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Sample records for additional class ii

  1. Major histocompatibility complex class II molecules can protect from diabetes by positively selecting T cells with additional specificities.

    PubMed

    Lühder, F; Katz, J; Benoist, C; Mathis, D

    1998-02-01

    Insulin-dependent diabetes is heavily influenced by genes encoded within the major histocompatibility complex (MHC), positively by some class II alleles and negatively by others. We have explored the mechanism of MHC class II-mediated protection from diabetes using a mouse model carrying the rearranged T cell receptor (TCR) transgenes from a diabetogenic T cell clone derived from a nonobese diabetic mouse. BDC2.5 TCR transgenics with C57Bl/6 background genes and two doses of the H-2(g7) allele exhibited strong insulitis at approximately 3 wk of age and most developed diabetes a few weeks later. When one of the H-2(g7) alleles was replaced by H-2(b), insulitis was still severe and only slightly delayed, but diabetes was markedly inhibited in both its penetrance and time of onset. The protective effect was mediated by the Abetab gene, and did not merely reflect haplozygosity of the Abetag7 gene. The only differences we observed in the T cell compartments of g7/g7 and g7/b mice were a decrease in CD4(+) cells displaying the transgene-encoded TCR and an increase in cells expressing endogenously encoded TCR alpha-chains. When the synthesis of endogenously encoded alpha-chains was prevented, the g7/b animals were no longer protected from diabetes. g7/b mice did not have a general defect in the production of Ag7-restricted T cells, and antigen-presenting cells from g7/b animals were as effective as those from g7/g7 mice in stimulating Ag7-restricted T cell hybridomas. These results argue against mechanisms of protection involving clonal deletion or anergization of diabetogenic T cells, or one depending on capture of potentially pathogenic Ag7-restricted epitopes by Ab molecules. Rather, they support a mechanism based on MHC class II-mediated positive selection of T cells expressing additional specificities. PMID:9449718

  2. 40 CFR 82.18 - Availability of production in addition to baseline production allowances for class II controlled...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... complying with the Beijing Amendments if the foreign state is listed in Appendix L of this subpart, or as... address of the person; (B) The identity of the Party; (C) The names and telephone numbers of contact... identity and address of the person; (ii) The identity of the......

  3. [Modified Class II tunnel preparation].

    PubMed

    Rimondini, L; Baroni, C

    1991-05-15

    Tunnel preparations for restoration of Class II carious lesions in primary molars preserve the marginal ridge and minimize sacrifice of healthy tooth substructure. Materials with improved bonding to tooth structure and increase potential for fluoride release allow Class II restorations without "extension for prevention". PMID:1864420

  4. Predictive Value of Class III D Cytological Diagnosis (Munich II, Low and Moderate Dysplasia) and Additional High-risk HPV Testing.

    PubMed

    Ziemke, P

    2012-07-01

    The validity of cytological diagnostic procedures for the detection of pre- and early cervical cancer stages is limited due to biological conditions, the uncertainty of cell sampling, and the subjective nature of microscopic assessment. Particularly in class III D cases (Munich II) this can lead to a stigmatization of patients and uncertainty with regard to further clinical follow-up and therapy. Prior to carrying out additional investigations such as high-risk HPV testing or the examination of biomarkers, the positive predictive values of patients with a class III D cytological diagnosis need to be assessed in routine practice. To this end, all relevant data from patients from our practice classed as class III D (pap smears) between 2002 and 2008 (n = 1190; 38.2 % histological diagnosis = therapeutic endpoint) and their current HPV status were recorded. Cytology, histology, persistence, age and follow-up were recorded. The database was used for comparative statistical analysis. Overall, the positive predictive value of conventional pap smear for CIN 2+ was calculated to be 32.3 % (mean follow-up: 39.7 months). The following values were calculated for high-risk HPV testing: sensitivity 94.8 %, specificity 39 %, positive predictive value 42.8 %, negative predictive value 94 %. The additional information obtained from high-risk HPV testing resulted in a significantly better positive predictive value only in patients older than 40 years. However, there was no evidence for an individual risk stratification approach which would reduce uncertainty in the management of III D patients.

  5. Early failure of Class II resin composite versus Class II amalgam restorations placed by dental students.

    PubMed

    Overton, J D; Sullivan, Diane J

    2012-03-01

    Using the information from remake request slips in a dental school's predoctoral clinic, we examined the short-term survival of Class II resin composite restorations versus Class II dental amalgam restorations. In the student clinic, resin composite is used in approximately 58 percent of Class II restorations placed, and dental amalgam is used in the remaining 42 percent. In the period examined, Class II resin composite restorations were ten times more likely to be replaced at no cost to the patient than Class II dental amalgam restorations. A total of eighty-four resin composite restorations and six amalgam restorations were replaced due to an identified failure.

  6. Features of target cell lysis by class I and class II MHC restricted cytolytic T lymphocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Maimone, M.M.; Morrison, L.A.; Braciale, V.L.; Braciale, T.J.

    1986-12-01

    The lytic activity of influenza virus-specific muvine cytolytic T lymphocyte (CTL) clones that are restricted by either H-2K/D (class I) or H-2I (class II) major histocompatibility (MHC) locus products was compared on an influenza virus-infected target cell expressing both K/D and I locus products. With the use of two in vitro measurements of cytotoxicity, conventional /sup 51/Cr release, and detergent-releasable radiolabeled DNA (as a measure of nuclear disintegration in the early post-lethal hit period), the authors found no difference between class I and class II MHC-restricted CTL in the kinetics of target cell destruction. In addition, class II MHC-restricted antiviral CTL failed to show any lysis of radiolabeled bystander cells. Killing of labeled specific targets by these class II MHC-restricted CTL was also efficiently inhibited by unlabeled specific competitor cells in a cold target inhibition assay. In sum, these data suggest that class I and class II MHC-restricted CTL mediate target cell destruction by an essentially similar direct mechanism.

  7. 49 CFR 238.317 - Class II brake test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Class II brake test. 238.317 Section 238.317... Requirements for Tier I Passenger Equipment § 238.317 Class II brake test. (a) A Class II brake test shall be.... In these circumstances, a Class II brake test shall be performed prior to the train's departure...

  8. 49 CFR 238.317 - Class II brake test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Class II brake test. 238.317 Section 238.317... Requirements for Tier I Passenger Equipment § 238.317 Class II brake test. (a) A Class II brake test shall be.... In these circumstances, a Class II brake test shall be performed prior to the train's departure...

  9. 49 CFR 238.317 - Class II brake test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Class II brake test. 238.317 Section 238.317... Requirements for Tier I Passenger Equipment § 238.317 Class II brake test. (a) A Class II brake test shall be.... In these circumstances, a Class II brake test shall be performed prior to the train's departure...

  10. The peculiar distribution of class I and class II aldolases in diatoms and in red algae.

    PubMed

    Kroth, Peter G; Schroers, Yvonne; Kilian, Oliver

    2005-12-01

    Diatom plastids probably evolved by secondary endocytobiosis from a red alga that was up by a eukaryotic host cell. Apparently, this process increased the complexity of the intracellular distribution of metabolic enzymes. We identified genes encoding fructose-bisphosphate aldolases (FBA) in two centric (Odontella sinensis, Thalassiosira pseudonana) and one pennate (Phaeodactylum tricornutum) diatoms and found that four different aldolases are present in both groups: two plastid targeted class II enzymes (FBAC1 and FBAC2), one cytosolic class II (FBA3) and one cytosolic class I (FBA4) enzyme. The pennate Phaeodactylum possesses an additional plastidic class I enzyme (FBAC5). We verified the classification of the different aldolases in the diatoms by enzymatic characterization of isolated plastids and whole cell extracts. Interestingly, our results imply that in plastids of centric and pennate diatoms mainly either class I or class II aldolases are active. We also identified genes for both class I and class II aldolases in red algal EST databases, thus presenting a fascinating example of the reutilization and recompartmentalization of different aldolase isoenzymes during secondary endocytobiosis but as well demonstrating the limited use of metabolic enzymes as markers for the interpretation of phylogenetic histories in algae.

  11. 46 CFR 50.30-15 - Class II pressure vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Class II pressure vessels. 50.30-15 Section 50.30-15... Fabrication Inspection § 50.30-15 Class II pressure vessels. (a) Class II pressure vessels shall be subject to... pressure vessels shall be performed during the welding of the longitudinal joint. At this time the...

  12. 46 CFR 50.30-15 - Class II pressure vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Class II pressure vessels. 50.30-15 Section 50.30-15... Fabrication Inspection § 50.30-15 Class II pressure vessels. (a) Class II pressure vessels shall be subject to... pressure vessels shall be performed during the welding of the longitudinal joint. At this time the...

  13. 46 CFR 50.30-15 - Class II pressure vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Class II pressure vessels. 50.30-15 Section 50.30-15... Fabrication Inspection § 50.30-15 Class II pressure vessels. (a) Class II pressure vessels shall be subject to... pressure vessels shall be performed during the welding of the longitudinal joint. At this time the...

  14. 46 CFR 50.30-15 - Class II pressure vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Class II pressure vessels. 50.30-15 Section 50.30-15... Fabrication Inspection § 50.30-15 Class II pressure vessels. (a) Class II pressure vessels shall be subject to... pressure vessels shall be performed during the welding of the longitudinal joint. At this time the...

  15. 46 CFR 50.30-15 - Class II pressure vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Class II pressure vessels. 50.30-15 Section 50.30-15... Fabrication Inspection § 50.30-15 Class II pressure vessels. (a) Class II pressure vessels shall be subject to... pressure vessels shall be performed during the welding of the longitudinal joint. At this time the...

  16. 78 FR 37114 - Self-Regulation of Class II Gaming

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-20

    ... the issuance of a certificate for tribal self-regulation of Class II gaming. 78 FR 20236, April 4... concerning the issuance of certificates for tribal self-regulation of Class II gaming: To correct a section... National Indian Gaming Commission 25 CFR Part 518 RIN 3141-AA44 Self-Regulation of Class II Gaming...

  17. Interactions between the Class II Transactivator and CREB Binding Protein Increase Transcription of Major Histocompatibility Complex Class II Genes

    PubMed Central

    Fontes, Joseph D.; Kanazawa, Satoshi; Jean, Dickson; Peterlin, B. Matija

    1999-01-01

    Class II major histocompatibility (class II) genes are regulated in a B-cell-specific and gamma interferon-inducible fashion. The master switch for the expression of these genes is the class II transactivator (CIITA). In this report, we demonstrate that one of the functions of CIITA is to recruit the CREB binding protein (CBP) to class II promoters. Not only functional but also specific binding interactions between CIITA and CBP were demonstrated. Moreover, a dominant negative form of CBP decreased the activity of class II promoters and levels of class II determinants on the surface of cells. Finally, the inhibition of class II gene expression by the glucocorticoid hormone could be attributed to the squelching of CBP by the glucocorticoid receptor. We conclude that CBP, a histone acetyltransferase, plays an important role in the transcription of class II genes. PMID:9858618

  18. Cohesin regulates MHC class II genes through interactions with MHC class II insulators.

    PubMed

    Majumder, Parimal; Boss, Jeremy M

    2011-10-15

    Cohesin is a multiprotein, ringed complex that is most well-known for its role in stabilizing the association of sister chromatids between S phase and M. More recently, cohesin was found to be associated with transcriptional insulators, elements that are associated with the organization of chromatin into regulatory domains. The human MHC class II (MHC-II) locus contains 10 intergenic elements, termed MHC-II insulators, which bind the transcriptional insulator protein CCCTC-binding factor. MHC-II insulators interact with each other, forming a base architecture of discrete loops and potential regulatory domains. When MHC-II genes are expressed, their proximal promoter regulatory regions reorganize to the foci established by the interacting MHC-II insulators. MHC-II insulators also bind cohesin, but the functional role of cohesin in regulating this system is not known. In this article, we show that the binding of cohesin to MHC-II insulators occurred irrespective of MHC-II expression but was required for optimal expression of the HLA-DR and HLA-DQ genes. In a DNA-dependent manner, cohesin subunits interacted with CCCTC-binding factor and the MHC-II-specific transcription factors regulatory factor X and CIITA. Intriguingly, cohesin subunits were important for DNA looping interactions between the HLA-DRA promoter region and a 5' MHC-II insulator but were not required for interactions between the MHC-II insulators themselves. This latter observation introduces cohesin as a regulator of MHC-II expression by initiating or stabilizing MHC-II promoter regulatory element interactions with the MHC-II insulator elements, events that are required for maximal MHC-II transcription.

  19. Class II Resin Composites: Restorative Options.

    PubMed

    Patel, Minesh; Mehta, Shamir B; Banerji, Subir

    2015-10-01

    Tooth-coloured, resin composite restorations are amongst the most frequently prescribed forms of dental restoration to manage defects in posterior teeth. The attainment of a desirable outcome when placing posterior resin composite restorations requires the clinician to have a good understanding of the benefits (as well as the limitations) posed by this material, together with a sound knowledge of placement technique. Numerous protocols and materials have evolved to assist the dental operator with this type of demanding posterior restoration. With the use of case examples, four techniques available are reported here. CPD/Clinical Relevance: This article explores varying techniques for the restoration of Class II cavities using resin composite.

  20. Introducing the Clark Class II restoration.

    PubMed

    Clark, David

    2007-10-01

    As we introduce the concepts summarized in this article to practicing dentists, they show a broad spectrum of responses from shock and disbelief to sheer exuberance. As these cavity shapes are implemented we will see a dramatic reduction in the rate of tooth fracturing. We also anticipate that these restorations will outlast the class II amalgams that have served so well in the past. This very brief article can only touch on the dramatic differences of this minimally traumatic and incredibly durable direct composite. A full instructional DVD together with a textbook and hands-on courses are available and recommended.

  1. Immunological Functions of the Membrane Proximal Region of MHC Class II Molecules

    PubMed Central

    Harton, Jonathan; Jin, Lei; Hahn, Amy; Drake, Jim

    2016-01-01

    Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules present exogenously derived antigen peptides to CD4 T cells, driving activation of naïve T cells and supporting CD4-driven immune functions. However, MHC class II molecules are not inert protein pedestals that simply bind and present peptides. These molecules also serve as multi-functional signaling molecules delivering activation, differentiation, or death signals (or a combination of these) to B cells, macrophages, as well as MHC class II-expressing T cells and tumor cells. Although multiple proteins are known to associate with MHC class II, interaction with STING (stimulator of interferon genes) and CD79 is essential for signaling. In addition, alternative transmembrane domain pairing between class II α and β chains influences association with membrane lipid sub-domains, impacting both signaling and antigen presentation. In contrast to the membrane-distal region of the class II molecule responsible for peptide binding and T-cell receptor engagement, the membrane-proximal region (composed of the connecting peptide, transmembrane domain, and cytoplasmic tail) mediates these “non-traditional” class II functions. Here, we review the literature on the function of the membrane-proximal region of the MHC class II molecule and discuss the impact of this aspect of class II immunobiology on immune regulation and human disease. PMID:27006762

  2. Immunological Functions of the Membrane Proximal Region of MHC Class II Molecules.

    PubMed

    Harton, Jonathan; Jin, Lei; Hahn, Amy; Drake, Jim

    2016-01-01

    Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules present exogenously derived antigen peptides to CD4 T cells, driving activation of naïve T cells and supporting CD4-driven immune functions. However, MHC class II molecules are not inert protein pedestals that simply bind and present peptides. These molecules also serve as multi-functional signaling molecules delivering activation, differentiation, or death signals (or a combination of these) to B cells, macrophages, as well as MHC class II-expressing T cells and tumor cells. Although multiple proteins are known to associate with MHC class II, interaction with STING (stimulator of interferon genes) and CD79 is essential for signaling. In addition, alternative transmembrane domain pairing between class II α and β chains influences association with membrane lipid sub-domains, impacting both signaling and antigen presentation. In contrast to the membrane-distal region of the class II molecule responsible for peptide binding and T-cell receptor engagement, the membrane-proximal region (composed of the connecting peptide, transmembrane domain, and cytoplasmic tail) mediates these "non-traditional" class II functions. Here, we review the literature on the function of the membrane-proximal region of the MHC class II molecule and discuss the impact of this aspect of class II immunobiology on immune regulation and human disease. PMID:27006762

  3. Characterization of recombination in the HLA class II region

    SciTech Connect

    Cullen, M.; Carrington, M.; Noble, J.

    1997-02-01

    Studies of linkage disequilibrium across the HLA class II region have been useful in predicting where recombination is most likely to occur. The strong associations between genes within the 85-kb region from DQB1 to DRB1 are consistent with low frequency of recombination in this segment of DNA. Conversely, a lack of association between alleles of TAP1 and TAP2 ({approximately}15 kb) has been observed, suggesting that recombination occurs here with relatively high frequency. Much of the HLA class II region has now been sequenced, providing the tools to undertake detailed analysis of recombination. Twenty-seven families containing one or two recombinant chromosomes within the 500-kb interval between the DPB1 and DRB1 genes were used to determine patterns of recombination across this region. SSCP analysis and microsatellite typing yielded identification of 127 novel polymorphic markers distributed throughout the class II region, allowing refinement of the site of crossover in 30 class II recombinant chromosomes. The three regions where recombination was observed most frequently are as follows: the 45-kb interval between HLA-DNA and RING3 (11 cases), the 50-kb interval between DQB3 and DQB1 (6 cases), and an 8.8-kb segment of the TAP2 gene (3 cases). Six of the 10 remaining recombinants await further characterization, pending identification of additional informative markers, while four recombinants were localized to other intervals (outliers). Analysis of association between markers flanking HLA-DNA to RING3 (45 kb), as well as TAP1 to TAP2 (15 kb), by use of independent CEPH haplotypes indicated little or no linkage disequilibrium, supporting the familial recombination data. A notable sequence motif located within a region associated with increased rates of recombination consisted of a (TGGA){sub 12} tandem repeat within the TAP2 gene. 74 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Contrasting patterns of selection acting on MHC class I and class II DRB genes in the Alpine marmot (Marmota marmota).

    PubMed

    Kuduk, K; Johanet, A; Allainé, D; Cohas, A; Radwan, J

    2012-08-01

    The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes code for proteins that play a critical role in the immune system response. The MHC genes are among the most polymorphic genes in vertebrates, presumably due to balancing selection. The two MHC classes appear to differ in the rate of evolution, but the reasons for this variation are not well understood. Here, we investigate the level of polymorphism and the evolution of sequences that code for the peptide-binding regions of MHC class I and class II DRB genes in the Alpine marmot (Marmota marmota). We found evidence for four expressed MHC class I loci and two expressed MHC class II loci. MHC genes in marmots were characterized by low polymorphism, as one to eight alleles per putative locus were detected in 38 individuals from three French Alps populations. The generally limited degree of polymorphism, which was more pronounced in class I genes, is likely due to bottleneck the populations undergone. Additionally, gene duplication within each class might have compensated for the loss of polymorphism at particular loci. The two gene classes showed different patterns of evolution. The most polymorphic of the putative loci, Mama-DRB1, showed clear evidence of historical positive selection for amino acid replacements. However, no signal of positive selection was evident in the MHC class I genes. These contrasting patterns of sequence evolution may reflect differences in selection pressures acting on class I and class II genes.

  5. 25 CFR 522.10 - Individually owned class II and class III gaming operations other than those operating on...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Individually owned class II and class III gaming... GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR APPROVAL OF CLASS II AND CLASS III ORDINANCES AND RESOLUTIONS SUBMISSION OF GAMING ORDINANCE OR RESOLUTION § 522.10 Individually owned class II and class...

  6. 25 CFR 522.10 - Individually owned class II and class III gaming operations other than those operating on...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Individually owned class II and class III gaming... GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR APPROVAL OF CLASS II AND CLASS III ORDINANCES AND RESOLUTIONS SUBMISSION OF GAMING ORDINANCE OR RESOLUTION § 522.10 Individually owned class II and class...

  7. 25 CFR 522.10 - Individually owned class II and class III gaming operations other than those operating on...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Individually owned class II and class III gaming... GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR APPROVAL OF CLASS II AND CLASS III ORDINANCES AND RESOLUTIONS SUBMISSION OF GAMING ORDINANCE OR RESOLUTION § 522.10 Individually owned class II and class...

  8. 25 CFR 522.10 - Individually owned class II and class III gaming operations other than those operating on...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Individually owned class II and class III gaming... GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR APPROVAL OF CLASS II AND CLASS III ORDINANCES AND RESOLUTIONS SUBMISSION OF GAMING ORDINANCE OR RESOLUTION § 522.10 Individually owned class II and class...

  9. 25 CFR 522.10 - Individually owned class II and class III gaming operations other than those operating on...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Individually owned class II and class III gaming... GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR APPROVAL OF CLASS II AND CLASS III ORDINANCES AND RESOLUTIONS SUBMISSION OF GAMING ORDINANCE OR RESOLUTION § 522.10 Individually owned class II and class...

  10. Class II correction with the Incognito lingual appliance.

    PubMed

    Lawson, Robert B

    2013-09-01

    The Incognito fully customized lingual appliance provides excellent torque control. This offers the potential for class II correction using inter-maxillary traction without the usual iatrogenic effects associated with their use. A case is presented showing the potential of these appliances in controlling torque and achieving full class II correction on a non-extraction basis.

  11. Efficiency of Class I and Class II malocclusion treatment with four premolar extractions

    PubMed Central

    JANSON, Guilherme; NAKAMURA, Alexandre; BARROS, Sérgio Estelita; BOMBONATTI, Roberto; CHIQUETO, Kelly

    2014-01-01

    Four premolar extractions is a successful protocol to treat Class I malocclusion, but it is a less efficient way when compared with other Class II treatment protocols. Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of anteroposterior discrepancy on the success of four premolar extractions protocol. For that, treatment efficiency of Class I and complete Class II malocclusions, treated with four premolar extractions were compared. Methods: A sample of 107 records from 75 Class I (mean age of 13.98 years - group 1) and 32 Class II (mean age of 13.19 years - group 2) malocclusion patients treated with four premolar extractions was selected. The initial and final occlusal status of each patient was evaluated on dental casts with the PAR index. The treatment time was calculated based on the clinical charts, and the treatment efficiency was obtained by the ratio between the percentage of PAR reduction and treatment time. The PAR index and its components, the treatment time and the treatment efficiency of the groups were statistically compared with t tests and Mann-Whitney U-test. Results: The Class II malocclusion patients had a greater final PAR index than Class I malocclusion patients, and similar duration (Class I - 28.95 mo. and Class II - 28.10 mo.) and treatment efficiency. Conclusion: The treatment of the complete Class II malocclusion with four premolar extractions presented worse occlusal results than Class I malocclusion owing to incomplete molar relationship correction. PMID:24918660

  12. Class I and class II ribonuclease H activities in Crithidia fasciculata (Protozoa).

    PubMed

    Vonwirth, H; Köck, J; Büsen, W

    1991-01-15

    The protozoan Crithidia fasciculata contains two different ribonuclease H activities. These enzymes display similar physical and biochemical characteristics to their homologues in higher eukaryotes, for instance calf thymus class I and class II ribonuclease H. Class I ribonuclease H of lower and higher eukaryotes can be activated by Mg2(+)- and Mn2(+)-ions. However, the presence of Mn2(+)-ions is inhibitory for the Mg2(+)-dependent class II ribonuclease H activity of Crithidia fasciculata and calf thymus. The protozoan class I-homologue enzyme appears to be serologically related to the class I ribonuclease H of calf thymus.

  13. Engineering of chimeric class II polyhydroxyalkanoate synthases.

    PubMed

    Niamsiri, Nuttawee; Delamarre, Soazig C; Kim, Young-Rok; Batt, Carl A

    2004-11-01

    PHA synthase is a key enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs). Using a combinatorial genetic strategy to create unique chimeric class II PHA synthases, we have obtained a number of novel chimeras which display improved catalytic properties. To engineer the chimeric PHA synthases, we constructed a synthetic phaC gene from Pseudomonas oleovorans (phaC1Po) that was devoid of an internal 540-bp fragment. Randomly amplified PCR products (created with primers based on conserved phaC sequences flanking the deleted internal fragment) were generated using genomic DNA isolated from soil and were substituted for the 540-bp internal region. The chimeric genes were expressed in a PHA-negative strain of Ralstonia eutropha, PHB(-)4 (DSM 541). Out of 1,478 recombinant clones screened for PHA production, we obtained five different chimeric phaC1Po genes that produced more PHA than the native phaC1Po. Chimeras S1-71, S4-8, S5-58, S3-69, and S3-44 exhibited 1.3-, 1.4-, 2.0-, 2.1-, and 3.0-fold-increased levels of in vivo activity, respectively. All of the mutants mediated the synthesis of PHAs with a slightly increased molar fraction of 3-hydroxyoctanoate; however, the weight-average molecular weights (Mw) of the PHAs in all cases remained almost the same. Based upon DNA sequence analyses, the various phaC fragments appear to have originated from Pseudomonas fluorescens and Pseudomonas aureofaciens. The amino acid sequence analyses showed that the chimeric proteins had 17 to 20 amino acid differences from the wild-type phaC1Po, and these differences were clustered in the same positions in the five chimeric clones. A threading model of PhaC1Po, developed based on homology of the enzyme to the Burkholderia glumae lipase, suggested that the amino acid substitutions found in the active chimeras were located mostly on the protein model surface. Thus, our combinatorial genetic engineering strategy proved to be broadly useful for improving the catalytic

  14. Management of Class II malocclusion with ectopic maxillary canines

    PubMed Central

    Mascarenhas, Rohan; Parveen, Shahista; Ansari, Tariq Aziz

    2015-01-01

    Correction of Class II relationship, deep bite and ectopically erupting canines is an orthodontic challenge for the clinician. A 13-year-old male patient presented with Class II malocclusion, ectopically erupting canines, and cross bite with maxillary left lateral incisor. He was treated with a combination of Headgear, Forsus™ fatigue resistant device [FFRD] with fixed mechanotherapy for the management of space deficiency and correction of Class II malocclusions. Headgear was used to distalize upper first molars and also to prevent further downward and forward growth of the maxilla. Then Forsus™ FFRD was used for the advancement of the mandible. The molar and canine relationship were corrected from a Class II to a Class I. The objectives were to establish good occlusion and enable eruption of unerupted canines. All these objectives were achieved and remained stable. PMID:26097371

  15. Archform Comparisons between Skeletal Class II and III Malocclusions

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, JiuHui; Xu, TianMin; Li, CuiYing

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this cross-sectional research was to explore the relationship of the mandibular dental and basal bone archforms between severe Skeletal Class II (SC2) and Skeletal Class III (SC3) malocclusions. We also compared intercanine and intermolar widths in these two malocclusion types. Thirty-three virtual pretreatment mandibular models (Skeletal Class III group) and Thirty-five Skeletal Class II group pretreatment models were created with a laser scanning system. FA (the midpoint of the facial axis of the clinical crown)and WALA points (the most prominent point on the soft-tissue ridge)were employed to produce dental and basal bone archforms, respectively. Gained scatter diagrams of the samples were processed by nonlinear regression analysis via SPSS 17.0. The mandibular dental and basal bone intercanine and intermolar widths were significantly greater in the Skeletal Class III group compared to the Skeletal Class II group. In both groups, a moderate correlation existed between dental and basal bone arch widths in the canine region, and a high correlation existed between dental and basal bone arch widths in the molar region. The coefficient of correlation of the Skeletal Class III group was greater than the Skeletal Class II group. Fourth degree, even order power functions were used as best-fit functions to fit the scatter plots. The radius of curvature was larger in Skeletal Class III malocclusions compared to Skeletal Class II malocclusions (rWALA3>rWALA2>rFA3>rFA2). In conclusion, mandibular dental and basal intercanine and intermolar widths were significantly different between the two groups. Compared with Skeletal Class II subjects, the mandibular archform was more flat for Skeletal Class III subjects. PMID:24971597

  16. Active site nanospace of aminoacyl tRNA synthetase: difference between the class I and class II synthetases.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Saheb; Choudhury, Kaberi; Banik, Sindrila Dutta; Nandi, Nilashis

    2014-03-01

    The present work is aimed at understanding the origin of the difference in the molecular organization of the active site nanospaces of the class I and class II aminoacyl tRNA synthetases (aaRSs) which are tunnel-like structures. The active site encloses the cognate amino acid (AA) and the adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to carry out aminoacylation reaction. Comparison of the structures of the active site of the class I and class II (aaRSs) shows that the nanodimensional tunnels are curved in opposite directions in the two classes. We investigated the origin of this difference using quantum mechanical computation of electrostatic potential (ESP) of substrates, surrounding residues and ions, using Atoms in Molecule (AIM) Theory and charge population analysis. We show that the difference is principally due to the variation in the spatial charge distribution of ATP in the two classes which correspond to extended and bent conformations of ATP. The present computation shows that the most feasible pathway for nucleophilic attack to alphaP is oppositely directed for class I and class II aaRSs. The available crystal structures show that the cognate AA is indeed located along the channel favorable for nucleophilic attack as predicted by the ESP analysis. It is also shown that the direction of the channel changes its orientation when the orientation of ATP is changed from extended to a bent like structure. We further used the AIM theory to confirm the direction of the approach of AA in each case and the results corroborate the results from the ESP analysis. The opposite curvatures of the active site nanospaces in class I and class II aaRSs are related with the influence of the charge distributions of the extended and bent conformations of ATP, respectively. The results of the computation of electrostatic potential by successive addition of active site residues show that their roles on the reaction are similar in both classes despite the difference in the organization of the

  17. Class II barodontalgia: review and report of a case.

    PubMed

    Woodmansey, Karl

    2008-01-01

    Barodontalgia is a rarely reported condition involving changes in ambient pressure resulting in tooth pain. According to Ferjentsik and Aker, Class II barodontalgia is observed in teeth that have pre-existing pulpal disease and an ultimate diagnosis of irreversible pulpitis.1 This article describes a case of Class II barodontalgia that was experienced on a commercial airline flight and reviews current knowledge regarding this phenomenon, including proposed etiologic mechanisms.

  18. Functional analysis of Mycoplasma arthritidis-derived mitogen interactions with class II molecules.

    PubMed Central

    Bernatchez, C; Al-Daccak, R; Mayer, P E; Mehindate, K; Rink, L; Mecheri, S; Mourad, W

    1997-01-01

    The ability of superantigens (SAGs) to trigger various cellular events via major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules is largely mediated by their mode of interaction. Having two MHC class II binding sites, staphylococcal enterotoxin A (SEA) is able to dimerize MHC class II molecules on the cell surface and consequently induces cytokine gene expression in human monocytes. In contrast, cross-linking with specific monoclonal antibodies or T-cell receptor is required for staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) and toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 (TSST-1) to induce similar responses. In the present study, we report how Mycoplasma arthritidis-derived mitogen (MAM) may interact with MHC class II molecules to induce cytokine gene expression in human monocytes. The data presented indicate that MAM-induced cytokine gene expression in human monocytes is Zn2+ dependent. The MAM-induced response is completely abolished by pretreatment with SEA mutants that have lost their capacity to bind either the MHC class II alpha or beta chain, with wild-type SEB, or with wild-type TSST-1, suggesting that MAM induces cytokine gene expression most probably by inducing dimerization of class II molecules. In addition, it seems that SEA and MAM interact with the same or overlapping binding sites on the MHC class II beta chain and, on the other hand, that they bind to the alpha chain most probably through the regions that are involved in SEB and TSST-1 binding. PMID:9169724

  19. Diagnostic features of Angle's Class II div 2 malocclusion

    PubMed Central

    Dodda, Kiran Kumar; Prasad, Singamsetty E. R. V.; Kanuru, Ravi Krishna; Nalluri, Siddhartha; Mittapalli, Radhika; Raghavendra

    2015-01-01

    Statement of Problem: A thorough knowledge of the salient features of malocclusion makes the practitioner to come to a proper diagnosis and to formulate proper mechanotherapy. It also helps to predict the prognosis, prior to the onset of treatment process. Among the various malocclusions, Class II div 2 occurs the least often. The literature review does not clearly describe the classical skeletal and dental features of Angle's Class II div 2 malocclusion. Purpose of Study: The aim of this study is to describe the unique features of Angle's Class II division 2 malocclusion. Materials and Methods: A total of 612 pre-treatment records (study models and cephalograms), with age ranging from 14 to 25 years, were obtained from the hospital records of Drs Sudha and Nageswar Rao Siddhartha Institute of Dental Sciences. Among these samples, 317 were Class II div 1 and 295 were Class II div 2. The lateral cephalograms were analyzed by using Kodak software and the arch width analysis was calculated by using digital vernier calipers. Results: Student's t test was used for the study. On the cephalograms, the vertical skeletal measurements and few of the dental variables showed a significant difference. On the plaster models, the maxillary transverse measurements revealed a notable discrimination between the groups. Conclusion: Angle's Class II div 2 malocclusion has a marked horizontal growth pattern with decreased lower facial thirds, palatally inclined upper anteriors, and remarkably increased transverse maxillary arch dimensions. PMID:26759807

  20. Evolution of major histocompatibility complex class I and class II genes in the brown bear

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) proteins constitute an essential component of the vertebrate immune response, and are coded by the most polymorphic of the vertebrate genes. Here, we investigated sequence variation and evolution of MHC class I and class II DRB, DQA and DQB genes in the brown bear Ursus arctos to characterise the level of polymorphism, estimate the strength of positive selection acting on them, and assess the extent of gene orthology and trans-species polymorphism in Ursidae. Results We found 37 MHC class I, 16 MHC class II DRB, four DQB and two DQA alleles. We confirmed the expression of several loci: three MHC class I, two DRB, two DQB and one DQA. MHC class I also contained two clusters of non-expressed sequences. MHC class I and DRB allele frequencies differed between northern and southern populations of the Scandinavian brown bear. The rate of nonsynonymous substitutions (dN) exceeded the rate of synonymous substitutions (dS) at putative antigen binding sites of DRB and DQB loci and, marginally significantly, at MHC class I loci. Models of codon evolution supported positive selection at DRB and MHC class I loci. Both MHC class I and MHC class II sequences showed orthology to gene clusters found in the giant panda Ailuropoda melanoleuca. Conclusions Historical positive selection has acted on MHC class I, class II DRB and DQB, but not on the DQA locus. The signal of historical positive selection on the DRB locus was particularly strong, which may be a general feature of caniforms. The presence of MHC class I pseudogenes may indicate faster gene turnover in this class through the birth-and-death process. South–north population structure at MHC loci probably reflects origin of the populations from separate glacial refugia. PMID:23031405

  1. 18 CFR 415.21 - Class II projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Class II projects. 415.21 Section 415.21 Conservation of Power and Water Resources DELAWARE RIVER BASIN COMMISSION... part, include all projects other than Class I projects, in non-tidal areas of the basin, which...

  2. 18 CFR 415.21 - Class II projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Class II projects. 415.21 Section 415.21 Conservation of Power and Water Resources DELAWARE RIVER BASIN COMMISSION... part, include all projects other than Class I projects, in non-tidal areas of the basin, which...

  3. 18 CFR 415.21 - Class II projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Class II projects. 415.21 Section 415.21 Conservation of Power and Water Resources DELAWARE RIVER BASIN COMMISSION... part, include all projects other than Class I projects, in non-tidal areas of the basin, which...

  4. 18 CFR 415.21 - Class II projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Class II projects. 415.21 Section 415.21 Conservation of Power and Water Resources DELAWARE RIVER BASIN COMMISSION... part, include all projects other than Class I projects, in non-tidal areas of the basin, which...

  5. Blocking MHC class II on human endothelium mitigates acute rejection

    PubMed Central

    Abrahimi, Parwiz; Qin, Lingfeng; Chang, William G.; Bothwell, Alfred L.M.; Tellides, George; Saltzman, W. Mark; Pober, Jordan S.

