Science.gov

Sample records for additional channel policy

  1. 47 CFR 22.817 - Additional channel policies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Additional channel policies. 22.817 Section 22.817 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Air-Ground Radiotelephone Service General Aviation Air-Ground Stations § 22.817 Additional channel policies. The rules in this...

  2. 47 CFR 22.817 - Additional channel policies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Additional channel policies. 22.817 Section 22.817 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Air-Ground Radiotelephone Service General Aviation Air-Ground Stations § 22.817 Additional channel policies. The rules in this...

  3. 47 CFR 22.817 - Additional channel policies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... MOBILE SERVICES Air-Ground Radiotelephone Service General Aviation Air-Ground Stations § 22.817... channels in the same area. The general policy of the FCC is to assign one ground station communication... FCC may dismiss that application without prejudice. Commercial Aviation Air-Ground Systems...

  4. 47 CFR 22.817 - Additional channel policies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... MOBILE SERVICES Air-Ground Radiotelephone Service General Aviation Air-Ground Stations § 22.817... channels in the same area. The general policy of the FCC is to assign one ground station communication... FCC may dismiss that application without prejudice. Commercial Aviation Air-Ground Systems...

  5. 47 CFR 22.817 - Additional channel policies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... MOBILE SERVICES Air-Ground Radiotelephone Service General Aviation Air-Ground Stations § 22.817... channels in the same area. The general policy of the FCC is to assign one ground station communication... FCC may dismiss that application without prejudice. Commercial Aviation Air-Ground Systems...

  6. 47 CFR 22.719 - Additional channel policy for rural radiotelephone stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... radiotelephone stations. 22.719 Section 22.719 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED... spectrum-efficient technologies (i.e. BETRS) and by assigning the minimum number of channels necessary to... central office stations, an explanation must be provided as to why BETRS technology is not being...

  7. 47 CFR 22.719 - Additional channel policy for rural radiotelephone stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... radiotelephone stations. 22.719 Section 22.719 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED... spectrum-efficient technologies (i.e. BETRS) and by assigning the minimum number of channels necessary to... central office stations, an explanation must be provided as to why BETRS technology is not being...

  8. 47 CFR 22.719 - Additional channel policy for rural radiotelephone stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... radiotelephone stations. 22.719 Section 22.719 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED... spectrum-efficient technologies (i.e. BETRS) and by assigning the minimum number of channels necessary to... central office stations, an explanation must be provided as to why BETRS technology is not being...

  9. 47 CFR 22.719 - Additional channel policy for rural radiotelephone stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... radiotelephone stations. 22.719 Section 22.719 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED... spectrum-efficient technologies (i.e. BETRS) and by assigning the minimum number of channels necessary to... central office stations, an explanation must be provided as to why BETRS technology is not being...

  10. 47 CFR 22.719 - Additional channel policy for rural radiotelephone stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... radiotelephone stations. 22.719 Section 22.719 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED... spectrum-efficient technologies (i.e. BETRS) and by assigning the minimum number of channels necessary to... central office stations, an explanation must be provided as to why BETRS technology is not being...

  11. Revisiting Additivity Violation of Quantum Channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuda, Motohisa

    2014-12-01

    We prove additivity violation of minimum output entropy of quantum channels by straightforward application of -net argument and Lévy's lemma. The additivity conjecture was disproved initially by Hastings. Later, a proof via asymptotic geometric analysis was presented by Aubrun, Szarek and Werner, which uses Dudley's bound on Gaussian process (or Dvoretzky's theorem with Schechtman's improvement). In this paper, we develop another proof along Dvoretzky's theorem in Milman's view, showing additivity violation in broader regimes than the existing proofs. Importantly,Dvoretzky's theorem works well with norms to give strong statements, but these techniques can be extended to functions which have norm-like structures-positive homogeneity and triangle inequality. Then, a connection between Hastings' method and ours is also discussed. In addition, we make some comments on relations between regularized minimum output entropy and classical capacity of quantum channels.

  12. Private Capacity of Quantum Channels is Not Additive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ke; Winter, Andreas; Zou, Xubo; Guo, Guangcan

    2009-09-01

    Recently there has been considerable activity on the subject of the additivity of various quantum channel capacities. Here, we construct a family of channels with a sharply bounded classical and, hence, private capacity. On the other hand, their quantum capacity when combined with a zero private (and zero quantum) capacity erasure channel becomes larger than the previous classical capacity. As a consequence, we can conclude for the first time that the classical private capacity is nonadditive. In fact, in our construction even the quantum capacity of the tensor product of two channels can be greater than the sum of their individual classical private capacities. We show that this violation occurs quite generically: every channel can be embedded into our construction, and a violation occurs whenever the given channel has a larger entanglement-assisted quantum capacity than (unassisted) classical capacity.

  13. Private capacity of quantum channels is not additive.

    PubMed

    Li, Ke; Winter, Andreas; Zou, XuBo; Guo, GuangCan

    2009-09-18

    Recently there has been considerable activity on the subject of the additivity of various quantum channel capacities. Here, we construct a family of channels with a sharply bounded classical and, hence, private capacity. On the other hand, their quantum capacity when combined with a zero private (and zero quantum) capacity erasure channel becomes larger than the previous classical capacity. As a consequence, we can conclude for the first time that the classical private capacity is nonadditive. In fact, in our construction even the quantum capacity of the tensor product of two channels can be greater than the sum of their individual classical private capacities. We show that this violation occurs quite generically: every channel can be embedded into our construction, and a violation occurs whenever the given channel has a larger entanglement-assisted quantum capacity than (unassisted) classical capacity.

  14. A microfluidic abacus channel for controlling the addition of droplets.

    PubMed

    Um, Eujin; Park, Je-Kyun

    2009-01-21

    This paper reports the first use of the abacus-groove structure to handle droplets in a wide microchannel, with no external forces integrated to the system other than the pumps. Microfluidic abacus channels are demonstrated for the sequential addition of droplets at the desired location. A control channel which is analogous to biasing in electronics can also be used to precisely determine the number of added droplets, when all other experimental conditions are fixed including the size of the droplets and the frequency of droplet-generation. The device allows programmable and autonomous operations of complex two-phase microfluidics as well as new applications for the method of analysis and computations in lab-on-a-chip devices.

  15. Channel assignment under a conflict-free allocation policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stavrakakis, Ioannis

    1994-02-01

    In this paper, a random, conflict-free slot assignment policy is adopted for the allocation of a common channel between two (non-communicating) stations. Although this policy is inferior to the optimal periodic, fixed slot assignment policy, it is shown than it achieves the performance of that optimal policy as the variance of the packet arrival process increases. The main advantage of the random, conflict-free slot assignment policy is that it is simple and always feasible unlike the optimal, periodic, fixed slot assignment policy. Furthermore, the proposed policy is easily implemented in a dynamically changing environment; the optimal of such a policy is derived, and a simple strategy based on a threshold test is developed for the identification of the optimal such policy, when estimates of the traffic parameters are available. No such strategy is known for the adaptation of the parameters of the optimal periodic, fixed slot assignment policy. The developed analysis approach can be applied, to a great extent, to a system with more than two stations.

  16. Additivity of the classical capacity of entanglement-breaking quantum channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shor, Peter W.

    2002-09-01

    We show that for the tensor product of an entanglement-breaking quantum channel with an arbitrary quantum channel, both the minimum entropy of an output of the channel and the Holevo-Schumacher-Westmoreland capacity are additive. In addition, for the tensor product of two arbitrary quantum channels, we give a bound involving entanglement of formation for the amount of subadditivity (for minimum entropy output) or superadditivity (for classical capacity) that can occur.

  17. Ultimate capacity of linear time-invariant bosonic channels with additive Gaussian noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy Bardhan, Bhaskar; Shapiro, Jeffrey H.

    2016-03-01

    Fiber-optic communications are moving to coherent detection in order to increase their spectral efficiency, i.e., their channel capacity per unit bandwidth. At power levels below the threshold for significant nonlinear effects, the channel model for such operation a linear time-invariant filter followed by additive Gaussian noise is one whose channel capacity is well known from Shannon's noisy channel coding theorem. The fiber channel, however, is really a bosonic channel, meaning that its ultimate classical information capacity must be determined from quantum-mechanical analysis, viz. from the Holevo-Schumacher-Westmoreland (HSW) theorem. Based on recent results establishing the HSW capacity of a linear (lossy or amplifying) channel with additive Gaussian noise, we provide a general continuous-time result, namely the HSW capacity of a linear time-invariant (LTI) bosonic channel with additive Gaussian noise arising from a thermal environment. In particular, we treat quasi-monochromatic communication under an average power constraint through a channel comprised of a stable LTI filter that may be attenuating at all frequencies or amplifying at some frequencies and attenuating at others. Phase-insensitive additive Gaussian noise-associated with the continuous-time Langevin noise operator needed to preserve free-field commutator brackets is included at the filter output. We compare the resulting spectral efficiencies with corresponding results for heterodyne and homodyne detection over the same channel to assess the increased spectral efficiency that might be realized with optimum quantum reception.

  18. An additional channel for FM signal transmission in standard fiber-optic AM communication lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebedev, V. V.; Anufriev, K. M.; Toguzov, N. V.; Il'ichev, I. V.; Shamray, A. V.

    2015-11-01

    A paradigm has been developed according to which an additional FM signal transfer channel is formed in a standard optical fiber transmission line without violating the main AM channel operation. Using the proposed approach, an RS-232 interface signal has been experimentally transferred via a standard intraobject 100-Mbit Ethernet line based on an SMF-28 single-mode optical fiber.

  19. NB-PLC channel modelling with cyclostationary noise addition & OFDM implementation for smart grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Togis; Gupta, K. K.

    2016-03-01

    Power line communication (PLC) technology can be a viable solution for the future ubiquitous networks because it provides a cheaper alternative to other wired technology currently being used for communication. In smart grid Power Line Communication (PLC) is used to support communication with low rate on low voltage (LV) distribution network. In this paper, we propose the channel modelling of narrowband (NB) PLC in the frequency range 5 KHz to 500 KHz by using ABCD parameter with cyclostationary noise addition. Behaviour of the channel was studied by the addition of 11KV/230V transformer, by varying load location and load. Bit error rate (BER) Vs signal to noise ratio SNR) was plotted for the proposed model by employing OFDM. Our simulation results based on the proposed channel model show an acceptable performance in terms of bit error rate versus signal to noise ratio, which enables communication required for smart grid applications.

  20. 78 FR 50079 - National Environmental Policy Act: Implementing Procedures; Addition to Categorical Exclusions...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-16

    ... list under the Lacey Act. The addition of this categorical exclusion to the Department of the Interior... Office of the Secretary National Environmental Policy Act: Implementing Procedures; Addition to... proposed categorical exclusion under the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) for the U.S. Fish...

  1. Additional Support Needs Policy in Scotland: Challenging or Reinforcing Social Inequality?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riddell, Sheila; Weedon, Elisabet

    2016-01-01

    This paper focuses on Scottish policy on additional support needs and its material outcomes. The central question addressed is the extent to which the Scottish additional support needs system undermines or reinforces existing social and economic inequalities. Administrative data highlight the inflation of the additional support needs category,…

  2. Addition of a channel for XCO observations to a portable FTIR spectrometer for greenhouse gas measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hase, Frank; Frey, Matthias; Kiel, Matthäus; Blumenstock, Thomas; Harig, Roland; Keens, Axel; Orphal, Johannes

    2016-05-01

    The portable FTIR (Fourier transform infrared) spectrometer EM27/SUN, dedicated to the precise and accurate observation of column-averaged abundances of methane and carbon dioxide, has been equipped with a second detector channel, which allows the detection of additional species, especially carbon monoxide. This allows an improved characterisation of observed carbon dioxide enhancements and makes the extended spectrometer especially suitable as a validation tool of ESA's Sentinel 5 Precursor mission, as it now covers the same spectral region as used by the infrared channel of the TROPOMI (TROPOspheric Monitoring Instrument) sensor. The extension presented here does not rely on a dichroic, but instead a fraction of the solar beam is decoupled near the aperture stop of the spectrometer using a small plane mirror. This approach allows maintaining the camera-controlled solar tracker set-up, which is referenced to the field stop in front of the primary detector. Moreover, the upgrade of existing instruments can be performed without alterating the optical set-up of the primary channel and resulting changes of the instrumental characteristics of the original instrument.

  3. Channel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Context image for PIA03693 Channel

    This channel is located south of Iani Chaos.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -10.9N, Longitude 345.5E. 17 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  4. English as an Additional Language, Policy and the Teaching and Learning of English in England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costley, Tracey

    2014-01-01

    This paper is focused on the ways in which social policy and social concerns have impacted upon and shaped provision for students who consider English as an additional language (EAL). It provides an overview of practice and provision in relation to EAL learners in the context of state-funded education in England over the last 60 years in order to…

  5. Additional Learning Needs Policy in the Devolved Polities of the UK: A Systems Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaney, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Using a systems approach, this paper explores the impact of devolution on additional learning needs (ALN) policy in compulsory phase education. Focus is placed on ALN/SEN Codes of Practice, the schools curriculum, teacher training, and the work of education inspectorates and tribunals. Analysis reveals that the move to quasi-federalism in the UK…

  6. Numerical Simulation of High Drag Reduction in a Turbulent Channel Flow with Polymer Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dubief, Yves

    2003-01-01

    The addition of small amounts of long chain polymer molecules to wall-bounded flows can lead to dramatic drag reduction. Although this phenomenon has been known for about fifty years, the action of the polymers and its effect on turbulent structures are still unclear. Detailed experiments have characterized two distinct regimes (Warholic et al. 1999), which are referred to as low drag reduction (LDR) and high drag reduction (HDR). The first regime exhibits similar statistical trends as Newtonian flow: the log-law region of the mean velocity profile remains parallel to that of the Newtonian ow but its lower bound moves away from the wall and the upward shift of the log-region is a function of drag reduction, DR. Although streamwise fluctuations are increased and transverse ones are reduced, the shape of the rms velocity profiles is not qualitatively modified. At higher drag reductions, of the order of 40-50%, the ow enters the HDR regime for which the slope of the log-law is dramatically augmented and the Reynolds shear stress is small (Warholic et al. 1999; Ptasinski et al. 2001). The drag reduction is eventually bounded by a maximum drag reduction (MDR) (Virk & Mickley 1970) which is a function of the Reynolds number. While several experiments report mean velocity profiles very close to the empirical profile of Virk & Mickley (1970) for MDR conditions, the observations regarding the structure of turbulence can differ significantly. For instance, Warholic et al. (1999) measured a near-zero Reynolds shear stress, whereas a recent experiment (Ptasinski et al. 2001) shows evidence of non-negligible Reynolds stress in their MDR flow. To the knowledge of the authors, only the LDR regime has been documented in numerical simulations (Sureshkumar et al. 1997; Dimitropoulos et al. 1998; Min et al. 2001; Dubief & Lele 2001; Sibilla & Baron 2002). This paper discusses the simulation of polymer drag reduced channel ow at HDR using the FENE-P (Finite Elastic non

  7. Branching ratios between the abstraction and addition channels in the reactions of OH radicals with monoterpenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rio, C.; Loison, J. C.; Caralp, F.; Flaud, P. M.; Villenave, E.

    2009-04-01

    discharge-flow reactor coupled to mass spectrometry. Therefore, it has been possible to measure the branching ratios between the abstraction and addition channels at different pressures and to discuss on H-abstraction importance for all reactions of monoterpenes with hydroxyl radicals. This work has shown that, contrary to the results of the available literature, H-abstraction is a significant reaction pathway for the reaction of monoterpenes with hydroxyl radical. Therefore, oxidation products resulting from the H-abstraction should not be neglected in mechanisms describing the reaction of monoterpene + OH and SOA formation.

  8. Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smalheer, C. V.

    1973-01-01

    The chemistry of lubricant additives is discussed to show what the additives are chemically and what functions they perform in the lubrication of various kinds of equipment. Current theories regarding the mode of action of lubricant additives are presented. The additive groups discussed include the following: (1) detergents and dispersants, (2) corrosion inhibitors, (3) antioxidants, (4) viscosity index improvers, (5) pour point depressants, and (6) antifouling agents.

  9. Effects of a phytogenic feed additive on susceptibility of channel catfish to Edwardsiella ictaluri and levels of mannose binding lectin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study was conducted to investigate the effect of a phytogenic feed additive (Digestarom® P.E.P. MGE) on growth performance and disease susceptibility to Edwardsiella ictaluri. Two hundred and fifty juvenile channel catfish (7.2 ± 0.1 g) were allotted into the following treatments: Control (float...

  10. Characterization of additional novel immune type receptors in channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mining of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) expressed sequence tag databases identified seven new novel immune type receptors (IpNITRs). These differed in sequence, but not structure, from previously described IpNITR1-11. IpNITR12a, 12b, 13 and 14, encode proteins containing a single variable (V...

  11. 13 CFR 302.6 - Additional requirements; Federal policies and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... policies and procedures. 302.6 Section 302.6 Business Credit and Assistance ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT... requirements; Federal policies and procedures. Recipients are subject to all Federal laws and to Federal, Department and EDA policies, regulations and procedures applicable to Federal financial assistance...

  12. Tautomers of a Fluorescent G Surrogate and Their Distinct Photophysics Provide Additional Information Channels.

    PubMed

    Sholokh, Marianna; Improta, Roberto; Mori, Mattia; Sharma, Rajhans; Kenfack, Cyril; Shin, Dongwon; Voltz, Karine; Stote, Roland H; Zaporozhets, Olga A; Botta, Maurizio; Tor, Yitzhak; Mély, Yves

    2016-07-01

    Thienoguanosine ((th) G) is an isomorphic nucleoside analogue acting as a faithful fluorescent substitute of G, with respectable quantum yield in oligonucleotides. Photophysical analysis of (th) G reveals the existence of two ground-state tautomers with significantly shifted absorption and emission wavelengths, and high quantum yield in buffer. Using (TD)-DFT calculations, the tautomers were identified as the H1 and H3 keto-amino tautomers. When incorporated into the loop of (-)PBS, the (-)DNA copy of the HIV-1 primer binding site, both tautomers are observed and show differential sensitivity to protein binding. The red-shifted H1 tautomer is strongly favored in matched (-)/(+)PBS duplexes, while the relative emission of the H3 tautomer can be used to detect single nucleotide polymorphisms. These tautomers and their distinct environmental sensitivity provide unprecedented information channels for analyzing G residues in oligonucleotides and their complexes.

  13. Additive Manufacturing Thermal Performance Testing of Single Channel GRCop-84 SLM Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia, Chance P.; Cross, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    The surface finish found on components manufactured by sinter laser manufacturing (SLM) is rougher (0.013 - 0.0006 inches) than parts made using traditional fabrication methods. Internal features and passages built into SLM components do not readily allow for roughness reduction processes. Alternatively, engineering literature suggests that the roughness of a surface can enhance thermal performance within a pressure drop regime. To further investigate the thermal performance of SLM fabricated pieces, several GRCop-84 SLM single channel components were tested using a thermal conduction rig at MSFC. A 20 kW power source running at 25% duty cycle and 25% power level applied heat to each component while varying water flow rates between 2.1 - 6.2 gallons/min (GPM) at a supply pressure of 550 to 700 psi. Each test was allowed to reach quasi-steady state conditions where pressure, temperature, and thermal imaging data were recorded. Presented in this work are the heat transfer responses compared to a traditional machined OHFC Copper test section. An analytical thermal model was constructed to anchor theoretical models with the empirical data.

  14. Geochemical evidence for airborne dust additions to soils in Channel Islands National Park, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muhs, D.R.; Budahn, J.R.; Johnson, D.L.; Reheis, M.; Beann, J.; Skipp, G.; Fisher, E.; Jones, J.A.

    2008-01-01

    There is an increasing awareness that dust plays important roles in climate change, biogeochemical cycles, nutrient supply to ecosystems, and soil formation. In Channel Islands National Park, California, soils are clay-rich Vertisols or Alfisols and Mollisols with vertic properties. The soils are overlain by silt-rich mantles that contrast sharply with the underlying clay-rich horizons. Silt mantles contain minerals that are rare or absent in the volcanic rocks that dominate these islands. Immobile trace elements (Sc-Th-La and Ta-Nd-Cr) and rare-earth elements show that the basalt and andesite on the islands have a composition intermediate between upper-continental crust and oceanic crust. In contrast, the silt fractions and, to a lesser extent, clay fractions of the silt mantle have compositions closer to average upper-continental crust and very similar to Mojave Desert dust. Island shelves, exposed during the last glacial period, could have provided a source of eolian sediment for the silt mantles, but this is not supported by mineralogical data. We hypothesize that a more likely source for the silt-rich mantles is airborne dust from mainland California and Baja California, either from the Mojave Desert or from the continental shelf during glacial low stands of sea. Although average winds are from the northwest in coastal California, easterly winds occur numerous times of the year when "Santa Ana" conditions prevail, caused by a high-pressure cell centered over the Great Basin. The eolian silt mantles constitute an important medium of plant growth and provide evidence that abundant eolian silt and clay may be delivered to the eastern Pacific Ocean from inland desert sources. ?? 2007 Geological Society of America.

  15. Additive effects of glyburide and antidepressants in the forced swimming test: evidence for the involvement of potassium channel blockade.

    PubMed

    Guo, W; Todd, K; Bourin, M; Hascoet, M; Kouadio, F

    1996-08-01

    Evidence in the literature suggests that the modulatory effects of antidepressant drugs (ADS) on neuronal excitability, via the inhibition of K+ channels, may be the final common pathway of pharmacological action. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that combining the ATP-sensitive K+ channel blocker glyburide with a variety of ADS would produce an additive effect and decrease the immobility time of mice in the forced swimming test (FST). Glyburide (GLY, IP, 30 and 50 mg/kg) and subactive doses of ADS were administered 45 and 30 min, respectively, prior to behavioral testing. Results showed that when combined with GLY, ADS whose main pharmacological effect is one of 5-HT uptake blockade (imipramine, amitriptyline, citalopram, paroxetine, fluoxetine, and fluvoxamine) were more effective in decreasing the amount of time mice were immobile, than when these drugs were administered alone. Some noradrenaline uptake inhibiting ADS (desipramine and viloxazine, but not maprotiline) were also significantly more effective in decreasing immobility time when combined with GLY than when administered alone. Pretreatment with GLY was found to have no effect on the dopamine uptake inhibitor bupropion, and out of the atypical ADS tested (trazodone, mianserine and iprindole), only coadministration with iprindole decreased the immobility time. Only the specific MAO-A inhibitor moclobemide was observed to have an antiimmobility effect when combined with GLY. Neither MAO-B specific (RO 16 6491) nor mixed MAO inhibitors (nialamide and pargyline) interacted with GLY to produce antiimmobility effects. These results corroborate and extend our previous report of the ADS enhancing effects of quinine in the same behavioral model, and suggest that the additive effects of quinine and GLY on ADS in FST are a result of K+ channel blockade.

  16. Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Judith L.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    This theme issue is devoted to discussions of early childhood policy issues. "Creating a Shared Vision: How Policy Affects Early Childhood Care and Development" (Judith L. Evans) defines policy, discusses the motivation for changing or creating national policy and the process for changing such policies, and provides a sample design for an early…

  17. Disparities and Menthol Marketing: Additional Evidence in Support of Point of Sale Policies

    PubMed Central

    Moreland-Russell, Sarah; Harris, Jenine; Snider, Doneisha; Walsh, Heidi; Cyr, Julianne; Barnoya, Joaquin

    2013-01-01

    This study examined factors associated with point-of-sale tobacco marketing in St. Louis, an urban city in the United States. Using spatial analysis, descriptive statistics, and multilevel modeling, we examined point-of-sale data and the proportion of mentholated cigarette and total cigarette marketing from 342 individual tobacco retail stores within St. Louis census tracts characterized by the percent of black adults and children. Menthol and total tobacco product marketing was highest in areas with the highest percentages of black residents. When examining menthol marketing to children, we did not find as strong of a relationship, however results of multilevel modeling indicate that as the proportion of black children in a census tract increased, the proportion of menthol marketing near candy also increased. These results indicate the need for communities globally to counter this targeted marketing by taking policy action specifically through the enactment of marketing restrictions provided by the 2009 Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act and the Framework Convention of Tobacco Control. PMID:24071922

  18. Disparities and menthol marketing: additional evidence in support of point of sale policies.

    PubMed

    Moreland-Russell, Sarah; Harris, Jenine; Snider, Doneisha; Walsh, Heidi; Cyr, Julianne; Barnoya, Joaquin

    2013-09-25

    This study examined factors associated with point-of-sale tobacco marketing in St. Louis, an urban city in the United States. Using spatial analysis, descriptive statistics, and multilevel modeling, we examined point-of-sale data and the proportion of mentholated cigarette and total cigarette marketing from 342 individual tobacco retail stores within St. Louis census tracts characterized by the percent of black adults and children. Menthol and total tobacco product marketing was highest in areas with the highest percentages of black residents. When examining menthol marketing to children, we did not find as strong of a relationship, however results of multilevel modeling indicate that as the proportion of black children in a census tract increased, the proportion of menthol marketing near candy also increased. These results indicate the need for communities globally to counter this targeted marketing by taking policy action specifically through the enactment of marketing restrictions provided by the 2009 Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act and the Framework Convention of Tobacco Control.

  19. Additional Clarification of Intercollegiate Athletics Policy: Three-Part Test. Part Three

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Education, 2005

    2005-01-01

    This Additional Clarification, "User's Guide to Developing Student Interest Surveys Under Title IX" (User's Guide), and related technical report are resources to assist institutions in meeting their compliance obligations. Taken together, they serve to clarify many of the factors OCR will consider under part three, and to facilitate compliance…

  20. NUTRIENT ADDITION TO RESTORE SALMON RUNS: CONSIDERATIONS FOR DEVELOPING ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION POLICIES AND REGULATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    One scheme to help restore salmon to the Pacific Northwest is the addition of nutrients (i.e., raw or processed salmon carcasses, and commercially produced organic or inorganic fertilizers) to headwaters (e.g., watersheds, lakes, or streams) that are now nutrient deficient becau...

  1. Latin American health policy and additive reform: the case of Guatemala.

    PubMed

    Fiedler, J L

    1985-01-01

    Until the mid-1960s, the market-based, dependent-development-conditioned structure of Latin American health systems reflected the skewed distribution of wealth in the region: most (including government) health resources were found in curative care medicine and were concentrated in the capital cities, where they primarily served the needs of the elite. But for many countries of the area, the 1964 PAHO-led efforts to introduce health planning, intended as a first step in rationalizing the health sector, marked a fundamental turning point in the structural development of their delivery systems. Since then, this commitment has been reaffirmed in the Latin American Ministers of Health's 1973 adoption of the primary care approach as the cornerstone of their national health plans, and their ongoing endorsement and pursuit of "Health For All by 2000." Guatemala, however, was and remains an exception. Guatemalan technocrats have proven unable to plan effectively. But, far more fundamentally, the Guatemalan oligarchy has proven unwilling to appropriate the resources necessary to effect change. The reforms that have been made have been the products of bilateral and multilateral agencies, which have conceptualized, promoted, designed, built, and underwritten them. Those changes have not altered the fundamental structure of the system, but instead have been tacked onto it, and exemplify what may be termed "additive reform." Evidence suggests that without the continued sponsorship, support, and guidance of the bilateral and multilateral agencies, even these "reforms" will prove evanescent.

  2. Tracking performance of a combined Costas/AFC-loop under noisy Rayleigh/Rician channel conditions with additive Gaussian noise jamming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleine, Achim

    Models were developed to investigate the tracking behavior of combined Costas/AFC (Automatic Frequency Control) feedback loops under Rayleigh/Rician fading conditions with additive Gaussian noise jamming. A general linearized tracking model was developed for land-mobile channels. The model can be used for the nonlinearized case with sinusoidal phase detection characteristic using a standard solution of the Fokker-Planck equation. A tracking analysis for Costas/AFC loops with coherent automatic gain control, and an accuracy analysis for interferometers equipped with Costas/AFC loops are treated as examples. The tracking model is the most inaccurate in the case of quasistationary channels.

  3. Performance analysis of precoding-based asymmetrically clipped optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing wireless system in additive white Gaussian noise and indoor multipath channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranjha, Bilal; Zhou, Zhou; Kavehrad, Mohsen

    2014-08-01

    We have compared the bit error rate (BER) performance of precoding-based asymmetrically clipped optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (ACO-OFDM) and pulse amplitude modulated discrete multitone (PAM-DMT) optical wireless (OW) systems in additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) and indoor multipath frequency selective channel. Simulation and analytical results show that precoding schemes such as discrete Fourier transform, discrete cosine transform, and Zadoff-Chu sequences do not affect the performance of the OW systems in the AWGN channel while they do reduce the peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR) of the OFDM output signal. However, in a multipath indoor channel, using zero forcing frequency domain equalization precoding-based systems give better BER performance than their conventional counterparts. With additional clipping to further reduce the PAPR, precoding-based systems also show better BER performance compared to nonprecoded systems when clipped relative to the peak of nonprecoded systems. Therefore, precoding-based ACO-OFDM and PAM-DMT systems offer better BER performance, zero signaling overhead, and low PAPR compared to conventional systems.

  4. Impact of additional Pt and NiSi crystal orientation on channel stress induced by Ni silicide film in metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizuo, Mariko; Yamaguchi, Tadashi; Kudo, Shuichi; Hirose, Yukinori; Kimura, Hiroshi; Tsuchimoto, Jun-ichi; Hattori, Nobuyoshi

    2014-01-01

    The impact of additional Pt and Ni monosilicide (NiSi) crystal orientation on channel stress from Ni silicide in metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) has been demonstrated. The channel stress generation mechanism can be explained by the NiSi crystal orientation. In pure Ni silicide films, the channel stress in the p-type substrate is much larger than that in the n-type one, since the NiSi a-axis parallel to the channel direction is strongly aligned on the p-type substrate compared with on the n-type one. On the other hand, in NiPt silicide films, the difference in the channel stress between the p- and n-type substrates is small, because the NiSi crystal orientation on the p-type substrate is similar to that on the n-type one. These results can be explained by the Pt segregation at the interface between the NiSi film and the Si surface. Segregated Pt atoms cause the NiSi b-axis to align normal to the Si(001) surface in the nucleation step owing to the expansion of the NiSi lattice spacing at the NiSi/Si interface. Furthermore, the Pt segregation mechanism is considered to be caused by the grain boundary diffusion in the Ni2Si film during NiSi formation. We confirmed that the grains of Ni2Si on the p-type substrate are smaller than those on the n-type one. The Ni2Si film on the p-type substrate has more grain boundary diffusion paths than that on the n-type one. Therefore, the amount of Pt segregation at the NiSi/Si interface on the p-type substrate is larger than that on the n-type one. Consequently, the number of NiSi grains with the b-axis aligned normal to the Si(001) in the p-type substrate is larger than that in the n-type one. As a result, the channel stress induced by NiPt silicide in PMOS is larger than that in NMOS. According to this mechanism, controlling the Pt concentration at the NiSi/Si interface is one of the key factors for channel stress engineering.

  5. Disambiguating with Bourdieu: Unravelling Policy from Practice in the Teaching of Children with English as an Additional Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flynn, Naomi

    2015-01-01

    This article explores the use of Bourdieusian analysis for examining how policy and practice interact in the teaching of English and therefore in the development of children's language and literacy, in particular how. Bourdieusian analysis uncovers the ways in which teachers' practice has been influenced unconsciously by centralised…

  6. English as an Additional Language--A Genealogy of Language-in-Education Policies and Reflections on Research Trajectories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leung, Constant

    2016-01-01

    The school population in England is linguistically diverse; according to official data, over one million pupils do not speak English as their first language. All teachers are expected to support English as an additional language (EAL) development as part of their professional responsibility. At the same time, there has been little specific…

  7. Brief communication: Additional cases of maxillary canine-first premolar transposition in several prehistoric skeletal assemblages from the Santa Barbara Channel Islands of California.

    PubMed

    Sholts, Sabrina B; Clement, Anna F; Wärmländer, Sebastian K T S

    2010-09-01

    This article identifies and discusses seven new cases of complete maxillary canine-premolar transposition in ancient populations from the Santa Barbara Channel region of California. A high frequency of this tooth transposition has been previously documented within a single prehistoric cemetery on one of the Channel Islands. A total of 966 crania representing 30 local sites and about 7,000 years of human occupation were examined, revealing an abnormally high prevalence of this transposition trait among islanders during the Early period of southern California prehistory ( approximately 5500-600 B.C.). One of the affected crania is from a cemetery more than 7,000-years-old and constitutes the earliest case of tooth transposition in humans so far reported. The results are consistent with findings by other studies that have indicated inbreeding among the early Channel Islands groups. Together with the normal transposition rates among mainland populations, the decreasing prevalence of maxillary canine-first premolar transposition among island populations across the Holocene suggests that inbreeding on the northern Channel Islands had all but ceased by the end of the first millennium B.C., most likely as a result of increased cross-channel migration and interaction.

  8. Assessment of a phytogenic feed additive (Digestarom P.E.P. MGE) on growth performance, processing yield, fillet composition, and survival of channel catfish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The use of feed additives to improve production has been identified as an important area for development in aquaculture. A study was conducted to investigate the effects of a phytogenic feed additive (Digestarom® P.E.P. MGE) on growth performance, processing yield, fillet composition, and survival ...

  9. Effects of dietary addition of vitamins C and D3 on growth and calcium and phosphorus content of pond-cultured channel catfish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Launer, C.A.; Tiemeier, O.W.; Deyoe, C.W.

    1978-01-01

    Fingerling channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, were fed one of three diets: one deficient in vitamin C (ascorbic acid), one deficient in vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol), or one containing both vitamins. Semimonthly from May to September and monthly from September to February, calcium and phosphorus were determined in eviscerated bodies and fat-free skeletons by neutron activation analysis. Body weight gains, survival rate, and feed conversion rates were determined for the May to September period. Fish on the three diet regimens showed no significant difference in weight gain, feed conversion, or survival. Interactions between sampling date and diet indicated no correlation between vitamin C or D3 and the calcium and phosphorus in eviscerated bodies and fat-free skeletons of the fish.

  10. Commercial Activities in Schools: Use of Student Data Is Limited and Additional Dissemination of Guidance Could Help Districts Develop Policies. Report to Congressional Requesters. GAO-04-810.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaul, Marnie S.

    2004-01-01

    This study examined (1) the extent to which, since 2000, states have enacted and proposed statutes and regulations to govern commercial activities in schools; (2) the extent to which districts have developed policies implementing amended provisions of the Protection of Pupil Rights Amendment (PPRA) in the No Child Left Behind Act on the use of…

  11. Commercial Activities in Schools: Use of Student Data is Limited and Additional Dissemination of Guidance Could Help Districts Develop Policies. GAO-04-810

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Government Accountability Office, 2004

    2004-01-01

    The No Child Left Behind Amendment (NCLBA ) established new safeguards about the use of student data for marketing or selling purposes. Specifically, NCLBA amended the Protection of Pupil Rights Amendment (PPRA) of 1994 addressing pupil privacy by requiring school districts to develop a policy on the collection, disclosure, and use of personal…

  12. Measurement of toverline{t} production with additional jet activity, including b quark jets, in the dilepton decay channel using pp collisions at √{s} = 8 {TeV}

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khachatryan, V.; Sirunyan, A. M.; Tumasyan, A.; Adam, W.; Asilar, E.; Bergauer, T.; Brandstetter, J.; Brondolin, E.; Dragicevic, M.; Erö, J.; Friedl, M.; Frühwirth, R.; Ghete, V. M.; Hartl, C.; Hörmann, N.; Hrubec, J.; Jeitler, M.; Knünz, V.; König, A.; Krammer, M.; Krätschmer, I.; Liko, D.; Matsushita, T.; Mikulec, I.; Rabady, D.; Rahbaran, B.; Rohringer, H.; Schieck, J.; Schöfbeck, R.; Strauss, J.; Treberer-Treberspurg, W.; Waltenberger, W.; Wulz, C.-E.; Mossolov, V.; Shumeiko, N.; Suarez Gonzalez, J.; Alderweireldt, S.; Cornelis, T.; de Wolf, E. A.; Janssen, X.; Knutsson, A.; Lauwers, J.; Luyckx, S.; van de Klundert, M.; van Haevermaet, H.; van Mechelen, P.; van Remortel, N.; van Spilbeeck, A.; Abu Zeid, S.; Blekman, F.; D'Hondt, J.; Daci, N.; de Bruyn, I.; Deroover, K.; Heracleous, N.; Keaveney, J.; Lowette, S.; Moreels, L.; Olbrechts, A.; Python, Q.; Strom, D.; Tavernier, S.; van Doninck, W.; van Mulders, P.; van Onsem, G. P.; van Parijs, I.; Barria, P.; Brun, H.; Caillol, C.; Clerbaux, B.; de Lentdecker, G.; Fasanella, G.; Favart, L.; Grebenyuk, A.; Karapostoli, G.; Lenzi, T.; Léonard, A.; Maerschalk, T.; Marinov, A.; Perniè, L.; Randle-Conde, A.; Reis, T.; Seva, T.; Vander Velde, C.; Yonamine, R.; Vanlaer, P.; Yonamine, R.; Zenoni, F.; Zhang, F.; Adler, V.; Beernaert, K.; Benucci, L.; Cimmino, A.; Crucy, S.; Dobur, D.; Fagot, A.; Garcia, G.; Gul, M.; McCartin, J.; Ocampo Rios, A. A.; Poyraz, D.; Ryckbosch, D.; Salva, S.; Sigamani, M.; Strobbe, N.; Tytgat, M.; van Driessche, W.; Yazgan, E.; Zaganidis, N.; Basegmez, S.; Beluffi, C.; Bondu, O.; Brochet, S.; Bruno, G.; Caudron, A.; Ceard, L.; da Silveira, G. G.; Delaere, C.; Favart, D.; Forthomme, L.; Giammanco, A.; Hollar, J.; Jafari, A.; Jez, P.; Komm, M.; Lemaitre, V.; Mertens, A.; Musich, M.; Nuttens, C.; Perrini, L.; Pin, A.; Piotrzkowski, K.; Popov, A.; Quertenmont, L.; Selvaggi, M.; Vidal Marono, M.; Beliy, N.; Hammad, G. H.; Júnior, W. L. Aldá; Alves, F. L.; Alves, G. A.; Brito, L.; Correa Martins Junior, M.; Hamer, M.; Hensel, C.; Mora Herrera, C.; Moraes, A.; Pol, M. E.; Rebello Teles, P.; Belchior Batista Das Chagas, E.; Carvalho, W.; Chinellato, J.; Custódio, A.; da Costa, E. M.; de Jesus Damiao, D.; de Oliveira Martins, C.; Fonseca de Souza, S.; Huertas Guativa, L. M.; Malbouisson, H.; Matos Figueiredo, D.; Mundim, L.; Nogima, H.; Prado da Silva, W. L.; Santoro, A.; Sznajder, A.; Tonelli Manganote, E. J.; Vilela Pereira, A.; Ahuja, S.; Bernardes, C. A.; de Souza Santos, A.; Dogra, S.; Fernandez Perez Tomei, T. R.; Gregores, E. M.; Mercadante, P. G.; Moon, C. S.; Novaes, S. F.; Padula, Sandra S.; Romero Abad, D.; Ruiz Vargas, J. C.; Aleksandrov, A.; Hadjiiska, R.; Iaydjiev, P.; Rodozov, M.; Stoykova, S.; Sultanov, G.; Vutova, M.; Dimitrov, A.; Glushkov, I.; Litov, L.; Pavlov, B.; Petkov, P.; Ahmad, M.; Bian, J. G.; Chen, G. M.; Chen, H. S.; Chen, M.; Cheng, T.; Du, R.; Jiang, C. H.; Plestina, R.; Romeo, F.; Shaheen, S. M.; Spiezia, A.; Tao, J.; Wang, C.; Wang, Z.; Zhang, H.; Asawatangtrakuldee, C.; Ban, Y.; Li, Q.; Liu, S.; Mao, Y.; Qian, S. J.; Wang, D.; Xu, Z.; Avila, C.; Cabrera, A.; Chaparro Sierra, L. F.; Florez, C.; Gomez, J. P.; Gomez Moreno, B.; Sanabria, J. C.; Godinovic, N.; Lelas, D.; Puljak, I.; Ribeiro Cipriano, P. M.; Antunovic, Z.; Kovac, M.; Brigljevic, V.; Kadija, K.; Luetic, J.; Micanovic, S.; Sudic, L.; Attikis, A.; Mavromanolakis, G.; Mousa, J.; Nicolaou, C.; Ptochos, F.; Razis, P. A.; Rykaczewski, H.; Bodlak, M.; Finger, M.; Finger, M.; El Sawy, M.; El-Khateeb, E.; Elkafrawy, T.; Mohamed, A.; Salama, E.; Calpas, B.; Kadastik, M.; Murumaa, M.; Raidal, M.; Tiko, A.; Veelken, C.; Eerola, P.; Pekkanen, J.; Voutilainen, M.; Härkönen, J.; Karimäki, V.; Kinnunen, R.; Lampén, T.; Lassila-Perini, K.; Lehti, S.; Lindén, T.; Luukka, P.; Mäenpää, T.; Peltola, T.; Tuominen, E.; Tuominiemi, J.; Tuovinen, E.; Wendland, L.; Talvitie, J.; Tuuva, T.; Besancon, M.; Couderc, F.; Dejardin, M.; Denegri, D.; Fabbro, B.; Faure, J. L.; Favaro, C.; Ferri, F.; Ganjour, S.; Givernaud, A.; Gras, P.; Hamel de Monchenault, G.; Jarry, P.; Locci, E.; Machet, M.; Malcles, J.; Rander, J.; Rosowsky, A.; Titov, M.; Zghiche, A.; Antropov, I.; Baffioni, S.; Beaudette, F.; Busson, P.; Cadamuro, L.; Chapon, E.; Charlot, C.; Dahms, T.; Davignon, O.; Filipovic, N.; Florent, A.; Granier de Cassagnac, R.; Lisniak, S.; Mastrolorenzo, L.; Miné, P.; Naranjo, I. N.; Nguyen, M.; Ochando, C.; Ortona, G.; Paganini, P.; Pigard, P.; Regnard, S.; Salerno, R.; Sauvan, J. B.; Sirois, Y.; Strebler, T.; Yilmaz, Y.; Zabi, A.; Agram, J.-L.; Andrea, J.; Aubin, A.; Bloch, D.; Brom, J.-M.; Buttignol, M.; Chabert, E. C.; Chanon, N.; Collard, C.; Conte, E.; Coubez, X.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Gelé, D.; Goerlach, U.; Goetzmann, C.; Le Bihan, A.-C.; Merlin, J. A.; Skovpen, K.; van Hove, P.; Gadrat, S.; Beauceron, S.; Bernet, C.; Boudoul, G.; Bouvier, E.; Carrillo Montoya, C. A.; Chierici, R.; Contardo, D.; Courbon, B.; Depasse, P.; El Mamouni, H.; Fan, J.; Fay, J.; Gascon, S.; Gouzevitch, M.; Ille, B.; Lagarde, F.; Laktineh, I. B.; Lethuillier, M.; Mirabito, L.; Pequegnot, A. L.; Perries, S.; Ruiz Alvarez, J. D.; Sabes, D.; Sgandurra, L.; Sordini, V.; Vander Donckt, M.; Verdier, P.; Viret, S.; Toriashvili, T.; Lomidze, D.; Autermann, C.; Beranek, S.; Edelhoff, M.; Feld, L.; Heister, A.; Kiesel, M. K.; Klein, K.; Lipinski, M.; Ostapchuk, A.; Preuten, M.; Raupach, F.; Schael, S.; Schulte, J. F.; Verlage, T.; Weber, H.; Wittmer, B.; Zhukov, V.; Ata, M.; Brodski, M.; Dietz-Laursonn, E.; Duchardt, D.; Endres, M.; Erdmann, M.; Erdweg, S.; Esch, T.; Fischer, R.; Güth, A.; Hebbeker, T.; Heidemann, C.; Hoepfner, K.; Klingebiel, D.; Knutzen, S.; Kreuzer, P.; Merschmeyer, M.; Meyer, A.; Millet, P.; Olschewski, M.; Padeken, K.; Papacz, P.; Pook, T.; Radziej, M.; Reithler, H.; Rieger, M.; Scheuch, F.; Sonnenschein, L.; Teyssier, D.; Thüer, S.; Cherepanov, V.; Erdogan, Y.; Flügge, G.; Geenen, H.; Geisler, M.; Hoehle, F.; Kargoll, B.; Kress, T.; Kuessel, Y.; Künsken, A.; Lingemann, J.; Nehrkorn, A.; Nowack, A.; Nugent, I. M.; Pistone, C.; Pooth, O.; Stahl, A.; Aldaya Martin, M.; Asin, I.; Bartosik, N.; Behnke, O.; Behrens, U.; Bell, A. J.; Borras, K.; Burgmeier, A.; Campbell, A.; Choudhury, S.; Costanza, F.; Diez Pardos, C.; Dolinska, G.; Dooling, S.; Dorland, T.; Eckerlin, G.; Eckstein, D.; Eichhorn, T.; Flucke, G.; Gallo, E.; Garcia, J. Garay; Geiser, A.; Gizhko, A.; Gunnellini, P.; Hauk, J.; Hempel, M.; Jung, H.; Kalogeropoulos, A.; Karacheban, O.; Kasemann, M.; Katsas, P.; Kieseler, J.; Kleinwort, C.; Korol, I.; Lange, W.; Leonard, J.; Lipka, K.; Lobanov, A.; Lohmann, W.; Mankel, R.; Marfin, I.; Melzer-Pellmann, I.-A.; Meyer, A. B.; Mittag, G.; Mnich, J.; Mussgiller, A.; Naumann-Emme, S.; Nayak, A.; Ntomari, E.; Perrey, H.; Pitzl, D.; Placakyte, R.; Raspereza, A.; Roland, B.; Sahin, M. Ö.; Saxena, P.; Schoerner-Sadenius, T.; Schröder, M.; Seitz, C.; Spannagel, S.; Trippkewitz, K. D.; Walsh, R.; Wissing, C.; Blobel, V.; Centis Vignali, M.; Draeger, A. R.; Erfle, J.; Garutti, E.; Goebel, K.; Gonzalez, D.; Görner, M.; Haller, J.; Hoffmann, M.; Höing, R. S.; Junkes, A.; Klanner, R.; Kogler, R.; Lapsien, T.; Lenz, T.; Marchesini, I.; Marconi, D.; Meyer, M.; Nowatschin, D.; Ott, J.; Pantaleo, F.; Peiffer, T.; Perieanu, A.; Pietsch, N.; Poehlsen, J.; Rathjens, D.; Sander, C.; Schettler, H.; Schleper, P.; Schlieckau, E.; Schmidt, A.; Schwandt, J.; Sola, V.; Stadie, H.; Steinbrück, G.; Tholen, H.; Troendle, D.; Usai, E.; Vanelderen, L.; Vanhoefer, A.; Vormwald, B.; Akbiyik, M.; Barth, C.; Baus, C.; Berger, J.; Böser, C.; Butz, E.; Chwalek, T.; Colombo, F.; de Boer, W.; Descroix, A.; Dierlamm, A.; Fink, S.; Frensch, F.; Friese, R.; Giffels, M.; Gilbert, A.; Haitz, D.; Hartmann, F.; Heindl, S. M.; Husemann, U.; Katkov, I.; Kornmayer, A.; Lobelle Pardo, P.; Maier, B.; Mildner, H.; Mozer, M. U.; Müller, T.; Müller, Th.; Plagge, M.; Quast, G.; Rabbertz, K.; Röcker, S.; Roscher, F.; Sieber, G.; Simonis, H. J.; Stober, F. M.; Ulrich, R.; Wagner-Kuhr, J.; Wayand, S.; Weber, M.; Weiler, T.; Wöhrmann, C.; Wolf, R.; Anagnostou, G.; Daskalakis, G.; Geralis, T.; Giakoumopoulou, V. A.; Kyriakis, A.; Loukas, D.; Psallidas, A.; Topsis-Giotis, I.; Agapitos, A.; Kesisoglou, S.; Panagiotou, A.; Saoulidou, N.; Tziaferi, E.; Evangelou, I.; Flouris, G.; Foudas, C.; Kokkas, P.; Loukas, N.; Manthos, N.; Papadopoulos, I.; Paradas, E.; Strologas, J.; Bencze, G.; Hajdu, C.; Hazi, A.; Hidas, P.; Horvath, D.; Sikler, F.; Veszpremi, V.; Vesztergombi, G.; Zsigmond, A. J.; Beni, N.; Czellar, S.; Karancsi, J.; Molnar, J.; Szillasi, Z.; Bartók, M.; Makovec, A.; Raics, P.; Trocsanyi, Z. L.; Ujvari, B.; Mal, P.; Mandal, K.; Sahoo, D. K.; Sahoo, N.; Swain, S. K.; Bansal, S.; Beri, S. B.; Bhatnagar, V.; Chawla, R.; Gupta, R.; Bhawandeep, U.; Kalsi, A. K.; Kaur, A.; Kaur, M.; Kumar, R.; Mehta, A.; Mittal, M.; Singh, J. B.; Walia, G.; Kumar, Ashok; Bhardwaj, A.; Choudhary, B. C.; Garg, R. B.; Kumar, A.; Malhotra, S.; Naimuddin, M.; Nishu, N.; Ranjan, K.; Sharma, R.; Sharma, V.; Bhattacharya, S.; Chatterjee, K.; Dey, S.; Dutta, S.; Jain, Sa.; Majumdar, N.; Modak, A.; Mondal, K.; Mukherjee, S.; Mukhopadhyay, S.; Roy, A.; Roy, D.; Roy Chowdhury, S.; Sarkar, S.; Sharan, M.; Abdulsalam, A.; Chudasama, R.; Dutta, D.; Jha, V.; Kumar, V.; Mohanty, A. K.; Pant, L. M.; Shukla, P.; Topkar, A.; Aziz, T.; Banerjee, S.; Bhowmik, S.; Chatterjee, R. M.; Dewanjee, R. K.; Dugad, S.; Ganguly, S.; Ghosh, S.; Guchait, M.; Gurtu, A.; Kole, G.; Kumar, S.; Mahakud, B.; Maity, M.; Majumder, G.; Mazumdar, K.; Mitra, S.; Mohanty, G. B.; Parida, B.; Sarkar, T.; Sur, N.; Sutar, B.; Wickramage, N.; Chauhan, S.; Dube, S.; Sharma, S.; Bakhshiansohi, H.; Behnamian, H.; Etesami, S. M.; Fahim, A.; Goldouzian, R.; Khakzad, M.; Mohammadi Najafabadi, M.; Naseri, M.; Paktinat Mehdiabadi, S.; Rezaei Hosseinabadi, F.; Safarzadeh, B.; Zeinali, M.; Felcini, M.; Grunewald, M.; Abbrescia, M.; Calabria, C.; Caputo, C.; Colaleo, A.; Creanza, D.; Cristella, L.; de Filippis, N.; de Palma, M.; Fiore, L.; Iaselli, G.; Maggi, G.; Miniello, G.; Maggi, M.; My, S.; Nuzzo, S.; Pompili, A.; Pugliese, G.; Radogna, R.; Ranieri, A.; Selvaggi, G.; Silvestris, L.; Venditti, R.; Verwilligen, P.; Abbiendi, G.; Battilana, C.; Benvenuti, A. C.; Bonacorsi, D.; Braibant-Giacomelli, S.; Brigliadori, L.; Campanini, R.; Capiluppi, P.; Castro, A.; Cavallo, F. R.; Chhibra, S. S.; Codispoti, G.; Cuffiani, M.; Dallavalle, G. M.; Fabbri, F.; Fanfani, A.; Fasanella, D.; Giacomelli, P.; Grandi, C.; Guiducci, L.; Marcellini, S.; Masetti, G.; Montanari, A.; Navarria, F. L.; Perrotta, A.; Rossi, A. M.; Primavera, F.; Rovelli, T.; Siroli, G. P.; Tosi, N.; Travaglini, R.; Cappello, G.; Chiorboli, M.; Costa, S.; di Mattia, A.; Giordano, F.; Potenza, R.; Tricomi, A.; Tuve, C.; Barbagli, G.; Ciulli, V.; Civinini, C.; D'Alessandro, R.; Focardi, E.; Gonzi, S.; Gori, V.; Lenzi, P.; Meschini, M.; Paoletti, S.; Sguazzoni, G.; Tropiano, A.; Viliani, L.; Benussi, L.; Bianco, S.; Fabbri, F.; Piccolo, D.; Primavera, F.; Calvelli, V.; Ferro, F.; Lo Vetere, M.; Monge, M. R.; Robutti, E.; Tosi, S.; Brianza, L.; Dinardo, M. E.; Fiorendi, S.; Gennai, S.; Gerosa, R.; Ghezzi, A.; Govoni, P.; Malvezzi, S.; Manzoni, R. A.; Marzocchi, B.; Menasce, D.; Moroni, L.; Paganoni, M.; Pedrini, D.; Ragazzi, S.; Redaelli, N.; Tabarelli de Fatis, T.; Buontempo, S.; Cavallo, N.; di Guida, S.; Esposito, M.; Fabozzi, F.; Iorio, A. O. M.; Lanza, G.; Lista, L.; Meola, S.; Merola, M.; Paolucci, P.; Sciacca, C.; Thyssen, F.; Azzi, P.; Bacchetta, N.; Bellato, M.; Benato, L.; Bisello, D.; Boletti, A.; Carlin, R.; Checchia, P.; Dall'Osso, M.; Dorigo, T.; Dosselli, U.; Fanzago, F.; Gasparini, F.; Gasparini, U.; Gonella, F.; Gozzelino, A.; Lacaprara, S.; Margoni, M.; Meneguzzo, A. T.; Pazzini, J.; Pozzobon, N.; Ronchese, P.; Simonetto, F.; Torassa, E.; Tosi, M.; Zanetti, M.; Zotto, P.; Zucchetta, A.; Zumerle, G.; Braghieri, A.; Magnani, A.; Montagna, P.; Ratti, S. P.; Re, V.; Riccardi, C.; Salvini, P.; Vai, I.; Vitulo, P.; Alunni Solestizi, L.; Biasini, M.; Bilei, G. M.; Ciangottini, D.; Fanò, L.; Lariccia, P.; Mantovani, G.; Menichelli, M.; Saha, A.; Santocchia, A.; Androsov, K.; Azzurri, P.; Bagliesi, G.; Bernardini, J.; Boccali, T.; Castaldi, R.; Ciocci, M. A.; Dell'Orso, R.; Donato, S.; Fedi, G.; Fiori, F.; Foà, L.; Giassi, A.; Grippo, M. 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P.; Majumder, D.; Majumder, D.; Malek, M.; Murray, M.; Sanders, S.; Stringer, R.; Wang, Q.; Ivanov, A.; Kaadze, K.; Khalil, S.; Makouski, M.; Maravin, Y.; Mohammadi, A.; Saini, L. K.; Skhirtladze, N.; Toda, S.; Lange, D.; Rebassoo, F.; Wright, D.; Anelli, C.; Baden, A.; Baron, O.; Belloni, A.; Calvert, B.; Eno, S. C.; Ferraioli, C.; Gomez, J. A.; Hadley, N. J.; Jabeen, S.; Jabeen, S.; Kellogg, R. G.; Kolberg, T.; Kunkle, J.; Lu, Y.; Mignerey, A. C.; Shin, Y. H.; Skuja, A.; Tonjes, M. B.; Tonwar, S. C.; Apyan, A.; Barbieri, R.; Baty, A.; Bierwagen, K.; Brandt, S.; Bierwagen, K.; Busza, W.; Cali, I. A.; Demiragli, Z.; Di Matteo, L.; Gomez Ceballos, G.; Goncharov, M.; Gulhan, D.; Iiyama, Y.; Innocenti, G. M.; Klute, M.; Kovalskyi, D.; Lai, Y. S.; Lee, Y.-J.; Levin, A.; Luckey, P. D.; Marini, A. C.; McGinn, C.; Mironov, C.; Narayanan, S.; Niu, X.; Paus, C.; Ralph, D.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Salfeld-Nebgen, J.; Stephans, G. S. F.; Sumorok, K.; Varma, M.; Velicanu, D.; Veverka, J.; Wang, J.; Wang, T. W.; Wyslouch, B.; Yang, M.; Zhukova, V.; Dahmes, B.; Evans, A.; Finkel, A.; Gude, A.; Hansen, P.; Kalafut, S.; Kao, S. C.; Klapoetke, K.; Kubota, Y.; Lesko, Z.; Mans, J.; Nourbakhsh, S.; Ruckstuhl, N.; Rusack, R.; Tambe, N.; Turkewitz, J.; Acosta, J. G.; Oliveros, S.; Avdeeva, E.; Bloom, K.; Bose, S.; Claes, D. R.; Dominguez, A.; Fangmeier, C.; Gonzalez Suarez, R.; Kamalieddin, R.; Keller, J.; Knowlton, D.; Kravchenko, I.; Meier, F.; Monroy, J.; Ratnikov, F.; Siado, J. E.; Snow, G. R.; Alyari, M.; Dolen, J.; George, J.; Godshalk, A.; Harrington, C.; Iashvili, I.; Kaisen, J.; Kharchilava, A.; Kumar, A.; Rappoccio, S.; Roozbahani, B.; Alverson, G.; Barberis, E.; Baumgartel, D.; Chasco, M.; Hortiangtham, A.; Massironi, A.; Morse, D. M.; Nash, D.; Orimoto, T.; Teixeira de Lima, R.; Trocino, D.; Wang, R.-J.; Wood, D.; Zhang, J.; Hahn, K. A.; Kubik, A.; Mucia, N.; Odell, N.; Pollack, B.; Pozdnyakov, A.; Schmitt, M.; Stoynev, S.; Sung, K.; Trovato, M.; Velasco, M.; Brinkerhoff, A.; Dev, N.; Hildreth, M.; Jessop, C.; Karmgard, D. J.; Kellams, N.; Lannon, K.; Lynch, S.; Marinelli, N.; Meng, F.; Mueller, C.; Musienko, Y.; Pearson, T.; Planer, M.; Reinsvold, A.; Ruchti, R.; Smith, G.; Taroni, S.; Valls, N.; Wayne, M.; Wolf, M.; Woodard, A.; Antonelli, L.; Brinson, J.; Bylsma, B.; Durkin, L. S.; Flowers, S.; Hart, A.; Hill, C.; Hughes, R.; Ji, W.; Kotov, K.; Ling, T. Y.; Liu, B.; Luo, W.; Puigh, D.; Rodenburg, M.; Winer, B. L.; Wulsin, H. W.; Driga, O.; Elmer, P.; Hardenbrook, J.; Hebda, P.; Koay, S. A.; Lujan, P.; Marlow, D.; Medvedeva, T.; Mooney, M.; Olsen, J.; Palmer, C.; Piroué, P.; Saka, H.; Stickland, D.; Tully, C.; Zuranski, A.; Malik, S.; Barnes, V. E.; Benedetti, D.; Bortoletto, D.; Gutay, L.; Jha, M. K.; Jones, M.; Jung, K.; Miller, D. H.; Neumeister, N.; Primavera, F.; Radburn-Smith, B. C.; Shi, X.; Shipsey, I.; Silvers, D.; Sun, J.; Svyatkovskiy, A.; Wang, F.; Xie, W.; Xu, L.; Parashar, N.; Stupak, J.; Adair, A.; Akgun, B.; Chen, Z.; Ecklund, K. M.; Geurts, F. J. M.; Guilbaud, M.; Li, W.; Michlin, B.; Northup, M.; Padley, B. P.; Redjimi, R.; Roberts, J.; Rorie, J.; Tu, Z.; Zabel, J.; Betchart, B.; Bodek, A.; de Barbaro, P.; Demina, R.; Eshaq, Y.; Ferbel, T.; Galanti, M.; Galanti, M.; Garcia-Bellido, A.; Han, J.; Harel, A.; Hindrichs, O.; Hindrichs, O.; Khukhunaishvili, A.; Petrillo, G.; Tan, P.; Verzetti, M.; Arora, S.; Barker, A.; Chou, J. P.; Contreras-Campana, C.; Contreras-Campana, E.; Duggan, D.; Ferencek, D.; Gershtein, Y.; Gray, R.; Halkiadakis, E.; Hidas, D.; Hughes, E.; Kaplan, S.; Kunnawalkam Elayavalli, R.; Lath, A.; Nash, K.; Panwalkar, S.; Park, M.; Salur, S.; Schnetzer, S.; Sheffield, D.; Somalwar, S.; Stone, R.; Thomas, S.; Thomassen, P.; Walker, M.; Foerster, M.; Riley, G.; Rose, K.; Spanier, S.; York, A.; Bouhali, O.; Castaneda Hernandez, A.; Dalchenko, M.; de Mattia, M.; Delgado, A.; Dildick, S.; Dildick, S.; Eusebi, R.; Gilmore, J.; Kamon, T.; Krutelyov, V.; Krutelyov, V.; Mueller, R.; Osipenkov, I.; Pakhotin, Y.; Patel, R.; Patel, R.; Perloff, A.; Rose, A.; Safonov, A.; Tatarinov, A.; Ulmer, K. A.; Akchurin, N.; Cowden, C.; Damgov, J.; Dragoiu, C.; Dudero, P. R.; Faulkner, J.; Kunori, S.; Lamichhane, K.; Lee, S. W.; Libeiro, T.; Undleeb, S.; Volobouev, I.; Appelt, E.; Delannoy, A. G.; Greene, S.; Gurrola, A.; Janjam, R.; Johns, W.; Maguire, C.; Mao, Y.; Melo, A.; Ni, H.; Sheldon, P.; Snook, B.; Tuo, S.; Velkovska, J.; Xu, Q.; Arenton, M. W.; Cox, B.; Francis, B.; Goodell, J.; Hirosky, R.; Ledovskoy, A.; Li, H.; Lin, C.; Neu, C.; Sinthuprasith, T.; Sun, X.; Wang, Y.; Wolfe, E.; Wood, J.; Xia, F.; Clarke, C.; Harr, R.; Karchin, P. E.; Kottachchi Kankanamge Don, C.; Lamichhane, P.; Sturdy, J.; Belknap, D. A.; Carlsmith, D.; Cepeda, M.; Dasu, S.; Dodd, L.; Duric, S.; Gomber, B.; Grothe, M.; Hall-Wilton, R.; Herndon, M.; Hervé, A.; Klabbers, P.; Lanaro, A.; Levine, A.; Long, K.; Loveless, R.; Mohapatra, A.; Ojalvo, I.; Perry, T.; Pierro, G. A.; Polese, G.; Ruggles, T.; Sarangi, T.; Savin, A.; Sharma, A.; Smith, N.; Smith, W. H.; Taylor, D.; Woods, N.; Collaboration, [Authorinst]The Cms

