Science.gov

Sample records for additional challenges include

  1. Photoactive devices including porphyrinoids with coordinating additives

    DOEpatents

    Forrest, Stephen R; Zimmerman, Jeramy; Yu, Eric K; Thompson, Mark E; Trinh, Cong; Whited, Matthew; Diev, Vlacheslav

    2015-05-12

    Coordinating additives are included in porphyrinoid-based materials to promote intermolecular organization and improve one or more photoelectric characteristics of the materials. The coordinating additives are selected from fullerene compounds and organic compounds having free electron pairs. Combinations of different coordinating additives can be used to tailor the characteristic properties of such porphyrinoid-based materials, including porphyrin oligomers. Bidentate ligands are one type of coordinating additive that can form coordination bonds with a central metal ion of two different porphyrinoid compounds to promote porphyrinoid alignment and/or pi-stacking. The coordinating additives can shift the absorption spectrum of a photoactive material toward higher wavelengths, increase the external quantum efficiency of the material, or both.

  2. Additive manufacturing in production: challenges and opportunities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahuja, Bhrigu; Karg, Michael; Schmidt, Michael

    2015-03-01

    Additive manufacturing, characterized by its inherent layer by layer fabrication methodology has been coined by many as the latest revolution in the manufacturing industry. Due to its diversification of Materials, processes, system technology and applications, Additive Manufacturing has been synonymized with terminology such as Rapid prototyping, 3D printing, free-form fabrication, Additive Layer Manufacturing, etc. A huge media and public interest in the technology has led to an innovative attempt of exploring the technology for applications beyond the scope of the traditional engineering industry. Nevertheless, it is believed that a critical factor for the long-term success of Additive Manufacturing would be its ability to fulfill the requirements defined by the traditional manufacturing industry. A parallel development in market trends and product requirements has also lead to a wider scope of opportunities for Additive Manufacturing. The presented paper discusses some of the key challenges which are critical to ensure that Additive Manufacturing is truly accepted as a mainstream production technology in the industry. These challenges would highlight on various aspects of production such as product requirements, process management, data management, intellectual property, work flow management, quality assurance, resource planning, etc. In Addition, changing market trends such as product life cycle, mass customization, sustainability, environmental impact and localized production will form the foundation for the follow up discussion on the current limitations and the corresponding research opportunities. A discussion on ongoing research to address these challenges would include topics like process monitoring, design complexity, process standardization, multi-material and hybrid fabrication, new material development, etc.

  3. Additive manufacturing of materials: Opportunities and challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Babu, Sudarsanam Suresh; Love, Lonnie J.; Dehoff, Ryan R.; Peter, William H.; Watkins, Thomas R.; Pannala, Sreekanth

    2015-11-01

    Additive manufacturing (also known as 3D printing) is considered a disruptive technology for producing components with topologically optimized complex geometries as well as functionalities that are not achievable by traditional methods. The realization of the full potential of 3D printing is stifled by a lack of computational design tools, generic material feedstocks, techniques for monitoring thermomechanical processes under in situ conditions, and especially methods for minimizing anisotropic static and dynamic properties brought about by microstructural heterogeneity. In this paper, we discuss the role of interdisciplinary research involving robotics and automation, process control, multiscale characterization of microstructure and properties, and high-performance computational tools to address each of these challenges. In addition, emerging pathways to scale up additive manufacturing of structural materials to large sizes (>1 m) and higher productivities (5–20 kg/h) while maintaining mechanical performance and geometrical flexibility are also discussed.

  4. Additive manufacturing of materials: Opportunities and challenges

    DOE PAGES

    Babu, Sudarsanam Suresh; Love, Lonnie J.; Dehoff, Ryan R.; ...

    2015-11-01

    Additive manufacturing (also known as 3D printing) is considered a disruptive technology for producing components with topologically optimized complex geometries as well as functionalities that are not achievable by traditional methods. The realization of the full potential of 3D printing is stifled by a lack of computational design tools, generic material feedstocks, techniques for monitoring thermomechanical processes under in situ conditions, and especially methods for minimizing anisotropic static and dynamic properties brought about by microstructural heterogeneity. In this paper, we discuss the role of interdisciplinary research involving robotics and automation, process control, multiscale characterization of microstructure and properties, and high-performancemore » computational tools to address each of these challenges. In addition, emerging pathways to scale up additive manufacturing of structural materials to large sizes (>1 m) and higher productivities (5–20 kg/h) while maintaining mechanical performance and geometrical flexibility are also discussed.« less

  5. Nursing education challenges: students with English as an additional language.

    PubMed

    Starr, Kimberly

    2009-09-01

    Nurse educators are challenged by students who did not learn Standard American English as a primary language. It is not only language that makes these students stand out-cultural beliefs, values and practices need to be appreciated as well. The purpose of this article is to synthesize the current qualitative literature on challenges faced in nursing education for students with English as an additional language. Ten qualitative studies regarding educational issues of nursing students with EAL were included in the synthesis. The study was conducted using the ethnographic metasynthesis model of Noblit and Hare. Two major reciprocal translations of educational issues emerged: challenges and reinforcements. Challenges included language, academics, resources, and culture. Reinforcements included resources, academics, and culture. The results may be used by nurse educators for developing interventions to help culturally diverse students succeed. Interventions are directed toward issues surrounding language and culture.

  6. Constant-Pressure Combustion Charts Including Effects of Diluent Addition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, L Richard; Bogart, Donald

    1949-01-01

    Charts are presented for the calculation of (a) the final temperatures and the temperature changes involved in constant-pressure combustion processes of air and in products of combustion of air and hydrocarbon fuels, and (b) the quantity of hydrocarbon fuels required in order to attain a specified combustion temperature when water, alcohol, water-alcohol mixtures, liquid ammonia, liquid carbon dioxide, liquid nitrogen, liquid oxygen, or their mixtures are added to air as diluents or refrigerants. The ideal combustion process and combustion with incomplete heat release from the primary fuel and from combustible diluents are considered. The effect of preheating the mixture of air and diluents and the effect of an initial water-vapor content in the combustion air on the required fuel quantity are also included. The charts are applicable only to processes in which the final mixture is leaner than stoichiometric and at temperatures where dissociation is unimportant. A chart is also included to permit the calculation of the stoichiometric ratio of hydrocarbon fuel to air with diluent addition. The use of the charts is illustrated by numerical examples.

  7. 25 CFR 1000.83 - Can additional provisions be included in an AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Can additional provisions be included in an AFA? 1000.83... Scope of Annual Funding Agreements § 1000.83 Can additional provisions be included in an AFA? Yes, any provision that the parties mutually agreed upon may be included in an AFA....

  8. 25 CFR 1000.83 - Can additional provisions be included in an AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Can additional provisions be included in an AFA? 1000.83... Scope of Annual Funding Agreements § 1000.83 Can additional provisions be included in an AFA? Yes, any provision that the parties mutually agreed upon may be included in an AFA....

  9. 25 CFR 1000.83 - Can additional provisions be included in an AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Can additional provisions be included in an AFA? 1000.83... Scope of Annual Funding Agreements § 1000.83 Can additional provisions be included in an AFA? Yes, any provision that the parties mutually agreed upon may be included in an AFA....

  10. 25 CFR 1000.83 - Can additional provisions be included in an AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Can additional provisions be included in an AFA? 1000.83... Scope of Annual Funding Agreements § 1000.83 Can additional provisions be included in an AFA? Yes, any provision that the parties mutually agreed upon may be included in an AFA....

  11. 25 CFR 1000.83 - Can additional provisions be included in an AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Can additional provisions be included in an AFA? 1000.83... Scope of Annual Funding Agreements § 1000.83 Can additional provisions be included in an AFA? Yes, any provision that the parties mutually agreed upon may be included in an AFA....

  12. Radial velocity fitting challenge. I. Simulating the data set including realistic stellar radial-velocity signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumusque, X.

    2016-08-01

    Context. Stellar signals are the main limitation for precise radial-velocity (RV) measurements. These signals arise from the photosphere of the stars. The m s-1 perturbation created by these signals prevents the detection and mass characterization of small-mass planetary candidates such as Earth-twins. Several methods have been proposed to mitigate stellar signals in RV measurements. However, without precisely knowing the stellar and planetary signals in real observations, it is extremely difficult to test the efficiency of these methods. Aims: The goal of the RV fitting challenge is to generate simulated RV data including stellar and planetary signals and to perform a blind test within the community to test the efficiency of the different methods proposed to recover planetary signals despite stellar signals. Methods: In this first paper, we describe the simulation used to model the measurements of the RV fitting challenge. Each simulated planetary system includes the signals from instrumental noise, stellar oscillations, granulation, supergranulation, stellar activity, and observed and simulated planetary systems. In addition to RV variations, this simulation also models the effects of instrumental noise and stellar signals on activity observables obtained by HARPS-type high-resolution spectrographs, that is, the calcium activity index log (R'HK) and the bisector span and full width at half maximum of the cross-correlation function. Results: We publish the 15 systems used for the RV fitting challenge including the details about the planetary systems that were injected into each of them. Based on observations collected at the La Silla Parana Observatory, ESO (Chile), with the HARPS spectrograph at the 3.6-m telescope.The simulated data sets are available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/593/A5 and at the wiki of the RV fitting challenge http://https://rv-challenge.wikispaces.com.

  13. Effects of feed additives on rumen and blood profiles during a starch and fructose challenge.

    PubMed

    Golder, H M; Celi, P; Rabiee, A R; Lean, I J

    2014-02-01

    We evaluated the effect of feed additives on the risk of ruminal acidosis in Holstein heifers (n = 40) fed starch and fructose in a challenge study. Heifers were randomly allocated to feed additive groups (n = 8 heifers/group): (1) control (no additives); (2) virginiamycin (VM); (3) monensin + tylosin (MT); (4) monensin + live yeast (MLY); and (5) sodium bicarbonate + magnesium oxide (BUF). Heifers were fed 2.5% of body weight (BW) dry matter intake (DMI) per day of a total mixed ration (62:38 forage:concentrate) and feed additives for a 20-d adaptation period. Fructose (0.1% of BW/d) was included for the last 10d of the adaptation period. On d 21, heifers were fed to target a DMI of 1.0% of BW of wheat, fructose at 0.2% of BW, and their feed additives. Rumen fluid samples obtained by stomach tube and blood samples were collected weekly as well as during a 3.6-h period on challenge day (d 21). Virginiamycin and BUF groups maintained a consistently high DMI across the 20-d adaptation period. The MLY heifers had low DMI of the challenge ration. Average daily gain and feed conversion ratio were not affected by feed additives. All rumen and plasma measures changed weekly over adaptation and over the challenge sampling period with the exception of rumen total lactate and histamine concentrations, plasma oxidative stress index, and ceruloplasmin. Substantial within- and between-group variation was observed in rumen and plasma profiles at challenge sampling. No significant group changes were observed in rumen total volatile fatty acids, propionate, acetate-to-propionate ratio, isobutyrate, caproate, isovalerate, total lactate, d- and l-lactate, and pH measures on challenge day. Acetate concentration was increased in the BUF and control groups on challenge day. Butyrate concentration was lower in the MLY and MT groups compared with other groups at challenge. Valerate concentrations were lowest in the control, VM, and BUF groups and lactate concentrations were numerically

  14. Synergistic effect of additives including multifunctional acrylates in wood plastic composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Mubarak A.; Idriss Ali, K. M.; Garnett, John L.

    1993-07-01

    Wood Plastic Composite (WPC) was prepared with simul (soft wood, density = 0.4g/cc) and butylmethacrylate (BMA) monomer using 10% methanol as the swelling agent. Effect of additives including (i) multifunctional acrylates such as tripropylene glycol diacrylate (TPGDA), trimethylol propane triacrylate (TMPTA) (ii) oligomer acrylates like the urethane (UA), epoxy (EA) and polyester (PEA) acrylates and (iii) N-vinyl pyrrolidone (NVP) was investigated using 1 to 3 Mrad dose at 0.8 Mrad/h. Synergistic increases in polymer loading yields was achieved in presence of the additives, particularly with the trifunctional acrylate (TMPTA). In addition, acid as well as urea were also used as co-additives and synergistic enhancement in yields of polymer loading were obtained. The synergistic polymer loading by acid addition causes substantial decrease in tensile strength of the composite; but other additives and co-additives increase both the polymer loading and the tensile strength in these systems.

  15. Systems and Methods for Fabricating Objects Including Amorphous Metal Using Techniques Akin to Additive Manufacturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hofmann, Douglas (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    Systems and methods in accordance with embodiments of the invention fabricate objects including amorphous metals using techniques akin to additive manufacturing. In one embodiment, a method of fabricating an object that includes an amorphous metal includes: applying a first layer of molten metallic alloy to a surface; cooling the first layer of molten metallic alloy such that it solidifies and thereby forms a first layer including amorphous metal; subsequently applying at least one layer of molten metallic alloy onto a layer including amorphous metal; cooling each subsequently applied layer of molten metallic alloy such that it solidifies and thereby forms a layer including amorphous metal prior to the application of any adjacent layer of molten metallic alloy; where the aggregate of the solidified layers including amorphous metal forms a desired shape in the object to be fabricated; and removing at least the first layer including amorphous metal from the surface.

  16. Child Care Teachers' Perspectives on Including Children with Challenging Behavior in Child Care Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quesenberry, Amanda C.; Hemmeter, Mary Louise; Ostrosky, Michaelene M.; Hamann, Kira

    2014-01-01

    In this study, 9 teachers from 5 child care centers were interviewed to examine their perceptions on including children with challenging behavior in their classrooms. The findings provide a firsthand view into how child care teachers support children's social and emotional development and address challenging behavior. Results confirm previous…

  17. Modeling of additive manufacturing processes for metals: Challenges and opportunities

    DOE PAGES

    Francois, Marianne M.; Sun, Amy; King, Wayne E.; ...

    2017-01-09

    Here, with the technology being developed to manufacture metallic parts using increasingly advanced additive manufacturing processes, a new era has opened up for designing novel structural materials, from designing shapes and complex geometries to controlling the microstructure (alloy composition and morphology). The material properties used within specific structural components are also designable in order to meet specific performance requirements that are not imaginable with traditional metal forming and machining (subtractive) techniques.

  18. Additional challenges for uncertainty analysis in river engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berends, Koen; Warmink, Jord; Hulscher, Suzanne

    2016-04-01

    The management of rivers for improving safety, shipping and environment requires conscious effort on the part of river managers. River engineers design hydraulic works to tackle various challenges, from increasing flow conveyance to ensuring minimal water depths for environmental flow and inland shipping. Last year saw the completion of such large scale river engineering in the 'Room for the River' programme for the Dutch Rhine River system, in which several dozen of human interventions were built to increase flood safety. Engineering works in rivers are not completed in isolation from society. Rather, their benefits - increased safety, landscaping beauty - and their disadvantages - expropriation, hindrance - directly affect inhabitants. Therefore river managers are required to carefully defend their plans. The effect of engineering works on river dynamics is being evaluated using hydraulic river models. Two-dimensional numerical models based on the shallow water equations provide the predictions necessary to make decisions on designs and future plans. However, like all environmental models, these predictions are subject to uncertainty. In recent years progress has been made in the identification of the main sources of uncertainty for hydraulic river models. Two of the most important sources are boundary conditions and hydraulic roughness (Warmink et al. 2013). The result of these sources of uncertainty is that the identification of single, deterministic prediction model is a non-trivial task. This is this is a well-understood problem in other fields as well - most notably hydrology - and known as equifinality. However, the particular case of human intervention modelling with hydraulic river models compounds the equifinality case. The model that provides the reference baseline situation is usually identified through calibration and afterwards modified for the engineering intervention. This results in two distinct models, the evaluation of which yields the effect of

  19. Combinatorial Synthesis of Linearly Condensed Polycyclic Compounds, Including Anthracyclinones, Through Tandem Diels-Alder Additions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogel, Pierre

    Double exocyclic 1,3-dienes such as 2,3,5,6-tetramethylidene-7-oxabicyclo[2.2.1]heptane and its 1-substituted derivatives undergo two successive Diels-Alder additions with large reactivity difference between the addition of the first equivalent (k 1) and the second equivalent (k 2) of dienophile. This allows one to prepare, through parallel synthesis, a large number of linearly condensed polycyclic systems containing three annulated six-membered rings, including naphthacenyl systems and anthracyclinones. The large k 1/k 2 rate constant ratio is a consequence of the Dimroth principle, the first cycloaddition being significantly more exothermic then the second one. Control of regio- and stereoselectivity of the two successive cycloadditions is possible by 1-substitution of the 2,3,5,6-tetramethylidene-7-oxabicyclo[2.2.1]heptane, for instance by a 1-(dimethoxymethyl) group, or by stereoselective disubstitution of the double diene by arenesulfenyl substituents. Enantiomerically pure anthracyclinones and analogues are obtained using enantiomerically pure dienophiles such as 3-oxo-but-2-en-2-yl esters. The chemistry so-developed has allowed the preparation of enantiomerically pure 6-((aminoalkoxy)oxy)methyl-6,7-dideoxyidarubicinones that are DNA intercalators and inhibitors of topoisomerase II-induced DNA strained religation.

  20. Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smalheer, C. V.

    1973-01-01

    The chemistry of lubricant additives is discussed to show what the additives are chemically and what functions they perform in the lubrication of various kinds of equipment. Current theories regarding the mode of action of lubricant additives are presented. The additive groups discussed include the following: (1) detergents and dispersants, (2) corrosion inhibitors, (3) antioxidants, (4) viscosity index improvers, (5) pour point depressants, and (6) antifouling agents.

  1. Cochlear Implantation among Deaf Children with Additional Disabilities: Parental Perceptions of Benefits, Challenges, and Service Provision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaidman-Zait, Anat; Curle, Deirdre; Jamieson, Janet R.; Chia, Ruth; Kozak, Frederick K.

    2015-01-01

    Although increasing numbers of children with additional disabilities are receiving cochlear implants (CIs), little is known about family perspectives of the benefits and the challenges of cochlear implantation in this pediatric population. This study examines perceptions among parents of deaf children with additional disabilities regarding…

  2. Cost-Effective Additive Manufacturing in Space: HELIOS Technology Challenge Guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeVieneni, Alayna; Velez, Carlos Andres; Benjamin, David; Hollenbeck, Jay

    2012-01-01

    Welcome to the HELIOS Technology Challenge Guide. This document is intended to serve as a general road map for participants of the HELIOS Technology Challenge [HTC] Program and the associated inaugural challenge: HTC-01: Cost-Effective Additive Manufacturing in Space. Please note that this guide is not a rule book and is not meant to hinder the development of innovative ideas. Its primary goal is to highlight the objectives of the HTC-01 Challenge and to describe possible solution routes and pitfalls that such technology may encounter in space. Please also note that participants wishing to demonstrate any hardware developed under this program during any future HELIOS Technology Challenge showcase event(s) may be subject to event regulations to be published separately at a later date.

  3. Sensitization to Food Additives in Patients with Allergy: A Study Based on Skin Test and Open Oral Challenge.

    PubMed

    Moghtaderi, Mozhgan; Hejrati, Zinatosadat; Dehghani, Zahra; Dehghani, Faranak; Kolahi, Niloofar

    2016-06-01

    There has been a great increase in the consumption of various food additives in recent years. The purpose of this study was to identify the incidence of sensitization to food additives by using skin prick test in patients with allergy and to determine the concordance rate between positive skin tests and oral challenge in hypersensitivity to additives. This cross-sectional study included 125 (female 71, male 54) patients aged 2-76 years with allergy and 100 healthy individuals. Skin tests were performed in both patient and control groups with 25 fresh food additives. Among patients with allergy, 22.4% showed positive skin test at least to one of the applied materials. Skin test was negative to all tested food additives in control group. Oral food challenge was done in 28 patients with positive skin test, in whom 9 patients showed reaction to culprit (Concordance rate=32.1%). The present study suggested that about one-third of allergic patients with positive reaction to food additives showed positive oral challenge; it may be considered the potential utility of skin test to identify the role of food additives in patients with allergy.

  4. 78 FR 67369 - National Vaccine Injury Compensation Program: Addition to the Vaccine Injury Table to Include All...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-12

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration National Vaccine Injury Compensation Program: Addition to the Vaccine Injury Table to Include All Vaccines Against Seasonal Influenza AGENCY: Health... vaccines against seasonal influenza are covered under the National Vaccine Injury Compensation...

  5. Antibody-Mediated Protection Against SHIV Challenge Includes Systemic Clearance of Distal Virus

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jinyan; Ghneim, Khader; Sok, Devin; Bosche, William J.; Li, Yuan; Chipriano, Elizabeth; Berkemeier, Brian; Oswald, Kelli; Borducchi, Erica; Cabral, Crystal; Peter, Lauren; Brinkman, Amanda; Shetty, Mayuri; Jimenez, Jessica; Mondesir, Jade; Lee, Benjamin; Giglio, Patricia; Chandrashekar, Abishek; Abbink, Peter; Colantonio, Arnaud; Gittens, Courtney; Baker, Chantelle; Wagner, Wendeline; Lewis, Mark G.; Li, Wenjun; Sekaly, Rafick-Pierre; Lifson, Jeffrey D.; Burton, Dennis R.; Barouch, Dan H.

    2017-01-01

    HIV-1-specific broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) can protect rhesus monkeys against simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) challenge. However, the site of antibody interception of virus and the mechanism of antibody-mediated protection remain unclear. We administered a fully protective dose of the bNAb PGT121 to rhesus monkeys and challenged them intravaginally with SHIV-SF162P3. In PGT121 treated animals, we detected low levels of viral RNA and viral DNA in distal tissues for several days following challenge. Viral RNA positive tissues showed transcriptomic changes indicative of innate immune activation, and cells from these tissues initiated infection following adoptive transfer into naïve hosts. These data demonstrate that bNAb mediated protection against a mucosal virus challenge can involve clearance of infectious virus in distal tissues. PMID:27540005

  6. Beyond Right or Wrong: Challenges of Including Creative Design Activities in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brennan, Karen

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we explore challenges encountered by K-12 educators in establishing classroom cultures that support creative learning activities with the Scratch programming language. Providing opportunities for students to understand and to build capacities for creative work was described by many of the teachers that we interviewed as a central…

  7. Laser powder bed fusion additive manufacturing of metals; physics, computational, and materials challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, W. E.; Anderson, A. T.; Ferencz, R. M.; Hodge, N. E.; Kamath, C.; Khairallah, S. A.; Rubenchik, A. M.

    2015-12-01

    The production of metal parts via laser powder bed fusion additive manufacturing is growing exponentially. However, the transition of this technology from production of prototypes to production of critical parts is hindered by a lack of confidence in the quality of the part. Confidence can be established via a fundamental understanding of the physics of the process. It is generally accepted that this understanding will be increasingly achieved through modeling and simulation. However, there are significant physics, computational, and materials challenges stemming from the broad range of length and time scales and temperature ranges associated with the process. In this paper, we review the current state of the art and describe the challenges that need to be met to achieve the desired fundamental understanding of the physics of the process.

  8. Laser powder bed fusion additive manufacturing of metals; physics, computational, and materials challenges

    SciTech Connect

    King, W. E.; Anderson, A. T.; Ferencz, R. M.; Hodge, N. E.; Kamath, C.; Khairallah, S. A.; Rubencik, A. M.

    2015-12-29

    The production of metal parts via laser powder bed fusion additive manufacturing is growing exponentially. However, the transition of this technology from production of prototypes to production of critical parts is hindered by a lack of confidence in the quality of the part. Confidence can be established via a fundamental understanding of the physics of the process. It is generally accepted that this understanding will be increasingly achieved through modeling and simulation. However, there are significant physics, computational, and materials challenges stemming from the broad range of length and time scales and temperature ranges associated with the process. In this study, we review the current state of the art and describe the challenges that need to be met to achieve the desired fundamental understanding of the physics of the process.

  9. Laser powder bed fusion additive manufacturing of metals; physics, computational, and materials challenges

    SciTech Connect

    King, W. E.; Anderson, A. T.; Ferencz, R. M.; Hodge, N. E.; Khairallah, S. A.; Kamath, C.; Rubenchik, A. M.

    2015-12-15

    The production of metal parts via laser powder bed fusion additive manufacturing is growing exponentially. However, the transition of this technology from production of prototypes to production of critical parts is hindered by a lack of confidence in the quality of the part. Confidence can be established via a fundamental understanding of the physics of the process. It is generally accepted that this understanding will be increasingly achieved through modeling and simulation. However, there are significant physics, computational, and materials challenges stemming from the broad range of length and time scales and temperature ranges associated with the process. In this paper, we review the current state of the art and describe the challenges that need to be met to achieve the desired fundamental understanding of the physics of the process.

  10. Laser powder bed fusion additive manufacturing of metals; physics, computational, and materials challenges

    DOE PAGES

    King, W. E.; Anderson, A. T.; Ferencz, R. M.; ...

    2015-12-29

    The production of metal parts via laser powder bed fusion additive manufacturing is growing exponentially. However, the transition of this technology from production of prototypes to production of critical parts is hindered by a lack of confidence in the quality of the part. Confidence can be established via a fundamental understanding of the physics of the process. It is generally accepted that this understanding will be increasingly achieved through modeling and simulation. However, there are significant physics, computational, and materials challenges stemming from the broad range of length and time scales and temperature ranges associated with the process. In thismore » study, we review the current state of the art and describe the challenges that need to be met to achieve the desired fundamental understanding of the physics of the process.« less

  11. Dietary addition of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG impairs the health of Escherichia coli F4-challenged piglets.

    PubMed

    Trevisi, P; Casini, L; Coloretti, F; Mazzoni, M; Merialdi, G; Bosi, P

    2011-08-01

    Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) is a probiotic for humans and is normally not found in pigs; however, it has been shown to protect the human-derived intestinal Caco-2 cells against the damage induced by an important intestinal pathogen, enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli F4 (ETEC). An experiment was conducted to test whether the dietary addition of LGG improves the growth and health of weaned pigs when orally challenged by E. coli F4. Thirty-six pigs were weaned at 21 days and assigned to a standard weaning diet with or without 1010 CFU LGG (ATCC 53103) per day. The pigs, individually penned, were orally challenged with 1.5 ml of a 1010 CFU E. coli F4 suspension on day 7 and slaughtered on day 12 or 14. With the addition of LGG, the average daily gain and the average daily feed intake were reduced after the challenge with ETEC and for the entire trial (P < 0.05). The average faecal score tended to worsen from day 11 to the end of the trial and the concentration of ETEC in the faeces tended to increase (P = 0.07) with the LGG supplementation. The counts of lactic acid bacteria, enterobacteria and yeasts in the colonic digesta were not affected. The pH values in ileal, colonic and caecal digesta, and the small intestine size were also unchanged. Regardless of the site of measurement (duodenum, jejunum or ileum), a trend of decreased villus height was seen with LGG (P = 0.10). Crypt depth and villus to crypt ratio were unchanged by the diet. A gradual increase of total seric IgA was seen after 1 week and after the challenge, in the control (P < 0.05), but not in the treated group. After the challenge, the LGG reduced the total IgA in the blood serum (P < 0.05), v. the control. The total IgA in the saliva and in the jejunum secretion were not affected by the diet. The F4-specific IgA activity was not affected by the diet at all the samplings. Our result shows that, the administration of LGG do not prevent or reduce the detrimental effect of the E. coli F4 infection on

  12. Additive Manufacturing of Silicon Carbide-Based Ceramic Matrix Composites: Technical Challenges and Opportunities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Mrityunjay; Halbig, Michael C.; Grady, Joseph E.

    2016-01-01

    Advanced SiC-based ceramic matrix composites offer significant contributions toward reducing fuel burn and emissions by enabling high overall pressure ratio (OPR) of gas turbine engines and reducing or eliminating cooling air in the hot-section components, such as shrouds, combustor liners, vanes, and blades. Additive manufacturing (AM), which allows high value, custom designed parts layer by layer, has been demonstrated for metals and polymer matrix composites. However, there has been limited activity on additive manufacturing of ceramic matrix composites (CMCs). In this presentation, laminated object manufacturing (LOM), binder jet process, and 3-D printing approaches for developing ceramic composite materials are presented. For the laminated object manufacturing (LOM), fiber prepreg laminates were cut into shape with a laser and stacked to form the desired part followed by high temperature heat treatments. For the binder jet, processing optimization was pursued through silicon carbide powder blending, infiltration with and without SiC nano powder loading, and integration of fibers into the powder bed. Scanning electron microscopy was conducted along with XRD, TGA, and mechanical testing. Various technical challenges and opportunities for additive manufacturing of ceramics and CMCs will be presented.

  13. Reactions to "Ethical Challenges and Complexities of Including People with Intellectual Disability as Participants in Research" by Dr Teresa Iacono

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aman, Michael G.; Handen, Benjamin

    2006-01-01

    The authors' reaction to Dr Teresa Iacono's article "Ethical challenges and complexities of including people with intellectual disability as participants in research" is presented. Among other things, they find that Dr Iacono has done an outstanding job of describing creative solutions for obtaining appropriate informed consent from people with…

  14. Challenges for Life Support Systems in Space Environments, Including Food Production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, Raymond M.

    2012-01-01

    Environmental Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS) refer to the technologies needed to sustain human life in space environments. Histor ically these technologies have focused on providing a breathable atmo sphere, clean water, food, managing wastes, and the associated monitoring capabilities. Depending on the space agency or program, ELCSS has sometimes expanded to include other aspects of managing space enviro nments, such as thermal control, radiation protection, fire detection I suppression, and habitat design. Other times, testing and providing these latter technologies have been associated with the vehicle engi neering. The choice of ECLSS technologies is typically driven by the mission profile and their associated costs and reliabilities. These co sts are largely defined by the mass, volume, power, and crew time req uirements. For missions close to Earth, e.g., low-Earth orbit flights, stowage and resupply of food, some 0 2, and some water are often the most cost effective option. But as missions venture further into spa ce, e.g., transit missions to Mars or asteroids, or surface missions to Moon or Mars, the supply line economics change and the need to clos e the loop on life support consumables increases. These are often ref erred to as closed loop or regenerative life support systems. Regardless of the technologies, the systems must be capable of operating in a space environment, which could include micro to fractional g setting s, high radiation levels, and tightly closed atmospheres, including perhaps reduced cabin pressures. Food production using photosynthetic o rganisms such as plants by nature also provides atmospheric regenerat ion (e.g., CO2 removal and reduction, and 0 2 production), yet to date such "bioregenerative" technologies have not been used due largely t o the high power requirements for lighting. A likely first step in te sting bioregenerative capabilities will involve production of small a mounts of fresh foods to supplement to crew

  15. The challenges of including impacts on biodiversity in agricultural life cycle assessments.

    PubMed

    Gabel, Vanessa M; Meier, Matthias S; Köpke, Ulrich; Stolze, Matthias

    2016-10-01

    Agriculture is considered to be one of the main drivers for worldwide biodiversity loss but the impacts of agricultural production on biodiversity have not been extensively considered in Life Cycle Assessments (LCAs). Recent realisation that biodiversity impact should be included in comprehensive LCAs has led to attempts to develop and implement methods for biodiversity impact assessment. In this review, twenty-two different biodiversity impact assessment methods have been analysed to identify their strengths and weaknesses in terms of their comprehensiveness in the evaluation of agricultural products. Different criteria, which had to meet the specific requirements of biodiversity research, life cycle assessment methodology, and the evaluation of agricultural products, were selected to investigate the identified methods. Very few of the methods were developed with the specific intention of being used for agricultural LCAs. Furthermore, none of the methods can be applied globally while at the same time being able to differentiate between various agricultural intensities. Global value chains and the increasing awareness of different biodiversity impacts of agricultural production systems demand the development of evaluation methods that are able to overcome these shortcomings. Despite the progress that has already been achieved, there are still unresolved difficulties which need further research and improvement.

  16. Microstructural Development and Technical Challenges in Laser Additive Manufacturing: Case Study with a 316L Industrial Part

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marya, Manuel; Singh, Virendra; Marya, Surendar; Hascoet, Jean Yves

    2015-08-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) brings disruptive changes to the ways parts, and products are designed, fabricated, tested, qualified, inspected, marketed, and sold. These changes introduce novel technical challenges and concerns arising from the maturity and diversity of today's AM processes, feedstock materials, and process parameter interactions. AM bears a resemblance with laser and electron beam welding in the so-called conduction mode, which involves a multitude of dynamic physical events between the projected feedstock and a moving heat source that eventually influence AM part properties. For this paper, an air vent was selected for its thin-walled, hollow, and variable cross section, and limited size. The studied air vents, randomly selected from a qualification batch, were fabricated out of 316L stainless steel using a 4 kW fiber laser powder-fed AM system, referred to as construction laser additive direct (CLAD). These were systematically characterized by microhardness indentation, visual examination, optical and scanning electron microscopy, and electron-back-scattering diffraction in order to determine AM part suitability for service and also broadly discuss metallurgical phenomena. The paper then briefly expands the discussion to include additional engineering alloys and further analyze relationships between AM process parameters and AM part properties, consistently utilizing past experience with the same powder-fed CLAD 3D printer, the well-established science and technology of welding and joining, and recent publications on additive manufacturing.

  17. Apology in the criminal justice setting: evidence for including apology as an additional component in the legal system.

    PubMed

    Petrucci, Carrie J

    2002-01-01

    The criminal justice system has reached unprecedented scope in the United States, with over 6.4 million people under some type of supervision. Remedies that have the potential to reduce this number are continually being sought. This article analyzes an innovative strategy currently being reconsidered in criminal justice: the apology. Despite a legal system that only sporadically acknowledges it, evidence for the use of apology is supported by social science research, current criminal justice theories, case law, and empirical studies. Social psychological, sociological and socio-legal studies pinpoint the elements and function of apology, what makes apologies effective, and concerns about apology if it were implemented in the criminal justice system. Theoretical evidence is examined (including restorative justice, therapeutic jurisprudence, crime, shame, and reintegration) to explore the process of apology in the criminal justice context. Attribution theory and social conduct theory are used to explain the apology process specifically for victims and offenders. A brief examination of case law reveals that though apology has no formal place in criminal law, it has surfaced recently under the federal sentencing guidelines. Finally, empirical evidence in criminal justice settings reveals that offenders want to apologize and victims desire an apology. Moreover, by directly addressing the harmful act, apology may be the link to reduced recidivism for offenders, as well as empowerment for victims. This evidence combined suggests that apology is worthy of further study as a potentially valuable addition to the criminal justice process.

  18. Gut Health of Pigs: Challenge Models and Response Criteria with a Critical Analysis of the Effectiveness of Selected Feed Additives — A Review

    PubMed Central

    Adewole, D. I.; Kim, I. H.; Nyachoti, C. M.

    2016-01-01

    The gut is the largest organ that helps with the immune function. Gut health, especially in young pigs has a significant benefit to health and performance. In an attempt to maintain and enhance intestinal health in pigs and improve productivity in the absence of in-feed antibiotics, researchers have evaluated a wide range of feed additives. Some of these additives such as zinc oxide, copper sulphate, egg yolk antibodies, mannan-oligosaccharides and spray dried porcine plasma and their effectiveness are discussed in this review. One approach to evaluate the effectiveness of these additives in vivo is to use an appropriate disease challenge model. Over the years, researchers have used a number of challenge models which include the use of specific strains of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli, bacteria lipopolysaccharide challenge, oral challenge with Salmonella enteric serotype Typhimurium, sanitation challenge, and Lawsonia intercellularis challenge. These challenge models together with the criteria used to evaluate the responses of the animals to them are also discussed in this review. PMID:26954144

  19. A synopsis of the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) investment in additive manufacture and what challenges remain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maher, Michael; Smith, Adrien; Margiotta, Jesse

    2014-03-01

    DARPA's interest in additive manufacture dates back to the mid-80s with seedling programs that developed the foundational knowledge and equipment that led to the Solid Freeform Fabrication program in 1990. The drivers for this program included reducing development times by enabling "tool-less" manufacturing as well as integration of design and fabrication tools. DARPA consistently pushed the boundaries of additive manufacture with follow-on programs that expanded the material suite available for 3-D printing as well as new processes that expanded the technology's capability base. Programs such as the Mesoscopic Integrated Conformal Electronics (MICE) program incorporated functionality to the manufacturing processes through direct write of electronics. DARPA's investment in additive manufacture continues to this day but the focus has changed. DARPA's early investments were focused on developing and demonstrating the technology's capabilities. Now that the technology has been demonstrated, there is serious interest in taking advantage of the attributes unique to the processing methodology (such as customization and new design possibilities) for producing production parts. Accordingly, today's investment at DARPA addresses the systematic barriers to implementation rather than the technology itself. The Open Manufacturing program is enabling rapid qualification of new technologies for the manufacturing environment through the development of new modeling and informatics tools. While the technology is becoming more mainstream, there are plenty of challenges that need to be addressed. And as the technology continues to mature, the agency will continue to look for those "DARPA-hard" challenges that enable revolutionary changes in capability and performance for the Department of Defense.

  20. Major histocompatibility complex harbors widespread genotypic variability of non-additive risk of rheumatoid arthritis including epistasis

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Wen-Hua; Bowes, John; Plant, Darren; Viatte, Sebastien; Yarwood, Annie; Massey, Jonathan; Worthington, Jane; Eyre, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Genotypic variability based genome-wide association studies (vGWASs) can identify potentially interacting loci without prior knowledge of the interacting factors. We report a two-stage approach to make vGWAS applicable to diseases: firstly using a mixed model approach to partition dichotomous phenotypes into additive risk and non-additive environmental residuals on the liability scale and secondly using the Levene’s (Brown-Forsythe) test to assess equality of the residual variances across genotype groups per marker. We found widespread significant (P < 2.5e-05) vGWAS signals within the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) across all three study cohorts of rheumatoid arthritis. We further identified 10 epistatic interactions between the vGWAS signals independent of the MHC additive effects, each with a weak effect but jointly explained 1.9% of phenotypic variance. PTPN22 was also identified in the discovery cohort but replicated in only one independent cohort. Combining the three cohorts boosted power of vGWAS and additionally identified TYK2 and ANKRD55. Both PTPN22 and TYK2 had evidence of interactions reported elsewhere. We conclude that vGWAS can help discover interacting loci for complex diseases but require large samples to find additional signals. PMID:27109064

  1. 2015 Summer Design Challenge: Team A&E (2241) Additively Manufactured Discriminator.

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Sarah E.; Moore, Brandon James

    2016-11-01

    Current discriminator designs are based on historical designs and traditional manufacturing methods. The goal of this project was to form non-traditional groups to create novel discriminator designs by taking advantage of additive manufacturing. These designs would expand current discriminator designs and provide insight on the applicability of additive manufacturing for future projects. Our design stretched the current abilities of additive manufacturing and noted desired improvements for the future. Through collaboration with NSC, we noted several additional technologies which work well with additive manufacturing such as topology optimization and CT scanning and determined how these technologies could be improved to better combine with additive manufacturing.

  2. Additional Support Needs Policy in Scotland: Challenging or Reinforcing Social Inequality?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riddell, Sheila; Weedon, Elisabet

    2016-01-01

    This paper focuses on Scottish policy on additional support needs and its material outcomes. The central question addressed is the extent to which the Scottish additional support needs system undermines or reinforces existing social and economic inequalities. Administrative data highlight the inflation of the additional support needs category,…

  3. 36 CFR 1290.4 - Types of materials included in scope of assassination record and additional records and information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Types of materials included..., Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION JFK ASSASSINATION RECORDS... documentary material; (b) Photographs; (c) Motion pictures; (d) Sound and video recordings; (e)...

  4. 36 CFR 1290.4 - Types of materials included in scope of assassination record and additional records and information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Types of materials included..., Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION JFK ASSASSINATION RECORDS... documentary material; (b) Photographs; (c) Motion pictures; (d) Sound and video recordings; (e)...

  5. 36 CFR 1290.4 - Types of materials included in scope of assassination record and additional records and information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Types of materials included..., Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION JFK ASSASSINATION RECORDS... documentary material; (b) Photographs; (c) Motion pictures; (d) Sound and video recordings; (e)...

  6. 7 CFR 984.437 - Methods for proposing names of additional candidates to be included on walnut growers' nomination...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... to be included on walnut growers' nomination ballots. 984.437 Section 984.437 Agriculture Regulations... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WALNUTS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Administrative... walnut growers' nomination ballots. (a) With regard to Board grower member positions specified in §...

  7. 7 CFR 984.437 - Methods for proposing names of additional candidates to be included on walnut growers' nomination...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... to be included on walnut growers' nomination ballots. 984.437 Section 984.437 Agriculture Regulations... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WALNUTS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Administrative... walnut growers' nomination ballots. (a) With regard to Board grower member positions specified in §...

  8. 7 CFR 984.437 - Methods for proposing names of additional candidates to be included on walnut growers' nomination...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... to be included on walnut growers' nomination ballots. 984.437 Section 984.437 Agriculture Regulations... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WALNUTS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Administrative... walnut growers' nomination ballots. (a) With regard to Board grower member positions specified in §...

  9. 7 CFR 984.437 - Methods for proposing names of additional candidates to be included on walnut growers' nomination...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... to be included on walnut growers' nomination ballots. 984.437 Section 984.437 Agriculture Regulations... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WALNUTS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Administrative... walnut growers' nomination ballots. (a) With regard to Board grower member positions specified in §...

  10. 7 CFR 984.437 - Methods for proposing names of additional candidates to be included on walnut growers' nomination...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... to be included on walnut growers' nomination ballots. 984.437 Section 984.437 Agriculture Regulations... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WALNUTS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Administrative... walnut growers' nomination ballots. (a) With regard to Board grower member positions specified in §...

  11. Benchmarking spliced alignment programs including Spaln2, an extended version of Spaln that incorporates additional species-specific features

    PubMed Central

    Iwata, Hiroaki; Gotoh, Osamu

    2012-01-01

    Spliced alignment plays a central role in the precise identification of eukaryotic gene structures. Even though many spliced alignment programs have been developed, recent rapid progress in DNA sequencing technologies demands further improvements in software tools. Benchmarking algorithms under various conditions is an indispensable task for the development of better software; however, there is a dire lack of appropriate datasets usable for benchmarking spliced alignment programs. In this study, we have constructed two types of datasets: simulated sequence datasets and actual cross-species datasets. The datasets are designed to correspond to various real situations, i.e. divergent eukaryotic species, different types of reference sequences, and the wide divergence between query and target sequences. In addition, we have developed an extended version of our program Spaln, which incorporates two additional features to the scoring scheme of the original version, and examined this extended version, Spaln2, together with the original Spaln and other representative aligners based on our benchmark datasets. Although the effects of the modifications are not individually striking, Spaln2 is consistently most accurate and reasonably fast in most practical cases, especially for plants and fungi and for increasingly divergent pairs of target and query sequences. PMID:22848105

  12. Patients as team members: opportunities, challenges and paradoxes of including patients in multi-professional healthcare teams.

    PubMed

    Martin, Graham P; Finn, Rachael

    2011-11-01

    Current healthcare policy emphasises the need for more collaborative, team-based approaches to providing care, and for a greater voice for service users in the management and delivery of care. Increasingly, policy encourages 'partnerships' between users and professionals so that users, too, effectively become team members. In examining this phenomenon, this paper draws on insights from the organisational-sociological literature on team work, which highlights the challenges of bringing together diverse professional groups, but which has not, to date, been applied in contexts where users, too, are included in teams. Using data from a qualitative study of five pilot cancer-genetics projects, in which service users were included in teams responsible for managing and developing new services, it highlights the difficulties involved in making teams of such heterogeneous members-and the paradoxes that arise when this task is achieved. It reveals how the tension between integration and specialisation of team members, highlighted in the literature on teams in general, is especially acute for service users, the distinctiveness of whose contribution is more fragile, and open to blurring.

  13. Uranium hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance of the Newcastle NTMS quadrangle, Wyoming, including concentrations of forty-two additional elements

    SciTech Connect

    Goff, S.J.; Sandoval, W.F.; Gallimore, D.L.; Talcott, C.L.; Martinez, R.G.; Minor, M.E.; Mills, C.F.

    1980-06-01

    During the summer and fall of 1977, 533 water and 1226 sediment samples were collected from 1740 locations within the 18,000 km/sup 2/ area of the Newcastle quadrangle, Wyoming. Water samples were collected from wells and springs; sediment samples were collected from stream channels and from springs. Each water sample was analyzed for uranium, and each sediment sample was analyzed for 43 elements, including uranium and thorium. Uranium concentrations in water samples range from below the detection limit of 0.02 ppB to 702.26 ppB and have a median of 1.73 ppB and a mean of 11.76 ppB. Water samples containing high uranium concentrations (>20 ppB) generally are associated with known uranium mining activity or units known to be uranium bearing. About one-third of the water samples containing high uranium concentrations were collected from locations within the Pumpkin Buttes and Turnercrest-Ross Districts. Nearly half of the water samples containing high uranium concentrations were collected from locations just west of the Monument Hill and Highland Flats-Box Creek Districts. Similar anomalous uranium concentrations in this region have been reported updip from Exxon's Highland uranium deposits. High uranium concentrations were also found associated with the Lance Creek-Old Woman Anticline District.

  14. Performance of portland limestone cements: Cements designed to be more sustainable that include up to 15% limestone addition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrett, Timothy J.

    In 2009, ASTM and AASHTO permitted the use of up to 5% interground limestone in ordinary portland cement (OPC) as a part of a change to ASTM C150/AASHTO M85. When this work was initiated a new proposal was being discussed that would enable up to 15% interground limestone cement to be considered in ASTM C595/AASHTO M234. This work served to provide rapid feedback to the state department of transportation and concrete industry for use in discussions regarding these specifications. Since the time this work was initiated, ASTM C595/AASHTO M234 was passed (2012c) and PLCs are now able to be specified, however they are still not widely used. The proposal for increasing the volume of limestone that would be permitted to be interground in cement is designed to enable more sustainable construction, which may significantly reduce the CO2 that is embodied in the built infrastructure while also extending the life of cement quarries. Research regarding the performance of cements with interground limestone has been conducted by the cement industry since these cements became widely used in Europe over three decades ago, however this work focuses on North American Portland Limestone Cements (PLCs) which are specifically designed to achieve similar performance as the OPCs they replace.This thesis presents a two-phase study in which the potential for application of cements containing limestone was assessed. The first phase of this study utilized a fundamental approach to determine whether cement with up to 15% of interground or blended limestone can be used as a direct substitute to ordinary portland cement. The second phase of the study assessed the concern of early age shrinkage and cracking potential when using PLCs, as these cements are typically ground finer than their OPC counterparts. For the first phase of the study, three commercially produced PLCs were obtained and compared to three commercially produced OPCs made from the same clinker. An additional cement was tested

  15. Uranium hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance of the Newcastle NTMS Quadrangle, Wyoming, including concentrations of forty-two additional elements

    SciTech Connect

    Goff, S.J.; Sandoval, W.F.; Gallimore, D.L.; Talcott, C.L.; Martinez, R.G.; Minor, M.E.; Mills, C.F.

    1980-06-01

    Water and sediment samples were collected and each water sample was analyzed for U, and each sediment sample was analyzed for 43 elements, including U and Th. Uranium concentrations in water samples range from below the detection limit of 0.02 ppB to 702.26 ppB and have a median of 1.73 ppB and a mean of 11.76 ppB. Water samples containing high uranium concentrations generally are associated with known uranium mining activity or units known to be uranium bearing. About one-third of the water samples containing high uranium concentrations were collected from locations within the Pumpkin Buttes and Turnercrest-Ross Districts. Nearly half of the water samples containing high uranium concentrations were collected from locations just west of the Monument Hill and Highland Flats-Box Creek Districts. Similar anomalous uranium concentrations in this region have been reported updip from Exxon's Highland uranium deposits. High uranium concentrations were also found associated with the Lance Creek-Old Woman Anticline District. Uranium concentrations in sediment samples range from 1.14 to 220.70 ppM and have a median of 3.37 ppM and a mean of 4.03 ppM. Throughout the major uranium mining districts of the Powder River Basin, sediment samples with high uranium concentrations were collected from dry streams located near wells producing water samples with high uranium concentrations. High uranium concentrations were also found associated with the Lance Creek oil field where uranium mineralization is known in the White River formation. High uranium concentrations were also found in sediment samples in areas where uranium mineralization is not known. These samples are from dry streams in areas underlain by the White River formation, the Niobrara formation, and the Pierre, Carlisle, Belle Fourche, and Mowry shales.

  16. High-Challenge Teaching for Senior English as an Additional Language Learners in Times of Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alford, Jennifer; Jetnikoff, Anita

    2011-01-01

    This paper will present a brief overview of the recent shifts within English and EAL/D (English as an additional language/dialect) curriculum documents and their focus on critical literacy, using the Queensland context as a case in point. The English syllabus landscape in Queensland has continued to morph in recent years. From 2002 to 2009,…

  17. Antiphospholipid antibody testing for the antiphospholipid syndrome: a comprehensive practical review including a synopsis of challenges and recent guidelines.

    PubMed

    Favaloro, Emmanuel J; Wong, Richard C W

    2014-10-01

    The antiphospholipid (antibody) syndrome (APS) is an autoimmune condition characterised by a wide range of clinical features, but primarily identified as thrombotic and/or obstetric related adverse events. APS is associated with the presence of antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL), including the so-called lupus anticoagulant (LA). These aPL are heterogeneous in nature, detected with varying sensitivity and specificity by a diverse range of laboratory tests. All these tests are unfortunately imperfect, suffer from poor assay reproducibility (inter-method and inter-laboratory) and a lack of standardisation and harmonisation. Clinicians and laboratory personnel may struggle to keep abreast of these factors, as well as the expanding range of available aPL tests, and consequent result interpretation. Therefore, APS remains a significant diagnostic challenge for many clinicians across a wide range of clinical specialities, due to these issues related to laboratory testing as well as the ever-expanding range of reported clinical manifestations. This review is primarily focussed on issues related to laboratory testing for APS in regards to the currently available assays, and summarises recent international consensus guidelines for aPL testing, both for the liquid phase functional LA assays and the solid phase assays (anticardiolipin and anti-beta-2-Glycoprotein-I).

  18. Controlled laboratory challenge demonstrates substantial additive genetic variation in resistance to Streptococcus iniae in Nile tilapia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Streptococcus iniae is an etiologic agent of streptococcal disease in tilapia and is one of several Streptococcus spp. that negatively impact worldwide tilapia production. Methods for the prevention and control of S. iniae include vaccines, management strategies, and antibiotics. An alternative and ...

  19. The Challenges of Implementing Group Work in Primary School Classrooms and Including Pupils with Special Educational Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baines, Ed; Blatchford, Peter; Webster, Rob

    2015-01-01

    Findings from two studies are discussed in relation to the experiences and challenges faced by teachers trying to implement effective group work in schools and classrooms and to reflect on the lessons learnt about how to involve pupils with special educational needs (SEN). The first study reports on UK primary school teachers' experiences of…

  20. Morbidly obese parturient: Challenges for the anaesthesiologist, including managing the difficult airway in obstetrics. What is new?

    PubMed

    Rao, Durga Prasada; Rao, Venkateswara A

    2010-11-01

    The purpose of this article is to review the fundamental aspects of obesity, pregnancy and a combination of both. The scientific aim is to understand the physiological changes, pathological clinical presentations and application of technical skills and pharmacological knowledge on this unique clinical condition. The goal of this presentation is to define the difficult airway, highlight the main reasons for difficult or failed intubation and propose a practical approach to management Throughout the review, an important component is the necessity for team work between the anaesthesiologist and the obstetrician. Certain protocols are recommended to meet the anaesthetic challenges and finally concluding with "what is new?" in obstetric anaesthesia.