    2016-01-01

    Acute allograft rejection is mediated by host CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) targeting graft class I major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules. In experimental rodent models, rejection requires differentiation of naive CD8+ T cells into alloreactive CTL within secondary lymphoid organs, whereas in humans, CTL may alternatively develop within the graft from circulating CD8+ effector memory T cells (TEM) that recognize class I MHC molecules on graft endothelial cells (EC). This latter pathway is poorly understood. Here, we show that host CD4+ TEM, activated by EC class II MHC molecules, provide critical help for this process. First, blocking HLA-DR on EC lining human artery grafts in immunodeficient mice reduces CD8+ CTL development within and acute rejection of the artery by adoptively transferred allogeneic human lymphocytes. Second, siRNA knockdown or CRISPR/Cas9 ablation of class II MHC molecules on EC prevents CD4+ TEM from helping CD8+ TEM to develop into CTL in vitro. Finally, implanted synthetic microvessels, formed from CRISPR/Cas9-modified EC lacking class II MHC molecules, are significantly protected from CD8+ T cell–mediated destruction in vivo. We conclude that human CD8+ TEM–mediated rejection targeting graft EC class I MHC molecules requires help from CD4+ TEM cells activated by recognition of class II MHC molecules. PMID:26900601

  6. HLA class II genes: typing by DNA analysis.

    PubMed

    Bidwell, J L; Bidwell, E A; Bradley, B A

    1990-04-01

    A detailed understanding of the structure and function of the human major histocompatibility complex (MHC) has ensued from studies by molecular biologist during the last decade. Virtually all of the HLA genes have now been cloned, and the nucleotide sequences of their different allelic forms have been determined. Typing for these HLA alleles is a fundamental prerequisite for tissue matching in allogeneic organ transplantation. Until very recently, typing procedures have been dominated by serological and cellular methods. The availability of cloned DNA from HLA genes has now permitted the technique of restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis to be applied, with remarkable success and advantage, to phenotyping of both HLA Class I and Class II determinants. For the HLA Class II genes DR and DQ, a simple two-stage RFLP analysis permits the accurate identification of all specificities defined by serology, and of many which are defined by cellular typing. At the present time, however, RFLP typing of HLA Class I genes is not as practicable or as informative as that for HLA Class II genes. The present clinical applications of HLA-DR and DQ RFLP typing are predominantly in phenotyping of living donors, including selection of HLA-matched volunteer bone marrow donors, in allograft survival studies, and in studies of HLA Class II-associated diseases. However, the time taken to perform RFLP analysis precludes its use for the typing of cadaveric kidney donors. Nucleotide sequence data for the alleles of HLA Class II genes have now permitted the development of allele-specific oligonucleotide (ASO) typing, a second category of DNA analysis. This has been greatly facilitated by the ability to amplify specific HLA Class II DNA 'target' sequences using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique. The accuracy of DNA typing techniques should ensure that this methodology will eventually replace conventional HLA phenotyping.

  7. 40 CFR 144.19 - Transitioning from Class II to Class VI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Transitioning from Class II to Class VI. 144.19 Section 144.19 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAM General Program Requirements §...

  8. 40 CFR 144.19 - Transitioning from Class II to Class VI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Transitioning from Class II to Class VI. 144.19 Section 144.19 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAM General Program Requirements §...

  9. 40 CFR 144.19 - Transitioning from Class II to Class VI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Transitioning from Class II to Class VI. 144.19 Section 144.19 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAM General Program Requirements §...

  10. Regulation of major histocompatibility complex class II genes

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Nancy M.; Majumder, Parimal; Boss, Jeremy M.

    2010-01-01

    Summary The major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC-II) genes are regulated at the level of transcription. Recent studies have shown that chromatin modification is critical for efficient transcription of these genes, and a number of chromatin modifying complexes recruited to MHC-II genes have been described. The MHC-II genes are segregated from each other by a series of chromatin elements, termed MHC-II insulators. Interactions between MHC-insulators and the promoters of MHC-II genes are mediated by the insulator factor CCCTC-binding protein and are critical for efficient expression. This regulatory mechanism provides a novel view of how the entire MHC-II locus is assembled architecturally and can be coordinately controlled. PMID:20970972

  11. Contrasting evolutionary histories of MHC class I and class II loci in grouse—Effects of selection and gene conversion

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Minias, Piotr; Bateson, Zachary W; Whittingham, Linda A; Johnson, Jeff A.; Oyler-McCance, Sara J.; Dunn, Peter O

    2016-01-01

    Genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) encode receptor molecules that are responsible for recognition of intracellular and extracellular pathogens (class I and class II genes, respectively) in vertebrates. Given the different roles of class I and II MHC genes, one might expect the strength of selection to differ between these two classes. Different selective pressures may also promote different rates of gene conversion at each class. Despite these predictions, surprisingly few studies have looked at differences between class I and II genes in terms of both selection and gene conversion. Here, we investigated the molecular evolution of MHC class I and II genes in five closely related species of prairie grouse (Centrocercus and Tympanuchus) that possess one class I and two class II loci. We found striking differences in the strength of balancing selection acting on MHC class I versus class II genes. More than half of the putative antigen-binding sites (ABS) of class II were under positive or episodic diversifying selection, compared with only 10% at class I. We also found that gene conversion had a stronger role in shaping the evolution of MHC class II than class I. Overall, the combination of strong positive (balancing) selection and frequent gene conversion has maintained higher diversity of MHC class II than class I in prairie grouse. This is one of the first studies clearly demonstrating that macroevolutionary mechanisms can act differently on genes involved in the immune response against intracellular and extracellular pathogens.

  12. PowerScope a Class II corrector - A case report.

    PubMed

    Paulose, Joby; Antony, Palathottungal Joseph; Sureshkumar, Brijesh; George, Susha Mariam; Mathew, Manu Mundackal; Sebastian, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Managing mild to moderate Class II malocclusion is a one of the common and major challenges to orthodontists. Class II discrepancies with mandibular deficiency during active growth are usually treated by myofunctional appliances. Fixed functional appliances evolved due to the noncompliance with conventional myofunctional appliances. This case report illustrates the efficiency of PowerScope in correction of skeletal Class II with mandibular deficiency in a patient aged 13 years who has reported to the department with a chief complaint of forwardly placed upper front teeth. This case with functional jaw retrusion was treated initially with MBT 0.022" prescription followed by PowerScope. Pre-, mid- and post-treatment cephalograms were obtained, and cephalometric analysis was performed. Stable and successful results were obtained with a substantial improvement in facial profile, skeletal jaw relationship, and overall esthetic appearance of the patient. A significant forward displacement of the mandible was the principal element for successful correction of Class II malocclusion. PowerScope provides the best results for Class II management, thus enables us to treat such cases by a nonextraction approach rather than contemplating extractions. PMID:27307671

  13. Airway in Class I and Class II skeletal pattern: A computed tomography study

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Deepthi; Varma, Sapna; Ajith, V. V.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives: A normal airway is required for the normal growth of the craniofacial structures. The present study was designed to evaluate and compare the airway in Class I and Class II skeletal pattern and to see if there is any association between the airway and maxillomandibular relationship. Materials and Methods: Peripheral nervous system computed tomography scans of 30 patients were divided into two groups as Class I (ANB ≤ 4.5°), Class II (ANB ≥ 4.5°). The Dolphin three-dimensional version 11 was used to assess the airway. Statistical Analysis: Correlations between the variables were tested with the Pearson correlation coefficient. Independent sample t-test was performed to compare the averages between the two groups. P < 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results: The ANB angle was negatively correlated with all the airway parameters. The airway area and volume was significantly reduced in Class II subjects compared to Class I. Conclusion: The results suggest a strong association between the airway and skeletal pattern showing a reduced airway in Class II patients with a high ANB angle. PMID:26321823

  14. Phylogenetic relationships of class II fumarase genes from trichomonad species.

    PubMed

    Gerbod, D; Edgcomb, V P; Noël, C; Vanácová, S; Wintjens, R; Tachezy, J; Sogin, M L; Viscogliosi, E

    2001-08-01

    Class II fumarase sequences were obtained by polymerase chain reaction from five trichomonad species. All residues known to be highly conserved in this enzyme were present. Nuclear run-on assays showed that one of the two genes identified in Tritrichomonas foetus was expressed, whereas no fumarase transcripts were detected in the related species Trichomonas vaginalis. These findings corroborate previous biochemical data. Fumarase genes were also expressed in Monocercomonas sp. and Tetratrichomonas gallinarum but not in Pentatrichomonas hominis, Trichomonas gallinae, Trichomonas tenax, and Trichomitus batrachorum under the culture conditions used. Molecular trees inferred by likelihood methods reveal that trichomonad sequences have no affinity to described class II fumarase genes from other eukaryotes. The absence of functional mitochondria in protists such as trichomonads suggests that they diverged from other eukaryotes prior to the alpha-proteobacterial symbiosis that led to mitochondria. Furthermore, they are basal to other eukaryotes in rRNA analyses. However, support for the early-branching status of trichomonads and other amitochondriate protists based on phylogenetic analyses of multiple data sets has been equivocal. Although the presence of hydrogenosomes suggests that trichomonads once had mitochondria, their class II iron-independent fumarase sequences differ markedly from those of other mitochondriate eukaryotes. All of the class II fumarase genes described from other eukaryotes are of apparent alpha-proteobacterial origin and hence a marker of mitochondrial evolution. In contrast, the class II fumarase from trichomonads emerges among other eubacterial homologs. This is intriguing evidence for an independent acquisition of these genes in trichomonads apart from the mitochondrial endosymbiosis event that gave rise to the form present in other eukaryotes. The ancestral trichomonad class II fumarase may represent a prokaryotic form that was replaced in

  15. Phylogenetic relationships of class II fumarase genes from trichomonad species.

    PubMed

    Gerbod, D; Edgcomb, V P; Noël, C; Vanácová, S; Wintjens, R; Tachezy, J; Sogin, M L; Viscogliosi, E

    2001-08-01

    Class II fumarase sequences were obtained by polymerase chain reaction from five trichomonad species. All residues known to be highly conserved in this enzyme were present. Nuclear run-on assays showed that one of the two genes identified in Tritrichomonas foetus was expressed, whereas no fumarase transcripts were detected in the related species Trichomonas vaginalis. These findings corroborate previous biochemical data. Fumarase genes were also expressed in Monocercomonas sp. and Tetratrichomonas gallinarum but not in Pentatrichomonas hominis, Trichomonas gallinae, Trichomonas tenax, and Trichomitus batrachorum under the culture conditions used. Molecular trees inferred by likelihood methods reveal that trichomonad sequences have no affinity to described class II fumarase genes from other eukaryotes. The absence of functional mitochondria in protists such as trichomonads suggests that they diverged from other eukaryotes prior to the alpha-proteobacterial symbiosis that led to mitochondria. Furthermore, they are basal to other eukaryotes in rRNA analyses. However, support for the early-branching status of trichomonads and other amitochondriate protists based on phylogenetic analyses of multiple data sets has been equivocal. Although the presence of hydrogenosomes suggests that trichomonads once had mitochondria, their class II iron-independent fumarase sequences differ markedly from those of other mitochondriate eukaryotes. All of the class II fumarase genes described from other eukaryotes are of apparent alpha-proteobacterial origin and hence a marker of mitochondrial evolution. In contrast, the class II fumarase from trichomonads emerges among other eubacterial homologs. This is intriguing evidence for an independent acquisition of these genes in trichomonads apart from the mitochondrial endosymbiosis event that gave rise to the form present in other eukaryotes. The ancestral trichomonad class II fumarase may represent a prokaryotic form that was replaced in

  16. Plastid Class I and Cytosol Class II Aldolase of Euglena gracilis (Purification and Characterization).

    PubMed Central

    Pelzer-Reith, B.; Wiegand, S.; Schnarrenberger, C.

    1994-01-01

    The plastidic class I and cytosolic class II aldolases of Euglena gracilis have been purified to apparent homogeneity. In autotrophically grown cells, up to 81% of the total activity is due to class I activity, whereas in heterotrophically grown cells, it is only 7%. The class I aldolase has been purified to a specific activity of 20 units/mg protein by anion-exchange chromatography, affinity chromatography, and gel filtration. The native enzyme (molecular mass 160 kD) consisted of four identical subunits of 40 kD. The class II aldolase was purified to a specific activity of 21 units/mg by (NH4)2SO4 fractionation, anion-exchange chromatography, chromatography on hydroxylapatite, and gel filtration. The native enzyme (molecular mass 80 kD) consisted of two identical subunits of 38 kD. The Km (fructose-1,6-bisphosphate) values were 12 [mu]M for the class I enzyme and 175 [mu]M for the class II enzyme. The class II aldolase was inhibited by 1 mM ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA), 0.8 mM cysteine, 0.5 mM Zn2+, or 0.5 mM Cu2+. Na+, K+, Rb+, and NH4+ (but not Li+ or Cs+) enhanced the activity up to 7-fold. After inactivation by EDTA, the activity could be partially restored by Mn2+, Cu2+, or Co2+. A subclassification of class II aldolases is proposed based on (a) activation/inhibition by Cys and (b) activation or not by divalent ions. PMID:12232396

  17. In vitro digestion with proteases producing MHC class II ligands.

    PubMed

    Tohmé, Mira; Maschalidi, Sophia; Manoury, Bénédicte

    2013-01-01

    Proteases generate peptides that bind to MHC class II molecules to interact with a wide diversity of CD4(+) T cells. They are expressed in dedicated organelles: endosomes and lysosomes of professional antigen presenting cells (pAPCs) such as B cells, macrophages, and dendritic cells. The identification of endosomal proteases which produce antigenic peptides is important, for example, for better vaccination and to prevent autoimmune diseases. Here, we describe a panel of technics (in vitro digestion assays of protein with recombinant proteases or purified endosomes/lysosomes, T cell stimulation) to monitor the production of MHC class II ligands. PMID:23329510

  18. An innovative approach to Class II preparation and restoration.

    PubMed

    Haase, S L

    1998-01-01

    When patients exhibit Class II defects requiring restoration, the treatment modality and respective preparation requirements may present challenges to the clinician. Aesthetics, chairside time, and expense become factors for the consideration of both dentist and patient. However, a new sonically driven system for the preparation and restoration of proximal defects was recently introduced (SONICSYS, Ivoclar Vivadent, Amherst, NY). This system, composed of diamond-coated tips and prefabricated ceramic inserts, promises to enable clinicians to efficiently, confidently, and expertly prepare and restore Class II defects in a timely, consistent, and cost-efficient manner. This article describes the components of the system and demonstrates its utilization in a case report.

  19. Mice lacking all conventional MHC class II genes

    PubMed Central

    Madsen, Lars; Labrecque, Nathalie; Engberg, Jan; Dierich, Andrée; Svejgaard, Arne; Benoist, Christophe; Mathis, Diane; Fugger, Lars

    1999-01-01

    MHC class II (MHC-II) molecules play a central role in the selection of the T cell repertoire, in the establishment and regulation of the adaptive immune response, and in autoimmune deviation. We have generated knockout mice lacking all four of the classical murine MHC-II genes (MHCIIΔ/Δ mice), via a large (80-kilobase) deletion of the entire class II region that was engineered by homologous recombination and Cre recombinase-mediated excision. These mice feature immune system perturbations like those of Aα and Aβ knockout animals, notably a dearth of CD4+ lymphocytes in the thymus and spleen. No new anatomical or physiological abnormalities were observed in MHCIIΔ/Δ mice. Because these animals are devoid of all classical MHC-II chains, even unpaired chains, they make excellent recipients for MHC-II transgenes from other species, avoiding the problem of interspecies cross-pairing of MHC-II chains. Therefore, they should be invaluable for engineering “humanized” mouse models of human MHC-II-associated autoimmune disorders. PMID:10468609

  20. 40 CFR 147.3400 - Navajo Indian lands-Class II wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Navajo Indian lands-Class II wells... Indian Lands § 147.3400 Navajo Indian lands—Class II wells. The UIC program for Class II injection wells... granted the Navajo Nation primacy for the SDWA Class II UIC program”), is the program administered by...

  1. 40 CFR 147.3400 - Navajo Indian lands-Class II wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Navajo Indian lands-Class II wells... Indian Lands § 147.3400 Navajo Indian lands—Class II wells. The UIC program for Class II injection wells... granted the Navajo Nation primacy for the SDWA Class II UIC program”), is the program administered by...

  2. The stamp technique for direct Class II composite restorations: A case series

    PubMed Central

    Alshehadat, Saaid Ayesh; Halim, Mohamad Syahrizal; Carmen, Koh; Fung, Chew Shi

    2016-01-01

    Background: “Stamp” technique is a new method for placing large composite restorations with accurate occlusal topography. It was introduced mainly to restore Class I cavities and erosively damaged teeth. This technique is indicated when the preoperative anatomy of the tooth is intact and not lost due to the carious lesion. A precise tooth-like filling an accurate functional occlusion is obtained when the stamp technique is applied. However, using this technique to restore Class II cavities is not established yet. Aim: To introduce modifications of the stamp technique that make it applicable to restore Class II composite restorations. Materials and Methods: The traditional materials and tools used for direct composite restorations are needed with no additional instruments. Clinical illustrations and step-by-step description are provided in this paper. Results and Conclusion: Using the stamp technique to restore Class II cavities is achievable, simple and practical, and result in a very accurate anatomical restoration. PMID:27656074

  3. The stamp technique for direct Class II composite restorations: A case series

    PubMed Central

    Alshehadat, Saaid Ayesh; Halim, Mohamad Syahrizal; Carmen, Koh; Fung, Chew Shi

    2016-01-01

    Background: “Stamp” technique is a new method for placing large composite restorations with accurate occlusal topography. It was introduced mainly to restore Class I cavities and erosively damaged teeth. This technique is indicated when the preoperative anatomy of the tooth is intact and not lost due to the carious lesion. A precise tooth-like filling an accurate functional occlusion is obtained when the stamp technique is applied. However, using this technique to restore Class II cavities is not established yet. Aim: To introduce modifications of the stamp technique that make it applicable to restore Class II composite restorations. Materials and Methods: The traditional materials and tools used for direct composite restorations are needed with no additional instruments. Clinical illustrations and step-by-step description are provided in this paper. Results and Conclusion: Using the stamp technique to restore Class II cavities is achievable, simple and practical, and result in a very accurate anatomical restoration.

  4. Expression of major histocompatibility complex class II and costimulatory molecules in oral carcinomas in vitro.

    PubMed

    Villarroel-Dorrego, Mariana; Speight, Paul M; Barrett, A William

    2005-01-01

    Recognition in the 1980 s that keratinocytes can express class II molecules of the Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) first raised the possibility that these cells might have an immunological function, and may even act as antigen presenting cells (APC). For effective T lymphocyte activation, APC require, in addition to MHC II, appropriate costimulatory signals. The aim of this study was to determine the expression of MHC class II and the co-stimulatory molecules CD40, CD80 and CD86 in keratinocytes derived from healthy oral mucosa and oral carcinomas. Using flow cytometry, it was confirmed that oral keratinocytes, switch on, expression of MHC class II molecules after stimulation with IFNgamma in vitro. All keratinocyte lines expressed CD40 constitutively; by contrast, CD80 and CD86 were universally absent. Loss of CD80 and CD86 may be one means whereby tumours escape immunological surveillance.

  5. Treatment of Class II open bite in the mixed dentition with a removable functional appliance and headgear.

    PubMed

    Ngan, P; Wilson, S; Florman, M; Wei, S H

    1992-05-01

    Early diagnosis of patients exhibiting open bites that are complicated by skeletal Class II and vertical growth problems can facilitate subsequent treatment. Eight patients with Class II skeletal open bite were treated with the high-pull activator appliance and compared to reasonably matched controls to determine the effects of the appliance. The high-pull activator was found to reduce forward growth of the maxilla and increase mandibular alveolar height, transforming the Class II molar relationship into a Class I molar relationship. The overjet and open bite were decreased, and, in addition, the appliance reduced the amount of forward and downward movement of the maxillary molars, providing vertical control of the maxilla during Class II orthopedic correction. These results demonstrated that open bite complicated by a Class II vertical growth pattern can be treated during the mixed dentition with favorable results by a combination of a removable functional appliance and high-pull headgear.

  6. Class II HDAC Inhibition Hampers Hepatic Stellate Cell Activation by Induction of MicroRNA-29

    PubMed Central

    Mannaerts, Inge; Eysackers, Nathalie; Onyema, Oscar O.; Van Beneden, Katrien; Valente, Sergio; Mai, Antonello; Odenthal, Margarete; van Grunsven, Leo A.

    2013-01-01

    Background The conversion of a quiescent vitamin A storing hepatic stellate cell (HSC) to a matrix producing, contractile myofibroblast-like activated HSC is a key event in the onset of liver disease following injury of any aetiology. Previous studies have shown that class I histone deacetylases (HDACs) are involved in the phenotypical changes occurring during stellate cell activation in liver and pancreas. Aims In the current study we investigate the role of class II HDACs during HSC activation. Methods We characterized the expression of the class II HDACs freshly isolated mouse HSCs. We inhibited HDAC activity by selective pharmacological inhibition with MC1568, and by repressing class II HDAC gene expression using specific siRNAs. Results Inhibition of HDAC activity leads to a strong reduction of HSC activation markers α-SMA, lysyl oxidase and collagens as well as an inhibition of cell proliferation. Knock down experiments showed that HDAC4 contributes to HSC activation by regulating lysyl oxidase expression. In addition, we observed a strong up regulation of miR-29, a well-known anti-fibrotic miR, upon treatment with MC1568. Our in vivo work suggests that a successful inhibition of class II HDACs could be promising for development of future anti-fibrotic compounds. Conclusions In conclusion, the use of MC1568 has enabled us to identify a role for class II HDACs regulating miR-29 during HSC activation. PMID:23383282

  7. MHC class II DR allelic diversity in bighorn sheep

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We hypothesized that decreased diversity and/or unique polymorphisms in MHC class II alleles of bighorn sheep (BHS, Ovis canadensis) are responsible for lower titer of antibodies against Mannheimia haemolytica leukotoxin, in comparison to domestic sheep (DS, Ovis aries). To test this hypothesis, DRA...

  8. Class II malocclusion nonextraction treatment with growth control*

    PubMed Central

    Assunção, Zilda Lúcia Valentim

    2014-01-01

    The present study reports a case of Angle Class II malocclusion treatment of a male growing patient with 10-mm overjet, excessive overbite and transverse maxillary deficiency. The case was presented to the Brazilian Board of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics (BBO), with DI equal to or greater than 10, as a requirement for the title of certified by the BBO. PMID:25628088

  9. HLA class II and autoimmunity: epitope selection vs differential expression.

    PubMed

    Müller-Hilke, Brigitte

    2009-01-01

    Autoimmune diseases like rheumatoid arthritis (RA), multiple sclerosis, psoriasis and insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus are subject to a complex pathogenesis controlled by multiple genes and numerous environmental factors. The strongest genetic association is with certain HLA class II haplotypes and we here summarize the evidence supporting differential expression as a mechanism supporting the autoimmune process. PMID:19118870

  10. 18 CFR 415.21 - Class II projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Class II projects. 415.21 Section 415.21 Conservation of Power and Water Resources DELAWARE RIVER BASIN COMMISSION ADMINISTRATIVE MANUAL BASIN REGULATIONS-FLOOD PLAIN REGULATIONS Types of Projects and Jurisdiction § 415.21...

  11. Anti-class II antibodies in AIDS patients and AIDS-risk groups.

    PubMed Central

    de la Barrera, S; Fainboim, L; Lugo, S; Picchio, G R; Muchinik, G R; de Bracco, M M

    1987-01-01

    The specificity of anti-lymphocyte antibodies was evaluated in AIDS patients and in individuals at risk of AIDS [R-AIDS: male homosexuals (Ho) and haemophiliacs (He)]. Antibodies capable of inducing antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) against non-T cells and lymphoblastoid cell lines (P3HR-1K and Raji) were detected in AIDS patients and in R-AIDS with positive or negative human immune deficiency virus (HIV) serology. Anti-class II antigen specificity was revealed by experiments in which class II antigens on target cells were blocked with monoclonal anti-class II antibody (DA6,231) and the cytotoxic reaction induced by patient's sera was abolished. In contrast, ADCC was not impaired by preincubating the target cells with anti-class I monoclonal antibody (W6/32). Prevalence of antibodies to non-T cells was confirmed by standard C-mediated microlymphocytotoxicity. However, with this technique anti-T lymphocyte cytotoxicity was also observed in three AIDS patients with haemophilia. R-AIDS peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were also cytotoxic against autologous non-T cells, and lysis was slightly increased by sensitization of the target cells with autologous serum. In addition to ADCC and C-mediated cytotoxicity, the specificity of anti-lymphocyte antibodies was assayed by their ability to interfere the binding of fluorescein-labelled anti-class II (HLA-DR) and anti-class I (W6/32) monoclonal antibodies to PBMC, non-T cells, P3HR-1K and Raji. Anti-class II specificity was confirmed, and antibody titres tended to be higher in Ho than in He R-AIDS, using non-T cells and Raji as targets. Higher titres of anti-class II antibodies in the Ho group could play a role in the different susceptibility of HIV-infected Ho when compared to HIV (+) He to develop AIDS. PMID:3501399

  12. Assessment of upper airways measurements in patients with mandibular skeletal Class II malocclusion

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Nayanna Nadja e; Lacerda, Rosa Helena Wanderley; Silva, Alexandre Wellos Cunha; Ramos, Tania Braga

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Mandibular Class II malocclusions seem to interfere in upper airways measurements. The aim of this study was to assess the upper airways measurements of patients with skeletal Class II malocclusion in order to investigate the association between these measurements and the position and length of the mandible as well as mandibular growth trend, comparing the Class II group with a Class I one. Methods: A total of 80 lateral cephalograms from 80 individuals aged between 10 and 17 years old were assessed. Forty radiographs of Class I malocclusion individuals were matched by age with forty radiographs of individuals with mandibular Class II malocclusion. McNamara Jr., Ricketts, Downs and Jarabak's measurements were used for cephalometric evaluation. Data were submitted to descriptive and inferential statistical analysis by means of SPSS 20.0 statistical package. Student's t-test, Pearson correlation and intraclass correlation coefficient were used. A 95% confidence interval and 5% significance level were adopted to interpret the results. Results: There were differences between groups. Oropharynx and nasopharynx sizes as well as mandibular position and length were found to be reduced in Class II individuals. There was a statistically significant positive correlation between the size of the oropharynx and Xi-Pm, Co-Gn and SNB measurements. In addition, the size of the nasopharynx was found to be correlated with Xi-Pm, Co-Gn, facial depth, SNB, facial axis and FMA. Conclusion: Individuals with mandibular Class II malocclusion were shown to have upper airways measurements diminished. There was a correlation between mandibular length and position and the size of oropharynx and nasopharynx. PMID:26560826

  13. 25 CFR 522.11 - Individually owned class II gaming operations operating on September 1, 1986.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... THE INTERIOR APPROVAL OF CLASS II AND CLASS III ORDINANCES AND RESOLUTIONS SUBMISSION OF GAMING ORDINANCE OR RESOLUTION § 522.11 Individually owned class II gaming operations operating on September 1... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Individually owned class II gaming operations...

  14. 25 CFR 522.11 - Individually owned class II gaming operations operating on September 1, 1986.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... THE INTERIOR APPROVAL OF CLASS II AND CLASS III ORDINANCES AND RESOLUTIONS SUBMISSION OF GAMING ORDINANCE OR RESOLUTION § 522.11 Individually owned class II gaming operations operating on September 1... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Individually owned class II gaming operations...

  15. 25 CFR 522.11 - Individually owned class II gaming operations operating on September 1, 1986.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... THE INTERIOR APPROVAL OF CLASS II AND CLASS III ORDINANCES AND RESOLUTIONS SUBMISSION OF GAMING ORDINANCE OR RESOLUTION § 522.11 Individually owned class II gaming operations operating on September 1... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Individually owned class II gaming operations...

  16. 25 CFR 522.11 - Individually owned class II gaming operations operating on September 1, 1986.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... THE INTERIOR APPROVAL OF CLASS II AND CLASS III ORDINANCES AND RESOLUTIONS SUBMISSION OF GAMING ORDINANCE OR RESOLUTION § 522.11 Individually owned class II gaming operations operating on September 1... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Individually owned class II gaming operations...

  17. 25 CFR 522.11 - Individually owned class II gaming operations operating on September 1, 1986.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... THE INTERIOR APPROVAL OF CLASS II AND CLASS III ORDINANCES AND RESOLUTIONS SUBMISSION OF GAMING ORDINANCE OR RESOLUTION § 522.11 Individually owned class II gaming operations operating on September 1... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Individually owned class II gaming operations...

  18. Evaluation of arch width among Class I normal occlusion, Class II Division 1, Class II Division 2, and Class III malocclusion in Indian population

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Dolly; Mehta, Falguni; Patel, Nimesh; Mehta, Nishit; Trivedi, Ipist; Mehta, Apexa

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To test the hypothesis that there is no difference between Class I (CI) normal occlusion, Class II division 1 (CIId1) and CII division 2 (CIId2), and Class III (CIII) malocclusion with respect to arch widths, width of the maxillary and mandibular arches, gender dimorphism within groups, and gender comparisons. Materials and Methods: Samples of 40 CI subjects, 40 CIId1 subjects, 40 CIId2 subjects, and 34 CIII subjects were studied. All subjects were Indians with no history of orthodontic treatment. An analysis of variance and Duncan's test statistically compared the groups and genders. Results: CIId1 malocclusion showed the narrowest maxillary arch compared with the other types of malocclusions. CIII malocclusion showed largest mandibular arch than other types of malocclusions. Gender dimorphism is more commonly seen in CI normal occlusion than other types of malocclusions. Gender dimorphism is not observed in CIId1 group. Gender comparisons revealed arch width differences between different types of malocclusions more pronounced in males than in females. The maxillary/mandibular intermolar width difference is positive for CI normal occlusion and negative for CIId1, CIId2, and CIII malocclusions, which suggested, the presence of crossbite tendency in CII and CIII malocclusions. Conclusion: The hypothesis is rejected by the findings of this study. PMID:26604575

  19. Cylindrical bubbles and blobs from a Class II Hydrophobin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russo, Paul; Pham, Michael; Blalock, Brad

    2012-02-01

    Cerato ulmin is a class II hydrophobin. In aqueous suspensions, it easily forms cylindrical air bubbles and cylindrical oil blobs. The conditions for formation of these unusual structures will be discussed, along with scattering and microscopic investigations of their remarkable stability. Possible applications in diverse fields including polymer synthesis and oil spill remediation will be considered. Acknowledgment is made to Dr. Wayne C. Richards of the Canadian Forest Service for the gift of Cerato ulmin.

  20. In silico identification of supertypes for class II MHCs.

    PubMed

    Doytchinova, Irini A; Flower, Darren R

    2005-06-01

    The development of epitope-based vaccines, which have wide population coverage, is greatly complicated by MHC polymorphism. The grouping of alleles into supertypes, on the basis of common structural and functional features, addresses this problem directly. In the present study we applied a combined bioinformatics approach, based on analysis of both protein sequence and structure, to identify similarities in the peptide binding sites of 2225 human class II MHC molecules, and thus define supertypes and supertype fingerprints. Two chemometric techniques were used: hierarchical clustering using three-dimensional Comparative Similarity Indices Analysis fields and nonhierarchical k-means clustering using sequence-based z-descriptors. An average consensus of 84% was achieved, i.e., 1872 of 2225 class II molecules were classified in the same supertype by both techniques. Twelve class II supertypes were defined: five DRs, three DQs, and four DPs. The HLA class II supertypes and their fingerprints given in parenthesis are DR1 (Trp(9beta)), DR3 (Glu(9beta), Gln(70beta), and Gln/Arg(74beta)), DR4 (Glu(9beta), Gln/Arg(70beta), and Glu/Ala(74beta)), DR5 (Glu(9beta), Asp(70beta)), and DR9 (Lys/Gln(9beta)); DQ1 (Ala/Gly(86beta)), DQ2 (Glu(86beta), Lys(71beta)), and DQ3 (Glu(86beta), Thr/Asp(71beta)); DPw1 (Asp(84beta) and Lys(69beta)), DPw2 (Gly/Val(84beta) and Glu(69beta)), DPw4 (Gly/Val(84beta) and Lys(69beta)), and DPw6 (Asp(84beta) and Glu(69beta)). Apart from the good agreement between known binding motifs and our classification, several new supertypes, and corresponding thematic binding motifs, were also defined. PMID:15905552

  1. 48 CFR 22.1019 - Additional classes of service employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... classes of employees perform contract work. The contractor shall submit Standard Form (SF) 1444, Request... together with the agency recommendation) and all other pertinent information to the Wage and Hour Division. Within 30 days of receipt of the request, the Wage and Hour Division will (1) approve, modify,...

  2. Treatment of a Class II deepbite with microimplant anchorage.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyo-Sang; Kim, Ji-Yeun; Kwon, Tae-Geon

    2011-03-01

    The goal of this report was to illustrate new treatment mechanics for using microimplants for the treatment of a Class II Division 2 deepbite malocclusion. A 29-year-old woman with a deepbite was treated with the aid of microimplant anchorage. Microimplants placed between the maxillary second premolars and first molars were used as anchorage to apply a distal force to the anterior teeth to correct the Class II canine and molar relationships. A distal force was applied to long hooks that were crimped between the lateral incisors and the canines. By applying a backward force to the long hooks, the maxillary anterior teeth experienced palatal root movement with no change in the vertical and anteroposterior positions of the incisal edges. The distal extrusive movement of the maxillary second molars achieved by disengaging the second molars from the archwire during distal force application and an anterior bite-block bonded on the lingual surface of the maxillary central incisors produced the increase in vertical dimension. The distal force to the long extended hooks from the microimplants was possibly good mechanics for obtaining the palatal root movement and correcting the Class II canine and molar relationships. The anterior bite-block and disengagement of the maxillary second molars during distal force application were effective for increasing the vertical dimension.

  3. MHC Class II haplotypes of Colombian Amerindian tribes.

    PubMed

    Yunis, Juan J; Yunis, Edmond J; Yunis, Emilio

    2013-07-01

    We analyzed 1041 individuals belonging to 17 Amerindian tribes of Colombia, Chimila, Bari and Tunebo (Chibcha linguistic family), Embera, Waunana (Choco linguistic family), Puinave and Nukak (Maku-Puinave linguistic families), Cubeo, Guanano, Tucano, Desano and Piratapuyo (Tukano linguistic family), Guahibo and Guayabero (Guayabero Linguistic Family), Curripaco and Piapoco (Arawak linguistic family) and Yucpa (Karib linguistic family). for MHC class II haplotypes (HLA-DRB1, DQA1, DQB1). Approximately 90% of the MHC class II haplotypes found among these tribes are haplotypes frequently encountered in other Amerindian tribes. Nonetheless, striking differences were observed among Chibcha and non-Chibcha speaking tribes. The DRB1*04:04, DRB1*04:11, DRB1*09:01 carrying haplotypes were frequently found among non-Chibcha speaking tribes, while the DRB1*04:07 haplotype showed significant frequencies among Chibcha speaking tribes, and only marginal frequencies among non-Chibcha speaking tribes. Our results suggest that the differences in MHC class II haplotype frequency found among Chibcha and non-Chibcha speaking tribes could be due to genetic differentiation in Mesoamerica of the ancestral Amerindian population into Chibcha and non-Chibcha speaking populations before they entered into South America.

  4. Hantavirus Gc glycoprotein: evidence for a class II fusion protein.

    PubMed

    Tischler, Nicole D; Gonzalez, Angel; Perez-Acle, Tomas; Rosemblatt, Mario; Valenzuela, Pablo D T

    2005-11-01

    Hantavirus cell entry is promoted by its envelope glycoproteins, Gn and Gc, through cell attachment and by fusion between viral and endosomal membranes at low pH. However, the role of Gn and Gc in receptor binding and cell fusion has not yet been defined. In this work, a sequence presenting characteristics similar to those of class II fusion peptides (FPs) of alphavirus E1 and flavivirus E proteins is identified within the hantavirus Gc glycoprotein. A three-dimensional comparative molecular model based on crystallographic data of tick-borne encephalitis virus E protein is proposed for the Andes virus (ANDV) Gc ectodomain, which supports a feasible class II fusion-protein fold. In vitro experimental evidence is provided for the binding activity of the ANDV FP candidate to artificial membranes, as demonstrated by fluorescence anisotropy assays. Taken together, these results support the hypothesis that the Gc glycoprotein of hantaviruses and of other members of the family Bunyaviridae directs the viral fusion activity and that it may be classified as a class II viral fusion protein.

