherise Chantell; Farrelly, Patricia; Tornos, Carmen; Sweeney, Keith

    2017-01-01

    Carcinomas arising from breast hamartomas are exceedingly rare. We present the first reported case of an African-American female presenting with a right breast lump and a subsequent mammogram suggestive of a hamartoma. She later underwent lumpectomy and was found to have HER2+ invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) arising from a hamartoma. She was amenable to HER2-targeted trastuzumab, hormone therapy and adjuvant radiation but declined chemotherapy. In a review of the literature, IDC is the predominant neoplastic type found in hamartomas. The average hamartoma size at time of neoplasm diagnosis is 6.0 cm. Patients with hamartomas greater than 6.0 cm, with changes in calcification pattern; new nodules or asymmetry should be considered for additional evaluation with ultrasound, MRI and/or biopsy. HER2 status is under-reported among cases and should be evaluated in any malignancy found within hamartomas as HER-2 therapy has improved overall survival and recurrence free survival in HER2+breast cancer patients.

  6. Experimental adenomas and carcinomas of the large intestine behave as distinct entities: most carcinomas arise de novo in flat mucosa.

    PubMed

    Maskens, A P; Dujardin-Loits, R M

    1981-01-01

    Detailed histologic analyses were performed on tumors of the large intestine obtained in 152 dimethylhydrazine (DMH)-treated rats. Of a total 539 glandular neoplasms, 45 were benign; 494 (92%) were locally invasive; of which 222 (41%) were invading the muscularis propria. One-hundred-forty-one tumors were smaller than or equal to 3mm in diameter. Among those, 127 (90%) were invasive. In addition to macroscopic nodules, several appeared after longer latency periods than did serial sections of flat mucosa. The benign polyps usually appeared after longer latency periods than did carcinomas. A review of the literature indicates that in the majority of rat experiments most or all DMH-induced tumors were frequently reported. All these data constitute strong evidence that most experimental adenocarcinomas do arise de novo in flat mucosa, i.e., without a prior adenoma stage. However, most DMH-induced tumors in mice were reported to be adenomas, either alone or coexisting with carcinomas. It is suggested that "de novo arising carcinomas" and adenomatous polyps, which are both inducible by the same carcinogens, and which can coexist in some experimental systems, nonetheless constitute independent and distinct pathologic entities; they can be separated by genetic susceptibility.

  7. Additive-driven assembly of block copolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Ying; Daga, Vikram; Anderson, Eric; Watkins, James

    2011-03-01

    One challenge to the formation of well ordered hybrid materials is the incorporation of nanoscale additives including metal, semiconductor and dielectric nanoparticles at high loadings while maintaining strong segregation. Here we describe the molecular and functional design of small molecule and nanoparticle additives that enhance phase segregation in their block copolymer host and enable high additive loadings. Our approach includes the use of hydrogen bond interactions between the functional groups on the additive or particle that serve as hydrogen bond donors and one segment of the block copolymer containing hydrogen bond acceptors. Further, the additives show strong selectively towards the targeted domains, leading to enhancements in contrast between properties of the phases. In addition to structural changes, we explore how large changes in the thermal and mechanical properties occur upon incorporation of the additives. Generalization of this additive-induced ordering strategy to various block copolymers will be discussed.

  8. Neutron Characterization for Additive Manufacturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watkins, Thomas; Bilheux, Hassina; An, Ke; Payzant, Andrew; DeHoff, Ryan; Duty, Chad; Peter, William; Blue, Craig; Brice, Craig A.

    2013-01-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is leveraging decades of experience in neutron characterization of advanced materials together with resources such as the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) and the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) shown in Fig. 1 to solve challenging problems in additive manufacturing (AM). Additive manufacturing, or three-dimensional (3-D) printing, is a rapidly maturing technology wherein components are built by selectively adding feedstock material at locations specified by a computer model. The majority of these technologies use thermally driven phase change mechanisms to convert the feedstock into functioning material. As the molten material cools and solidifies, the component is subjected to significant thermal gradients, generating significant internal stresses throughout the part (Fig. 2). As layers are added, inherent residual stresses cause warping and distortions that lead to geometrical differences between the final part and the original computer generated design. This effect also limits geometries that can be fabricated using AM, such as thin-walled, high-aspect- ratio, and overhanging structures. Distortion may be minimized by intelligent toolpath planning or strategic placement of support structures, but these approaches are not well understood and often "Edisonian" in nature. Residual stresses can also impact component performance during operation. For example, in a thermally cycled environment such as a high-pressure turbine engine, residual stresses can cause components to distort unpredictably. Different thermal treatments on as-fabricated AM components have been used to minimize residual stress, but components still retain a nonhomogeneous stress state and/or demonstrate a relaxation-derived geometric distortion. Industry, federal laboratory, and university collaboration is needed to address these challenges and enable the U.S. to compete in the global market. Work is currently being conducted on AM technologies at the ORNL

  9. Polyimide processing additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fletcher, James C. (Inventor); Pratt, J. Richard (Inventor); St.clair, Terry L. (Inventor); Stoakley, Diane M. (Inventor); Burks, Harold D. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A process for preparing polyimides having enhanced melt flow properties is described. The process consists of heating a mixture of a high molecular weight poly-(amic acid) or polyimide with a low molecular weight amic acid or imide additive in the range of 0.05 to 15 percent by weight of additive. The polyimide powders so obtained show improved processability, as evidenced by lower melt viscosity by capillary rheometry. Likewise, films prepared from mixtures of polymers with additives show improved processability with earlier onset of stretching by TMA.

  10. Polyimide processing additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pratt, J. Richard (Inventor); St.clair, Terry L. (Inventor); Stoakley, Diane M. (Inventor); Burks, Harold D. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A process for preparing polyimides having enhanced melt flow properties is described. The process consists of heating a mixture of a high molecular weight poly-(amic acid) or polyimide with a low molecular weight amic acid or imide additive in the range of 0.05 to 15 percent by weight of the additive. The polyimide powders so obtained show improved processability, as evidenced by lower melt viscosity by capillary rheometry. Likewise, films prepared from mixtures of polymers with additives show improved processability with earlier onset of stretching by TMA.

  11. The future of IAEA safeguards: challenges and responses

    SciTech Connect

    Pilat, Joseph F; Budlong - Sylvester, Kory W

    2011-01-01

    For nearly two decades, the International Atomic Energy Agency (lAEA) has been transforming its safeguards system to address the challenges posed by undeclared nuclear programs, the associated revelation of an extensive non-State nuclear procurement network and other issues, including past limits to its verification mandate and the burden of noncompliance issues. Implementing the new measures, including those in the Additional Protocol, and integrating new and old safeguards measures, remains a work in progress. Implementation is complicated by factors including the limited teclmological tools that are available to address such issues as safeguarding bulk handling facilities, detection of undeclared facilities/activities, especially related to enrichment, etc. As this process continues, new challenges are arising, including the demands of expanding nuclear power production worldwide, so-called safeguards by design for a new generation of facilities, the possible IAEA role in a fissile material cutoff treaty and other elements of the arms control and disarmament agenda, the possible role in 'rollback' cases, etc. There is no doubt safeguards will need to evolve in the future, as they have over the last decades. In order for the evolutionary path to proceed, there will inter alia be a need to identify technological gaps, especially with respect to undeclared facilities, and ensure they are filled by adapting old safeguards technologies, by developing and introducing new and novel safeguards teclmologies and/or by developing new procedures and protocols. Safeguards will also need to respond to anticipated emerging threats and to future, unanticipated threats. This will require strategic planning and cooperation among Member States and with the Agency. This paper will address challenges to IAEA safeguards and the technological possibilities and R&D strategies needed to meet those challenges in the context of the forty-year evolution of safeguards, including the ongoing

  12. Right atrial myxoma arising from the Eustachian valve in a patient with colonic polyposis.

    PubMed

    Bonde, Pramod; Sachithanandan, Anand; Graham, Alastair N J; Richardson, S Geoffery; Gladstone, Dennis J

    2002-07-01

    Right atrial myxoma arising from the Eustachian valve is rare, with only two reported cases; moreover, any association with colonic polyps is uncommon, with only one such case documented. A case is described of a 68-year-old male who presented with chronic anemia; an initial investigation revealed colonic polyps, but anemia persisted after polypectomy. Further investigation revealed a right atrial myxoma arising from the Eustachian valve and prolapsing into the right ventricle through the tricuspid valve. After successful removal of the lesion, hematological indices returned to normal. In cases of persisting anemia, other rare causes such as atrial myxoma should be sought.

  13. Food Additives and Hyperkinesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wender, Ester H.

    1977-01-01

    The hypothesis that food additives are causally associated with hyperkinesis and learning disabilities in children is reviewed, and available data are summarized. Available from: American Medical Association 535 North Dearborn Street Chicago, Illinois 60610. (JG)

  14. Smog control fuel additives

    SciTech Connect

    Lundby, W.

    1993-06-29

    A method is described of controlling, reducing or eliminating, ozone and related smog resulting from photochemical reactions between ozone and automotive or industrial gases comprising the addition of iodine or compounds of iodine to hydrocarbon-base fuels prior to or during combustion in an amount of about 1 part iodine per 240 to 10,000,000 parts fuel, by weight, to be accomplished by: (a) the addition of these inhibitors during or after the refining or manufacturing process of liquid fuels; (b) the production of these inhibitors for addition into fuel tanks, such as automotive or industrial tanks; or (c) the addition of these inhibitors into combustion chambers of equipment utilizing solid fuels for the purpose of reducing ozone.

  15. 25 CFR 290.23 - How does the Indian tribe resolve disputes arising from per capita payments to individual members...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How does the Indian tribe resolve disputes arising from... ALLOCATION PLANS § 290.23 How does the Indian tribe resolve disputes arising from per capita payments to..., forum or administrative process for resolving disputes arising from the allocation of net gaming...

  16. 13 CFR 126.617 - Who decides contract disputes arising between a qualified HUBZone SBC and a contracting activity...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... arising between a qualified HUBZone SBC and a contracting activity after the award of a HUBZone contract... Contractual Assistance § 126.617 Who decides contract disputes arising between a qualified HUBZone SBC and a... HUBZone contract, the contracting activity will decide disputes arising between a qualified HUBZone...

  17. 32 CFR 536.108 - Claims payable under international agreements (for those arising in the United States).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (for those arising in the United States). 536.108 Section 536.108 National Defense Department of... arising in the United States). (a) Within the United States, Art. VIII, NATO SOFA applies to claims arising within the North Atlantic Treaty Area, which includes CONUS and its territories and...

  18. 20 CFR 667.500 - What procedures apply to the resolution of findings arising from audits, investigations...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... findings arising from audits, investigations, monitoring and oversight reviews? 667.500 Section 667.500... Reviews § 667.500 What procedures apply to the resolution of findings arising from audits, investigations... responsible for resolving findings that arise from the State's monitoring reviews, investigations and...

  19. 28 CFR 68.54 - Administrative review of a final order of an Administrative Law Judge in cases arising under...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... an Administrative Law Judge in cases arising under section 274A or 274C. 68.54 Section 68.54 Judicial... an Administrative Law Judge in cases arising under section 274A or 274C. (a) Authority of the Chief Administrative Hearing Officer. In a case arising under section 274A or 274C of the INA, the Chief...

  20. 13 CFR 124.516 - Who decides contract disputes arising between a Participant and a procuring activity after the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... arising between a Participant and a procuring activity after the award of an 8(a) contract? 124.516... § 124.516 Who decides contract disputes arising between a Participant and a procuring activity after the... contracting officer is that of the procuring activity. A dispute arising between an 8(a) contractor and...

  1. 20 CFR 645.250 - What procedures apply to the resolution of findings arising from audits, investigations...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... findings arising from audits, investigations, monitoring and oversight reviews? 645.250 Section 645.250... resolution of findings arising from audits, investigations, monitoring and oversight reviews? (a) Resolution... that arise from its monitoring reviews, investigations and audits (including OMB Circular A-133...

  2. 28 CFR 68.53 - Review of an interlocutory order of an Administrative Law Judge in cases arising under section...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Review of an interlocutory order of an Administrative Law Judge in cases arising under section 274A or 274C. 68.53 Section 68.53 Judicial Administration... Administrative Law Judge in cases arising under section 274A or 274C. (a) Authority. In a case arising...

  3. Assessment and management of risks arising from exposure to cadmium in fertilisers. I.

    PubMed

    de Meeûs, C; Eduljee, G H; Hutton, M

    2002-05-27

    A risk assessment protocol has been developed for use by individual EU Member States with appropriate selection of input data, to assess the risks to humans and the environment arising from exposure to cadmium in fertilisers. The protocol comprises of three modules: (1) the accumulation module, in which the net accumulation of cadmium in soil and soil solution, resulting from the application of fertiliser, is computed over time. The accumulation module allows for a range of inputs from different sources (atmospheric deposition, sludge addition, manure and fertiliser application) as well as for average and extreme rates of fertiliser application. A critical parameter is the solid/liquid partition coefficient, which in turn is a function of soil properties such as pH and is highly variable depending on the algorithm selected as being representative of national conditions. (2) The exposure module, in which the uptake of cadmium from soil into plants and the subsequent intake of cadmium by humans is computed, using exposure parameters characterising both average and extreme exposure scenarios. The protocol focuses on food types known to be sensitive to cadmium uptake (grain, cereals, potatoes, root vegetables and leafy vegetables). Environmental exposure is also characterised. (3) The risk characterisation module, in which Member States may estimate the incidence and severity of the adverse effects likely to occur due to actual or predicted exposure to cadmium. This is undertaken by modelling the Predicted Environmental Concentrations (PECs) in humans and the environment using the accumulation and exposure modules, and then comparing these values against the relevant Predicted No Effect Concentrations (PNECs). A range of environmental PNEC values are reported in the literature; the European Commission recommends that normally the lowest No Observed Adverse Effect Level (NOAEL) should be used in the risk characterisation. For humans, the current WHO Provisional

  4. Emerging challenges in managing hepatitis B in HIV patients.

    PubMed

    Soriano, Vincent; Labarga, Pablo; de Mendoza, Carmen; Peña, José M; Fernández-Montero, José V; Benítez, Laura; Esposito, Isabella; Barreiro, Pablo

    2015-09-01

    Roughly 10 % of HIV-positive individuals worldwide have concomitant chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, with large differences between geographical regions and/or risk groups. Hepatitis B is a preventable infection with vaccines. However, it cannot be eradicated once acquired, resembling HIV and in contrast with HCV. In developed countries, hepatitis B exhibits particular features in the HIV population. First, HBV infection is less frequently misdiagnosed than in the general population. Second, nucleos(t)ide analogs active against HBV are widely used as part of antiretroviral combinations and are taken by most HIV patients. Lastly, as the HIV population ages given the success of antiretroviral therapy, non-AIDS co-morbidities are becoming a major cause of disease, for which specific drugs are required, increasing the risk of interactions and hepatotoxicity. Furthermore, concern on HBV reactivation is rising as immunosuppressive drug therapies are increasingly been used for cancers and other non-malignant conditions. In this scenario, new challenges are emerging in the management of hepatitis B in HIV-positive individuals. Among them, major interest is focused on failures to suppress HBV replication, HBV breakthroughs and reactivations, the meaning of isolated anti-HBc, screening for liver cancer, and the complexity arising when hepatitis viruses C and/or D are additionally present. This review will focus on these challenges and the major advances in HBV coinfection in HIV.

  5. Teaching Addition and Subtraction Facts: A Chinese Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Wei; Zhang, Joanne Y.

    2001-01-01

    Presents an issue that arises in every country: How can teachers best help children master basic addition and subtraction facts? Discusses how this is handled in China and highlights the impact that language has on how children think about numbers. (KHR)

  6. Is endovascular therapy the right choice for treatment of functional compression of anomalous right coronary artery arising from left coronary sinus with interarterial course?

    PubMed Central

    Vadivelu, Ramalingam; Bagga, Shiv

    2013-01-01

    We report a case of successful percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for reversible ischaemia owing to an anomalous right coronary artery arising from the left coronary sinus with malignant interarterial course and not associated with obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD). PCI for treatment of functional compression of the ostioproximal intramural segment of the anomalous vessel, though described in the literature, is technically challenging, requiring appropriate hardware selection; the peculiar anatomical milieu, in the absence of atherosclerotic CAD, lends itself to an uncertain long-term outcome following endovascular therapy with stenting. PMID:23362062

  7. Minimal involvement of the circumventricular organs in the pathogenesis of spontaneously arising and experimentally induced classical bovine spongiform encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Sisó, S; Martin, S; Konold, T; Hawkins, S A C; Thurston, L; Simmons, M M; Stack, M J; Jeffrey, M; González, L

    2012-01-01

    In sheep infected experimentally with the bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) agent, amplification of infectivity in peripheral organs during early preclinical stages is thought to contribute to high titres of the agent being detected in blood, with subsequent haematogenous neuroinvasion through the circumventricular organs (CVOs). In contrast, little disease-associated prion protein (PrP(d)) or infectivity is detected in the peripheral tissues of cattle during the preclinical and clinical stages of BSE. The aim of this study was to investigate immunohistochemically the role of haematogenous neuroinvasion in cattle with spontaneously arising and experimentally induced BSE. There was almost complete absence of PrP(d) in the peripheral organs of BSE infected cattle. Additionally, there was minimal involvement of the CVOs during preclinical disease and there was progressive caudorostral accumulation of PrP(d) in the brain. These findings do not support haematogenous neuroinvasion in the bovine disease.

  8. Exploring Ethical Dilemmas for Principals Arising from Role Conflict with School Counsellors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimber, Megan; Campbell, Marilyn

    2014-01-01

    Acting in the best interests of students is central to the moral and ethical work of schools. Yet tensions can arise between principals and school counsellors as they work from at times opposing professional paradigms. In this article we report on principals' and counsellors' responses to scenarios covering confidentiality and the law,…

  9. 75 FR 8274 - Collection of Administrative Debts; Collection of Debts Arising From Enforcement and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-24

    ... common law. PART 111--COMPLIANCE PROCEDURES 2. The authority citation for part 111 is revised to read as... impose interest and related charges on debts not subject to 31 U.S.C. 3717, in accordance with common law... Arising From Enforcement and Administration of Campaign Finance Laws AGENCY: Federal Election...

  10. Cyst of the gastric wall arising from heterotopic pancreas: report of a case.

    PubMed

    Cecchini, Stefano; Marchesi, Federico; Caruana, Pietro; Tartamella, Francesco; Mita, Maria Teresa; Rubichi, Francesco; Roncoroni, Luigi

    2016-09-13

    Heterotopia of pancreatic tissue is a common developmental anomaly, affecting predominantly the gastrointestinal tract. The case of a symptomatic cyst arising from the posterior gastric wall in a 40-year-old man is presented, undergoing laparoscopic gastric wedge resection. Pathology report described a cyst of the gastric wall lined by ductal pancreatic epithelium.

  11. Cellular neurothekeomas arising on a café-au-lait macule.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Martín, Angela; Colmenero, Isabel; Torrelo, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    Neurothekeoma is a tumor probably derived from the nerve sheath, which usually appears during the first 2 decades of life as a solitary papule or nodule; multiple neurothekeomas are very unusual. We present a case of multiple cellular neurothekeomas arising on a café-au-lait macule in a child, a situation that has not been reported to our knowledge.

  12. Some Numerical Results of Multipoints Bomndary Value Problems Arise in Environmental Protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pop, Daniel N.

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, we investigate two problems arise in pollutant transport in rivers, and we give some numerical results to approximate this solutions. We determined the approximate solutions using two numerical methods: 1. B-splines combined with Runge-Kutta methods, 2. BVP4C solver of MATLAB and then we compare the run-times.

  13. Trigonometric potentials arising from the spheroidal equation: Supersymmetric partners and integral formulas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulze-Halberg, Axel

    2016-06-01

    We construct supersymmetric partners of a quantum system featuring a class of trigonometric potentials that emerge from the spheroidal equation. Examples of both standard and confluent supersymmetric transformations are presented. Furthermore, we use integral formulas arising from the confluent supersymmetric formalism to derive new representations for single and multiple integrals of spheroidal functions.

  14. Squamous Cell Carcinoma Arising from the Pleural Cavity After Pneumonectomy for Chronic Empyema

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Yeong Jeong; Shin, Sumin; Shim, Young Mog

    2017-01-01

    Malignant tumors associated with chronic empyema have been reported in the literature, and a majority of these tumors are lymphomas. Epithelial tumors originating from the post-pneumonectomy space in patients with chronic empyema are extremely rare. Here, we present the cases of 2 patients with squamous cell carcinoma arising from the pleural cavity after pneumonectomy for chronic empyema. PMID:28382273

  15. 32 CFR 536.131 - Limitations on assessments arising from UCMJ claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    .... (1) A special court-martial convening authority (SPCMCA) has authority to approve a pay assessment in... provisions of Rule for Courts-Martial 1107 in a court-martial arising out of the same incident would be compromised, the SPCMCA may forward the Article 139 claim to the general court-martial convening...

  16. 32 CFR 536.131 - Limitations on assessments arising from UCMJ claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    .... (1) A special court-martial convening authority (SPCMCA) has authority to approve a pay assessment in... provisions of Rule for Courts-Martial 1107 in a court-martial arising out of the same incident would be compromised, the SPCMCA may forward the Article 139 claim to the general court-martial convening...

  17. 32 CFR 536.131 - Limitations on assessments arising from UCMJ claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    .... (1) A special court-martial convening authority (SPCMCA) has authority to approve a pay assessment in... provisions of Rule for Courts-Martial 1107 in a court-martial arising out of the same incident would be compromised, the SPCMCA may forward the Article 139 claim to the general court-martial convening...

  18. 32 CFR 536.131 - Limitations on assessments arising from UCMJ claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    .... (1) A special court-martial convening authority (SPCMCA) has authority to approve a pay assessment in... provisions of Rule for Courts-Martial 1107 in a court-martial arising out of the same incident would be compromised, the SPCMCA may forward the Article 139 claim to the general court-martial convening...

  19. 45 CFR 73.735-1304 - Referral of matters arising under the standards of this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... to the Department of Justice, suspected violations of the criminal laws regarding employee standards... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Referral of matters arising under the standards of... GENERAL ADMINISTRATION STANDARDS OF CONDUCT Reporting Violations § 73.735-1304 Referral of matters...

  20. Saliva DHEAS Changes in Patients Suffering from Psychopathological Disorders Arising from Bullying at Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lac, Gerard; Dutheil, Frederic; Brousse, Georges; Triboulet-Kelly, Celine; Chamoux, Alain

    2012-01-01

    Background: Psychological disorders arising from bullying at work (BW) are common. The relationship between these disorders and putative markers is not well established. Aims: To measure saliva dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS) and saliva cortisol as putative markers in individuals suffering from BW. Methods: Forty one subjects suffering…

  1. Where Cognitive Conflict Arises from?: The Structure of Creating Cognitive Conflict

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Gyoungho; Yi, Jinseog

    2013-01-01

    In this study, our basic contention was that it is essential for researchers to answer the question, "Where does cognitive conflict really arise from?" with more precision than has heretofore been attempted. First, we examined how the term "cognitive conflict" has been treated in the existing literature and try to pinpoint some difficulties,…

  2. Up-front allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation in acute myeloid leukemia arising from the myelodysplastic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yunsuk; Kim, Sung-Doo; Park, Young-Hoon; Lee, Jae Seok; Kim, Dae-Young; Lee, Jung-Hee; Lee, Kyoo-Hyung; Seol, Miee; Lee, Young-Shin; Kang, Young-Ah; Jeon, Mijin; Jung, Ah Rang; Lee, Je-Hwan

    2015-01-01

    In patients with secondary acute myeloid leukemia (s-AML) arising from the myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), treatment outcome is unsatisfactory. We compared up-front allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) to induction chemotherapy (IC) as an initial treatment in patients with s-AML arising from MDS. This retrospective study included 85 patients who were diagnosed with s-AML arising from MDS; 11 patients proceeded to up-front HCT without IC (HCT group) and 74 received IC (IC group) as an initial treatment for s-AML, 28 of whom subsequently underwent HCT. In the IC group, 41.9% achieved complete remission (CR) compared to 81.8% in the HCT group (p = 0.013). The HCT group showed a significantly longer event-free survival (EFS) than the IC group (median 29.2 vs. 5.2 months, p = 0.042). Overall survival of the HCT group was higher than that of the IC group, but the difference was not statistically significant (median 34.6 vs. 7.6 months, p = 0.149). After adjustment for other clinical factors, outcome in the HCT group was significantly better than in the IC group in terms of CR rate (hazard ratio, HR, 11.195; p = 0.007) and EFS (HR, 0.384; p = 0.029). Up-front HCT is a viable option in s-AML arising from MDS if an appropriate donor is available.

  3. On the injectivity of the generalized Radon transform arising in a model of mathematical economics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agaltsov, A. D.

    2016-11-01

    In the present article we consider the uniqueness problem for the generalized Radon transform arising in a mathematical model of production. We prove uniqueness theorems for this transform and for the profit function in the corresponding model of production. Our approach is based on the multidimensional Wiener’s approximation theorems.

  4. 5 CFR 315.805 - Termination of probationers for conditions arising before appointment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Termination of probationers for conditions arising before appointment. 315.805 Section 315.805 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS CAREER AND CAREER-CONDITIONAL EMPLOYMENT Probation on Initial...

  5. 5 CFR 315.805 - Termination of probationers for conditions arising before appointment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Termination of probationers for conditions arising before appointment. 315.805 Section 315.805 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS CAREER AND CAREER-CONDITIONAL EMPLOYMENT Probation on Initial...

  6. Global convergence in systems of differential equations arising from chemical reaction networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banaji, Murad; Mierczyński, Janusz

    It is shown that certain classes of differential equations arising from the modelling of chemical reaction networks have the following property: the state space is foliated by invariant subspaces each of which contains a unique equilibrium which, in turn, attracts all initial conditions on the associated subspace.

  7. Selective Short-Term Memory Deficits Arise from Impaired Domain-General Semantic Control Mechanisms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Paul; Jefferies, Elizabeth; Ehsan, Sheeba; Hopper, Samantha; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A.

    2009-01-01

    Semantic short-term memory (STM) patients have a reduced ability to retain semantic information over brief delays but perform well on other semantic tasks; this pattern suggests damage to a dedicated buffer for semantic information. Alternatively, these difficulties may arise from mild disruption to domain-general semantic processes that have…

  8. Group Sparse Additive Models

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Junming; Chen, Xi; Xing, Eric P.

    2016-01-01

    We consider the problem of sparse variable selection in nonparametric additive models, with the prior knowledge of the structure among the covariates to encourage those variables within a group to be selected jointly. Previous works either study the group sparsity in the parametric setting (e.g., group lasso), or address the problem in the nonparametric setting without exploiting the structural information (e.g., sparse additive models). In this paper, we present a new method, called group sparse additive models (GroupSpAM), which can handle group sparsity in additive models. We generalize the ℓ1/ℓ2 norm to Hilbert spaces as the sparsity-inducing penalty in GroupSpAM. Moreover, we derive a novel thresholding condition for identifying the functional sparsity at the group level, and propose an efficient block coordinate descent algorithm for constructing the estimate. We demonstrate by simulation that GroupSpAM substantially outperforms the competing methods in terms of support recovery and prediction accuracy in additive models, and also conduct a comparative experiment on a real breast cancer dataset.

  9. Additive Manufacturing Infrared Inspection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaddy, Darrell

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing is a rapid prototyping technology that allows parts to be built in a series of thin layers from plastic, ceramics, and metallics. Metallic additive manufacturing is an emerging form of rapid prototyping that allows complex structures to be built using various metallic powders. Significant time and cost savings have also been observed using the metallic additive manufacturing compared with traditional techniques. Development of the metallic additive manufacturing technology has advanced significantly over the last decade, although many of the techniques to inspect parts made from these processes have not advanced significantly or have limitations. Several external geometry inspection techniques exist such as Coordinate Measurement Machines (CMM), Laser Scanners, Structured Light Scanning Systems, or even traditional calipers and gages. All of the aforementioned techniques are limited to external geometry and contours or must use a contact probe to inspect limited internal dimensions. This presentation will document the development of a process for real-time dimensional inspection technique and digital quality record of the additive manufacturing process using Infrared camera imaging and processing techniques.