  1. Potential sources of 2-aminoacetophenone to confound the Pseudomonas aeruginosa breath test, including analysis of a food challenge study.

    PubMed

    Scott-Thomas, Amy; Pearson, John; Chambers, Stephen

    2011-12-01

    2-Aminoacetophenone can be detected in the breath of Pseudomonas aeruginosa colonized cystic fibrosis patients; however, low levels were also detected in a small proportion of healthy subjects. It was hypothesized that food, beverages, cosmetics or medications could be a source of contamination of 2-aminoacetophenone in breath. To determine the potential confounding of these products on 2-aminoacetophenone breath analysis, screening for this volatile was performed in the laboratory by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and a food challenge study carried out. 2-Aminoacetophenone was detected in four of the 78 samples tested in vitro: corn chips and canned tuna (high pmol mol(-1)) and egg white and one of the three beers (low pmol mol(-1)). No 2-aminoacetophenone was detected in the CF medication or cosmetics tested. Twenty-eight out of 30 environmental air samples were negative for 2-aminoacetophenone (below 50 pmol mol(-1)). A challenge study with ten healthy subjects was performed to determine if 2-aminoacetophenone from corn chips was detectable on the breath after consumption. Analysis of mixed breath samples reported that the levels of 2-aminoacetophenone were immediately elevated after corn chip consumption, but after 2 h the level of 2-aminoacetophenone had reduced back to the 'baseline' for each subject.

  2. 41 CFR 302-7.21 - If my HHG shipment includes an item for which a weight additive is assessed by the HHG carrier (e...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false If my HHG shipment includes an item for which a weight additive is assessed by the HHG carrier (e.g., boat, trailer... is assessed by the HHG carrier (e.g., boat, trailer, ultralight vehicle), am I responsible...

  3. 41 CFR 302-7.21 - If my HHG shipment includes an item for which a weight additive is assessed by the HHG carrier (e...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true If my HHG shipment includes an item for which a weight additive is assessed by the HHG carrier (e.g., boat, trailer... the HHG carrier (e.g., boat, trailer, ultralight vehicle), am I responsible for payment? (a) No,...

  4. 41 CFR 302-7.21 - If my HHG shipment includes an item for which a weight additive is assessed by the HHG carrier (e...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false If my HHG shipment includes an item for which a weight additive is assessed by the HHG carrier (e.g., boat, trailer... Management Federal Travel Regulation System RELOCATION ALLOWANCES TRANSPORTATION AND STORAGE OF PROPERTY...

  5. [Challenges in care of trauma patient in Spain. The need for implementation of scientific evidence including secondary prevention].

    PubMed

    Fernández Mondéjar, E; Alvarez, F J; González Luque, J C

    2014-01-01

    The mortality of trauma patients has improved significantly in recent decades due to a combination of factors: medical care, educational campaigns and structural changes. Generalization of out-of hospital emergence medical services and the hospital care in specific centers for traumatized has undoubtedly contributed to this decline, but other factors such as periodic campaigns to prevent workplace and traffic accidents, as well as improvements in the road network have played a key role. The challenge now is to continue to decrease mortality, for which is essential an analysis of the situation to detect potential areas of improvement. The application of diagnostic or therapeutic actions with scientific evidence is associated with lower mortality, but as in other areas of medicine, the application of scientific evidence in trauma patients is barely 50%. Moreover, nearly 90% of trauma deaths occur in the crash site or in the first 72h of hospitalization, the vast majority as a result of injuries incompatible with life. In these circumstances it is clear that prevention is the most cost-effective activity. As medical practitioners, our role in prevention is mainly focused on the secondary prevention to avoid recidivism, for which it is necessary to identify risk factor (frequently alcohol, illegal drugs, psychotropic medication etc.) and implement a brief motivational intervention. This activity can reduce recidivism by nearly 50%. In Spain, the activity in this field is negligible therefore measures should be implemented for dissemination of secondary prevention in trauma.

  6. Mathematical speech and practical action: a case study of the challenges of including mathematics in a school technology project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bungum, Berit; Manshadi, Saeed; Atle Lysne, Dag

    2014-11-01

    This paper presents a case study of how a teacher and nine-year-old students deal with mathematics in a practical technology project. By analysing videotaped dialogues between teacher and a pair of students working on constructing a house model, we identify challenges of meaningful inclusion of mathematics in the project. The dialogues are analysed in terms of an analytical framework where four categories of interaction patterns are combined with two main paradigms of mathematics teaching: the exercise paradigm and landscapes of interaction. The project in itself has a potential for facilitating landscapes of investigation in mathematics teaching. However, we find that the teacher as well as students adheres to the exercise paradigm when mathematics is involved in the activity. Two illustrating episodes from the project are examined and presented in detail in this paper. The findings illustrate that the conceptions teachers and students hold of what mathematics teaching means can act as an obstacle in attempts to realize mathematics teaching in creative and meaningful contexts for young students. We suggest that making the various purposes of a project more explicit may help overcome this obstacle, and that the mathematics involved might be taught in separate sessions in order to form a constructive part of a cross-curricular project.

  7. Tardigrada of Ireland: a review of records and an updated checklist of species including a new addition to the Irish fauna

    PubMed Central

    DeMilio, Erica; Lawton, Colin; Marley, Nigel J.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The phylum Tardigrada was not recorded in Ireland until the Clare Island Survey of 1909–1911, with only rare subsequent reports on Irish tardigrade species. In recent decades, significant taxonomic revision has occurred within Tardigrada. This has resulted in the need for a review of all known historical records from Ireland and Northern Ireland in order to produce an updated checklist of valid taxa. The new checklist includes fifty-one tardigrade species and subspecies including a new addition to the Irish fauna reported herein, Echiniscus quadrispinosus quadrispinosus Richters, 1902 from Newtown, Ballyvaughan, Co. Clare. PMID:27667947

  8. Tardigrada of Ireland: a review of records and an updated checklist of species including a new addition to the Irish fauna.

    PubMed

    DeMilio, Erica; Lawton, Colin; Marley, Nigel J

    2016-01-01

    The phylum Tardigrada was not recorded in Ireland until the Clare Island Survey of 1909-1911, with only rare subsequent reports on Irish tardigrade species. In recent decades, significant taxonomic revision has occurred within Tardigrada. This has resulted in the need for a review of all known historical records from Ireland and Northern Ireland in order to produce an updated checklist of valid taxa. The new checklist includes fifty-one tardigrade species and subspecies including a new addition to the Irish fauna reported herein, Echiniscus quadrispinosus quadrispinosus Richters, 1902 from Newtown, Ballyvaughan, Co. Clare.

  9. Challenges of Sustaining the International Space Station through 2020 and Beyond: Including Epistemic Uncertainty in Reassessing Confidence Targets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Leif; Carter-Journet, Katrina; Box, Neil; DiFilippo, Denise; Harrington, Sean; Jackson, David; Lutomski, Michael

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces an analytical approach, Probability and Confidence Trade-space (PACT), which can be used to assess uncertainty in International Space Station (ISS) hardware sparing necessary to extend the life of the vehicle. There are several key areas under consideration in this research. We investigate what sparing confidence targets may be reasonable to ensure vehicle survivability and for completion of science on the ISS. The results of the analysis will provide a methodological basis for reassessing vehicle subsystem confidence targets. An ongoing annual analysis currently compares the probability of existing spares exceeding the total expected unit demand of the Orbital Replacement Unit (ORU) in functional hierarchies approximating the vehicle subsystems. In cases where the functional hierarchies availability does not meet subsystem confidence targets, the current sparing analysis further identifies which ORUs may require additional spares to extend the life of the ISS. The resulting probability is dependent upon hardware reliability estimates. However, the ISS hardware fleet carries considerable epistemic uncertainty (uncertainty in the knowledge of the true hardware failure rate), which does not currently factor into the annual sparing analysis. The existing confidence targets may be conservative. This paper will also discuss how confidence targets may be relaxed based on the inclusion of epistemic uncertainty for each ORU. The paper will conclude with strengths and limitations for implementing the analytical approach in sustaining the ISS through end of life, 2020 and beyond.

  10. Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Thomas R.

    1975-01-01

    Domestic and international challenges facing the National Society for the Prevention of Blindness are discussed; and U.S. and Russian programs in testing and correcting children's vision, developing eye safety programs in agriculture and industry, and disseminating information concerning the detection and treatment of cataracts are compared. (SB)

  11. Challenger

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allday, Jonathan

    2002-01-01

    The events that led to the spectacular destruction of the Space Shuttle "Challenger" in 1986 are detailed here. They show how NASA should have heeded engineers' worries over materials problems resulting from a launch in cold weather. Suggestions are made of how pupils could also learn from this tragedy. (Contains 4 figures and 2 footnotes.)

  12. An oral lipid challenge and acute intake of caffeinated coffee additively decrease glucose tolerance in healthy men.

    PubMed

    Beaudoin, Marie-Soleil; Robinson, Lindsay E; Graham, Terry E

    2011-04-01

    Lipid-induced insulin resistance has been investigated primarily with i.v. infusions, and caffeine-induced insulin resistance, with alkaloid caffeine. The effects of orally consumed lipids and coffee have not been established and to our knowledge have never been simultaneously investigated. The goals of this study were to determine whether an oral lipid challenge and caffeinated coffee would disrupt glucose homeostasis and to characterize their respective incretin responses. It was hypothesized that oral ingestion of saturated lipids would impair glucose tolerance and that caffeinated coffee would further hinder glucose management. Ten young, healthy males participated in 5 trials in a randomized, cross-over design. At time 0 h, they underwent an oral fat tolerance test (OFTT: 1 g lipid/kg body weight) or consumed water, followed 5 h later by caffeinated (5 mg/kg) coffee, decaffeinated coffee, or water. At 6 h, volunteers underwent an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Consumption of the OFTT increased glucose concentrations (P < 0.05) after a subsequent OGTT. At 7 h, caffeinated coffee produced the highest glucose concentrations (P < 0.05). Glucagon-like peptide-1 active (GLP-1a) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) were both increased for up to 6 h in all OFTT trials (P < 0.05). Compared to all other treatments, caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee produced higher GLP-1a response at 6.25 h (P < 0.05), whereas only caffeinated coffee increased GIP secretion (P < 0.05). These results show that oral consumption of lipids and caffeinated coffee can independently and additively decrease glucose tolerance. Incretin hormones could explain at least in part this impaired glucose homeostasis.

  13. Interleukin-10 neutralizing antibody for detection of intestinal luminal levels and as a dietary additive in Eimeria challenged broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Arendt, Maria K; Sand, Jordan M; Marcone, Taylor M; Cook, Mark E

    2016-02-01

    Interleukin-10 (IL-10) mRNA levels are increased within intestinal mucosa after Eimeria infection. IL-10 apical receptor presence on enterocytes suggests IL-10 is secreted into the intestinal lumen. Increased IL-10 has been shown to be central to the pathogenesis of numerous intracellular pathogens; we hypothesize luminal secretion of IL-10 enables Eimeria spp. infection in chickens. This study examines intestine luminal IL-10 levels and performance in broilers challenged with Eimeria when fed an anti-IL-10 antibody. Chicks were fed a diet (1 to 21 d) with control or anti-IL-10 antibody (0.34 g egg yolk antibody powder/Kg diet) with a saline or 10× dose of Advent coccidiosis vaccine on d 3. One chick per pen was euthanized on days 2, 4, 7, 10, 13, 16, and 19 post-challenge, bled, and intestines were collected for luminal fluid IL-10 concentrations. Body weight and feed intake were measured on d 21, and oocyst shedding was assessed on d 7 post-challenge. A significant Eimeria × antibody interaction on d 21 body weight (P < 0.05) showed chicks fed control antibody, but not anti-IL-10, had significant reductions in body weight when challenged with Eimeria spp. Oocyst shedding was increased with Eimeria challenge, but dietary antibody had no effect. Plasma carotenoid levels were reduced in Eimeria challenged chicks 4, 7, 10, and 16 days post-challenge compared to unchallenged chicks. Lack of an Eimeria × antibody interaction showed anti-IL-10 was not protective against Eimeria-induced decreases in plasma carotenoids. Eimeria challenge increased intestine luminal IL-10 on days 4 and 7 post-challenge in the cecum and jejunum, respectively, compared to unchallenged. Dietary anti-IL-10 decreased luminal IL-10 in the ileum on day 2 post-challenge when compared to control antibody fed chicks. No interaction between Eimeria challenge and antibody was observed on intestine luminal contents of IL-10, suggesting anti-IL-10 was ineffective at preventing increased Eimeria

  14. 21 CFR 1404.735 - Under what conditions do I get an additional opportunity to challenge the facts on which the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Under what conditions do I get an additional opportunity to challenge the facts on which the suspension is based? 1404.735 Section 1404.735 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION...

  15. 21 CFR 1404.735 - Under what conditions do I get an additional opportunity to challenge the facts on which the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Under what conditions do I get an additional opportunity to challenge the facts on which the suspension is based? 1404.735 Section 1404.735 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION...

  16. 21 CFR 1404.830 - Under what conditions do I get an additional opportunity to challenge the facts on which a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Under what conditions do I get an additional opportunity to challenge the facts on which a proposed debarment is based? 1404.830 Section 1404.830 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION...

  17. 21 CFR 1404.830 - Under what conditions do I get an additional opportunity to challenge the facts on which a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Under what conditions do I get an additional opportunity to challenge the facts on which a proposed debarment is based? 1404.830 Section 1404.830 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION...

  18. 21 CFR 1404.735 - Under what conditions do I get an additional opportunity to challenge the facts on which the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Under what conditions do I get an additional opportunity to challenge the facts on which the suspension is based? 1404.735 Section 1404.735 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION...

  19. 21 CFR 1404.830 - Under what conditions do I get an additional opportunity to challenge the facts on which a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Under what conditions do I get an additional opportunity to challenge the facts on which a proposed debarment is based? 1404.830 Section 1404.830 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION...

  20. Measurement of [Formula: see text] production with additional jet activity, including [Formula: see text] quark jets, in the dilepton decay channel using pp collisions at [Formula: see text].

    PubMed

    Khachatryan, V; Sirunyan, A M; Tumasyan, A; Adam, W; Asilar, E; Bergauer, T; Brandstetter, J; Brondolin, E; Dragicevic, M; Erö, J; Friedl, M; Frühwirth, R; Ghete, V M; Hartl, C; Hörmann, N; Hrubec, J; Jeitler, M; Knünz, V; König, A; Krammer, M; Krätschmer, I; Liko, D; Matsushita, T; Mikulec, I; Rabady, D; Rahbaran, B; Rohringer, H; Schieck, J; Schöfbeck, R; Strauss, J; Treberer-Treberspurg, W; Waltenberger, W; Wulz, C-E; Mossolov, V; Shumeiko, N; Suarez Gonzalez, J; Alderweireldt, S; Cornelis, T; De Wolf, E A; Janssen, X; Knutsson, A; Lauwers, J; Luyckx, S; Van De Klundert, M; Van Haevermaet, H; Van Mechelen, P; Van Remortel, N; Van Spilbeeck, A; Abu Zeid, S; Blekman, F; D'Hondt, J; Daci, N; De Bruyn, I; Deroover, K; Heracleous, N; Keaveney, J; Lowette, S; Moreels, L; Olbrechts, A; Python, Q; Strom, D; Tavernier, S; Van Doninck, W; Van Mulders, P; Van Onsem, G P; Van Parijs, I; Barria, P; Brun, H; Caillol, C; Clerbaux, B; De Lentdecker, G; Fasanella, G; Favart, L; Grebenyuk, A; Karapostoli, G; Lenzi, T; Léonard, A; Maerschalk, T; Marinov, A; Perniè, L; Randle-Conde, A; Reis, T; Seva, T; Vander Velde, C; Yonamine, R; Vanlaer, P; Yonamine, R; Zenoni, F; Zhang, F; Adler, V; Beernaert, K; Benucci, L; Cimmino, A; Crucy, S; Dobur, D; Fagot, A; Garcia, G; Gul, M; Mccartin, J; Ocampo Rios, A A; Poyraz, D; Ryckbosch, D; Salva, S; Sigamani, M; Strobbe, N; Tytgat, M; Van Driessche, W; Yazgan, E; Zaganidis, N; Basegmez, S; Beluffi, C; Bondu, O; Brochet, S; Bruno, G; Caudron, A; Ceard, L; Da Silveira, G G; Delaere, C; Favart, D; Forthomme, L; Giammanco, A; Hollar, J; Jafari, A; Jez, P; Komm, M; Lemaitre, V; Mertens, A; Musich, M; Nuttens, C; Perrini, L; Pin, A; Piotrzkowski, K; Popov, A; Quertenmont, L; Selvaggi, M; Vidal Marono, M; Beliy, N; Hammad, G H; Júnior, W L Aldá; Alves, F L; Alves, G A; Brito, L; Correa Martins Junior, M; Hamer, M; Hensel, C; Mora Herrera, C; Moraes, A; Pol, M E; Rebello Teles, P; Belchior Batista Das Chagas, E; Carvalho, W; Chinellato, J; Custódio, A; Da Costa, E M; De Jesus Damiao, D; De Oliveira Martins, C; Fonseca De Souza, S; Huertas Guativa, L M; Malbouisson, H; Matos Figueiredo, D; Mundim, L; Nogima, H; Prado Da Silva, W L; Santoro, A; Sznajder, A; Tonelli Manganote, E J; Vilela Pereira, A; Ahuja, S; Bernardes, C A; De Souza Santos, A; Dogra, S; Fernandez Perez Tomei, T R; Gregores, E M; Mercadante, P G; Moon, C S; Novaes, S F; Padula, Sandra S; Romero Abad, D; Ruiz Vargas, J C; Aleksandrov, A; Hadjiiska, R; Iaydjiev, P; Rodozov, M; Stoykova, S; Sultanov, G; Vutova, M; Dimitrov, A; Glushkov, I; Litov, L; Pavlov, B; Petkov, P; Ahmad, M; Bian, J G; Chen, G M; Chen, H S; Chen, M; Cheng, T; Du, R; Jiang, C H; Plestina, R; Romeo, F; Shaheen, S M; Spiezia, A; Tao, J; Wang, C; Wang, Z; Zhang, H; Asawatangtrakuldee, C; Ban, Y; Li, Q; Liu, S; Mao, Y; Qian, S J; Wang, D; Xu, Z; Avila, C; Cabrera, A; Chaparro Sierra, L F; Florez, C; Gomez, J P; Gomez Moreno, B; Sanabria, J C; Godinovic, N; Lelas, D; Puljak, I; Ribeiro Cipriano, P M; Antunovic, Z; Kovac, M; Brigljevic, V; Kadija, K; Luetic, J; Micanovic, S; Sudic, L; Attikis, A; Mavromanolakis, G; Mousa, J; Nicolaou, C; Ptochos, F; Razis, P A; Rykaczewski, H; Bodlak, M; Finger, M; Finger, M; El Sawy, M; El-Khateeb, E; Elkafrawy, T; Mohamed, A; Salama, E; Calpas, B; Kadastik, M; Murumaa, M; Raidal, M; Tiko, A; Veelken, C; Eerola, P; Pekkanen, J; Voutilainen, M; Härkönen, J; Karimäki, V; Kinnunen, R; Lampén, T; Lassila-Perini, K; Lehti, S; Lindén, T; Luukka, P; Mäenpää, T; Peltola, T; Tuominen, E; Tuominiemi, J; Tuovinen, E; Wendland, L; Talvitie, J; Tuuva, T; Besancon, M; Couderc, F; Dejardin, M; Denegri, D; Fabbro, B; Faure, J L; Favaro, C; Ferri, F; Ganjour, S; Givernaud, A; Gras, P; Hamel de Monchenault, G; Jarry, P; Locci, E; Machet, M; Malcles, J; Rander, J; Rosowsky, A; Titov, M; Zghiche, A; Antropov, I; Baffioni, S; Beaudette, F; Busson, P; Cadamuro, L; Chapon, E; Charlot, C; Dahms, T; Davignon, O; Filipovic, N; Florent, A; Granier de Cassagnac, R; Lisniak, S; Mastrolorenzo, L; Miné, P; Naranjo, I N; Nguyen, M; Ochando, C; Ortona, G; Paganini, P; Pigard, P; Regnard, S; Salerno, R; Sauvan, J B; Sirois, Y; Strebler, T; Yilmaz, Y; Zabi, A; Agram, J-L; Andrea, J; Aubin, A; Bloch, D; Brom, J-M; Buttignol, M; Chabert, E C; Chanon, N; Collard, C; Conte, E; Coubez, X; Fontaine, J-C; Gelé, D; Goerlach, U; Goetzmann, C; Le Bihan, A-C; Merlin, J A; Skovpen, K; Van Hove, P; Gadrat, S; Beauceron, S; Bernet, C; Boudoul, G; Bouvier, E; Carrillo Montoya, C A; Chierici, R; Contardo, D; Courbon, B; Depasse, P; El Mamouni, H; Fan, J; Fay, J; Gascon, S; Gouzevitch, M; Ille, B; Lagarde, F; Laktineh, I B; Lethuillier, M; Mirabito, L; Pequegnot, A L; Perries, S; Ruiz Alvarez, J D; Sabes, D; Sgandurra, L; Sordini, V; Vander Donckt, M; Verdier, P; Viret, S; Toriashvili, T; Lomidze, D; Autermann, C; Beranek, S; Edelhoff, M; Feld, L; Heister, A; Kiesel, M K; Klein, K; Lipinski, M; Ostapchuk, A; Preuten, M; Raupach, F; Schael, S; Schulte, J F; Verlage, T; Weber, H; Wittmer, B; Zhukov, V; Ata, M; Brodski, M; Dietz-Laursonn, E; Duchardt, D; Endres, M; Erdmann, M; Erdweg, S; Esch, T; Fischer, R; Güth, A; Hebbeker, T; Heidemann, C; Hoepfner, K; Klingebiel, D; Knutzen, S; Kreuzer, P; Merschmeyer, M; Meyer, A; Millet, P; Olschewski, M; Padeken, K; Papacz, P; Pook, T; Radziej, M; Reithler, H; Rieger, M; Scheuch, F; Sonnenschein, L; Teyssier, D; Thüer, S; Cherepanov, V; Erdogan, Y; Flügge, G; Geenen, H; Geisler, M; Hoehle, F; Kargoll, B; Kress, T; Kuessel, Y; Künsken, A; Lingemann, J; Nehrkorn, A; Nowack, A; Nugent, I M; Pistone, C; Pooth, O; Stahl, A; Aldaya Martin, M; Asin, I; Bartosik, N; Behnke, O; Behrens, U; Bell, A J; Borras, K; Burgmeier, A; Campbell, A; Choudhury, S; Costanza, F; Diez Pardos, C; Dolinska, G; Dooling, S; Dorland, T; Eckerlin, G; Eckstein, D; Eichhorn, T; Flucke, G; Gallo, E; Garcia, J Garay; Geiser, A; Gizhko, A; Gunnellini, P; Hauk, J; Hempel, M; Jung, H; Kalogeropoulos, A; Karacheban, O; Kasemann, M; Katsas, P; Kieseler, J; Kleinwort, C; Korol, I; Lange, W; Leonard, J; Lipka, K; Lobanov, A; Lohmann, W; Mankel, R; Marfin, I; Melzer-Pellmann, I-A; Meyer, A B; Mittag, G; Mnich, J; Mussgiller, A; Naumann-Emme, S; Nayak, A; Ntomari, E; Perrey, H; Pitzl, D; Placakyte, R; Raspereza, A; Roland, B; Sahin, M Ö; Saxena, P; Schoerner-Sadenius, T; Schröder, M; Seitz, C; Spannagel, S; Trippkewitz, K D; Walsh, R; Wissing, C; Blobel, V; Centis Vignali, M; Draeger, A R; Erfle, J; Garutti, E; Goebel, K; Gonzalez, D; Görner, M; Haller, J; Hoffmann, M; Höing, R S; Junkes, A; Klanner, R; Kogler, R; Lapsien, T; Lenz, T; Marchesini, I; Marconi, D; Meyer, M; Nowatschin, D; Ott, J; Pantaleo, F; Peiffer, T; Perieanu, A; Pietsch, N; Poehlsen, J; Rathjens, D; Sander, C; Schettler, H; Schleper, P; Schlieckau, E; Schmidt, A; Schwandt, J; Sola, V; Stadie, H; Steinbrück, G; Tholen, H; Troendle, D; Usai, E; Vanelderen, L; Vanhoefer, A; Vormwald, B; Akbiyik, M; Barth, C; Baus, C; Berger, J; Böser, C; Butz, E; Chwalek, T; Colombo, F; De Boer, W; Descroix, A; Dierlamm, A; Fink, S; Frensch, F; Friese, R; Giffels, M; Gilbert, A; Haitz, D; Hartmann, F; Heindl, S M; Husemann, U; Katkov, I; Kornmayer, A; Lobelle Pardo, P; Maier, B; Mildner, H; Mozer, M U; Müller, T; Müller, Th; Plagge, M; Quast, G; Rabbertz, K; Röcker, S; Roscher, F; Sieber, G; Simonis, H J; Stober, F M; Ulrich, R; Wagner-Kuhr, J; Wayand, S; Weber, M; Weiler, T; Wöhrmann, C; Wolf, R; Anagnostou, G; Daskalakis, G; Geralis, T; Giakoumopoulou, V A; Kyriakis, A; Loukas, D; Psallidas, A; Topsis-Giotis, I; Agapitos, A; Kesisoglou, S; Panagiotou, A; Saoulidou, N; Tziaferi, E; Evangelou, I; Flouris, G; Foudas, C; Kokkas, P; Loukas, N; Manthos, N; Papadopoulos, I; Paradas, E; Strologas, J; Bencze, G; Hajdu, C; Hazi, A; Hidas, P; Horvath, D; Sikler, F; Veszpremi, V; Vesztergombi, G; Zsigmond, A J; Beni, N; Czellar, S; Karancsi, J; Molnar, J; Szillasi, Z; Bartók, M; Makovec, A; Raics, P; Trocsanyi, Z L; Ujvari, B; Mal, P; Mandal, K; Sahoo, D K; Sahoo, N; Swain, S K; Bansal, S; Beri, S B; Bhatnagar, V; Chawla, R; Gupta, R; Bhawandeep, U; Kalsi, A K; Kaur, A; Kaur, M; Kumar, R; Mehta, A; Mittal, M; Singh, J B; Walia, G; Kumar, Ashok; Bhardwaj, A; Choudhary, B C; Garg, R B; Kumar, A; Malhotra, S; Naimuddin, M; Nishu, N; Ranjan, K; Sharma, R; Sharma, V; Bhattacharya, S; Chatterjee, K; Dey, S; Dutta, S; Jain, Sa; Majumdar, N; Modak, A; Mondal, K; Mukherjee, S; Mukhopadhyay, S; Roy, A; Roy, D; Roy Chowdhury, S; Sarkar, S; Sharan, M; Abdulsalam, A; Chudasama, R; Dutta, D; Jha, V; Kumar, V; Mohanty, A K; Pant, L M; Shukla, P; Topkar, A; Aziz, T; Banerjee, S; Bhowmik, S; Chatterjee, R M; Dewanjee, R K; Dugad, S; Ganguly, S; Ghosh, S; Guchait, M; Gurtu, A; Kole, G; Kumar, S; Mahakud, B; Maity, M; Majumder, G; Mazumdar, K; Mitra, S; Mohanty, G B; Parida, B; Sarkar, T; Sur, N; Sutar, B; Wickramage, N; Chauhan, S; Dube, S; Sharma, S; Bakhshiansohi, H; Behnamian, H; Etesami, S M; Fahim, A; Goldouzian, R; Khakzad, M; Mohammadi Najafabadi, M; Naseri, M; Paktinat Mehdiabadi, S; Rezaei Hosseinabadi, F; Safarzadeh, B; 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Eminizer, N; Fehling, D; Feng, L; Gritsan, A V; Maksimovic, P; Martin, C; Osherson, M; Roskes, J; Sady, A; Sarica, U; Swartz, M; Xiao, M; Xin, Y; You, C; Xiao, M; Baringer, P; Bean, A; Benelli, G; Bruner, C; Kenny, R P; Majumder, D; Majumder, D; Malek, M; Murray, M; Sanders, S; Stringer, R; Wang, Q; Ivanov, A; Kaadze, K; Khalil, S; Makouski, M; Maravin, Y; Mohammadi, A; Saini, L K; Skhirtladze, N; Toda, S; Lange, D; Rebassoo, F; Wright, D; Anelli, C; Baden, A; Baron, O; Belloni, A; Calvert, B; Eno, S C; Ferraioli, C; Gomez, J A; Hadley, N J; Jabeen, S; Jabeen, S; Kellogg, R G; Kolberg, T; Kunkle, J; Lu, Y; Mignerey, A C; Shin, Y H; Skuja, A; Tonjes, M B; Tonwar, S C; Apyan, A; Barbieri, R; Baty, A; Bierwagen, K; Brandt, S; Bierwagen, K; Busza, W; Cali, I A; Demiragli, Z; Di Matteo, L; Gomez Ceballos, G; Goncharov, M; Gulhan, D; Iiyama, Y; Innocenti, G M; Klute, M; Kovalskyi, D; Lai, Y S; Lee, Y-J; Levin, A; Luckey, P D; Marini, A C; Mcginn, C; Mironov, C; Narayanan, S; Niu, X; Paus, C; Ralph, D; Roland, C; Roland, G; Salfeld-Nebgen, J; Stephans, G S F; Sumorok, K; Varma, M; Velicanu, D; Veverka, J; Wang, J; Wang, T W; Wyslouch, B; Yang, M; Zhukova, V; Dahmes, B; Evans, A; Finkel, A; Gude, A; Hansen, P; Kalafut, S; Kao, S C; Klapoetke, K; Kubota, Y; Lesko, Z; Mans, J; Nourbakhsh, S; Ruckstuhl, N; Rusack, R; Tambe, N; Turkewitz, J; Acosta, J G; Oliveros, S; Avdeeva, E; Bloom, K; Bose, S; Claes, D R; Dominguez, A; Fangmeier, C; Gonzalez Suarez, R; Kamalieddin, R; Keller, J; Knowlton, D; Kravchenko, I; Meier, F; Monroy, J; Ratnikov, F; Siado, J E; Snow, G R; Alyari, M; Dolen, J; George, J; Godshalk, A; Harrington, C; Iashvili, I; Kaisen, J; Kharchilava, A; Kumar, A; Rappoccio, S; Roozbahani, B; Alverson, G; Barberis, E; Baumgartel, D; Chasco, M; Hortiangtham, A; Massironi, A; Morse, D M; Nash, D; Orimoto, T; Teixeira De Lima, R; Trocino, D; Wang, R-J; Wood, D; Zhang, J; Hahn, K A; Kubik, A; Mucia, N; Odell, N; Pollack, B; Pozdnyakov, A; Schmitt, M; Stoynev, S; Sung, K; Trovato, M; Velasco, M; Brinkerhoff, A; Dev, N; Hildreth, M; Jessop, C; Karmgard, D J; Kellams, N; Lannon, K; Lynch, S; Marinelli, N; Meng, F; Mueller, C; Musienko, Y; Pearson, T; Planer, M; Reinsvold, A; Ruchti, R; Smith, G; Taroni, S; Valls, N; Wayne, M; Wolf, M; Woodard, A; Antonelli, L; Brinson, J; Bylsma, B; Durkin, L S; Flowers, S; Hart, A; Hill, C; Hughes, R; Ji, W; Kotov, K; Ling, T Y; Liu, B; Luo, W; Puigh, D; Rodenburg, M; Winer, B L; Wulsin, H W; Driga, O; Elmer, P; Hardenbrook, J; Hebda, P; Koay, S A; Lujan, P; Marlow, D; Medvedeva, T; Mooney, M; Olsen, J; Palmer, C; Piroué, P; Saka, H; Stickland, D; Tully, C; Zuranski, A; Malik, S; Barnes, V E; Benedetti, D; Bortoletto, D; Gutay, L; Jha, M K; Jones, M; Jung, K; Miller, D H; Neumeister, N; Primavera, F; Radburn-Smith, B C; Shi, X; Shipsey, I; Silvers, D; Sun, J; Svyatkovskiy, A; Wang, F; Xie, W; Xu, L; Parashar, N; Stupak, J; Adair, A; Akgun, B; Chen, Z; Ecklund, K M; Geurts, F J M; Guilbaud, M; Li, W; Michlin, B; Northup, M; Padley, B P; Redjimi, R; Roberts, J; Rorie, J; Tu, Z; Zabel, J; Betchart, B; Bodek, A; de Barbaro, P; Demina, R; Eshaq, Y; Ferbel, T; Galanti, M; Galanti, M; Garcia-Bellido, A; Han, J; Harel, A; Hindrichs, O; Hindrichs, O; Khukhunaishvili, A; Petrillo, G; Tan, P; Verzetti, M; Arora, S; Barker, A; Chou, J P; Contreras-Campana, C; Contreras-Campana, E; Duggan, D; Ferencek, D; Gershtein, Y; Gray, R; Halkiadakis, E; Hidas, D; Hughes, E; Kaplan, S; Kunnawalkam Elayavalli, R; Lath, A; Nash, K; Panwalkar, S; Park, M; Salur, S; Schnetzer, S; Sheffield, D; Somalwar, S; Stone, R; Thomas, S; Thomassen, P; Walker, M; Foerster, M; Riley, G; Rose, K; Spanier, S; York, A; Bouhali, O; Castaneda Hernandez, A; Dalchenko, M; De Mattia, M; Delgado, A; Dildick, S; Dildick, S; Eusebi, R; Gilmore, J; Kamon, T; Krutelyov, V; Krutelyov, V; Mueller, R; Osipenkov, I; Pakhotin, Y; Patel, R; Patel, R; Perloff, A; Rose, A; Safonov, A; Tatarinov, A; Ulmer, K A; Akchurin, N; Cowden, C; Damgov, J; Dragoiu, C; Dudero, P R; Faulkner, J; Kunori, S; Lamichhane, K; Lee, S W; Libeiro, T; Undleeb, S; Volobouev, I; Appelt, E; Delannoy, A G; Greene, S; Gurrola, A; Janjam, R; Johns, W; Maguire, C; Mao, Y; Melo, A; Ni, H; Sheldon, P; Snook, B; Tuo, S; Velkovska, J; Xu, Q; Arenton, M W; Cox, B; Francis, B; Goodell, J; Hirosky, R; Ledovskoy, A; Li, H; Lin, C; Neu, C; Sinthuprasith, T; Sun, X; Wang, Y; Wolfe, E; Wood, J; Xia, F; Clarke, C; Harr, R; Karchin, P E; Kottachchi Kankanamge Don, C; Lamichhane, P; Sturdy, J; Belknap, D A; Carlsmith, D; Cepeda, M; Dasu, S; Dodd, L; Duric, S; Gomber, B; Grothe, M; Hall-Wilton, R; Herndon, M; Hervé, A; Klabbers, P; Lanaro, A; Levine, A; Long, K; Loveless, R; Mohapatra, A; Ojalvo, I; Perry, T; Pierro, G A; Polese, G; Ruggles, T; Sarangi, T; Savin, A; Sharma, A; Smith, N; Smith, W H; Taylor, D; Woods, N; Collaboration, Authorinst The Cms

    2016-01-01

    Jet multiplicity distributions in top quark pair ([Formula: see text]) events are measured in pp collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 8 TeV with the CMS detector at the LHC using a data set corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 19.7[Formula: see text]. The measurement is performed in the dilepton decay channels ([Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], and [Formula: see text]). The absolute and normalized differential cross sections for [Formula: see text] production are measured as a function of the jet multiplicity in the event for different jet transverse momentum thresholds and the kinematic properties of the leading additional jets. The differential [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] cross sections are presented for the first time as a function of the kinematic properties of the leading additional [Formula: see text] jets. Furthermore, the fraction of events without additional jets above a threshold is measured as a function of the transverse momenta of the leading additional jets and the scalar sum of the transverse momenta of all additional jets. The data are compared and found to be consistent with predictions from several perturbative quantum chromodynamics event generators and a next-to-leading order calculation.

  1. Including xpc® feed additive in the diet of inoculated broilers during grow-out helps control salmonella associated with their carcasses after processing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to test XPC® feed additive for control of Salmonella in poultry meat products. Day of hatch broiler chicks were gavaged with 106 cells of a nalidixic acid resistant marker strain of Salmonella Typhimurium and placed on clean pine shavings in 9 separate floor pens (25 ...

  2. Quantum ring-polymer contraction method: Including nuclear quantum effects at no additional computational cost in comparison to ab initio molecular dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    John, Christopher; Spura, Thomas; Habershon, Scott; Kühne, Thomas D.

    2016-04-01

    We present a simple and accurate computational method which facilitates ab initio path-integral molecular dynamics simulations, where the quantum-mechanical nature of the nuclei is explicitly taken into account, at essentially no additional computational cost in comparison to the corresponding calculation using classical nuclei. The predictive power of the proposed quantum ring-polymer contraction method is demonstrated by computing various static and dynamic properties of liquid water at ambient conditions using density functional theory. This development will enable routine inclusion of nuclear quantum effects in ab initio molecular dynamics simulations of condensed-phase systems.

  3. Study Modules for Calculus-Based General Physics. [Includes Modules 1 and 2: Dimensions and Vector Addition; Rectilinear Motion; plus a Trigonometry and Calculus Review].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuller, Robert G., Ed.; And Others

    This is part of a series of 42 Calculus Based Physics (CBP) modules totaling about 1,000 pages. The modules include study guides, practice tests, and mastery tests for a full-year individualized course in calculus-based physics based on the Personalized System of Instruction (PSI). The units are not intended to be used without outside materials;…

  4. Localization of eight additional genes in the human major histocompatibility complex, including the gene encoding the casein kinase II {beta} subunit (CSNK2B)

    SciTech Connect

    Albertella, M.R.; Jones, H.; Thomson, W.

    1996-09-01

    A wide range of autoimmune and other diseases are known to be associated with the major histocompatibility complex. Many of these diseases are linked to the genes encoding the polymorphic histocompatibility complex. Many of these diseases are linked to the genes encoding the polymorphic histocompatibility antigens in the class I and class II regions, but some appear to be more strongly associated with genes in the central 1100-kb class III region, making it important to characterize this region fully for the presence of novel genes. An {approximately}220-kb segment of DNA in the class III region separating the Hsp70 (HSPA1L) and BAT1 (D6S8IE) genes, which was previously known to contain 14 genes. Genomic DNA fragments spanning the gaps between the known genes were used as probes to isolate cDNAs corresponding to five new genes within this region. Evidence from Northern blot analysis and exon trapping experiments that suggested the presence of at least two more new genes was also obtained. Partial cDNA and complete exonic genomic sequencing of one of the new genes has identified it as the casein kinase II{beta} subunit (CSNK2B). Two of the other novel genes lie within a region syntenic to that implicated in susceptibility to experimental allergic orchitis in the mouse, an autoimmune disease of the testis, and represent additional candidates for the Orch-1 locus associated with this disease. In addition, characterization of the 13-kb intergenic gap separating the RD (D6545) and G11 (D6S60E) genes has revealed the presence of a gene encoding a 1246-amino-acid polypeptide that shows significant sequence similarity to the yeast anti-viral Ski2p gene product. 49 refs., 8 figs.

  5. Controlled challenge experiment demonstrates substantial additive genetic variation in resistance of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) to Streptococcus iniae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Streptococcus iniae is an etiologic agent of streptococcal disease in tilapia and is one of several Streptococcus spp. that negatively impact worldwide tilapia production. Methods for the prevention and control of S. iniae include vaccines, management strategies, and antibiotics. A complimentary pre...

  6. ‘Double Trouble’: Diagnostic Challenges in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy in Patients with an Additional Hereditary Skeletal Dysplasia

    PubMed Central

    Donkervoort, Sandra; Schindler, Alice; Tesi-Rocha, Carolina; Schreiber, Allison; Leach, Meganne E.; Dastgir, Jahannaz; Hu, Ying; Mankodi, Ami; Wagner, Kathryn R.; Friedman, Neil R.; Bönnemann, Carsten G.

    2015-01-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is caused by mutations Dystrophin and affects 1 in 3600-6000 males. It is characterized by progressive weakness, leading to loss of ambulation, respiratory insufficiency, cardiomyopathy, and scoliosis. We describe the unusual phenotype of 3 patients with skeletal dysplasias in whom an additional diagnosis of DMD was later established. Two unrelated boys presented with osteogenesis imperfecta due to point mutations in COL1A1 and were both subsequently found to have a 1bp frameshift deletion in the Dystrophin gene at age 3 and age 15, respectively. The third patient had a diagnosis of pseudoachondroplasia caused by a mutation in the COMP gene and was found to have a deletion of exons 48-50 in Dystrophin at age 9. We discuss the atypical presentation caused by the concomitant presence of 2 conditions affecting the musculoskeletal system, emphasizing aspects that may confound the presentation of a well-characterized disease like DMD. Additional series of patients with DMD and a secondary inherited condition are necessary to establish the natural history in this “double trouble” population. The recognition and accurate diagnosis of patients with two independent genetic disease processes is essential for management, prognosis, genetic risk assessment, and discussion regarding potential therapeutic interventions. PMID:24070816

  7. Effects of a Dissostichus mawsoni-CaM recombinant proteins feed additive on the juvenile orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides) under the acute low temperature challenge.

    PubMed

    Luo, Sheng-Wei; Wang, Wei-Na; Cai, Luo; Qi, Zeng-Hua; Wang, Cong; Liu, Yuan; Peng, Chang-Lian; Chen, Liang-Biao

    2015-10-01

    The effects of Dissostichus mawsoni-Calmodulin (Dm-CaM) on growth performance, enzyme activities, respiratory burst, MDA level and immune-related gene expressions of the orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides) exposed to the acute low temperature stress were evaluated. The commercial diet supplemented with Dm-CaM protein was fed to the groupers for 6 weeks. No significant difference was observed in the specific growth rates, weight gains and survivals. After the feeding trial, the groupers were exposed to acute low temperature challenge. The groupers fed with Dm-CaM additive diet showed a significant decrease in the respiratory burst activity, while the blood cell number increased significantly at 25 °C by comparing with the control and additive control group. The enzymatic activity of SOD, ACP and ALP increased significantly in Dm-CaM additive group, while MDA level maintained stable with the lowest value. qRT-PCR analysis indicated that the up-regulated transcript expressions of CaM, C3, SOD2, LysC and HSPA4 were observed in Dm-CaM additive group. These results indicated that Dm-CaM additive diet may regulate the grouper immune response to the acute low temperature challenge.

  8. Petrographic and Geochemical Characterization of Ore-Bearing Intrusions of the Noril'sk type, Siberia; With Discussion of Their Origin, Including Additional Datasets and Core Logs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Czamanske, Gerald K.

    2002-01-01

    The Noril'sk I, Talnakh, and Kharaelakh intrusions of the Noril'sk district host one of the outstanding metal concentrations in the world; contained Cu-Ni resources are comparable to the deposits at Sudbury, Ontario and the platinum group element (PGE) resource is second only to that of the Bushveld Complex. Our opportunity to cooperatively sample and study this district in Siberian Russia arose in 1990 through a memorandum of understanding between the U.S. Geological Survey and the former Ministry of Geology of the U.S.S.R. The world-class significance of these deposits and the possibility that understanding their geologic context, including construction of a credible 'ore-deposit model,' will lead to discovery of similar deposits elsewhere, inspired extensive studies of the ores, the mafic-intrusions which host them, and associated flood basalts.

  9. Uranium hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance of the Dalhart NTMS quadrangle, New Mexico/Texas/Oklahoma, including concentrations of forty-two additional elements

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, T.L.

    1980-08-01

    Totals of 1583 water samples and 503 sediment samples were collected from 2028 locations within the 20 000-km/sup 2/ area of the quadrangle at an average density of one location per 9.86 km/sup 2/. Water samples were collected from wells, springs, and streams and were analyzed for uranium. Sediment samples were collected from streams and springs and were analyzed for uranium, thorium, and 41 additional elements. All field and analytical data are listed in the appendixes of this report. Discussion is limited to anomalous samples, which are considered to be those containing over 20 ppB uranium for waters and over 5 ppM uranium for sediments. Uranium concentrations in water samples range from below the detection limit of 0.2 ppB to 1457.65 ppB and average 7.41 ppB. Most of the seventy anomalous water samples (4.4% of all water samples) are grouped spatially into five clusters or areas of interest. Samples in three of the clusters were collected along the north edge of the quadrangle where Mesozoic strata are exposed. The other two clusters are from the central and southern portions where the Quaternary Ogallala formation is exposed. Sediment samples from the quadrangle have uranium concentrations that range from 0.90 ppM to 27.20 ppM and average 3.27 ppM. Fourteen samples (2.8% of all sediment samples) contain over 5 ppM uranium and are considered anomalous. The five samples with the highest concentrations occur where downcutting streams expose Cretaceous units beneath the Quaternary surficial deposits. The remaining anomalous sediment samples were collected from scattered locations and do not indicate any single formation or unit as a potential source for the anomalous concentrations.

  10. Uranium hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance data release for the Elk City NTMS Quadrangle, Idaho/Montana, including concentrations of forty-five additional elements

    SciTech Connect

    Broxton, D.E.; Beyth, M.

    1980-07-01

    Totals of 1580 water and 1720 sediment samples were collected from 1754 locations in the quadrangle. Elemental concentration, field measurement, weather, geologic, and geographic data for each sample location are listed for waters in Appendix I-A and for sediments in Appendix I-B. Uranium/thorium ratios for sediment samples are also included in Appendix I-B. All elemental analyses were performed at the LASL. Water samples were initially analyzed for uranium by fluorometry. All water samples containing more than 40 parts per billion (ppB) uranium were reanalyzed by delayed-neutron counting (DNC). A supplemental report containing the multielement analyses of water samples will be open filed in the near future. Sediments were analyzed for uranium and thorium as well as aluminum, antimony, arsenic, barium, beryllium, bismuth, cadmium, calcium, cerium, cesium, chlorine, chromium, cobalt, copper, dysprosium, europium, gold, hafnium, iron, lanthanum, lead, lithium, lutetium, magnesium, manganese, nickel, niobium, potassium, rubidium, samarium, selenium, scandium, silver, sodium, strontium, tantalum, terbium, tin, titanium, tungsten, vanadium, ytterbium, zinc, and zirconium. Basic statistics for 40 of these elements are presented. All sediments were analyzed for uranium by delayed-neutron counting. Other elemental concentrations in sediments were determined by neutron-activation analysis for 30 elements, by x-ray fluorescence for 12 elements, and by arc-source emission spectrography for 2 elements. Analytical results for sediments are reported as parts per million.

  11. Uranium hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance data release for the Lewistown NTMS Quadrangle, Montana, including concentrations of forty-two additional elements

    SciTech Connect

    Shannon, S.S. Jr.

    1980-08-01

    Totals of 758 water and 1170 sediment samples were collected from 1649 locations in the Levistown quadrangle. Water samples were collected at streams, springs, wells, ponds, and marshes; sediment samples were obtained from streams, springs, and ponds. Histograms and statistical data for uranium concentrations in water and sediment samples and thorium concentrations in sediment samples are given. All samples were collected at the nominal reconnaissance density of one sample location per 10 km/sup 2/. Elemental concentration, field measurement, weather, geologic, and geographic data for each sample location are listed for waters and for sediments. Uranium to thorium (U/Th) ratios for sediment samples are included. Water samples were initially analyzed for uranium by fluorometry. All water samples containing more than 40 ppB U were reanalyzed by delayed-neutron counting. Sediments were analyzed for U and Th as well as Al, Sb, Ba, Be, Bi, Cd, Ca, Ce, Cs, Cl, Cr, Co, Cu, Dy, Eu, Au, Hf, Fe, La, Pb, Li, Lu, Mg, Mn, Ni, Nb, K, Rb, Sa, Sc, Ag, Na, Sr, Ta, Tb, Sn, Ti, W, V, Yb, and Zn. All sediments were analyzed for U by delayed neutron counting. Other elemental concentrations in sediments were determined by neutron activation analysis for 31 elements, by x-ray fluorescence for 9 elements, and by arc-source emission spectrography for 2 elements. Analytical results are reported as parts per million. Descriptions of procedures used for analysis of water and sediments samples as well as analytical precisions and detection limits are given.

  12. Nutritional, Health, and Technological Functionality of Lupin Flour Addition to Bread and Other Baked Products: Benefits and Challenges.

    PubMed

    Villarino, C B J; Jayasena, V; Coorey, R; Chakrabarti-Bell, S; Johnson, S K

    2016-01-01

    Lupin is an undervalued legume despite its high protein and dietary fiber content and potential health benefits. This review focuses on the nutritional value, health benefits, and technological effects of incorporating lupin flour into wheat-based bread. Results of clinical studies suggest that consuming lupin compared to wheat bread and other baked products reduce chronic disease risk markers; possibly due to increased protein and dietary fiber and bioactive compounds. However, lupin protein allergy has also been recorded. Bread quality has been improved when 10% lupin flour is substituted for refined wheat flour; possibly due to lupin-wheat protein cross-linking assisting bread volume and the high water-binding capacity (WBC) of lupin fiber delaying staling. Above 10% substitution appears to reduce bread quality due to lupin proteins low elasticity and the high WBC of its dietary fiber interrupting gluten network development. Gaps in understanding of the role of lupin flour in bread quality include the optimal formulation and processing conditions to maximize lupin incorporation, role of protein cross-linking, antistaling functionality, and bioactivity of its γ-conglutin protein.

  13. Traces of dissolved particles, including coccoliths, in the tests of agglutinated foraminifera from the Challenger Deep (10,897 m water depth, western equatorial Pacific)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gooday, A. J.; Uematsu, K.; Kitazato, H.; Toyofuku, T.; Young, J. R.