  5. MHC Class II haplotypes of Colombian Amerindian tribes

    PubMed Central

    Yunis, Juan J.; Yunis, Edmond J.; Yunis, Emilio

    2013-01-01

    We analyzed 1041 individuals belonging to 17 Amerindian tribes of Colombia, Chimila, Bari and Tunebo (Chibcha linguistic family), Embera, Waunana (Choco linguistic family), Puinave and Nukak (Maku-Puinave linguistic families), Cubeo, Guanano, Tucano, Desano and Piratapuyo (Tukano linguistic family), Guahibo and Guayabero (Guayabero Linguistic Family), Curripaco and Piapoco (Arawak linguistic family) and Yucpa (Karib linguistic family). for MHC class II haplotypes (HLA-DRB1, DQA1, DQB1). Approximately 90% of the MHC class II haplotypes found among these tribes are haplotypes frequently encountered in other Amerindian tribes. Nonetheless, striking differences were observed among Chibcha and non-Chibcha speaking tribes. The DRB1*04:04, DRB1*04:11, DRB1*09:01 carrying haplotypes were frequently found among non-Chibcha speaking tribes, while the DRB1*04:07 haplotype showed significant frequencies among Chibcha speaking tribes, and only marginal frequencies among non-Chibcha speaking tribes. Our results suggest that the differences in MHC class II haplotype frequency found among Chibcha and non-Chibcha speaking tribes could be due to genetic differentiation in Mesoamerica of the ancestral Amerindian population into Chibcha and non-Chibcha speaking populations before they entered into South America. PMID:23885196

  6. Spectral Energy Distribution Analysis of Class I and Class II FU Orionis Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gramajo, Luciana V.; Rodón, Javier A.; Gómez, Mercedes

    2014-06-01

    FU Orionis stars (FUors) are eruptive pre-main sequence objects thought to represent quasi-periodic or recurring stages of enhanced accretion during the low-mass star-forming process. We characterize the sample of known and candidate FUors in a homogeneous and consistent way, deriving stellar and circumstellar parameters for each object. We emphasize the analysis in those parameters that are supposed to vary during the FUor stage. We modeled the spectral energy distributions of 24 of the 26 currently known FUors, using the radiative transfer code of Whitney et al. We compare our models with those obtained by Robitaille et al. for Taurus class II and I sources in quiescence periods by calculating the cumulative distribution of the different parameters. FUors have more massive disks: we find that ~80% of the disks in FUors are more massive than any Taurus class II and I sources in the sample. Median values for the disk mass accretion rates are ~10-7 M ⊙ yr-1 versus ~10-5 M ⊙ yr-1 for standard young stellar objects (YSOs) and FUors, respectively. While the distributions of envelope mass accretion rates for class I FUors and standard class I objects are similar, FUors, on average, have higher envelope mass accretion rates than standard class II and class I sources. Most FUors (~70%) have envelope mass accretion rates above 10-7 M ⊙ yr-1. In contrast, 60% of the classical YSO sample has an accretion rate below this value. Our results support the current scenario in which changes experimented by the circumstellar disk explain the observed properties of these stars. However, the increase in the disk mass accretion rate is smaller than theoretically predicted, although in good agreement with previous determinations.

  7. Spectral energy distribution analysis of class I and class II FU Orionis stars

    SciTech Connect

    Gramajo, Luciana V.; Gómez, Mercedes; Rodón, Javier A. E-mail: mercedes@oac.uncor.edu

    2014-06-01

    FU Orionis stars (FUors) are eruptive pre-main sequence objects thought to represent quasi-periodic or recurring stages of enhanced accretion during the low-mass star-forming process. We characterize the sample of known and candidate FUors in a homogeneous and consistent way, deriving stellar and circumstellar parameters for each object. We emphasize the analysis in those parameters that are supposed to vary during the FUor stage. We modeled the spectral energy distributions of 24 of the 26 currently known FUors, using the radiative transfer code of Whitney et al. We compare our models with those obtained by Robitaille et al. for Taurus class II and I sources in quiescence periods by calculating the cumulative distribution of the different parameters. FUors have more massive disks: we find that ∼80% of the disks in FUors are more massive than any Taurus class II and I sources in the sample. Median values for the disk mass accretion rates are ∼10{sup –7} M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1} versus ∼10{sup –5} M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1} for standard young stellar objects (YSOs) and FUors, respectively. While the distributions of envelope mass accretion rates for class I FUors and standard class I objects are similar, FUors, on average, have higher envelope mass accretion rates than standard class II and class I sources. Most FUors (∼70%) have envelope mass accretion rates above 10{sup –7} M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}. In contrast, 60% of the classical YSO sample has an accretion rate below this value. Our results support the current scenario in which changes experimented by the circumstellar disk explain the observed properties of these stars. However, the increase in the disk mass accretion rate is smaller than theoretically predicted, although in good agreement with previous determinations.

  8. A molecular map of the chicken major histocompatibility complex: the class II beta genes are closely linked to the class I genes and the nucleolar organizer.

    PubMed Central

    Guillemot, F; Billault, A; Pourquié, O; Béhar, G; Chaussé, A M; Zoorob, R; Kreibich, G; Auffray, C

    1988-01-01

    We have cloned in a cosmid vector four DNA clusters covering 320 kb of the chicken MHC (B complex), including five class II (B-L) beta genes defining two related isotypic families. Additional B complex genes have been revealed using tissue-specific cDNA probes. A cosmid fragment has been used to isolate a cDNA for a class I (B-F) transcript. This transcript, that is by far the most divergent known member of the class I gene family, hybridized to six B-F genes present in the cosmids. One of the clusters was shown to contain two rRNA transcriptional units from the nucleolar organizer region (NOR), marking the telomeric boundary of the B complex. None of the other B complex genes hybridizes to, or has the transcriptional characteristics of mammalian MHC class II alpha or class III genes. The map we have obtained shows that the B complex does not contain well defined class I and class II regions since B-F and B-L beta genes are closely associated with unrelated genes. Moreover, class II beta genes are very closely linked to class I genes in two clusters, and to the NOR in a third one. Images PMID:3141149

  9. Detection of novel sequence heterogeneity and haplotypic diversity of HLA class II genes.

    PubMed

    Santamaria, P; Boyce-Jacino, M T; Lindstrom, A L; Barbosa, J J; Faras, A J; Rich, S S

    1991-01-01

    Nucleic acid sequences of the second exons of HLA-DRB1, -DRB3/4/5, -DQB1, and -DQA1 genes were determined from 43 homozygous cell lines, representing each of the known class II haplotypes, and from 30 unrelated Caucasian subjects, comprising 60 haplotypes. This systematic sequence analysis was undertaken in order to a) determine the existence of sequence microheterogeneity among cell lines which type as identical by methods other than sequencing; b) determine whether direct sequencing of class II genes will identify the presence of more extensive sequence polymorphism at the population level than that identified with other typing methods; c) accurately determine the molecular composition of the known class II haplotypes; and d) study their evolutionary relatedness by maximum parsimony analysis. The identification of seven previously unidentified haplotypes carrying five new allelic amino acid sequences suggests that sequence microheterogeneity at the population level may be more frequent than previously thought. Maximum parsimony analysis of these haplotypes allowed their evolutionary classification and indicates that the higher mutation rate at DRB1 compared to DQB1 loci in most haplotypic groups is inversed in specific haplotype lineages. Furthermore, the extent and localization of gene conversions and point mutations at class II loci in the evolution of these haplotypes is significantly different at each locus. Identification of additional HLA class II molecular microheterogeneity suggests that direct sequence analysis of class II HLA genes can uncover new allelic sequences in the population and may represent a useful alternative to current typing methodologies to study the effects of sequence allelism in organ transplantation.

  10. MHC class I and MHC class II DRB gene variability in wild and captive Bengal tigers (Panthera tigris tigris).

    PubMed

    Pokorny, Ina; Sharma, Reeta; Goyal, Surendra Prakash; Mishra, Sudanshu; Tiedemann, Ralph

    2010-10-01

    Bengal tigers are highly endangered and knowledge on adaptive genetic variation can be essential for efficient conservation and management. Here we present the first assessment of allelic variation in major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I and MHC class II DRB genes for wild and captive tigers from India. We amplified, cloned, and sequenced alpha-1 and alpha-2 domain of MHC class I and beta-1 domain of MHC class II DRB genes in 16 tiger specimens of different geographic origin. We detected high variability in peptide-binding sites, presumably resulting from positive selection. Tigers exhibit a low number of MHC DRB alleles, similar to other endangered big cats. Our initial assessment-admittedly with limited geographic coverage and sample size-did not reveal significant differences between captive and wild tigers with regard to MHC variability. In addition, we successfully amplified MHC DRB alleles from scat samples. Our characterization of tiger MHC alleles forms a basis for further in-depth analyses of MHC variability in this illustrative threatened mammal.

  11. MHC class I and MHC class II DRB gene variability in wild and captive Bengal tigers (Panthera tigris tigris).

    PubMed

    Pokorny, Ina; Sharma, Reeta; Goyal, Surendra Prakash; Mishra, Sudanshu; Tiedemann, Ralph

    2010-10-01

    Bengal tigers are highly endangered and knowledge on adaptive genetic variation can be essential for efficient conservation and management. Here we present the first assessment of allelic variation in major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I and MHC class II DRB genes for wild and captive tigers from India. We amplified, cloned, and sequenced alpha-1 and alpha-2 domain of MHC class I and beta-1 domain of MHC class II DRB genes in 16 tiger specimens of different geographic origin. We detected high variability in peptide-binding sites, presumably resulting from positive selection. Tigers exhibit a low number of MHC DRB alleles, similar to other endangered big cats. Our initial assessment-admittedly with limited geographic coverage and sample size-did not reveal significant differences between captive and wild tigers with regard to MHC variability. In addition, we successfully amplified MHC DRB alleles from scat samples. Our characterization of tiger MHC alleles forms a basis for further in-depth analyses of MHC variability in this illustrative threatened mammal. PMID:20821315

  12. Are There Additional Benefits from Being in Small Classes for More than One Year?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Konstantopoulos, Spyros; Li, Wei

    2012-01-01

    Evidence from Project STAR has suggested a considerable advantage of being in small classes in early grades. However, the extra benefits of additional years in small classes have not been discussed in detail. The present study examined the additional effects of being in small classes for more than 1 year. We find that once previous grade…

  13. 46 CFR 128.210 - Class II vital systems-materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... ENGINEERING: EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Materials and Pressure Design § 128.210 Class II vital systems—materials... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Class II vital systems-materials. 128.210 Section 128... chapter, materials used in Class II vital piping-systems may be accepted by the cognizant OCMI or...

  14. 78 FR 24061 - Minimum Technical Standards for Class II Gaming Systems and Equipment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-24

    ... ensuring the integrity of electronic Class II games and aids. 73 FR 60508, Oct. 10, 2008. The technical... Class II gaming system; and to clarify the term ``alternate standard.'' 77 FR 58473, Sept. 21, 2012. In... control standards (MICS) for Class II gaming. 77 FR 58708, Sept. 21, 2012. Similar to the part...

  15. 40 CFR 147.3400 - Navajo Indian lands-Class II wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Navajo Indian lands-Class II wells... Indian Lands § 147.3400 Navajo Indian lands—Class II wells. The UIC program for Class II injection wells... outside those exterior boundaries (collectively referred to as “Navajo Indian lands for which EPA...

  16. 25 CFR 522.5 - Disapproval of a class II ordinance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Disapproval of a class II ordinance. 522.5 Section 522.5 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR APPROVAL OF CLASS II AND CLASS III ORDINANCES AND RESOLUTIONS SUBMISSION OF GAMING ORDINANCE OR RESOLUTION § 522.5 Disapproval of a class...

  17. 25 CFR 522.5 - Disapproval of a class II ordinance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Disapproval of a class II ordinance. 522.5 Section 522.5 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR APPROVAL OF CLASS II AND CLASS III ORDINANCES AND RESOLUTIONS SUBMISSION OF GAMING ORDINANCE OR RESOLUTION § 522.5 Disapproval of a class...

  18. Binding and activation of major histocompatibility complex class II-deficient macrophages by staphylococcal exotoxins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beharka, A. A.; Armstrong, J. W.; Iandolo, J. J.; Chapes, S. K.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1994-01-01

    Macrophages from C2D transgenic mice deficient in the expression of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II proteins were used to identify binding sites for superantigens distinct from the MHC class II molecule. Iodinated staphylococcal enterotoxins A and B (SEA and SEB) and exfoliative toxins A and B (ETA and ETB) bound to C2D macrophages in a concentration-dependent and competitive manner. All four toxins increased F-actin concentration within 30 s of their addition to C2D macrophages, indicating that signal transduction occurred in response to toxin in the absence of class II MHC. Furthermore, ETA, ETB, SEA, and, to a lesser extent, SEB induced C2D macrophages to produce interleukin 6. Several molecular species on C2D macrophages with molecular masses of 140, 97, 61, 52, 43, and 37 kDa bound SEA in immunoprecipitation experiments. These data indicate the presence of novel, functionally active toxin binding sites on murine macrophages distinct from MHC class II molecules.

  19. Class I and Class II Histone Deacetylases Are Potential Therapeutic Targets for Treating Pancreatic Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Guan; He, Jing; Zhao, Jianyun; Yun, Wenting; Xie, Chengzhi; Taub, Jeffrey W.; Azmi, Asfar; Mohammad, Ramzi M.; Dong, Yan; Kong, Wei; Guo, Yingjie; Ge, Yubin

    2012-01-01

    Background Pancreatic cancer is a highly malignant disease with an extremely poor prognosis. Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACIs) have shown promising antitumor activities against preclinical models of pancreatic cancer, either alone or in combination with chemotherapeutic agents. In this study, we sought to identify clinically relevant histone deacetylases (HDACs) to guide the selection of HDAC inhibitors (HDACIs) tailored to the treatment of pancreatic cancer. Methodology HDAC expression in seven pancreatic cancer cell lines and normal human pancreatic ductal epithelial cells was determined by Western blotting. Antitumor interactions between class I- and class II-selective HDACIs were determined by MTT assays and standard isobologram/CompuSyn software analyses. The effects of HDACIs on cell death, apoptosis and cell cycle progression, and histone H4, alpha-tubulin, p21, and γH2AX levels were determined by colony formation assays, flow cytometry analysis, and Western blotting, respectively. Results The majority of classes I and II HDACs were detected in the pancreatic cancer cell lines, albeit at variable levels. Treatments with MGCD0103 (a class I-selective HDACI) resulted in dose-dependent growth arrest, cell death/apoptosis, and cell cycle arrest in G2/M phase, accompanied by induction of p21 and DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). In contrast, MC1568 (a class IIa-selective HDACI) or Tubastatin A (a HDAC6-selective inhibitor) showed minimal effects. When combined simultaneously, MC1568 significantly enhanced MGCD0103-induced growth arrest, cell death/apoptosis, and G2/M cell cycle arrest, while Tubastatin A only synergistically enhanced MGCD0103-induced growth arrest. Although MC1568 or Tubastatin A alone had no obvious effects on DNA DSBs and p21 expression, their combination with MGCD0103 resulted in cooperative induction of p21 in the cells. Conclusion Our results suggest that classes I and II HDACs are potential therapeutic targets for treating pancreatic

  20. Characterization and expression of MHC class II alpha and II beta genes in mangrove red snapper (Lutjanus argentimaculatus).

    PubMed

    Wang, Tianyan; Tan, Shangjin; Cai, Zhonghua

    2015-12-01

    The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II plays a key role in adaptive immunity by presenting foreign peptides to CD4(+) T cells and by triggering the adaptive immune response. While the structure and function of MHC class II have been well characterized in mammalian, limited research has been done on fishes. In this study, we characterized the gene structure and expression of MHC class II α (Lunar-DAA) and II β (Lunar-DAB) of mangrove red snapper (Lutjanus argentimaculatus). Both genes shared, respectively, a high similarity and typical features with other vertebrate MHC class II α and II β. The phylogenetic analysis of the deduced peptides revealed that both Lunar-DAA and Lunar-DAB were located in the teleost subclass. Western blotting analyses indicated that both MHC class II α and II β were expressed ubiquitously in immune-related cells, tissues and organs, and that MHC class II α and II β chains existed mainly as heterodimers. While it was highly expressed in gills, thymus, head kidney (HK), spleen, head kidney macrophage and spleen leucocytes, MHC class II β chain was expressed with a low abundance in skin, intestine, stomach and heart. The highest expression of MHC class II β in thymus confirmed the conclusion that thymus is one of the primary lymphoid organs in fishes. The detection of MHC class II αβ dimers in HK macrophages and spleen leucocytes indicated that HK macrophages and spleen leucocytes play a critical role in the adaptive immunity in fishes. All these results provide valuable information for understanding the structure of MHC class II α and II β and their function in immune responses.

  1. Characterization and expression of MHC class II alpha and II beta genes in mangrove red snapper (Lutjanus argentimaculatus).

    PubMed

    Wang, Tianyan; Tan, Shangjin; Cai, Zhonghua

    2015-12-01

    The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II plays a key role in adaptive immunity by presenting foreign peptides to CD4(+) T cells and by triggering the adaptive immune response. While the structure and function of MHC class II have been well characterized in mammalian, limited research has been done on fishes. In this study, we characterized the gene structure and expression of MHC class II α (Lunar-DAA) and II β (Lunar-DAB) of mangrove red snapper (Lutjanus argentimaculatus). Both genes shared, respectively, a high similarity and typical features with other vertebrate MHC class II α and II β. The phylogenetic analysis of the deduced peptides revealed that both Lunar-DAA and Lunar-DAB were located in the teleost subclass. Western blotting analyses indicated that both MHC class II α and II β were expressed ubiquitously in immune-related cells, tissues and organs, and that MHC class II α and II β chains existed mainly as heterodimers. While it was highly expressed in gills, thymus, head kidney (HK), spleen, head kidney macrophage and spleen leucocytes, MHC class II β chain was expressed with a low abundance in skin, intestine, stomach and heart. The highest expression of MHC class II β in thymus confirmed the conclusion that thymus is one of the primary lymphoid organs in fishes. The detection of MHC class II αβ dimers in HK macrophages and spleen leucocytes indicated that HK macrophages and spleen leucocytes play a critical role in the adaptive immunity in fishes. All these results provide valuable information for understanding the structure of MHC class II α and II β and their function in immune responses. PMID:26454477

  2. 75 FR 22410 - Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-28

    ... Livermore National Laboratory in Livermore, California, as an addition to the Special Exposure Cohort (SEC... Secretary of HHS designated the following class of employees as an addition to the SEC: All employees of the... publish a notice in the Federal Register reporting the addition of this class to the SEC or the result...

  3. 75 FR 44968 - Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-30

    ..., New Mexico, as an addition to the Special Exposure Cohort (SEC) under the Energy Employees... following class of employees as an addition to the SEC: All employees of the Department of Energy, its... Register reporting the addition of this class to the SEC or the result of any provision by...

  4. 76 FR 68460 - Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-04

    ... Laboratory at Iowa State University as an addition to the Special Exposure Cohort (SEC) under the Energy... designated the following class of employees as an addition to the SEC: All Department of Energy (DOE... will publish a notice in the Federal Register reporting the addition of this class to the SEC or...

  5. 75 FR 22409 - Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-28

    ... the Santa Susana Field Laboratory as an addition to the Special Exposure Cohort (SEC) under the Energy... designated the following class of employees as an addition to the SEC: All employees of the Department of... notice in the Federal Register reporting the addition of this class to the SEC or the result of...

  6. 75 FR 44968 - Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-30

    ..., Missouri, as an addition to the Special Exposure Cohort (SEC) under the Energy Employees Occupational... class of employees as an addition to the SEC: All employees of the Department of Energy, its predecessor... publish a notice in the Federal Register reporting the addition of this class to the SEC or the result...

  7. 75 FR 44966 - Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-30

    ... County, California, as an addition to the Special Exposure Cohort (SEC) under the Energy Employees... following class of employees as an addition to the SEC: All employees of the Department of Energy, its... Federal Register reporting the addition of this class to the SEC or the result of any provision...

  8. 76 FR 68459 - Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-04

    ... facility in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, as an addition to the Special Exposure Cohort (SEC) under the Energy... designated the following class of employees as an addition to the SEC: All employees of the Department of... publish a notice in the Federal Register reporting the addition of this class to the SEC or the result...

  9. 75 FR 22409 - Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-28

    ... Berkeley National Laboratory in Berkeley, California, as an addition to the Special Exposure Cohort (SEC... Secretary of HHS designated the following class of employees as an addition to the SEC: All employees of the... will publish a notice in the Federal Register reporting the addition of this class to the SEC or...

  10. 75 FR 44966 - Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-30

    ... York, as an addition to the Special Exposure Cohort (SEC) under the Energy Employees Occupational... class of employees as an addition to the SEC: All Atomic Weapons Employer employees who worked at the... publish a notice in the Federal Register reporting the addition of this class to the SEC or the result...

  11. Inflammatory bowel disease associations with HLA Class II genes

    SciTech Connect

    Castro, R.; Yang, H.; Targan, S.

    1994-09-01

    A PCR-SSOP assay has been used to analyze HLA-Class II DRB1 and DQB1 alleles in 378 Caucasians from a population in Southern California. The data has been analyzed separately for the Ashkenasi Jews and non-Jewish patients (n=286) and controls (n=92). Two common clinical forms of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) have been studied: ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn`s disease (CD). In CD, we observed a susceptible effect with the rare DR1 allele - DRB*0103 [O.R.=4.56; 95% CI (0.96, 42.97); p=0.03]; a trend for an increase in DRB1*0103 was also observed in UC patients. A susceptible effect with DRB1*1502 [O.R.=5.20; 95% CI (1.10, 48.99); p=0.02] was observed in non-Jewish UC patients. This susceptible effect was restricted to UC ANCA-positive (antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies) patients. In addition, a significant association with DRB1*1101-DQB1*0301 [O.R.=9.46; 95% CI (1.30, 413.87); p=0.01] was seen with UC among non-Jewish patients: this haplotype was increased with CD among non-Jewish patients. Two protective haplotypes were detected among CD non-Jewish patients: DRB1*1301-DQB1*0603 [O.R.=0.34; 95% CI (0.09, 1.09); p=0.04], and DRB*0404-DQB1*0302 [O.R.=<0.08; 95% CI (0.0, 0.84); p=0.01]. When the same data were analyzed at the serology level, we observed a positive association in UC with DR2 [O.R.6.77; 95% CI (2.47, 22.95); p=2 x 10{sup -4}], and a positive association in CD with DR1 [O.R.=2.63; 95% CI (1.14, 6.62); p=0.01] consistent with previous reports. Thus, some IBD disease associations appear to be common to both UC and CD, while some are unique to one disease.

  12. Characterization of class I- and class II-like major histocompatibility complex loci in pedigrees of North Atlantic right whales.

    PubMed

    Gillett, Roxanne M; Murray, Brent W; White, Bradley N

    2014-01-01

    North Atlantic right whales have one of the lowest levels of genetic variation at minisatellite loci, microsatellite loci, and mitochondrial control region haplotypes among mammals. Here, adaptive variation at the peptide binding region of class I and class II DRB-like genes of the major histocompatibility complex was assessed. Amplification of a duplicated region in 222 individuals revealed at least 11 class II alleles. Six alleles were assigned to the locus Eugl-DRB1 and 5 alleles were assigned to the locus Eugl-DRB2 by assessing segregation patterns of alleles from 81 parent/offspring pedigrees. Pedigree analysis indicated that these alleles segregated into 12 distinct haplotypes. Genotyping a smaller subset of unrelated individuals (n = 5 and 10, respectively) using different primer sets revealed at least 2 class II pseudogenes (with ≥ 4 alleles) and at least 3 class I loci (with ≥ 6 alleles). Class II sequences were significantly different from neutrality at peptide binding sites suggesting loci may be under the influence of balancing selection. Trans-species sharing of alleles was apparent for class I and class II sequences. Characterization of class II loci represents the first step in determining the relationship between major histocompatibility complex variability and factors affecting health and reproduction in this species.

  13. Characterization of class I- and class II-like major histocompatibility complex loci in pedigrees of North Atlantic right whales.

    PubMed

    Gillett, Roxanne M; Murray, Brent W; White, Bradley N

    2014-01-01

    North Atlantic right whales have one of the lowest levels of genetic variation at minisatellite loci, microsatellite loci, and mitochondrial control region haplotypes among mammals. Here, adaptive variation at the peptide binding region of class I and class II DRB-like genes of the major histocompatibility complex was assessed. Amplification of a duplicated region in 222 individuals revealed at least 11 class II alleles. Six alleles were assigned to the locus Eugl-DRB1 and 5 alleles were assigned to the locus Eugl-DRB2 by assessing segregation patterns of alleles from 81 parent/offspring pedigrees. Pedigree analysis indicated that these alleles segregated into 12 distinct haplotypes. Genotyping a smaller subset of unrelated individuals (n = 5 and 10, respectively) using different primer sets revealed at least 2 class II pseudogenes (with ≥ 4 alleles) and at least 3 class I loci (with ≥ 6 alleles). Class II sequences were significantly different from neutrality at peptide binding sites suggesting loci may be under the influence of balancing selection. Trans-species sharing of alleles was apparent for class I and class II sequences. Characterization of class II loci represents the first step in determining the relationship between major histocompatibility complex variability and factors affecting health and reproduction in this species. PMID:24381183

  14. Major histocompatibility complex class II genes and systemic sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Briggs, D; Welsh, K I

    1991-11-01

    susceptibility to the disease is conferred by neutral residues (Val, Ser, Ala), at position 57 of the DQ beta chain, while Asp at this position correlates with resistance. A similar phenomenon has been described in rheumatoid arthritis. Although DR4 in general is associated with rheumatoid arthritis, it is heterogeneous, but a subtype of DR4 which is characterised by positively charged residues at positions 70 and 71 of the beta chains is not found in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (Wordsworth B P et al, unpublished data). A similar approach applied to the study of systemic sclerosis is likely to be similarly rewarding. The precise subtyping of the class II genes and the characterisation of their associated haplotypes is therefore required for a complete understanding of the contribution of the MHC to the disease. Additional genes linked to the MHC must not be overlooked, and are relevant to associations of haplotypes with the disease. Of particular interest are the recent reports of a new class of proteins, which are determined by genes in the MHC and which are considered to play a part in the assembly of the antigen peptide/MHC molecule complex. PMID:1750798

  15. 10 CFR 50.41 - Additional standards for class 104 licenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Additional standards for class 104 licenses. 50.41 Section 50.41 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DOMESTIC LICENSING OF PRODUCTION AND UTILIZATION... class 104 licenses. In determining that a class 104 license will be issued to an applicant,...

  16. 10 CFR 50.42 - Additional standard for class 103 licenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Additional standard for class 103 licenses. 50.42 Section 50.42 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DOMESTIC LICENSING OF PRODUCTION AND UTILIZATION... class 103 licenses. In determining whether a class 103 license will be issued to an applicant,...

  17. 10 CFR 50.41 - Additional standards for class 104 licenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Additional standards for class 104 licenses. 50.41 Section 50.41 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DOMESTIC LICENSING OF PRODUCTION AND UTILIZATION... class 104 licenses. In determining that a class 104 license will be issued to an applicant,...

  18. 10 CFR 50.41 - Additional standards for class 104 licenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Additional standards for class 104 licenses. 50.41 Section 50.41 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DOMESTIC LICENSING OF PRODUCTION AND UTILIZATION... class 104 licenses. In determining that a class 104 license will be issued to an applicant,...

  19. 10 CFR 50.42 - Additional standard for class 103 licenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Additional standard for class 103 licenses. 50.42 Section 50.42 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DOMESTIC LICENSING OF PRODUCTION AND UTILIZATION... class 103 licenses. In determining whether a class 103 license will be issued to an applicant,...

  20. 10 CFR 50.42 - Additional standard for class 103 licenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Additional standard for class 103 licenses. 50.42 Section 50.42 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DOMESTIC LICENSING OF PRODUCTION AND UTILIZATION... class 103 licenses. In determining whether a class 103 license will be issued to an applicant,...

  1. 10 CFR 50.41 - Additional standards for class 104 licenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Additional standards for class 104 licenses. 50.41 Section 50.41 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DOMESTIC LICENSING OF PRODUCTION AND UTILIZATION... class 104 licenses. In determining that a class 104 license will be issued to an applicant,...

  2. 10 CFR 50.41 - Additional standards for class 104 licenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Additional standards for class 104 licenses. 50.41 Section 50.41 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DOMESTIC LICENSING OF PRODUCTION AND UTILIZATION... class 104 licenses. In determining that a class 104 license will be issued to an applicant,...

  3. 10 CFR 50.42 - Additional standard for class 103 licenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Additional standard for class 103 licenses. 50.42 Section 50.42 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DOMESTIC LICENSING OF PRODUCTION AND UTILIZATION... class 103 licenses. In determining whether a class 103 license will be issued to an applicant,...

  4. 10 CFR 50.42 - Additional standard for class 103 licenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Additional standard for class 103 licenses. 50.42 Section 50.42 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DOMESTIC LICENSING OF PRODUCTION AND UTILIZATION... class 103 licenses. In determining whether a class 103 license will be issued to an applicant,...

  5. 49 CFR 173.422 - Additional requirements for excepted packages containing Class 7 (radioactive) materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... containing Class 7 (radioactive) materials. 173.422 Section 173.422 Transportation Other Regulations Relating... (Radioactive) Materials § 173.422 Additional requirements for excepted packages containing Class 7 (radioactive) materials. An excepted package of Class 7 (radioactive) material that is prepared for shipment under...

  6. 49 CFR 173.422 - Additional requirements for excepted packages containing Class 7 (radioactive) materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... containing Class 7 (radioactive) materials. 173.422 Section 173.422 Transportation Other Regulations Relating... (Radioactive) Materials § 173.422 Additional requirements for excepted packages containing Class 7 (radioactive) materials. An excepted package of Class 7 (radioactive) material that is prepared for shipment under...

  7. 49 CFR 173.422 - Additional requirements for excepted packages containing Class 7 (radioactive) materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... containing Class 7 (radioactive) materials. 173.422 Section 173.422 Transportation Other Regulations Relating... (Radioactive) Materials § 173.422 Additional requirements for excepted packages containing Class 7 (radioactive) materials. An excepted package of Class 7 (radioactive) material that is prepared for shipment under...

  8. 49 CFR 173.422 - Additional requirements for excepted packages containing Class 7 (radioactive) materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... containing Class 7 (radioactive) materials. 173.422 Section 173.422 Transportation Other Regulations Relating... (Radioactive) Materials § 173.422 Additional requirements for excepted packages containing Class 7 (radioactive) materials. An excepted package of Class 7 (radioactive) material that is prepared for shipment under...

  9. 49 CFR 173.422 - Additional requirements for excepted packages containing Class 7 (radioactive) materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... containing Class 7 (radioactive) materials. 173.422 Section 173.422 Transportation Other Regulations Relating... (Radioactive) Materials § 173.422 Additional requirements for excepted packages containing Class 7 (radioactive) materials. An excepted package of Class 7 (radioactive) material that is prepared for shipment under...

  10. Polycomb recruitment at the Class II transactivator gene.

    PubMed

    Boyd, Nathaniel H; Morgan, Julie E; Greer, Susanna F

    2015-10-01

    The Class II Transactivator (CIITA) is the master regulator of Major Histocompatibility Class II (MHC II) genes. Transcription of CIITA through the IFN-γ inducible CIITA promoter IV (CIITA pIV) during activation is characterized by a decrease in trimethylation of histone H3 lysine 27 (H3K27me3), catalyzed by the histone methyltransferase Enhancer of Zeste Homolog 2 (EZH2). While EZH2 is the known catalytic subunit of the Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 (PRC2) and is present at the inactive CIITA pIV, the mechanism of PRC2 recruitment to mammalian promoters remains unknown. Here we identify two DNA-binding proteins, which interact with and regulate PRC2 recruitment to CIITA pIV. We demonstrate Yin Yang 1 (YY1) and Jumonji domain containing protein 2 (JARID2) are binding partners along with EZH2 in mammalian cells. Upon IFN-γ stimulation, YY1 dissociates from CIITA pIV while JARID2 binding to CIITA pIV increases, suggesting novel roles for these proteins in regulating expression of CIITA pIV. Knockdown of YY1 and JARID2 yields decreased binding of EZH2 and H3K27me3 at CIITA pIV, suggesting important roles for YY1 and JARID2 at CIITA pIV. JARID2 knockdown also results in significantly elevated levels of CIITA mRNA upon IFN-γ stimulation. This study is the first to identify novel roles of YY1 and JARID2 in the epigenetic regulation of the CIITA pIV by recruitment of PRC2. Our observations indicate the importance of JARID2 in CIITA pIV silencing, and also provide a novel YY1-JARID2-PRC2 regulatory complex as a possible explanation of differential PRC2 recruitment at inducible versus permanently silenced genes.

  11. Major histocompatibility complex class II expression distinguishes two distinct B cell developmental pathways during ontogeny

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    All mature B cells coexpress major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules, I-A and I-E, which are restriction elements required for antigen presentation to CD4+ T cells. However, the expression of class II during the early stages of B cell development has been unclear. We demonstrate here that there is a difference in the expression of class II during murine B cell development in the fetal liver and adult bone marrow (BM). These differences define two distinct B cell developmental pathways. The Fetal-type (FT) pathway is characterized by pre-B and immature IgM+ B cells generated in the fetal liver which initially lack all class II expression. In contrast, the Adult-type (AT) pathway is typified by B cells developing in the adult BM which express class II molecules from the pre-B cell stage. In vitro stromal cell cultures of sorted fetal liver and adult BM pro-B cells indicated that the difference in I-A expression during B cell development is intrinsic to the progenitors. In addition, we show that FT B cell development is not restricted to the fetal liver but occurs in the peritoneal cavities, spleens, liver, and BM of young mice up to at least 1 mo of age. The AT B cell development begins to emerge after birth but is, however, restricted to the BM environment. These findings indicate that there are two distinct B cell developmental pathways during ontogeny, each of which could contribute differentially to the immune repertoire and thus the functions of B cell subsets and lineages. PMID:7913950

  12. Chemical modification of Class II G-protein coupled receptor ligands

    PubMed Central

    Chapter, Megan C.; White, Caitlin M.; De Ridder, Angela; Chadwick, Wayne; Martin, Bronwen; Maudsley, Stuart

    2009-01-01

    Recent research and clinical data have begun to demonstrate the huge potential therapeutic importance of ligands that modulate the activity of the secretin-like, Class II, G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs). Ligands that can modulate the activity of these Class II GPCRs may have important clinical roles in the treatment of a wide variety of conditions such as osteoporosis, diabetes, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and autism spectrum disorders. While these receptors present important new therapeutic targets, the large glycoprotein nature of their cognate ligands poses many problems with respect to therapeutic peptidergic drug design. These native peptides often exhibit poor bioavailability, metabolic instability, poor receptor selectivity and resultant low potencies in vivo. Recently, increased attention has been paid to the structural modification of these peptides to enhance their therapeutic efficacy. Successful modification strategies have included D-amino acid substitutions, selective truncation, and fatty acid acylation of the peptide. Through these and other processes, these novel peptide ligand analogs can demonstrate enhanced receptor subtype selectivity, directed signal transduction pathway activation, resistance to proteolytic degradation, and improved systemic bioavailability. In the future, it is likely, through additional modification strategies such as addition of circulation-stabilizing transferrin moieties, that the therapeutic pharmacopeia of drugs targeted towards Class II secretin-like receptors may rival that of the Class I rhodopsin-like receptors that currently provide the majority of clinically used GPCR-based therapeutics. Currently, Class II-based drugs include synthesized analogues of vasoactive intestinal peptide for type 2 diabetes or parathyroid hormone for osteoporosis. PMID:19686775

  13. Classification Of Multi-Classed Stochastic Images Buried In Additive Noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Zu-Han; Lee, Sing H.

    1987-01-01

    The Optimal Correlation Filter for the discrimination or classification of multi-class stochastic images buried in additive noise is designed. We consider noise in images as the (K+1)th class of stochastic image so that the K-class with noise problem becomes a problem of (K+1)-classes: K-class without noise plus the (K+1)th class of noise. Experimental verifications with both low frequency background noise and high fre-quency shot noise show that the new filter design is reliable.