    2016-07-01

    Jet multiplicity distributions in top quark pair ({t}{overline{t}}) events are measured in pp collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 8 TeV with the CMS detector at the LHC using a data set corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 19.7 {fb}^ {-1}. The measurement is performed in the dilepton decay channels (e^+e^-, μ^+ μ^-, and e^{±} μ^{∓}). The absolute and normalized differential cross sections for {t}overline{t} production are measured as a function of the jet multiplicity in the event for different jet transverse momentum thresholds and the kinematic properties of the leading additional jets. The differential {t overline{t} b} and {t overline{t} b overline{b}} cross sections are presented for the first time as a function of the kinematic properties of the leading additional b jets. Furthermore, the fraction of events without additional jets above a threshold is measured as a function of the transverse momenta of the leading additional jets and the scalar sum of the transverse momenta of all additional jets. The data are compared and found to be consistent with predictions from several perturbative quantum chromodynamics event generators and a next-to-leading order calculation.

  13. Measurement of $$\\mathrm{ t \\bar{t} } $$ production with additional jet activity, including b quark jets, in the dilepton decay channel using pp collisions at $$\\sqrt{s} =$$ 8 TeV

    DOE PAGES

    Khachatryan, Vardan

    2016-07-07

    Jet multiplicity distributions in top quark pair (tt-bar) events are measured in pp collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 8 TeV with the CMS detector at the LHC using a data set corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 19.7 fb-1. The measurement is performed in the dilepton decay channels (e+e-,μ+μ- and e±μ∓). Furthermore, the absolute and normalized differential cross sections for tt-bar production are measured as a function of the jet multiplicity in the event for different jet transverse momentum thresholds and the kinematic properties of the leading additional jets. The differential tt-barb and tt-barbb-bar cross sections are presented formore » the first time as a function of the kinematic properties of the leading additional b jets. Furthermore, the fraction of events without additional jets above a threshold is measured as a function of the transverse momenta of the leading additional jets and the scalar sum of the transverse momenta of all additional jets. Finally, the data are compared and found to be consistent with predictions from several perturbative quantum chromodynamics event generators and a next-to-leading ordercalculation.« less

  14. Calcium Channel Signaling Complexes with Receptors and Channels.

    PubMed

    Zamponi, Gerald W

    2015-01-01

    Voltage-gated calcium channels are not only mediators of cell signalling events, but also are recipients of signalling inputs from G protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) and their associated second messenger pathways. The coupling of GPCRs to calcium channels is optimized through the formation of receptor-channel complexes. In addition, this provides a mechanism for receptorchannel co-trafficking to and from the plasma membrane. On the other hand, voltage-gated calcium channel activity affects other types of ion channels such as voltage-and calcium-activated potassium channels. Coupling efficiency between these two families of channels is also enhanced through the formation of channel-channel complexes. This review provides a concise overview of the current state of knowledge on the physical interactions between voltage-gated calcium channels and members of the GPCR family, and with other types of ion channels.

  15. Channel plate for DNA sequencing

    DOEpatents

    Douthart, R.J.; Crowell, S.L.

    1998-01-13

    This invention is a channel plate that facilitates data compaction in DNA sequencing. The channel plate has a length, a width and a thickness, and further has a plurality of channels that are parallel. Each channel has a depth partially through the thickness of the channel plate. Additionally an interface edge permits electrical communication across an interface through a buffer to a deposition membrane surface. 15 figs.

  16. Channel plate for DNA sequencing

    DOEpatents

    Douthart, Richard J.; Crowell, Shannon L.

    1998-01-01

    This invention is a channel plate that facilitates data compaction in DNA sequencing. The channel plate has a length, a width and a thickness, and further has a plurality of channels that are parallel. Each channel has a depth partially through the thickness of the channel plate. Additionally an interface edge permits electrical communication across an interface through a buffer to a deposition membrane surface.

  17. The Discovery Channel Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millis, R. L.; Dunham, E. W.; Sebring, T. A.; Smith, B. W.; de Kock, M.; Wiecha, O.

    2004-11-01

    The Discovery Channel Telescope (DCT) is a 4.2-m telescope to be built at a new site near Happy Jack, Arizona. The DCT features a large prime focus mosaic CCD camera with a 2-degree-diameter field of view especially designed for surveys of KBOs, Centaurs, NEAs and other moving or time-variable targets. The telescope can be switched quickly to a Ritchey-Chretien configuration for optical/IR spectroscopy or near-IR imaging. This flexibility allows timely follow-up physical studies of high priority objects discovered in survey mode. The ULE (ultra-low-expansion) meniscus primary and secondary mirror blanks for the telescope are currently in fabrication by Corning Glass. Goodrich Aerospace, Vertex RSI, M3 Engineering and Technology Corp., and e2v Technologies have recently completed in-depth conceptual design studies of the optics, mount, enclosure, and mosaic focal plane, respectively. The results of these studies were subjected to a formal design review in July, 2004. Site testing at the 7760-ft altitude Happy Jack site began in 2001. Differential image motion observations from 117 nights since January 1, 2003 gave median seeing of 0.84 arcsec FWHM, and the average of the first quartile was 0.62 arcsec. The National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) process for securing long-term access to this site on the Coconino National Forest is nearing completion and ground breaking is expected in the spring of 2005. The Discovery Channel Telescope is a project of the Lowell Observatory with major financial support from Discovery Communications, Inc. (DCI). DCI plans ongoing television programming featuring the construction of the telescope and the research ultimately undertaken with the DCT. An additional partner can be accommodated in the project. Interested parties should contact the lead author.

  18. Peru: population and policy.

    PubMed

    Sobrevilla, L A

    1987-06-01

    Peru's 1985 Population Policy Law states as its second objective that individuals and couples should be well informed and provided with the education and health services that will assist them in making responsible decisions about the number and spacing of their children. Thus, the law establishes a firm basis for IEC programs. With regard to population education, the purpose of the law is to create awareness through all educational channels of the reciprocal influence of population dynamics and socioeconomic development and to promote positive attitudes toward small family size. The law promotes the use of the communications media to educate and inform about population issues. The National Population Council, which coordinates and supervises the IEC activities of public sector agencies, has issued publications and audiovisual materials, conducted meetings with government officials and opinion leaders, and promoted awareness of population policy as a key part of development planning. In 1984, the Council organized the First National Seminar on Communication and Population to review activities, set the basis for intersectoral coordination, unify criteria, and review population policy concepts and language. The Ministry of Health carries out IEC activities as part of its family planning services program. In addition, the Ministry of Education has organized a national population education program that aims to revise school curricula to include a greater emphasis on population dynamics and family life education. The activities of a number of private institutions complement the IEC work public sector organizations. PMID:12341769

  19. Peru: population and policy.

    PubMed

    Sobrevilla, L A

    1987-06-01

    Peru's 1985 Population Policy Law states as its second objective that individuals and couples should be well informed and provided with the education and health services that will assist them in making responsible decisions about the number and spacing of their children. Thus, the law establishes a firm basis for IEC programs. With regard to population education, the purpose of the law is to create awareness through all educational channels of the reciprocal influence of population dynamics and socioeconomic development and to promote positive attitudes toward small family size. The law promotes the use of the communications media to educate and inform about population issues. The National Population Council, which coordinates and supervises the IEC activities of public sector agencies, has issued publications and audiovisual materials, conducted meetings with government officials and opinion leaders, and promoted awareness of population policy as a key part of development planning. In 1984, the Council organized the First National Seminar on Communication and Population to review activities, set the basis for intersectoral coordination, unify criteria, and review population policy concepts and language. The Ministry of Health carries out IEC activities as part of its family planning services program. In addition, the Ministry of Education has organized a national population education program that aims to revise school curricula to include a greater emphasis on population dynamics and family life education. The activities of a number of private institutions complement the IEC work public sector organizations.

  20. Jamming in Vertical Channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baxter, G. William; McCausland, Jeffrey; Steel, Fiona

    2010-03-01

    We experimentally study jamming of cylindrical grains in a vertical channel. The grains have a low aspect-ratio (height/diameter < 1) so their shape is like antacid tablets or poker chips. They are allowed to fall through a vertical channel with a square cross section. The channel width is greater than the diameter of a grain and constant throughout the length of the channel with no obstructions or constrictions. It is observed that grains sometimes jam in this apparatus. In a jam, grains form a stable structure from one side of the channel to the other with nothing beneath them. Jams may be strong enough to support additional grains above. The probability of a jam occurring is a function of the grain height and diameter. We will present experimental measurements of the jamming probability in this system and discuss the relationship of these results to other experiments and theories.

  1. Basaltic Lava Channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cashman, K. V.; Griffiths, R. W.; Kerr, R. C.

    2004-12-01

    In Hawaii, the mode of lava transport - through open channels or through insulating lava tubes - determines the thermal, rheological, and emplacement history of a lava flow. Most Hawaiian lavas are erupted at near-liquidus temperatures and are therefore crystal-poor; lava transport through open channels allows rapid cooling and consequent rapid increases in lava crystallinity. Solidified aa flows resulting from channelized flow are typically fine-grained throughout their thickness, indicating cooling of the entire flow thickness during transport. In contrast, transport of lava through insulating tubes permits flow over long distances with little cooling. Flows emerging from such tubes typically have pahoehoe flow surfaces with glassy crusts. Groundmass textures that coarsen from the flow rind to the interior reflect rates of post-emplacement, rather than syn-emplacement, cooling. To distinguish eruption conditions that result in lava channels from those that allow formation of lava tubes, we have performed a series of laboratory experiments involving injection of PEG 600 (a wax with a Newtonian rheology and freezing temperature of 19ºC) into cold water through both uniform and non-uniform sloping channels. In uniform channels, tube formation can be distinguished from open channel flow using a dimensionless parameter based on a solidification time scale, an advection time scale, and a Rayleigh number that describes convection by heat loss from crust-free shear zones. Theoretical analysis predicts that in the open channel regime, the width of the crust (dc) will vary with the channel width (W) as dc = W5/3. Crustal coverage of non-uniform channels in both laboratory experiments and field examples from Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii, is consistent with this prediction. However, experiments in non-uniform channels illustrate additional controls on the surface coverage of lava channels. Most important is crustal extension resulting from flow acceleration through constrictions

  2. 33 CFR 239.4 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... RESOURCES POLICIES AND AUTHORITIES: FEDERAL PARTICIPATION IN COVERED FLOOD CONTROL CHANNELS § 239.4 Policy...), Environmental Quality (EQ), Regional Development (RD) and Social Well Being (SWB) accounts, and the...

  3. TRP Channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voets, Thomas; Owsianik, Grzegorz; Nilius, Bernd

    The TRP superfamily represents a highly diverse group of cation-permeable ion channels related to the product of the Drosophila trp (transient receptor potential) gene. The cloning and characterization of members of this cation channel family has experienced a remarkable growth during the last decade, uncovering a wealth of information concerning the role of TRP channels in a variety of cell types, tissues, and species. Initially, TRP channels were mainly considered as phospholipase C (PLC)-dependent and/or store-operated Ca2+-permeable cation channels. More recent research has highlighted the sensitivity of TRP channels to a broad array of chemical and physical stimuli, allowing them to function as dedicated biological sensors involved in processes ranging from vision to taste, tactile sensation, and hearing. Moreover, the tailored selectivity of certain TRP channels enables them to play key roles in the cellular uptake and/or transepithelial transport of Ca2+, Mg2+, and trace metal ions. In this chapter we give a brief overview of the TRP channel superfamily followed by a survey of current knowledge concerning their structure and activation mechanisms.

  4. Food additives

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Michael

    1974-01-01

    Food additives are discussed from the food technology point of view. The reasons for their use are summarized: (1) to protect food from chemical and microbiological attack; (2) to even out seasonal supplies; (3) to improve their eating quality; (4) to improve their nutritional value. The various types of food additives are considered, e.g. colours, flavours, emulsifiers, bread and flour additives, preservatives, and nutritional additives. The paper concludes with consideration of those circumstances in which the use of additives is (a) justified and (b) unjustified. PMID:4467857

  5. English Channel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The cloud covered earthscape of Northern Europe demonstrates the difficulty of photographing this elusive subject from space. The English Channel (51.0N, 1.5E) separating the British Islands from Europe is in the center of the scene. The white cliffs of Dover on the SE coast of the UK, the Thames River estuary and a partial view of the city of London can be seen on the north side of the Channel while the Normandy coast of France is to the south.

  6. Phosphazene additives

    DOEpatents

    Harrup, Mason K; Rollins, Harry W

    2013-11-26

    An additive comprising a phosphazene compound that has at least two reactive functional groups and at least one capping functional group bonded to phosphorus atoms of the phosphazene compound. One of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with cellulose and the other of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with a resin, such as an amine resin of a polycarboxylic acid resin. The at least one capping functional group is selected from the group consisting of a short chain ether group, an alkoxy group, or an aryloxy group. Also disclosed are an additive-resin admixture, a method of treating a wood product, and a wood product.

  7. Potlining Additives

    SciTech Connect

    Rudolf Keller

    2004-08-10

    In this project, a concept to improve the performance of aluminum production cells by introducing potlining additives was examined and tested. Boron oxide was added to cathode blocks, and titanium was dissolved in the metal pool; this resulted in the formation of titanium diboride and caused the molten aluminum to wet the carbonaceous cathode surface. Such wetting reportedly leads to operational improvements and extended cell life. In addition, boron oxide suppresses cyanide formation. This final report presents and discusses the results of this project. Substantial economic benefits for the practical implementation of the technology are projected, especially for modern cells with graphitized blocks. For example, with an energy savings of about 5% and an increase in pot life from 1500 to 2500 days, a cost savings of $ 0.023 per pound of aluminum produced is projected for a 200 kA pot.

  8. Peptide models for membrane channels.

    PubMed Central

    Marsh, D

    1996-01-01

    Peptides may be synthesized with sequences corresponding to putative transmembrane domains and/or pore-lining regions that are deduced from the primary structures of ion channel proteins. These can then be incorporated into lipid bilayer membranes for structural and functional studies. In addition to the ability to invoke ion channel activity, critical issues are the secondary structures adopted and the mode of assembly of these short transmembrane peptides in the reconstituted systems. The present review concentrates on results obtained with peptides from ligand-gated and voltage-gated ion channels, as well as proton-conducting channels. These are considered within the context of current molecular models and the limited data available on the structure of native ion channels and natural channel-forming peptides. PMID:8615800

  9. Chaos in quantum channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosur, Pavan; Qi, Xiao-Liang; Roberts, Daniel A.; Yoshida, Beni

    2016-02-01

    We study chaos and scrambling in unitary channels by considering their entanglement properties as states. Using out-of-time-order correlation functions to diagnose chaos, we characterize the ability of a channel to process quantum information. We show that the generic decay of such correlators implies that any input subsystem must have near vanishing mutual information with almost all partitions of the output. Additionally, we propose the negativity of the tripartite information of the channel as a general diagnostic of scrambling. This measures the delocalization of information and is closely related to the decay of out-of-time-order correlators. We back up our results with numerics in two non-integrable models and analytic results in a perfect tensor network model of chaotic time evolution. These results show that the butterfly effect in quantum systems implies the information-theoretic definition of scrambling.

  10. Chaos in quantum channels

    DOE PAGES

    Hosur, Pavan; Qi, Xiao-Liang; Roberts, Daniel A.; Yoshida, Beni

    2016-02-01

    For this research, we study chaos and scrambling in unitary channels by considering their entanglement properties as states. Using out-of-time-order correlation functions to diagnose chaos, we characterize the ability of a channel to process quantum information. We show that the generic decay of such correlators implies that any input subsystem must have near vanishing mutual information with almost all partitions of the output. Additionally, we propose the negativity of the tripartite information of the channel as a general diagnostic of scrambling. This measures the delocalization of information and is closely related to the decay of out-of-time-order correlators. We back upmore » our results with numerics in two non-integrable models and analytic results in a perfect tensor network model of chaotic time evolution. In conclusion, these results show that the butterfly effect in quantum systems implies the information-theoretic definition of scrambling.« less

  11. Addition of positive charges at the C-terminal peptide region of CssII, a mammalian scorpion peptide toxin, improves its affinity for sodium channels Nav1.6.

    PubMed

    Estrada, Georgina; Restano-Cassulini, Rita; Ortiz, Ernesto; Possani, Lourival D; Corzo, Gerardo

    2011-01-01

    CssII is a β-scorpion peptide that modifies preferentially sodium currents of the voltage-dependent Na(+) channel (Nav) sub-type 1.6. Previously, we have found that the C-terminal amidation of CssII increases its affinity for Nav, which opens at more negative potentials in the presence of CssII. Although C-terminal amidation in vitro conditions is possible, five CssII peptide toxin variants with C-terminal residues modified were heterologously expressed (rN66S, rN66H, rN66R, r[T64R/N66S] and r[T64R/N66R], in which r stands for recombinant, the capital letters to the amino acid residues and the numbers indicate the position of the given residue into the primary sequence of the toxin) and correctly folded. A secondary structure prediction of CssII agrees with the experimental secondary structure obtained by circular dichroism; so all bacterial expressed neurotoxin variants maintained the typical α/β secondary structure motif of most Na(+) channel scorpion toxins. The electrophysiological properties of all recombinant variants were examined, and it was found that substitutions of threonine (T) and asparagine (N) at the C-terminal region for arginine (R) (r[T64R/N66R]) increase their affinity for Nav1.6. Although, the molecular interactions involved in this mechanism are still not clearly determined, there is experimental evidence supporting the suspicion that incorporation of basic charged amino acid residues at the C-terminal tail of a group of α-scorpion toxin was favored by natural selection.

  12. Organellar Channels and Transporters

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Haoxing; Martinoia, Enrico; Szabo, Ildiko

    2015-01-01

    Decades of intensive research has led to the discovery of most plasma membrane ion channels and transporters and the characterization of their physiological functions. In contrast, although over 80% of transport processes occur inside the cells, the ion flux mechanisms across intracellular membranes (the endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, endosomes, lysosomes, mitochondria, chloroplasts, and vacuoles) are difficult to investigate and remain poorly understood. Recent technical advances in super-resolution microscopy, organellar electrophysiology, organelle-targeted fluorescence imaging, and organelle proteomics have pushed a large step forward in the research of intracellular ion transport. Many new organellar channels are molecularly identified and electrophysiologically characterized. Additionally, molecular identification of many of these ion channels/transporters has made it possible to study their physiological functions by genetic and pharmacological means. For example, organellar channels have been shown to regulate important cellular processes such as programmed cell death and photosynthesis, and are involved in many different pathologies. This Special Issue (SI) on Organellar Channels and Transporters aims to provide a forum to discuss the recent advances and to define the standard and open questions in this exciting and rapidly-developing field. Along this line, a new Gordon Research Conference dedicated to the multidisciplinary study of intracellular membrane transport proteins will be launched this coming summer. PMID:25795199

  13. The channels of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, Victor R.

    1988-01-01

    The geomorphology of Mars is discussed, focusing on the Martian channels. The great flood channels of Mars, the processes of channel erosion, and dendritic channel networks, are examined. The topography of the Channeled Scabland region of the northwestern U.S. is described and compared to the Martian channels. The importance of water in the evolution of the channel systems is considered.

  14. 15 CFR 292.6 - Additional requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NIST EXTRAMURAL PROGRAMS MANUFACTURING EXTENSION PARTNERSHIP; INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS § 292.6 Additional requirements. Federal policies...

  15. Nonlinear channelizer.

    PubMed

    In, Visarath; Longhini, Patrick; Kho, Andy; Neff, Joseph D; Leung, Daniel; Liu, Norman; Meadows, Brian K; Gordon, Frank; Bulsara, Adi R; Palacios, Antonio

    2012-12-01

    The nonlinear channelizer is an integrated circuit made up of large parallel arrays of analog nonlinear oscillators, which, collectively, serve as a broad-spectrum analyzer with the ability to receive complex signals containing multiple frequencies and instantaneously lock-on or respond to a received signal in a few oscillation cycles. The concept is based on the generation of internal oscillations in coupled nonlinear systems that do not normally oscillate in the absence of coupling. In particular, the system consists of unidirectionally coupled bistable nonlinear elements, where the frequency and other dynamical characteristics of the emergent oscillations depend on the system's internal parameters and the received signal. These properties and characteristics are being employed to develop a system capable of locking onto any arbitrary input radio frequency signal. The system is efficient by eliminating the need for high-speed, high-accuracy analog-to-digital converters, and compact by making use of nonlinear coupled systems to act as a channelizer (frequency binning and channeling), a low noise amplifier, and a frequency down-converter in a single step which, in turn, will reduce the size, weight, power, and cost of the entire communication system. This paper covers the theory, numerical simulations, and some engineering details that validate the concept at the frequency band of 1-4 GHz.

  16. A Latin American Perspective on Ion Channels.

    PubMed

    Elgoyhen, Ana Belén; Barajas-López, Carlos

    2016-09-01

    Ion channels, both ligand- and voltage-gated, play fundamental roles in many physiologic processes. Alteration in ion channel function underlies numerous pathologies, including hypertension, diabetes, chronic pain, epilepsy, certain cancers, and neuromuscular diseases. In addition, an increasing number of inherited and de novo ion channel mutations have been shown to contribute to disease states. Ion channels are thus a major class of pharmacotherapeutic targets. PMID:27535998

  17. A Latin American Perspective on Ion Channels.

    PubMed

    Elgoyhen, Ana Belén; Barajas-López, Carlos

    2016-09-01

    Ion channels, both ligand- and voltage-gated, play fundamental roles in many physiologic processes. Alteration in ion channel function underlies numerous pathologies, including hypertension, diabetes, chronic pain, epilepsy, certain cancers, and neuromuscular diseases. In addition, an increasing number of inherited and de novo ion channel mutations have been shown to contribute to disease states. Ion channels are thus a major class of pharmacotherapeutic targets.

  18. Single-channel kinetics of BK (Slo1) channels

    PubMed Central

    Geng, Yanyan; Magleby, Karl L.

    2014-01-01

    Single-channel kinetics has proven a powerful tool to reveal information about the gating mechanisms that control the opening and closing of ion channels. This introductory review focuses on the gating of large conductance Ca2+- and voltage-activated K+ (BK or Slo1) channels at the single-channel level. It starts with single-channel current records and progresses to presentation and analysis of single-channel data and the development of gating mechanisms in terms of discrete state Markov (DSM) models. The DSM models are formulated in terms of the tetrameric modular structure of BK channels, consisting of a central transmembrane pore-gate domain (PGD) attached to four surrounding transmembrane voltage sensing domains (VSD) and a large intracellular cytosolic domain (CTD), also referred to as the gating ring. The modular structure and data analysis shows that the Ca2+ and voltage dependent gating considered separately can each be approximated by 10-state two-tiered models with five closed states on the upper tier and five open states on the lower tier. The modular structure and joint Ca2+ and voltage dependent gating are consistent with a 50 state two-tiered model with 25 closed states on the upper tier and 25 open states on the lower tier. Adding an additional tier of brief closed (flicker states) to the 10-state or 50-state models improved the description of the gating. For fixed experimental conditions a channel would gate in only a subset of the potential number of states. The detected number of states and the correlations between adjacent interval durations are consistent with the tiered models. The examined models can account for the single-channel kinetics and the bursting behavior of gating. Ca2+ and voltage activate BK channels by predominantly increasing the effective opening rate of the channel with a smaller decrease in the effective closing rate. Ca2+ and depolarization thus activate by mainly destabilizing the closed states. PMID:25653620

  19. Supporting the diffusion of healthy public policy in Canada: the Prevention Policies Directory

    PubMed Central

    Politis, Christopher E.; Halligan, Michelle H.; Keen, Deb; Kerner, Jon F.

    2014-01-01

    Healthy public policy plays an essential role in a comprehensive public health approach to preventing cancer and chronic disease. Public policies spread through the ‘policy diffusion’ process, enabling governments to learn from another’s enacted policy solutions. The Prevention Policies Directory (the Directory), an online database of municipal, provincial/territorial, and federal cancer and chronic disease prevention policies from across Canada, was developed to facilitate the diffusion of healthy public policies and support the work of prevention researchers, practitioners, and policy specialists. This information technology solution was implemented, through a participatory engagement approach, as a communication channel or policy knowledge transfer tool. It also addressed the intrinsic shortcomings of environmental scanning for policy surveillance and monitoring. A combination of quantitative web metrics and qualitative anecdotal evidence have illustrated that the Directory is becoming an important tool for healthy public policy surveillance and policy diffusion in Canada. PMID:25379125

  20. Supporting the diffusion of healthy public policy in Canada: the Prevention Policies Directory.

    PubMed

    Politis, Christopher E; Halligan, Michelle H; Keen, Deb; Kerner, Jon F

    2014-01-01

    Healthy public policy plays an essential role in a comprehensive public health approach to preventing cancer and chronic disease. Public policies spread through the 'policy diffusion' process, enabling governments to learn from another's enacted policy solutions. The Prevention Policies Directory (the Directory), an online database of municipal, provincial/territorial, and federal cancer and chronic disease prevention policies from across Canada, was developed to facilitate the diffusion of healthy public policies and support the work of prevention researchers, practitioners, and policy specialists. This information technology solution was implemented, through a participatory engagement approach, as a communication channel or policy knowledge transfer tool. It also addressed the intrinsic shortcomings of environmental scanning for policy surveillance and monitoring. A combination of quantitative web metrics and qualitative anecdotal evidence have illustrated that the Directory is becoming an important tool for healthy public policy surveillance and policy diffusion in Canada.

  1. Joint source-channel coding with allpass filtering source shaping for image transmission over noisy channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Jianfei; Chen, Chang W.

    2000-04-01

    In this paper, we proposed a fixed-length robust joint source- channel coding (JSCC) scheme for image transmission over noisy channels. Three channel models are studied: binary symmetric channels (BSC) and additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) channels for memoryless channels, and Gilbert-Elliott channels (GEC) for bursty channels. We derive, in this research, an explicit operational rate-distortion (R-D) function, which represents an end-to-end error measurement that includes errors due to both quantization and channel noise. In particular, we are able to incorporate the channel transition probability and channel bit error rate into the R-D function in the case of bursty channels. With the operational R-D function, bits are allocated not only among different subsources, but also between source coding and channel coding so that, under a fixed transmission rate, an optimum tradeoff between source coding accuracy and channel error protection can be achieved. This JSCC scheme is also integrated with allpass filtering source shaping to further improve the robustness against channel errors. Experimental results show that the proposed scheme can achieve not only high PSNR performance, but also excellent perceptual quality. Compared with the state-of-the-art JSCC schemes, this proposed scheme outperforms most of them especially when the channel mismatch occurs.

  2. Policy Interaction and Policy Implementation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Mike

    1996-01-01

    Illustrates the Byzantine complexities of implementing policy by analyzing a merger affecting three British primary schools in a local government reorganization scheme. Summarizes the policy context, highlights effects of other policies, tabulates factors relating to other externally initiated policies, discusses implications, and suggests…

  3. Channel Wall Landslides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    The multiple landslides in this VIS image occur along a steep channel wall. Note the large impact crater in the context image. The formation of the crater may have initially weakened that area of the surface prior to channel formation.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -2.7, Longitude 324.8 East (35.2 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  4. Minio Vallis Channel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    This VIS image is of the southern reach of Minio Vallis, a small fluvial channel located near the larger Mangala Vallis. Both channels are in the Tharsis region, in the area west of Arsia Mons and southeast of Medusae Fossae.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -8.2, Longitude 208.1 East (151.9 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  5. Psychologist as Policy-Maker.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saks, Michael J.

    Perhaps the most effective way to increase the utilization of behavioral science knowledge by policy-makers is for the behavioral scientist to become one. The psychologist who serves as a policy-maker becomes aware of the policy issues in addition to relevant empirical evidence. The author, a psychologist, relates his experience as a member of a…

  6. Clofilium inhibits Slick and Slack potassium channels

    PubMed Central

    de los Angeles Tejada, Maria; Stolpe, Kathleen; Meinild, Anne-Kristine; Klaerke, Dan A

    2012-01-01

    Slick and Slack high-conductance potassium channels have been recently discovered, and are found in the central nervous system and in the heart. Both channels are activated by Na+ and Cl−, and Slick channels are also inhibited by adenosine triphospate (ATP). An important role of setting the resting membrane potential and controlling the basal excitability of neurons has been suggested for these channels. In addition, no specific blockers for these channels are known up to the present. With the purpose of studying the pharmacological characteristics of Slick and Slack channels, the effects of exposure to the antiarrhythmic compound clofilium were evaluated. Clofilium was able to modulate the activity of Slick and Slack channels effectively, with a stronger effect on Slack than Slick channels. In order to evaluate the pharmacological behavior of Slick and Slack channels further, 38 commonly used potassium channel blockers were tested. Screening of these compounds did not reveal any modulators of Slick and Slack channels, except for clofilium. The present study provides a first approach towards elucidating the pharmacological characteristics of Slick and Slack channels and could be the basis for future studies aimed at developing potent and specific blockers and activators for these channels. PMID:23271893

  7. Channels and Erosion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 20 June 2003

    The dissected and eroded channel observed in this THEMIS image taken of plains materials southwest of the volcano Elysium Mons shows typical erosional islands and depositional features. The interesting thing about this channel is that it appears to start out of nowhere. The MOLA context image shows that the channel originates from a fissure within the ground, whose origin is likely volcanic, but may also be related to volatile processes.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 19.5, Longitude 126.8 East (233.2 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  8. Policy Problematization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, P. Taylor

    2014-01-01

    This article places Michel Foucault's concept of "problematization" in relation to educational policy research. My goal is to examine a key assumption of policy related to "solving problems" through such technologies. I discuss the potential problematization has to alter conceptions of policy research; and, through this…

  9. Geoscience and Public Policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, K. S.

    2013-12-01

    Many current public policy issues have a geoscience component: climate change, natural hazards, energy, and mineral resources to name just a few. In addition, Congress makes decisions that directly affect scientists, such as funding allocations and visa and travel policy. Yet few geoscientists are engaged in the policy-making process. Members of Congress have called on scientists to become more active, including Ph.D. physicist and former-Representative Vernon Ehlers (R-MI). In an address at the 2010 AAAS Forum on Science and Technology Policy, he told scientists, "The gulf between the scientifically minded and those who are not scientifically minded is still tremendous. I think we are keeping far too quiet about what we know and how we would go about solving problems. We have so much to offer this country à solutions to various difficulties." This talk will provide information on avenues for geoscientists to more effectively engage in the public policy arena.

  10. Public Policy Seminar from a Black Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Black Child Development Inst., Inc., Washington, DC.

    This report describes the first Public Policy Seminar, sponsored by the Black Child Development Institute in the summer of 1972. The seminar was designed to provide the opportunity for information-sharing, awareness of federal policy making, and a channel for minorities involved in child development at the community level to exert pressure and…

  11. Equalization in redundant channels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tulpule, Bhalchandra R. (Inventor); Collins, Robert E. (Inventor); Cominelli, Donald F. (Inventor); O'Neill, Richard D. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    A miscomparison between a channel's configuration data base and a voted system configuration data base in a redundant channel system having identically operating, frame synchronous channels triggers autoequalization of the channel's historical signal data bases in a hierarchical, chronological manner with that of a correctly operating channel. After equalization, symmetrization of the channel's configuration data base with that of the system permits upgrading of the previously degraded channel to full redundancy. An externally provided equalization command, e.g., manually actuated, can also trigger equalization.

  12. Bursty channel errors and the Viterbi decoder. [for high rate digit data channels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ingels, F.

    1978-01-01

    Recent applications have developed for spread spectrum communications, hardware data transfer, high rate digital systems, etc. that use channels for which errors tend to occur in short bursts in addition to those at random, i.e., compound channels. Viterbi decoding algorithms are generally very good for random error channels but are not as efficient for burst errors or for compound channels. This paper presents the results of a computer simulation study of the performance of various Viterbi decoders when receiving data corrupted with burst and random errors on the same channel. Simulations were performed using hard-decision CPSK.

  13. Channel nut tool

    DOEpatents

    Olson, Marvin

    2016-01-12

    A method, system, and apparatus for installing channel nuts includes a shank, a handle formed on a first end of a shank, and an end piece with a threaded shaft configured to receive a channel nut formed on the second end of the shaft. The tool can be used to insert or remove a channel nut in a channel framing system and then removed from the channel nut.

  14. Age of Martian channels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malin, M. C.

    1976-01-01

    The ages of large Martian channels have been studied by determining the relative abundances of craters superimposed on channels and adjacent terrains and by examining superposition relationships between channels and plains and mantle materials. The channels are extremely old, are spatially confined and temporally related to the ancient cratered terrain, and in many cases are related to the as yet poorly understood genetic processes of fretting and chaos formation. No evidence is found for recent channel activity.

  15. Opening the shaker K+ channel with hanatoxin.

    PubMed

    Milescu, Mirela; Lee, Hwa C; Bae, Chan Hyung; Kim, Jae Il; Swartz, Kenton J

    2013-02-01

    Voltage-activated ion channels open and close in response to changes in membrane voltage, a property that is fundamental to the roles of these channels in electrical signaling. Protein toxins from venomous organisms commonly target the S1-S4 voltage-sensing domains in these channels and modify their gating properties. Studies on the interaction of hanatoxin with the Kv2.1 channel show that this tarantula toxin interacts with the S1-S4 domain and inhibits opening by stabilizing a closed state. Here we investigated the interaction of hanatoxin with the Shaker Kv channel, a voltage-activated channel that has been extensively studied with biophysical approaches. In contrast to what is observed in the Kv2.1 channel, we find that hanatoxin shifts the conductance-voltage relation to negative voltages, making it easier to open the channel with membrane depolarization. Although these actions of the toxin are subtle in the wild-type channel, strengthening the toxin-channel interaction with mutations in the S3b helix of the S1-S4 domain enhances toxin affinity and causes large shifts in the conductance-voltage relationship. Using a range of previously characterized mutants of the Shaker Kv channel, we find that hanatoxin stabilizes an activated conformation of the voltage sensors, in addition to promoting opening through an effect on the final opening transition. Chimeras in which S3b-S4 paddle motifs are transferred between Kv2.1 and Shaker Kv channels, as well as experiments with the related tarantula toxin GxTx-1E, lead us to conclude that the actions of tarantula toxins are not simply a product of where they bind to the channel, but that fine structural details of the toxin-channel interface determine whether a toxin is an inhibitor or opener. PMID:23359283

  16. Automated Parallel Recordings of Topologically Identified Single Ion Channels

    PubMed Central

    Kawano, Ryuji; Tsuji, Yutaro; Sato, Koji; Osaki, Toshihisa; Kamiya, Koki; Hirano, Minako; Ide, Toru; Miki, Norihisa; Takeuchi, Shoji

    2013-01-01

    Although ion channels are attractive targets for drug discovery, the systematic screening of ion channel-targeted drugs remains challenging. To facilitate automated single ion-channel recordings for the analysis of drug interactions with the intra- and extracellular domain, we have developed a parallel recording methodology using artificial cell membranes. The use of stable lipid bilayer formation in droplet chamber arrays facilitated automated, parallel, single-channel recording from reconstituted native and mutated ion channels. Using this system, several types of ion channels, including mutated forms, were characterised by determining the protein orientation. In addition, we provide evidence that both intra- and extracellular amyloid-beta fragments directly inhibit the channel open probability of the hBK channel. This automated methodology provides a high-throughput drug screening system for the targeting of ion channels and a data-intensive analysis technique for studying ion channel gating mechanisms. PMID:23771282

  17. Microfluidic channel fabrication method

    DOEpatents

    Arnold, Don W.; Schoeniger, Joseph S.; Cardinale, Gregory F.

    2001-01-01

    A new channel structure for microfluidic systems and process for fabricating this structure. In contrast to the conventional practice of fabricating fluid channels as trenches or grooves in a substrate, fluid channels are fabricated as thin walled raised structures on a substrate. Microfluidic devices produced in accordance with the invention are a hybrid assembly generally consisting of three layers: 1) a substrate that can or cannot be an electrical insulator; 2) a middle layer, that is an electrically conducting material and preferably silicon, forms the channel walls whose height defines the channel height, joined to and extending from the substrate; and 3) a top layer, joined to the top of the channels, that forms a cover for the channels. The channels can be defined by photolithographic techniques and are produced by etching away the material around the channel walls.

  18. Gramicidin Channels: Versatile Tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersen, Olaf S.; Koeppe, Roger E., II; Roux, Benoît

    Gramicidin channels are miniproteins in which two tryptophan-rich subunits associate by means of transbilayer dimerization to form the conducting channels. That is, in contrast to other ion channels, gramicidin channels do not open and close; they appear and disappear. Each subunit in the bilayer-spanning channel is tied to the bilayer/solution interface through hydrogen bonds that involve the indole NH groups as donors andwater or the phospholipid backbone as acceptors. The channel's permeability characteristics are well-defined: gramicidin channels are selective for monovalent cations, with no measurable permeability to anions or polyvalent cations; ions and water move through a pore whose wall is formed by the peptide backbone; and the single-channel conductance and cation selectivity vary when the amino acid sequence is varied, even though the permeating ions make no contact with the amino acid side chains. Given the plethora of available experimental information—for not only the wild-type channels but also for channels formed by amino acid-substituted gramicidin analogues—gramicidin channels continue to provide important insights into the microphysics of ion permeation through bilayer-spanning channels. For similar reasons, gramicidin channels constitute a system of choice for evaluating computational strategies for obtaining mechanistic insights into ion permeation through the more complex channels formed by integral membrane proteins.

  19. Transient Receptor Potential Channels in the Vasculature

    PubMed Central

    Earley, Scott; Brayden, Joseph E.

    2015-01-01

    The mammalian genome encodes 28 distinct members of the transient receptor potential (TRP) superfamily of cation channels, which exhibit varying degrees of selectivity for different ionic species. Multiple TRP channels are present in all cells and are involved in diverse aspects of cellular function, including sensory perception and signal transduction. Notably, TRP channels are involved in regulating vascular function and pathophysiology, the focus of this review. TRP channels in vascular smooth muscle cells participate in regulating contractility and proliferation, whereas endothelial TRP channel activity is an important contributor to endothelium-dependent vasodilation, vascular wall permeability, and angiogenesis. TRP channels are also present in perivascular sensory neurons and astrocytic endfeet proximal to cerebral arterioles, where they participate in the regulation of vascular tone. Almost all of these functions are mediated by changes in global intracellular Ca2+ levels or subcellular Ca2+ signaling events. In addition to directly mediating Ca2+ entry, TRP channels influence intracellular Ca2+ dynamics through membrane depolarization associated with the influx of cations or through receptor- or store-operated mechanisms. Dysregulation of TRP channels is associated with vascular-related pathologies, including hypertension, neointimal injury, ischemia-reperfusion injury, pulmonary edema, and neurogenic inflammation. In this review, we briefly consider general aspects of TRP channel biology and provide an in-depth discussion of the functions of TRP channels in vascular smooth muscle cells, endothelial cells, and perivascular cells under normal and pathophysiological conditions. PMID:25834234

  20. Water permeation through a charged channel.

    PubMed

    Hao, Liang; Su, Jiaye; Guo, Hongxia

    2013-06-27

    Transport properties of water molecules through hydrophobic channels have been explored extensively in recent years; however, our knowledge about the transport properties of hydrophilic channels is still rather poor. Herein, we use molecular dynamics simulations to study the permeation of water molecules through a charged channel. For comparison, we first consider the pristine hydrophobic channel without charge, and we find an analytic expression that can predict the water flow through it. For uniformly charged channels, with the increase of charge density, the water flow decreases, due to the increase of roughness in the free energy profile experienced by a water molecule along the channel; while the ion flow exhibits a maximum, because of the competition between the increasing ion number and ion-channel attraction. Surprisingly, the water occupancy for positive and negative channels varies in the opposite direction, which is strongly related to the excluded volume effect of ions. Additionally, we also discuss the effect of surface charge patterns and channel sizes. These results not only enrich our understanding of the transport properties of hydrophilic channels, but also have deep implications for the design of nanometer water gates.

  1. Cholesterol and Ion Channels

    PubMed Central

    Levitan, Irena; Fang, Yun; Rosenhouse-Dantsker, Avia; Romanenko, Victor

    2010-01-01

    A variety of ion channels, including members of all major ion channel families, have been shown to be regulated by changes in the level of membrane cholesterol and partition into cholesterol-rich membrane domains. In general, several types of cholesterol effects have been described. The most common effect is suppression of channel activity by an increase in membrane cholesterol, an effect that was described for several types of inwardly-rectifying K+ channels, voltage-gated K+ channels, Ca+2 sensitive K+ channels, voltage-gated Na+ channels, N-type voltage-gated Ca+2 channels and volume-regulated anion channels. In contrast, several types of ion channels, such as epithelial amiloride-sensitive Na+ channels and Transient Receptor Potential channels, as well as some of the types of inwardly-rectifying and voltage-gated K+ channels were shown to be inhibited by cholesterol depletion. Cholesterol was also shown to alter the kinetic properties and current-voltage dependence of several voltage-gated channels. Finally, maintaining membrane cholesterol level is required for coupling ion channels to signalling cascades. In terms of the mechanisms, three general mechanisms have been proposed: (i) specific interactions between cholesterol and the channel protein, (ii) changes in the physical properties of the membrane bilayer and (iii) maintaining the scaffolds for protein-protein interactions. The goal of this review is to describe systematically the role of cholesterol in regulation of the major types of ion channels and to discuss these effects in the context of the models proposed. PMID:20213557

  2. Fading channel simulator

    SciTech Connect

    Argo, P.E.; Fitzgerald, T.J.

    1991-12-31

    This invention relates to high frequency (HF) radio signal propagation through fading channels and, more particularly, to simulation of fading channels in order to characterize HF radio system performance in transmitting and receiving signals through such fading channels. Fading channel effects on a transmitted communication signal are simulated with both frequency and time variations using a channel scattering function to affect the transmitted signal. A conventional channel scattering function is converted to a series of channel realizations by multiplying the square root of the channel scattering function by a complex number of which the real and imaginary parts are each independent variables. The two-dimensional inverse-FFT of this complex-valued channel realization yields a matrix of channel coefficients that provide a complete frequency-time description of the channel. The transmitted radio signal is segmented to provide a series of transmitted signal and each segment is subject to FFT to generate a series of signal coefficient matrices. The channel coefficient matrices and signal coefficient matrices are then multiplied and subjected to inverse-FFT to output a signal representing the received affected radio signal. A variety of channel scattering functions can be used to characterize the response of a transmitter-receiver system to such atmospheric effects.

  3. Space Politics and Policy: An Evolutionary Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadeh, Eligar

    2002-01-01

    This paper offers an evolutionary perspective of space policy. It is argued that (1) space policy is evolutionary in that it has responded to dramatic political events, such as the launching of Sputnik and the Cold War, and has undergone dynamic and evolutionary policy changes over the course of the past fifty years of the space-age; and that (2) space policy is an integral part of and interacts with public policy processes in the United States and abroad. To this end, the paper analyzes space policy at several levels of analysis. This includes: (1) historical context, political actors and institutions, political processes, and policy outcomes; (2) the symbiotic relationships between policy and space technology; and (3) future space policy trends and developments likely to occur in the 21st century. A "Space Politics and Policy Framework" is developed in this paper to represent the evolution of space policy. Space policy involves both the process of policy formation and policy change over time (e.g., emergence of commercialization) and the courses of action taken to achieve political (and technological) determined outcomes. The evolution of space policy over time takes place through policy change. On this basis, public policy processes over the course of the space-age have involved the mobilization of governmental resources, actors, and institutions. Concomitantly, nongovernmental actors, such as private corporations and commercial enterprises, increasingly play a role in space. As a result, market factors in addition to political forces influence space policy.

  4. Optimal channels for channelized quadratic estimators.

    PubMed

    Kupinski, Meredith K; Clarkson, Eric

    2016-06-01

    We present a new method for computing optimized channels for estimation tasks that is feasible for high-dimensional image data. Maximum-likelihood (ML) parameter estimates are challenging to compute from high-dimensional likelihoods. The dimensionality reduction from M measurements to L channels is a critical advantage of channelized quadratic estimators (CQEs), since estimating likelihood moments from channelized data requires smaller sample sizes and inverting a smaller covariance matrix is easier. The channelized likelihood is then used to form ML estimates of the parameter(s). In this work we choose an imaging example in which the second-order statistics of the image data depend upon the parameter of interest: the correlation length. Correlation lengths are used to approximate background textures in many imaging applications, and in these cases an estimate of the correlation length is useful for pre-whitening. In a simulation study we compare the estimation performance, as measured by the root-mean-squared error (RMSE), of correlation length estimates from CQE and power spectral density (PSD) distribution fitting. To abide by the assumptions of the PSD method we simulate an ergodic, isotropic, stationary, and zero-mean random process. These assumptions are not part of the CQE formalism. The CQE method assumes a Gaussian channelized likelihood that can be a valid for non-Gaussian image data, since the channel outputs are formed from weighted sums of the image elements. We have shown that, for three or more channels, the RMSE of CQE estimates of correlation length is lower than conventional PSD estimates. We also show that computing CQE by using a standard nonlinear optimization method produces channels that yield RMSE within 2% of the analytic optimum. CQE estimates of anisotropic correlation length estimation are reported to demonstrate this technique on a two-parameter estimation problem. PMID:27409452

  5. Autodirected insertion: preinserted VDAC channels greatly shorten the delay to the insertion of new channels.

    PubMed Central

    Xu, X; Colombini, M

    1997-01-01

    VDAC, a mitochondrial outer membrane channel, has the ability to catalyze and direct the insertion of other VDAC channels into planar phospholipid membranes. The spontaneous rate of insertion of detergent-solubilized VDAC channels into phospholipid membranes is estimated to be 1.5 x 10(-5) channels min-1 micron-2. VDAC channels already in the membrane can increase this rate by a factor of 10(9). The presence of 5 M urea on the opposite side of the membrane increases this 10-fold to 4.5 x 10(5) channels min-1 microns-2. Similar but weaker effects are observed with Triton X100 addition (10(-3)% (v/v)). These agents are not acting on uninserted channels because they do not affect the delay from sample addition to first insertion. Under the chosen conditions, this delay is long (240 s) without preinserted channels. However, the presence of a few VDAC channels in the membrane reduces this delay to 14 s, close to the diffusion limit. Therefore, urea and Triton, added to the side of the membrane opposite that to which the VDAC sample was added, likely increase the flexibility of the VDAC channels in the membrane, allowing them to be more efficient catalysts for VDAC insertion. There are obvious implications for membrane protein insertion and targeting. PMID:9129814

  6. Language Policies in the Philippines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goulet, Rosalina Morales

    1985-01-01

    Filipinos speak more than a hundred different languages, 10 to 15 of which are major. In addition, the Philippines was occupied by two foreign powers, each speaking a different language, i.e., Spanish and English. This situation has resulted in a number of different language policies throughout the country's history. These policies are discussed.…

  7. Ion channels and cancer.

    PubMed

    Kunzelmann, Karl

    2005-06-01

    Membrane ion channels are essential for cell proliferation and appear to have a role in the development of cancer. This has initially been demonstrated for potassium channels and is meanwhile also suggested for other cation channels and Cl- channels. For some of these channels, like voltage-gated ether à go-go and Ca2+-dependent potassium channels as well as calcium and chloride channels, a cell cycle-dependent function has been demonstrated. Along with other membrane conductances, these channels control the membrane voltage and Ca2+ signaling in proliferating cells. Homeostatic parameters, such as the intracellular ion concentration, cytosolic pH and cell volume, are also governed by the activity of ion channels. Thus it will be an essential task for future studies to unravel cell cycle-specific effects of ion channels and non-specific homeostatic functions. When studying the role of ion channels in cancer cells, it is indispensable to choose experimental conditions that come close to the in vivo situation. Thus, environmental parameters, such as low oxygen pressure, acidosis and exposure to serum proteins, have to be taken into account. In order to achieve clinical application, more studies on the original cancer tissue are required, and improved animal models. Finally, it will be essential to generate more potent and specific inhibitors of ion channels to overcome the shortcomings of some of the current approaches.