    2010-02-01

    We examined four multilocular agglutinated foraminiferan tests from the Challenger Deep, the deepest point in the world's oceans and well below the depth at which biogenic and most detrital minerals disappear from the sediment. The specimens represent undescribed species. Three are trochamminaceans in which imprints and other traces of dissolved agglutinated particles are visible in the orange or yellowish organic test lining. In Trochamminacean sp. A, a delicate meshwork of organic cement forms ridges between the grain impressions. The remnants of test particles include organic structures identifiable as moulds of coccoliths produced by the genus Helicosphaera. Their random alignment suggests that they were agglutinated individually rather than as fragments of a coccosphere. Trochamminacean sp. C incorporates discoidal structures with a central hole; these probably represent the proximal sides of isolated distal shields of another coccolith species, possibly Hayaster perplexus. Imprints of planktonic foraminiferan test fragments are also present in both these trochamminaceans. In Trochamminacean sp. B, the test surface is densely pitted with deep, often angular imprints ranging from roughly equidimensional to rod-shaped. The surfaces are either smooth, or have prominent longitudinal striations, probably made by cleavage traces. We presume these imprints represent mineral grains of various types that subsequently dissolved. X-ray microanalyses reveal strong peaks for Ca associated with grain impressions and coccolith remains in Trochamminacean sp. C. Minor peaks for this element are associated with coccolith remains and planktonic foraminiferan imprints in Trochamminacean sp. A. These Ca peaks possibly originate from traces of calcite remaining on the test surfaces. Agglutinated particles, presumably clay minerals, survive only in the fourth specimen (' Textularia' sp.). Here, the final 4-5 chambers comprise a pavement of small, irregularly shaped grains with flat

  14. Examining the relationship between school district size and science achievement in Texas including rural school administrator perceptions of challenges and solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mann, Matthew James

    Rural and small schools have almost one-third of all public school enrollment in America, yet typically have the fewest financial and research based resources. Educational models have been developed with either the urban or suburban school in mind, and the rural school is often left with no other alternative except this paradigm. Rural based educational resources are rare and the ability to access these resources for rural school districts almost non-existent. Federal and state based education agencies provide some rural educational based programs, but have had virtually no success in answering rural school issues. With federal and state interest in science initiatives, the challenge that rural schools face weigh in. To align with that focus, this study examined Texas middle school student achievement in science and its relationship with school district enrollment size. This study involved a sequential transformative mixed methodology with the quantitative phase driving the second qualitative portion. The quantitative research was a non-experimental causal-comparative study conducted to determine whether there is a significant difference between student achievement on the 2010 Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills 8 th grade science results and school district enrollment size. The school districts were distributed into four categories by size including: a) small districts (32-550); b) medium districts (551-1500); c) large districts (1501-6000); and d) mega-sized districts (6001-202,773). A one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was conducted to compare the district averages from the 2010 TAKS 8th grade science assessment results and the four district enrollment groups. The second phase of the study was qualitative utilizing constructivism and critical theory to identify the issues facing rural and small school administrators concerning science based curriculum and development. These themes and issues were sought through a case study method and through use of semi

  15. Novel Endorna-like viruses, including three with two open reading frames, challenge the membership criteria and taxonomy of the Endornaviridae.

    PubMed

    Ong, Jamie W L; Li, Hua; Sivasithamparam, Krishnapillai; Dixon, Kingsley W; Jones, Michael G K; Wylie, Stephen J

    2016-12-01

    Viruses associated with wild orchids and their mycorrhizal fungi are poorly studied. Using a shotgun sequencing approach, we identified eight novel endornavirus-like genome sequences from isolates of Ceratobasidium fungi isolated from pelotons within root cortical cells of wild indigenous orchid species Microtis media, Pterostylis sanguinea and an undetermined species of Pterostylis in Western Australia. They represent the first endornaviruses to be described from orchid mycorrhizal fungi and from the Australian continent. Five of the novel endornaviruses were detected from one Ceratobasidium isolate collected from one Pterostylis plant. The partial and complete viral replicases shared low (9-30%) identities with one another and with endornaviruses described from elsewhere. Four had genome lengths greater than those of previously described endornaviruses, two resembled ascomycete-infecting endornaviruses, and unlike currently described endornaviruses, three had two open reading frames. The unusual features of these new viruses challenge current taxonomic criteria for membership of the family Endornaviridae.

  16. The effect of phytogenic feed additives to substitute in-feed antibiotics on growth traits and blood biochemical parameters in broiler chicks challenged with Salmonella typhimurium.

    PubMed

    Abudabos, Alaeldein M; Alyemni, Abdullah H; Dafalla, Yousif M; Khan, Rifat Ullah

    2016-12-01

    There is a growing concern over the use of antibiotics due to the increased resistance of pathogens in broiler. The present study was designed to find the comparative effect of an antibiotic, and some phytogenic on performance traits, blood biochemical parameters, and antioxidant status during starter phase exposed to Salmonella typhimurium challenge. A total of 560-day-old broiler chicks (Ross 308) were randomly allocated to seven treatments (eight replicates). Control (basal diet); T1, infected with Salmonella enterica subsp. typhimurium; T2, infected + avilamycin at the rate of 0.2 g/kg; T3, infected + essential oil of thymol; T4, infected + phytogenic; T5, infected + anti-Salmonella organic acid; and T6, infected + essential oils of thyme, anise, and other components. Body weight gain and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were significantly (P < 0.05) high in the T2 and T5 at the end of the first and the second week and similar to T4. During the second week, European production efficiency factor (EPEF) was also significantly (P < 0.05) high in T2, T4 and T5. Blood albumin increased significantly (P < 0.05) in birds of T2 in the first week, while during the second week, blood glucose and triglyceride concentration decreased significantly (P < 0.05) in T5. Blood ALT concentration decreased significantly (P < 0.05) in T6 compared to other treatments in the second week. Total antioxidant capacity (at the end of the second week) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) did not change significantly. From the results of the present study, it was concluded that different feed additives could be substituted with antibiotics in the feed of broiler exposed to S. typhimurium challenge.

  17. Strategic approaches towards solving critical challenges in crystal growth of detector grade cadmium0.9zinc0.1telluride including melt mixing techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Datta, Amlan

    Over the last few decades Cadmium Zinc Telluride (CZT) has emerged as a novel material for radiation detection in homeland security as well as medical applications and as substrates for epitaxial growth of infrared detector, Mercury Cadmium Telluride. There are, however, several critical issues regarding the bulk growth of CZT which renders it unsuitable or cost ineffective for these applications. These challenges can be summarized as non-uniformity (due to Zinc and intentional dopant segregation), longer growth times (because of lower thermal conductivity of the melt), Tellurium (Te) secondary phases (SP), unstable growth interface (due to lower thermal conductivity and higher heat of fusion) and non-stoichiometric growth conditions. Systematic approaches towards solving these problems will be discussed along with the consequences and future research directions. By application of a proper mixing technique to the CZT melt, most inhomogeneity problems that are common in growth techniques using non rotating crucibles can be overcome. A unique custom made ampoule rotation system was developed for mixing the CZT melt by applying several rotation parameters. Experiments were performed with different growth temperature profiles, rotation parameters and charge/dopant concentrations. Improvements in Zinc distribution profiles and the shape of the liquid/solid interface during the growth process were determined by room temperature photoluminescence (RT-PL) mapping of radial and longitudinal-cut CZT wafers. SP diameters were limited to a maximum of 10 microm after application of ampoule rotation, with distribution maxima at 6 microm. Growth interface studies revealed several unique features which will be discussed in the dissertation. The spectral, optical and electrical properties of the detectors fabricated from all these growths will be presented. The statistical variations of different properties along the grown ingots will be discussed.

  18. Including non-dietary sources into an exposure assessment of the European Food Safety Authority: The challenge of multi-sector chemicals such as Bisphenol A.

    PubMed

    von Goetz, N; Pirow, R; Hart, A; Bradley, E; Poças, F; Arcella, D; Lillegard, I T L; Simoneau, C; van Engelen, J; Husoy, T; Theobald, A; Leclercq, C

    2017-04-01

    In the most recent risk assessment for Bisphenol A for the first time a multi-route aggregate exposure assessment was conducted by the European Food Safety Authority. This assessment includes exposure via dietary sources, and also contributions of the most important non-dietary sources. Both average and high aggregate exposure were calculated by source-to-dose modeling (forward calculation) for different age groups and compared with estimates based on urinary biomonitoring data (backward calculation). The aggregate exposure estimates obtained by forward and backward modeling are in the same order of magnitude, with forward modeling yielding higher estimates associated with larger uncertainty. Yet, only forward modeling can indicate the relative contribution of different sources. Dietary exposure, especially via canned food, appears to be the most important exposure source and, based on the central aggregate exposure estimates, contributes around 90% to internal exposure to total (conjugated plus unconjugated) BPA. Dermal exposure via thermal paper and to a lesser extent via cosmetic products may contribute around 10% for some age groups. The uncertainty around these estimates is considerable, but since after dermal absorption a first-pass metabolism of BPA by conjugation is lacking, dermal sources may be of equal or even higher toxicological relevance than dietary sources.

  19. Food additives

    MedlinePlus

    ... or natural. Natural food additives include: Herbs or spices to add flavor to foods Vinegar for pickling ... Certain colors improve the appearance of foods. Many spices, as well as natural and man-made flavors, ...

  20. Foals raised on pasture with or without daily pyrantel tartrate feed additive: comparison of parasite burdens and host responses following experimental challenge with large and small strongyle larvae.

    PubMed

    Monahan, C M; Chapman, M R; Taylor, H W; French, D D; Klei, T R

    1997-12-31

    Three groups of foals were raised under different management programs in this study: Group 1 (n = 6) and Group 2 (n = 6) were raised with their dams on pasture; Group 3 foals (n = 5) were raised under parasite-free conditions. Mares and foals of Group 1 received daily pyrantel tartrate (PT) treatment with their pelleted feed ration, whereas mares and foals of Groups 2 and 3 received only the pelleted ration. Pasture-reared foals were weaned and moved to a heavily contaminated pasture for 5 weeks. Group 1 foals continued to receive daily PT treatment whereas Group 2 foals received only the pelleted feed ration. Following this period, all foals were moved into box stalls. Half of each group was challenged with 10(3) Strongylus vulgaris infective third-stage larvae (L3), 5 x 10(3) Strongylus edentatus L3 and 10(5) mixed cyathostome L3; the remaining half served as unchallenged controls. Necropsy examinations were performed 6-week post-challenge for evaluation of parasite burdens and lesions. Daily PT treatment of Group 1 reduced the patent cyathostome infections of both mares and foals and was effective in reducing pasture burdens of infective larvae. Daily treatment of Group 1 foals during weaning continued to suppress EPG levels; however, it did not prevent large strongyle infections during the weaning period. Group 1 foals were more sensitive to challenge than Group 2 foals, which did not exhibit any post-challenge disturbances. Group 1 foals were equally susceptible to challenge as parasite-free foals.

  1. Refraction, including prisms.

    PubMed

    Hiatt, R L

    1991-02-01

    The literature in the past year on refraction is replete with several isolated but very important topics that have been of interest to strabismologists and refractionists for many decades. The refractive changes in scleral buckling procedures include an increase in axial length as well as an increase in myopia, as would be expected. Tinted lenses in dyslexia show little positive effect in the nonasthmatic patients in one study. The use of spectacles or bifocals as a way to control increase in myopia is refuted in another report. It has been shown that in accommodative esotropia not all patients will be able to escape the use of bifocals in the teenage years, even though surgery might be performed. The hope that disposable contact lenses would cut down on the instance of giant papillary conjunctivitis and keratitis has been given some credence, and the conventional theory that sclerosis alone is the cause of presbyopia is attacked. Also, gas permeable bifocal contact lenses are reviewed and the difficulties of correcting presbyopia by this method outlined. The practice of giving an aphakic less bifocal addition instead of a nonaphakic, based on the presumption of increased effective power, is challenged. In the review of prisms, the majority of articles concern prism adaption. The most significant report is that of the Prism Adaptation Study Research Group (Arch Ophthalmol 1990, 108:1248-1256), showing that acquired esotropia in particular has an increased incidence of stable and full corrections surgically in the prism adaptation group versus the control group.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  2. Measurement of $\\mathrm{ t \\bar{t} } $ production with additional jet activity, including b quark jets, in the dilepton decay channel using pp collisions at $\\sqrt{s} =$ 8 TeV

    SciTech Connect

    Khachatryan, Vardan

    2016-07-07

    Jet multiplicity distributions in top quark pair (tt-bar) events are measured in pp collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 8 TeV with the CMS detector at the LHC using a data set corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 19.7 fb-1. The measurement is performed in the dilepton decay channels (e+e-+μ- and e±μ). Furthermore, the absolute and normalized differential cross sections for tt-bar production are measured as a function of the jet multiplicity in the event for different jet transverse momentum thresholds and the kinematic properties of the leading additional jets. The differential tt-barb and tt-barbb-bar cross sections are presented for the first time as a function of the kinematic properties of the leading additional b jets. Furthermore, the fraction of events without additional jets above a threshold is measured as a function of the transverse momenta of the leading additional jets and the scalar sum of the transverse momenta of all additional jets. Finally, the data are compared and found to be consistent with predictions from several perturbative quantum chromodynamics event generators and a next-to-leading ordercalculation.

  3. Measurement of $$\\mathrm{ t \\bar{t} } $$ production with additional jet activity, including b quark jets, in the dilepton decay channel using pp collisions at $$\\sqrt{s} =$$ 8 TeV

    DOE PAGES

    Khachatryan, Vardan

    2016-07-07

    Jet multiplicity distributions in top quark pair (tt-bar) events are measured in pp collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 8 TeV with the CMS detector at the LHC using a data set corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 19.7 fb-1. The measurement is performed in the dilepton decay channels (e+e-,μ+μ- and e±μ∓). Furthermore, the absolute and normalized differential cross sections for tt-bar production are measured as a function of the jet multiplicity in the event for different jet transverse momentum thresholds and the kinematic properties of the leading additional jets. The differential tt-barb and tt-barbb-bar cross sections are presented formore » the first time as a function of the kinematic properties of the leading additional b jets. Furthermore, the fraction of events without additional jets above a threshold is measured as a function of the transverse momenta of the leading additional jets and the scalar sum of the transverse momenta of all additional jets. Finally, the data are compared and found to be consistent with predictions from several perturbative quantum chromodynamics event generators and a next-to-leading ordercalculation.« less

  4. Measurement of toverline{t} production with additional jet activity, including b quark jets, in the dilepton decay channel using pp collisions at √{s} = 8 {TeV}

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khachatryan, V.; Sirunyan, A. M.; Tumasyan, A.; Adam, W.; Asilar, E.; Bergauer, T.; Brandstetter, J.; Brondolin, E.; Dragicevic, M.; Erö, J.; Friedl, M.; Frühwirth, R.; Ghete, V. M.; Hartl, C.; Hörmann, N.; Hrubec, J.; Jeitler, M.; Knünz, V.; König, A.; Krammer, M.; Krätschmer, I.; Liko, D.; Matsushita, T.; Mikulec, I.; Rabady, D.; Rahbaran, B.; Rohringer, H.; Schieck, J.; Schöfbeck, R.; Strauss, J.; Treberer-Treberspurg, W.; Waltenberger, W.; Wulz, C.-E.; Mossolov, V.; Shumeiko, N.; Suarez Gonzalez, J.; Alderweireldt, S.; Cornelis, T.; de Wolf, E. A.; Janssen, X.; Knutsson, A.; Lauwers, J.; Luyckx, S.; van de Klundert, M.; van Haevermaet, H.; van Mechelen, P.; van Remortel, N.; van Spilbeeck, A.; Abu Zeid, S.; Blekman, F.; D'Hondt, J.; Daci, N.; de Bruyn, I.; Deroover, K.; Heracleous, N.; Keaveney, J.; Lowette, S.; Moreels, L.; Olbrechts, A.; Python, Q.; Strom, D.; Tavernier, S.; van Doninck, W.; van Mulders, P.; van Onsem, G. P.; van Parijs, I.; Barria, P.; Brun, H.; Caillol, C.; Clerbaux, B.; de Lentdecker, G.; Fasanella, G.; Favart, L.; Grebenyuk, A.; Karapostoli, G.; Lenzi, T.; Léonard, A.; Maerschalk, T.; Marinov, A.; Perniè, L.; Randle-Conde, A.; Reis, T.; Seva, T.; Vander Velde, C.; Yonamine, R.; Vanlaer, P.; Yonamine, R.; Zenoni, F.; Zhang, F.; Adler, V.; Beernaert, K.; Benucci, L.; Cimmino, A.; Crucy, S.; Dobur, D.; Fagot, A.; Garcia, G.; Gul, M.; McCartin, J.; Ocampo Rios, A. A.; Poyraz, D.; Ryckbosch, D.; Salva, S.; Sigamani, M.; Strobbe, N.; Tytgat, M.; van Driessche, W.; Yazgan, E.; Zaganidis, N.; Basegmez, S.; Beluffi, C.; Bondu, O.; Brochet, S.; Bruno, G.; Caudron, A.; Ceard, L.; da Silveira, G. G.; Delaere, C.; Favart, D.; Forthomme, L.; Giammanco, A.; Hollar, J.; Jafari, A.; Jez, P.; Komm, M.; Lemaitre, V.; Mertens, A.; Musich, M.; Nuttens, C.; Perrini, L.; Pin, A.; Piotrzkowski, K.; Popov, A.; Quertenmont, L.; Selvaggi, M.; Vidal Marono, M.; Beliy, N.; Hammad, G. H.; Júnior, W. L. Aldá; Alves, F. L.; Alves, G. A.; Brito, L.; Correa Martins Junior, M.; Hamer, M.; Hensel, C.; Mora Herrera, C.; Moraes, A.; Pol, M. E.; Rebello Teles, P.; Belchior Batista Das Chagas, E.; Carvalho, W.; Chinellato, J.; Custódio, A.; da Costa, E. M.; de Jesus Damiao, D.; de Oliveira Martins, C.; Fonseca de Souza, S.; Huertas Guativa, L. M.; Malbouisson, H.; Matos Figueiredo, D.; Mundim, L.; Nogima, H.; Prado da Silva, W. L.; Santoro, A.; Sznajder, A.; Tonelli Manganote, E. J.; Vilela Pereira, A.; Ahuja, S.; Bernardes, C. A.; de Souza Santos, A.; Dogra, S.; Fernandez Perez Tomei, T. R.; Gregores, E. M.; Mercadante, P. G.; Moon, C. S.; Novaes, S. F.; Padula, Sandra S.; Romero Abad, D.; Ruiz Vargas, J. C.; Aleksandrov, A.; Hadjiiska, R.; Iaydjiev, P.; Rodozov, M.; Stoykova, S.; Sultanov, G.; Vutova, M.; Dimitrov, A.; Glushkov, I.; Litov, L.; Pavlov, B.; Petkov, P.; Ahmad, M.; Bian, J. G.; Chen, G. M.; Chen, H. S.; Chen, M.; Cheng, T.; Du, R.; Jiang, C. H.; Plestina, R.; Romeo, F.; Shaheen, S. M.; Spiezia, A.; Tao, J.; Wang, C.; Wang, Z.; Zhang, H.; Asawatangtrakuldee, C.; Ban, Y.; Li, Q.; Liu, S.; Mao, Y.; Qian, S. J.; Wang, D.; Xu, Z.; Avila, C.; Cabrera, A.; Chaparro Sierra, L. F.; Florez, C.; Gomez, J. P.; Gomez Moreno, B.; Sanabria, J. C.; Godinovic, N.; Lelas, D.; Puljak, I.; Ribeiro Cipriano, P. M.; Antunovic, Z.; Kovac, M.; Brigljevic, V.; Kadija, K.; Luetic, J.; Micanovic, S.; Sudic, L.; Attikis, A.; Mavromanolakis, G.; Mousa, J.; Nicolaou, C.; Ptochos, F.; Razis, P. A.; Rykaczewski, H.; Bodlak, M.; Finger, M.; Finger, M.; El Sawy, M.; El-Khateeb, E.; Elkafrawy, T.; Mohamed, A.; Salama, E.; Calpas, B.; Kadastik, M.; Murumaa, M.; Raidal, M.; Tiko, A.; Veelken, C.; Eerola, P.; Pekkanen, J.; Voutilainen, M.; Härkönen, J.; Karimäki, V.; Kinnunen, R.; Lampén, T.; Lassila-Perini, K.; Lehti, S.; Lindén, T.; Luukka, P.; Mäenpää, T.; Peltola, T.; Tuominen, E.; Tuominiemi, J.; Tuovinen, E.; Wendland, L.; Talvitie, J.; Tuuva, T.; Besancon, M.; Couderc, F.; Dejardin, M.; Denegri, D.; Fabbro, B.; Faure, J. L.; Favaro, C.; Ferri, F.; Ganjour, S.; Givernaud, A.; Gras, P.; Hamel de Monchenault, G.; Jarry, P.; Locci, E.; Machet, M.; Malcles, J.; Rander, J.; Rosowsky, A.; Titov, M.; Zghiche, A.; Antropov, I.; Baffioni, S.; Beaudette, F.; Busson, P.; Cadamuro, L.; Chapon, E.; Charlot, C.; Dahms, T.; Davignon, O.; Filipovic, N.; Florent, A.; Granier de Cassagnac, R.; Lisniak, S.; Mastrolorenzo, L.; Miné, P.; Naranjo, I. N.; Nguyen, M.; Ochando, C.; Ortona, G.; Paganini, P.; Pigard, P.; Regnard, S.; Salerno, R.; Sauvan, J. B.; Sirois, Y.; Strebler, T.; Yilmaz, Y.; Zabi, A.; Agram, J.-L.; Andrea, J.; Aubin, A.; Bloch, D.; Brom, J.-M.; Buttignol, M.; Chabert, E. C.; Chanon, N.; Collard, C.; Conte, E.; Coubez, X.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Gelé, D.; Goerlach, U.; Goetzmann, C.

    2016-07-01

    Jet multiplicity distributions in top quark pair ({t}{overline{t}}) events are measured in pp collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 8 TeV with the CMS detector at the LHC using a data set corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 19.7 {fb}^ {-1}. The measurement is performed in the dilepton decay channels (e^+e^-, μ^+ μ^-, and e^{±} μ^{∓}). The absolute and normalized differential cross sections for {t}overline{t} production are measured as a function of the jet multiplicity in the event for different jet transverse momentum thresholds and the kinematic properties of the leading additional jets. The differential {t overline{t} b} and {t overline{t} b overline{b}} cross sections are presented for the first time as a function of the kinematic properties of the leading additional b jets. Furthermore, the fraction of events without additional jets above a threshold is measured as a function of the transverse momenta of the leading additional jets and the scalar sum of the transverse momenta of all additional jets. The data are compared and found to be consistent with predictions from several perturbative quantum chromodynamics event generators and a next-to-leading order calculation.

  5. Asthma and anaphylactoid reactions to food additives.

    PubMed Central

    Tarlo, S. M.; Sussman, G. L.

    1993-01-01

    Presumed allergic reactions to hidden food additives are both controversial and important. Clinical manifestations include asthma, urticaria, angioedema, and anaphylactic-anaphylactoid events. Most adverse reactions are caused by just a few additives, such as sulfites and monosodium glutamate. Diagnosis is suspected from the history and confirmed by specific challenge. The treatment is specific avoidance. PMID:8499792

  6. {sup 13}C chemical shift anisotropies for carbonate ions in cement minerals and the use of {sup 13}C, {sup 27}Al and {sup 29}Si MAS NMR in studies of Portland cement including limestone additions

    SciTech Connect

    Sevelsted, Tine F.; Herfort, Duncan

    2013-10-15

    {sup 13}C isotropic chemical shifts and chemical shift anisotropy parameters have been determined for a number of inorganic carbonates relevant in cement chemistry from slow-speed {sup 13}C MAS or {sup 13}C({sup 1}H) CP/MAS NMR spectra (9.4 T or 14.1 T) for {sup 13}C in natural abundance. The variation in the {sup 13}C chemical shift parameters is relatively small, raising some doubts that different carbonate species in Portland cement-based materials may not be sufficiently resolved in {sup 13}C MAS NMR spectra. However, it is shown that by combining {sup 13}C MAS and {sup 13}C({sup 1}H) CP/MAS NMR carbonate anions in anhydrous and hydrated phases can be distinguished, thereby providing valuable information about the reactivity of limestone in cement blends. This is illustrated for three cement pastes prepared from an ordinary Portland cement, including 0, 16, and 25 wt.% limestone, and following the hydration for up to one year. For these blends {sup 29}Si MAS NMR reveals that the limestone filler accelerates the hydration for alite and also results in a smaller fraction of tetrahedrally coordinated Al incorporated in the C-S-H phase. The latter result is more clearly observed in {sup 27}Al MAS NMR spectra of the cement–limestone blends and suggests that dissolved aluminate species in the cement–limestone blends readily react with carbonate ions from the limestone filler, forming calcium monocarboaluminate hydrate. -- Highlights: •{sup 13}C chemical shift anisotropies for inorganic carbonates from {sup 13}C MAS NMR. •Narrow {sup 13}C NMR chemical shift range (163–171 ppm) for inorganic carbonates. •Anhydrous and hydrated carbonate species by {sup 13}C MAS and {sup 13}C({sup 1}H) CP/MAS NMR. •Limestone accelerates the hydration for alite in Portland – limestone cements. •Limestone reduces the amount of aluminium incorporated in the C-S-H phase.

  7. Additive-driven assembly of block copolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Ying; Daga, Vikram; Anderson, Eric; Watkins, James

    2011-03-01

    One challenge to the formation of well ordered hybrid materials is the incorporation of nanoscale additives including metal, semiconductor and dielectric nanoparticles at high loadings while maintaining strong segregation. Here we describe the molecular and functional design of small molecule and nanoparticle additives that enhance phase segregation in their block copolymer host and enable high additive loadings. Our approach includes the use of hydrogen bond interactions between the functional groups on the additive or particle that serve as hydrogen bond donors and one segment of the block copolymer containing hydrogen bond acceptors. Further, the additives show strong selectively towards the targeted domains, leading to enhancements in contrast between properties of the phases. In addition to structural changes, we explore how large changes in the thermal and mechanical properties occur upon incorporation of the additives. Generalization of this additive-induced ordering strategy to various block copolymers will be discussed.

  8. Food additives

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Michael

    1974-01-01

    Food additives are discussed from the food technology point of view. The reasons for their use are summarized: (1) to protect food from chemical and microbiological attack; (2) to even out seasonal supplies; (3) to improve their eating quality; (4) to improve their nutritional value. The various types of food additives are considered, e.g. colours, flavours, emulsifiers, bread and flour additives, preservatives, and nutritional additives. The paper concludes with consideration of those circumstances in which the use of additives is (a) justified and (b) unjustified. PMID:4467857

  9. Environmental challenge

    SciTech Connect

    Conable, B.; Warford, J.; Partow, Z.; Lutz, E.; Munasinghe, M.

    1991-09-01

    The contents include the following: Development and the Environment: A Global Balance; Evolution of the World Bank's Environmental Policy; Accounting for the Environment; Public Policy and the Environment; Managing Drylands; Environmental Action Plans in Africa; Agroforestry in Sub-Saharan Africa; Irrigation and the Environmental Challenge; Curbing Pollution in Developing Countries; Global Warming and the Developing World; and The Global Environment Facility.

  10. Challenging Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reichle, Joe, Ed.; DePaepe, Paris, Ed.

    1991-01-01

    The articles in this feature or theme issue describe successful approaches to positive, community-based management of severe challenging behavior. Programs include: a train-the-trainer strategy for inservice training used across the country; the use of student volunteers as community integration facilitators; a school-based intervention project…

  11. 15 CFR 90.10 - Form of formal challenge and time limit for filing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Foreign Trade BUREAU OF THE CENSUS, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE PROCEDURE FOR CHALLENGING CERTAIN POPULATION... Chief, Population Division, during the informal stage, and shall include any additional...

  12. 15 CFR 90.10 - Form of formal challenge and time limit for filing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Foreign Trade BUREAU OF THE CENSUS, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE PROCEDURE FOR CHALLENGING CERTAIN POPULATION... Chief, Population Division, during the informal stage, and shall include any additional...

  13. 15 CFR 90.10 - Form of formal challenge and time limit for filing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Foreign Trade BUREAU OF THE CENSUS, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE PROCEDURE FOR CHALLENGING CERTAIN POPULATION... Chief, Population Division, during the informal stage, and shall include any additional...

  14. 15 CFR 90.10 - Form of formal challenge and time limit for filing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Foreign Trade BUREAU OF THE CENSUS, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE PROCEDURE FOR CHALLENGING CERTAIN POPULATION... Chief, Population Division, during the informal stage, and shall include any additional...

  15. Embedding international benchmarks of proficiency in English in undergraduate nursing programmes: challenges and strategies in equipping culturally and linguistically diverse students with English as an additional language for nursing in Australia.

    PubMed

    Glew, Paul J

    2013-01-01

    To meet the expected shortfalls in the number of registered nurses throughout the coming decade Australian universities have been recruiting an increasing number of students from culturally and linguistically diverse (CaLD) backgrounds. Given that international and domestic students who use English as an additional language (EAL) complement the number of native English speaking nursing students, they represent a valuable nurse education investment. Although university programmes are in a position to meet the education and learning needs of native English speaking nursing students, they can experience considerable challenges in effectively equipping EAL students with the English and academic language skills for nursing studies and registration in Australia. However, success in a nursing programme and in preparing for nurse registration can require EAL students to achieve substantial literacy skills in English and academic language through their engagement with these tertiary learning contexts. This paper discusses the education implications for nursing programmes and EAL students of developing literacy skills through pre-registration nursing studies to meet the English language skills standard for nurse registration and presents intervention strategies for nursing programmes that aim to build EAL student capacity in using academic English.

  16. Polylactides in additive biomanufacturing.

    PubMed

    Poh, Patrina S P; Chhaya, Mohit P; Wunner, Felix M; De-Juan-Pardo, Elena M; Schilling, Arndt F; Schantz, Jan-Thorsten; van Griensven, Martijn; Hutmacher, Dietmar W

    2016-12-15

    New advanced manufacturing technologies under the alias of additive biomanufacturing allow the design and fabrication of a range of products from pre-operative models, cutting guides and medical devices to scaffolds. The process of printing in 3 dimensions of cells, extracellular matrix (ECM) and biomaterials (bioinks, powders, etc.) to generate in vitro and/or in vivo tissue analogue structures has been termed bioprinting. To further advance in additive biomanufacturing, there are many aspects that we can learn from the wider additive manufacturing (AM) industry, which have progressed tremendously since its introduction into the manufacturing sector. First, this review gives an overview of additive manufacturing and both industry and academia efforts in addressing specific challenges in the AM technologies to drive toward AM-enabled industrial revolution. After which, considerations of poly(lactides) as a biomaterial in additive biomanufacturing are discussed. Challenges in wider additive biomanufacturing field are discussed in terms of (a) biomaterials; (b) computer-aided design, engineering and manufacturing; (c) AM and additive biomanufacturing printers hardware; and (d) system integration. Finally, the outlook for additive biomanufacturing was discussed.

  17. Potlining Additives

    SciTech Connect

    Rudolf Keller

    2004-08-10

    In this project, a concept to improve the performance of aluminum production cells by introducing potlining additives was examined and tested. Boron oxide was added to cathode blocks, and titanium was dissolved in the metal pool; this resulted in the formation of titanium diboride and caused the molten aluminum to wet the carbonaceous cathode surface. Such wetting reportedly leads to operational improvements and extended cell life. In addition, boron oxide suppresses cyanide formation. This final report presents and discusses the results of this project. Substantial economic benefits for the practical implementation of the technology are projected, especially for modern cells with graphitized blocks. For example, with an energy savings of about 5% and an increase in pot life from 1500 to 2500 days, a cost savings of $ 0.023 per pound of aluminum produced is projected for a 200 kA pot.

  18. Phosphazene additives

    DOEpatents

    Harrup, Mason K; Rollins, Harry W

    2013-11-26

    An additive comprising a phosphazene compound that has at least two reactive functional groups and at least one capping functional group bonded to phosphorus atoms of the phosphazene compound. One of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with cellulose and the other of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with a resin, such as an amine resin of a polycarboxylic acid resin. The at least one capping functional group is selected from the group consisting of a short chain ether group, an alkoxy group, or an aryloxy group. Also disclosed are an additive-resin admixture, a method of treating a wood product, and a wood product.

  19. Introduction: December 2015 HeartWeek Issue of Cardiology in the Young - Highlights of HeartWeek 2015: Challenges and Dilemmas of Pediatric Cardiac Care including Heart Failure in Children and Congenital Abnormalities of the Coronary Arteries.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Jeffrey P

    2015-12-01

    This December Issue of Cardiology in the Young represents the 13th annual publication in Cardiology in the Young generated from the two meetings that composed "HeartWeek in Florida". "HeartWeek in Florida", the joint collaborative project sponsored by the Cardiac Centre at the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, together with Johns Hopkins All Children's Heart Institute of Saint Petersburg, Florida, averages over 1000 attendees every year and is now recognised as one of the major planks of continuing medical and nursing education for those working in the fields of diagnosis and treatment of cardiac disease in the foetus, neonate, infant, child, and adult. "HeartWeek in Florida" combines the International Symposium on Congenital Heart Disease, organised by All Children's Hospital and Johns Hopkins Medicine, and entering its 16th year, with the Annual Postgraduate Course in Paediatric Cardiovascular Disease, organised by The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia entering its 19th year. This December 2015 Issue of Cardiology in the Young features highlights of the two meetings that compose HeartWeek. Johns Hopkins All Children's Heart Institute's 15th Annual International Symposium on Congenital Heart Disease was held at the Renaissance Vinoy Resort & Golf Club, Saint Petersburg, Florida, from Friday, 6 February, 2015, to Monday, 9 February, 2015. This Symposium was co-sponsored by The American Association for Thoracic Surgery and its special focus was "Congenital Abnormalities of the Coronary Arteries". The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia's annual meeting - Cardiology 2015, the 18th Annual Update on Paediatric and Congenital Cardiovascular Disease: "Challenges and Dilemmas" - was held at the Hyatt Regency Scottsdale Resort and Spa at Gainey Ranch, Scottsdale, Arizona, from Wednesday, 11 February, 2015, to Sunday, 15 February, 2015. We would like to acknowledge the tremendous contributions made to paediatric and congenital cardiac care

  20. The Retention Challenge--Should We Include Parents?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cartmell, Brandy Mallory

    2015-01-01

    University campuses continue to see an increase in the number of helicopter parents, those parents who are hovering about the campus, ready to swoop down and rescue their children at the first sign of distress (Cartmell and McCullough 2014). Retention personnel on campus questioned whether it would be possible to develop initiatives that would…

  1. Additive Manufactured Product Integrity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waller, Jess; Wells, Doug; James, Steve; Nichols, Charles

    2017-01-01

    NASA is providing key leadership in an international effort linking NASA and non-NASA resources to speed adoption of additive manufacturing (AM) to meet NASA's mission goals. Participants include industry, NASA's space partners, other government agencies, standards organizations and academia. Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) is identified as a universal need for all aspects of additive manufacturing.

  2. ELN implementation challenges.

    PubMed

    Drake, David J

    2007-08-01

    Electronic Laboratory Notebooks are becoming foundation platforms within many pharmaceutical companies because of the benefits that they offer to both the business and the scientists alike. Implementing an ELN within an established organisation presents challenges for the project team, both in terms of managing the impact on the scientists and the technical requirements for integration and data management. Implementation of a commercial ELN is not exempt from such challenges, and working with a third party supplier offers both advantages and additional challenges.

  3. Exploration Rover Concepts and Development Challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zakrajsek, James J.; McKissock, David B.; Woytach, Jeffrey M.; Zakrajsek, June F.; Oswald, Fred B.; McEntire, Kelly J.; Hill, Gerald M.; Abel, Phillip; Eichenberg, Dennis J.; Goodnight, Thomas W.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of exploration rover concepts and the various development challenges associated with each as they are applied to exploration objectives and requirements for missions on the Moon and Mars. A variety of concepts for surface exploration vehicles have been proposed since the initial development of the Apollo-era lunar rover. This paper provides a brief description of the rover concepts, along with a comparison of their relative benefits and limitations. In addition, this paper outlines, and investigates a number of critical development challenges that surface exploration vehicles must address in order to successfully meet the exploration mission vision. These include: mission and environmental challenges, design challenges, and production and delivery challenges. Mission and environmental challenges include effects of terrain, extreme temperature differentials, dust issues, and radiation protection. Design methods are discussed that focus on optimum methods for developing highly reliable, long-life and efficient systems. In addition, challenges associated with delivering a surface exploration system is explored and discussed. Based on all the information presented, modularity will be the single most important factor in the development of a truly viable surface mobility vehicle. To meet mission, reliability, and affordability requirements, surface exploration vehicles, especially pressurized rovers, will need to be modularly designed and deployed across all projected Moon and Mars exploration missions.

  4. Sustainable Facility Development: Perceived Benefits and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stinnett, Brad; Gibson, Fred

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to assess the perceived benefits and challenges of implementing sustainable initiatives in collegiate recreational sports facilities. Additionally, this paper intends to contribute to the evolving field of facility sustainability in higher education. Design/methodology/approach The design included qualitative…

  5. Pump apparatus including deconsolidator

    DOEpatents

    Sonwane, Chandrashekhar; Saunders, Timothy; Fitzsimmons, Mark Andrew

    2014-10-07

    A pump apparatus includes a particulate pump that defines a passage that extends from an inlet to an outlet. A duct is in flow communication with the outlet. The duct includes a deconsolidator configured to fragment particle agglomerates received from the passage.

  6. Optical modulator including grapene

    DOEpatents

    Liu, Ming; Yin, Xiaobo; Zhang, Xiang

    2016-06-07

    The present invention provides for a one or more layer graphene optical modulator. In a first exemplary embodiment the optical modulator includes an optical waveguide, a nanoscale oxide spacer adjacent to a working region of the waveguide, and a monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to the spacer. In a second exemplary embodiment, the optical modulator includes at least one pair of active media, where the pair includes an oxide spacer, a first monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a first side of the spacer, and a second monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a second side of the spacer, and at least one optical waveguide adjacent to the pair.

  7. [Intolerance to food additives: an update].

    PubMed

    Cardinale, F; Mangini, F; Berardi, M; Sterpeta Loffredo, M; Chinellato, I; Dellino, A; Cristofori, F; Di Domenico, F; Mastrototaro, M F; Cappiello, A; Centoducati, T; Carella, F; Armenio, L

    2008-12-01

    Contrary to common believing, the prevalence of the intolerance to food additives in the general population is rather low. Nowadays many doubts persist with regard both to the pathogenetic mechanisms and to the clinical and diagnostic aspects in this field. Symptoms due to, or exacerbated from, food additives usually involve non-IgE-mediate mechanisms (pseudo-allergic reactions, PAR) and are usually less severe of those induced by food allergy. The most frequent clinical feature of the intolerance to food additives still remains the urticaria-angioedema syndrome, although these substances are really involved only in a minority of patients. Other possible clinical features include anaphylaxis, atopic eczema, behaviour disturbances, asthma and non-allergic rhinitis. The diagnostic approach consists in diary cards, reporting symptoms and food habits, elimination diet and double blinded placebo-controlled oral challenge with suspected additives. However, such procedure still remains poorly standardized and numerous uncertainties persist with regard to optimal conditions for performing and interpret the challenge results. The therapeutic approach consists in the exclusion of foods and products containing the additive involved, and, in patients not compliant to the diet, in treatment with symptomatic drugs.

  8. Including Jews in Multiculturalism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langman, Peter F.

    1995-01-01

    Discusses reasons for the lack of attention to Jews as an ethnic minority within multiculturalism both by Jews and non-Jews; why Jews and Jewish issues need to be included; and addresses some of the issues involved in the ethical treatment of Jewish clients. (Author)

  9. Challenges Facing Special Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyen, Edward L., Ed.; And Others

    This book presents 17 selected papers from recent issues of the journal, "Focus on Exceptional Children," concerning current and emerging challenges facing the field of special education. The book is organized in two parts. Part 1, "Contemporary Challenges," includes the following articles: "Transitions in Early Childhood Special Education: Issues…

  10. Continuing challenges in influenza

    PubMed Central

    Webster, Robert G.; Govorkova, Elena A.

    2014-01-01

    Influenza is an acute respiratory disease in mammals and domestic poultry that emerges from zoonotic reservoirs in aquatic birds and bats. Although influenza viruses are among the most intensively studied pathogens, existing control options require further improvement. Influenza vaccines must be regularly updated because of continuous antigenic drift and sporadic antigenic shifts in the viral surface glycoproteins. Currently, influenza therapeutics are limited to neuraminidase inhibitors; novel drugs and vaccine approaches are therefore urgently needed. Advances in vaccinology and structural analysis have revealed common antigenic epitopes on hemagglutinins across all influenza viruses and suggest that a universal influenza vaccine is possible. In addition, various immunomodulatory agents and signaling pathway inhibitors are undergoing preclinical development. Continuing challenges in influenza include the emergence of pandemic H1N1 influenza in 2009, human infections with avian H7N9 influenza in 2013, and sporadic human cases of highly pathogenic avian H5N1 influenza. Here, we review the challenges facing influenza scientists and veterinary and human public health officials; we also discuss the exciting possibility of achieving the ultimate goal of controlling influenza’s ability to change its antigenicity. PMID:24891213

  11. Featherweight Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Love, Tyler S.; Ryan, Larry

    2012-01-01

    As science, technology education, and engineering programs suffer budget cuts, educators continue to seek cost-effective activities that engage students and reinforce standards. The featherweight challenge is a hands-on activity that challenges students to continually refine their design while not breaking the budget. This activity uses one of the…

  12. Nutritional therapies (including fosteum).

    PubMed

    Nieves, Jeri W

    2009-03-01

    Nutrition is important in promoting bone health and in managing an individual with low bone mass or osteoporosis. In adult women and men, known losses of bone mass and microarchitecture occur, and nutrition can help minimize these losses. In every patient, a healthy diet with adequate protein, fruits, vegetables, calcium, and vitamin D is required to maintain bone health. Recent reports on nutritional remedies for osteoporosis have highlighted the importance of calcium in youth and continued importance in conjunction with vitamin D as the population ages. It is likely that a calcium intake of 1200 mg/d is ideal, and there are some concerns about excessive calcium intakes. However, vitamin D intake needs to be increased in most populations. The ability of soy products, particularly genistein aglycone, to provide skeletal benefit has been recently studied, including some data that support a new medical food marketed as Fosteum (Primus Pharmaceuticals, Scottsdale, AZ).

  13. The Shigella human challenge model.

    PubMed

    Porter, C K; Thura, N; Ranallo, R T; Riddle, M S

    2013-02-01

    Shigella is an important bacterial cause of infectious diarrhoea globally. The Shigella human challenge model has been used since 1946 for a variety of objectives including understanding disease pathogenesis, human immune responses and allowing for an early assessment of vaccine efficacy. A systematic review of the literature regarding experimental shigellosis in human subjects was conducted. Summative estimates were calculated by strain and dose. While a total of 19 studies evaluating nine strains at doses ranging from 10 to 1 × 1010 colony-forming units were identified, most studies utilized the S. sonnei strain 53G and the S. flexneri strain 2457T. Inoculum solution and pre-inoculation buffering has varied over time although diarrhoea attack rates do not appear to increase above 75-80%, and dysentery rates remain fairly constant, highlighting the need for additional dose-ranging studies. Expansion of the model to include additional strains from different serotypes will elucidate serotype and strain-specific outcome variability.

  14. NASA Space Rocket Logistics Challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neeley, James R.; Jones, James V.; Watson, Michael D.; Bramon, Christopher J.; Inman, Sharon K.; Tuttle, Loraine

    2014-01-01

    The Space Launch System (SLS) is the new NASA heavy lift launch vehicle and is scheduled for its first mission in 2017. The goal of the first mission, which will be uncrewed, is to demonstrate the integrated system performance of the SLS rocket and spacecraft before a crewed flight in 2021. SLS has many of the same logistics challenges as any other large scale program. Common logistics concerns for SLS include integration of discreet programs geographically separated, multiple prime contractors with distinct and different goals, schedule pressures and funding constraints. However, SLS also faces unique challenges. The new program is a confluence of new hardware and heritage, with heritage hardware constituting seventy-five percent of the program. This unique approach to design makes logistics concerns such as commonality especially problematic. Additionally, a very low manifest rate of one flight every four years makes logistics comparatively expensive. That, along with the SLS architecture being developed using a block upgrade evolutionary approach, exacerbates long-range planning for supportability considerations. These common and unique logistics challenges must be clearly identified and tackled to allow SLS to have a successful program. This paper will address the common and unique challenges facing the SLS programs, along with the analysis and decisions the NASA Logistics engineers are making to mitigate the threats posed by each.

  15. Integrating Variable Renewable Energy: Challenges and Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Bird, L.; Milligan, M.; Lew, D.

    2013-09-01

    In the U.S., a number of utilities are adopting higher penetrations of renewables, driven in part by state policies. While power systems have been designed to handle the variable nature of loads, the additional supply-side variability and uncertainty can pose new challenges for utilities and system operators. However, a variety of operational and technical solutions exist to help integrate higher penetrations of wind and solar generation. This paper explores renewable energy integration challenges and mitigation strategies that have been implemented in the U.S. and internationally, including forecasting, demand response, flexible generation, larger balancing areas or balancing area cooperation, and operational practices such as fast scheduling and dispatch.

  16. Quill Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Lori

    2006-01-01

    Teaching high school students the "grammar" of art--the principles and elements of art and design--while also teaching them about creativity and concept can be difficult. This author has found that combining beginning lessons in line, shape, value, texture, form, and color with projects requiring innovation and inspiration, though challenging, is…

  17. 7 CFR 1230.639 - Additional absentee voter challenge period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... PORK PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Procedures for the Conduct of Referendum Referendum..., tax records, or other similar documents proving that the person owned and sold hogs or pigs during...

  18. 7 CFR 1230.639 - Additional absentee voter challenge period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... PORK PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Procedures for the Conduct of Referendum Referendum..., tax records, or other similar documents proving that the person owned and sold hogs or pigs during...

  19. Perspectives on Additive Manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourell, David L.

    2016-07-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) has skyrocketed in visibility commercially and in the public sector. This article describes the development of this field from early layered manufacturing approaches of photosculpture, topography, and material deposition. Certain precursors to modern AM processes are also briefly described. The growth of the field over the last 30 years is presented. Included is the standard delineation of AM technologies into seven broad categories. The economics of AM part generation is considered, and the impacts of the economics on application sectors are described. On the basis of current trends, the future outlook will include a convergence of AM fabricators, mass-produced AM fabricators, enabling of topology optimization designs, and specialization in the AM legal arena. Long-term developments with huge impact are organ printing and volume-based printing.

  20. Multiphysics simulations: challenges and opportunities.

    SciTech Connect

    Keyes, D.; McInnes, L. C.; Woodward, C.; Gropp, W.; Myra, E.; Pernice, M.

    2012-11-29

    This report is an outcome of the workshop Multiphysics Simulations: Challenges and Opportunities, sponsored by the Institute of Computing in Science (ICiS). Additional information about the workshop, including relevant reading and presentations on multiphysics issues in applications, algorithms, and software, is available via https://sites.google.com/site/icismultiphysics2011/. We consider multiphysics applications from algorithmic and architectural perspectives, where 'algorithmic' includes both mathematical analysis and computational complexity and 'architectural' includes both software and hardware environments. Many diverse multiphysics applications can be reduced, en route to their computational simulation, to a common algebraic coupling paradigm. Mathematical analysis of multiphysics coupling in this form is not always practical for realistic applications, but model problems representative of applications discussed herein can provide insight. A variety of software frameworks for multiphysics applications have been constructed and refined within disciplinary communities and executed on leading-edge computer systems. We examine several of these, expose some commonalities among them, and attempt to extrapolate best practices to future systems. From our study, we summarize challenges and forecast opportunities. We also initiate a modest suite of test problems encompassing features present in many applications.

  1. Food additives and contaminants. An update.

    PubMed

    Newberne, P M; Conner, M W

    1986-10-15

    Food additives continue to be a source of benefits to the consuming public but there are also perceived risks. Concern for the latter in the last decade has produced a society afflicted with cancer phobia. The intentional additives including sugars, salt, corn syrup, and dextrose make up 90% of the direct additives. These, along with a limited number of familiar items make up a large proportion of the remainder of the additives. Such common ingredients as nitrates and nitrites, solanine, cyanogenetic compounds, arsenic, etc., are unavoidably consumed in the diet and with little if any evidence for public health consequences. Major concern on the part of the public in recent years has been focused on man-made chemicals which are intentionally added to foods to enhance flavors and acceptability, nutrient value, shelf life and increased availability. These include food colors, nonnutritive and low-nutrient sweeteners, (saccharin, cyclamate, aspartame); antioxidants; and nitrites. Contaminants, sometimes incorrectly included in lists of food additives, present the greatest potential threat to public health. Such contaminants as mycotoxins, nitrosamines, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), pesticides, among others, provide a continuing challenge to our regulatory agencies and to public health authorities. Evidence to date indicate that these responsible for food safety are doing an admirable job, and as a society, our food supply has never been better, or safer, and, as a population, we have never been healthier. Aside from contaminants, major concerns relate to an excess of good food and to obesity. These comments should not be taken to infer that we should relax our concern and surveillance; instead more concern and surveillance should be exerted toward those uncontrolled substances such as natural plant products and alleged natural nutrients, roots, herbs, etc., which are given much credit for positive health effects, without meeting the high standards of our

  2. Mars - Destination and challenge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aldrich, Arnold D.

    A general evaluation is conducted of the challenges associated with prospective Mars exploration efforts. The technical challenge posed stems from the unforgiving physical environment of space travel, and such peculiarities of Mars as its great orbital eccentricity and 15-year cyclic variation in transfer energy. Additional considerations arise from the 'architecture' of NASA's Space Exploration Initiative, encompassing the determination of a Mars exploration effort's purpose, scope, and schedule. Finally, numerous unresolved issues arise from the definition of detailed scientific experimentation that is to be done for the sake of the greatest long-term benefit to an understanding of Mars, and the rallying of political support behind a major new exploration initiative.

  3. Mars - Destination and challenge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aldrich, Arnold D.

    1992-01-01

    A general evaluation is conducted of the challenges associated with prospective Mars exploration efforts. The technical challenge posed stems from the unforgiving physical environment of space travel, and such peculiarities of Mars as its great orbital eccentricity and 15-year cyclic variation in transfer energy. Additional considerations arise from the 'architecture' of NASA's Space Exploration Initiative, encompassing the determination of a Mars exploration effort's purpose, scope, and schedule. Finally, numerous unresolved issues arise from the definition of detailed scientific experimentation that is to be done for the sake of the greatest long-term benefit to an understanding of Mars, and the rallying of political support behind a major new exploration initiative.

  4. Additive manufacturing of glass for optical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Junjie; Gilbert, Luke J.; Bristow, Douglas A.; Landers, Robert G.; Goldstein, Jonathan T.; Urbas, Augustine M.; Kinzel, Edward C.

    2016-04-01

    Glasses including fused quartz have significant scientific and engineering applications including optics, communications, electronics, and hermetic seals. This paper investigates a filament fed process for Additive Manufacturing (AM) of fused quartz. Additive manufacturing has several potential benefits including increased design freedom, faster prototyping, and lower processing costs for small production volumes. However, current research in AM of glasses is limited and has focused on non-optical applications. Fused quartz is studied here because of its desirability for high-quality optics due to its high transmissivity and thermal stability. Fused quartz also has a higher working temperature than soda lime glass which poses a challenge for AM. In this work, fused quartz filaments are fed into a CO2 laser generated melt pool, smoothly depositing material onto the work piece. Single tracks are printed to explore the effects that different process parameters have on the morphology of printed fused quartz. A spectrometer is used to measure the thermal radiation incandescently emitted from the melt pool. Thin-walls are printed to study the effects of layer-to-layer height. Finally, a 3D fused quartz cube is printed using the newly acquired layer height and polished on each surface. The transmittance and index homogeneity of the polished cube are both measured. These results show that the filament fed process has the potential to print fused quartz with optical transparency and of index of refraction uniformity approaching bulk processed glass.