  14. MHC evolution in three salmonid species: a comparison between class II alpha and beta genes.

    PubMed

    Gómez, Daniela; Conejeros, Pablo; Marshall, Sergio H; Consuegra, Sofia

    2010-08-01

    The genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) are amongst the most variable in vertebrates and represent some of the best candidates to study processes of adaptive evolution. However, despite the number of studies available, most of the information on the structure and function of these genes come from studies in mammals and birds in which the MHC class I and II genes are tightly linked and class II alpha exhibits low variability in many cases. Teleost fishes are among the most primitive vertebrates with MHC and represent good organisms for the study of MHC evolution because their class I and class II loci are not physically linked, allowing for independent evolution of both classes of genes. We have compared the diversity and molecular mechanisms of evolution of classical MH class II alpha and class II beta loci in farm populations of three salmonid species: Oncorhynchus kisutch, Oncorhynchus mykiss and Salmo salar. We found single classical class II loci and high polymorphism at both class II alpha and beta genes in the three species. Mechanisms of evolution were common for both class II genes, with recombination and point mutation involved in generating diversity and positive selection acting on the peptide-binding residues. These results suggest that the maintenance of variability at the class IIalpha gene could be a mechanism to increase diversity in the MHC class II in salmonids in order to compensate for the expression of one single classical locus and to respond to a wider array of parasites. PMID:20521040

  15. MHC evolution in three salmonid species: a comparison between class II alpha and beta genes.

    PubMed

    Gómez, Daniela; Conejeros, Pablo; Marshall, Sergio H; Consuegra, Sofia

    2010-08-01

    The genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) are amongst the most variable in vertebrates and represent some of the best candidates to study processes of adaptive evolution. However, despite the number of studies available, most of the information on the structure and function of these genes come from studies in mammals and birds in which the MHC class I and II genes are tightly linked and class II alpha exhibits low variability in many cases. Teleost fishes are among the most primitive vertebrates with MHC and represent good organisms for the study of MHC evolution because their class I and class II loci are not physically linked, allowing for independent evolution of both classes of genes. We have compared the diversity and molecular mechanisms of evolution of classical MH class II alpha and class II beta loci in farm populations of three salmonid species: Oncorhynchus kisutch, Oncorhynchus mykiss and Salmo salar. We found single classical class II loci and high polymorphism at both class II alpha and beta genes in the three species. Mechanisms of evolution were common for both class II genes, with recombination and point mutation involved in generating diversity and positive selection acting on the peptide-binding residues. These results suggest that the maintenance of variability at the class IIalpha gene could be a mechanism to increase diversity in the MHC class II in salmonids in order to compensate for the expression of one single classical locus and to respond to a wider array of parasites.

  16. A growth-related concept for skeletal class II treatment.

    PubMed

    Teuscher, U

    1978-09-01

    The use of a combined activator--high-pull headgear appliance for treatment of Class II, Division 1 malocclusion is presented as a preliminary report. The activator itself is equipped with a palatal bar, lower lip pads, and torque-control auxiliaries for the upper incisors. The face-bow is mounted directly on the activator, and the extraoral force vector is equivalent to that of an anterior high-pull vector. During bite registration the veritcal displacement of the mandible is restricted to a minimum, and the anterior displacement should not exceed 6 mm. On the basis of current knowledge of the growth of the bony facial structures, treatment objectives and a specific approach for skeletal Class II correction are defined. Following these objectives, the therapy aims at correcting the malocclusion without diverting the anterior landmarks of the bony face from their specific lines of growth. This is brought about by the corresponding mechanics of the activator-headgear combination. The corrective effect of this appliance may be assumed to be the result of several different factors. The maxillary dentition is restrained in a posterior cranial direction, and an inhibitory effect on the maxilla counter to its line of development is attained. The mandibular dentition is influenced in an anterior downward direction by means of the bite registration, and the occlusion is unlocked during treatment. Any transfer of distally directed headgear forces from the maxilla to the mandible is prevented. Temporary stimulation of condylar growth, possibly combined with temporary posterior deflection of condylar growth, may also be induced. In this way it is possible to take maximum advantage of condylar growth in the sagittal dimension. Thus, not only is the malocclusion corrected but, at the same time, decisive profile improvement is achieved by anterior development of the mandible. From the experience gained so far with a Class II, Division 1 sample undergoing treatment with the

  17. Evaluation of mandibular length in subjects with Class I and Class II skeletal patterns using the cervical vertebrae maturation.

    PubMed

    Generoso, Rodrigo; Sadoco, Elaine Cristina; Armond, Mônica Costa; Gameiro, Gustavo Hauber

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the mandibular size in boys and girls with Class I and Class II skeletal patterns, taking into consideration the bone maturation stage, as defined by the cervical vertebrae maturation. One hundred and sixty cephalometric radiographs were obtained from subjects (aged between 7 and 12 years) with Class I or Class II skeletal patterns, according to the ANB angle and WITS appraisal. The Class I sample consisted of 80 subjects (40 boys, 40 girls). The Class II sample also consisted of 80 subjects (40 boys, 40 girls). On a cross-sectional basis, mandibular length (Co-Gn) was compared between groups and genders. The between-stages changes were also evaluated, with the cervical vertebrae analysis used for establishing the bone maturation stages at CS2, CS3, CS4 and CS5. The results were statistically analyzed by the Kruskal-Wallis test. The mandibular length differed between skeletal patterns only at the earlier stages of development. In the Class I pattern, the mandibular lengths of boys were greater than those of girls at stages CS2, CS4 and CS5, whereas in the Class II pattern, the mandibular lengths of boys were greater than those of girls at stages CS2, CS3 and CS4. The present results indicate a sexual dimorphism in the mandibular length at almost all stages of bone maturation, in exception of the CS5 stage in Class II.

  18. Ablation of phosphoinositide-3-kinase class II alpha suppresses hepatoma cell proliferation

    SciTech Connect

    Ng, Stanley K.L.; Neo, Soek-Ying; Yap, Yann-Wan; Karuturi, R. Krishna Murthy; Loh, Evelyn S.L.; Liau, Kui-Hin; Ren, Ee-Chee

    2009-09-18

    Cancer such as hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is characterized by complex perturbations in multiple signaling pathways, including the phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K/AKT) pathways. Herein we investigated the role of PI3K catalytic isoforms, particularly class II isoforms in HCC proliferation. Among the siRNAs tested against the eight known catalytic PI3K isoforms, specific ablation of class II PI3K alpha (PIK3C2{alpha}) was the most effective in impairing cell growth and this was accompanied by concomitant decrease in PIK3C2{alpha} mRNA and protein levels. Colony formation ability of cells deficient for PIK3C2{alpha} was markedly reduced and growth arrest was associated with increased caspase 3 levels. A small but significant difference in gene dosage and expression levels was detected between tumor and non-tumor tissues in a cohort of 19 HCC patients. Taken together, these data suggest for the first time that in addition to class I PI3Ks in cancer, class II PIK3C2{alpha} can modulate HCC cell growth.

  19. 77 FR 9251 - Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-16

    ... designate a class of employees from the Linde Ceramics Plant in Tonawanda, New York, as an addition to the... addition to the SEC: All Atomic Weapons Employees who worked in any area at the Linde Ceramics Plant...

  20. Transgenic wheat expressing a barley class II chitinase gene has enhanced resistance against Fusarium graminearum

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Sanghyun; Mackintosh, Caroline A.; Lewis, Janet; Heinen, Shane J.; Radmer, Lorien; Dill-Macky, Ruth; Baldridge, Gerald D.; Zeyen, Richard J.; Muehlbauer, Gary J.

    2008-01-01

    Fusarium head blight (FHB; scab), primarily caused by Fusarium graminearum, is a devastating disease of wheat worldwide. FHB causes yield reductions and contamination of grains with trichothecene mycotoxins such as deoxynivalenol (DON). The genetic variation in existing wheat germplasm pools for FHB resistance is low and may not provide sufficient resistance to develop cultivars through traditional breeding approaches. Thus, genetic engineering provides an additional approach to enhance FHB resistance. The objectives of this study were to develop transgenic wheat expressing a barley class II chitinase and to test the transgenic lines against F. graminearum infection under greenhouse and field conditions. A barley class II chitinase gene was introduced into the spring wheat cultivar, Bobwhite, by biolistic bombardment. Seven transgenic lines were identified that expressed the chitinase transgene and exhibited enhanced Type II resistance in the greenhouse evaluations. These seven transgenic lines were tested under field conditions for percentage FHB severity, percentage visually scabby kernels (VSK), and DON accumulation. Two lines (C8 and C17) that exhibited high chitinase protein levels also showed reduced FHB severity and VSK compared to Bobwhite. One of the lines (C8) also exhibited reduced DON concentration compared with Bobwhite. These results showed that transgenic wheat expressing a barley class II chitinase exhibited enhanced resistance against F. graminearum in greenhouse and field conditions. PMID:18467324

  1. 76 FR 51035 - Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort AGENCY...). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: HHS gives notice of a decision to designate a class of employees from Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico, as an addition to the Special Exposure Cohort (SEC)...

  2. 77 FR 32640 - Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-01

    ... designate a class of employees from Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico, as an addition to the Special Exposure Cohort (SEC) under the Energy Employees Occupational Illness Compensation... HUMAN SERVICES Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort...

  3. 77 FR 32641 - Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-01

    ... designate a class of employees from the Brookhaven National Laboratory in Upton, New York, as an addition to the Special Exposure Cohort (SEC) under the Energy Employees Occupational Illness Compensation Program... HUMAN SERVICES Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort...

  4. 75 FR 22410 - Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-28

    ... Test Site as an addition to the Special Exposure Cohort (SEC) under the Energy Employees Occupational... class of employees as an addition to the SEC: All employees of the Department of Energy, its predecessor... or more other classes of employees in the SEC. This designation will become effective on May 5,...

  5. Autoimmune diabetes can be induced in transgenic major histocompatibility complex class II-deficient mice

    PubMed Central

    1993-01-01

    Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) is an autoimmune disease marked by hyperglycemia and mononuclear cell infiltration of insulin- producing beta islet cells. Predisposition to IDDM in humans has been linked to the class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC), and islet cells often become aberrantly class II positive during the course of the disease. We have used two recently described transgenic lines to investigate the role of class II molecules and CD4+ T cells in the onset of autoimmune insulitis. Mice that are class II deficient secondary to a targeted disruption of the A beta b gene were bred to mice carrying a transgene for the lymphocytic choriomenigitis virus (LCMV) glycoprotein (GP) targeted to the endocrine pancreas. Our results indicate that class II-deficient animals with and without the GP transgene produce a normal cytotoxic T lymphocyte response to whole LCMV. After infection with LCMV, GP-transgenic class II-deficient animals develop hyperglycemia as rapidly as their class II-positive littermates. Histologic examination of tissue sections from GP- transgenic class II-deficient animals reveals lymphocytic infiltrates of the pancreatic islets that are distinguishable from those of their class II-positive littermates only by the absence of infiltrating CD4+ T cells. These results suggest that in this model of autoimmune diabetes, CD4+ T cells and MHC class II molecules are not required for the development of disease. PMID:8101862

  6. Subclassification of Recursive Partitioning Analysis Class II Patients With Brain Metastases Treated Radiosurgically

    SciTech Connect

    Yamamoto, Masaaki; Sato, Yasunori; Serizawa, Toru; Kawabe, Takuya; Higuchi, Yoshinori; Nagano, Osamu; Barfod, Bierta E.; Ono, Junichi; Kasuya, Hidetoshi; Urakawa, Yoichi

    2012-08-01

    Purpose: Although the recursive partitioning analysis (RPA) class is generally used for predicting survival periods of patients with brain metastases (METs), the majority of such patients are Class II and clinical factors vary quite widely within this category. This prompted us to divide RPA Class II patients into three subclasses. Methods and Materials: This was a two-institution, institutional review board-approved, retrospective cohort study using two databases: the Mito series (2,000 consecutive patients, comprising 787 women and 1,213 men; mean age, 65 years [range, 19-96 years]) and the Chiba series (1,753 patients, comprising 673 female and 1,080 male patients; mean age, 65 years [range, 7-94 years]). Both patient series underwent Gamma Knife radiosurgery alone, without whole-brain radiotherapy, for brain METs during the same 10-year period, July 1998 through June 2008. The Cox proportional hazard model with a step-wise selection procedure was used for multivariate analysis. Results: In the Mito series, four factors were identified as favoring longer survival: Karnofsky Performance Status (90% to 100% vs. 70% to 80%), tumor numbers (solitary vs. multiple), primary tumor status (controlled vs. not controlled), and non-brain METs (no vs. yes). This new index is the sum of scores (0 and 1) of these four factors: RPA Class II-a, score of 0 or 1; RPA Class II-b, score of 2; and RPA Class II-c, score of 3 or 4. Next, using the Chiba series, we tested whether our index is valid for a different patient group. This new system showed highly statistically significant differences among subclasses in both the Mito series and the Chiba series (p < 0.001 for all subclasses). In addition, this new index was confirmed to be applicable to Class II patients with four major primary tumor sites, that is, lung, breast, alimentary tract, and urogenital organs. Conclusions: Our new grading system should be considered when designing future clinical trials involving brain MET

  7. [Therapy of class II, division 1. Orthodontics or surgery?].

    PubMed

    Dereudre, B; Casteigt, J; Lemasson, C; Baysse, F

    1984-01-01

    Concerning five observations of class II division 1, the authors justify therapies they used. Mandibular micrognathia is excluded. Proposed schedules are all based on a precise diagnosis and knowledge of abilities and limits of orthodontics. These limits depend upon orthodontical technics and also, individual factors, particularly if patient is an adult or a child. For a child, orthodontics are preferred and, according with prediction of mandibular growth and child's cooperation, non-extraction therapies are proposed. In adult, correction of deformity ignore such helpful factors as growth and cooperation; nevertheless, it can be successfully treated by orthodontics, using differential extractions, or, if orthodontics are impossible, by orthognathic surgery. Then, surgery will include orthodontical preparation and achievement of dental arches.

  8. Surgical Orthodontic Treatment of Severe Skeletal Class II

    PubMed Central

    Alsulaimani, Fahad F.; Al-Sebaei, Maisa O.; Afify, Ahmed R.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes an adult Saudi male patient who presented with a severe skeletal class II deformity. The case was managed with a combination of presurgical orthodontic treatment followed by a double jaw orthognathic surgery and then another phase of orthodontic treatment for final occlusal detailing. Extraction of the four first premolars was done during the presurgical orthodontic phase of treatment to decompensate upper and lower incisors and to give room for surgical setback of the maxillary anterior segment. Double jaw surgery was performed: bilateral sagittal split ramus osteotomy for 8 mm mandibular advancement combined with three-piece Le Fort I maxillary osteotomy, 6 mm setback of the anterior segment, 8 mm impaction of the maxilla, and 5 mm advancement genioplasty. Although the anteroposterior discrepancy and the facial convexity were so severe, highly acceptable results were obtained, both esthetically as well as occlusally. PMID:23573428

  9. 40 CFR 82.70 - Nonessential Class II products and exceptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... in the production of plastic and elastomeric materials, which contain class II substances for solvent... designated as class II in 40 CFR part 82, appendix B to subpart A) are identified as being nonessential and... 21 CFR 2.125(e); (ii) Lubricants, coatings or cleaning fluids for electrical or electronic...

  10. Vaccinia Virus A35R Inhibits MHC Class II Antigen Presentation

    PubMed Central

    Rehm, Kristina E.; Connor, Ramsey F.; Jones, Gwendolyn J.B.; Yimbu, Kenneth; Roper, Rachel L.

    2009-01-01

    The Vaccinia virus gene A35R (Copenhagen designation) is highly conserved in mammalian-tropic poxviruses and is an important virulence factor, but its function was unknown. We show herein that A35 does not affect viral infectivity, apoptosis induction, or replication; however, we found that A35 significantly inhibited MHC class II-restricted antigen presentation, immune priming of T lymphocytes, and subsequent chemokine and cytokine synthesis. A35 localized to endosomes and reduced the amount of a model antigenic peptide displayed in the cleft of class II MHC. In addition, A35 decreased VV specific T cell responses in vivo. Thus, this is the first report identifying a function for the A35 protein in virulence as well as the first report identifying a VV gene that inhibits peptide antigen presentation. PMID:19954808

  11. Specific suppression of major histocompatibility complex class I and class II genes in astrocytes by brain-enriched gangliosides

    PubMed Central

    1993-01-01

    The effect of brain-enriched gangliosides on constitutive and cytokine- inducible expression of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I and II genes in cultured astrocytes was studied. Before treatment with gangliosides, astrocytes expressed constitutive MHC class I but not class II molecules, however, the expression of both MHC class I and II cell surface molecules on astrocytes was induced to high levels by interferon gamma (IFN-gamma). Constitutive and IFN-gamma-inducible expression of MHC class I and II molecules was suppressed by treatment of astrocytes with exogenous bovine brain gangliosides in a dose- dependent manner. Constitutive and induced MHC class I and II mRNA levels were also suppressed by gangliosides, indicating control through transcriptional mechanisms. This was consistent with the ability of gangliosides to suppress the binding activity of transcription factors, especially NF-kappa B-like binding activity, important for the expression of both MHC class I and II genes. These studies may be important for understanding mechanisms of central nervous system (CNS)- specific regulation of major histocompatibility molecules in neuroectodermal cells and the role of gangliosides in regulating MHC- restricted antiviral and autoimmune responses within the CNS. PMID:8376939

  12. Activated human T cells accomplish MHC class II expression through T cell-specific occupation of class II transactivator promoter III.

    PubMed

    Holling, Tjadine M; van der Stoep, Nienke; Quinten, Edwin; van den Elsen, Peter J

    2002-01-15

    Activated human T cells express HLA-DR, HLA-DQ, and HLA-DP on their surface, but the regulation and functioning of MHC class II molecules in T lymphocytes are poorly understood. Because the MHC class II transactivator (CIITA) is essential for MHC class II expression, we have investigated transcriptional activation of CIITA in activated T cells. In this study, we show that in human activated CD4(+) T cells, CIITA promoter III (CIITA-PIII) drives the expression of CIITA. The in vivo genomic footprint analysis revealed activated T cell-specific occupation of CIITA-PIII. Subsequent EMSA analysis of several promoter regions showed differences in banding pattern among activated T cells, naive T cells, primary B cells, and Raji B cells. Activating response element (ARE)-1 is shown to interact with the acute myeloid leukemia 2 transcription factor in nuclear extracts derived from both T and B cells. Interestingly, the acute myeloid leukemia 3 transcription factor was bound in nuclear extracts of T cells only. The ARE-2 sequence is able to bind CREB/activating transcription factor family members in both T and B cells. In addition, a yet unidentified Ets family member was found to interact with site C in activated T cells, whereas in B cells site C was bound by PU.1 and Pip/IFN regulatory factor 4/IFN consensus sequence binding protein for activated T cells. In Jurkat T cells, both ARE-1 and ARE-2 are crucial for CIITA-PIII activity, similar to Raji B cells. The differential banding pattern in in vivo genomic footprinting and transcription factor binding at the ARE-1 and site C between T cells and B cells probably reflects differences in CIITA-PIII activation pathways employed by these cell types. PMID:11777970

  13. 40 CFR 82.20 - Availability of consumption allowances in addition to baseline consumption allowances for class...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., consumption allowances equivalent to the quantity of class II controlled substances that the person exported... quantity of class II controlled substance was produced in the U.S. or imported into the U.S. with expended... exports; (ii) The exporter's Employer Identification Number; (iii) The names and telephone......

  14. 40 CFR 82.20 - Availability of consumption allowances in addition to baseline consumption allowances for class...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., consumption allowances equivalent to the quantity of class II controlled substances that the person exported... quantity of class II controlled substance was produced in the U.S. or imported into the U.S. with expended... exports; (ii) The exporter's Employer Identification Number; (iii) The names and telephone......

  15. Ubiquitination by March-I prevents MHC class II recycling and promotes MHC class II turnover in antigen-presenting cells.

    PubMed

    Cho, Kyung-Jin; Walseng, Even; Ishido, Satoshi; Roche, Paul A

    2015-08-18

    MHC class II (MHC-II)-dependent antigen presentation by antigen-presenting cells (APCs) is carefully controlled to achieve specificity of immune responses; the regulated assembly and degradation of antigenic peptide-MHC-II complexes (pMHC-II) is one aspect of such control. In this study, we have examined the role of ubiquitination in regulating pMHC-II biosynthesis, endocytosis, recycling, and turnover in APCs. By using APCs obtained from MHC-II ubiquitination mutant mice, we find that whereas ubiquitination does not affect pMHC-II formation in dendritic cells (DCs), it does promote the subsequent degradation of newly synthesized pMHC-II. Acute activation of DCs or B cells terminates expression of the MHC-II E3 ubiquitin ligase March-I and prevents pMHC-II ubiquitination. Most importantly, this change results in very efficient pMHC-II recycling from the surface of DCs and B cells, thereby preventing targeting of internalized pMHC-II to lysosomes for degradation. Biochemical and functional assays confirmed that pMHC-II turnover is suppressed in MHC-II ubiquitin mutant DCs or by acute activation of wild-type DCs. These studies demonstrate that acute APC activation blocks the ubiquitin-dependent turnover of pMHC-II by promoting efficient pMHC-II recycling and preventing lysosomal targeting of internalized pMHC-II, thereby enhancing pMHC-II stability for efficient antigen presentation to CD4 T cells.

  16. The same ELA class II risk factors confer equine insect bite hypersensitivity in two distinct populations.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Lisa S; Swinburne, June E; Meadows, Jennifer R S; Broström, Hans; Eriksson, Susanne; Fikse, W Freddy; Frey, Rebecka; Sundquist, Marie; Tseng, Chia T; Mikko, Sofia; Lindgren, Gabriella

    2012-03-01

    Insect bite hypersensitivity (IBH) is a chronic allergic dermatitis common in horses. Affected horses mainly react against antigens present in the saliva from the biting midges, Culicoides ssp, and occasionally black flies, Simulium ssp. Because of this insect dependency, the disease is clearly seasonal and prevalence varies between geographical locations. For two distinct horse breeds, we genotyped four microsatellite markers positioned within the MHC class II region and sequenced the highly polymorphic exons two from DRA and DRB3, respectively. Initially, 94 IBH-affected and 93 unaffected Swedish born Icelandic horses were tested for genetic association. These horses had previously been genotyped on the Illumina Equine SNP50 BeadChip, which made it possible to ensure that our study did not suffer from the effects of stratification. The second population consisted of 106 unaffected and 80 IBH-affected Exmoor ponies. We show that variants in the MHC class II region are associated with disease susceptibility (p (raw) = 2.34 × 10(-5)), with the same allele (COR112:274) associated in two separate populations. In addition, we combined microsatellite and sequencing data in order to investigate the pattern of homozygosity and show that homozygosity across the entire MHC class II region is associated with a higher risk of developing IBH (p = 0.0013). To our knowledge this is the first time in any atopic dermatitis suffering species, including man, where the same risk allele has been identified in two distinct populations.

  17. Characterization of a class II pilin expression locus from Neisseria meningitidis: evidence for increased diversity among pilin genes in pathogenic Neisseria species.

    PubMed Central

    Aho, E L; Botten, J W; Hall, R J; Larson, M K; Ness, J K

    1997-01-01

    Strains of Neisseria meningitidis elaborate one of two classes of pili. Meningococcal class I pili have many features in common with pili produced by N. gonorrhoeae, including the ability to bind monoclonal antibody SM1 and a common gene and protein structure consisting of conserved, semivariable, and hypervariable regions. Class II pili are SM1 nonreactive and display smaller subunit molecular weights than do gonococcal or meningococcal class I pili. In this study, we have determined the N-terminal amino acid sequence for class II pilin and isolated the expression locus encoding class II pilin from N. meningitidis FAM18. Meningococcal class II pilin displays features typical of type IV pili and shares extensive amino acid identity with the N-terminal conserved regions of other neisserial pilin proteins. However, the deduced class II pilin sequence displays several unique features compared with previously reported meningococcal class I and gonococcal pilin sequences. Class II pilin lacks several conserved peptide regions found within the semivariable and hypervariable regions of other neisserial pilins and displays a large deletion in a hypervariable region of the protein believed to be exposed on the pilus face in gonococcal pili. DNA sequence comparisons within all three regions of the coding sequence also suggest that the meningococcal class II pilin gene is the most dissimilar of the three types of neisserial pilE loci. Additionally, the class II locus fails to display flanking-sequence homology to class I and gonococcal genes and lacks a downstream Sma/Cla repeat sequence, a feature present in all other neisserial pilin genes examined to date. These data indicate meningococcal class II pili represent a structurally distinct class of pili and suggest that relationships among pilin genes in pathogenic Neisseria do not necessarily follow species boundaries. PMID:9199428

  18. In vitro performance of Class I and II composite restorations: a literature review on nondestructive laboratory trials--part II.

    PubMed

    Dietschi, D; Argente, A; Krejci, I; Mandikos, M

    2013-01-01

    A literature review was conducted on adhesive Class I and II restorations and nondestructive in vitro tests using the PubMed/Medline database for the 1995-2010 period. The first part of this review has presented and critically appraised selected literature dealing with the quality and in vitro behavior of adhesive Class II restorations using photoelasticity, finite element analysis, and microleakage study protocols. This second part reviews additional parameters, which are deformation and fracture resistance to cyclic loading, shrinkage stress and tooth deformation following restoration placement, bond strength (microtensile, tensile, and shear tests), and marginal and internal adaptation. In addition, a "relevance score" has been proposed that aims to classify the different study protocols according, firstly, to the resulting quality, quantity, and consistency of the evidence and then, secondly, to their potential clinical relevance, as estimated by their ability to simulate oral and biomechanical strains. The highest clinical relevance was attributed to marginal and internal adaptation studies, following cyclic loading in a moist environement. However, a combination of in vitro protocols will have an even greater predictive potential and has to be considered as a crucial preclinical research approach with which to investigate the numerous restorative configurations that cannot be efficiently and rapidly tested in vivo. PMID:23725090

  19. Molecular characterization of chicken class II transactivator gene.

    PubMed

    Nikbakht Brujeni, Gholamreza; Khosravi, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Class II transactivator (CIITA) is an effective transcriptional factor regulating various genes in the immune system. Since the detection of CIITA in 1993, there has been considerable progress toward understanding its role as an activator of MHC II genes in human and mouse; however, there is little knowledge of this gene in other animals such as chicken. Molecular characterization of the chicken CIITA gene transcript was performed to determine its sequence and expression in different tissues. The CIITA cDNA was first generated through reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) from Cobb chicken spleen cell RNA, using oligonucleotide primers based on the predicted cDNA sequence. The effect of the immune system stimulation on the CIITA gene expression in kidney, liver, thymus, and spleen were assessed by semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis. A partial cDNA sequence (1,688 bp) encoding part of the NACHT domain followed by seven of the transactivator and one of the NLS domains were obtained. Comparison of the deduced amino acid sequence with other CIITAs reveals high level of similarities in amino acid composition, secondary structure and phosphorylation sites. Furthermore, in comparison to the Red Jungle Fowl (RJF) sequence, we found 17 single nucleotide polymorphisms in Cobb broiler chicken, ten of which were reported for the first time. Gene expression analysis indicated that CIITA RNA amounts increased in all the examined tissues following stimulation with Brucella antigen. This investigation may indicate that CIITA molecule has an important role in the chicken immune responses as well as human and other animals.

  20. 75 FR 22410 - Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-28

    ... Employer employees who worked at Westinghouse Electric Corp., Bloomfield, New Jersey, from August 13, 1942... HUMAN SERVICES Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort AGENCY...). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: HHS gives notice of a decision to designate a class of employees at...

  1. 76 FR 28436 - Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-17

    ... Cohort (SEC) under the Energy Employees Occupational Illness Compensation Program Act of 2000. On April 29, 2011, the Secretary of HHS designated the following class of employees as an addition to the SEC... the SEC or the result of any provision by Congress regarding the decision by HHS to add the class...

  2. Expression Regulation of Major Histocompatibility Complex Class I and Class II Encoding Genes

    PubMed Central

    van den Elsen, Peter J.

    2011-01-01

    Major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-I and MHC-II molecules play an essential role in the immune response to pathogens by virtue of their ability to present peptides to CD8+ and CD4+ T cells, respectively. Given this critical role, MHC-I and MHC-II genes are regulated in a tight fashion at the transcriptional level by a variety of transcription factors that interact with conserved cis-acting regulatory promoter elements. In addition to the activities of these regulatory factors, modification of chromatin also plays an essential role in the efficient transcription of these genes to meet with local requirement for an effective immune response. The focus of this review is on the transcription factors that interact with conserved cis-acting promoter elements and the epigenetic mechanisms that modulate induced and constitutive expression of these MHC genes. PMID:22566838

  3. 77 FR 9250 - Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-16

    ... designate a class of employees from the Savannah River Site in Aiken, South Carolina, as an addition to the... contractors and subcontractors who worked at the Savannah River Site from January 1, 1953, through...

  4. 77 FR 76489 - Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-28

    ... designate a class of employees from the Mound Plant in Miamisburg, Ohio, as an addition to the Special... subcontractors who worked at the Mound Plant in Miamisburg, Ohio, from September 1, 1972, through December...

  5. Cloning of the major histocompatibility complex class II promoter binding protein affected in a hereditary defect in class II gene regulation.

    PubMed Central

    Reith, W; Barras, E; Satola, S; Kobr, M; Reinhart, D; Sanchez, C H; Mach, B

    1989-01-01

    The regulation of major histocompatibility complex class II gene expression is directly involved in the control of normal and abnormal immune responses. In humans, HLA-DR, -DQ, and -DP class II heterodimers are encoded by a family of alpha- and beta-chain genes clustered in the major histocompatibility complex. Their expression is developmentally controlled and normally restricted to certain cell types. This control is mediated by cis-acting sequences in class II promoters and by trans-acting regulatory factors. Several nuclear proteins bind to class II promoter sequences. In a form of hereditary immunodeficiency characterized by a defect in a trans-acting regulatory factor controlling class II gene transcription, we have observed that one of these nuclear factors (RF-X) does not bind to its target sequence (the class II X box). A cDNA encoding RF-X was isolated by screening a phage expression library with an X-box binding-site probe. The recombinant protein has the binding specificity of RF-X, including a characteristic gradient of affinity for the X boxes of HLA-DR, -DP, and -DQ promoters. RF-X mRNA is present in the regulatory mutants, indicating a defect in the synthesis of a functional form of the RF-X protein. Images PMID:2498880

  6. 78 FR 64500 - Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-29

    ... addition to the Special Exposure Cohort (SEC) under the Energy Employees Occupational Illness Compensation... employees as an addition to the SEC: All employees of the Feed Materials Production Center (FMPC) in Fernald... notice in the Federal Register reporting the addition of this class to the SEC or the result of...

  7. 78 FR 77685 - Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-24

    ... an addition to the Special Exposure Cohort (SEC) under the Energy Employees Occupational Illness... employees as an addition to the SEC: ] All employees of the Department of Energy, its predecessor agencies... notice in the Federal Register reporting the addition of this class to the SEC or the result of...

  8. 78 FR 64501 - Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-29

    ... addition to the Special Exposure Cohort (SEC) under the Energy Employees Occupational Illness Compensation... employees as an addition to the SEC: All employees of the Department of Energy, its predecessor agencies... Register reporting the addition of this class to the SEC or the result of any provision by...

  9. Profiling antibodies to class II HLA in transplant patient sera.

    PubMed

    McMurtrey, Curtis; Lowe, Dave; Buchli, Rico; Daga, Sunil; Royer, Derek; Humphrey, Alisha; Cate, Steven; Osborn, Sean; Mojsilovic, Aleksandar; VanGundy, Rodney; Bardet, Wilfried; Duty, Andrew; Mojsilovic, Danijela; Jackson, Kenneth; Stastny, Peter; Briggs, David; Zehnder, Daniel; Higgins, Rob; Hildebrand, William

    2014-03-01

    Immunizing events including pregnancy, transfusions, and transplantation promote strong alloantibody responses to HLA. Such alloantibodies to HLA preclude organ transplantation, foster hyperacute rejection, and contribute to chronic transplant failure. Diagnostic antibody-screening assays detect alloreactive antibodies, yet key attributes including antibody concentration and isotype remain largely unexplored. The goal here was to provide a detailed profile of allogeneic antibodies to class II HLA. Methodologically, alloantibodies were purified from sensitized patient sera using an HLA-DR11 immunoaffinity column and subsequently categorized. Antibodies to DR11 were found to fix complement, exist at a median serum concentration of 2.3μg/mL, consist of all isotypes, and isotypes IgG2, IgM, and IgE were elevated. Because multimeric isotypes can confound diagnostic determinations of antibody concentration, IgM and IgA isotypes were removed and DR11-IgG tested alone. Despite removal of multimeric isotypes, patient-to-patient antibody concentrations did not correlate with MFI values. In conclusion, allogeneic antibody responses to DR11 are comprised of all antibody isotypes at differing proportions, these combined isotypes fix complement at nominal serum concentrations, and enhancements other than the removal of IgM and IgA multimeric isotypes may be required if MFI is to be used as a means of determining anti-HLA serum antibody concentrations in diagnostic clinical assays.

  10. Performance assessment for the class L-II disposal facility

    SciTech Connect

    1997-03-01

    This draft radiological performance assessment (PA) for the proposed Class L-II Disposal Facility (CIIDF) on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) has been prepared to demonstrate compliance with the requirements of the US Department of Energy Order 5820.2A. This PA considers the disposal of low-level radioactive wastes (LLW) over the operating life of the facility and the long-term performance of the facility in providing protection to public health and the environment. The performance objectives contained in the order require that the facility be managed to accomplish the following: (1) Protect public health and safety in accordance with standards specified in environmental health orders and other DOE orders. (2) Ensure that external exposure to the waste and concentrations of radioactive material that may be released into surface water, groundwater, soil, plants, and animals results in an effective dose equivalent (EDE) that does not exceed 25 mrem/year to a member of the public. Releases to the atmosphere shall meet the requirements of 40 CFR Pt. 61. Reasonable effort should be made to maintain releases of radioactivity in effluents to the general environment as low as reasonably achievable. (1) Ensure that the committed EDEs received by individual who inadvertently may intrude into the facility after the loss of active institutional control (100 years) will not exceed 100 mrem/year for continuous exposure of 500 mrem for a single acute exposure. (4) Protect groundwater resources, consistent with federal, state, and local requirements.

  11. Pseudomycoicidin, a Class II Lantibiotic from Bacillus pseudomycoides

    PubMed Central

    Basi-Chipalu, Shradha; Dischinger, Jasmin; Josten, Michaele; Szekat, Christiane; Zweynert, Annegret; Sahl, Hans-Georg

    2015-01-01

    Lantibiotics are ribosomally synthesized antimicrobial peptides with substantial posttranslational modifications. They are characterized by the unique amino acids lanthionine and methyllanthionine, which are introduced by dehydration of Ser/Thr residues and linkage of the resulting dehydrated amino acids with Cys residues. BLAST searches using the mersacidin biosynthetic enzyme (MrsM) in the NCBI database revealed a new class II lantibiotic gene cluster in Bacillus pseudomycoides DSM 12442. Production of an antimicrobial substance with activity against Gram-positive bacteria was detectable in a cell wash extract of this strain. The substance was partially purified, and mass spectrometric analysis predicted a peptide of 2,786 Da in the active fraction. In order to characterize the putative lantibiotic further, heterologous expression of the predicted biosynthetic genes was performed in Escherichia coli. Coexpression of the prepeptide (PseA) along with the corresponding modification enzyme (PseM) resulted in the production of a modified peptide with the corresponding mass, carrying four out of eight possible dehydrations and supporting the presence of four thioether and one disulfide bridge. After the proteolytic removal of the leader, the core peptide exhibited antimicrobial activity. In conclusion, pseudomycoicidin is a novel lantibiotic with antimicrobial activity that was heterologously produced in E. coli. PMID:25769830

  12. Selective modulation of MHC class II chaperons by a novel IFN-γ-inducible class II transactivator variant in lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Bau-Lin; Li, Chia-Hsuan; Chang, Chien-Chung

    2013-10-11

    Class II transactivator (CIITA) plays a critical role in controlling major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II gene expression. In this study, two novel alternatively spliced variants of human interferon (IFN)-γ-inducible CIITA, one missing exon 7 (CIITAΔE7), the other with TAG inserted at exon 4/5 junction (CIITA-TAG), were identified and characterized. Both variants are naturally occurring since they are present in primary cells. Unlike CIITA-TAG, CIITAΔE7 is expressed more abundantly in lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells than in the non-transformed counterpart BEAS-2B cells following IFN-γ stimulation. Transfection experiments showed that CIITAΔE7 induced a markedly lower level of surface HLA-DR, -DP, -DQ expression than CIITA-TAG in A549 cells but not in BEAS-2B cells, although both variants elicited similar amounts of total DR, DP, and DQ proteins. This differential effect was correlated with, in A549 cells, decreased expression of Ii and HLA-DM genes, along with increased expression of HLA-DO genes. Ii and HLA-DM are chaperons assisting in HLA class II assembly, while HLA-DO functions to inhibit endosomal peptide loading and HLA class II membrane transport. These findings raise the possibility that CIITAΔE7 interacts with unknown cancer-associated factors to selectively modulate genes involved in the assembly and transport of HLA class II molecules.