  8. Young Channel, Old Crater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 18 March 2004

    The Odyssey spacecraft has completed a full Mars year of observations of the red planet. For the next several weeks the Image of the Day will look back over this first mars year. It will focus on four themes: 1) the poles - with the seasonal changes seen in the retreat and expansion of the caps; 2) craters - with a variety of morphologies relating to impact materials and later alteration, both infilling and exhumation; 3) channels - the clues to liquid surface flow; and 4) volcanic flow features. While some images have helped answer questions about the history of Mars, many have raised new questions that are still being investigated as Odyssey continues collecting data as it orbits Mars.

    Infrared images taken during the daytime exhibit both the morphological and thermophysical properties of the surface of Mars. Morphologic details are visible due to the effect of sun-facing slopes receiving more energy than antisun-facing slopes. This creates a warm (bright) slope and cool (dark) slope appearance that mimics the light and shadows of a visible wavelength image. Thermophysical properties are seen in that dust heats up more quickly than rocks. Thus dusty areas are bright and rocky areas are dark.

    This daytime IR image was collected on February 3, 2003 during the northern summer season. This image shows a younger channel cutting through an older crater.

    Image information: IR instrument. Latitude 30.8, Longitude 19 East (341 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System

  9. Channel Floor Yardangs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 19 July 2004 The atmosphere of Mars is a dynamic system. Water-ice clouds, fog, and hazes can make imaging the surface from space difficult. Dust storms can grow from local disturbances to global sizes, through which imaging is impossible. Seasonal temperature changes are the usual drivers in cloud and dust storm development and growth.

    Eons of atmospheric dust storm activity has left its mark on the surface of Mars. Dust carried aloft by the wind has settled out on every available surface; sand dunes have been created and moved by centuries of wind; and the effect of continual sand-blasting has modified many regions of Mars, creating yardangs and other unusual surface forms.

    The yardangs in this image are forming in channel floor deposits. The channel itself is funneling the wind to cause the erosion.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 4.5, Longitude 229.7 East (133.3 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are

  10. Differential Effects of TRPA and TRPV Channels on Behaviors of Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Thies, Jennifer; Neutzler, Vanessa; O’Leary, Fidelma; Liu, He

    2016-01-01

    TRPA and TRPV ion channels are members of the transient receptor potential (TRP) cation channel superfamily, which mediates various sensory transductions. In Caenorhabditis elegans, the TRPV channels are known to affect chemosensation, while the TRPA-1 channel is associated with thermosensation and mechanosensation. We examined thermosensation, chemosensation, and osmosensation in strains lacking TRPA-1 or TRPV channels. We found that TRPV channel knockout worms exhibited similar behavioral deficits associated with thermotaxis as the TRPA-1 channel knockout, suggesting a dual role for TRPV channels. In contrast, chemosensation responses, assessed by both avoidance reversal behavior and NaCl osmosensation, were dependent on TRPV channels but seemed independent of TRPA-1 channel. Our findings suggest that, in addition to TRPA-1 channel, TRPV channels are necessary for thermotaxis and may activate, or modulate, the function of TRPA-1 channels. In contrast, TRPA-1 channels do not have a dual responsibility, as they have no functional role in odorant avoidance or osmosensation. PMID:27168724

  11. Differential Effects of TRPA and TRPV Channels on Behaviors of Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Thies, Jennifer; Neutzler, Vanessa; O'Leary, Fidelma; Liu, He

    2016-01-01

    TRPA and TRPV ion channels are members of the transient receptor potential (TRP) cation channel superfamily, which mediates various sensory transductions. In Caenorhabditis elegans, the TRPV channels are known to affect chemosensation, while the TRPA-1 channel is associated with thermosensation and mechanosensation. We examined thermosensation, chemosensation, and osmosensation in strains lacking TRPA-1 or TRPV channels. We found that TRPV channel knockout worms exhibited similar behavioral deficits associated with thermotaxis as the TRPA-1 channel knockout, suggesting a dual role for TRPV channels. In contrast, chemosensation responses, assessed by both avoidance reversal behavior and NaCl osmosensation, were dependent on TRPV channels but seemed independent of TRPA-1 channel. Our findings suggest that, in addition to TRPA-1 channel, TRPV channels are necessary for thermotaxis and may activate, or modulate, the function of TRPA-1 channels. In contrast, TRPA-1 channels do not have a dual responsibility, as they have no functional role in odorant avoidance or osmosensation. PMID:27168724

  12. Quasi-superactivation for the classical capacity of quantum channels

    SciTech Connect

    Gyongyosi, Laszlo; Imre, Sandor

    2014-12-04

    The superactivation effect has its roots in the extreme violation of additivity of the channel capacity and enables to reliably transmit quantum information over zero-capacity quantum channels. In this work we demonstrate a similar effect for the classical capacity of a quantum channel which previously was thought to be impossible.

  13. Mass conservation: 1-D open channel flow equations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeLong, Lewis L.

    1989-01-01

    Unsteady flow simulation in natural rivers is often complicated by meandering channels of compound section. Hydraulic properties and the length of the wetted channel may vary significantly as a meandering river inundates its adjacent floodplain. The one-dimensional, unsteady, open-channel flow equations can be extended to simulate floods in channels of compound section. It will be shown that equations derived from the addition of differential equations individually describing flow in main and overbank channels do not in general conserve mass when overbank and main channels are of different lengths.

  14. Fuel cell collector plates with improved mass transfer channels

    SciTech Connect

    Gurau, Vladimir; Barbir, Frano; Neutzler, Jay K.

    2003-04-22

    A fuel cell collector plate can be provided with one or more various channel constructions for the transport of reactants to the gas diffusion layer and the removal of water therefrom. The outlet channel can be arranged to have a reduced volume compared to the inlet channel, in both interdigitated and discontinuous spiral applications. The land width between an inlet channel and outlet channel can be reduced to improved mass flow rate in regions of deleted reactant concentrations. Additionally or alternatively, the depth of the inlet channel can be reduced in the direction of flow to reduce the diffusion path as the concentration of reactant is reduced.

  15. Ion channels in plants

    PubMed Central

    Baluška, František; Mancuso, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    In his recent opus magnum review paper published in the October issue of Physiology Reviews, Rainer Hedrich summarized the field of plant ion channels.1 He started from the earliest electric recordings initiated by Charles Darwin of carnivorous Dionaea muscipula,1,2 known as Venus flytrap, and covered the topic extensively up to the most recent discoveries on Shaker-type potassium channels, anion channels of SLAC/SLAH families, and ligand-activated channels of glutamate receptor-like type (GLR) and cyclic nucleotide-gated channels (CNGC).1 PMID:23221742

  16. Cardiac ion channels

    PubMed Central

    Priest, Birgit T; McDermott, Jeff S

    2015-01-01

    Ion channels are critical for all aspects of cardiac function, including rhythmicity and contractility. Consequently, ion channels are key targets for therapeutics aimed at cardiac pathophysiologies such as atrial fibrillation or angina. At the same time, off-target interactions of drugs with cardiac ion channels can be the cause of unwanted side effects. This manuscript aims to review the physiology and pharmacology of key cardiac ion channels. The intent is to highlight recent developments for therapeutic development, as well as elucidate potential mechanisms for drug-induced cardiac side effects, rather than present an in-depth review of each channel subtype. PMID:26556552

  17. Current recordings of ion channel proteins immobilized on resin beads.

    PubMed

    Hirano, Minako; Takeuchi, Yuko; Aoki, Takaaki; Yanagida, Toshio; Ide, Toru

    2009-04-15

    Current ion channel current measurement techniques are cumbersome, as they require many steps and much time. This is especially true when reconstituting channels into liposomes and incorporating them into lipid bilayers. Here, we report a novel method that measures ion channel current more efficiently than current methods. We applied our method to KcsA and MthK channels by binding them to cobalt affinity gel beads with histidine tags and then forming a lipid bilayer membrane on the bead. This allowed channels to incorporate into the bilayer and channel currents to be measured quickly and easily. The efficiency was such that currents could be recorded with extremely low amounts of protein. In addition, the channel direction could be determined by the histidine tag. This method has the potential to be applied to various channel proteins and channel research in general.

  18. 7 CFR 1735.18 - Additional equity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Additional equity. 1735.18 Section 1735.18 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... Basic Policies § 1735.18 Additional equity. If determined by the Administrator to be necessary for...

  19. 7 CFR 1735.18 - Additional equity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Additional equity. 1735.18 Section 1735.18 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... Basic Policies § 1735.18 Additional equity. If determined by the Administrator to be necessary for...

  20. 15 CFR 292.6 - Additional requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Additional requirements. 292.6 Section 292.6 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade NATIONAL INSTITUTE... PARTNERSHIP; INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS § 292.6 Additional requirements. Federal policies...

  1. 15 CFR 292.6 - Additional requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Additional requirements. 292.6 Section 292.6 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade NATIONAL INSTITUTE... PARTNERSHIP; INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS § 292.6 Additional requirements. Federal policies...

  2. 15 CFR 292.6 - Additional requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Additional requirements. 292.6 Section 292.6 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade NATIONAL INSTITUTE... PARTNERSHIP; INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS § 292.6 Additional requirements. Federal policies...

  3. 15 CFR 292.6 - Additional requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Additional requirements. 292.6 Section 292.6 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade NATIONAL INSTITUTE... PARTNERSHIP; INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS § 292.6 Additional requirements. Federal policies...

  4. Historic channel change along Soldier Creek, Northeast Kansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Juracek, K.E.

    2002-01-01

    To assess historical channel change along Soldier Creek, northeast Kansas, available information from eight U.S. Geological Survey streamflow-gaging stations was analyzed. At each gaging station, channel change was assessed using channel-bed elevation as the primary indicator variable. Changes in channel-bed elevation were inferred from changes in the stage associated with the mean annual discharge at each station. The variables channel width, channel area, and streamflow velocity were used as additional indicators of change. Results indicated that the most substantial channel changes occurred downstream from Rocky Ford at the Soldier Creek streamflow-gaging stations located near Topeka and Delia. The available evidence indicated that the channelization of Soldier Creek, completed in 1961, was likely the primary cause of the channel changes at these locations. The decreasing base level provided by the Kansas River also may have contributed to the channel changes at these locations. At the Soldier Creek gaging station near Topeka, immediate effects of the channelization included a decrease in channel-bed elevation of about 5 feet and an increase in channel width of about 35 feet. The instability introduced by the channelization caused channel-bed degradation that moved upstream at the rate of about 0.7 to 1.2 miles per year. At the Soldier Creek gaging station near Delia, located about 12 miles upstream from the upstream end of the channelized section, channel-bed degradation began during the 1970s and resulted in a net decrease in channel-bed elevation of about 5 feet by 1999. The available evidence indicated that Soldier Creek at and upstream from Rocky Ford has not been substantially affected by the upstream-progressing channel-bed degradation as of 2001. In this part of the basin other causes of channel change, such as land use and floods, may be relatively more important.

  5. C. elegans TRP channels.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Rui; Xu, X Z Shawn

    2011-01-01

    Transient receptor potential (TRP) channels represent a superfamily of cation channels found in all eukaryotes. The C. elegans genome encodes seventeen TRP channels covering all of the seven TRP subfamilies. Genetic analyses in C. elegans have implicated TRP channels in a wide spectrum of behavioral and physiological processes, ranging from sensory transduction (e.g. chemosensation, touch sensation, proprioception and osmosensation) to fertilization, drug dependence, organelle biogenesis, apoptosis, gene expression, and neurotransmitter/hormone release. Many C. elegans TRP channels share similar activation and regulatory mechanisms with their vertebrate counterparts. Studies in C. elegans have also revealed some previously unrecognized functions and regulatory mechanisms of TRP channels. C. elegans represents an excellent genetic model organism for the study of function and regulation of TRP channels in vivo. PMID:21290304

  6. Mechanically Activated Ion Channels

    PubMed Central

    Ranade, Sanjeev S.; Syeda, Ruhma; Patapoutian, Ardem

    2015-01-01

    Mechanotransduction, the conversion of physical forces into biochemical signals, is an essential component of numerous physiological processes including not only conscious senses of touch and hearing, but also unconscious senses such as blood pressure regulation. Mechanically activated (MA) ion channels have been proposed as sensors of physical force, but the identity of these channels and an understanding of how mechanical force is transduced has remained elusive. A number of recent studies on previously known ion channels along with the identification of novel MA ion channels have greatly transformed our understanding of touch and hearing in both vertebrates and invertebrates. Here, we present an updated review of eukaryotic ion channel families that have been implicated in mechanotransduction processes and evaluate the qualifications of the candidate genes according to specified criteria. We then discuss the proposed gating models for MA ion channels and highlight recent structural studies of mechanosensitive potassium channels. PMID:26402601

  7. C. elegans TRP channels

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Rui; Xu, X.Z. Shawn

    2010-01-01

    TRP (transient receptor potential) channels represent a superfamily of cation channels found in all eukaryotes. The C. elegans genome encodes seventeen TRP channels covering all of the seven TRP subfamilies. Genetic analyses in C. elegans have implicated TRP channels in a wide spectrum of behavioral and physiological processes, ranging from sensory transduction (e.g. chemosensation, touch sensation, proprioception and osmosensation) to fertilization, drug dependence, organelle biogenesis, apoptosis, gene expression, and neurotransmitter/hormone release. Many C. elegans TRP channels share similar activation and regulatory mechanisms with their vertebrate counterparts. Studies in C. elegans have also revealed some previously unrecognized functions and regulatory mechanisms of TRP channels. C. elegans represents an excellent genetic model organism for the study of function and regulation of TRP channels in vivo. PMID:21290304

  8. The multiparty coherent channel and its implementation with linear optics.

    PubMed

    He, Guangqiang; Liu, Taizhi; Tao, Xin

    2013-08-26

    The continuous-variable coherent (conat) channel is a useful resource for coherent communication, supporting coherent teleportation and coherent superdense coding. We extend the conat channel to multiparty conditions by proposing definitions on multiparty position-quadrature and momentum-quadrature conat channel. We additionally provide two methods to implement this channel using linear optics. One method is the multiparty version of coherent communication assisted by entanglement and classical communication (CCAECC). The other is multiparty coherent superdense coding. PMID:24105527

  9. Fading channel simulator

    DOEpatents

    Argo, Paul E.; Fitzgerald, T. Joseph

    1993-01-01

    Fading channel effects on a transmitted communication signal are simulated with both frequency and time variations using a channel scattering function to affect the transmitted signal. A conventional channel scattering function is converted to a series of channel realizations by multiplying the square root of the channel scattering function by a complex number of which the real and imaginary parts are each independent variables. The two-dimensional inverse-FFT of this complex-valued channel realization yields a matrix of channel coefficients that provide a complete frequency-time description of the channel. The transmitted radio signal is segmented to provide a series of transmitted signal and each segment is subject to FFT to generate a series of signal coefficient matrices. The channel coefficient matrices and signal coefficient matrices are then multiplied and subjected to inverse-FFT to output a signal representing the received affected radio signal. A variety of channel scattering functions can be used to characterize the response of a transmitter-receiver system to such atmospheric effects.

  10. Regulation of Ion Channels by Pyridine Nucleotides

    PubMed Central

    Kilfoil, Peter J.; Tipparaju, Srinivas M.; Barski, Oleg A.; Bhatnagar, Aruni

    2014-01-01

    Recent research suggests that in addition to their role as soluble electron carriers, pyridine nucleotides [NAD(P)(H)] also regulate ion transport mechanisms. This mode of regulation seems to have been conserved through evolution. Several bacterial ion–transporting proteins or their auxiliary subunits possess nucleotide-binding domains. In eukaryotes, the Kv1 and Kv4 channels interact with pyridine nucleotide–binding β-subunits that belong to the aldo-keto reductase superfamily. Binding of NADP+ to Kvβ removes N-type inactivation of Kv currents, whereas NADPH stabilizes channel inactivation. Pyridine nucleotides also regulate Slo channels by interacting with their cytosolic regulator of potassium conductance domains that show high sequence homology to the bacterial TrkA family of K+ transporters. These nucleotides also have been shown to modify the activity of the plasma membrane KATP channels, the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator, the transient receptor potential M2 channel, and the intracellular ryanodine receptor calcium release channels. In addition, pyridine nucleotides also modulate the voltage-gated sodium channel by supporting the activity of its ancillary subunit—the glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase-like protein. Moreover, the NADP+ metabolite, NAADP+, regulates intracellular calcium homeostasis via the 2-pore channel, ryanodine receptor, or transient receptor potential M2 channels. Regulation of ion channels by pyridine nucleotides may be required for integrating cell ion transport to energetics and for sensing oxygen levels or metabolite availability. This mechanism also may be an important component of hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction, memory, and circadian rhythms, and disruption of this regulatory axis may be linked to dysregulation of calcium homeostasis and cardiac arrhythmias. PMID:23410881

  11. Population policy.

    PubMed

    1987-03-01

    Participants in the Seminar on Population Policies for Top-level Policy Makers and Program Managers, meeting in Thailand during January 1987, examined the challenges now facing them regarding the implementation of fertility regulation programs in their respective countries -- Bangladesh, China, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Nepal, Pakistan, the Philippines, the Republic of Korea, and Thailand. This Seminar was organized to coincide with the completion of an Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) study investigating the impact and efficiency of family planning programs in the region. Country studies were reviewed at the Seminar along with policy issues about the status of women, incentive and disincentive programs, and socioeconomic factors affecting fertility. In Bangladesh the government recognizes population growth as its top priority problem related to the socioeconomic development of the country and is working to promote a reorientation strategy from the previous clinic-oriented to a multidimensional family welfare program. China's family planning program seeks to postpone marraige, space the births of children between 3-5 years, and promote the 1-child family. Its goal is to reduce the rate of natural increase from 12/1000 in 1978 to 5/1000 by 1985 and 0 by 2000. India's 7th Five-Year-Plan (1986-90) calls for establishing a 2-child family norm by 2000. In Indonesia the government's population policy includes reducing the rate of population growth, achieving a redistribution of the population, adjusting economic factors, and creating prosperous families. The government of Indonesia reversed its policy to reduce the population growth rate in 1984 and announced its goal of achieving a population of 70 million by 2100 in order to support mass consumption industries. It has created an income tax deduction system favoring large families and maternity benefits for women who have up to 5 children as incentives. Nepal's official policy is to

  12. 48 CFR 2937.203 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... can be contacted for additional Information. (6) A statement that the Government policy on advisory... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2013-10-01 2012-10-01 true Policy. 2937.203 Section... SERVICE CONTRACTING Advisory and Assistance Services 2937.203 Policy. (a) HCAs having a requirement...

  13. 48 CFR 2937.203 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... can be contacted for additional Information. (6) A statement that the Government policy on advisory... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Policy. 2937.203 Section... SERVICE CONTRACTING Advisory and Assistance Services 2937.203 Policy. (a) HCAs having a requirement...

  14. 48 CFR 2937.203 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... can be contacted for additional Information. (6) A statement that the Government policy on advisory... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Policy. 2937.203 Section... SERVICE CONTRACTING Advisory and Assistance Services 2937.203 Policy. (a) HCAs having a requirement...

  15. 48 CFR 2937.203 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... can be contacted for additional Information. (6) A statement that the Government policy on advisory... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Policy. 2937.203 Section... SERVICE CONTRACTING Advisory and Assistance Services 2937.203 Policy. (a) HCAs having a requirement...

  16. 78 FR 5838 - NRC Enforcement Policy

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-28

    ... September 30, 2010 (75 FR 60485), the NRC published the revised Policy in the Federal Register. In addition... Register on September 6, 2011 (76 FR 54986), and December 6, 2011 (76 FR 76192). III. Summary of... COMMISSION NRC Enforcement Policy AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Policy revision;...

  17. School Boards as Policy-Makers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Peter

    Decision-making in general and policy decisions in particular are the prime responsibility of school boards because policies are control mechanisms by which trustees assert local control. Policy decisions differ from others in their concern with values and purposes and the legitimization of the organization to society at large. Additionally, they…

  18. 32 CFR 290.4 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... PROGRAM DEFENSE CONTRACT AUDIT AGENCY (DCAA) FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT PROGRAM § 290.4 Policy. Agency policy and procedures are those cited in DoD 5400.7-R. In addition, DCAA will: (a) Promote public trust... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Policy. 290.4 Section 290.4 National...

  19. Can Nonprivate Channels Transmit Quantum Information?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Graeme; Smolin, John A.

    2009-01-01

    We study the power of quantum channels with little or no capacity for private communication. Because privacy is a necessary condition for quantum communication, one might expect that such channels would be of little use for transmitting quantum states. Nevertheless, we find strong evidence that there are pairs of such channels that, when used together, can transmit far more quantum information than the sum of their individual private capacities. Because quantum transmissions are necessarily private, this would imply a large violation of additivity for the private capacity. Specifically, we present channels which display either (1) a large joint quantum capacity but very small individual private capacities or (2) a severe violation of additivity for the Holevo information.

  20. Jamming in Vertical Channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baxter, G. William; Steel, Fiona

    2011-03-01

    We study jamming of low aspect-ratio cylindrical Delrin grains in a vertical channel. Grain heights are less than their diameter so the grains resemble antacid tablets, coins, or poker chips. These grains are allowed to fall through a vertical channel with a square cross section where the channel width is greater than the diameter of a grain and constant throughout the length of the channel with no obstructions or constrictions. Grains are sometimes observed to form jams, stable structures supported by the channel walls with no support beneath them. The probability of jam occurrence and the strength or robustness of a jam is effected by grain and channel sizes. We will present experimental measurements of the jamming probability and jam strength in this system and discuss the relationship of these results to other experiments and theories. Supported by an Undergraduate Research Grant from Penn State Erie, The Behrend College.

  1. Mechanosensitive channels in microbes.

    PubMed

    Kung, Ching; Martinac, Boris; Sukharev, Sergei

    2010-01-01

    All cells, including microbes, detect and respond to mechanical forces, of which osmotic pressure is most ancient and universal. Channel proteins have evolved such that they can be directly stretched open when the membrane is under turgor pressure. Osmotic downshock, as in rain, opens bacterial mechanosensitive (MS) channels to jettison osmolytes, relieving pressure and preventing cell lysis. The ion flux through individual channel proteins can be observed directly with a patch clamp. MS channels of large and small conductance (MscL and MscS, respectively) have been cloned, crystallized, and subjected to biophysical and genetic analyses in depth. They are now models to scrutinize how membrane forces direct protein conformational changes. Eukaryotic microbes have homologs from animal sensory channels of the TRP superfamily. The MS channel in yeast is also directly sensitive to membrane stretch. This review examines the key concept that proteins embedded in the lipid bilayer can respond to the changes in the mechanical environment the lipid bilayer provides.

  2. Amyloid peptide channels.

    PubMed

    Kagan, B L; Azimov, R; Azimova, R

    2004-11-01

    At least 16 distinct clinical syndromes including Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), rheumatoid arthritis, type II diabetes mellitus (DM), and spongiform encephelopathies (prion diseases), are characterized by the deposition of amorphous, Congo red-staining deposits known as amyloid. These "misfolded" proteins adopt beta-sheet structures and aggregate spontaneously into similar extended fibrils despite their widely divergent primary sequences. Many, if not all, of these peptides are capable of forming ion-permeable channels in vitro and possibly in vivo. Common channel properties include irreversible, spontaneous insertion into membranes, relatively large, heterogeneous single-channel conductances, inhibition of channel formation by Congo red, and blockade of inserted channels by Zn2+. Physiologic effects of amyloid, including Ca2+ dysregulation, membrane depolarization, mitochondrial dysfunction, inhibition of long-term potentiation (LTP), and cytotoxicity, suggest that channel formation in plasma and intracellular membranes may play a key role in the pathophysiology of the amyloidoses. PMID:15702375

  3. Modulation of Potassium Channels Inhibits Bunyavirus Infection*

    PubMed Central

    Hover, Samantha; King, Barnabas; Hall, Bradley; Loundras, Eleni-Anna; Taqi, Hussah; Daly, Janet; Dallas, Mark; Peers, Chris; Schnettler, Esther; McKimmie, Clive; Kohl, Alain; Barr, John N.; Mankouri, Jamel

    2016-01-01

    Bunyaviruses are considered to be emerging pathogens facilitated by the segmented nature of their genome that allows reassortment between different species to generate novel viruses with altered pathogenicity. Bunyaviruses are transmitted via a diverse range of arthropod vectors, as well as rodents, and have established a global disease range with massive importance in healthcare, animal welfare, and economics. There are no vaccines or anti-viral therapies available to treat human bunyavirus infections and so development of new anti-viral strategies is urgently required. Bunyamwera virus (BUNV; genus Orthobunyavirus) is the model bunyavirus, sharing aspects of its molecular and cellular biology with all Bunyaviridae family members. Here, we show for the first time that BUNV activates and requires cellular potassium (K+) channels to infect cells. Time of addition assays using K+ channel modulating agents demonstrated that K+ channel function is critical to events shortly after virus entry but prior to viral RNA synthesis/replication. A similar K+ channel dependence was identified for other bunyaviruses namely Schmallenberg virus (Orthobunyavirus) as well as the more distantly related Hazara virus (Nairovirus). Using a rational pharmacological screening regimen, two-pore domain K+ channels (K2P) were identified as the K+ channel family mediating BUNV K+ channel dependence. As several K2P channel modulators are currently in clinical use, our work suggests they may represent a new and safe drug class for the treatment of potentially lethal bunyavirus disease. PMID:26677217

  4. Modulation of Potassium Channels Inhibits Bunyavirus Infection.

    PubMed

    Hover, Samantha; King, Barnabas; Hall, Bradley; Loundras, Eleni-Anna; Taqi, Hussah; Daly, Janet; Dallas, Mark; Peers, Chris; Schnettler, Esther; McKimmie, Clive; Kohl, Alain; Barr, John N; Mankouri, Jamel

    2016-02-12

    Bunyaviruses are considered to be emerging pathogens facilitated by the segmented nature of their genome that allows reassortment between different species to generate novel viruses with altered pathogenicity. Bunyaviruses are transmitted via a diverse range of arthropod vectors, as well as rodents, and have established a global disease range with massive importance in healthcare, animal welfare, and economics. There are no vaccines or anti-viral therapies available to treat human bunyavirus infections and so development of new anti-viral strategies is urgently required. Bunyamwera virus (BUNV; genus Orthobunyavirus) is the model bunyavirus, sharing aspects of its molecular and cellular biology with all Bunyaviridae family members. Here, we show for the first time that BUNV activates and requires cellular potassium (K(+)) channels to infect cells. Time of addition assays using K(+) channel modulating agents demonstrated that K(+) channel function is critical to events shortly after virus entry but prior to viral RNA synthesis/replication. A similar K(+) channel dependence was identified for other bunyaviruses namely Schmallenberg virus (Orthobunyavirus) as well as the more distantly related Hazara virus (Nairovirus). Using a rational pharmacological screening regimen, two-pore domain K(+) channels (K2P) were identified as the K(+) channel family mediating BUNV K(+) channel dependence. As several K2P channel modulators are currently in clinical use, our work suggests they may represent a new and safe drug class for the treatment of potentially lethal bunyavirus disease.

  5. HIPPI and Fibre Channel

    SciTech Connect

    Tolmie, D.E.

    1992-01-01

    The High-Performance Parallel Interface (HIPPI) and Fibre Channel are near-gigabit per second data communications interfaces being developed in ANSI standards Task Group X3T9.3. HIPPI is the current interface of choice in the high-end and supercomputer arena, and Fibre Channel is a follow-on effort. HIPPI came from a local area network background, and Fibre Channel came from a mainframe to peripheral interface background.

  6. Symmetrization for redundant channels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tulplue, Bhalchandra R. (Inventor); Collins, Robert E. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    A plurality of redundant channels in a system each contain a global image of all the configuration data bases in each of the channels in the system. Each global image is updated periodically from each of the other channels via cross channel data links. The global images of the local configuration data bases in each channel are separately symmetrized using a voting process to generate a system signal configuration data base which is not written into by any other routine and is available for indicating the status of the system within each channel. Equalization may be imposed on a suspect signal and a number of chances for that signal to heal itself are provided before excluding it from future votes. Reconfiguration is accomplished upon detecting a channel which is deemed invalid. A reset function is provided which permits an externally generated reset signal to permit a previously excluded channel to be reincluded within the system. The updating of global images and/or the symmetrization process may be accomplished at substantially the same time within a synchronized time frame common to all channels.

  7. Phosphoinositides regulate ion channels

    PubMed Central

    Hille, Bertil; Dickson, Eamonn J.; Kruse, Martin; Vivas, Oscar; Suh, Byung-Chang

    2014-01-01

    Phosphoinositides serve as signature motifs for different cellular membranes and often are required for the function of membrane proteins. Here, we summarize clear evidence supporting the concept that many ion channels are regulated by membrane phosphoinositides. We describe tools used to test their dependence on phosphoinositides, especially phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate, and consider mechanisms and biological meanings of phosphoinositide regulation of ion channels. This lipid regulation can underlie changes of channel activity and electrical excitability in response to receptors. Since different intracellular membranes have different lipid compositions, the activity of ion channels still in transit towards their final destination membrane may be suppressed until they reach an optimal lipid environment. PMID:25241941

  8. IBEX channel formation

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, E.E.; Frost, C.A.; Freeman, J.R.; Jojola, J.M.

    1987-01-01

    Exploding wire experiments have been conducted to form a low-density channel for endoatmospheric channel-tracking experiments to be performed on the IBEX accelerator. Stainless steel and tungsten wires as small as six microns radius have been exploded using a 50 kJ, 200 kV fast capacitor bank designed and constructed for the purpose. Density channels have been produced. Preliminary results will be compared with a simple circuit model and hydrocode analysis. Efforts to diagnose the low-density channel are beginning. 5 refs.

  9. Neuron Model with Simplified Memristive Ionic Channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hegab, Almoatazbellah M.; Salem, Noha M.; Radwan, Ahmed G.; Chua, Leon

    2015-06-01

    A simplified neuron model is introduced to mimic the action potential generated by the famous Hodgkin-Huxley equations by using the genetic optimization algorithm. Comparison with different neuron models is investigated, and it is confirmed that the sodium and potassium channels in our simplified neuron model are made out of memristors. In addition, the channel equations in the simplified model may be adjusted to introduce a simplified memristor model that is in accordance with the theoretical conditions of the memristive systems.

  10. New observations of sinuous channels on the Amazon Fan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flood, R. D.

    2014-12-01

    High-sinuosity submarine fan channels on the Amazon Fan were first observed using long-range (GLORIA) side-scan sonar in 1982 and mapped in greater detail using multibeam sonar in 1984. These data have provided important insights into the nature and evolution of submarine channel systems. Subsequent studies on the Amazon Fan have focused on avulsion patterns, sedimentation patterns, fan growth and the climate record contained in fan sediments, and there has been relatively little additional work on the details of sinuous channel morphology. Channels on the Amazon Fan have been imaged by multibeam sonar on several occasions since 1984 during focused studies, regional mapping and ship transit. These multibeam data are being compiled and studied to better characterize these iconic channels. One observation of particular interest is that, on the Amazon Fan, channel-wall slumps appear to be more common than previously thought. Drilling of a cut-off meander during ODP Leg 155 on the Amazon Fan showed the presence of slumped material deeper in the channel suggesting that failure of the channel wall was in part responsible for the abandonment and filling of that meander loop. The failure also apparently created a sandy debris flow with clasts of fine-grained levee material transported in a sandy matrix. This sandy debris flow may have been able to flow along the channel and deposit at the seaward end where similar sediments can be found. Disturbed zones now visible on the inner walls of channels at several other places along the channels suggest that these kinds of inner-wall slumps may play important roles in channel evolution and fan growth. Channel-blocking slumps can isolate channel loops which can then fill with sandy sediments, and avulsions are likely if this kind of slump fills the channel. The failure of channel walls can also lead to new channel segments that tend to straighten the channel. Dramatic changes to the shape of the channel can likely lead to large and

  11. A linearization of quantum channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crowder, Tanner

    2015-06-01

    Because the quantum channels form a compact, convex set, we can express any quantum channel as a convex combination of extremal channels. We give a Euclidean representation for the channels whose inverses are also valid channels; these are a subset of the extreme points. They form a compact, connected Lie group, and we calculate its Lie algebra. Lastly, we calculate a maximal torus for the group and provide a constructive approach to decomposing any invertible channel into a product of elementary channels.

  12. Effects of cytokines on potassium channels in renal tubular epithelia.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Kazuyoshi; Komagiri, You; Kubokawa, Manabu

    2012-02-01

    Renal tubular potassium (K(+)) channels play important roles in the formation of cell-negative potential, K(+) recycling, K(+) secretion, and cell volume regulation. In addition to these physiological roles, it was reported that changes in the activity of renal tubular K(+) channels were involved in exacerbation of renal cell injury during ischemia and endotoxemia. Because ischemia and endotoxemia stimulate production of cytokines in immune cells and renal tubular cells, it is possible that cytokines would affect K(+) channel activity. Although the regulatory mechanisms of renal tubular K(+) channels have extensively been studied, little information is available about the effects of cytokines on these K(+) channels. The first report was that tumor necrosis factor acutely stimulated the single channel activity of the 70 pS K(+) channel in the rat thick ascending limb through activation of tyrosine phosphatase. Recently, it was also reported that interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) modulated the activity of the 40 pS K(+) channel in cultured human proximal tubule cells. IFN-γ exhibited a delayed suppression and an acute stimulation of K(+) channel activity, whereas IL-1β acutely suppressed the channel activity. Furthermore, these cytokines suppressed gene expression of the renal outer medullary potassium channel. The renal tubular K(+) channels are functionally coupled to the coexisting transporters. Therefore, the effects of cytokines on renal tubular transporter activity should also be taken into account, when interpreting their effects on K(+) channel activity. PMID:22042037

  13. Ion channels in microbes

    PubMed Central

    Martinac, Boris; Saimi, Yoshiro; Kung, Ching

    2008-01-01

    Summary Studies of ion channels have for long been dominated by the animalcentric, if not anthropocentric view of physiology. The structures and activities of ion channels had, however, evolved long before the appearance of complex multicellular organisms on Earth. The diversity of ion channels existing in cellular membranes of prokaryotes is a good example. Though at first it may appear as a paradox that most of what we know about the structure of eukaryotic ion channels is based on the structure of bacterial channels, this should not be surprising given the evolutionary relatedness of all living organisms and suitability of microbial cells for structural studies of biological macromolecules in a laboratory environment. Genome sequences of the human as well as various microbial, plant and animal organisms unambiguously established the evolutionary links, whereas crystallographic studies of the structures of major types of ion channels published over the last decade clearly demonstrated the advantage of using microbes as experimental organisms. The purpose of this review is not only to provide an account of acquired knowledge on microbial ion channels but also to show that the study of microbes and their ion channels may also hold a key to solving unresolved molecular mysteries in the future. PMID:18923187

  14. Dysfunctional HCN ion channels in neurological diseases

    PubMed Central

    DiFrancesco, Jacopo C.; DiFrancesco, Dario

    2015-01-01

    Hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) channels are expressed as four different isoforms (HCN1-4) in the heart and in the central and peripheral nervous systems. HCN channels are activated by membrane hyperpolarization at voltages close to resting membrane potentials and carry the hyperpolarization-activated current, dubbed If (funny current) in heart and Ih in neurons. HCN channels contribute in several ways to neuronal activity and are responsible for many important cellular functions, including cellular excitability, generation, and modulation of rhythmic activity, dendritic integration, transmission of synaptic potentials, and plasticity phenomena. Because of their role, defective HCN channels are natural candidates in the search for potential causes of neurological disorders in humans. Several data, including growing evidence that some forms of epilepsy are associated with HCN mutations, support the notion of an involvement of dysfunctional HCN channels in different experimental models of the disease. Additionally, some anti-epileptic drugs are known to modify the activity of the Ih current. HCN channels are widely expressed in the peripheral nervous system and recent evidence has highlighted the importance of the HCN2 isoform in the transmission of pain. HCN channels are also present in the midbrain system, where they finely regulate the activity of dopaminergic neurons, and a potential role of these channels in the pathogenesis of Parkinson’s disease has recently emerged. The function of HCN channels is regulated by specific accessory proteins, which control the correct expression and modulation of the neuronal Ih current. Alteration of these proteins can severely interfere with the physiological channel function, potentially predisposing to pathological conditions. In this review we address the present knowledge of the association between HCN dysfunctions and neurological diseases, including clinical, genetic, and physiopathological

  15. How do mechanosensitive channels sense membrane tension?

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Tim

    2016-08-15

    Mechanosensitive (MS) channels provide protection against hypo-osmotic shock in bacteria whereas eukaryotic MS channels fulfil a multitude of important functions beside osmoregulation. Interactions with the membrane lipids are responsible for the sensing of mechanical force for most known MS channels. It emerged recently that not only prokaryotic, but also eukaryotic, MS channels are able to directly sense the tension in the membrane bilayer without any additional cofactor. If the membrane is solely viewed as a continuous medium with specific anisotropic physical properties, the sensitivity towards tension changes can be explained as result of the hydrophobic coupling between membrane and transmembrane (TM) regions of the channel. The increased cross-sectional area of the MS channel in the active conformation and elastic deformations of the membrane close to the channel have been described as important factors. However, recent studies suggest that molecular interactions of lipids with the channels could play an important role in mechanosensation. Pockets in between TM helices were identified in the MS channel of small conductance (MscS) and YnaI that are filled with lipids. Less lipids are present in the open state of MscS than the closed according to MD simulations. Thus it was suggested that exclusion of lipid fatty acyl chains from these pockets, as a consequence of increased tension, would trigger gating. Similarly, in the eukaryotic MS channel TRAAK it was found that a lipid chain blocks the conducting path in the closed state. The role of these specific lipid interactions in mechanosensation are highlighted in this review. PMID:27528747

  16. Generalized channeled polarimetry.

    PubMed

    Alenin, Andrey S; Tyo, J Scott

    2014-05-01

    Channeled polarimeters measure polarization by modulating the measured intensity in order to create polarization-dependent channels that can be demodulated to reveal the desired polarization information. A number of channeled systems have been described in the past, but their proposed designs often unintentionally sacrifice optimality for ease of algebraic reconstruction. To obtain more optimal systems, a generalized treatment of channeled polarimeters is required. This paper describes methods that enable handling of multi-domain modulations and reconstruction of polarization information using linear algebra. We make practical choices regarding use of either Fourier or direct channels to make these methods more immediately useful. Employing the introduced concepts to optimize existing systems often results in superficial system changes, like changing the order, orientation, thickness, or spacing of polarization elements. For the two examples we consider, we were able to reduce noise in the reconstruction to 34.1% and 57.9% of the original design values. PMID:24979633

  17. Athermalized channeled spectropolarimeter enhancement.

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, Julia Craven; Way, Brandyn Michael; Mercier, Jeffrey Alan; Hunt, Jeffery P.

    2013-09-01

    Channeled spectropolarimetry can measure the complete polarization state of light as a function of wavelength. Typically, a channeled spectropolarimeter uses high order retarders made of uniaxial crystal to amplitude modulate the measured spectrum with the spectrally-dependent Stokes polarization information. A primary limitation of conventional channeled spectropolarimeters is related to the thermal variability of the retarders. Thermal variation often forces frequent system recalibration, particularly for field deployed systems. However, implementing thermally stable retarders, made of biaxial crystal, results in an athermal channeled spectropolarimeter that relieves the need for frequent recalibration. This report presents experimental results for an anthermalized channeled spectropolarimeter prototype produced using potassium titanyl phosphate. The results of this prototype are compared to the current thermal stabilization state of the art. Finally, the application of the technique to the thermal infrared is studied, and the athermalization concept is applied to an infrared imaging spectropolarimeter design.

  18. Capacity of very noisy communication channels based on Fisher information

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Fabing; Chapeau-Blondeau, François; Abbott, Derek

    2016-01-01

    We generalize the asymptotic capacity expression for very noisy communication channels to now include coloured noise. For the practical scenario of a non-optimal receiver, we consider the common case of a correlation receiver. Due to the central limit theorem and the cumulative characteristic of a correlation receiver, we model this channel noise as additive Gaussian noise. Then, the channel capacity proves to be directly related to the Fisher information of the noise distribution and the weak signal energy. The conditions for occurrence of a noise-enhanced capacity effect are discussed, and the capacity difference between this noisy communication channel and other nonlinear channels is clarified. PMID:27306041

  19. Capacity of very noisy communication channels based on Fisher information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Fabing; Chapeau-Blondeau, François; Abbott, Derek

    2016-06-01

    We generalize the asymptotic capacity expression for very noisy communication channels to now include coloured noise. For the practical scenario of a non-optimal receiver, we consider the common case of a correlation receiver. Due to the central limit theorem and the cumulative characteristic of a correlation receiver, we model this channel noise as additive Gaussian noise. Then, the channel capacity proves to be directly related to the Fisher information of the noise distribution and the weak signal energy. The conditions for occurrence of a noise-enhanced capacity effect are discussed, and the capacity difference between this noisy communication channel and other nonlinear channels is clarified.

  20. Activation of TRPV1 channels inhibits mechanosensitive Piezo channel activity by depleting membrane phosphoinositides.

    PubMed

    Borbiro, Istvan; Badheka, Doreen; Rohacs, Tibor

    2015-02-10

    Capsaicin is an activator of the heat-sensitive TRPV1 (transient receptor potential vanilloid 1) ion channels and has been used as a local analgesic. We found that activation of TRPV1 channels with capsaicin either in dorsal root ganglion neurons or in a heterologous expression system inhibited the mechanosensitive Piezo1 and Piezo2 channels by depleting phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate [PI(4,5)P2] and its precursor phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate [PI(4)P] from the plasma membrane through Ca(2+)-induced phospholipase Cδ (PLCδ) activation. Experiments with chemically inducible phosphoinositide phosphatases and receptor-induced activation of PLCβ indicated that inhibition of Piezo channels required depletion of both PI(4)P and PI(4,5)P2. The mechanically activated current amplitudes decreased substantially in the excised inside-out configuration, where the membrane patch containing Piezo1 channels is removed from the cell. PI(4,5)P2 and PI(4)P applied to these excised patches inhibited this decrease. Thus, we concluded that Piezo channel activity requires the presence of phosphoinositides, and the combined depletion of PI(4,5)P2 and PI(4)P reduces channel activity. In addition to revealing a role for distinct membrane lipids in mechanosensitive ion channel regulation, these data suggest that inhibition of Piezo2 channels may contribute to the analgesic effect of capsaicin.

  1. Internet Policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehr, William H.; Pupillo, Lorenzo Maria

    The Internet is now widely regarded as essential infrastructure for our global economy and society. It is in our homes and businesses. We use it to communicate and socialize, for research, and as a platform for E-commerce. In the late 1990s, much was predicted about what the Internet has become at present; but now, we have actual experience living with the Internet as a critical component of our everyday lives. Although the Internet has already had profound effects, there is much we have yet to realize. The present volume represents a third installment in a collaborative effort to highlight the all-encompassing, multidisciplinary implications of the Internet for public policy. The first installment was conceived in 1998, when we initiated plans to organize an international conference among academic, industry, and government officials to discuss the growing policy agenda posed by the Internet. The conference was hosted by the European Commission in Brussels in 1999 and brought together a diverse mix of perspectives on what the pressing policy issues would be confronting the Internet. All of the concerns identified remain with us today, including how to address the Digital Divide, how to modify intellectual property laws to accommodate the new realities of the Internet, what to do about Internet governance and name-space management, and how to evolve broadcast and telecommunications regulatory frameworks for a converged world.

  2. Reconstructive techniques for creation of catheterizable channels: tunneled and nipple valve channels

    PubMed Central

    Levy, Mya E.

    2016-01-01

    Cutaneous catheterizable channels allow for continent bladder emptying when an alternate route is desired. The goals of channel creation in the neurogenic bladder population are successful urine elimination, renal preservation, continence and lastly cosmesis. In addition to a particular surgeon’s comfort and experience with a given procedure, individual patient factors such as medical comorbidities, anatomic factors, and occupational function should be central to the selection of a surgical approach. An ideal channel is one that is short, straight, and well supported by associated blood supply and surrounding adventitia, so as to minimize difficulty with catheterization. Two types of channel continence mechanisms are discussed at length in this review—the tunneled channel, and the nipple valve. The appendicovesicostomy (Mitrofanoff), and reconfigured ileum (Yang-Monti) are both tunneled channels. The ileocecal valve is a commonly used nipple valve and provides continence when reinforced. The continent catheterizable ileal cecocystoplasty (CCIC) is an example of this channel technique. This method couples a tapered ileal limb as a catheterizable channel, the ileocecal valve as the continence mechanism, and the cecum and ascending colon as a bladder augmentation. While this procedure has higher perioperative complications relative to a simple tunneled channel, it has increased channel length flexibility and is also coupled with a bladder augment, which is completely performed using one bowel segment. Continent channel creation in adults can improve quality of life and minimize morbidity associated with neurogenic bladder. However, the decision to proceed with creation of a catheterizable channel should be made only after careful consideration of the patient’s medical comorbidities, physical abilities social support, and surgeon experience. PMID:26904419

  3. Reconstructive techniques for creation of catheterizable channels: tunneled and nipple valve channels.

    PubMed

    Levy, Mya E; Elliott, Sean P

    2016-02-01

    Cutaneous catheterizable channels allow for continent bladder emptying when an alternate route is desired. The goals of channel creation in the neurogenic bladder population are successful urine elimination, renal preservation, continence and lastly cosmesis. In addition to a particular surgeon's comfort and experience with a given procedure, individual patient factors such as medical comorbidities, anatomic factors, and occupational function should be central to the selection of a surgical approach. An ideal channel is one that is short, straight, and well supported by associated blood supply and surrounding adventitia, so as to minimize difficulty with catheterization. Two types of channel continence mechanisms are discussed at length in this review-the tunneled channel, and the nipple valve. The appendicovesicostomy (Mitrofanoff), and reconfigured ileum (Yang-Monti) are both tunneled channels. The ileocecal valve is a commonly used nipple valve and provides continence when reinforced. The continent catheterizable ileal cecocystoplasty (CCIC) is an example of this channel technique. This method couples a tapered ileal limb as a catheterizable channel, the ileocecal valve as the continence mechanism, and the cecum and ascending colon as a bladder augmentation. While this procedure has higher perioperative complications relative to a simple tunneled channel, it has increased channel length flexibility and is also coupled with a bladder augment, which is completely performed using one bowel segment. Continent channel creation in adults can improve quality of life and minimize morbidity associated with neurogenic bladder. However, the decision to proceed with creation of a catheterizable channel should be made only after careful consideration of the patient's medical comorbidities, physical abilities social support, and surgeon experience. PMID:26904419

  4. Sodium channel slow inactivation interferes with open channel block

    PubMed Central

    Hampl, Martin; Eberhardt, Esther; O’Reilly, Andrias O.; Lampert, Angelika

    2016-01-01

    Mutations in the voltage-gated sodium channel Nav1.7 are linked to inherited pain syndromes such as erythromelalgia (IEM) and paroxysmal extreme pain disorder (PEPD). PEPD mutations impair Nav1.7 fast inactivation and increase persistent currents. PEPD mutations also increase resurgent currents, which involve the voltage-dependent release of an open channel blocker. In contrast, IEM mutations, whenever tested, leave resurgent currents unchanged. Accordingly, the IEM deletion mutation L955 (ΔL955) fails to produce resurgent currents despite enhanced persistent currents, which have hitherto been considered a prerequisite for resurgent currents. Additionally, ΔL955 exhibits a prominent enhancement of slow inactivation (SI). We introduced mutations into Nav1.7 and Nav1.6 that either enhance or impair SI in order to investigate their effects on resurgent currents. Our results show that enhanced SI is accompanied by impaired resurgent currents, which suggests that SI may interfere with open-channel block. PMID:27174182

  5. 7 CFR 959.120 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Policy. 959.120 Section 959.120 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... of any such onions in trade channels other than those for which intended. Such information...

  6. Inorganic Polyphosphate Modulates TRPM8 Channels

    PubMed Central

    Zakharian, Eleonora; Thyagarajan, Baskaran; French, Robert J.; Pavlov, Evgeny; Rohacs, Tibor

    2009-01-01

    Polyphosphate (polyP) is an inorganic polymer built of tens to hundreds of phosphates, linked by high-energy phosphoanhydride bonds. PolyP forms complexes and modulates activities of many proteins including ion channels. Here we investigated the role of polyP in the function of the transient receptor potential melastatin 8 (TRPM8) channel. Using whole-cell patch-clamp and fluorescent calcium measurements we demonstrate that enzymatic breakdown of polyP by exopolyphosphatase (scPPX1) inhibits channel activity in human embryonic kidney and F-11 neuronal cells expressing TRPM8. We demonstrate that the TRPM8 channel protein is associated with polyP. Furthermore, addition of scPPX1 altered the voltage-dependence and blocked the activity of the purified TRPM8 channels reconstituted into planar lipid bilayers, where the activity of the channel was initiated by cold and menthol in the presence of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-biphosphate (PtdIns(4,5)P2). The biochemical analysis of the TRPM8 protein also uncovered the presence of poly-(R)-3-hydroxybutyrate (PHB), which is frequently associated with polyP. We conclude that the TRPM8 protein forms a stable complex with polyP and its presence is essential for normal channel activity. PMID:19404398

  7. Discovery of functional antibodies targeting ion channels.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Trevor C I; Gardener, Matthew J; Williams, Wendy A

    2015-04-01

    Ion channels play critical roles in physiology and disease by modulation of cellular functions such as electrical excitability, secretion, cell migration, and gene transcription. Ion channels represent an important target class for drug discovery that has been largely addressed, to date, using small-molecule approaches. A significant opportunity exists to target these channels with antibodies and alternative formats of biologics. Antibodies display high specificity and affinity for their target antigen, and they have the potential to target ion channels very selectively. Nevertheless, isolating antibodies to this target class is challenging due to the difficulties in expression and purification of ion channels in a format suitable for antibody drug discovery in addition to the complexity of screening for function. In this article, we will review the current state of ion channel biologics discovery and the progress that has been made. We will also highlight the challenges in isolating functional antibodies to these targets and how these challenges may be addressed. Finally, we also illustrate successful approaches to isolating functional monoclonal antibodies targeting ion channels by way of a number of case studies drawn from recent publications.

  8. Targeting TRP channels for novel migraine therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Dussor, Gregory; Yan, J; Xie, Jennifer Y; Ossipov, Michael H; Dodick, David W; Porreca, Frank

    2014-11-19

    Migraine is increasingly understood to be a disorder of the brain. In susceptible individuals, a variety of "triggers" may influence altered central excitability, resulting in the activation and sensitization of trigeminal nociceptive afferents surrounding blood vessels (i.e., the trigeminovascular system), leading to migraine pain. Transient receptor potential (TRP) channels are expressed in a subset of dural afferents, including those containing calcitonin gene related peptide (CGRP). Activation of TRP channels promotes excitation of nociceptive afferent fibers and potentially lead to pain. In addition to pain, allodynia to mechanical and cold stimuli can result from sensitization of both peripheral afferents and of central pain pathways. TRP channels respond to a variety of endogenous conditions including chemical mediators and low pH. These channels can be activated by exogenous stimuli including a wide range of chemical and environmental irritants, some of which have been demonstrated to trigger migraine in humans. Activation of TRP channels can elicit CGRP release, and blocking the effects of CGRP through receptor antagonism or antibody strategies has been demonstrated to be effective in the treatment of migraine. Identification of approaches that can prevent activation of TRP channels provides an additional novel strategy for discovery of migraine therapeutics.

  9. Fine Channel Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    A color image of fine channel networks on Mars; north toward top. The scene shows heavily cratered highlands dissected by dendritic open channel networks that dissect steep slopes of impact crater walls. This image is a composite of Viking high-resolution images in black and white and low-resolution images in color. The image extends from latitude 9 degrees S. to 5 degrees S. and from longitude 312 degrees to 320 degrees; Mercator projection. The dendritic pattern of the fine channels and their location on steep slopes leads to the interpretation that these are runoff channels. The restriction of these types of channels to ancient highland rocks suggests that these channels are old and date from a time on Mars when conditions existed for precipitation to actively erode rocks. After the channels reach a low plain, they appear to end. Termination may have resulted from burial by younger deposits or perhaps the flows percolated into the surface materials and continued underground.