  5. The Better Boat Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schomburg, Aaron

    2008-01-01

    "On your mark, get set, go!" Elementary students love to hear these words as they participate in the annual Third Grade Better Boat Challenge. This highly motivational project started a few years ago as the author was developing the third-grade science curriculum to include a study that revolved around models, design, and problem solving. It has…

  6. The Best of Challenge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association for Health, Physical Education, and Recreation, Washington, DC.

    The articles on physical education and recreation for the mentally retarded have been compiled from the first five volumes of Challenge, a bi-monthly newsletter dealing with physical education, recreation, camping, outdoor education, and related activities for the retarded. Also included are a few entries from Outlook, a newsletter dealing with…

  7. The Dirty Water Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Mark; Kremer, Angelika; Schluter, Kirsten

    2007-01-01

    "The Dirty Water Challenge" is a fun activity that teaches children about their environment in an engaging and practical way. Inquiry is embedded within the practical--students have to design, plan, and then build their own design of water filter. Students are exposed to important concepts from a variety of scientific disciplines, including how…

  8. Employment, Training, and Literacy Enhancement Act of 1997. Report of the Committee on Education and the Workforce, House of Representatives, on H.R. 1385 Together with Additional and Dissenting Views [Including Cost Estimate of the Congressional Budget Office], 105th Congress, 1st Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Education and the Workforce.

    This document contains the text of the Employment, Training, and Literacy Enhancement Act of 1997, as amended by committee, including the titles that cover the following: general provisions; employment and training programs for disadvantaged youth; federally administered programs; adult education programs; miscellaneous provisions; the State Human…

  9. Engineered Nanoscale Materials and Derivative Products: Regulatory Challenges

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-22

    to microbes, and some product manufacturers have made antibacterial claims for their products containing nanosilver . In addition, research has...intent to regulate nanosilver under FIFRA when it is released from certain washing machines and other products for which manufacturers claim...nanomaterials, including nanosilver , under certain conditions. To address this challenge, EPA’s Science Policy Council, an internal policy group, formed

  10. Challenges and Potential Solutions for Enabling Inclusion in Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearce, Michelle; Forlin, Chris

    2005-01-01

    Children with disabilities are increasingly being included in mainstream classes in Australian schools. In addition, many children with disabilities who are currently enrolled in primary school will be moving to secondary school in the next few years. For secondary schools to meet this challenge, it is important that the reasons for their…

  11. Challenges in obesity research.

    PubMed

    Palou, Andreu; Bonet, M Luisa

    2013-09-01

    Obesity is the main nutritional problem and one of the most important health problems in developed societies. Central to the challenge of obesity prevention and management is a thoroughly understanding of its determinants. Multiple socio-cultural, socio-economic, behavioural and biological factors--often interrelated and many of them still unknown or poorly understood--can contribute to the establishment and perpetuation of obese phenotypes. Here, we address current research challenges regarding basic aspects of obesity and emerging science for its control, including brown adipose tissue thermogenesis and browning of white fat as possible therapeutic targets for obesity, the influence of the microbioma, and genetics, epigenetics, nutrigenomics and nutrigenetics of obesity. We also highlight hot topics in relation to food and lifestyle as determinants of obesity, including the brain mechanisms underlying environmental motivation to eat, the biological control of spontaneous physical activity, the possible role of concrete foods and food components, and the importance of early life nutrition and environment. Challenges regarding the connections of obesity with other alterations and pathologies are also briefly addressed, as well as social and economical challenges in relation to healthy food production and lifestyle for the prevention of obesity, and technological challenges in obesity research and management. The objective is to give a panoramic of advances accomplished and still ahead relevant to the different stakeholders engaged in understanding and combating obesity.

  12. Nuclear Proliferation Challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Professor William Potter

    2005-11-28

    William C. Potter, Director of the Center for Non Proliferation Studies and the Center for Russian and Eurasian Studies at the Monterey Institute of International Studies, will present nuclear proliferation challenges following the 2005 Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) Review Conference. In addition to elucidating reasons for, and implications of, the conference’s failure, Dr. Potter will discuss common ground between nuclear proliferation and terrorism issues and whether corrective action can be taken.

  13. Report on July 2015 Additional Protocol Coordinators Best Practices Workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Gitau, Ernest T.N.; Burbank, Roberta L.; Finch, Valerie A.

    2016-07-31

    After 10 years of implementation experience, the Office of Nonproliferation and Arms Control (NPAC) within the Department of Energy/National Nuclear Security Administration (DOE/NNSA) conducted the Additional Protocol (AP) Coordinators Best Practices Workshop at Oak Ridge National Laboratory from July 29-30, 2015. The goal of this workshop was to identify implementation best practices, lessons learned, and compliance challenges from the various Additional Protocol Coordinators (APCs) at each laboratory in the DOE/NNSA complex and associated sites. The workshop provided the opportunity for participants to share their insights and establish networks that APCs can utilize to continue to discuss challenges (new and old), identify best practices, and enhance communication and coordination for reporting multi-lab research projects during review activities. Workshop participants included DOE/NNSA HQ, laboratory and site APCs, seasoned experts, members of the original implementation outreach team, and Field Element and site security representatives.

  14. The LSST Data Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Axelrod, Tim S.; Becla, J.; Connolly, A.; Dossa, D.; Jagatheesan, A.; Kantor, J.; Levine, D.; Lupton, R.; Plante, R.; Smith, C.; Thakar, A.; Tyson, J. A.; LSST Data Management Team

    2007-12-01

    The development of the LSST Data Management System (DMS) includes a series of four Data Challenges that take place during the Design and Development phase of the project. The Data Challenges are partial prototypes of the full DMS, each validating different aspects of the system. DC1, which was executed in 2006, emphasized scalability of the overall processing and data flows. DC2, which was executed in 2007, prototyped the nightly processing pipelines and the middleware that supports them. DC3, planned for execution in 2008, will prototype the data release pipelines. DC4, the final Data Challenge before construction begins, will focus on data access by the astronomical community and the data processing that supports scientific use of the LSST data.

  15. Additive Similarity Trees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sattath, Shmuel; Tversky, Amos

    1977-01-01

    Tree representations of similarity data are investigated. Hierarchical clustering is critically examined, and a more general procedure, called the additive tree, is presented. The additive tree representation is then compared to multidimensional scaling. (Author/JKS)

  16. IT Challenges for Space Medicine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson-Throop, Kathy

    2010-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the various Information Technology challenges for aerospace medicine. The contents include: 1) Space Medicine Activities; 2) Private Medical Information; 3) Lifetime Surveillance of Astronaut Health; 4) Mission Medical Support; 5) Data Repositories for Research; 6) Data Input and Output; 7) Finding Data/Information; 8) Summary of Challenges; and 9) Solutions and questions.

  17. Additive lattice kirigami.

    PubMed

    Castle, Toen; Sussman, Daniel M; Tanis, Michael; Kamien, Randall D

    2016-09-01

    Kirigami uses bending, folding, cutting, and pasting to create complex three-dimensional (3D) structures from a flat sheet. In the case of lattice kirigami, this cutting and rejoining introduces defects into an underlying 2D lattice in the form of points of nonzero Gaussian curvature. A set of simple rules was previously used to generate a wide variety of stepped structures; we now pare back these rules to their minimum. This allows us to describe a set of techniques that unify a wide variety of cut-and-paste actions under the rubric of lattice kirigami, including adding new material and rejoining material across arbitrary cuts in the sheet. We also explore the use of more complex lattices and the different structures that consequently arise. Regardless of the choice of lattice, creating complex structures may require multiple overlapping kirigami cuts, where subsequent cuts are not performed on a locally flat lattice. Our additive kirigami method describes such cuts, providing a simple methodology and a set of techniques to build a huge variety of complex 3D shapes.

  18. Additive lattice kirigami

    PubMed Central

    Castle, Toen; Sussman, Daniel M.; Tanis, Michael; Kamien, Randall D.

    2016-01-01

    Kirigami uses bending, folding, cutting, and pasting to create complex three-dimensional (3D) structures from a flat sheet. In the case of lattice kirigami, this cutting and rejoining introduces defects into an underlying 2D lattice in the form of points of nonzero Gaussian curvature. A set of simple rules was previously used to generate a wide variety of stepped structures; we now pare back these rules to their minimum. This allows us to describe a set of techniques that unify a wide variety of cut-and-paste actions under the rubric of lattice kirigami, including adding new material and rejoining material across arbitrary cuts in the sheet. We also explore the use of more complex lattices and the different structures that consequently arise. Regardless of the choice of lattice, creating complex structures may require multiple overlapping kirigami cuts, where subsequent cuts are not performed on a locally flat lattice. Our additive kirigami method describes such cuts, providing a simple methodology and a set of techniques to build a huge variety of complex 3D shapes. PMID:27679822

  19. The challenges of amblyopia treatment.

    PubMed

    Maconachie, Gail D E; Gottlob, Irene

    2015-12-01

    The treatment of amblyopia, particularly anisometropic (difference in refractive correction) and/or strabismic (turn of one eye) amblyopia has long been a challenge for many clinicians. Achieving optimum outcomes, where the amblyopic eye reaches a visual acuity similar to the fellow eye, is often impossible in many patients. Part of this challenge has resulted from a previous lack of scientific evidence for amblyopia treatment that was highlight by a systematic review by Snowdon et al. in 1998. Since this review, a number of publications have revealed new findings in the treatment of amblyopia. This includes the finding that less intensive occlusion treatments can be successful in treating amblyopia. A relationship between adherence to treatment and visual acuity has also been established and has been shown to be influenced by the use of intervention material. In addition, there is growing evidence of that a period of glasses wearing only can significantly improve visual acuity alone without any other modes of treatment. This review article reports findings since the Snowdon's report.

  20. Polyimide processing additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pratt, J. R.; St. Clair, T. L.; Burks, H. D.; Stoakley, D. M.

    1987-01-01

    A method has been found for enhancing the melt flow of thermoplastic polyimides during processing. A high molecular weight 422 copoly(amic acid) or copolyimide was fused with approximately 0.05 to 5 pct by weight of a low molecular weight amic acid or imide additive, and this melt was studied by capillary rheometry. Excellent flow and improved composite properties on graphite resulted from the addition of a PMDA-aniline additive to LARC-TPI. Solution viscosity studies imply that amic acid additives temporarily lower molecular weight and, hence, enlarge the processing window. Thus, compositions containing the additive have a lower melt viscosity for a longer time than those unmodified.

  1. [Food additives and healthiness].

    PubMed

    Heinonen, Marina

    2014-01-01

    Additives are used for improving food structure or preventing its spoilage, for example. Many substances used as additives are also naturally present in food. The safety of additives is evaluated according to commonly agreed principles. If high concentrations of an additive cause adverse health effects for humans, a limit of acceptable daily intake (ADI) is set for it. An additive is a risk only when ADI is exceeded. The healthiness of food is measured on the basis of nutrient density and scientifically proven effects.

  2. Bioinformatics Challenge Days

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-30

    from a subject that suffered from periodontal disease . The rationale for including these two samples was to identify the differences and similarities...differentials between datasets derived from healthy and diseased samples, in particular the different read depths observed for bacteria. 5 Figure 1...presentations are summarized below. Team Disease Easy: 7 people, Metagenomic Visual Challenge Focused their visual output on Swann plots (a type of

  3. Challenges for space medicine.

    PubMed

    Sri Kantha, S

    1994-03-01

    Since April 1961, when Yuri Gagarin first orbited the earth about 270 astronauts (predominantly males) have lived in space. More than 90 percent of these astronauts were natives of the USA and the ex-USSR. In this commentary, the challenges confronting the discipline of space medicine are reviewed. These include, (1) space sickness, (2) wasting of the musculoskeletal system and (3) developing a longterm life support system.

  4. Wildland Fire Sensors Challenge Webinar

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This challenge seeks a field-ready prototype system capable of measuring constituents of smoke, including particulates, carbon monoxide, ozone, and carbon dioxide, over the wide range of levels expected during wildland fires.

  5. Minimum Additive Waste Stabilization (MAWS). Technology summary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    In the Minimum Additive Waste Stabilization(MAWS) concept, actual waste streams are utilized as additive resources for vitrification, which may contain the basic components (glass formers and fluxes) for making a suitable glass or glassy slag. If too much glass former is present, then the melt viscosity or temperature will be too high for processing; while if there is too much flux, then the durability may suffer. Therefore, there are optimum combinations of these two important classes of constituents depending on the criteria required. The challenge is to combine these resources in such a way that minimizes the use of non-waste additives yet yields a processable and durable final waste form for disposal. The benefit to this approach is that the volume of the final waste form is minimized (waste loading maximized) since little or no additives are used and vitrification itself results in volume reduction through evaporation of water, combustion of organics, and compaction of the solids into a non-porous glass. This implies a significant reduction in disposal costs due to volume reduction alone, and minimizes future risks/costs due to the long term durability and leach resistance of glass. This is accomplished by using integrated systems that are both cost-effective and produce an environmentally sound waste form for disposal. individual component technologies may include: vitrification; thermal destruction; soil washing; gas scrubbing/filtration; and, ion-exchange wastewater treatment. The particular combination of technologies will depend on the waste streams to be treated. At the heart of MAWS is vitrification technology, which incorporates all primary and secondary waste streams into a final, long-term, stabilized glass wasteform. The integrated technology approach, and view of waste streams as resources, is innovative yet practical to cost effectively treat a broad range of DOE mixed and low-level wastes.

  6. HSR Aerodynamic Performance Status and Challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbert, William P.; Antani, Tony; Ball, Doug; Calloway, Robert L.; Snyder, Phil

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes HSR (High Speed Research) Aerodynamic Performance Status and Challenges. The topics include: 1) Aero impact on HSR; 2) Goals and Targets; 3) Progress and Status; and 4) Remaining Challenges. This paper is presented in viewgraph form.

  7. Managing Challenges in a Multi Contractor Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, Ron

    2011-01-01

    The presentation provides a project description, describes the integrated product team, and review project challenges. The challenges include programmatic, technical, basic drop tests, heavy drop tests, C-17 envelope expansion, and Ares I-X.

  8. Access and Costs: Recommendations for Title IV. Hearing on Examining Proposals Authorizing Funds for Title IV Student Aid Programs and Issues Relating to Access to Costs of Postsecondary Education of the Higher Education Act, Including S. 1036, To Revise Section 435 of the Higher Education Act To Allow for the Young Americans Bank and Similar Small, Nonprofit Organizations to Provide Additional Funds for Educational Programming, of the Committee on Labor and Human Resources. United States Senate, One Hundred Fifth Congress, First Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Labor and Human Resources.

    This 10th and final hearing in a series related to the reauthorization of the Higher Education Act, focused on three specific areas: (1) the challenges posed by demographic changes in the college student population--nearly half of all students attend community colleges where the average age of students is 29; (2) the challenges and opportunities…

  9. Food Additives and Hyperkinesis: A Controlled Double-Blind Experiment. (Includes NIE Staff Critique).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conners, C. Keith; And Others

    Fifteen hyperkinetic children (6-12 years old) were involved in a pilot study to test B. Feingold's hypothesis that hyperkinesis may be caused by artificial flavors and colors in food. Prior to treatment, parents and teachers completed bi-weekly questionnaires regarding each Ss' behavior both on medication (pretreatment period) and when medication…

  10. Additions to the knowledge of the land snails of Sabah (Malaysia, Borneo), including 48 new species

    PubMed Central

    Vermeulen, Jaap J.; Liew, Thor-Seng; Schilthuizen, Menno

    2015-01-01

    Abstract We present reviews of the Sabah (Malaysia, on the island of Borneo) species of the following problematical genera of land snails (Mollusca, Gastropoda): Acmella and Anaglyphula (Caenogastropoda: Assimineidae); Ditropopsis (Caenogastropoda: Cyclophoridae); Microcystina (Pulmonata: Ariophantidae); Philalanka and Thysanota (Pulmonata: Endodontidae); Kaliella, Rahula, (Pulmonata: Euconulidae); Trochomorpha and Geotrochus (Pulmonata: Trochomorphidae). Next to this, we describe new species in previously revised genera, such as Diplommatina (Diplommatinidae); Georissa (Hydrocenidae); as well as some new species of genera not revised previously, such as Japonia (Cyclophoridae); Durgella and Dyakia (Ariophantidae); Amphidromus, and Trachia (Camaenidae); Paralaoma (Punctidae); Curvella (Subulinidae). All descriptions are based on the morphology of the shells. We distinguish the following 48 new species: Acmella cyrtoglyphe, Acmella umbilicata, Acmella ovoidea, Acmella nana, Acmella subcancellata, Acmella striata, and Anaglyphula sauroderma (Assimineidae); Ditropopsis davisoni, Ditropopsis trachychilus, Ditropopsis constricta, Ditropopsis tyloacron, Ditropopsis cincta, and Japonia anceps (Cyclophoridae); Diplommatina bidentata and Diplommatina tylocheilos (Diplommatinidae); Georissa leucococca and Georissa nephrostoma (Hydrocenidae); Durgella densestriata, Dyakia chlorosoma, Microcystina microrhynchus, Microcystina callifera, Microcystina striatula, Microcystina planiuscula, and Microcystina physotrochus (Ariophantidae); Amphidromus psephos and Trachia serpentinitica (Camaenidae); Philalanka tambunanensis, Philalanka obscura, Philalanka anomphala, Philalanka rugulosa, and Philalanka malimgunung (Endodontidae); Kaliella eurytrochus, Kaliella sublaxa, Kaliella phacomorpha, Kaliella punctata, Kaliella microsoma, Rahula delopleura, (Euconulidae); Paralaoma angusta (Punctidae); Curvella hadrotes (Subulinidae); Trochomorpha trachus, Trochomorpha haptoderma, Trochomorpha thelecoryphe, Geotrochus oedobasis, Geotrochus spilokeiria, Geotrochus scolops, Geotrochus kitteli, Geotrochus subscalaris, and Geotrochus meristorhachis (Trochomorphidae). PMID:26692803

  11. Collaborative Assessment: Working with Students Who Are Blind or Visually Impaired, Including Those with Additional Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, Stephen A., Ed.; Wittenstein, Stuart H., Ed.

    This book offers a comprehensive text on the assessment of students with blindness or visual impairment with a focus on approaches used at the California School for the Blind. An introductory chapter is by Frances K. Liefert and Marsha A. Silver. Eleven chapters have the following titles and authors: (1) "Introduction to Visual Impairment"…

  12. Challenging times ahead.

    PubMed

    While, Alison

    2008-07-01

    The global economic challenges will not only affect the banks but also healthcare staff and their patients. Indeed, no-one will be unaffected. At this moment community nurses are not being properly reimbursed for the cost of using their cars to deliver care in the home as the price of petrol rises ever higher and older people are counting the cost of ever rising energy and food costs. Additionally there will be less extra money available to fund public services as the government attempts to balance its expenditure against tax receipts without further increasing government debt.

  13. Introduction to the HPC Challenge Benchmark Suite

    SciTech Connect

    Luszczek, Piotr; Dongarra, Jack J.; Koester, David; Rabenseifner,Rolf; Lucas, Bob; Kepner, Jeremy; McCalpin, John; Bailey, David; Takahashi, Daisuke

    2005-04-25

    The HPC Challenge benchmark suite has been released by the DARPA HPCS program to help define the performance boundaries of future Petascale computing systems. HPC Challenge is a suite of tests that examine the performance of HPC architectures using kernels with memory access patterns more challenging than those of the High Performance Linpack (HPL) benchmark used in the Top500 list. Thus, the suite is designed to augment the Top500 list, providing benchmarks that bound the performance of many real applications as a function of memory access characteristics e.g., spatial and temporal locality, and providing a framework for including additional tests. In particular, the suite is composed of several well known computational kernels (STREAM, HPL, matrix multiply--DGEMM, parallel matrix transpose--PTRANS, FFT, RandomAccess, and bandwidth/latency tests--b{sub eff}) that attempt to span high and low spatial and temporal locality space. By design, the HPC Challenge tests are scalable with the size of data sets being a function of the largest HPL matrix for the tested system.

  14. Neutron Characterization for Additive Manufacturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watkins, Thomas; Bilheux, Hassina; An, Ke; Payzant, Andrew; DeHoff, Ryan; Duty, Chad; Peter, William; Blue, Craig; Brice, Craig A.

    2013-01-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is leveraging decades of experience in neutron characterization of advanced materials together with resources such as the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) and the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) shown in Fig. 1 to solve challenging problems in additive manufacturing (AM). Additive manufacturing, or three-dimensional (3-D) printing, is a rapidly maturing technology wherein components are built by selectively adding feedstock material at locations specified by a computer model. The majority of these technologies use thermally driven phase change mechanisms to convert the feedstock into functioning material. As the molten material cools and solidifies, the component is subjected to significant thermal gradients, generating significant internal stresses throughout the part (Fig. 2). As layers are added, inherent residual stresses cause warping and distortions that lead to geometrical differences between the final part and the original computer generated design. This effect also limits geometries that can be fabricated using AM, such as thin-walled, high-aspect- ratio, and overhanging structures. Distortion may be minimized by intelligent toolpath planning or strategic placement of support structures, but these approaches are not well understood and often "Edisonian" in nature. Residual stresses can also impact component performance during operation. For example, in a thermally cycled environment such as a high-pressure turbine engine, residual stresses can cause components to distort unpredictably. Different thermal treatments on as-fabricated AM components have been used to minimize residual stress, but components still retain a nonhomogeneous stress state and/or demonstrate a relaxation-derived geometric distortion. Industry, federal laboratory, and university collaboration is needed to address these challenges and enable the U.S. to compete in the global market. Work is currently being conducted on AM technologies at the ORNL

  15. Polyimide processing additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fletcher, James C. (Inventor); Pratt, J. Richard (Inventor); St.clair, Terry L. (Inventor); Stoakley, Diane M. (Inventor); Burks, Harold D. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A process for preparing polyimides having enhanced melt flow properties is described. The process consists of heating a mixture of a high molecular weight poly-(amic acid) or polyimide with a low molecular weight amic acid or imide additive in the range of 0.05 to 15 percent by weight of additive. The polyimide powders so obtained show improved processability, as evidenced by lower melt viscosity by capillary rheometry. Likewise, films prepared from mixtures of polymers with additives show improved processability with earlier onset of stretching by TMA.

  16. Polyimide processing additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pratt, J. Richard (Inventor); St.clair, Terry L. (Inventor); Stoakley, Diane M. (Inventor); Burks, Harold D. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A process for preparing polyimides having enhanced melt flow properties is described. The process consists of heating a mixture of a high molecular weight poly-(amic acid) or polyimide with a low molecular weight amic acid or imide additive in the range of 0.05 to 15 percent by weight of the additive. The polyimide powders so obtained show improved processability, as evidenced by lower melt viscosity by capillary rheometry. Likewise, films prepared from mixtures of polymers with additives show improved processability with earlier onset of stretching by TMA.

  17. Adverse reactions to drug additives.

    PubMed

    Simon, R A

    1984-10-01

    There is a long list of additives used by the pharmaceutical industry. Most of the agents used have not been implicated in hypersensitivity reactions. Among those that have, only reactions to parabens and sulfites have been well established. Parabens have been shown to be responsible for rare immunoglobulin E-mediated reactions that occur after the use of local anesthetics. Sulfites, which are present in many drugs, including agents commonly used to treat asthma, have been shown to provoke severe asthmatic attacks in sensitive individuals. Recent studies indicate that additives do not play a significant role in "hyperactivity." The role of additives in urticaria is not well established and therefore the incidence of adverse reactions in this patient population is simply not known. In double-blind, placebo-controlled studies, reactions to tartrazine or additives other than sulfites, if they occur at all, are indeed quite rare for the asthmatic population, even for the aspirin-sensitive subpopulation.

  18. Food Additives and Hyperkinesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wender, Ester H.

    1977-01-01

    The hypothesis that food additives are causally associated with hyperkinesis and learning disabilities in children is reviewed, and available data are summarized. Available from: American Medical Association 535 North Dearborn Street Chicago, Illinois 60610. (JG)

  19. Smog control fuel additives

    SciTech Connect

    Lundby, W.

    1993-06-29

    A method is described of controlling, reducing or eliminating, ozone and related smog resulting from photochemical reactions between ozone and automotive or industrial gases comprising the addition of iodine or compounds of iodine to hydrocarbon-base fuels prior to or during combustion in an amount of about 1 part iodine per 240 to 10,000,000 parts fuel, by weight, to be accomplished by: (a) the addition of these inhibitors during or after the refining or manufacturing process of liquid fuels; (b) the production of these inhibitors for addition into fuel tanks, such as automotive or industrial tanks; or (c) the addition of these inhibitors into combustion chambers of equipment utilizing solid fuels for the purpose of reducing ozone.

  20. Evaluation of certain food additives.

    PubMed

    2015-01-01

    This report represents the conclusions of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee convened to evaluate the safety of various food additives, including flavouring agents, and to prepare specifications for identity and purity. The first part of the report contains a general discussion of the principles governing the toxicological evaluation of and assessment of dietary exposure to food additives, including flavouring agents. A summary follows of the Committee's evaluations of technical, toxicological and dietary exposure data for eight food additives (Benzoe tonkinensis; carrageenan; citric and fatty acid esters of glycerol; gardenia yellow; lutein esters from Tagetes erecta; octenyl succinic acid-modified gum arabic; octenyl succinic acid-modified starch; paprika extract; and pectin) and eight groups of flavouring agents (aliphatic and alicyclic hydrocarbons; aliphatic and aromatic ethers; ionones and structurally related substances; miscellaneous nitrogen-containing substances; monocyclic and bicyclic secondary alcohols, ketones and related esters; phenol and phenol derivatives; phenyl-substituted aliphatic alcohols and related aldehydes and esters; and sulfur-containing heterocyclic compounds). Specifications for the following food additives were revised: citric acid; gellan gum; polyoxyethylene (20) sorbitan monostearate; potassium aluminium silicate; and Quillaia extract (Type 2). Annexed to the report are tables summarizing the Committee's recommendations for dietary exposures to and toxicological evaluations of all of the food additives and flavouring agents considered at this meeting.

  1. Group Sparse Additive Models

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Junming; Chen, Xi; Xing, Eric P.

    2016-01-01

    We consider the problem of sparse variable selection in nonparametric additive models, with the prior knowledge of the structure among the covariates to encourage those variables within a group to be selected jointly. Previous works either study the group sparsity in the parametric setting (e.g., group lasso), or address the problem in the nonparametric setting without exploiting the structural information (e.g., sparse additive models). In this paper, we present a new method, called group sparse additive models (GroupSpAM), which can handle group sparsity in additive models. We generalize the ℓ1/ℓ2 norm to Hilbert spaces as the sparsity-inducing penalty in GroupSpAM. Moreover, we derive a novel thresholding condition for identifying the functional sparsity at the group level, and propose an efficient block coordinate descent algorithm for constructing the estimate. We demonstrate by simulation that GroupSpAM substantially outperforms the competing methods in terms of support recovery and prediction accuracy in additive models, and also conduct a comparative experiment on a real breast cancer dataset.

  2. Additive Manufacturing Infrared Inspection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaddy, Darrell

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing is a rapid prototyping technology that allows parts to be built in a series of thin layers from plastic, ceramics, and metallics. Metallic additive manufacturing is an emerging form of rapid prototyping that allows complex structures to be built using various metallic powders. Significant time and cost savings have also been observed using the metallic additive manufacturing compared with traditional techniques. Development of the metallic additive manufacturing technology has advanced significantly over the last decade, although many of the techniques to inspect parts made from these processes have not advanced significantly or have limitations. Several external geometry inspection techniques exist such as Coordinate Measurement Machines (CMM), Laser Scanners, Structured Light Scanning Systems, or even traditional calipers and gages. All of the aforementioned techniques are limited to external geometry and contours or must use a contact probe to inspect limited internal dimensions. This presentation will document the development of a process for real-time dimensional inspection technique and digital quality record of the additive manufacturing process using Infrared camera imaging and processing techniques.

  3. Additive Manufacturing of Aerospace Propulsion Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Misra, Ajay K.; Grady, Joseph E.; Carter, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The presentation will provide an overview of ongoing activities on additive manufacturing of aerospace propulsion components, which included rocket propulsion and gas turbine engines. Future opportunities on additive manufacturing of hybrid electric propulsion components will be discussed.

  4. Phenylethynyl Containing Reactive Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John W. (Inventor); Smith, Joseph G., Jr. (Inventor); Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Phenylethynyl containing reactive additives were prepared from aromatic diamine, containing phenylethvnvl groups and various ratios of phthalic anhydride and 4-phenylethynviphthalic anhydride in glacial acetic acid to form the imide in one step or in N-methyl-2-pvrrolidinone to form the amide acid intermediate. The reactive additives were mixed in various amounts (10% to 90%) with oligomers containing either terminal or pendent phenylethynyl groups (or both) to reduce the melt viscosity and thereby enhance processability. Upon thermal cure, the additives react and become chemically incorporated into the matrix and effect an increase in crosslink density relative to that of the host resin. This resultant increase in crosslink density has advantageous consequences on the cured resin properties such as higher glass transition temperature and higher modulus as compared to that of the host resin.

  5. Fused Lasso Additive Model

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Ashley; Witten, Daniela; Simon, Noah

    2016-01-01

    We consider the problem of predicting an outcome variable using p covariates that are measured on n independent observations, in a setting in which additive, flexible, and interpretable fits are desired. We propose the fused lasso additive model (FLAM), in which each additive function is estimated to be piecewise constant with a small number of adaptively-chosen knots. FLAM is the solution to a convex optimization problem, for which a simple algorithm with guaranteed convergence to a global optimum is provided. FLAM is shown to be consistent in high dimensions, and an unbiased estimator of its degrees of freedom is proposed. We evaluate the performance of FLAM in a simulation study and on two data sets. Supplemental materials are available online, and the R package flam is available on CRAN. PMID:28239246

  6. Phenylethynyl Containing Reactive Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John W. (Inventor); Smith, Joseph G., Jr. (Inventor); Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Phenylethynyl containing reactive additives were prepared from aromatic diamines containing phenylethynyl groups and various ratios of phthalic anhydride and 4-phenylethynylphthalic anhydride in glacial acetic acid to form the imide in one step or in N-methyl-2-pyrrolidi none to form the amide acid intermediate. The reactive additives were mixed in various amounts (10% to 90%) with oligomers containing either terminal or pendent phenylethynyl groups (or both) to reduce the melt viscosity and thereby enhance processability. Upon thermal cure, the additives react and become chemically incorporated into the matrix and effect an increase in crosslink density relative to that of the host resin. This resultant increase in crosslink density has advantageous consequences on the cured resin properties such as higher glass transition temperature and higher modulus as compared to that of the host resin.

  7. Nanoparticle additives for multiphase systems: Synthesis, formulation and characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanniah, Vinod

    Study on nanoparticle additives in multiphase systems (liquid, polymer) are of immense interest in developing new product applications. Critical challenges for nanoparticle additives include their synthesis, formulation and characterization. These challenges are addressed in three application areas: nanofluids for engine lubrication, ultrathin nanocomposites for optical devices, and nanoparticle size distribution characterization. Nanoparticle additives in oligomer mixtures can be used to develop extended temperature range motor oils. A model system includes poly(alpha-olefin) based oligomers with a modest fraction of poly(dimethylsiloxane) oligomers along with graphite as nanoparticle additive. Partition coefficients of each oligomer are determined since the oligomer mixture phase separated at temperatures less than -15 °C. Also, the surface of graphite additive is quantitatively analyzed and modified via silanization for each oligomer. Thus, upon separation of the oligomer mixture, each functionalized graphite additive migrates to its preferred oligomers and forms a uniform dispersion. Similarly, nanoparticle additives in polymer matrices can be used to develop new low haze ultrathin film optical coatings. A model system included an acrylate monomer as the continuous phase with monodisperse or bidisperse mixtures of silica nanoparticles deposited on glass and polycarbonate substrates. Surface (root mean squared roughness, Wenzel's contact angle) and optical properties (haze) of these self assembled experimental surfaces were compared to simulated surface structures. Manipulating the size ratios of silica nanoparticle mixtures varied the average surface roughness and the height distributions, producing multimodal structures with different packing fractions. In both nanofluid and nanocomposite applications, nanoparticle additives tend to aggregate/agglomerate depending on various factors including the state of nanoparticles (powder, dispersion). A set of well

  8. Additives in plastics.

    PubMed Central

    Deanin, R D

    1975-01-01

    The polymers used in plastics are generally harmless. However, they are rarely used in pure form. In almost all commercial plastics, they are "compounded" with monomeric ingredients to improve their processing and end-use performance. In order of total volume used, these monomeric additives may be classified as follows: reinforcing fibers, fillers, and coupling agents; plasticizers; colorants; stabilizers (halogen stabilizers, antioxidants, ultraviolet absorbers, and biological preservatives); processing aids (lubricants, others, and flow controls); flame retardants, peroxides; and antistats. Some information is already available, and much more is needed, on potential toxicity and safe handling of these additives during processing and manufacture of plastics products. PMID:1175566

  9. Additives in plastics.

    PubMed

    Deanin, R D

    1975-06-01

    The polymers used in plastics are generally harmless. However, they are rarely used in pure form. In almost all commercial plastics, they are "compounded" with monomeric ingredients to improve their processing and end-use performance. In order of total volume used, these monomeric additives may be classified as follows: reinforcing fibers, fillers, and coupling agents; plasticizers; colorants; stabilizers (halogen stabilizers, antioxidants, ultraviolet absorbers, and biological preservatives); processing aids (lubricants, others, and flow controls); flame retardants, peroxides; and antistats. Some information is already available, and much more is needed, on potential toxicity and safe handling of these additives during processing and manufacture of plastics products.

  10. Campus Challenge - Part 2: Benefits and Challenges of BACnet

    DOE PAGES

    Masica, Ken

    2016-01-15

    Additional challenges of implementing a BACnet network in a large campus environment are explored in this article: providing BACnet campus connectivity, protecting BACnet network traffic, and controlling the resulting broadcast traffic. An example of BACnet implementation is also presented, unifying concepts presented in this and Part One of the article.

  11. Sustainable Materials Management Challenge Data

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Sustainable Materials Management (SMM) is a systemic approach to using and reusing materials more productively over their entire lifecycles. It represents a change in how our society thinks about the use of natural resources and environmental protection. By looking at a product's entire lifecycle we can find new opportunities to reduce environmental impacts, conserve resources, and reduce costs. There are multiple challenge programs available as part of the SMM program, including the Food Recovery Challenge, the Electronics Challenge, the Federal Green Challenge, and the WasteWise program. As part of EPA's Food Recovery Challenge, organizations pledge to improve their sustainable food management practices and report their results. The SMM Electronics Challenge encourages electronics manufacturers, brand owners and retailers to strive to send 100 percent of the used electronics they collect from the public, businesses and within their own organizations to third-party certified electronics refurbishers and recyclers. The Federal Green Challenge, a national effort under the EPA??s Sustainable Materials Management Program, challenges EPA and other federal agencies throughout the country to lead by example in reducing the federal government's environmental impact. EPA??s WasteWise encourages organizations and businesses to achieve sustainability in their practices and reduce select industrial wastes. WasteWise is part of EPA??s sustaina

  12. Biobased lubricant additives

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fully biobased lubricants are those formulated using all biobased ingredients, i.e. biobased base oils and biobased additives. Such formulations provide the maximum environmental, safety, and economic benefits expected from a biobased product. Currently, there are a number of biobased base oils that...

  13. More Than Additional Space...

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CEFP Journal, 1973

    1973-01-01

    A much needed addition to the Jamestown Elementary School turned out to be more than an expansion of walls for more space. A new educational program, a limited budget, and a short time line were tackled on a team approach basis and were successfully resolved. (Author)

  14. National Drug IQ Challenge

    MedlinePlus

    ... National Drug IQ Challenge 2016 National Drug & Alcohol IQ Challenge Print Get Started! Correct/Total Questions: Score: ... accessible version of the 2016 National Drug & Alcohol IQ Challenge , [PDF, 637KB]. Download an accessible version of ...

  15. Educational Leadership: Key Challenges and Ethical Tensions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duignan, Patrick

    2007-01-01

    "Educational Leadership" is a major research book on contemporary leadership challenges for educational leaders. In this groundbreaking new work, educational leaders in schools, including teachers, are provided with ways of analysing and resolving common but complex leadership challenges. Ethical tensions inherent in these challenges are…

  16. Life Support Systems Microbial Challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roman, Monserrate C.

    2009-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the current microbial challenges of environmental control and life support systems. The contents include: 1) Environmental Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS) What is it?; 2) A Look Inside the International Space Station (ISS); 3) The Complexity of a Water Recycling System; 4) ISS Microbiology Acceptability Limits; 5) Overview of Current Microbial Challenges; 6) In a Perfect World What we Would like to Have; and 7) The Future.

  17. Terabit Wireless Communication Challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hwu, Shian U.

    2012-01-01

    This presentation briefly discusses a research effort on Terabit Wireless communication systems for possible space applications. Recently, terahertz (THz) technology (300-3000 GHz frequency) has attracted a great deal of interest from academia and industry. This is due to a number of interesting features of THz waves, including the nearly unlimited bandwidths available, and the non-ionizing radiation nature which does not damage human tissues and DNA with minimum health threat. Also, as millimeter-wave communication systems mature, the focus of research is, naturally, moving to the THz range. Many scientists regard THz as the last great frontier of the electromagnetic spectrum, but finding new applications outside the traditional niches of radio astronomy, Earth and planetary remote sensing, and molecular spectroscopy particularly in biomedical imaging and wireless communications has been relatively slow. Radiologists find this area of study so attractive because t-rays are non-ionizing, which suggests no harm is done to tissue or DNA. They also offer the possibility of performing spectroscopic measurements over a very wide frequency range, and can even capture signatures from liquids and solids. According to Shannon theory, the broad bandwidth of the THz frequency bands can be used for terabit-per-second (Tb/s) wireless communication systems. This enables several new applications, such as cell phones with 360 degrees autostereoscopic displays, optic-fiber replacement, and wireless Tb/s file transferring. Although THz technology could satisfy the demand for an extremely high data rate, a number of technical challenges need to be overcome before its development. This presentation provides an overview the state-of-the- art in THz wireless communication and the technical challenges for an emerging application in Terabit wireless systems. The main issue for THz wave propagation is the high atmospheric attenuation, which is dominated by water vapor absorption in the THz

  18. Marital therapy: issues and challenges.

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, S M

    1991-01-01

    This paper outlines the advances made in the field of marital therapy in the last decade. The present status of clinical intervention, empirical research and theoretical conceptualization is reviewed. In addition, the challenges the field now faces are outlined, and proposals made for future directions, which would enable marital intervention to become a more comprehensive and systematic endeavor. PMID:1958653

  19. EMC Recent Additions

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page has information about recent changes to promulgated and proposed test methods, perfomance specifications, and quality assurance procedures. It also includes updates and changes to all other approved and proposed test methods.

  20. Mission X: Train Like an Astronaut Challenge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lloyd, Charles W.

    2016-01-01

    The Mission X: Train Like an Astronaut Challenge was developed in 2011 to encourage proper exercise and nutrition at an early age by teaching young people to live and eat like space explorers. The strong correlation between an unhealthy childhood diet and adolescent fitness, and the onset of chronic diseases as an adult is the catalyst for Mission X. Mission X is dedicated to assisting people on a global scale to live healthier lifestyles and learn about human space exploration. The Mission X: Train Like an Astronaut 2015 (MX15) International Challenge hosted almost 40,000 children on 800 teams, 28 countries affiliated with 12 space agencies. The MX15 website included 17 languages. MX15, the fifth annual international fitness challenges sponsored by the NASA Human Research Program worked with the European Space Agency and other space agencies from around the world. In comparison to MX14, MX15 expanded to include four additional new countries, increased the number of students by approximately 68% and the number of teams by 29%. Chile' and South Korea participated in the new fall Astro Charlie Walk Around the Earth Challenge. Pre-challenge training materials were made more readily available from the website. South Korea completed a prospective assessment of the usability of the MX content for improving health and fitness in 212 preschool children and their families. Mission X is fortunate to have the support of the NASA, ESA and JAXA astronaut corps. In MX15, they participated in the opening and closing events as well as while on-board the International Space Station. Italian Astronaut Samantha Cristoretti participated as the MX15 Astronaut Ambassador for health and fitness providing the opening video and other videos from ISS. United Kingdom Astronaut Tim Peake and US Astronaut Kate Rubins have agreed to be the MX Ambassadors for 2016 and 2017 respectively. The MX15 International Working Group Face-to-Face meeting and Closing Event were held at the Agenzia Spaziale

  1. Vinyl capped addition polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vannucci, Raymond D. (Inventor); Malarik, Diane C. (Inventor); Delvigs, Peter (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    Polyimide resins (PMR) are generally useful where high strength and temperature capabilities are required (at temperatures up to about 700 F). Polyimide resins are particularly useful in applications such as jet engine compressor components, for example, blades, vanes, air seals, air splitters, and engine casing parts. Aromatic vinyl capped addition polyimides are obtained by reacting a diamine, an ester of tetracarboxylic acid, and an aromatic vinyl compound. Low void materials with improved oxidative stability when exposed to 700 F air may be fabricated as fiber reinforced high molecular weight capped polyimide composites. The aromatic vinyl capped polyimides are provided with a more aromatic nature and are more thermally stable than highly aliphatic, norbornenyl-type end-capped polyimides employed in PMR resins. The substitution of aromatic vinyl end-caps for norbornenyl end-caps in addition polyimides results in polymers with improved oxidative stability.

  2. Soft Encapsulation of Flexible Electrical Stimulation Implant: Challenges and Innovations

    PubMed Central

    Debelle, Adrien; Hermans, Laura; Bosquet, Maxime; Dehaeck, Sam; Lonys, Laurent; Scheid, Benoit; Nonclercq, Antoine; Vanhoestenberghe, Anne

    2016-01-01

    In this document we discuss the main challenges encountered when producing flexible electrical stimulation implants, and present our approach to solving them for prototype production. We include a study of the optimization of the flexible PCB design, the selection of additive manufacturing materials for the mold, and the chemical compatibility of the different materials. Our approach was tested on a flexible gastro-stimulator as part of the ENDOGES research program. PMID:28078073

  3. Electrophilic addition of astatine

    SciTech Connect

    Norseev, Yu.V.; Vasaros, L.; Nhan, D.D.; Huan, N.K.

    1988-03-01

    It has been shown for the first time that astatine is capable of undergoing addition reactions to unsaturated hydrocarbons. A new compound of astatine, viz., ethylene astatohydrin, has been obtained, and its retention numbers of squalane, Apiezon, and tricresyl phosphate have been found. The influence of various factors on the formation of ethylene astatohydrin has been studied. It has been concluded on the basis of the results obtained that the univalent cations of astatine in an acidic medium is protonated hypoastatous acid.

  4. Functional Generalized Additive Models.

    PubMed

    McLean, Mathew W; Hooker, Giles; Staicu, Ana-Maria; Scheipl, Fabian; Ruppert, David

    2014-01-01

    We introduce the functional generalized additive model (FGAM), a novel regression model for association studies between a scalar response and a functional predictor. We model the link-transformed mean response as the integral with respect to t of F{X(t), t} where F(·,·) is an unknown regression function and X(t) is a functional covariate. Rather than having an additive model in a finite number of principal components as in Müller and Yao (2008), our model incorporates the functional predictor directly and thus our model can be viewed as the natural functional extension of generalized additive models. We estimate F(·,·) using tensor-product B-splines with roughness penalties. A pointwise quantile transformation of the functional predictor is also considered to ensure each tensor-product B-spline has observed data on its support. The methods are evaluated using simulated data and their predictive performance is compared with other competing scalar-on-function regression alternatives. We illustrate the usefulness of our approach through an application to brain tractography, where X(t) is a signal from diffusion tensor imaging at position, t, along a tract in the brain. In one example, the response is disease-status (case or control) and in a second example, it is the score on a cognitive test. R code for performing the simulations and fitting the FGAM can be found in supplemental materials available online.

  5. The Challenge of Catholicity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallin, Alice, Ed.

    1988-01-01

    The character and mission of Catholic institutions of higher education are discussed in nine articles. Questions that are posed include: what issues of the Catholic tradition need to be further examined; what additional reading of the Vatican II texts are appropriate; how is one to understand the American context within which the Catolic mission…

  6. Ecological Challenges for Closed Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Mark; Dempster, William; Allen, John P.

    2012-07-01

    Closed ecological systems are desirable for a number of purposes. In space life support systems, material closure allows precious life-supporting resources to be kept inside and recycled. Closure in small biospheric systems facilitates detailed measurement of global ecological processes and biogeochemical cycles. Closed testbeds facilitate research topics which require isolation from the outside (e.g. genetically modified organisms; radioisotopes) so their ecological interactions and fluxes can be studied separate from interactions with the outside environment. But to achieve and maintain closure entails solving complex ecological challenges. These challenges include being able to handle faster cycling rates and accentuated daily and seasonal fluxes of critical life elements such as carbon dioxide, oxygen, water, macro- and mico-nutrients. The problems of achieving sustainability in closed systems for life support include how to handle atmospheric dynamics including trace gases, producing a complete human diet and recycling nutrients and maintaining soil fertility, the sustaining of healthy air and water and preventing the loss of crucial elements from active circulation. In biospheric facilities the challenge is also to produce analogues to natural biomes and ecosystems, studying processes of self-organization and adaptation in systems that allow specification or determination of state variables and cycles which may be followed through all interactions from atmosphere to soils. Other challenges include the dynamics and genetics of small populations, the psychological challenges for small isolated human groups and measures and options which may be necessary to ensure long-term operation of closed ecological systems.

  7. Siloxane containing addition polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maudgal, S.; St. Clair, T. L.

    1984-01-01

    Addition polyimide oligomers have been synthesized from bis(gamma-aminopropyl) tetramethyldisiloxane and 3, 3', 4, 4'-benzophenonetetracarboxylic dianhydride using a variety of latent crosslinking groups as endcappers. The prepolymers were isolated and characterized for solubility (in amide, chlorinated and ether solvents), melt flow and cure properties. The most promising systems, maleimide and acetylene terminated prepolymers, were selected for detailed study. Graphite cloth reinforced composites were prepared and properties compared with those of graphite/Kerimid 601, a commercially available bismaleimide. Mixtures of the maleimide terminated system with Kerimid 601, in varying proportions, were also studied.

  8. Aerodynamic challenges of ALT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hooks, I.; Homan, D.; Romere, P. O.

    1985-01-01

    The approach and landing test (ALT) of the Space Shuttle Orbiter presented a number of unique challenges in the area of aerodynamics. The purpose of the ALT program was both to confirm the use of the Boeing 747 as a transport vehicle for ferrying the Orbiter across the country and to demonstrate the flight characteristics of the Orbiter in its approach and landing phase. Concerns for structural fatigue and performance dictated a tailcone be attached to the Orbiter for ferry and for the initial landing tests. The Orbiter with a tailcone attached presented additional challenges to the normal aft sting concept of wind tunnel testing. The landing tests required that the Orbiter be separated from the 747 at approximately 20,000 feet using aerodynamic forces to fly the vehicles apart. The concept required a complex test program to determine the relative effects of the two vehicles on each other. Also of concern, and tested, was the vortex wake created by the 747 and the means for the Orbiter to avoid it following separation.

  9. Evaluation of certain food additives.

    PubMed

    2012-01-01

    This report represents the conclusions of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee convened to evaluate the safety of various food additives, including flavouring agents, with a view to concluding as to safety concerns and to preparing specifications for identity and purity. The first part of the report contains a general discussion of the principles governing the toxicological evaluation of and assessment of dietary exposure to food additives, including flavouring agents. A summary follows of the Committee's evaluations of technical, toxicological and dietary exposure data for five food additives (magnesium dihydrogen diphosphate; mineral oil (medium and low viscosity) classes II and III; 3-phytase from Aspergillus niger expressed in Aspergillus niger; serine protease (chymotrypsin) from Nocardiopsis prasina expressed in Bacillus licheniformis; and serine protease (trypsin) from Fusarium oxysporum expressed in Fusarium venenatum) and 16 groups of flavouring agents (aliphatic and aromatic amines and amides; aliphatic and aromatic ethers; aliphatic hydrocarbons, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids and related esters, sulfides, disulfides and ethers containing furan substitution; aliphatic linear alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes, acids and related alcohols, acetals and esters; amino acids and related substances; epoxides; furfuryl alcohol and related substances; linear and branched-chain aliphatic, unsaturated, unconjugated alcohols, aldehydes, acids and related esters; miscellaneous nitrogen-containing substances; phenol and phenol derivatives; pyrazine derivatives; pyridine, pyrrole and quinoline derivatives; saturated aliphatic acyclic branched-chain primary alcohols, aldehydes and acids; simple aliphatic and aromatic sulfides and thiols; sulfur-containing heterocyclic compounds; and sulfur-substituted furan derivatives). Specifications for the following food additives were revised: ethyl cellulose, mineral oil (medium viscosity), modified starches and titanium

  10. Developing a Watershed Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a watershed challenge that gives students an opportunity to investigate the challenge of using a watershed area as a site for development, examining the many aspects of this multifaceted problem. This design challenge could work well in a team-based format, with students taking on specific aspects of the challenges and…

  11. Platelet additive solution - electrolytes.

    PubMed

    Azuma, Hiroshi; Hirayama, Junichi; Akino, Mitsuaki; Ikeda, Hisami

    2011-06-01

    Recent attention to solutions that replace most or all plasma in platelet concentrates, while maintaining satisfactory platelet function, is motivated by the potential of plasma reduction or depletion to mitigate various transfusion-related adverse events. This report considers the electrolytic composition of previously described platelet additive solutions, in order to draw general conclusions about what is required for platelet function and longevity. The optimal concentrations of Na(+) and Cl(-) are 69-115 mM. The presence of both K(+) and Mg(2+) in platelet suspension at nearly physiological concentrations (3-5mM and 1.5-3mM, respectively) is indispensable for good preservation capacity because both electrolytes are required to prevent platelet activation. In contrast to K(+) and Mg(2+), Ca(2+) may not be important because no free Ca(2+) is available in M-sol, which showed excellent platelet preservation capacity at less than 5% plasma concentration. The importance of bicarbonate (approximately 40 mM) can be recognized when the platelets are suspended in additive solution under less than 5% residual plasma concentration.

  12. Bone Tissue Engineering: Recent Advances and Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Amini, Ami R.; Laurencin, Cato T.; Nukavarapu, Syam P.

    2013-01-01

    The worldwide incidence of bone disorders and conditions has trended steeply upward and is expected to double by 2020, especially in populations where aging is coupled with increased obesity and poor physical activity. Engineered bone tissue has been viewed as a potential alternative to the conventional use of bone grafts, due to their limitless supply and no disease transmission. However, bone tissue engineering practices have not proceeded to clinical practice due to several limitations or challenges. Bone tissue engineering aims to induce new functional bone regeneration via the synergistic combination of biomaterials, cells, and factor therapy. In this review, we discuss the fundamentals of bone tissue engineering, highlighting the current state of this field. Further, we review the recent advances of biomaterial and cell-based research, as well as approaches used to enhance bone regeneration. Specifically, we discuss widely investigated biomaterial scaffolds, micro- and nano-structural properties of these scaffolds, and the incorporation of biomimetic properties and/or growth factors. In addition, we examine various cellular approaches, including the use of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), embryonic stem cells (ESCs), adult stem cells, induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), and platelet-rich plasma (PRP), and their clinical application strengths and limitations. We conclude by overviewing the challenges that face the bone tissue engineering field, such as the lack of sufficient vascularization at the defect site, and the research aimed at functional bone tissue engineering. These challenges will drive future research in the field. PMID:23339648

  13. Peptide Vaccine: Progress and Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Li, Weidang; Joshi, Medha D.; Singhania, Smita; Ramsey, Kyle H.; Murthy, Ashlesh K.