  10. Phenylethynyl Containing Reactive Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John W. (Inventor); Smith, Joseph G., Jr. (Inventor); Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Phenylethynyl containing reactive additives were prepared from aromatic diamine, containing phenylethvnvl groups and various ratios of phthalic anhydride and 4-phenylethynviphthalic anhydride in glacial acetic acid to form the imide in one step or in N-methyl-2-pvrrolidinone to form the amide acid intermediate. The reactive additives were mixed in various amounts (10% to 90%) with oligomers containing either terminal or pendent phenylethynyl groups (or both) to reduce the melt viscosity and thereby enhance processability. Upon thermal cure, the additives react and become chemically incorporated into the matrix and effect an increase in crosslink density relative to that of the host resin. This resultant increase in crosslink density has advantageous consequences on the cured resin properties such as higher glass transition temperature and higher modulus as compared to that of the host resin.

  11. Fused Lasso Additive Model

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Ashley; Witten, Daniela; Simon, Noah

    2016-01-01

    We consider the problem of predicting an outcome variable using p covariates that are measured on n independent observations, in a setting in which additive, flexible, and interpretable fits are desired. We propose the fused lasso additive model (FLAM), in which each additive function is estimated to be piecewise constant with a small number of adaptively-chosen knots. FLAM is the solution to a convex optimization problem, for which a simple algorithm with guaranteed convergence to a global optimum is provided. FLAM is shown to be consistent in high dimensions, and an unbiased estimator of its degrees of freedom is proposed. We evaluate the performance of FLAM in a simulation study and on two data sets. Supplemental materials are available online, and the R package flam is available on CRAN. PMID:28239246

  12. Phenylethynyl Containing Reactive Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John W. (Inventor); Smith, Joseph G., Jr. (Inventor); Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Phenylethynyl containing reactive additives were prepared from aromatic diamines containing phenylethynyl groups and various ratios of phthalic anhydride and 4-phenylethynylphthalic anhydride in glacial acetic acid to form the imide in one step or in N-methyl-2-pyrrolidi none to form the amide acid intermediate. The reactive additives were mixed in various amounts (10% to 90%) with oligomers containing either terminal or pendent phenylethynyl groups (or both) to reduce the melt viscosity and thereby enhance processability. Upon thermal cure, the additives react and become chemically incorporated into the matrix and effect an increase in crosslink density relative to that of the host resin. This resultant increase in crosslink density has advantageous consequences on the cured resin properties such as higher glass transition temperature and higher modulus as compared to that of the host resin.

  13. Additives in plastics.

    PubMed Central

    Deanin, R D

    1975-01-01

    The polymers used in plastics are generally harmless. However, they are rarely used in pure form. In almost all commercial plastics, they are "compounded" with monomeric ingredients to improve their processing and end-use performance. In order of total volume used, these monomeric additives may be classified as follows: reinforcing fibers, fillers, and coupling agents; plasticizers; colorants; stabilizers (halogen stabilizers, antioxidants, ultraviolet absorbers, and biological preservatives); processing aids (lubricants, others, and flow controls); flame retardants, peroxides; and antistats. Some information is already available, and much more is needed, on potential toxicity and safe handling of these additives during processing and manufacture of plastics products. PMID:1175566

  14. Additives in plastics.

    PubMed

    Deanin, R D

    1975-06-01

    The polymers used in plastics are generally harmless. However, they are rarely used in pure form. In almost all commercial plastics, they are "compounded" with monomeric ingredients to improve their processing and end-use performance. In order of total volume used, these monomeric additives may be classified as follows: reinforcing fibers, fillers, and coupling agents; plasticizers; colorants; stabilizers (halogen stabilizers, antioxidants, ultraviolet absorbers, and biological preservatives); processing aids (lubricants, others, and flow controls); flame retardants, peroxides; and antistats. Some information is already available, and much more is needed, on potential toxicity and safe handling of these additives during processing and manufacture of plastics products.

  15. Campus Challenge - Part 2: Benefits and Challenges of BACnet

    DOE PAGES

    Masica, Ken

    2016-01-15

    Additional challenges of implementing a BACnet network in a large campus environment are explored in this article: providing BACnet campus connectivity, protecting BACnet network traffic, and controlling the resulting broadcast traffic. An example of BACnet implementation is also presented, unifying concepts presented in this and Part One of the article.

  16. Mitotically active proliferative nodule arising in a giant congenital melanocytic nevus: a diagnostic pitfall.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Thuy L T; Theos, Amy; Kelly, David R; Busam, Klaus; Andea, Aleodor A

    2013-02-01

    Proliferative (cellular) nodules (PN) which mimic malignant melanoma clinically and histologically are described in congenital melanocytic nevi (CMN) and may pose significant diagnostic challenges. We report the case of a 10-day-old male with a giant congenital nevus involving the neck, upper chest, back, and left shoulder containing several nodular lesions, some crusted. Biopsy of a nodule revealed densely packed nevus cells with hyperchromatic round to oval and occasionally irregularly shaped nuclei. There was no necrosis or pushing border, and the nodule blended with the adjacent nevus; however, the lesion demonstrated a significant number of mitoses (27 per mm2) and a 60% labeling index with Ki-67. Further analysis by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with a 4-color probe set targeting 6p25, 6q23, 11q13, and centromere 6 revealed increased chromosomal copy numbers of all 4 probes, which was interpreted as evidence of polyploidy. In addition, analysis of DNA copy number changes using a single nucleotide polymorphism microarray (Affymetrix, Santa Clara, CA) showed no chromosomal aberrations. The diagnosis of PN in a giant congenital nevus was eventually rendered. At 13-month follow-up, the nodules showed no evidence of growth. Our case illustrates that PNs in the neonatal period might demonstrate extreme mitotic activity. This feature is worrisome when encountered in melanocytic lesions; however, it should not trigger by itself a diagnosis of melanoma in the absence of other histologic criteria of malignancy. In addition, we document polyploidy by FISH in PN, which can potentially be misinterpreted as a FISH-positive result.

  17. Biobased lubricant additives

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fully biobased lubricants are those formulated using all biobased ingredients, i.e. biobased base oils and biobased additives. Such formulations provide the maximum environmental, safety, and economic benefits expected from a biobased product. Currently, there are a number of biobased base oils that...

  18. More Than Additional Space...

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CEFP Journal, 1973

    1973-01-01

    A much needed addition to the Jamestown Elementary School turned out to be more than an expansion of walls for more space. A new educational program, a limited budget, and a short time line were tackled on a team approach basis and were successfully resolved. (Author)

  19. National Drug IQ Challenge

    MedlinePlus

    ... National Drug IQ Challenge 2016 National Drug & Alcohol IQ Challenge Print Get Started! Correct/Total Questions: Score: ... accessible version of the 2016 National Drug & Alcohol IQ Challenge , [PDF, 637KB]. Download an accessible version of ...

  20. Marital therapy: issues and challenges.

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, S M

    1991-01-01

    This paper outlines the advances made in the field of marital therapy in the last decade. The present status of clinical intervention, empirical research and theoretical conceptualization is reviewed. In addition, the challenges the field now faces are outlined, and proposals made for future directions, which would enable marital intervention to become a more comprehensive and systematic endeavor. PMID:1958653

  1. Vinyl capped addition polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vannucci, Raymond D. (Inventor); Malarik, Diane C. (Inventor); Delvigs, Peter (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    Polyimide resins (PMR) are generally useful where high strength and temperature capabilities are required (at temperatures up to about 700 F). Polyimide resins are particularly useful in applications such as jet engine compressor components, for example, blades, vanes, air seals, air splitters, and engine casing parts. Aromatic vinyl capped addition polyimides are obtained by reacting a diamine, an ester of tetracarboxylic acid, and an aromatic vinyl compound. Low void materials with improved oxidative stability when exposed to 700 F air may be fabricated as fiber reinforced high molecular weight capped polyimide composites. The aromatic vinyl capped polyimides are provided with a more aromatic nature and are more thermally stable than highly aliphatic, norbornenyl-type end-capped polyimides employed in PMR resins. The substitution of aromatic vinyl end-caps for norbornenyl end-caps in addition polyimides results in polymers with improved oxidative stability.

  2. Electrophilic addition of astatine

    SciTech Connect

    Norseev, Yu.V.; Vasaros, L.; Nhan, D.D.; Huan, N.K.

    1988-03-01

    It has been shown for the first time that astatine is capable of undergoing addition reactions to unsaturated hydrocarbons. A new compound of astatine, viz., ethylene astatohydrin, has been obtained, and its retention numbers of squalane, Apiezon, and tricresyl phosphate have been found. The influence of various factors on the formation of ethylene astatohydrin has been studied. It has been concluded on the basis of the results obtained that the univalent cations of astatine in an acidic medium is protonated hypoastatous acid.

  3. Functional Generalized Additive Models.

    PubMed

    McLean, Mathew W; Hooker, Giles; Staicu, Ana-Maria; Scheipl, Fabian; Ruppert, David

    2014-01-01

    We introduce the functional generalized additive model (FGAM), a novel regression model for association studies between a scalar response and a functional predictor. We model the link-transformed mean response as the integral with respect to t of F{X(t), t} where F(·,·) is an unknown regression function and X(t) is a functional covariate. Rather than having an additive model in a finite number of principal components as in Müller and Yao (2008), our model incorporates the functional predictor directly and thus our model can be viewed as the natural functional extension of generalized additive models. We estimate F(·,·) using tensor-product B-splines with roughness penalties. A pointwise quantile transformation of the functional predictor is also considered to ensure each tensor-product B-spline has observed data on its support. The methods are evaluated using simulated data and their predictive performance is compared with other competing scalar-on-function regression alternatives. We illustrate the usefulness of our approach through an application to brain tractography, where X(t) is a signal from diffusion tensor imaging at position, t, along a tract in the brain. In one example, the response is disease-status (case or control) and in a second example, it is the score on a cognitive test. R code for performing the simulations and fitting the FGAM can be found in supplemental materials available online.

  4. Tensions and Challenges in China's Education Policy Borrowing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Charlene

    2016-01-01

    Background: This article critically discusses the key tensions and challenges arising from the educational policy borrowing in China, through its current education reform. Focussing on the new curriculum reform (NCR), the paper highlights the interactions and conflicts between foreign and local ideologies and practices. Sources of evidence: The…

  5. Helping Students Navigate Faith Challenges in the Biblical Studies Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharp, Carolyn J.; Clark-Soles, Jaime

    2012-01-01

    What happens when students encounter the academic study of the Bible in the seminary or undergraduate classroom? Does a teacher have a responsibility to help students navigate challenges to Christian faith that might arise? What pedagogical problems and opportunities does this encounter present? How does this issue manifest differently in…

  6. Implementation Challenges for a Constructivist Physical Education Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhu, Xihe; Ennis, Catherine D.; Chen, Ang

    2011-01-01

    Background: Curriculum fidelity describes the extent to which a curriculum is implemented faithfully as planned. Curriculum fidelity issues may arise when teachers implement the curriculum inconsistently due to differences in philosophy, barriers in the setting, or other local concerns. Purpose: The study examined challenges that a teacher faced…

  7. Are psychiatrists an endangered species? Observations on internal and external challenges to the profession

    PubMed Central

    KATSCHNIG, HEINZ

    2010-01-01

    Based on recently voiced concerns about a crisis in psychiatry, six challenges to our profession are identified and discussed. As we approach the revisions of ICD-10 and DSM-IV, the validity of psychiatry’s diagnostic definitions and classification systems is increasingly questioned also from inside psychiatry. In addition, confidence in the results of therapeutic intervention studies is waning. A further challenge is the existence of de facto subgroups with opposing ideologies, a situation which is responsible for an unclear role profile of the psychiatrist. Challenges from outside include mounting patient and carer criticism, intrusion of other professions into psychiatry’s traditional field of competence, and psychiatry’s low status within medicine and in society in general. Studies suggest that the decline of the recruitment into psychiatry, as it is observed in many countries, might be related to problems arising from these challenges. It is unclear whether psychiatry will survive as a unitary medical discipline or whether those segments which are more rewarding, both financially and in status, will break away, leaving the unattractive tasks to carry out by what remains of psychiatry. The demise of the generalist and the rise of the specialist in modern society may contribute to this development. Attempts are underway by professional bodies to define the profile of a “general psychiatrist”. Such discussions should be complemented by an analysis of the incentives which contribute to the centrifugal tendencies in psychiatry. PMID:20148149

  8. Symmetry effects on naturally arising chimera states in mechanical oscillator networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blaha, Karen; Burrus, Ryan J.; Orozco-Mora, Jorge L.; Ruiz-Beltrán, Elvia; Siddique, Abu B.; Hatamipour, V. D.; Sorrentino, Francesco

    2016-11-01

    Coupled oscillators were believed to exclusively exist in a state of synchrony or disorder until Kuramoto theoretically proved that the two states could coexist, called a chimera state, when portions of the population had a spatial dependent coupling. Recent work has demonstrated the spontaneous emergence of chimera states in an experiment involving mechanical oscillators coupled through a two platform swing. We constructed an experimental apparatus with three platforms that each contains a population of mechanical oscillators in order investigate the effects of a network symmetry on naturally arising chimera states. We considered in more detail the case of 15 metronomes per platform and observed that chimera states emerged as a broad range of parameters, namely, the metronomes' nominal frequency and the coupling strength between the platforms. A scalability study shows that chimera states no longer arise when the population size is reduced to three metronomes per platform. Furthermore, many chimera states are seen in the system when the coupling between platforms is asymmetric.

  9. Desmoplastic Ameloblastoma Arising in a Dentigerous Cyst – A Case Report and Discussion

    PubMed Central

    Shamsudeen, Shaik Mohamed; Srinivasan, Satish Kumar; Kumar, S. Nalin; Pulikkottil, Tyson Babu

    2016-01-01

    Dentigerous cyst is a fairly common odontogenic cyst with an uncomplicated prognosis. However, reports of odontogenic and non-odontogenic tumors arising from the cysts have been published for many years. Therefore, the importance of thorough histopathological examination and regular follow-up cannot be overemphasized. Here is a case report of a possible development of desmoplastic ameloblastoma from a dentigerous cyst. This case is unique for two main reasons. Firstly, to our knowledge such a case has not been reported previously. Secondly, the tumor seemed to arise from the capsule and not from lining of the dentigerous cyst. Transformation of odontogenic rests into cysts is known to occur in the syndromic cases of odontogenic keratocysts (resulting in recurrent and daughter cysts) but not in dentigerous cysts. This case report may prompt greater interest in the role of the supposedly inactive odontogenic nests in the capsule of these cysts. PMID:27656586

  10. Complex Population Dynamics in Mussels Arising from Density-Linked Stochasticity

    PubMed Central

    Wootton, J. Timothy; Forester, James D.

    2013-01-01

    Population fluctuations are generally attributed to the deterministic consequences of strong non-linear interactions among organisms, or the effects of random stochastic environmental variation superimposed upon the deterministic skeleton describing population change. Analysis of the population dynamics of the mussel Mytilus californianus taken in 16 plots over 18-years found no evidence that these processes explained observed strong fluctuations. Instead, population fluctuations arose because environmental stochasticity varied with abundance, which we term density-linked stochasticity. This phenomenon arises from biologically relevant mechanisms: recruitment variation and transmission of disturbance among neighboring individuals. Density-linked stochasticity is probably present frequently in populations, as it arises naturally from several general ecological processes, including stage structure variation with density, ontogenetic niche shifts, and local transmission of stochastic perturbations. More thoroughly characterizing and interpreting deviations from the mean behavior of a system will lead to better ecological prediction and improved insight into the important processes affecting populations and ecosystems. PMID:24086617

  11. Ganglion cyst arising from the composite occipito-atlanto-axial joint cavity in a cat.

    PubMed

    Aikawa, T; Sadahiro, S; Nishimura, M; Miyazaki, Y; Shibata, M

    2014-01-01

    A four-year-old, female spayed Domestic Longhaired cat was referred for evaluation with a two month history of initial inability to jump progressing to ambulatory tetraparesis. Magnetic resonance imaging studies demonstrated a cystic lesion arising from the composite occipito-atlanto-axial joint cavity and extending to the region of the occipital bone and the axis. The lesion surrounded the spinal canal, causing moderate dorsal spinal cord compression at the atlanto-occipital joint. A dynamic myelographic study demonstrated attenuation of the dorsal contrast column at the atlanto-occipital joint when the cervical spine was positioned in extension. Partial excision of the cyst capsule by a ventral approach resulted in long-term (64 months) resolution of clinical signs. Histological evaluation was consistent with a ganglion cyst. An intra-spinal ganglion cyst arising from the composite occipito-atlanto-axial joint cavity may be considered as an uncommon differential diagnosis for cats with cervical myelopathy.

  12. Osteochondroma of maxillofacial region: Tumor arising from two different developmental bones

    PubMed Central

    Mohanty, Sujata; Gupta, Himanshu; Dabas, Jitender; Kumar, Priyadarshan

    2016-01-01

    Osteochondromas are benign bony tumors which are commonly believed to originate by the proliferation of epiphyseal cartilage into the surrounding tissues. However, this hypothesis cannot explain the occurrence of this tumor in the intramembranous bones and soft tissue. Since most of the craniofacial bones have intramembranous origin, the occurrence of this lesion in this territory is considered rare. Contrary to the above hypothesis, Lichtenstein proposed that this entity arises from the metaplastic changes in the periosteum which explains the occurrence of this tumor in endochondral as well as intramembranous bones and also in soft tissues. Complying with Lichtenstein's hypothesis, the authors are presenting two cases of osteochondromas with one arising from the endochondral bone (the coronoid process of the mandible) and the other from an intramembranous bone (lateral pterygoid plate of the sphenoid). PMID:27601834

  13. Inflammatory Myofibroblastic Tumor Arising in the External Ear: Unexpected Location. (Case Report)

    PubMed Central

    Al-Humidi, Ahmed; Al-Khamiss, Abdullah

    2015-01-01

    We present an unexpected extremely rare case of an inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor (IMT) of the external ear. A 3-year-old boy presented with a mass arising on the posterior aspect of the left ear lobule and extending to the external auditory canal. This mass grew slowly and showed no skin changes. Radiologically, it was diagnosed as a vascular tumor. Surgical excision and primary closure was performed for the patient. Histopathologic examination demonstrated a circumscribed noncapsulated mass formed by a proliferation of spindle cells in deep dermis and subcutaneous tissue. The spindle cells were mixed with lymphoplasmacytic infiltration compatible with the IMT. Because it is very rare to arise in this location, we present this case as a case report with details histopathological examination and reviewed the English literature for similar cases. PMID:26309441

  14. Pleomorphic liposarcoma arising in a malignant phyllodes tumor of breast: A rare occurrence.

    PubMed

    Sancheti, Sankalp M; Sawaimoon, Satyakam K; Ahmed, Rosina

    2015-01-01

    Primary malignant phyllodes tumor of the breast accounts for 0.3-1% of all the tumors of breast and only a couple of cases of pleomorphic liposarcoma (PL) arising in a malignant phyllodes (MP) tumor have been reported. A thorough sampling is most essential in phyllodes tumor, not only to detect high grade component of the neoplasm but also to diagnose heterologous elements in the same lesion elsewhere, as it may affect the prognosis adversely and may have a greater metastatic potential.

  15. Novel representation of exponential functions of power series which arise in statistical mechanics and population genetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, W. T.; Sandri, G. vH.; Sarkar, S.

    1991-05-01

    We use the convolution power of infinite sequences to obtain a novel representation of exponential functions of power series which often arise in statistical mechanics. We thus obtain new formulas for the configuration and cluster integrals of pairwise interacting systems of molecules in an imperfect gas. We prove that the asymptotic behaviour of the Luria-Delbrück distribution is pn∼ cn-2. We derive a new, simple and computationally efficient recursion relation for pn.

  16. Preclinical Testing of Combination Therapy for Malignant Tumors Arising from Neurofibromas

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    INTRODUCTION About one half of Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumors ( MPNSTs ) arise in Neurofibromatosis Type 1 patients (NF1). Currently, these tumors...inhibitors that are effective in cell culture and animal models of MPNSTs . We expect finding effective drug combinations that can be used to treat... MPNST patients. BODY Here we present the major research accomplishments for the first year of the development of this project. We successfully

  17. A case of esophageal adenocarcinoma arising from the ectopic gastric mucosa in the thoracic esophagus

    PubMed Central

    Komori, Shuji; Osada, Shinji; Tanaka, Yoshihiro; Takahashi, Takao; Nagao, Narutoshi; Yamaguchi, Kazuya; Asano, Nami; Yoshida, Kazuhiro

    2010-01-01

    A 75-year old man was detected with a pediculate tumor in the upper esophagus. A biopsy determined that it was an adenocarcinoma. A subtotal esophagectomy with dissection of three-fields of lymph nodes was selected. The pathological study revealed it to be an esophageal adenocarcinoma arising from ectopic gastric mucosa of the fundus of the stomach. His post-operative course was uneventful and without sign of recurrence for 3.5 years. PMID:21139950

  18. [A case of carcinoma arising in a diverticulum of the transverse colon].

    PubMed

    Nomi, Masako; Umemoto, Satoshi; Kikutake, Takashi; Hosaka, Seiji; Mase, Takahiro; Kawamoto, Shunji; Yoshida, Takahisa

    2014-11-01

    A 64 year-old woman presented with advanced, transverse colon cancer arising in the diverticulum. Tumor invasion extended beyond the serosa to the anal side of the colon. Anemia and fatigue progressed after 6 months of iron administration. The hemoglobin value was 5.3 g/dL and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) level was elevated to 44.2 ng/mL. A palpable and tender fist-sized mass was found in the right upper abdomen. Computed tomography (CT) revealed a low-density mass in the transverse colon invading beyond the serosa to the anal side of the colon. Right hemi-colectomy with lymph node dissection was performed. The resected specimen contained multiple diverticula including the one from which the tumor arose. Histological examination revealed a well-differentiated, tubular adenocarcinoma (UICC TNM T4bN0M0) arising in a transverse colon diverticulum. There has been no recurrence for 2 years. Colon cancer arising in a diverticulum may expand to the extra-serosa and easily invade to the adjacent organ. In such cases, malignancy should be considered.

  19. Metastasizing adenocarcinoma and multiple neoplastic proliferations arising in a nevus sebaceus.

    PubMed

    Kantrow, Sara M; Ivan, Doina; Williams, Michelle D; Prieto, Victor G; Lazar, Alexander J

    2007-10-01

    Nevus sebaceus of Jadassohn is a hamartoma of multiple skin structures. Many neoplasms have been reported to arise in association with nevus sebaceus, most commonly trichoblastoma/basal cell carcinoma and syringocystadenoma papilliferum. We report a case of a 66-year-old woman with an adenocarcinoma as well as multiple neoplastic proliferations arising in a long standing nevus sebaceus on the scalp, with subsequent occipital neck metastatic disease. On histologic evaluation, the epidermis showed changes reminiscent of tumor of the follicular infundibulum as well as basaloid proliferations resembling superficial trichoblastoma. A focus suggestive of syringofibroadenoma was also present. A small dermal collection of basaloid and more mature sebocytes was consistent with a sebaceoma/sebaceous epithelioma. Most of the lesion was composed of an adenocarcinoma with areas showing ductal differentiation with decapitation secretion, well-formed papillae and focal cribriform structures. Other portions demonstrated a high-grade neoplasm with prominent nuclear atypia and a solid pattern of growth resembling high-grade breast carcinoma. Anti-epithelial membrane antigen strongly labeled tumor cells and highlighted ductal structures. Less than 1% of cells expressed progesterone or estrogen receptors. Her2/neu reactivity was focally present, showing 1+ membranous reactivity in 10% of cells. Anti-p63 labeled basaloid cells surrounding the tumor lobules. A breast primary was ruled out by clinical and radiologic examination. This report illustrates an extraordinary case of adnexal neoplasia displaying various lines of differentiation arising in association with nevus sebaceus.

  20. Siloxane containing addition polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maudgal, S.; St. Clair, T. L.

    1984-01-01

    Addition polyimide oligomers have been synthesized from bis(gamma-aminopropyl) tetramethyldisiloxane and 3, 3', 4, 4'-benzophenonetetracarboxylic dianhydride using a variety of latent crosslinking groups as endcappers. The prepolymers were isolated and characterized for solubility (in amide, chlorinated and ether solvents), melt flow and cure properties. The most promising systems, maleimide and acetylene terminated prepolymers, were selected for detailed study. Graphite cloth reinforced composites were prepared and properties compared with those of graphite/Kerimid 601, a commercially available bismaleimide. Mixtures of the maleimide terminated system with Kerimid 601, in varying proportions, were also studied.

  1. Continuing challenges in influenza

    PubMed Central

    Webster, Robert G.; Govorkova, Elena A.

    2014-01-01

    Influenza is an acute respiratory disease in mammals and domestic poultry that emerges from zoonotic reservoirs in aquatic birds and bats. Although influenza viruses are among the most intensively studied pathogens, existing control options require further improvement. Influenza vaccines must be regularly updated because of continuous antigenic drift and sporadic antigenic shifts in the viral surface glycoproteins. Currently, influenza therapeutics are limited to neuraminidase inhibitors; novel drugs and vaccine approaches are therefore urgently needed. Advances in vaccinology and structural analysis have revealed common antigenic epitopes on hemagglutinins across all influenza viruses and suggest that a universal influenza vaccine is possible. In addition, various immunomodulatory agents and signaling pathway inhibitors are undergoing preclinical development. Continuing challenges in influenza include the emergence of pandemic H1N1 influenza in 2009, human infections with avian H7N9 influenza in 2013, and sporadic human cases of highly pathogenic avian H5N1 influenza. Here, we review the challenges facing influenza scientists and veterinary and human public health officials; we also discuss the exciting possibility of achieving the ultimate goal of controlling influenza’s ability to change its antigenicity. PMID:24891213

  2. Aerodynamic challenges of ALT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hooks, I.; Homan, D.; Romere, P. O.

    1985-01-01

    The approach and landing test (ALT) of the Space Shuttle Orbiter presented a number of unique challenges in the area of aerodynamics. The purpose of the ALT program was both to confirm the use of the Boeing 747 as a transport vehicle for ferrying the Orbiter across the country and to demonstrate the flight characteristics of the Orbiter in its approach and landing phase. Concerns for structural fatigue and performance dictated a tailcone be attached to the Orbiter for ferry and for the initial landing tests. The Orbiter with a tailcone attached presented additional challenges to the normal aft sting concept of wind tunnel testing. The landing tests required that the Orbiter be separated from the 747 at approximately 20,000 feet using aerodynamic forces to fly the vehicles apart. The concept required a complex test program to determine the relative effects of the two vehicles on each other. Also of concern, and tested, was the vortex wake created by the 747 and the means for the Orbiter to avoid it following separation.

  3. Developing a Watershed Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a watershed challenge that gives students an opportunity to investigate the challenge of using a watershed area as a site for development, examining the many aspects of this multifaceted problem. This design challenge could work well in a team-based format, with students taking on specific aspects of the challenges and…

  4. Challenging the Digital Divide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kembhavi, Ajit

    2006-08-01

    Vast quantities of astronomical data in the form of images, spectra and catalogues are now freely available over the internet, and tools for producing science from these resources are also becoming available, particularly through the emerging Virtual Observatories. In addition to this, most astronomical literature from research journals is available at no cost through the ADS and preprint service. This situation, in principle, provides equal opportunity to astronomers located anywhere in the world to participate in the process of discovery. The only requirement is that the astronomers have access to the internet, and a fertile imagination. But in the real world, astronomers in many countries have very limited bandwidth and computing power, and are therefore excluded from meaningful participation in astronomical research, even though they may have the ideas and experience to contribute substantially to the effort. The lack of connectivity and computing hardware also makes it difficult for astronomers in many countries from exposing adequately any data resources that they may have produced locally. This situation prevents many aspiring and experienced astronomers from reaching their creative potential, and from attracting young persons to the charms of modern astronomy; it also leads to opportunity loss to astronomy, as it loses out on the the human resources and fresh ideas and talents which astronomers from developing countries could bring to the subject. I will discuss in my talk the nature and extent of this digital divide, the ways in which it could be mitigated, and the benefits which would arise from the unification. I will base some of my discussion on my experiences in setting up a major programme to take the advantages of the internet revolution to hundreds of universities in India.