  13. Early Endosomes Are Required for Major Histocompatiblity Complex Class II Transport to Peptide-loading Compartments

    PubMed Central

    Brachet, Valérie; Péhau-Arnaudet, Gérard; Desaymard, Catherine; Raposo, Graça; Amigorena, Sebastian

    1999-01-01

    Antigen presentation to CD4+ T lymphocytes requires transport of newly synthesized major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules to the endocytic pathway, where peptide loading occurs. This step is mediated by a signal located in the cytoplasmic tail of the MHC class II-associated Ii chain, which directs the MHC class II-Ii complexes from the trans-Golgi network (TGN) to endosomes. The subcellular machinery responsible for the specific targeting of MHC class II molecules to the endocytic pathway, as well as the first compartments these molecules enter after exit from the TGN, remain unclear. We have designed an original experimental approach to selectively analyze this step of MHC class II transport. Newly synthesized MHC class II molecules were caused to accumulate in the Golgi apparatus and TGN by incubating the cells at 19°C, and early endosomes were functionally inactivated by in vivo cross-linking of transferrin (Tf) receptor–containing endosomes using Tf-HRP complexes and the HRP-insoluble substrate diaminobenzidine. Inactivation of Tf-containing endosomes caused a marked delay in Ii chain degradation, peptide loading, and MHC class II transport to the cell surface. Thus, early endosomes appear to be required for delivery of MHC class II molecules to the endocytic pathway. Under cross-linking conditions, most αβIi complexes accumulated in tubules and vesicles devoid of γ-adaptin and/or mannose-6-phosphate receptor, suggesting an AP1-independent pathway for the delivery of newly synthesized MHC class II molecules from the TGN to endosomes. PMID:10473634

  14. Type II collagenopathies: Are there additional family members?

    SciTech Connect

    Freisinger, P.; Pontz, B.F.; Emmrich, P.; Stoess, H.; Bonaventure, J.

    1996-05-03

    The type II collagenopathies represent a group of chondrodysplasia sharing clinical and radiological manifestations which are expressed as a continuous spectrum of phenotypes, ranging from perinatally lethal to very mild conditions. Their common molecular bases are mutations in the type II collagen gene (COL2A1). We describe one case of lethal platyspondylic dysplasia, Torrance type, and a variant of lethal Kniest dysplasia, neither of which has been reported as a type II collagenopathy. Biochemical studies of cartilage collagens and morphological analysis of cartilage sections suggest that abnormalities of type II collagen structure and biosynthesis are the main pathogenetic factors in both cases. Thus, the phenotypic spectrum of type II collagenopathies might be greater than hitherto suspected. 20 refs., 6 figs.

  15. Anteroposterior condylar position: A comparative study between subjects with normal occlusion and patients with Class I, Class II Division 1, and Class III malocclusions

    PubMed Central

    Fraga, Marcelo Reis; Rodrigues, Andréia Fialho; Ribeiro, Luiz Claudio; da Silva Campos, Marcio José; Vitral, Robert Willer Farinazzo

    2013-01-01

    Background The present study aimed to determine and compare the anteroposterior position of the condyle in the mandibular fossa between groups of asymptomatic subjects with normal occlusion and asymptomatic subjects with Class I, Class II Division 1, and Class III malocclusions. Material/Methods Thirty persons with normal occlusion, 30 with Class I malocclusion, 30 with Class II Division 1, and 30 with Class III had computed tomography scans of their temporomandibular joints. The anterior joint space/posterior joint space (AJS/PJS) ratio was determined for the right and left joints. The paired t test was used to analyze the AJS/PJS ratio between both sides for each group. The ANOVA test was applied to verify the differences between the groups for the measurements of the right and left sides. In case the ANOVA test confirmed significance, the Dunnett’s t test was performed to compare the groups of malocclusion with that of normal occlusion. Results The paired t test between the AJS/PJS relationships in the right and left sides showed the following p values: Class I (0.168), Class II Division 1 (0.662), Class III (0.991), and normal occlusion (0.390). The ANOVA test showed a p value of 0.445 for the comparisons of the right side and 0.040 for the left side. The Dunnett’s t test demonstrated a statistically significant difference between the Class II group and the normal occlusion group (p value of 0.026) in the joints of the left side. Conclusions Bilateral symmetry and lack of condyle centralization were common characteristics among all groups. The greatest condylar decentralization was observed in the Class II group, whereas the least condylar decentralization was found in the normal occlusion group. PMID:24165809

  16. An American Board of Orthodontics case report. Correction of a severe Class II malocclusion.

    PubMed

    Regan, P D; Subtelny, J D

    1989-03-01

    Many factors often combine to create a malocclusion. Broadly these include the genetic potential of the individual and environmental or local factors. Class II, Division 1 malocclusions may result from both inherited skeletal and dental patterns and an additional environmental factor such as thumb sucking or some other habit. Successful treatment of patients with this type of malocclusion requires both an orthodontic correction of the existing dental and skeletal problems and also control of any deleterious habit. The following case report deals with a patient who had such a malocclusion.

  17. 40 CFR Figure C-2 to Subpart C of... - Illustration of the Slope and Intercept Limits for Class II and Class III PM2.5 Candidate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Illustration of the Slope and Intercept Limits for Class II and Class III PM2.5 Candidate Equivalent Methods C Figure C-2 to Subpart C of Part 53... of the Slope and Intercept Limits for Class II and Class III PM2.5 Candidate Equivalent...

  18. 40 CFR 144.22 - Existing Class II enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... and hydrocarbon storage wells. 144.22 Section 144.22 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... of Underground Injection by Rule § 144.22 Existing Class II enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage wells. (a) An existing Class II enhanced recovery or hydrocarbon storage injection well is authorized...

  19. 40 CFR 144.22 - Existing Class II enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... and hydrocarbon storage wells. 144.22 Section 144.22 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... of Underground Injection by Rule § 144.22 Existing Class II enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage wells. (a) An existing Class II enhanced recovery or hydrocarbon storage injection well is authorized...

  20. 40 CFR 144.22 - Existing Class II enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... and hydrocarbon storage wells. 144.22 Section 144.22 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... of Underground Injection by Rule § 144.22 Existing Class II enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage wells. (a) An existing Class II enhanced recovery or hydrocarbon storage injection well is authorized...

  1. 40 CFR 144.22 - Existing Class II enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... and hydrocarbon storage wells. 144.22 Section 144.22 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... of Underground Injection by Rule § 144.22 Existing Class II enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage wells. (a) An existing Class II enhanced recovery or hydrocarbon storage injection well is authorized...

  2. 40 CFR 144.22 - Existing Class II enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... and hydrocarbon storage wells. 144.22 Section 144.22 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... of Underground Injection by Rule § 144.22 Existing Class II enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage wells. (a) An existing Class II enhanced recovery or hydrocarbon storage injection well is authorized...

  3. 75 FR 44172 - Neurological and Physical Medicine Devices; Designation of Special Controls for Certain Class II...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-28

    ... Physical Medicine Devices; Designation of Special Controls for Certain Class II Devices and Exemption From... Register of April 5, 2010 (75 FR 17093). The document proposed to amend certain neurological and physical medicine device regulations to establish special controls for these class II devices and to exempt some...

  4. 40 CFR 147.1851 - State-administered program-Class II wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Oklahoma § 147.1851 State-administered program—Class II wells. The UIC program for Class II wells in the State of Oklahoma, including the lands of the Five Civilized Tribes, but not including those on other Indian lands, is the program administered by the Oklahoma Corporation Commission approved by EPA...

  5. 40 CFR 147.1851 - State-administered program-Class II wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Oklahoma § 147.1851 State-administered program—Class II wells. The UIC program for Class II wells in the State of Oklahoma, including the lands of the Five Civilized Tribes, but not including those on other Indian lands, is the program administered by the Oklahoma Corporation Commission approved by EPA...

  6. 40 CFR 147.1851 - State-administered program-Class II wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Oklahoma § 147.1851 State-administered program—Class II wells. The UIC program for Class II wells in the State of Oklahoma, including the lands of the Five Civilized Tribes, but not including those on other Indian lands, is the program administered by the Oklahoma Corporation Commission approved by EPA...

  7. 40 CFR 147.1851 - State-administered program-Class II wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Oklahoma § 147.1851 State-administered program—Class II wells. The UIC program for Class II wells in the State of Oklahoma, including the lands of the Five Civilized Tribes, but not including those on other Indian lands, is the program administered by the Oklahoma Corporation Commission approved by EPA...

  8. 40 CFR 147.2201 - State-administered program-Class II wells

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Texas § 147.2201 State-administered program—Class II wells The UIC program for Class II wells in the State of Texas, except for those wells on Indian lands, is the program administered by the Railroad Commission of Texas, approved by EPA pursuant to section 1425 of the SDWA. Notice of this approval...

  9. 40 CFR 147.2201 - State-administered program-Class II wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Texas § 147.2201 State-administered program—Class II wells. The UIC program for Class II wells in the State of Texas, except for those wells on Indian lands, is the program administered by the Railroad Commission of Texas, approved by EPA pursuant to section 1425 of the SDWA. Notice of this approval...

  10. 40 CFR 147.2201 - State-administered program-Class II wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Texas § 147.2201 State-administered program—Class II wells. The UIC program for Class II wells in the State of Texas, except for those wells on Indian lands, is the program administered by the Railroad Commission of Texas, approved by EPA pursuant to section 1425 of the SDWA. Notice of this approval...

  11. 49 CFR 232.209 - Class II brake tests-intermediate inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Class II brake tests-intermediate inspection. 232... RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION BRAKE SYSTEM SAFETY STANDARDS FOR FREIGHT AND OTHER... Class II brake tests—intermediate inspection. (a) At a location other than the initial terminal of...

  12. 49 CFR 232.209 - Class II brake tests-intermediate inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Class II brake tests-intermediate inspection. 232... RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION BRAKE SYSTEM SAFETY STANDARDS FOR FREIGHT AND OTHER... Class II brake tests—intermediate inspection. (a) At a location other than the initial terminal of...

  13. 49 CFR 232.209 - Class II brake tests-intermediate inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Class II brake tests-intermediate inspection. 232... RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION BRAKE SYSTEM SAFETY STANDARDS FOR FREIGHT AND OTHER... Class II brake tests—intermediate inspection. (a) At a location other than the initial terminal of...

  14. 49 CFR 232.209 - Class II brake tests-intermediate inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Class II brake tests-intermediate inspection. 232... RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION BRAKE SYSTEM SAFETY STANDARDS FOR FREIGHT AND OTHER... Class II brake tests—intermediate inspection. (a) At a location other than the initial terminal of...

  15. 40 CFR 82.23 - Transfers of allowances of class II controlled substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... class II controlled substance being converted multiplied by the quotient of the ozone depletion potential of the first class II controlled substance divided by the ozone depletion potential of the second... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) PROTECTION OF STRATOSPHERIC OZONE Production and Consumption...

  16. 77 FR 60625 - Minimum Internal Control Standards for Class II Gaming

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-04

    ... National Indian Gaming Commission 25 CFR Parts 542 and 543 RIN 3141-AA-37 Minimum Internal Control... while tribes and operations transition to the new Class II Minimum Internal Control Standards that were... part 543, Minimum Internal Control Standards Class II Gaming, with comprehensive and updated...

  17. Class A scavenger receptor deficiency augments angiotensin II-induced vascular remodeling.

    PubMed

    Qian, Lingling; Li, Xiaoyu; Fang, Ru; Wang, Zhuoyun; Xu, Yiming; Zhang, Hanwen; Bai, Hui; Yang, Qing; Zhu, Xudong; Ben, Jingjing; Xu, Yong; Chen, Qi

    2014-08-01

    Class A scavenger receptor (SR-A) is a multifunctional molecule that participates in macrophage-mediated inflammation. Here we evaluated the role of SR-A in angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced hypertensive vascular remodeling. Chronic infusion of Ang II leads to an increased systolic blood pressure both in SR-A knockout (SR-A(-/-)) and wild type (SR-A(+/+)) mice with no significant difference between these two groups. SR-A(-/-) hypertensive mice, however, exhibited a marked augmentation of arterial wall thickening and vascular cell proliferation compared with SR-A(+/+) hypertensive mice. M1 macrophage markers were increased whereas M2 macrophage markers were decreased in vascular tissues of SR-A(-/-) mice. Co-culture experiments revealed that more pro-inflammatory cytokines like TNF-α were produced by SR-A(-/-) peritoneal macrophages leading to a stronger proliferation of primary vascular smooth muscle cells in vitro. In addition, SR-A(-/-) macrophages were more prone to lipopolysaccharide-induced M1 differentiation while resisting interleukin-4-induced M2 differentiation. Importantly, transplantation of SR-A(-/-) bone marrow into SR-A(+/+) mice significantly augmented Ang II-induced vascular remodeling. These results show that SR-A is critical for Ang II-induced vascular remodeling by regulating macrophage polarization. Therefore, SR-A may be a useful therapeutic target for the intervention of hypertensive vascular remodeling. PMID:24875449

  18. Organization and characteristics of the major histocompatibility complex class II region in the Yangtze finless porpoise (Neophocaena asiaeorientalis asiaeorientalis)

    PubMed Central

    Ruan, Rui; Ruan, Jue; Wan, Xiao-Ling; Zheng, Yang; Chen, Min-Min; Zheng, Jin-Song; Wang, Ding

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) in the genome of Yangtze finless porpoise (Neophocaena asiaeorientalis asiaeorientalis) (YFP) or other cetaceans. In this study, a high-quality YFP bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library was constructed. We then determined the organization and characterization of YFP MHC class II region by screening the BAC library, followed by sequencing and assembly of positive BAC clones. The YFP MHC class II region consists of two segregated contigs (218,725 bp and 328,435 bp respectively) that include only eight expressed MHC class II genes, three pseudo MHC genes and twelve non-MHC genes. The YFP has fewer MHC class II genes than ruminants, showing locus reduction in DRB, DQA, DQB, and loss of DY. In addition, phylogenic and evolutionary analyses indicated that the DRB, DQA and DQB genes might have undergone birth-and-death evolution, whereas the DQB gene might have evolved under positive selection in cetaceans. These findings provide an essential foundation for future work, such as estimating MHC genetic variation in the YFP or other cetaceans. This work is the first report on the MHC class II region in cetaceans and offers valuable information for understanding the evolution of MHC genome in cetaceans. PMID:26932528

  19. Organization and characteristics of the major histocompatibility complex class II region in the Yangtze finless porpoise (Neophocaena asiaeorientalis asiaeorientalis).

    PubMed

    Ruan, Rui; Ruan, Jue; Wan, Xiao-Ling; Zheng, Yang; Chen, Min-Min; Zheng, Jin-Song; Wang, Ding

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) in the genome of Yangtze finless porpoise (Neophocaena asiaeorientalis asiaeorientalis) (YFP) or other cetaceans. In this study, a high-quality YFP bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library was constructed. We then determined the organization and characterization of YFP MHC class II region by screening the BAC library, followed by sequencing and assembly of positive BAC clones. The YFP MHC class II region consists of two segregated contigs (218,725 bp and 328,435 bp respectively) that include only eight expressed MHC class II genes, three pseudo MHC genes and twelve non-MHC genes. The YFP has fewer MHC class II genes than ruminants, showing locus reduction in DRB, DQA, DQB, and loss of DY. In addition, phylogenic and evolutionary analyses indicated that the DRB, DQA and DQB genes might have undergone birth-and-death evolution, whereas the DQB gene might have evolved under positive selection in cetaceans. These findings provide an essential foundation for future work, such as estimating MHC genetic variation in the YFP or other cetaceans. This work is the first report on the MHC class II region in cetaceans and offers valuable information for understanding the evolution of MHC genome in cetaceans. PMID:26932528

  20. Identifying Effective Enzyme Activity Targets for Recombinant Class I and Class II Collagenase for Successful Human Islet Isolation

    PubMed Central

    Balamurugan, Appakalai N.; Green, Michael L.; Breite, Andrew G.; Loganathan, Gopalakrishnan; Wilhelm, Joshua J.; Tweed, Benjamin; Vargova, Lenka; Lockridge, Amber; Kuriti, Manikya; Hughes, Michael G.; Williams, Stuart K.; Hering, Bernhard J.; Dwulet, Francis E.; McCarthy, Robert C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Isolation following a good manufacturing practice-compliant, human islet product requires development of a robust islet isolation procedure where effective limits of key reagents are known. The enzymes used for islet isolation are critical but little is known about the doses of class I and class II collagenase required for successful islet isolation. Methods We used a factorial approach to evaluate the effect of high and low target activities of recombinant class I (rC1) and class II (rC2) collagenase on human islet yield. Consequently, 4 different enzyme formulations with divergent C1:C2 collagenase mass ratios were assessed, each supplemented with the same dose of neutral protease. Both split pancreas and whole pancreas models were used to test enzyme targets (n = 20). Islet yield/g pancreas was compared with historical enzymes (n = 42). Results Varying the Wunsch (rC2) and collagen degradation activity (CDA, rC1) target dose, and consequently the C1:C2 mass ratio, had no significant effect on tissue digestion. Digestions using higher doses of Wunsch and CDA resulted in comparable islet yields to those obtained with 60% and 50% of those activities, respectively. Factorial analysis revealed no significant main effect of Wunsch activity or CDA for any parameter measured. Aggregate results from 4 different collagenase formulations gave 44% higher islet yield (>5000 islet equivalents/g) in the body/tail of the pancreas (n = 12) when compared with those from the same segment using a standard natural collagenase/protease mixture (n = 6). Additionally, islet yields greater than 5000 islet equivalents/g pancreas were also obtained in whole human pancreas. Conclusions A broader C1:C2 ratio can be used for human islet isolation than has been used in the past. Recombinant collagenase is an effective replacement for the natural enzyme and we have determined that high islet yield can be obtained even with low doses of rC1:rC2, which is beneficial for the survival

  1. High-resolution molecular characterization of the HLA class I and class II in the Tarahumara Amerindian population.

    PubMed

    García-Ortiz, J E; Sandoval-Ramírez, L; Rangel-Villalobos, H; Maldonado-Torres, H; Cox, S; García-Sepúlveda, C A; Figuera, L E; Marsh, S G E; Little, A M; Madrigal, J A; Moscoso, J; Arnaiz-Villena, A; Argüello, J R

    2006-08-01

    We describe for the first time the high-resolution profiling of HLA-A, -B, -C, -DRB1, -DQB1 and -DPB1 in a culturally and geographically distinct Mexican ethnic group, the Tarahumaras. The alleles most frequently found by reference strand-mediated conformational analysis in this population were for class I: HLA-A*240201, *020101/09, *0206, *310102, *680102; HLA-B*4002, *1501, *510201, *3501/02/03, *4005, *4801; HLA-Cw*0304, *0801, *0102, *040101; and for class II: HLA-DRB1*080201, *1402, *040701; HLA-DQB1*0402, *0301, *0302/07; HLA-DPB1*0402, *0401, *020102. In addition, a novel allele, HLA-A*0257, was found. Based on comparison of presently known HLA-DRB1 and -DQB1 allele frequencies in Amerindian groups and worldwide populations, the Tarahumaras are unexpectedly more related to the geographically and linguistically distant Aymara and Terena Amerindian groups than they are to neighbouring tribes.

  2. Typing of HLA class II and class I antigens using PHA-activated, IL-2-propagated T lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Leshem, B; Cohen, I; Sherman, L; Brautbar, C; Kedar, E

    1988-06-28

    We describe here a simple procedure, by which HLA class II antigens can be accurately and reliably identified in those patients where there is minimal or absent expression of HLA-DR,DQw antigens on B cells, or when the total number of leukocytes recovered from the patients do not permit reliable typing. Ficoll-Hypaque-separated peripheral blood mononuclear leukocytes, fresh or cryopreserved, were activated by PHA and then propagated in IL-2-containing medium until enough cells for typing were obtained (usually 7-14 days). At this stage, the cultured cells were shown to be primarily T cells (greater than 90% CD3+). Since the activated T cells propagate in the presence of IL-2, even a small number (10(4] of fresh or cryopreserved patients' cells suffice for this protocol. To date we have been able to successfully HLA-DR,DQw type 34/34 bone marrow transplantation candidates and 12/12 long-term dialysis patients, who were untypable using fresh cells. HLA-DR,DQw antigens on activated T cells from normal individuals were identical to those found on their uncultured B cells. In addition, class I antigens that were undetectable on the uncultured cells of one patient could be identified on activated T cells. The HLA antigens identified on the patients' activated T cells were confirmed by phenotypic analysis of cells from family members. PMID:3260612

  3. Arabidopsis class I and class II TCP transcription factors regulate jasmonic acid metabolism and leaf development antagonistically.

    PubMed

    Danisman, Selahattin; van der Wal, Froukje; Dhondt, Stijn; Waites, Richard; de Folter, Stefan; Bimbo, Andrea; van Dijk, Aalt D J; Muino, Jose M; Cutri, Lucas; Dornelas, Marcelo C; Angenent, Gerco C; Immink, Richard G H

    2012-08-01

    TEOSINTE BRANCHED1/CYCLOIDEA/PROLIFERATING CELL FACTOR1 (TCP) transcription factors control developmental processes in plants. The 24 TCP transcription factors encoded in the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) genome are divided into two classes, class I and class II TCPs, which are proposed to act antagonistically. We performed a detailed phenotypic analysis of the class I tcp20 mutant, showing an increase in leaf pavement cell sizes in 10-d-old seedlings. Subsequently, a glucocorticoid receptor induction assay was performed, aiming to identify potential target genes of the TCP20 protein during leaf development. The LIPOXYGENASE2 (LOX2) and class I TCP9 genes were identified as TCP20 targets, and binding of TCP20 to their regulatory sequences could be confirmed by chromatin immunoprecipitation analyses. LOX2 encodes for a jasmonate biosynthesis gene, which is also targeted by class II TCP proteins that are under the control of the microRNA JAGGED AND WAVY (JAW), although in an antagonistic manner. Mutation of TCP9, the second identified TCP20 target, resulted in increased pavement cell sizes during early leaf developmental stages. Analysis of senescence in the single tcp9 and tcp20 mutants and the tcp9tcp20 double mutants showed an earlier onset of this process in comparison with wild-type control plants in the double mutant only. Both the cell size and senescence phenotypes are opposite to the known class II TCP mutant phenotype in JAW plants. Altogether, these results point to an antagonistic function of class I and class II TCP proteins in the control of leaf development via the jasmonate signaling pathway. PMID:22718775

  4. 75 FR 44966 - Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-30

    ..., as an addition to the Special Exposure Cohort (SEC) under the Energy Employees Occupational Illness... employees as an addition to the SEC: All Atomic Weapons Employer employees who worked at BWX Technologies... class to the SEC or the result of any provision by Congress regarding the decision by HHS to add...

  5. 77 FR 58382 - Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-20

    ... Special Exposure Cohort (SEC) under the Energy Employees Occupational Illness Compensation Program Act of... addition to the SEC: All employees of the Department of Energy, its predecessor agencies, and their... addition of this class to the SEC or the result of any provision by Congress regarding the decision by...

  6. 77 FR 2545 - Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-18

    ... Plant in Amarillo, Texas, as an addition to the Special Exposure Cohort (SEC) under the Energy Employees... the following class of employees as an addition to the SEC: All employees of the Department of Energy... included in the SEC. This designation will become effective on January 20, 2012 unless Congress...

  7. 77 FR 64996 - Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-24

    ... the Special Exposure Cohort (SEC) under the Energy Employees Occupational Illness Compensation Program... an addition to the SEC: All Atomic Weapons Employees who worked for the Ventron Corporation at its... publish a notice in the Federal Register reporting the addition of this class to the SEC or the result...

  8. Class I and class II major histocompatibility molecules play a role in bone marrow-derived macrophage development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armstrong, J. W.; Simske, S. J.; Beharka, A. A.; Balch, S.; Luttges, M. W.; Chapes, S. K.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1994-01-01

    Class I and class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules play significant roles in T cell development and immune function. We show that MHCI- and MHCII-deficient mice have low numbers of macrophage precursors and circulating monocytes, as well as abnormal bone marrow cell colony-stimulating factor type 1 secretion and bone composition. We suggest that MHCI and MHCII molecules play a significant role in macrophage development.

  9. The Oropharyngeal Airway in Young Adults with Skeletal Class II and Class III Deformities: A 3-D Morphometric Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Jayaratne, Yasas Shri Nalaka; Zwahlen, Roger Arthur

    2016-01-01

    Objectives 1) To determine the accuracy and reliability of an automated anthropometric measurement software for the oropharyngeal airway and 2) To compare the anthropometric dimensions of the oropharyngeal airway in skeletal class II and III deformity patients. Methods Cone-beam CT (CBCT) scans of 62 patients with skeletal class II or III deformities were used for this study. Volumetric, linear and surface area measurements retroglossal (RG) and retropalatal (RP) compartments of the oropharyngeal airway was measured with the 3dMDVultus software. Accuracy of automated anthropometric pharyngeal airway measurements was assessed using an airway phantom. Results The software was found to be reasonably accurate for measuring dimensions of air passages. The total oropharyngeal volume was significantly greater in the skeletal class III deformity group (16.7 ± 9.04 mm3) compared with class II subjects (11.87 ± 4.01 mm3). The average surface area of both the RG and RP compartments were significantly larger in the class III deformity group. The most constricted area in the RG and RP airway was significantly larger in individuals with skeletal class III deformity. The anterior-posterior (AP) length of this constriction was significantly greater in skeletal class III individuals in both compartments, whereas the width of the constriction was not significantly different between the two groups in both compartments. The RP compartment was larger but less uniform than the RG compartment in both skeletal deformities. Conclusion Significant differences were observed in morphological characteristics of the oropharyngeal airway in individuals with skeletal class II and III deformities. This information may be valuable for surgeons in orthognathic treatment planning, especially for mandibular setback surgery that might compromise the oropharyngeal patency. PMID:26901313

  10. II-Q restriction endonucleases--new class of type II enzymes.

    PubMed Central

    Degtyarev, S K; Rechkunova, N I; Kolyhalov, A A; Dedkov, V S; Zhilkin, P A

    1990-01-01

    Unique restriction endonucleases Bpu 10l and Bsil have been isolated from Bacillus pumilas and Bacillus sphaericus, respectively. The recognition sequences and cleavage points of these enzymes have been determinated as 5'-CC1TNAGC-3'/3'-GGANT1CG-5' for Bpu 10l and 5'-C1TCGTG-3'/3'-GAGCA1C-5' for Bsil. Restriction endonucleases Bpu 10l and Bsil represent a new class of enzymes which recognize non-palindromic nucleotide sequences and hydrolize DNA within the recognition sequence. Bpu 10l and Bsil recognition sequences may be regarded as quasipalindromic and the enzymes may be designated as type II-Q restriction endonucleases. Images PMID:2216771

  11. Effect of decreasing the affinity of the class II-associated invariant chain peptide on the MHC class II peptide repertoire in the presence or absence of H-2M.

    PubMed

    Honey, Karen; Forbush, Katherine; Jensen, Peter E; Rudensky, Alexander Y

    2004-04-01

    The class II-associated invariant chain peptide (CLIP) region of the invariant chain (Ii) directly influences MHC class II presentation by occupying the MHC class II peptide-binding groove, thereby preventing premature loading of peptides. Different MHC class II alleles exhibit distinct affinities for CLIP, and a low affinity interaction has been associated with decreased dependence upon H-2M and increased susceptibility to rheumatoid arthritis, suggesting that decreased CLIP affinity alters the MHC class II-bound peptide repertoire, thereby promoting autoimmunity. To examine the role of CLIP affinity in determining the MHC class II peptide repertoire, we generated transgenic mice expressing either wild-type human Ii or human Ii containing a CLIP region of low affinity for MHC class II. Our data indicate that although degradation intermediates of Ii containing a CLIP region with decreased affinity for MHC class II do not remain associated with I-A(b), this does not substantially alter the peptide repertoire bound by MHC class II or increase autoimmune susceptibility in the mice. This implies that the affinity of the CLIP:MHC class II interaction is not a strong contributory factor in determining the probability of developing autoimmunity. In contrast, in the absence of H-2M, MHC class II peptide repertoire diversity is enhanced by decreasing the affinity of CLIP for MHC class II, although MHC class II cell surface expression is reduced. Thus, we show clearly, in vivo, the critical chaperone function of H-2M, which preserves MHC class II molecules for high affinity peptide binding upon dissociation of Ii degradation intermediates. PMID:15034026

  12. Correction of Class II malocclusion and soft tissue profile in an adult patient

    PubMed Central

    Gaur, Aditi; Maheshwari, Sandhya; Verma, Sanjeev Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Treatment of Class II malocclusion in nongrowing individuals is a challenging situation for the clinician. Class II malocclusion with bialveolar protrusion often dictates premolar extractions with maximum anchorage. The present article describes the case of an adult female with skeletal Class II malocclusion, bimaxillary protrusion, increased overjet, deep bite, lip protrusion, everted lower lip, deep mentolabial sulcus, and lip incompetence. To correct the malocclusion, all four first premolars were extracted. Direct anchorage from miniscrews was used for retraction of the anterior segment. The mandibular buccal segment was protracted into the extraction space using Class II mechanics. Ideal Class I canine and molar relation were achieved in 24 months. There was a significant improvement in facial profile and smile esthetics of the patient.

  13. Correction of Class II malocclusion and soft tissue profile in an adult patient.

    PubMed

    Gaur, Aditi; Maheshwari, Sandhya; Verma, Sanjeev Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Treatment of Class II malocclusion in nongrowing individuals is a challenging situation for the clinician. Class II malocclusion with bialveolar protrusion often dictates premolar extractions with maximum anchorage. The present article describes the case of an adult female with skeletal Class II malocclusion, bimaxillary protrusion, increased overjet, deep bite, lip protrusion, everted lower lip, deep mentolabial sulcus, and lip incompetence. To correct the malocclusion, all four first premolars were extracted. Direct anchorage from miniscrews was used for retraction of the anterior segment. The mandibular buccal segment was protracted into the extraction space using Class II mechanics. Ideal Class I canine and molar relation were achieved in 24 months. There was a significant improvement in facial profile and smile esthetics of the patient. PMID:27630505

  14. Correction of Class II malocclusion and soft tissue profile in an adult patient

    PubMed Central

    Gaur, Aditi; Maheshwari, Sandhya; Verma, Sanjeev Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Treatment of Class II malocclusion in nongrowing individuals is a challenging situation for the clinician. Class II malocclusion with bialveolar protrusion often dictates premolar extractions with maximum anchorage. The present article describes the case of an adult female with skeletal Class II malocclusion, bimaxillary protrusion, increased overjet, deep bite, lip protrusion, everted lower lip, deep mentolabial sulcus, and lip incompetence. To correct the malocclusion, all four first premolars were extracted. Direct anchorage from miniscrews was used for retraction of the anterior segment. The mandibular buccal segment was protracted into the extraction space using Class II mechanics. Ideal Class I canine and molar relation were achieved in 24 months. There was a significant improvement in facial profile and smile esthetics of the patient. PMID:27630505

  15. Major histocompatibility complex class II A gene polymorphism in the striped bass

    SciTech Connect

    Hardee, J.J.; Godwin, U.; Benedetto, R.; McConnell, T.J.

    1995-02-01

    Adaptions of the polymerase chain reaction were used to isolate cDNA sequences encoding the Major histocompatibility complex (Mhc) class II A gene(s) of the striped bass (Morone saxatilis). Four complete Mhc class II A genes were cloned and sequenced from a specimen originating on the Roanoke River, North Carolina, and another three A genes from a specimen originating from the Santee-Cooper Reservoir, South Carolina, identifying a total of seven unique sequences. The sequence suggests the presence of at least two Mhc class II A loci. The extensive sequence variability observed between the seven different Mhc class II clones was concentrated in the {alpha}1 encoding domain. The encoded {alpha}2, transmembrane, and cytoplasmic regions of all seven striped bass genes correlated well with those of known vertebrate Mhc class II proteins. Overall, the striped bass sequences showed greatest similarity to the Mhc class II A genes of the zebrafish. Southern blot analysis demonstrated extensive polymorphism in the Mhc class II A genes in members of a Roanoke river-caught population of striped bass versus a lesser degree of polymorphism in an aquacultured Santee-Cooper population of striped bass. 55 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Major histocompatibility complex class II A gene polymorphism in the striped bass.

    PubMed

    Hardee, J J; Godwin, U; Benedetto, R; McConnell, T J

    1995-01-01

    Adaptions of the polymerase chain reaction were used to isolate cDNA sequences encoding the Major histocompatibility complex (Mhc) class II A gene(s) of the striped bass (Morone saxatilis). Four complete Mhc class II A genes were cloned and sequenced from a specimen originating in the Roanoke River, North Carolina, and another three A genes from a specimen originating from the Santee-Cooper Reservoir, South Carolina, identifying a total of seven unique sequences. The sequence suggests the presence of at least two Mhc class II A loci. The extensive sequence variability observed between the seven different Mhc class II clones was concentrated in the alpha 1 encoding domain. The encoded alpha 2, transmembrane, and cytoplasmic regions of all seven striped bass genes correlated well with those of known vertebrate Mhc class II proteins. Overall, the striped bass sequences showed greatest similarity to the Mhc class II A genes of the zebrafish. Southern blot analysis demonstrated extensive polymorphism in the Mhc class II A genes in members of a Roanoke river-caught population of striped bass versus a lesser degree of polymorphism in an aquacultured Santee-Cooper population of striped bass.

  17. β2-Glycoprotein I/HLA class II complexes are novel autoantigens in antiphospholipid syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Tanimura, Kenji; Jin, Hui; Suenaga, Tadahiro; Morikami, Satoko; Arase, Noriko; Kishida, Kazuki; Hirayasu, Kouyuki; Kohyama, Masako; Ebina, Yasuhiko; Yasuda, Shinsuke; Horita, Tetsuya; Takasugi, Kiyoshi; Ohmura, Koichiro; Yamamoto, Ken; Katayama, Ichiro; Sasazuki, Takehiko; Lanier, Lewis L.; Atsumi, Tatsuya; Yamada, Hideto

    2015-01-01

    Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is an autoimmune disorder characterized by thrombosis and/or pregnancy complications. β2-glycoprotein I (β2GPI) complexed with phospholipid is recognized as a major target for autoantibodies in APS; however, less than half the patients with clinical manifestations of APS possess autoantibodies against the complexes. Therefore, the range of autoantigens involved in APS remains unclear. Recently, we found that human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II molecules transport misfolded cellular proteins to the cell surface via association with their peptide-binding grooves. Furthermore, immunoglobulin G heavy chain/HLA class II complexes were specific targets for autoantibodies in rheumatoid arthritis. Here, we demonstrate that intact β2GPI, not peptide, forms a complex with HLA class II molecules. Strikingly, 100 (83.3%) of the 120 APS patients analyzed, including those whose antiphospholipid antibody titers were within normal range, possessed autoantibodies that recognize β2GPI/HLA class II complexes in the absence of phospholipids. In situ association between β2GPI and HLA class II was observed in placental tissues of APS patients but not in healthy controls. Furthermore, autoantibodies against β2GPI/HLA class II complexes mediated complement-dependent cytotoxicity against cells expressing the complexes. These data suggest that β2GPI/HLA class II complexes are a target in APS that might be involved in the pathogenesis. PMID:25733579

  18. TNF-α Induces Macroautophagy and Regulates MHC Class II Expression in Human Skeletal Muscle Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Keller, Christian W.; Fokken, Claudia; Turville, Stuart G.; Lünemann, Anna; Schmidt, Jens; Münz, Christian; Lünemann, Jan D.

    2011-01-01

    Macroautophagy, a homeostatic process that shuttles cytoplasmic constituents into endosomal and lysosomal compartments, has recently been shown to deliver antigens for presentation on major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules. Skeletal muscle fibers show a high level of constitutive macroautophagy and express MHC class II molecules upon immune activation. We found that tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), a monokine overexpressed in inflammatory myopathies, led to a marked up-regulation of macroautophagy in skeletal myocytes. Furthermore, TNF-α augmented surface expression of MHC class II molecules in interferon-γ (IFN-γ)-treated myoblasts. The synergistic effect of TNF-α and IFN-γ on the induction of MHC class II surface expression was not reflected by higher intracellular human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DR levels and was reversed by macroautophagy inhibition, suggesting that TNF-α facilitates antigen processing via macroautophagy for more efficient MHC class II loading. Muscle biopsies from patients with sporadic inclusion body myositis, a well defined myopathy with chronic inflammation, showed that over 20% of fibers that contained autophagosomes costained for MHC class II molecules and that more than 40% of double-positive muscle fibers had contact with CD4+ and CD8+ immune cells. These findings establish a mechanism through which TNF-α regulates both macroautophagy and MHC class II expression and suggest that macroautophagy-mediated antigen presentation contributes to the immunological environment of the inflamed human skeletal muscle. PMID:20980264

  19. Searching for the Right Way to Begin Class: Part II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawry, John D.