  10. Policy oscillation is overshooting.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Paul

    2014-04-01

    A majority of approximate dynamic programming approaches to the reinforcement learning problem can be categorized into greedy value function methods and value-based policy gradient methods. The former approach, although fast, is well known to be susceptible to the policy oscillation phenomenon. We take a fresh view to this phenomenon by casting, within the context of non-optimistic policy iteration, a considerable subset of the former approach as a limiting special case of the latter. We explain the phenomenon in terms of this view and illustrate the underlying mechanism with artificial examples. We also use it to derive the constrained natural actor-critic algorithm that can interpolate between the aforementioned approaches. In addition, it has been suggested in the literature that the oscillation phenomenon might be subtly connected to the grossly suboptimal performance in the Tetris benchmark problem of all attempted approximate dynamic programming methods. Based on empirical findings, we offer a hypothesis that might explain the inferior performance levels and the associated policy degradation phenomenon, and which would partially support the suggested connection. Finally, we report scores in the Tetris problem that improve on existing dynamic programming based results by an order of magnitude. PMID:24491826

  11. Why are Channels Sinuous?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Constantine, J. A.; Lazarus, E.

    2012-12-01

    Sinuosity is a ubiquitous property of channelized flow patterns on Earth and other planetary bodies. Sinuosity is typically discussed as an emergent consequence of migration processes in meandering rivers, but meandering rivers are only one type of sinuous channel: there are many examples that show little or no indication of meandering, such as bedrock river canyons, drainage channels in tidal mudflats, and volcanic rilles. In some of these patterns, sinuosity is described as "inherited" from a preexisting morphology, which elides an explanation for how the inherited sinuosity originated. Even in river meandering theory there is ongoing debate regarding how initial channel sinuosity arises. Comparing the results of a generalized flow-routing model to observations of natural flow patterns, we find that the ratio of floodplain resistance (R, representing topographic roughness, substrate erodibility, or vegetation density) relative to floodplain slope (m) produces a range of sinuous planforms with natural analogs. We offer a unifying theory for channel sinuosity in which this ratio of resistance to slope (R:m) exerts the primary landscape control on planform shape and predicts the range of sinuosity a floodplain may express. Resistance-dominated floodplains produce channels with higher sinuosity than those of slope-dominated floodplains because increased resistance impedes down-slope flow. Measurement of "relative resistance" (R:m) could inform how riparian restoration projects evaluate the floodplains of artificially straightened rivers. Our analysis suggests that if the sinuosity of a formerly natural channel derived from a high R:m, then even a channel redesigned to be sinuous will straighten if the relative resistance of its floodplain is suppressed or inherently low. (Alternatively, increasing floodplain resistance might foster a higher sinuosity than hydraulic geometry would forecast.) The explanation for sinuosity that we propose is universal enough to account

  12. English as an Additional Language: Changing Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leung, Constant, Ed.; Cable, Carrie, Ed.

    This volume highlights the language and learning needs of pupils with English as an additional language in the United Kingdom. It includes chapters by British teachers and researchers working in this field. The book addresses a number of issues of interest to practitioners, scholars, teacher educators, and policy makers. Each chapter is prefaced…

  13. Australia's national mental health policy.

    PubMed

    Whiteford, H A

    1993-10-01

    In April 1992 the health ministers of all Australian states, territories, and the federal government endorsed Australia's first National Mental Health Policy. The major principles outlined in the policy include protecting consumers' rights, setting national service standards, mainstreaming mental health services with general health services, better integrating inpatient and community mental health services to ensure continuity of care, and linking mental health services and other social and disability services. A five-year National Mental Health Plan, accompanied by additional federal funding, has also been released, with time frames for implementing the policy in all states and territories and at the federal level. PMID:8225277

  14. Convolutional code performance in planetary entry channels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Modestino, J. W.

    1974-01-01

    The planetary entry channel is modeled for communication purposes representing turbulent atmospheric scattering effects. The performance of short and long constraint length convolutional codes is investigated in conjunction with coherent BPSK modulation and Viterbi maximum likelihood decoding. Algorithms for sequential decoding are studied in terms of computation and/or storage requirements as a function of the fading channel parameters. The performance of the coded coherent BPSK system is compared with the coded incoherent MFSK system. Results indicate that: some degree of interleaving is required to combat time correlated fading of channel; only modest amounts of interleaving are required to approach performance of memoryless channel; additional propagational results are required on the phase perturbation process; and the incoherent MFSK system is superior when phase tracking errors are considered.

  15. Single-molecular artificial transmembrane water channels.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiao-Bo; Chen, Zhenxia; Tang, Gangfeng; Hou, Jun-Li; Li, Zhan-Ting

    2012-05-23

    Hydrazide-appended pillar[5]arene derivatives have been synthesized. X-ray crystal structure analysis and (1)H NMR studies revealed that the molecules adopt unique tubular conformations. Inserting the molecules into the lipid membranes of vesicles leads to the transport of water through the channels produced by single molecules, as supported by dynamic light scattering and cryo-SEM experiments. The channels exhibit the transport activity at a very low channel to lipid ratio (0.027 mol %), and a water permeability of 8.6 × 10(-10) cm s(-1) is realized. In addition, like natural water channel proteins, the artificial systems also block the transport of protons. PMID:22574988

  16. Fractional channel multichannel analyzer

    DOEpatents

    Brackenbush, Larry W.; Anderson, Gordon A.

    1994-01-01

    A multichannel analyzer incorporating the features of the present invention obtains the effect of fractional channels thus greatly reducing the number of actual channels necessary to record complex line spectra. This is accomplished by using an analog-to-digital converter in the asynscronous mode, i.e., the gate pulse from the pulse height-to-pulse width converter is not synchronized with the signal from a clock oscillator. This saves power and reduces the number of components required on the board to achieve the effect of radically expanding the number of channels without changing the circuit board.

  17. Channel Access in Erlang

    SciTech Connect

    Nicklaus, Dennis J.

    2013-10-13

    We have developed an Erlang language implementation of the Channel Access protocol. Included are low-level functions for encoding and decoding Channel Access protocol network packets as well as higher level functions for monitoring or setting EPICS process variables. This provides access to EPICS process variables for the Fermilab Acnet control system via our Erlang-based front-end architecture without having to interface to C/C++ programs and libraries. Erlang is a functional programming language originally developed for real-time telecommunications applications. Its network programming features and list management functions make it particularly well-suited for the task of managing multiple Channel Access circuits and PV monitors.

  18. Land use policy and forests

    SciTech Connect

    Sunder, S.S.

    1992-12-31

    This paper sketches the background to the current forest policy in India, making comparisons with other countries. In the tropics, the relationship between land, climate and forests is such that if the soil is allowed to deteriorate or is lost, degradation of both land and vegetation becomes complete. Unfortunately in some of the developing countries in the tropics, biotic pressures are also intense. The situation is worsening in spite of the lofty aims propagated by the National Forest Policies. In India, the first policy is nearly a century old, but the country is today worse off regarding its forests than when it was originally proposed. The three successive policies, and also the policies of a few other developing countries in S.E. Asia, are briefly analyzed. The failure of the policies in India is perhaps due to (a) their addressing themselves to Government forests rather than to the land and soil in general, (b) a lack of a scientific land use policy, and (c) their having neither legal backing nor support from other sectors. For these reasons, the definition forest has come to imply land area constituted as reserve forests, and not general tree cover. In developed countries, the situation is different. In addition to Government forests, there are forests in the private sector; a result of legal prescriptions and sets of incentives and disincentives. A suggestion is made that in the tropics, forest policy should rest mainly on the sustainable use of land.

  19. Policy opportunities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccray, Richard; Ostriker, Jeremiah P.; Acton, Loren W.; Bahcall, Neta A.; Bless, Robert C.; Brown, Robert A.; Burbidge, Geoffrey; Burke, Bernard F.; Clark, George W.; Cordova, France A.

    1991-01-01

    Recommendations are given regarding National Science Foundation (NSF) astronomy programs and the NASA Space Astrophysics program. The role of ground based astronomy is reviewed. The role of National Optical Astronomy Observatories (NOAO) in ground-based night-time astronomical research is discussed. An enhanced Explored Program, costs and management of small and moderate space programs, the role of astrophysics within NASA's space exploration initiative, suborbital and airborne astronomical research, the problems of the Hubble Space Telescope, and astronomy education are discussed. Also covered are policy issues related to the role of science advisory committees, international cooperation and competition, archiving and distribution of astronomical data, and multi-wavelength observations of variable sources.

  20. Functional diversity and evolutionary dynamics of thermoTRP channels.

    PubMed

    Saito, Shigeru; Tominaga, Makoto

    2015-03-01

    Animals have evolved sophisticated physiological systems for sensing ambient temperature since changes in environmental temperatures affect various biological processes. Thermosensitive transient receptor potential (thermoTRP) channels serve as thermal sensors in diverse animal species. They are multimodal receptors that are activated by temperature as well as other physical and chemical stimuli. Since thermoTRP channels are calcium permeable non-selective cation channels, their activation leads to an influx of calcium and sodium ions into the cell and triggers downstream signal transduction. ThermoTRP channels have been characterized in diverse animal species over the past several years, illuminating the diversification of thermoTRP channels in the course of evolution. The gene repertoires of thermoTRP channels differ among animal species. Additionally, in some cases, the temperature and chemical sensitivities among orthologous thermoTRP channels vary among species. The evolutionary flexibility of thermoTRP channels enabled them to contribute to unique physiological systems such as infrared sensation in snakes and bats and seasonal adaptation in silk moth. On the other hand, the functional differences of thermoTRP channels among species have been utilized for understanding the molecular basis for their activation (or inhibition) mechanisms, and amino acid residues (or domains) responsible for the respective channel properties have been identified in various thermoTRP channels. Here we summarize the current understanding of the functional diversity and evolutionary dynamics of thermoTRP channels. PMID:25533790

  1. [Food additives and healthiness].

    PubMed

    Heinonen, Marina

    2014-01-01

    Additives are used for improving food structure or preventing its spoilage, for example. Many substances used as additives are also naturally present in food. The safety of additives is evaluated according to commonly agreed principles. If high concentrations of an additive cause adverse health effects for humans, a limit of acceptable daily intake (ADI) is set for it. An additive is a risk only when ADI is exceeded. The healthiness of food is measured on the basis of nutrient density and scientifically proven effects.

  2. Channel in Kasei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    14 November 2004 The Kasei Valles are a suite of very large, ancient outflow channels. This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a portion of the youngest channel system in the Kasei Valles. Torrents of mud, rocks, and water carved this channel as flow was constricted through a narrow portion of the valley. Layers exposed by the erosion that created the channel can be seen in its walls. This 1.4 meters (5 feet) per pixel image is located near 21.1oN, 72.6oW. The picture covers an area approximately 3 km (1.9 mi) across. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the lower left.

  3. Chondrocyte channel transcriptomics

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Rebecca; May, Hannah; Mobasheri, Ali; Barrett-Jolley, Richard

    2013-01-01

    To date, a range of ion channels have been identified in chondrocytes using a number of different techniques, predominantly electrophysiological and/or biomolecular; each of these has its advantages and disadvantages. Here we aim to compare and contrast the data available from biophysical and microarray experiments. This letter analyses recent transcriptomics datasets from chondrocytes, accessible from the European Bioinformatics Institute (EBI). We discuss whether such bioinformatic analysis of microarray datasets can potentially accelerate identification and discovery of ion channels in chondrocytes. The ion channels which appear most frequently across these microarray datasets are discussed, along with their possible functions. We discuss whether functional or protein data exist which support the microarray data. A microarray experiment comparing gene expression in osteoarthritis and healthy cartilage is also discussed and we verify the differential expression of 2 of these genes, namely the genes encoding large calcium-activated potassium (BK) and aquaporin channels. PMID:23995703

  4. Proton channel models

    PubMed Central

    Pupo, Amaury; Baez-Nieto, David; Martínez, Agustín; Latorre, Ramón; González, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Voltage-gated proton channels are integral membrane proteins with the capacity to permeate elementary particles in a voltage and pH dependent manner. These proteins have been found in several species and are involved in various physiological processes. Although their primary topology is known, lack of details regarding their structures in the open conformation has limited analyses toward a deeper understanding of the molecular determinants of their function and regulation. Consequently, the function-structure relationships have been inferred based on homology models. In the present work, we review the existing proton channel models, their assumptions, predictions and the experimental facts that support them. Modeling proton channels is not a trivial task due to the lack of a close homolog template. Hence, there are important differences between published models. This work attempts to critically review existing proton channel models toward the aim of contributing to a better understanding of the structural features of these proteins. PMID:24755912

  5. Calcium channel blocker overdose

    MedlinePlus

    ... Goldschlager N. Cardiovascular toxicology. In: Shannon MW, Borron SW, Burns MJ, eds. Haddad and Winchester's Clinical Management ... SD. Calcium channel antagonists. In: Shannon MW, Borron SW, Burns MJ, eds. Haddad and Winchester's Clinical Management ...

  6. TRP channels in disease.

    PubMed

    Jordt, S E; Ehrlich, B E

    2007-01-01

    The transient receptor potential (TRP) channels are a large family of proteins with six main subfamilies termed the TRPC (canonical), TRPV (vanilloid), TRPM (melastatin), TRPP (polycystin), TRPML (mucolipin), and TRPA (ankyrin) groups. The sheer number of different TRPs with distinct functions supports the statement that these channels are involved in a wide range of processes ranging from sensing of thermal and chemical signals to reloading intracellular stores after responding to an extracellular stimulus. Mutations in TRPs are linked to pathophysiology and specific diseases. An understanding of the role of TRPs in normal physiology is just beginning; the progression from mutations in TRPs to pathophysiology and disease will follow. In this review, we focus on two distinct aspects of TRP channel physiology, the role of TRP channels in intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis, and their role in the transduction of painful stimuli in sensory neurons. PMID:18193640

  7. A Simple Water Channel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, A. S.

    1976-01-01

    Describes a simple water channel, for use with an overhead projector. It is run from a water tap and may be used for flow visualization experiments, including the effect of streamlining and elementary building aerodynamics. (MLH)

  8. Ion Channels in Epithelial Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmer, Lawrence G.

    Ion channels in epithelial cells serve to move ions, and in some cases fluid, between compartments of the body. This function of the transfer of material is fundamentally different from that of the transfer of information, which is the main job of most channels in excitable cells. Nevertheless the basic construction of the channels is similar in many respects in the two tissue types. This chapter reviews the nature of channels in epithelia and discusses how their functions have evolved to accomplish the basic tasks for which they are responsible. I will focus on three channel types: epithelial Na+ channels, inward-rectifier K+ channels, and CFTR Cl- channels.

  9. Policy Actors: Doing Policy Work in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Stephen J.; Maguire, Meg; Braun, Annette; Hoskins, Kate

    2011-01-01

    This paper considers the "policy work" of teacher actors in schools. It focuses on the "problem of meaning" and offers a typology of roles and positions through which teachers engage with policy and with which policies get "enacted". It argues that "policy work" is made up of a set of complex and differentiated activities which involve both…

  10. Channel-tunnels.

    PubMed

    Koronakis, V; Andersen, C; Hughes, C

    2001-08-01

    TolC and its many homologues comprise an alpha-helical transperiplasmic tunnel embedded in the bacterial outer membrane by a contiguous beta-barrel channel, providing a large exit duct for diverse substrates. The 'channel-tunnel' is closed at its periplasmic entrance, but can be opened by an 'iris-like' mechanism when recruited by substrate-engaged proteins in the cytosolic membrane.

  11. Plasma Channel Diagnostic Based on Laser Centroid Oscillations

    SciTech Connect

    Gonsalves, Anthony; Nakamura, Kei; Lin, Chen; Osterhoff, Jens; Shiraishi, Satomi; Schroeder, Carl; Geddes, Cameron; Toth, Csaba; Esarey, Eric; Leemans, Wim

    2010-09-09

    A technique has been developed for measuring the properties of discharge-based plasma channels by monitoring the centroid location of a laser beam exiting the channel as a function of input alignment offset between the laser and the channel. The centroid position of low-intensity (<10{sup 14}Wcm{sup -2}) laser pulses focused at the input of a hydrogen-filled capillary discharge waveguide was scanned and the exit positions recorded to determine the channel shape and depth with an accuracy of a few %. In addition, accurate alignment of the laser beam through the plasma channel can be provided by minimizing laser centroid motion at the channel exit as the channel depth is scanned either by scanning the plasma density or the discharge timing. The improvement in alignment accuracy provided by this technique will be crucial for minimizing electron beam pointing errors in laser plasma accelerators.

  12. Policy Capacity in the Learning Healthcare System

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, William

    2015-01-01

    Pierre-Gerlier Forest and his colleagues make a strong argument for the need to expand policy capacity among healthcare actors. In this commentary, I develop an additional argument in support of Forest et al view. Forest et al rightly point to the need to have embedded policy experts to successfully translate healthcare reform policy into healthcare change. Translation of externally generated innovation policy into local solutions is only one source of healthcare system change. We also need to build learning healthcare systems that can discover new health solutions at the frontline of care. Enhanced policy capacity staffing in those organizations will be key to building continuously learning health systems. PMID:26673470

  13. Municipal Rebate Programs for Environmental Retrofits: An Evaluation of Additionality and Cost-Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennear, Lori S.; Lee, Jonathan M.; Taylor, Laura O.

    2013-01-01

    When policies incentivize voluntary activities that also take place in the absence of the incentive, it is critical to identify the additionality of the policy--that is, the degree to which the policy results in actions that would not have occurred otherwise. Rebate programs have become a common conservation policy tool for local municipalities…

  14. Policy Overview and Options for Maximizing the Role of Policy in Geothermal Electricity Development

    SciTech Connect

    Doris, E.; Kreycik, C.; Young, K.

    2009-09-01

    Geothermal electricity production capacity has grown over time because of multiple factors, including its renewable, baseload, and domestic attributes; volatile and high prices for competing technologies; and policy intervention. Overarching federal policies, namely the Public Utilities Regulatory Policies Act (PURPA), provided certainty to project investors in the 1980s, leading to a boom in geothermal development. In addition to market expansion through PURPA, research and development policies provided an investment of public dollars toward developing technologies and reducing costs over time to increase the market competitiveness of geothermal electricity. Together, these efforts are cited as the primary policy drivers for the currently installed capacity. Informing policy decisions depends on the combined impacts of policies at the federal and state level on geothermal development. Identifying high-impact suites of policies for different contexts, and the government levels best equipped to implement them, would provide a wealth of information to both policy makers and project developers.

  15. The TRPM4 channel inhibitor 9-phenanthrol

    PubMed Central

    Guinamard, R; Hof, T; Del Negro, C A

    2014-01-01

    The phenanthrene-derivative 9-phenanthrol is a recently identified inhibitor of the transient receptor potential melastatin (TRPM) 4 channel, a Ca2+-activated non-selective cation channel whose mechanism of action remains to be determined. Subsequent studies performed on other ion channels confirm the specificity of the drug for TRPM4. In addition, 9-phenanthrol modulates a variety of physiological processes through TRPM4 current inhibition and thus exerts beneficial effects in several pathological conditions. 9-Phenanthrol modulates smooth muscle contraction in bladder and cerebral arteries, affects spontaneous activity in neurons and in the heart, and reduces lipopolysaccharide-induced cell death. Among promising potential applications, 9-phenanthrol exerts cardioprotective effects against ischaemia-reperfusion injuries and reduces ischaemic stroke injuries. In addition to reviewing the biophysical effects of 9-phenanthrol, here we present information about its appropriate use in physiological studies and possible clinical applications. PMID:24433510

  16. Beyond ion-conduction: Channel-dependent and -independent roles of TRP channels during development and tissue homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Vrenken, Kirsten S; Jalink, Kees; van Leeuwen, Frank N; Middelbeek, Jeroen

    2016-06-01

    Transient receptor potential (TRP) channels comprise a family of cation channels implicated in a variety of cellular processes, including proliferation, cell migration and cell survival. As a consequence, members of this ion family play prominent roles during embryonic development, tissue maintenance and cancer progression. Although most TRP channels are non-selective, many cellular responses, mediated by TRP channels, appear to be calcium-dependent. In addition, there is mounting evidence for channel-independent roles for TRP channels. In this review, we will discuss how both these channel-dependent and -independent mechanisms affect cellular programs essential during embryonic development, and how perturbations in these pathways contribute to a variety of pathologies. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Calcium and Cell Fate. Guest Editors: Jacques Haiech, Claus Heizmann, Joachim Krebs, Thierry Capiod and Olivier Mignen.

  17. 47 CFR 95.1211 - Channel use policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... the most effective use of the authorized facilities, MedRadio transmitters must share the spectrum in... interference is caused to stations operating in the 400.150-406.000 MHz band in the Meteorological Aids... the 413-419 MHz, 426-432 MHz, 438-444 MHz, 451-457, and 2360-2400 MHz bands. MedRadio stations...

  18. 47 CFR 95.1211 - Channel use policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... the most effective use of the authorized facilities, MedRadio transmitters must share the spectrum in... interference is caused to stations operating in the 400.150-406.000 MHz band in the Meteorological Aids... the 413-419 MHz, 426-432 MHz, 438-444 MHz, 451-457, and 2360-2400 MHz bands. MedRadio stations...

  19. 47 CFR 95.1211 - Channel use policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Satellite, or Earth Exploration Satellite Services. MedRadio stations must accept any interference from... only and will not be assigned for the exclusive use of any entity. (b) To reduce interference and make... accordance with § 95.628. (c) MedRadio operation is subject to the condition that no harmful interference...

  20. Connexin channels and phospholipids: association and modulation

    PubMed Central

    Locke, Darren; Harris, Andrew L

    2009-01-01

    Background For membrane proteins, lipids provide a structural framework and means to modulate function. Paired connexin hemichannels form the intercellular channels that compose gap junction plaques while unpaired hemichannels have regulated functions in non-junctional plasma membrane. The importance of interactions between connexin channels and phospholipids is poorly understood. Results Endogenous phospholipids most tightly associated with purified connexin26 or connexin32 hemichannels or with junctional plaques in cell membranes, those likely to have structural and/or modulatory effects, were identified by tandem electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry using class-specific interpretative methods. Phospholipids were characterized by headgroup class, charge, glycerol-alkyl chain linkage and by acyl chain length and saturation. The results indicate that specific endogenous phospholipids are uniquely associated with either connexin26 or connexin32 channels, and some phospholipids are associated with both. Functional effects of the major phospholipid classes on connexin channel activity were assessed by molecular permeability of hemichannels reconstituted into liposomes. Changes to phospholipid composition(s) of the liposome membrane altered the activity of connexin channels in a manner reflecting changes to the surface charge/potential of the membrane and, secondarily, to cholesterol content. Together, the data show that connexin26 and connexin32 channels have a preference for tight association with unique anionic phospholipids, and that these, independent of headgroup, have a positive effect on the activity of both connexin26 and connexin32 channels. Additionally, the data suggest that the likely in vivo phospholipid modulators of connexin channel structure-function that are connexin isoform-specific are found in the cytoplasmic leaflet. A modulatory role for phospholipids that promote negative curvature is also inferred. Conclusion This study is the first to

  1. Morphodynamics of Floodplain Chute Channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    David, S. R.; Edmonds, D. A.

    2015-12-01

    Floodplain chute channel formation is a key process that can enable rivers to transition from single-thread to multi-thread planform geometries. Floodplain chute channels are usually incisional channels connecting topographic lows across point bars and in the floodplain. Surprisingly, it is still not clear what conditions promote chute channel formation and what governs their morphodynamic behavior. Towards this end we have initiated an empirical and theoretical study of floodplain chute channels in Indiana, USA. Using elevation models and satellite imagery we mapped 3064 km2 of floodplain in Indiana, and find that 37.3% of mapped floodplains in Indiana have extensive chute channel networks. These chute channel networks consist of two types of channel segments: meander cutoffs of the main channel and chute channels linking the cutoffs together. To understand how these chute channels link meander cutoffs together and eventually create floodplain channel networks we use Delft3D to explore floodplain morphodynamics. Our first modeling experiment starts from a generic floodplain prepopulated with meander cutoffs to test under what conditions chute channels form.We find that chute channel formation is optimized at an intermediate flood discharge. If the flood discharge is too large the meander cutoffs erosively diffuse, whereas if the floodwave is too small the cutoffs fill with sediment. A moderately sized floodwave reworks the sediment surrounding the topographic lows, enhancing the development of floodplain chute channels. Our second modeling experiments explore how floodplain chute channels evolve on the West Fork of the White River, Indiana, USA. We find that the floodplain chute channels are capable of conveying the entire 10 yr floodwave (Q=1330m3/s) leaving the inter-channel areas dry. Moreover, the chute channels can incise into the floodplain while the margins of channels are aggrading, creating levees. Our results suggest that under the right conditions

  2. Optical Communications Channel Combiner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quirk, Kevin J.; Quirk, Kevin J.; Nguyen, Danh H.; Nguyen, Huy

    2012-01-01

    NASA has identified deep-space optical communications links as an integral part of a unified space communication network in order to provide data rates in excess of 100 Mb/s. The distances and limited power inherent in a deep-space optical downlink necessitate the use of photon-counting detectors and a power-efficient modulation such as pulse position modulation (PPM). For the output of each photodetector, whether from a separate telescope or a portion of the detection area, a communication receiver estimates a log-likelihood ratio for each PPM slot. To realize the full effective aperture of these receivers, their outputs must be combined prior to information decoding. A channel combiner was developed to synchronize the log-likelihood ratio (LLR) sequences of multiple receivers, and then combines these into a single LLR sequence for information decoding. The channel combiner synchronizes the LLR sequences of up to three receivers and then combines these into a single LLR sequence for output. The channel combiner has three channel inputs, each of which takes as input a sequence of four-bit LLRs for each PPM slot in a codeword via a XAUI 10 Gb/s quad optical fiber interface. The cross-correlation between the channels LLR time series are calculated and used to synchronize the sequences prior to combining. The output of the channel combiner is a sequence of four-bit LLRs for each PPM slot in a codeword via a XAUI 10 Gb/s quad optical fiber interface. The unit is controlled through a 1 Gb/s Ethernet UDP/IP interface. A deep-space optical communication link has not yet been demonstrated. This ground-station channel combiner was developed to demonstrate this capability and is unique in its ability to process such a signal.

  3. Applying alpha-channeling to mirror machines

    SciTech Connect

    Zhmoginov, A. I.; Fisch, N. J.

    2012-05-15

    The {alpha}-channeling effect entails the use of radio-frequency waves to expel and cool high-energetic {alpha} particles born in a fusion reactor; the device reactivity can then be increased even further by redirecting the extracted energy to fuel ions. Originally proposed for tokamaks, this technique has also been shown to benefit open-ended fusion devices. Here, the fundamental theory and practical aspects of {alpha} channeling in mirror machines are reviewed, including the influence of magnetic field inhomogeneity and the effect of a finite wave region on the {alpha}-channeling mechanism. For practical implementation of the {alpha}-channeling effect in mirror geometry, suitable contained weakly damped modes are identified. In addition, the parameter space of candidate waves for implementing the {alpha}-channeling effect can be significantly extended through the introduction of a suitable minority ion species that has the catalytic effect of moderating the transfer of power from the {alpha}-channeling wave to the fuel ions.

  4. CFD analyses of coolant channel flowfields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yagley, Jennifer A.; Feng, Jinzhang; Merkle, Charles L.

    1993-01-01

    The flowfield characteristics in rocket engine coolant channels are analyzed by means of a numerical model. The channels are characterized by large length to diameter ratios, high Reynolds numbers, and asymmetrical heating. At representative flow conditions, the channel length is approximately twice the hydraulic entrance length so that fully developed conditions would be reached for a constant property fluid. For the supercritical hydrogen that is used as the coolant, the strong property variations create significant secondary flows in the cross-plane which have a major influence on the flow and the resulting heat transfer. Comparison of constant and variable property solutions show substantial differences. In addition, the property variations prevent fully developed flow. The density variation accelerates the fluid in the channels increasing the pressure drop without an accompanying increase in heat flux. Analyses of the inlet configuration suggest that side entry from a manifold can affect the development of the velocity profile because of vortices generated as the flow enters the channel. Current work is focused on studying the effects of channel bifurcation on the flow field and the heat transfer characteristics.

  5. Voltage-gated proton channels: what' next?

    PubMed Central

    DeCoursey, Thomas E

    2008-01-01

    This review is an attempt to identify and place in context some of the many questions about voltage-gated proton channels that remain unsolved. As the gene was identified only 2 years ago, the situation is very different than in fields where the gene has been known for decades. For the proton channel, most of the obvious and less obvious structure–function questions are still wide open. Remarkably, the proton channel protein strongly resembles the voltage-sensing domain of many voltage-gated ion channels, and thus offers a novel approach to study gating mechanisms. Another surprise is that the proton channel appears to function as a dimer, with two separate conduction pathways. A number of significant biological questions remain in dispute, unanswered, or in some cases, not yet asked. This latter deficit is ascribable to the intrinsic difficulty in evaluating the importance of one component in a complex system, and in addition, to the lack, until recently, of a means of performing an unambiguous lesion experiment, that is, of selectively eliminating the molecule in question. We still lack a potent, selective pharmacological inhibitor, but the identification of the gene has allowed the development of powerful new tools including proton channel antibodies, siRNA and knockout mice. PMID:18801839

  6. Applying alpha-channeling to mirror machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhmoginov, A. I.; Fisch, N. J.

    2012-05-01

    The α-channeling effect entails the use of radio-frequency waves to expel and cool high-energetic α particles born in a fusion reactor; the device reactivity can then be increased even further by redirecting the extracted energy to fuel ions. Originally proposed for tokamaks, this technique has also been shown to benefit open-ended fusion devices. Here, the fundamental theory and practical aspects of α channeling in mirror machines are reviewed, including the influence of magnetic field inhomogeneity and the effect of a finite wave region on the α-channeling mechanism. For practical implementation of the α-channeling effect in mirror geometry, suitable contained weakly damped modes are identified. In addition, the parameter space of candidate waves for implementing the α-channeling effect can be significantly extended through the introduction of a suitable minority ion species that has the catalytic effect of moderating the transfer of power from the α-channeling wave to the fuel ions.

  7. Mutant Sodium Channel for Tumor Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Tannous, Bakhos A; Christensen, Adam P; Pike, Lisa; Wurdinger, Thomas; Perry, Katherine F; Saydam, Okay; Jacobs, Andreas H; García-Añoveros, Jaime; Weissleder, Ralph; Sena-Esteves, Miguel; Corey, David P; Breakefield, Xandra O

    2009-01-01

    Viral vectors have been used to deliver a wide range of therapeutic genes to tumors. In this study, a novel tumor therapy was achieved by the delivery of a mammalian brain sodium channel, ASIC2a, carrying a mutation that renders it constitutively open. This channel was delivered to tumor cells using a herpes simplex virus-1/Epstein–Barr virus (HSV/EBV) hybrid amplicon vector in which gene expression was controlled by a tetracycline regulatory system (tet-on) with silencer elements. Upon infection and doxycycline induction of mutant channel expression in tumor cells, the open channel led to amiloride-sensitive sodium influx as assessed by patch clamp recording and sodium imaging in culture. Within hours, tumor cells swelled and died. In addition to cells expressing the mutant channel, adjacent, noninfected cells connected by gap junctions also died. Intratumoral injection of HSV/EBV amplicon vector encoding the mutant sodium channel and systemic administration of doxycycline led to regression of subcutaneous tumors in nude mice as assessed by in vivo bioluminescence imaging. The advantage of this direct mode of tumor therapy is that all types of tumor cells become susceptible and death is rapid with no time for the tumor cells to become resistant. PMID:19259066

  8. Roughness coefficients for stream channels in Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aldridge, B.N.; Garrett, J.M.

    1973-01-01

           n in which V = mean cross-sectional velocity of flow, in feet per second; R = hydraulic radius at a cross section, which is the cross-sectional area divided by the wetter perimeter, in feet; Se = energy slope; and n = coefficient of roughness. Many research studies have been made to determine "n" values for open-channel flow (Carter and others, 1963). Guidelines for selecting coefficient of roughness for stream channels are given in most of the literature of stream-channel hydraulics, but few of the data relate directly to streams of Arizona, The U.S> Geological Survey, at the request of the Arizona Highway Department, assembled the color photographs and tables of the Manning "n" values in this report to aid highway engineers in the selection of roughness coefficients for Arizona streams. Most of the photographs show channel reaches for which values of "n" have been assigned by experienced Survey personnel; a few photographs are included for reaches where "n" values have been verified. Verified "n" values are computed from a known discharge and measured channel geometry. Selected photographs of stream channels for which "n" values have been verified are included in U.S. Geological Survey Water-Supply Paper 1849 (Barnes, 1967); stereoscopic slides of Barnes' (1967) photographs and additional photographs can be inspected at U.S> Geological Survey offices in: 2555 E. First Street, Tucson; and 5017 Federal Building, 230 N. First Avenue, Phoenix.

  9. Parallel information processing channels created in the retina.

    PubMed

    Schiller, Peter H

    2010-10-01

    In the retina, several parallel channels originate that extract different attributes from the visual scene. This review describes how these channels arise and what their functions are. Following the introduction four sections deal with these channels. The first discusses the "ON" and "OFF" channels that have arisen for the purpose of rapidly processing images in the visual scene that become visible by virtue of either light increment or light decrement; the ON channel processes images that become visible by virtue of light increment and the OFF channel processes images that become visible by virtue of light decrement. The second section examines the midget and parasol channels. The midget channel processes fine detail, wavelength information, and stereoscopic depth cues; the parasol channel plays a central role in processing motion and flicker as well as motion parallax cues for depth perception. Both these channels have ON and OFF subdivisions. The third section describes the accessory optic system that receives input from the retinal ganglion cells of Dogiel; these cells play a central role, in concert with the vestibular system, in stabilizing images on the retina to prevent the blurring of images that would otherwise occur when an organism is in motion. The last section provides a brief overview of several additional channels that originate in the retina.

  10. What do we not know about mitochondrial potassium channels?

    PubMed

    Laskowski, Michał; Augustynek, Bartłomiej; Kulawiak, Bogusz; Koprowski, Piotr; Bednarczyk, Piotr; Jarmuszkiewicz, Wieslawa; Szewczyk, Adam

    2016-08-01

    In this review, we summarize our knowledge about mitochondrial potassium channels, with a special focus on unanswered questions in this field. The following potassium channels have been well described in the inner mitochondrial membrane: ATP-regulated potassium channel, Ca(2+)-activated potassium channel, the voltage-gated Kv1.3 potassium channel, and the two-pore domain TASK-3 potassium channel. The primary functional roles of these channels include regulation of mitochondrial respiration and the alteration of membrane potential. Additionally, they modulate the mitochondrial matrix volume and the synthesis of reactive oxygen species by mitochondria. Mitochondrial potassium channels are believed to contribute to cytoprotection and cell death. In this paper, we discuss fundamental issues concerning mitochondrial potassium channels: their molecular identity, channel pharmacology and functional properties. Attention will be given to the current problems present in our understanding of the nature of mitochondrial potassium channels. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'EBEC 2016: 19th European Bioenergetics Conference, Riva del Garda, Italy, July 2-6, 2016', edited by Prof. Paolo Bernardi.

  11. Parallel information processing channels created in the retina

    PubMed Central

    Schiller, Peter H.

    2010-01-01

    In the retina, several parallel channels originate that extract different attributes from the visual scene. This review describes how these channels arise and what their functions are. Following the introduction four sections deal with these channels. The first discusses the “ON” and “OFF” channels that have arisen for the purpose of rapidly processing images in the visual scene that become visible by virtue of either light increment or light decrement; the ON channel processes images that become visible by virtue of light increment and the OFF channel processes images that become visible by virtue of light decrement. The second section examines the midget and parasol channels. The midget channel processes fine detail, wavelength information, and stereoscopic depth cues; the parasol channel plays a central role in processing motion and flicker as well as motion parallax cues for depth perception. Both these channels have ON and OFF subdivisions. The third section describes the accessory optic system that receives input from the retinal ganglion cells of Dogiel; these cells play a central role, in concert with the vestibular system, in stabilizing images on the retina to prevent the blurring of images that would otherwise occur when an organism is in motion. The last section provides a brief overview of several additional channels that originate in the retina. PMID:20876118

  12. On Weyl channels being covariant with respect to the maximum commutative group of unitaries

    SciTech Connect

    Amosov, Grigori G.

    2007-01-15

    We investigate the Weyl channels being covariant with respect to the maximum commutative group of unitary operators. This class includes the quantum depolarizing channel and the 'two-Pauli' channel as well. Then, we show that our estimation of the output entropy for a tensor product of the phase damping channel and the identity channel based upon the decreasing property of the relative entropy allows to prove the additivity conjecture for the minimal output entropy for the quantum depolarizing channel in any prime dimension and for the two-Pauli channel in the qubit case.

  13. TRP Channels and Analgesia

    PubMed Central

    Premkumar, Louis S.; Abooj, Mruvil

    2013-01-01

    Since cloning and characterizing the first nociceptive ion channel Transient Receptor Potential (TRP) Vanilloid 1 (TRPV1), other TRP channels involved in nociception have been cloned and characterized, which include TRP Vanilloid 2 (TRPV2), TRP Vanilloid 3 (TRPV3), TRP Vanilloid 4 (TRPV4), TRP Ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) and TRP Melastatin 8 (TRPM8), more recently TRP Canonical 1, 5, 6 (TRPC1, 5, 6), TRP Melastatin 2 (TRPM2) and TRP Melastatin 3 (TRPM3). These channels are predominantly expressed in C and Aδ nociceptors and transmit noxious thermal, mechanical and chemical sensitivities. TRP channels are modulated by pro-inflammatory mediators, neuropeptides and cytokines. Significant advances have been made targeting these receptors either by antagonists or agonists to treat painful conditions. In this review, we will discuss TRP channels as targets for next generation analgesics and the side effects that may ensue as a result of blocking/activating these receptors, because they are also involved in physiological functions such as release of vasoactive neuropeptides and regulation of vascular tone, maintenance of the body temperature, gastrointestinal motility, urinary bladder control etc. PMID:22910182

  14. MEMS in microfluidic channels.

    SciTech Connect

    Ashby, Carol Iris Hill; Okandan, Murat; Michalske, Terry A.; Sounart, Thomas L.; Matzke, Carolyn M.

    2004-03-01

    Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) comprise a new class of devices that include various forms of sensors and actuators. Recent studies have shown that microscale cantilever structures are able to detect a wide range of chemicals, biomolecules or even single bacterial cells. In this approach, cantilever deflection replaces optical fluorescence detection thereby eliminating complex chemical tagging steps that are difficult to achieve with chip-based architectures. A key challenge to utilizing this new detection scheme is the incorporation of functionalized MEMS structures within complex microfluidic channel architectures. The ability to accomplish this integration is currently limited by the processing approaches used to seal lids on pre-etched microfluidic channels. This report describes Sandia's first construction of MEMS instrumented microfluidic chips, which were fabricated by combining our leading capabilities in MEMS processing with our low-temperature photolithographic method for fabricating microfluidic channels. We have explored in-situ cantilevers and other similar passive MEMS devices as a new approach to directly sense fluid transport, and have successfully monitored local flow rates and viscosities within microfluidic channels. Actuated MEMS structures have also been incorporated into microfluidic channels, and the electrical requirements for actuation in liquids have been quantified with an elegant theory. Electrostatic actuation in water has been accomplished, and a novel technique for monitoring local electrical conductivities has been invented.

  15. Channel Identification Machines

    PubMed Central

    Lazar, Aurel A.; Slutskiy, Yevgeniy B.

    2012-01-01

    We present a formal methodology for identifying a channel in a system consisting of a communication channel in cascade with an asynchronous sampler. The channel is modeled as a multidimensional filter, while models of asynchronous samplers are taken from neuroscience and communications and include integrate-and-fire neurons, asynchronous sigma/delta modulators and general oscillators in cascade with zero-crossing detectors. We devise channel identification algorithms that recover a projection of the filter(s) onto a space of input signals loss-free for both scalar and vector-valued test signals. The test signals are modeled as elements of a reproducing kernel Hilbert space (RKHS) with a Dirichlet kernel. Under appropriate limiting conditions on the bandwidth and the order of the test signal space, the filter projection converges to the impulse response of the filter. We show that our results hold for a wide class of RKHSs, including the space of finite-energy bandlimited signals. We also extend our channel identification results to noisy circuits. PMID:23227035

  16. 7 CFR 1403.12 - Additional administrative collection action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Additional administrative collection action. 1403.12 Section 1403.12 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL REGULATIONS AND POLICIES DEBT SETTLEMENT POLICIES...

  17. Polyimide processing additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fletcher, James C. (Inventor); Pratt, J. Richard (Inventor); St.clair, Terry L. (Inventor); Stoakley, Diane M. (Inventor); Burks, Harold D. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A process for preparing polyimides having enhanced melt flow properties is described. The process consists of heating a mixture of a high molecular weight poly-(amic acid) or polyimide with a low molecular weight amic acid or imide additive in the range of 0.05 to 15 percent by weight of additive. The polyimide powders so obtained show improved processability, as evidenced by lower melt viscosity by capillary rheometry. Likewise, films prepared from mixtures of polymers with additives show improved processability with earlier onset of stretching by TMA.

  18. Polyimide processing additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pratt, J. Richard (Inventor); St.clair, Terry L. (Inventor); Stoakley, Diane M. (Inventor); Burks, Harold D. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A process for preparing polyimides having enhanced melt flow properties is described. The process consists of heating a mixture of a high molecular weight poly-(amic acid) or polyimide with a low molecular weight amic acid or imide additive in the range of 0.05 to 15 percent by weight of the additive. The polyimide powders so obtained show improved processability, as evidenced by lower melt viscosity by capillary rheometry. Likewise, films prepared from mixtures of polymers with additives show improved processability with earlier onset of stretching by TMA.

  19. Agriculture Policy Is Health Policy

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Richard J.; Minjares, Ray; Naumoff, Kyra S.; Shrimali, Bina Patel; Martin, Lisa K.

    2009-01-01

    The Farm Bill is meant to supplement and secure farm incomes, ensure a stable food supply, and support the American farm economy. Over time, however, it has evolved into a system that creates substantial health impacts, both directly and indirectly. By generating more profit for food producers and less for family farmers; by effectively subsidizing the production of lower-cost fats, sugars, and oils that intensify the health-destroying obesity epidemic; by amplifying environmentally destructive agricultural practices that impact air, water, and other resources, the Farm Bill influences the health of Americans more than is immediately apparent. In this article, we outline three major public health issues influenced by American farm policy. These are (1) rising obesity; (2) food safety; and (3) environmental health impacts, especially exposure to toxic substances and pesticides. PMID:23144677

  20. Na+ Channel β Subunits: Overachievers of the Ion Channel Family

    PubMed Central

    Brackenbury, William J.; Isom, Lori L.

    2011-01-01

    Voltage-gated Na+ channels (VGSCs) in mammals contain a pore-forming α subunit and one or more β subunits. There are five mammalian β subunits in total: β1, β1B, β2, β3, and β4, encoded by four genes: SCN1B–SCN4B. With the exception of the SCN1B splice variant, β1B, the β subunits are type I topology transmembrane proteins. In contrast, β1B lacks a transmembrane domain and is a secreted protein. A growing body of work shows that VGSC β subunits are multifunctional. While they do not form the ion channel pore, β subunits alter gating, voltage-dependence, and kinetics of VGSCα subunits and thus regulate cellular excitability in vivo. In addition to their roles in channel modulation, β subunits are members of the immunoglobulin superfamily of cell adhesion molecules and regulate cell adhesion and migration. β subunits are also substrates for sequential proteolytic cleavage by secretases. An example of the multifunctional nature of β subunits is β1, encoded by SCN1B, that plays a critical role in neuronal migration and pathfinding during brain development, and whose function is dependent on Na+ current and γ-secretase activity. Functional deletion of SCN1B results in Dravet Syndrome, a severe and intractable pediatric epileptic encephalopathy. β subunits are emerging as key players in a wide variety of physiopathologies, including epilepsy, cardiac arrhythmia, multiple sclerosis, Huntington’s disease, neuropsychiatric disorders, neuropathic and inflammatory pain, and cancer. β subunits mediate multiple signaling pathways on different timescales, regulating electrical excitability, adhesion, migration, pathfinding, and transcription. Importantly, some β subunit functions may operate independently of α subunits. Thus, β subunits perform critical roles during development and disease. As such, they may prove useful in disease diagnosis and therapy. PMID:22007171

  1. Morphology of Fresh Outflow Channel Deposits on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rice, J. W., Jr.; Parker, T. J.; Russell, A. J.; Knudsen, O.

    2002-01-01

    We interpret the channel surface of Athabasca and Marte Valles to be fresh former ice-rich fluvial (hyperconcentrated) deposits rather than volcanic flows. Simply stated, this is what a fresh outflow channel deposit would look like. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  2. Dequantization Via Quantum Channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersson, Andreas

    2016-08-01

    For a unital completely positive map {Φ} ("quantum channel") governing the time propagation of a quantum system, the Stinespring representation gives an enlarged system evolving unitarily. We argue that the Stinespring representations of each power {Φ^m} of the single map together encode the structure of the original quantum channel and provide an interaction-dependent model for the bath. The same bath model gives a "classical limit" at infinite time {mto∞} in the form of a noncommutative "manifold" determined by the channel. In this way, a simplified analysis of the system can be performed by making the large-m approximation. These constructions are based on a noncommutative generalization of Berezin quantization. The latter is shown to involve very fundamental aspects of quantum-information theory, which are thereby put in a completely new light.

  3. Dequantization Via Quantum Channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersson, Andreas

    2016-10-01

    For a unital completely positive map {Φ} ("quantum channel") governing the time propagation of a quantum system, the Stinespring representation gives an enlarged system evolving unitarily. We argue that the Stinespring representations of each power {Φ^m} of the single map together encode the structure of the original quantum channel and provide an interaction-dependent model for the bath. The same bath model gives a "classical limit" at infinite time {mto∞} in the form of a noncommutative "manifold" determined by the channel. In this way, a simplified analysis of the system can be performed by making the large- m approximation. These constructions are based on a noncommutative generalization of Berezin quantization. The latter is shown to involve very fundamental aspects of quantum-information theory, which are thereby put in a completely new light.

  4. Entanglement-saving channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lami, L.; Giovannetti, V.

    2016-03-01

    The set of Entanglement Saving (ES) quantum channels is introduced and characterized. These are completely positive, trace preserving transformations which when acting locally on a bipartite quantum system initially prepared into a maximally entangled configuration, preserve its entanglement even when applied an arbitrary number of times. In other words, a quantum channel ψ is said to be ES if its powers ψn are not entanglement-breaking for all integers n. We also characterize the properties of the Asymptotic Entanglement Saving (AES) maps. These form a proper subset of the ES channels that is constituted by those maps that not only preserve entanglement for all finite n but which also sustain an explicitly not null level of entanglement in the asymptotic limit n → ∞. Structure theorems are provided for ES and for AES maps which yield an almost complete characterization of the former and a full characterization of the latter.

  5. Additional Types of Neuropathy

    MedlinePlus

    ... A A Listen En Español Additional Types of Neuropathy Charcot's Joint Charcot's Joint, also called neuropathic arthropathy, ... can stop bone destruction and aid healing. Cranial Neuropathy Cranial neuropathy affects the 12 pairs of nerves ...

  6. Food Additives and Hyperkinesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wender, Ester H.

    1977-01-01

    The hypothesis that food additives are causally associated with hyperkinesis and learning disabilities in children is reviewed, and available data are summarized. Available from: American Medical Association 535 North Dearborn Street Chicago, Illinois 60610. (JG)

  7. Smog control fuel additives

    SciTech Connect

    Lundby, W.

    1993-06-29

    A method is described of controlling, reducing or eliminating, ozone and related smog resulting from photochemical reactions between ozone and automotive or industrial gases comprising the addition of iodine or compounds of iodine to hydrocarbon-base fuels prior to or during combustion in an amount of about 1 part iodine per 240 to 10,000,000 parts fuel, by weight, to be accomplished by: (a) the addition of these inhibitors during or after the refining or manufacturing process of liquid fuels; (b) the production of these inhibitors for addition into fuel tanks, such as automotive or industrial tanks; or (c) the addition of these inhibitors into combustion chambers of equipment utilizing solid fuels for the purpose of reducing ozone.

  8. Pediatrician workforce policy statement.

    PubMed

    Basco, William T; Rimsza, Mary E

    2013-08-01

    This policy statement reviews important trends and other factors that affect the pediatrician workforce and the provision of pediatric health care, including changes in the pediatric patient population, pediatrician workforce, and nature of pediatric practice. The effect of these changes on pediatricians and the demand for pediatric care are discussed. The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) concludes that there is currently a shortage of pediatric medical subspecialists in many fields, as well as a shortage of pediatric surgical specialists. In addition, the AAP believes that the current distribution of primary care pediatricians is inadequate to meet the needs of children living in rural and other underserved areas, and more primary care pediatricians will be needed in the future because of the increasing number of children who have significant chronic health problems, changes in physician work hours, and implementation of current health reform efforts that seek to improve access to comprehensive patient- and family-centered care for all children in a medical home. The AAP is committed to being an active participant in physician workforce policy development with both professional organizations and governmental bodies to ensure a pediatric perspective on health care workforce issues. The overall purpose of this statement is to summarize policy recommendations and serve as a resource for the AAP and other stakeholders as they address pediatrician workforce issues that ultimately influence the quality of pediatric health care provided to children in the United States.

  9. Sodium channels and pain.

    PubMed

    Habib, Abdella M; Wood, John N; Cox, James J

    2015-01-01

    Human and mouse genetic studies have led to significant advances in our understanding of the role of voltage-gated sodium channels in pain pathways. In this chapter, we focus on Nav1.7, Nav1.8, Nav1.9 and Nav1.3 and describe the insights gained from the detailed analyses of global and conditional transgenic Nav knockout mice in terms of pain behaviour. The spectrum of human disorders caused by mutations in these channels is also outlined, concluding with a summary of recent progress in the development of selective Nav1.7 inhibitors for the treatment of pain. PMID:25846613

  10. Zeolites: Exploring Molecular Channels

    SciTech Connect

    Arslan, Ilke; Derewinski, Mirek

    2015-05-22

    Synthetic zeolites contain microscopic channels, sort of like a sponge. They have many uses, such as helping laundry detergent lather, absorbing liquid in kitty litter, and as catalysts to produce fuel. Of the hundreds of types of zeolites, only about 15 are used for catalysis. PNNL catalysis scientists Ilke Arslan and Mirek Derewinksi are studying these zeolites to understand what make them special. By exploring the mystery of these microscopic channels, their fundamental findings will help design better catalysts for applications such as biofuel production.

  11. Experimental characterization of Gaussian quantum-communication channels

    SciTech Connect

    Di Guglielmo, James; Hage, Boris; Franzen, Alexander; Schnabel, Roman; Fiurasek, Jaromir

    2007-07-15

    We present a full experimental characterization of continuous-variable quantum-communication channels established by shared entanglement together with local operations and classical communication. The resulting teleportation channel was fully characterized by measuring all elements of the covariance matrix of the shared two-mode squeezed Gaussian state. From the experimental data we determined the lower bound to the quantum channel capacity, the teleportation fidelity of coherent states, and the logarithmic negativity and purity of the shared state. Additionally, a positive secret key rate was obtained for two of the established channels.

  12. Le Chatelier's principle with multiple relaxation channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilmore, R.; Levine, R. D.

    1986-05-01

    Le Chatelier's principle is discussed within the constrained variational approach to thermodynamics. The formulation is general enough to encompass systems not in thermal (or chemical) equilibrium. Particular attention is given to systems with multiple constraints which can be relaxed. The moderation of the initial perturbation increases as additional constraints are removed. This result is studied in particular when the (coupled) relaxation channels have widely different time scales. A series of inequalities is derived which describes the successive moderation as each successive relaxation channel opens up. These inequalities are interpreted within the metric-geometry representation of thermodynamics.

  13. MULTI-CHANNEL PULSE HEIGHT ANALYZER

    DOEpatents

    Boyer, K.; Johnstone, C.W.

    1958-11-25

    An improved multi-channel pulse height analyzer of the type where the device translates the amplitude of each pulse into a time duration electrical quantity which is utilized to control the length of a train of pulses forwarded to a scaler is described. The final state of the scaler for any one train of pulses selects the appropriate channel in a magnetic memory in which an additional count of one is placed. The improvement consists of a storage feature for storing a signal pulse so that in many instances when two signal pulses occur in rapid succession, the second pulse is preserved and processed at a later time.

  14. Pegram Lecture: Science Policy & Current Policy Issues

    SciTech Connect

    John H. Marburger, III

    2008-11-18

    Drawing on his experience as a research scientist, academic administrator, national laboratory director and presidential science advisor, Marburger focuses on the intellectual machinery of science policy and current policy issues.

  15. Charges in the cytoplasmic pore control intrinsic inward rectification and single-channel properties in Kir1.1 and Kir2.1 channels.

    PubMed

    Chang, Hsueh-Kai; Yeh, Shih-Hao; Shieh, Ru-Chi

    2007-02-01

    An E224G mutation of the Kir2.1 channel generates intrinsic inward rectification and single-channel fluctuations in the absence of intracellular blockers. In this study, we showed that positively charged residues H226, R228 and R260, near site 224, regulated the intrinsic inward rectification and single-channel properties of the E224G mutant. By carrying out systematic mutations, we found that the charge effect on the intrinsic inward rectification and single-channel conductance is consistent with a long-range electrostatic mechanism. A Kir1.1 channel where the site equivalent to E224 in the Kir2.1 channel is a glycine residue does not show inward rectification or single-channel fluctuations. The G223K and N259R mutations of the Kir1.1 channel induced intrinsic inward rectification and reduced the single-channel conductance but did not generate large open-channel fluctuations. Substituting the cytoplasmic pore of the E224G mutant into the Kir1.1 channel induced open-channel fluctuations and intrinsic inward rectification. The single-channel conductance of the E224G mutant showed inward rectification. Also, a voltage-dependent gating mechanism decreased open probability during depolarization and contributed to the intrinsic inward rectification in the E224G mutant. In addition to an electrostatic effect, a close interaction of K(+) with channel pore may be required for generating open-channel fluctuations in the E224G mutant.

  16. Additive Manufacturing Infrared Inspection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaddy, Darrell

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing is a rapid prototyping technology that allows parts to be built in a series of thin layers from plastic, ceramics, and metallics. Metallic additive manufacturing is an emerging form of rapid prototyping that allows complex structures to be built using various metallic powders. Significant time and cost savings have also been observed using the metallic additive manufacturing compared with traditional techniques. Development of the metallic additive manufacturing technology has advanced significantly over the last decade, although many of the techniques to inspect parts made from these processes have not advanced significantly or have limitations. Several external geometry inspection techniques exist such as Coordinate Measurement Machines (CMM), Laser Scanners, Structured Light Scanning Systems, or even traditional calipers and gages. All of the aforementioned techniques are limited to external geometry and contours or must use a contact probe to inspect limited internal dimensions. This presentation will document the development of a process for real-time dimensional inspection technique and digital quality record of the additive manufacturing process using Infrared camera imaging and processing techniques.