    2014-01-01

    Conventional vaccine strategies have been highly efficacious for several decades in reducing mortality and morbidity due to infectious diseases. The bane of conventional vaccines, such as those that include whole organisms or large proteins, appear to be the inclusion of unnecessary antigenic load that, not only contributes little to the protective immune response, but complicates the situation by inducing allergenic and/or reactogenic responses. Peptide vaccines are an attractive alternative strategy that relies on usage of short peptide fragments to engineer the induction of highly targeted immune responses, consequently avoiding allergenic and/or reactogenic sequences. Conversely, peptide vaccines used in isolation are often weakly immunogenic and require particulate carriers for delivery and adjuvanting. In this article, we discuss the specific advantages and considerations in targeted induction of immune responses by peptide vaccines and progresses in the development of such vaccines against various diseases. Additionally, we also discuss the development of particulate carrier strategies and the inherent challenges with regard to safety when combining such technologies with peptide vaccines. PMID:26344743

  14. Advances in Additive Manufacturing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-07-14

    casting molds for traditional casting processes on the battlefield, and 3) the use of recycled polymeric materials as feedstock for 3-D printers ...nondestructive characterization technique allows for 3D imaging that readily captures defects and voids on the conditions that the attenuation, which is...of 3D -printed structures. Analysis examples will include quantification of tolerance differences between the designed and manufactured parts, void

  15. Additive composition, for gasoline

    SciTech Connect

    Vataru, M.

    1989-01-10

    An admixture is described that comprises Diesel fuel and an additive composition added thereto which is between about 0.05 to about 2.0 percent by weight of the fuel, the composition comprising: (a) between about 0.05 and 25% relative weight parts of an organic peroxide, and (b) between about 0.1 and 25% relative weight parts of detergent selected from the component group that consists of: (i) fatty amines; (ii) ethoxylated and propoxylated derivatives of fatty amines; (iii) fatty diamines; (iv) fatty imidazlines; (v) polymeric amines and derivatives thereof; (vi) combination of one or more of the (i) through (v) components with carboxylic acid or acids having from three to forth carbon atoms, (c) from about 99.0 to about 50% by weight of a hydrocarbon solvent.

  16. Teardrop bladder: additional considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Wechsler, R.J.; Brennan, R.E.

    1982-07-01

    Nine cases of teardrop bladder (TDB) seen at excretory urography are presented. In some of these patients, the iliopsoas muscles were at the upper limit of normal in size, and additional evaluation of the perivesical structures with computed tomography (CT) was necessary. CT demonstrated only hypertrophied muscles with or without perivesical fat. The psoas muscles and pelvic width were measured in 8 patients and compared with the measurements of a control group of males without TDB. Patients with TDB had large iliopsoas muscles and narrow pelves compared with the control group. The psoas muscle width/pelvic width ratio was significantly greater (p < 0.0005) in patients with TDB than in the control group, with values of 1.04 + 0.05 and 0.82 + 0.09, respectively. It is concluded that TDB is not an uncommon normal variant in black males. Both iliopsoas muscle hypertrophy and a narrow pelvis are factors that predispose a patient to TDB.

  17. New addition curing polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frimer, Aryeh A.; Cavano, Paul

    1991-01-01

    In an attempt to improve the thermal-oxidative stability (TOS) of PMR-type polymers, the use of 1,4-phenylenebis (phenylmaleic anhydride) PPMA, was evaluated. Two series of nadic end-capped addition curing polyimides were prepared by imidizing PPMA with either 4,4'-methylene dianiline or p-phenylenediamine. The first resulted in improved solubility and increased resin flow while the latter yielded a compression molded neat resin sample with a T(sub g) of 408 C, close to 70 C higher than PME-15. The performance of these materials in long term weight loss studies was below that of PMR-15, independent of post-cure conditions. These results can be rationalized in terms of the thermal lability of the pendant phenyl groups and the incomplete imidization of the sterically congested PPMA. The preparation of model compounds as well as future research directions are discussed.

  18. Sewage sludge additive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalvinskas, J. J.; Mueller, W. A.; Ingham, J. D. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    The additive is for a raw sewage treatment process of the type where settling tanks are used for the purpose of permitting the suspended matter in the raw sewage to be settled as well as to permit adsorption of the dissolved contaminants in the water of the sewage. The sludge, which settles down to the bottom of the settling tank is extracted, pyrolyzed and activated to form activated carbon and ash which is mixed with the sewage prior to its introduction into the settling tank. The sludge does not provide all of the activated carbon and ash required for adequate treatment of the raw sewage. It is necessary to add carbon to the process and instead of expensive commercial carbon, coal is used to provide the carbon supplement.

  19. Challenges for Electronics in the Vision for Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LaBel, Kenneth A.

    2005-01-01

    This presentation has been a brief snapshot discussing electronics and Exploration-related challenges. The vision for Space Exploration creates a new paradigm for NASA missions. This includes transport (Crew Exploration Vehicle-CEV), and lunar and Mars Exploration and human presence. If one considers the additional hazards faced by these concepts versus more traditional NASA missions, multiple challenges surface for reliable utilization of electronic parts. The true challenge is to provide a risk as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA-a traditional biological radiation exposure term), while still providing cost effective solutions. This presentation also discusses the hazard for electronic parts and exploration, the types of electronic parts for exploration, and the critical juncture for space usage of commercial changes in the electronics world.

  20. Drug Development and Challenges for Neuromuscular Clinical Trials.

    PubMed

    El Mouelhi, Mohamed

    2016-03-01

    Drug development process faces many challenges, including those encountered in clinical trials for neuromuscular diseases. Drug development is a lengthy and highly costly process. Out of 10 compounds entering first study in man (phase 1), only one compound reaches the market after an average of 14 years with a cost of $2.7 billion. Nevertheless, according to the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid services, prescription drugs constituted only 9 % of each health care dollar spent in USA in 2013. Examples of challenges encountered in neuromuscular clinical trials include lack of validated patient-reported outcome tools, blinding issues, and the use of placebo in addition to lack of health authority guidance for orphan diseases. Patient enrollment challenge is the leading cause of missed clinical trial deadlines observed in about 80 % of clinical trials, resulting in delayed availability of potentially life-saving therapies. Another specific challenge introduced by recent technology is the use of social media and risk of bias. Sharing personal experiences while in the study could easily introduce bias among patients that would interfere with accurate interpretation of collected data. To minimize this risk, recent neuromuscular studies incorporate as an inclusion criterion the patient's agreement not to share any of study experiences through social media with other patients during the study conduct. Consideration of these challenges will allow timely response to the high unmet medical needs for many neuromuscular diseases.

  1. Medical Operational Challenges in the Expedition 16 Landing and Recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moynihan, S.; Johnston, S. L.; Ilcus, L. S.; Shevchenko, V.

    2009-01-01

    On April 19, 2008 the crew of Expedition 16 left the International Space Station and returned to earth via their Soyuz TMA-11 capsule after 192 days on orbit. Their capsule experienced the second consecutive and third ballistic reentry in the last 10 TMA recoveries and landed approximately 260 miles (420 km) from the prime landing site. Issues: The purpose of this presentation will be to describe, not only the typical medical operational challenges faced by Flight Surgeons recovering a long duration crew from space, but also address the unique challenges that existed with the Expedition 16 landing and crew recovery. Nominal Soyuz recovery challenges include remote recovery sites with crew exposures to sleep shifting and fatigue, dehydration, hypothermia and hyperthermia, and rotational, sustained, and impact g-forces. These environmental factors coupled with the patho-physiologic neuro-vestibular and orthostatic intolerance changes that occur secondary to the crews reintroduction into the earth s gravity field will be detailed. Additional challenges that were unique to this expedition included a ballistic reentry with higher g-loads, the presence of fire outside of the capsule on landing, a contingency medical event of a ground support personnel, and loss of communications with the crew just prior to landing and during recovery operations. Conclusions: In spite of these unique challenges the Russian Search and Rescue Forces and Medical Support personnel along with U.S. Medical Support performed well together. Possible improvements in training and coordination will be discussed.

  2. Ionic liquids, electrolyte solutions including the ionic liquids, and energy storage devices including the ionic liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Gering, Kevin L.; Harrup, Mason K.; Rollins, Harry W.

    2015-12-08

    An ionic liquid including a phosphazene compound that has a plurality of phosphorus-nitrogen units and at least one pendant group bonded to each phosphorus atom of the plurality of phosphorus-nitrogen units. One pendant group of the at least one pendant group comprises a positively charged pendant group. Additional embodiments of ionic liquids are disclosed, as are electrolyte solutions and energy storage devices including the embodiments of the ionic liquid.

  3. Aerosol simulation including chemical and nuclear reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Marwil, E.S.; Lemmon, E.C.

    1985-01-01

    The numerical simulation of aerosol transport, including the effects of chemical and nuclear reactions presents a challenging dynamic accounting problem. Particles of different sizes agglomerate and settle out due to various mechanisms, such as diffusion, diffusiophoresis, thermophoresis, gravitational settling, turbulent acceleration, and centrifugal acceleration. Particles also change size, due to the condensation and evaporation of materials on the particle. Heterogeneous chemical reactions occur at the interface between a particle and the suspending medium, or a surface and the gas in the aerosol. Homogeneous chemical reactions occur within the aersol suspending medium, within a particle, and on a surface. These reactions may include a phase change. Nuclear reactions occur in all locations. These spontaneous transmutations from one element form to another occur at greatly varying rates and may result in phase or chemical changes which complicate the accounting process. This paper presents an approach for inclusion of these effects on the transport of aerosols. The accounting system is very complex and results in a large set of stiff ordinary differential equations (ODEs). The techniques for numerical solution of these ODEs require special attention to achieve their solution in an efficient and affordable manner. 4 refs.

  4. VAST Challenge 2014: The Kronos Incident

    SciTech Connect

    Whiting, Mark A.; Cook, Kristin A.; Grinstein, Georges; Liggett, Kristen; Cooper, Michael J.; Fallon, John; Morin, Marc P.

    2014-10-31

    The 2014 IEEE Visual Analytics Science and Technology (VAST) Challenge presented researchers with a single fictitious scenario: the disappearance of staff members of the GASTech oil and gas company on location on the island of Kronos. A group named the Protectors of Kronos (POK) was the prime suspect in the disappearance. Three mini-challenges and a grand challenge were offered. Mini-challenge 1 included multiple types of text data for participants to provide a timeline of key events and characterize the POK, mini-challenge 2 focused on individuals’ movement and financial data for participants to provide patterns of daily life, and mini-challenge 3 featured real-time streaming social media and emergency service data for participants to provide hostage and kidnapper information. The grand challenge asked the participants to integrate results and generate a synopsis of events. The VAST Challenge received 73 submissions from 13 countries

  5. Decontamination formulation with sorbent additive

    DOEpatents

    Tucker; Mark D. , Comstock; Robert H.

    2007-10-16

    A decontamination formulation and method of making that neutralizes the adverse health effects of both chemical and biological compounds, especially chemical warfare (CW) and biological warfare (BW) agents, and toxic industrial chemicals. The formulation provides solubilizing compounds that serve to effectively render the chemical and biological compounds, particularly CW and BW compounds, susceptible to attack, and at least one reactive compound that serves to attack (and detoxify or kill) the compound. The formulation includes at least one solubilizing agent, a reactive compound, a bleaching activator, a sorbent additive, and water. The highly adsorbent, water-soluble sorbent additive (e.g., sorbitol or mannitol) is used to "dry out" one or more liquid ingredients, such as the liquid bleaching activator (e.g., propylene glycol diacetate or glycerol diacetate) and convert the activator into a dry, free-flowing powder that has an extended shelf life, and is more convenient to handle and mix in the field.

  6. Sustainability Characterization for Additive Manufacturing

    PubMed Central

    Mani, Mahesh; Lyons, Kevin W; Gupta, SK

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) has the potential to create geometrically complex parts that require a high degree of customization, using less material and producing less waste. Recent studies have shown that AM can be an economically viable option for use by the industry, yet there are some inherent challenges associated with AM for wider acceptance. The lack of standards in AM impedes its use for parts production since industries primarily depend on established standards in processes and material selection to ensure the consistency and quality. Inability to compare AM performance against traditional manufacturing methods can be a barrier for implementing AM processes. AM process sustainability has become a driver due to growing environmental concerns for manufacturing. This has reinforced the importance to understand and characterize AM processes for sustainability. Process characterization for sustainability will help close the gaps for comparing AM performance to traditional manufacturing methods. Based on a literature review, this paper first examines the potential environmental impacts of AM. A methodology for sustainability characterization of AM is then proposed to serve as a resource for the community to benchmark AM processes for sustainability. Next, research perspectives are discussed along with relevant standardization efforts. PMID:26601038

  7. Sustainability Characterization for Additive Manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Mani, Mahesh; Lyons, Kevin W; Gupta, S K

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) has the potential to create geometrically complex parts that require a high degree of customization, using less material and producing less waste. Recent studies have shown that AM can be an economically viable option for use by the industry, yet there are some inherent challenges associated with AM for wider acceptance. The lack of standards in AM impedes its use for parts production since industries primarily depend on established standards in processes and material selection to ensure the consistency and quality. Inability to compare AM performance against traditional manufacturing methods can be a barrier for implementing AM processes. AM process sustainability has become a driver due to growing environmental concerns for manufacturing. This has reinforced the importance to understand and characterize AM processes for sustainability. Process characterization for sustainability will help close the gaps for comparing AM performance to traditional manufacturing methods. Based on a literature review, this paper first examines the potential environmental impacts of AM. A methodology for sustainability characterization of AM is then proposed to serve as a resource for the community to benchmark AM processes for sustainability. Next, research perspectives are discussed along with relevant standardization efforts.

  8. Ceramics with Different Additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Juanjuan; Feng, Lajun; Lei, Ali; Zhao, Kang; Yan, Aijun

    2014-09-01

    Li2CO3, MgCO3, BaCO3, and Bi2O3 dopants were introduced into CaCu3Ti4O12 (CCTO) ceramics in order to improve the dielectric properties. The CCTO ceramics were prepared by conventional solid-state reaction method. The phase structure, microstructure, and dielectric behavior were carefully investigated. The pure structure without any impurity phases can be confirmed by the x-ray diffraction patterns. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) analysis illuminated that the grains of Ca0.90Li0.20Cu3Ti4O12 ceramics were greater than that of pure CCTO. It was important for the properties of the CCTO ceramics to study the additives in complex impedance spectroscopy. It was found that the Ca0.90Li0.20Cu3Ti4O12 ceramics had the higher permittivity (>45000), the lower dielectric loss (<0.025) than those of CCTO at 1 kHz at room temperature and good temperature stability from -30 to 75 °C.

  9. Fire-Retardant Polymeric Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Martha K.; Smith, Trent M.

    2011-01-01

    Polyhydroxyamide (PHA) and polymethoxyamide (PMeOA) are fire-retardant (FR) thermoplastic polymers and have been found to be useful as an additive for imparting fire retardant properties to other compatible, thermoplastic polymers (including some elastomers). Examples of compatible flammable polymers include nylons, polyesters, and acrylics. Unlike most prior additives, PHA and PMeOA do not appreciably degrade the mechanical properties of the matrix polymer; indeed, in some cases, mechanical properties are enhanced. Also, unlike some prior additives, PHA and PMeOA do not decompose into large amounts of corrosive or toxic compounds during combustion and can be processed at elevated temperatures. PMeOA derivative formulations were synthesized and used as an FR additive in the fabrication of polyamide (PA) and polystyrene (PS) composites with notable reduction (>30 percent for PS) in peak heat release rates compared to the neat polymer as measured by a Cone Calorimeter (ASTM E1354). Synergistic effects were noted with nanosilica composites. These nanosilica composites had more than 50-percent reduction in peak heat release rates. In a typical application, a flammable thermoplastic, thermoplastic blend, or elastomer that one seeks to render flame-retardant is first dry-mixed with PHA or PMeOA or derivative thereof. The proportion of PHA or PMeOA or derivative in the mixture is typically chosen to lie between 1 and 20 weight percent. The dry blend can then be melt-extruded. The extruded polymer blend can further be extruded and/or molded into fibers, pipes, or any other of a variety of objects that may be required to be fire-retardant. The physical and chemical mechanisms which impart flame retardancy of the additive include inhibiting free-radical oxidation in the vapor phase, preventing vaporization of fuel (the polymer), and cooling through the formation of chemical bonds in either the vapor or the condensed phase. Under thermal stress, the cyclic hydroxyl/ methoxy

  10. CTF Challenge: Result Summary

    PubMed Central

    Marabini, Roberto; Carragher, Bridget; Chen, Shaoxia; Chen, James; Cheng, Anchi; Downing, Kenneth H.; Frank, Joachim; Grassucci, Robert A.; Heymann, J. Bernard; Jiang, Wen; Jonic, Slavica; Liao, Hstau Y.; Ludtke, Steven J.; Patwari, Shail; Piotrowski, Angela L.; Quintana, Adrian; Sorzano, Carlos O.S.; Stahlberg, Henning; Vargas, Javier; Voss, Neil R.; Chiu, Wah; Carazo, Jose M.

    2015-01-01

    Image formation in bright field electron microscopy can be described with the help of the contrast transfer function (CTF). In this work the authors describe the “CTF Estimation Challenge”, called by the Madrid Instruct Image Processing Center (I2PC) in collaboration with the National Center for Macromolecular Imaging (NCMI) at Houston. Correcting for the effects of the CTF requires accurate knowledge of the CTF parameters, but these have often been difficult to determine. In this challenge, researchers have had the opportunity to test their ability in estimating some of the key parameters of the electron microscope CTF on a large micrograph data set produced by well-known laboratories on a wide set of experimental conditions. This work presents the first analysis of the results of the CTF Estimation Challenge, including an assessment of the performance of the different software packages under different conditions, so as to identify those areas of research where further developments would be desirable in order to achieve high-resolution structural information. PMID:25913484

  11. Should Relational Aggression Be Included in DSM-V?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keenan, Kate; Coyne, Claire; Lahey, Benjamin B.

    2008-01-01

    The study examines whether relational aggression should be included in DSM-V disruptive behavior disorders. The results conclude that some additional information is gathered from assessing relational aggression but not enough to be included in DSM-V.

  12. Antibiotic lock therapy: review of technique and logistical challenges

    PubMed Central

    Justo, Julie Ann; Bookstaver, P Brandon

    2014-01-01

    Antibiotic lock therapy (ALT) for the prevention and treatment of catheter-related bloodstream infections is a simple strategy in theory, yet its real-world application may be delayed or avoided due to technical questions and/or logistical challenges. This review focuses on these latter aspects of ALT, including preparation information for a variety of antibiotic lock solutions (ie, aminoglycosides, beta-lactams, fluoroquinolones, folate antagonists, glycopeptides, glycylcyclines, lipopeptides, oxazolidinones, polymyxins, and tetracyclines) and common clinical issues surrounding ALT administration. Detailed data regarding concentrations, additives, stability/compatibility, and dwell times are summarized. Logistical challenges such as lock preparation procedures, use of additives (eg, heparin, citrate, or ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid), timing of initiation and therapy duration, optimal dwell time and catheter accessibility, and risks of ALT are also described. Development of local protocols is recommended in order to avoid these potential barriers and encourage utilization of ALT where appropriate. PMID:25548523

  13. Ayurveda research: Ontological challenges

    PubMed Central

    Nayak, Jayakrishna

    2012-01-01

    Collaborative research involving Ayurveda and the current sciences is undoubtedly an imperative and is emerging as an exciting horizon, particularly in basic sciences. Some work in this direction is already going on and outcomes are awaited with bated breath. For instance the ‘ASIIA (A Science Initiative In Ayurveda)’ projects of Dept of Science and Technology, Govt of India, which include studies such as Ayurvedic Prakriti and Genetics. Further intense and sustained collaborative research needs to overcome a subtle and fundamental challenge-the ontologic divide between Ayurveda and all the current sciences. Ontology, fundamentally, means existence; elaborated, ontology is a particular perspective of an object of existence and the vocabulary developed to share that perspective. The same object of existence is susceptible to several ontologies. Ayurveda and modern biomedical as well as other sciences belong to different ontologies, and as such, collaborative research cannot be carried out at required levels until a mutually acceptable vocabulary is developed. PMID:22529675

  14. International and cross-cultural issues: six key challenges for our professions.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Julie

    2003-01-01

    This paper discusses a number of key challenges facing professionals who work with people who have communication disabilities. The challenges are related to working internationally and in a cross-culturally competent way. Each challenge is discussed, drawing on material from a range of sources, including the papers in the final 2003 edition of FOLIA PHONIATRICA ET LOGOPAEDICA ('International and Cross-Cultural Issues'). The challenges discussed cover how experiences from majority world countries can be used to benefit services elsewhere, 'mainstreaming' commitment to cross-cultural competence, learning from relationships with other professionals, influencing research practice, responding to requests to work internationally and finally, dealing with cultural differences that challenge working practices. Some solutions are suggested and additional questions posed.

  15. The Challenge of New Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowland, Gordon

    2007-01-01

    A wide range of developments in science in recent years has altered our views of our world and ourselves in significant ways. These views challenge the direction of applied science and technology in many fields, including those associated with learning and performance in organizations. At the same time, they open up opportunities and…

  16. Beyond the Family Geography Challenge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeler, Christy

    1997-01-01

    Describes a school-community program based on and extending the efforts of the Michigan Model Family Geography Challenge. The program includes inviting community members to participate in hands-on activities, as well as, shared activities between parents and students followed by dinner and socializing. Discusses materials, assessment, and…

  17. 78 FR 49296 - Centennial Challenges 2014 Sample Return Robot Challenge

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-13

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION Centennial Challenges 2014 Sample Return Robot Challenge AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). ACTION: Notice of Centennial Challenges 2014 Sample Return Robot... Robot Challenge is scheduled and teams that wish to compete may register. Centennial Challenges is...

  18. The EOSDIS software challenge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaworski, Allan

    1993-08-01

    The Earth Observing System (EOS) Data and Information System (EOSDIS) will serve as a major resource for the earth science community, supporting both command and control of complex instruments onboard the EOS spacecraft and the archiving, distribution, and analysis of data. The scale of EOSDIS and the volume of multidisciplinary research to be conducted using EOSDIS resources will produce unparalleled needs for technology transparency, data integration, and system interoperability. The scale of this effort far outscopes any previous scientific data system in its breadth or operational and performance needs. Modern hardware technology can meet the EOSDIS technical challenge. Multiprocessing speeds of many giga-flops are being realized by modern computers. Online storage disk, optical disk, and videocassette libraries with storage capacities of many terabytes are now commercially available. Radio frequency and fiber optics communications networks with gigabit rates are demonstrable today. It remains, of course, to perform the system engineering to establish the requirements, architectures, and designs that will implement the EOSDIS systems. Software technology, however, has not enjoyed the price/performance advances of hardware. Although we have learned to engineer hardware systems which have several orders of magnitude greater complexity and performance than those built in the 1960's, we have not made comparable progress in dramatically reducing the cost of software development. This lack of progress may significantly reduce our capabilities to achieve economically the types of highly interoperable, responsive, integraded, and productive environments which are needed by the earth science community. This paper describes some of the EOSDIS software requirements and current activities in the software community which are applicable to meeting the EOSDIS challenge. Some of these areas include intelligent user interfaces, software reuse libraries, and domain engineering

  19. Material Challenges and Opportunities for Commercial Electric Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Misra, Ajay

    2014-01-01

    Significant reduction in carbon dioxide emission for future air transportation system will require adoption of electric propulsion system and more electric architectures. Various options for aircraft electric propulsion include hybrid electric, turboelectric, and full electric system. Realization of electric propulsion system for commercial aircraft applications will require significant increases in power density of electric motors and energy density of energy storage system, such as the batteries and fuel cells. In addition, transmission of MW of power in the aircraft will require high voltage power transmission system to reduce the weight of the power transmission system. Finally, there will be significant thermal management challenges. Significant advances in material technologies will be required to meet these challenges. Technologies of interest include materials with higher electrical conductivity than Cu, high thermal conductivity materials, and lightweight electrically insulating materials with high breakdown voltage, high temperature magnets, advanced battery and fuel cell materials, and multifunctional materials. The presentation will include various challenges for commercial electric aircraft and provide an overview of material improvements that will be required to meet these challenges.

  20. Virtual Microscopy: A Useful Tool for Meeting Evolving Challenges in the Veterinary Medical Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kogan, Lori R.; Dowers, Kristy L.; Cerda, Jacey R.; Schoenfeld-Tacher, Regina M.; Stewart, Sherry M.

    2014-01-01

    Veterinary schools, similar to many professional health programs, face a myriad of evolving challenges in delivering their professional curricula including expansion of class size, costs to maintain expensive laboratories, and increased demands on veterinary educators to use curricular time efficiently and creatively. Additionally, exponential…

  1. Challenges of Parenting Multiples

    MedlinePlus

    ... the American Society for Reproductive Medicine Challenges of Parenting Multiples There are many psychological, social, and economic ... the unique challenges and rewards that come from parenting multiples. For more information on the medical aspects ...

  2. Green Flight Challenge

    NASA Video Gallery

    The CAFE Green Flight Challenge sponsored by Google will be held at the CAFE Foundation Flight Test Center at Charles M. Schulz Sonoma County Airport in Santa Rosa, Calif. The Green Flight Challeng...

  3. Minority Innovation Challenges Institute

    NASA Video Gallery

    Do you want to learn more about how to compete in NASA’s technical challenges for both prestige and significant cash prizes? NASA’s Minority Innovation Challenges Institute trains and mentors mino...

  4. Should family planning include STD services?

    PubMed

    Finger, W R

    1994-05-01

    Recent reviews suggest that the addition of programs aimed at preventing and controlling sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), specifically human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), to existing family planning programs does not necessarily dilute overall program effectiveness. In Colombia, Mexico, and Jamaica, where condom distribution and/or information to prevent HIV transmission was integrated into the activities of family planning field workers, no negative effect on the image of condoms as a pregnancy prevention method was observed and there was a great demand on the part of family planning clients for information about acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). In Brazil, family planning staff are receiving training in HIV risk assessment and the counseling of women in partner negotiation skills. However, steps must be taken to reach men since it is their high-risk behavior that puts most women at risk of HIV. Both separate STD clinics for men and condom social marketing projects have yielded promising results. Obstacles to the addition of STD services to family planning programs include the need to treat male partners as well as female clients, a shortage of diagnostic tools and antibiotics for treatment, and the fact that the majority of women with STDs are asymptomatic. Indicative of the increased attention being given this approach, however, is the recent release of guidelines by the US Agency for International Development Office of Population on how family planning programs should approach integration. Suggested activities include condom promotion, behavior change, counseling, information, contraceptive development, and selected efforts at STD treatment.

  5. The Backpack Design Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2010-01-01

    Something as simple as carrying books to school can be an interesting design challenge for students. It's an old problem that gets reinvented from time to time. In this article, the author discusses a backpack design challenge in which teachers work with students to design another way to carry books to school. The challenge started by trying to…

  6. Pulmonary hypertension: diagnostic and therapeutic challenges

    PubMed Central

    Bazan, Isabel S; Fares, Wassim H

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a hemodynamic and pathophysiologic state that can be found in multiple conditions with associated symptoms of dyspnea, decreased exercise tolerance, and progression to right heart failure. The World Health Organization has classified PH into five groups. The first group is pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), which can be idiopathic, heritable, due to drugs and toxins, or associated with conditions such as connective tissue diseases, congenital heart disease, portal hypertension, and others. The development of PAH is believed to result from smooth muscle cells and endothelial dysfunction that impairs production of vasodilators, including nitric oxide and prostacyclin. The importance of distinguishing this group from the other groups of PH is that there are PAH-specific drugs that target the molecular pathways that are pathogenic in the vascular derangements, leading to arterial hypertension, which should not be used in the other forms of PH. Other groups of PH include PH due to left heart disease, lung disease, chronic thromboembolic disease, as well as a miscellaneous category. Echocardiography is used to screen for PH and has varying sensitivity and specificity in detecting PH. Additionally, the right heart pressures estimated during echocardiogram often differ from those obtained during confirmatory testing with right heart catheterization. The most challenging PH diagnosis is in a case that does not fit one group of PH, but meets criteria that overlap between several groups. This also makes the treatment challenging because each group of PH is managed differently. This review provides an overview of the five groups of PH and discusses the diagnostic and therapeutic challenges of each. PMID:26316767

  7. Systems biology solutions for biochemical production challenges.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Anne Sofie Lærke; Lennen, Rebecca M; Sonnenschein, Nikolaus; Herrgård, Markus J

    2017-03-16

    There is an urgent need to significantly accelerate the development of microbial cell factories to produce fuels and chemicals from renewable feedstocks in order to facilitate the transition to a biobased society. Methods commonly used within the field of systems biology including omics characterization, genome-scale metabolic modeling, and adaptive laboratory evolution can be readily deployed in metabolic engineering projects. However, high performance strains usually carry tens of genetic modifications and need to operate in challenging environmental conditions. This additional complexity compared to basic science research requires pushing systems biology strategies to their limits and often spurs innovative developments that benefit fields outside metabolic engineering. Here we survey recent advanced applications of systems biology methods in engineering microbial production strains for biofuels and -chemicals.

  8. Engineering challenges in biodiesel production from microalgae.

    PubMed

    Aguirre, Ana-Maria; Bassi, Amarjeet; Saxena, Priyanka

    2013-09-01

    In recent years, the not too distant exhaustion of fossil fuels is becoming apparent. Apart from this, the combustion of fossil fuels leads to environmental concerns, the emission of greenhouse gases and issues with global warming and health problems. Production of biodiesel from microalgae may represent an attractive solution to the above mentioned problems, and can offer a renewable source of fuel with fewer pollutants. This review presents a compilation of engineering challenges related to microalgae as a source of biodiesel. Advantages and current limitations for biodiesel production are discussed; some aspects of algae cells biology, with emphasis on cell wall composition, as it represents a barrier for fatty acid extraction and lipid droplets are also presented. In addition, recent advances in the different stages of the manufacturing process are included, starting from the strain selection and finishing in the processing of fatty acids into biodiesel.

  9. CHALLENGES OF OBSTETRIC ANESTHESIA: DIFFICULT LARYNGEAL VISUALIZATION.

    PubMed

    Alanoğlu, Zekeriyya; Erkoç, Süheyla Karadağ; Güçlü, Çiğdem Yildirim; Meço, Başak Ceyda Orbey; Baytaş, Volkan; Can, Özlem Selvi; Alkiş, Neslihan

    2016-03-01

    Obstetric anesthesia is one of the high risk subspecialties of anesthesia practice. Anesthesia related complications are the sixth leading cause of maternal mortality. Difficult or failed intubation following induction of general anesthesia for CS remains the major contributory factor to anesthesia-related maternal complications. The airway management of obstetric patients is a challenging issue for several reasons. Anatomic and physiologic changes related to pregnancy may increase the difficult and failed intubation rates compared to the general surgical population. Proper evaluation of the airway anatomy and airway structures is vital to prevent airway management related catastrophes. In addition to basic airway and intubation equipment, each anesthesia department must have difficult intubation equipment cart including fiber optic laryngoscope, video laryngoscopes, and different types of laryngeal masks. It is essential that all anesthesiologists have a preconceived and well thought-out algorithm and emergency airway equipment to deal with airway emergencies during difficult or failed intubation of a parturient.

  10. Ethical Challenges and Complexities of Including People with Intellectual Disability as Participants in Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iacono, Teresa

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this article is to consider the implications for research involving people with intellectual disability--a vulnerable group--of ethics committees' attempts to apply these guidelines. The issue explored is whether committees such as Human Research Ethics Committees (HRECS) and Institutional Review Boards (IRBs) are becoming increasingly…

  11. Psychophysiological effects of an iTBS modulated virtual reality challenge including participants with spider phobia.

    PubMed

    Notzon, S; Deppermann, S; Fallgatter, A; Diemer, J; Kroczek, A; Domschke, K; Zwanzger, P; Ehlis, A-C

    2015-12-01

    Preliminary evidence suggests beneficial effects of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) on anxiety. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of intermittent theta burst stimulation (iTBS) as a form of TMS on acute anxiety provoked by a virtual reality (VR) scenario. Participants with spider phobia (n=41) and healthy controls (n=42) were exposed to a spider scenario in VR after one session of iTBS over the prefrontal cortex or sham treatment. Participants with spider phobia reacted with more anxiety compared to healthy controls. Their heart rate and skin conductance increased compared to baseline. Contrary to expectations, iTBS did not influence these reactions, but modulated heart rate variability (HRV). Sympathetic influence on HRV showed an increase in the active iTBS group only. This study does not support the idea of beneficial effects of a single session of iTBS on anxiety, although other protocols or repeated sessions might be effective.

  12. Zebrafish Behavior: Opportunities and Challenges.

    PubMed

    Orger, Michael B; de Polavieja, Gonzalo G

    2017-04-03

    A great challenge in neuroscience is understanding how activity in the brain gives rise to behavior. The zebrafish is an ideal vertebrate model to address this challenge, thanks to the capacity, at the larval stage, for precise behavioral measurements, genetic manipulations, and recording and manipulation of neural activity noninvasively and at single-neuron resolution throughout the whole brain. These techniques are being further developed for application in freely moving animals and juvenile stages to study more complex behaviors including learning, decision making, and social interactions. We review some of the approaches that have been used to study the behavior of zebrafish and point to opportunities and challenges that lie ahead. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Neuroscience Volume 40 is July 8, 2017. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.

  13. Evaluation of certain food additives.

    PubMed

    2009-01-01

    This report represents the conclusions of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee convened to evaluate the safety of various food additives, including flavouring agents, with a view to recommending acceptable daily intakes (ADIs) and to preparing specifications for identity and purity. The first part of the report contains a general discussion of the principles governing the toxicological evaluation and assessment of intake of food additives (in particular, flavouring agents). A summary follows of the Committee's evaluations of technical, toxicological and intake data for certain food additives (asparaginase from Aspergillus niger expressed in A. niger, calcium lignosulfonate (40-65), ethyl lauroyl arginate, paprika extract, phospholipase C expressed in Pichia pastoris, phytosterols, phytostanols and their esters, polydimethylsiloxane, steviol glycosides and sulfites [assessment of dietary exposure]) and 10 groups of related flavouring agents (aliphatic branched-chain saturated and unsaturated alcohols, aldehydes, acids and related esters; aliphatic linear alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes, acids and related alcohols, acetals and esters; aliphatic secondary alcohols, ketones and related esters; alkoxy-substituted allylbenzenes present in foods and essential oils and used as flavouring agents; esters of aliphatic acyclic primary alcohols with aliphatic linear saturated carboxylic acids; furan-substituted aliphatic hydrocarbons, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids and related esters, sulfides, disulfides and ethers; miscellaneous nitrogen-containing substances; monocyclic and bicyclic secondary alcohols, ketones and related esters; hydroxy- and alkoxy-substituted benzyl derivatives; and substances structurally related to menthol). Specifications for the following food additives were revised: canthaxanthin; carob bean gum and carob bean gum (clarified); chlorophyllin copper complexes, sodium and potassium salts; Fast Green FCF; guar gum and guar gum (clarified

  14. Homeland Security. Management Challenges Facing Federal Leadership

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-12-01

    Security Management Challenges Facing Federal Leadership 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT... challenged in meeting dual or unrelated missions while maintaining and strengthening homeland security operations. Government organizational changes...including attention to management practices and key success factors. HOMELAND SECURITY Management Challenges Facing Federal Leadership www.gao.gov/cgi

  15. Challenges in Piaget's legacy.

    PubMed

    Bibace, Roger

    2013-03-01

    The publication of After Piaget (Martí and Rodríguez 2012) hopefully triggers a new effort to understand the richness of the efforts of that major psychologist of the 20th century. Piaget was consistently concerned with part/whole relationships throughout his life. He addressed this issue philosophically, epistemologically, and psychologically. Conceptually Piaget struggled with the issue of continuity/discontinuity in development and changed his mind about how to reconcile the discontinuities of stages with his concept of development. I also attribute his variability to the implications of his important work on perception, and to his willingness to get involved in widespread concrete applications of his approach to education including the education of children with special needs; his center for genetic epistemology, and his interest in psychoanalysis. Benefiting from all the authors of After Piaget, I want to point out that Piaget has identified many major issues that will continue to constitute challenges to psychology in this century. These include specifying terms such as 'development;' methodological issues such as sampling both quantitatively in one culture and across cultures; comprehensive inclusion of the psychological processes covered by introductory textbooks in psychology; and conceptual issues such as the relationships among all these parts within a whole. I make a distinction between an 'issue' and a 'problem'--problems have solutions; while issues refer to controversies in science generally as well as in psychology that have persisted for centuries.

  16. Space Shuttle Propulsion Materials, Manufacturing, and Operational Challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owen, James; Welzyn, Ken; Vanhooser, Katherine; Moore, Dennis; Wood, David

    2011-01-01

    Presentations in this session include: (1) External Tank (ET) Materials, Manufacturing, and Operational Challenges; (2) Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) Materials, Manufacturing, and Operational Challenges,(3) Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM) Materials, Manufacturing, and Operational Challenges and (4) Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) Materials, Manufacturing, and Operational Challenges.

  17. 19 CFR 134.2 - Additional duties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... COUNTRY OF ORIGIN MARKING General Provisions § 134.2 Additional duties. Articles not marked as required by... container) to indicate the English name of the country of origin of the article or to include words...

  18. 19 CFR 134.2 - Additional duties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... COUNTRY OF ORIGIN MARKING General Provisions § 134.2 Additional duties. Articles not marked as required by... container) to indicate the English name of the country of origin of the article or to include words...

  19. 16 CFR 1102.16 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... PUBLICLY AVAILABLE CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY INFORMATION DATABASE (Eff. Jan. 10, 2011) Content Requirements... notices, the CPSC shall include in the Database any additional information it determines to be in...

  20. Face transplantation: Anesthetic challenges

    PubMed Central

    Dalal, Aparna

    2016-01-01

    Face transplantation is a complex vascular composite allotransplantation (VCA) surgery. It involves multiple types of tissue, such as bone, muscles, blood vessels, nerves to be transferred from the donor to the recipient as one unit. VCAs were added to the definition of organs covered by the Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network Final Rule and National Organ Transplant Act. Prior to harvest of the face from the donor, a tracheostomy is usually performed. The osteotomies and dissection of the midface bony skeleton may involve severe hemorrhagic blood loss often requiring transfusion of blood products. A silicon face mask created from the facial impression is used to reconstruct the face and preserve the donor’s dignity. The recipient airway management most commonly used is primary intubation of an existing tracheostoma with a flexometallic endotracheal tube. The recipient surgery usually averages to 19-20 h. Since the face is a very vascular organ, there is usually massive bleeding, both in the dissection phase as well as in the reperfusion phase. Prior to reperfusion, often, after one sided anastomosis of the graft, the contralateral side is allowed to bleed to get rid of the preservation solution and other additives. Intraoperative product replacement should be guided by laboratory values and point of care testing for coagulation and hemostasis. In face transplantation, bolus doses of pressors or pressor infusions have been used intraoperatively in several patients to manage hypotension. This article reviews the anesthetic considerations for management for face transplantation, and some of the perioperative challenges faced. PMID:28058213

  1. DEVELOPMENT OF WATER CIRCULATION MODEL INCLUDING IRRIGATION

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotsuki, Shunji; Tanaka, Kenji; Kojiri, Toshiharu; Hamaguchi, Toshio

    It is well known that since agricultural water withdrawal has much affect on water circulation system, accurate analysis of river discharge or water balance are difficult with less regard for it. In this study, water circulation model composed of land surface model and distributed runoff model is proposed at 10km 10km resolution. In this model, irrigation water, which is estimated with land surface model, is introduced to river discharge analysis. The model is applied to the Chao Phraya River in Thailand, and reproduced seasonal water balance. Additionally, the discharge on dry season simulated with the model is improved as a result of including irrigation. Since the model, which is basically developed from global data sets, simulated seasonal change of river discharge, it can be suggested that our model has university to other river basins.

  2. 78 FR 22209 - Additional Synthetic Drug Testing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-15

    ... COMMISSION 10 CFR Part 26 Additional Synthetic Drug Testing AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION... NRC amend its Fitness for Duty program regulations to amend drug testing requirements to test for additional synthetic drugs currently not included in the regulations. The NRC determined that the...

  3. 32 CFR 2001.24 - Additional requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Additional requirements. 2001.24 Section 2001.24... Markings § 2001.24 Additional requirements. (a) Marking prohibitions. Markings other than “Top Secret... list for NSI portions.” The source list, as described in § 2001.22(c)(1)(ii), shall include...

  4. 32 CFR 2001.24 - Additional requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Additional requirements. 2001.24 Section 2001.24... Markings § 2001.24 Additional requirements. (a) Marking prohibitions. Markings other than “Top Secret... list for NSI portions.” The source list, as described in § 2001.22(c)(1)(ii), shall include...

  5. 32 CFR 2001.24 - Additional requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Additional requirements. 2001.24 Section 2001.24... Markings § 2001.24 Additional requirements. (a) Marking prohibitions. Markings other than “Top Secret... list for NSI portions.” The source list, as described in § 2001.22(c)(1)(ii), shall include...

  6. 32 CFR 2001.24 - Additional requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Additional requirements. 2001.24 Section 2001.24... Markings § 2001.24 Additional requirements. (a) Marking prohibitions. Markings other than “Top Secret... list for NSI portions.” The source list, as described in § 2001.22(c)(1)(ii), shall include...

  7. Packaging and Transportation of Additional Neptunium Oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Watkins, R.; Jordan, J.; Hensel, S.

    2010-05-05

    The Savannah River Site's HB-Line Facility completed a second neptunium oxide production campaign in which nine (9) additional cans of neptunium oxide were produced and shipped to the Idaho National Laboratory and Oak Ridge National Laboratory in the 9975 shipping container. These additional cans were from a different feed solution than the first fifty (50) cans of neptunium oxide that were previously produced and shipped via a Letter of Amendment to the 9975 Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) content table. This paper will address the challenges associated with demonstrating the neptunium oxide produced from the additional feed solution was equivalent to the original neptunium oxide and within the content description of the Letter of Amendment.

  8. Additives in fibers and fabrics.

    PubMed Central

    Barker, R H

    1975-01-01

    The additives and contaminants which occur in textile fibers vary widely, depending on the type of fiber and the pretreatment which it has received. Synthetic fibers such as nylon and polyester contain trace amounts of contaminants such as catalysts and catalyst deactivators which remain after the synthesis of the basic polymers. In addition, there are frequently a number of materials which are added to perform specific functions in almost all man-made fibers. Examples of these would include traces of metals or metal salts used as tracers for identification of specific lots of fiber, TiO2 or similar materials added as delustrants, and a host of organic species added for such special purposes as antistatic agents or flame retardants. There may also be considerable quantities of residual monomer or small oligomers dissolved in the polymer matrix. The situation becomes even more complex after the fibers are converted into fabric form. Numerous materials are applied at various stages of fabric preparation to act as lubricants, sizing agents, antistats, bleaches, and wetting agents to facilitate the processing, but these are normally removed before the fabric reaches the cutters of the ultimate consumers and therefore usually do not constitute potential hazards. However, there are many other chemical agents which are frequently added during the later stages of fabric preparation and which are not designed to be removed. Aside from dyes and printing pigments, the most common additive for apparel fabrics is a durable press treatment. This generally involves the use of materials capable of crosslinking cellulosics by reacting through such functions as N-methylolated amides or related compounds such as ureas and carbamates. These materials pose some potential hazards due to both the nitrogenous bases and the formaldehyde which they usually release. There is usually also some residual catalyst in fabrics which have received such treatments. Other types of chemical treatments

  9. Data Visualization Challenges and Opportunities in User-Oriented Application Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilone, D.; Quinn, P.; Mitchell, A. E.; Baynes, K.; Shum, D.

    2015-12-01

    This talk introduces the audience to some of the very real challenges associated with visualizing data from disparate data sources as encountered during the development of real world applications. In addition to the fundamental challenges of dealing with the data and imagery, this talk discusses usability problems encountered while trying to provide interactive and user-friendly visualization tools. At the end of this talk the audience will be aware of some of the pitfalls of data visualization along with tools and techniques to help mitigate them. There are many sources of variable resolution visualizations of science data available to application developers including NASA's Global Imagery Browse Services (GIBS), however integrating and leveraging visualizations in modern applications faces a number of challenges, including: - Varying visualized Earth "tile sizes" resulting in challenges merging disparate sources - Multiple visualization frameworks and toolkits with varying strengths and weaknesses - Global composite imagery vs. imagery matching EOSDIS granule distribution - Challenges visualizing geographically overlapping data with different temporal bounds - User interaction with overlapping or collocated data - Complex data boundaries and shapes combined with multi-orbit data and polar projections - Discovering the availability of visualizations and the specific parameters, color palettes, and configurations used to produce them In addition to discussing the challenges and approaches involved in visualizing disparate data, we will discuss solutions and components we'll be making available as open source to encourage reuse and accelerate application development.

  10. Challenges and Possibilities in Climate Change Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pruneau,, Diane; Khattabi, Abdellatif; Demers, Melanie

    2010-01-01

    Educating and communicating about climate change is challenging. Researchers reported that climate change concepts are often misunderstood. Some people do not believe that climate change will have impacts on their own life. Other challenges may include people's difficulty in perceiving small or gradual environmental changes, the fact that…

  11. Challenges of Working in a Multicultural Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howland, Joan S.

    2001-01-01

    Addresses challenges faced when working in a multicultural library setting and discusses the need for library administration to create supportive environments. Highlights include fluctuating power dynamics; merging diverse opinions and approaches; overcoming perceived lack of empathy; tokenism; accountability; and transforming challenges into…

  12. Hand's Academy Challenge: Some Starter Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Michael Hand has recently challenged certain religious organisations that run Academies in the United Kingdom to devise and pursue their own faith-based curricula in their schools. In this short article I examine some of the problems Hand's challenge might encounter, including whether religious conceptions of worthwhile activities and of human…

  13. [Challenges and perspectives of veterinary public health].

    PubMed

    Villamil Jiménez, Luis C; Romero, Jaime R

    2003-01-01

    This article presents the conceptual basis for veterinary public health-VPH, including historical aspects of its constitution and development, its fields of action, and its current challenges. It also presents a reflection on VPH within the frame of the veterinary services and it finally proposes that education plays a fundamental role in order to face the challenges of a new era.

  14. NASA Centennial Challenges: After the Challenge

    NASA Video Gallery

    What's it like to participate in a NASA Centennial Challenge? In their own words: "We really had no idea what to expect when we got here. Being able to take all of this...now we have an idea for ne...

  15. Assessment of inflammatory resilience in healthy subjects using dietary lipid and glucose challenges

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Resilience or the ability of our body to cope with daily-life challenges has been proposed as a new definition of health, with restoration of homeostasis as target resultant of various physiological stress responses. Challenge models may thus be a sensitive measure to study the body’s health. The objective of this study was to select a dietary challenge model for the assessment of inflammatory resilience. Meals are a challenge to metabolic homeostasis and are suggested to affect inflammatory pathways, yet data in literature are limited and inconsistent. Method The kinetic responses of three different dietary challenges and a water control challenge were assessed on various metabolic and inflammatory markers in 14 healthy males and females using a full cross-over study design. The dietary challenges included glucose (75 g glucose in 300 ml water), lipids (200 ml whipping cream) and a mix of glucose and lipids (same amounts as above), respectively. Blood samples were collected at baseline and at 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 h after consumption of the treatment products. Inflammation (IFNγ, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12p70, TNF-α CRP, ICAM-1, VCAM-1, SAA, E-selectin, P-selectin, thrombomodulin, leukocytes, neutrophils, lymphocytes) and clinical (e.g. glucose, insulin, triglycerides) markers as well as gene expression in blood cells and plasma oxylipin profiles were measured. Results All three dietary challenges induced changes related to metabolic control such as increases in glucose and insulin after the glucose challenge and increases in triglycerides after the lipid challenge. In addition, differences between the challenges were observed for precursor oxylipins and some downstream metabolites including DiHETrE’s and HODE’s. However, none of the dietary challenges induced an acute inflammatory response, except for a modest increase in circulating leukocyte numbers after the glucose and mix challenges. Furthermore, subtle, yet statistically

  16. Dental education economics: challenges and innovative strategies.

    PubMed

    Walker, Mary P; Duley, Susan I; Beach, M Miles; Deem, Lisa; Pileggi, Roberta; Samet, Nachum; Segura, Adriana; Williams, John N

    2008-12-01

    This article reviews current dental education economic challenges such as increasing student tuition and debt, decreasing funds for faculty salaries and the associated faculty shortage, and the high cost of clinic operations and their effect on the future of dentistry. Management tactics to address these issues are also reviewed. Despite recent efforts to change the clinical education model, implementation of proposed faculty recruitment and compensation programs, and creation of education- corporate partnerships, the authors argue that the current economics of public dental education is not sustainable. To remain viable, the dental education system must adopt transformational actions to re-engineer the program for long-term stability. The proposed re-engineering includes strategies in the following three areas: 1) educational process redesign, 2) reduction and redistribution of time in dental school, and 3) development of a regional curriculum. The intent of these strategies is to address the financial challenges, while educating adequate numbers of dentists at a reasonable cost to both the student and the institution in addition to maintaining dental education within research universities as a learned profession.

  17. On Challenges for Hypersonic Turbulent Simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Yee, H C; Sjogreen, B

    2009-01-14

    This short note discusses some of the challenges for design of suitable spatial numerical schemes for hypersonic turbulent flows, including combustion, and thermal and chemical nonequilibrium flows. Often, hypersonic turbulent flows in re-entry space vehicles and space physics involve mixed steady strong shocks and turbulence with unsteady shocklets. Material mixing in combustion poses additional computational challenges. Proper control of numerical dissipation in numerical methods beyond the standard shock-capturing dissipation at discontinuities is an essential element for accurate and stable simulations of the subject physics. On one hand, the physics of strong steady shocks and unsteady turbulence/shocklet interactions under the nonequilibrium environment is not well understood. On the other hand, standard and newly developed high order accurate (fourth-order or higher) schemes were developed for homogeneous hyperbolic conservation laws and mixed hyperbolic and parabolic partial differential equations (PDEs) (without source terms). The majority of finite rate chemistry and thermal nonequilibrium simulations employ methods for homogeneous time-dependent PDEs with a pointwise evaluation of the source terms. The pointwise evaluation of the source term might not be the best choice for stability, accuracy and minimization of spurious numerics for the overall scheme.