  5. Platelet additive solution - electrolytes.

    PubMed

    Azuma, Hiroshi; Hirayama, Junichi; Akino, Mitsuaki; Ikeda, Hisami

    2011-06-01

    Recent attention to solutions that replace most or all plasma in platelet concentrates, while maintaining satisfactory platelet function, is motivated by the potential of plasma reduction or depletion to mitigate various transfusion-related adverse events. This report considers the electrolytic composition of previously described platelet additive solutions, in order to draw general conclusions about what is required for platelet function and longevity. The optimal concentrations of Na(+) and Cl(-) are 69-115 mM. The presence of both K(+) and Mg(2+) in platelet suspension at nearly physiological concentrations (3-5mM and 1.5-3mM, respectively) is indispensable for good preservation capacity because both electrolytes are required to prevent platelet activation. In contrast to K(+) and Mg(2+), Ca(2+) may not be important because no free Ca(2+) is available in M-sol, which showed excellent platelet preservation capacity at less than 5% plasma concentration. The importance of bicarbonate (approximately 40 mM) can be recognized when the platelets are suspended in additive solution under less than 5% residual plasma concentration.

  6. Payers' Views of the Changes Arising through the Possible Adoption of Adaptive Pathways.

    PubMed

    Ermisch, Michael; Bucsics, Anna; Vella Bonanno, Patricia; Arickx, Francis; Bybau, Alexander; Bochenek, Tomasz; van de Casteele, Marc; Diogene, Eduardo; Fürst, Jurij; Garuolienė, Kristina; van der Graaff, Martin; Gulbinovič, Jolanta; Haycox, Alan; Jones, Jan; Joppi, Roberta; Laius, Ott; Langner, Irene; Martin, Antony P; Markovic-Pekovic, Vanda; McCullagh, Laura; Magnusson, Einar; Nilsen, Ellen; Selke, Gisbert; Sermet, Catherine; Simoens, Steven; Sauermann, Robert; Schuurman, Ad; Ramos, Ricardo; Vlahovic-Palcevski, Vera; Zara, Corinne; Godman, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Payers are a major stakeholder in any considerations and initiatives concerning adaptive licensing of new medicinal products, also referred to as Medicines Adaptive Pathways to patients (MAPPs). Firstly, the scope and necessity of MAPPs need further scrutiny, especially with regard to the definition of unmet need. Conditional approval pathways already exist for new medicines for seriously debilitating or life-threatening diseases and only a limited number of new medicines are innovative. Secondly, MAPPs will result in new medicines on the market with limited evidence about their effectiveness and safety. Additional data are to be collected after approval. Consequently, adaptive pathways may increase the risk of exposing patients to ineffective or unsafe medicines. We have already seen medicines approved conventionally that subsequently proved ineffective or unsafe amongst a wider, more co-morbid population as well as medicines that could have been considered for approval under MAPPs but subsequently proved ineffective or unsafe in Phase III trials and were never licensed. Thirdly, MAPPs also put high demands on payers. Routine collection of patient level data is difficult with high transaction costs. It is not clear who will fund these. Other challenges for payers include shifts in the risk governance framework, implications for evaluation and HTA, increased complexity of setting prices, difficulty with ensuring equity in the allocation of resources, definition of responsibility and liability and implementation of stratified use. Exit strategies also need to be agreed in advance, including price reductions, rebates, or reimbursement withdrawals when price premiums are not justified. These issues and concerns will be discussed in detail including potential ways forward.

  7. Payers' Views of the Changes Arising through the Possible Adoption of Adaptive Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Ermisch, Michael; Bucsics, Anna; Vella Bonanno, Patricia; Arickx, Francis; Bybau, Alexander; Bochenek, Tomasz; van de Casteele, Marc; Diogene, Eduardo; Fürst, Jurij; Garuolienė, Kristina; van der Graaff, Martin; Gulbinovič, Jolanta; Haycox, Alan; Jones, Jan; Joppi, Roberta; Laius, Ott; Langner, Irene; Martin, Antony P.; Markovic-Pekovic, Vanda; McCullagh, Laura; Magnusson, Einar; Nilsen, Ellen; Selke, Gisbert; Sermet, Catherine; Simoens, Steven; Sauermann, Robert; Schuurman, Ad; Ramos, Ricardo; Vlahovic-Palcevski, Vera; Zara, Corinne; Godman, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Payers are a major stakeholder in any considerations and initiatives concerning adaptive licensing of new medicinal products, also referred to as Medicines Adaptive Pathways to patients (MAPPs). Firstly, the scope and necessity of MAPPs need further scrutiny, especially with regard to the definition of unmet need. Conditional approval pathways already exist for new medicines for seriously debilitating or life-threatening diseases and only a limited number of new medicines are innovative. Secondly, MAPPs will result in new medicines on the market with limited evidence about their effectiveness and safety. Additional data are to be collected after approval. Consequently, adaptive pathways may increase the risk of exposing patients to ineffective or unsafe medicines. We have already seen medicines approved conventionally that subsequently proved ineffective or unsafe amongst a wider, more co-morbid population as well as medicines that could have been considered for approval under MAPPs but subsequently proved ineffective or unsafe in Phase III trials and were never licensed. Thirdly, MAPPs also put high demands on payers. Routine collection of patient level data is difficult with high transaction costs. It is not clear who will fund these. Other challenges for payers include shifts in the risk governance framework, implications for evaluation and HTA, increased complexity of setting prices, difficulty with ensuring equity in the allocation of resources, definition of responsibility and liability and implementation of stratified use. Exit strategies also need to be agreed in advance, including price reductions, rebates, or reimbursement withdrawals when price premiums are not justified. These issues and concerns will be discussed in detail including potential ways forward. PMID:27733828

  8. Illustrative assessment of human health issues arising from the potential release of chemotoxic substances from a generic geological disposal facility for radioactive waste.

    PubMed

    Wilson, James C; Thorne, Michael C; Towler, George; Norris, Simon

    2011-12-01

    Many countries have a programme for developing an underground geological disposal facility for radioactive waste. A case study is provided herein on the illustrative assessment of human health issues arising from the potential release of chemotoxic and radioactive substances from a generic geological disposal facility (GDF) for radioactive waste. The illustrative assessment uses a source-pathway-receptor methodology and considers a number of human exposure pathways. Estimated exposures are compared with authoritative toxicological assessment criteria. The possibility of additive and synergistic effects resulting from exposures to mixtures of chemical contaminants or a combination of radiotoxic and chemotoxic substances is considered. The case study provides an illustration of how to assess human health issues arising from chemotoxic species released from a GDF for radioactive waste and highlights potential difficulties associated with a lack of data being available with which to assess synergistic effects. It also highlights how such difficulties can be addressed.

  9. Additive composition, for gasoline

    SciTech Connect

    Vataru, M.

    1989-01-10

    An admixture is described that comprises Diesel fuel and an additive composition added thereto which is between about 0.05 to about 2.0 percent by weight of the fuel, the composition comprising: (a) between about 0.05 and 25% relative weight parts of an organic peroxide, and (b) between about 0.1 and 25% relative weight parts of detergent selected from the component group that consists of: (i) fatty amines; (ii) ethoxylated and propoxylated derivatives of fatty amines; (iii) fatty diamines; (iv) fatty imidazlines; (v) polymeric amines and derivatives thereof; (vi) combination of one or more of the (i) through (v) components with carboxylic acid or acids having from three to forth carbon atoms, (c) from about 99.0 to about 50% by weight of a hydrocarbon solvent.

  10. Teardrop bladder: additional considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Wechsler, R.J.; Brennan, R.E.

    1982-07-01

    Nine cases of teardrop bladder (TDB) seen at excretory urography are presented. In some of these patients, the iliopsoas muscles were at the upper limit of normal in size, and additional evaluation of the perivesical structures with computed tomography (CT) was necessary. CT demonstrated only hypertrophied muscles with or without perivesical fat. The psoas muscles and pelvic width were measured in 8 patients and compared with the measurements of a control group of males without TDB. Patients with TDB had large iliopsoas muscles and narrow pelves compared with the control group. The psoas muscle width/pelvic width ratio was significantly greater (p < 0.0005) in patients with TDB than in the control group, with values of 1.04 + 0.05 and 0.82 + 0.09, respectively. It is concluded that TDB is not an uncommon normal variant in black males. Both iliopsoas muscle hypertrophy and a narrow pelvis are factors that predispose a patient to TDB.

  11. New addition curing polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frimer, Aryeh A.; Cavano, Paul

    1991-01-01

    In an attempt to improve the thermal-oxidative stability (TOS) of PMR-type polymers, the use of 1,4-phenylenebis (phenylmaleic anhydride) PPMA, was evaluated. Two series of nadic end-capped addition curing polyimides were prepared by imidizing PPMA with either 4,4'-methylene dianiline or p-phenylenediamine. The first resulted in improved solubility and increased resin flow while the latter yielded a compression molded neat resin sample with a T(sub g) of 408 C, close to 70 C higher than PME-15. The performance of these materials in long term weight loss studies was below that of PMR-15, independent of post-cure conditions. These results can be rationalized in terms of the thermal lability of the pendant phenyl groups and the incomplete imidization of the sterically congested PPMA. The preparation of model compounds as well as future research directions are discussed.

  12. Perspectives on Additive Manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourell, David L.

    2016-07-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) has skyrocketed in visibility commercially and in the public sector. This article describes the development of this field from early layered manufacturing approaches of photosculpture, topography, and material deposition. Certain precursors to modern AM processes are also briefly described. The growth of the field over the last 30 years is presented. Included is the standard delineation of AM technologies into seven broad categories. The economics of AM part generation is considered, and the impacts of the economics on application sectors are described. On the basis of current trends, the future outlook will include a convergence of AM fabricators, mass-produced AM fabricators, enabling of topology optimization designs, and specialization in the AM legal arena. Long-term developments with huge impact are organ printing and volume-based printing.

  13. Sewage sludge additive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalvinskas, J. J.; Mueller, W. A.; Ingham, J. D. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    The additive is for a raw sewage treatment process of the type where settling tanks are used for the purpose of permitting the suspended matter in the raw sewage to be settled as well as to permit adsorption of the dissolved contaminants in the water of the sewage. The sludge, which settles down to the bottom of the settling tank is extracted, pyrolyzed and activated to form activated carbon and ash which is mixed with the sewage prior to its introduction into the settling tank. The sludge does not provide all of the activated carbon and ash required for adequate treatment of the raw sewage. It is necessary to add carbon to the process and instead of expensive commercial carbon, coal is used to provide the carbon supplement.

  14. 20 CFR 411.435 - How will disputes arising under the agreements between ENs and State VR agencies be resolved?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... SECURITY ADMINISTRATION THE TICKET TO WORK AND SELF-SUFFICIENCY PROGRAM State Vocational Rehabilitation Agencies' Participation Resolving Disputes Arising Under Agreements Between Employment Networks and...

  15. 20 CFR 411.435 - How will disputes arising under the agreements between ENs and State VR agencies be resolved?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... SECURITY ADMINISTRATION THE TICKET TO WORK AND SELF-SUFFICIENCY PROGRAM State Vocational Rehabilitation Agencies' Participation Resolving Disputes Arising Under Agreements Between Employment Networks and...

  16. Sustainability Characterization for Additive Manufacturing

    PubMed Central

    Mani, Mahesh; Lyons, Kevin W; Gupta, SK

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) has the potential to create geometrically complex parts that require a high degree of customization, using less material and producing less waste. Recent studies have shown that AM can be an economically viable option for use by the industry, yet there are some inherent challenges associated with AM for wider acceptance. The lack of standards in AM impedes its use for parts production since industries primarily depend on established standards in processes and material selection to ensure the consistency and quality. Inability to compare AM performance against traditional manufacturing methods can be a barrier for implementing AM processes. AM process sustainability has become a driver due to growing environmental concerns for manufacturing. This has reinforced the importance to understand and characterize AM processes for sustainability. Process characterization for sustainability will help close the gaps for comparing AM performance to traditional manufacturing methods. Based on a literature review, this paper first examines the potential environmental impacts of AM. A methodology for sustainability characterization of AM is then proposed to serve as a resource for the community to benchmark AM processes for sustainability. Next, research perspectives are discussed along with relevant standardization efforts. PMID:26601038

  17. Sustainability Characterization for Additive Manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Mani, Mahesh; Lyons, Kevin W; Gupta, S K

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) has the potential to create geometrically complex parts that require a high degree of customization, using less material and producing less waste. Recent studies have shown that AM can be an economically viable option for use by the industry, yet there are some inherent challenges associated with AM for wider acceptance. The lack of standards in AM impedes its use for parts production since industries primarily depend on established standards in processes and material selection to ensure the consistency and quality. Inability to compare AM performance against traditional manufacturing methods can be a barrier for implementing AM processes. AM process sustainability has become a driver due to growing environmental concerns for manufacturing. This has reinforced the importance to understand and characterize AM processes for sustainability. Process characterization for sustainability will help close the gaps for comparing AM performance to traditional manufacturing methods. Based on a literature review, this paper first examines the potential environmental impacts of AM. A methodology for sustainability characterization of AM is then proposed to serve as a resource for the community to benchmark AM processes for sustainability. Next, research perspectives are discussed along with relevant standardization efforts.

  18. Adaptive Challenges Rising from the Life Context of African-American Caregiving Grandmothers with Diabetes: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Carthron, Dana; Bailey, Donald E.; Anderson, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    To understand the challenges arising from the context within which diabetic African-American caregiving grandmothers self-manage their diabetes we used the Adaptive Leadership Framework. Additionally, challenges to retaining this population in a longitudinal study were examined. In this exploratory, longitudinal, qualitative pilot study, data were collected at five time-points over 18 months. We coded the data using content analysis and conducted the within-case and cross-case analyses using data matrices. Lack of awareness of available resources, represented a technical challenge within the life context of these grandmothers and the remaining three themes: family upheaval; priority setting (with subthemes of difficulty meeting basic needs and competing demands); and self-silencing and self-sacrifice represented adaptive challenges. The context of African-American grandmothers’ lives created primarily adaptive challenges that were complex and without immediate solutions. Research is needed to develop culturally and contextually appropriate interventions to help this vulnerable group develop capacity for adaptive work. PMID:27064619

  19. Ceramics with Different Additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Juanjuan; Feng, Lajun; Lei, Ali; Zhao, Kang; Yan, Aijun

    2014-09-01

    Li2CO3, MgCO3, BaCO3, and Bi2O3 dopants were introduced into CaCu3Ti4O12 (CCTO) ceramics in order to improve the dielectric properties. The CCTO ceramics were prepared by conventional solid-state reaction method. The phase structure, microstructure, and dielectric behavior were carefully investigated. The pure structure without any impurity phases can be confirmed by the x-ray diffraction patterns. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) analysis illuminated that the grains of Ca0.90Li0.20Cu3Ti4O12 ceramics were greater than that of pure CCTO. It was important for the properties of the CCTO ceramics to study the additives in complex impedance spectroscopy. It was found that the Ca0.90Li0.20Cu3Ti4O12 ceramics had the higher permittivity (>45000), the lower dielectric loss (<0.025) than those of CCTO at 1 kHz at room temperature and good temperature stability from -30 to 75 °C.

  20. Endoscopic full-thickness resection for gastric submucosal tumors arising from the muscularis propria layer

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Liu-Ye; Cui, Jun; Lin, Shu-Juan; Zhang, Bo; Wu, Cheng-Rong

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the efficacy, safety and feasibility of endoscopic full-thickness resection (EFR) for the treatment of gastric submucosal tumors (SMTs) arising from the muscularis propria. METHODS: A total of 35 gastric SMTs arising from the muscularis propria layer were resected by EFR between January 2010 and September 2013. EFR consists of five major steps: injecting normal saline into the submucosa; pre-cutting the mucosal and submucosal layers around the lesion; making a circumferential incision as deep as the muscularis propria around the lesion using endoscopic submucosal dissection and an incision into the serosal layer around the lesion with a Hook knife; a full-thickness resection of the tumor, including the serosal layer with a Hook or IT knife; and closing the gastric wall with metallic clips. RESULTS: Of the 35 gastric SMTs, 14 were located at the fundus, and 21 at the corpus. EFR removed all of the SMTs successfully, and the complete resection rate was 100%. The mean operation time was 90 min (60-155 min), the mean hospitalization time was 6.0 d (4-10 d), and the mean tumor size was 2.8 cm (2.0-4.5 cm). Pathological examination confirmed the presence of gastric stromal tumors in 25 patients, leiomyomas in 7 and gastric autonomous nerve tumors in 2. No gastric bleeding, peritonitis or abdominal abscess occurred after EFR. Postoperative contrast roentgenography on the third day detected no contrast extravasation into the abdominal cavity. The mean follow-up period was 6 mo, with no lesion residue or recurrence noted. CONCLUSION: EFR is efficacious, safe and minimally invasive for patients with gastric SMTs arising from the muscularis propria layer. This technique is able to resect deep gastric lesions while providing precise pathological information about the lesion. With the development of EFR, the indications of endoscopic resection might be extended. PMID:25320536

  1. Human factors challenges for advanced process control

    SciTech Connect

    Stubler, W.F.; O`Hara, J..M.

    1996-08-01

    New human-system interface technologies provide opportunities for improving operator and plant performance. However, if these technologies are not properly implemented, they may introduce new challenges to performance and safety. This paper reports the results from a survey of human factors considerations that arise in the implementation of advanced human-system interface technologies in process control and other complex systems. General trends were identified for several areas based on a review of technical literature and a combination of interviews and site visits with process control organizations. Human factors considerations are discussed for two of these areas, automation and controls.

  2. Hemorrhagic cystitis: A challenge to the urologist

    PubMed Central

    Manikandan, R.; Kumar, Santosh; Dorairajan, Lalgudi N.

    2010-01-01

    Severe hemorrhagic cystitis often arises from anticancer chemotherapy or radiotherapy for pelvic malignancies. Infectious etiologies are less common causes except in immunocompromised hosts. These cases can be challenging problems for the urologist and a source of substantial morbidity and sometimes mortality for the patients. A variety of modalities of treatment have been described for the management of hemorrhagic cystitis but there is none that is uniformly effective. Some progress has been made in the understanding and management of viral hemorrhagic cystitis. This article reviews the common causes of severe hemorrhagic cystitis and the currently available management options. PMID:20877590

  3. Characterization of Rayleigh backscattering arising in various two-mode fibers.

    PubMed

    Yu, Dawei; Fu, Songnian; Cao, Zizheng; Tang, Ming; Deng, Lei; Liu, Deming; Giles, Ian; Koonen, Ton; Okonkwo, Chigo

    2016-05-30

    We experimentally characterize the mode dependent characteristics of Rayleigh backscattering (RB) arising in various two-mode fibers (TMFs). With the help of an all-fiber photonic lantern, we are able to measure the RB power at individual modes. Consequently, mode dependent power distribution of RB light caused by arbitrary forward propagation mode superposition can be obtained. The total RB power of the TMFs under test is higher than that of single mode fiber by at least 2 dB over the C band. Meanwhile, the RB light occurs among all guided modes in the TMFs with specific power ratios. The experimental characterization agrees well with the theoretical calculations.

  4. A simple method of calculating pulse amplitudes and shapes arising from reflection from linear segments

    SciTech Connect

    Erickson, S.A. Jr.

    1988-01-02

    A new formulation for the amplitude and pulse shape from reflections from a linear segment for a bistatic planar geometry is presented. The formulation is useful in calculating reverberation from high intensity signals in an deep ocean basin where long range propagation can occur. This reverberation is important in calculating the acoustic interference to sonar arising from the detonation of nuclear or large chemical explosives, and for modeling long range active sonar. The reflections computed with the new formulation are significantly different from those of earlier versions of the reverberation model, with pulses generally shorter and more intense, leading to predictions of louder but more sporadic reverberation than previously estimated. 9 refs

  5. On coupled Lane-Emden equations arising in dusty fluid models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flockerzi, D.; Sundmacher, K.

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the existence of solutions for mixed boundary value problems in coupled Lane-Emden equations. Such problems arise e.g. in the study of multicomponent diffusion and reaction processes inside catalyst particles under spherical symmetry. In contrast to the frequently applied decomposition method of Adomian, we employ the geometric theory of ODEs to show that this boundary value problem can be transformed into a terminal value problem. To this end, we determine the integral manifold on which solutions of the boundary value problem necessarily lie. This will be done in suitable warped and blown-up coordinates. Moreover, we comment on the numerical implementation.

  6. Small cell carcinoma of the colon arising in a carcinoid tumor.

    PubMed

    Saif, M Wasif

    2013-04-01

    Small cell carcinomas of the gastrointestinal tract are rare and clinically aggressive tumors. A case is presented of a 70 year-old woman who presented with small bowel obstruction and was found to have a cecal mass. She underwent right hemicolectomy, and histopathology showed a small cell carcinoma arising in the background of a carcinoid tumor. Although small cell carcinomas of the colon have frequently been found in association with colonic adenomas, this appears to be the first report of a low-grade carcinoid tumor in combination with a small cell carcinoma.

  7. Amelanotic Melanoma Arising in Filarial Leg: A Report of a Rare Case

    PubMed Central

    Nayak, Mamita; Meher, Susanta; Sasmal, Prakash Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Amelanotic melanoma arising on chronic lymphoedema has not been reported earlier. We reported a case of amelanotic melanoma of right leg developing in a background of chronic lymphoedema of filarial origin in an elderly male of 60 years, who underwent wide local excision of the lesion followed by skin grafting for the same. A histopathological diagnosis of amelanotic melanoma was made. The patient was on follow up when he developed brain metastasis within a period of nine months for which he was operated and is on regular follow up now. We believe this as the first case report of this unusual combination. PMID:28273977

  8. A comparative study of iterative solutions to linear systems arising in quantum mechanics

    SciTech Connect

    Jing Yanfei

    2010-11-01

    This study is mainly focused on iterative solutions with simple diagonal preconditioning to two complex-valued nonsymmetric systems of linear equations arising from a computational chemistry model problem proposed by Sherry Li of NERSC. Numerical experiments show the feasibility of iterative methods to some extent when applied to the problems and reveal the competitiveness of our recently proposed Lanczos biconjugate A-orthonormalization methods to other classic and popular iterative methods. By the way, experiment results also indicate that application specific preconditioners may be mandatory and required for accelerating convergence.

  9. Necrotizing Fasciitis Arising From an Enterocutaneous Fistula in a Case of an Appendiceal Mucocele.

    PubMed

    Kim, Keun Young; Park, Won Cheol

    2015-12-01

    An appendiceal mucocele (AM) is a rare tumorous condition of the appendix. Many patients with AM are admitted to the hospital with abdominal pain or discomfort, and many cases are found incidentally. Although the rate of complications in patients with AM is very low, if left untreated, a mucocele may rupture and produce a potentially fatal entity known as pseudomyxoma peritonei. In this paper, we report a case of an 80-year-old man with necrotizing fasciitis arising from an enterocutaneous fistula caused by AM.

  10. Necrotizing Fasciitis Arising From an Enterocutaneous Fistula in a Case of an Appendiceal Mucocele

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Keun Young

    2015-01-01

    An appendiceal mucocele (AM) is a rare tumorous condition of the appendix. Many patients with AM are admitted to the hospital with abdominal pain or discomfort, and many cases are found incidentally. Although the rate of complications in patients with AM is very low, if left untreated, a mucocele may rupture and produce a potentially fatal entity known as pseudomyxoma peritonei. In this paper, we report a case of an 80-year-old man with necrotizing fasciitis arising from an enterocutaneous fistula caused by AM. PMID:26817021

  11. Things arising from electrocardiographic imaging: toward a theory of partial inverse problems.

    PubMed

    Greensite, Fred

    2006-01-01

    The task of Electrocardiographic Imaging is an ill-posed inverse problem, requiring regularization. However, it has special features, firstly because it is a "non-stationary" inverse problem, and secondly because the inherent dynamical variety (e.g., epicardial breakthroughs, arrhythmias, ischemic changes) may preclude a fruitful nontrivial process model. Importantly, its structure places it in the category of "partial inverse problems" - a theory that arises from this setting. Surprising features of the resulting regularization methodology include the ability to fashion nontrivial regularization matrices in part (and sometimes entirely) from the data. There is evidence that these theoretical results can have significant practical benefits.

  12. A longitudinal component in massive gravitational waves arising from a bimetric theory of gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corda, Christian

    2007-10-01

    After a brief review of the work of de Paula, Miranda and Marinho on massive gravitational waves arising from a bimetric theory of gravity, in this paper it is shown that the presence of the mass generates a longitudinal component in a particular polarization of the wave. The effect of this polarization on test masses is performed using the geodesic deviation. At the end of this paper the detectability of this particular polarization is also discussed, showing that its angular dependence could, in principle, discriminate such polarization with respect to the ones of general relativity, will present or future detectors achieve a high sensitivity.

  13. Spontaneously arising red cells with a McLeod-like phenotype in normal donors.

    PubMed

    Araten, David J; Sanders, Katie J; Pu, Jeffrey; Lee, Soohee

    2009-12-01

    Very few human genes can be used to identify spontaneous inactivating somatic mutations. We hypothesized that because the XK gene is X-linked, it would be easy to identify spontaneously arising red cells with a phenotype resembling the McLeod syndrome, which results from inherited XK mutations. Here, by flow cytometry, we detect such phenotypic variants at a median frequency of 9 x 10(-6) in neonatal cord blood samples and 39 x 10(-6) in healthy adults (p=0.004). It may be possible to further investigate the relationship between aging, mutations, and cancer using this approach.

  14. A model of hysteresis arising from social interaction within a firm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rios, Luis A.; Rachinskii, Dmitrii; Cross, Rod

    2017-02-01

    This paper subscribes to the view that a key distinguishing feature of a firm is its social nature. We present a model in which hysteresis arises from the social interactions between employees. Employees have a simple response to incentives in the form of the pay available outside the firm relative to that available within the firm. Allowing for social interaction, whereby employees are influenced by the effort levels of fellow employees, leads to the distinctive effects, such as lazy relay responses to incentives, associated with hysteresis.

  15. Differentiation between earthquake radon anomalies and those arising from nuclear activities.

    PubMed

    Elmaghraby, Elsayed K; Lotfy, Yahia A

    2009-01-01

    The present work offers a methodology to correlate the earthquake time, magnitude and location based on the behavior of radon concentration. By correlating tectonic events to radon behavior, based on previously published radon data, radon concentration signals can be taken into consideration in decision making. Three correlations between magnitude, time and epicenter distance are presented. The applicability of any one of them depends on the measurement technique. Moreover, a suggested procedure is presented to determine the possible confusion between signals for radon anomalies originating from tectonic failure and those arising from nuclear activities. The suggested method depends on the change observed on the (219)Rn and (222)Rn daughters concentration ratios.

  16. Diversifying Academic and Professional Identities in Higher Education: Some Management Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitchurch, Celia; Gordon, George

    2010-01-01

    This paper draws on an international study of the management challenges arising from diversifying academic and professional identities in higher education. These challenges include, for instance, the introduction of practice-based disciplines with different traditions such as health and social care, the changing aspirations and expectations of…

  17. 78 FR 49296 - Centennial Challenges 2014 Sample Return Robot Challenge

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-13

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION Centennial Challenges 2014 Sample Return Robot Challenge AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). ACTION: Notice of Centennial Challenges 2014 Sample Return Robot... Robot Challenge is scheduled and teams that wish to compete may register. Centennial Challenges is...

  18. 29 CFR 15.301 - What office is responsible for determining liability in claims arising out of the Job Corps?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... claims arising out of the Job Corps? 15.301 Section 15.301 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor... Operation of the Job Corps § 15.301 What office is responsible for determining liability in claims arising out of the Job Corps? (a) The Director of the appropriate Job Corps Regional Office is responsible...