  17. Phenylethynyl Containing Reactive Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John W. (Inventor); Smith, Joseph G., Jr. (Inventor); Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Phenylethynyl containing reactive additives were prepared from aromatic diamine, containing phenylethvnvl groups and various ratios of phthalic anhydride and 4-phenylethynviphthalic anhydride in glacial acetic acid to form the imide in one step or in N-methyl-2-pvrrolidinone to form the amide acid intermediate. The reactive additives were mixed in various amounts (10% to 90%) with oligomers containing either terminal or pendent phenylethynyl groups (or both) to reduce the melt viscosity and thereby enhance processability. Upon thermal cure, the additives react and become chemically incorporated into the matrix and effect an increase in crosslink density relative to that of the host resin. This resultant increase in crosslink density has advantageous consequences on the cured resin properties such as higher glass transition temperature and higher modulus as compared to that of the host resin.

  18. Channels of Propaganda.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sproule, J. Michael

    Defining propaganda as "efforts by special interests to win over the public covertly by infiltrating messages into various channels of public expression ordinarily viewed as politically neutral," this book argues that propaganda has become pervasive in American life. Pointing out that the 1990s society is inundated with propaganda from numerous…

  19. Learning in Tactile Channels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gescheider, George A.; Wright, John H.

    2012-01-01

    Vibrotactile intensity-discrimination thresholds for sinusoidal stimuli applied to the thenar eminence of the hand declined as a function of practice. However, improvement was confined to the tactile information-processing channel in which learning had occurred. Specifically, improvements in performance with training within the Pacinian-corpuscle…

  20. SK channels and calmodulin.

    PubMed

    Adelman, John P

    2016-01-01

    Calcium ions are Nature's most widely used signaling mechanism, mediating communication between pathways at virtually every physiological level. Ion channels are no exception, as the activities of a wide range of ion channels are intricately shaped by fluctuations in intracellular Ca(2+) levels. Mirroring the importance and the breadth of Ca(2+) signaling, free Ca(2+) levels are tightly controlled, and a myriad of Ca(2+) binding proteins transduce Ca(2+) signals, each with its own nuance, comprising a constantly changing symphony of metabolic activity. The founding member of Ca(2+) binding proteins is calmodulin (CaM), a small, acidic, modular protein endowed with gymnastic-like flexibility and E-F hand motifs that chelate Ca(2+) ions. In this review, I will trace the history that led to the realization that CaM serves as the Ca(2+)-gating cue for SK channels, the experiments that revealed that CaM is an intrinsic subunit of SK channels, and itself a target of regulation. PMID:25942650

  1. Chemistry in Microfluidic Channels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chia, Matthew C.; Sweeney, Christina M.; Odom, Teri W.

    2011-01-01

    General chemistry introduces principles such as acid-base chemistry, mixing, and precipitation that are usually demonstrated in bulk solutions. In this laboratory experiment, we describe how chemical reactions can be performed in a microfluidic channel to show advanced concepts such as laminar fluid flow and controlled precipitation. Three sets of…

  2. Developments in relativistic channeling

    SciTech Connect

    Carrigan, R.A. Jr.

    1996-10-01

    The possibility of using channeling as a tool for high energy accelerator applications and particle physics has now been extensively investigated. Bent crystals have been used for accelerator extraction and for particle deflection. Applications as accelerating devices have been discussed but have not yet been tried. 61 refs., 1 fig.

  3. Channeling through Bent Crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Mack, Stephanie; /Ottawa U. /SLAC

    2012-09-07

    Bent crystals have demonstrated potential for use in beam collimation. A process called channeling is when accelerated particle beams are trapped by the nuclear potentials in the atomic planes within a crystal lattice. If the crystal is bent then the particles can follow the bending angle of the crystal. There are several different effects that are observed when particles travel through a bent crystal including dechanneling, volume capture, volume reflection and channeling. With a crystal placed at the edge of a particle beam, part of the fringe of the beam can be deflected away towards a detector or beam dump, thus helping collimate the beam. There is currently FORTRAN code by Igor Yazynin that has been used to model the passage of particles through a bent crystal. Using this code, the effects mentioned were explored for beam energy that would be seen at the Facility for Advanced Accelerator Experimental Tests (FACET) at a range of crystal orientations with respect to the incoming beam. After propagating 5 meters in vacuum space past the crystal the channeled particles were observed to separate from most of the beam with some noise due to dechanneled particles. Progressively smaller bending radii, with corresponding shorter crystal lengths, were compared and it was seen that multiple scattering decreases with the length of the crystal therefore allowing for cleaner detection of the channeled particles. The input beam was then modified and only a portion of the beam sent through the crystal. With the majority of the beam not affected by the crystal, most particles were not deflected and after propagation the channeled particles were seen to be deflected approximately 5mm. After a portion of the beam travels through the crystal, the entire beam was then sent through a quadrupole magnet, which increased the separation of the channeled particles from the remainder of the beam to a distance of around 20mm. A different code, which was developed at SLAC, was used to

  4. Allosterism and Structure in Thermally Activated Transient Receptor Potential Channels.

    PubMed

    Diaz-Franulic, Ignacio; Poblete, Horacio; Miño-Galaz, Germán; González, Carlos; Latorre, Ramón

    2016-07-01

    The molecular sensors that mediate temperature changes in living organisms are a large family of proteins known as thermosensitive transient receptor potential (TRP) ion channels. These membrane proteins are polymodal receptors that can be activated by cold or hot temperatures, depending on the channel subtype, voltage, and ligands. The stimuli sensors are allosterically coupled to a pore domain, increasing the probability of finding the channel in its ion conductive conformation. In this review we first discuss the allosteric coupling between the temperature and voltage sensor modules and the pore domain, and then discuss the thermodynamic foundations of thermo-TRP channel activation. We provide a structural overview of the molecular determinants of temperature sensing. We also posit an anisotropic thermal diffusion model that may explain the large temperature sensitivity of TRP channels. Additionally, we examine the effect of several ligands on TRP channel function and the evidence regarding their mechanisms of action. PMID:27297398

  5. Space Policy and Humanities Policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frodeman, Robert

    2005-05-01

    In his 14 January 2004 speech on the future of space exploration, U.S. President George W. Bush proposed a return to the Moon followed by ``human missions to Mars and to worlds beyond.'' Bush's proposal called for robotic missions and new manned space vehicles to replace an aging set of space shuttles, and sought a new justification for space exploration. In the words of former NASA Administrator Sean O'Keefe, in The Vision for Space Exploration, this plan is not ``merely for the sake of adventure, however exciting that might be, but seeks answers to profound scientific and philosophic questions.'' Bush's proposal stimulated renewed reflection on the goals of our nation's space policy and on the means (financial and otherwise) for achieving these goals. A return to such first-order questioning of our goals for space has been long overdue. The Columbia Accident Investigation Board, which was convened by NASA in 2003 following the shuttle disaster, described ``a lack, over the past three decades, of any national mandate providing NASA a compelling mission requiring human presence in space'' [Keiper, 2003].

  6. The Pill vs. the Sword: Additional Considerations

    PubMed Central

    Lottes, Ilsa L.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, I present additional information for policy-makers and researchers to consider in response to the view proposed by Potts et al that "the pill is mightier than the sword." I identify states with both high rates of terrorism and a youth bulge and discuss correlates of both these societal characteristics. The research examined supports the view that factors other than access to family planning are more important in facilitating terrorism. PMID:26673473

  7. 33 CFR 334.3 - Special policies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.3 Special policies. (a) General. The general regulatory policies stated in 33 CFR part 320 will be followed as appropriate. In addition, danger zone and...) Food fishing industry. The authority to prescribe danger zone and restricted area regulations must...

  8. Science Policy Reviews, Volume 5 Number 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simons, Eugene M., Ed.

    Presented in this final issue of a quarterly publication are reviews, highlights, and 391 annotated bibliographic references from current and international literature in the area of science and public policy. The literature reviewed includes books, reports, and periodical articles and focuses on matters of broad public policy. In addition to the…

  9. Making Definitions Explicit and Capturing Evaluation Policies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houston, Samuel R.

    Judgment ANalysis (JAN) is described as a technique for identifying the rating policies that exist within a group of judges. Studies are presented in which JAN has been used in evaluating teacher effectiveness by capturing both student and faculty policies of teacher effectiveness at the University of Northern Colorado. In addition, research…

  10. 48 CFR 210.001 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Policy. 210.001 Section... DEFENSE ACQUISITION PLANNING MARKET RESEARCH 210.001 Policy. (a) In addition to the requirements of FAR 10... 207.170-2; or (B) Issuing a solicitation with tiered evaluation of offers (Section 816 of Public...

  11. 48 CFR 210.001 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Policy. 210.001 Section... DEFENSE ACQUISITION PLANNING MARKET RESEARCH 210.001 Policy. (a) In addition to the requirements of FAR 10... 207.170-2; or (B) Issuing a solicitation with tiered evaluation of offers (Section 816 of Public...

  12. 49 CFR 801.2 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... to the public without compliance with this part. In addition, as a matter of policy, the NTSB may... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Policy. 801.2 Section 801.2 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL TRANSPORTATION SAFETY BOARD PUBLIC AVAILABILITY...

  13. Stakeholder Support for School Food Policy Expansions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pettigrew, Simone; Pescud, Melanie; Donovan, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the extent to which parents and school-based stakeholders (principals, teachers, canteen managers and Parents & Citizen Committee presidents) are supportive of potential expansions to a new school food policy. Eight additional policy components elicited in preliminary focus groups with parents and 19 additional…

  14. Multifunctional fuel additives

    SciTech Connect

    Baillargeon, D.J.; Cardis, A.B.; Heck, D.B.

    1991-03-26

    This paper discusses a composition comprising a major amount of a liquid hydrocarbyl fuel and a minor low-temperature flow properties improving amount of an additive product of the reaction of a suitable diol and product of a benzophenone tetracarboxylic dianhydride and a long-chain hydrocarbyl aminoalcohol.

  15. Biobased lubricant additives

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fully biobased lubricants are those formulated using all biobased ingredients, i.e. biobased base oils and biobased additives. Such formulations provide the maximum environmental, safety, and economic benefits expected from a biobased product. Currently, there are a number of biobased base oils that...

  16. Considerations for an Obesity Policy Research Agenda

    PubMed Central

    McKinnon, Robin A.; Orleans, C. Tracy; Kumanyika, Shiriki K.; Haire-Joshu, Debra; Krebs-Smith, Susan M.; Finkelstein, Eric A.; Brownell, Kelly D.; Thompson, Joseph W.; Ballard-Barbash, Rachel

    2010-01-01

    The rise in obesity levels in the U.S. in the past several decades has been dramatic, with serious implications for public health and the economy. Experiences in tobacco control and other public health initiatives have shown that public policy may be a powerful tool to effect structural change to alter population-level behavior. In 2007, the National Cancer Institute convened a meeting to discuss priorities for a research agenda to inform obesity policy. Issues considered were how to define obesity policy research, key challenges and key partners in formulating/implementing an obesity policy research agenda, criteria by which to set research priorities, and specific research needs and questions. Themes that emerged were: (1) the embryonic nature of obesity policy research, (2) the need to study “natural experiments” resulting from policy-based efforts to address the obesity epidemic, (3) the importance of research focused beyond individual-level behavior change, (4) the need for economic research across several relevant policy areas, and (5) the overall urgency of taking action in the policy arena. Moving forward, timely evaluation of natural experiments is of especially high priority. A variety of policies intended to promote healthy weight in children and adults are being implemented in communities and at the state and national levels. Although some of these policies are supported by the findings of intervention research, additional research is needed to evaluate the implementation and quantify the impact of new policies designed to address obesity. PMID:19211215

  17. Policy analysis: palliative care in Ireland.

    PubMed

    May, Peter; Hynes, Geralyn; McCallion, Philip; Payne, Sheila; Larkin, Philip; McCarron, Mary

    2014-03-01

    Palliative care for patients with advanced illness is a subject of growing importance in health services, policy and research. In 2001 Ireland became one of the first nations to publish a dedicated national palliative care policy. This paper uses the 'policy analysis triangle' as a framework to examine what the policy entailed, where the key ideas originated, why the policy process was activated, who were the key actors, and what were the main consequences. Although palliative care provision expanded following publication, priorities that were unaddressed or not fully embraced on the national policy agenda are identified. The factors underlying areas of non-fulfilment of policy are then discussed. In particular, the analysis highlights that policy initiatives in a relatively new field of healthcare face a trade-off between ambition and feasibility. Key policy goals could not be realised given the large resource commitments required; the competition for resources from other, better-established healthcare sectors; and challenges in expanding workforce and capacity. Additionally, the inherently cross-sectoral nature of palliative care complicated the co-ordination of support for the policy. Policy initiatives in emerging fields such as palliative care should address carefully feasibility and support in their conception and implementation. PMID:23932413

  18. Policy Capacity in the Learning Healthcare System Comment on "Health Reform Requires Policy Capacity".

    PubMed

    Gardner, William

    2015-01-01

    Pierre-Gerlier Forest and his colleagues make a strong argument for the need to expand policy capacity among healthcare actors. In this commentary, I develop an additional argument in support of Forest et al view. Forest et al rightly point to the need to have embedded policy experts to successfully translate healthcare reform policy into healthcare change. Translation of externally generated innovation policy into local solutions is only one source of healthcare system change. We also need to build learning healthcare systems that can discover new health solutions at the frontline of care. Enhanced policy capacity staffing in those organizations will be key to building continuously learning health systems. PMID:26673470

  19. Media power and public mental health policy.

    PubMed

    Marcos, L R

    1989-09-01

    The author describes the functions of the news media and their influence on public mental health policy making. News media functions are divided into the categories of selecting the news, reporting information, serving as a channel of communication, presenting views and opinions, and legitimizing the issues. These functions are illustrated by focusing on a highly publicized New York City policy to involuntarily hospitalize mentally ill homeless people living in the streets. Strategies are suggested to mental health professionals on how to effectively interact with the news media. PMID:2764177

  20. TRPC4- and TRPC4-containing channels.

    PubMed

    Freichel, Marc; Tsvilovskyy, Volodymyr; Camacho-Londoño, Juan E

    2014-01-01

    TRPC4 proteins comprise six transmembrane domains, a putative pore-forming region, and an intracellularly located amino- and carboxy-terminus. Among eleven splice variants identified so far, TRPC4α and TRPC4β are the most abundantly expressed and functionally characterized. TRPC4 is expressed in various organs and cell types including the soma and dendrites of numerous types of neurons; the cardiovascular system including endothelial, smooth muscle, and cardiac cells; myometrial and skeletal muscle cells; kidney; and immune cells such as mast cells. Both recombinant and native TRPC4-containing channels differ tremendously in their permeability and other biophysical properties, pharmacological modulation, and mode of activation depending on the cellular environment. They vary from inwardly rectifying store-operated channels with a high Ca(2+) selectivity to non-store-operated channels predominantly carrying Na(+) and activated by Gαq- and/or Gαi-coupled receptors with a complex U-shaped current-voltage relationship. Thus, individual TRPC4-containing channels contribute to agonist-induced Ca(2+) entry directly or indirectly via depolarization and activation of voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels. The differences in channel properties may arise from variations in the composition of the channel complexes, in the specific regulatory pathways in the corresponding cell system, and/or in the expression pattern of interaction partners which comprise other TRPC proteins to form heteromultimeric channels. Additional interaction partners of TRPC4 that can mediate the activity of TRPC4-containing channels include (1) scaffolding proteins (e.g., NHERF) that may mediate interactions with signaling molecules in or in close vicinity to the plasma membrane such as Gα proteins or phospholipase C and with the cytoskeleton, (2) proteins in specific membrane microdomains (e.g., caveolin-1), or (3) proteins on cellular organelles (e.g., Stim1). The diversity of TRPC4-containing channels

  1. Image Discrimination Models With Stochastic Channel Selection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahumada, Albert J., Jr.; Beard, Bettina L.; Null, Cynthia H. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    Many models of human image processing feature a large fixed number of channels representing cortical units varying in spatial position (visual field direction and eccentricity) and spatial frequency (radial frequency and orientation). The values of these parameters are usually sampled at fixed values selected to ensure adequate overlap considering the bandwidth and/or spread parameters, which are usually fixed. Even high levels of overlap does not always ensure that the performance of the model will vary smoothly with image translation or scale changes. Physiological measurements of bandwidth and/or spread parameters result in a broad distribution of estimated parameter values and the prediction of some psychophysical results are facilitated by the assumption that these parameters also take on a range of values. Selecting a sample of channels from a continuum of channels rather than using a fixed set can make model performance vary smoothly with changes in image position, scale, and orientation. It also facilitates the addition of spatial inhomogeneity, nonlinear feature channels, and focus of attention to channel models.

  2. Vinyl capped addition polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vannucci, Raymond D. (Inventor); Malarik, Diane C. (Inventor); Delvigs, Peter (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    Polyimide resins (PMR) are generally useful where high strength and temperature capabilities are required (at temperatures up to about 700 F). Polyimide resins are particularly useful in applications such as jet engine compressor components, for example, blades, vanes, air seals, air splitters, and engine casing parts. Aromatic vinyl capped addition polyimides are obtained by reacting a diamine, an ester of tetracarboxylic acid, and an aromatic vinyl compound. Low void materials with improved oxidative stability when exposed to 700 F air may be fabricated as fiber reinforced high molecular weight capped polyimide composites. The aromatic vinyl capped polyimides are provided with a more aromatic nature and are more thermally stable than highly aliphatic, norbornenyl-type end-capped polyimides employed in PMR resins. The substitution of aromatic vinyl end-caps for norbornenyl end-caps in addition polyimides results in polymers with improved oxidative stability.

  3. Tackifier for addition polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, J. M.; St.clair, T. L.

    1980-01-01

    A modification to the addition polyimide, LaRC-160, was prepared to improve tack and drape and increase prepeg out-time. The essentially solventless, high viscosity laminating resin is synthesized from low cost liquid monomers. The modified version takes advantage of a reactive, liquid plasticizer which is used in place of solvent and helps solve a major problem of maintaining good prepeg tack and drape, or the ability of the prepeg to adhere to adjacent plies and conform to a desired shape during the lay up process. This alternate solventless approach allows both longer life of the polymer prepeg and the processing of low void laminates. This approach appears to be applicable to all addition polyimide systems.

  4. Electrophilic addition of astatine

    SciTech Connect

    Norseev, Yu.V.; Vasaros, L.; Nhan, D.D.; Huan, N.K.

    1988-03-01

    It has been shown for the first time that astatine is capable of undergoing addition reactions to unsaturated hydrocarbons. A new compound of astatine, viz., ethylene astatohydrin, has been obtained, and its retention numbers of squalane, Apiezon, and tricresyl phosphate have been found. The influence of various factors on the formation of ethylene astatohydrin has been studied. It has been concluded on the basis of the results obtained that the univalent cations of astatine in an acidic medium is protonated hypoastatous acid.

  5. Navigation study on improvements to existing federal navigation channels Arthur Kill Channel, Howland Hook Marine Terminal, Staten Island, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-06-01

    Improvements to the Arthur Kill Channel from the confluence of the Kill Van Kull Channel, the Arthur Kill Channel, and Newark Bay, along the Arthur Kill to the vicinity of Howland Hook Marine Terminal on Staten Island, New York are proposed. In addition, the study area was extended south from Howland Hook Terminal for approximately one mile in order to serve two oil terminals. The recommended improvements would include deepening to various depths down to 45 feet mean low water (MLW), widening the channel for unrestricted two-way traffic, and the creation of a turning basin. Specifically, a 41-foot MLW deep channel would be dredged in the previously authorized 35-foot MLW project in the Arthur Kill Channel from its confluence with the Newark Bay and Kill Van Kull channels to the Howland Hook Marine Terminal for a distance of approximately 2.1 miles. Also recommended are selected widenings and realignments of the channel at a depth of 41 feet in the interest of navigational safety. Additionally, a 40-foot MLW channel is proposed in the previously authorized 35-foot MLW project in the Arthur Kill Channel from the Howland Hook Marine Terminal to the Exxon Bayway and Gulfport facilities for a distance of approximately one mile. The channel would be selectively realigned to a 40-foot depth for navigational safety. No final determination has been made regarding the disposal of dredged material due to the uncertainty of available upland sites at this time. The turning basin would lie in the Kill Van Kull Channel at Bergen Point, where vessels turn from Kill Van Kull into Arthur Kill and Newark Bay. Total cost of the recommended plan is $49.4 million; the benefit-cost ratio is 4.35. The plan would take 4 years for completion and would have a projected life of 50 years.

  6. Functional Generalized Additive Models.

    PubMed

    McLean, Mathew W; Hooker, Giles; Staicu, Ana-Maria; Scheipl, Fabian; Ruppert, David

    2014-01-01

    We introduce the functional generalized additive model (FGAM), a novel regression model for association studies between a scalar response and a functional predictor. We model the link-transformed mean response as the integral with respect to t of F{X(t), t} where F(·,·) is an unknown regression function and X(t) is a functional covariate. Rather than having an additive model in a finite number of principal components as in Müller and Yao (2008), our model incorporates the functional predictor directly and thus our model can be viewed as the natural functional extension of generalized additive models. We estimate F(·,·) using tensor-product B-splines with roughness penalties. A pointwise quantile transformation of the functional predictor is also considered to ensure each tensor-product B-spline has observed data on its support. The methods are evaluated using simulated data and their predictive performance is compared with other competing scalar-on-function regression alternatives. We illustrate the usefulness of our approach through an application to brain tractography, where X(t) is a signal from diffusion tensor imaging at position, t, along a tract in the brain. In one example, the response is disease-status (case or control) and in a second example, it is the score on a cognitive test. R code for performing the simulations and fitting the FGAM can be found in supplemental materials available online.

  7. 48 CFR 410.001 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... PLANNING MARKET RESEARCH 410.001 Policy. In addition to those uses listed in FAR 10.001, agencies must use the results of market research to— (a) Ensure the minimum use of hazardous or toxic materials;...

  8. Learning Channels and Verbal Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Fan-Yu; Kubina, Richard M., Jr.

    2004-01-01

    This article reviews the basics of learning channels and how specification of stimuli can help enhance verbal behavior. This article will define learning channels and the role of the ability matrix in training verbal behavior.

  9. Fluid channeling system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Donald Y. (Inventor); Hitch, Bradley D. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A fluid channeling system includes a fluid ejector, a heat exchanger, and a fluid pump disposed in series flow communication The ejector includes a primary inlet for receiving a primary fluid, and a secondary inlet for receiving a secondary fluid which is mixed with the primary fluid and discharged therefrom as ejector discharge. Heat is removed from the ejector discharge in the heat exchanger, and the heat exchanger discharge is compressed in the fluid pump and channeled to the ejector secondary inlet as the secondary fluid In an exemplary embodiment, the temperature of the primary fluid is greater than the maximum operating temperature of a fluid motor powering the fluid pump using a portion of the ejector discharge, with the secondary fluid being mixed with the primary fluid so that the ejector discharge temperature is equal to about the maximum operating temperature of the fluid motor.

  10. Geysering in boiling channels

    SciTech Connect

    Aritomi, Masanori; Takemoto, Takatoshi; Chiang, Jing-Hsien

    1995-09-01

    A concept of natural circulation BWRs such as the SBWR has been proposed and seems to be promising in that the primary cooling system can be simplified. The authors have been investigating thermo-hydraulic instabilities which may appear during the start-up in natural circulation BWRs. In our previous works, geysering was investigated in parallel boiling channels for both natural and forced circulations, and its driving mechanism and the effect of system pressure on geysering occurrence were made clear. In this paper, geysering is investigated in a vertical column and a U-shaped vertical column heated in the lower parts. It is clarified from the results that the occurrence mechanism of geysering and the dependence of system pressure on geysering occurrence coincide between parallel boiling channels in circulation systems and vertical columns in non-circulation systems.

  11. Water Science, Management and Policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lifland, Jonathan

    2004-02-01

    A new AGU book, Water:Science, Management and Policy, edited by Richard Lawford, Denise Fort, Holly Hartmann, and Susanna Eden, explores the scientific and political issues behind water use and sustainability worldwide. The book investigates critical issues facing water managers, policy makers, and scientists in the 21st century, examining specific examples of water planning and decision-making. Among the topics discussed by the authors are the current state of water engineering, sharing resources across state and international borders, and the best methods for managing the resource with the future impact of climate change and additional pollution.

  12. Athermal channeled spectropolarimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, Julia Craven

    2015-12-08

    A temperature insensitive (athermal) channeled spectropolarimeter (CSP) is described. The athermal CSP includes a crystal retarder formed of a biaxial crystal. The crystal retarder has three crystal axes, wherein each axis has its own distinct index of refraction. The axes are oriented in a particular manner, causing an amplitude modulating carrier frequency induced by the crystal retarder to be thermally invariant. Accordingly, a calibration beam technique can be used over a relatively wide range of ambient temperatures, with a common calibration data set.

  13. Aquaglyceroporins: generalized metalloid channels

    PubMed Central

    Mukhopadhyay, Rita; Bhattacharjee, Hiranmoy; Rosen, Barry P.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Aquaporins (AQPs), members of a superfamily of transmembrane channel proteins, are ubiquitous in all domains of life. They fall into a number of branches that can be functionally categorized into two major sub-groups: i) orthodox aquaporins, which are water-specific channels, and ii) aquaglyceroporins, which allow the transport of water, non-polar solutes, such as urea or glycerol, the reactive oxygen species hydrogen peroxide, and gases such as ammonia, carbon dioxide and nitric oxide and, as described in this review, metalloids. Scope of Review: This review summarizes the key findings that AQP channels conduct bidirectional movement of metalloids into and out of cells. Major Conclusions: As(OH)3 and Sb(OH)3 behave as inorganic molecular mimics of glycerol, a property that allows their passage through AQP channels. Plant AQPs also allow the passage of boron and silicon as their hydroxyacids, boric acid (B(OH)3) and orthosilicic acid (Si(OH)4), respectively. Genetic analysis suggests that germanic acid (GeO2) is also a substrate. While As(III), Sb(III) and Ge(IV) are toxic metalloids, borate (B(III)) and silicate (Si(IV)) are essential elements in higher plants. General Significance: The uptake of environmental metalloids by aquaporins provides an understanding of (i) how toxic elements such as arsenic enter the food chain; (ii) the delivery of arsenic and antimony containing drugs in the treatment of certain forms of leukemia and chemotherapy of diseases caused by pathogenic protozoa; and (iii) the possibility that food plants such as rice could be made safer by genetically modifying them to exclude arsenic while still accumulating boron and silicon. PMID:24291688

  14. Radar channel balancing with commutation

    SciTech Connect

    Doerry, Armin Walter

    2014-02-01

    When multiple channels are employed in a pulse-Doppler radar, achieving and maintaining balance between the channels is problematic. In some circumstances the channels may be commutated to achieve adequate balance. Commutation is the switching, trading, toggling, or multiplexing of the channels between signal paths. Commutation allows modulating the imbalance energy away from the balanced energy in Doppler, where it can be mitigated with filtering.

  15. CCSDS Advanced Orbiting Systems Virtual Channel Access Service for QoS MACHETE Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jennings, Esther H.; Segui, John S.

    2011-01-01

    To support various communications requirements imposed by different missions, interplanetary communication protocols need to be designed, validated, and evaluated carefully. Multimission Advanced Communications Hybrid Environment for Test and Evaluation (MACHETE), described in "Simulator of Space Communication Networks" (NPO-41373), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 29, No. 8 (August 2005), p. 44, combines various tools for simulation and performance analysis of space networks. The MACHETE environment supports orbital analysis, link budget analysis, communications network simulations, and hardware-in-the-loop testing. By building abstract behavioral models of network protocols, one can validate performance after identifying the appropriate metrics of interest. The innovators have extended the MACHETE model library to include a generic link-layer Virtual Channel (VC) model supporting quality-of-service (QoS) controls based on IP streams. The main purpose of this generic Virtual Channel model addition was to interface fine-grain flow-based QoS (quality of service) between the network and MAC layers of the QualNet simulator, a commercial component of MACHETE. This software model adds the capability of mapping IP streams, based on header fields, to virtual channel numbers, allowing extended QoS handling at link layer. This feature further refines the QoS v existing at the network layer. QoS at the network layer (e.g. diffserv) supports few QoS classes, so data from one class will be aggregated together; differentiating between flows internal to a class/priority is not supported. By adding QoS classification capability between network and MAC layers through VC, one maps multiple VCs onto the same physical link. Users then specify different VC weights, and different queuing and scheduling policies at the link layer. This VC model supports system performance analysis of various virtual channel link-layer QoS queuing schemes independent of the network-layer QoS systems.

  16. Operations Policy Manual, 2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teacher Education Accreditation Council, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The Teacher Education Accreditation Council's (TEAC's) "Operations Policy Manual" outlines all of TEAC's current policies and procedures related to TEAC members, TEAC administration, and the public, and includes the Bylaws of the Teacher Education Accreditation Council. Contents include: (1) Policies Related to TEAC Members; (2) Policies Related…

  17. Ion channeling revisited

    SciTech Connect

    Doyle, Barney Lee; Corona, Aldo; Nguyen, Anh

    2014-09-01

    A MS Excel program has been written that calculates accidental, or unintentional, ion channeling in cubic bcc, fcc and diamond lattice crystals or polycrystalline materials. This becomes an important issue when simulating the creation by energetic neutrons of point displacement damage and extended defects using beams of ions. All of the tables and graphs in the three Ion Beam Analysis Handbooks that previously had to be manually looked up and read from were programed into Excel in handy lookup tables, or parameterized, for the case of the graphs, using rather simple exponential functions with different powers of the argument. The program then offers an extremely convenient way to calculate axial and planar half-angles and minimum yield or dechanneling probabilities, effects on half-angles of amorphous overlayers, accidental channeling probabilities for randomly oriented crystals or crystallites, and finally a way to automatically generate stereographic projections of axial and planar channeling half-angles. The program can generate these projections and calculate these probabilities for axes and [hkl] planes up to (555).

  18. The alpha channeling effect

    SciTech Connect

    Fisch, N. J.

    2015-12-10

    Alpha particles born through fusion reactions in a tokamak reactor tend to slow down on electrons, but that could take up to hundreds of milliseconds. Before that happens, the energy in these alpha particles can destabilize on collisionless timescales toroidal Alfven modes and other waves, in a way deleterious to energy confinement. However, it has been speculated that this energy might be instead be channeled into useful energy, so as to heat fuel ions or to drive current. Such a channeling needs to be catalyzed by waves Waves can produce diffusion in energy of the alpha particles in a way that is strictly coupled to diffusion in space. If these diffusion paths in energy-position space point from high energy in the center to low energy on the periphery, then alpha particles will be cooled while forced to the periphery. The energy from the alpha particles is absorbed by the wave. The amplified wave can then heat ions or drive current. This process or paradigm for extracting alpha particle energy collisionlessly has been called alpha channeling. While the effect is speculative, the upside potential for economical fusion is immense. The paradigm also operates more generally in other contexts of magnetically confined plasma.

  19. The human role in changing river channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregory, K. J.

    2006-09-01

    Direct consequences of the human role, where human activity affects river channels through engineering works including channelization, dam construction, diversion and culverting, have been long recognised [Marsh, G.P., 1864. Man and Nature or Physical Geography as Modified by Human Action. Charles Scribner, New York; Thomas Jr., W.L., (ed.) 1956. Man's Role in Changing the Face of the Earth. Chicago, University of Chicago Press, Chicago.]. The less obvious indirect effects of point and reach changes occurring downstream and throughout the basin, however, are much more recently appreciated, dating from key contributions by Strahler [Strahler, A.N., 1956. The nature of induced erosion and aggradation. In W. L. Thomas (Ed.), Man's Role in Changing the Face of the Earth. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 621-638.], Wolman [Wolman, M.G., 1967. A cycle of sedimentation and erosion in urban river channels. Geografiska Annaler 49A, 385-95.], Schumm [Schumm, S.A., 1969. River metamorphosis. Proceedings American Society of Civil Engineers, Journal Hydraulics Division 95, 255-73.], and Graf [Graf, W.L., 1977. The rate law in fluvial geomorphology. American Journal of Science, 277, 178-191.]. These are complemented by effects of alterations of land use, such as deforestation, intensive agriculture and incidence of fire, with the most extreme effects produced by building activity and urbanisation. Changing river channels are most evident in the channel cross-section where changes of size, shape and composition are now well-established, with up to tenfold increases or decreases illustrated by results from more than 200 world studies. In addition the overall channel planform, the network and the ecology have changed. Specific terms have become associated with changing river channels including enlargement, shrinkage and metamorphosis. Although the scope of adjustment has been established, it has not always been possible to predict what will happen in a particular location

  20. Micro-channel plate detector

    SciTech Connect

    Elam, Jeffrey W.; Lee, Seon W.; Wang, Hsien -Hau; Pellin, Michael J.; Byrum, Karen; Frisch, Henry J.

    2015-09-22

    A method and system for providing a micro-channel plate detector. An anodized aluminum oxide membrane is provided and includes a plurality of nanopores which have an Al coating and a thin layer of an emissive oxide material responsive to incident radiation, thereby providing a plurality of radiation sensitive channels for the micro-channel plate detector.

  1. Cascading blockages in channel bundles.

    PubMed

    Barré, C; Talbot, J

    2015-11-01

    Flow in channel networks may involve a redistribution of flux following the blockage or failure of an individual link. Here we consider a simplified model consisting of N(c) parallel channels conveying a particulate flux. Particles enter these channels according to a homogeneous Poisson process and an individual channel blocks if more than N particles are simultaneously present. The behavior of the composite system depends strongly on how the flux of entering particles is redistributed following a blockage. We consider two cases. In the first, the intensity on each open channel remains constant while in the second the total intensity is evenly redistributed over the open channels. We obtain exact results for arbitrary N(c) and N for a system of independent channels and for arbitrary N(c) and N=1 for coupled channels. For N>1 we present approximate analytical as well as numerical results. Independent channels block at a decreasing rate due to a simple combinatorial effect, while for coupled channels the interval between successive blockages remains constant for N=1 but decreases for N>1. This accelerating cascade is due to the nonlinear dependence of the mean blocking time of a single channel on the entering particle flux that more than compensates for the decrease in the number of active channels.

  2. Policy-Making Theory as an Analytical Framework in Policy Analysis: Implications for Research Design and Professional Advocacy.

    PubMed

    Sheldon, Michael R

    2016-01-01

    Policy studies are a recent addition to the American Physical Therapy Association's Research Agenda and are critical to our understanding of various federal, state, local, and organizational policies on the provision of physical therapist services across the continuum of care. Policy analyses that help to advance the profession's various policy agendas will require relevant theoretical frameworks to be credible. The purpose of this perspective article is to: (1) demonstrate the use of a policy-making theory as an analytical framework in a policy analysis and (2) discuss how sound policy analysis can assist physical therapists in becoming more effective change agents, policy advocates, and partners with other relevant stakeholder groups. An exploratory study of state agency policy responses to address work-related musculoskeletal disorders is provided as a contemporary example to illustrate key points and to demonstrate the importance of selecting a relevant analytical framework based on the context of the policy issue under investigation.

  3. Policy-Making Theory as an Analytical Framework in Policy Analysis: Implications for Research Design and Professional Advocacy.

    PubMed

    Sheldon, Michael R

    2016-01-01

    Policy studies are a recent addition to the American Physical Therapy Association's Research Agenda and are critical to our understanding of various federal, state, local, and organizational policies on the provision of physical therapist services across the continuum of care. Policy analyses that help to advance the profession's various policy agendas will require relevant theoretical frameworks to be credible. The purpose of this perspective article is to: (1) demonstrate the use of a policy-making theory as an analytical framework in a policy analysis and (2) discuss how sound policy analysis can assist physical therapists in becoming more effective change agents, policy advocates, and partners with other relevant stakeholder groups. An exploratory study of state agency policy responses to address work-related musculoskeletal disorders is provided as a contemporary example to illustrate key points and to demonstrate the importance of selecting a relevant analytical framework based on the context of the policy issue under investigation. PMID:26450973

  4. Uncoupling Charge Movement from Channel Opening in Voltage-gated Potassium Channels by Ruthenium Complexes*

    PubMed Central

    Jara-Oseguera, Andrés; Ishida, Itzel G.; Rangel-Yescas, Gisela E.; Espinosa-Jalapa, Noel; Pérez-Guzmán, José A.; Elías-Viñas, David; Le Lagadec, Ronan; Rosenbaum, Tamara; Islas, León D.

    2011-01-01

    The Kv2.1 channel generates a delayed-rectifier current in neurons and is responsible for modulation of neuronal spike frequency and membrane repolarization in pancreatic β-cells and cardiomyocytes. As with other tetrameric voltage-activated K+-channels, it has been proposed that each of the four Kv2.1 voltage-sensing domains activates independently upon depolarization, leading to a final concerted transition that causes channel opening. The mechanism by which voltage-sensor activation is coupled to the gating of the pore is still not understood. Here we show that the carbon-monoxide releasing molecule 2 (CORM-2) is an allosteric inhibitor of the Kv2.1 channel and that its inhibitory properties derive from the CORM-2 ability to largely reduce the voltage dependence of the opening transition, uncoupling voltage-sensor activation from the concerted opening transition. We additionally demonstrate that CORM-2 modulates Shaker K+-channels in a similar manner. Our data suggest that the mechanism of inhibition by CORM-2 may be common to voltage-activated channels and that this compound should be a useful tool for understanding the mechanisms of electromechanical coupling. PMID:21454671

  5. Conductance of Ion Channels - Theory vs. Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pohorille, Andrew; Wilson, Michael; Mijajlovic, Milan

    2013-01-01

    . In addition, once the free energy profile becomes available the full current-voltage dependence can be readily obtained. For both channels we carried out calculations using both approaches. We also tested the main assumptions underlying the diffusive model, such as uncorrelated nature of individual crossing events and Fickian diffusion. The accuracy and consistency of different methods will be discussed. Finally we will discuss how comparisons between calculated and measured ionic conductance and selectivity of transport can be used for determining structural models of the channels.

  6. A Micromechanical RF Channelizer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akgul, Mehmet

    The power consumption of a radio generally goes as the number and strength of the RF signals it must process. In particular, a radio receiver would consume much less power if the signal presented to its electronics contained only the desired signal in a tiny percent bandwidth frequency channel, rather than the typical mix of signals containing unwanted energy outside the desired channel. Unfortunately, a lack of filters capable of selecting single channel bandwidths at RF forces the front-ends of contemporary receivers to accept unwanted signals, and thus, to operate with sub-optimal efficiency. This dissertation focuses on the degree to which capacitive-gap transduced micromechanical resonators can achieve the aforementioned RF channel-selecting filters. It aims to first show theoretically that with appropriate scaling capacitive-gap transducers are strong enough to meet the needed coupling requirements; and second, to fully detail an architecture and design procedure needed to realize said filters. Finally, this dissertation provides an actual experimentally demonstrated RF channel-select filter designed using the developed procedures and confirming theoretical predictions. Specifically, this dissertation introduces four methods that make possible the design and fabrication of RF channel-select filters. The first of these introduces a small-signal equivalent circuit for parallel-plate capacitive-gap transduced micromechanical resonators that employs negative capacitance to model the dependence of resonance frequency on electrical stiffness in a way that facilitates the analysis of micromechanical circuits loaded with arbitrary electrical impedances. The new circuit model not only correctly predicts the dependence of electrical stiffness on the impedances loading the input and output electrodes of parallel-plate capacitive-gap transduced micromechanical device, but does so in a visually intuitive way that identifies current drive as most appropriate for

  7. What Are "National Information Policies?"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horton, Forest Woody, Jr.

    1998-01-01

    Examines basic concepts; policy instruments, language, and processes; information, basic-information, and sector-specific information policies; form, format, and content; information policies related to information resources; policy conflicts; national and government information policies; national information infrastructures; classification of…

  8. A review of channel selection algorithms for EEG signal processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alotaiby, Turky; El-Samie, Fathi E. Abd; Alshebeili, Saleh A.; Ahmad, Ishtiaq

    2015-12-01

    Digital processing of electroencephalography (EEG) signals has now been popularly used in a wide variety of applications such as seizure detection/prediction, motor imagery classification, mental task classification, emotion classification, sleep state classification, and drug effects diagnosis. With the large number of EEG channels acquired, it has become apparent that efficient channel selection algorithms are needed with varying importance from one application to another. The main purpose of the channel selection process is threefold: (i) to reduce the computational complexity of any processing task performed on EEG signals by selecting the relevant channels and hence extracting the features of major importance, (ii) to reduce the amount of overfitting that may arise due to the utilization of unnecessary channels, for the purpose of improving the performance, and (iii) to reduce the setup time in some applications. Signal processing tools such as time-domain analysis, power spectral estimation, and wavelet transform have been used for feature extraction and hence for channel selection in most of channel selection algorithms. In addition, different evaluation approaches such as filtering, wrapper, embedded, hybrid, and human-based techniques have been widely used for the evaluation of the selected subset of channels. In this paper, we survey the recent developments in the field of EEG channel selection methods along with their applications and classify these methods according to the evaluation approach.

  9. Ion Channels in Obesity: Pathophysiology and Potential Therapeutic Targets

    PubMed Central

    Vasconcelos, Luiz H. C.; Souza, Iara L. L.; Pinheiro, Lílian S.; Silva, Bagnólia A.

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is a multifactorial disease related to metabolic disorders and associated with genetic determinants. Currently, ion channels activity has been linked to many of these disorders, in addition to the central regulation of food intake, energetic balance, hormone release and response, as well as the adipocyte cell proliferation. Therefore, the objective of this work is to review the current knowledge about the influence of ion channels in obesity development. This review used different sources of literature (Google Scholar, PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science) to assess the role of ion channels in the pathophysiology of obesity. Ion channels present diverse key functions, such as the maintenance of physiological homeostasis and cell proliferation. Cell biology and pharmacological experimental evidences demonstrate that proliferating cells exhibit ion channel expression, conductance, and electrical properties different from the resting cells. Thereby, a large variety of ion channels has been identified in the pathogenesis of obesity such as potassium, sodium, calcium and chloride channels, nicotinic acetylcholine receptor and transient receptor potential channels. The fundamental involvement of these channels on the generation of obesity leads to the progress in the knowledge about the mechanisms responsible for the obesity pathophysiology, consequently emerging as new targets for pharmacological modulation. PMID:27065858

  10. Microfabrication of cylindrical microfluidic channel networks for microvascular research.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zhouchun; Li, Xiang; Martins-Green, Manuela; Liu, Yuxin

    2012-10-01

    Current methods for formation of microvascular channel scaffolds are limited with non-circular channel cross-sections, complicated fabrication, and less flexibility in microchannel network design. To address current limitations in the creation of engineered microvascular channels with complex three-dimensional (3-D) geometries in the shape of microvessels, we have developed a reproducible, cost-effective, and flexible micromanufacturing process combined with photolithographic reflowable photoresist and soft lithography techniques to fabricate cylindrical microchannel and networks. A positive reflowable photoresist AZ P4620 was used to fabricate a master microchannel mold with semi-circular cross-sections. By the alignment and bonding of two polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microchannels replicated from the master mold together, a cylindrical microchannel or microchannel network was created. Further examination of the channel dimensions and surface profiles at different branching levels showed that the shape of the microfluidic channel was well approximated by a semi-circular surface, and a multi-level, multi-depth channel network was created. In addition, a computational fluidic dynamics (CFD) model was used to simulate shear flows and corresponding pressure distributions inside of the microchannel and channel network based on the dimensions of the fabricated channels. The fabricated multi-depth cylindrical microchannel network can provide platforms for the investigation of microvascular cells growing inside of cylindrical channels under shear flows and lumen pressures, and work as scaffolds for the investigation of morphogenesis and tubulogenesis. PMID:22729782

  11. Redox control of calcium channels: from mechanisms to therapeutic opportunities.

    PubMed

    Hool, Livia C; Corry, Ben

    2007-04-01

    Calcium plays an integral role in cellular function. It is a well-recognized second messenger necessary for signaling cellular responses, but in excessive amounts can be deleterious to function, causing cell death. The main route by which calcium enters the cytoplasm is either from the extracellular compartment or internal addistores via calcium channels. There is good evidence that calcium channels can respond to pharmacological compounds that reduce or oxidize thiol groups on the channel protein. In addition, reactive oxygen species such as hydrogen peroxide and superoxide that can mediate oxidative pathology also mediate changes in channel function via alterations of thiol groups. This review looks at the structure and function of calcium channels, the evidence that changes in cellular redox state mediate changes in channel function, and the role of redox modification of channels in disease processes. Understanding how redox modification of the channel protein alters channel structure and function is providing leads for the design of therapeutic interventions that target oxidative stress responses.

  12. Plasma channel diagnostic based on laser centroid oscillations

    SciTech Connect

    Gonsalves, A. J.; Nakamura, K.; Lin, C.; Osterhoff, J.; Shiraishi, S.; Schroeder, C. B.; Geddes, C. G. R.; Tóth, Cs.; Esarey, E.; Leemans, W. P.

    2010-05-01

    A technique has been developed for measuring the properties of discharge-based plasma channels by monitoring the centroid location of a laser beam exiting the channel as a function of input alignment offset between the laser and the channel. Experiments were performed using low-intensity (<1014 Wcm-2) laser pulses focused onto the entrance of a hydrogen-filled capillary discharge waveguide. Scanning the laser centroid position at the input of the channel and recording the exit position allows determination of the channel depth with an accuracy of a few percent, measurement of the transverse channel shape, and inference of the matched spot size. In addition, accurate alignment of the laser beam through the plasma channel is provided by minimizing laser centroid motion at the channel exit as the channel depth is scanned either by scanning the plasma density or the discharge timing. The improvement in alignment accuracy provided by this technique will be crucial for minimizing electron beam pointing errors in laser plasma accelerators.

  13. Efficient Coordinated Recovery of Sparse Channels in Massive MIMO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masood, Mudassir; Afify, Laila H.; Al-Naffouri, Tareq Y.

    2015-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of estimating sparse channels in massive MIMO-OFDM systems. Most wireless channels are sparse in nature with large delay spread. In addition, these channels as observed by multiple antennas in a neighborhood have approximately common support. The sparsity and common support properties are attractive when it comes to the efficient estimation of large number of channels in massive MIMO systems. Moreover, to avoid pilot contamination and to achieve better spectral efficiency, it is important to use a small number of pilots. We present a novel channel estimation approach which utilizes the sparsity and common support properties to estimate sparse channels and require a small number of pilots. Two algorithms based on this approach have been developed which perform Bayesian estimates of sparse channels even when the prior is non-Gaussian or unknown. Neighboring antennas share among each other their beliefs about the locations of active channel taps to perform estimation. The coordinated approach improves channel estimates and also reduces the required number of pilots. Further improvement is achieved by the data-aided version of the algorithm. Extensive simulation results are provided to demonstrate the performance of the proposed algorithms.

  14. Microfabrication of cylindrical microfluidic channel networks for microvascular research.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zhouchun; Li, Xiang; Martins-Green, Manuela; Liu, Yuxin

    2012-10-01

    Current methods for formation of microvascular channel scaffolds are limited with non-circular channel cross-sections, complicated fabrication, and less flexibility in microchannel network design. To address current limitations in the creation of engineered microvascular channels with complex three-dimensional (3-D) geometries in the shape of microvessels, we have developed a reproducible, cost-effective, and flexible micromanufacturing process combined with photolithographic reflowable photoresist and soft lithography techniques to fabricate cylindrical microchannel and networks. A positive reflowable photoresist AZ P4620 was used to fabricate a master microchannel mold with semi-circular cross-sections. By the alignment and bonding of two polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microchannels replicated from the master mold together, a cylindrical microchannel or microchannel network was created. Further examination of the channel dimensions and surface profiles at different branching levels showed that the shape of the microfluidic channel was well approximated by a semi-circular surface, and a multi-level, multi-depth channel network was created. In addition, a computational fluidic dynamics (CFD) model was used to simulate shear flows and corresponding pressure distributions inside of the microchannel and channel network based on the dimensions of the fabricated channels. The fabricated multi-depth cylindrical microchannel network can provide platforms for the investigation of microvascular cells growing inside of cylindrical channels under shear flows and lumen pressures, and work as scaffolds for the investigation of morphogenesis and tubulogenesis.

  15. Effects of ISI and satellite channel nonlinearity on Viterbi demodulation/decoding. [Inter Symbol Interference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Divsalar, D.; Simon, M. K.

    1983-01-01

    It is shown that, for convolutionally coded transmission over bandwidth-constrained channels, a mere reversal of the switching direction at the encoder output produces a change in the system bit error probability performance. This change is significant when the Viterbi demodulator/decoder is matched to the total channel memory and is more significant for linear channels than for nonlinear ones. The reversal of switching direction is a simple demonstration of the fact that the well-known optimum codes for the linear AGWN channel are no longer necessarily optimum for a bandwidth-constrained channel with or without the addition of channel nonlinearity. It is concluded that potentially significant performance improvement can be obtained by matching the encoder (through the appropriate choice of tap weights and modulo-2 summers) to the channel in addition to matching the demodulator/decoder to the channel for a given encoder.

  16. Performance Boosting Additive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Mainstream Engineering Corporation was awarded Phase I and Phase II contracts from Goddard Space Flight Center's Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program in early 1990. With support from the SBIR program, Mainstream Engineering Corporation has developed a unique low cost additive, QwikBoost (TM), that increases the performance of air conditioners, heat pumps, refrigerators, and freezers. Because of the energy and environmental benefits of QwikBoost, Mainstream received the Tibbetts Award at a White House Ceremony on October 16, 1997. QwikBoost was introduced at the 1998 International Air Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration Exposition. QwikBoost is packaged in a handy 3-ounce can (pressurized with R-134a) and will be available for automotive air conditioning systems in summer 1998.

  17. Sewage sludge additive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalvinskas, J. J.; Mueller, W. A.; Ingham, J. D. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    The additive is for a raw sewage treatment process of the type where settling tanks are used for the purpose of permitting the suspended matter in the raw sewage to be settled as well as to permit adsorption of the dissolved contaminants in the water of the sewage. The sludge, which settles down to the bottom of the settling tank is extracted, pyrolyzed and activated to form activated carbon and ash which is mixed with the sewage prior to its introduction into the settling tank. The sludge does not provide all of the activated carbon and ash required for adequate treatment of the raw sewage. It is necessary to add carbon to the process and instead of expensive commercial carbon, coal is used to provide the carbon supplement.

  18. Perspectives on Additive Manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourell, David L.

    2016-07-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) has skyrocketed in visibility commercially and in the public sector. This article describes the development of this field from early layered manufacturing approaches of photosculpture, topography, and material deposition. Certain precursors to modern AM processes are also briefly described. The growth of the field over the last 30 years is presented. Included is the standard delineation of AM technologies into seven broad categories. The economics of AM part generation is considered, and the impacts of the economics on application sectors are described. On the basis of current trends, the future outlook will include a convergence of AM fabricators, mass-produced AM fabricators, enabling of topology optimization designs, and specialization in the AM legal arena. Long-term developments with huge impact are organ printing and volume-based printing.

  19. Sarks as additional fermions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agrawal, Jyoti; Frampton, Paul H.; Jack Ng, Y.; Nishino, Hitoshi; Yasuda, Osamu

    1991-03-01

    An extension of the standard model is proposed. The gauge group is SU(2) X ⊗ SU(3) C ⊗ SU(2) S ⊗ U(1) Q, where all gauge symmetries are unbroken. The colour and electric charge are combined with SU(2) S which becomes strongly coupled at approximately 500 GeV and binds preons to form fermionic and vector bound states. The usual quarks and leptons are singlets under SU(2) X but additional fermions, called sarks. transform under it and the electroweak group. The present model explains why no more than three light quark-lepton families can exist. Neutral sark baryons, called narks, are candidates for the cosmological dark matter having the characteristics designed for WIMPS. Further phenomenological implications of sarks are analyzed i including electron-positron annihilation. Z 0 decay, flavor-changing neutral currents. baryon-number non-conservation, sarkonium and the neutron electric dipole moment.

  20. Ionic Blockage of Sodium Channels in Nerve

    PubMed Central

    Woodhull, Ann M.

    1973-01-01

    Increasing the hydrogen ion concentration of the bathing medium reversibly depresses the sodium permeability of voltage-clamped frog nerves. The depression depends on membrane voltage: changing from pH 7 to pH 5 causes a 60% reduction in sodium permeability at +20 mV, but only a 20% reduction at +180 mV. This voltage-dependent block of sodium channels by hydrogen ions is explained by assuming that hydrogen ions enter the open sodium channel and bind there, preventing sodium ion passage. The voltage dependence arises because the binding site is assumed to lie far enough across the membrane for bound ions to be affected by part of the potential difference across the membrane. Equations are derived for the general case where the blocking ion enters the channel from either side of the membrane. For H+ ion blockage, a simpler model, in which H+ enters the channel only from the bathing medium, is found to be sufficient. The dissociation constant of H+ ions from the channel site, 3.9 x 10-6 M (pKa 5.4), is like that of a carboxylic acid. From the voltage dependence of the block, this acid site is about one-quarter of the way across the membrane potential from the outside. In addition to blocking as described by the model, hydrogen ions also shift the responses of sodium channel "gates" to voltage, probably by altering the surface potential of the nerve. Evidence for voltage-dependent blockage by calcium ions is also presented. PMID:4541078

  1. The biochemistry and function of pannexin channels.

    PubMed

    Penuela, Silvia; Gehi, Ruchi; Laird, Dale W

    2013-01-01

    Three family members compose the pannexin family of channel-forming glycoproteins (Panx1, Panx2 and Panx3). Their primary function is defined by their capacity to form single-membrane channels that are regulated by post-translational modifications, channel intermixing, and sub-cellular expression profiles. Panx1 is ubiquitously expressed in many mammalian tissues, while Panx2 and Panx3 appear to be more restricted in their expression. Paracrine functions of Panx1 as an ATP release channel have been extensively studied and this channel plays a key role, among others, in the release of "find-me" signals for apoptotic cell clearance. In addition Panx1 has been linked to propagation of calcium waves, regulation of vascular tone, mucociliary lung clearance, taste-bud function and has been shown to act like a tumor suppressor in gliomas. Panx1 channel opening can also be detrimental, contributing to cell death and seizures under ischemic or epileptic conditions and even facilitating HIV-1 viral infection. Panx2 is involved in differentiation of neurons while Panx3 plays a role in the differentiation of chondrocytes, osteoblasts and the maturation and transport of sperm. Using the available Panx1 knockout mouse models it has now become possible to explore some of its physiological functions. However, given the potential for one pannexin to compensate for another it seems imperative to generate single and double knockout mouse models involving all three pannexins and evaluate their interplay in normal differentiation and development as well as in malignant transformation and disease. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: The communicating junctions, roles and dysfunctions. PMID:22305965

  2. [Preeclampsia, cellular migration and ion channels].