    2012-01-01

    Part I, "Searching for the Right Way to Begin Class," described the various iterations of beginning class rituals the author used over the years. Those rituals began with a prayer to the Holy Spirit as was required at the Catholic women's college Marymount in Tarrytown, New York, where he first taught out of graduate school in 1965. That was…

  20. Preformed class II donor-specific antibodies are associated with an increased risk of early rejection after liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    O'Leary, Jacqueline G; Kaneku, Hugo; Jennings, Linda W; Bañuelos, Nubia; Susskind, Brian M; Terasaki, Paul I; Klintmalm, Göran B

    2013-09-01

    Preformed donor-specific human leukocyte antigen antibodies (DSAs) are considered a contraindication to the transplantation of most solid organs other than the liver. Conflicting data currently exist on the importance of preformed DSAs in rejection and patient survival after liver transplantation (LT). To evaluate preformed DSAs in LT, we retrospectively analyzed prospectively collected samples from all adult recipients of primary LT without another organ from January 1, 2000 to May 31, 2009 with a pre-LT sample available (95.8% of the patients). Fourteen percent of the patients had preformed class I and/or II DSAs with a mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) ≥ 5000. Preformed class I DSAs with an MFI ≥ 5000 remained persistent in only 5% of patients and were not associated with rejection. Preformed class II DSAs with an MFI of 5000 to 10,000 remained persistent in 23% of patients, and this rate increased to 33% for patients whose MFI was ≥10,000 (P < 0.001). Preformed class II DSAs in multivariable Cox proportional hazards modeling were associated with an increased risk of early rejection [hazard ratio (HR) = 1.58; p = 0.004]. In addition, multivariate modeling showed that in comparison with no DSAs (MFI < 1000), preformed class I and/or II DSAs with an MFI ≥ 5000 were independently correlated with the risk of death (HR = 1.51; p = 0.02).

  1. Murine neuroblastoma vaccines produced by retroviral transfer of MHC class II genes.

    PubMed

    Hock, R A; Reynolds, B D; Tucker-McClung, C L; Heuer, J G

    1996-01-01

    Malignant tumors express tumor-related antigens, but effective antitumor immunity does not occur in the primary host. One hypothesis is that there is insufficient stimulation of T-cell responses due to ineffective antigen presentation. An approach to overcome these deficiencies is to modify tumor cells to express major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II genes and thus facilitate the presentation of antigens directly by tumor cells. Our experiments with a murine neuroblastoma cell line (neuro-2a) transduced with DR (xenogeneic), 1-Ab (allogeneic), or 1-Ak (syngeneic) MHC class II genes support this notion. The relative potencies of the modified neuro-2a to induce immunity to unmodified neuro-2a were neuro-2a/DR > neuro-2a/1-Ab > neuro-2a/1-Ak. Modified neuro-2a also could stimulate naive splenocyte proliferation in vitro. The relative magnitude of the proliferative responses seen after stimulation with modified tumor cells was neuro-2a/DR > neuro-2a/1-Ab > neuro-2a/1-Ak > unmodified neuro-2a. Hence, the tumor cell-induced splenocyte proliferative responses observed in vitro correlate with the effectiveness of the tumor cell vaccines to induce antitumor immunity in vivo. These data show that the expression of exogenous MHC class II on tumor cells is a potent stimulus for specific antitumor immunity. Because of the correlation of the in vivo and in vitro immune responses to modified tumor cells, the tumor-induced lymphocyte proliferation assay may be useful in evaluating tumor cell vaccines produced by additional genetic modifications of tumor cells.

  2. Purification and characterization of a class II α-Mannosidase from Moringa oleifera seed kernels.

    PubMed

    Tejavath, Kiran Kumar; Nadimpalli, Siva Kumar

    2014-10-01

    α-Mannosidase (EC. 3.2.1.114) belonging to class II glycosyl hydrolase family 38 was purified from Moringa oleifera seeds to apparent homogeneity by conventional protein purification methods followed by affinity chromatography on Con A Sepharose and size exclusion chromatography. The purified enzyme is a glycoprotein with 9.3 % carbohydrate and exhibited a native molecular mass of 240 kDa, comprising two heterogeneous subunits with molecular masses of 66 kDa (α-larger subunit) and 55 kDa (β-smaller subunit). Among both the subunits only larger subunit stained for carbohydrate with periodic acid Schiff's staining. The optimum temperature and pH for purified enzyme was 50 °C and pH 5.0, respectively. The enzyme was stable within the pH range of 3.0-7.0. The enzyme was inhibited by EDTA, Hg(2+), Ag(2+), and Cu(2+). The activity lost by EDTA was completely regained by addition of Zn(2+). The purified enzyme was characterized in terms of the kinetic parameters K m (1.6 mM) and V max (2.2 U/mg) using para-nitrophenyl-α-D-mannopyranoside as substrate. The enzyme was very strongly inhibited by swainsonine (SW) at 1 μM concentration a class II α-Mannosidase inhibitor, but not by deoxymannojirimycin (DMNJ). Chemical modification studies revealed involvement of tryptophan at active site. The inhibition by SW and requirement of the Zn(2+) as a metal ion suggested that the enzyme belongs to class II α-Mannosidase.

  3. A tensor analysis to evaluate the effect of high-pull headgear on Class II malocclusions.

    PubMed

    Ngan, P; Scheick, J; Florman, M

    1993-03-01

    The inaccuracies inherent in cephalometric analysis of treatment effects are well known. The objective of this article is to present a more reliable research tool in the analysis of cephalometric data. Bookstein introduced a dilation function by means of a homogeneous deformation tensor as a method of describing changes in cephalometric data. His article gave an analytic description of the deformation tensor that permits the rapid and highly accurate calculation of it on a desktop computer. The first part of this article describes the underlying ideas and mathematics. The second part uses the tensor analysis to analyze the cephalometric results of a group of patients treated with high-pull activator (HPA) to demonstrate the application of this research tool. Eight patients with Class II skeletal open bite malocclusions in the mixed dentition were treated with HPA. A control sample consisting of eight untreated children with Class II who were obtained from The Ohio State University Growth Study was used as a comparison group. Lateral cephalograms taken before and at the completion of treatment were traced, digitized, and analyzed with the conventional method and tensor analysis. The results showed that HPA had little or no effect on maxillary skeletal structures. However, reduction in growth rate was found with the skeletal triangle S-N-A, indicating a posterior tipping and torquing of the maxillary incisors. The treatment also induced additional deformation on the mandible in a downward and slightly forward direction. Together with the results from the conventional cephalometric analysis, HPA seemed to provide the vertical and rotational control of the maxilla during orthopedic Class II treatment by inhibiting the downward and forward eruptive path of the upper posterior teeth. The newly designed computer software permits rapid analysis of cephalometric data with the tensor analysis on a desktop computer. This tool may be useful in analyzing growth changes for

  4. DMA and DMB are the only genes in the class II region of the human MHC needed for class II-associated antigen processing

    SciTech Connect

    Ceman, S.; Rudersdorf, R.A.; Petersen, J.M.

    1995-03-15

    Previous studies have shown that homozygous mutations between the LMP2 and DNA loci in the human MHC cause class II molecules to be abnormally conformed and unstable in the presence of SDS at low temperature, and impede class II-associated Ag processing and presentation. These abnormalities result from impaired ability to form intracellular class II/peptide complexes that predominate in normal cells. We show in this work that this defect results from deficient expression of either the DMA or the DMB gene. Human B-LCL.174 (DR3) cells, which have a deletion of all known expressible genes in the class II region, express transgene-encoded HLA-DR3, but have the abnormalities. Transfer of cosmid HA14, which contains the DMA and DMB genes, into .174 (DR3) cells restored normal DR3 conformation, stability in 0.4% SDS at 0{degrees}, and ability to process and present tetanus toxoid, but only when both DMA and DMB mRNAs were present. The requirement for both genetic expressions in engendering normal phenotypes was confirmed by transferring the cloned genes into .174 (DR3) cells separately or together. Because normal phenotypes were fully restored in transferent cells expressing DMA plus DMB, other genes in the {approximately} 1-mb homozygous class II region deletion in .174 (DR3) cells either do not participate in or are dispensable for apparently normal production of intracellular class II/peptide complexes. The properties of DM-deficient EBV-transformed B lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) suggest ways of identifying humans in whom DM deficiency contributes to congenital immunodeficiency and malignancy. 67 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Class II direct composite resin restorations with beta-quartz glass-ceramic inserts.

    PubMed

    Rada, R E

    1993-11-01

    With the increasing demand for esthetic posterior restorations, numerous techniques have been developed. The direct resin restoration has probably been used most extensively in Class II situations. Problems with Class II direct resin restorations include difficulty in developing proximal contact, occlusal wear, and polymerization shrinkage. Beta-quartz glass-ceramic inserts have been developed in an attempt to reduce the incidence of these potential problems. They can be placed in a one-appointment technique, are relatively inexpensive, and can readily be utilized by the clinician adept in placing Class II composite resin restorations.

  6. Phenotypic characterization of mononuclear cells and class II antigen expression in angular cheilitis infected by Candida albicans or Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Ohman, S C; Jontell, M; Jonsson, R

    1989-04-01

    In the present study we characterized the phenotypes of infiltrating mononuclear cells in angular cheilitis lesions to further explore the pathogenesis of this disorder. Frozen sections from lesions infected by Candida albicans and/or Staphylococcus aureus were subjected to immunohistochemical analysis utilizing monoclonal antibodies directed to subsets of T-lymphocytes, B-lymphocytes, and macrophages. In addition, the expression of Class II antigens (HLA-DP, -DQ, -DR), the interleukin 2- and transferrin-receptors was studied on resident and infiltrating cells. An intense infiltration of T-lymphocytes was accompanied by expression of Class II antigens on the epidermal keratinocytes in lesion infected by Candida albicans. The Staphylococcus aureus infected lesions displayed a diffuse infiltration of T-lymphocytes but virtually no expression of Class II antigen by epidermal keratinocytes. These observations suggest that the cell-mediated arm of the immune system is involved in the inflammatory reaction of lesions infected by Candida albicans. In addition, the present study confirms that epidermal expression of Class II antigens is closely related to the type and magnitude of the infiltrating T-lymphocyte. Finally, these findings indicate that the type of inflammatory reaction in angular cheilitis is primarily dependent on the isolated microorganism, although the clinical pictures of the disorder are virtually identical. PMID:2468179

  7. 76 FR 43332 - Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Class II Special Controls Guidance...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-20

    ...; Class II Special Controls Guidance Document: Focused Ultrasound Stimulator System for Aesthetic Use... Guidance Document: Focused Ultrasound Stimulator System for Aesthetic Use.'' This guidance document... ``Class II Special Controls Guidance Document: Focused Ultrasound Stimulator System for Aesthetic Use''...

  8. Rheumatoid Rescue of Misfolded Cellular Proteins by MHC Class II Molecules: A New Hypothesis for Autoimmune Diseases.

    PubMed

    Arase, Hisashi

    2016-01-01

    Misfolded proteins localized in the endoplasmic reticulum are degraded promptly and thus are not transported outside cells. However, misfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum are rescued from protein degradation upon association with major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules and are transported to the cell surface by MHC class II molecules without being processed to peptides. Studies on the misfolded proteins rescued by MHC class II molecules have revealed that misfolded proteins associated with MHC class II molecules are specific targets for autoantibodies produced in autoimmune diseases. Furthermore, a strong correlation has been observed between autoantibody binding to misfolded proteins associated with MHC class II molecules and the autoimmune disease susceptibility conferred by each MHC class II allele. These new insights into MHC class II molecules suggest that misfolded proteins rescued from protein degradation by MHC class II molecules are recognized as "neo-self" antigens by immune system and are involved in autoimmune diseases as autoantibody targets.

  9. Expressed MHC class II genes in sea otters (Enhydra lutris) from geographically disparate populations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bowen, L.; Aldridge, B.M.; Miles, A.K.; Stott, J.L.

    2006-01-01

    The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is central to maintaining the immunologic vigor of individuals and populations. Classical MHC class II genes were targeted for partial sequencing in sea otters (Enhydra lutris) from populations in California, Washington, and Alaska. Sequences derived from sea otter peripheral blood leukocyte mRNAs were similar to those classified as DQA, DQB, DRA, and DRB in other species. Comparisons of the derived amino acid compositions supported the classification of these as functional molecules from at least one DQA, DQB, and DRA locus and at least two DRB loci. While limited in scope, phylogenetic analysis of the DRB peptide-binding region suggested the possible existence of distinct clades demarcated by geographic region. These preliminary findings support the need for additional MHC gene sequencing and expansion to a comprehensive study targeting additional otters. ?? 2006 Blackwell Munksgaard.

  10. Transcriptional control of MHC class II gene expression during differentiation from B cells to plasma cells.

    PubMed

    Dellabona, P; Latron, F; Maffei, A; Scarpellino, L; Accolla, R S

    1989-04-15

    In this study we investigated the molecular mechanisms responsible for the extinction of the constitutive MHC class II gene expression of human B cells on somatic cell hybridization with murine plasmocytoma cells. We found that this event is due to trans-acting suppressor functions of mouse origin pre-existing in the plasmocytoma cells and acting at transcriptional level. Transcription of the entire family of human class II genes is suppressed, including genes as DO beta for which a distinct regulation of expression in B cells had been previously demonstrated. Suppression appears specific for class II genes because in the hybrids expression of MHC class I genes of mouse is unaffected and of human only partially reduced. Interestingly, also murine invariant chain gene is expressed in both parental plasmocytoma and hybrid cells although at reduced amounts as compared to a murine class II positive B cell line. The class II negative phenotype of hybrid cells and parental plasmocytoma cells is highly stable and unaffected by treatment with protein synthesis inhibitors, suggesting that the transcriptional suppressor function is not mediated by rapid, labile turning-over proteins. Possible mechanisms responsible for transcriptional regulation of MHC class II gene expression during terminal differentiation of B cells to plasma cells are discussed. PMID:2495328

  11. 10 CFR 50.43 - Additional standards and provisions affecting class 103 licenses and certifications for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... propose nuclear reactor designs which differ significantly from light-water reactor designs that were... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Additional standards and provisions affecting class 103 licenses and certifications for commercial power. 50.43 Section 50.43 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY...

  12. 77 FR 40059 - Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-06

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort AGENCY..., Department of Health and Human Services (HHS). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: HHS gives notice of a decision to... (SEC) under the Energy Employees Occupational Illness Compensation Program Act of 2000. On June...

  13. 76 FR 28436 - Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort AGENCY: National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), Department of Health and Human Services (HHS...) under the Energy Employees Occupational Illness Compensation Program Act of 2000. On April 29, 2011,...

  14. 77 FR 32640 - Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort AGENCY..., Department of Health and Human Services (HHS). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: HHS gives notice of a decision to... the Special Exposure Cohort (SEC) under the Energy Employees Occupational Illness Compensation...

  15. 77 FR 58382 - Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-20

    ... Special Exposure Cohort (SEC) under the Energy Employees Occupational Illness Compensation Program Act of... addition to the SEC: All employees of the Department of Energy, its predecessor agencies, and their... this class to the SEC or the result of any provision by Congress regarding the decision by HHS to...

  16. 78 FR 77686 - Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-24

    ... Exposure Cohort (SEC) under the Energy Employees Occupational Illness Compensation Program Act of 2000. On... SEC: All employees of the Department of Energy, its predecessor agencies, and their contractors and..., HHS will publish a notice in the Federal Register reporting the addition of this class to the SEC...

  17. 78 FR 64501 - Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-29

    ... Exposure Cohort (SEC) under the Energy Employees Occupational Illness Compensation Program Act of 2000. On... SEC: All employees of the Department of Energy, its predecessor agencies, and their contractors and... date, HHS will publish a notice in the Federal Register reporting the addition of this class to the...

  18. 78 FR 54791 - Proposed Additional Airworthiness Design Standards: Advanced Avionics Under the Special Class...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-06

    ... Regulations and two additional design criteria issued on September 2, 2003 (68 FR 56809). The regulation... 75 FR 32576. In conjunction with the expansion to Night-VFR operations intergrated avionic displays...: Advanced Avionics Under the Special Class (JAR-VLA) Regulations; Aquila Aviation by Excellence GmbH,...

  19. Immunogenicity of HLA Class I and II Double Restricted Influenza A-Derived Peptides

    PubMed Central

    Pedersen, Sara Ram; Christensen, Jan Pravsgaard; Buus, Søren; Rasmussen, Michael; Korsholm, Karen Smith; Nielsen, Morten; Claesson, Mogens Helweg

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to identify influenza A-derived peptides which bind to both HLA class I and -II molecules and by immunization lead to both HLA class I and class II restricted immune responses. Eight influenza A-derived 9-11mer peptides with simultaneous binding to both HLA-A*02:01 and HLA-DRB1*01:01 molecules were identified by bioinformatics and biochemical technology. Immunization of transgenic HLA-A*02:01/HLA-DRB1*01:01 mice with four of these double binding peptides gave rise to both HLA class I and class II restricted responses by CD8 and CD4 T cells, respectively, whereas four of the double binding peptides did result in HLA-A*02:01 restricted responses only. According to their cytokine profile, the CD4 T cell responses were of the Th2 type. In influenza infected mice, we were unable to detect natural processing in vivo of the double restricted peptides and in line with this, peptide vaccination did not decrease virus titres in the lungs of intranasally influenza challenged mice. Our data show that HLA class I and class II double binding peptides can be identified by bioinformatics and biochemical technology. By immunization, double binding peptides can give rise to both HLA class I and class I restricted responses, a quality which might be of potential interest for peptide-based vaccine development. PMID:26731261

  20. 25 CFR 547.7 - What are the minimum technical hardware standards applicable to Class II gaming systems?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... error condition; and (iii) Be constructed to permit communication with the Class II gaming system of the... applicable to Class II gaming systems? 547.7 Section 547.7 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES MINIMUM TECHNICAL STANDARDS FOR CLASS II GAMING SYSTEMS...

  1. 25 CFR 547.7 - What are the minimum technical hardware standards applicable to Class II gaming systems?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... error condition; and (iii) Be constructed to permit communication with the Class II gaming system of the... applicable to Class II gaming systems? 547.7 Section 547.7 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES MINIMUM TECHNICAL STANDARDS FOR CLASS II GAMING SYSTEMS...

  2. 25 CFR 547.6 - What are the minimum technical standards for enrolling and enabling Class II gaming system...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... and enabling Class II gaming system components? 547.6 Section 547.6 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES MINIMUM TECHNICAL STANDARDS FOR GAMING EQUIPMENT USED... enabling Class II gaming system components? (a) General requirements. Class II gaming systems shall...

  3. 25 CFR 547.6 - What are the minimum technical standards for enrolling and enabling Class II gaming system...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... and enabling Class II gaming system components? 547.6 Section 547.6 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES MINIMUM TECHNICAL STANDARDS FOR GAMING EQUIPMENT USED... enabling Class II gaming system components? (a) General requirements. Class II gaming systems shall...

  4. 25 CFR 547.7 - What are the minimum technical hardware standards applicable to Class II gaming systems?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... (2) Allow the player to interact with the Class II gaming system. (f) Account access components. A Class II gaming system component that reads account access media shall be located within a secure...) Shall provide a method to enable the Class II gaming system to interpret and act upon valid or...

  5. 25 CFR 547.7 - What are the minimum technical hardware standards applicable to Class II gaming systems?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... (2) Allow the player to interact with the Class II gaming system. (f) Account access components. A Class II gaming system component that reads account access media shall be located within a secure...) Shall provide a method to enable the Class II gaming system to interpret and act upon valid or...

  6. Cephalometric effects of the Jones Jig appliance followed by fixed appliances in Class II malocclusion treatment

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Mayara Paim; Henriques, José Fernando Castanha; de Freitas, Karina Maria Salvatore; Grec, Roberto Henrique da Costa

    2014-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to cephalometrically assess the skeletal and dentoalveolar effects of Class II malocclusion treatment performed with the Jones Jig appliance followed by fixed appliances. Methods The sample comprised 25 patients with Class II malocclusion treated with the Jones Jig appliance followed by fixed appliances, at a mean initial age of 12.90 years old. The mean time of the entire orthodontic treatment was 3.89 years. The distalization phase lasted for 0.85 years, after which the fixed appliance was used for 3.04 years. Cephalograms were used at initial (T1), post-distalization (T2) and final phases of treatment (T3). For intragroup comparison of the three phases evaluated, dependent ANOVA and Tukey tests were used. Results Jones Jig appliance did not interfere in the maxillary and mandibular component and did not change maxillomandibular relationship. Jones Jig appliance promoted distalization of first molars with anchorage loss, mesialization and significant extrusion of first and second premolars, as well as a significant increase in anterior face height at the end of treatment. The majority of adverse effects that occur during intraoral distalization are subsequently corrected during corrective mechanics. Buccal inclination and protrusion of mandibular incisors were identified. By the end of treatment, correction of overjet and overbite was observed. Conclusions Jones Jig appliance promoted distalization of first molars with anchorage loss represented by significant mesial movement and extrusion of first and second premolars, in addition to a significant increase in anterior face height. PMID:25162565

  7. Comparison of 2 modifications of the twin-block appliance in matched Class II samples.

    PubMed

    Parkin, N A; McKeown, H F; Sandler, P J

    2001-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the skeletal and dental changes contributing to Class II correction with 2 modifications of the Twin-block appliance: Twin-block appliances that use a labial bow (TB1) and Twin-block appliances that incorporate high-pull headgear and torquing spurs on the maxillary central incisors (TB2). After pretreatment equivalence was established, a total of 36 consecutively treated patients with the TB1 modification were compared with 27 patients treated with the TB2 modification. Both samples were treated in the same hospital department and the same technician made all the appliances. The cephalostat, digitizing package, and statistical methods were common to both groups. The results demonstrated that the addition of headgear to the appliance resulted in effective vertical and sagittal control of the maxillary complex and thus maximized the Class II skeletal correction in the TB2 sample. Use of the torquing springs resulted in less retroclination of the maxillary incisors in the TB2 sample when compared with the TB1 sample; however, this difference did not reach the level of statistical significance.

  8. Antibody recognition of an immunogenic influenza hemagglutinin-human leukocyte antigen class II complex

    PubMed Central

    1991-01-01

    The A/Japan/57 influenza hemagglutin (HA) peptide HA 128-145, when bound by human histocompatibility leukocyte antigen-DRw11 cells, is recognized by the human CD4+ T cell clone V1. A rabbit antiserum has been raised against HA 128-145 which recognizes not only the free peptide, but also the HA 128-145/DRw11 complex on a solid matrix, in solution, or on the surface of viable cells. The detection of these complexes on viable cells was shown to be class II specific, DRw11 restricted, and commensurate with the level of DRw11 expression. The identity of DRw11 as the cell surface molecule binding HA 128-145 was confirmed by immunoprecipitation, sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and tryptic peptide mapping. Using this antiserum HA 128-145/DRw11 complexes could be detected on the cell surface as soon as 30 min after the peptide was added, and increased up to 24 h. Dissociation kinetics showed these complexes were long-lived, with a half-life of approximately 14 h. This anti-HA peptide antiserum represents the first direct means of studying antigenic peptide-human leukocyte antigen class II complexes on the surface of living cells without the addition of a non-amino acid moiety to the peptide. The properties of this antiserum thus provide the potential to study naturally processed antigenic peptides as well as the mechanism of processing itself in a physiologically relevant system. PMID:2056278

  9. MHC class II exacerbates demyelination in vivo independently of T cells.

    PubMed

    Hiremath, Meenaxi M; Chen, Vivian S; Suzuki, Kinuko; Ting, Jenny P Y; Matsushima, Glenn K

    2008-10-15

    We have shown previously the importance of MHC class II for central nervous system remyelination; however, the function of MHC class II during cuprizone-induced demyelination has not been examined. Here, we show that I-A(beta)-/- mice exhibit significantly reduced inflammation and demyelination. RAG-1(1/1) mice are indistinguishable from controls, indicating T cells may not play a role. The role of MHC class II depends on an intact cytoplasmic tail that leads to the production of IL-1beta, TNF-alpha, and nitric oxide, and oligodendrocyte apoptosis. Thus, the function of MHC class II cytoplasmic tail appears to increase microglial proliferation and activation that exacerbates demyelination. PMID:18805594

  10. Tetraspan microdomains distinct from lipid rafts enrich select peptide-MHC class II complexes.

    PubMed

    Kropshofer, H; Spindeldreher, S; Röhn, T A; Platania, N; Grygar, C; Daniel, N; Wölpl, A; Langen, H; Horejsi, V; Vogt, A B

    2002-01-01

    Complexes of peptide and major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II are expressed on the surface of antigen-presenting cells but their molecular organization is unknown. Here we show that subsets of MHC class II molecules localize to membrane microdomains together with tetraspan proteins, the peptide editor HLA-DM and the costimulator CD86. Tetraspan microdomains differ from other membrane areas such as lipid rafts, as they enrich MHC class II molecules carrying a selected set of peptide antigens. Antigen-presenting cells deficient in tetraspan microdomains have a reduced capacity to activate CD4+ T cells. Thus, the organization of uniformly loaded peptide-MHC class II complexes in tetraspan domains may be a very early event that determines both the composition of the immunological synapse and the quality of the subsequent T helper cell response.

  11. Correction of an adult Class II division 2 individual using fixed functional appliance: A noncompliance approach.

    PubMed

    Basavaraddi, Shrinivas; Gandedkar, Narayan H; Belludi, Anup; Patil, Anand

    2016-01-01

    This case report describes the application of fixed functional appliance in the treatment of an adult female having Class II division 2 malocclusion with retroclination of upper incisors. Fixed functional appliance was used to correct the overjet after the uprighting of upper incisors. Fixed functional appliance was fitted on a rigid rectangular arch wire. Application of fixed functional appliance achieved a good Class I molar relationship along with Class I canine relationship with normal overjet and overbite. Fixed functional appliance is effective in the treatment of Class II malocclusions, even in adult patients, and can serve as an alternate choice of treatment instead of orthognathic surgery. This is a case; wherein, fixed functional appliance was successfully used to relieve deep bite and overjet that was ensued after leveling and aligning. We demonstrate that fixed functional appliance can act as a "noncompliant corrector" and use of Class II elastics can be avoided.

  12. Correction of an adult Class II division 2 individual using fixed functional appliance: A noncompliance approach

    PubMed Central

    Basavaraddi, Shrinivas; Gandedkar, Narayan H.; Belludi, Anup; Patil, Anand

    2016-01-01

    This case report describes the application of fixed functional appliance in the treatment of an adult female having Class II division 2 malocclusion with retroclination of upper incisors. Fixed functional appliance was used to correct the overjet after the uprighting of upper incisors. Fixed functional appliance was fitted on a rigid rectangular arch wire. Application of fixed functional appliance achieved a good Class I molar relationship along with Class I canine relationship with normal overjet and overbite. Fixed functional appliance is effective in the treatment of Class II malocclusions, even in adult patients, and can serve as an alternate choice of treatment instead of orthognathic surgery. This is a case; wherein, fixed functional appliance was successfully used to relieve deep bite and overjet that was ensued after leveling and aligning. We demonstrate that fixed functional appliance can act as a “noncompliant corrector” and use of Class II elastics can be avoided. PMID:27041908

  13. MHC class II antigen presentation pathway in murine tumours: tumour evasion from immunosurveillance?

    PubMed Central

    Walter, W; Lingnau, K; Schmitt, E; Loos, M; Maeurer, M J

    2000-01-01

    Qualitative differences in the MHC class II antigen processing and presentation pathway may be instrumental in shaping the CD4+ T cell response directed against tumour cells. Efficient loading of many MHC class II alleles with peptides requires the assistance of H2-M, a heterodimeric MHC class II-like molecule. In contrast to the HLA-DM region in humans, the β-chain locus is duplicated in mouse, with the H2-Mb1 (Mb1β-chain distal to H2-Mb2 (Mb2) and the H2-Ma (Ma) α-chain gene). Here, we show that murine MHC class II and H2-M genes are coordinately regulated in murine tumour cell lines by T helper cell 1 (IFN-γ) and T helper cell 2 (IL-4 or IL-10) cytokines in the presence of the MHC class II-specific transactivator CIITA as determined by mRNA expression and Western blot analysis. Furthermore, Mαβ1 and Mαβ2 heterodimers are differentially expressed in murine tumour cell lines of different histology. Both H2-M isoforms promote equally processing and presentation of native protein antigens to H2-Ad- and H2-Ed-restricted CD4+ T cells. Murine tumour cell lines could be divided into three groups: constitutive MHC class II and CIITA expression; inducible MHC class II and CIITA expression upon IFN-γ-treatment; and lack of constitutive and IFN-γ-inducible MHC class II and CIITA expression. These differences may impact on CD4+ T cell recognition of cancer cells in murine tumour models. © 2000 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:11027433

  14. 46 CFR 128.210 - Class II vital systems-materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Class II vital systems-materials. 128.210 Section 128.210 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS MARINE ENGINEERING: EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Materials and Pressure Design § 128.210 Class II vital systems—materials. Except as provided by §§ 128.230...

  15. Total distalization of the maxillary arch in a patient with skeletal Class II malocclusion.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yoon Jeong; Lee, Jong-Suk; Cha, Jung-Yul; Park, Young-Chel

    2011-06-01

    In nongrowing patients with skeletal Class II malocclusion, premolar extraction or maxillary molar distalization can be used as camouflage treatment. Orthodontic miniscrew implants are widely used for this purpose because they do not produce undesirable reciprocal effects and do not depend on the patient's cooperation. This article reports on maxillary molar distalization by using miniscrew implants to correct a Class II problem. The main considerations of molar distalization treatment with miniscrew implants are discussed. PMID:21640890

  16. Wide tissue distribution of axolotl class II molecules occurs independently of thyroxin.

    PubMed

    Völk, H; Charlemagne, J; Tournefier, A; Ferrone, S; Jost, R; Parisot, R; Kaufman, J

    1998-04-01

    Unlike most salamanders, the Mexican axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum) fails to produce enough thyroxin to undergo anatomical metamorphosis, although a "cryptic metamorphosis" involving a change from fetal to adult hemoglobins has been described. To understand to what extent the development of the axolotl hemopoietic system is linked to anatomical metamorphosis, we examined the appearance and thyroxin dependence of class II molecules on thymus, blood, and spleen cells, using both flow cytometry and biosynthetic labeling followed by immunoprecipitation. Class II molecules are present on B cells as early as 7 weeks after hatching, the first time analyzed. At this time, most thymocytes, all T cells, and all erythrocytes lack class II molecules, but first thymocytes at 17 weeks, then T cells at 22 weeks, and finally erythrocytes at 26-27 weeks virtually all bear class II molecules. Class II molecules and adult hemoglobin appear at roughly the same time in erythrocytes. These data are most easily explained by populations of class II-negative cells being replaced by populations of class II-positive cells, and they show that the hemopoietic system matures at a variety of times unrelated to the increase of thyroxin that drives anatomical metamorphosis. We found that administration of thyroxin during axolotl ontogeny does not accelerate or otherwise affect the acquisition of class II molecules, nor does administration of drugs that inhibit thyroxin (sodium perchlorate, thiourea, methimazole, and 1-methyl imidazole) retard or abolish this acquisition, suggesting that the programs for anatomical metamorphosis and some aspects of hemopoietic development are entirely separate. PMID:9510551

  17. A treatment method for Class II Division 1 patients with extraction of permanent maxillary first molars.

    PubMed

    Booij, Johan Willem; Kuijpers-Jagtman, Anne Marie; Katsaros, Christos

    2009-01-01

    Throughout the years, various treatment modalities have been presented for the treatment of Class II Division 1 malocclusions. The goal of this paper is to present a treatment approach that involves the extraction of the maxillary first molars followed by use of fixed appliances with low-friction brackets. This treatment approach has proven to be an efficient treatment modality for Class II Division 1 malocclusions, especially with noncompliant patients.

  18. Molecular characterization of three Mhc class II B haplotypes in the ring-necked pheasant.

    PubMed

    Wittzell, H; von Schantz, T; Zoorob, R; Auffray, C

    1994-01-01

    We investigated the class II B genes in a free-ranging population of the ring-necked pheasant Phasianus colchicus by a combination of restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP), polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and DNA sequencing. Special attention was paid to the variation in the second exon, which encodes the peptide-binding beta 1-domain. The population was introduced, but it still exhibited major histocompatibility complex polymorphism with at least three segregating class II B haplotypes and consequently six genotypes. We found two class II B genes associated with each haplotype. The class II B genes of birds had until then only been molecularly characterized in the domestic chicken. The pheasant genes were highly variable, although one of the amplified sequences was found in two different haplotypes. Taken together, the most polymorphic positions (residues 37 and 38) were not identical in any of the predicted protein sequences, but all except one of the motifs had already been found in the domestic chicken. Structurally important features in mammalian class II B genes were generally conserved also in the pheasant sequences, but the loss of a potential salt bridge constituent (Arg72) in several sequences may suggest a slightly different structure of the adjacent parts of the peptide-binding groove. The pheasant genes are most closely related to the so called B-LBII family in the chicken, indicating that this represents a major line of development among avian class II B genes.

  19. DNase I hypersensitive sites flank the mouse class II major histocompatibility complex during B cell development.

    PubMed Central

    Carson, S

    1991-01-01

    The mouse class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC) encodes a polymorphic, multigene family important in the immune response, and is expressed mainly on mature B cells, on certain types of dendritic cells and is also inducible by gamma-interferon on antigen presenting cells. To study the regulatory elements which control this expression pattern, we have examined the chromatin structure flanking the class II MHC region, in particular during B cell differentiation. Using a panel of well-characterised mouse cell lines specific for different stages of B cell development (pre-B, B, plasma cell) as well as non-B cell lines, we have mapped the DNase I hypersensitive (DHS) sites adjacent to the mouse MHC class II region. The results presented show, for the first time that there are specific hypersensitive sites flanking the class II MHC locus during pre B cell, B cell and plasma cell stages of B cell differentiation, irrespective of the status of class II MHC expression. These hypersensitive sites are not found in T cell, fibroblast or uninduced myelomonocytic cell lines. This suggests that these DHS sites define a developmentally stable, chromatin structure, which can be used as a marker of B cell lineage commitment and may indicate that a combination of these hypersensitive sites reflect regulatory proteins involved in the immediate expression of a particular class II MHC gene or possibly control of the entire locus. Images PMID:1923768

  20. New susceptibility variants to narcolepsy identified in HLA class II region.

    PubMed

    Miyagawa, Taku; Toyoda, Hiromi; Hirataka, Akane; Kanbayashi, Takashi; Imanishi, Aya; Sagawa, Yohei; Kotorii, Nozomu; Kotorii, Tatayu; Hashizume, Yuji; Ogi, Kimihiro; Hiejima, Hiroshi; Kamei, Yuichi; Hida, Akiko; Miyamoto, Masayuki; Imai, Makoto; Fujimura, Yota; Tamura, Yoshiyuki; Ikegami, Azusa; Wada, Yamato; Moriya, Shunpei; Furuya, Hirokazu; Kato, Mitsuhiro; Omata, Naoto; Kojima, Hiroto; Kashiwase, Koichi; Saji, Hiroh; Khor, Seik-Soon; Yamasaki, Maria; Wada, Yuji; Ishigooka, Jun; Kuroda, Kenji; Kume, Kazuhiko; Chiba, Shigeru; Yamada, Naoto; Okawa, Masako; Hirata, Koichi; Uchimura, Naohisa; Shimizu, Tetsuo; Inoue, Yuichi; Honda, Yutaka; Mishima, Kazuo; Honda, Makoto; Tokunaga, Katsushi

    2015-02-01

    Narcolepsy, a sleep disorder characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness, cataplexy and rapid eye movement sleep abnormalities, is tightly associated with human leukocyte antigen HLA-DQB1*06:02. DQB1*06:02 is common in the general population (10-30%); therefore, additional genetic factors are needed for the development of narcolepsy. In the present study, HLA-DQB1 in 664 Japanese narcoleptic subjects and 3131 Japanese control subjects was examined to determine whether HLA-DQB1 alleles located in trans of DQB1*06:02 are associated with narcolepsy. The strongest association was with DQB1*06:01 (P = 1.4 × 10(-10), odds ratio, OR = 0.39), as reported in previous studies. Additional predisposing effects of DQB1*03:02 were also found (P = 2.5 × 10(-9), OR = 1.97). A comparison between DQB1*06:02 heterozygous cases and controls revealed dominant protective effects of DQB1*06:01 and DQB1*05:01. In addition, a single-nucleotide polymorphism-based conditional analysis controlling for the effect of HLA-DQB1 was performed to determine whether there were other independent HLA associations outside of HLA-DQB1. This analysis revealed associations at HLA-DPB1 in the HLA class II region (rs3117242, P = 4.1 × 10(-5), OR = 2.45; DPB1*05:01, P = 8.1 × 10(-3), OR = 1.39). These results indicate that complex HLA class II associations contribute to the genetic predisposition to narcolepsy.