  19. 40 CFR 60.1800 - May I deviate from the 13-month testing schedule if unforeseen circumstances arise?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false May I deviate from the 13-month testing schedule if unforeseen circumstances arise? 60.1800 Section 60.1800 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... schedule if unforeseen circumstances arise? You may not deviate from the 13-month testing...

  20. 40 CFR 60.1310 - May I deviate from the 13-month testing schedule if unforeseen circumstances arise?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false May I deviate from the 13-month testing schedule if unforeseen circumstances arise? 60.1310 Section 60.1310 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Testing § 60.1310 May I deviate from the 13-month testing schedule if unforeseen circumstances arise?...

  1. 25 CFR 900.201 - How should claims arising out of the performance of medical-related functions be filed?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How should claims arising out of the performance of medical-related functions be filed? 900.201 Section 900.201 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT... Provisions Procedure for Filing Medical-Related Claims § 900.201 How should claims arising out of...

  2. 40 CFR 62.15255 - May I deviate from the 13-month testing schedule if unforeseen circumstances arise?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false May I deviate from the 13-month testing schedule if unforeseen circumstances arise? 62.15255 Section 62.15255 Protection of Environment...-month testing schedule if unforeseen circumstances arise? You may not deviate from the 13-month...

  3. 15 CFR 15.32 - Procedures for the handling of lawsuits against Department employees arising within the scope of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Procedures for the handling of lawsuits against Department employees arising within the scope of their office or employment. 15.32 Section... for the handling of lawsuits against Department employees arising within the scope of their office...

  4. 16 CFR 3.13 - Adjudicative hearing on issues arising in rulemaking proceedings under the Fair Packaging and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Adjudicative hearing on issues arising in rulemaking proceedings under the Fair Packaging and Labeling Act. 3.13 Section 3.13 Commercial Practices... PROCEEDINGS Pleadings § 3.13 Adjudicative hearing on issues arising in rulemaking proceedings under the...

  5. Challenges of Parenting Multiples

    MedlinePlus

    ... the American Society for Reproductive Medicine Challenges of Parenting Multiples There are many psychological, social, and economic ... the unique challenges and rewards that come from parenting multiples. For more information on the medical aspects ...

  6. Green Flight Challenge

    NASA Video Gallery

    The CAFE Green Flight Challenge sponsored by Google will be held at the CAFE Foundation Flight Test Center at Charles M. Schulz Sonoma County Airport in Santa Rosa, Calif. The Green Flight Challeng...

  7. Minority Innovation Challenges Institute

    NASA Video Gallery

    Do you want to learn more about how to compete in NASA’s technical challenges for both prestige and significant cash prizes? NASA’s Minority Innovation Challenges Institute trains and mentors mino...

  8. [Intolerance to food additives: an update].

    PubMed

    Cardinale, F; Mangini, F; Berardi, M; Sterpeta Loffredo, M; Chinellato, I; Dellino, A; Cristofori, F; Di Domenico, F; Mastrototaro, M F; Cappiello, A; Centoducati, T; Carella, F; Armenio, L

    2008-12-01

    Contrary to common believing, the prevalence of the intolerance to food additives in the general population is rather low. Nowadays many doubts persist with regard both to the pathogenetic mechanisms and to the clinical and diagnostic aspects in this field. Symptoms due to, or exacerbated from, food additives usually involve non-IgE-mediate mechanisms (pseudo-allergic reactions, PAR) and are usually less severe of those induced by food allergy. The most frequent clinical feature of the intolerance to food additives still remains the urticaria-angioedema syndrome, although these substances are really involved only in a minority of patients. Other possible clinical features include anaphylaxis, atopic eczema, behaviour disturbances, asthma and non-allergic rhinitis. The diagnostic approach consists in diary cards, reporting symptoms and food habits, elimination diet and double blinded placebo-controlled oral challenge with suspected additives. However, such procedure still remains poorly standardized and numerous uncertainties persist with regard to optimal conditions for performing and interpret the challenge results. The therapeutic approach consists in the exclusion of foods and products containing the additive involved, and, in patients not compliant to the diet, in treatment with symptomatic drugs.

  9. Dark matter searches for monoenergetic neutrinos arising from stopped meson decay in the Sun

    SciTech Connect

    Rott, Carsten; In, Seongjin; Kumar, Jason; Yaylali, David E-mail: seongjin.in@gmail.com E-mail: yaylali@email.arizona.edu

    2015-11-01

    Dark matter can be gravitationally captured by the Sun after scattering off solar nuclei. Annihilations of the dark matter trapped and accumulated in the centre of the Sun could result in one of the most detectable and recognizable signals for dark matter. Searches for high-energy neutrinos produced in the decay of annihilation products have yielded extremely competitive constraints on the spin-dependent scattering cross sections of dark matter with nuclei. Recently, the low energy neutrino signal arising from dark-matter annihilation to quarks which then hadronize and shower has been suggested as a competitive and complementary search strategy. These high-multiplicity hadronic showers give rise to a large amount of pions which will come to rest in the Sun and decay, leading to a unique sub-GeV neutrino signal. We here improve on previous works by considering the monoenergetic neutrino signal arising from both pion and kaon decay. We consider searches at liquid scintillation, liquid argon, and water Cherenkov detectors and find very competitive sensitivities for few-GeV dark matter masses.

  10. Near-Infrared Localized Surface Plasmon Resonances Arising from Free Carriers in Doped Quantum Dots

    SciTech Connect

    Jain, Prashant K.; Luther, Joey; Ewers, Trevor; Alivisatos, A. Paul

    2010-10-12

    Quantum confinement of electronic wavefunctions in semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) yields discrete atom-like and tunable electronic levels, thereby allowing the engineering of excitation and emission spectra. Metal nanoparticles, on the other hand, display strong resonant interactions with light from localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) oscillations of free carriers, resulting in enhanced and geometrically tunable absorption and scattering resonances. The complementary attributes of these nanostructures lends strong interest toward integration into hybrid nanostructures to explore enhanced properties or the emergence of unique attributes arising from their interaction. However, the physicochemical interface between the two components can be limiting for energy transfer and synergistic coupling within such a hybrid nanostructure. Therefore, it is advantageous to realize both attributes, i.e., LSPRs and quantum confinement within the same nanostructure. Here, we describe well-defined LSPRs arising from p-type carriers in vacancy-doped semiconductor quantum dots. This opens up possibilities for light harvesting, non-linear optics, optical sensing and manipulation of solid-state processes in single nanocrystals.

  11. Adenocarcinoma arising from an anal gland—Report of a case

    PubMed Central

    Sakamoto, Takashi; Konishi, Fumio; Yoshida, Takayoshi; Yoshinaga, Yasuo; Izumo, Toshiyuki; Lefor, Alan

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Adenocarcinoma arising from an anal gland is extremely rare. Most anal canal cancers are squamous cell carcinoma, and adenocarcinoma is infrequently diagnosed. Diagnostic criteria and the standard treatment for adenocarcinoma of the anal canal have not been clearly defined, in part because of the rarity of this lesion. PRESENTATION OF CASE An 84-year-old man who presented with a piece of tissue prolapsing from the anus. An incisional biopsy showed adenocarcinoma, and an abdomino-perineal resection was then performed. Cytokeratin 7 (CK7), cytokeratin 19 (CK19) stained positive in the specimen, suggesting that the tumor developed from an anal gland. The patient was discharged after surgery without any complications. DISCUSSION Exact diagnostic criteria for adenocarcinoma of the anal canal have not been previously described. In the present case, CK7 and CK19 were stained, and the tumor showed positivity for both of these markers, which is compatible with the staining patterns of anal gland origin cancer. Radical resection is recommended rather than local resection, because of the tumor's high recurrence rate. Some authors recommend combined modality treatment with preoperative or postoperative chemoradiotherapy because of the high rate of distant recurrence. CONCLUSION The preoperative diagnosis of adenocarcinoma arising from an anal gland is not easily established. However, it may be possible to suspect an anal glandular adenocarcinoma based on a meticulous physical examination, appropriate diagnostic studies and pathological findings on biopsy. PMID:24705191

  12. Spontaneous Movable Semifluxons - New Phenomenon arising in Nano-Electronic Superconducting System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farhan-Hassan, Hanaa; Kusmartsev, F. V.

    2010-11-01

    Semifluxon is a very rare topological excitation. It is a spontaneous Josephson vortex carrying a half of the magnetic flux quantum phi0 created on the boundary between 0 and π junctions. Semifluxons play an important role as qubits for quantum computing. Typically they are static and arise in a variety of Josephson 0- π nano-junctions, in particular. The properties of semifluxons are very different from the properties of fluxon. Typically, semifluxons are pinned at the phase discontinuity point in 0- π long Josephson junctions (LJJ) and may have two polarities carrying the flux ± phi0/2, that was attracting to use them as qubits. In this paper, we report for a first time about a novel type of semifluxons arising in superconductors, which are movable, i.e. not pinned. We show that a spontaneous generation of movable semifluxons is created in conventional LJJ due to flux cloning in extended T-Josephson nano-junctions. We also show that there is a strong interaction between semifluxon and anti-semifluxon once they have been generated and that leads to their very short life time, i.e. to their fast annihilation and next recreation.

  13. Galectin-3 as a Potential Therapeutic Target in Tumors Arising from Malignant Endothelia1

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Kim D; Glinskii, Olga V; Mossine, Valeri V; Turk, James R; Mawhinney, Thomas P; Anthony, Douglas C; Henry, Carolyn J; Huxley, Virginia H; Glinsky, Gennadi V; Pienta, Kenneth J; Raz, Avraham; Glinsky, Vladislav V

    2007-01-01

    Angiosarcoma (ASA) in humans and hemangiosarcoma (HSA) in dogs are deadly neoplastic diseases characterized by an aggressive growth of malignant cells with endothelial phenotype, widespread metastasis, and poor response to chemotherapy. Galectin-3 (Gal-3), a β-galactoside-binding lectin implicated in tumor progression and metastasis, endothelial cell biology and angiogenesis, and regulation of apoptosis and neoplastic cell response to cytotoxic drugs, has not been studied before in tumors arising from malignant endothelia. Here, we tested the hypothesis that Gal-3 could be widely expressed in human ASA and canine HSA and could play an important role in malignant endothelial cell biology. Immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated that 100% of the human ASA (10 of 10) and canine HSA (17 of 17) samples analyzed expressed Gal-3. Two carbohydrate-based Gal-3 inhibitors, modified citrus pectin (MCP) and lactulosyl-l-leucine (LL), caused a dose-dependent reduction of SVR murine ASA cell clonogenic survival through the inhibition of Gal-3 antiapoptotic function. Furthermore, both MCP and LL sensitized SVR cells to the cytotoxic drug doxorubicin to a degree sufficient to reduce the in vitro IC50 of doxorubicin by 10.7-fold and 3.6-fold, respectively. These results highlight the important role of Gal-3 in the biology of ASA and identify Gal-3 as a potential therapeutic target in tumors arising from malignant endothelial cells. PMID:17786185

  14. Upper limits on the probability of an interstellar civilization arising in the local Solar neighbourhood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cartin, Daniel

    2015-10-01

    At this point in time, there is very little empirical evidence on the likelihood of a space-faring species originating in the biosphere of a habitable world. However, there is a tension between the expectation that such a probability is relatively high (given our own origins on Earth), and the lack of any basis for believing the Solar System has ever been visited by an extraterrestrial colonization effort. From the latter observational fact, this paper seeks to place upper limits on the probability of an interstellar civilization arising on a habitable planet in its stellar system, using a percolation model to simulate the progress of such a hypothetical civilization's colonization efforts in the local Solar neighbourhood. To be as realistic as possible, the actual physical positions and characteristics of all stars within 40 parsecs of the Solar System are used as possible colony sites in the percolation process. If an interstellar civilization is very likely to have such colonization programmes, and they can travel over large distances, then the upper bound on the likelihood of such a species arising per habitable world is of the order of 10-3 on the other hand, if civilizations are not prone to colonize their neighbours, or do not travel very far, then the upper limiting probability is much larger, even of order one.

  15. Decommissioning - An approach to predict the amount of radioactive waste arisings

    SciTech Connect

    Kugel, K.; Brennecke, P.; Koch, W.

    2007-07-01

    In the next decades many facilities are going to be decommissioned in Germany. On the basis of the agreement between the utilities and the Federal Government on the phase out of nuclear energy use for commercial electricity generation predictions can be made on the schedule of the shut down of nuclear installations in Germany and a prognosis might be given for the complete amount of decommissioning waste that will arise. 17 nuclear power plants and other nuclear installations are to be shut down and decommissioned within the next 2 decades. An approach for the prediction of the amount of radioactive waste and an overview on the underlying assumptions is given. The prognosis for the expected radioactive waste in Germany depends on several assumptions. Utilities in Germany expect approx. 5000 m{sup 3} of radioactive waste with negligible heat-generation from decommissioning per reactor. New inquiries seem to indicate that less radioactive waste may arise due to new techniques in decontamination and conditioning. Nevertheless, there will be limits due to costs and physical properties. (authors)

  16. Improved clinical outcomes of patients with ovarian carcinoma arising in endometriosis

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Jiayi; Lu, Yingying; Wang, Zehua; Liu, Haiou; Xu, Congjian

    2017-01-01

    Background Despite enormous efforts to dissect the role of endometriosis in ovarian cancer development, the difference in prognosis between ovarian cancer patients with or without endometriosis remains elusive. The purpose of this study is to assess the association between endometriosis and the prognosis in patients with ovarian cancer. Results Ovarian cancer arising in endometriosis tended to be presented as clear cell histology, early stage, less intraperitoneal metastasis and ascites, and lower CA125 level compared with those without endometriosis. Multivariate Cox regression analysis identified endometriosis as an independent prognostic factor for progression free survival (P = 0.002) and overall survival (P = 0.009) in all patients and especially for early stage. A nomogram integrating endometriosis, FIGO stage and CA125 was established to predict progression free survival and overall survival. Materials and methods This study retrospectively enrolled 196 ovarian cancers arising or not in endometriosis judged by adjunctive use of CD10 immunohistochemistry in conjunction with H&E staining specimens. Clinicopathologic variables, progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were recorded. Kaplan-Meier analysis was performed to compare survival curves. Cox regression models were used to analyze the effect of endometriosis on PFS and OS. A prognostic nomogram was constructed based on the independent prognostic factors identified by multivariate analysis. Conclusions Endometriosis is an independent predictor of prognosis in ovarian cancer patients. PMID:27992377

  17. "Melanocytic Nests Arising in Lichenoid Inflammation": Reappraisal of the Terminology "Melanocytic Pseudonests".

    PubMed

    Chung, Hye Jin; Simkin, A David; Bhawan, Jag; Wolpowitz, Deon

    2015-12-01

    Pseudonests or pseudomelanocytic nests represent aggregates of cells and cell fragments, including keratinocytes, macrophages, lymphocytes, and occasional melanocytes. Pseudomelanocytic nests in the setting of lichenoid inflammation can mimic atypical melanocytic proliferations. Several reports documented nonspecific staining of pseudonests with melanoma antigen recognized by T cells-1/Melan-A, which can be detected in the cytoplasm of nonmelanocytic cells. In contrast, nuclear stains, such as MITF and SOX10, avoid this nonmelanocyte cytoplasmic staining. The authors have previously proposed the term melanocytic pseudonests to describe junctional nests with numerous (>2) true melanoma antigen recognized by T cells-1/Melan-A, SOX10, and MITF in a nonmelanocytic lesion with lichenoid inflammation (unilateral lichen planus pigmentosus/erythema dyschromicum perstans). In this study, the authors report another case of this phenomenon arising in a different lichenoid inflammatory dermatitis (lichen planus). The immunophenotype and number of clustered true melanocytes indicate that these dermoepidermal aggregates represent true melanocytic nests and not pseudonests of any type. Therefore, the authors propose the revised terminology of "melanocytic nests arising in lichenoid inflammation" to describe this novel pattern of benign melanocytic reorganization or proliferation in a subset of lichenoid dermatitides. Because this phenomenon can mimic atypical melanocytic proliferations, clinicopathologic correlation is essential for the correct diagnosis.

  18. “Melanocytic Nests Arising in Lichenoid Inflammation”: Reappraisal of the Terminology “Melanocytic Pseudonests”

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Hye Jin; Simkin, A. David; Bhawan, Jag

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: Pseudonests or pseudomelanocytic nests represent aggregates of cells and cell fragments, including keratinocytes, macrophages, lymphocytes, and occasional melanocytes. Pseudomelanocytic nests in the setting of lichenoid inflammation can mimic atypical melanocytic proliferations. Several reports documented nonspecific staining of pseudonests with melanoma antigen recognized by T cells-1/Melan-A, which can be detected in the cytoplasm of nonmelanocytic cells. In contrast, nuclear stains, such as MITF and SOX10, avoid this nonmelanocyte cytoplasmic staining. The authors have previously proposed the term melanocytic pseudonests to describe junctional nests with numerous (>2) true melanoma antigen recognized by T cells-1/Melan-A, SOX10, and MITF in a nonmelanocytic lesion with lichenoid inflammation (unilateral lichen planus pigmentosus/erythema dyschromicum perstans). In this study, the authors report another case of this phenomenon arising in a different lichenoid inflammatory dermatitis (lichen planus). The immunophenotype and number of clustered true melanocytes indicate that these dermoepidermal aggregates represent true melanocytic nests and not pseudonests of any type. Therefore, the authors propose the revised terminology of “melanocytic nests arising in lichenoid inflammation” to describe this novel pattern of benign melanocytic reorganization or proliferation in a subset of lichenoid dermatitides. Because this phenomenon can mimic atypical melanocytic proliferations, clinicopathologic correlation is essential for the correct diagnosis. PMID:26588340

  19. Central Projection of Pain Arising from Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness (DOMS) in Human Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Zimmermann, Katharina; Leidl, Caroline; Kaschka, Miriam; Carr, Richard W.; Terekhin, Pavel; Handwerker, Hermann O.; Forster, Clemens

    2012-01-01

    Delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) is a subacute pain state arising 24–48 hours after a bout of unaccustomed eccentric muscle contractions. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to examine the patterns of cortical activation arising during DOMS-related pain in the quadriceps muscle of healthy volunteers evoked by either voluntary contraction or physical stimulation. The painful movement or physical stimulation of the DOMS-affected thigh disclosed widespread activation in the primary somatosensory and motor (S1, M1) cortices, stretching far beyond the corresponding areas somatotopically related to contraction or physical stimulation of the thigh; activation also included a large area within the cingulate cortex encompassing posteroanterior regions and the cingulate motor area. Pain-related activations were also found in premotor (M2) areas, bilateral in the insular cortex and the thalamic nuclei. In contrast, movement of a DOMS-affected limb led also to activation in the ipsilateral anterior cerebellum, while DOMS-related pain evoked by physical stimulation devoid of limb movement did not. PMID:23056613

  20. Catalysis by dihydrofolate reductase and other enzymes arises from electrostatic preorganization, not conformational motions.

    PubMed

    Adamczyk, Andrew J; Cao, Jie; Kamerlin, Shina C L; Warshel, Arieh

    2011-08-23

    The proposal that enzymatic catalysis is due to conformational fluctuations has been previously promoted by means of indirect considerations. However, recent works have focused on cases where the relevant motions have components toward distinct conformational regions, whose population could be manipulated by mutations. In particular, a recent work has claimed to provide direct experimental evidence for a dynamical contribution to catalysis in dihydrofolate reductase, where blocking a relevant conformational coordinate was related to the suppression of the motion toward the occluded conformation. The present work utilizes computer simulations to elucidate the true molecular basis for the experimentally observed effect. We start by reproducing the trend in the measured change in catalysis upon mutations (which was assumed to arise as a result of a "dynamical knockout" caused by the mutations). This analysis is performed by calculating the change in the corresponding activation barriers without the need to invoke dynamical effects. We then generate the catalytic landscape of the enzyme and demonstrate that motions in the conformational space do not help drive catalysis. We also discuss the role of flexibility and conformational dynamics in catalysis, once again demonstrating that their role is negligible and that the largest contribution to catalysis arises from electrostatic preorganization. Finally, we point out that the changes in the reaction potential surface modify the reorganization free energy (which includes entropic effects), and such changes in the surface also alter the corresponding motion. However, this motion is never the reason for catalysis, but rather simply a reflection of the shape of the reaction potential surface.

  1. Dark matter searches for monoenergetic neutrinos arising from stopped meson decay in the Sun

    SciTech Connect

    Rott, Carsten; In, Seongjin; Kumar, Jason; Yaylali, David

    2015-11-24

    Dark matter can be gravitationally captured by the Sun after scattering off solar nuclei. Annihilations of the dark matter trapped and accumulated in the centre of the Sun could result in one of the most detectable and recognizable signals for dark matter. Searches for high-energy neutrinos produced in the decay of annihilation products have yielded extremely competitive constraints on the spin-dependent scattering cross sections of dark matter with nuclei. Recently, the low energy neutrino signal arising from dark-matter annihilation to quarks which then hadronize and shower has been suggested as a competitive and complementary search strategy. These high-multiplicity hadronic showers give rise to a large amount of pions which will come to rest in the Sun and decay, leading to a unique sub-GeV neutrino signal. We here improve on previous works by considering the monoenergetic neutrino signal arising from both pion and kaon decay. We consider searches at liquid scintillation, liquid argon, and water Cherenkov detectors and find very competitive sensitivities for few-GeV dark matter masses.

  2. The Backpack Design Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2010-01-01

    Something as simple as carrying books to school can be an interesting design challenge for students. It's an old problem that gets reinvented from time to time. In this article, the author discusses a backpack design challenge in which teachers work with students to design another way to carry books to school. The challenge started by trying to…

  3. An efficient computational approach to characterize DSC-MRI signals arising from three-dimensional heterogeneous tissue structures.

    PubMed

    Semmineh, Natenael B; Xu, Junzhong; Boxerman, Jerrold L; Delaney, Gary W; Cleary, Paul W; Gore, John C; Quarles, C Chad

    2014-01-01

    The systematic investigation of susceptibility-induced contrast in MRI is important to better interpret the influence of microvascular and microcellular morphology on DSC-MRI derived perfusion data. Recently, a novel computational approach called the Finite Perturber Method (FPM), which enables the study of susceptibility-induced contrast in MRI arising from arbitrary microvascular morphologies in 3D has been developed. However, the FPM has lower efficiency in simulating water diffusion especially for complex tissues. In this work, an improved computational approach that combines the FPM with a matrix-based finite difference method (FDM), which we call the Finite Perturber the Finite Difference Method (FPFDM), has been developed in order to efficiently investigate the influence of vascular and extravascular morphological features on susceptibility-induced transverse relaxation. The current work provides a framework for better interpreting how DSC-MRI data depend on various phenomena, including contrast agent leakage in cancerous tissues and water diffusion rates. In addition, we illustrate using simulated and micro-CT extracted tissue structures the improved FPFDM along with its potential applications and limitations.

  4. Digital processing of signals arising from organic liquid scintillators for applications in the mixed-field assessment of nuclear threats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aspinall, M. D.; Joyce, M. J.; Mackin, R. O.; Jarrah, Z.; Peyton, A. J.

    2008-10-01

    The nuclear aspect of the CBRN* threat is often divided amongst radiological substances posing no criticality risk, often referred to as 'dirty bomb' scenarios, and fissile threats. The latter have the theoretical potential for criticality excursion, resulting in elevated neutron fluxes in addition to the γ-ray component that is common to dirty bombs. Even in isolation of the highly-unlikely criticality scenario, fissile substances often exhibit radiation fields comprising a significant neutron component which can require considerably different counterterrorism measures and clean-up methodologies. The contrast between these threats can indicate important differences in the relative sophistication of the perpetrators and their organizations. Consequently, the detection and discrimination of nuclear perils in terms of mixed-field content is an important assay in combating terrorist threats. In this paper we report on the design and implementation of a fast digitizer and embedded-processor for onthe- fly signal processing of events from organic liquid scintillators. A digital technique, known as Pulse Gradient Analysis (PGA), has been developed at Lancaster University for the digital discrimination of neutrons and γ rays. PGA has been deployed on bespoke hardware and demonstrates remarkable improvement over analogue methods for the assay of mixed fields and the real-time discrimination of neutrons and γ rays. In this regard the technology constitutes an attractive and affordable means for the discrimination of the radiation fields arising from fissile threats and those from dirty bombs. Data are presented demonstrating this capability with sealed radioactive sources.

  5. Continuous and Discrete Painlevé Equations Arising from the Gap Probability Distribution of the Finite Gaussian Unitary Ensembles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Man; Chen, Yang; Griffin, James

    2014-10-01

    In this paper we study the gap probability problem in the Gaussian unitary ensembles of by matrices : The probability that the interval is free of eigenvalues. In the works of Tracy and Widom, Adler and Van Moerbeke, and Forrester and Witte on this subject, it has been shown that two Painlevé type differential equations arise in this context. The first is the Jimbo-Miwa-Okomoto -form and the second is a particular Painlevé IV. Using the ladder operator technique of orthogonal polynomials we derive three quantities associated with the gap probability, denoted as , and . We show that each one satisfies a second order Painlevé type differential equation as well as a discrete Painlevé type equation. In particular, in addition to providing an elementary derivation of the aforementioned -form and Painlevé IV we are able to show that the quantity satisfies a particular case of Chazy's second degree second order differential equation. For the discrete equations we show that the quantity satisfies a particular form of the modified discrete Painlevé II equation obtained by Grammaticos and Ramani in the context of Backlund transformations. We also derive second order second degree difference equations for the quantities and.

  6. Applying evolutionary biology to address global challenges.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Scott P; Jørgensen, Peter Søgaard; Kinnison, Michael T; Bergstrom, Carl T; Denison, R Ford; Gluckman, Peter; Smith, Thomas B; Strauss, Sharon Y; Tabashnik, Bruce E

    2014-10-17

    Two categories of evolutionary challenges result from escalating human impacts on the planet. The first arises from cancers, pathogens, and pests that evolve too quickly and the second, from the inability of many valued species to adapt quickly enough. Applied evolutionary biology provides a suite of strategies to address these global challenges that threaten human health, food security, and biodiversity. This Review highlights both progress and gaps in genetic, developmental, and environmental manipulations across the life sciences that either target the rate and direction of evolution or reduce the mismatch between organisms and human-altered environments. Increased development and application of these underused tools will be vital in meeting current and future targets for sustainable development.

  7. Applying evolutionary biology to address global challenges

    PubMed Central

    Carroll, Scott P.; Jørgensen, Peter Søgaard; Kinnison, Michael T.; Bergstrom, Carl T.; Denison, R. Ford; Gluckman, Peter; Smith, Thomas B.; Strauss, Sharon Y.; Tabashnik, Bruce E.

    2014-01-01

    Two categories of evolutionary challenges result from escalating human impacts on the planet. The first arises from cancers, pathogens and pests that evolve too quickly, and the second from the inability of many valued species to adapt quickly enough. Applied evolutionary biology provides a suite of strategies to address these global challenges that threaten human health, food security, and biodiversity. This review highlights both progress and gaps in genetic, developmental and environmental manipulations across the life sciences that either target the rate and direction of evolution, or reduce the mismatch between organisms and human-altered environments. Increased development and application of these underused tools will be vital in meeting current and future targets for sustainable development. PMID:25213376

  8. A non-local free boundary problem arising in a theory of financial bubbles

    PubMed Central

    Berestycki, Henri; Monneau, Regis; Scheinkman, José A.