    PubMed

    Del Mónaco, Silvana M; Marino, Gabriela; Assef, Yanina; Kotsias, Basilio A

    2008-01-01

    The syncytiotrophoblast acts in human placenta as a transporting barrier regulating the transference of nutrients, solutes and water between maternal and fetal blood. This transepithelial transport involves movement of Na+ and its contribution to the osmotic pressure is an important determinant of the extracellular fluid volume. ENaC is a channel that mediates entry of Na+ from the luminal fluid into the cells in many reabsorbing epithelia; it is aldosterone, vasopressin, insulin and catecholamine-inducible, modulated by estrogens and progesterone and blocked by amiloride and its analogs. Multiple proteases are involved in the proteolytic processing and activation of ENaC subunits and aldosterone alters the protease-protease inhibitors balance. ENaC is also expressed in human placenta; although its function is not well known, the Na+ conductive properties may participate in electrolyte and extracellular volume homeostasis. The activity of ENaC channels and other ion channels and transporters is regulated by the state of actin filaments; on the other hand, changes in volume influence the actin cytoskeleton. Thus, there is an interaction between ENaC and components of the apical membrane cytoskeleton. In addition to their role in cellular homeostasis and electrical properties, Na+ currents through ENaC and other sodium channels are involved in cell migration, well documented in normal and cancer cells. In this work we presented evidences supporting the hypothesis that ENaC channels are required for the migration of BeWo cells, a human hormone-synthesizing trophoblastic cell line that express the three subunits of the ENaC channels. BeWo cell line has also been used as a model to investigate the placental transport mechanisms. PMID:18977715

  3. [Preeclampsia, cellular migration and ion channels].

    PubMed

    Del Mónaco, Silvana M; Marino, Gabriela; Assef, Yanina; Kotsias, Basilio A

    2008-01-01

    The syncytiotrophoblast acts in human placenta as a transporting barrier regulating the transference of nutrients, solutes and water between maternal and fetal blood. This transepithelial transport involves movement of Na+ and its contribution to the osmotic pressure is an important determinant of the extracellular fluid volume. ENaC is a channel that mediates entry of Na+ from the luminal fluid into the cells in many reabsorbing epithelia; it is aldosterone, vasopressin, insulin and catecholamine-inducible, modulated by estrogens and progesterone and blocked by amiloride and its analogs. Multiple proteases are involved in the proteolytic processing and activation of ENaC subunits and aldosterone alters the protease-protease inhibitors balance. ENaC is also expressed in human placenta; although its function is not well known, the Na+ conductive properties may participate in electrolyte and extracellular volume homeostasis. The activity of ENaC channels and other ion channels and transporters is regulated by the state of actin filaments; on the other hand, changes in volume influence the actin cytoskeleton. Thus, there is an interaction between ENaC and components of the apical membrane cytoskeleton. In addition to their role in cellular homeostasis and electrical properties, Na+ currents through ENaC and other sodium channels are involved in cell migration, well documented in normal and cancer cells. In this work we presented evidences supporting the hypothesis that ENaC channels are required for the migration of BeWo cells, a human hormone-synthesizing trophoblastic cell line that express the three subunits of the ENaC channels. BeWo cell line has also been used as a model to investigate the placental transport mechanisms.

  4. Roughness characteristics of natural channels

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barnes, Harry Hawthorne

    1967-01-01

    Color photographs and descriptive data are presented for 50 stream channels for which roughness coefficients have been determined. All hydraulic computations involving flow in open channels require an evaluation of the roughness characteristics of the channel. In the absence of a satisfactory quantitative procedure this evaluation remains chiefly an art. The ability to evaluate roughness coefficients must be developed through experience. One means of gaining this experience is by examining and becoming acquainted with the appearance of some typical channels whose roughness coefficients are known. The photographs and data contained in this report represent a wide range of channel conditions. Familiarity with the appearance, geometry, and roughness characteristics of these channels will improve the engineer's ability to select roughness coefficients for other channels .

  5. Chloride channels as drug targets

    PubMed Central

    Verkman, Alan S.; Galietta, Luis J. V.

    2013-01-01

    Chloride channels represent a relatively under-explored target class for drug discovery as elucidation of their identity and physiological roles has lagged behind that of many other drug targets. Chloride channels are involved in a wide range of biological functions, including epithelial fluid secretion, cell-volume regulation, neuroexcitation, smooth-muscle contraction and acidification of intracellular organelles. Mutations in several chloride channels cause human diseases, including cystic fibrosis, macular degeneration, myotonia, kidney stones, renal salt wasting and hyperekplexia. Chloride-channel modulators have potential applications in the treatment of some of these disorders, as well as in secretory diarrhoeas, polycystic kidney disease, osteoporosis and hypertension. Modulators of GABAA (γ-aminobutyric acid A) receptor chloride channels are in clinical use and several small-molecule chloride-channel modulators are in preclinical development and clinical trials. Here, we discuss the broad opportunities that remain in chloride-channel-based drug discovery. PMID:19153558

  6. 15 CFR 2002.0 - Trade Policy Committee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Economic Policy. In addition, the Committee may invite the participation in its activities of any agency or... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Trade Policy Committee. 2002.0 Section... STATES TRADE REPRESENTATIVE OPERATION OF COMMITTEES § 2002.0 Trade Policy Committee. (a) The Trade...

  7. Considering Critical Turns in Research on Educational Leadership and Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diem, Sarah; Young, Michelle D.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the use of critical policy analysis (CPA) in the fields of educational leadership and policy. In addition to exploring how CPA compares to traditional research approaches in educational leadership and policy, the authors consider the influence of long-established ways of knowing, why scholars choose…

  8. Turbulent supersonic channel flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lechner, Richard; Sesterhenn, Jörn; Friedrich, Rainer

    2001-01-01

    The effects of compressibility are studied in low Reynolds number turbulent supersonic channel flow via a direct numerical simulation. A pressure-velocity-entropy formulation of the compressible Navier-Stokes equations which is cast in a characteristic, non-conservative form and allows one to specify exact wall boundary conditions, consistent with the field equations, is integrated using a fifth-order compact upwind scheme for the Euler part, a fourth-order Padé scheme for the viscous terms and a third-order low-storage Runge-Kutta time integration method. Coleman et al fully developed supersonic channel flow at M?=?1.5 and Re?=?3000 is used to test the method. The nature of fluctuating variables is investigated in detail for the wall layer and the core region based on scatter plots. Fluctuations conditioned on sweeps and ejections in the wall layer are especially instructive, showing that positive temperature, entropy and total temperature fluctuations are mainly due to sweep events in this specific situation of wall cooling. The effect of compressibility on the turbulence structure is in many respects similar to that found in homogeneous shear turbulence and in mixing layers. The normal components of the Reynolds stress anisotropy tensor are increased due to compressibility, while the shear stress component is slightly reduced. Characteristic of the Reynolds stress transport is a suppression of the production of the longitudinal and the shear stress component, a suppression of all velocity-pressure-gradient correlations and most of the dissipation rates. Comparison with incompressible channel flow data reveals that compressibility effects manifest themselves in the wall layer only.

  9. Open-channel block by internally applied amines inhibits activation gate closure in batrachotoxin-activated sodium channels.

    PubMed Central

    Zamponi, G W; French, R J

    1994-01-01

    We have studied the action of several pore-blocking amines on voltage-dependent activation gating of batrachotoxin(BTX)-activated sodium channels, from bovine heart and rat skeletal muscle, incorporated into planar lipid bilayers. Although structurally simpler, the compounds studied show general structural features and channel-inhibiting actions that resemble those of lidocaine. When applied to the cytoplasmic end of the channel, these compounds cause a rapid, voltage-dependent, open-channel block seen as a reduction in apparent single-channel amplitude (companion paper). Internal application of phenylpropanolamine, phenylethylamine, phenylmethylamine, and diethylamine, as well as causing open-channel block, reduces the probability of channel closure, producing a shift of the steady-state activation curve toward more hyperpolarizing potentials. These gating effects were observed for both cardiac and skeletal muscle channels and were not evoked by addition of equimolar N-Methyl-D-Glucamine, suggesting a specific interaction of the blockers with the channel rather than a surface charge effect. Kinetic analysis of phenylpropanolamine action on skeletal muscle channels indicated that phenylpropanolamine reduced the closed probability via two separate mechanisms. First, mean closed durations were slightly abbreviated in its presence. Second, and more important, the frequency of the gating closures was reduced. This action was correlated with the degree, and the voltage dependence, of open-channel block, suggesting that the activation gate cannot close while the pore is occluded by the blocker. Such a mechanism might underlie the previously reported immobilization of gating charge associated with local anesthetic block of unmodified sodium channels. PMID:7811914

  10. Additive lattice kirigami

    PubMed Central

    Castle, Toen; Sussman, Daniel M.; Tanis, Michael; Kamien, Randall D.

    2016-01-01

    Kirigami uses bending, folding, cutting, and pasting to create complex three-dimensional (3D) structures from a flat sheet. In the case of lattice kirigami, this cutting and rejoining introduces defects into an underlying 2D lattice in the form of points of nonzero Gaussian curvature. A set of simple rules was previously used to generate a wide variety of stepped structures; we now pare back these rules to their minimum. This allows us to describe a set of techniques that unify a wide variety of cut-and-paste actions under the rubric of lattice kirigami, including adding new material and rejoining material across arbitrary cuts in the sheet. We also explore the use of more complex lattices and the different structures that consequently arise. Regardless of the choice of lattice, creating complex structures may require multiple overlapping kirigami cuts, where subsequent cuts are not performed on a locally flat lattice. Our additive kirigami method describes such cuts, providing a simple methodology and a set of techniques to build a huge variety of complex 3D shapes. PMID:27679822

  11. Additive lattice kirigami

    PubMed Central

    Castle, Toen; Sussman, Daniel M.; Tanis, Michael; Kamien, Randall D.

    2016-01-01

    Kirigami uses bending, folding, cutting, and pasting to create complex three-dimensional (3D) structures from a flat sheet. In the case of lattice kirigami, this cutting and rejoining introduces defects into an underlying 2D lattice in the form of points of nonzero Gaussian curvature. A set of simple rules was previously used to generate a wide variety of stepped structures; we now pare back these rules to their minimum. This allows us to describe a set of techniques that unify a wide variety of cut-and-paste actions under the rubric of lattice kirigami, including adding new material and rejoining material across arbitrary cuts in the sheet. We also explore the use of more complex lattices and the different structures that consequently arise. Regardless of the choice of lattice, creating complex structures may require multiple overlapping kirigami cuts, where subsequent cuts are not performed on a locally flat lattice. Our additive kirigami method describes such cuts, providing a simple methodology and a set of techniques to build a huge variety of complex 3D shapes.

  12. Physician manpower expansionism: a policy review.

    PubMed

    Bloom, B S; Peterson, O L

    1979-02-01

    A lack of national health goals has allowed physician manpower policy to be dominated by an expansionist philosophy. Scarce resources have been channeled into the production of specialist physicians trained to provide complex and expensive care for uncommon diseases, using other scare and expensive resources and adding to the steep rise in medical care costs. Society seems to want access to primary care--a lack it views with dismay--and simultaneously fears increasing costs of care. Lack of access plus high cost might lead to rash implementation of other inappropriate policies. Success of policy decisions is pure serendipity if made without reliable and relevant information or based on inappropriate data, such as opinions alone. If information is unavailable, then physician manpower decisions should be delayed or, if made, implemented cautiously.

  13. 24 CFR 10.12 - Additional rulemaking proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Additional rulemaking proceedings. 10.12 Section 10.12 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development RULEMAKING: POLICY AND PROCEDURES Procedures § 10.12 Additional rulemaking proceedings. The Secretary may invite interested...

  14. 21 CFR 1403.6 - Additions and exceptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Additions and exceptions. 1403.6 Section 1403.6 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS TO STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS General § 1403.6 Additions and...

  15. 21 CFR 1403.6 - Additions and exceptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Additions and exceptions. 1403.6 Section 1403.6 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS TO STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS General § 1403.6 Additions and...

  16. 21 CFR 1403.6 - Additions and exceptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Additions and exceptions. 1403.6 Section 1403.6 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS TO STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS General § 1403.6 Additions and...

  17. 21 CFR 1403.6 - Additions and exceptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Additions and exceptions. 1403.6 Section 1403.6 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS TO STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS General § 1403.6 Additions and...

  18. 21 CFR 1403.6 - Additions and exceptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Additions and exceptions. 1403.6 Section 1403.6 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS TO STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS General § 1403.6 Additions and...

  19. 43 CFR 8.2 - Additional lands for correlative purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Additional lands for correlative purposes. 8.2 Section 8.2 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior JOINT POLICIES OF THE DEPARTMENTS OF THE INTERIOR AND OF THE ARMY RELATIVE TO RESERVOIR PROJECT LANDS § 8.2 Additional lands...

  20. 43 CFR 8.2 - Additional lands for correlative purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Additional lands for correlative purposes. 8.2 Section 8.2 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior JOINT POLICIES OF THE DEPARTMENTS OF THE INTERIOR AND OF THE ARMY RELATIVE TO RESERVOIR PROJECT LANDS § 8.2 Additional lands...

  1. 43 CFR 8.2 - Additional lands for correlative purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Additional lands for correlative purposes. 8.2 Section 8.2 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior JOINT POLICIES OF THE DEPARTMENTS OF THE INTERIOR AND OF THE ARMY RELATIVE TO RESERVOIR PROJECT LANDS § 8.2 Additional lands...

  2. 43 CFR 8.2 - Additional lands for correlative purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Additional lands for correlative purposes. 8.2 Section 8.2 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior JOINT POLICIES OF THE DEPARTMENTS OF THE INTERIOR AND OF THE ARMY RELATIVE TO RESERVOIR PROJECT LANDS § 8.2 Additional lands...

  3. 43 CFR 8.2 - Additional lands for correlative purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Additional lands for correlative purposes. 8.2 Section 8.2 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior JOINT POLICIES OF THE DEPARTMENTS OF THE INTERIOR AND OF THE ARMY RELATIVE TO RESERVOIR PROJECT LANDS § 8.2 Additional lands...

  4. Permeation in potassium channels: implications for channel structure.

    PubMed

    Yellen, G

    1987-01-01

    The SR K+ channel is a single-ion channel with a tunnel that is not very selective, while the DR and CaK channels are both more selective, multi-ion channels. The permeation mechanisms of the three channels are probably most systematically distinguished by the length of their tunnels; the SR has the shortest and the DR the longest. Although different in their mechanisms of activation, the DR and CaK channels have very similar permeation characteristics, down to the details of selectivity and blockade. The longer tunnel and reduced conductance (perhaps a result of the extra tunnel length) of the DR K+ channel are the main differences. The selectivity of the rate-limiting barriers and the binding sites within the channels, however, are strikingly similar. A successful potassium channel must satisfy two criteria: It must let potassium ions through and not much else, and it must let many potassium ions through. To be selective the channel must have a narrow selectivity filter, so that an ion must shed some of its waters of hydration to pass through. Sodium ions are excluded because they are more reluctant to lose their water, and they are not adequately compensated for this loss by interaction with the selectivity filter. To carry a large current the narrow region must be short, with wide antechambers to reduce the diffusional access resistance (48). Energetically, the channel must strike a balance. There must be enough binding energy to compensate the ions for their lost hydration energy, so that the energy barrier to permeation is small. If the channel binds the ion too tightly, however, the ion will not be able to exit, and the current will be small. Some of the shared properties of different potassium channels are probably consequences of these requirements; others may be incidental to function, suggesting a common origin. Barium ions have almost exactly the same radius as potassium ions but twice the charge, so it is perhaps not surprising that barium can block

  5. A Micromechanical RF Channelizer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akgul, Mehmet

    The power consumption of a radio generally goes as the number and strength of the RF signals it must process. In particular, a radio receiver would consume much less power if the signal presented to its electronics contained only the desired signal in a tiny percent bandwidth frequency channel, rather than the typical mix of signals containing unwanted energy outside the desired channel. Unfortunately, a lack of filters capable of selecting single channel bandwidths at RF forces the front-ends of contemporary receivers to accept unwanted signals, and thus, to operate with sub-optimal efficiency. This dissertation focuses on the degree to which capacitive-gap transduced micromechanical resonators can achieve the aforementioned RF channel-selecting filters. It aims to first show theoretically that with appropriate scaling capacitive-gap transducers are strong enough to meet the needed coupling requirements; and second, to fully detail an architecture and design procedure needed to realize said filters. Finally, this dissertation provides an actual experimentally demonstrated RF channel-select filter designed using the developed procedures and confirming theoretical predictions. Specifically, this dissertation introduces four methods that make possible the design and fabrication of RF channel-select filters. The first of these introduces a small-signal equivalent circuit for parallel-plate capacitive-gap transduced micromechanical resonators that employs negative capacitance to model the dependence of resonance frequency on electrical stiffness in a way that facilitates the analysis of micromechanical circuits loaded with arbitrary electrical impedances. The new circuit model not only correctly predicts the dependence of electrical stiffness on the impedances loading the input and output electrodes of parallel-plate capacitive-gap transduced micromechanical device, but does so in a visually intuitive way that identifies current drive as most appropriate for

  6. Developing policies and procedures.

    PubMed

    Randolph, Susan A

    2006-11-01

    The development of policies and procedures is an integral part of the occupational health nurse's role. Policies and procedures serve as the foundation for the occupational health service and are based on its vision, mission, culture, and values. The design and layout selected for the policies and procedures should be simple, consistent, and easy to use. The same format should be used for all existing and new policies and procedures. Policies and procedures should be reviewed periodically based on a specified time frame (i.e., annually). However, some policies may require a more frequent review if they involve rapidly changing external standards, ethical issues, or emerging exposures. PMID:17124968

  7. [Healthy pharmaceutical policy].

    PubMed

    González Pier, Eduardo

    2008-01-01

    Today, the pharmaceutical industry is experiencing a profound transition. Globalization and technological advancement represent the principal pressures for change in the market, where it is increasingly more difficult for this type of industry to efficiently recoup the growing cost of innovation. Mexico needs to analyze the policy implications of these change factors and promote, in the pharmaceutical market, policies that maximize health gains on invested resources. Pharmaceutical policy offers a rare example for a complementary approach between a sound health policy and an efficient economic policy; that is, a "healthy pharmaceutical policy."

  8. [Interaction of melittin with ion channels of excitable membranes].

    PubMed

    Zherelova, O M; Kabanova, N V; Kazachenko, V N; Chaĭlakhian, L M

    2007-01-01

    The effect of the neurotoxin melittin on the activation of ion channels of excitable membrane, the plasmalemma of Characeae algae cells, isolated membrane patches of neurons of mollusc L. stagnalis and Vero cells was studied by the method of intracellular perfusion and the patch-clamp technique in inside-out configuration. It was shown that melittin disturbs the conductivity of plasmalemma and modifieds Ca(2+)-channels of plant membrane. The leakage current that appears by the action of melittin can be restored by substituting calmodulin for melittin. Melittin modifies K(+)-channels of animal cell membrane by disrupting the phospholipid matrix and forms conductive structures in the membrane by interacting with channel proteins, which is evidenced by the appearance of additional ion channels.

  9. Quantum information theory: classical communication over quantum channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cortese, John Anthony

    This thesis studies classical communication over quantum channels. Chapter 1 describes an algebraic technique which extends several previously known qubit channel capacity results to the qudit quantum channel case. Chapter 2 derives a formula for the relative entropy function of two qubit density matrices in terms of their Bloch vectors. The application of the Bloch vector relative entropy formula to the determination of Holevo-Schumacher-Westmoreland (HSW) capacities for qubit quantum channels is discussed. Chapter 3 outlines several numerical simulation results which support theoretical conclusions and conjectures discussed in Chapters 1 and 2. Chapter 4 closes the thesis with comments, examples and discussion on the additivity of Holevo Chi and the HSW channel capacity.

  10. Large Array Channel Capacity in the Presence of Interference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vilnrotter, V.; Srinivasan, M.

    2006-01-01

    We develop a model for a large array ground receiver system for use in deep-space communications, and analyze the resulting array channel capacity. The model includes effects of array geometry, time-dependent spacecraft orbital trajectory, point and extended interference sources, and elevation-dependent noise and tropospheric channel variations. Channel capacity is expressed as the ratio of determinants of covariance matrices characterizing source, interference, and additive noise, and then reduced to a simpler quadratic form more amenable to analysis and numerical computation. This formulation facilitates inclusion of array and channel characteristics into the model, as well as comparison of optimal, suboptimal, and equivalent single antenna configurations on achievable throughput. Realistic examples of ground array channel capacity calculations are presented, demonstrating the impact of array geometry, planetary interference sources, and array combining algorithm design upon the achievable data throughput.

  11. Substrate Specificity within a Family of Outer Membrane Carboxylate Channels

    SciTech Connect

    Eren, Elif; Vijayaraghavan, Jagamya; Liu, Jiaming; Cheneke, Belete R.; Touw, Debra S.; Lepore, Bryan W.; Indic, Mridhu; Movileanu, Liviu; van den Berg, Bert; Dutzler, Raimund

    2012-01-17

    Many Gram-negative bacteria, including human pathogens such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, do not have large-channel porins. This results in an outer membrane (OM) that is highly impermeable to small polar molecules, making the bacteria intrinsically resistant towards many antibiotics. In such microorganisms, the majority of small molecules are taken up by members of the OprD outer membrane protein family. Here we show that OprD channels require a carboxyl group in the substrate for efficient transport, and based on this we have renamed the family Occ, for outer membrane carboxylate channels. We further show that Occ channels can be divided into two subfamilies, based on their very different substrate specificities. Our results rationalize how certain bacteria can efficiently take up a variety of substrates under nutrient-poor conditions without compromising membrane permeability. In addition, they explain how channel inactivation in response to antibiotics can cause resistance but does not lead to decreased fitness.

  12. Ultimate classical communication rates of quantum optical channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giovannetti, V.; García-Patrón, R.; Cerf, N. J.; Holevo, A. S.

    2014-10-01

    Optical channels, such as fibres or free-space links, are ubiquitous in today's telecommunication networks. They rely on the electromagnetic field associated with photons to carry information from one point to another in space. A complete physical model of these channels must necessarily take quantum effects into account to determine their ultimate performances. Single-mode, phase-insensitive bosonic Gaussian channels have been extensively studied over past decades, given their importance for practical applications. In spite of this, a long-standing unsolved conjecture on the optimality of Gaussian encodings has prevented finding their classical communication capacity. Here, this conjecture is solved by proving that the vacuum state achieves the minimum output entropy of these channels. This establishes the ultimate achievable bit rate under an energy constraint, as well as the long awaited proof that the single-letter classical capacity of these channels is additive.

  13. [Interaction of melittin with ion channels of excitable membranes].

    PubMed

    Zherelova, O M; Kabanova, N V; Kazachenko, V N; Chaĭlakhian, L M

    2007-01-01

    The effect of the neurotoxin melittin on the activation of ion channels of excitable membrane, the plasmalemma of Characeae algae cells, isolated membrane patches of neurons of mollusc L. stagnalis and Vero cells was studied by the method of intracellular perfusion and the patch-clamp technique in inside-out configuration. It was shown that melittin disturbs the conductivity of plasmalemma and modifieds Ca(2+)-channels of plant membrane. The leakage current that appears by the action of melittin can be restored by substituting calmodulin for melittin. Melittin modifies K(+)-channels of animal cell membrane by disrupting the phospholipid matrix and forms conductive structures in the membrane by interacting with channel proteins, which is evidenced by the appearance of additional ion channels. PMID:17477057

  14. Geologic setting of an unusual Martian channel - Hypotheses on origin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, D. H.; Chapman, M. G.

    1989-01-01

    Several areas within the Memnonia region of Mars have been proposed as candidate sites for a Mars sample return mission. Geologic studies of these areas made from computer-enhanced high-resolution Viking images show that an assemblage of rocks having different ages and compositions are accessible to a roving vehicle. In addition, evidence of recent fluvial episodes is indicated by small channels that incises materials emplaced during the Amazonian Period. The channel discussed in this paper is located near the highland-lowland boundary in the Memnonia MC-16SW quadrangle of Mars. It is of particular interest because of distinctive morphologic characteristics compared to other Martian channels. Although several hypotheses are advanced to explain the origin of the channel, none of the arguments are completely satisfactory. However, it is believed that water mobilized from ice in the subjacent regolith (hypothesis 1) or that condensate water from highly volatile ash flows (hypothesis 2) are the most likely origins for the channel.

  15. How are River Discharge - Suspended Sediment Relations Influenced by Watershed and Channel-Floodplain Morphology?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaughan, A. A.; Belmont, P.

    2015-12-01

    Erosion, transport and deposition of fine sediment (clay, silt and fine sand) influence the form and function of river systems. Excess suspended sediment degrades stream ecosystems and is implicated as a leading cause of water quality and aquatic life impairment. Consequently, understanding the factors that control fine sediment transport regimes is an interesting topic for basic science and one that has important management and policy implications. Fine sediment is mostly transported in suspension as a non-capacity load; transport rates are dependent on sediment supply in addition to a river's transport capacity. Many studies have investigated watershed-scale topographic, hydrologic, climatic, and land use influences on fine sediment erosion and transport regimes. Several recent studies in a wide range of landscapes have demonstrated that the majority of suspended sediment may be sourced from the near-channel environment; therefore, near-channel morphological characteristics may provide better predictive power compared to watershed averages. This study analyzes recent total suspended solids (TSS) data from 45 gages on 35 separate rivers. The rivers span the state of Minnesota, draining basins ranging from 33 km2 to 68100 km2 with distinct settings in terms of topography, land cover, hydrology and geologic history. We generate rating curves of the form TSS = aQb, where Q is normalized discharge and a and b are parameters that describe the shape of the relations. Values of a range from 4 to 138 mg/L; b values range from -0.53 to 1.86. We use high resolution lidar topography data to characterize the near-channel environment upstream of gages. In addition to commonly studied metrics describing the topographic, climatic/hydrologic and land use setting of the basin, we extract near-channel morphometrics that we hypothesize to influence fine sediment generation and transport: the difference in height of banks/bluffs (a measure of the amount of material available to be

  16. Cholesterol binding to ion channels

    PubMed Central

    Levitan, Irena; Singh, Dev K.; Rosenhouse-Dantsker, Avia

    2014-01-01

    Numerous studies demonstrated that membrane cholesterol is a major regulator of ion channel function. The goal of this review is to discuss significant advances that have been recently achieved in elucidating the mechanisms responsible for cholesterol regulation of ion channels. The first major insight that comes from growing number of studies that based on the sterol specificity of cholesterol effects, show that several types of ion channels (nAChR, Kir, BK, TRPV) are regulated by specific sterol-protein interactions. This conclusion is supported by demonstrating direct saturable binding of cholesterol to a bacterial Kir channel. The second major advance in the field is the identification of putative cholesterol binding sites in several types of ion channels. These include sites at locations associated with the well-known cholesterol binding motif CRAC and its reversed form CARC in nAChR, BK, and TRPV, as well as novel cholesterol binding regions in Kir channels. Notably, in the majority of these channels, cholesterol is suggested to interact mainly with hydrophobic residues in non-annular regions of the channels being embedded in between transmembrane protein helices. We also discuss how identification of putative cholesterol binding sites is an essential step to understand the mechanistic basis of cholesterol-induced channel regulation. Clearly, however, these are only the first few steps in obtaining a general understanding of cholesterol-ion channels interactions and their roles in cellular and organ functions. PMID:24616704

  17. [Energy policy rather than climate policy].

    PubMed

    Kroonenberg, Salomon B

    2009-01-01

    Energy policy and climate policy are two different issues and should not be treated as if they were the same. Whether the climate gets warmer or colder, saving energy and developing sustainable forms of energy production remain of paramount importance because fossil hydrocarbons are likely to be exhausted soon. But climate policy is a fallacy: it is human arrogance to think we can control the climate by reducing emissions and by storing CO2 underground. In spite of rising CO2 levels, the climate has cooled down slightly over the past decade. Since the International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) did not predict this, it is questionable whether they can reliably predict warming. Other factors such as solar activity are probably more important for climate than greenhouse gases. The danger of coupling energy policy to climate policy is evident: if the climate cools down, people will lose belief in the greenhouse effect and therefore also lose interest in saving energy. PMID:20025789

  18. Covering a Crucible with Metal Containing Channels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grugel, Richard N.

    2006-01-01

    In a procedure that partly resembles the lost-wax casting process, a crucible made of a brittle material (ceramic, quartz, or glass) is covered with a layer of metal containing channels. The metal cover and the channels can serve any or all of several purposes, depending upon the application: Typically, the metal would serve at least partly to reinforce the crucible. The channels could be used as passages for narrow objects that could include thermocouples and heat-transfer strips. Alternatively or in addition, channels could be used as flow paths for liquid or gaseous coolants and could be positioned and oriented for position- or direction-selective cooling. In some cases, the channels could be filled with known gases and sealed so that failure of the crucibles could be indicated by instruments that detect the gases. The process consists of three main steps. In the first step, a pattern defining the channels is formed by wrapping or depositing a material in the desired channel pattern on the outer surface of the crucible. The pattern material can be a plastic, wax, low-ash fibrous material, a soluble material, or other suitable material that can subsequently be removed easily. In a proof-of-concept demonstration (see figure), the crucible was an alumina cylinder and the mold material was plastic tie-down tape. In the second step, the patterned crucible is coated with metal. In one variation of the second step, a very thin layer containing or consisting of an electrically conductive material (e.g., gold, silver, or carbon) is painted or otherwise deposited on the mold-covered crucible, then the covering metal required for the specific application is electrodeposited on the very thin conducting layer. In another variation of the second step, the metal coat is formed by chemical vapor deposition. In the proof-of-concept demonstration, a layer of nickel 0.003 in. ( 0.08 mm) thick was electrodeposited. In the third step, the patterned material is removed. This is

  19. Nonthermal Quantum Channels as a Thermodynamical Resource.

    PubMed

    Navascués, Miguel; García-Pintos, Luis Pedro

    2015-07-01

    Quantum thermodynamics can be understood as a resource theory, whereby thermal states are free and the only allowed operations are unitary transformations commuting with the total Hamiltonian of the system. Previous literature on the subject has just focused on transformations between different state resources, overlooking the fact that quantum operations which do not commute with the total energy also constitute a potentially valuable resource. In this Letter, given a number of nonthermal quantum channels, we study the problem of how to integrate them in a thermal engine so as to distill a maximum amount of work. We find that, in the limit of asymptotically many uses of each channel, the distillable work is an additive function of the considered channels, computable for both finite dimensional quantum operations and bosonic channels. We apply our results to bound the amount of distillable work due to the natural nonthermal processes postulated in the Ghirardi-Rimini-Weber (GRW) collapse model. We find that, although GRW theory predicts the possibility of extracting work from the vacuum at no cost, the power which a collapse engine could, in principle, generate is extremely low. PMID:26182086

  20. Nonthermal Quantum Channels as a Thermodynamical Resource

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navascués, Miguel; García-Pintos, Luis Pedro

    2015-07-01

    Quantum thermodynamics can be understood as a resource theory, whereby thermal states are free and the only allowed operations are unitary transformations commuting with the total Hamiltonian of the system. Previous literature on the subject has just focused on transformations between different state resources, overlooking the fact that quantum operations which do not commute with the total energy also constitute a potentially valuable resource. In this Letter, given a number of nonthermal quantum channels, we study the problem of how to integrate them in a thermal engine so as to distill a maximum amount of work. We find that, in the limit of asymptotically many uses of each channel, the distillable work is an additive function of the considered channels, computable for both finite dimensional quantum operations and bosonic channels. We apply our results to bound the amount of distillable work due to the natural nonthermal processes postulated in the Ghirardi-Rimini-Weber (GRW) collapse model. We find that, although GRW theory predicts the possibility of extracting work from the vacuum at no cost, the power which a collapse engine could, in principle, generate is extremely low.

  1. Molecular analysis of a thylakoid K+ channel

    SciTech Connect

    2000-05-01

    The work undertaken during the prior granting period sought to use a novel probe to identify and clone plant ion (K) channels. It was also proposed that in vitro biochemical studies of cation transport across purified preparations of thylakoid membrane be employed to characterize a putative K channel in this membrane system. Over the last several years (including those of the previous grant period), an enormous data base of partially-sequenced mRNAs and numerous genomes (including those of plants) has evolved and provides a powerful alternative to this brute-force approach to identify and clone cDNAs ending physiologically important membrane proteins such as channels. The utility of searching genetic databases for relevant sequences, in addition to the difficulty of working with membrane proteins, led to changes in research focus during the prior granting period, and has resulted in the identification of a new class of plant ion channels, which will be the focus of research during the proposed new granting period.

  2. The Earliest Ion Channels in Protocellular Membranes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mijajlovic, Milan; Pohorille, Andrew; Wilson, Michael; Wei, Chenyu

    2010-01-01

    indicates that their structures are unique and stable. In addition, it is also believed that the trichotoxin channel displays some selectivity between potassium and chloride ions. This makes trichotoxin and antiamoebin ideal models of the earliest ion channels that could provide insight into the origins of ion conductance and selectivity. In the absence of crystal structure of the trichotoxin and antiamoebin channels, we propose their molecular models based on experimentally determined number of monomers forming the bundles. We use molecular dynamics simulations to validate the models in terms of their conductance and selectivity. On the basis of our simulations we show that the emergence of channels built of small, alpha-helical peptides was protobiologically plausible and did not require highly specific amino acid sequences, which is a convenient evolutionary trait. Despite their simple structure, such channels could possess properties that, at the first sight, appear to require markedly larger complexity. To this end, we will discuss how the amino acid sequence and structure of primitive channels give rise to the phenomena of ionic conductance and selectivity across the earliest cell walls, which were essential functions for the emergence and early evolution of protocells. Furthermore, we will argue that even though architectures of membrane proteins are not nearly as diverse as those of water-soluble proteins, they are sufficiently flexible to adapt readily to the functional demands arising during evolution.

  3. The earliest ion channels in protocellular membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mijajlovic, Milan; Pohorille, Andrew; Wilson, Michael; Wei, Chenyu

    indicates that their structures are unique and stable. In addition, it is also believed that the trichotoxin channel displays some selectivity between potassium and chloride ions. This makes trichotoxin and antiamoebin ideal models of the earliest ion channels that could provide insight into the origins of ion conductance and selectivity. In the absence of crystal structure of the trichotoxin and antiamoebin channels, we propose their molecular models based on experimentally determined number of monomers forming the bundles. We use molecular dynamics simulations to validate the models in terms of their conductance and selectivity. On the basis of our simulations we show that the emergence of channels built of small, α-helical peptides was protobiologically plausible and did not require highly specific amino acid sequences, which is a convenient evolutionary trait. Despite their simple structure, such channels could possess properties that, at the first sight, appear to require markedly larger complexity. To this end, we will discuss how the amino acid sequence and structure of primitive channels give rise to the phenomena of ionic conductance and selectivity across the earliest cell walls, which were essential functions for the emergence and early evolution of protocells. Furthermore, we will argue that even though architectures of membrane proteins are not nearly as diverse as those of water-soluble proteins, they are sufficiently flexible to adapt readily to the functional demands arising during evolution.

  4. Alpha Channeling in a Rotating Plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Abraham J. Fetterman and Nathaniel J. Fisch

    2008-09-23

    The wave-particle α-channeling effect is generalized to include rotating plasma. Specifically, radio frequency waves can resonate with α particles in a mirror machine with E × B rotation to diffuse the α particles along constrained paths in phase space. Of major interest is that the α-particle energy, in addition to amplifying the RF waves, can directly enhance the rotation energy which in turn provides additional plasma confinement in centrifugal fusion reactors. An ancillary benefit is the rapid removal of alpha particles, which increases the fusion reactivity.

  5. Isochannels and blocking modes of voltage-dependent sodium channels.

    PubMed

    Moczydlowski, E; Uehara, A; Guo, X; Heiny, J

    1986-01-01

    Our results support the existence of three different Na-channel subtypes or isochannels. These isochannels can be readily distinguished as the predominant Na-channel types in mammalian brain, skeletal muscle, and cardiac muscle. The sensitivity to mu-conotoxin GIIIA and tetrodotoxin is sufficient to classify these channels. The skeletal muscle channel is very sensitive to both tetrodotoxin and mu-conotoxin, the brain channel is sensitive to tetrodotoxin but insensitive to mu-conotoxin, and the heart and denervated muscle channels are insensitive to both toxins. In addition to block at the external receptor site for guanidinium toxins, several other blocking modes can be generalized for batrachotoxin-activated Na channels. One mode is peculiar to certain hydrophobic molecules so far represented by our studies of benzocaine and procaine. These molecules induce discrete blocking events with dwell times that apparently increase with anesthetic concentration and a blocking frequency that increases with negative voltage. This mode is quite distinct from the fast internal block by charged organic molecules that increases with positive voltage. These results imply that it is not possible to ascribe the diverse effects of local anesthetics to a single site in the interior channel mouth, as previously proposed by Hille. Our observations thus support the conclusions of other workers who used mixtures of two local anesthetics to show that the dose-response behavior does not fit single-site behavior, but requires at least two distinct sites. Two additional blocking modes can be distinguished for the interactions of cations at the internal and external mouths of the channel. Organic molecules can apparently enter the electric field from the internal but not the external side of the channel. This result suggests a wide internal entry way to the field and an external constriction that prevents the entry of molecules with a single methyl group but permits entry of divalent

  6. Agricultural policy, food policy, and communicable disease policy.

    PubMed

    Grant, Wyn

    2012-12-01

    Food and agricultural policy is an essential element of a communicable disease policy. The European Union has developed a more systematic and broadly based interest in questions of food safety and animal health and welfare linked to modernization of the Common Agricultural Policy, reflected in a new treaty obligation on animal welfare. Following the bovine spongiform encephalopathy crisis, moves were made to create a European competency, but implementation and enforcement resources reside with the member states. The European Animal Health Strategy is meant to lead to an EU animal health law, but this has already been constrained by fiscal austerity. The development of such a law may lead to a lowest common denominator formula that does little to enhance consumer protection or improve animal welfare. This is an inherent risk with top-down forms of Europeanization; more attention should be paid to lessons to be learned from bottom-up initiatives of the type used to counteract the bovine diarrhea virus. There will always be a tension among what is good policy for reducing the incidence of communicable disease, policy that is popular with EU citizens, and policy that is acceptable to member states.

  7. Adaptive Pre-FFT Equalizer with High-Precision Channel Estimator for ISI Channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Makoto

    We present an attractive approach for OFDM transmission using an adaptive pre-FFT equalizer, which can select ICI reduction mode according to channel condition, and a degenerated-inverse-matrix-based channel estimator (DIME), which uses a cyclic sinc-function matrix uniquely determined by transmitted subcarriers. In addition to simulation results, the proposed system with an adaptive pre-FFT equalizer and DIME has been laboratory tested by using a software defined radio (SDR)-based test bed. The simulation and experimental results demonstrated that the system at a rate of more than 100Mbps can provide a bit error rate of less than 10-3 for a fast multi-path fading channel that has a moving velocity of more than 200km/h with a delay spread of 1.9µs (a maximum delay path of 7.3µs) in the 5-GHz band.

  8. Do Policies Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zemsky, Beth; Sanlo, Ronni L.

    2005-01-01

    This chapter provides an overview of nondiscrimination policies that include sexual orientation and gender identity and addresses how such policies might be used to improve campus climates for LGBT students, faculty, and staff.

  9. Claudin-21 Has a Paracellular Channel Role at Tight Junctions

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Hiroo; Yamamoto, Yasuko; Kashihara, Hiroka; Yamazaki, Yuji; Tani, Kazutoshi; Fujiyoshi, Yoshinori; Mineta, Katsuhiko; Takeuchi, Kosei

    2016-01-01

    Claudin protein family members, of which there are at least 27 in humans and mice, polymerize to form tight junctions (TJs) between epithelial cells, in a tissue- and developmental stage-specific manner. Claudins have a paracellular barrier function. In addition, certain claudins function as paracellular channels for small ions and/or solutes by forming selective pores at the TJs, although the specific claudins involved and their functional mechanisms are still in question. Here we show for the first time that claudin-21, which is more highly expressed in the embryonic than the postnatal stages, acts as a paracellular channel for small cations, such as Na+, similar to the typical channel-type claudins claudin-2 and -15. Claudin-21 also allows the paracellular passage of larger solutes. Our findings suggest that claudin-21-based TJs allow the passage of small and larger solutes by both paracellular channel-based and some additional mechanisms. PMID:26729464

  10. Ion channel therapeutics for pain

    PubMed Central

    Skerratt, Sarah E; West, Christopher W

    2015-01-01

    Pain is a complex disease which can progress into a debilitating condition. The effective treatment of pain remains a challenge as current therapies often lack the desired level of efficacy or tolerability. One therapeutic avenue, the modulation of ion channel signaling by small molecules, has shown the ability to treat pain. However, of the 215 ion channels that exist in the human genome, with 85 ion channels having a strong literature link to pain, only a small number of these channels have been successfully drugged for pain. The focus of future research will be to fully explore the possibilities surrounding these unexplored ion channels. Toward this end, a greater understanding of ion channel modulation will be the greatest tool we have in developing the next generation of drugs for the treatment of pain. PMID:26218246

  11. Phosphoinositide regulation of TRP channels

    PubMed Central

    Rohacs, Tibor

    2015-01-01

    Transient Receptor Potential (TRP) channels are activated by stimuli as diverse as heat, cold, noxious chemicals, mechanical forces, hormones, neurotransmitters, spices, and voltage. Besides their presumably similar general architecture, probably the only common factor regulating them is phosphoinositides. The regulation of TRP channels by phosphoinositides is complex. There is a large number of TRP channels where phosphatidylinositol 4,5 bisphosphate [PI(4,5)P2 or PIP2], acts as a positive cofactor, similarly to many other ion channels. In several cases however, PI(4,5)P2 inhibits TRP channel activity, sometimes even concurrently with the activating effect. This review will provide a comprehensive overview of the literature on regulation of TRP channels by membrane phosphoinositides. PMID:24961984

  12. Molecular Mechanism of TRP Channels

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Jie

    2013-01-01

    Transient receptor potential (TRP) channels are cellular sensors for a wide spectrum of physical and chemical stimuli. They are involved in the formation of sight, hearing, touch, smell, taste, temperature, and pain sensation. TRP channels also play fundamental roles in cell signaling and allow the host cell to respond to benign or harmful environmental changes. As TRP channel activation is controlled by very diverse processes and, in many cases, exhibits complex polymodal properties, understanding how each TRP channel responds to its unique forms of activation energy is both crucial and challenging. The past two decades witnessed significant advances in understanding the molecular mechanisms that underlie TRP channels activation. This review focuses on our current understanding of the molecular determinants for TRP channel activation. PMID:23720286

  13. The Channel Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    The Channel Tunnel is a 50.5 km-long rail tunnel beneath the English Channel at the Straits of Dover. It connects Dover, Kent in England with Calais, northern France. The undersea section of the tunnel is unsurpassed in length in the world. A proposal for a Channel tunnel was first put forward by a French engineer in 1802. In 1881, a first attempt was made at boring a tunnel from the English side; the work was halted after 800 m. Again in 1922, English workers started boring a tunnel, and advanced 120 m before it too was halted for political reasons. The most recent attempt was begun in 1987, and the tunnel was officially opened in 1994. At completion it was estimated that the project cost around $18 billion. It has been operating at a significant loss since its opening, despite trips by over 7 million passengers per year on the Eurostar train, and over 3 million vehicles per year.

    With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring

  14. A large-conductance anion channel of the Golgi complex.

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Roger J; Nordeen, Mark H; Howell, Kathryn E; Caldwell, John H

    2002-01-01

    An acidic lumenal pH is vital for the proper posttranslational modifications and sorting of proteins and lipids from the Golgi complex. We characterized ion channels present in Golgi fractions that have been cleared of transiting proteins. A large conductance anion channel was observed in approximately 30% of successful channel incorporations into the planar lipid bilayer. The channel, GOLAC-2, has six levels (one closed and five open). The open states are each approximately 20% increments of the maximal, 325 pS conductance. The channel was approximately 6 times more selective for Cl(-) over K(+). Binomial analysis of percent occupancy for each conducting level supports the hypothesis of five independent conducting pathways. The conducting levels can coordinately gate because full openings and closings were often observed. Addition of 3 to 5 mM reduced glutathione to the cis chamber caused dose-dependent increases in single channel conductance, indicating that the channel may be regulated by the oxidation-reduction state of the cell. We propose that GOLAC-2 is a co-channel complex consisting of five identical pores that have a coordinated gating mechanism. GOALC-2 may function as a source of counter anions for the H(+)-ATPase and may be involved in regulating charge balance and membrane potential of the Golgi complex. PMID:12080119

  15. State-dependent inactivation of the Kv3 potassium channel.

    PubMed Central

    Marom, S; Levitan, I B

    1994-01-01

    Inactivation of Kv3 (Kv1.3) delayed rectifier potassium channels was studied in the Xenopus oocyte expression system. These channels inactivate slowly during a long depolarizing pulse. In addition, inactivation accumulates in response to a series of short depolarizing pulses (cumulative inactivation), although no significant inactivation occurs within each short pulse. The extent of cumulative inactivation does not depend on the voltage during the depolarizing pulse, but it does vary in a biphasic manner as a function of the interpulse duration. Furthermore, the rate of cumulative inactivation is influenced by changing the rate of deactivation. These data are consistent with a model in which Kv3 channel inactivation is a state-dependent and voltage-independent process. Macroscopic and single channel experiments indicate that inactivation can occur from a closed (silent) state before channel opening. That is, channels need not open to inactivate. The transition that leads to the inactivated state from the silent state is, in fact, severalfold faster then the observed inactivation of current during long depolarizing pulses. Long pulse-induced inactivation appears to be slow, because its rate is limited by the probability that channels are in the open state, rather than in the silent state from which they can inactivate. External potassium and external calcium ions alter the rates of cumulative and long pulse-induced inactivation, suggesting that antagonistic potassium and calcium binding steps are involved in the normal gating of the channel. PMID:7948675

  16. Transient receptor potential channels and regulation of lung endothelial permeability

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Abstract This review highlights our current knowledge regarding expression of transient receptor potential (TRP) cation channels in lung endothelium and evidence for their involvement in regulation of lung endothelial permeability. Six mammalian TRP families have been identified and organized on the basis of sequence homology: TRPC (canonical), TRPV (vanilloid), TRPM (melastatin), TRPML (mucolipin), TRPP (polycystin), and TRPA (ankyrin). To date, only TRPC1/4, TRPC6, TRPV4, and TRPM2 have been extensively studied in lung endothelium. Calcium influx through each of these channels has been documented to increase lung endothelial permeability, although their channel-gating mechanisms, downstream signaling mechanisms, and impact on endothelial structure and barrier integrity differ. While other members of the TRPC, TRPV, and TRPM families may be expressed in lung endothelium, we have little or no evidence linking these to regulation of lung endothelial permeability. Further, neither the expression nor functional role(s) of any TRPML, TRPP, and TRPA family members has been studied in lung endothelium. In addition to this assessment organized by TRP channel family, we also discuss TRP channels and lung endothelial permeability from the perspective of lung endothelial heterogeneity, using outcomes of studies focused on TRPC1/4 and TRPV4 channels. The diversity within the TRP channel family and the relative paucity of information regarding roles of a number of these channels in lung endothelium make this field ripe for continued investigation. PMID:25006396

  17. Institutional Policy and Its Abuses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bogue, E. G.; Riggs, R. O.

    1974-01-01

    Reviews the role of institutional policy, cites frequent abuses of institutional policy, and delineates several principles of policy management (development, communication, execution and evaluation). (Author/PG)

  18. Four-channel optically pumped atomic magnetometer for magnetoencephalography.

    PubMed

    Colombo, Anthony P; Carter, Tony R; Borna, Amir; Jau, Yuan-Yu; Johnson, Cort N; Dagel, Amber L; Schwindt, Peter D D

    2016-07-11

    We have developed a four-channel optically pumped atomic magnetometer for magnetoencephalography (MEG) that incorporates a passive diffractive optical element (DOE). The DOE allows us to achieve a long, 18-mm gradiometer baseline in a compact footprint on the head. Using gradiometry, the sensitivities of the channels are < 5 fT/Hz1/2, and the 3-dB bandwidths are approximately 90 Hz, which are both sufficient to perform MEG. Additionally, the channels are highly uniform, which offers the possibility of employing standard MEG post-processing techniques. This module will serve as a building block of an array for magnetic source localization.

  19. Four-channel optically pumped atomic magnetometer for magnetoencephalography.

    PubMed

    Colombo, Anthony P; Carter, Tony R; Borna, Amir; Jau, Yuan-Yu; Johnson, Cort N; Dagel, Amber L; Schwindt, Peter D D

    2016-07-11

    We have developed a four-channel optically pumped atomic magnetometer for magnetoencephalography (MEG) that incorporates a passive diffractive optical element (DOE). The DOE allows us to achieve a long, 18-mm gradiometer baseline in a compact footprint on the head. Using gradiometry, the sensitivities of the channels are < 5 fT/Hz1/2, and the 3-dB bandwidths are approximately 90 Hz, which are both sufficient to perform MEG. Additionally, the channels are highly uniform, which offers the possibility of employing standard MEG post-processing techniques. This module will serve as a building block of an array for magnetic source localization. PMID:27410816

  20. Advocacy & Lobbying: Influencing Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ASPBAE Courier, 1994

    1994-01-01

    This issue contains nine papers dealing with influencing public policy through advocacy and lobbying. "Influencing Public Policy" (Rajesh Tandon) looks at opportunities nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) have for influencing public policy and constraints to advocacy. "Recent Changes in the Global Aid Environment" (Sunimal Fernando) considers…

  1. Essays in Education Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Jed Thomas

    2011-01-01

    My dissertation investigates the effects of education policy on academic achievement. I focus on state and federal policies that seek to influence how teachers and school administrators educate their students, and I evaluate those policies' effects on academic achievement. Chapter 1 examines the effects of a compositional shift in a school's…

  2. Language Policy and Methodology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liddicoat, Antony J.

    2004-01-01

    The implementation of a language policy is crucially associated with questions of methodology. This paper explores approaches to language policy, approaches to methodology and the impact that these have on language teaching practice. Language policies can influence decisions about teaching methodologies either directly, by making explicit…

  3. Materials Selection Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tulsa City-County Library System, OK.

    The emphasis of the revised Tulsa (Oklahoma) City-County Library System selection policy is on meeting needs of the community rather than balancing the collection in any one library. The policy includes the "Library Bill of Rights" and covers objectives, responsibilities, maintenance of the collection, controversial materials, gifts, policy in…

  4. International Air Transport Policy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, C.

    1972-01-01

    The actions of the Civil Aviation Board in providing assistance and advice to the State Department regarding international air transport policy are discussed. The policies and guidelines of the Civil Aviation Board are defined. The relationship with the policies of the Executive Branch of the Government and the interpretations of the Department of Transportation are reported.

  5. Reference Service Policy Statement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, William F.

    This reference service policy manual provides general guidelines to encourage reference service of the highest possible quality and to insure uniform practice. The policy refers only to reference service in the University Libraries and is intended for use in conjunction with other policies and procedures issued by the Reference Services Division.…

  6. Ultrasound modulates ion channel currents.

    PubMed

    Kubanek, Jan; Shi, Jingyi; Marsh, Jon; Chen, Di; Deng, Cheri; Cui, Jianmin

    2016-01-01

    Transcranial focused ultrasound (US) has been demonstrated to stimulate neurons in animals and humans, but the mechanism of this effect is unknown. It has been hypothesized that US, a mechanical stimulus, may mediate cellular discharge by activating mechanosensitive ion channels embedded within cellular membranes. To test this hypothesis, we expressed potassium and sodium mechanosensitive ion channels (channels of the two-pore-domain potassium family (K2P) including TREK-1, TREK-2, TRAAK; NaV1.5) in the Xenopus oocyte system. Focused US (10 MHz, 0.3-4.9 W/cm(2)) modulated the currents flowing through the ion channels on average by up to 23%, depending on channel and stimulus intensity. The effects were reversible upon repeated stimulation and were abolished when a channel blocker (ranolazine to block NaV1.5, BaCl2 to block K2P channels) was applied to the solution. These data reveal at the single cell level that focused US modulates the activity of specific ion channels to mediate transmembrane currents. These findings open doors to investigations of the effects of  US on ion channels expressed in neurons, retinal cells, or cardiac cells, which may lead to important medical applications. The findings may also pave the way to the development of sonogenetics: a non-invasive, US-based analogue of optogenetics. PMID:27112990

  7. Flag flapping in a channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alben, Silas; Shoele, Kourosh; Mittal, Rajat; Jha, Sourabh; Glezer, Ari

    2015-11-01

    We study the flapping of a flag in an inviscid channel flow. We focus especially on how quantities vary with channel spacing. As the channel walls move inwards towards the flag, heavier flags become more unstable, while light flags' stability is less affected. We use a vortex sheet model to compute large-amplitude flapping, and find that the flag undergoes a series of jumps to higher flapping modes as the channel walls are moved towards the flag. Meanwhile, the drag on the flag and the energy lost to the wake first rise as the walls become closer, then drop sharply as the flag moves to a higher flapping mode.

  8. Designed membrane channels and pores.

    PubMed

    Bayley, H

    1999-02-01

    Advances in the synthesis and assembly of designed membrane channels and pores include addressable template-assisted synthetic protein (TASP) syntheses of helix bundles, the production of a new class of nanotubes and the ability to purify hetero-oligomeric pores. Channels and pores with altered functional properties and with built-in triggers and switches have been prepared. Progress in applications has been greatest in sensor technology, where sensor elements based on ligand activation, channel selectivity and channel block have been made. Structural information about natural membrane proteins is emerging to inspire new designs.