  1. Light-induced activation of class II cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer photolyases.

    PubMed

    Okafuji, Asako; Biskup, Till; Hitomi, Kenichi; Getzoff, Elizabeth D; Kaiser, Gebhard; Batschauer, Alfred; Bacher, Adelbert; Hidema, Jun; Teranishi, Mika; Yamamoto, Kazuo; Schleicher, Erik; Weber, Stefan

    2010-05-01

    Light-induced activation of class II cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer (CPD) photolyases of Arabidopsis thaliana and Oryza sativa has been examined by UV/Vis and pulsed Davies-type electron-nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) spectroscopy, and the results compared with structure-known class I enzymes, CPD photolyase and (6-4) photolyase. By ENDOR spectroscopy, the local environment of the flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) cofactor is probed by virtue of proton hyperfine couplings that report on the electron-spin density at the positions of magnetic nuclei. Despite the amino-acid sequence dissimilarity as compared to class I enzymes, the results indicate similar binding motifs for FAD in the class II photolyases. Furthermore, the photoreduction kinetics starting from the FAD cofactor in the fully oxidized redox state, FAD(ox), have been probed by UV/Vis spectroscopy. In Escherichia coli (class I) CPD photolyase, light-induced generation of FADH from FAD(ox), and subsequently FADH(-) from FADH, proceeds in a step-wise fashion via a chain of tryptophan residues. These tryptophans are well conserved among the sequences and within all known structures of class I photolyases, but completely lacking from the equivalent positions of class II photolyase sequences. Nevertheless, class II photolyases show photoreduction kinetics similar to those of the class I enzymes. We propose that a different, but also effective, electron-transfer cascade is conserved among the class II photolyases. The existence of such electron transfer pathways is supported by the observation that the catalytically active fully reduced flavin state obtained by photoreduction is maintained even under oxidative conditions in all three classes of enzymes studied in this contribution. PMID:20227927

  2. Major histocompatibility complex class II compatibility, but not class I, predicts mate choice in a bird with highly developed olfaction.

    PubMed

    Strandh, Maria; Westerdahl, Helena; Pontarp, Mikael; Canbäck, Björn; Dubois, Marie-Pierre; Miquel, Christian; Taberlet, Pierre; Bonadonna, Francesco

    2012-11-01

    Mate choice for major histocompatibility complex (MHC) compatibility has been found in several taxa, although rarely in birds. MHC is a crucial component in adaptive immunity and by choosing an MHC-dissimilar partner, heterozygosity and potentially broad pathogen resistance is maximized in the offspring. The MHC genotype influences odour cues and preferences in mammals and fish and hence olfactory-based mate choice can occur. We tested whether blue petrels, Halobaena caerulea, choose partners based on MHC compatibility. This bird is long-lived, monogamous and can discriminate between individual odours using olfaction, which makes it exceptionally well suited for this analysis. We screened MHC class I and II B alleles in blue petrels using 454-pyrosequencing and quantified the phylogenetic, functional and allele-sharing similarity between individuals. Partners were functionally more dissimilar at the MHC class II B loci than expected from random mating (p = 0.033), whereas there was no such difference at the MHC class I loci. Phylogenetic and non-sequence-based MHC allele-sharing measures detected no MHC dissimilarity between partners for either MHC class I or II B. Our study provides evidence of mate choice for MHC compatibility in a bird with a high dependency on odour cues, suggesting that MHC odour-mediated mate choice occurs in birds.

  3. 25 CFR 522.4 - Approval requirements for class II ordinances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Section 522.4 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR APPROVAL OF CLASS II AND CLASS III ORDINANCES AND RESOLUTIONS SUBMISSION OF GAMING ORDINANCE OR RESOLUTION § 522.4 Approval... tribal gaming or from any individually owned games only for one or more of the following purposes: (i)...

  4. 25 CFR 522.4 - Approval requirements for class II ordinances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Section 522.4 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR APPROVAL OF CLASS II AND CLASS III ORDINANCES AND RESOLUTIONS SUBMISSION OF GAMING ORDINANCE OR RESOLUTION § 522.4 Approval... tribal gaming or from any individually owned games only for one or more of the following purposes: (i)...

  5. 25 CFR 522.4 - Approval requirements for class II ordinances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Section 522.4 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR APPROVAL OF CLASS II AND CLASS III ORDINANCES AND RESOLUTIONS SUBMISSION OF GAMING ORDINANCE OR RESOLUTION § 522.4 Approval... tribal gaming or from any individually owned games only for one or more of the following purposes: (i)...

  6. 25 CFR 522.4 - Approval requirements for class II ordinances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Section 522.4 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR APPROVAL OF CLASS II AND CLASS III ORDINANCES AND RESOLUTIONS SUBMISSION OF GAMING ORDINANCE OR RESOLUTION § 522.4 Approval... tribal gaming or from any individually owned games only for one or more of the following purposes: (i)...

  7. 25 CFR 522.4 - Approval requirements for class II ordinances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Section 522.4 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR APPROVAL OF CLASS II AND CLASS III ORDINANCES AND RESOLUTIONS SUBMISSION OF GAMING ORDINANCE OR RESOLUTION § 522.4 Approval... tribal gaming or from any individually owned games only for one or more of the following purposes: (i)...

  8. 49 CFR 238.317 - Class II brake test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ....315(a)(1); (3) When previously tested units (i.e., cars that received a Class I brake test within the... hours) are added to the train; (4) When cars or equipment are removed from the train; and (5) When an... locomotives that utilize an electric signal to communicate a service brake application and only a...

  9. 49 CFR 238.317 - Class II brake test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ....315(a)(1); (3) When previously tested units (i.e., cars that received a Class I brake test within the... hours) are added to the train; (4) When cars or equipment are removed from the train; and (5) When an... locomotives that utilize an electric signal to communicate a service brake application and only a...

  10. Disruption of HLA class II antigen presentation in Burkitt lymphoma: implication of a 47,000 MW acid labile protein in CD4+ T-cell recognition.

    PubMed

    God, Jason M; Zhao, Dan; Cameron, Christine A; Amria, Shereen; Bethard, Jennifer R; Haque, Azizul

    2014-07-01

    While Burkitt lymphoma (BL) has a well-known defect in HLA class I-mediated antigen presentation, the exact role of BL-associated HLA class II in generating a poor CD4(+) T-cell response remains unresolved. Here, we found that BL cells are deficient in their ability to optimally stimulate CD4(+) T cells via the HLA class II pathway. This defect in CD4(+) T-cell recognition was not associated with low levels of co-stimulatory molecules on BL cells, as addition of external co-stimulation failed to elicit CD4(+) T-cell activation by BL. Further, the defect was not caused by faulty antigen/class II interaction, because antigenic peptides bound with measurable affinity to BL-associated class II molecules. Interestingly, functional class II-peptide complexes were formed at acidic pH 5·5, which restored immune recognition. Acidic buffer (pH 5·5) eluate from BL cells contained molecules that impaired class II-mediated antigen presentation and CD4(+) T-cell recognition. Biochemical analysis showed that these molecules were greater than 30,000 molecular weight in size, and proteinaceous in nature. In addition, BL was found to have decreased expression of a 47,000 molecular weight enolase-like molecule that enhances class II-mediated antigen presentation in B cells, macrophages and dendritic cells, but not in BL cells. These findings demonstrate that BL likely has multiple defects in HLA class II-mediated antigen presentation and immune recognition, which may be exploited for future immunotherapies.

  11. 40 CFR 82.70 - Nonessential Class II products and exceptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... designated as class II in 40 CFR part 82, appendix B to subpart A) are identified as being nonessential and... 21 CFR 2.125(e); (ii) Lubricants, coatings or cleaning fluids for electrical or electronic equipment... equipment used for non-residential applications; and (viii) Wasp and hornet sprays for use near...

  12. 40 CFR 82.70 - Nonessential Class II products and exceptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... designated as class II in 40 CFR part 82, appendix B to subpart A) are identified as being nonessential and... 21 CFR 2.125(e); (ii) Lubricants, coatings or cleaning fluids for electrical or electronic equipment... equipment used for non-residential applications; and (viii) Wasp and hornet sprays for use near...

  13. 40 CFR 82.70 - Nonessential Class II products and exceptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... designated as class II in 40 CFR part 82, appendix B to subpart A) are identified as being nonessential and... 21 CFR 2.125(e); (ii) Lubricants, coatings or cleaning fluids for electrical or electronic equipment... equipment used for non-residential applications; and (viii) Wasp and hornet sprays for use near...

  14. 40 CFR 82.70 - Nonessential Class II products and exceptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... designated as class II in 40 CFR part 82, appendix B to subpart A) are identified as being nonessential and... 21 CFR 2.125(e); (ii) Lubricants, coatings or cleaning fluids for electrical or electronic equipment... equipment used for non-residential applications; and (viii) Wasp and hornet sprays for use near...

  15. MHC Class II Association with Lipid Rafts on the Antigen Presenting Cell Surface

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Howard A.; Roche, Paul A.

    2014-01-01

    MHC class II (MHC-II) molecules function by binding peptides derived from either self-or foreign proteins and expressing these peptides on the surface of antigen presenting cells (APCs) for recognition by CD4 T cells. MHC-II is known to exist on clusters on the surface of APCs, and a variety of biochemical and functional studies have suggested that these clusters represent lipid raft microdomain-associated MHC-II. This review will summarize data exploring the biosynthesis of raft-associated MHC-II and the role that lipid raft association plays in regulating T cell activation by APCs. PMID:25261705

  16. Towards universal structure-based prediction of class II MHC epitopes for diverse allotypes.

    PubMed

    Bordner, Andrew J

    2010-01-01

    The binding of peptide fragments of antigens to class II MHC proteins is a crucial step in initiating a helper T cell immune response. The discovery of these peptide epitopes is important for understanding the normal immune response and its misregulation in autoimmunity and allergies and also for vaccine design. In spite of their biomedical importance, the high diversity of class II MHC proteins combined with the large number of possible peptide sequences make comprehensive experimental determination of epitopes for all MHC allotypes infeasible. Computational methods can address this need by predicting epitopes for a particular MHC allotype. We present a structure-based method for predicting class II epitopes that combines molecular mechanics docking of a fully flexible peptide into the MHC binding cleft followed by binding affinity prediction using a machine learning classifier trained on interaction energy components calculated from the docking solution. Although the primary advantage of structure-based prediction methods over the commonly employed sequence-based methods is their applicability to essentially any MHC allotype, this has not yet been convincingly demonstrated. In order to test the transferability of the prediction method to different MHC proteins, we trained the scoring method on binding data for DRB1*0101 and used it to make predictions for multiple MHC allotypes with distinct peptide binding specificities including representatives from the other human class II MHC loci, HLA-DP and HLA-DQ, as well as for two murine allotypes. The results showed that the prediction method was able to achieve significant discrimination between epitope and non-epitope peptides for all MHC allotypes examined, based on AUC values in the range 0.632-0.821. We also discuss how accounting for peptide binding in multiple registers to class II MHC largely explains the systematically worse performance of prediction methods for class II MHC compared with those for class I MHC

  17. Effect of epidermal growth factor in HLA class I and class II transcription and protein expression in human breast adenocarcinoma cell lines.

    PubMed Central

    Bernard, D. J.; Courjal, F.; Maurizis, J. C.; Bignon, Y. J.; Chollet, P.; Plagne, R.

    1992-01-01

    The spontaneous expression of HLA class I and class II molecules in two human breast carcinoma cell lines (MCF7, T47D) and their modulation during epidermal growth factor treatment are reported. Transcription was analysed by Northern blot and hybridisation with HLA class II and class I cDNA specific probes. The expression of cell surface determinants was examined by internal protein labelling with 35s-methionine, immunoprecipitation with monoclonal antibodies specific for HLA class I or class II, followed by isolation of the immune complex on protein A-Sepharose; at least a quantification of glycoprotein was performed by chromatofocusing. Glycoprotein quantification showed a significant increase of HLA class I and class II (DR) antigen expression after stimulation by epidermal growth factor (0.02 microgram ml-1) in the two cell lines, when compared with untreated cell controls. However, with epidermal growth factor treatment of MCF7 and T47D cells, low increases in the amounts of HLA class I and class II RNA were obtained. These differences between expressed antigens and correspondent RNA amounts would be explained by the fact that EGF in these two cell lines acts more in post-transcription for HLA class I and class II antigens. Images Figure 1 PMID:1637682

  18. [Control of vertical dimension in the treatment of Class II malocclusion using a combined activator and extraoral traction appliance].

    PubMed

    Chabre, C

    1989-01-01

    The aim of this work is the study of effects on vertical dimension of a functional appliance: combination of headgear and activator. We have pointed out in this study: a good control of occlusal and palatal plans; vertical stability of ANS; no change of facial axis; intrusion of maxilla incisors; correction of anterior deep-bite. We concluded that this combination headgear activator, in addition to the sagittal correction of Class II, permitted a good control of vertical skeletal and dental dimensions.

  19. Donor MHC class II antigen is essential for induction of transplantation tolerance by bone marrow cells.

    PubMed

    Umemura, A; Monaco, A P; Maki, T

    2000-05-01

    Posttransplant infusion of donor bone marrow cells (BMC) induces tolerance to allografts in adult mice, dogs, nonhuman primates, and probably humans. Here we used a mouse skin allograft model and an allogeneic radiation chimera model to examine the role of MHC Ags in tolerance induction. Infusion of MHC class II Ag-deficient (CIID) BMC failed to prolong C57BL/6 (B6) skin grafts in ALS- and rapamycin-treated B10.A mice, whereas wild-type B6 or MHC class I Ag-deficient BMC induced prolongation. Removal of class II Ag-bearing cells from donor BMC markedly reduced the tolerogenic effect compared with untreated BMC, although graft survival was significantly longer in mice given depleted BMC than that in control mice given no BMC. Infusion of CIID BMC into irradiated syngeneic B6 or allogeneic B10.A mice produced normal lymphoid cell reconstitution including CD4+ T cells except for the absence of class II Ag-positive cells. However, irradiated B10.A mice reconstituted with CIID BMC rejected all B6 and a majority of CIID skin grafts despite continued maintenance of high degree chimerism. B10.A mice reconstituted with B6 BMC maintained chimerism and accepted both B6 and CIID skin grafts. Thus, expression of MHC class II Ag on BMC is essential for allograft tolerance induction and peripheral chimerism with cells deficient in class II Ag does not guarantee allograft acceptance. PMID:10779744

  20. BIITE: A Tool to Determine HLA Class II Epitopes from T Cell ELISpot Data

    PubMed Central

    Boelen, Lies; O’Neill, Patrick K.; Quigley, Kathryn J.; Reynolds, Catherine J.; Maillere, Bernard; Robinson, John H.; Lertmemongkolchai, Ganjana; Altmann, Daniel M.; Boyton, Rosemary J.; Asquith, Becca

    2016-01-01

    Activation of CD4+ T cells requires the recognition of peptides that are presented by HLA class II molecules and can be assessed experimentally using the ELISpot assay. However, even given an individual’s HLA class II genotype, identifying which class II molecule is responsible for a positive ELISpot response to a given peptide is not trivial. The two main difficulties are the number of HLA class II molecules that can potentially be formed in a single individual (3–14) and the lack of clear peptide binding motifs for class II molecules. Here, we present a Bayesian framework to interpret ELISpot data (BIITE: Bayesian Immunogenicity Inference Tool for ELISpot); specifically BIITE identifies which HLA-II:peptide combination(s) are immunogenic based on cohort ELISpot data. We apply BIITE to two ELISpot datasets and explore the expected performance using simulations. We show this method can reach high accuracies, depending on the cohort size and the success rate of the ELISpot assay within the cohort. PMID:26953935

  1. Successful treatment of Class II malocclusion with bidental protrusion using standard edgewise prescription.

    PubMed

    Ayaz, Mohd; Kharbanda, Om Prakash

    2016-01-01

    This case report deals with the successful orthodontic treatment of a 14-year-old female patient having Class II malocclusion with bidental protrusion using standard edgewise prescription. She reported with forwardly placed upper front teeth and difficulty in closing lips. She had prognathic maxilla, retrognathic mandible, and full cusp Class II molar and canine relation bilaterally with overjet of 7 mm. She was in cervical vertebrae maturation indicator Stage IV. The case was treated by fixed extraction mechanotherapy. Interarch Class II mechanics was used to retract the upper incisor and to mesialize the lower molars. Simultaneously, Class I mechanics was used to upright lower incisors. Tip back bend, curve of Spee, and extra palatal root torque were incorporated in upper archwire to maintain molars in upright position and prevent extrusion and deepening of bite, respectively. There was satisfactory improvement in facial profile at the end of 24 months. After a follow-up of 6 months, occlusion was stable. PMID:27041906

  2. Orthodontic Management of A Young Girl with Class II Div1 Malocclusion.

    PubMed

    Islam, M M; Hossain, M Z

    2015-10-01

    We describe the treatment of a young girl age, 25 years, with Class II Div1 malocclusion. She presented with an over jet of 12 mm, and the overbite was 10 mm and incomplete. Teeth on upper anterior segment of jaw were proclined and spaced. Teeth on lower jaw were crowded with buccaly placed 1st premolar on right side. Molar relationship was Class II on both sides. Incisior relation was class II div1. Her oral hygiene was good. Treatment consisted mainly of premolars extractions, canine retraction, labeling and alignment with Edgewise fixed appliances by multi loops technique. Once the canine retraction was complete, arch contraction was accomplished with 0.016×0.022 inch closing-loop arch wires followed by finishing with 0.014 inch round wires. The treatment resulted in Class I molar occlusion with proper alignment of both upper and lower anterior segment, an ideal over jet, overbite and incisor angulation.

  3. Successful treatment of Class II malocclusion with bidental protrusion using standard edgewise prescription

    PubMed Central

    Ayaz, Mohd; Kharbanda, Om Prakash

    2016-01-01

    This case report deals with the successful orthodontic treatment of a 14-year-old female patient having Class II malocclusion with bidental protrusion using standard edgewise prescription. She reported with forwardly placed upper front teeth and difficulty in closing lips. She had prognathic maxilla, retrognathic mandible, and full cusp Class II molar and canine relation bilaterally with overjet of 7 mm. She was in cervical vertebrae maturation indicator Stage IV. The case was treated by fixed extraction mechanotherapy. Interarch Class II mechanics was used to retract the upper incisor and to mesialize the lower molars. Simultaneously, Class I mechanics was used to upright lower incisors. Tip back bend, curve of Spee, and extra palatal root torque were incorporated in upper archwire to maintain molars in upright position and prevent extrusion and deepening of bite, respectively. There was satisfactory improvement in facial profile at the end of 24 months. After a follow-up of 6 months, occlusion was stable. PMID:27041906

  4. CD1-restricted CD4+ T cells in major histocompatibility complex class II-deficient mice

    PubMed Central

    1995-01-01

    Rather unexpectedly, major histocompatibility complex class II- deficient mice have a significant population of peripheral CD4+ T lymphocytes. We have investigated these cells at the population and clonal levels. CD4+ T lymphocytes from class II-deficient animals are thymically derived, appear early in ontogeny, exhibit the phenotype of resting memory cells, are potentially functional by several criteria, and have a diverse T cell receptor repertoire. They do not include substantially elevated numbers of NK1.1+ cells. Hybridomas derived after polyclonal stimulation of the CD4+ lymphocytes from class II- deficient animals include a subset with an unusual reactivity pattern, responding to splenocytes from many mouse strains including the strain of origin. Most members of this subset recognize the major histocompatibility complex class Ib molecule CD1; their heterogeneous reactivities and T cell receptor usage further suggest the involvement of peptides and/or highly variable posttranslational modifications. PMID:7561702

  5. Cooperativity between the J and S elements of class II major histocompatibility complex genes as enhancers in normal and class II- negative patient and mutant B cell lines

    PubMed Central

    1995-01-01

    The class II major histocompatibility complex genes all contain in their proximal promoters three cis-elements called S, X, and Y that are conserved in both sequence and position, and a fourth element, J, conserved in sequence but not in position. J, X, and Y and, to some extent, S, have been shown to be functionally important in regulation of expression of these genes. In the present study, a protein factor that binds cooperatively to the S plus J elements of the promoter of the class II major histocompatibility complex gene DPA has been detected. Moreover, functional cooperativity between S and J in activation of the enhancerless -40 interferon-beta (-40 IFN-beta) promoter has been demonstrated. Finally, the latter assay appears to subdivide complementation group A of class II negative human B cell lines that includes both mutants generated in vitro and cells from patients with the bare lymphocyte syndrome (type II). In three of these cell lines, the enhancerless -40 IFN-beta promoter containing the S plus J elements was functionally active, while in the others it was inactive. PMID:7790817

  6. HLA-G and MHC Class II Protein Expression in Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Jesionek-Kupnicka, Dorota; Bojo, Marcin; Prochorec-Sobieszek, Monika; Szumera-Ciećkiewicz, Anna; Jabłońska, Joanna; Kalinka-Warzocha, Ewa; Kordek, Radzisław; Młynarski, Wojciech; Robak, Tadeusz; Warzocha, Krzysztof; Lech-Maranda, Ewa

    2016-06-01

    The expression of human leukocyte antigen-G (HLA-G) and HLA class II protein was studied by immunohistochemical staining of lymph nodes from 148 patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) and related to the clinical course of the disease. Negative HLA-G expression was associated with a lower probability of achieving a complete remission (p = 0.04). Patients with negative HLA-G expression tended towards a lower 3-year overall survival (OS) rate compared to those with positive expression of HLA-G (p = 0.08). When restricting the analysis to patients receiving chemotherapy with rituximab, the estimated 3-year OS rate of patients with positive HLA-G expression was 73.3 % compared with 47.5 % (p = 0.03) in those with negative expression. Patients with negative HLA class II expression presented a lower 3-year OS rate compared to subjects with positive expression (p = 0.04). The loss of HLA class II expression (p = 0.05) and belonging to the intermediate high/high IPI risk group (p = 0.001) independently increased the risk of death. HLA class II expression also retained its prognostic value in patients receiving rituximab; the 3-year OS rate was 65.3 % in patients with positive HLA class II expression versus 29.6 % (p = 0.04) in subjects that had loss of HLA class II expression. To our knowledge, for the first time, the expression of HLA-G protein in DLBCL and its association with the clinical course of the disease was demonstrated. Moreover, the link between losing HLA class II protein expression and poor survival of patients treated with immunochemotherapy was confirmed.

  7. Mechanistic understanding and significance of small peptides interaction with MHC class II molecules for therapeutic applications.

    PubMed

    Afridi, Saifullah; Hoessli, Daniel C; Hameed, Muhammad Waqar

    2016-07-01

    Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules are expressed by antigen-presenting cells and stimulate CD4(+) T cells, which initiate humoral immune responses. Over the past decade, interest has developed to therapeutically impact the peptides to be exposed to CD4(+) T cells. Structurally diverse small molecules have been discovered that act on the endogenous peptide exchanger HLA-DM by different mechanisms. Exogenously delivered peptides are highly susceptible to proteolytic cleavage in vivo; however, it is only when successfully incorporated into stable MHC II-peptide complexes that these peptides can induce an immune response. Many of the small molecules so far discovered have highlighted the molecular interactions mediating the formation of MHC II-peptide complexes. As potential drugs, these small molecules open new therapeutic approaches to modulate MHC II antigen presentation pathways and influence the quality and specificity of immune responses. This review briefly introduces how CD4(+) T cells recognize antigen when displayed by MHC class II molecules, as well as MHC class II-peptide-loading pathways, structural basis of peptide binding and stabilization of the peptide-MHC complexes. We discuss the concept of MHC-loading enhancers, how they could modulate immune responses and how these molecules have been identified. Finally, we suggest mechanisms whereby MHC-loading enhancers could act upon MHC class II molecules.

  8. Selective immunosuppression by administration of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II-binding peptides. I. Evidence for in vivo MHC blockade preventing T cell activation

    PubMed Central

    1992-01-01

    Draining lymph node cells (LNC) from mice immunized with hen egg white lysozyme (HEL) display at their surface antigen-MHC complexes able to stimulate, in the absence of any further antigen addition, HEL peptide- specific, class II-restricted T cell hybridomas. Chloroquine addition to these LNC cultures fails to inhibit antigen presentation, indicating that antigenic complexes of class II molecules and HEL peptides are formed in vivo. MHC class II restriction of antigen presentation by LNC from HEL-primed mice was verified by the use of anti-class II monoclonal antibodies. Coinjection of HEL and the I-Ak-binding peptide HEL 112-129 in mice of H-2k haplotype inhibits the ability of LNC to stimulate I-Ak-restricted, HEL 46-61-specific T cell hybridomas. Similar results are obtained in mice coinjected with the HEL peptides 46-61 and 112-129. Inhibition of T hybridoma activation can also be observed using as antigen-presenting cells irradiated, T cell-depleted LNC from mice coinjected with HEL 46-61 and HEL 112-129, ruling out the possible role of either specific or nonspecific suppressor T cells. Inhibition of T cell proliferation is associated with MHC-specific inhibition of antigen presentation and with occupancy by the competitor of class II binding sites, as measured by activation of peptide- specific T cell hybridomas. These results demonstrate that administration of MHC class II binding peptide competitors selectively inhibits antigen presentation to class II-restricted T cells, indicating competitive blockade of class II molecules in vivo. PMID:1569402

  9. Regulation of MIR165/166 by class II and class III homeodomain leucine zipper proteins establishes leaf polarity

    PubMed Central

    Merelo, Paz; Ram, Hathi; Pia Caggiano, Monica; Ohno, Carolyn; Ott, Felix; Straub, Daniel; Graeff, Moritz; Cho, Seok Keun; Yang, Seong Wook; Wenkel, Stephan; Heisler, Marcus G.

    2016-01-01

    A defining feature of plant leaves is their flattened shape. This shape depends on an antagonism between the genes that specify adaxial (top) and abaxial (bottom) tissue identity; however, the molecular nature of this antagonism remains poorly understood. Class III homeodomain leucine zipper (HD-ZIP) transcription factors are key mediators in the regulation of adaxial–abaxial patterning. Their expression is restricted adaxially during early development by the abaxially expressed microRNA (MIR)165/166, yet the mechanism that restricts MIR165/166 expression to abaxial leaf tissues remains unknown. Here, we show that class III and class II HD-ZIP proteins act together to repress MIR165/166 via a conserved cis-element in their promoters. Organ morphology and tissue patterning in plants, therefore, depend on a bidirectional repressive circuit involving a set of miRNAs and its targets. PMID:27698117

  10. The asymptotic evaluation of a class of path integrals. II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luttinger, J. M.

    1983-08-01

    The asymptotic behavior of a class of Wiener-like path integrals (functions of the ``local time'') is determined. These integrals are of interest in themselves and also arise very naturally in the theory of disordered systems. We show that by making use of a Grassman algebra (i.e., a set of anticommuting variables), the earlier treatment of this problem can be greatly simplified. In particular, the previous use of ``replica trick'' (which involves a difficult to justify analytic continuation in the number of field components) is thus avoided.

  11. EBP1 protein modulates the expression of human MHC class II molecules in non-hematopoietic cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    PISAPIA, LAURA; BARBA, PASQUALE; CORTESE, ANGELA; CICATIELLO, VALERIA; MORELI, FRANCO; DEL POZZO, GIOVANNA

    2015-01-01

    Many solid tumours including melanoma, glioblastoma, and breast carcinomas express MHC class II molecules (MHC II). The surface expression of these molecules confers to non-hematopoietic tumour cells the role of non-professional antigen presenting cells and the ability to potentially stimulate tumour-specific CD4+ T cell response. We studied EBP1, an ErbB3 binding protein, and the effects of p48 and p42 isoforms on the MHC II expression in U87 glioblastoma, M14 melanoma and MCF7 mammary carcinoma cell lines. We found that overexpression of p48 increases MHC II transcription in U87 and M14, through upregulation of CIITA transactivator and STAT1 phosphorylation. In addition, p48 protein influences MHC II expression by increasing mRNA stability. In melanoma and glioblastoma cell lines, p48 isoform functions as oncogene promoting tumour growth, while p42 isoform, that does not affect MHC II expression, acts as a tumour suppressor by blocking cell growth and inducing apoptosis. In contrast, p48 seems to act as tumour suppressor in breast carcinoma inhibiting proliferation, favouring apoptosis, and inducing a slight increase of MHC II expression similar to p42. Our data highlight the tissue specificity function of EBP1 isoforms and demonstrate that only the oncogene p48 activates MHC II expression in human solid tumours, via STAT1 phosphorylation, in order to affect tumour progression by triggering specific immune response. PMID:26081906

  12. 40 CFR 144.19 - Transitioning from Class II to Class VI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... primary purpose of long-term storage into an oil and gas reservoir must apply for and obtain a Class VI... must consider the following: (1) Increase in reservoir pressure within the injection zone(s); (2) Increase in carbon dioxide injection rates; (3) Decrease in reservoir production rates; (4)...

  13. PowerScope a Class II corrector – A case report

    PubMed Central

    Paulose, Joby; Antony, Palathottungal Joseph; Sureshkumar, Brijesh; George, Susha Mariam; Mathew, Manu Mundackal; Sebastian, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Managing mild to moderate Class II malocclusion is a one of the common and major challenges to orthodontists. Class II discrepancies with mandibular deficiency during active growth are usually treated by myofunctional appliances. Fixed functional appliances evolved due to the noncompliance with conventional myofunctional appliances. This case report illustrates the efficiency of PowerScope in correction of skeletal Class II with mandibular deficiency in a patient aged 13 years who has reported to the department with a chief complaint of forwardly placed upper front teeth. This case with functional jaw retrusion was treated initially with MBT 0.022” prescription followed by PowerScope. Pre-, mid- and post-treatment cephalograms were obtained, and cephalometric analysis was performed. Stable and successful results were obtained with a substantial improvement in facial profile, skeletal jaw relationship, and overall esthetic appearance of the patient. A significant forward displacement of the mandible was the principal element for successful correction of Class II malocclusion. PowerScope provides the best results for Class II management, thus enables us to treat such cases by a nonextraction approach rather than contemplating extractions. PMID:27307671

  14. Use of MHC class II tetramers to investigate CD4+ T cell responses: problems and solutions.

    PubMed

    Cecconi, Virginia; Moro, Monica; Del Mare, Sara; Dellabona, Paolo; Casorati, Giulia

    2008-11-01

    MHC-class I tetramers technology enabled the characterization of peptide-specific T cells at the single cell level in a variety of studies. Several laboratories have also developed MHC-class II multimers to characterize Ag-specific CD4+ T cells. However, the generation and use of MHC-class II multimers seems more problematic than that of MHC-I multimers. We have generated HLA-DR*1101 tetramers in a versatile empty form, which can be loaded after purification with peptides of interest. We discuss the impact of critical biological and structural parameters for the optimal staining of Ag-specific CD4+ T cells using HLA-DR*1101 tetramers, such as: (i) activation state of CD4+ T cells; (ii) membrane trafficking in the target CD4+ T cells; (iii) binding characteristics of the loaded CD4 epitope. Our data indicate that reorganization of TCR on the plasma membrane upon CD4+ T cell activation, as well as an homogenous binding frame of the CD4 epitopes to the soluble HLA-DR monomer, are critical for a stable TCR/MHC-class II tetramer interaction. These factors, together with the low frequencies and affinities of specific CD4+ T cells, explain the need for in vitro expansion or ex vivo enrichment of specific T cells for the optimal visualization with MHC-class II tetramers. PMID:18612991

  15. New polymorphic microsatellite markers in the human MHC class II region.

    PubMed

    Matsuzaka, Y; Makino, S; Nakajima, K; Tomizawa, M; Oka, A; Kimura, M; Bahram, S; Tamiya, G; Inoko, H

    2000-12-01

    The human major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II region spans approximately 1.1 Mb and presently contains over 30 functional genes Susceptibility loci to numerous diseases, mainly of autoimmune nature are known to map to the this region, as assessed by associations with particular HLA class II alleles. However, it has been difficult to precisely localize these susceptibility loci to a single gene, for example DQB1 or DRB1, due to the tight linkage disequilibrium observed in the HLA class II region. To facilitate disease mapping within this region, we have analyzed 2 to approximately 5 bases short tandem repeats (microsatellites) in this same region. A total of 494 microsatellites were identified from the genomic sequence of the HLA class II region. These consist of 158 di-, 65 tri-, 163 tetra-, and 108 pent-nucleotide repeats, out of which four were located within the coding sequence of expressed genes (Daxx, BING1, RXRB and COL11A2). Twenty-two repeats were selected as polymorphic markers due to their high (average) number of alleles (8.9) as well as their high polymorphic content value (PIC) (0.58). These novel polymorphic microsatellites will provide useful genetic markers in HLA-related research, such as genetic mapping of HLA class II-associated diseases, transplantation matching, population genetics, identification of recombination hot spots as well as linkage disequilibrium studies.

  16. Evaluation of Pharyngeal Space in Different Combinations of Class II Skeletal Malocclusion

    PubMed Central

    Soni, Jay; Shyagali, Tarulatha R.; Bhayya, Deepak P.; Shah, Romil

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The study was aimed to evaluate the pharyngeal airway linear measurements of untreated skeletal class II subjects with normal facial vertical pattern in prognathic maxilla with orthognathic mandible and orthognathic maxilla with retrognathic mandible. Materials and method: the sample comprised of lateral Cephalograms of two groups (30 each) of class II malocclusion variants. Group 1 comprised of class II malocclusion with prognathic maxilla and orthognathic mandible, whereas group 2 comprised of class II malocclusion with orthognathic maxilla and retrognathic mandible. Each group was traced for the linear measurements of the pharyngeal airway like the oropharynx, nasopharynx and soft palate. The obtained data was subjected to independent t test and the Mann Whitney test to check the difference between the two groups and within the groups respectively. Results: there was significant difference between all the linear measurements at the soft palate region and the distance between the tip of soft palate to its counter point on the pharyngeal wall in oropharynx region (p-ppm). Conclusion: the pharyngeal airway for class II malocclusion with various combination in an average growth pattern adult showed significant difference. The present results suggested, that the pharyngeal airway space might be the etiological factor for different sagittal growth pattern of the jaws and probable usage of different growth modification appliance can influence the pharyngeal airway. PMID:26635436

  17. Allelic diversity at class II DRB1 and DQB loci of the pig MHC (SLA).

    PubMed

    Kanai, T H; Tanioka, Y; Tanigawa, M; Matsumoto, Y; Ueda, S; Onodera, T; Matsumoto, Y

    1999-12-01

    The loci encoding the beta chain of the pig major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II antigens, SLA-DR and -DQ, have been known to exhibit a remarkable degree of allelic polymorphism. Here, to understand the generation of SLA class II polymorphism, 25 SLA-DRB1 and 24 SLA-DQB genes including newly identified 12 SLA-DRB1 and 7 SLA-DQB genes obtained from miniature pigs were analyzed based on the nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences. Most of the allelic diversity was attributed to the variable sequences which encode a beta1 domain consisting of a beta-pleated sheet followed by an a helix. In the beta1 domain coding region, there were four GC-rich sequences, which have been considered to involve the intra-exon sequence exchange also in other gene evolutions. The first and second GC-rich sequences were alpha-like sequences, which have been shown to be a putative recombination signal, and were stably conserved among SLA-DRB1 and DQB genes. These alpha-like sequences identified in SLA-DRB1 and SLA-DQB were found to encode the first turning point of the beta-pleated sheet and the boundary between the beta-pleated sheet and the alpha helix. Analysis of clustered sequence variation also suggested intra-exon gene conversions in which the alpha-like sequences act as putative breakpoints. In addition to point mutations and selection mechanism, intra-exon gene conversions must be an important mechanism in the generation of allelic polymorphism at the SLA-DRB1 and SLA-DQB.