    2014-01-01

    We consider an evolution non-local free boundary problem that arises in the modelling of speculative bubbles. The solution of the model is the speculative component in the price of an asset. In the framework of viscosity solutions, we show the existence and uniqueness of the solution. We also show that the solution is convex in space, and establish several monotonicity properties of the solution and of the free boundary with respect to parameters of the problem. To study the free boundary, we use, in particular, the fact that the odd part of the solution solves a more standard obstacle problem. We show that the free boundary is and describe the asymptotics of the free boundary as c, the cost of transacting the asset, goes to zero. PMID:25288815

  9. Epidermoid Cyst Arising in the Buccal Mucosa: Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Fábio Wildson Gurgel; Chaves, Filipe Nobre; de Almeida, Stephanie; Alves, Ana Paula Negreiros Nunes; Patrocínio, Régia Maria do Socorro Vidal; Sousa, Fabrício Bitu; Pereira, Karuza Maria Alves

    2015-01-01

    Epidermoid cysts are benign subcutaneous lesions, and the large majority of these cysts affect the floor of the mouth; however, the buccal mucosa is not a usual site of occurrence. To date, only 5 articles have been published with 6 cases of epidermoid cysts arising in the buccal mucosa. Therefore, the aim of this study was to describe the clinical, histopathological and immunohistochemical features of a case of epidermoid cyst located in the buccal mucosa. To our knowledge, this is the first report of an oral epidermoid cyst describing an intense foreign body gigantocellular inflammatory reaction against epithelial keratin component. Although the usual diagnosis for epidermoid cysts is based on histopathological findings, this case report addresses novel information regarding to the immunohistochemical pattern that may be found in these lesions. PMID:27688388

  10. Microsurgical confirmation of perforating arteries arising from the fundus of a posterior communicating artery aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Matthew R; Roland, Jarod L; Kamath, Ashwin A; Cross, DeWitte T; Dacey, Ralph G

    2015-07-01

    Perforating arteries rarely project from the fundus of an aneurysm. We present the case of a 35-year-old woman who was found to have a right posterior communicating artery (PCOM) aneurysm via catheter angiography. Superselective microcatheter angiography revealed that perforating arteries arose from the aneurysm fundus that supplied the anterolateral thalamus. Microsurgical exploration confirmed several small perforating arteries arising from the aneurysm dome as well as an atretic distal PCOM artery. Given the complex anatomy, the lesion was unsuitable for clipping. We propose that this aneurysm represents a developmental variant whereby the proximal PCOM artery becomes atretic and terminates in PCOM perforators. The video can be found here: http://youtu.be/iDcp9fsDjq4.

  11. Receiving Social Support at Church When Stressful Life Events Arise: Do Catholics and Protestants Differ?

    PubMed

    Krause, Neal

    2010-11-01

    The purpose of this study is to see if older Protestants and older Catholics differ in the amount of social support they receive from fellow church members and members of the clergy when stressful life events arise. The data come from a nationwide longitudinal survey of older adults. The findings reveal that at relatively low levels of exposure to stress, older Catholics are less likely than older Protestants to get emotional support from either rank-and-file church members or members of the clergy. However, as the level of exposure to stress increases, this difference disappears, and older Catholics appear to be just as likely as older Protestants to receive emotional support from fellow church members and members of the clergy. The theoretical implications of these findings are discussed.

  12. Sarcomatoid carcinoma arising in the congenital pigmented nevus after treatment with carbon dioxide snow freezing method.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Rina; Komine, Mayumi; Miyamoto, Yukiko; Fusumae, Takayuki; Fujita, Yurika; Maekawa, Takeo; Murata, Satoru; Fukushima, Noriyoshi; Ohtsuki, Mamitaro

    2015-11-01

    We report a case of sarcomatoid carcinoma of the skin in a 63-year-old man who was treated with the carbon dioxide snow freezing method for a huge congenital pigmented nevus that extended from the right upper extremity to the right trunk during childhood. He had an exophytic red tumor on the nevus in the right upper extremity that grew slowly for 4 years and rapidly recently. Histological and immunohistochemical studies revealed both epithelial and mesenchymal malignancy in the same tumor. The epithelial component was composed of basaloid cells forming multiple nests with peripheral palisading, positive for keratins and BerEP4, implying basal cell carcinoma. The mesenchymal component was composed of spindle-shaped cells negative for keratins and positive for vimentin, suggesting sarcoma. This is, to our knowledge, the first report of sarcomatoid carcinoma arising in the primary pigmented nevus that had been treated by the carbon dioxide snow freezing method.

  13. Bio-inspired computational heuristics to study Lane-Emden systems arising in astrophysics model.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Iftikhar; Raja, Muhammad Asif Zahoor; Bilal, Muhammad; Ashraf, Farooq

    2016-01-01

    This study reports novel hybrid computational methods for the solutions of nonlinear singular Lane-Emden type differential equation arising in astrophysics models by exploiting the strength of unsupervised neural network models and stochastic optimization techniques. In the scheme the neural network, sub-part of large field called soft computing, is exploited for modelling of the equation in an unsupervised manner. The proposed approximated solutions of higher order ordinary differential equation are calculated with the weights of neural networks trained with genetic algorithm, and pattern search hybrid with sequential quadratic programming for rapid local convergence. The results of proposed solvers for solving the nonlinear singular systems are in good agreements with the standard solutions. Accuracy and convergence the design schemes are demonstrated by the results of statistical performance measures based on the sufficient large number of independent runs.

  14. Numerical solution of a class of integral equations arising in two-dimensional aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fromme, J.; Golberg, M. A.

    1978-01-01

    We consider the numerical solution of a class of integral equations arising in the determination of the compressible flow about a thin airfoil in a ventilated wind tunnel. The integral equations are of the first kind with kernels having a Cauchy singularity. Using appropriately chosen Hilbert spaces, it is shown that the kernel gives rise to a mapping which is the sum of a unitary operator and a compact operator. This allows the problem to be studied in terms of an equivalent integral equation of the second kind. A convergent numerical algorithm for its solution is derived by using Galerkin's method. It is shown that this algorithm is numerically equivalent to Bland's collocation method, which is then used as the method of computation. Extensive numerical calculations are presented establishing the validity of the theory.

  15. An Orbital Malignant Melanoma Arising in Cellular Blue Nevus in a Patient with Nevus of Ota

    PubMed Central

    Ouyang, Jie; Cartwright, Mont

    2016-01-01

    Melanomas arising from orbital melanocytic proliferations are exceedingly rare. Many questions remain regarding their development and malignant transformation. We report on a 45-year-old Caucasian woman with a nevus of Ota that presented with visual disturbances involving her right eye and was found to have a biopsy-proven cellular blue nevus in the orbital space. Five years later, she presented with proptosis and worsening symptoms. Biopsy at that time showed a cellular blue nevus with areas of melanoma. We conclude that patients with a nevus of Ota or an orbital cellular blue nevus, particularly Caucasians, should be monitored for ocular/orbital involvement and followed closely for signs of rapid growth. There may be a progressive evolution to melanoma from a blue nevus.   PMID:27699140

  16. A Selective Mutism Arising from First Language Attrition, Successfully Treated with Paroxetine-CBT Combination Treatment.

    PubMed

    Serra, Agostino; Di Mauro, Paola; Andaloro, Claudio; Maiolino, Luigi; Pavone, Piero; Cocuzza, Salvatore

    2015-10-01

    After immersion in a foreign language, speakers often have difficulty retrieving native-language words and may experience a decrease in its proficiency, this phenomenon, in the non-pathological form, is known as first language attrition. Self-perception of this low native-language proficiency and apprehension occurring when speaking is expected and, may sometimes lead these people to a state of social anxiety and, in extreme forms, can involve the withholding of speech as a primitive tool for self-protection, linking them to selective mutism. We report an unusual case of selective mutism arising from first language attrition in an Italian girl after attending a two-year "German language school", who successfully responded to a paroxetine-cognitive behavioral treatment (CBT) combination treatment.

  17. A Selective Mutism Arising from First Language Attrition, Successfully Treated with Paroxetine-CBT Combination Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Serra, Agostino; Di Mauro, Paola; Andaloro, Claudio; Maiolino, Luigi; Pavone, Piero

    2015-01-01

    After immersion in a foreign language, speakers often have difficulty retrieving native-language words and may experience a decrease in its proficiency, this phenomenon, in the non-pathological form, is known as first language attrition. Self-perception of this low native-language proficiency and apprehension occurring when speaking is expected and, may sometimes lead these people to a state of social anxiety and, in extreme forms, can involve the withholding of speech as a primitive tool for self-protection, linking them to selective mutism. We report an unusual case of selective mutism arising from first language attrition in an Italian girl after attending a two-year "German language school", who successfully responded to a paroxetine-cognitive behavioral treatment (CBT) combination treatment. PMID:26508972

  18. Adenocarcinoma arising at ileostomy sites: Two cases and a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Procaccino, Lauren; Rehman, Sameer; Abdurakhmanov, Alexander; McWhorter, Peter; La Gamma, Nicholas; Bhaskaran, Madhu C; Maurer, James; Grimaldi, Gregory M; Rilo, Horacio; Nicastro, Jeffrey; Coppa, Gene; Molmenti, Ernesto P; Procaccino, John

    2015-06-27

    Total colectomy with ileostomy placement is a treatment for patients with inflammatory bowel disease or familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP). A rare and late complication of this treatment is carcinoma arising at the ileostomy site. We describe two such cases: a 78-year-old male 30 years after subtotal colectomy and ileostomy for FAP, and an 85-year-old male 50 years after colectomy and ileostomy for ulcerative colitis. The long latency period between creation of the ileostomies and development of carcinoma suggests a chronic metaplasia due to an irritating/inflammatory causative factor. Surgical excision of the mass and relocation of the stoma is the mainstay of therapy, with possible benefits from adjuvant chemotherapy. Newly developed lesions at stoma sites should be biopsied to rule out the possibility of this rare ileostomy complication.

  19. Expression of N-acetyl galactosaminylated and sialylated glycans by metastases arising from primary breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Brooks, S A; Leathem, A J

    This study examines the Helix pomatia lectin (HPA) binding characteristics of metastases arising from primary breast cancer, and compares HPA binding patterns with binding of Dolichos biflorus lectin (DBA), Limax flavus lectin (LFA), and a monoclonal antibody against the Tn epitope. Of 81 blocks of metastases in a range of tissues, taken at autopsy from 46 individuals, 79% were HPA positive. No site specificity with regard to HPA binding was observed. Both HPA-positive and -negative tumour deposits were seen within a single individual. HPA-positive tumours were commonly negative for binding of sialic acid specific lectin LFA (86% were negative). Binding patterns of alpha-GalNAc specific HPA and DBA, and a monoclonal antibody against Tn epitope (GalNAc-O-Ser/Thr) were markedly different.

  20. The cytotoxicity of (-)-lomaiviticin A arises from induction of double-strand breaks in DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colis, Laureen C.; Woo, Christina M.; Hegan, Denise C.; Li, Zhenwu; Glazer, Peter M.; Herzon, Seth B.

    2014-06-01

    The metabolite (-)-lomaiviticin A, which contains two diazotetrahydrobenzo[b]fluorene (diazofluorene) functional groups, inhibits the growth of cultured human cancer cells at nanomolar-picomolar concentrations; however, the mechanism responsible for the potent cytotoxicity of this natural product is not known. Here we report that (-)-lomaiviticin A nicks and cleaves plasmid DNA by a pathway that is independent of reactive oxygen species and iron, and that the potent cytotoxicity of (-)-lomaiviticin A arises from the induction of DNA double-strand breaks (dsbs). In a plasmid cleavage assay, the ratio of single-strand breaks (ssbs) to dsbs is 5.3 ± 0.6:1. Labelling studies suggest that this cleavage occurs via a radical pathway. The structurally related isolates (-)-lomaiviticin C and (-)-kinamycin C, which contain one diazofluorene, are demonstrated to be much less effective DNA cleavage agents, thereby providing an explanation for the enhanced cytotoxicity of (-)-lomaiviticin A compared to that of other members of this family.

  1. Geometric properties of a 2 D spacetime arising in 4 D black hole physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casals, Marc; Nolan, Brien C.

    2015-11-01

    The Schwarzschild exterior space-time is conformally related to a direct product space-time, M2×S2 , where M2 is a 2 D space-time. This direct product structure arises naturally when considering the wave equation on the Schwarzschild background. Motivated by this, we establish some geometrical results relating to M2 that are useful for black hole physics. We prove that M2 has the rare property of being a causal domain. Consequently, Synge's world function and the Hadamard form for the Green function on this space-time are well defined globally. We calculate the world function and the van Vleck determinant on M2 numerically and point out how these results will be used to establish global properties of Green functions on the Schwarzschild black hole space-time.

  2. Asymptotic behavior of partial and false theta functions arising from Jacobi forms and regularized characters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bringmann, Kathrin; Folsom, Amanda; Milas, Antun

    2017-01-01

    Motivated by recent developments in the representation theory of vertex algebras and conformal field theory, we prove several asymptotic results for partial and false theta functions arising from Jacobi forms, as the modular variable τ tends to 0 along the imaginary axis, and the elliptic variable z is unrestricted in the complex plane. We observe that these functions exhibit Stokes' phenomenon—the asymptotic behavior of these functions sharply differs depending on where the elliptic variable z is located within the complex plane. We apply our results to study the asymptotic expansions of regularized characters and quantum dimensions of the (1, p)-singlet W-algebra modules important in logarithmic conformal field theory. This, in particular, recovers and extends several results from the work of T. Creutzig et al. [Int. Math. Res. Not. (2016); e-print arXiv:1411.3282] pertaining to regularized quantum dimensions.

  3. Parathyroid adenoma arising within the sternocleidomastoid muscle: a rare complication of autotransplantation.

    PubMed

    Touska, Philip; Srikanthan, Ahgi; Amarasinghe, Kavita; Jawad, Susan

    2016-07-20

    A 19-year-old patient presented with slowly enlarging, painless, left-sided cervical mass. She had a background of multiple endocrine neoplasia 2B and had undergone a total thyroidectomy for medullary thyroid carcinoma during childhood. A cervical recurrence was therefore suspected. Ultrasonographic and MRI examination revealed a well-defined lesion within the left sternocleidomastoid muscle. Further evaluation with sestamibi and single-photon emission CT revealed elevated tracer uptake within the lesion. Cytological analysis, following ultrasound-guided sampling, revealed absent staining for calcitonin and blood samples confirmed a normal serum calcitonin level; however, the serum parathyroid hormone level was elevated. Overall, summative findings were consistent with a diagnosis of a parathyroid adenoma arising within the left sternocleidomastoid muscle. Given that this is not a location for a physiological parathyroid tissue, the adenoma might have arisen within the autotransplanted parathyroid tissue, injected into the muscular sheath during thyroidectomy. The clinical, radiological and pathological features are considered in this article.

  4. Numerical methods for one-dimensional reaction-diffusion equations arising in combustion theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramos, J. I.

    1987-01-01

    A review of numerical methods for one-dimensional reaction-diffusion equations arising in combustion theory is presented. The methods reviewed include explicit, implicit, quasi-linearization, time linearization, operator-splitting, random walk and finite-element techniques and methods of lines. Adaptive and nonadaptive procedures are also reviewed. These techniques are applied first to solve two model problems which have exact traveling wave solutions with which the numerical results can be compared. This comparison is performed in terms of both the wave profile and computed wave speed. It is shown that the computed wave speed is not a good indicator of the accuracy of a particular method. A fourth-order time-linearized, Hermitian compact operator technique is found to be the most accurate method for a variety of time and space sizes.

  5. Embolization of Ruptured Aneurysm Arising From Basilar Artery Fenestration Using Hydrocoils

    PubMed Central

    Chuan Zhi, Duan

    2015-01-01

    Aneurysms arising from the basilar artery fenestration are considered among the rare cerebrovascular diseases. Here, we report on a 44-year-old gentleman who presented with the sudden onset of severe headache complicated by several episodes of vomiting and an altered level of consciousness. A subarachnoid hemorrhage in the interpeduncle and ambient cisterns was detected by computed tomography of the head. During left vertebral arteriography, a basilar fenestration with a ruptured aneurysm just above the proximal end of vertebrobasilar junction was identified. The aneurysm was successfully occluded by means of endovascular treatment using Hydrosoft coils. In the 15-month follow-up angiography, 100% occlusion without recurrence and recanalization was observed. Bilateral anterior inferior cerebellar arteries and both channels of the basilar artery fenestration were entirely filled in follow-up angiograms. PMID:26488001

  6. Benchmark values for molecular two-electron integrals arising from the Dirac equation.

    PubMed

    Bağcı, A; Hoggan, P E

    2015-02-01

    The two-center two-electron Coulomb and hybrid integrals arising in relativistic and nonrelativistic ab initio calculations on molecules are evaluated. Compact, arbitrarily accurate expressions are obtained. They are expressed through molecular auxiliary functions and evaluated with the numerical Global-adaptive method for arbitrary values of parameters in the noninteger Slater-type orbitals. Highly accurate benchmark values are presented for these integrals. The convergence properties of new molecular auxiliary functions are investigated. The comparison for two-center two-electron integrals is made with results obtained from single center expansions by translation of the wave function to a single center with integer principal quantum numbers and results obtained from the Cuba numerical integration algorithm, respectively. The procedures discussed in this work are capable of yielding highly accurate two-center two-electron integrals for all ranges of orbital parameters.

  7. Benchmark values for molecular two-electron integrals arising from the Dirac equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baǧcı, A.; Hoggan, P. E.

    2015-02-01

    The two-center two-electron Coulomb and hybrid integrals arising in relativistic and nonrelativistic ab initio calculations on molecules are evaluated. Compact, arbitrarily accurate expressions are obtained. They are expressed through molecular auxiliary functions and evaluated with the numerical Global-adaptive method for arbitrary values of parameters in the noninteger Slater-type orbitals. Highly accurate benchmark values are presented for these integrals. The convergence properties of new molecular auxiliary functions are investigated. The comparison for two-center two-electron integrals is made with results obtained from single center expansions by translation of the wave function to a single center with integer principal quantum numbers and results obtained from the Cuba numerical integration algorithm, respectively. The procedures discussed in this work are capable of yielding highly accurate two-center two-electron integrals for all ranges of orbital parameters.

  8. Primary squamous cell carcinoma of the thyroid arising in Hashimoto's thyroiditis in an adolescent.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Sosa, Sergio; Rios-Luna, Nina Paola; Tamayo, Bricia del Rosario; Simpson, Karen; Albores-Saavedra, Jorge

    2006-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma is a rare thyroid neoplasm that has been described exclusively in adults. We report what appears to be the first example of a primary squamous cell carcinoma of the thyroid gland arising in a background of Hashimoto's thyroiditis in an adolescent female. The tumor was well demarcated, confined to the right thyroid lobe, and did not metastasize, although follow up has been limited. The squamous cell carcinoma was well to moderately differentiated, and the stroma contained an abundant inflammatory infiltrate rich in lymphocytes and eosinophils. The lack of goblet cells, extracellular mucin, and extensive stromal sclerosis excluded the diagnosis of sclerosing mucoepidermoid carcinoma with eosinophilia. Immunohistochemical staining revealed focal expression of cytokeratin 7 and diffuse labeling with cytokeratin AE1/AE3. The squamous cell carcinoma overexpressed p53 protein and showed increased proliferative activity, as evidenced by the high MIB-1 labeling index. In contrast, the tumor did not show immunoreactivity for thyroglobulin or thyroid transcription factor 1.

  9. Nephroblastoma Arising from Primary Testicular Germ Cell Tumor: A Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Alatassi, Houda; O'Bryan, Brittany E.; Messer, Jamie C.

    2016-01-01

    Adult extrarenal nephroblastoma is a very rare tumor. Nephroblastoma arising from primary testicular germ cell tumor is exceedingly rare. To our knowledge, only three cases have been reported in the English literature. We report a case of a 19-year-old man who presented with a large right testicle. Image studies showed a large retroperitoneal mass along with liver and lung metastases. Orchiectomy demonstrated a mixed germ cell tumor composed of yolk sac tumor, embryonal carcinoma, and mature and immature teratoma with a significant portion of nephroblastoma. The patient received chemotherapy and no recurrence was noted during six months of followup. WT-1 expression was also studied due to the lack of consistency of its expression in testicular nephroblastoma in the literature. We also present a discussion and review of the literature due to its rarity, which indicate an adverse prognosis for patients with nephroblastoma components receiving standard chemotherapeutical regimes for testicular germ cell tumors. PMID:27957372

  10. Following subtraction of the dipole anisotropy and components of the detected emission arising from

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Following subtraction of the dipole anisotropy and components of the detected emission arising from dust (thermal emission), hot gas (free-free emission), and charged particles interacting with magnetic fields (synchrotron emission) in the Milky Way Galaxy, the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropy can be seen. CMB anisotropy - tiny fluctuations in the sky brightness at a level of a part in one hundred thousand - was first detected by the COBE DMR instrument. The CMB radiation is a remnant of the Big Bang, and the fluctuations are the imprint of density contrast in the early Universe (see slide 24 caption). This image represents the anisotropy detected in data collected during the first two years of DMR operation. Ultimately the DMR was operated for four years. See slide 19 caption for information about map smoothing and projection.

  11. Uncertainties in Atmospheric Muon-Neutrino Fluxes Arising from Cosmic-Ray Primaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porzio, Salvatore Davide; Evans, Justin; Soldner-Rembold, Stefan; Wren, Steven

    2017-01-01

    We present an updated calculation of the atmospheric muon-neutrino flux uncertainties arising from cosmic-ray primaries, including for the first time the information from recent measurements of the cosmic-ray primaries. We apply a statistical technique that allows the determination of correlations between the parameters of the GSHL primary-flux parametrisation, and the incorporation of these correlations into the uncertainty on the muon-neutrino flux. Given the unexpected hardening of the spectrum of primaries above 100 GeV observed in recent measurements, we propose an alternative parametrisation and discuss its impact on the neutrino flux uncertainties. We obtain an uncertainty on the primary cosmic-ray component of (5- 10) % , depending on energy, which is a about a factor of two smaller than for the previous fit. The hadron production uncertainty is added in quadrature to obtain the total uncertainty on the neutrino flux. Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC) and the Royal Society.

  12. Contractile Units in Disordered Actomyosin Bundles Arise from F-Actin Buckling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lenz, Martin; Thoresen, Todd; Gardel, Margaret L.; Dinner, Aaron R.

    2012-06-01

    Bundles of filaments and motors are central to contractility in cells. The classic example is striated muscle, where actomyosin contractility is mediated by highly organized sarcomeres which act as fundamental contractile units. However, many contractile bundles in vivo and in vitro lack sarcomeric organization. Here we propose a model for how contractility can arise in bundles without sarcomeric organization and validate its predictions with experiments on a reconstituted system. In the model, internal stresses in frustrated arrangements of motors with diverse velocities cause filaments to buckle, leading to overall shortening. We describe the onset of buckling in the presence of stochastic motor head detachment and predict that buckling-induced contraction occurs in an intermediate range of motor densities. We then calculate the size of the “contractile units” associated with this process. Consistent with these results, our reconstituted actomyosin bundles show contraction at relatively high motor density, and we observe buckling at the predicted length scale.

  13. Receiving Social Support at Church When Stressful Life Events Arise: Do Catholics and Protestants Differ?

    PubMed Central

    Krause, Neal

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to see if older Protestants and older Catholics differ in the amount of social support they receive from fellow church members and members of the clergy when stressful life events arise. The data come from a nationwide longitudinal survey of older adults. The findings reveal that at relatively low levels of exposure to stress, older Catholics are less likely than older Protestants to get emotional support from either rank-and-file church members or members of the clergy. However, as the level of exposure to stress increases, this difference disappears, and older Catholics appear to be just as likely as older Protestants to receive emotional support from fellow church members and members of the clergy. The theoretical implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:21572579

  14. Face transplantation: Anesthetic challenges

    PubMed Central

    Dalal, Aparna

    2016-01-01

    Face transplantation is a complex vascular composite allotransplantation (VCA) surgery. It involves multiple types of tissue, such as bone, muscles, blood vessels, nerves to be transferred from the donor to the recipient as one unit. VCAs were added to the definition of organs covered by the Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network Final Rule and National Organ Transplant Act. Prior to harvest of the face from the donor, a tracheostomy is usually performed. The osteotomies and dissection of the midface bony skeleton may involve severe hemorrhagic blood loss often requiring transfusion of blood products. A silicon face mask created from the facial impression is used to reconstruct the face and preserve the donor’s dignity. The recipient airway management most commonly used is primary intubation of an existing tracheostoma with a flexometallic endotracheal tube. The recipient surgery usually averages to 19-20 h. Since the face is a very vascular organ, there is usually massive bleeding, both in the dissection phase as well as in the reperfusion phase. Prior to reperfusion, often, after one sided anastomosis of the graft, the contralateral side is allowed to bleed to get rid of the preservation solution and other additives. Intraoperative product replacement should be guided by laboratory values and point of care testing for coagulation and hemostasis. In face transplantation, bolus doses of pressors or pressor infusions have been used intraoperatively in several patients to manage hypotension. This article reviews the anesthetic considerations for management for face transplantation, and some of the perioperative challenges faced. PMID:28058213

  15. Instruction in high schools: the evidence and the challenge.

    PubMed

    Corcoran, Tom; Silander, Megan

    2009-01-01

    The combined effects of standards-based reforms and accountability demands arising from recent technological and economic changes, say Tom Corcoran and Megan Silander, are requiring high schools to accomplish something they have never been required to do-ensure that substantially all students achieve at a relatively high level. Meeting that challenge, say the authors, will require high schools to improve the effectiveness of their core technology-instruction. The authors first examine how organizational structures affect instruction. Most high schools, they say, organize instruction by subject or discipline, thus encouraging an isolated and independent approach to teaching rather than one in which teachers are guided by a shared vision or goals. Many schools have focused on increasing teacher collaboration, often through teaming, interdisciplinary teaching, or professional learning communities. Citing limited evidence that these reforms improve instruction and learning, Corcoran and Silander urge researchers to examine whether the changes help schools implement specific instructional reforms and support sustained efforts to improve instruction. Next the authors explore the effects on student learning of instructional strategies such as interdisciplinary teaching, cooperative learning, project-based learning, adaptive instruction, inquiry, and dialogic teaching. The evidence suggests the power of well-designed student grouping strategies, of allowing students to express their ideas and questions, and of offering students challenging tasks. But, the authors say, less than half of American high school students report working in groups, and little class time is devoted to student-centered discussions. The authors conclude that schools should promote the use of proven instructional practices. In addition, teachers should systematically monitor how students vary in what they are learning and adapt their instruction in response to students' progress and needs, in the

  16. Enhancing youth potential through Civic Service: ethical reflections arising from a geo-educational project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubbia, Giuliana

    2015-04-01

    Different forms of Civic Service are present in Europe. The National Civic Service (SCN) of Italy started, with a law, as an alternative to military service in 2001. It was conceived as an opportunity to people from 18 to 28 years, the volunteers, who intend to grow in social, civic, cultural and professional dimensions while performing experiences of social solidarity, national and international cooperation, protection and preservation of national heritage. Each accredited organization, which hosts SCN projects, signs up an ethical charter, regulating relationships between volunteers and the hosting organization. Summarizing, the organization must be aware 1)of putting into effect a law aimed to involve young generations in homeland defense with non violent means through services of social utility; 2) that the Civic Service wants young people to spend one year of their life in a critical phase in which they reach the responsibilities of adults; 3) that adopted working method is learning by doing, working with tutors having to increase skills and exploit the full potential of volunteers; 4) of recognizing the volunteers' right to work to reach the project's objectives, and not only for the benefits of the hosting organization; 5) that volunteers should work with well defined procedures, clear since the beginning; 6) of requiring from volunteers their full commitment to learn and responsibly participate to project's activities as well as to fully express and increase their expertise, skills and personal resources. Ethical implications emerged during an ongoing Earth Sciences education project funded by SCN and involving young volunteers at Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV). According to SCN's ethical charter, in this case the challenge is to welcome a group of young people in a public research organization, and to integrate them in the limited time lapse of one year. The European Charter for Researchers came as a valuable help. Its principles

  17. Radial velocity fitting challenge. I. Simulating the data set including realistic stellar radial-velocity signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumusque, X.