  9. Ultrasound modulates ion channel currents

    PubMed Central

    Kubanek, Jan; Shi, Jingyi; Marsh, Jon; Chen, Di; Deng, Cheri; Cui, Jianmin

    2016-01-01

    Transcranial focused ultrasound (US) has been demonstrated to stimulate neurons in animals and humans, but the mechanism of this effect is unknown. It has been hypothesized that US, a mechanical stimulus, may mediate cellular discharge by activating mechanosensitive ion channels embedded within cellular membranes. To test this hypothesis, we expressed potassium and sodium mechanosensitive ion channels (channels of the two-pore-domain potassium family (K2P) including TREK-1, TREK-2, TRAAK; NaV1.5) in the Xenopus oocyte system. Focused US (10 MHz, 0.3–4.9 W/cm2) modulated the currents flowing through the ion channels on average by up to 23%, depending on channel and stimulus intensity. The effects were reversible upon repeated stimulation and were abolished when a channel blocker (ranolazine to block NaV1.5, BaCl2 to block K2P channels) was applied to the solution. These data reveal at the single cell level that focused US modulates the activity of specific ion channels to mediate transmembrane currents. These findings open doors to investigations of the effects of  US on ion channels expressed in neurons, retinal cells, or cardiac cells, which may lead to important medical applications. The findings may also pave the way to the development of sonogenetics: a non-invasive, US-based analogue of optogenetics. PMID:27112990

  10. Demystifying Mechanosensitive Piezo Ion Channels.

    PubMed

    Xu, X Z Shawn

    2016-06-01

    Mechanosensitive channels mediate touch, hearing, proprioception, and blood pressure regulation. Piezo proteins, including Piezo1 and Piezo2, represent a new class of mechanosensitive channels that have been reported to play key roles in most, if not all, of these modalities. The structural architecture and molecular mechanisms by which Piezos act as mechanosensitive channels, however, remain mysterious. Two new studies have now provided critical insights into the atomic structure and molecular basis of the ion permeation and mechano-gating properties of the Piezo1 channel.

  11. Capacity of the Generalized Pulse-Position Modulation Channel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamkins, J.; Klimesh, M.; McElience, R.; Moision, B.

    2005-01-01

    We show the capacity of a generalized pulse-position modulation (PPM) channel, where the input vectors may be any set that allows a transitive group of coordinate permutations, is achieved by a uniform input distribution. We derive a simple expression in terms of the Kullback Leibler distance for the binary case, and the asymptote in the PPM order. We prove a sub-additivity result for the PPM channel and use it to show PPM capacity is monotonic in the order.

  12. Monetary Expansion and the Banking Lending Channel

    PubMed Central

    Moreira, Tito Belchior Silva; Fazio, Dimas Mateus; Cavalcanti, André Luiz Cordeiro; Cunha, George Henrrique de Moura

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the bank lending channel, which considers how monetary authority actions affect the variation of loans. We focus on the BRICS (Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa) totalizing 1254 banks from five countries in the period 2000–2012 (totalizing 13 years). The empirical results show that the effect of money supply growth on the growth of loans is non-linear and inverted U-shaped. In this context, our results show empirical evidence expansionary monetary policies do not increase the propensity of economic agents to systematically take greater risks on the market. After a certain level of money stock, increases in the money supply do not lead to increased negotiated credit. PMID:27716816

  13. Engineered ion channels as emerging tools for chemical biology.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Michael; Yang, Jerry

    2013-12-17

    Over the last 25 years, researchers have developed exogenously expressed, genetically engineered, semi-synthetic, and entirely synthetic ion channels. These structures have sufficient fidelity to serve as unique tools that can reveal information about living organisms. One of the most exciting success stories is optogenetics: the use of light-gated channels to trigger action potentials in specific neurons combined with studies of the response from networks of cells or entire live animals. Despite this breakthrough, the use of molecularly engineered ion channels for studies of biological systems is still in its infancy. Historically, researchers studied ion channels in the context of their own function in single cells or in multicellular signaling and regulation. Only recently have researchers considered ion channels and pore-forming peptides as responsive tools to report on the chemical and physical changes produced by other biochemical processes and reactions. This emerging class of molecular probes has a number of useful characteristics. For instance, these structures can greatly amplify the signal of chemical changes: the binding of one molecule to a ligand-gated ion channel can result in flux of millions of ions across a cell membrane. In addition, gating occurs on sub-microsecond time scales, resulting in fast response times. Moreover, the signal is complementary to existing techniques because the output is ionic current rather than fluorescence or radioactivity. And finally, ion channels are also localized at the membrane of cells where essential processes such as signaling and regulation take place. This Account highlights examples, mostly from our own work, of uses of ion channels and pore-forming peptides such as gramicidin in chemical biology. We discuss various strategies for preparing synthetically tailored ion channels that range from de novo designed synthetic molecules to genetically engineered or simply exogenously expressed or reconstituted wild

  14. Planar Superconducting Millimeter-Wave/Terahertz Channelizing Filter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ehsan, Negar; U-yen, Kongpop; Brown, Ari; Hsieh, Wen-Ting; Wollack, Edward; Moseley, Samuel

    2013-01-01

    This innovation is a compact, superconducting, channelizing bandpass filter on a single-crystal (0.45 m thick) silicon substrate, which operates from 300 to 600 GHz. This device consists of four channels with center frequencies of 310, 380, 460, and 550 GHz, with approximately 50-GHz bandwidth per channel. The filter concept is inspired by the mammalian cochlea, which is a channelizing filter that covers three decades of bandwidth and 3,000 channels in a very small physical space. By using a simplified physical cochlear model, and its electrical analog of a channelizing filter covering multiple octaves bandwidth, a large number of output channels with high inter-channel isolation and high-order upper stopband response can be designed. A channelizing filter is a critical component used in spectrometer instruments that measure the intensity of light at various frequencies. This embodiment was designed for MicroSpec in order to increase the resolution of the instrument (with four channels, the resolution will be increased by a factor of four). MicroSpec is a revolutionary wafer-scale spectrometer that is intended for the SPICA (Space Infrared Telescope for Cosmology and Astrophysics) Mission. In addition to being a vital component of MicroSpec, the channelizing filter itself is a low-resolution spectrometer when integrated with only an antenna at its input, and a detector at each channel s output. During the design process for this filter, the available characteristic impedances, possible lumped element ranges, and fabrication tolerances were identified for design on a very thin silicon substrate. Iterations between full-wave and lumped-element circuit simulations were performed. Each channel s circuit was designed based on the availability of characteristic impedances and lumped element ranges. This design was based on a tabular type bandpass filter with no spurious harmonic response. Extensive electromagnetic modeling for each channel was performed. Four channels

  15. University Approaches to Software Copyright and Licensure Policies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, Brian L.

    Issues of copyright policy and software licensure at Drexel University that were developed during the introduction of a new microcomputing program are discussed. Channels for software distribution include: individual purchase of externally-produced software, distribution of internally-developed software, institutional licensure, and "read only"…

  16. Toward transparent clinical policies.

    PubMed

    Shiffman, Richard N; Marcuse, Edgar K; Moyer, Virginia A; Neuspiel, Daniel R; Hodgson, Elizabeth Susan; Glade, Gordon; Harbaugh, Norman; Miller, Marlene R; Sevilla, Xavier; Simpson, Lisa; Takata, Glenn

    2008-03-01

    Clinical policies of professional societies such as the American Academy of Pediatrics are valued highly, not only by clinicians who provide direct health care to children but also by many others who rely on the professional expertise of these organizations, including parents, employers, insurers, and legislators. The utility of a policy depends, in large part, on the degree to which its purpose and basis are clear to policy users, an attribute known as the policy's transparency. This statement describes the critical importance and special value of transparency in clinical policies, guidelines, and recommendations; helps identify obstacles to achieving transparency; and suggests several approaches to overcome these obstacles.

  17. Federal water policy

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    The Federal Water Policy is a statement of the federal government's philosophy and goals for the nation's freshwater resources, and of the proposed ways of achieving them in cooperation with provincial governments. This document provides an overview of the policy, then presents details on the policy itself, the strategies for achievement of that policy, methods of applying it, and specific policy statements. These statements cover such topics as the management of toxic chemicals, water quality, ground water contamination, municipal water and sewer infrastructure, safe drinking water, wetlands preservation, hydroelectric development, navigation, native water rights, and Canada-US boundary management, among others.

  18. DEVELOPING STATE POLICIES SUPPORTIVE OF BIOENERGY DEVELOPMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Kathryn Baskin

    2004-07-28

    Working within the context of the Southern States Biobased Alliance (SSBA) and with officials in each state, the Southern States Energy Board (SSEB) is identifying bioenergy-related policies and programs within each state to determine their impact on the development, deployment or use of bioenergy. In addition, SSEB will determine which policies have impacted industry's efforts to develop, deploy or use biobased technologies or products. As a result, SSEB will work with the Southern States Biobased Alliance to determine how policy changes might address any negative impacts or enhance positive impacts. In addition to analysis of domestic policies and programs, this project will include the development of a U.S.-Brazil Biodiesel Pilot Project. The purpose of this effort is to promote and facilitate the commercialization of biodiesel and bioenergy production and demand in Brazil.

  19. DEVELOPING STATE POLICIES SUPPORTIVE OF BIOENERGY DEVELOPMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Kathryn Baskin

    2005-01-31

    Working within the context of the Southern States Biobased Alliance (SSBA) and with officials in each state, the Southern States Energy Board (SSEB) is identifying bioenergy-related policies and programs within each state to determine their impact on the development, deployment or use of bioenergy. In addition, SSEB will determine which policies have impacted industry's efforts to develop, deploy or use biobased technologies or products. As a result, SSEB will work with the Southern States Biobased Alliance to determine how policy changes might address any negative impacts or enhance positive impacts. In addition to analysis of domestic policies and programs, this project will include the development of a U.S.-Brazil Biodiesel Pilot Project. The purpose of this effort is to promote and facilitate the commercialization of biodiesel and bioenergy production and demand in Brazil.

  20. DEVELOPING STATE POLICIES SUPPORTIVE OF BIOENERGY DEVELOPMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Kathryn Baskin

    2005-04-30

    Working within the context of the Southern States Biobased Alliance (SSBA) and with officials in each state, the Southern States Energy Board (SSEB) is identifying bioenergy-related policies and programs within each state to determine their impact on the development, deployment or use of bioenergy. In addition, SSEB will determine which policies have impacted industry's efforts to develop, deploy or use biobased technologies or products. As a result, SSEB will work with the Southern States Biobased Alliance to determine how policy changes might address any negative impacts or enhance positive impacts. In addition to analysis of domestic policies and programs, this project will include the development of a U.S.-Brazil Biodiesel Pilot Project. The purpose of this effort is to promote and facilitate the commercialization of biodiesel and bioenergy production and demand in Brazil.

  1. DEVELOPING STATE POLICIES SUPPORTIVE OF BIOENERGY DEVELOPMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Kathryn Baskin

    2004-10-31

    Working within the context of the Southern States Biobased Alliance (SSBA) and with officials in each state, the Southern States Energy Board (SSEB) is identifying bioenergy-related policies and programs within each state to determine their impact on the development, deployment or use of bioenergy. In addition, SSEB will determine which policies have impacted industry's efforts to develop, deploy or use biobased technologies or products. As a result, SSEB will work with the Southern States Biobased Alliance to determine how policy changes might address any negative impacts or enhance positive impacts. In addition to analysis of domestic policies and programs, this project will include the development of a U.S.-Brazil Biodiesel Pilot Project. The purpose of this effort is to promote and facilitate the commercialization of biodiesel and bioenergy production and demand in Brazil.

  2. Littoral steering of deltaic channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nienhuis, Jaap H.; Ashton, Andrew D.; Giosan, Liviu

    2016-11-01

    The typically single-threaded channels on wave-influenced deltas show striking differences in their orientations, with some channels oriented into the incoming waves (e.g., Ombrone, Krishna), and others oriented away from the waves (e.g., Godavari, Sao Francisco). Understanding the controls on channel orientation is important as the channel location greatly influences deltaic morphology and sedimentology, both subaerially and subaqueously. Here, we explore channel orientation and consequent feedbacks with local shoreline dynamics using a plan-form numerical model of delta evolution. The model treats fluvial sediment delivery to a wave-dominated coast in two ways: 1) channels are assumed to prograde in a direction perpendicular to the local shoreline orientation and 2) a controlled fraction of littoral sediment transport can bypass the river mouth. Model results suggest that channels migrate downdrift when there is a significant net littoral transport and alongshore transport bypassing of the river mouth is limited. In contrast, river channels tend to orient themselves into the waves when fluvial sediment flux is relatively large, causing the shoreline of the downdrift delta flank to attain the orientation of maximum potential sediment transport for the incoming wave climate. Using model results, we develop a framework to estimate channel orientations for wave-influenced deltas that shows good agreement with natural examples. An increase in fluvial sediment input can cause a channel to reorient itself into incoming waves, behavior observed, for example, in the Ombrone delta in Italy. Our results can inform paleoclimate studies by linking channel orientation to fluvial sediment flux and wave energy. In particular, our approach provides a means to quantify past wave directions, which are notoriously difficult to constrain.

  3. Mirrored serpentine flow channels for fuel cell

    SciTech Connect

    Rock, Jeffrey Allan

    2000-08-08

    A PEM fuel cell having serpentine flow field channels wherein the input/inlet legs of each channel border the input/inlet legs of the next adjacent channels in the same flow field, and the output/exit legs of each channel border the output/exit legs of the next adjacent channels in the same flow field. The serpentine fuel flow channels may be longer, and may contain more medial legs, than the serpentine oxidant flow channels.

  4. Future American energy policy

    SciTech Connect

    Crist, M.S.; Laffer, A.B.

    1982-01-01

    People from businesses, public life, public advocacy groups, and experts on international energy met in February 1980 to explore the complex issues of energy policy at a conference entitled Energy Future: Policies and Consequences. The book begins with Crist's overview of current options. David Stockman then examines damaging energy myths and their effects in producing misguided energy policies. Other authors explore the social implications of energy policy, the failure of oil-company management and government to keep energy prices in line with costs, the economic implications of domestic energy policy, international attitudes toward US policy, and the implications of alternative energy sources and conservation. Laffer describes how American presidential economic policies differ from public perceptions. The book concludes with the hope of achieving a future balance of environmental concerns and increased production.

  5. Noradrenaline upregulates T-type calcium channels in rat pinealocytes

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Haijie; Seo, Jong Bae; Jung, Seung-Ryoung; Koh, Duk-Su; Hille, Bertil

    2015-01-01

    Our basic hypothesis is that mammalian pinealocytes have cycling electrical excitability and Ca2+ signalling that may contribute to the circadian rhythm of pineal melatonin secretion. This study asked whether the functional expression of voltage-gated Ca2+ channels (CaV channels) in rat pinealocytes is changed by culturing them in noradrenaline (NA) as a surrogate for the night signal. Channel activity was assayed as ionic currents under patch clamp and as optical signals from a Ca2+-sensitive dye. Channel mRNAs were assayed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Cultured without NA, pinealocytes showed only non-inactivating L-type dihydropyridine-sensitive Ca2+ current. After 24 h in NA, additional low-voltage activated transient Ca2+ current developed whose pharmacology and kinetics corresponded to a T-type CaV3.1 channel. This change was initiated by β-adrenergic receptors, cyclic AMP and protein kinase A as revealed by pharmacological experiments. mRNA for CaV3.1 T-type channels became significantly elevated, but mRNA for another T-type channel and for the major L-type channel did not change. After only 8 h of NA treatment, the CaV3.1 mRNA was already elevated, but the transient Ca2+ current was not. Even a 16 h wait without NA following the 8 h NA treatment induced little additional transient current. However, these cells were somehow primed to make transient current as a second NA exposure for only 60 min sufficed to induce large T-type currents. The NA-induced T-type channel mediated an increased Ca2+ entry during short depolarizations and supported modest transient electrical responses to depolarizing stimuli. Such experiments reveal the potential for circadian regulation of excitability. PMID:25504572

  6. Life in the fast lane: fish and foodweb structure in the main channel of large rivers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dettmers, J.M.; Wahl, David H.; Soluk, D.A.; Gutreuter, S.

    2001-01-01

    We studied the main channel of the lower Illinois River and of the Mississippi River just upstream and downstream of its confluence with the Illinois River to describe the abundance, composition, and/or seasonal appearance of components of the main-channel community. Abundance of fishes in the main channel was high, especially adults. Most adult fishes were present in the main channel for either 3 or 4 seasons/y, indicating that fishes regularly reside in the main channel. We documented abundant zooplankton and benthic invertebrates in the main channel, and the presence of these food types in the diets of channel catfish and freshwater drum. All trophic levels were well represented in the main channel, indicating that the main channel supports a unique food web. The main channel also serves as an important energetic link with other riverine habitats (e.g., floodplains, secondary channels, backwater lakes) because of the mobility of resident fishes and because of the varied energy sources supplying this food web. It may be more realistic to view energy flow in large-river systems as a combination of 3 existing concepts, the river continuum concept (downstream transport), the flood pulse concept (lateral transport to the floodplain), and the riverine productivity model (autochthonous production). We urge additional research to quantify the links between the main channel and other habitat types in large rivers because of the apparent importance of main-channel processes in the overall structure and function of large-river ecosystems.

  7. DEVELOPING STATE POLICIES SUPPORTIVE OF BIOENERGY DEVELOPMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Kathryn Baskin

    2004-04-30

    Working within the context of the Southern States Biobased Alliance (SSBA) and with officials in each state, the Southern States Energy Board (SSEB) is identifying bioenergy-related policies and programs within each state to determine their impact on the development, deployment or use of bioenergy. In addition, SSEB will determine which policies have impacted industry's efforts to develop, deploy or use biobased technologies or products. As a result, SSEB will work with the Southern States Biobased Alliance to determine how policy changes might address any negative impacts or enhance positive impacts.

  8. DEVELOPING STATE POLICIES SUPPORTIVE OF BIOENERGY DEVELOPMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Kathryn Baskin

    2002-07-31

    Working within the context of the Southern States Biobased Alliance (SSBA) and with officials in each state, the Southern States Energy Board (SSEB) is identifying bioenergy-related policies and programs within each state to determine their impact on the development, deployment or use of bioenergy. In addition, SSEB will determine which policies have impacted industry's efforts to develop, deploy or use biobased technologies or products. As a result, SSEB will work with the Southern States Biobased Alliance to determine how policy changes might address any negative impacts or enhance positive impacts.

  9. DEVELOPING STATE POLICIES SUPPORTIVE OF BIOENERGY DEVELOPMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Kathryn Baskin

    2001-10-31

    Working within the context of the Southern States Biobased Alliance (SSBA) and with officials in each state, the Southern States Energy Board (SSEB) is identifying bioenergy-related policies and programs within each state to determine their impact on the development, deployment or use of bioenergy. In addition, SSEB will determine which policies have impacted industry's efforts to develop, deploy or use biobased technologies or products. As a result, SSEB will work with the Southern States Biobased Alliance to determine how policy changes might address any negative impacts or enhance positive impacts.

  10. DEVELOPING STATE POLICIES SUPPORTIVE OF BIOENERGY DEVELOPMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Kathryn Baskin

    2001-07-31

    Working within the context of the Southern States Biobased Alliance (SSBA) and with officials in each state, the Southern States Energy Board (SSEB) is identifying bioenergy-related policies and programs within each state to determine their impact on the development, deployment or use of bioenergy. In addition, SSEB will determine which policies have impacted industry's efforts to develop, deploy or use biobased technologies or products. As a result, SSEB will work with the Southern States Biobased Alliance to determine how policy changes might address any negative impacts or enhance positive impacts.

  11. DEVELOPING STATE POLICIES SUPPORTIVE OF BIOENERGY DEVELOPMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Kathryn Baskin

    2003-10-31

    Working within the context of the Southern States Biobased Alliance (SSBA) and with officials in each state, the Southern States Energy Board (SSEB) is identifying bioenergy-related policies and programs within each state to determine their impact on the development, deployment or use of bioenergy. In addition, SSEB will determine which policies have impacted industry's efforts to develop, deploy or use biobased technologies or products. As a result, SSEB will work with the Southern States Biobased Alliance to determine how policy changes might address any negative impacts or enhance positive impacts.

  12. Channel by Day and Night

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 17 June 2004 This pair of images shows part of a small channel.

    Day/Night Infrared Pairs

    The image pairs presented focus on a single surface feature as seen in both the daytime and nighttime by the infrared THEMIS camera. The nighttime image (right) has been rotated 180 degrees to place north at the top.

    Infrared image interpretation

    Daytime: Infrared images taken during the daytime exhibit both the morphological and thermophysical properties of the surface of Mars. Morphologic details are visible due to the effect of sun-facing slopes receiving more energy than antisun-facing slopes. This creates a warm (bright) slope and cool (dark) slope appearance that mimics the light and shadows of a visible wavelength image. Thermophysical properties are seen in that dust heats up more quickly than rocks. Thus dusty areas are bright and rocky areas are dark.

    Nighttime: Infrared images taken during the nighttime exhibit only the thermophysical properties of the surface of Mars. The effect of sun-facing versus non-sun-facing energy dissipates quickly at night. Thermophysical effects dominate as different surfaces cool at different rates through the nighttime hours. Rocks cool slowly, and are therefore relatively bright at night (remember that rocks are dark during the day). Dust and other fine grained materials cool very quickly and are dark in nighttime infrared images.

    Image information: IR instrument. Latitude 19.8, Longitude 141.5 East (218.5 West). 100 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through

  13. The EMBL-EBI channel.

    PubMed

    McEntyre, Jo; Birney, Ewan

    2016-01-01

    This editorial introduces the EMBL-EBI channel in F1000Research. The aims of the channel are to present EMBL-EBI outputs and collate research published on F1000Research contributed, in whole or in part, EMBL-EBI researchers. PMID:26913196

  14. A channel simulator design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Devito, D. M.; Goutmann, M. M.; Harper, R. C.

    1971-01-01

    A propagation path simulator was designed for the channel between a Tracking and Data Relay Satellite in geostationary orbit and a user spacecraft orbiting the earth at an altitude between 200 and 4000 kilometers. The simulator is required to duplicate the time varying parameters of the propagation channel.

  15. Phenomics of Cardiac Chloride Channels

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Dayue Darrel

    2014-01-01

    Forward genetic studies have identified several chloride (Cl−) channel genes, including CFTR, ClC-2, ClC-3, CLCA, Bestrophin, and Ano1, in the heart. Recent reverse genetic studies using gene targeting and transgenic techniques to delineate the functional role of cardiac Cl− channels have shown that Cl− channels may contribute to cardiac arrhythmogenesis, myocardial hypertrophy and heart failure, and cardioprotection against ischemia reperfusion. The study of physiological or pathophysiological phenotypes of cardiac Cl− channels, however, is complicated by the compensatory changes in the animals in response to the targeted genetic manipulation. Alternatively, tissue-specific conditional or inducible knockout or knockin animal models may be more valuable in the phenotypic studies of specific Cl− channels by limiting the effect of compensation on the phenotype. The integrated function of Cl− channels may involve multiprotein complexes of the Cl− channel subproteome. Similar phenotypes can be attained from alternative protein pathways within cellular networks, which are influenced by genetic and environmental factors. The phenomics approach, which characterizes phenotypes as a whole phenome and systematically studies the molecular changes that give rise to particular phenotypes achieved by modifying the genotype under the scope of genome/proteome/phenome, may provide more complete understanding of the integrated function of each cardiac Cl− channel in the context of health and disease. PMID:23720326

  16. Chloride Channels of Intracellular Membranes

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, John C.; Kahl, Christina R.

    2010-01-01

    Proteins implicated as intracellular chloride channels include the intracellular ClC proteins, the bestrophins, the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator, the CLICs, and the recently described Golgi pH regulator. This paper examines current hypotheses regarding roles of intracellular chloride channels and reviews the evidence supporting a role in intracellular chloride transport for each of these proteins. PMID:20100480

  17. Essays on Environmental Economics and Policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, W. Reed

    A central feature of modern government is its role in designing welfare improving policies to address and correct market failures stemming from externalities and public goods. The rationale for most modern environmental regulations stems from the failure of markets to efficiently allocate goods and services. Yet, as with any policy, distributional effects are important there exist clear winners and losers. Despite the clear theoretical justification for environmental and energy policy, empirical work credibly identifying both the source and consequences of these externalities as well as the distributional effects of existing policies remains in its infancy. My dissertation focuses on the development of empirical methods to investigate the role of environmental and energy policy in addressing market failures as well as exploring the distributional implications of these policies. These questions are important not only as a justification for government intervention into markets but also for understanding how distributional consequences may shape the design and implementation of these policies. My dissertation investigates these questions in the context of programs and policies that are important in their own right. Chapters 1 and 2 of my dissertation explore the economic costs and distributional implications associated with the largest environmental regulatory program in the United States, the Clean Air Act. Chapters 3 and 4 examine the social costs of air pollution in the context of transportation externalities, showing how effective transportation policy has additional co-benefits in the form of environmental policy. My dissertation remains unified in both its subject matter and methodological approach -- using unique sources of data and sound research designs to understand important issues in environmental policy.

  18. Lipid Regulation of Sodium Channels.

    PubMed

    D'Avanzo, N

    2016-01-01

    The lipid landscapes of cellular membranes are complex and dynamic, are tissue dependent, and can change with the age and the development of a variety of diseases. Researchers are now gaining new appreciation for the regulation of ion channel proteins by the membrane lipids in which they are embedded. Thus, as membrane lipids change, for example, during the development of disease, it is likely that the ionic currents that conduct through the ion channels embedded in these membranes will also be altered. This chapter provides an overview of the complex regulation of prokaryotic and eukaryotic voltage-dependent sodium (Nav) channels by fatty acids, sterols, glycerophospholipids, sphingolipids, and cannabinoids. The impact of lipid regulation on channel gating kinetics, voltage-dependence, trafficking, toxin binding, and structure are explored for Nav channels that have been examined in heterologous expression systems, native tissue, and reconstituted into artificial membranes. Putative mechanisms for Nav regulation by lipids are also discussed. PMID:27586290

  19. Targeting potassium channels in cancer

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Potassium channels are pore-forming transmembrane proteins that regulate a multitude of biological processes by controlling potassium flow across cell membranes. Aberrant potassium channel functions contribute to diseases such as epilepsy, cardiac arrhythmia, and neuromuscular symptoms collectively known as channelopathies. Increasing evidence suggests that cancer constitutes another category of channelopathies associated with dysregulated channel expression. Indeed, potassium channel–modulating agents have demonstrated antitumor efficacy. Potassium channels regulate cancer cell behaviors such as proliferation and migration through both canonical ion permeation–dependent and noncanonical ion permeation–independent functions. Given their cell surface localization and well-known pharmacology, pharmacological strategies to target potassium channel could prove to be promising cancer therapeutics. PMID:25049269

  20. Requirements for signaling channel authentication

    SciTech Connect

    Tarman, T.D.

    1995-12-11

    This contribution addresses requirements for ATM signaling channel authentication. Signaling channel authentication is an ATM security service that binds an ATM signaling message to its source. By creating this binding, the message recipient, and even a third party, can confidently verify that the message originated from its claimed source. This provides a useful mechanism to mitigate a number of threats. For example, a denial of service attack which attempts to tear-down an active connection by surreptitiously injecting RELEASE or DROP PARTY messages could be easily thwarted when authenticity assurances are in place for the signaling channel. Signaling channel authentication could also be used to provide the required auditing information for accurate billing which is impervious to repudiation. Finally, depending on the signaling channel authentication mechanism, end-to-end integrity of the message (or at least part of it) can be provided. None of these capabilities exist in the current specifications.

  1. Ion channels in the central regulation of energy and glucose homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Sohn, Jong-Woo

    2013-01-01

    Ion channels are critical regulators of neuronal excitability and synaptic function in the brain. Recent evidence suggests that ion channels expressed by neurons within the brain are responsible for regulating energy and glucose homeostasis. In addition, the central effects of neurotransmitters and hormones are at least in part achieved by modifications of ion channel activity. This review focuses on ion channels and their neuronal functions followed by a discussion of the identified roles for specific ion channels in the central pathways regulating food intake, energy expenditure, and glucose balance. PMID:23734095

  2. An Efficient, Highly Flexible Multi-Channel Digital Downconverter Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodhart, Charles E.; Soriano, Melissa A.; Navarro, Robert; Trinh, Joseph T.; Sigman, Elliott H.

    2013-01-01

    In this innovation, a digital downconverter has been created that produces a large (16 or greater) number of output channels of smaller bandwidths. Additionally, this design has the flexibility to tune each channel independently to anywhere in the input bandwidth to cover a wide range of output bandwidths (from 32 MHz down to 1 kHz). Both the flexibility in channel frequency selection and the more than four orders of magnitude range in output bandwidths (decimation rates from 32 to 640,000) presented significant challenges to be solved. The solution involved breaking the digital downconversion process into a two-stage process. The first stage is a 2 oversampled filter bank that divides the whole input bandwidth as a real input signal into seven overlapping, contiguous channels represented with complex samples. Using the symmetry of the sine and cosine functions in a similar way to that of an FFT (fast Fourier transform), this downconversion is very efficient and gives seven channels fixed in frequency. An arbitrary number of smaller bandwidth channels can be formed from second-stage downconverters placed after the first stage of downconversion. Because of the overlapping of the first stage, there is no gap in coverage of the entire input bandwidth. The input to any of the second-stage downconverting channels has a multiplexer that chooses one of the seven wideband channels from the first stage. These second-stage downconverters take up fewer resources because they operate at lower bandwidths than doing the entire downconversion process from the input bandwidth for each independent channel. These second-stage downconverters are each independent with fine frequency control tuning, providing extreme flexibility in positioning the center frequency of a downconverted channel. Finally, these second-stage downconverters have flexible decimation factors over four orders of magnitude The algorithm was developed to run in an FPGA (field programmable gate array) at input data

  3. Voltage-gated Proton Channels

    PubMed Central

    DeCoursey, Thomas E.

    2014-01-01

    Voltage-gated proton channels, HV1, have vaulted from the realm of the esoteric into the forefront of a central question facing ion channel biophysicists, namely the mechanism by which voltage-dependent gating occurs. This transformation is the result of several factors. Identification of the gene in 2006 revealed that proton channels are homologues of the voltage-sensing domain of most other voltage-gated ion channels. Unique, or at least eccentric, properties of proton channels include dimeric architecture with dual conduction pathways, perfect proton selectivity, a single-channel conductance ~103 smaller than most ion channels, voltage-dependent gating that is strongly modulated by the pH gradient, ΔpH, and potent inhibition by Zn2+ (in many species) but an absence of other potent inhibitors. The recent identification of HV1 in three unicellular marine plankton species has dramatically expanded the phylogenetic family tree. Interest in proton channels in their own right has increased as important physiological roles have been identified in many cells. Proton channels trigger the bioluminescent flash of dinoflagellates, facilitate calcification by coccolithophores, regulate pH-dependent processes in eggs and sperm during fertilization, secrete acid to control the pH of airway fluids, facilitate histamine secretion by basophils, and play a signaling role in facilitating B-cell receptor mediated responses in B lymphocytes. The most elaborate and best-established functions occur in phagocytes, where proton channels optimize the activity of NADPH oxidase, an important producer of reactive oxygen species. Proton efflux mediated by HV1 balances the charge translocated across the membrane by electrons through NADPH oxidase, minimizes changes in cytoplasmic and phagosomal pH, limits osmotic swelling of the phagosome, and provides substrate H+ for the production of H2O2 and HOCl, reactive oxygen species crucial to killing pathogens. PMID:23798303

  4. Voltage-gated proton channels.

    PubMed

    Decoursey, Thomas E

    2012-04-01

    Voltage-gated proton channels, HV1, have vaulted from the realm of the esoteric into the forefront of a central question facing ion channel biophysicists, namely, the mechanism by which voltage-dependent gating occurs. This transformation is the result of several factors. Identification of the gene in 2006 revealed that proton channels are homologues of the voltage-sensing domain of most other voltage-gated ion channels. Unique, or at least eccentric, properties of proton channels include dimeric architecture with dual conduction pathways, perfect proton selectivity, a single-channel conductance approximately 10(3) times smaller than most ion channels, voltage-dependent gating that is strongly modulated by the pH gradient, ΔpH, and potent inhibition by Zn(2+) (in many species) but an absence of other potent inhibitors. The recent identification of HV1 in three unicellular marine plankton species has dramatically expanded the phylogenetic family tree. Interest in proton channels in their own right has increased as important physiological roles have been identified in many cells. Proton channels trigger the bioluminescent flash of dinoflagellates, facilitate calcification by coccolithophores, regulate pH-dependent processes in eggs and sperm during fertilization, secrete acid to control the pH of airway fluids, facilitate histamine secretion by basophils, and play a signaling role in facilitating B-cell receptor mediated responses in B-lymphocytes. The most elaborate and best-established functions occur in phagocytes, where proton channels optimize the activity of NADPH oxidase, an important producer of reactive oxygen species. Proton efflux mediated by HV1 balances the charge translocated across the membrane by electrons through NADPH oxidase, minimizes changes in cytoplasmic and phagosomal pH, limits osmotic swelling of the phagosome, and provides substrate H(+) for the production of H2O2 and HOCl, reactive oxygen species crucial to killing pathogens.

  5. Thoughts About Health Policy Content in Baccalaureate Nursing Programs.

    PubMed

    Waddell, Ashley; Adams, Jeffrey M; Fawcett, Jacqueline

    2016-10-01

    We describe a framework used to analyze health policy content in baccalaureate nursing program courses that combines the conceptual model for nursing and health policy and the Adams influence model to account for knowledge and skills needed for health policy work. Our analysis of health policy content in courses in one baccalaureate nursing program focused on what policies were emphasized and how educational content supported the development of personal influence. The analysis revealed course content focused on public sources of health policies and lack of overt course content about policies from organizational and professional sources. Additionally, we identified little course content about the development of personal influence skills except for communication and message articulation components. As the nursing profession continues to build influence in the policy arena, educators must continue to prepare future nurses for such work. PMID:27641285

  6. Methods of channeling simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Barrett, J.H.

    1989-06-01

    Many computer simulation programs have been used to interpret experiments almost since the first channeling measurements were made. Certain aspects of these programs are important in how accurately they simulate ions in crystals; among these are the manner in which the structure of the crystal is incorporated, how any quantity of interest is computed, what ion-atom potential is used, how deflections are computed from the potential, incorporation of thermal vibrations of the lattice atoms, correlations of thermal vibrations, and form of stopping power. Other aspects of the programs are included to improve the speed; among these are table lookup, importance sampling, and the multiparameter method. It is desirable for programs to facilitate incorporation of special features of interest in special situations; examples are relaxations and enhanced vibrations of surface atoms, easy substitution of an alternate potential for comparison, change of row directions from layer to layer in strained-layer lattices, and different vibration amplitudes for substitutional solute or impurity atoms. Ways of implementing all of these aspects and features and the consequences of them will be discussed. 30 refs., 3 figs.

  7. Policy Driven, Policy Relevant: Why the American Meteorological Society Established the Summer Policy Colloquium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hooke, W. H.

    2002-05-01

    The AMS Summer Policy Colloquium is an annual event. Established last year, with some initial help from the University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR), the Colloquium brings a maximum of 50 participants to Washington, DC for a ten-day immersion in policy studies in early June. Most participants are mid-level federal and corporate research managers or junior faculty and are sponsored by their host institutions on the basis of their scientific ability and leadership potential. In addition, the AMS runs a competitive nationwide search to identify and fund (perhaps 10-15) graduate students of exceptional promise. Participants receive extensive study materials prior to their arrival. They visit Capitol Hill and executive branch offices, and work though case studies and group exercises. They encounter and engage in dialog a number of speakers, including federal policy officials, Congressional staffers, media experts, and policy researchers. Subsequently, Colloquium alumni are provided with opportunities for continued, multi-year, collaboration as a group. This talk reviews the motivations and purposes for this investment.

  8. M channel enhancers and physiological M channel block.

    PubMed

    Linley, John E; Pettinger, Louisa; Huang, Dongyang; Gamper, Nikita

    2012-02-15

    M-type (Kv7, KCNQ) K(+) channels control the resting membrane potential of many neurons, including peripheral nociceptive sensory neurons. Several M channel enhancers were suggested as prospective analgesics, and targeting M channels specifically in peripheral nociceptors is a plausible strategy for peripheral analgesia. However, receptor-induced inhibition of M channels in nociceptors is often observed in inflammation and may contribute to inflammatory pain. Such inhibition is predominantly mediated by phospholipase C. We investigated four M channel enhancers (retigabine, flupirtine, zinc pyrithione and H(2)O(2)) for their ability to overcome M channel inhibition via two phospholipase C-mediated mechanisms, namely depletion of membrane phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP(2)) and a rise in intracellular Ca(2+) (an action mediated by calmodulin). Data from overexpressed Kv7.2/Kv7.3 heteromers and native M currents in dorsal root ganglion neurons suggest the following conclusions. (i) All enhancers had a dual effect on M channel activity, a negative shift in voltage dependence and an increase of the maximal current at saturating voltages. The enhancers differed in their efficacy to produce these effects. (ii) Both PIP(2) depletion and Ca(2+)/calmodulin strongly reduced the M current amplitude; however, at voltages near the threshold for M channel activation (-60 mV) all enhancers were able to restore M channel activity to a control level or above, while at saturating voltages the effects were more variable. (iii) Receptor-mediated inhibition of M current in nociceptive dorsal root ganglion neurons did not reduce the efficacy of retigabine or flupirtine to hyperpolarize the resting membrane potential. In conclusion, we show that all four M channel enhancers tested could overcome both PIP(2) and Ca(2+)-calmodulin-induced inhibition of Kv7.2/7.3 at voltages close to the threshold for action potential firing (-60 mV) but generally had reduced efficacy at a

  9. Single-Channel Recording of Ligand-Gated Ion Channels.

    PubMed

    Plested, Andrew J R

    2016-01-01

    Single-channel recordings reveal the microscopic properties of individual ligand-gated ion channels. Such recordings contain much more information than measurements of ensemble behavior and can yield structural and functional information about the receptors that participate in fast synaptic transmission in the brain. With a little care, a standard patch-clamp electrophysiology setup can be adapted for single-channel recording in a matter of hours. Thenceforth, it is a realistic aim to record single-molecule activity with microsecond resolution from arbitrary cell types, including cell lines and neurons. PMID:27480725

  10. Additional Resources on Asian Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kodama, Corinne Maekawa; Lee, Sunny; Liang, Christopher T. H.; Alvarez, Alvin N.; McEwen, Marylu K.

    2002-01-01

    The authors identify Asian American associations and organizations, academic journals, periodicals, and media resources. Selected annotated resources on Asian American activism and politics, counseling and psychology, educational issues, gender and sexual orientation, history, policy reports, and racial and ethnic identity are also included.…

  11. Positioning women's and children's health in African union policy-making: a policy analysis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    impact. AU policies related to reproductive, maternal, newborn and child health also use fewer policy frames than do AU policies related to HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria. Conclusion We suggest that more effective prioritization of women's and children's health in African Union policies would be supported by widening the range of policy frames used (notably health and economic) and strengthening the evidence base of all policy frames used. In addition, we suggest it would be beneficial if the partner groups advocating for women's and children's health were multi-stakeholder, and included, for instance, health care professionals, regional institutions, parliamentarians, the media, academia, NGOs, development partners and the public and private sectors. PMID:22340362

  12. Noise analysis of antibiotic permeation through bacterial channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nestorovich, Ekaterina M.; Danelon, Christophe; Winterhalter, Mathias; Bezrukov, Sergey M.

    2003-05-01

    Statistical analysis of high-resolution current recordings from a single ion channel reconstituted into a planar lipid membrane allows us to study transport of antibiotics at the molecular detail. Working with the general bacterial porin, OmpF, we demonstrate that addition of zwitterionic β-lactam antibiotics to the membrane-bathing solution introduces transient interruptions in the small-ion current through the channel. Time-resolved measurements reveal that one antibiotic molecule blocks one of the monomers in the OmpF trimer for characteristic times from microseconds to hundreds of microseconds. Spectral noise analysis enables us to perform measurements over a wide range of changing parameters. In all cases studied, the residence time of an antibiotic molecule in the channel exceeds the estimated time for free diffusion by orders of magnitude. This demonstrates that, in analogy to substrate-specific channels that evolved to bind specific metabolite molecules, antibiotics have 'evolved' to be channel-specific. The charge distribution of an efficient antibiotic complements the charge distribution at the narrowest part of the bacterial porin. Interaction of these charges creates a zone of attraction inside the channel and compensates the penetrating molecule's entropy loss and desolvation energy. This facilitates antibiotic translocation through the narrowest part of the channel and accounts for higher antibiotic permeability rates.

  13. Rapid Fabrication Techniques for Liquid Rocket Channel Wall Nozzles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gradl, Paul R.

    2016-01-01

    The functions of a regeneratively-cooled nozzle are to (1) expand combustion gases to increase exhaust gas velocity while, (2) maintaining adequate wall temperatures to prevent structural failure, and (3) transfer heat from the hot gases to the coolant fluid to promote injector performance and stability. Regeneratively-cooled nozzles are grouped into two categories: tube-wall nozzles and channel wall nozzles. A channel wall nozzle is designed with an internal liner containing a series of integral coolant channels that are closed out with an external jacket. Manifolds are attached at each end of the nozzle to distribute coolant to and away from the channels. A variety of manufacturing techniques have been explored for channel wall nozzles, including state of the art laser-welded closeouts and pressure-assisted braze closeouts. This paper discusses techniques that NASA MSFC is evaluating for rapid fabrication of channel wall nozzles that address liner fabrication, slotting techniques and liner closeout techniques. Techniques being evaluated for liner fabrication include large-scale additive manufacturing of freeform-deposition structures to create the liner blanks. Abrasive water jet milling is being evaluated for cutting the complex coolant channel geometries. Techniques being considered for rapid closeout of the slotted liners include freeform deposition, explosive bonding and Cold Spray. Each of these techniques, development work and results are discussed in further detail in this paper.

  14. Biomimetic Micropatterned Multi-channel Nerve Guides by Templated Electrospinning

    PubMed Central

    Jeffries, Eric; Wang, Yadong

    2012-01-01

    This report describes a new approach for fabricating micro-channels within three-dimensional electrospun constructs. These key features serve to mimic the fascicular architecture and fibrous extracellular matrix found in native nerve. Both electrospun fibers and multi-channeled structure nerve guides have become areas of increasing interest for their beneficial roles in nerve repair. However, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a guide that incorporates both. Multiple parallel channels provide a greater number of defined paths and increased surface area compared to cylindrical guides. Additionally, the fibrous nature of electrospun fibers permits better mass transport than solid-walled constructs. The flexible fabrication scheme allows tailoring of nerve guide parameters such as channel diameters ranging from 33-176μm and various wall thicknesses. Channel and fiber structures were assessed by optical and electron microscope images. Geometric calculations estimated a porosity of over 85% for these guides with 16% or less from the channels. In vitro culture with Schwann cells demonstrated cellular infiltration into channels with restricted migration between fibers. Finally, cell proliferation and survival throughout the guide indicates that this design warrants future in vivo examination. PMID:22179932

  15. A MHD channel study for the ETF conceptual design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, S. Y.; Staiger, P. J.; Smith, J. M.

    1981-01-01

    The procedures and computations used to identify an MHD channel for a 540 mW(I) EFT-scale plant are presented. Under the assumed constraints of maximum E(x), E(y), J(y) and Beta; results show the best plant performance is obtained for active length, L is approximately 12 M, whereas in the initial ETF studies, L is approximately 16 M. As MHD channel length is reduced from 16 M, the channel enthalpy extraction falls off, slowly. This tends to reduce the MHD power output; however, the shorter channels result in lower heat losses to the MHD channel cooling water which allows for the incorporation of more low pressure boiler feedwater heaters into the system and an increase in steam plant efficiency. The net result of these changes is a net increase in the over all MHD/steam plant efficiency. In addition to the sensitivity of various channel parameters, the trade-offs between the level of oxygen enrichment and the electrical stress on the channel are also discussed.

  16. Cationic polymers inhibit the conductance of lysenin channels.

    PubMed

    Fologea, Daniel; Krueger, Eric; Rossland, Steve; Bryant, Sheenah; Foss, Wylie; Clark, Tyler

    2013-01-01

    The pore-forming toxin lysenin self-assembles large and stable conductance channels in natural and artificial lipid membranes. The lysenin channels exhibit unique regulation capabilities, which open unexplored possibilities to control the transport of ions and molecules through artificial and natural lipid membranes. Our investigations demonstrate that the positively charged polymers polyethyleneimine and chitosan inhibit the conducting properties of lysenin channels inserted into planar lipid membranes. The preservation of the inhibitory effect following addition of charged polymers on either side of the supporting membrane suggests the presence of multiple binding sites within the channel's structure and a multistep inhibition mechanism that involves binding and trapping. Complete blockage of the binding sites with divalent cations prevents further inhibition in conductance induced by the addition of cationic polymers and supports the hypothesis that the binding sites are identical for both multivalent metal cations and charged polymers. The investigation at the single-channel level has shown distinct complete blockages of each of the inserted channels. These findings reveal key structural characteristics which may provide insight into lysenin's functionality while opening innovative approaches for the development of applications such as transient cell permeabilization and advanced drug delivery systems. PMID:24191139

  17. Information geometry of Gaussian channels

    SciTech Connect

    Monras, Alex; Illuminati, Fabrizio

    2010-06-15

    We define a local Riemannian metric tensor in the manifold of Gaussian channels and the distance that it induces. We adopt an information-geometric approach and define a metric derived from the Bures-Fisher metric for quantum states. The resulting metric inherits several desirable properties from the Bures-Fisher metric and is operationally motivated by distinguishability considerations: It serves as an upper bound to the attainable quantum Fisher information for the channel parameters using Gaussian states, under generic constraints on the physically available resources. Our approach naturally includes the use of entangled Gaussian probe states. We prove that the metric enjoys some desirable properties like stability and covariance. As a by-product, we also obtain some general results in Gaussian channel estimation that are the continuous-variable analogs of previously known results in finite dimensions. We prove that optimal probe states are always pure and bounded in the number of ancillary modes, even in the presence of constraints on the reduced state input in the channel. This has experimental and computational implications. It limits the complexity of optimal experimental setups for channel estimation and reduces the computational requirements for the evaluation of the metric: Indeed, we construct a converging algorithm for its computation. We provide explicit formulas for computing the multiparametric quantum Fisher information for dissipative channels probed with arbitrary Gaussian states and provide the optimal observables for the estimation of the channel parameters (e.g., bath couplings, squeezing, and temperature).

  18. Ion Channels in Brain Metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Klumpp, Lukas; Sezgin, Efe C.; Eckert, Franziska; Huber, Stephan M.

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer, lung cancer and melanoma exhibit a high metastatic tropism to the brain. Development of brain metastases severely worsens the prognosis of cancer patients and constrains curative treatment options. Metastasizing to the brain by cancer cells can be dissected in consecutive processes including epithelial–mesenchymal transition, evasion from the primary tumor, intravasation and circulation in the blood, extravasation across the blood–brain barrier, formation of metastatic niches, and colonization in the brain. Ion channels have been demonstrated to be aberrantly expressed in tumor cells where they regulate neoplastic transformation, malignant progression or therapy resistance. Moreover, many ion channel modulators are FDA-approved drugs and in clinical use proposing ion channels as druggable targets for future anti-cancer therapy. The present review article aims to summarize the current knowledge on the function of ion channels in the different processes of brain metastasis. The data suggest that certain channel types involving voltage-gated sodium channels, ATP-release channels, ionotropic neurotransmitter receptors and gap junction-generating connexins interfere with distinct processes of brain metastazation. PMID:27618016

  19. ATP release through pannexon channels.

    PubMed

    Dahl, Gerhard

    2015-07-01

    Extracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) serves as a signal for diverse physiological functions, including spread of calcium waves between astrocytes, control of vascular oxygen supply and control of ciliary beat in the airways. ATP can be released from cells by various mechanisms. This review focuses on channel-mediated ATP release and its main enabler, Pannexin1 (Panx1). Six subunits of Panx1 form a plasma membrane channel termed 'pannexon'. Depending on the mode of stimulation, the pannexon has large conductance (500 pS) and unselective permeability to molecules less than 1.5 kD or is a small (50 pS), chloride-selective channel. Most physiological and pathological stimuli induce the large channel conformation, whereas the small conformation so far has only been observed with exclusive voltage activation of the channel. The interaction between pannexons and ATP is intimate. The pannexon is not only the conduit for ATP, permitting ATP efflux from cells down its concentration gradient, but the pannexon is also modulated by ATP. The channel can be activated by ATP through both ionotropic P2X as well as metabotropic P2Y purinergic receptors. In the absence of a control mechanism, this positive feedback loop would lead to cell death owing to the linkage of purinergic receptors with apoptotic processes. A control mechanism preventing excessive activation of the purinergic receptors is provided by ATP binding (with low affinity) to the Panx1 protein and gating the channel shut. PMID:26009770

  20. Ion Channels in Brain Metastasis.

    PubMed

    Klumpp, Lukas; Sezgin, Efe C; Eckert, Franziska; Huber, Stephan M

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer, lung cancer and melanoma exhibit a high metastatic tropism to the brain. Development of brain metastases severely worsens the prognosis of cancer patients and constrains curative treatment options. Metastasizing to the brain by cancer cells can be dissected in consecutive processes including epithelial-mesenchymal transition, evasion from the primary tumor, intravasation and circulation in the blood, extravasation across the blood-brain barrier, formation of metastatic niches, and colonization in the brain. Ion channels have been demonstrated to be aberrantly expressed in tumor cells where they regulate neoplastic transformation, malignant progression or therapy resistance. Moreover, many ion channel modulators are FDA-approved drugs and in clinical use proposing ion channels as druggable targets for future anti-cancer therapy. The present review article aims to summarize the current knowledge on the function of ion channels in the different processes of brain metastasis. The data suggest that certain channel types involving voltage-gated sodium channels, ATP-release channels, ionotropic neurotransmitter receptors and gap junction-generating connexins interfere with distinct processes of brain metastazation. PMID:27618016

  1. Microbial Senses and Ion Channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kung, Ching; Zhou, Xin-Liang; Su, Zhen-Wei; Haynes, W. John; Loukin, Sephan H.; Saimi, Yoshiro

    The complexity of animals and plants is due largely to cellular arrangement. The structures and activities of macromolecules had, however, evolved in early microbes long before the appearance of this complexity. Among such molecules are those that sense light, heat, force, water, and ligands. Though historically and didactically associated with the nervous system, ion channels also have deep evolutionary roots. For example, force sensing with channels, which likely began as water sensing through membrane stretch generated by osmotic pressure, must be ancient and is universal in extant species. Extant microbial species, such as the model bacterium Escherichia coli and yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, are equipped with stretch-activated channels. The ion channel proteins MscL and MscS show clearly that these bacterial channels receive stretch forces from the lipid bilayer. TRPY1, the mechanosensitive channel in yeast, is being developed towards a similar basic understanding of channels of the TRP (transientreceptor- potential) superfamily. TRPY1 resides in the vacuolar membrane and releases Ca2+ from the vacuole to the cytoplasm upon hyperosmotic shock. Unlike in most TRP preparations from animals, the mechanosensitivity of TRPY1 can be examined directly under patch clamp in either whole-vacuole mode or excised patch mode. The combination of direct biophysical examination in vitro with powerful microbial genetics in vivo should complement the study of mechanosensations of complex animals and plants.

  2. Substrate channeling in proline metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Arentson, Benjamin W.; Sanyal, Nikhilesh; Becker, Donald F.

    2012-01-01

    Proline metabolism is an important pathway that has relevance in several cellular functions such as redox balance, apoptosis, and cell survival. Results from different groups have indicated that substrate channeling of proline metabolic intermediates may be a critical mechanism. One intermediate is pyrroline-5-carboxylate (P5C), which upon hydrolysis opens to glutamic semialdehyde (GSA). Recent structural and kinetic evidence indicate substrate channeling of P5C/GSA occurs in the proline catabolic pathway between the proline dehydrogenase and P5C dehydrogenase active sites of bifunctional proline utilization A (PutA). Substrate channeling in PutA is proposed to facilitate the hydrolysis of P5C to GSA which is unfavorable at physiological pH. The second intermediate, gamma-glutamyl phosphate, is part of the proline biosynthetic pathway and is extremely labile. Substrate channeling of gamma-glutamyl phosphate is thought to be necessary to protect it from bulk solvent. Because of the unfavorable equilibrium of P5C/GSA and the reactivity of gamma-glutamyl phosphate, substrate channeling likely improves the efficiency of proline metabolism. Here, we outline general strategies for testing substrate channeling and review the evidence for channeling in proline metabolism. PMID:22201749

  3. Policies for regulation of direct broadcast satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Setzer, F. O.; Franca, B. A.; Cornell, N. W.

    1980-09-01

    The potential market for satellite to home television broadcasting was examined and recommendations were made to the FCC concerning appropriate regulatory policies for direct broadcast satellites (DBS) for the period following the 1983 Regional Administrative Radio Conference (RARC). It is concluded that many substitutes for DBS will be available in the market for subscription video programming. Either conventional broadcast regulation, which assumes scarcity of channels, nor common carrier regulation, which assumes monopoly power will be appropriate. The report recommends several functions the Commission should perform because of its spectrum allocation responsibilities, but recommends that the Commission make no rules concerning compatibility, signal quality, ownership of receiving equipment, program content, prices, service offerings, or control of channels.

  4. Involvement of potassium channels in the progression of cancer to a more malignant phenotype.

    PubMed

    Comes, Nuria; Serrano-Albarrás, Antonio; Capera, Jesusa; Serrano-Novillo, Clara; Condom, Enric; Ramón Y Cajal, Santiago; Ferreres, Joan Carles; Felipe, Antonio

    2015-10-01

    Potassium channels are a diverse group of pore-forming transmembrane proteins that selectively facilitate potassium flow through an electrochemical gradient. They participate in the control of the membrane potential and cell excitability in addition to different cell functions such as cell volume regulation, proliferation, cell migration, angiogenesis as well as apoptosis. Because these physiological processes are essential for the correct cell function, K+ channels have been associated with a growing number of diseases including cancer. In fact, different K+ channel families such as the voltage-gated K+ channels, the ether à-go-go K+ channels, the two pore domain K+ channels and the Ca2+-activated K+ channels have been associated to tumor biology. Potassium channels have a role in neoplastic cell-cycle progression and their expression has been found abnormal in many types of tumors and cancer cells. In addition, the expression and activity of specific K+ channels have shown a significant correlation with the tumor malignancy grade. The aim of this overview is to summarize published data on K+ channels that exhibit oncogenic properties and have been linked to a more malignant cancer phenotype. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Membrane channels and transporters in cancers.