  18. Aquagenic urticaria: diagnostic and management challenges

    PubMed Central

    Rothbaum, Robert; McGee, Jean S

    2016-01-01

    Aquagenic urticaria (AU) is a rare inducible form of physical urticaria, which occurs in response to cutaneous exposure to water, including sweat and tears. Patients present with characteristic 1–3 mm folliculocentric wheals with surrounding 1–3 cm erythematous flares within 20–30 minutes following skin contact with water. In rare cases, there are concomitant systemic symptoms, such as wheezing or shortness of breath. The pathogenesis of AU is poorly understood at this time, and it appears to be mediated in both a histamine-dependent and independent manner. Diagnosis is based on eliciting a thorough clinical history combined with a water challenge test. Some patients may need to undergo further testing to exclude other physical urticarias. Rarely, multiple physical urticarias can be present in one patient, which can complicate diagnosis and treatment. Currently, the first-line therapy for AU is an oral administration of nonsedating, second-generation H1 antihistamines, but many patients may require further interventions to have adequate symptomatic control. In this review, we discuss the diagnostic and management challenges of AU. We review the key diagnostic features that differentiate AU from other physical urticarias. We additionally describe a therapeutic ladder for the treatment of AU and the rationale supporting these treatments. PMID:27942227

  19. D4 Project Innovations and Challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Fulton, J.C.

    2007-07-01

    In 2005, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) launched the third generation of closure contracts, including the River Corridor Closure (RCC) Contract at the Hanford Site, which was awarded to Washington Closure Hanford (WCH). One portion of the WCH company structure is known as the D4 project, where D4 represents the deactivation, decommissioning, decontamination, and demolition of excess facilities. The RCC Contract scope requires that approximately 485 excess facilities undergo the D4 process. During 2005 and 2006, significant acceleration has been achieved in completing the D4 of these facilities. By the end of November 2006, more than 70 facilities had been completed, while only 22 were scheduled for completion. This acceleration has been achieved by implementing innovative work practices and refinement of techniques developed at other DOE such as Rocky Flats, Mound, and Savannah River. In addition, a number of unique equipment deployments have supported the acceleration. While the RCC Project is moving along an accelerated path, there are a number of challenges ahead. The challenges discussed in this paper relate to project impacts that could result from the delayed release of excess facilities in the 300 and 100-K Areas and the potential for mitigation of these impacts. (authors)

  20. College and University Challenge

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This EPA's Green Power Partnership Challenge tracks and recognizes U.S. colleges and universities recognizes the largest single green power users within each participating collegiate athletic conferences.

  1. NASA Exploration Design Challenge

    NASA Video Gallery

    From the International Space Station, astronaut Sunita Williams welcomes participants to the NASA Exploration Design Challenge and explains the uncertainties about the effects of space radiation on...

  2. Infant learning: Historical, conceptual, and methodological challenges

    PubMed Central

    Aslin, Richard N.

    2015-01-01

    Acquiring knowledge about the underlying structures of the environment presents a number of challenges for a naive learner. These challenges include the absence of reinforcement to guide learning, the presence of numerous information sources from which only a select few are relevant, and the uncertainty about when an underlying structure may have undergone a change. A crucial implication of these challenges is that the naive learner must make implicit decisions about when to generalize to novel inputs and when to restrict generalization because there are multiple underlying structures. An historical perspective on these challenges is presented and some potential solutions are proposed. PMID:26568702

  3. Hunting for hydrogen: random structure searching and prediction of NMR parameters of hydrous wadsleyite† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Further information on the structures generated by AIRSS, alternative structural models, supercell calculations, total enthalpies of all computed structures and further information on 1H/2H NMR parameters. Example input and all raw output files from AIRSS and CASTEP NMR calculations are also included. See DOI: 10.1039/c6cp01529h Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Moran, Robert F.; McKay, David; Pickard, Chris J.; Berry, Andrew J.; Griffin, John M.

    2016-01-01

    The structural chemistry of materials containing low levels of nonstoichiometric hydrogen is difficult to determine, and producing structural models is challenging where hydrogen has no fixed crystallographic site. Here we demonstrate a computational approach employing ab initio random structure searching (AIRSS) to generate a series of candidate structures for hydrous wadsleyite (β-Mg2SiO4 with 1.6 wt% H2O), a high-pressure mineral proposed as a repository for water in the Earth's transition zone. Aligning with previous experimental work, we solely consider models with Mg3 (over Mg1, Mg2 or Si) vacancies. We adapt the AIRSS method by starting with anhydrous wadsleyite, removing a single Mg2+ and randomly placing two H+ in a unit cell model, generating 819 candidate structures. 103 geometries were then subjected to more accurate optimisation under periodic DFT. Using this approach, we find the most favourable hydration mechanism involves protonation of two O1 sites around the Mg3 vacancy. The formation of silanol groups on O3 or O4 sites (with loss of stable O1–H hydroxyls) coincides with an increase in total enthalpy. Importantly, the approach we employ allows observables such as NMR parameters to be computed for each structure. We consider hydrous wadsleyite (∼1.6 wt%) to be dominated by protonated O1 sites, with O3/O4–H silanol groups present as defects, a model that maps well onto experimental studies at higher levels of hydration (J. M. Griffin et al., Chem. Sci., 2013, 4, 1523). The AIRSS approach adopted herein provides the crucial link between atomic-scale structure and experimental studies. PMID:27020937

  4. Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Advances and Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, G. E.

    2015-12-01

    We address the state-of-the-art in areas important to monitoring, current challenges, specific efforts that illustrate approaches addressing shortcomings in capabilities, and additional approaches that might be helpful. The exponential increase in the number of events that must be screened as magnitude thresholds decrease presents one of the greatest challenges. Ongoing efforts to exploit repeat seismic events using waveform correlation, subspace methods, and empirical matched field processing holds as much "game-changing" promise as anything being done, and further efforts to develop and apply such methods efficiently are critical. Greater accuracy of travel time, signal loss, and full waveform predictions are still needed to better locate and discriminate seismic events. Important developments include methods to model velocities using multiple types of data; to model attenuation with better separation of source, path, and site effects; and to model focusing and defocusing of surface waves. Current efforts to model higher frequency full waveforms are likely to improve source characterization while more effective estimation of attenuation from ambient noise holds promise for filling in gaps. Censoring in attenuation modeling is a critical problem to address. Quantifying uncertainty of discriminants is key to their operational use. Efforts to do so for moment tensor (MT) inversion are particularly important, and fundamental progress on the statistics of MT distributions is the most important advance needed in the near term in this area. Source physics is seeing great progress through theoretical, experimental, and simulation studies. The biggest need is to accurately predict the effects of source conditions on seismic generation. Uniqueness is the challenge here. Progress will depend on studies that probe what distinguishes mechanisms, rather than whether one of many possible mechanisms is consistent with some set of observations.

  5. Preoperative psychological assessment of patients seeking weight-loss surgery: identifying challenges and solutions

    PubMed Central

    Edwards-Hampton, Shenelle A; Wedin, Sharlene

    2015-01-01

    Preoperative psychosocial assessment is the standard of care for patients seeking weight-loss surgery (WLS). However, the assessment procedure varies widely by surgery site. Comprehensive assessments can provide a wealth of information that assists both the patient and the treatment team, anticipate and prepare for challenges associated with extensive behavioral and lifestyle changes that are required postsurgery. In this review, we provide an overview of the purpose of the preoperative psychosocial assessment and domains to be included. Challenges commonly identified in the assessment are discussed, including maladaptive eating behaviors, psychiatric comorbidities, and alcohol use. Potential solutions and approaches to these challenges are provided. Additionally, patient populations requiring special consideration are presented to include adolescents, those with cognitive vulnerabilities, and aging adults. PMID:26604844

  6. International Students in Western Developed Countries: History, Challenges, and Prospects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akanwa, Emmanuel E.

    2015-01-01

    Many scholars have described the various challenges international students face in Western developed countries including the United States, the United Kingdom, and Australia. Some of the challenges include differences in culture, language barriers, adjustment problems, medical concerns, pedagogical challenges, housing issues, lack of support…

  7. The future of IAEA safeguards: challenges and responses

    SciTech Connect

    Pilat, Joseph F; Budlong - Sylvester, Kory W

    2011-01-01

    For nearly two decades, the International Atomic Energy Agency (lAEA) has been transforming its safeguards system to address the challenges posed by undeclared nuclear programs, the associated revelation of an extensive non-State nuclear procurement network and other issues, including past limits to its verification mandate and the burden of noncompliance issues. Implementing the new measures, including those in the Additional Protocol, and integrating new and old safeguards measures, remains a work in progress. Implementation is complicated by factors including the limited teclmological tools that are available to address such issues as safeguarding bulk handling facilities, detection of undeclared facilities/activities, especially related to enrichment, etc. As this process continues, new challenges are arising, including the demands of expanding nuclear power production worldwide, so-called safeguards by design for a new generation of facilities, the possible IAEA role in a fissile material cutoff treaty and other elements of the arms control and disarmament agenda, the possible role in 'rollback' cases, etc. There is no doubt safeguards will need to evolve in the future, as they have over the last decades. In order for the evolutionary path to proceed, there will inter alia be a need to identify technological gaps, especially with respect to undeclared facilities, and ensure they are filled by adapting old safeguards technologies, by developing and introducing new and novel safeguards teclmologies and/or by developing new procedures and protocols. Safeguards will also need to respond to anticipated emerging threats and to future, unanticipated threats. This will require strategic planning and cooperation among Member States and with the Agency. This paper will address challenges to IAEA safeguards and the technological possibilities and R&D strategies needed to meet those challenges in the context of the forty-year evolution of safeguards, including the ongoing

  8. ITER safety challenges and opportunities

    SciTech Connect

    Piet, S.J.

    1991-01-01

    Results of the Conceptual Design Activity (CDA) for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) suggest challenges and opportunities. ITER is capable of meeting anticipated regulatory dose limits,'' but proof is difficult because of large radioactive inventories needing stringent radioactivity confinement. We need much research and development (R D) and design analysis to establish that ITER meets regulatory requirements. We have a further opportunity to do more to prove more of fusion's potential safety and environmental advantages and maximize the amount of ITER technology on the path toward fusion power plants. To fulfill these tasks, we need to overcome three programmatic challenges and three technical challenges. The first programmatic challenge is to fund a comprehensive safety and environmental ITER R D plan. Second is to strengthen safety and environment work and personnel in the international team. Third is to establish an external consultant group to advise the ITER Joint Team on designing ITER to meet safety requirements for siting by any of the Parties. The first of the three key technical challenges is plasma engineering -- burn control, plasma shutdown, disruptions, tritium burn fraction, and steady state operation. The second is the divertor, including tritium inventory, activation hazards, chemical reactions, and coolant disturbances. The third technical challenge is optimization of design requirements considering safety risk, technical risk, and cost. Some design requirements are now too strict; some are too lax. Fuel cycle design requirements are presently too strict, mandating inappropriate T separation from H and D. Heat sink requirements are presently too lax; they should be strengthened to ensure that maximum loss of coolant accident temperatures drop.

  9. Fundamental Aspects of Selective Melting Additive Manufacturing Processes

    SciTech Connect

    van Swol, Frank B.; Miller, James E.

    2014-12-01

    Certain details of the additive manufacturing process known as selective laser melting (SLM) affect the performance of the final metal part. To unleash the full potential of SLM it is crucial that the process engineer in the field receives guidance about how to select values for a multitude of process variables employed in the building process. These include, for example, the type of powder (e.g., size distribution, shape, type of alloy), orientation of the build axis, the beam scan rate, the beam power density, the scan pattern and scan rate. The science-based selection of these settings con- stitutes an intrinsically challenging multi-physics problem involving heating and melting a metal alloy, reactive, dynamic wetting followed by re-solidification. In addition, inherent to the process is its considerable variability that stems from the powder packing. Each time a limited number of powder particles are placed, the stacking is intrinsically different from the previous, possessing a different geometry, and having a different set of contact areas with the surrounding particles. As a result, even if all other process parameters (scan rate, etc) are exactly the same, the shape and contact geometry and area of the final melt pool will be unique to that particular configuration. This report identifies the most important issues facing SLM, discusses the fundamental physics associated with it and points out how modeling can support the additive manufacturing efforts.

  10. System Engineering Challenges of Future Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hyde, Tristam Tupper

    2005-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation on the system engineering challenges that face NASA's future space missions is shown. The topics include: 1) Future Space Missions; 2) Trends; and 3) Developing System Engineers.

  11. Echidna: the engineering challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brzeski, Jurek K.; Gillingham, Peter; Correll, David; Dawson, John; Moore, Anna M.; Muller, Rolf; Smedley, Scott; Smith, Greg A.

    2004-09-01

    The Anglo-Australian Observatory's (AAO's) FMOS-Echidna project is for the Fiber Multi-Object Spectroscopy system for the Subaru Telescope. It includes three parts: the 400-fiber positioning system, the focal plane imager (FPI) and the prime focus corrector. The Echidna positioner concept and the role of the AAO in the FMOS project have been described in previous SPIE proceedings. The many components for the system are now being manufactured, after prototype tests have demonstrated that the required performance will be achieved. In this paper, the techniques developed to overcome key mechanical and electronic engineering challenges for the positioner and the FPI are described. The major performance requirement is that all 400 science fiber cores and up to 14 guide fiber bundles are to be re-positioned to an accuracy of 10μm within 10 minutes. With the fast prime focus focal ratio, a close tolerance on the axial position of the fiber tips must also be held so efficiency does not suffer from de-focus. Positioning accuracy is controlled with the help of the FPI, which measures the positions of the fiber tips to an accuracy of a few μm and allows iterative positioning. Maintaining fiber tips sufficiently co-planar requires accurate control in the assembly of the several components that contribute to such errors. Assembly jigs have been developed and proven adequate for this purpose. Attaining high reliability in an assembly with many small components of disparate materials bonded together, including piezo ceramics, carbon fiber reinforced plastic, hardened steel, and electrical circuit boards, has entailed careful selection and application of cements and tightly controlled soldering for electrical connections.

  12. Virtual Bridge Design Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitts, Charles R.

    2013-01-01

    This design/problem-solving activity challenges students to design a replacement bridge for one that has been designated as either structurally deficient or functionally obsolete. The Aycock MS Technology/STEM Magnet Program Virtual Bridge Design Challenge is an authentic introduction to the engineering design process. It is a socially relevant…

  13. The Multimedia Challenge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penuel, William R.; Means, Barbara; Simkins, Michael

    2000-01-01

    Teachers implementing a local history project in Belmont, California, had help from a federally funded technology innovation challenge grant: the Challenge 2000 Multimedia Project. Sponsored by a Silicon Valley school-business partnership, the initiative illustrates how technology can transform classroom learning while supporting instructional…

  14. Science Challenge Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegel, Deborah

    2013-01-01

    Science fairs can be good motivators, but as extracurricular activities, they leave some students behind. However, by staging a Science Challenge Day at school, educators can involve all students in doing everything from choosing activities to judging projects. This article presents a model for running a successful Science Challenge Day. The…

  15. Challenge and Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mehaffy, George L.

    2012-01-01

    In the past twenty years, various industries have been forever altered by technology: newspapers, book publishing, the photography business, and many more. Higher education too faces unprecedented challenges primarily driven by rapid changes in technology. To meet these challenges and adapt to these changes, new models are needed. Six challenges…

  16. The Intersection Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2011-01-01

    Street intersections are a source of accidents--for both automobiles and pedestrians. This article presents an intersection challenge that allows students to explore some possible ways to change the traditional intersection. In this challenge, teachers open up the boundaries and allow students to redesign their world. The first step is to help…

  17. Challenge College, Bradford

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flecknoe, Mervyn

    2004-01-01

    What can you expect from a school in an area of high crime where 50 percent of the pupils take free school meals and which operates on a site that cannot be accessed from its main catchment area? In this article, the author shares his experience when he visited Challenge College. A low wall separates Challenge College from the area where most of…

  18. Challenges to Financing Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, R. Craig; Ruch, Robert W.

    1986-01-01

    Reviews court decisions involving challenges to state systems of financing education. The challenges have been based on Fourteenth Amendment rights to equal protection. To date 24 states have been involved with litigation. Systems that promote local control have been generally held to be constitutional. (42 references) (MD)

  19. Dewey's Challenge to Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fishman, Stephen M.; McCarthy, Lucille

    2010-01-01

    Given the serious social problems confronting Americans and others worldwide, the authors propose that Dewey's 1932 challenge to teachers is worthy of reconsideration by educators at all levels. In times similar to our own, Dewey challenged teachers to cultivate students' capacities to identify their happiness with what they can do to improve the…

  20. First Aid Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a challenge wherein students will be asked to design a portable first aid kit that is normally carried in a recreational vehicle (RV), but can also be hand-carried or backpacked off road for distances of approximately 1-2 miles. This can be a very practical challenge for the students because it touches everyone. Everybody…

  1. A Call to Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colleary, Shawn

    2004-01-01

    This article features the Challenge School, a magnet school in the CherryCreek School District in Colorado that focuses on academically advanced, motivated, and gifted students. The school was developed as an alternative to best meet the needs of these students. The Challenge School focuses on high student achievement and commensurate academic…

  2. The Jet Travel Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2007-01-01

    Airplane travelers are dismayed by the long lines and seemingly chaotic activities that precede boarding a full airplane. Surely, the one who can solve this problem is going to make many travelers happy. This article describes the Jet Travel Challenge, an activity that challenges students to create some alternatives to this now frustrating…

  3. Analysis of Smart Composite Structures Including Debonding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chattopadhyay, Aditi; Seeley, Charles E.

    1997-01-01

    Smart composite structures with distributed sensors and actuators have the capability to actively respond to a changing environment while offering significant weight savings and additional passive controllability through ply tailoring. Piezoelectric sensing and actuation of composite laminates is the most promising concept due to the static and dynamic control capabilities. Essential to the implementation of these smart composites are the development of accurate and efficient modeling techniques and experimental validation. This research addresses each of these important topics. A refined higher order theory is developed to model composite structures with surface bonded or embedded piezoelectric transducers. These transducers are used as both sensors and actuators for closed loop control. The theory accurately captures the transverse shear deformation through the thickness of the smart composite laminate while satisfying stress free boundary conditions on the free surfaces. The theory is extended to include the effect of debonding at the actuator-laminate interface. The developed analytical model is implemented using the finite element method utilizing an induced strain approach for computational efficiency. This allows general laminate geometries and boundary conditions to be analyzed. The state space control equations are developed to allow flexibility in the design of the control system. Circuit concepts are also discussed. Static and dynamic results of smart composite structures, obtained using the higher order theory, are correlated with available analytical data. Comparisons, including debonded laminates, are also made with a general purpose finite element code and available experimental data. Overall, very good agreement is observed. Convergence of the finite element implementation of the higher order theory is shown with exact solutions. Additional results demonstrate the utility of the developed theory to study piezoelectric actuation of composite

  4. Compact Radar Transceiver with Included Calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McLinden, Matthew; Rincon, Rafael

    2013-01-01

    The Digital Beamforming Synthetic Aperture Radar (DBSAR) is an eight-channel phased array radar system that employs solid-state radar transceivers, a microstrip patch antenna, and a reconfigurable waveform generator and processor unit. The original DBSAR transceiver design utilizes connectorized electronic components that tend to be physically large and heavy. To achieve increased functionality in a smaller volume, PCB (printed circuit board) transceivers were designed to replace the large connectorized transceivers. One of the most challenging problems designing the transceivers in a PCB format was achieving proper performance in the calibration path. For a radar loop-back calibration path, a portion of the transmit signal is coupled out of the antenna feed and fed back into the receiver. This is achieved using passive components for stability and repeatability. Some signal also leaks through the receive path. As these two signal paths are correlated via an unpredictable phase, the leakage through the receive path during transmit must be 30 dB below the calibration path. For DBSAR s design, this requirement called for a 100-dB isolation in the receiver path during transmit. A total of 16 solid-state L-band transceivers on a PCB format were designed. The transceivers include frequency conversion stages, T/R switching, and a calibration path capable of measuring the transmit power-receiver gain product during transmit for pulse-by-pulse calibration or matched filtering. In particular, this calibration path achieves 100-dB isolation between the transmitted signal and the low-noise amplifier through the use of a switching network and a section of physical walls achieving attenuation of radiated leakage. The transceivers were designed in microstrip PCBs with lumped elements and individually packaged components for compactness. Each transceiver was designed on a single PCB with a custom enclosure providing interior walls and compartments to isolate transceiver

  5. Monitoring challenges and innovative ideas

    SciTech Connect

    O'Neill, R.V.; Hunsaker, C.T.; Levine, D.A.

    1990-01-01

    Monitoring programs are difficult to design even when they focus on specific problems. Ecosystems are complex, and it is often impossible to predetermine what aspects of system structure or dynamics will respond to a specific insult. It is equally difficult to interpret whether a response is a stabilizing compensatory mechanism or a real loss of capacity to maintain the ecosystem. The problems are compounded in a broad monitoring program designed to assess ecosystem health'' at regional and continental scales. It is challenging in the extreme to monitor ecosystem response, at any scale, to past insults as well as an unknown future array of impacts. The present paper will examine some of the fundamental issues and challenges raised by large-scale monitoring efforts. The challenges will serve as a framework and as an excuse to discuss several important topics in more detail. Following the discussion of challenges, we suggest some basic innovations that could be important across a range of monitoring programs. The innovations include integrative measures, innovative methodology, and creative interpretation. 59 refs., 1 tab.

  6. How Safe Are Color Additives?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home For Consumers Consumer Updates How Safe are Color Additives? Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... Consumer Updates RSS Feed Download PDF (380 K) Color additives give the red tint to your fruit ...

  7. Common gynecological challenges in adolescents with sickle cell disease.

    PubMed

    Stimpson, Sarah-Jo; Rebele, Erin C; DeBaun, Michael R

    2016-01-01

    Sickle cell anemia is one of the most common genetic blood disorders worldwide. Individuals with sickle cell disease (SCD) experience clinical manifestations such as chronic anemia, developmental delay, vaso-occlusive pain, acute chest syndrome, and neurological complications. Adolescent girls with SCD face unique gynecological challenges including delayed puberty marked by a later onset in menarche, vaso-occlusive pain associated with their menstrual cycle, and underdiagnosed abnormal uterine bleeding. This review focuses on these challenges with particular emphasis on delayed menarche and vaso-occlusive pain episodes associated with menstruation, in addition to the evaluation and initial management of heavy menstrual bleeding for adolescents with SCD. We highlight research opportunities in this neglected area to help enhance the comprehensive care model for this population.

  8. Bringing the professional challenges for nursing in Jordan to light.

    PubMed

    Oweis, Arwa I

    2005-12-01

    The definition of a profession consists of contributing characteristics. Nursing must achieve these characteristics in order to confirm its professional status. These characteristics include: a standard of education; professional organizations; commitment; autonomy; continuing education; body of knowledge and competencies; social value; and a code of ethics. Nursing in Jordan faces a unique set of challenges to meet these criteria. The purpose of this discussion is to bring the professional challenges of nursing in Jordan to light, to motivate collaborative efforts to remediate them and to discuss the value of evidence-based practice in this process. The key to confirming Jordanian nurses' professional status is for nurses to seek every opportunity to prove themselves, earn respect, take control over their work, support their colleagues and to make informed decisions. In addition, a more active and effective role for the nursing organizations is necessary to change the public's view of nursing. Efforts to reform regulation also should be intensified.

  9. Reconsidering remineralization strategies to include nanoparticle hydroxyapatite.

    PubMed

    Kutsch, V Kim; Chaiyabutr, Yada; Milicich, Graeme

    2013-03-01

    Dental caries is a transmissible biofilm-mediated disease of the teeth that is defined by prolonged periods of low pH resulting in net mineral loss from the teeth. Hydroxyapatite, fluorapatite, and the carbonated forms of calcium phosphate form the main mineral content of dental hard tissues: enamel, dentin, and cementum. Active dental caries results when the biofilm pH on the tooth surface drops below the dissolution threshold for hydroxyapatite and fluorapatite. The clinical evidence of this net mineral loss is porosity, whitespot lesions, caries lesions, and/or cavitation. The potential to reverse this mineral loss through remineralization has been well documented, although previous remineralization strategies for dental hard tissues have focused on the use of fluorides and forms of calcium phosphate. This in-vitro study documented the deposition of nanoparticle hydroxyapatite on demineralized enamel surfaces after treatment with an experimental remineralization gel. This finding supports consideration of an additional approach to remineralization that includes pH neutralization strategies and nanoparticle hydroxyapatite crystals.

  10. Overcoming the challenges in administering biopharmaceuticals: formulation and delivery strategies

    PubMed Central

    Mitragotri, Samir; Burke, Paul A.; Langer, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The formulation and delivery of biopharmaceutical drugs, such as monoclonal antibodies and recombinant proteins, poses substantial challenges owing to their large size and susceptibility to degradation. In this Review we highlight recent advances in formulation and delivery strategies — such as the use of microsphere-based controlled-release technologies, protein modification methods that make use of polyethylene glycol and other polymers, and genetic manipulation of biopharmaceutical drugs — and discuss their advantages and limitations. We also highlight current and emerging delivery routes that provide an alternative to injection, including transdermal, oral and pulmonary delivery routes. In addition, the potential of targeted and intracellular protein delivery is discussed. PMID:25103255

  11. Detergent Additive for Lubricating Oils,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The Russian patent pertains to a method of producing additives for lubricating oils . A method is known for producing an antiwear additive for... lubricating oils by processing phenols with phosphorus oxychloride, phosphoric acid esters are obtained. In order to give the additive detergent properties

  12. Additive Transforms Paint into Insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Tech Traders Inc. sought assistance developing low-cost, highly effective coatings and paints that created useful thermal reflectance and were safe and non-toxic. In cooperation with a group of engineers at Kennedy Space Center., Tech Traders created Insuladd, a powder additive made up of microscopic, inert gas-filled, ceramic microspheres that can be mixed into ordinary interior or exterior paint, allowing the paint to act like a layer of insulation. When the paint dries, this forms a radiant heat barrier, turning the ordinary house paint into heat-reflecting thermal paint. According to Tech Traders, the product works with all types of paints and coatings and will not change the coverage rate, application, or adhesion of the paint. Other useful applications include feed storage silos to help prevent feed spoilage, poultry hatcheries to reduce the summer heat and winter cold effects, and on military vehicles and ships. Tech Traders has continued its connection to the aerospace community by recently providing Lockheed Martin Corporation with one of its thermal products for use on the F-22 Raptor.

  13. Additive manufacturing of polymer-derived ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckel, Zak C.; Zhou, Chaoyin; Martin, John H.; Jacobsen, Alan J.; Carter, William B.; Schaedler, Tobias A.

    2016-01-01

    The extremely high melting point of many ceramics adds challenges to additive manufacturing as compared with metals and polymers. Because ceramics cannot be cast or machined easily, three-dimensional (3D) printing enables a big leap in geometrical flexibility. We report preceramic monomers that are cured with ultraviolet light in a stereolithography 3D printer or through a patterned mask, forming 3D polymer structures that can have complex shape and cellular architecture. These polymer structures can be pyrolyzed to a ceramic with uniform shrinkage and virtually no porosity. Silicon oxycarbide microlattice and honeycomb cellular materials fabricated with this approach exhibit higher strength than ceramic foams of similar density. Additive manufacturing of such materials is of interest for propulsion components, thermal protection systems, porous burners, microelectromechanical systems, and electronic device packaging.

  14. Additive manufacturing of polymer-derived ceramics.

    PubMed

    Eckel, Zak C; Zhou, Chaoyin; Martin, John H; Jacobsen, Alan J; Carter, William B; Schaedler, Tobias A

    2016-01-01

    The extremely high melting point of many ceramics adds challenges to additive manufacturing as compared with metals and polymers. Because ceramics cannot be cast or machined easily, three-dimensional (3D) printing enables a big leap in geometrical flexibility. We report preceramic monomers that are cured with ultraviolet light in a stereolithography 3D printer or through a patterned mask, forming 3D polymer structures that can have complex shape and cellular architecture. These polymer structures can be pyrolyzed to a ceramic with uniform shrinkage and virtually no porosity. Silicon oxycarbide microlattice and honeycomb cellular materials fabricated with this approach exhibit higher strength than ceramic foams of similar density. Additive manufacturing of such materials is of interest for propulsion components, thermal protection systems, porous burners, microelectromechanical systems, and electronic device packaging.

  15. Bacteria repelling poly(methylmethacrylate-co-dimethylacrylamide) coatings for biomedical devices† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Polymer microarray screening, including analysis of bacterial adhesion by fluorescence microscopy and SEM, and chemical composition of bacteria repelling polymers identified in the screen; polymer synthesis and characterisation; preparation of catheter pieces and solvent studies, and details for confocal imaging/analysis. See DOI: 10.1039/c4tb01129e Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Venkateswaran, Seshasailam; Wu, Mei; Gwynne, Peter J.; Hardman, Ailsa; Lilienkampf, Annamaria; Pernagallo, Salvatore; Blakely, Garry; Swann, David G.

    2014-01-01

    Nosocomial infections due to bacteria have serious implications on the health and recovery of patients in a variety of medical scenarios. Since bacterial contamination on medical devices contributes to the majority of nosocomical infections, there is a need for redesigning the surfaces of medical devices, such as catheters and tracheal tubes, to resist the binding of bacteria. In this work, polyurethanes and polyacrylates/acrylamides, which resist binding by the major bacterial pathogens underpinning implant-associated infections, were identified using high-throughput polymer microarrays. Subsequently, two ‘hit’ polymers, PA13 (poly(methylmethacrylate-co-dimethylacrylamide)) and PA515 (poly(methoxyethylmethacrylate-co-diethylaminoethylacrylate-co-methylmethacrylate)), were used to coat catheters and substantially shown to decrease binding of a variety of bacteria (including isolates from infected endotracheal tubes and heart valves from intensive care unit patients). Catheters coated with polymer PA13 showed up to 96% reduction in bacteria binding in comparison to uncoated catheters. PMID:25580245

  16. Incorporation of additives into polymers

    DOEpatents

    McCleskey, T. Mark; Yates, Matthew Z.

    2003-07-29

    There has been invented a method for incorporating additives into polymers comprising: (a) forming an aqueous or alcohol-based colloidal system of the polymer; (b) emulsifying the colloidal system with a compressed fluid; and (c) contacting the colloidal polymer with the additive in the presence of the compressed fluid. The colloidal polymer can be contacted with the additive by having the additive in the compressed fluid used for emulsification or by adding the additive to the colloidal system before or after emulsification with the compressed fluid. The invention process can be carried out either as a batch process or as a continuous on-line process.

  17. The Diagnosis of Delirium Superimposed on Dementia: An Emerging Challenge.

    PubMed

    Morandi, Alessandro; Davis, Daniel; Bellelli, Giuseppe; Arora, Rakesh C; Caplan, Gideon A; Kamholz, Barbara; Kolanowski, Ann; Fick, Donna Marie; Kreisel, Stefan; MacLullich, Alasdair; Meagher, David; Neufeld, Karen; Pandharipande, Pratik P; Richardson, Sarah; Slooter, Arjen J C; Taylor, John P; Thomas, Christine; Tieges, Zoë; Teodorczuk, Andrew; Voyer, Philippe; Rudolph, James L

    2017-01-01

    Delirium occurring in patients with dementia is referred to as delirium superimposed on dementia (DSD). People who are older with dementia and who are institutionalized are at increased risk of developing delirium when hospitalized. In addition, their prior cognitive impairment makes detecting their delirium a challenge. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition and the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, 10th Revision are considered the standard reference for the diagnosis of delirium and include criteria of impairments in cognitive processes such as attention, additional cognitive disturbances, or altered level of arousal. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition and the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, 10th Revision does not provide guidance regarding specific tests for assessment of the cognitive process impaired in delirium. Importantly, the assessment or inclusion of preexisting cognitive impairment is also not addressed by these standards. The challenge of DSD gets more complex as types of dementia, particularly dementia with Lewy bodies, which has features of both delirium and dementia, are considered. The objective of this article is to critically review key elements for the diagnosis of DSD, including the challenge of neuropsychological assessment in patients with dementia and the influence of particular tests used to diagnose DSD. To address the challenges of DSD diagnosis, we present a framework for guiding the focus of future research efforts to develop a reliable reference standard to diagnose DSD. A key feature of a reliable reference standard will improve the ability to clinically diagnose DSD in facility-based patients and research studies.

  18. The Diagnosis of Delirium Superimposed on Dementia: An Emerging Challenge

    PubMed Central

    Morandi, Alessandro; Davis, Daniel; Bellelli, Giuseppe; Arora, Rakesh C.; Caplan, Gideon A.; Kamholz, Barbara; Kolanowski, Ann; Fick, Donna Marie; Kreisel, Stefan; MacLullich, Alasdair; (UK), MRCP; Meagher, David; Neufeld, Karen; Pandharipande, Pratik P.; Richardson, Sarah; Slooter, Arjen J.C.; Taylor, John P.; Thomas, Christine; Tieges, Zoë; Teodorczuk, Andrew; Voyer, Philippe; Rudolph, James L.

    2017-01-01

    Delirium occurring in patients with dementia is referred to as delirium superimposed on dementia (DSD). People who are older with dementia and who are institutionalized are at increased risk of developing delirium when hospitalized. In addition, their prior cognitive impairment makes detecting their delirium a challenge. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition and the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, 10th Revision are considered the standard reference for the diagnosis of delirium and include criteria of impairments in cognitive processes such as attention, additional cognitive disturbances, or altered level of arousal. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition and the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, 10th Revision does not provide guidance regarding specific tests for assessment of the cognitive process impaired in delirium. Importantly, the assessment or inclusion of preexisting cognitive impairment is also not addressed by these standards. The challenge of DSD gets more complex as types of dementia, particularly dementia with Lewy bodies, which has features of both delirium and dementia, are considered. The objective of this article is to critically review key elements for the diagnosis of DSD, including the challenge of neuropsychological assessment in patients with dementia and the influence of particular tests used to diagnose DSD. To address the challenges of DSD diagnosis, we present a framework for guiding the focus of future research efforts to develop a reliable reference standard to diagnose DSD. A key feature of a reliable reference standard will improve the ability to clinically diagnose DSD in facility-based patients and research studies. PMID:27650668

  19. Including Religious Voices on Disability: Which Ones?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaventa, Bill

    2008-01-01

    Religious beliefs and traditions shape cultural and personal understandings of life issues, and, in turn, are shaped by new understanding in other arenas of life, such as medicine, science, and politics. Religious and faith traditions have sometimes enshrined prevailing attitudes about disability and differences but have also challenged them.…

  20. Additive manufacturing of optical components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinrich, Andreas; Rank, Manuel; Maillard, Philippe; Suckow, Anne; Bauckhage, Yannick; Rößler, Patrick; Lang, Johannes; Shariff, Fatin; Pekrul, Sven

    2016-08-01

    The development of additive manufacturing methods has enlarged rapidly in recent years. Thereby, the work mainly focuses on the realization of mechanical components, but the additive manufacturing technology offers a high potential in the field of optics as well. Owing to new design possibilities, completely new solutions are possible. This article briefly reviews and compares the most important additive manufacturing methods for polymer optics. Additionally, it points out the characteristics of additive manufactured polymer optics. Thereby, surface quality is of crucial importance. In order to improve it, appropriate post-processing steps are necessary (e.g. robot polishing or coating), which will be discussed. An essential part of this paper deals with various additive manufactured optical components and their use, especially in optical systems for shape metrology (e.g. borehole sensor, tilt sensor, freeform surface sensor, fisheye lens). The examples should demonstrate the potentials and limitations of optical components produced by additive manufacturing.

  1. Challenges in complex systems science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    San Miguel, M.; Johnson, J. H.; Kertesz, J.; Kaski, K.; Díaz-Guilera, A.; MacKay, R. S.; Loreto, V.; Érdi, P.; Helbing, D.

    2012-11-01

    FuturICT foundations are social science, complex systems science, and ICT. The main concerns and challenges in the science of complex systems in the context of FuturICT are laid out in this paper with special emphasis on the Complex Systems route to Social Sciences. This include complex systems having: many heterogeneous interacting parts; multiple scales; complicated transition laws; unexpected or unpredicted emergence; sensitive dependence on initial conditions; path-dependent dynamics; networked hierarchical connectivities; interaction of autonomous agents; self-organisation; non-equilibrium dynamics; combinatorial explosion; adaptivity to changing environments; co-evolving subsystems; ill-defined boundaries; and multilevel dynamics. In this context, science is seen as the process of abstracting the dynamics of systems from data. This presents many challenges including: data gathering by large-scale experiment, participatory sensing and social computation, managing huge distributed dynamic and heterogeneous databases; moving from data to dynamical models, going beyond correlations to cause-effect relationships, understanding the relationship between simple and comprehensive models with appropriate choices of variables, ensemble modeling and data assimilation, modeling systems of systems of systems with many levels between micro and macro; and formulating new approaches to prediction, forecasting, and risk, especially in systems that can reflect on and change their behaviour in response to predictions, and systems whose apparently predictable behaviour is disrupted by apparently unpredictable rare or extreme events. These challenges are part of the FuturICT agenda.

  2. Statistical and computational challenges in physical mapping

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, D.O.; Speed, T.P.

    1994-06-01

    One of the great success stories of modern molecular genetics has been the ability of biologists to isolate and characterize the genes responsible for serious inherited diseases like Huntington`s disease, cystic fibrosis, and myotonic dystrophy. Instrumental in these efforts has been the construction of so-called {open_quotes}physical maps{close_quotes} of large regions of human chromosomes. Constructing a physical map of a chromosome presents a number of interesting challenges to the computational statistician. In addition to the general ill-posedness of the problem, complications include the size of the data sets, computational complexity, and the pervasiveness of experimental error. The nature of the problem and the presence of many levels of experimental uncertainty make statistical approaches to map construction appealing. Simultaneously, however, the size and combinatorial complexity of the problem make such approaches computationally demanding. In this paper we discuss what physical maps are and describe three different kinds of physical maps, outlining issues which arise in constructing them. In addition, we describe our experience with powerful, interactive statistical computing environments. We found that the ability to create high-level specifications of proposed algorithms which could then be directly executed provided a flexible rapid prototyping facility for developing new statistical models and methods. The ability to check the implementation of an algorithm by comparing its results to that of an executable specification enabled us to rapidly debug both specification and implementation in an environment of changing needs.

  3. Challenges in Cultivating EOSDIS User Survey Participation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boquist, C. L.; Sofinowski, E. J.; Walter, S.

    2011-12-01

    Since 2004 NASA has surveyed users of its Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) to determine user satisfaction with its services. The surveys have been conducted by CFI Group under contract with the Federal Consulting Group, Executive Agent in government for the American Customer Satisfaction Index (ACSI). The purpose of these annual surveys is to help EOSDIS and the data centers assess current status and improve future services. The survey questions include demographic and experiential questions in addition to the ACSI and EOSDIS specific rating questions. In addition to customer satisfaction, analysis of each year's results has provided insight into the survey process. Although specific questions have been added, modified, or deleted to reflect changes to the EOSDIS system and processes, the model rating questions have remained the same to ensure consistency for evaluating cross year trends. Working with the CFI Group, we have refined the invitation and questions to increase clarity and address the different ways diverse groups of users access services at EOSDIS data centers. We present challenges in preparing a single set of questions that go to users with backgrounds in many Earth science disciplines. These users may have contacted any of the 12 EOSDIS data centers for information or may have accessed data or data products from many kinds of aircraft and satellite instruments. We discuss lessons learned in preparing the invitation and survey questions and the steps taken to make the survey easier to complete and to encourage increased participation.

  4. Intravenous hemostats: challenges in translation to patients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lashof-Sullivan, Margaret; Shoffstall, Andrew; Lavik, Erin

    2013-10-01

    Excessive bleeding and the resulting complications are a leading killer of young people globally. There are many successful methods to halt bleeding in the extremities, including compression, tourniquets, and dressings. However, current treatments for internal hemorrhage (including from head or truncal injuries), termed non-compressible bleeding, are inadequate. For these non-compressible injuries, blood transfusions are the current treatment standard. However, they must be refrigerated, may potentially transfer disease, and are of limited supply. In addition, time is of the essence for halting hemorrhage, since more than a third of civilian deaths due to hemorrhage from trauma occur before the patient even reaches the hospital. As a result, particles that can cross-link activated platelets through the glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptor expressed on activated platelets are being investigated as an alternative treatment for non-compressible bleeding. Ideally, these particles would interact specifically with platelets to stabilize the platelet plug. Initial designs used biologically derived microparticles with red blood cell fragment or albumin cores decorated with RGD or fibrinogen, which bind to GPIIb/IIIa. More recently there has been research into the use of fully synthetic nanoparticles with liposomal or polymer cores that crosslink platelets through a targeting peptide bound to the surface. Some of the challenges for the development of these particles include appropriate sizing to prevent blocking the capillaries of the lungs, immune system evasion to prevent strong reactions and increase circulation time, and storage and resuspension so that first responders can easily use the particles. In addition, the effectiveness of the variety of animal bleeding models in predicting outcomes must be examined before test results can be fully understood. Progress has been made in the development of particles to combat hemorrhage, but issues of immune sensitivity and storage

  5. International Space Apps Challenge

    NASA Video Gallery

    During the 2013 Space Apps Challenge, space enthusiasts with diverse backgrounds gathered April 20-21 for a collaborative, global problem-solving effort. Held at Kennedy Space Center Visitor Comple...

  6. 2017 TRI University Challenge

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Details about the 2017 TRI University Challenge, in which EPA is looking to academic institutions to help build a diverse portfolio of practical and replicable projects that benefit communities, the environment, academic institutions, and the TRI Program.

  7. Solving Aviation Challenges

    NASA Video Gallery

    This video highlights the challenges NASA aeronautics researchers are tackling to reduce aircraft noise, emissions, fuel consumption, and the innovative ways they're helping to debut NextGen, a rev...

  8. The 2061 Challenge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hundt, Lin

    1999-01-01

    Presents an interview with George Nelson, former astronaut and director of Project 2061 at the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS). Nelson discusses his interest in science and math education, and future challenges for educators. (WRM)

  9. Another challenge for scientists

    PubMed Central

    Christian, Laura M; Naqvi, Hassan R; Schmidt, Christian; Covarrubias, David; Mathur, Shawn

    2008-01-01

    By nature, scientists contribute to our understanding of nature and ourselves. As communities undergo significant changes, new challenges are presented. Here, we offer alternative views on recent changes in society. PMID:18637170

  10. Mars Balance Challenge

    NASA Video Gallery

    The Challenge is to develop ideas for how NASA can turn available entry, descent, and landing balance mass on a future Mars mission into a scientific or technological payload. Proposed concepts sho...

  11. The Electric Car Challenge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diehl, Brian E.

    1997-01-01

    Describes the Electric Car Challenge during which students applied methods of construction to build lightweight, strong vehicles that were powered by electricity. The activity required problem solving, sheet metal work, electricity, design, and construction skills. (JOW)

  12. Green Flight Challenge Highlights

    NASA Video Gallery

    On Monday, October 3, 2011, NASA's Centennial Challenges program awarded the largest prize in aviation history, created to inspire the development of more fuel-efficient aircraft and spark the star...

  13. Better Buildings Challenge Overview

    SciTech Connect

    2011-06-01

    The Better Buildings Challenge is a national leadership initiative calling on corporate chief executive officers, university presidents, and state and local leaders to make a significant commitment to building energy efficiency.

  14. Building America Top Innovations 2012: DOE Challenge Home (Formerly Builders Challenge)

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2013-01-01

    This Building America Top Innovations profile describes DOE’s Builders Challenge. Hundreds of leading-edge builders across the country signed on to the Challenge and more than 14,000 homes earned the label, saving homeowners over $10 million a year in utility bills. DOE’s new program, the DOE Challenge Home, increases the rigor of the guidelines including requiring homes to be Zero Net-Energy Ready.

  15. Environmental Sustainability - Including Land and Water Use

    EPA Science Inventory

    Assessments of environmental sustainability can be conducted in many ways with one of the most quantitative methods including Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA). While historically LCIA has included a comprehensive list of impact categories including: ozone depletion, global c...

  16. 2002 Controls Design Challenge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hess, Ronald A.; Vetter, T. K.; Wells, S. R.

    2002-01-01

    This document is intended to provide the specifications and requirements for a flight control system design challenge. The response to the challenge will involve documenting whether the particular design has met the stated requirements through analysis and computer simulation. The response should be written in the general format of a technical publication with corresponding length limits, e.g., an approximate maximum length of 45 units, with each full-size figure and double-spaced typewritten page constituting one unit.

  17. Terahertz applications: trends and challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robin, Thierry; Bouye, Clementine; Cochard, Jacques

    2014-03-01

    The objective of our work [1] was to determine the opportunities and challenges for Terahertz application development for the next years with a focus on systems: for homeland security and for Non Destructive Testing (NDT). Terahertz radiation has unique abilities and has been the subject of extensive research for many years. Proven concepts have emerged for numerous applications including Industrial NDT, Security, Health, Telecommunications, etc. Nevertheless, there has been no widely deployed application and Businesses based on THz technologies are still in their infancy. Some technological, market and industrial barriers are still to be broken. We summarize the final analysis and data: study of the technology trends and major bottlenecks per application segment, main challenges to be addressed in the next years, key opportunities for THz technologies based on market needs and requirements.

  18. Challenges of Human Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Jeffrey R.; Charles, John B.

    2006-01-01

    The presentations will be given during the X-Prize symposium, exploring the multi-faceted dimensions of spaceflight ranging from the technical developments necessary to achieve safe routine flight to and from and through space to the new personal business opportunities and economic benefits that will open in space and here on Earth. The symposium will delve into the technical, regulatory, market and financial needs and challenges that must be met in charting and executing the incremental developments leading to Personal Spaceflight and the opening of a Place Called Space. The presentation covers facets of human space flight including descriptions of life in space, the challenges of delivering medical care in space, and the preparations needed for safe and productive human travel to the moon and Mars.

  19. Technical challenges for dismantlement verification

    SciTech Connect

    Olinger, C.T.; Stanbro, W.D.; Johnston, R.G.; Nakhleh, C.W.; Dreicer, J.S.

    1997-11-01

    In preparation for future nuclear arms reduction treaties, including any potential successor treaties to START I and II, the authors have been examining possible methods for bilateral warhead dismantlement verification. Warhead dismantlement verification raises significant challenges in the political, legal, and technical arenas. This discussion will focus on the technical issues raised by warhead arms controls. Technical complications arise from several sources. These will be discussed under the headings of warhead authentication, chain-of-custody, dismantlement verification, non-nuclear component tracking, component monitoring, and irreversibility. The authors will discuss possible technical options to address these challenges as applied to a generic dismantlement and disposition process, in the process identifying limitations and vulnerabilities. They expect that these considerations will play a large role in any future arms reduction effort and, therefore, should be addressed in a timely fashion.

  20. Chip Scale Package Implementation Challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghaffarian, Reza

    1998-01-01

    The JPL-led MicrotypeBGA Consortium of enterprises representing government agencies and private companies have jointed together to pool in-kind resources for developing the quality and reliability of chip scale packages (CSPs) for a variety of projects. In the process of building the Consortium CSP test vehicles, many challenges were identified regarding various aspects of technology implementation. This paper will present our experience in the areas of technology implementation challenges, including design and building both standard and microvia boards, and assembly of two types of test vehicles. We also discuss the most current package isothermal aging to 2,000 hours at 100 C and 125 C and thermal cycling test results to 1,700 cycles in the range of -30 to 100 C.

  1. HRA Aerospace Challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeMott, Diana

    2013-01-01

    Compared to equipment designed to perform the same function over and over, humans are just not as reliable. Computers and machines perform the same action in the same way repeatedly getting the same result, unless equipment fails or a human interferes. Humans who are supposed to perform the same actions repeatedly often perform them incorrectly due to a variety of issues including: stress, fatigue, illness, lack of training, distraction, acting at the wrong time, not acting when they should, not following procedures, misinterpreting information or inattention to detail. Why not use robots and automatic controls exclusively if human error is so common? In an emergency or off normal situation that the computer, robotic element, or automatic control system is not designed to respond to, the result is failure unless a human can intervene. The human in the loop may be more likely to cause an error, but is also more likely to catch the error and correct it. When it comes to unexpected situations, or performing multiple tasks outside the defined mission parameters, humans are the only viable alternative. Human Reliability Assessments (HRA) identifies ways to improve human performance and reliability and can lead to improvements in systems designed to interact with humans. Understanding the context of the situation that can lead to human errors, which include taking the wrong action, no action or making bad decisions provides additional information to mitigate risks. With improved human reliability comes reduced risk for the overall operation or project.

  2. Effusion plate using additive manufacturing methods

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, Thomas Edward; Keener, Christopher Paul; Ostebee, Heath Michael; Wegerif, Daniel Gerritt

    2016-04-12

    Additive manufacturing techniques may be utilized to construct effusion plates. Such additive manufacturing techniques may include defining a configuration for an effusion plate having one or more internal cooling channels. The manufacturing techniques may further include depositing a powder into a chamber, applying an energy source to the deposited powder, and consolidating the powder into a cross-sectional shape corresponding to the defined configuration. Such methods may be implemented to construct an effusion plate having one or more channels with a curved cross-sectional geometry.

  3. Enantioselective Michael addition of water.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bi-Shuang; Resch, Verena; Otten, Linda G; Hanefeld, Ulf

    2015-02-09

    The enantioselective Michael addition using water as both nucleophile and solvent has to date proved beyond the ability of synthetic chemists. Herein, the direct, enantioselective Michael addition of water in water to prepare important β-hydroxy carbonyl compounds using whole cells of Rhodococcus strains is described. Good yields and excellent enantioselectivities were achieved with this method. Deuterium labeling studies demonstrate that a Michael hydratase catalyzes the water addition exclusively with anti-stereochemistry.

  4. Enantioselective Michael Addition of Water

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Bi-Shuang; Resch, Verena; Otten, Linda G; Hanefeld, Ulf

    2015-01-01

    The enantioselective Michael addition using water as both nucleophile and solvent has to date proved beyond the ability of synthetic chemists. Herein, the direct, enantioselective Michael addition of water in water to prepare important β-hydroxy carbonyl compounds using whole cells of Rhodococcus strains is described. Good yields and excellent enantioselectivities were achieved with this method. Deuterium labeling studies demonstrate that a Michael hydratase catalyzes the water addition exclusively with anti-stereochemistry. PMID:25529526

  5. Disorders of Excessive Daytime Sleepiness Including Narcolepsy and Idiopathic Hypersomnia.

    PubMed

    Berkowski, Joseph Andrew; Shelgikar, Anita Valanju

    2016-09-01

    Central disorders of hypersomnolence are rare conditions with a poorly understood pathophysiology, making the identification and management challenging for sleep clinicians. Clinical history is essential for ruling out secondary causes of hypersomnolence and distinguishing among diagnoses. Current diagnostic criteria rely heavily on the polysomnogram and multiple sleep latency test. The current focus of treatment of hypersomnolence is on drugs that promote alertness. Additionally, in the case of narcolepsy type 1, medication management addresses control of cataplexy, the hallmark symptom of this disorder. Elucidation of pathophysiology of these disorders in the future will be essential to better categorization and management.

  6. Addressing Challenges in Studies of Behavioral Responses of Whales to Noise.

    PubMed

    Cato, Douglas H; Dunlop, Rebecca A; Noad, Michael J; McCauley, Robert D; Kniest, Eric; Paton, David; Kavanagh, Ailbhe S

    2016-01-01

    Studying the behavioral response of whales to noise presents numerous challenges. In addition to the characteristics of the noise exposure, many factors may affect the response and these must be measured and accounted for in the analysis. An adequate sample size that includes matching controls is crucial if meaningful results are to be obtained. Field work is thus complicated, logistically difficult, and expensive. This paper discusses some of the challenges and how they are being met in a large-scale multiplatform project in which humpback whales are exposed to the noise of seismic air guns.