    2016-08-01

    Context. Stellar signals are the main limitation for precise radial-velocity (RV) measurements. These signals arise from the photosphere of the stars. The m s-1 perturbation created by these signals prevents the detection and mass characterization of small-mass planetary candidates such as Earth-twins. Several methods have been proposed to mitigate stellar signals in RV measurements. However, without precisely knowing the stellar and planetary signals in real observations, it is extremely difficult to test the efficiency of these methods. Aims: The goal of the RV fitting challenge is to generate simulated RV data including stellar and planetary signals and to perform a blind test within the community to test the efficiency of the different methods proposed to recover planetary signals despite stellar signals. Methods: In this first paper, we describe the simulation used to model the measurements of the RV fitting challenge. Each simulated planetary system includes the signals from instrumental noise, stellar oscillations, granulation, supergranulation, stellar activity, and observed and simulated planetary systems. In addition to RV variations, this simulation also models the effects of instrumental noise and stellar signals on activity observables obtained by HARPS-type high-resolution spectrographs, that is, the calcium activity index log (R'HK) and the bisector span and full width at half maximum of the cross-correlation function. Results: We publish the 15 systems used for the RV fitting challenge including the details about the planetary systems that were injected into each of them. Based on observations collected at the La Silla Parana Observatory, ESO (Chile), with the HARPS spectrograph at the 3.6-m telescope.The simulated data sets are available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/593/A5 and at the wiki of the RV fitting challenge http://https://rv-challenge.wikispaces.com.

  18. Participation in Lifelong Learning: Reality or Myth? Issues Arising from a United Kingdom Coalfield Closure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thursfield, Denise; Henderson, Roger

    2004-01-01

    In the spring of 2004, the Selby Coalfield, the largest of the remaining coal mines in the United Kingdom (UK) will close and 2071 employees will lose their jobs. The impact of the closure will be severe in the surrounding area, and will present a challenge to local employment services and training agencies. It will also test the UK government's…

  19. Integrating Remote Sensing Data with Socioeconomic Data: Sensitivity, Confidentiality, Privacy, and Intellectual Property Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Downs, R. R.; Adamo, S. B.

    2014-12-01

    The integration of remote sensing data with socioeconomic data presents new opportunities for scientific discovery and analysis that can improve understanding of the environmental sustainability issues that society faces today. Such integrated data products and services can be used to study interdisciplinary issues by investigators representing various disciplines. In addition to the scientific benefits that can be attained by integrating remote sensing data with socioeconomic data, the integration of these data also present challenges that reflect the complex issues that arise when sharing and integrating different types of science data. When integrating one or more datasets that contain sensitive information, data producers need to be aware of the limitations that have been placed upon the data to protect private property, species or other inhabitants that reside on the property, or restricted information about a particular location. Similarly, confidentiality and privacy issues are a concern for data that have been collected about individual humans and families who have volunteered to serve as human research subjects or whose personal information may have been collected without their knowledge. In addition, intellectual property rights that are associated with a particular dataset may prevent integration with other data or pose constraints on the use of the resulting data products or services. These challenges will be described along with approaches that can be applied to address them when planning projects that involve the integration of remote sensing data with socioeconomic data.

  20. Packaging and Transportation of Additional Neptunium Oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Watkins, R.; Jordan, J.; Hensel, S.

    2010-05-05

    The Savannah River Site's HB-Line Facility completed a second neptunium oxide production campaign in which nine (9) additional cans of neptunium oxide were produced and shipped to the Idaho National Laboratory and Oak Ridge National Laboratory in the 9975 shipping container. These additional cans were from a different feed solution than the first fifty (50) cans of neptunium oxide that were previously produced and shipped via a Letter of Amendment to the 9975 Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) content table. This paper will address the challenges associated with demonstrating the neptunium oxide produced from the additional feed solution was equivalent to the original neptunium oxide and within the content description of the Letter of Amendment.

  1. NASA Centennial Challenges: After the Challenge

    NASA Video Gallery

    What's it like to participate in a NASA Centennial Challenge? In their own words: "We really had no idea what to expect when we got here. Being able to take all of this...now we have an idea for ne...

  2. K-12 Education: Many Challenges Arise in Educating Students Who Change Schools Frequently. Report to Congressional Requesters. GAO-11-40

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashby, Cornelia M.

    2010-01-01

    Educational achievement of students can be negatively affected by their changing schools often. The recent economic downturn, with foreclosures and homelessness, may be increasing student mobility. To inform Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 (ESEA) reauthorization, the US Government Accountability Office (GAO) was asked: (1) What are…

  3. Professionals' views on the issues and challenges arising from providing a fertility preservation service through sperm banking to teenage males with cancer.

    PubMed

    Crawshaw, Marilyn; Glaser, Adam; Hale, Juliet; Sloper, Patricia

    2004-03-01

    Interviews were undertaken with 22 health and social work professionals. Their analysis was completed using "selective transcription", noting understanding of process, issues and themes, and building a picture against which to consider the analysis of subsequent interviews with teenagers and parents. Professionals were also asked to identify areas for feedback from these participants. This work was part of a larger study of (i) the perceptions of adolescent males and their parents of fertility preservation services following a cancer diagnosis, and (ii) national postal surveys of common practices, areas of variance and issues experienced by professionals in UK regional paediatric oncology centres and licensed assisted conception centres. A large number of concerns were identified, which reflected professionals' difficulties in building and maintaining a relevant, adequate knowledge and skills base given the limited numbers of teenagers offered this service. The lack of appropriate training about the legal and consent frameworks, and the processes involved was also highlighted across all professional groups as was the confusion around professional and legal responsibilities for follow up. Thus, there was considerable professional uncertainty in a number of aspects of this sensitive area of service provision. Consideration needs to be given to the needs for national guidance, for training, support and updating, for liaison between the different health and social care sectors that may be involved, and for appropriate information systems. These need to be in place for each stage of the process, from diagnosis through to eventual discharge from the health system.

  4. NASA Space Rocket Logistics Challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neeley, James R.; Jones, James V.; Watson, Michael D.; Bramon, Christopher J.; Inman, Sharon K.; Tuttle, Loraine

    2014-01-01

    The Space Launch System (SLS) is the new NASA heavy lift launch vehicle and is scheduled for its first mission in 2017. The goal of the first mission, which will be uncrewed, is to demonstrate the integrated system performance of the SLS rocket and spacecraft before a crewed flight in 2021. SLS has many of the same logistics challenges as any other large scale program. Common logistics concerns for SLS include integration of discreet programs geographically separated, multiple prime contractors with distinct and different goals, schedule pressures and funding constraints. However, SLS also faces unique challenges. The new program is a confluence of new hardware and heritage, with heritage hardware constituting seventy-five percent of the program. This unique approach to design makes logistics concerns such as commonality especially problematic. Additionally, a very low manifest rate of one flight every four years makes logistics comparatively expensive. That, along with the SLS architecture being developed using a block upgrade evolutionary approach, exacerbates long-range planning for supportability considerations. These common and unique logistics challenges must be clearly identified and tackled to allow SLS to have a successful program. This paper will address the common and unique challenges facing the SLS programs, along with the analysis and decisions the NASA Logistics engineers are making to mitigate the threats posed by each.

  5. Future challenges to microbial food safety.

    PubMed

    Havelaar, Arie H; Brul, Stanley; de Jong, Aarieke; de Jonge, Rob; Zwietering, Marcel H; Ter Kuile, Benno H

    2010-05-30

    Despite significant efforts by all parties involved, there is still a considerable burden of foodborne illness, in which micro-organisms play a prominent role. Microbes can enter the food chain at different steps, are highly versatile and can adapt to the environment allowing survival, growth and production of toxic compounds. This sets them apart from chemical agents and thus their study from food toxicology. We summarize the discussions of a conference organized by the Dutch Food and Consumer Products Safety Authority and the European Food Safety Authority. The goal of the conference was to discuss new challenges to food safety that are caused by micro-organisms as well as strategies and methodologies to counter these. Management of food safety is based on generally accepted principles of Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points and of Good Manufacturing Practices. However, a more pro-active, science-based approach is required, starting with the ability to predict where problems might arise by applying the risk analysis framework. Developments that may influence food safety in the future occur on different scales (from global to molecular) and in different time frames (from decades to less than a minute). This necessitates development of new risk assessment approaches, taking the impact of different drivers of change into account. We provide an overview of drivers that may affect food safety and their potential impact on foodborne pathogens and human disease risks. We conclude that many drivers may result in increased food safety risks, requiring active governmental policy setting and anticipation by food industries whereas other drivers may decrease food safety risks. Monitoring of contamination in the food chain, combined with surveillance of human illness and epidemiological investigations of outbreaks and sporadic cases continue to be important sources of information. New approaches in human illness surveillance include the use of molecular markers for

  6. College and University Challenge

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This EPA's Green Power Partnership Challenge tracks and recognizes U.S. colleges and universities recognizes the largest single green power users within each participating collegiate athletic conferences.

  7. NASA Exploration Design Challenge

    NASA Video Gallery

    From the International Space Station, astronaut Sunita Williams welcomes participants to the NASA Exploration Design Challenge and explains the uncertainties about the effects of space radiation on...

  8. 29 CFR 15.301 - What office is responsible for determining liability in claims arising out of the Job Corps?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What office is responsible for determining liability in claims arising out of the Job Corps? 15.301 Section 15.301 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor ADMINISTRATIVE CLAIMS UNDER THE FEDERAL TORT CLAIMS ACT AND RELATED CLAIMS STATUTES Claims Arising Out of the Operation of the Job Corps § 15.301...

  9. Human-Interaction Challenges in UAV-Based Autonomous Surveillance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freed, Michael; Harris, Robert; Shafto, Michael G.

    2004-01-01

    Autonomous UAVs provide a platform for intelligent surveillance in application domains ranging from security and military operations to scientific information gathering and land management. Surveillance tasks are often long duration, requiring that any approach be adaptive to changes in the environment or user needs. We describe a decision- theoretic model of surveillance, appropriate for use on our autonomous helicopter, that provides a basis for optimizing the value of information returned by the UAV. From this approach arise a range of challenges in making this framework practical for use by human operators lacking specialized knowledge of autonomy and mathematics. This paper describes our platform and approach, then describes human-interaction challenges arising from this approach that we have identified and begun to address.

  10. Virtual Bridge Design Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitts, Charles R.

    2013-01-01

    This design/problem-solving activity challenges students to design a replacement bridge for one that has been designated as either structurally deficient or functionally obsolete. The Aycock MS Technology/STEM Magnet Program Virtual Bridge Design Challenge is an authentic introduction to the engineering design process. It is a socially relevant…

  11. Challenges Facing Special Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyen, Edward L., Ed.; And Others

    This book presents 17 selected papers from recent issues of the journal, "Focus on Exceptional Children," concerning current and emerging challenges facing the field of special education. The book is organized in two parts. Part 1, "Contemporary Challenges," includes the following articles: "Transitions in Early Childhood Special Education: Issues…

  12. The Multimedia Challenge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penuel, William R.; Means, Barbara; Simkins, Michael

    2000-01-01

    Teachers implementing a local history project in Belmont, California, had help from a federally funded technology innovation challenge grant: the Challenge 2000 Multimedia Project. Sponsored by a Silicon Valley school-business partnership, the initiative illustrates how technology can transform classroom learning while supporting instructional…

  13. Science Challenge Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegel, Deborah

    2013-01-01

    Science fairs can be good motivators, but as extracurricular activities, they leave some students behind. However, by staging a Science Challenge Day at school, educators can involve all students in doing everything from choosing activities to judging projects. This article presents a model for running a successful Science Challenge Day. The…

  14. Challenge and Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mehaffy, George L.

    2012-01-01

    In the past twenty years, various industries have been forever altered by technology: newspapers, book publishing, the photography business, and many more. Higher education too faces unprecedented challenges primarily driven by rapid changes in technology. To meet these challenges and adapt to these changes, new models are needed. Six challenges…

  15. The Intersection Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2011-01-01

    Street intersections are a source of accidents--for both automobiles and pedestrians. This article presents an intersection challenge that allows students to explore some possible ways to change the traditional intersection. In this challenge, teachers open up the boundaries and allow students to redesign their world. The first step is to help…

  16. Challenge College, Bradford

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flecknoe, Mervyn

    2004-01-01

    What can you expect from a school in an area of high crime where 50 percent of the pupils take free school meals and which operates on a site that cannot be accessed from its main catchment area? In this article, the author shares his experience when he visited Challenge College. A low wall separates Challenge College from the area where most of…

  17. Challenges to Financing Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, R. Craig; Ruch, Robert W.

    1986-01-01

    Reviews court decisions involving challenges to state systems of financing education. The challenges have been based on Fourteenth Amendment rights to equal protection. To date 24 states have been involved with litigation. Systems that promote local control have been generally held to be constitutional. (42 references) (MD)

  18. Dewey's Challenge to Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fishman, Stephen M.; McCarthy, Lucille

    2010-01-01

    Given the serious social problems confronting Americans and others worldwide, the authors propose that Dewey's 1932 challenge to teachers is worthy of reconsideration by educators at all levels. In times similar to our own, Dewey challenged teachers to cultivate students' capacities to identify their happiness with what they can do to improve the…

  19. First Aid Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a challenge wherein students will be asked to design a portable first aid kit that is normally carried in a recreational vehicle (RV), but can also be hand-carried or backpacked off road for distances of approximately 1-2 miles. This can be a very practical challenge for the students because it touches everyone. Everybody…

  20. A Call to Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colleary, Shawn

    2004-01-01

    This article features the Challenge School, a magnet school in the CherryCreek School District in Colorado that focuses on academically advanced, motivated, and gifted students. The school was developed as an alternative to best meet the needs of these students. The Challenge School focuses on high student achievement and commensurate academic…

  1. The Jet Travel Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2007-01-01

    Airplane travelers are dismayed by the long lines and seemingly chaotic activities that precede boarding a full airplane. Surely, the one who can solve this problem is going to make many travelers happy. This article describes the Jet Travel Challenge, an activity that challenges students to create some alternatives to this now frustrating…

  2. Squamous cell carcinoma arising from an oral lichenoid lesion: a case report.

    PubMed

    Taghavi Zenouz, Ali; Mehdipour, Masoumeh; Attaran, Rana; Bahramian, Ayla; Emamverdi Zadeh, Paria

    2012-01-01

    Lichenoid reactions represent a family of lesions with different etiologic factors and a common clinical and histologic ap-pearance. Lichen planus is included with lichenoid reactions and is a relatively common chronic mucocutaneous disorder. The most important complication of lichenoid reactions is the possibility of malignant transformation. That is why it has been considered a precancerous condition. Although the malignant transformation rate varies widely in the literature, from 0.4 to 6.5 percent, in most studies it does not exceed 1%. The aim of this paper is to report a rare case of squamous cell car-cinoma (SCC) arising within an oral lichenoid lesion in a 17-year-old woman, where SCC is very uncommon. The patient did not have any risk factors and was healthy. The lesion was located on the border of the tongue. In view of thecommon occurrence of OLP (oral lichen planus) and the unresolved issues regarding its premalignant potential, this case report illus-trates the need for histologic confirmation and a close follow-up of clinical lesions with lichenoid features.

  3. Primary Vaginal Adenocarcinoma Arising in Vaginal Adenosis After CO2 Laser Vaporization and 5-Fluorouracil Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Paczos, Tamera A.; Ackers, Stacey; Odunsi, Kunle; Lele, Shashikant; Mhawech-Fauceglia, Paulette

    2016-01-01

    Summary We present a case of a 45-year-old woman with a long-standing history of persistent cervical dysplasia that resulted in a hysterectomy. Subsequent vaginal smears revealed high-grade vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia (VAIN III) on Pap smear with positive human papilloma virus (HPV) testing. Over the course of 2 years, the patient underwent 2 CO2 laser vaporization procedures of the upper vagina and intermittent 5-fluorouracil therapy. A biopsy performed at the time of the second laser procedure revealed endocervical-type well-differentiated adenocarcinoma, associated with VAIN III. HPV in situ hybridization for HPV types 16 and 18 was positive in both the glandular and squamous mucosa. The patient has no known history of intrauterine diethylstilbestrol exposure or mullerian developmental abnormalities. Subsequently, the patient underwent a radical upper vaginetcomy with bilateral pelvic lymph nodes dissection and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy. The vaginectomy specimen showed residual adenocarcinoma associated with VAIN-III and extensive vaginal adenosis with free resection margins. This is the second reported case in the literature of adenocarcinoma arising in vaginal adenosis after 5-fluorouracil. Herein, we highlight these important findings and shed some light on the pathogenesis of vaginal adenosis and the subsequent development of vaginal adenocarcinoma. PMID:20173507

  4. Competitive exclusion by autologous antibodies can prevent broad HIV-1 antibodies from arising

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, Shishi; Perelson, Alan S.

    2015-08-31

    The past decade has seen the discovery of numerous broad and potent monoclonal antibodies against HIV type 1 (HIV-1). Eliciting these antibodies via vaccination appears to be remarkably difficult, not least because they arise late in infection and are highly mutated relative to germline antibody sequences. Here, using a computational model, we show that broad antibodies could in fact emerge earlier and be less mutated, but that they may be prevented from doing so as a result of competitive exclusion by the autologous antibody response. We further find that this competitive exclusion is weaker in infections founded by multiple distinct strains, with broadly neutralizing antibodies emerging earlier than in infections founded by a single strain. Our computational model simulates coevolving multitype virus and antibody populations. Broadly neutralizing antibodies may therefore be easier for the adaptive immune system to generate than previously thought. As a result, if less mutated broad antibodies exist, it may be possible to elicit them with a vaccine containing a mixture of diverse virus strains.

  5. Competitive exclusion by autologous antibodies can prevent broad HIV-1 antibodies from arising

    DOE PAGES

    Luo, Shishi; Perelson, Alan S.

    2015-08-31

    The past decade has seen the discovery of numerous broad and potent monoclonal antibodies against HIV type 1 (HIV-1). Eliciting these antibodies via vaccination appears to be remarkably difficult, not least because they arise late in infection and are highly mutated relative to germline antibody sequences. Here, using a computational model, we show that broad antibodies could in fact emerge earlier and be less mutated, but that they may be prevented from doing so as a result of competitive exclusion by the autologous antibody response. We further find that this competitive exclusion is weaker in infections founded by multiple distinctmore » strains, with broadly neutralizing antibodies emerging earlier than in infections founded by a single strain. Our computational model simulates coevolving multitype virus and antibody populations. Broadly neutralizing antibodies may therefore be easier for the adaptive immune system to generate than previously thought. As a result, if less mutated broad antibodies exist, it may be possible to elicit them with a vaccine containing a mixture of diverse virus strains.« less

  6. Mucin-producing bile duct carcinoma arising from primary sclerosing cholangitis: a case report.

    PubMed

    Yokomuro, Shigeki; Arima, Yasuo; Mizuguchi, Yoshiaki; Shimizu, Tetsuya; Kawahigashi, Yutaka; Kannda, Tomohiro; Arai, Masao; Uchida, Eiji; Akimaru, Koho; Tajiri, Takashi

    2007-02-01

    A 60-year-old woman with primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) and high levels of ALP, gamma-GTP, and DUPAN-2 was admitted to our institution for examination. The patient did not have ulcerative colitis or pancreatic intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm. Imaging studies revealed atypical dilation of bile ducts in the left lobe of the liver. Repeated cytologic examinations of the bile showed atypical cells consistent with adenocarcinoma. The patient underwent extended resection of the left lobe of the liver and was found to have intraductal papillary carcinoma with associated mucin-producing bile duct carcinoma. This carcinoma fills dilated bile duct lumens with mucin. This tumor differs morphologically from typical cholangiocarcinoma, which is usually seen in the late stages of PSC. Just one case of mucin-producing bile duct carcinoma arising from PSC has been reported worldwide. The patient has had no signs of recurrence after 27 months. Patients with mucin-producing bile duct carcinoma, as in the case of its pancreatic counterpart, may have a better prognosis and a higher survival rate than patients with typical cholangiocarcinomas.

  7. Self-induced parametric amplification arising from nonlinear elastic coupling in a micromechanical resonating disk gyroscope.

    PubMed

    Nitzan, Sarah H; Zega, Valentina; Li, Mo; Ahn, Chae H; Corigliano, Alberto; Kenny, Thomas W; Horsley, David A

    2015-03-12

    Parametric amplification, resulting from intentionally varying a parameter in a resonator at twice its resonant frequency, has been successfully employed to increase the sensitivity of many micro- and nano-scale sensors. Here, we introduce the concept of self-induced parametric amplification, which arises naturally from nonlinear elastic coupling between the degenerate vibration modes in a micromechanical disk-resonator, and is not externally applied. The device functions as a gyroscope wherein angular rotation is detected from Coriolis coupling of elastic vibration energy from a driven vibration mode into a second degenerate sensing mode. While nonlinear elasticity in silicon resonators is extremely weak, in this high quality-factor device, ppm-level nonlinear elastic effects result in an order-of-magnitude increase in the observed sensitivity to Coriolis force relative to linear theory. Perfect degeneracy of the primary and secondary vibration modes is achieved through electrostatic frequency tuning, which also enables the phase and frequency of the parametric coupling to be varied, and we show that the resulting phase and frequency dependence of the amplification follow the theory of parametric resonance. We expect that this phenomenon will be useful for both fundamental studies of dynamic systems with low dissipation and for increasing signal-to-noise ratio in practical applications such as gyroscopes.

  8. Isolated primary central nervous system lymphoma arising from the optic chiasm.

    PubMed

    Vassal, F; Pommier, B; Boutet, C; Forest, F; Campolmi, N; Nuti, C

    2014-12-01

    A 58-year-old previously healthy woman rapidly developed progressive bilateral visual loss. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a bulging appearance of the optic chiasm, with homogeneous enhancement after gadolinium administration, which suggested an optic glioma or inflammatory disease. In the absence of (para)clinical clues for a specific diagnosis despite extensive investigation, a biopsy of one optic nerve was performed, resulting in a diagnosis of non-Hodgkin B-cell lymphoma. There was no evidence of any other ocular or systemic involvement, therefore the conclusion was that this immunocompetent patient had a primary central nervous system lymphoma isolated in the anterior visual pathway. Treatment included two cycles of polychemotherapy (rituximab, methotrexate, carmustine, etoposide, methylprednisolone), followed by autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation and rituximab plus cytarabine consolidation therapy. Subsequently, the patient exhibited significant improvement in vision, and was still disease-free at the 1-year follow-up examination. The aim of the present paper was to provide well-documented clinical, radiological, and intraoperative features of isolated primary malignant lymphoma arising from the anterior visual pathway. A better recognition of this rare pathological entity is necessary for clinicians who may encounter similar presentations, as prompt management is crucial for both a visual and vital prognosis.

  9. Reproductive issues arising from different management systems in the dairy industry.

    PubMed

    Mee, J F

    2012-08-01

    The objective of this review is to address the reproductive issues arising from different dairy management systems by describing divergent systems and comparing their reproductive outcomes. The increasing global demand for dairy products has led to the majority of the world's milk being produced in intensive management systems. This intensification has occurred in both zero-grazed (ZG) and in pasture-based (PB) systems, and it has contributed directly to the current decline in dairy cow fertility globally. Given the heterogeneous nature of both ZG and PB systems, comparisons between them in dairy cow reproductive performance need to be treated with caution. In general, cows in ZG systems have higher milk production and better energy balance but more of some animal health problems, lower ovarian activity post-partum, reduced oestrous expression, reduced conception success, and higher culling and mortality rates, than cows in PB systems. Key environmental descriptors affecting reproductive performance within management systems include the type and duration of housing and the pre- and post-partum diet composition. Genetic by environment (GxE) interactions for dairy cow fertility have been detected for some, but not for other, management systems. Given the concerns of some consumers within the EU about the health, fertility and welfare of dairy cows in modern dairy herd management systems, there is a need to address these concerns with large-scale experimental and epidemiological studies.

  10. Transport noise arising from diffusion and bulk or surface generation recombination in semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehta, H.

    The type of noise spectra in solids or solid state devices, which can arise from noise due to a combination of causes, such as diffusion of carriers, generation and recombination (g-r) processes of carriers in the bulk and at the surface was studied using techniques to be described apply equally well to the problem of heat diffusion, with heat transfer or reflection at the boundaries of the system, we have, however, mainly the carrier noise problem in mind. The physical noise sources, the diffusion source, g-r source and surface source, Clarke and Voss' P source are discussed as well as transport noise in symmetrical embedded bodies, in nonsymmetrical embedded bodies, in symmetrical nonembedded bodies and in nonsymmetrical nonembedded bodies. Results indicate that volume g-r and diffusion processes give rather smooth spectra, but, without a l/f range. The high frequency asymptote is always w-3/2 (embedded case) or omega to the minus 2 power (nonembedded case).

  11. Identification of transformation products arising from bacterial oxidation of codeine by Streptomyces griseus.

    PubMed Central

    Kunz, D A; Reddy, G S; Vatvars, A

    1985-01-01

    14-Hydroxycodeine and norcodeine were rigorously identified as products arising from codeine oxidation by Streptomyces griseus ATCC 10137. Both products were routinely detected in extracted culture filtrates after growth of cells in the presence of codeine for 1 week. Under these conditions, about 4 mol% of the codeine starting material was consumed, with norcodeine and 14-hydroxycodeine representing the only identifiable transformation products (molar ratio, 4:1, respectively). Extraction of a series of culture filtrates and purification of the pooled metabolites by thin-layer and high-pressure liquid chromatography led to the isolation of both biological products, the structures of which were verified by high-resolution mass spectrometry and proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The identities of both biological products were further confirmed by comparison of their spectral properties with those of authentic standards. This is the first report providing structural evidence for the biological formation of 14-hydroxycodeine from codeine and of codeine oxidation by S. griseus. PMID:3936418

  12. Quantum Turbulence Arising from Countersuperflow Instability in Miscible Two-component Bose-Einstein Condensates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeuchi, Hiromitsu; Ishino, Shungo; Tsubota, Makoto

    2014-05-01

    Turbulence is one of the great unsolved problems in physics. Quantum turbulence (QT) in superfluids is expected to give a prototype of turbulence much simpler than usual classical turbulence and has recently become one of the most important fields in low-temperature physics. Recent development of experimental technique enable us to study QT in atomic Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs). Recently, we proposed that countersuperflow, a flow state of miscible superfluids with a relative velocity, can lead to turbulence after the characteristic instability development of vortex nucleation and vortex reconnection in miscible two-component BECs. QT of two-component BECs can provide another prototype of turbulence because eddies in classical turbulence may be mimicked by vorticity distribution without singularity in this system. In this presentation, we will report on our numerical analysis of the parameter dependence of the statistical property, such as energy spectrum and enstrophy distribution, of the QT arising from countersuperflow instability (CSI) in two-component condensates. This work was supported by JSPS KAKENHI Grant Numbers 25887042, 26870500 and the MEXT KAKENHI (No. 22103003).

  13. Primary vaginal adenocarcinoma arising in vaginal adenosis after CO2 laser vaporization and 5-fluorouracil therapy.

    PubMed

    Paczos, Tamera A; Ackers, Stacey; Odunsi, Kunle; Lele, Shashikant; Mhawech-Fauceglia, Paulette

    2010-03-01

    We present a case of a 45-year-old woman with a long-standing history of persistent cervical dysplasia that resulted in a hysterectomy. Subsequent vaginal smears revealed high-grade vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia (VAIN III) on Pap smear with positive human papilloma virus (HPV) testing. Over the course of 2 years, the patient underwent 2 CO(2) laser vaporization procedures of the upper vagina and intermittent 5-fluorouracil therapy. A biopsy performed at the time of the second laser procedure revealed endocervical-type well-differentiated adenocarcinoma, associated with VAIN III. HPV in situ hybridization for HPV types 16 and 18 was positive in both the glandular and squamous mucosa. The patient has no known history of intrauterine diethylstilbestrol exposure or mullerian developmental abnormalities. Subsequently, the patient underwent a radical upper vaginetcomy with bilateral pelvic lymph nodes dissection and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy. The vaginectomy specimen showed residual adenocarcinoma associated with VAIN-III and extensive vaginal adenosis with free resection margins. This is the second reported case in the literature of adenocarcinoma arising in vaginal adenosis after 5-fluorouracil. Herein, we highlight these important findings and shed some light on the pathogenesis of vaginal adenosis and the subsequent development of vaginal adenocarcinoma.