  5. Diversity of Potassium Channels in Human Umbilical Artery Smooth Muscle Cells

    PubMed Central

    Martín, Pedro; Rebolledo, Alejandro; Palomo, Ana Rocio Roldán; Moncada, Melisa; Piccinini, Luciano

    2014-01-01

    Through their control of cell membrane potential, potassium (K+) channels are among the best known regulators of vascular tone. This article discusses the expression and function of K+ channels in human umbilical artery smooth muscle cells (HUASMCs). We review the bibliographic reports and also present single-channel data recorded in freshly isolated cells. Electrophysiological properties of big conductance, voltage- and Ca2+-sensitive K+ channel and voltage-dependent K+ channels are clearly established in this vessel, where they are involved in contractile state regulation. Their role in the maintenance of membrane potential is an important control mechanism in the determination of the vessel diameter. Additionally, small conductance Ca2+-sensitive K+ channels, 2-pore domains K+ channels and inward rectifier K+ channels also appear to be present in HUASMCs, while intermediate conductance Ca2+-sensitive K+ channels and ATP-sensitive K+ channels could not be identified. In both cases, additional investigation is necessary to reach conclusive evidence of their expression and/or functional role in HUASMCs. Finally, we discuss the role of K+ channels in pregnancy-related pathologies like gestational diabetes and preeclampsia. PMID:24084522

  6. Spatial and temporal variability in sedimentation rates associated with cutoff channel infill deposits: Ain River, France

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Piegay, H.; Hupp, C.R.; Citterio, A.; Dufour, S.; Moulin, B.; Walling, D.E.

    2008-01-01

    Floodplain development is associated with lateral accretion along stable channel geometry. Along shifting rivers, the floodplain sedimentation is more complex because of changes in channel position but also cutoff channel presence, which exhibit specific overflow patterns. In this contribution, the spatial and temporal variability of sedimentation rates in cutoff channel infill deposits is related to channel changes of a shifting gravel bed river (Ain River, France). The sedimentation rates estimated from dendrogeomorphic analysis are compared between and within 14 cutoff channel infills. Detailed analyses along a single channel infill are performed to assess changes in the sedimentation rates through time by analyzing activity profiles of the fallout radionuclides 137Cs and unsupported 210Pb. Sedimentation rates are also compared within the channel infills with rates in other plots located in the adjacent floodplain. Sedimentation rates range between 0.65 and 2.4 cm a -1 over a period of 10 to 40 years. The data provide additional information on the role of distance from the bank, overbank flow frequency, and channel geometry in controlling the sedimentation rate. Channel infills, lower than adjacent floodplains, exhibit higher sedimentation rates and convey overbank sediment farther away within the floodplain. Additionally, channel degradation, aggradation, and bank erosion, which reduce or increase the distance between the main channel and the cutoff channel aquatic zone, affect local overbank flow magnitude and frequency and therefore sedimentation rates, thereby creating a complex mosaic of sedimentation zones within the floodplain and along the cutoff channel infills. Last, the dendrogeomorphic and 137Cs approaches are cross validated for estimating the sedimentation rate within a channel infill. Copyright 2008 by the American Geophysical Union.

  7. Detection of New Dissociative Electron Attachment Channels in NO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orient, O. J.; Chutjian, A.

    1995-01-01

    Three dissociative electron attachment channels have been detected and identified in NO via measurement of the O minus (exp 2)P fragment energy. In addition to the known N((exp 2 D(exp 0)) + O minus (exp 2)P channel, two new channels N((exp 1 S(exp 0)) + 0 (2 P) and N(exp 2)P(exp 0) + O(exp 2)P were detected. Cross sections for each of the channels are reported by normalizing the scattering intensities to previously measured total cross sections. The experimental approach uses solenoidal magnetic confinement of the electrons and ions, and trochoidal energy analysis of the low-energy ions.

  8. Kinetics of Gravity-Driven Water Channels under Steady Rain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dreyfus, Remi; Cejas, Cesare; Barrois, Remi; Wei, Yuli; Fretigny, Christian; Durian, Douglas

    2015-03-01

    We investigate the physical mechanisms that govern the formation of water channels that develop from finger instabilities at the wetting front. Using controlled experiments in a quasi-2D cell and varying physical parameters (particle size, fluid viscosity, etc.), we simulate rainfall and characterize the homogeneous wetting front as well as channel size and estimate relevant time scales associated with the instability as well as channel velocity. We validate the results by developing a model based on linear-stability analysis with the addition of another term describing the homogenization of the wetting front. This shows that the way we introduce a fluid into a granular medium affects the formation of water channels. Results permit us to calculate the ideal flow rate for maximizing water distribution and minimizing runoffs using granular and fluid properties.

  9. General Enforcement Policy Compendium

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-12-16

    The attached documents contained in the report, are an update of the General Enforcement Policy Compendium. The update consists of policies which have been added, revised or deleted since the issuance of the June 11, 1987, update. Some of the policies are: Issuance of Enforcement Considerations for Drafting and Reviewing Regulations and Guidelines for Developing New or Revised Compliance and Enforcement Strategies, Procedures and Responsibilities for Updating and Maintaining the Enforcement Docket, Final Guidance on Use of Alternative Dispute Resolution Techniques in Enforcement Action, Processing of Consent Decrees, Procedures for Assessing Stipulated Penalties, Case Management Plans, and Guidance on Certification of Compliance with Enforcement Agreements. There are also modifications to existing policies.

  10. Federalism and health policy.

    PubMed

    Nathan, Richard P

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a cyclical theory of U.S. federalism and social policy: Many social policy initiatives are tested and refined at the state level, especially during conservative periods, and later morph into national policies. The paper describes such federalism cycles and offers an interpretation of why and how they occur, focusing on Medicaid. State activism has preserved and expanded Medicaid through policy innovation and resistance to retrenchment, especially in conservative periods, by taking advantage of the flexibility the program provides. I conclude that Medicaid's incremental/partnership approach is appropriate and feasible to build on for a future expansion of health care coverage.

  11. How Policy Improves Health.

    PubMed

    Fairfax, Colita Nichols; Feit, Marvin D

    2015-01-01

    A discussion of health equity should be intricately examined in policy and practice discourse about the healthcare industry. This article addresses health equity with strategies to institutionalize it through policy implementation. This discourse is relevant to social work because social workers are charged with elucidating conditions that are maniacal and disadvantageous to racial groups, undocumented workers, immigrants and women. Social workers engaged in policy practice should consider how these stakeholders are excluded from health equity, because of the lack of transformative policy implementation that addresses industry practices that encourage disparity and maintain equity. This article hopes to provide a helpful view of health equity.

  12. NASA scientific integrity policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    On 16 December, NASA became the latest U.S. federal agency to issue a scientific integrity policy. It was issued less than 10 days after the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) issued its policy on the same topic (see "NOAA issues scientific integrity policy," Eos Trans. AGU, 92(50), 467, doi:10.1029/2011EO500004, 2011). The agency policies respond to earlier White House memos on the topic issued in 2009 and 2010. NASA is the fifth federal department or agency that has finalized a scientific integrity policy; the Department of the Interior and the National Science Foundation also have finalized their policies. As Eos went to press, 13 other policies were in near-final draft form, including those from the departments of Agriculture and Energy; the Environmental Protection Agency and the Department of Labor had indicated that they expected to submit their policies to the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP) soon, OSTP director John Holdren wrote in a 21 December note on the office's Web site.

  13. Channel Flow of Wormlike Micellar Solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cromer, Michael; Cook, Pam; McKinley, Gareth

    2009-11-01

    We examine the inhomogeneous response of the VCM model (Vasquez, Cook, McKinley 2006) in steady pressure-driven channel flow. The VCM model, a microstructural network model, was developed to describe concentrated solutions of wormlike micelles. The model comprises of a set of coupled partial differential equations, which incorporate breakage and reforming of two micellar species (a long species `A' and a shorter species `B') in addition to reptative and Rousian stress-relaxation mechanisms. We examine pressure-driven flow in microfluidic devices with rectangular cross-sections as well as with hyperbolic converging/diverging walls. The velocity profile predicted by the VCM model in Poiseuille flow deviates from the parabolic profile expected for a constant viscosity fluid and exhibits strong shear bands near channel walls. This shear-banding is analogous to that seen in circular Taylor-Couette flow and in good qualitative agreement with experimental observations in microfluidic channels. The hyperbolic planar contraction is of special interest due to the dominant contribution of extensional flow along the centerline and the proposed use of such flows as microfluidic extensional rheometers. The model predictions are compared with birefringence measurements of the evolution in the local microstructural orientation of CTAB and CPyCl-based micellar solutions.

  14. Miniature open channel scrubbers for gas collection.

    PubMed

    Toda, Kei; Koga, Tomoko; Tanaka, Toshinori; Ohira, Shin-Ichi; Berg, Jordan M; Dasgupta, Purnendu K

    2010-10-15

    An open channel scrubber is proposed as a miniature fieldable gas collector. The device is 100mm in length, 26 mm in width and 22 mm in thickness. The channel bottom is rendered hydrophilic and liquid flows as a thin layer on the bottom. Air sample flows atop the appropriately chosen flowing liquid film and analyte molecules are absorbed into the liquid. There is no membrane at the air-liquid interface: they contact directly each other. Analyte species collected over a 10 min interval are determined by fluorometric flow analysis or ion chromatography. A calculation algorithm was developed to estimate the collection efficiency a priori; experimental and simulated results agreed well. The characteristics of the open channel scrubber are discussed in this paper from both theoretical and experimental points of view. In addition to superior collection efficiencies at relatively high sample air flow rates, this geometry is particularly attractive that there is no change in collection performance due to membrane fouling. We demonstrate field use for analysis of ambient SO(2) near an active volcano. This is basic investigation of membraneless miniature scrubber and is expected to lead development of an excellent micro-gas analysis system integrated with a detector for continuous measurements.

  15. Miniature open channel scrubbers for gas collection.

    PubMed

    Toda, Kei; Koga, Tomoko; Tanaka, Toshinori; Ohira, Shin-Ichi; Berg, Jordan M; Dasgupta, Purnendu K

    2010-10-15

    An open channel scrubber is proposed as a miniature fieldable gas collector. The device is 100mm in length, 26 mm in width and 22 mm in thickness. The channel bottom is rendered hydrophilic and liquid flows as a thin layer on the bottom. Air sample flows atop the appropriately chosen flowing liquid film and analyte molecules are absorbed into the liquid. There is no membrane at the air-liquid interface: they contact directly each other. Analyte species collected over a 10 min interval are determined by fluorometric flow analysis or ion chromatography. A calculation algorithm was developed to estimate the collection efficiency a priori; experimental and simulated results agreed well. The characteristics of the open channel scrubber are discussed in this paper from both theoretical and experimental points of view. In addition to superior collection efficiencies at relatively high sample air flow rates, this geometry is particularly attractive that there is no change in collection performance due to membrane fouling. We demonstrate field use for analysis of ambient SO(2) near an active volcano. This is basic investigation of membraneless miniature scrubber and is expected to lead development of an excellent micro-gas analysis system integrated with a detector for continuous measurements. PMID:20875590

  16. Marine Toxins Targeting Ion Channels

    PubMed Central

    Arias, Hugo R.

    2006-01-01

    This introductory minireview points out the importance of ion channels for cell communication. The basic concepts on the structure and function of ion channels triggered by membrane voltage changes, the so-called voltage-gated ion channels (VGICs), as well as those activated by neurotransmitters, the so-called ligand-gated ion channel (LGICs), are introduced. Among the most important VGIC superfamiles, we can name the voltage-gated Na+ (NaV), Ca2+ (CaV), and K+ (KV) channels. Among the most important LGIC super families, we can include the Cys-loop or nicotinicoid, the glutamate-activated (GluR), and the ATP-activated (P2XnR) receptor superfamilies. Ion channels are transmembrane proteins that allow the passage of different ions in a specific or unspecific manner. For instance, the activation of NaV, CaV, or KV channels opens a pore that is specific for Na+, Ca2+, or K+, respectively. On the other hand, the activation of certain LGICs such as nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, GluRs, and P2XnRs allows the passage of cations (e.g., Na+, K+, and/or Ca2+), whereas the activation of other LGICs such as type A γ-butyric acid and glycine receptors allows the passage of anions (e.g., Cl− and/or HCO3−). In this regard, the activation of NaV and CaV as well as ligand-gated cation channels produce membrane depolarization, which finally leads to stimulatory effects in the cell, whereas the activation of KV as well as ligand-gated anion channels induce membrane hyperpolarization that finally leads to inhibitory effects in the cell. The importance of these ion channel superfamilies is emphasized by considering their physiological functions throughout the body as well as their pathophysiological implicance in several neuronal diseases. In this regard, natural molecules, and especially marine toxins, can be potentially used as modulators (e.g., inhibitors or prolongers) of ion channel functions to treat or to alleviate a specific ion channel-linked disease (e

  17. Reagan issues mineral policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The National Materials and Minerals Program plan and report that President Reagan sent to Congress on April 5 aims to ‘decrease America's minerals vulnerability’ while reducing future dependence on potentially unstable foreign sources of minerals. These goals would be accomplished by taking inventory of federal lands to determine mineral potential; by meeting the stockpile goals set by the Strategic and Critical Material Stockpiling Act; and by establishing a business and political climate that would encourage private-sector research and development on minerals.Now that the Administration has issued its plan, the Subcommittee on Mines and Mining of the House Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs will consider the National Minerals Security Act (NMSA), which was introduced 1 year ago by subcommittee chairman Jim Santini (D-Nev.) [Eos, May 19, 1981, p. 497]. The bill calls for establishing a three-member White-House-level council to coordinate the development of a national minerals policy; amending tax laws to assist the mining industry to make capital investments to locate and produce strategic materials; and creating a revolving fund for the sale and purchase of strategic minerals. In addition, the NMSA bill would allow the secretary of the interior to make previously withdrawn public lands available for mineral development. The subcommittee will hold a hearing on the Administration's plan on May 11. Interior Secretary James Watt has been invited to testify.

  18. Differences between Formal and Informal Communicative Channels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, J. David; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Compares formal and informal organizational communication structures within a large, technically oriented midwestern state governmental agency, specifically focusing on salience, channel factors, and channel usage. Suggests that informal channels in this organization were more highly evaluated in general. (SR)

  19. 33 CFR 117.966 - Galveston Channel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Texas § 117.966 Galveston Channel. Link to an... across Galveston Channel, mile 4.5 of the Galveston Channel, (GIWW mile 356.1) at Galveston, Texas,...

  20. A low power Multi-Channel Analyzer

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, G.A.; Brackenbush, L.W.

    1993-06-01

    The instrumentation used in nuclear spectroscopy is generally large, is not portable, and requires a lot of power. Key components of these counting systems are the computer and the Multi-Channel Analyzer (MCA). To assist in performing measurements requiring portable systems, a small, very low power MCA has been developed at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). This MCA is interfaced with a Hewlett Packard palm top computer for portable applications. The MCA can also be connected to an IBM/PC for data storage and analysis. In addition, a real-time time display mode allows the user to view the spectra as they are collected.

  1. Layered Wyner-Ziv video coding for transmission over unreliable channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Qian; Stankovic, Vladimir; Xiong, Zixiang

    2005-07-01

    Based on recent works on Wyner-Ziv coding (or lossy source coding with decoder side information), we consider the case with noisy channel and addresses distributed joint source-channel coding, while targeting at the impor- tant application of scalable video transmission over wireless networks. In Wyner-Ziv coding, after quantization, Slepian-Wolf coding (SWC) is used to reduce the rate. SWC is traditionally realized by sending syndromes of a linear channel code. Since syndromes of the channel code can only compress but cannot protect, for transmission over noisy channels, additional error protection is needed. However, instead of using one channel code for SWC and one for error protection, our idea is to use a single channel code to achieve both compression and protection. We replace the traditional syndrome-based SWC scheme by the parity-based one, where only parity bits of the Slepian-Wolf channel code are sent. If the amount of transmitted parity bits increases above the Slepian-Wolf limit, the added redundancy is exploited to cope against the noise in the transmission channel. Using IRA codes for practical parity-based SWC, we design a novel layered Wyner-Ziv video coder which is robust to channel failures and thus very suitable for wireless communications. Our simulation results show great advantages of the proposed solution based on joint source-channel coding compared to the traditional approach where source and channel coding are performed separately.

  2. Unique inner pore properties of BK channels revealed by quaternary ammonium block.

    PubMed

    Li, Weiyan; Aldrich, Richard W

    2004-07-01

    Potassium channels have a very wide distribution of single-channel conductance, with BK type Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channels having by far the largest. Even though crystallographic views of K(+) channel pores have become available, the structural basis underlying BK channels' large conductance has not been completely understood. In this study we use intracellularly applied quaternary ammonium compounds to probe the pore of BK channels. We show that molecules as large as decyltriethylammonium (C(10)) and tetrabutylammonium (TBA) have much faster block and unblock rates in BK channels when compared with any other tested K(+) channel types. Additionally, our results suggest that at repolarization large QA molecules may be trapped inside blocked BK channels without slowing the overall process of deactivation. Based on these findings we propose that BK channels may differ from other K(+) channels in its geometrical design at the inner mouth, with an enlarged cavity and inner pore providing less spatially restricted access to the cytoplasmic solution. These features could potentially contribute to the large conductance of BK channels. PMID:15197222

  3. Preventing side-channel effects in continuous-variable quantum key distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derkach, Ivan; Usenko, Vladyslav C.; Filip, Radim

    2016-03-01

    The role of the side channels in the continuous-variable quantum key distribution is studied. It is shown how the information leakage through a side channel from the trusted sender station increases the vulnerability of the protocols to the eavesdropping in the main quantum communication channel. Moreover, the untrusted noise infusion by an eavesdropper on the trusted receiving side breaks the security even for a purely attenuating main quantum channel. As a method to compensate for the effect of the side-channel leakage on the sender side, we suggest several types of manipulations on the side-channel input. It is shown that by applying the modulated coherent light on the input of the side channel that is optimally correlated to the modulation on the main signal and optionally introducing additional squeezing in the case of the squeezed-state protocol, the negative influence of the lossy side channel on the sender side can be completely removed. For the trusted receiving side, the method of optimal monitoring of the residual noise from the side-channel noise infusion is suggested and shown to be able to completely eliminate the presence of the noisy side channel. We therefore prove that the side-channel effects can be completely removed using feasible operations if the trusted parties access the respective parts of the side channels.

  4. Infinitely many kinds of quantum channels

    SciTech Connect

    Hastings, Matthew B

    2008-01-01

    We define the ability of a quantum channel to simulate another by means of suitable encoding and decoding operations. While classical channels have only two equivalence classes under simulation (channels with non-vanishing capacity and those with vanishing capacity), we show that there are an uncountable infinity of different equivalence classes of quantum channels using the example of the quantum erasure channel. Our results also imply a kind of 'Matthew principle' for error correction on certain channels.

  5. Parallel, open-channel lateral flow (immuno) assay substrate based on capillary-channeled polymer films.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lynn X; Jiang, Liuwei; Willett, Daniel R; Marcus, R Kenneth

    2016-02-01

    Presented here is a novel implementation of polypropylene capillary-channeled polymer (C-CP) films, functionalized for bioaffinity separations and implemented as a platform for lateral flow (immuno) assays. The parallel ∼80 μm × 80 μm channels pass test solutions down the 30 mm film length via spontaneous wicking action, setting up the possibility for immobilizing different capture agents in the respective channels. The base-film modification process is divided into two steps: ultraviolet light treatment to improve hydrophillicity of the polypropylene substrate and the physical adsorption of a functionalized lipid tethered ligand (LTL) as a selective capture agent. The entire modification procedure is performed under ambient conditions in an aqueous solution without extreme pH conditions. In this demonstration, physical adsorption of a biotinylated-LTL onto the UV-treated PP surface selectively captures Texas Red-labeled streptavidin (SAv-TR) in the presence of enhanced green fluorescence protein (EGFP), which passes without retention in less than 5 s. In addition to the fluorescence imaging of the protein solutes, matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization-mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) was used to confirm the formation of the LTL-SAv conjugates on the channel surface as well as to demonstrate an alternative means of probing the capture step. The present effort sets the groundwork for further development of C-CP films as a parallel, multi-analyte LFA platform; a format that to-date has not been described.

  6. Acid-sensing ion channels and transient-receptor potential ion channels in zebrafish taste buds.

    PubMed

    Levanti, M; Randazzo, B; Viña, E; Montalbano, G; Garcia-Suarez, O; Germanà, A; Vega, J A; Abbate, F

    2016-09-01

    Sensory information from the environment is required for life and survival, and it is detected by specialized cells which together make up the sensory system. The fish sensory system includes specialized organs that are able to detect mechanical and chemical stimuli. In particular, taste buds are small organs located on the tongue in terrestrial vertebrates that function in the perception of taste. In fish, taste buds occur on the lips, the flanks, and the caudal (tail) fins of some species and on the barbels of others. In fish taste receptor cells, different classes of ion channels have been detected which, like in mammals, presumably participate in the detection and/or transduction of chemical gustatory signals. However, since some of these ion channels are involved in the detection of additional sensory modalities, it can be hypothesized that taste cells sense stimuli other than those specific for taste. This mini-review summarizes current knowledge on the presence of transient-receptor potential (TRP) and acid-sensing (ASIC) ion channels in the taste buds of teleosts, especially adult zebrafish. Up to now ASIC4, TRPC2, TRPA1, TRPV1 and TRPV4 ion channels have been found in the sensory cells, while ASIC2 was detected in the nerves supplying the taste buds. PMID:27513962

  7. Source-channel optimized trellis codes for bitonal image transmission over AWGN channels.

    PubMed

    Kroll, J M; Phamdo, N

    1999-01-01

    We consider the design of trellis codes for transmission of binary images over additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) channels. We first model the image as a binary asymmetric Markov source (BAMS) and then design source-channel optimized (SCO) trellis codes for the BAMS and AWGN channel. The SCO codes are shown to be superior to Ungerboeck's codes by approximately 1.1 dB (64-state code, 10(-5) bit error probability), We also show that a simple "mapping conversion" method can be used to improve the performance of Ungerboeck's codes by approximately 0.4 dB (also 64-state code and 10 (-5) bit error probability). We compare the proposed SCO system with a traditional tandem system consisting of a Huffman code, a convolutional code, an interleaver, and an Ungerboeck trellis code. The SCO system significantly outperforms the tandem system. Finally, using a facsimile image, we compare the image quality of an SCO code, an Ungerboeck code, and the tandem code, The SCO code yields the best reconstructed image quality at 4-5 dB channel SNR.

  8. Sarcolemmal KATP channel modulators and cardiac arrhythmias.

    PubMed

    Baczkó, I; Husti, Z; Lang, V; Leprán, I; Light, P E

    2011-01-01

    Cardiac atrial and ventricular arrhythmias are major causes of mortality and morbidity. Ischemic heart disease is the most common cause underlying 1) the development of ventricular fibrillation that results in sudden cardiac death and 2) atrial fibrillation that can lead to heart failure and stroke. Current pharmacological agents for the treatment of ventricular and atrial arrhythmias exhibit limited effectiveness and many of these agents can cause serious adverse effects - including the provocation of lethal ventricular arrhythmias. Sarcolemmal ATP-sensitive potassium channels (sarcK(ATP)) couple cellular metabolism to membrane excitability in a wide range of tissues. In the heart, sarcK(ATP) are activated during metabolic stress including myocardial ischemia, and both the opening of sarcK(ATP) and mitochondrial K(ATP) channels protect the ischemic myocardium via distinct mechanisms. Myocardial ischemia leads to a series of events that promote the generation of arrhythmia substrate eventually resulting in the development of life-threatening arrhythmias. In this review, the possible mechanisms of the anti- and proarrhythmic effects of sarcK(ATP) modulation as well as the influence of pharmacological K(ATP) modulators are discussed. It is concluded that in spite of the significant advances made in this field, the possible cardiovascular therapeutic utility of current sarcK(ATP) channel modulators is still hampered by the lack of chamber-specific selectivity. However, recent insights into the chamber-specific differences in the molecular composition of sarcKATP in addition to already existing cardioselective sarcK(ATP) channel modulators with sarcK(ATP) isoform selectivity holds the promise for the future development of pharmacological strategies specific for a variety of atrial and ventricular arrhythmias.

  9. Characterization of single potassium channels in mouse pancreatic acinar cells.

    PubMed Central

    Schmid, A; Schulz, I

    1995-01-01

    1. Single K(+)-selective channels with a conductance of about 48 pS (pipette, 145 mM KCl; bath, 140 mM NaCl + 4.7 mM KCl) were recorded in the patch-clamp whole-cell configuration in isolated mouse pancreatic acinar cells. 2. Neither application of the secretagogues acetylcholine (second messenger, inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate) or secretin (second messenger, cAMP), nor addition of the catalytic subunit of protein kinase A to the pipette solution changed the activity of the 48 pS K+ channel. 3. Intracellular acidification with sodium propionate (20 mM) diminished activity of the 48 pS channel, whereas channel open probability was increased by cytosolic alkalization with 20 mM NH4Cl. 4. BaCl2 (5 mM), TEA (10 mM) or apamin (1 microM) added to the bath solution had no obvious effect on the kinetics of the 48 pS channel. Similarly, glibenclamide and diazoxide failed to influence the channel activity. 5. When extracellular NaCl was replaced by KCl, whole-cell recordings revealed an inwardly rectifying K+ current carried by a 17 pS K+ channel. 6. The inwardly rectifying K+ current was not pH dependent and could largely be blocked by Ba2+ but not by TEA. 7. Since the 48 pS K+ channel is neither Ca2+ nor cAMP regulated, we suggest that this channel could play a role in the maintenance of the negative cell resting potential. PMID:7623283

  10. A computational design approach for virtual screening of peptide interactions across K+ channel families☆

    PubMed Central

    Doupnik, Craig A.; Parra, Katherine C.; Guida, Wayne C.

    2014-01-01

    Ion channels represent a large family of membrane proteins with many being well established targets in pharmacotherapy. The ‘druggability’ of heteromeric channels comprised of different subunits remains obscure, due largely to a lack of channel-specific probes necessary to delineate their therapeutic potential in vivo. Our initial studies reported here, investigated the family of inwardly rectifying potassium (Kir) channels given the availability of high resolution crystal structures for the eukaryotic constitutively active Kir2.2 channel. We describe a ‘limited’ homology modeling approach that can yield chimeric Kir channels having an outer vestibule structure representing nearly any known vertebrate or invertebrate channel. These computationally-derived channel structures were tested ""in silico for ‘docking’ to NMR structures of tertiapin (TPN), a 21 amino acid peptide found in bee venom. TPN is a highly selective and potent blocker for the epithelial rat Kir1.1 channel, but does not block human or zebrafish Kir1.1 channel isoforms. Our Kir1.1 channel-TPN docking experiments recapitulated published in vitro ""findings for TPN-sensitive and TPN-insensitive channels. Additionally, in silico site-directed mutagenesis identified ‘hot spots’ within the channel outer vestibule that mediate energetically favorable docking scores and correlate with sites previously identified with in vitro thermodynamic mutant-cycle analysis. These ‘proof-of-principle’ results establish a framework for virtual screening of re-engineered peptide toxins for interactions with computationally derived Kir channels that currently lack channel-specific blockers. When coupled with electrophysiological validation, this virtual screening approach may accelerate the drug discovery process, and can be readily applied to other ion channels families where high resolution structures are available. PMID:25709757

  11. Thermosyphon boiling in vertical channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bar-Cohen, A.; Schweitzer, H.

    The thermal characteristics of ebullient cooling systems for VHSIC and VLSI microelectronic component thermal control are studied by experimentally and analytically investigating boiling heat transfer from a pair of flat, closely spaced, isoflux plates immersed in saturated water. A theoretical model for liquid flow rate through the channel is developed and used as a basis for correlating the rate of heat transfer from the channel walls. Experimental results for wall temperature as a function of axial location, heat flux, and plate spacing are presented. The finding that the wall superheat at constant imposed heat flux decreases as the channel is narrowed is explained with the aid of a boiling thermosiphon analysis which yields the mass flux through the channel.

  12. Structural Biology of TRP Channels

    PubMed Central

    Hellmich, Ute A.; Gaudet, Rachelle

    2016-01-01

    Membrane proteins remain challenging targets for structural biologists, despite recent technical developments regarding sample preparation and structure determination. We review recent progress towards a structural understanding of TRP channels and the techniques used to that end. We discuss available low-resolution structures from electron microscopy (EM), X-ray crystallography and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and review the resulting insights into TRP channel function for various subfamily members. The recent high-resolution structure of TRPV1 is discussed in more detail in Chapter X. We also consider the opportunities and challenges of using the accumulating structural information on TRPs and homologous proteins for deducing full-length structures of different TRP channel subfamilies, such as building homology models. Finally, we close by summarizing the outlook of the “holy grail” of understanding in atomic detail the diverse functions of TRP channels. PMID:24961976

  13. Aquaglyceroporins: ancient channels for metalloids.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharjee, Hiranmoy; Mukhopadhyay, Rita; Thiyagarajan, Saravanamuthu; Rosen, Barry P

    2008-11-07

    The identification of aquaglyceroporins as uptake channels for arsenic and antimony shows how these toxic elements can enter the food chain, and suggests that food plants could be genetically modified to exclude arsenic while still accumulating boron and silicon.

  14. Ion Channels in Nerve Membranes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehrenstein, Gerald

    1976-01-01

    Discusses research that indicates that nerve membranes, which play a key role in the conduction of impulses, are traversed by protein channels with ion pathways opened and closed by the membrane electric field. (Author/MLH)

  15. FAITH Water Channel Flow Visualization

    NASA Video Gallery

    Water channel flow visualization experiments are performed on a three dimensional model of a small hill. This experiment was part of a series of measurements of the complex fluid flow around the hi...

  16. Healthy food procurement policies and their impact.

    PubMed

    Niebylski, Mark L; Lu, Tammy; Campbell, Norm R C; Arcand, Joanne; Schermel, Alyssa; Hua, Diane; Yeates, Karen E; Tobe, Sheldon W; Twohig, Patrick A; L'Abbé, Mary R; Liu, Peter P

    2014-03-01

    Unhealthy eating is the leading risk for death and disability globally. As a result, the World Health Organization (WHO) has called for population health interventions. One of the proposed interventions is to ensure healthy foods are available by implementing healthy food procurement policies. The objective of this systematic review was to evaluate the evidence base assessing the impact of such policies. A comprehensive review was conducted by searching PubMed and Medline for policies that had been implemented and evaluated the impact of food purchases, food consumption, and behaviors towards healthy foods. Thirty-four studies were identified and found to be effective at increasing the availability and purchases of healthy food and decreasing purchases of unhealthy food. Most policies also had other components such as education, price reductions, and health interventions. The multiple gaps in research identified by this review suggest that additional research and ongoing evaluation of food procurement programs is required. Implementation of healthy food procurement policies in schools, worksites, hospitals, care homes, correctional facilities, government institutions, and remote communities increase markers of healthy eating. Prior or simultaneous implementation of ancillary education about healthy eating, and rationale for the policy may be critical success factors and additional research is needed. PMID:24595213

  17. Healthy Food Procurement Policies and Their Impact

    PubMed Central

    Niebylski, Mark L.; Lu, Tammy; Campbell, Norm R. C.; Arcand, Joanne; Schermel, Alyssa; Hua, Diane; Yeates, Karen E.; Tobe, Sheldon W.; Twohig, Patrick A.; L’Abbé, Mary R.; Liu, Peter P.

    2014-01-01

    Unhealthy eating is the leading risk for death and disability globally. As a result, the World Health Organization (WHO) has called for population health interventions. One of the proposed interventions is to ensure healthy foods are available by implementing healthy food procurement policies. The objective of this systematic review was to evaluate the evidence base assessing the impact of such policies. A comprehensive review was conducted by searching PubMed and Medline for policies that had been implemented and evaluated the impact of food purchases, food consumption, and behaviors towards healthy foods. Thirty-four studies were identified and found to be effective at increasing the availability and purchases of healthy food and decreasing purchases of unhealthy food. Most policies also had other components such as education, price reductions, and health interventions. The multiple gaps in research identified by this review suggest that additional research and ongoing evaluation of food procurement programs is required. Implementation of healthy food procurement policies in schools, worksites, hospitals, care homes, correctional facilities, government institutions, and remote communities increase markers of healthy eating. Prior or simultaneous implementation of ancillary education about healthy eating, and rationale for the policy may be critical success factors and additional research is needed. PMID:24595213

  18. Catalytic reaction in confined flow channel

    DOEpatents

    Van Hassel, Bart A.

    2016-03-29

    A chemical reactor comprises a flow channel, a source, and a destination. The flow channel is configured to house at least one catalytic reaction converting at least a portion of a first nanofluid entering the channel into a second nanofluid exiting the channel. The flow channel includes at least one turbulating flow channel element disposed axially along at least a portion of the flow channel. A plurality of catalytic nanoparticles is dispersed in the first nanofluid and configured to catalytically react the at least one first chemical reactant into the at least one second chemical reaction product in the flow channel.

  19. Learning to Learn an Additional Language: A Personal Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd, Lynda

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe the New Zealand experience of second language acquisition as it applies to learning the Maori language and also to new immigrants learning English. The article describes the te kohanga reo movement and also outlines the government policy as it relates to the learning of English as an additional language…

  20. 7 CFR 2902.13 - Diesel fuel additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Diesel fuel additives. 2902.13 Section 2902.13 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) OFFICE OF ENERGY POLICY AND NEW USES... of carbon and/or hydrogen, that is intentionally added to diesel fuel (including any added to a...

  1. Additivity of Pyrethroid Actions on Sodium Influx in Cortical Neurons in Cerebrocortical Neurons in Primary Culture

    EPA Science Inventory

    BACKGROUND: Pyrethroid insecticides bind to voltage-gated sodium channels and modify their gating kinetics, thereby disrupting neuronal function. Although previous work has tested the additivity of pyrethroids in vivo, this has not been assessed directly at the primary molecular ...

  2. Towards a policy for aging in India.

    PubMed

    Gokhale, S D

    2003-01-01

    India has been engaged in developing the National Policy for elderly for the last two decades. The efforts to establish a policy began building on traditional values, a small number of pre-independence enactments. Lawgivers of India spoke of the rights of the elderly and the responsibility of the state towards them almost 2000 years ago. Additional factors such as culture, social norms, and influence of international organizations, particularly the Vienna Plan of Action, have been responsible for shaping the Policy. The Plan of Action agreed upon at the end of the Vienna meeting could not come into being due to several reasons such as the size of the country and its federal structure. This article takes an overview of the efforts made by the federal government and the NGOs to create a National Policy. The article describes the process by which the National Policy came into being and provides an overview and critique of the present Policy. The author makes a summary of the major areas of action suggested by the Policy, the strategies designed, and the implementation roles of different Ministries. The author describes the steps taken since 1999 and provides the concluding remarks.

  3. Ion channel screening technologies today.

    PubMed

    Terstappen, Georg C

    2005-01-01

    For every heartbeat, movement and thought, ion channels have to open and close, and thus, it is not surprising that malfunctioning of these membrane proteins leads to serious diseases. Today, only 7% of all marketed drugs act on ion channels but the systematic exploitation of this important target class has started mainly enabled by novel screening technologies. Thus, the discovery of selective and state-dependent drugs is on the horizon, hopefully leading to effective novel medicines.:

  4. Are Sexual and Reproductive Health Policies Designed for All? Vulnerable Groups in Policy Documents of Four European Countries and Their Involvement in Policy Development

    PubMed Central

    Ivanova, Olena; Dræbel, Tania; Tellier, Siri

    2015-01-01

    Background: Health policies are important instruments for improving population health. However, experience suggests that policies designed for the whole population do not always benefit the most vulnerable. Participation of vulnerable groups in the policy-making process provides an opportunity for them to influence decisions related to their health, and also to exercise their rights. This paper presents the findings from a study that explored how vulnerable groups and principles of human rights are incorporated into national sexual and reproductive health (SRH) policies of 4 selected countries (Spain, Scotland, Republic of Moldova, and Ukraine). It also aimed at discussing the involvement of vulnerable groups in SRH policy development from the perspective of policy-makers. Methods: Literature review, health policy analysis and 5 semi-structured interviews with policy-makers were carried out in this study. Content analysis of SRH policies was performed using the EquiFrame analytical framework. Results: The study revealed that vulnerable groups and core principles of human rights are differently addressed in SRH policies within 4 studied countries. The opinions of policy-makers on the importance of mentioning vulnerable groups in policy documents and the way they ought to be mentioned varied, but they agreed that a clear definition of vulnerability, practical examples, and evidences on health status of these groups have to be included. In addition, different approaches to vulnerable group’s involvement in policy development were identified during the interviews and the range of obstacles to this process was discussed by respondents. Conclusion: Incorporation of vulnerable groups in the SRH policies and their involvement in policy development were found to be important in addressing SRH of these groups and providing an opportunity for them to advocate for equal access to healthcare and exercise their rights. Future research on this topic should include

  5. Advanced Placement: Model Policy Components. Policy Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zinth, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Advanced Placement (AP), launched in 1955 by the College Board as a program to offer gifted high school students the opportunity to complete entry-level college coursework, has since expanded to encourage a broader array of students to tackle challenging content. This Education Commission of the State's Policy Analysis identifies key components of…

  6. Fact-Challenged Policy. Policy Memorandum #182

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothstein, Richard

    2011-01-01

    This paper is a response on the topic of school reform efforts being promoted by Bill Gates and other prominent education policy advocates. Last week, Microsoft Chairman Bill Gates published an op-ed in the Washington Post, "How Teacher Development could Revolutionize our Schools," proposing that American public schools should do a better job of…

  7. Intracellular calcium channels in protozoa.

    PubMed

    Docampo, Roberto; Moreno, Silvia N J; Plattner, Helmut

    2014-09-15

    Ca(2+)-signaling pathways and intracellular Ca(2+) channels are present in protozoa. Ancient origin of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors (IP3Rs) and other intracellular channels predates the divergence of animals and fungi as evidenced by their presence in the choanoflagellate Monosiga brevicollis, the closest known relative to metazoans. The first protozoan IP3R cloned, from the ciliate Paramecium, displays strong sequence similarity to the rat type 3 IP3R. This ciliate has a large number of IP3- and ryanodine(Ry)-like receptors in six subfamilies suggesting the evolutionary adaptation to local requirements for an expanding diversification of vesicle trafficking. IP3Rs have also been functionally characterized in trypanosomatids, where they are essential for growth, differentiation, and establishment of infection. The presence of the mitochondrial calcium uniporter (MCU) in a number of protozoa indicates that mitochondrial regulation of Ca(2+) signaling is also an early appearance in evolution, and contributed to the discovery of the molecular nature of this channel in mammalian cells. There is only sequence evidence for the occurrence of two-pore channels (TPCs), transient receptor potential Ca(2+) channels (TRPCs) and intracellular mechanosensitive Ca(2+)-channels in Paramecium and in parasitic protozoa.

  8. Channelized Optical Waveguides On Silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hickernell, F. S.; Seaton, C. T.

    1987-02-01

    Silicon provides a natural substrate base for the development of channel waveguides and their integration with optoelectronic components. Using epitaxial growth, selective doping, and plasma etching, channel waveguides can be fabricated using single crystal silicon alone. Oxide layers of low optical index are readily formed by thermal means on silicon to provide a base upon which low-loss film waveguides can be formed by ion exchange and implantation, chemical vapor deposition, and physical vapor deposition. Thermally oxidized and nitrided layers provide a simple means for developing waveguides. The channel shape for ridge waveguides can be delineated by chemical etching and ion milling techniques. The anisotropic etch characteristics of silicon provide a natural channel for imbedding waveguides using organic and inorganic materials. This paper will review common semiconductor processing techniques used for the formation of channel waveguides on silicon and the performance results obtained to date. The use of channel waveguides for specific device developments will be described and the most promising areas for future development will be addressed.

  9. Intracellular Calcium Channels in Protozoa

    PubMed Central

    Docampo, Roberto; Moreno, Silvia N.J.; Plattner, Helmut

    2014-01-01

    Ca2+-signaling pathways and intracellular Ca2+ channels are present in protozoa. Ancient origin of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors (IP3Rs) and other intracellular channels predates the divergence of animals and fungi as evidenced by their presence in the choanoflagellate Monosiga brevicollis, the closest known relative to metazoans. The first protozoan IP3R cloned, from the ciliate Paramecium, displays strong sequence similarity to the rat type 3 IP3R. This ciliate has a large number of IP3- and ryanodine(Ry)-like receptors in 6 subfamilies suggesting the evolutionary adaptation to local requirements for an expanding diversification of vesicle trafficking. IP3Rs have also been functionally characterized in trypanosomatids, where they are essential for growth, differentiation, and establishment of infection. The presence of the mitochondrial calcium uniporter (MCU) in a number of protozoa indicates that mitochondrial regulation of Ca2+ signaling is also an early appearance in evolution, and contributed to the discovery of the molecular nature of this channel in mammalian cells. There is only sequence evidence for the occurrence of two-pore channels (TPCs), transient receptor potential Ca2+ channels (TRPCs) and intracellular mechanosensitive Ca2+-channels in Paramecium and in parasitic protozoa. PMID:24291099

  10. A three channel telemetry system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lesho, Jeffery C.; Eaton, Harry A. C.

    1993-01-01

    A three channel telemetry system intended for biomedical applications is described. The transmitter is implemented in a single chip using a 2 micron BiCMOS processes. The operation of the system and the test results from the latest chip are discussed. One channel is always dedicated to temperature measurement while the other two channels are generic. The generic channels carry information from transducers that are interfaced to the system through on-chip general purpose operational amplifiers. The generic channels have different bandwidths: one from dc to 250 Hz and the other from dc to 1300 Hz. Each generic channel modulates a current controlled oscillator to produce a frequency modulated signal. The two frequency modulated signals are summed and used to amplitude modulate the temperature signal which acts as a carrier. A near-field inductive link telemeters the combined signals over a short distance. The chip operates on a supply voltage anywhere from 2.5 to 3.6 Volts and draws less than 1 mA when transmitting a signal. The chip can be incorporated into ingestible, implantable and other configurations. The device can free the patient from tethered data collection systems and reduces the possibility of infection from subcutaneous leads. Data telemetry can increase patient comfort leading to a greater acceptance of monitoring.

  11. The Subject of Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bansel, Peter

    2015-01-01

    I work selectively with poststructuralist theories in order to give an account of the subject of policy as a constitutive relationship between social policy and the embodied human subject. Drawing on theories of subjectivity, narrative and governmentality, I articulate possibilities for analysing narrated accounts of experience as a mode of…

  12. Substance Abuse. Policy Statement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Collaboration for Youth, Washington, DC.

    This paper presents the policy statement on substance abuse from the National Collaboration for Youth (NCY). The policy statement section lists programs and activities supported by the NCY. A section on background includes a statement of the issue of substance abuse. Areas examined in this section include alcohol abuse and drunk driving among…

  13. Neutrality in Language Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wee, Lionel

    2010-01-01

    The unavoidability of language makes it critical that language policies appeal to some notion of language neutrality as part of their rationale, in order to assuage concerns that the policies might otherwise be unduly discriminatory. However, the idea of language neutrality is deeply ideological in nature, since it is not only an attempt to treat…

  14. Language Policy in Slovenia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novak-Lukanovic, Sonja; Limon, David

    2012-01-01

    The historical background, political changes, migration processes, EU membership and the current socio-linguistic situation have all influenced language policy and language planning in Slovenia. This article presents the most important aspects of language policy in Slovenia with a focus on the concept of linguistic diversity. The ethnic make-up of…

  15. Social Policy Report, 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherrod, Lonnie, Ed.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne, Ed.

    This document is comprised of the four 2002 issues of a publication providing a forum for scholarly reviews and discussion of developmental research and implications for social policies affecting children. The topics featured in each of the issues are: (1) "The Effects of Welfare Reform Policies on Children" (Pamela A. Morris); (2) "At What Age…

  16. Social Policy Report, 1993.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Nancy G., Ed.

    1993-01-01

    Each of the four issues of this newsletter published in 1993 consists of one article dealing with a particular policy debate. Number 1, "Canadian Special Education Policies: Children with Learning Disabilities in a Bilingual and Multicultural Society" (Linda S. Siegel and Judith Wiener), discusses social and cultural factors affecting the…

  17. Intercultural Policies and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goncalves, Susana, Ed.; Carpenter, Markus A., Ed.

    2012-01-01

    Intercultural Policies and Education is concerned with educational challenges in multicultural societies. Educational policies, practices and strategies for fruitful coexistence in the multicultural school and classroom are explored and analysed through a collection of chapters designed and selected to provide readers with international,…

  18. Analysing the Policy Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humes, Walter M.

    1997-01-01

    Examines the recent development of educational policy analysis as a research field within Scottish education. Discusses "inside" and "outside" approaches to policy analysis; the value of theoretical models for making sense of source material; the potential of discourse analysis, illustrated by reference to Foucault and Lyotard; and the need for…

  19. Income and Employment Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillis, William; And Others

    This paper isolates critical rural economic development issues and identifies needed federal policy interventions. Despite a long history of federal efforts to improve rural economic conditions, recent policies and programs aimed at stimulating rural development have had little impact. Reasons include: (1) narrowly focused economic development…

  20. Basic Policy Studies Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coplin, William D., Ed.; O'Leary, Michael K., Ed.

    This publication will help high school and college students develop policy analysis skills and techniques and apply these to important public issues. A public policy issue is defined as a disagreement between two or more elements of a society over the way that the society's government deals with a given situation. There are six chapters. Chapter…

  1. Distance Education Policy Framework.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon State System of Higher Education, Eugene.

    This description of the policy framework for Oregon's distance education program gives an overview of the progress to date, outlines five areas in which policy must be developed, and identifies a number of priorities among those areas. Progress is reported in the following areas: several initiatives that incorporate new telecommunications and…

  2. Government Information Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dearstyne, Bruce W.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Six articles discuss government information policy in context of technology and electronic records; policies on information resources management from OMB (Office of Management and Budget); state information resources, including Council of State Governments (CSG); state record laws and preservation of archival records; and management of electronic…

  3. Employment Policy and Territories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berthet, Thierry; Cuntigh, Philippe; Guitton, Christophe

    2002-01-01

    France's employment policy has historically been governed by a strategy of interventions aimed at specific categories of individuals, including victims of industrial restructuring, entry workers, the long-term unemployed, and the disabled. Since the 1980s, France has had the following main lines of employment policy: (1) assistance to victims of…

  4. Policy as Assemblage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorur, Radhika

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author tells the story of her search for appropriate tools to conceptualise policy work. She had set out to explore the relationship between the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) and Australia's education policy, but early interview data…

  5. Collection Development Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casserly, Mary

    In this document the collection goals of the William Paterson New Jersey State College library are enumerated and the policies and procedures of the library regarding the selection and acquisition of different types of materials are summarized. Following a short introduction to the function of collection development policies is a general statement…

  6. Action Research and Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foreman-Peck, Lorraine; Murray, Jane

    2008-01-01

    This article examines the relationship between action research and policy and the kind of confidence teachers, policy makers and other potential users may have in such research. Many published teacher action research accounts are criticised on the grounds that they do not fully meet the conventional standards for reporting social scientific…

  7. Communication Policies in Hungary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szecsko, Tamas; Fodor, Gabor

    This book is one of a series of studies--undertaken as part of the program adopted by the General Conference of UNESCO--related to the analysis of communication policies as they exist at the public, institutional, and professional levels in selected countries. Discussed in this book about Hungary's communication policies are such topics as mass…

  8. A Web Policy Primer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Elliott

    2001-01-01

    Sound technology policies can spell the difference between an effective website and an online nightmare. An effective web development policy addresses six key areas: roles and responsibilities, content/educational value, privacy and safety, adherence to copyright laws, technical standards, and use of commercial sites and services. (MLH)

  9. Procedures and Policies Manual

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Jane M.

    2006-01-01

    This document was developed by the Middle Tennessee State University James E. Walker Library Collection Management Department to provide policies and procedural guidelines for the cataloging and processing of bibliographic materials. This document includes policies for cataloging monographs, serials, government documents, machine-readable data…

  10. Operations Policy Manual, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teacher Education Accreditation Council, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The Teacher Education Accreditation Council (TEAC) "Operations Policy Manual" outlines all of TEAC's current policies and procedures related to TEAC members, TEAC administration, and the public, and includes the Bylaws of the Teacher Education Accreditation Council, Inc. An index is also included.

  11. Public Policy Agenda, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of State Colleges and Universities, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The 2010 Public Policy Agenda summarizes the American Association of State Colleges and Universities' (AASCU's) principles and priorities in key areas of higher education policy. This paper is intended to serve as a point of reference for the association's members and other interested organizations, as well as federal and state policymakers.…

  12. Public Policy Agenda, 2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of State Colleges and Universities, 2007

    2007-01-01

    The 2007 Public Policy Agenda summarizes the American Association of State Colleges and Universities' (AASCU's) principles and priorities in key areas of higher education policy. The document is intended to serve as a point of reference for federal and state policymakers, the association's members, and other interested organizations and…

  13. Public Policy Agenda, 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of State Colleges and Universities, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The 2009 Public Policy Agenda summarizes the American Association of State Colleges and Universities' (AASCU's) principles and priorities in key areas of higher education policy. The document is intended to serve as a point of reference for the association's members and other interested organizations as well as federal and state policymakers.…

  14. Public Policy and You

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karolak, Eric

    2008-01-01

    This article is devoted to public policies and child care providers. The author talks about how these policies affect providers and their work with young children. The author stresses that child care providers should help legislators by keeping them aware of what goes on in the child care communities.

  15. Public Policy Agenda, 2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of State Colleges and Universities, 2008

    2008-01-01

    The 2008 Public Policy Agenda summarizes the American Association of State Colleges and Universities' (AASCU's) principles and priorities in key areas of higher education policy. The document is intended to serve as a point of reference for federal and state policymakers, the association's members, and other interested organizations and…

  16. Incorporation of additives into polymers

    DOEpatents

    McCleskey, T. Mark; Yates, Matthew Z.

    2003-07-29

    There has been invented a method for incorporating additives into polymers comprising: (a) forming an aqueous or alcohol-based colloidal system of the polymer; (b) emulsifying the colloidal system with a compressed fluid; and (c) contacting the colloidal polymer with the additive in the presence of the compressed fluid. The colloidal polymer can be contacted with the additive by having the additive in the compressed fluid used for emulsification or by adding the additive to the colloidal system before or after emulsification with the compressed fluid. The invention process can be carried out either as a batch process or as a continuous on-line process.

  17. [Patch-testing methods: additional specialised or additional series].

    PubMed

    Cleenewerck, M-B

    2009-01-01

    The tests in the European standard battery must occasionally be supplemented by specialised or additional batteries, particularly where the contact allergy is thought to be of occupational origin. These additional batteries cover all allergens associated with various professional activities (hairdressing, baking, dentistry, printing, etc.) and with different classes of materials and chemical products (glue, plastic, rubber...). These additional tests may also include personal items used by patients on a daily basis such as cosmetics, shoes, plants, textiles and so on.

  18. Additive manufacturing of optical components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinrich, Andreas; Rank, Manuel; Maillard, Philippe; Suckow, Anne; Bauckhage, Yannick; Rößler, Patrick; Lang, Johannes; Shariff, Fatin; Pekrul, Sven

    2016-08-01

    The development of additive manufacturing methods has enlarged rapidly in recent years. Thereby, the work mainly focuses on the realization of mechanical components, but the additive manufacturing technology offers a high potential in the field of optics as well. Owing to new design possibilities, completely new solutions are possible. This article briefly reviews and compares the most important additive manufacturing methods for polymer optics. Additionally, it points out the characteristics of additive manufactured polymer optics. Thereby, surface quality is of crucial importance. In order to improve it, appropriate post-processing steps are necessary (e.g. robot polishing or coating), which will be discussed. An essential part of this paper deals with various additive manufactured optical components and their use, especially in optical systems for shape metrology (e.g. borehole sensor, tilt sensor, freeform surface sensor, fisheye lens). The examples should demonstrate the potentials and limitations of optical components produced by additive manufacturing.

  19. Evaluation of in-channel amperometric detection using a dual-channel microchip electrophoresis device and a two-electrode potentiostat for reverse polarity separations

    PubMed Central

    Meneses, Diogenes; Gunasekara, Dulan B.; Pichetsurnthorn, Pann; da Silva, José A. F.; de Abreu, Fabiane C.; Lunte, Susan M.

    2015-01-01

    In-channel amperometric detection combined with dual-channel microchip electrophoresis is evaluated using a two-electrode isolated potentiostat for reverse polarity separations. The device consists of two separate channels with the working and reference electrodes placed at identical positions relative to the end of the channel, enabling noise subtraction. In previous reports of this configuration, normal polarity and a three-electrode detection system were used. In the two-electrode detection system described here, the electrode in the reference channel acts as both the counter and reference. The effect of electrode placement in the channels on noise and detector response was investigated using nitrite, tyrosine, and hydrogen peroxide as model compounds. The effects of electrode material and size and type of reference electrode on noise and the potential shift of hydrodynamic voltammograms for the model compounds were determined. In addition, the performance of two- and three-electrode configurations using Pt and Ag/AgCl reference electrodes was compared. Although the signal was attenuated with the Pt reference, the noise was also significantly reduced. It was found that lower LOD were obtained for all three compounds with the dual-channel configuration compared to single-channel, in-channel detection. The dual-channel method was then used for the detection of nitrite in a dermal microdialysis sample obtained from a sheep following nitroglycerin administration. PMID:25256669

  20. A negative charge in transmembrane segment 1 of domain II of the cockroach sodium channel is critical for channel gating and action of pyrethroid insecticides

    SciTech Connect

    Du Yuzhe; Song Weizhong; Groome, James R.; Nomura, Yoshiko; Luo Ningguang; Dong Ke

    2010-08-15

    Voltage-gated sodium channels are the primary target of pyrethroids, an important class of synthetic insecticides. Pyrethroids bind to a distinct receptor site on sodium channels and prolong the open state by inhibiting channel deactivation and inactivation. Recent studies have begun to reveal sodium channel residues important for pyrethroid binding. However, how pyrethroid binding leads to inhibition of sodium channel deactivation and inactivation remains elusive. In this study, we show that a negatively charged aspartic acid residue at position 802 (D802) located in the extracellular end of transmembrane segment 1 of domain II (IIS1) is critical for both the action of pyrethroids and the voltage dependence of channel activation. Charge-reversing or -neutralizing substitutions (K, G, or A) of D802 shifted the voltage dependence of activation in the depolarizing direction and reduced channel sensitivity to deltamethrin, a pyrethroid insecticide. The charge-reversing mutation D802K also accelerated open-state deactivation, which may have counteracted the inhibition of sodium channel deactivation by deltamethrin. In contrast, the D802G substitution slowed open-state deactivation, suggesting an additional mechanism for neutralizing the action of deltamethrin. Importantly, Schild analysis showed that D802 is not involved in pyrethroid binding. Thus, we have identified a sodium channel residue that is critical for regulating the action of pyrethroids on the sodium channel without affecting the receptor site of pyrethroids.