  7. Reinforcement learning, conditioning, and the brain: Successes and challenges.

    PubMed

    Maia, Tiago V

    2009-12-01

    The field of reinforcement learning has greatly influenced the neuroscientific study of conditioning. This article provides an introduction to reinforcement learning followed by an examination of the successes and challenges using reinforcement learning to understand the neural bases of conditioning. Successes reviewed include (1) the mapping of positive and negative prediction errors to the firing of dopamine neurons and neurons in the lateral habenula, respectively; (2) the mapping of model-based and model-free reinforcement learning to associative and sensorimotor cortico-basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical circuits, respectively; and (3) the mapping of actor and critic to the dorsal and ventral striatum, respectively. Challenges reviewed consist of several behavioral and neural findings that are at odds with standard reinforcement-learning models, including, among others, evidence for hyperbolic discounting and adaptive coding. The article suggests ways of reconciling reinforcement-learning models with many of the challenging findings, and highlights the need for further theoretical developments where necessary. Additional information related to this study may be downloaded from http://cabn.psychonomic-journals.org/content/supplemental.

  8. The Challenges of Providing Effective Pain Management for Children in the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit.

    PubMed

    Ismail, Ahmad

    2016-12-01

    Providing effective pain management is necessary for all patients in the intensive care unit (ICU). Because of developmental considerations, caring for children may provide additional challenges. The purpose of this literature review is to describe key challenges in providing effective pain management in pediatric intensive care units (PICUs), with the aim of bringing about a better understanding by health care providers caring for children. Challenges of providing effective pain management in the PICU can be categorized into four levels. These levels are informed by the Nursing Pain Management Model and include challenges (1) to be considered before pain assessment, (2) related to pain assessment, (3) related to pain treatment, and (4) related to post-treatment. This review mainly discusses the challenges of the first three levels because the fourth (post-treatment) relates to reassessment of pain, which shares the same challenges of level two, pain assessment. Key challenges of level one are related to health care provider's characteristics, patients and their families' factors, and PICU setting. The main challenges of the assessment and reassessment levels are the child's age and developmental level, ability to self-report, relying on behavioral and physiological indicators of pain, selecting the appropriate pain assessment scale, assessing pain while the patient is being treated with sedative and paralytic agents, mechanical ventilation, and changes in patients' level of consciousness. In the treatment level (level three), nonpharmacological interventions factors; alterations in the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of medications to be used for pain management in critically ill children; and the complexity of the administration of sedatives, analgesics, and paralytic agents in critically ill children are the main challenges. Health care providers can bear in mind such important challenges in order to provide effective pain management. Health care providers

  9. Challenges and progress in digital photography standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holm, Jack M.

    2003-12-01

    The ISO TC42/WG18-20-22-23 and ANSI/I3A IT10 Technical Committees have now been developing digital photography standards for over a decade. This work has led to the publication of standards on digital imaging terminology, digital camera ISO speed measurements, resolution measurements, OECF (linearity) measurements, image formats and metadata, and picture transfer protocol (PTP). More recently, standards on color encoding specifications and color architectures, a JPEG 2000 profile for digital cameras, camera noise and dynamic range measurements, digital camera specification reporting, and scanner resolution have been finalized. Work in progress includes image quality subjective testing methods, digital camera color characterization, and scanner dynamic range measurements. This paper will review past and current technical challenges, and the state of the solutions provided. In most cases, development includes a significant and innovative research component, which is discussed in relation to fundamental imaging issues. These standards are viewed from a broad digital photography perspective, and placed in context with other work in this area. In addition to providing a forum for the development of standards, technical committees are an important avenue for interaction between companies, user groups, and the government. Such avenues can have a great impact on emerging technologies.

  10. Challenges in publication ethics

    PubMed Central

    Astaneh, B; Irfan, M

    2016-01-01

    ‘Some editors are failed writers, but so are most writers.’ TS Eliot (1888–1965) Have you ever wondered what medical journal editors do? Most editors in the medical field are unpaid and the work is part of the wider culture of service provided by so many in the medical profession. Together with the editorial board and the publisher, an editor will decide the direction of the journal. For instance, decisions are made about what sort of material should be published. One of the most common tasks, however, is the daily screening of manuscripts submitted for publication, many of which are rejected without peer review owing to poor quality, redundant material or the subject of the article being beyond the scope of the journal. After deciding which peer reviewers to send an article to, the editor must make a final decision on a manuscript, which may not necessarily concur with the advice given by the reviewers. With this comes a huge amount of personal responsibility and one to the organisation the editor represents. Take the example of George Lundberg, the editor of JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association, who was fired from his position after 17 years with the alleged faux pas of rushing to publish an article to coincide with the Clinton impeachment hearings ‘to extract political leverage.’ Lundberg published research showing that 60% of college students surveyed in 1991 did not think that engaging in oral sex was classed as actually ‘having sex.’1 While neither the methods used in the survey nor the results were disputed, the timing of the publication at an awkward political juncture was. Extrapolating this, editors are therefore not just responsible for the content of what is published but also the impact of publications in the wider arena. Editors must also handle a great deal of correspondence, including author queries and complaints, and respond to them in a timely manner. Communication with the team, the publisher, authors and readers

  11. Does Preoperative Measurement of Cerebral Blood Flow with Acetazolamide Challenge in Addition to Preoperative Measurement of Cerebral Blood Flow at the Resting State Increase the Predictive Accuracy of Development of Cerebral Hyperperfusion after Carotid Endarterectomy? Results from 500 Cases with Brain Perfusion Single-photon Emission Computed Tomography Study

    PubMed Central

    OSHIDA, Sotaro; OGASAWARA, Kuniaki; SAURA, Hiroaki; YOSHIDA, Koji; FUJIWARA, Shunro; KOJIMA, Daigo; KOBAYASHI, Masakazu; YOSHIDA, Kenji; KUBO, Yoshitaka; OGAWA, Akira

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine whether preoperative measurement of cerebral blood flow (CBF) with acetazolamide in addition to preoperative measurement of CBF at the resting state increases the predictive accuracy of development of cerebral hyperperfusion after carotid endarterectomy (CEA). CBF at the resting state and cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) to acetazolamide were quantitatively assessed using N-isopropyl-p-[123I]-iodoamphetamine (IMP)-autoradiography method with single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) before CEA in 500 patients with ipsilateral internal carotid artery stenosis (≥ 70%). CBF measurement using 123I-IMP SPECT was also performed immediately and 3 days after CEA. A region of interest (ROI) was automatically placed in the middle cerebral artery territory in the affected cerebral hemisphere using a three-dimensional stereotactic ROI template. Preoperative decreases in CBF at the resting state [95% confidence intervals (CIs), 0.855 to 0.967; P = 0.0023] and preoperative decreases in CVR to acetazolamide (95% CIs, 0.844 to 0.912; P < 0.0001) were significant independent predictors of post-CEA hyperperfusion. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for prediction of the development of post-CEA hyperperfusion was significantly greater for CVR to acetazolamide than for CBF at the resting state (difference between areas, 0.173; P < 0.0001). Sensitivity, specificity, and positive- and negative-predictive values for the prediction of the development of post-CEA hyperperfusion were significantly greater for CVR to acetazolamide than for CBF at the resting state (P < 0.05, respectively). The present study demonstrated that preoperative measurement of CBF with acetazolamide in addition to preoperative measurement of CBF at the resting state increases the predictive accuracy of the development of post-CEA hyperperfusion. PMID:25746308

  12. Does preoperative measurement of cerebral blood flow with acetazolamide challenge in addition to preoperative measurement of cerebral blood flow at the resting state increase the predictive accuracy of development of cerebral hyperperfusion after carotid endarterectomy? Results from 500 cases with brain perfusion single-photon emission computed tomography study.

    PubMed

    Oshida, Sotaro; Ogasawara, Kuniaki; Saura, Hiroaki; Yoshida, Koji; Fujiwara, Shunro; Kojima, Daigo; Kobayashi, Masakazu; Yoshida, Kenji; Kubo, Yoshitaka; Ogawa, Akira

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine whether preoperative measurement of cerebral blood flow (CBF) with acetazolamide in addition to preoperative measurement of CBF at the resting state increases the predictive accuracy of development of cerebral hyperperfusion after carotid endarterectomy (CEA). CBF at the resting state and cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) to acetazolamide were quantitatively assessed using N-isopropyl-p-[(123)I]-iodoamphetamine (IMP)-autoradiography method with single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) before CEA in 500 patients with ipsilateral internal carotid artery stenosis (≥ 70%). CBF measurement using (123)I-IMP SPECT was also performed immediately and 3 days after CEA. A region of interest (ROI) was automatically placed in the middle cerebral artery territory in the affected cerebral hemisphere using a three-dimensional stereotactic ROI template. Preoperative decreases in CBF at the resting state [95% confidence intervals (CIs), 0.855 to 0.967; P = 0.0023] and preoperative decreases in CVR to acetazolamide (95% CIs, 0.844 to 0.912; P < 0.0001) were significant independent predictors of post-CEA hyperperfusion. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for prediction of the development of post-CEA hyperperfusion was significantly greater for CVR to acetazolamide than for CBF at the resting state (difference between areas, 0.173; P < 0.0001). Sensitivity, specificity, and positive- and negative-predictive values for the prediction of the development of post-CEA hyperperfusion were significantly greater for CVR to acetazolamide than for CBF at the resting state (P < 0.05, respectively). The present study demonstrated that preoperative measurement of CBF with acetazolamide in addition to preoperative measurement of CBF at the resting state increases the predictive accuracy of the development of post-CEA hyperperfusion.

  13. Children's and Adolescents' Expectations about Challenging Unfair Group Norms.

    PubMed

    Mulvey, Kelly Lynn; Killen, Melanie

    2017-04-07

    Youth often hold group norms that perpetuate inequality. One way these norms can be changed is by challenging these norms by choosing to include new members into these groups who hold morally just norms. In the current study, children's and adolescents' inclusion decisions and social reasoning about challenging group norms through inclusion were investigated. The sample included 9-10 (children) and 13-14 year-olds (adolescents) (N = 673, 54.4% female). Participants supported including challengers into groups holding norms supporting relational aggression and unequal allocation of resources, but they were less likely to support including a challenger into a physically aggressive group. Age-related differences and gender differences were found: children and female participants were more likely to include challengers than were adolescents and male participants. The findings indicate that youth support including new members who would challenge morally questionable group norms, but that their support depends on the specific norm the group holds.

  14. Color Addition and Subtraction Apps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruiz, Frances; Ruiz, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Color addition and subtraction apps in HTML5 have been developed for students as an online hands-on experience so that they can more easily master principles introduced through traditional classroom demonstrations. The evolution of the additive RGB color model is traced through the early IBM color adapters so that students can proceed step by step…

  15. Additive Effects on Asymmetric Catalysis.

    PubMed

    Hong, Liang; Sun, Wangsheng; Yang, Dongxu; Li, Guofeng; Wang, Rui

    2016-03-23

    This review highlights a number of additives that can be used to make asymmetric reactions perfect. Without changing other reaction conditions, simply adding additives can lead to improved asymmetric catalysis, such as reduced reaction time, improved yield, or/and increased selectivity.

  16. Challenges of the NGSS for Future Geoscience Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wysession, M. E.; Colson, M.; Duschl, R. A.; Lopez, R. E.; Messina, P.; Speranza, P.

    2013-12-01

    The new Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS), which spell out a set of K-12 performance expectations for life science, physical science, and Earth and space science (ESS), pose a variety of opportunities and challenges for geoscience education. Among the changes recommended by the NGSS include establishing ESS on an equal footing with both life science and physical sciences, at the full K-12 level. This represents a departure from the traditional high school curriculum in most states. In addition, ESS is presented as a complex, integrated, interdisciplinary, quantitative Earth Systems-oriented set of sciences that includes complex and politically controversial topics such as climate change and human impacts. The geoscience communities will need to mobilize in order to assist and aid in the full implementation of ESS aspects of the NGSS in as many states as possible. In this context, the NGSS highlight Earth and space science to an unprecedented degree. If the NGSS are implemented in an optimal manner, a year of ESS will be taught in both middle and high school. In addition, because of the complexity and interconnectedness of the ESS content (with material such as climate change and human sustainability), it is recommended (Appendix K of the NGSS release) that much of it be taught following physics, chemistry, and biology. However, there are considerable challenges to a full adoption of the NGSS. A sufficient work force of high school geoscientists qualified in modern Earth Systems Science does not exist and will need to be trained. Many colleges do not credit high school geoscience as a lab science with respect to college admission. The NGSS demand curricular practices that include analyzing and interpreting real geoscience data, and these curricular modules do not yet exist. However, a concerted effort on the part of geoscience research and education organizations can help resolve these challenges.

  17. Exploring the challenges faced by polytechnic students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matore, Mohd Effendi @ Ewan Mohd; Khairani, Ahmad Zamri

    2015-02-01

    This study aims to identify other challenges besides those already faced by students, in seven polytechnics in Malaysia as a continuation to the previous research that had identified 52 main challenges faced by students using the Rasch Model. The explorative study focuses on the challenges that are not included in the Mooney Problem Checklist (MPCL). A total of 121 polytechnic students submitted 183 written responses through the open questions provided. Two hundred fifty two students had responded from a students' perspective on the dichotomous questions regarding their view on the challenges faced. The data was analysed qualitatively using the NVivo 8.0. The findings showed that students from Politeknik Seberang Perai (PSP) gave the highest response, which was 56 (30.6%) and Politeknik Metro Kuala Lumpur (PMKL) had the lowest response of 2 (1.09%). Five dominant challenges were identified, which were the English language (32, 17.5%), learning (14, 7.7%), vehicles (13, 7.1%), information technology and communication (ICT) (13, 7.1%), and peers (11, 6.0%). This article, however, focus on three apparent challenges, namely, English language, vehicles, as well as computer and ICT, as the challenges of learning and peers had been analysed in the previous MPCL. The challenge of English language that had been raised was regarding the weakness in commanding the aspects of speech and fluency. The computer and ICT challenge covered the weakness in mastering ICT and computers, as well as computer breakdowns and low-performance computers. The challenge of vehicles emphasized the unavailability of vehicles to attend lectures and go elsewhere, lack of transportation service in the polytechnic and not having a valid driving license. These challenges are very relevant and need to be discussed in an effort to prepare polytechnics in facing the transformational process of polytechnics.

  18. Safe prescribing: a titanic challenge.

    PubMed

    Routledge, Philip A

    2012-10-01

    The challenge to achieve safe prescribing merits the adjective 'titanic'. The organisational and human errors leading to poor prescribing (e.g. underprescribing, overprescribing, misprescribing or medication errors) have parallels in the organisational and human errors that led to the loss of the Titanic 100 years ago this year. Prescribing can be adversely affected by communication failures, critical conditions, complacency, corner cutting, callowness and a lack of courage of conviction, all of which were also factors leading to the Titanic tragedy. These issues need to be addressed by a commitment to excellence, the final component of the 'Seven C's'. Optimal prescribing is dependent upon close communication and collaborative working between highly trained health professionals, whose role is to ensure maximum clinical effectiveness, whilst also protecting their patients from avoidable harm. Since humans are prone to error, and the environments in which they work are imperfect, it is not surprising that medication errors are common, occurring more often during the prescribing stage than during dispensing or administration. A commitment to excellence in prescribing includes a continued focus on lifelong learning (including interprofessional learning) in pharmacology and therapeutics. This should be accompanied by improvements in the clinical working environment of prescribers, and the encouragement of a strong safety culture (including reporting of adverse incidents as well as suspected adverse drug reactions whenever appropriate). Finally, members of the clinical team must be prepared to challenge each other, when necessary, to ensure that prescribing combines the highest likelihood of benefit with the lowest potential for harm.

  19. The challenge of sustainability

    SciTech Connect

    Orr, D.W.

    1993-01-01

    This paper discusses sustainability in a world that has changed rapidly. The author suggests that ecological assumptions embedded in communism and capitalism are badly flawed, but the flaws were not apparent when there were fewer than a billion people on earth living at low technology levels. Sustaining the earth's vital signs is a challenge to our perception of time, and the numbers - population, environmental damage, oil consumption, waste disposal - are too large to comprehend easily. There is a global debate about what sustainability means. In fact the challenge of sustainability is 6 different challenges: overcoming the tendency to deny inconvenient realities; establishing accurate indicators of human and ecological health; questions about the kinds of technology necessary to make the transition to sustainability; education; the need for an emotional bond between man and nature; rebuilding the existing democratic institutions. 16 refs.

  20. 36 CFR 1290.7 - Additional guidance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .... Kennedy. (b) The inclusion of artifacts in the scope of the term assassination record is understood to... regulation. (c) Whenever artifacts are included in the JFK Assassination Records Collection, it shall be... materials depicting the artifacts. Additional display of or examination by the public of artifacts in...

  1. 36 CFR 1290.7 - Additional guidance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    .... Kennedy. (b) The inclusion of artifacts in the scope of the term assassination record is understood to... regulation. (c) Whenever artifacts are included in the JFK Assassination Records Collection, it shall be... materials depicting the artifacts. Additional display of or examination by the public of artifacts in...

  2. 36 CFR 1290.7 - Additional guidance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    .... Kennedy. (b) The inclusion of artifacts in the scope of the term assassination record is understood to... regulation. (c) Whenever artifacts are included in the JFK Assassination Records Collection, it shall be... materials depicting the artifacts. Additional display of or examination by the public of artifacts in...

  3. 36 CFR 1290.7 - Additional guidance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    .... Kennedy. (b) The inclusion of artifacts in the scope of the term assassination record is understood to... regulation. (c) Whenever artifacts are included in the JFK Assassination Records Collection, it shall be... materials depicting the artifacts. Additional display of or examination by the public of artifacts in...

  4. 36 CFR 1290.7 - Additional guidance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    .... Kennedy. (b) The inclusion of artifacts in the scope of the term assassination record is understood to... regulation. (c) Whenever artifacts are included in the JFK Assassination Records Collection, it shall be... materials depicting the artifacts. Additional display of or examination by the public of artifacts in...

  5. 33 CFR 203.83 - Additional requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    .../Cooperation Agreements § 203.83 Additional requirements. (a) Maintenance deficiencies. Rehabilitation... or deficient maintenance. Such correction must be accomplished by, or at the expense of, local.... Separable areas with minor damage will be included in the maintenance program of local interests. (c)...

  6. 33 CFR 203.83 - Additional requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    .../Cooperation Agreements § 203.83 Additional requirements. (a) Maintenance deficiencies. Rehabilitation... or deficient maintenance. Such correction must be accomplished by, or at the expense of, local.... Separable areas with minor damage will be included in the maintenance program of local interests. (c)...

  7. 33 CFR 203.83 - Additional requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    .../Cooperation Agreements § 203.83 Additional requirements. (a) Maintenance deficiencies. Rehabilitation... or deficient maintenance. Such correction must be accomplished by, or at the expense of, local.... Separable areas with minor damage will be included in the maintenance program of local interests. (c)...

  8. College of Architecture Addition, Burchard Hall.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Design Cost Data, 2001

    2001-01-01

    Describes the architectural design, costs, general description, and square footage data for the College of Architecture Addition, Burchard Hall in Blacksburg, Virginia. A floor plan and photos are included along with a list of manufacturers and suppliers used for the project. (GR)

  9. Challenges of Big Data Analysis.

    PubMed

    Fan, Jianqing; Han, Fang; Liu, Han

    2014-06-01

    Big Data bring new opportunities to modern society and challenges to data scientists. On one hand, Big Data hold great promises for discovering subtle population patterns and heterogeneities that are not possible with small-scale data. On the other hand, the massive sample size and high dimensionality of Big Data introduce unique computational and statistical challenges, including scalability and storage bottleneck, noise accumulation, spurious correlation, incidental endogeneity, and measurement errors. These challenges are distinguished and require new computational and statistical paradigm. This article gives overviews on the salient features of Big Data and how these features impact on paradigm change on statistical and computational methods as well as computing architectures. We also provide various new perspectives on the Big Data analysis and computation. In particular, we emphasize on the viability of the sparsest solution in high-confidence set and point out that exogeneous assumptions in most statistical methods for Big Data can not be validated due to incidental endogeneity. They can lead to wrong statistical inferences and consequently wrong scientific conclusions.

  10. Challenges of Big Data Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Jianqing; Han, Fang; Liu, Han

    2014-01-01

    Big Data bring new opportunities to modern society and challenges to data scientists. On one hand, Big Data hold great promises for discovering subtle population patterns and heterogeneities that are not possible with small-scale data. On the other hand, the massive sample size and high dimensionality of Big Data introduce unique computational and statistical challenges, including scalability and storage bottleneck, noise accumulation, spurious correlation, incidental endogeneity, and measurement errors. These challenges are distinguished and require new computational and statistical paradigm. This article gives overviews on the salient features of Big Data and how these features impact on paradigm change on statistical and computational methods as well as computing architectures. We also provide various new perspectives on the Big Data analysis and computation. In particular, we emphasize on the viability of the sparsest solution in high-confidence set and point out that exogeneous assumptions in most statistical methods for Big Data can not be validated due to incidental endogeneity. They can lead to wrong statistical inferences and consequently wrong scientific conclusions. PMID:25419469

  11. Manufacturing and Security Challenges in 3D Printing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeltmann, Steven Eric; Gupta, Nikhil; Tsoutsos, Nektarios Georgios; Maniatakos, Michail; Rajendran, Jeyavijayan; Karri, Ramesh

    2016-07-01

    As the manufacturing time, quality, and cost associated with additive manufacturing (AM) continue to improve, more and more businesses and consumers are adopting this technology. Some of the key benefits of AM include customizing products, localizing production and reducing logistics. Due to these and numerous other benefits, AM is enabling a globally distributed manufacturing process and supply chain spanning multiple parties, and hence raises concerns about the reliability of the manufactured product. In this work, we first present a brief overview of the potential risks that exist in the cyber-physical environment of additive manufacturing. We then evaluate the risks posed by two different classes of modifications to the AM process which are representative of the challenges that are unique to AM. The risks posed are examined through mechanical testing of objects with altered printing orientation and fine internal defects. Finite element analysis and ultrasonic inspection are also used to demonstrate the potential for decreased performance and for evading detection. The results highlight several scenarios, intentional or unintentional, that can affect the product quality and pose security challenges for the additive manufacturing supply chain.

  12. Interdisciplinary and physics challenges of network theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianconi, Ginestra

    2015-09-01

    Network theory has unveiled the underlying structure of complex systems such as the Internet or the biological networks in the cell. It has identified universal properties of complex networks, and the interplay between their structure and dynamics. After almost twenty years of the field, new challenges lie ahead. These challenges concern the multilayer structure of most of the networks, the formulation of a network geometry and topology, and the development of a quantum theory of networks. Making progress on these aspects of network theory can open new venues to address interdisciplinary and physics challenges including progress on brain dynamics, new insights into quantum technologies, and quantum gravity.

  13. Engineering the LISA Project: Systems Engineering Challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, Jordan P.

    2006-01-01

    The Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) is a joint NASA/ESA mission to detect and measure gravitational waves with periods from 1 s to 10000 s. The systems engineering challenges of developing a giant interferometer, 5 million kilometers on a side, an: numerous. Some of the key challenges are presented in this paper. The organizational challenges imposed by sharing the engineering function between three centers (ESA ESTEC, NASA GSFC, and JPL) across nine time zones are addressed. The issues and approaches to allocation of the acceleration noise and measurement sensitivity budget terms across a traditionally decomposed system are discussed. Additionally, using LISA to detect gravitational waves for the first time presents significant data analysis challenges, many of which drive the project system design. The approach to understanding the implications of science data analysis on the system is also addressed.

  14. Ionospheric Challenges for GNSS Based Augmentation Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doherty, P.; Valladares, C. E.

    2007-12-01

    The ionosphere is a highly dynamic physical phenomenon that presents a variable source of error for Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) signals and GNSS based operational systems. The Federal Aviation Administration's (FAA) Wide-Area Augmentation System (WAAS) was designed to enhance the GNSS standard positioning service by providing additional accuracy, availability and integrity that is sufficient for use in commercial aviation. It is the first of a number of planned regional Satellite Based Augmentation Systems (SBAS). Other systems in development include the European EGNOS system, the MSAS system in Japan and the GAGAN system in India. In addition, the South American countries are investigating the feasibility of operating an SBAS system in this region. Much of the WAAS ionospheric research and development focused on defining and mitigating ionospheric challenges characteristic of the mid-latitude regions, where the ionosphere is well studied and relatively quiescent. The EGNOS and MSAS systems will primarily operate under a similarly quiescent mid-latitude ionosphere. SBAS system development in South America, India and other low-latitude regions, however, will have to contend with much more extreme conditions. These conditions include strong spatial and temporal gradients, plasma depletions and scintillation. All of these conditions have a potential to limit SBAS performance in the low latitude regions. This presentation will review the effects that the ionosphere has on the mid-latitude WAAS system. It will present the techniques that are used to mitigate ionospheric disturbances induced on the system during severe geomagnetic activity and it will quantify the effect that this activity has on system performance. The presentation will then present data from the South American Low-latitude Ionospheric Sensor Network (LISN) that can be used to infer the ionospheric effects on SBAS performance in the most challenging low-latitude ionospheric environment

  15. MDP challenges from a software provider's perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohara, Shuichiro

    2014-10-01

    This industry faces new challenges every day. It gets tougher as process nodes shrink and the data complexity and volume increase. We are a mask data preparation (MDP) software provider, and have been providing MDP systems to mask shops since 1990. As the industry has, MDP software providers also have been facing new challenges over time, and the challenges get tougher as process nodes shrink and the data complexity and volume increase. We discuss such MDP challenges and solutions in this paper from a MDP software provider's perspective. The data volume continuously increases, and it is caused by shrinking the process node. In addition, resolution enhancement techniques (RET) such as optical proximity correction (OPC) and inverse lithography technique (ILT) induce data complexity, and it contributes considerably to the increase in data volume. The growth of data volume and complexity brings challenges to MDP system, such as the computing speed, shot count, and mask process correction (MPC). New tools (especially mask writers) also bring new challenges. Variable-shaped E-beam (VSB) mask writers demand fracturing less slivers and lower figure counts for CD accuracy and write time requirements respectively. Now multibeam mask writers are under development and will definitely bring new challenges.

  16. Sonic Boom Modeling Technical Challenge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, Brenda M.

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the technical challenges in modeling sonic booms. The goal of this program is to develop knowledge, capabilities and technologies to enable overland supersonic flight. The specific objectives of the modeling are: (1) Develop and validate sonic boom propagation model through realistic atmospheres, including effects of turbulence (2) Develop methods enabling prediction of response of and acoustic transmission into structures impacted by sonic booms (3) Develop and validate psychoacoustic model of human response to sonic booms under both indoor and outdoor listening conditions, using simulators.

  17. LHC Status and Upgrade Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Jeffrey

    2009-11-01

    The Large Hadron Collider has had a trying start-up and a challenging operational future lays ahead. Critical to the machine's performance is controlling a beam of particles whose stored energy is equivalent to 80 kg of TNT. Unavoidable beam losses result in energy deposition throughout the machine and without adequate protection this power would result in quenching of the superconducting magnets. A brief overview of the machine layout and principles of operation will be reviewed including a summary of the September 2008 accident. The current status of the LHC, startup schedule and upgrade options to achieve the target luminosity will be presented.

  18. Opportunities and challenges in application of ultrasound in food processing.

    PubMed

    Rastogi, Navin K

    2011-09-01

    The demand for convenience foods of the highest quality in terms of natural flavor and taste, and which are free from additives and preservatives, has spurred the need for the development of a number of non-thermal approaches to food processing, of which ultrasound technology has proven to be very valuable. Increasing number of recent publications have demonstrated the potential of this technology in food processing. A combination of ultrasound with pressure and/or heat is a promising alternative for the rapid inactivation of microorganisms and enzymes. Therefore, novel techniques like thermosonication, manosonication, and manothermosonication may be a more relevant energy-efficient processing alternative for the food industry in times to come. This review aims at identifying the opportunities and challenges associated with this technology. In addition to discussing the effects of ultrasound on foods, this review covers various areas that have been identified as having great potential for future development. It has been realized that ultrasound has much to offer to the food industry such as inactivation of microorganisms and enzymes, crystallization, drying, degassing, extraction, filtration, homogenization, meat tenderization, oxidation, sterilization, etc., including efficiency enhancement of various operations and online detection of contaminants in foods. Selected practical examples in the food industry have been presented and discussed. A brief account of the challenges in adopting this technology for industrial development has also been included.

  19. Science and Technology Challenges for International Safeguards

    SciTech Connect

    Mark Schanfein

    2009-07-01

    The science and technology challenges for international safeguards range from cutting edge physics needs to practical technology solutions for high volume data handling and analysis issues. This paper will take a narrow look at some of the predominant challenges, which include those at high throughput commercial facilities and those in the detection of undeclared facilities. It is hoped that by highlighting these areas it can encourage a concerted effort by scientific institutions and industry to provide robust cost-effective solutions.

  20. Color Addition and Subtraction Apps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz, Frances; Ruiz, Michael J.

    2015-10-01

    Color addition and subtraction apps in HTML5 have been developed for students as an online hands-on experience so that they can more easily master principles introduced through traditional classroom demonstrations. The evolution of the additive RGB color model is traced through the early IBM color adapters so that students can proceed step by step in understanding mathematical representations of RGB color. Finally, color addition and subtraction are presented for the X11 colors from web design to illustrate yet another real-life application of color mixing.

  1. Haemophilus influenzae Disease (Including Hib) Symptoms

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Haemophilus influenzae Disease (Including Hib) Note: Javascript is disabled or ... and Symptoms Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Haemophilus influenzae , including Hib, disease causes different symptoms depending on ...

  2. Challenges facing production grids

    SciTech Connect

    Pordes, Ruth; /Fermilab

    2007-06-01

    Today's global communities of users expect quality of service from distributed Grid systems equivalent to that their local data centers. This must be coupled to ubiquitous access to the ensemble of processing and storage resources across multiple Grid infrastructures. We are still facing significant challenges in meeting these expectations, especially in the underlying security, a sustainable and successful economic model, and smoothing the boundaries between administrative and technical domains. Using the Open Science Grid as an example, I examine the status and challenges of Grids operating in production today.

  3. Banff Challenge 2

    SciTech Connect

    Junk, Thomas R.; /Fermilab

    2011-08-01

    Experimental particle physics collaborations constantly seek newer and better ideas for improving the sensitivity of their searches for new particles and phenomena. Statistical techniques are the last step in interpreting the results of an experiment; they are used to make discoveries (hypothesis testing), and to measure parameters (point estimation). They are also used in the first step - experiment and analysis design. Banff Challenge 2 asks participants to test their methods of discovering hidden signals in simulated datasets and of measuring the properties of these signals. The Challenge problems are described, and the performances of the submitted entries is summarized, for datasets with and without simulated signals present.

  4. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 2011 Greener Synthetic Pathways Award

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2011 award winner, Genomatica, is developing and commercializing sustainable basic and intermediate chemicals made from renewable feedstocks including sugars, biomass, and syngas.

  5. Article Including Environmental Barrier Coating System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Kang N. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    An enhanced environmental barrier coating for a silicon containing substrate. The enhanced barrier coating may include a bond coat doped with at least one of an alkali metal oxide and an alkali earth metal oxide. The enhanced barrier coating may include a composite mullite bond coat including BSAS and another distinct second phase oxide applied over said surface.

  6. Additive Manufacturing of Biomaterials, Tissues, and Organs.

    PubMed

    Zadpoor, Amir A; Malda, Jos

    2017-01-01

    The introduction of additive manufacturing (AM), often referred to as three-dimensional (3D) printing, has initiated what some believe to be a manufacturing revolution, and has expedited the development of the field of biofabrication. Moreover, recent advances in AM have facilitated further development of patient-specific healthcare solutions. Customization of many healthcare products and services, such as implants, drug delivery devices, medical instruments, prosthetics, and in vitro models, would have been extremely challenging-if not impossible-without AM technologies. The current special issue of the Annals of Biomedical Engineering presents the latest trends in application of AM techniques to healthcare-related areas of research. As a prelude to this special issue, we review here the most important areas of biomedical research and clinical practice that have benefited from recent developments in additive manufacturing techniques. This editorial, therefore, aims to sketch the research landscape within which the other contributions of the special issue can be better understood and positioned. In what follows, we briefly review the application of additive manufacturing techniques in studies addressing biomaterials, (re)generation of tissues and organs, disease models, drug delivery systems, implants, medical instruments, prosthetics, orthotics, and AM objects used for medical visualization and communication.

  7. Radiation Therapy: Additional Treatment Options

    MedlinePlus

    ... SNIPEND SNIPSTART Find A Radiation Oncologist SNIPEND Additional Treatment Options SNIPSTART A A SNIPEND Chemotherapy Medicines prescribed ... such as antibodies, to fight cancer. Novel Targeted Therapies Cancer doctors now know much more about how ...

  8. Calculators and Computers: Graphical Addition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spero, Samuel W.

    1978-01-01

    A computer program is presented that generates problem sets involving sketching graphs of trigonometric functions using graphical addition. The students use calculators to sketch the graphs and a computer solution is used to check it. (MP)

  9. 78 FR 77666 - Notice and Request for Public Comment on State Requests To Include Additional Proof-of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-24

    ...-Dyson, Director, Office of Research, Policy, and Programs, at (301) 563-3919 or 1-866- 747-1471 (toll... responsibilities of implementing and interpreting EAC regulations and policy, answering questions from stakeholders... Regulations and policies. State Requests to Modify State-Specific Instructions: The chief election official...

  10. 78 FR 56695 - Proposed Listing of Additional Waters To Be Included on Indiana's 2010 List of Impaired Waters...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-13

    ... EPA's proposed decision identifying water quality limited segments and associated pollutants in Indiana to be listed pursuant to the Clean Water Act Section 303(d)(2), and requests public comment. For... Under the Clean Water Act AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Reopening of...

  11. 78 FR 35929 - Proposed Listing of Additional Waters To Be Included on Indiana's 2010 List of Impaired Waters...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-14

    ... decision identifying water quality limited segments and associated pollutants in Indiana to be listed... pollution controls are not stringent enough to attain or maintain state water quality standards and for... certain water quality limited segments and associated pollutants (Table 1 in Appendix A1 of EPA's...

  12. 40 CFR 260.23 - Petitions to amend 40 CFR part 273 to include additional hazardous wastes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM: GENERAL Rulemaking... appropriate for the waste or category of waste; will improve management practices for the waste or category of... waste or category of waste, will improve management practices for the waste or category of......

  13. Uranium hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnasissance of the Trinidad NTMS Quadrangle, Colorado, including concentrations of forty-two additional elements

    SciTech Connect

    Shannon, S.S. Jr.

    1980-05-01

    Uranium and other elemental data resulting from the Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance (HSSR) of the Trinidad National Topographic Map Series (NTMS) quadrangle, Colorado, by the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) are reported herein. This study was conducted as part of the United States Department of Energy's National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE), which is designed to provide improved estimates of the availability and economics of nuclear fuel resources and to make available to industry information for use in exploration and development of uranium resources. The HSSR data will ultimately be integrated with other NURE data (e.g., airborne radiometric surveys and geological investigations) to complete the entire NURE program. This report is a supplement to the HSSR uranium evaluation report for the Trinidad quadrange (Morris et al, 1978), which presented the field and uranium data for the 1060 water and 1240 sediment samples collected from 1768 locations in the quadrangle. The earlier report contains an evaluation of the uranium concentrations of the samples as well as descriptions of the geology, hydrology, climate, and uranium occurrences of the quadrange. This supplement presents the sediment field and uranium data again and the analyses of 42 other elements in the sediments. All uranium samples were redetermined by delayed-neutron counting (DNC) when the sediment samples were analyzed for 31 elements by neutron activation. For 99.6% of the sediment samples analyzed, the differences between the uranium contents first determined (Morris et al, 1978) and the analyses reported herein are less than 10%.

  14. 77 FR 1073 - Privacy Act of 1974; Report of an Altered System of Records, Including Addition of Routine Uses...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-09

    ... authorities; foreign governments/ Agencies; international organizations; and non-governmental regulatory... marketing permit for an FDA-regulated product. Records contain name, education, professional qualifications... governments/Agencies; international organizations; and non-governmental regulatory bodies of a foreign...

  15. Modification to the Joint Platform Allocation Tool (JPAT) to Include Additional Warfighting Functions. Aerial R&S Future

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-07-01

    initially in theater. [items] BLg ,c Identifies which groups g are available in a configuration c. [binary] UNCLASSIFIED 8 UNCLASSIFIED SATi,g...10 3.3.8. Objective and Constraints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 3.4. Group ...13 3.4.4. New Group Generation Model formulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 UNCLASSIFIED iv UNCLASSIFIED

  16. Active mineral additives of sapropel ashes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khomich, V. A.; Danilina, E. V.; Krivonos, O. I.; Plaksin, G. V.

    2015-01-01

    The goal of the presented research is to establish a scientific rational for the possibility of sapropel ashes usage as an active mineral additive. The research included the study of producing active mineral additives from sapropels by their thermal treatment at 850900 °C and afterpowdering, the investigation of the properties of paste matrix with an ash additive, and the study of the ash influence on the cement bonding agent. Thermogravimetric analysis and X-ray investigations allowed us to establish that while burning, organic substances are removed, clay minerals are dehydrated and their structure is broken. Sapropel ashes chemical composition was determined. An amorphous ash constituent is mainly formed from silica of the mineral sapropel part and alumosilicagels resulted from clay minerals decomposition. Properties of PC 400 and PC 500A0 sparopel ash additives were studied. Adding ashes containing Glenium plasticizer to the cement increases paste matrix strength and considerably reduces its water absorption. X-ray phase analysis data shows changes in the phase composition of the paste matrix with an ash additive. Ash additives produce a pozzolanic effect on the cement bonding agent. Besides, an ash additive due to the alumosilicagels content causes transformation from unstable calcium aluminate forms to the stable ones.

  17. HELIOS Technology Challenge, Part 4

    NASA Video Gallery

    The HELIOS Technology Challenge seeks to combine open source innovation, collaboration and partnership with makerspace and input from the general public to help NASA solve major technology challeng...

  18. HELIOS Technology Challenge, Part 3

    NASA Video Gallery

    The HELIOS Technology Challenge seeks to combine open source innovation, collaboration and partnership with makerspace and input from the general public to help NASA solve major technology challeng...

  19. HELIOS Technology Challenge, Part 5

    NASA Video Gallery

    The HELIOS Technology Challenge seeks to combine open source innovation, collaboration and partnership with makerspace and input from the general public to help NASA solve major technology challeng...

  20. HELIOS Technology Challenge, Part 2

    NASA Video Gallery

    The HELIOS Technology Challenge seeks to combine open source innovation, collaboration and partnership with makerspace and input from the general public to help NASA solve major technology challeng...

  1. HELIOS Technology Challenge, Part 1

    NASA Video Gallery

    The HELIOS Technology Challenge seeks to combine open source innovation, collaboration and partnership with makerspace and input from the general public to help NASA solve major technology challeng...

  2. Blending at Small Colleges: Challenges and Solutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Ying-Hsiu; Tourtellott, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Implementing blended accelerated learning programs or courses requires a systematic approach, not just the addition of new technologies. Small colleges face challenges when they move toward blended learning because of already-constrained resources. In this article, we will survey issues faced by small colleges in moving to blended learning,…

  3. The Novice Principal: Change and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northfield, Shawn

    2013-01-01

    Rachel Wilson is a novice principal and new school leader of a large English junior-senior high school located in a rural township of a maritime province in Canada. Upon her appointment, she was challenged with having to establish herself as a credible leadership choice for the venue in addition to having to engage in new role learning as a…

  4. Multi-material additive manufacturing of robot components with integrated sensor arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saari, Matt; Cox, Bryan; Galla, Matt; Krueger, Paul S.; Richer, Edmond; Cohen, Adam L.

    2015-06-01

    Fabricating a robotic component comprising 100s of distributed, connected sensors can be very difficult with current approaches. To address these challenges, we are developing a novel additive manufacturing technology to enable the integrated fabrication of robotic structural elements with distributed, interconnected sensors and actuators. The focus is on resistive and capacitive sensors and electromagnetic actuators, though others are anticipated. Anticipated applications beyond robotics include advanced prosthetics, wearable electronics, and defense electronics. This paper presents preliminary results for printing polymers and conductive material simultaneously to form small sensor arrays. Approaches to optimizing sensor performance are discussed.

  5. Highly enantioselective addition of terminal alkynes to aldehydes catalyzed by a new chiral beta-sulfonamide alcohol/Ti(OiPr)4/Et2Zn/R3N catalyst system.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Li; Wang, Quan; Lin, Li; Liu, Xiaodong; Jiang, Xianxing; Zhao, Qingyang; Hu, Guowen; Wang, Rui

    2009-02-01

    A new catalytic system, generated from the readily available and inexpensive beta-sulfonamide alcohol L*, Ti(O(i)Pr)(4), Et(2)Zn, and tertiary amine base (R(3)N), effectively catalyzes the enantioselective addition of various terminal alkynes including some quite challenging alkynes to aldehydes in good yields and excellent enantioselectivities. Up to 96% yield and >99% enantioselectivity were achieved with the use of N,N-diisoproylethylamine (DIPEA) as an additive in this asymmetric addition.

  6. Food additives and preschool children.

    PubMed

    Martyn, Danika M; McNulty, Breige A; Nugent, Anne P; Gibney, Michael J

    2013-02-01

    Food additives have been used throughout history to perform specific functions in foods. A comprehensive framework of legislation is in place within Europe to control the use of additives in the food supply and ensure they pose no risk to human health. Further to this, exposure assessments are regularly carried out to monitor population intakes and verify that intakes are not above acceptable levels (acceptable daily intakes). Young children may have a higher dietary exposure to chemicals than adults due to a combination of rapid growth rates and distinct food intake patterns. For this reason, exposure assessments are particularly important in this age group. The paper will review the use of additives and exposure assessment methods and examine factors that affect dietary exposure by young children. One of the most widely investigated unfavourable health effects associated with food additive intake in preschool-aged children are suggested adverse behavioural effects. Research that has examined this relationship has reported a variety of responses, with many noting an increase in hyperactivity as reported by parents but not when assessed using objective examiners. This review has examined the experimental approaches used in such studies and suggests that efforts are needed to standardise objective methods of measuring behaviour in preschool children. Further to this, a more holistic approach to examining food additive intakes by preschool children is advisable, where overall exposure is considered rather than focusing solely on behavioural effects and possibly examining intakes of food additives other than food colours.

  7. Additive Layer Manufacturing for Launcher's Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilanova, J.; Romera, P.; Lasagni, F.; Zorrilla, A.; Perinan, A.

    2014-06-01

    In the next years the European space industry has the challenge of maintaining its competitiveness in launch vehicles (LV) production, due to the growth of competition worldwide. It has to assure its position developing new applied technologies. In this field the effort is focussed on the production of short series of customized products, like payloads, flight components or launcher parts. ALM (Additive Layer Manufacturing) could be a powerful tool that offers new competitiveness factors for this industry, comprising a set of emerging technologies that are becoming a competitor to forming, casting and machining as well as being utilised directly as a complementary alternative.Originally used for prototypes and models, now ALM becomes a very useful technology capable to fabricate functional parts for the space industrial sector. Its demands on rapid technologies are different to "earth" industries, and they aren't so easily satisfied because space is a field with different requirements depending on its application: launchers, reusable vehicles, satellites, probes, low gravity researches, manned spacecraft, or even moon and planetary exploration.This paper reports on the ALM potential applications, under ESA requirements, exploring the challenges and possibilities for its use in the launchers market, trying to answer two basic questions: the first one, whether ALM is a mature technology to be ready for its use as flight hardware; and the second one, if it can be used to reduce the product cycle, and consequently, the development, production and operational costs.

  8. Combined additive manufacturing approaches in tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Giannitelli, S M; Mozetic, P; Trombetta, M; Rainer, A

    2015-09-01

    Advances introduced by additive manufacturing (AM) have significantly improved the control over the microarchitecture of scaffolds for tissue engineering. This has led to the flourishing of research works addressing the optimization of AM scaffolds microarchitecture to optimally trade-off between conflicting requirements (e.g. mechanical stiffness and porosity level). A fascinating trend concerns the integration of AM with other scaffold fabrication methods (i.e. "combined" AM), leading to hybrid architectures with complementary structural features. Although this innovative approach is still at its beginning, significant results have been achieved in terms of improved biological response to the scaffold, especially targeting the regeneration of complex tissues. This review paper reports the state of the art in the field of combined AM, posing the accent on recent trends, challenges, and future perspectives.

  9. The Store Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2014-01-01

    Biomedical and robotic technologies are merging to present a wonderful opportunity to develop artificial limbs and prosthetic devices for humans injured on the job, in the military, or due to disease. In this challenge, students will have the opportunity to design a store or online service that specifically dedicates itself to amputees. Described…

  10. Electric Vehicle Battery Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2014-01-01

    A serious drawback to electric vehicles [batteries only] is the idle time needed to recharge their batteries. In this challenge, students can develop ideas and concepts for battery change-out at automotive service stations. Such a capability would extend the range of electric vehicles.

  11. India's Higher Education Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altbach, Philip G.

    2014-01-01

    India, with the world's second largest higher education system and a rapidly growing economy as one of the BRIC nations, faces significant challenges in building both capacity and excellence in higher education. India's higher education system is characterized by "islands of excellence in a sea of mediocrity." The mainstream universities…

  12. "Conversations": Challenge and Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Research Association - Slater School & College Services, Philadelphia, PA.

    The academic community is recovering from recent shock waves of frequently violent student protest that challenged the traditional authority and even the basic purposes and structure of colleges and universities. The students were demanding reform in curriculum matters as well as in matters of educational administration. In this document a…

  13. MALL: The Pedagogical Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burston, Jack

    2014-01-01

    In this paper the development of mobile-assisted language learning (MALL) over the past 20 years is reviewed with a particular focus on the pedagogical challenges facing its exploitation. Following a consideration of the definition of mobile learning, the paper describes the dominant mobile technologies upon which MALL applications have been…

  14. Managing "Challenging" Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yariv, Eliezer; Coleman, Marianne

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the ways in which elementary school principals in Israel deal with teachers who are "challenging" in their behaviour, that is those who are perceived as under-performing. This is an important and under-researched area of educational management. Design/methodology/approach: Interviews…

  15. Toward Green Challenge Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Karl E.

    1999-01-01

    Designing environmentally friendly challenge courses involves considering factors such as clearing, trees versus poles, soil erosion and compaction, toilet design, waste disposal, and carrying capacity. Strategies used in "green development" such as systems thinking, solution multipliers, and brainstorming with stakeholders could promote…

  16. The Clay Challenge Continues...

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coy, Mary

    2007-01-01

    It was time for yet another challenge. Bright colored glazes were on hiatus; earth tones and mixed media took center stage. Inspiration was provided this time by the myriad Native American potters from the desert Southwest. The project: create a coil pot that demonstrates interesting form and good artistry and reflects, through symbolism or mixed…

  17. Symposium on Contemporary Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, David A.; Graff, Gerald; Nelson, Cary

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the authors discuss contemporary challenges. David Berry offers advice on teaching the humanities at a community college; Gerald Graff examines how the traditional organization of universities undermines student learning; and Cary Nelson considers the effects on the humanities of the increasing reliance on contingent faculty.

  18. Challenges of Retrenchment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mingle, James R.; And Others

    The retrenchment experiences of a variety of institutions--large and small, public and private--are described and evaluated using an extensive spectrum of case studies sponsored by the Southern Regional Education Board. Part One discusses challenges of retrenchment (James R. Mingle) and strategies for the 1980s (David W. Breneman). Part Two,…

  19. Curriculum Challenges in California.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adler, Louise

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents findings from a longitudinal study that examined the extent and types of challenges to curriculum in California school districts. A survey of school districts conducted in 1990 yielded 421 usable responses. The second survey, sent in 1991, elicited 379 responses, a 37.5 percent response rate. Findings indicate that the number…

  20. The challenge of denitrification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groffman, P. M.

    2015-12-01

    Understanding the nitrogen cycle at ecosystem, landscape, regional and global scales is a great current challenge in environmental science. Large amounts of "missing nitrogen" dominate nitrogen balances at all scales and have complicated efforts to address the effects of excess reactive nitrogen pollution on tropospheric ozone levels, coastal eutrophication and drinking water quality, and to determine "critical loads" for atmospheric nitrogen deposition. Uncertainty about nitrogen balances has led to increased interest in nitrogen gas fluxes as a fate of excess nitrogen. Denitrification, the conversion of reactive nitrogen oxides such as nitrate and nitrite into nitrogen gases, is a challenging process to study in terrestrial ecosystems. This process is difficult to quantify because of problematic measurement techniques, high spatial and temporal variability, and a lack of methods for scaling point measurements to larger areas. A particular challenge is that small areas (hotspots) and brief periods (hot moments) account for a high percentage of nitrogen gas flux activity. However, recent advances have yielded new methods capable of producing well constrained estimates of denitrification at the ecosystem scale, new ideas about the occurrence of hotspots and hot moments at ecosystem and landscape scales, and powerful new tools for extrapolation and validation. Progress on the challenges of denitrification suggest that we are poised for advances more generally across the genomes-to-ecosystems cascade.

  1. Challenge Beginning Teacher Beliefs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lannin, John K.; Chval, Kathryn B.

    2013-01-01

    As beginning teachers start to recognize the complexity of teaching mathematics in elementary school classrooms and how their new vision for teaching mathematics creates new challenges, they experience discomfort--a healthy awareness that much is to be learned. Brousseau (1997) notes that changes in the roles that are implicitly assigned to the…

  2. The Moon Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzsimmons, Pat; Leddy, Diana; Johnson, Lindy; Biggam, Sue; Locke, Suzan

    2013-01-01

    This article describes a first-grade research project that incorporates trade books and challenges misconceptions. Educators see the power of their students' wonder at work in their classrooms on a daily basis. This wonder must be nourished by students' own experiences--observing the moon on a crystal clear night--as well as by having…

  3. A Challenge to Watson

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Detterman, Douglas K.

    2011-01-01

    Watson's Jeopardy victory raises the question of the similarity of artificial intelligence and human intelligence. Those of us who study human intelligence issue a challenge to the artificial intelligence community. We will construct a unique battery of tests for any computer that would provide an actual IQ score for the computer. This is the same…

  4. US Cyber Challenge Research

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-02-01

    0 2 2 Maryland Cyber Challenge & Conference 0 1 0 0 0 1 Miami Electronic Crimes Task Force 0 0 1 0 0 1 MITRE STEM CTF 0 0 2 0 0 2 Moraine Valley...Security and Information Assurance (CSSIA) has a CTF technical environment hosted at Moraine Valley Community College outside of Chicago, IL. This

  5. A Cool Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2012-01-01

    The world of man-made design is all around, in everyday objects and appliances people use without a second thought. In this exercise, students have an opportunity to challenge the common refrigerator's design--and improve it. This approach can be used with many other appliances.