  14. Two Cases of Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma Arising in Immunosuppressed Patients with Chronic Human Papillomavirus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Kuma, Yuki; Ito, Takamichi; Nagae, Konosuke; Mizote, Yukihiro; Nakahara, Takeshi; Uchi, Hiroshi; Yamada, Yuichi; Okura, Masae; Oda, Yoshinao; Yamashita, Toshiharu; Furue, Masutaka

    2015-01-01

    Increasing evidence has suggested that human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are linked to a large subset of numerous malignant tumors, including mucosal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC); however, its involvement in cutaneous SCC has not fully been elucidated. Cutaneous SCC is the second most common type of skin cancer and is increasing in frequency every year. Since we have no satisfactory treatment for advanced SCC, it is important to provide a definitive diagnosis and appropriate therapeutic intervention at an early stage. Here, we present two cases of SCC arising in immunosuppressed patients. In these cases, we suspected the association between SCC and HPV infection histopathologically and succeeded in proving the presence of high-risk type HPV by PCR analysis (HPV 14 in case 1 and HPV 23 and 38 in case 2). Although it is unclear whether HPV actually induced SCC in our cases, our cases showed rapid progression comparing to typical courses of actinic keratosis (AK)/SCC. SCC and AK are common diseases; in daily practice, dermatologists examine many patients with immunosuppression of various causes. We should apply increased oncological vigilance to these patients to prevent an aggressive course of SCC/AK. PMID:26351427

  15. Neurodevelopmental and neuropsychiatric behaviour defects arise from 14-3-3ζ deficiency.

    PubMed

    Cheah, P S; Ramshaw, H S; Thomas, P Q; Toyo-Oka, K; Xu, X; Martin, S; Coyle, P; Guthridge, M A; Stomski, F; van den Buuse, M; Wynshaw-Boris, A; Lopez, A F; Schwarz, Q P

    2012-04-01

    Complex neuropsychiatric disorders are believed to arise from multiple synergistic deficiencies within connected biological networks controlling neuronal migration, axonal pathfinding and synapse formation. Here, we show that deletion of 14-3-3ζ causes neurodevelopmental anomalies similar to those seen in neuropsychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia, autism spectrum disorder and bipolar disorder. 14-3-3ζ-deficient mice displayed striking behavioural and cognitive deficiencies including a reduced capacity to learn and remember, hyperactivity and disrupted sensorimotor gating. These deficits are accompanied by subtle developmental abnormalities of the hippocampus that are underpinned by aberrant neuronal migration. Significantly, 14-3-3ζ-deficient mice exhibited abnormal mossy fibre navigation and glutamatergic synapse formation. The molecular basis of these defects involves the schizophrenia risk factor, DISC1, which interacts isoform specifically with 14-3-3ζ. Our data provide the first evidence of a direct role for 14-3-3ζ deficiency in the aetiology of neurodevelopmental disorders and identifies 14-3-3ζ as a central risk factor in the schizophrenia protein interaction network.

  16. Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma Arising in Children and Adolescent Hashimoto's Thyroiditis: Ultrasonographic and Pathologic Findings

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Sun Hye; Hong, Hyun Sook; Lee, Eun Hye; Kwak, Jeong Ja

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. We compared the ultrasonography and pathology features of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) in pediatric and adolescents with Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) with those of non-HT patients. Materials and Methods. Eleven patients who were surgically confirmed to have pediatric or adolescent PTC from 2006 to 2014 were included in this study. We retrospectively analyzed the preoperative ultrasonography and pathology features of PTC arising in HT and non-HT patients. Results. On ultrasonography, thyroid gland was lobulated and enlarged, with many scattered microcalcifications in four of five HT patients. Four of six non-HT patients had suspicious masses with calcifications. The diffuse sclerosing variant of PTC (DSVPTC) was found in three of five HT patients, but none in non-HT patients. Macroscopic or microscopic extrathyroidal extension was evident in all of the HT patients and four of the non-HT patients. Neck lymph node metastases were in all HT patients and five of non-HT patients. Conclusions. Three of five PTCs in pediatric and adolescent HT patients were DSVPTC, whereas all PTCs of the non-HT patients were classic type. On ultrasonography, thyroid gland was diffusely enlarged with scattered microcalcifications in four of five HT patients. All five HT cases had aggressive disease, including extrathyroidal extension and cervical lymph node metastases. PMID:26977145

  17. Launching the Greek forensic DNA database. The legal framework and arising ethical issues.

    PubMed

    Voultsos, Polychronis; Njau, Samuel; Tairis, Nikolaos; Psaroulis, Dimitrios; Kovatsi, Leda

    2011-11-01

    Since the creation of the first national DNA database in Europe in 1995, many European countries have legislated laws for initiating and regulating their own databases. The Greek government legislated a law in 2008, by which the National DNA Database of Greece was founded and regulated. According to this law, only DNA profiles from convicted criminals were recorded. Nevertheless, a year later, in 2009, the law was amended to permit the creation of an expanded database including innocent people and children. Unfortunately, the new law is very vague in many aspects and does not respect the principle of proportionality. Therefore, according to our opinion, it will soon need to be re-amended. Furthermore, prior to legislating the new law, there was no debate with the community itself in order to clarify what system would best suit Greece and what the citizens would be willing to accept. We present the current legal framework in Greece, we highlight issues that need to be clarified and we discuss possible ethical issues that may arise.

  18. Termination of vestibulospinal fibers arising from the spinal vestibular nucleus in the mouse spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Liang, H; Bácskai, T; Paxinos, G

    2015-05-21

    The present study investigated the vestibulospinal system which originates from the spinal vestibular nucleus (SpVe) with both retrograde and anterograde tracer injections. We found that fluoro-gold (FG) labeled neurons were found bilaterally with a contralateral predominance after FG injections into the upper lumbar cord. Anterogradely labeled fibers from the rostral SpVe traveled in the medial part of the ventral funiculus ipsilaterally and the dorsolateral funiculus bilaterally in the cervical cord. They mainly terminated in laminae 5-8, and 10 of the ipsilateral spinal cord. The contralateral side had fewer fibers and they were found in laminae 6-8, and 10. In the thoracic cord, fibers were also found to terminate in bilateral intermediolateral columns. In the lumbar and lower cord, fibers were mainly found in the dorsolateral funiculus bilaterally and they terminated predominantly in laminae 3-7 contralaterally. Anterogradely labeled fibers from the caudal SpVe did not travel in the medial part of the ventral funiculus but in the dorsolateral funiculus bilaterally. They mainly terminated in laminae 3-8 and 10 contralaterally. The present study is the first to describe the termination of vestibulospinal fibers arising from the SpVe in the spinal cord. It will lay the anatomical foundation for those who investigate the physiological role of vestibulospinal fibers and potentially target these fibers during rehabilitation after stroke, spinal cord injury, or vestibular organ injury.

  19. Uncertainties in atmospheric muon-neutrino fluxes arising from cosmic-ray primaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, Justin; Garcia Gamez, Diego; Porzio, Salvatore Davide; Söldner-Rembold, Stefan; Wren, Steven

    2017-01-01

    We present an updated calculation of the uncertainties on the atmospheric muon-neutrino flux arising from cosmic-ray primaries. For the first time, we include recent measurements of the cosmic-ray primaries collected since 2005. We apply a statistical technique that allows the determination of correlations between the parameters of the Gaisser, Stanev, Honda, and Lipari primary-flux parametrization and the incorporation of these correlations into the uncertainty on the muon-neutrino flux. We obtain an uncertainty related to the primary cosmic rays of around (5-15)%, depending on energy, which is about a factor of 2 smaller than the previously determined uncertainty. The hadron production uncertainty is added in quadrature to obtain the total uncertainty on the neutrino flux, which is reduced by ≈5 % . To take into account an unexpected hardening of the spectrum of primaries above energies of 100 GeV observed in recent measurements, we propose an alternative parametrization and discuss its impact on the neutrino flux uncertainties.

  20. Data mining on long-term barometric data within the ARISE2 project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hupe, Patrick; Ceranna, Lars; Pilger, Christoph

    2016-04-01

    The Comprehensive nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) led to the implementation of an international infrasound array network. The International Monitoring System (IMS) network includes 48 certified stations, each providing data for up to 15 years. As part of work package 3 of the ARISE2 project (Atmospheric dynamics Research InfraStructure in Europe, phase 2) the data sets will be statistically evaluated with regard on atmospheric dynamics. The current study focusses on fluctuations of absolute air pressure. Time series have been analysed for 17 monitoring stations which are located all over the world between Greenland and Antarctica along the latitudes to represent different climate zones and characteristic atmospheric conditions. Hence this enables quantitative comparisons between those regions. Analyses are shown including wavelet power spectra, multi-annual time series of average variances with regard to long-wave scales, and spectral densities to derive characteristics and special events. Evaluations reveal periodicities in average variances on 2 to 20 day scale with a maximum in the winter months and a minimum in summer of the respective hemisphere. This basically applies to time series of IMS stations beyond the tropics where the dominance of cyclones and anticyclones changes with seasons. Furthermore, spectral density analyses illustrate striking signals for several dynamic activities within one day, e.g., the semidiurnal tide.

  1. Ruptured saccular aneurysm arising from fenestrated proximal anterior cerebral artery : case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Woo-Keun; Park, Kyung-Jae; Park, Dong-Hyuk; Kang, Shin-Hyuk

    2013-05-01

    The aneurysm arising from fenestrated proximal anterior cerebral artery (ACA) is considered to be unique. The authors report a case of a 59-year-old woman who presented with a subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) secondary to a ruptured aneurysm originating from the fenestrated A1 segment of right ACA. The patient had another unruptured aneurysm which was located at the right middle cerebral artery bifurcation. She was successfully treated with surgical clipping for both aneurysms. From the previously existing literatures, we found 18 more cases (1983-2011) of aneurysms associated with fenestrated A1 segment. All cases represented saccular type of aneurysms, and 79% of the patients had SAH. There were three subtypes of the fenestrated A1 aneurysms depending on the anatomical location, relative to the fenestrated segment. The most common type was the aneurysms located on the proximal end of fenestrated artery (82%). Azygos ACA and hypoplastic A1 were frequently accompanied by the aneurysm (33% and 31%, respectively), and multiple aneurysms were shown in three cases (16%). Considering that fenestrated A1 segment is likely to develop an aneurysm, which has high risk of rupture, early management may benefit patients with aneurysms accompanied by fenestrated proximal ACA.

  2. Symmetric Lipomatosis Arising in the Tongue Presenting as Macroglossia and Articulatory Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Omura, Ken; Satsukawa, Arata; Taguchi, Takahide; Harada, Hiroyuki; Ishii, Yoshimasa

    2016-01-01

    Symmetric lipomatosis is definitively characterized by symmetric, tumorous lipomatous proliferation of adipose tissue that often develops in the head and neck, shoulders, and upper trunk. However, in the oral region, symmetric lipomatosis of the tongue (SLT) is an extremely rare condition related to generalized lipidosis that is often caused by chronic alcoholism. It is characterized by multiple symmetric lipomatous nodules and diffuse bilateral swelling located within the tongue. We report an extremely rare case of SLT arising in an 80-year-old man with a long history of alcoholic liver cirrhosis. He exhibited multiple soft nodular protrusions on the bilateral margin of the tongue presenting as macroglossia for years. Although MR imaging showed multiple fatty masses on both sides of the tongue, there was no elevated tumor mass on the bilateral margin. The patient underwent bilateral partial glossectomy under general anesthesia. Histopathologically, the resected tumor exhibited diffuse infiltration with mature adipose tissue lacking a fibrous capsule. Due to the lipidosis and the unusual presentation of multiple lesions, the lesion was ultimately diagnosed as SLT. At present, after surgery, the patient wears a full-denture and is in excellent condition, with no sign of recurrence, improved QOL, and recovery of masticatory, articulatory, and speech intelligibility functions. PMID:27413566

  3. Numerical treatment of a mathematical model arising from a model of neuronal variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadalbajoo, M. K.; Sharma, K. K.

    2005-07-01

    In this paper, we describe a numerical approach based on finite difference method to solve a mathematical model arising from a model of neuronal variability. The mathematical modelling of the determination of the expected time for generation of action potentials in nerve cells by random synaptic inputs in dendrites includes a general boundary-value problem for singularly perturbed differential-difference equation with small shifts. In the numerical treatment for such type of boundary-value problems, first we use Taylor approximation to tackle the terms containing small shifts which converts it to a boundary-value problem for singularly perturbed differential equation. A rigorous analysis is carried out to obtain priori estimates on the solution of the problem and its derivatives up to third order. Then a parameter uniform difference scheme is constructed to solve the boundary-value problem so obtained. A parameter uniform error estimate for the numerical scheme so constructed is established. Though the convergence of the difference scheme is almost linear but its beauty is that it converges independently of the singular perturbation parameter, i.e., the numerical scheme converges for each value of the singular perturbation parameter (however small it may be but remains positive). Several test examples are solved to demonstrate the efficiency of the numerical scheme presented in the paper and to show the effect of the small shift on the solution behavior.

  4. New horizons of adenosinetriphosphate energetics arising from interaction with magnesium cofactor.

    PubMed

    Tulub, Alexander A; Stefanov, V E

    2008-10-01

    MD DFT:B3LYP (6-31G** basis set, T = 310 K) method is used to study interactions [singlet (S) and triplet (T) reaction paths] between adenosinetriphosphate, ATP(4-), and [Mg(H(2)O)(6)](2+) in water environment, modeled with 78 water molecules. Computations reveal the appearance of low and high-energy states (stable, quasi-stable, and unstable), assigned to different spin symmetries. At the initial stage of interaction, ATP donates a part of its negative charge to the Mg complex making the Mg slightly charged. As a result, the original octahedral Mg complex loses two (S state) or four (T state) water molecules. Moving along S or T potential energy surfaces (PESs), Mg(H(2)O)(4 )or Mg(H(2)O)(2) display different ways of complexation with ATP. S path favors the formation of a stable chelate with the O1-O2 fragment of ATP triphosphate tail, whereas T path favors producing a single-bonded complex with the O2. The latter, being unstable, undergoes a further conversion into a spin-separated complex, also unstable, and two metastable S complexes, which finally arise in two stable, low-energy and high-energy, chelates. The spin-separated complex experiences rapid decomposition resulting in the production of a highly reactive adenosinemonophosphate ion-radical *AMP, early observed in the CIDNP experiment (Tulub 2006). Biological consequences of the findings are discussed.

  5. Preoperative diagnosis of ductal carcinoma in situ arising within a mammary fibroadenoma: a case report.

    PubMed

    Ooe, Asako; Takahara, Sachiko; Sumiyoshi, Kazuhiro; Yamamoto, Hitoshi; Shiba, Eiichi; Kawai, Jun

    2011-07-01

    Fibroadenoma is the most common form of benign breast tumor and the most common breast tumor in women under 30 years of age. However, carcinoma arising within a fibroadenoma is unusual, with over 100 cases reported in the literature. Histological diagnosis is typically unexpected. A 46-year-old female with no family history of breast malignancies was admitted for an elastic hard lump in the upper-outer quadrant of her right breast. At a clinic that she visited previously, her condition was diagnosed by core needle biopsy with four specimens showing fibroadenoma with borderline atypical ductal hyperplasia at pathology. Excisional biopsy was recommended for pathological diagnosis. The patient requested a definitive diagnosis and alternative treatment to tumorectomy. More biopsy specimens were needed for pathological diagnosis; therefore, ultrasonography-guided vacuum-assisted core needle biopsies were obtained, confirming ductal carcinoma in situ with questionable microinvasion of intracanalicular- and pericanalicular-type fibroadenoma. Right breast-conserving surgery and sentinel lymph node biopsy were immediately performed for radical therapy. We present this case to increase awareness of this entity and stress the need for histological evaluation of some breast masses.

  6. Fine-Scale Genetic Structure Arises during Range Expansion of an Invasive Gecko

    PubMed Central

    Short, Kristen Harfmann; Petren, Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    Processes of range expansion are increasingly important in light of current concerns about invasive species and range shifts due to climate change. Theoretical studies suggest that genetic structuring may occur during range expansion. Ephemeral genetic structure can have important evolutionary implications, such as propagating genetic changes along the wave front of expansion, yet few studies have shown evidence of such structure. We tested the hypothesis that genetic structure arises during range expansion in Hemidactylus mabouia, a nocturnal African gecko recently introduced to Florida, USA. Twelve highly variable microsatellite loci were used to screen 418 individuals collected from 43 locations from four sampling sites across Florida, representing a gradient from earlier (∼1990s) to very recent colonization. We found earlier colonized locations had little detectable genetic structure and higher allelic richness than more recently colonized locations. Genetic structuring was pronounced among locations at spatial scales of tens to hundreds of meters near the leading edge of range expansion. Despite the rapid pace of range expansion in this introduced gecko, dispersal is limited among many suitable habitat patches. Fine-scale genetic structure is likely the result of founder effects during colonization of suitable habitat patches. It may be obscured over time and by scale-dependent modes of dispersal. Further studies are needed to determine if such genetic structure affects adaptation and trait evolution in range expansions and range shifts. PMID:22053186

  7. Langerhans cell histiocytosis arising from a BCC: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Patel, Payal; Talpur, Rakhshandra; Duvic, Madeleine

    2010-06-01

    Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a rare disease characterized by a proliferation of Langerhans cells. Several organs may be involved, including the skin, bone, and central nervous system. Adult onset of LCH and solely localized cutaneous involvement are quite uncommon. Langerhans cell histiocytosis has been found in combination with other skin lesions and systemic conditions, but no definitive conclusion exists for this phenomenon. We present a case report of a 63-year-old woman who initially presented with 3 pink papules on her forehead that had developed sequentially within 1 month, all diagnosed by biopsy as basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and appropriately treated. Concurrent with the appearance of the third BCC, the patient began developing crusted ulcerative nodules on her scalp. Biopsy of 1 scalp nodule revealed a BCC, but a repeat biopsy of the same nodule weeks later revealed LCH. Langerhans cell histiocytosis arising from a BCC is extremely rare. No absolute explanation exists regarding the transformation of a BCC into LCH, but understanding the behavior of Langerhans cells may give us better insight into how this process could occur.

  8. Fraunhofer pattern arising from an edge-stepped topological surface Josephson current distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jae Hyeong; Lee, Gil-Ho; Lee, Janghee; Park, Joonbum; Nam, Seung-Geol; Shin, Yun-Sok; Kim, Jun Sung; Lee, Hu-Jong

    2015-03-01

    We report a surface-dominant Josephson effect in superconductor-topological insulator-superconductor (S-TI-S) devices, where a Bi1.5Sb0.5Te1.7Se1.3 (BSTS) crystal flake was adopted as an intervening TI between Al superconducting electrodes. We observed a Fraunhofer critical current modulation in a perpendicular magnetic field in an Al-TI-Al junction for both local and nonlocal current biasing. For the local biasing, the Fraunhofer signal was highly robust to the magnetic field up to the critical field of the Al electrodes, corresponding to the edge-stepped nonuniform supercurrent distribution arising from the top and rough side surfaces of the BSTS flake. A Fraunhofer-like pattern was also observed in a neighboring Au-TI-Au normal junction when it was nonlocally biased by the Al-TI-Al junction. All these strongly suggest Josephson coupling established via topologically robust conducting channels present on the surface of the 3D topological insulator. Current: Department of Physics, Harvard University, Cambridge, USA.

  9. Successful Chemoradiotherapy for Undifferentiated Malignant Neoplasm Arising from the Left Pulmonary Artery

    PubMed Central

    Kumagai, Hozumi; Nio, Kenta; Okumura, Yuta; Komoda, Masato; Shirakawa, Tsuyoshi; Kusaba, Hitoshi; Yasuda, Shioto; Odashiro, Keita; Arita, Shuji; Ariyama, Hiroshi; Yamada, Yuichi; Yamamoto, Hidetaka; Oda, Yoshinao; Nakamura, Katsumasa; Akashi, Koichi; Baba, Eishi

    2014-01-01

    Undifferentiated malignant neoplasms, which occur primarily in the pulmonary artery, are extremely rare and associated with poor outcomes as there is no effective therapy. A 67-year-old woman visited our hospital with complaints of dry cough and dyspnea on exertion. A contrast-enhanced chest computed tomography revealed an intravascular tumor obstructing the left pulmonary artery and a pedunculated lesion extending to the main and right pulmonary artery. Multiple metastases in the lung, bones and bilateral adrenal glands were identified by fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography. A small sample was obtained by catheter aspiration biopsy of the intravascular tumor, and examination revealed undifferentiated small atypical cells. The tumor was diagnosed as an undifferentiated neoplasm arising from the pulmonary artery based on immunohistochemical findings, including the absence of expressions of organ-specific markers. Systemic chemotherapy (paclitaxel and carboplatin) and concurrent radiation were performed as treatment for the primary tumor. Marked shrinkage of the intravascular tumor was achieved, and no serious adverse events were observed during therapy. Chemotherapy was continued for 5 months, but the patient died because of tumor progression 9 months after the initial diagnosis. Chemoradiotherapy has efficacy against undifferentiated neoplasm of the pulmonary artery. PMID:25202263

  10. Impaired fixation to eyes following amygdala damage arises from abnormal bottom-up attention.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Daniel P; Adolphs, Ralph

    2010-10-01

    SM is a patient with complete bilateral amygdala lesions who fails to fixate the eyes in faces and is consequently impaired in recognizing fear (Adolphs et al., 2005). Here we first replicated earlier findings in SM of reduced gaze to the eyes when seen in whole faces. Examination of the time course of fixations revealed that SM's reduced eye contact is particular pronounced in the first fixation to the face, and less abnormal in subsequent fixations. In a second set of experiments, we used a gaze-contingent presentation of faces with real time eye tracking, wherein only a small region of the face is made visible at the center of gaze. In essence, viewers explore the face by moving a small searchlight over the face with their gaze. Under such viewing conditions, SM's fixations to eye region of faces became entirely normalized. We suggest that this effect arises from the absence of bottom-up effects due to the facial features, allowing gaze location to be driven entirely by top-down control. Together with SM's failure to fixate the eyes in whole faces primarily at the very first saccade, the findings suggest that the saliency of the eyes normally attract our gaze in an amygdala-dependent manner. Impaired eye gaze is also a prominent feature of several psychiatric illnesses in which the amygdala has been hypothesized to be dysfunctional, and our findings and experimental manipulation may hold promise for interventions in such populations, including autism and fragile X syndrome.

  11. Can non-Gaussian fluctuations for structure formation arise from inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Salopek, D.S.

    1991-02-01

    Non-Guassian fluctuation for structure formation may be generated during the inflationary epoch from the nonlinear interaction of two scalar fields with gravity. Semi-analytical calculations are given describing nonlinear long wavelength evolution in 3 + 1 dimensions. Long wavelength fields are governed by a single equation, the separated Hamilton-Jacobi equation (SHJE). I discuss complete analytic solutions of the SHJE for two scalar fields with a potential whose logarithm 1n V ({phi}{sub j}) is linear. More complicated potential surfaces may be approximated by continuously joining various linear 1n V({phi}{sub j}) potentials. Typically, non-Gaussian fluctuations arise when one passes over several sharp ridges in the potential surface. One can input this richer class of initial conditions into N-body codes to see the effects on the large scale structure in the Universe. The cleanest test of non-Gaussian fluctuations will hopefully occur in the near future from large angle microwave background anisotropy experiments. 13 refs., 3 figs.

  12. Successful surgical treatment for squamous cell carcinoma arising from hidradenitis suppurativa

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Cheng; Lai, Zhichao; He, Mu; Zhai, Biyun; Zhou, Liangrui; Long, Xiao

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: Hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) is a disabling inflammatory disease mainly affecting apocrine glands. Marjolin ulcer (MU) is a term used to describe a rare type of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) arising within sites of chronic wounds or preexisting scars. Chronic HS may result in a rare type of SCC, MU, which has a poor prognosis due to its high metastatic rate. Concerns of the patient: Here we reported a 60-year-old male who developed SCC on the right buttock after suffering from HS for 15 years. Interventions: Radical resection with clear margin was performed, after which topical negative pressure (TNP) was applied followed by split-thickness skin grafting. Outcomes: In a 1-year follow-up, there was no recurrence of malignancy. Lessons: Cases reported in English literature since 1991 were reviewed to get a general grasp of status quo. The authors conclude that chronic HS lesion especially in the gluteal region should be cautiously observed. Once tumor arisen from HS lesion, immediate radical excision should be performed. With assured clear margin, TNP could be chosen to offer a favorable environment for the survival of skin grafting. PMID:28099342

  13. Self: an adaptive pressure arising from self-organization, chaotic dynamics, and neural Darwinism.

    PubMed

    Bruzzo, Angela Alessia; Vimal, Ram Lakhan Pandey

    2007-12-01

    In this article, we establish a model to delineate the emergence of "self" in the brain making recourse to the theory of chaos. Self is considered as the subjective experience of a subject. As essential ingredients of subjective experiences, our model includes wakefulness, re-entry, attention, memory, and proto-experiences. The stability as stated by chaos theory can potentially describe the non-linear function of "self" as sensitive to initial conditions and can characterize it as underlying order from apparently random signals. Self-similarity is discussed as a latent menace of a pathological confusion between "self" and "others". Our test hypothesis is that (1) consciousness might have emerged and evolved from a primordial potential or proto-experience in matter, such as the physical attractions and repulsions experienced by electrons, and (2) "self" arises from chaotic dynamics, self-organization and selective mechanisms during ontogenesis, while emerging post-ontogenically as an adaptive pressure driven by both volume and synaptic-neural transmission and influencing the functional connectivity of neural nets (structure).

  14. Environmental security benefits arising from Russian/Norwegian/US cooperation in the high Arctic

    SciTech Connect

    Dyer, R.S.; Moskowitz, P.D.; Czajkowski, C.J.

    1997-05-01

    Past practices associated with the civilian and military use of nuclear power in NW Russia present large environmental security risks of international concern. These risks arise from a variety of practices associated with weapons production, testing, power production and waste management. The threats presented by these activities are multimedia in nature, span political boundaries and cannot be simply or inexpensively remediated. Today, cooperative efforts are being undertaken to improve environmental security by remediating existing and potential emission sources. Initial efforts focused on the upgrade and expansion of the Murmansk Low-level Liquid Waste Treatment Facility, Murmansk, Russia. This facility handles wastes generated during the decommissioning of Russian Nuclear Navy submarines and from the operation of the Russian commercial nuclear-powered icebreaker fleet. This upgraded facility is now being constructed and is expected to be completed by March 1998. Completion of this facility will result in the cessation of any future dumping of liquid radioactive wastes into the Barents and Kara Seas. Another large environmental security risk is the LEPSE. The LEPSE is a ship docked in Murmansk, Russia, that contains {approximately}650 spent fuel elements as well as other solid and liquid wastes from Russian nuclear vessels. International efforts are now being mounted to remove the spent and damaged fuel from this ship, including the safe removal and storage/disposal of the fuel elements. This paper will summarize the environmental security problems presented by these different sources and the likely environmental security benefits associated with their remediation. 5 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  15. Esophageal adenocarcinoma arising in cervical inlet patch with synchronous Barrett's esophagus-related dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Mariko; Ushiku, Tetsuo; Ikemura, Masako; Shibahara, Junji; Seto, Yasuyuki; Fukayama, Masashi

    2014-08-01

    Esophageal adenocarcinomas usually develop in Barrett's esophagus, typically through the metaplasia-dysplasia-carcinoma sequence, but adenocarcinomas can occur from heterotopic gastric mucosa in cervical esophagus (inlet patch). This report describes the first case of synchronous presentation of adenocarcinoma arising from cervical inlet patch and Barrett's esophagus-related dysplasia in a 76-year-old man. Surveillance CT detected a 3-cm polypoid mass in the cervical esophagus. Endoscopic biopsies confirmed a diagnosis of adenocarcinoma of the cervical esophagus. Barrett's esophagus was present also in the lower esophagus. Histologic examination of the surgically resected specimen revealed the polypoid mass as composed of tubular adenocarcinoma, and was associated with non-neoplastic columnar mucosa representing pre-existing inlet patch. Another isolated cervical inlet patch with intestinal metaplasia was also recognized. In the lower esophagus, high-grade dysplasia was noted within the Barrett's esophagus. Immunohistochemically, the adenocarcinoma associated with inlet patch had intestinal immunophenotype (CDX2-, CD10- and MUC2-positive), whereas the Barrett's esophagus-related high-grade dysplasia showed mixed immunophenotype (MUC5AC- and MUC6-positive, with scattered MUC2-positive goblet cells). Previous studies and our findings suggest that intestinal metaplasia might predispose to the development of adenocarcinoma in the inlet patch. Therefore, endoscopists and pathologists should be aware of rare malignant transformation of inlet patches, especially those with intestinal metaplasia.

  16. Representation of discrete Steklov-Poincare operator arising in domain decomposition methods in wavelet basis

    SciTech Connect

    Jemcov, A.; Matovic, M.D.

    1996-12-31

    This paper examines the sparse representation and preconditioning of a discrete Steklov-Poincare operator which arises in domain decomposition methods. A non-overlapping domain decomposition method is applied to a second order self-adjoint elliptic operator (Poisson equation), with homogeneous boundary conditions, as a model problem. It is shown that the discrete Steklov-Poincare operator allows sparse representation with a bounded condition number in wavelet basis if the transformation is followed by thresholding and resealing. These two steps combined enable the effective use of Krylov subspace methods as an iterative solution procedure for the system of linear equations. Finding the solution of an interface problem in domain decomposition methods, known as a Schur complement problem, has been shown to be equivalent to the discrete form of Steklov-Poincare operator. A common way to obtain Schur complement matrix is by ordering the matrix of discrete differential operator in subdomain node groups then block eliminating interface nodes. The result is a dense matrix which corresponds to the interface problem. This is equivalent to reducing the original problem to several smaller differential problems and one boundary integral equation problem for the subdomain interface.

  17. The Perception Gap: Recognizing and managing the risks that arise when we get risk wrong.

    PubMed

    Ropeik, David

    2012-05-01

    Many in the academic, science, and business communities are frustrated at how people perceive and respond to risk, lamenting that the lay public is sometimes more afraid of some threats than the evidence warrants, and less afraid of some dangers than the evidence warns. This is often ascribed to the alarmist way the news media cover risk-related subjects. That criticism is simplistic and unproductive, and ignores or dismisses the large body of research that finds that the perception of risk is not, and can never be, perfectly rational. Risk perception among members of the public, the media, and members of the academic, scientific, and business communities, is ultimately subjective. The gap between our fears and the evidence is not simply the product of alarmist media reporting. This 'Perception Gap' poses significant risks in and of itself, influencing the choices we make as individuals and as a society. The roots of the Perception Gap must be understood if we are to recognize the dangers that can arise when we sometimes get risk wrong, and in order that we may more wisely manage those risks as actively as we manage toxicological or food or other risks with which we are more familiar.

  18. Where’s the Noise? Key Features of Spontaneous Activity and Neural Variability Arise through Learning in a Deterministic Network

    PubMed Central

    Hartmann, Christoph; Lazar, Andreea; Nessler, Bernhard; Triesch, Jochen

    2015-01-01

    Even in the absence of sensory stimulation the brain is spontaneously active. This background “noise” seems to be the dominant cause of the notoriously high trial-to-trial variability of neural recordings. Recent experimental observations have extended our knowledge of trial-to-trial variability and spontaneous activity in several directions: 1. Trial-to-trial variability systematically decreases following the onset of a sensory stimulus or the start of a motor act. 2. Spontaneous activity states in sensory cortex outline the region of evoked sensory responses. 3. Across development, spontaneous activity aligns itself with typical evoked activity patterns. 4. The spontaneous brain activity prior to the presentation of an ambiguous stimulus predicts how the stimulus will be interpreted. At present it is unclear how these observations relate to each other and how they arise in cortical circuits. Here we demonstrate that all of these phenomena can be accounted for by a deterministic self-organizing recurrent neural network model (SORN), which learns a predictive model of its sensory environment. The SORN comprises recurrently coupled populations of excitatory and inhibitory threshold units and learns via a combination of spike-timing dependent plasticity (STDP) and homeostatic plasticity mechanisms. Similar to balanced network architectures, units in the network show irregular activity and variable responses to inputs. Additionally, however, the SORN exhibits sequence learning abilities matching recent findings from visual cortex and the network’s spontaneous activity reproduces the experimental findings mentioned above. Intriguingly, the network’s behaviour is reminiscent of sampling-based probabilistic inference, suggesting that correlates of sampling-based inference can develop from the interaction of STDP and homeostasis in deterministic networks. We conclude that key observations on spontaneous brain activity and the variability of neural responses can be

  19. How Safe Are Color Additives?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home For Consumers Consumer Updates How Safe are Color Additives? Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... Consumer Updates RSS Feed Download PDF (380 K) Color additives give the red tint to your fruit ...

  20. Modelling challenges in context: lessons from malaria, HIV, and tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Childs, Lauren M; Abuelezam, Nadia N; Dye, Christopher; Gupta, Sunetra; Murray, Megan B; Williams, Brian G; Buckee, Caroline O

    2015-03-01

    Malaria, HIV, and tuberculosis (TB) collectively account for several million deaths each year, with all three ranking among the top ten killers in low-income countries. Despite being caused by very different organisms, malaria, HIV, and TB present a suite of challenges for mathematical modellers that are particularly pronounced in these infections, but represent general problems in infectious disease modelling, and highlight many of the challenges described throughout this issue. Here, we describe some of the unifying challenges that arise in modelling malaria, HIV, and TB, including variation in dynamics within the host, diversity in the pathogen, and heterogeneity in human contact networks and behaviour. Through the lens of these three pathogens, we provide specific examples of the other challenges in this issue and discuss their implications for informing public health efforts.

  1. Detergent Additive for Lubricating Oils,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The Russian patent pertains to a method of producing additives for lubricating oils . A method is known for producing an antiwear additive for... lubricating oils by processing phenols with phosphorus oxychloride, phosphoric acid esters are obtained. In order to give the additive detergent properties

  2. Exploration Rover Concepts and Development Challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zakrajsek, James J.; McKissock, David B.; Woytach, Jeffrey M.; Zakrajsek, June F.; Oswald, Fred B.; McEntire, Kelly J.; Hill, Gerald M.; Abel, Phillip; Eichenberg, Dennis J.; Goodnight, Thomas W.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of exploration rover concepts and the various development challenges associated with each as they are applied to exploration objectives and requirements for missions on the Moon and Mars. A variety of concepts for surface exploration vehicles have been proposed since the initial development of the Apollo-era lunar rover. This paper provides a brief description of the rover concepts, along with a comparison of their relative benefits and limitations. In addition, this paper outlines, and investigates a number of critical development challenges that surface exploration vehicles must address in order to successfully meet the exploration mission vision. These include: mission and environmental challenges, design challenges, and production and delivery challenges. Mission and environmental challenges include effects of terrain, extreme temperature differentials, dust issues, and radiation protection. Design methods are discussed that focus on optimum methods for developing highly reliable, long-life and efficient systems. In addition, challenges associated with delivering a surface exploration system is explored and discussed. Based on all the information presented, modularity will be the single most important factor in the development of a truly viable surface mobility vehicle. To meet mission, reliability, and affordability requirements, surface exploration vehicles, especially pressurized rovers, will need to be modularly designed and deployed across all projected Moon and Mars exploration missions.

  3. Additive manufacturing of polymer-derived ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckel, Zak C.; Zhou, Chaoyin; Martin, John H.; Jacobsen, Alan J.; Carter, William B.; Schaedler, Tobias A.

    2016-01-01

    The extremely high melting point of many ceramics adds challenges to additive manufacturing as compared with metals and polymers. Because ceramics cannot be cast or machined easily, three-dimensional (3D) printing enables a big leap in geometrical flexibility. We report preceramic monomers that are cured with ultraviolet light in a stereolithography 3D printer or through a patterned mask, forming 3D polymer structures that can have complex shape and cellular architecture. These polymer structures can be pyrolyzed to a ceramic with uniform shrinkage and virtually no porosity. Silicon oxycarbide microlattice and honeycomb cellular materials fabricated with this approach exhibit higher strength than ceramic foams of similar density. Additive manufacturing of such materials is of interest for propulsion components, thermal protection systems, porous burners, microelectromechanical systems, and electronic device packaging.

  4. Additive manufacturing of polymer-derived ceramics.

    PubMed

    Eckel, Zak C; Zhou, Chaoyin; Martin, John H; Jacobsen, Alan J; Carter, William B; Schaedler, Tobias A

    2016-01-01

    The extremely high melting point of many ceramics adds challenges to additive manufacturing as compared with metals and polymers. Because ceramics cannot be cast or machined easily, three-dimensional (3D) printing enables a big leap in geometrical flexibility. We report preceramic monomers that are cured with ultraviolet light in a stereolithography 3D printer or through a patterned mask, forming 3D polymer structures that can have complex shape and cellular architecture. These polymer structures can be pyrolyzed to a ceramic with uniform shrinkage and virtually no porosity. Silicon oxycarbide microlattice and honeycomb cellular materials fabricated with this approach exhibit higher strength than ceramic foams of similar density. Additive manufacturing of such materials is of interest for propulsion components, thermal protection systems, porous burners, microelectromechanical systems, and electronic device packaging.

  5. Adenocarcinoma arising at a colostomy site with inguinal lymph node metastasis: report of a case.

    PubMed

    Iwamoto, Masayoshi; Kawada, Kenji; Hida, Koya; Hasegawa, Suguru; Sakai, Yoshiharu

    2015-02-01

    Inguinal lymph node metastasis from adenocarcinoma arising at a colostomy site is extremely rare, and the significance of surgical resection for metastatic inguinal lymph nodes has not been established. An 82-year-old woman who had undergone abdominoperineal resection 27 years earlier was admitted to our hospital complaining of bleeding from a colostomy. Physical examination revealed that a tumor at the colostomy site directly invaded into the peristomal skin, and that a left inguinal lymph node was firm and swollen. Positron emission tomography/computed tomography scan demonstrated accumulation of (18)F-fluorodeoxy glucose into both the colostomy tumor and the left swollen inguinal lymph node, while there was no evidence of metastasis to liver or lungs. She underwent open left hemicolectomy with wide local resection of the colostomy, and dissection of left inguinal lymph nodes. Histological diagnosis was a moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma that directly invaded into the surrounding skin and metastasized to the left inguinal lymph node. The patient has been followed up for >5 years without any sign of recurrence. In general, inguinal lymph node metastasis from colorectal cancers is regarded as a systemic disease with a poor prognosis, and so systemic chemotherapy and radiotherapy, but not surgical lymph node dissection, are recommended. Considering the lymphatic drainage route in the present case, inguinal lymph node metastasis does not represent a systemic disease but rather a sentinel nodal metastasis from adenocarcinoma at a colostomy site. Surgical dissection of metastatic inguinal lymph nodes should be considered to enable a favorable prognosis in the absence of distant metastasis to other organs.

  6. Central role for melanocortin-4 receptors in offspring hypertension arising from maternal obesity

    PubMed Central

    Samuelsson, Anne-Maj S.; Mullier, Amandine; Maicas, Nuria; Oosterhuis, Nynke R.; Eun Bae, Sung; Novoselova, Tatiana V.; Chan, Li F.; Pombo, Joaquim M.; Taylor, Paul D.; Joles, Jaap A.; Coen, Clive W.; Balthasar, Nina; Poston, Lucilla

    2016-01-01

    Melanocortin-4 receptor (Mc4r)–expressing neurons in the autonomic nervous system, particularly in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVH), play an essential role in blood pressure (BP) control. Mc4r-deficient (Mc4rKO) mice are severely obese but lack obesity-related hypertension; they also show a reduced pressor response to salt loading. We have previously reported that lean juvenile offspring born to diet-induced obese rats (OffOb) exhibit sympathetic-mediated hypertension, and we proposed a role for postnatally raised leptin in its etiology. Here, we test the hypothesis that neonatal hyperleptinemia due to maternal obesity induces persistent changes in the central melanocortin system, thereby contributing to offspring hypertension. Working on the OffOb paradigm in both sexes and using transgenic technology to restore Mc4r in the PVH of Mc4rKO (Mc4rPVH) mice, we have now shown that these mice develop higher BP than Mc4rKO or WT mice. We have also found that experimental hyperleptinemia induced in the neonatal period in Mc4rPVH and WT mice, but not in the Mc4rKO mice, leads to heightened BP and severe renal dysfunction. Thus, Mc4r in the PVH appears to be required for early-life programming of hypertension arising from either maternal obesity or neonatal hyperleptinemia. Early-life exposure of the PVH to maternal obesity through postnatal elevation of leptin may have long-term consequences for cardiovascular health. PMID:27791019

  7. Pigmented squamous cell carcinoma of the cheek skin probably arising from solar keratosis.

    PubMed

    Terada, Tadashi; Yamagami, Jun; Fugimoto, Atsushi; Tanaka, Kyoko; Sugiura, Makoto

    2003-07-01

    We report a rare case of pigmented squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the cheek skin probably arising from solar keratosis. An 80-year-old man was referred to our clinic because of a black skin nodule in the right cheek. The nodular lesion was 1 cm in diameter, dome-shaped, hard, sharply demarcated, partially erosive and telangiectatic at the border. The lesion was completely excised under the clinical diagnosis of probable seborrheic keratosis. Microscopically, cutaneous horn and mildly atypical squamous epithelia suggestive of previous solar keratosis were present in the surface of the lesion. The lesion consisted of atypical squamous cells with keratinization and intercellular bridges, and it was regarded as SCC. The SCC cells were seen to invade lightly into the upper dermis, where lymphocytic infiltrations and melanophages were noted. Characteristically, heavy deposition of melanin pigment was recognized in the SCC cells as well as in proliferated dendritic and pigment blockade melanocytes that were scattered or colonized within the SCC cell nests. Masson-Fontana stain revealed numerous melanin granules in the SCC cells, as well as in dendritic and pigment blockade melanocytes. Immunohistochemically, the SCC cells were positive for cytokeratins and epithelial membrane antigen, and negative for S-100 protein and HMB45 antigen. Dendritic and pigment blockade melanocytes were negative for cytokeratins, epithelial membrane antigen, and HMB45 antigen, but positive for S-100 protein. The present case suggests that SCC cells of the skin may induce proliferation of melanocytes. The differential diagnosis and the histogenesis of pigmented SCC of the skin are discussed.

  8. Spatial structure arising from neighbour-dependent bias in collective cell movement.

    PubMed

    Binny, Rachelle N; Haridas, Parvathi; James, Alex; Law, Richard; Simpson, Matthew J; Plank, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    Mathematical models of collective cell movement often neglect the effects of spatial structure, such as clustering, on the population dynamics. Typically, they assume that individuals interact with one another in proportion to their average density (the mean-field assumption) which means that cell-cell interactions occurring over short spatial ranges are not accounted for. However, in vitro cell culture studies have shown that spatial correlations can play an important role in determining collective behaviour. Here, we take a combined experimental and modelling approach to explore how individual-level interactions give rise to spatial structure in a moving cell population. Using imaging data from in vitro experiments, we quantify the extent of spatial structure in a population of 3T3 fibroblast cells. To understand how this spatial structure arises, we develop a lattice-free individual-based model (IBM) and simulate cell movement in two spatial dimensions. Our model allows an individual's direction of movement to be affected by interactions with other cells in its neighbourhood, providing insights into how directional bias generates spatial structure. We consider how this behaviour scales up to the population level by using the IBM to derive a continuum description in terms of the dynamics of spatial moments. In particular, we account for spatial correlations between cells by considering dynamics of the second spatial moment (the average density of pairs of cells). Our numerical results suggest that the moment dynamics description can provide a good approximation to averaged simulation results from the underlying IBM. Using our in vitro data, we estimate parameters for the model and show that it can generate similar spatial structure to that observed in a 3T3 fibroblast cell population.

  9. Spatial structure arising from neighbour-dependent bias in collective cell movement

    PubMed Central

    Haridas, Parvathi; James, Alex; Law, Richard; Simpson, Matthew J.; Plank, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Mathematical models of collective cell movement often neglect the effects of spatial structure, such as clustering, on the population dynamics. Typically, they assume that individuals interact with one another in proportion to their average density (the mean-field assumption) which means that cell–cell interactions occurring over short spatial ranges are not accounted for. However, in vitro cell culture studies have shown that spatial correlations can play an important role in determining collective behaviour. Here, we take a combined experimental and modelling approach to explore how individual-level interactions give rise to spatial structure in a moving cell population. Using imaging data from in vitro experiments, we quantify the extent of spatial structure in a population of 3T3 fibroblast cells. To understand how this spatial structure arises, we develop a lattice-free individual-based model (IBM) and simulate cell movement in two spatial dimensions. Our model allows an individual’s direction of movement to be affected by interactions with other cells in its neighbourhood, providing insights into how directional bias generates spatial structure. We consider how this behaviour scales up to the population level by using the IBM to derive a continuum description in terms of the dynamics of spatial moments. In particular, we account for spatial correlations between cells by considering dynamics of the second spatial moment (the average density of pairs of cells). Our numerical results suggest that the moment dynamics description can provide a good approximation to averaged simulation results from the underlying IBM. Using our in vitro data, we estimate parameters for the model and show that it can generate similar spatial structure to that observed in a 3T3 fibroblast cell population. PMID:26893970

  10. Are species differences in maternal effects arising from maternal care adaptive?

    PubMed

    Benowitz, K M; Moody, K J; Moore, A J

    2015-02-01

    Parental care benefits offspring through maternal effects influencing their development, growth and survival. However, although parental care in general is likely the result of adaptive evolution, it does not follow that specific differences in the maternal effects that arise from care are also adaptive. Here, we used an interspecific cross-fostering design in the burying beetle species Nicrophorus orbicollis and N. vespilloides, both of which have elaborate parental care involving direct feeding of regurgitated food to offspring, to test whether maternal effects are optimized within a species and therefore adaptive. Using a full-factorial design, we first demonstrated that N. orbicollis care for offspring longer regardless of recipient species. We then examined offspring development and mass in offspring reared by hetero- or conspecific parents. As expected, there were species-specific direct effects independent of the maternal effects, as N. orbicollis larvae were larger and took longer to develop than N. vespilloides regardless of caregiver. We also found significant differences in maternal effects: N. vespilloides maternal care caused more rapid development of offspring of either species. Contrary to expectations if maternal effects were species-specific, there were no significant interactions between caretaker and recipient species for either development time or mass, suggesting that these maternal effects are general rather than optimized within species. We suggest that rather than coadaptation between parents and offspring performance, the species differences in maternal effects may be correlated with direct effects, and that their evolution is driven by selection on those direct effects.

  11. ["The Italian decree 195/2006 on the protection of workers against risks arising from noise"].

    PubMed

    Merluzzi, F; Pira, E; Riboldi, L

    2006-01-01

    The Italian decree 195/2006 incorporates the European Directive 2003/10/CE on the minimum health and safety requirements regarding the exposure of workers to the risks arising from physical agents (noise). It is rather different to previous decree 277/1991, particularly as regard of the new exposure limit value and the elimination of annex VI and VII. We discus here only two aspects that we consider relevant and quite critical: 1) The calculation of the exposure limit values as noise equivalent level: it is a method that underestimates the potential damage of impulsive noise, so the risk evaluation remains quite inaccurate. 2) To take account of the attenuation provided by the individual hearing protectors worn by the worker in determining the worker's effective exposure when applying the exposure limit values: this must not apply to the obligations of employer to control the risk at source avoiding or reducing exposure to the minimum. Furthermore the attenuation power of individual hearing protectors is difficult to measure because his variability during the time and among different subjects. Then we evaluate and discus the new duties of Occupational Physician in this matter. The daily exposure limit values and action values are in fact in part modified as well as the methodology for organize the programs of prevention, health surveillance, information and formation of workers. As support for his activity we proposed the guidelines that The Italian Society of Occupational Health and Industrial Hygiene (SIMLII) has published in 2003, which provides recommendations for the health surveillance for the prevention of noise induced hearing loss at the workplace.

  12. Cerebral cavernous malformations arise from endothelial gain of MEKK3-KLF2/4 signalling.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zinan; Tang, Alan T; Wong, Weng-Yew; Bamezai, Sharika; Goddard, Lauren M; Shenkar, Robert; Zhou, Su; Yang, Jisheng; Wright, Alexander C; Foley, Matthew; Arthur, J Simon C; Whitehead, Kevin J; Awad, Issam A; Li, Dean Y; Zheng, Xiangjian; Kahn, Mark L

    2016-04-07

    Cerebral cavernous malformations (CCMs) are common inherited and sporadic vascular malformations that cause strokes and seizures in younger individuals. CCMs arise from endothelial cell loss of KRIT1, CCM2 or PDCD10, non-homologous proteins that form an adaptor complex. How disruption of the CCM complex results in disease remains controversial, with numerous signalling pathways (including Rho, SMAD and Wnt/β-catenin) and processes such as endothelial-mesenchymal transition (EndMT) proposed to have causal roles. CCM2 binds to MEKK3 (refs 7, 8, 9, 10, 11), and we have recently shown that CCM complex regulation of MEKK3 is essential during vertebrate heart development. Here we investigate this mechanism in CCM disease pathogenesis. Using a neonatal mouse model of CCM disease, we show that expression of the MEKK3 target genes Klf2 and Klf4, as well as Rho and ADAMTS protease activity, are increased in the endothelial cells of early CCM lesions. By contrast, we find no evidence of EndMT or increased SMAD or Wnt signalling during early CCM formation. Endothelial-specific loss of Map3k3 (also known as Mekk3), Klf2 or Klf4 markedly prevents lesion formation, reverses the increase in Rho activity, and rescues lethality. Consistent with these findings in mice, we show that endothelial expression of KLF2 and KLF4 is increased in human familial and sporadic CCM lesions, and that a disease-causing human CCM2 mutation abrogates the MEKK3 interaction without affecting CCM complex formation. These studies identify gain of MEKK3 signalling and KLF2/4 function as causal mechanisms for CCM pathogenesis that may be targeted to develop new CCM therapeutics.

  13. Cerebral cavernous malformations arise from endothelial gain of MEKK3-KLF2/4 signaling

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Zinan; Tang, Alan T.; Wong, Weng-Yew; Bamezai, Sharika; Goddard, Lauren M.; Shenkar, Robert; Zhou, Su; Yang, Jisheng; Wright, Alexander C.; Foley, Matthew; Arthur, J. Simon C.; Whitehead, Kevin J.; Awad, Issam A.; Li, Dean Y.; Zheng, Xiangjian; Kahn, Mark L.

    2016-01-01

    Cerebral cavernous malformations (CCMs) are common inherited and sporadic vascular malformations that cause stroke and seizures in younger individuals1. CCMs arise from endothelial cell loss of KRIT1, CCM2, or PDCD10, non-homologous proteins that form an adaptor complex2. How disruption of the CCM complex results in disease remains controversial, with numerous signaling pathways (including Rho3,4, SMAD5 and Wnt/β-catenin6) and processes such as endothelial-mesenchymal transition (EndMT)5 proposed to play causal roles. CCM2 binds MEKK37–11, and we have recently demonstrated that CCM complex regulation of MEKK3 is essential during vertebrate heart development12. Here, we investigate this mechanism in CCM disease pathogenesis. Using a neonatal mouse model of CCM disease, we find that expression of the MEKK3 target genes KLF2 and KLF4, as well as Rho and ADAMTS protease activity, are increased in the endothelial cells of early CCM lesions. In contrast, we find no evidence of EndMT or increased SMAD or Wnt signaling during early CCM formation. Endothelial-specific loss of Mekk3, Klf2, or Klf4 dramatically prevents lesion formation, reverses the increase in Rho activity, and rescues lethality. Consistent with these findings in mice, we demonstrate that endothelial expression of KLF2 and KLF4 is elevated in human familial and sporadic CCM lesions, and that a disease-causing human CCM2 mutation abrogates MEKK3 interaction without affecting CCM complex formation. These studies identify gain of MEKK3 signaling and KLF2/4 function as causal mechanisms for CCM pathogenesis that may be targeted to develop new CCM therapeutics. PMID:27027284

  14. Incorporation of additives into polymers

    DOEpatents

    McCleskey, T. Mark; Yates, Matthew Z.

    2003-07-29

    There has been invented a method for incorporating additives into polymers comprising: (a) forming an aqueous or alcohol-based colloidal system of the polymer; (b) emulsifying the colloidal system with a compressed fluid; and (c) contacting the colloidal polymer with the additive in the presence of the compressed fluid. The colloidal polymer can be contacted with the additive by having the additive in the compressed fluid used for emulsification or by adding the additive to the colloidal system before or after emulsification with the compressed fluid. The invention process can be carried out either as a batch process or as a continuous on-line process.

  15. Additive manufacturing of optical components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinrich, Andreas; Rank, Manuel; Maillard, Philippe; Suckow, Anne; Bauckhage, Yannick; Rößler, Patrick; Lang, Johannes; Shariff, Fatin; Pekrul, Sven

    2016-08-01

    The development of additive manufacturing methods has enlarged rapidly in recent years. Thereby, the work mainly focuses on the realization of mechanical components, but the additive manufacturing technology offers a high potential in the field of optics as well. Owing to new design possibilities, completely new solutions are possible. This article briefly reviews and compares the most important additive manufacturing methods for polymer optics. Additionally, it points out the characteristics of additive manufactured polymer optics. Thereby, surface quality is of crucial importance. In order to improve it, appropriate post-processing steps are necessary (e.g. robot polishing or coating), which will be discussed. An essential part of this paper deals with various additive manufactured optical components and their use, especially in optical systems for shape metrology (e.g. borehole sensor, tilt sensor, freeform surface sensor, fisheye lens). The examples should demonstrate the potentials and limitations of optical components produced by additive manufacturing.

  16. GISH analysis of disomic Brassica napus-Crambe abyssinica chromosome addition lines produced by microspore culture from monosomic addition lines.

    PubMed

    Wang, Youping; Sonntag, Karin; Rudloff, Eicke; Wehling, Peter; Snowdon, Rod J

    2006-02-01

    Two Brassica napus-Crambe abyssinica monosomic addition lines (2n=39, AACC plus a single chromosome from C. abyssinca) were obtained from the F(2) progeny of the asymmetric somatic hybrid. The alien chromosome from C. abyssinca in the addition line was clearly distinguished by genomic in situ hybridization (GISH). Twenty-seven microspore-derived plants from the addition lines were obtained. Fourteen seedlings were determined to be diploid plants (2n=38) arising from spontaneous chromosome doubling, while 13 seedlings were confirmed as haploid plants. Doubled haploid plants produced after treatment with colchicine and two disomic chromosome addition lines (2n=40, AACC plus a single pair of homologous chromosomes from C. abyssinca) could again be identified by GISH analysis. The lines are potentially useful for molecular genetic analysis of novel C. abyssinica genes or alleles contributing to traits relevant for oilseed rape (B. napus) breeding.

  17. International Space Apps Challenge

    NASA Video Gallery

    During the 2013 Space Apps Challenge, space enthusiasts with diverse backgrounds gathered April 20-21 for a collaborative, global problem-solving effort. Held at Kennedy Space Center Visitor Comple...

  18. 2017 TRI University Challenge

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Details about the 2017 TRI University Challenge, in which EPA is looking to academic institutions to help build a diverse portfolio of practical and replicable projects that benefit communities, the environment, academic institutions, and the TRI Program.

  19. Solving Aviation Challenges

    NASA Video Gallery

    This video highlights the challenges NASA aeronautics researchers are tackling to reduce aircraft noise, emissions, fuel consumption, and the innovative ways they're helping to debut NextGen, a rev...

  20. The 2061 Challenge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hundt, Lin

    1999-01-01

    Presents an interview with George Nelson, former astronaut and director of Project 2061 at the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS). Nelson discusses his interest in science and math education, and future challenges for educators. (WRM)