  6. Kayak Design Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Anson

    2011-01-01

    Living in the Adirondack Park and being an avid outdoorsman has often resulted in the author's love of the outdoors working its way into class projects. In 2010, the author gave a group of 25 students in grades 9-12 a challenge that required them to design and construct a prototype inexpensive, lightweight kayak for backpackers and fisherman. In…

  7. Rooftop Garden Design Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2010-01-01

    A small commercial building in a nearby industrial park has decided to install a rooftop garden for its employees to enjoy. The garden will be about 100 feet long and 75 feet wide. This article presents a design challenge for technology and engineering students wherein they will assist in the initial conceptual design of the rooftop garden. The…

  8. Elementary Design Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerlach, Jonathan W.

    2010-01-01

    How many of our students come to the classroom with little background knowledge about the world around them and how things work? To help students develop conceptual understanding and explore the design process, the author brought the NASA "Engineering Design Challenges" program to his school district, redeveloped for elementary students. In this…

  9. The Wall Coverings Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2012-01-01

    Students love nothing better than personalizing their space--desk, bedroom, or even their cars. This article describes a classroom challenge that gives students a chance to let their spirits soar with the invention of a new form of wall treatment. A trip to a big box store might prove to be most helpful for students to visualize their new product…

  10. Challenges for PISA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schleicher, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    The OECD Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) provides a framework in which over 80 countries collaborate to build advanced global metrics to assess the knowledge, skills and character attributes of the students. The design of assessments poses major conceptual and technical challenges, as successful learning. Beyond a sound…

  11. Challenge Your Top Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smutny, Joan Franklin

    2011-01-01

    Fast learners frequently get left behind. There's no question that time is a major obstacle for teachers who are contending with a wide range of learning needs in their classrooms--but there are ways to ratchet up the challenges. Over the years that the author has been teaching gifted children and mentoring teachers, she has found that there are…

  12. 77 FR 70835 - Centennial Challenges 2013 Sample Return Robot Challenge

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-27

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION Centennial Challenges 2013 Sample Return Robot Challenge AGENCY: National... in accordance with 51 U.S.C. 20144(c). The 2013 Sample Return Robot Challenge is scheduled and teams... Robot Challenge is a prize competition designed to encourage development of new technologies...

  13. 76 FR 56819 - Centennial Challenges 2012 Sample Return Robot Challenge

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-14

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION Centennial Challenges 2012 Sample Return Robot Challenge AGENCY: National... 42 U.S.C. 2451(314)(d). The 2012 Sample Return Robot Challenge is scheduled and teams that wish to... technologies of interest and value to NASA and the nation. The 2012 Sample Return Robot Challenge is a...

  14. 81 FR 54853 - Notice of Centennial Challenges Space Robotics Challenge

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2016-08-17

    ... Space Robotics Challenge AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). NOTICE: (16-056). ACTION: Notice of Centennial Challenges Space Robotics Challenge. SUMMARY: This notice is issued in accordance with 51 U.S.C. 20144(c). The Space Robotics Challenge is open and teams that wish to compete...

  15. Seven challenges for neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Markram, Henry

    2013-01-01

    Although twenty-first century neuroscience is a major scientific enterprise, advances in basic research have not yet translated into benefits for society. In this paper, I outline seven fundamental challenges that need to be overcome. First, neuroscience has to become "big science" - we need big teams with the resources and competences to tackle the big problems. Second, we need to create interlinked sets of data providing a complete picture of single areas of the brain at their different levels of organization with "rungs" linking the descriptions for humans and other species. Such "data ladders" will help us to meet the third challenge - the development of efficient predictive tools, enabling us to drastically increase the information we can extract from expensive experiments. The fourth challenge goes one step further: we have to develop novel hardware and software sufficiently powerful to simulate the brain. In the future, supercomputer-based brain simulation will enable us to make in silico manipulations and recordings, which are currently completely impossible in the lab. The fifth and sixth challenges are translational. On the one hand we need to develop new ways of classifying and simulating brain disease, leading to better diagnosis and more effective drug discovery. On the other, we have to exploit our knowledge to build new brain-inspired technologies, with potentially huge benefits for industry and for society. This leads to the seventh challenge. Neuroscience can indeed deliver huge benefits but we have to be aware of widespread social concern about our work. We need to recognize the fears that exist, lay them to rest, and actively build public support for neuroscience research. We have to set goals for ourselves that the public can recognize and share. And then we have to deliver on our promises. Only in this way, will we receive the support and funding we need.

  16. [INVITED] Lasers in additive manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinkerton, Andrew J.

    2016-04-01

    Additive manufacturing is a topic of considerable ongoing interest, with forecasts predicting it to have major impact on industry in the future. This paper focusses on the current status and potential future development of the technology, with particular reference to the role of lasers within it. It begins by making clear the types and roles of lasers in the different categories of additive manufacturing. This is followed by concise reviews of the economic benefits and disadvantages of the technology, current state of the market and use of additive manufacturing in different industries. Details of these fields are referenced rather than expanded in detail. The paper continues, focusing on current indicators to the future of additive manufacturing. Barriers to its development, trends and opportunities in major industrial sectors, and wider opportunities for its development are covered. Evidence indicates that additive manufacturing may not become the dominant manufacturing technology in all industries, but represents an excellent opportunity for lasers to increase their influence in manufacturing as a whole.

  17. Adv. Simulation for Additive Manufacturing: 11/2014 Wkshp. Report for U.S. DOE/EERE/AMO

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, John A.; Babu, Sudarsanam Suresh; Blue, Craig A.

    2015-07-01

    The overarching question for the workshop was as following: How do we best utilize advanced modeling and high-performance computing (HPC) to address key challenges and opportunities in order to realize the full potential of additive manufacturing; and what are the key challenges of additive manufacturing to which modeling and simulation can contribute solutions, and what will it take to meet these challenges?

  18. Composite Pressure Vessel Including Crack Arresting Barrier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeLay, Thomas K. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A pressure vessel includes a ported fitting having an annular flange formed on an end thereof and a tank that envelopes the annular flange. A crack arresting barrier is bonded to and forming a lining of the tank within the outer surface thereof. The crack arresting barrier includes a cured resin having a post-curing ductility rating of at least approximately 60% through the cured resin, and further includes randomly-oriented fibers positioned in and throughout the cured resin.

  19. Verification Challenges at Low Numbers

    SciTech Connect

    Benz, Jacob M.; Booker, Paul M.; McDonald, Benjamin S.

    2013-07-16

    This paper will explore the difficulties of deep reductions by examining the technical verification challenges. At each step on the road to low numbers, the verification required to ensure compliance of all parties will increase significantly. Looking post New START, the next step will likely include warhead limits in the neighborhood of 1000 (Pifer 2010). Further reductions will include stepping stones at 100’s of warheads, and then 10’s of warheads before final elimination could be considered of the last few remaining warheads and weapons. This paper will focus on these three threshold reduction levels, 1000, 100’s, 10’s. For each, the issues and challenges will be discussed, potential solutions will be identified, and the verification technologies and chain of custody measures that address these solutions will be surveyed. It is important to note that many of the issues that need to be addressed have no current solution. In these cases, the paper will explore new or novel technologies that could be applied. These technologies will draw from the research and development that is ongoing throughout the national lab complex, and will look at technologies utilized in other areas of industry for their application to arms control verification.

  20. The need to include animal protection in public health policies.

    PubMed

    Akhtar, Aysha

    2013-11-01

    Many critical public health issues require non-traditional approaches. Although many novel strategies are used, one approach not widely applied involves improving the treatment of animals. Emerging infectious diseases are pressing public health challenges that could benefit from improving the treatment of animals. Other human health issues, that overlap with animal treatment issues, and that warrant further exploration, are medical research and domestic violence. The diverse nature of these health issues and their connection with animal treatment suggest that there may be other similar intersections. Public health would benefit by including the treatment of animals as a topic of study and policy development.

  1. The need to include animal protection in public health policies

    PubMed Central

    Akhtar, Aysha

    2013-01-01

    Many critical public health issues require non-traditional approaches. Although many novel strategies are used, one approach not widely applied involves improving the treatment of animals. Emerging infectious diseases are pressing public health challenges that could benefit from improving the treatment of animals. Other human health issues, that overlap with animal treatment issues, and that warrant further exploration, are medical research and domestic violence. The diverse nature of these health issues and their connection with animal treatment suggest that there may be other similar intersections. Public health would benefit by including the treatment of animals as a topic of study and policy development. PMID:23803712

  2. [New challenges in basic and applied nutrition].

    PubMed

    Palou, A

    2006-01-01

    The quality standards for nutrition and food have undergone major changes during recent years in parallel with the increase in scientific knowledge in the area of food and health. Trends in consumer demands are changing accordingly. While during the last century our concerns were firstly focused on ensuring the availability of basic foods and later on ensuring its safety, nowadays our society is concentrating on improving wellbeing and, particularly, on tackling and preventing the major chronic diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, obesity, diverse types of cancer, osteoporosis and autoimmune diseases. These problems account for almost 50% of the diseases and 60% of deaths over the world, and are directly related with the food we eat, irrespective of the importance of other factors (age, sex, physical exercise, genetic predisposition, nicotine poisoning or alcoholism). Europe has decided to go ahead with a major legislative change in the food sector (the Regulation on nutrition and health claims made on foods) which opens new perspectives to improve public health and offer clear economic growth for the health-related food sector. Putting into practice this new legislation and its consequences constitutes a major challenge. Nevertheless, new challenges are foreseen: our response to food depends on our individual genetic characteristics (nutrigenetics); it also depends on the individual history that is being imprinted (in a permanent or temporary form) on our chromosomes (epigenetics), as determined by the individual life style (food, different episodes and facts, including emotions) and, particularly, nutrition during the most active stages of our development. For the future, the additional contribution we will ask of food is to promote health and well-being in all facets. The requirement is that it should develop in a free framework, based on the best scientific available advice, with transparency as a fundamental guarantee. In this context, new

  3. Emerging Water Contaminants: Technical, Legal and Policy Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deeb, R. A.; Kresic, N.; Laugier, M. C.; Kavanaugh, M. C.

    2002-12-01

    Approximately 120 new chemicals are created each year due to ever-improving industry and technology markets. Releases of new contaminants into the environment can occur during production, use and disposal of these chemicals thereby leading to potential contamination of water supply sources. Very few emerging contaminants are regulated. In addition, knowledge gaps regarding emerging contaminants include lack health effects, occurrence (either because these compounds are not measured or because concentrations are below detection limits of readily available analytical techniques) and fate and transport in the environment especially with regards to mobility and persistence. The sources of these compounds are numerous. One source is treated wastewater, which is re-injected into groundwater aquifers for indirect potable reuse purposes. Emerging compounds of concern can be classified in various classes. This presentation will focus on contaminants, which have emerged in the last 10 years including pharmaceuticals (antibiotics/drugs), personal care products (polycyclic musks), pesticides/herbicides, industrial solvents (1,4-dioxane), gasoline additives (MTBE), disinfection byproducts such as NDMA (N-nitrosodimethylamine), and inorganic compounds such as perchlorate and arsenic. This presentation will present technical, legal and legislative challenges posed by the presence of these contaminants in water. Background information including chemical's history of use, sources in the environments, nationwide occurrence, physical and chemical properties, behavior in the environment and technologies for removal from soil and water will be presented. In addition, case studies on MTBE, pharmaceuticals and personal care products, 1,4-dioxane, arsenic and NDMA will be discussed.

  4. Multiphysics Simulations: Challenges and Opportunities

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Pernice

    2013-02-01

    We consider multiphysics applications from algorithmic and architectural perspectives, where "algorithmic" includes both mathematical analysis and computational complexity, and "architectural" includes both software and hardware environments. Many diverse multiphysics applications can be reduced, en route to their computational simulation, to a common algebraic coupling paradigm. Mathematical analysis of multiphysics coupling in this form is not always practical for realistic applications, but model problems representative of applications discussed herein can provide insight. A variety of software frameworks for multiphysics applications have been constructed and refined within disciplinary communities and executed on leading-edge computer systems. We examine several of these, expose some commonalities among them, and attempt to extrapolate best practices to future systems. From our study, we summarize challenges and forecast opportunities.

  5. The RHIC project -- Physical challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, J.

    1997-11-01

    The design and construction status of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider, RHIC, is discussed. Those novel features of a heavy ion Collider that are distinct from conventional hadron Colliders in general are noted. These features are derived from the experimental requirements of operation with a variety of ion species over a wide energy range including collisions between ions of unequal energies. The project is in the fifth year of a seven-year construction cycle. A review of the superconducting magnet program is given together with progress to date on the machine construction and commissioning. Emphasis is made on challenging issues including intrabeam scattering, interaction-region error compensation, magnet alignments, and matched transition-energy jump.

  6. Multiphysics Simulations: Challenges and Opportunities

    SciTech Connect

    Keyes, David; McInnes, Lois C.; Woodward, Carol; Gropp, William; Myra, Eric; Pernice, Michael; Bell, John; Brown, Jed; Clo, Alain; Connors, Jeffrey; Constantinescu, Emil; Estep, Don; Evans, Kate; Farhat, Charbel; Hakim, Ammar; Hammond, Glenn E.; Hansen, Glen; Hill, Judith; Isaac, Tobin; Jiao, Xiangmin; Jordan, Kirk; Kaushik, Dinesh; Kaxiras, Efthimios; Koniges, Alice; Lee, Ki Hwan; Lott, Aaron; Lu, Qiming; Magerlein, John; Maxwell, Reed M.; McCourt, Michael; Mehl, Miriam; Pawlowski, Roger; Randles, Amanda; Reynolds, Daniel; Riviere, Beatrice; Rude, Ulrich; Scheibe, Timothy D.; Shadid, John; Sheehan, Brendan; Shephard, Mark; Siegel, Andrew; Smith, Barry; Tang, Xianzhu; Wilson, Cian; Wohlmuth, Barbara

    2013-02-12

    We consider multiphysics applications from algorithmic and architectural perspectives, where ‘‘algorithmic’’ includes both mathematical analysis and computational complexity, and ‘‘architectural’’ includes both software and hardware environments. Many diverse multiphysics applications can be reduced, en route to their computational simulation, to a common algebraic coupling paradigm. Mathematical analysis of multiphysics coupling in this form is not always practical for realistic applications, but model problems representative of applications discussed herein can provide insight. A variety of software frameworks for multiphysics applications have been constructed and refined within disciplinary communities and executed on leading-edge computer systems. We examine several of these, expose some commonalities among them, and attempt to extrapolate best practices to future systems. From our study, we summarize challenges and forecast opportunities.

  7. Key ecological challenges for closed systems facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Mark; Dempster, William F.; Allen, John P.

    2013-07-01

    Closed ecological systems are desirable for a number of purposes. In space life support systems, material closure allows precious life-supporting resources to be kept inside and recycled. Closure in small biospheric systems facilitates detailed measurement of global ecological processes and biogeochemical cycles. Closed testbeds facilitate research topics which require isolation from the outside (e.g. genetically modified organisms; radioisotopes) so their ecological interactions and fluxes can be studied separate from interactions with the outside environment. But to achieve and maintain closure entails solving complex ecological challenges. These challenges include being able to handle faster cycling rates and accentuated daily and seasonal fluxes of critical life elements such as carbon dioxide, oxygen, water, macro- and mico-nutrients. The problems of achieving sustainability in closed systems for life support include how to handle atmospheric dynamics including trace gases, producing a complete human diet, recycling nutrients and maintaining soil fertility, the maintenance of healthy air and water and preventing the loss of critical elements from active circulation. In biospheric facilities, the challenge is also to produce analogues to natural biomes and ecosystems, studying processes of self-organization and adaptation in systems that allow specification or determination of state variables and cycles which may be followed through all interactions from atmosphere to soils. Other challenges include the dynamics and genetics of small populations, the psychological challenges for small isolated human groups and backup technologies and strategic options which may be necessary to ensure long-term operation of closed ecological systems.

  8. Additive manufacturing of hybrid circuits

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, Nelson S.; Sarobol, Pylin; Cook, Adam; Clem, Paul G.; Keicher, David M.; Hirschfeld, Deidre; Hall, Aaron Christopher

    2016-03-26

    There is a rising interest in developing functional electronics using additively manufactured components. Considerations in materials selection and pathways to forming hybrid circuits and devices must demonstrate useful electronic function; must enable integration; and must complement the complex shape, low cost, high volume, and high functionality of structural but generally electronically passive additively manufactured components. This article reviews several emerging technologies being used in industry and research/development to provide integration advantages of fabricating multilayer hybrid circuits or devices. First, we review a maskless, noncontact, direct write (DW) technology that excels in the deposition of metallic colloid inks for electrical interconnects. Second, we review a complementary technology, aerosol deposition (AD), which excels in the deposition of metallic and ceramic powder as consolidated, thick conformal coatings and is additionally patternable through masking. As a result, we show examples of hybrid circuits/devices integrated beyond 2-D planes, using combinations of DW or AD processes and conventional, established processes.

  9. Tougher Addition Polyimides Containing Siloxane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    St. Clair, T. L.; Maudgal, S.

    1986-01-01

    Laminates show increased impact resistances and other desirable mechanical properties. Bismaleamic acid extended by reaction of diaminosiloxane with maleic anhydride in 1:1 molar ratio, followed by reaction with half this molar ratio of aromatic dianhydride. Bismaleamic acid also extended by reaction of diaminosiloxane with maleic anhydride in 1:2 molar ratio, followed by reaction with half this molar ratio of aromatic diamine (Michael-addition reaction). Impact resistances improved over those of unmodified bismaleimide, showing significant increase in toughness. Aromatic addition polyimides developed as both matrix and adhesive resins for applications on future aircraft and spacecraft.

  10. X-IFU technical challenge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lam Trong, Thien

    2016-07-01

    The X-ray Integral Field Unit (X-IFU) on board the Advanced Telescope for High Energy Astrophysics (Athena), will provide high spectral resolution (2.5 eV up to 7 keV) over a 5 arc minute (equivalent diameter) field of view. The X-IFU is currently in the middle of its Phase A study phase. In this paper, we review the technical challenges (system level issues, TES array, readout, cooling, …) as identified during the first year of the study. This instrument is developed by a large international consortium under a French leadership. The Netherlands and Italy, as Co-PIs, with ESA member state from Belgium, Finland, Germany, Poland, Spain, Switzerland, are the European contributors, with additional contributions from the United States and Japan.

  11. New transmission lines: The challenge

    SciTech Connect

    Pierobon, J.R. |

    1995-03-15

    Increasing competition in the electric power industry is likely to entail a little-recognized major complication---difficulty in siting of transmission lines. The stakes will often be greater, the competition could be stronger, and both put a premium on finding a process that can win public acceptance cost-effectively. There are at least three major reasons why siting new lines will become more difficult: (1) More communities in the paths of the new lines will not be served by them and will see no benefit to offset the nuisance, (2) In addition to the perceived health threats of electric and magnetic fields, opposition will arise based on claims about siting of lines in low-income or minority neighborhoods, and (3) Electric power companies that stand to lose market share if the lines are completed may align themselves with the opposition. This article is a review of the challenges that utilities may face in their efforts.

  12. Evaluation of certain food additives and contaminants.

    PubMed

    2004-01-01

    This report represents the conclusions of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee convened to evaluate the safety of various food additives, with a view to recommending acceptable daily intakes (ADIs) and to prepare specifications for the identity and purity of food additives. The first part of the report contains a general discussion of the principles governing the toxicological evaluation of food additives (including flavouring agents) and contaminants, assessments of intake, and the establishment and revision of specifications for food additives. A summary follows of the Committee's evaluations of toxicological and intake data on various specific food additives (alpha-amylase from Bacillus lichenformis containing a genetically engineered alpha-amylase gene from B. licheniformis, annatto extracts, curcumin, diacetyl and fatty acid esters of glycerol, D-tagatose, laccase from Myceliophthora thermophila expressed in Aspergillus oryzae, mixed xylanase, beta-glucanase enzyme preparation produced by a strain of Humicola insolens, neotame, polyvinyl alcohol, quillaia extracts and xylanase from Thermomyces lanuginosus expressed in Fusarium venenatum), flavouring agents, a nutritional source of iron (ferrous glycinate, processed with citric acid), a disinfectant for drinking-water (sodium dichloroisocyanurate) and contaminants (cadmium and methylmercury). Annexed to the report are tables summarizing the Committee's recommendations for ADIs of the food additives, recommendations on the flavouring agents considered, and tolerable intakes of the contaminants considered, changes in the status of specifications and further information requested or desired.

  13. Invasive mycoses: diagnostic challenges.

    PubMed

    Ostrosky-Zeichner, Luis

    2012-01-01

    Despite the availability of newer antifungal drugs, outcomes for patients with invasive fungal infections (IFIs) continue to be poor, in large part due to delayed diagnosis and initiation of appropriate antifungal therapy. Standard histopathologic diagnostic techniques are often untenable in at-risk patients, and culture-based diagnostics typically are too insensitive or nonspecific, or provide results after too long a delay for optimal IFI management. Newer surrogate markers of IFIs with improved sensitivity and specificity are needed to enable earlier diagnosis and, ideally, to provide prognostic information and/or permit therapeutic monitoring. Surrogate assays should also be accessible and easy to implement in the hospital. Several nonculture-based assays of newer surrogates are making their way into the medical setting or are currently under investigation. These new or up-and-coming surrogates include antigens/antibodies (mannan and antimannan antibodies) or fungal metabolites (d-arabinitol) for detection of invasive candidiasis, the Aspergillus cell wall component galactomannan used to detect invasive aspergillosis, or the fungal cell wall component and panfungal marker β-glucan. In addition, progress continues with use of polymerase chain reaction- or other nucleic acid- or molecular-based assays for diagnosis of either specific or generic IFIs, although the various methods must be better standardized before any of these approaches can be more fully implemented into the medical setting. Investigators are also beginning to explore the possibility of combining newer surrogate markers with each other or with more standard diagnostic approaches to improve sensitivity, specificity, and capacity for earlier diagnosis, at a time when fungal burden is still relatively low and more responsive to antifungal therapy.

  14. 47 CFR 1.9005 - Included services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Included services. 1.9005 Section 1.9005 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Spectrum Leasing Scope and Authority § 1.9005 Included services. The spectrum leasing policies and rules of this subpart apply to...

  15. 47 CFR 1.9005 - Included services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Included services. 1.9005 Section 1.9005 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Grants by Random Selection Spectrum Leasing Scope and Authority § 1.9005 Included services. The spectrum leasing policies and rules...

  16. 47 CFR 1.9005 - Included services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Included services. 1.9005 Section 1.9005 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Grants by Random Selection Spectrum Leasing Scope and Authority § 1.9005 Included services. The spectrum leasing policies and rules...

  17. 47 CFR 1.9005 - Included services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Included services. 1.9005 Section 1.9005 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Spectrum Leasing Scope and Authority § 1.9005 Included services. The spectrum leasing policies and rules of this subpart apply to...

  18. 28 CFR 20.32 - Includable offenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE CRIMINAL JUSTICE INFORMATION SYSTEMS Federal Systems and Exchange of Criminal History Record Information § 20.32 Includable offenses. (a) Criminal history record information maintained in the III System and the FIRS shall include serious and/or significant adult...

  19. 28 CFR 20.32 - Includable offenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE CRIMINAL JUSTICE INFORMATION SYSTEMS Federal Systems and Exchange of Criminal History Record Information § 20.32 Includable offenses. (a) Criminal history record information maintained in the III System and the FIRS shall include serious and/or significant adult...

  20. 28 CFR 20.32 - Includable offenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE CRIMINAL JUSTICE INFORMATION SYSTEMS Federal Systems and Exchange of Criminal History Record Information § 20.32 Includable offenses. (a) Criminal history record information maintained in the III System and the FIRS shall include serious and/or significant adult...

  1. 28 CFR 20.32 - Includable offenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE CRIMINAL JUSTICE INFORMATION SYSTEMS Federal Systems and Exchange of Criminal History Record Information § 20.32 Includable offenses. (a) Criminal history record information maintained in the III System and the FIRS shall include serious and/or significant adult...

  2. 28 CFR 20.32 - Includable offenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE CRIMINAL JUSTICE INFORMATION SYSTEMS Federal Systems and Exchange of Criminal History Record Information § 20.32 Includable offenses. (a) Criminal history record information maintained in the III System and the FIRS shall include serious and/or significant adult...

  3. Server-Side Includes Made Simple.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fagan, Jody Condit

    2002-01-01

    Describes server-side include (SSI) codes which allow Webmasters to insert content into Web pages without programming knowledge. Explains how to enable the codes on a Web server, provides a step-by-step process for implementing them, discusses tags and syntax errors, and includes examples of their use on the Web site for Southern Illinois…

  4. Synthesis and biomedical applications of aerogels: Possibilities and challenges.

    PubMed

    Maleki, Hajar; Durães, Luisa; García-González, Carlos A; Del Gaudio, Pasquale; Portugal, António; Mahmoudi, Morteza

    2016-10-01

    Aerogels are an exceptional group of nanoporous materials with outstanding physicochemical properties. Due to their unique physical, chemical, and mechanical properties, aerogels are recognized as promising candidates for diverse applications including, thermal insulation, catalysis, environmental cleaning up, chemical sensors, acoustic transducers, energy storage devices, metal casting molds and water repellant coatings. Here, we have provided a comprehensive overview on the synthesis, processing and drying methods of the mostly investigated types of aerogels used in the biological and biomedical contexts, including silica aerogels, silica-polymer composites, polymeric and biopolymer aerogels. In addition, the very recent challenges on these aerogels with regard to their applicability in biomedical field as well as for personalized medicine applications are considered and explained in detail.

  5. Quality documentation challenges for veterinary clinical pathology laboratories.

    PubMed

    Sacchini, Federico; Freeman, Kathleen P

    2008-05-01

    An increasing number of veterinary laboratories worldwide have obtained or are seeking certification based on international standards, such as the International Organization for Standardization/International Electrotechnical Commission 17025. Compliance with any certification standard or quality management system requires quality documentation, an activity that may present several unique challenges in the case of veterinary laboratories. Research specifically addressing quality documentation is conspicuously absent in the veterinary literature. This article provides an overview of the quality system documentation needed to comply with a quality management system with an emphasis on preparing written standard operating procedures specific for veterinary laboratories. In addition, the quality documentation challenges that are unique to veterinary clinical pathology laboratories are critically evaluated against the existing quality standards and discussed with respect to possible solutions and/or recommended courses of action. Documentation challenges include the establishment of quality requirements for veterinary tests, the use or modification of human analytic methods for animal samples, the limited availability of quality control materials satisfactory for veterinary clinical pathology laboratories, the limited availability of veterinary proficiency programs, and the complications in establishing species-specific reference intervals.

  6. The grays of medical device color additives.

    PubMed

    Seidman, Brenda

    2014-01-01

    The United States' medical device color additive regulations are unknown to some, and confusing to many. This article reviews statutory language on color additives in the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FFDCA), as amended, including the Delaney Clause on carcinogenicity; color additive regulatory language as it relates to medical devices in Title 21 of the Code of Federal Regulations (C.F.R.), Parts 70-82; reports on the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) likely current and historical practices in dealing with color additives in medical devices; and speculates on what may have given rise to decades of seemingly ad hoc color additives practices, which may now be difficult to reconstruct and satisfactorily modify. Also addressed is the Center for Devices and Radiological Health's (CDRH's) recent publicly-vetted approach to color additives in Section 7 of its April 2013 draft guidance, Use of International Standard ISO-10993, "Biological Evaluation of Medical Devices Part 1: Evaluation and Testing," which the author concludes is a change in the right direction, but which, at least in its current draft form, is not a fix to the CDRH's color additives dilemma. Lastly, the article suggests what the CDRH might consider in further developing a new approach to color additives. Such an approach would treat color additives as if they were any other potentially toxic group of chemicals, and could be fashioned in such a way that the CDRH could still satisfy the broad aspects of Congressional color additives mandates, and.yet be consistent with ISO 10993. In doing this, the CDRH would need to recommend a more directed use of its Quality System Regulation, 21 C.F.R. Part 820, for material and vendor qualification and validation in general; approach Congress for needed statutory changes; or make administrative changes. In order for any approach to be successful, whether it is a new twist on past practices, or an entirely new path forward, the FDA must, to the best of its

  7. New technology recipes include horseradish, vinegar, mushrooms

    SciTech Connect

    Bishop, J.

    1995-08-01

    Technology development for more effective environmental management continues to abound. This article contains some recent innovations in the following areas: wastewater treatment; site remediation; and air pollution control. In addition several emerging technologies address solid and hazardous waste management with techniques designed to reduce waste volume, recycle valuable materials and create new energy sources.

  8. Including School Libraries in National Bibliographic Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyer, Esther R.

    1979-01-01

    Considers the incorporation of school libraries and media centers into a national bibliographic system, and discusses questions pertaining to the contributions, advantages, points of access, obstacles, and international implications of such a program. A bibliography of additional readings is provided. (FM)

  9. Go! Including Movement during Routines and Transitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orlowski, Marietta A.; Hart, Aaron

    2010-01-01

    Good schools for children ages 5 to 8 provide multiple opportunities for physical activity throughout the school day. Ideally, physical education, recess, extracurricular activities, and classroom activities together help ensure that children meet the recommended 60 minutes a day of structured activity and 60 of unstructured. Additionally, brief…

  10. The Challenging Experience Questionnaire: Characterization of challenging experiences with psilocybin mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Barrett, Frederick S; Bradstreet, Matthew P; Leoutsakos, Jeannie-Marie S; Johnson, Matthew W; Griffiths, Roland R

    2016-12-01

    Acute adverse psychological reactions to classic hallucinogens ("bad trips" or "challenging experiences"), while usually benign with proper screening, preparation, and support in controlled settings, remain a safety concern in uncontrolled settings (such as illicit use contexts). Anecdotal and case reports suggest potential adverse acute symptoms including affective (panic, depressed mood), cognitive (confusion, feelings of losing sanity), and somatic (nausea, heart palpitation) symptoms. Responses to items from several hallucinogen-sensitive questionnaires (Hallucinogen Rating Scale, the States of Consciousness Questionnaire, and the Five-Dimensional Altered States of Consciousness questionnaire) in an Internet survey of challenging experiences with the classic hallucinogen psilocybin were used to construct and validate a Challenging Experience Questionnaire. The stand-alone Challenging Experience Questionnaire was then validated in a separate sample. Seven Challenging Experience Questionnaire factors (grief, fear, death, insanity, isolation, physical distress, and paranoia) provide a phenomenological profile of challenging aspects of experiences with psilocybin. Factor scores were associated with difficulty, meaningfulness, spiritual significance, and change in well-being attributed to the challenging experiences. The factor structure did not differ based on gender or prior struggle with anxiety or depression. The Challenging Experience Questionnaire provides a basis for future investigation of predictors and outcomes of challenging experiences with classic hallucinogens.

  11. Challenges of building clinical data analysis solutions.

    PubMed

    Gray, George W

    2004-12-01

    Increasingly, owners of clinical information systems are turning to clinical data warehouses (CDWs) to store and to analyze their data. The CDW allows institutions to make better use of their clinical data that has been collected through its information systems. A CDW extracts data from these systems, transforms it into a usable form, and then allows users to view and analyze years of data across a large cross section of patient charts. Although warehouses have existed in healthcare for some time, there are relatively few institutions that maintain patient charts in a CDW. This is, in part, because of the challenges often seen when attempting to warehouse this type of data. These include integrating a diverse set of care practices and a variety of definitions for common data elements like medications, observations, treatments, units of measure, and even unique patient identifiers. In addition, these systems often struggle with a high level of inconsistent and/or incomplete data that must be cleaned up on a regular basis. Unlike other data warehouse systems, CDWs are often expected to gather data around the clock and in a manner that has minimum impact to the performance of the source Clinical Information Systems. Finally, CDWs often have a diverse range of clinical and administrative users. This often leads to a need for a variety of applications and/or tools for viewing and analyzing the data.

  12. Path forward: emerging issues and challenges.

    PubMed

    Gillen, Matt; Gittleman, Janie L

    2010-06-01

    The NIOSH Construction Program worked with industry stakeholders to develop a National Occupational Safety and Health Construction Agenda to target future research and activities. The Program and its partners are also cognizant that new developments can emerge over time and that research can play an important role in helping to understand and address these emerging issues. Examples of emerging issues relevant to construction safety and health are described. These include: (a) climate change and energy considerations; (b) green construction developments and opportunities; (c) new materials; (d) changes in industry structure and practice; (e) workforce developments and disparities; (f) injury underreporting and cost and risk shifting; and (g) increased interest in addressing root causes. Responding to emerging issues while maintaining a focus on fundamental longstanding issues represents an ongoing challenge for researchers and industry organizations. Additional research to understand the diffusion and adoption of research by the industry is also needed. Research accomplished to date provides a strong foundation for addressing future industry needs and trends.

  13. Medically assisted reproduction and ethical challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Kaeaeriaeinen, Helena . E-mail: helena.kaariainen@utu.fi; Evers-Kiebooms, Gerry; Coviello, Domenico

    2005-09-01

    Many of the ethical challenges associated with medically assisted reproduction are societal. Should the technique be restricted to only ordinary couples or could it be used also to single females or couples of same sex? Should the future child be entitled to know the identity of the gamete donor? Should there be age limits? Can embryos or gametes be used after the death of the donor? Can surrogate mothers be part of the process? Can preimplantation diagnostics be used to select the future baby's sex? In addition, there are several clearly medical questions that lead to difficult ethical problems. Is it safe to use very premature eggs or sperms? Is the risk for some rare syndromes caused by imprinting errors really increased when using these techniques? Do we transfer genetic infertility to the offspring? Is the risk for multiple pregnancies too high when several embryos are implanted? Does preimplantation diagnosis cause some extra risks for the future child? Should the counselling of these couples include information of all these potential but unlikely risks? The legislation and practices differ in different countries and ethical discussion and professional guidelines are still needed.

  14. Cyberlearning for Climate Literacy: Challenges and Opportunities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCaffrey, M. S.; Buhr, S. M.; Gold, A. U.; Ledley, T. S.; Mooney, M. E.; Niepold, F.

    2010-12-01

    Cyberlearning tools provide cost and carbon-efficient avenues for fostering a climate literate society through online engagement with learners. With climate change education becoming a Presidential Priority in 2009, funding for grants from NSF, NASA and NOAA is leading to a new generation of cyberlearning resources that supplement existing online resources. This paper provides an overview of challenges and opportunities relating to the online delivery of high quality, often complex climate science by examining several existing and emerging efforts, including the Climate Literacy and Energy Awareness Network (CLEAN,) a National Science Digital Library Pathway, the development by CIRES Education and Outreach of the Inspiring Climate Education Excellence (ICEE) online course, TERC’s Earth Exploration Toolbook (EET,) DataTools, and EarthLab modules, the NOAA Climate Stewards Education Program (CSEP) that utilizes the NSTA E-Learning Center, online efforts by members of the Federation of Earth Science Information Partners (ESIP), UCAR’s Climate Discovery program, and the Climate Adaptation, Mitigation e-Learning (CAMeL) project. In addition, we will summarize outcomes of the Cyberlearning for Climate Literacy workshop held in Washington DC in the Fall of 2009 and examine opportunities for teachers to develop and share their own lesson plans based on climate-related web resources that currently lack built-in learning activities, assessments or teaching tips.

  15. Nanotechnology and Nanoscale Science: Educational challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, M. Gail; Blonder, Ron; Gardner, Grant E.; Albe, Virginie; Falvo, Michael; Chevrier, Joel

    2013-06-01

    Nanotechnology has been touted as the next 'industrial revolution' of our modern age. In order for successful research, development, and social discourses to take place in this field, education research is needed to inform the development of standards, course development, and workforce preparation. In addition, there is a growing need to educate citizens and students about risks, benefits, and social and ethical issues related to nanotechnology. This position paper describes the advancements that have been made in nanoscale science and nanotechnology, and the challenges that exist to educate students and the public about critical nanoscience concepts. This paper reviews the current research on nanotechnology education including curricula, educational programs, informal education, and teacher education. Furthermore, the unique risks, benefits and ethics of these unusual technological applications are described in relation to nanoeducation goals. Finally, we outline needed future research in the areas of nanoscience content, standards and curricula, nanoscience pedagogy, teacher education, and the risks, benefits, and social and ethical dimensions for education in this emerging field.

  16. Emerging Biometric Modalities: Challenges and Opportunities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gafurov, Davrondzhon

    Recent advances in sensor technology and wide spread use of various electronics (computers, PDA, mobile phones etc.) provide new opportunities for capturing and analyses of novel physiological and behavioural traits of human beings for biometric authentication. This paper presents an overview of several such types of human characteristics that have been proposed as alternatives to traditional types of biometrics. We refer to these characteristics as emerging biometrics. We survey various types of emerging modalities and techniques, and discuss their pros and cons. Emerging biometrics faces several limitations and challenges which include subject population coverage (focusing mostly on adults); unavailability of benchmark databases; little research with respect to vulnerability/robustness against attacks; and some privacy concerns they may arise. In addition, recognition performance of emerging modalities are generally less accurate compared to the traditional biometrics. Despite all of these emerging biometrics posses their own benefits and advantages compared to traditional biometrics which makes them still attractive for research. First of all, emerging biometrics can always serve as a complementary source for identity information; they can be suitable in applications where traditional biometrics are difficult or impossible to adapt such as continuous or periodic re-verification of the user's identity etc.

  17. The challenges of the homeless haemophilia patient.

    PubMed

    Lambing, A; Kuriakose, P; Kachalsky, E; Mueller, L

    2013-07-01

    The current economic hardships within the United States can increase the risk of persons becoming homeless. In 2001, it was estimated that between 0.1% and 2.1% of the population were homeless every night and that 2.3 - 3.5 million persons could become homeless every year [1]. Many issues can increase the risk of homelessness including: home foreclosure, declining work force due to declining wages, low-wage opportunities and less secure jobs, decline in public assistance, lack of affordable housing with limited housing assistance programs, poverty, lack of affordable health care, domestic violence, mental illness, and addiction disorders. Many on the streets may suffer from mental illness, developmental disabilities, and or chronic physical illness [6]. Given these issues, the Hemophilia Treatment Center (HTC) can expect to experience the issue of homelessness within their own population of persons with hemophilia. Currently, there are no studies that address the issue of the person with hemophilia who may become homeless. This presents unique challenges that this population may encounter to survive in addition to managing bleeding issues related to the diagnosis of hemophilia. This article will review the issues related to homelessness in the general population. Two case studies of persons with hemophilia who became homeless will be discussed outlining the strategies utilized to assist the patient during this crisis.

  18. The Additive Property of Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsaoussis, Dimitris S.

    1995-01-01

    Presents exercises that analyze the additive property of energy. Concludes that if a body has more than one component of energy depending on the same physical quantity, the body's total energy will be the algebraic sum of the components if a linear relationship exists between the energy components and that physical quantity. (JRH)

  19. Tetrasulfide extreme pressure lubricant additives

    SciTech Connect

    Gast, L.E.; Kenney, H.E.; Schwab, A.W.

    1980-08-19

    A novel class of compounds has been prepared comprising the tetrasulfides of /sup 18/C hydrocarbons, /sup 18/C fatty acids, and /sup 18/C fatty and alkyl and triglyceride esters. These tetrasulfides are useful as extreme pressure lubricant additives and show potential as replacements for sulfurized sperm whale oil.

  20. Out of bounds additive manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Holshouser, Chris; Newell, Clint; Palas, Sid; Love, Lonnie J.; Kunc, Vlastimil; Lind, Randall F.; Lloyd, Peter D.; Rowe, John C.; Blue, Craig A.; Duty, Chad E.; Peter, William H.; Dehoff, Ryan R.

    2013-03-01

    Lockheed Martin and Oak Ridge National Laboratory are working on an additive manufacturing system capable of manufacturing components measured not in terms of inches or feet, but multiple yards in all dimensions with the potential to manufacture parts that are completely unbounded in size.

  1. The Chinese healthcare challenge

    PubMed Central

    Fabre, Guilhem

    2015-01-01

    Investments in the extension of health insurance coverage, the strengthening of public health services, as well as primary care and better hospitals, highlights the emerging role of healthcare as part of China’s new growth regime, based on an expansion of services, and redistributive policies. Such investments, apart from their central role in terms of relief for low-income people, serve to rebalance the Chinese economy away from export-led growth toward the domestic market, particularly in megacity-regions as Shanghai and the Pearl River Delta, which confront the challenge of integrating migrant workers. Based on the paper by Gusmano and colleagues, one would expect improvements in population health for permanent residents of China’s cities. The challenge ahead, however, is how to address the growth of inequalities in income, wealth and the social wage. PMID:25774379

  2. The connectomics challenge

    PubMed Central

    Silvestri, Ludovico; Sacconi, Leonardo; Pavone, Francesco Saverio

    Summary One of the most fascinating challenges in neuroscience is the reconstruction of the connectivity map of the brain. Recent years have seen a rapid expansion in the field of connectomics, whose aim is to trace this map and understand its relationship with neural computation. Many different approaches, ranging from electron and optical microscopy to magnetic resonance imaging, have been proposed to address the connectomics challenge on various spatial scales and in different species. Here, we review the main technological advances in the microscopy techniques applied to connectomics, highlighting the potential and limitations of the different methods. Finally, we briefly discuss the role of connectomics in the Human Brain Project, the Future and Emerging Technologies (FET) Flagship recently approved by the European Commission. PMID:24139653

  3. Educational Challenges for Children with Cochlear Implants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chute, Patricia M.; Nevins, Mary Ellen

    2003-01-01

    This article addresses educational challenges for children with severe to profound hearing loss who receive cochlear implants. Despite the implants, these children face acoustic challenges, academic challenges, attention challenges, associative challenges, and adjustment challenges. (Contains references.) (Author/DB)

  4. Solar PV Project Financing: Regulatory and Legislative Challenges for Third-Party PPA System Owners

    SciTech Connect

    Kollins, K.; Speer, B.; Cory, K.

    2009-11-01

    Residential and commercial end users of electricity who want to generate electricity using on-site solar photovoltaic (PV) systems face challenging initial and O&M costs. The third-party ownership power purchase agreement (PPA) finance model addresses these and other challenges. It allows developers to build and own PV systems on customers? properties and sell power back to customers. However, third-party electricity sales commonly face five regulatory challenges. The first three challenges involve legislative or regulatory definitions of electric utilities, power generation equipment, and providers of electric services. These definitions may compel third-party owners of solar PV systems to comply with regulations that may be cost prohibitive. Third-party owners face an additional challenge if they may not net meter, a practice that provides significant financial incentive to owning solar PV systems. Finally, municipalities and cooperatives worry about the regulatory implications of allowing an entity to sell electricity within their service territories. This paper summarizes these challenges, when they occur, and how they have been addressed in five states. This paper also presents alternative to the third-party ownership PPA finance model, including solar leases, contractual intermediaries, standardized contract language, federal investment tax credits, clean renewable energy bonds, and waived monopoly powers.

  5. RHIC CHALLENGES FOR LOW ENERGY OPERATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    SATOGATA,T.; BRENNAN, J.M.; DREES, A.; FEDOTOV, A.; ROSER, T.; TSOUPAS, N.

    2007-06-25

    There is significant interest in RHIC heavy ion collisions at {radical}s =5-50 GeV/u, motivated by a search for the QCD phase transition critical point. The lowest energies are well below the nominal RHIC gold injection {radical}s = 19.6 GeV/u. There are several challenges that face RHIC operations in this regime, including longitudinal acceptance, magnet field quality, lattice control, and luminosity monitoring. We report on the status of work to address these challenges, including results from beam tests of low energy RHIC operations with protons and gold.

  6. Hybrid Warfare and Challenges

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    against financial targets. Hybrid challenges are not limited to non - state actors. States can shift their conventional units to irregular formations and... non -state actors, using both simple and sophisticated technolo- gies in innovative ways.”23 Tomorrow’s conflicts will not be easily categorized into...between “regular” and “irregu- lar” warfare are blurring. Even non -state groups are increasingly gaining access to the kinds of weapons that were once

  7. DARPA 7-Day Challenge

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-03-17

    live fire challenge. ....................................... 54 Figure 62: Schedule for Live Fire Test with B. pseudomallei strain 1028...currently being investigated in clinical trials for the treatment of AIDS, hepatitis C and cancer 3 . However, antigen delivery problems have...from Ac-DEX are pH- sensitive and degrade quicker in lysosomal pH (~ 5) compared to physiological pH (7.4). Beyond its performance in vaccine

  8. Challenges in childhood tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Swaminathan, S; Ramachandran, G

    2015-09-01

    While tuberculosis (TB) typically causes respiratory disease in adults, the spectrum of disease is different in children, ranging from paucibacillary lymphadenitis or limited intrathoracic disease to severe disseminated disease. Diagnosing pediatric TB and monitoring treatment response is challenging, as collecting respiratory specimens is difficult in children and disease may be extrapulmonary. While basic principles of treatment are similar to adults, developmental differences in pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics require that drug dosages in children be adjusted for body weight and age.

  9. An Integrated Biochemistry Laboratory, Including Molecular Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, Adele J. Wolfson Mona L.; Branham, Thomas R.

    1996-11-01

    ), time of incubation, wavelength of measurement, addition of salts, and addition of detergent. In these independent projects, students sometimes discover ways to improve the methodology for the assays, and these improvements are incorporated into the suggested procedures for the rest of the semester. The results of this project are written up as a short paper in a style appropriate for a rapid communication in a scientific journal. The papers go through a round of peer review and revision. Ion-Exchange Chromatography Once each group has decided on a project and discussed the details with the instructor, they prepare their own buffers and equilibrate the resins. DEAE-Sephacel and CM-Sepharose, both from Pharmacia/LKB (Piscataway, NJ) are supplied, about 20 mL of packed resin for each egg-white preparation. (These resins can be regenerated and reused many times.) Each group uses one egg white for the entire purification project. The egg white is filtered through one layer of cheesecloth and diluted 5-fold with the starting buffer. The first step is done batchwise because of the viscosity of the sample. The diluted egg white is mixed with the resin for approximately 15 min, then centrifuged at 1500 μ g for 15 min. The supernatant, containing those proteins not adsorbed to the resin, is decanted. Subsequent washing and elution can then be carried out batchwise or by transferring to a column [1.5 - 20 cm Econocolumns (BioRad)]. The options for recovery of the enzyme from the CM resin include a batch or column method, elution by change in pH or ionic strength, and gradient or stepwise elution. Those carrying out elutions from a column use an automatic fraction collector; gradient formers are available for those who choose to elute with a linear salt gradient. When elution is carried out by a change in pH, it should be noted that lysozyme may precipitate near its isoelectric point, especially at low ionic strength. SDS - polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis is used to monitor

  10. Explaining additional genetic variation in complex traits

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Matthew R.; Wray, Naomi R.; Visscher, Peter M.

    2015-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have provided valuable insights into the genetic basis of complex traits, discovering >6000 variants associated with >500 quantitative traits and common complex diseases in humans. The associations identified so far represent only a fraction of those which influence phenotype, as there are likely to be very many variants across the entire frequency spectrum, each of which influences multiple traits, with only a small average contribution to the phenotypic variance. This presents a considerable challenge to further dissection of the remaining unexplained genetic variance within populations, which limits our ability to predict disease risk, identify new drug targets, improve and maintain food sources, and understand natural diversity. This challenge will be met within the current framework through larger sample size, better phenotyping including recording of non-genetic risk factors, focused study designs, and an integration of multiple sources of phenotypic and genetic information. The current evidence supports the application of quantitative genetic approaches, and we argue that one should retain simpler theories until simplicity can be traded for greater explanatory power. PMID:24629526

  11. Challenges in Engaging Parents in the Drug and Alcohol Treatment: The Professionals' Perspective.

    PubMed

    Misouridou, Evdokia; Papadatou, Danai

    2016-11-02

    Addiction treatment centers often fail to involve families in treatment. The aim of the present study was to explore the challenges that Greek mental health professionals encounter in their work with parents of drug and alcohol abusers. A qualitative study design was adopted, and five focus group discussions were conducted with 27 drug and alcohol professionals. The thematic analysis of their accounts revealed the key difficulties that professionals encounter in their collaboration with parents that included parental lack of involvement or over-engagement in treatment, unrealistic expectations, ambivalence or opposition to change, ethical dilemmas, and alliance issues, as well as collaboration challenges among therapists. Findings highlight the challenges of a family approach in the treatment of addiction, and underscore the value of clinical supervision in addition to specialized training, to help professionals work on their anxiety, anger, guilt, prejudices, and deception, when engaging parents in the treatment of their addicted child.

  12. 47 CFR 1.9005 - Included services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Spectrum Leasing Scope and Authority § 1.9005 Included services. Link to an amendment published at 79 FR 48533, August 15, 2014. The spectrum leasing policies and rules of this subpart apply to the...

  13. 42 CFR 410.100 - Included services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... function or dysfunction of the neuromuscular, musculoskeletal, cardiovascular and respiratory systems; and... create difficulties in communication. (e) Respiratory therapy services. (1) Respiratory therapy services... cardiopulmonary function. (2) Respiratory therapy services include the following: (i) Application of...

  14. 42 CFR 410.100 - Included services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... function or dysfunction of the neuromuscular, musculoskeletal, cardiovascular and respiratory systems; and... create difficulties in communication. (e) Respiratory therapy services. (1) Respiratory therapy services... cardiopulmonary function. (2) Respiratory therapy services include the following: (i) Application of...

  15. 42 CFR 410.100 - Included services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... function or dysfunction of the neuromuscular, musculoskeletal, cardiovascular and respiratory systems; and... create difficulties in communication. (e) Respiratory therapy services. (1) Respiratory therapy services... cardiopulmonary function. (2) Respiratory therapy services include the following: (i) Application of...

  16. 42 CFR 410.100 - Included services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... function or dysfunction of the neuromuscular, musculoskeletal, cardiovascular and respiratory systems; and... create difficulties in communication. (e) Respiratory therapy services. (1) Respiratory therapy services... cardiopulmonary function. (2) Respiratory therapy services include the following: (i) Application of...

  17. 42 CFR 410.100 - Included services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... function or dysfunction of the neuromuscular, musculoskeletal, cardiovascular and respiratory systems; and... create difficulties in communication. (e) Respiratory therapy services. (1) Respiratory therapy services... cardiopulmonary function. (2) Respiratory therapy services include the following: (i) Application of...

  18. Include Passive Solar in Your Renovations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bender, Gerald F.; Probasco, Jack F.

    1981-01-01

    A checklist covers potential energy saving modifications in a building scheduled for renovation, and includes suggestions for room utilization, landscaping, and building envelope, solar control, and active system modifications. (Author)

  19. Lung Disease Including Asthma and Adult Vaccination

    MedlinePlus

    ... Healthcare Professionals Lung Disease including Asthma and Adult Vaccination Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... more about health insurance options. Learn about adult vaccination and other health conditions Asplenia Diabetes Heart Disease, ...

  20. High performance, durable polymers including poly(phenylene)

    DOEpatents

    Fujimoto, Cy; Pratt, Harry; Anderson, Travis Mark

    2017-02-28

    The present invention relates to functionalized polymers including a poly(phenylene) structure. In some embodiments, the polymers and copolymers of the invention include a highly localized concentration of acidic moieties, which facilitate proton transport and conduction through networks formed from these polymers. In addition, the polymers can include functional moieties, such as electron-withdrawing moieties, to protect the polymeric backbone, thereby extending its durability. Such enhanced proton transport and durability can be beneficial for any high performance platform that employs proton exchange polymeric membranes, such as in fuel cells or flow batteries.