  18. MHC class II diversity of koala (Phascolarctos cinereus) populations across their range.

    PubMed

    Lau, Q; Jaratlerdsiri, W; Griffith, J E; Gongora, J; Higgins, D P

    2014-10-01

    Major histocompatibility complex class II (MHCII) genes code for proteins that bind and present antigenic peptides and trigger the adaptive immune response. We present a broad geographical study of MHCII DA β1 (DAB) and DB β1 (DBB) variants of the koala (Phascolarctos cinereus; n=191) from 12 populations across eastern Australia, with a total of 13 DAB and 7 DBB variants found. We identified greater MHCII variation and, possibly, additional gene copies in koala populations in the north (Queensland and New South Wales) relative to the south (Victoria), confirmed by STRUCTURE analyses and genetic differentiation using analysis of molecular variance. The higher MHCII diversity in the north relative to south could potentially be attributed to (i) significant founder effect in Victorian populations linked to historical translocation of bottlenecked koala populations and (ii) increased pathogen-driven balancing selection and/or local genetic drift in the north. Low MHCII genetic diversity in koalas from the south could reduce their potential response to disease, although the three DAB variants found in the south had substantial sequence divergence between variants. This study assessing MHCII diversity in the koala with historical translocations in some populations contributes to understanding the effects of population translocations on functional genetic diversity.

  19. MHC class II diversity of koala (Phascolarctos cinereus) populations across their range

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Q; Jaratlerdsiri, W; Griffith, J E; Gongora, J; Higgins, D P

    2014-01-01

    Major histocompatibility complex class II (MHCII) genes code for proteins that bind and present antigenic peptides and trigger the adaptive immune response. We present a broad geographical study of MHCII DA β1 (DAB) and DB β1 (DBB) variants of the koala (Phascolarctos cinereus; n=191) from 12 populations across eastern Australia, with a total of 13 DAB and 7 DBB variants found. We identified greater MHCII variation and, possibly, additional gene copies in koala populations in the north (Queensland and New South Wales) relative to the south (Victoria), confirmed by STRUCTURE analyses and genetic differentiation using analysis of molecular variance. The higher MHCII diversity in the north relative to south could potentially be attributed to (i) significant founder effect in Victorian populations linked to historical translocation of bottlenecked koala populations and (ii) increased pathogen-driven balancing selection and/or local genetic drift in the north. Low MHCII genetic diversity in koalas from the south could reduce their potential response to disease, although the three DAB variants found in the south had substantial sequence divergence between variants. This study assessing MHCII diversity in the koala with historical translocations in some populations contributes to understanding the effects of population translocations on functional genetic diversity. PMID:24690756

  20. 25 CFR 547.9 - What are the minimum technical standards for Class II gaming system accounting functions?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... OF CLASS II GAMES § 547.9 What are the minimum technical standards for Class II gaming system... digits to accommodate the design of the game. (3) Accounting data displayed to the player may be... audit, configuration, recall and test modes; or (ii) Temporarily, during entertaining displays of...

  1. 25 CFR 547.9 - What are the minimum technical standards for Class II gaming system accounting functions?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... OF CLASS II GAMES § 547.9 What are the minimum technical standards for Class II gaming system... digits to accommodate the design of the game. (3) Accounting data displayed to the player may be... audit, configuration, recall and test modes; or (ii) Temporarily, during entertaining displays of...

  2. 25 CFR 547.9 - What are the minimum technical standards for Class II gaming system accounting functions?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... OF CLASS II GAMES § 547.9 What are the minimum technical standards for Class II gaming system... digits to accommodate the design of the game. (3) Accounting data displayed to the player may be... audit, configuration, recall and test modes; or (ii) Temporarily, during entertaining displays of...

  3. Regulation of Mammalian Autophagy by Class II and III PI 3-Kinases through PI3P Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Devereaux, Kelly; Ogasawara, Yuta; Zhou, Xiang; Wang, Fan; Yamamoto, Akitsugu; De Camilli, Pietro; Di Paolo, Gilbert

    2013-01-01

    Synthesis of phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate (PI3P) by Vps34, a class III phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), is critical for the initial steps of autophagosome (AP) biogenesis. Although Vps34 is the sole source of PI3P in budding yeast, mammalian cells can produce PI3P through alternate pathways, including direct synthesis by the class II PI3Ks; however, the physiological relevance of these alternate pathways in the context of autophagy is unknown. Here we generated Vps34 knockout mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) and using a higher affinity 4x-FYVE finger PI3P-binding probe found a Vps34-independent pool of PI3P accounting for ~35% of the total amount of this lipid species by biochemical analysis. Importantly, WIPI-1, an autophagy-relevant PI3P probe, still formed some puncta upon starvation-induced autophagy in Vps34 knockout MEFs. Additional characterization of autophagy by electron microscopy as well as protein degradation assays showed that while Vps34 is important for starvation-induced autophagy there is a significant component of functional autophagy occurring in the absence of Vps34. Given these findings, class II PI3Ks (α and β isoforms) were examined as potential positive regulators of autophagy. Depletion of class II PI3Ks reduced recruitment of WIPI-1 and LC3 to AP nucleation sites and caused an accumulation of the autophagy substrate, p62, which was exacerbated upon the concomitant ablation of Vps34. Our studies indicate that while Vps34 is the main PI3P source during autophagy, class II PI3Ks also significantly contribute to PI3P generation and regulate AP biogenesis. PMID:24098492

  4. Structural Insights into Substrate Binding of Brown Spider Venom Class II Phospholipases D.

    PubMed

    Coronado, M A; Ullah, A; da Silva, L S; Chaves-Moreira, D; Vuitika, L; Chaim, O M; Veiga, S S; Chahine, J; Murakami, M T; Arni, R K

    2015-01-01

    Phospholipases D (PLDs), the major dermonecrotic factors from brown spider venoms, trigger a range of biological reactions both in vitro and in vivo. Despite their clinical relevance in loxoscelism, structural data is restricted to the apo-form of these enzymes, which has been instrumental in understanding the functional differences between the class I and II spider PLDs. The crystal structures of the native class II PLD from Loxosceles intermedia complexed with myo-inositol 1-phosphate and the inactive mutant H12A complexed with fatty acids indicate the existence of a strong ligand-dependent conformation change of the highly conserved aromatic residues, Tyr 223 and Trp225 indicating their roles in substrate binding. These results provided insights into the structural determinants for substrate recognition and binding by class II PLDs.

  5. DNA sequence of the Peromyscus leucopus MHC class II gene Aa (MhcPeleAa)

    SciTech Connect

    Crew, M.D.; Bates, L.M.

    1996-09-01

    The genus Peromyscus has been extensively studied by populations biologists and ecologists for over eighty years, with P. leucopus (the white-footed mouse) being one of the most intensively investigated species. Polymorphic major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes have proven useful in population genetic studies and might be helpful in understanding the population dynamics of Peromyscus species which are ubiquitously distributed over North and Central America. Polymorphism of P. leucopus MHC (MhcPele) class II genes was evident by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analyses using human and mouse probes and Pele class II loci exhibited degrees of polymorphism similar to H2 class II genes (A-like>E-like). 8 refs., 2 figs.

  6. Therapeutic approach to Class II, Division 1 malocclusion with maxillary functional orthopedics

    PubMed Central

    de Bittencourt, Aristeu Corrêa; Saga, Armando Yukio; Pacheco, Ariel Adriano Reyes; Tanaka, Orlando

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Interceptive treatment of Class II, Division 1 malocclusion is a challenge orthodontists commonly face due to the different growth patterns they come across and the different treatment strategies they have available. OBJECTIVE: To report five cases of interceptive orthodontics performed with the aid of Klammt's elastic open activator (KEOA) to treat Class II, Division 1 malocclusion. METHODS: Treatment comprehends one or two phases; and the use of functional orthopedic appliances, whenever properly recommended, is able to minimize dentoskeletal discrepancies with consequent improvement in facial esthetics during the first stage of mixed dentition. The triad of diagnosis, correct appliance manufacture and patient's compliance is imperative to allow KEOA to contribute to Class II malocclusion treatment. RESULTS: Cases reported herein showed significant improvement in skeletal, dental and profile aspects, as evinced by cephalometric analysis and clinical photographs taken before, during and after interceptive orthodontics. PMID:26352852

  7. The evolution of Class II Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases and the first code.

    PubMed

    Smith, Temple F; Hartman, Hyman

    2015-11-30

    Class II Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases are a set of very ancient multi domain proteins. The evolution of the catalytic domain of Class II synthetases can be reconstructed from three peptidyl-hairpins. Further evolution from this primordial catalytic core leads to a split of the Class II synthetases into two divisions potentially associated with the operational code. The earliest form of this code likely coded predominantly Glycine (Gly), Proline (Pro), Alanine (Ala) and "Lysine"/Aspartic acid (Lys/Asp). There is a paradox in these synthetases beginning with a hairpin structure before the Genetic Code existed. A resolution is found in the suggestion that the primordial Aminoacyl synthetases formed in a transition from a Thioester world to a Phosphate ester world. PMID:26472323

  8. Human class II major histocompatibility complex gene transfer into murine neuroblastoma leads to loss of tumorigenicity, immunity against subsequent tumor challenge, and elimination of microscopic preestablished tumors.

    PubMed

    Hock, R A; Reynolds, B D; Tucker-McClung, C L; Kwok, W W

    1995-01-01

    Immunological recognition of transformed cells is critically important to limit tumor development and proliferation. Because established tumors have escaped immune recognition and elimination, novel strategies to enhance antitumor immunity have been developed. A unique approach has used the introduction of genes encoding major histocompatibility complex (MHC) antigens into tumor cells. Experiments in mice have shown that the expression of syngeneic class II MHC antigens in tumor cells completely abrogates tumorigenicity and induces tumor-specific immunity. In this study we sought to determine whether a more effective antitumor immune response would be generated by introducing xenogeneic class II MHC genes into tumor cells. To address this question we used recombinant retroviruses to express human class II MHC genes in a highly malignant murine neuroblastoma cell line, Neuro-2a. We found that normal mice inoculated with Neuro-2a expressing the human class II MHC antigen did not develop tumors and were immune to subsequent challenge with unmodified Neuro-2a cells. In addition, mice bearing small established Neuro-2a tumors were cured by vaccination with Neuro-2a expressing human class II MHC. We hypothesize that a similar approach using retroviral-mediated transduction of class II MHC genes into human tumor cells may be an effective alternative to current cancer treatment.

  9. Coordinated changes of histone modifications and HDAC mobilization regulate the induction of MHC class II genes by Trichostatin A

    PubMed Central

    2006-01-01

    The deacetylase inhibitor Trichostatin A (TSA) induces the transcription of the Major Histocompatibility Class II (MHC II) DRA gene in a way independent of the master coactivator CIITA. To analyze the molecular mechanisms by which this epigenetic regulator stimulates MHC II expression, we used chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays to monitor the alterations in histone modifications that correlate with DRA transcription after TSA treatment. We found that a dramatic increase in promoter linked histone acetylation is followed by an increase in Histone H3 lysine 4 methylation and a decrease of lysine 9 methylation. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) experiments showed that TSA increases the mobility of HDAC while decreasing the mobility of the class II enhanceosome factor RFX5. These data, in combination with ChIP experiments, indicate that the TSA-mediated induction of DRA transcription involves HDAC relocation and enhanceosome stabilization. In order to gain a genome-wide view of the genes responding to inhibition of deacetylases, we compared the transcriptome of B cells before and after TSA treatment using Affymetrix microarrays. This analysis showed that in addition to the DRA gene, the entire MHC II family and the adjacent histone cluster that are located in chromosome 6p21-22 locus are strongly induced by TSA. A complex pattern of gene reprogramming by TSA involves immune recognition, antiviral, apoptotic and inflammatory pathways and extends the rationale for using Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors (HDACi) to modulate the immune response. PMID:16452299

  10. Reversion of a transcriptionally defective MHC class II-negative human B-cell mutant.

    PubMed Central

    Ombra, M N; Perfetto, C; Autiero, M; Anzisi, A M; Pasquinelli, R; Maffei, A; Del Pozzo, G; Guardiola, J

    1993-01-01

    RJ2.2.5, a mutant derived from the human B-lymphoma cell, Raji, is unable to express the MHC class II genes because of a recessive transcriptional defect attributed to the lack of an activator function. We report the isolation of a RJ2.2.5 revertant, namely AR, in which the expression of the mRNAs encoded by these genes is restored. Comparison of the binding of nuclear extracts or of partially purified nuclear preparations from the wild-type, the mutant and the revertant cells to a conserved MHC class II promoter element, the X-box, showed no alteration in the mobility of the complexes thus formed. However, in extracts from RJ2.2.5, and other MHC class II negative cell lines, such as HeLa, the amount of complex observed was significantly higher than in wild-type Raji cells. Furthermore, the binding activity exhibited by the AR revertant was lower than that of the RJ2.2.5 and higher than that of Raji. The use of specific monoclonal antibodies indicated that in all cases c-Jun and c-Fos or antigenically related proteins were required for binding. An inverse correlation between the level of DNA-protein complex formed and the level of MHC class II gene mRNA expressed in the three cell lines was apparent, suggesting that overexpression of a DNA binding factor forming complexes with class II promoter elements may cause repression of MHC class II transcription. A model which reconciles the previously ascertained recessivity of the phenotype of the mutation carried by RJ2.2.5 with the findings reported here is discussed. Images PMID:8441650

  11. Enhanced induction of thyroid cell MHC class II antigen expression in rats highly responsive to thyroglobulin.

    PubMed

    Lahat, N; Hirose, W; Davies, T F

    1989-04-01

    Initial experiments demonstrated that the degree of autoantibody and proliferative T cell responses to syngeneic rat thyroglobulin differed markedly between Buffalo (high responder) and Fisher (low responder) rats after classical immunization schedules. While varying immune responsiveness may be due to qualitative and quantitative T and B cell differences, the role of thyroid cell MHC class II antigens may be pivotal to the onset of autoimmune thyroiditis in such animal models. We, therefore, examined the induction of MHC class II antigens in thyroid monolayers derived from Buffalo and Fisher rats treated with methimazole (0.1% in their water) for 4 weeks to induce mild thyroid hyperplasia. After thyroidectomy, thyroid cell monolayers were prepared and exposed to recombinant rat gamma-interferon (gamma IF; 10-1000 U/ml) for 1-7 days in the presence and absence of TSH (1 mU/ml). Both Buffalo and Fisher thyroid monolayers responded to gamma IF with MHC class II antigen expression when assessed by laser flow cytometry using MRC OX-6 monoclonal anti-RT1.B. In both types of culture, TSH enhanced MHC class II antigen expression in the presence of gamma IF to the same degree. However, there was a consistently earlier and greater degree of MHC class II antigen expression in Buffalo thyroid monolayers compared to Fisher monolayers, a phenomenon not explicable on the basis of fibroblast contamination as assessed by cytokeratin staining. These data demonstrate that end-organ sensitivity to MHC class II antigen expression may be important in the pathogenesis of autoimmune thyroid disease.

  12. MHC class II-assortative mate choice in European badgers (Meles meles).

    PubMed

    Sin, Yung Wa; Annavi, Geetha; Newman, Chris; Buesching, Christina; Burke, Terry; Macdonald, David W; Dugdale, Hannah L

    2015-06-01

    The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) plays a crucial role in the immune system, and in some species, it is a target by which individuals choose mates to optimize the fitness of their offspring, potentially mediated by olfactory cues. Under the genetic compatibility hypothesis, individuals are predicted to choose mates with compatible MHC alleles, to increase the fitness of their offspring. Studies of MHC-based mate choice in wild mammals are under-represented currently, and few investigate more than one class of MHC genes. We investigated mate choice based on the compatibility of MHC class I and II genes in a wild population of European badgers (Meles meles). We also investigated mate choice based on microsatellite-derived pairwise relatedness, to attempt to distinguish MHC-specific effects from genomewide effects. We found MHC-assortative mating, based on MHC class II, but not class I genes. Parent pairs had smaller MHC class II DRB amino acid distances and smaller functional distances than expected from random pairings. When we separated the analyses into within-group and neighbouring-group parent pairs, only neighbouring-group pairs showed MHC-assortative mating, due to similarity at MHC class II loci. Our randomizations showed no evidence of genomewide-based inbreeding, based on 35 microsatellite loci; MHC class II similarity was therefore the apparent target of mate choice. We propose that MHC-assortative mate choice may be a local adaptation to endemic pathogens, and this assortative mate choice may have contributed to the low MHC genetic diversity in this population. PMID:25913367

  13. MHC class II-assortative mate choice in European badgers (Meles meles).

    PubMed

    Sin, Yung Wa; Annavi, Geetha; Newman, Chris; Buesching, Christina; Burke, Terry; Macdonald, David W; Dugdale, Hannah L

    2015-06-01

    The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) plays a crucial role in the immune system, and in some species, it is a target by which individuals choose mates to optimize the fitness of their offspring, potentially mediated by olfactory cues. Under the genetic compatibility hypothesis, individuals are predicted to choose mates with compatible MHC alleles, to increase the fitness of their offspring. Studies of MHC-based mate choice in wild mammals are under-represented currently, and few investigate more than one class of MHC genes. We investigated mate choice based on the compatibility of MHC class I and II genes in a wild population of European badgers (Meles meles). We also investigated mate choice based on microsatellite-derived pairwise relatedness, to attempt to distinguish MHC-specific effects from genomewide effects. We found MHC-assortative mating, based on MHC class II, but not class I genes. Parent pairs had smaller MHC class II DRB amino acid distances and smaller functional distances than expected from random pairings. When we separated the analyses into within-group and neighbouring-group parent pairs, only neighbouring-group pairs showed MHC-assortative mating, due to similarity at MHC class II loci. Our randomizations showed no evidence of genomewide-based inbreeding, based on 35 microsatellite loci; MHC class II similarity was therefore the apparent target of mate choice. We propose that MHC-assortative mate choice may be a local adaptation to endemic pathogens, and this assortative mate choice may have contributed to the low MHC genetic diversity in this population.

  14. High-throughput engineering and analysis of peptide binding to class II MHC.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Wei; Boder, Eric T

    2010-07-27

    Class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC-II) proteins govern stimulation of adaptive immunity by presenting antigenic peptides to CD4+ T lymphocytes. Many allelic variants of MHC-II exist with implications in peptide presentation and immunity; thus, high-throughput experimental tools for rapid and quantitative analysis of peptide binding to MHC-II are needed. Here, we present an expression system wherein peptide and MHC-II are codisplayed on the surface of yeast in an intracellular association-dependent manner and assayed by flow cytometry. Accordingly, the relative binding of different peptides and/or MHC-II variants can be assayed by genetically manipulating either partner, enabling the application of directed evolution approaches for high-throughput characterization or engineering. We demonstrate the application of this tool to map the side-chain preference for peptides binding to HLA-DR1 and to evolve novel HLA-DR1 mutants with altered peptide-binding specificity.

  15. Is traditional treatment a good option for an adult with a Class II deepbite malocclusion?

    PubMed

    Abdo Quintão, Catia Cardoso; Miguel, Jose Augusto Mendes; Brunharo, Ione Portela; Zanardi, Gustavo; Feu, Daniela

    2012-01-01

    The Tweed-Merrifield directional force technique is a useful treatment approach for a patient with a Class II malocclusion with dentoalveolar protrusion. The purpose of this case report was to present the diagnosis and treatment descriptions of a patient with an Angle Class II malocclusion complicated by tooth losses, severe dentoalveolar protrusion, and skeletal discrepancy. Treatment involved extraction of the maxillary first premolars, high-pull headgear to enhance anchorage, and high-pull J-hook headgear to retract and intrude the maxillary anterior segments. A successful outcome was achieved with traditional orthodontic treatment in this borderline surgical case.

  16. HLA Class II Haplotypes Distinctly Associated with Vaso-Occlusion in Children with Sickle Cell Disease▿

    PubMed Central

    Mahdi, Najat; Al-Ola, Khadija; Al-Subaie, Abeer M.; Ali, Muhallab E.; Al-Irhayim, Zaid; Al-Irhayim, A. Qader; Almawi, Wassim Y.

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the association of HLA class II alleles and haplotypes with sickle cell anemia vaso-occlusive crisis (VOC). DRB1*100101 was positively associated, while DRB1*140101, DRB1*150101, and DQB1*060101 were negatively associated, with VOC. Both susceptible (DRB1*100101-DQB1*050101) and protective (DRB1*110101-DQB1*030101 and DRB1*150101-DQB1*060101) haplotypes were identified, indicating that HLA class II haplotypes influence VOC risk. PMID:18272668

  17. Class II malocclusion with accentuated occlusal plane inclination corrected with miniplate: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Farret, Marcel Marchiori; Farret, Milton M. Benitez

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: A canted occlusal plane presents an unesthetic element of the smile. The correction of this asymmetry has been typically considered difficult by orthodontists, as it requires complex mechanics and may sometimes even require orthognathic surgery. Objective: This paper outlines the case of a 29-year-old woman with Class II malocclusion, pronounced midline deviation and accentuated occlusal plane inclination caused by mandibular deciduous molar ankylosis. Methods: The patient was treated with a miniplate used to provide anchorage in order to intrude maxillary teeth and extrude mandibular teeth on one side, thus eliminating asymmetry. Class II was corrected on the left side by means of distalization, anchored in the miniplate as well. On the right side, maxillary first premolar was extracted and molar relationship was kept in Class II, while canines were moved to Class I relationship. The patient received implant-prosthetic rehabilitation for maxillary left lateral incisor and mandibular left second premolar. Results: At the end of treatment, Class II was corrected, midlines were matched and the canted occlusal plane was totally corrected, thereby improving smile function and esthetics. PMID:27409658

  18. Domain structures and molecular evolution of class I and class II major histocompatibility gene complex (MHC) products deduced from amino acid and nucleotide sequence homologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohnishi, Koji

    1984-12-01

    Domain structures of class I and class II MHC products were analyzed from a viewpoint of amino acid and nucleotide sequence homologies. Alignment statistics revealed that class I (transplantation) antigen H chains consist of four mutually homologous domains, and that class II (HLA-DR) antigen β and α chains are both composed of three mutually homologous ones. The N-terminal three and two domains of class I and class II (both β and α) gene products, respectively, all of which being ˜90 residues long, were concluded to be homologous to β2-microglobulin (β2M). The membraneembedded C-terminal shorter domains of these MHC products were also found to be homologous to one another and to the third domain of class I H chains. Class I H chains were found to be more closely related to class II α chains than to class II β chains. Based on these findings, an exon duplication history from a common ancestral gene encoding a β2M-like primodial protein of one-domain-length up to the contemporary MHC products was proposed.

  19. 77 FR 38835 - Final Effect of Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-29

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Final Effect of Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure... notice concerning the final effect of the HHS decision to designate a class of employees from the Brookhaven National Laboratory in Upton, New York, as an addition to the Special Exposure Cohort (SEC)...

  20. 77 FR 38835 - Final Effect of Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-29

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Final Effect of Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure... notice concerning the final effect of the HHS decision to designate a class of employees from the Electro Metallurgical site in Niagara Falls, New York, as an addition to the Special Exposure Cohort (SEC) under...

  1. 77 FR 38835 - Final Effect of Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-29

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Final Effect of Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure... notice concerning the final effect of the HHS decision to designate a class of employees from the Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico, as an addition to the Special Exposure Cohort (SEC)...

  2. 46 CFR 50.30-10 - Class I, I-L and II-L pressure vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Class I, I-L and II-L pressure vessels. 50.30-10 Section... PROVISIONS Fabrication Inspection § 50.30-10 Class I, I-L and II-L pressure vessels. (a) Classes I, I-L and II-L pressure vessels shall be subject to shop inspection at the plant where they are...

  3. 46 CFR 50.30-10 - Class I, I-L and II-L pressure vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Class I, I-L and II-L pressure vessels. 50.30-10 Section... PROVISIONS Fabrication Inspection § 50.30-10 Class I, I-L and II-L pressure vessels. (a) Classes I, I-L and II-L pressure vessels shall be subject to shop inspection at the plant where they are...

  4. 46 CFR 50.30-10 - Class I, I-L and II-L pressure vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Class I, I-L and II-L pressure vessels. 50.30-10 Section... PROVISIONS Fabrication Inspection § 50.30-10 Class I, I-L and II-L pressure vessels. (a) Classes I, I-L and II-L pressure vessels shall be subject to shop inspection at the plant where they are...

  5. 46 CFR 50.30-10 - Class I, I-L and II-L pressure vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Class I, I-L and II-L pressure vessels. 50.30-10 Section... PROVISIONS Fabrication Inspection § 50.30-10 Class I, I-L and II-L pressure vessels. (a) Classes I, I-L and II-L pressure vessels shall be subject to shop inspection at the plant where they are...

  6. 46 CFR 50.30-10 - Class I, I-L and II-L pressure vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Class I, I-L and II-L pressure vessels. 50.30-10 Section... PROVISIONS Fabrication Inspection § 50.30-10 Class I, I-L and II-L pressure vessels. (a) Classes I, I-L and II-L pressure vessels shall be subject to shop inspection at the plant where they are...

  7. 14 CFR 61.165 - Additional aircraft category and class ratings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... helicopter class rating. A person applying for an airline transport certificate with a rotorcraft category and helicopter class rating who holds an airline transport pilot certificate with another...

  8. HLA Class I and Class II Alleles and Haplotypes Confirm the Berber Origin of the Present Day Tunisian Population

    PubMed Central

    Hajjej, Abdelhafidh; Almawi, Wassim Y.; Hattab, Lasmar; El-Gaaied, Amel; Hmida, Slama

    2015-01-01

    In view of its distinct geographical location and relatively small area, Tunisia witnessed the presence of many civilizations and ethnic groups throughout history, thereby questioning the origin of present-day Tunisian population. We investigated HLA class I and class II gene profiles in Tunisians, and compared this profile with those of Mediterranean and Sub-Sahara African populations. A total of 376 unrelated Tunisian individuals of both genders were genotyped for HLA class I (A, B) and class II (DRB1, DQB1), using reverse dot-blot hybridization (PCR-SSO) method. Statistical analysis was performed using Arlequin software. Phylogenetic trees were constructed by DISPAN software, and correspondence analysis was carried out by VISTA software. One hundred fifty-three HLA alleles were identified in the studied sample, which comprised 41, 50, 40 and 22 alleles at HLA-A,-B,-DRB1 and -DQB1 loci, respectively. The most frequent alleles were HLA-A*02:01 (16.76%), HLA-B*44:02/03 (17.82%), HLA-DRB1*07:01 (19.02%), and HLA-DQB1*03:01 (17.95%). Four-locus haplotype analysis identified HLA-A*02:01-B*50:01-DRB1*07:01-DQB1*02:02 (2.2%) as the common haplotype in Tunisians. Compared to other nearby populations, Tunisians appear to be genetically related to Western Mediterranean population, in particular North Africans and Berbers. In conclusion, HLA genotype results indicate that Tunisians are related to present-day North Africans, Berbers and to Iberians, but not to Eastern Arabs (Palestinians, Jordanians and Lebanese). This suggests that the genetic contribution of Arab invasion of 7th-11th century A.D. had little impact of the North African gene pool. PMID:26317228

  9. Towards Universal Structure-Based Prediction of Class II MHC Epitopes for Diverse Allotypes

    PubMed Central

    Bordner, Andrew J.

    2010-01-01

    The binding of peptide fragments of antigens to class II MHC proteins is a crucial step in initiating a helper T cell immune response. The discovery of these peptide epitopes is important for understanding the normal immune response and its misregulation in autoimmunity and allergies and also for vaccine design. In spite of their biomedical importance, the high diversity of class II MHC proteins combined with the large number of possible peptide sequences make comprehensive experimental determination of epitopes for all MHC allotypes infeasible. Computational methods can address this need by predicting epitopes for a particular MHC allotype. We present a structure-based method for predicting class II epitopes that combines molecular mechanics docking of a fully flexible peptide into the MHC binding cleft followed by binding affinity prediction using a machine learning classifier trained on interaction energy components calculated from the docking solution. Although the primary advantage of structure-based prediction methods over the commonly employed sequence-based methods is their applicability to essentially any MHC allotype, this has not yet been convincingly demonstrated. In order to test the transferability of the prediction method to different MHC proteins, we trained the scoring method on binding data for DRB1*0101 and used it to make predictions for multiple MHC allotypes with distinct peptide binding specificities including representatives from the other human class II MHC loci, HLA-DP and HLA-DQ, as well as for two murine allotypes. The results showed that the prediction method was able to achieve significant discrimination between epitope and non-epitope peptides for all MHC allotypes examined, based on AUC values in the range 0.632–0.821. We also discuss how accounting for peptide binding in multiple registers to class II MHC largely explains the systematically worse performance of prediction methods for class II MHC compared with those for class I

  10. Functional recombinant MHC class II molecules and high-throughput peptide-binding assays

    PubMed Central

    Justesen, Sune; Harndahl, Mikkel; Lamberth, Kasper; Nielsen, Lise-Lotte B; Buus, Søren

    2009-01-01

    Background Molecules of the class II major histocompability complex (MHC-II) specifically bind and present exogenously derived peptide epitopes to CD4+ T helper cells. The extreme polymorphism of the MHC-II hampers the complete analysis of peptide binding. It is also a significant hurdle in the generation of MHC-II molecules as reagents to study and manipulate specific T helper cell responses. Methods to generate functional MHC-II molecules recombinantly, and measure their interaction with peptides, would be highly desirable; however, no consensus methodology has yet emerged. Results We generated α and β MHC-II chain constructs, where the membrane-spanning regions were replaced by dimerization motifs, and the C-terminal of the β chains was fused to a biotinylation signal peptide (BSP) allowing for in vivo biotinylation. These chains were produced separately as inclusion bodies in E. coli , extracted into urea, and purified under denaturing and non-reducing conditions using conventional column chromatography. Subsequently, diluting the two chains into a folding reaction with appropriate peptide resulted in efficient peptide-MHC-II complex formation. Several different formats of peptide-binding assay were developed including a homogeneous, non-radioactive, high-throughput (HTS) binding assay. Binding isotherms were generated allowing the affinities of interaction to be determined. The affinities of the best binders were found to be in the low nanomolar range. Recombinant MHC-II molecules and accompanying HTS peptide-binding assay were successfully developed for nine different MHC-II molecules including the DPA1*0103/DPB1*0401 (DP401) and DQA1*0501/DQB1*0201, where both α and β chains are polymorphic, illustrating the advantages of producing the two chains separately. Conclusion We have successfully developed versatile MHC-II resources, which may assist in the generation of MHC class II -wide reagents, data, and tools. PMID:19416502

  11. Expression of class II beta-tubulin by proliferative myoepithelial cells in canine mammary mixed tumors.

    PubMed

    Arai, K; Nakano, H; Shibutani, M; Naoi, M; Matsuda, H

    2003-11-01

    Benign mammary mixed tumors in dogs resemble human salivary pleomorphic adenomas with regard to their histogenesis, including the occurrence of cartilaginous or bony metaplasia as well as the expression pattern of cytoskeletal proteins in proliferative myoepithelial cells. Recently, a monoclonal antibody specific for class II beta-tubulin has been developed. The epitope it recognizes was determined to be the heptapeptide Glu-Glu-Glu-Glu-Gly-Glu-Asp, which is the common sequence found among the canine, rat, mouse, and human class II beta-tubulin-specific regions. We carried out immunohistochemical studies on mammary mixed tumors obtained from three female dogs using this the monoclonal antibody. The antibody to class II beta-tubulin reacted intensely with proliferative myoepithelial cells in canine mammary mixed tumors, whereas staining was barely detectable in normal myoepithelial cells surrounding alveoli and alveolar ducts within the tumor and adjacent normal tissue. Proliferative myoepithelial cells also expressed vimentin, but alpha-smooth muscle actin (alphaSMA) staining was barely detectable. Immunoblot analysis showed that class II beta-tubulin and vimentin were expressed in myoepithelial cell lines prepared from the three mammary mixed tumors. On the other hand, only one cell line, which was negative for alphaSMA, produced cartilage-specific type II collagen. These results suggest that class II beta-tubulin could be a new molecular marker of proliferating myoepithelial cells in canine mammary mixed tumors and that differential expression of cytoskeletal components is associated with cartilaginous metaplasia of proliferative myoepithelial cells in mixed mammary tumors.

  12. Biochemical Characterization of the Split Class II Ribonucleotide Reductase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Crona, Mikael; Hofer, Anders; Astorga-Wells, Juan; Sjöberg, Britt-Marie; Tholander, Fredrik

    2015-01-01

    The opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa can grow under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Its flexibility with respect to oxygen load is reflected by the fact that its genome encodes all three existing classes of ribonucleotides reductase (RNR): the oxygen-dependent class I RNR, the oxygen-indifferent class II RNR, and the oxygen-sensitive class III RNR. The P. aeruginosa class II RNR is expressed as two separate polypeptides (NrdJa and NrdJb), a unique example of a split RNR enzyme in a free-living organism. A split class II RNR is also found in a few closely related γ-Proteobacteria. We have characterized the P. aeruginosa class II RNR and show that both subunits are required for formation of a biologically functional enzyme that can sustain vitamin B12-dependent growth. Binding of the B12 coenzyme as well as substrate and allosteric effectors resides in the NrdJa subunit, whereas the NrdJb subunit mediates efficient reductive dithiol exchange during catalysis. A combination of activity assays and activity-independent methods like surface plasmon resonance and gas phase electrophoretic macromolecule analysis suggests that the enzymatically active form of the enzyme is a (NrdJa-NrdJb)2 homodimer of heterodimers, and a combination of hydrogen-deuterium exchange experiments and molecular modeling suggests a plausible region in NrdJa that interacts with NrdJb. Our detailed characterization of the split NrdJ from P. aeruginosa provides insight into the biochemical function of a unique enzyme known to have central roles in biofilm formation and anaerobic growth. PMID:26225432

  13. Treatment of mandibular class II furcation defects by the use of amelogenins and autologous bone. Two case reports.

    PubMed

    Aimetti, M; Pigella, E; Romano, F; Debernardi, C

    2005-10-01

    The aim of this preliminary study was to evaluate the clinical effectiveness of the association of amelogenins and autologous bone graft in the management of mandibular class II furcation defects. This randomized case-controlled study was conducted on 2 patients who presented 2 contralateral mandibular buccal class II furcation lesions. One defect was treated by amelogenins and autologous bone graft (test site) and the other one by open flap debridement (control site). At baseline and at 12 months postoperatively, the full-mouth plaque score (FMPS) and the full-mouth bleeding score (FMBS), the probing depth (PD), the clinical attachment level (CAL) and the recession (REC) were recorded and a periapical radiograph of the selected area was taken. In addition, at 12 months a surgical re-entry was performed. Test sites had a greater horizontal PD reduction and radiographic bone filling compared to control sites. None of the treated sites achieved complete furcation closure. At the time of re-entry, furcations treated by amelogenins were partially filled by newly formed not soundable hard tissue, while furcations treated by conventional flap surgery were filled by epithelial and connective tissue. These findings suggest that the treatment of mandibular class II furcations by amelogenins and autologous bone graft may result in a significant clinical improvement. Further long-term studies conducted on a larger sample size are therefore needed to confirm our results. PMID:16224378

  14. Role of chain pairing for the production of functional soluble IA major histocompatibility complex class II molecules

    PubMed Central

    1996-01-01

    Structural studies of cellular receptor molecules involved in immune recognition require the production of large quantities of the extracellular domains of these glycoproteins. The murine major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II-restricted response has been extensively studied by functional means, but the engineering and purification of the native, empty form of the most-studied murine MHC class II molecule, IA, has been difficult to achieve. IA molecules, which are the murine equivalent of human histocompatibility leukocyte antigen-DQ molecules, have a low efficiency of chain pairing, which results in poor transport to the cell surface and in the appearance of mixed isotype pairs. We have engineered soluble IA molecules whose pairing has been forced by the addition of leucine zipper peptide dimers at their COOH-terminus. The molecules are secreted "empty" into the extracellular medium and can be loaded with single peptide after purification. These IA molecules have been expressed in milligram quantity for crystallization as well as for activation of T cells and measurement of MHC class II-T cell receptor interactions. PMID:8642319

  15. Clinical Success Rate of Compomer and Amalgam Class II Restorations in First Primary Molars: A Two-year Study

    PubMed Central

    Ghaderi, Faezeh; Mardani, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Background and aims. The majority of failures in Class II amalgam restorations occur in the first primary molar teeth; in addition, use of compomer instead of amalgam for primary molar teeth restorations is a matter of concern. The aim ofthe present study was to compare the success rate of Class II compomer and amalgam restorations in the first primary molars. Materials and methods. A total of 17 amalgams and 17 compomer restorations were placed in 17 children based on a split-mouth design. Restorations were assessed at 12- and 24-month intervals for marginal integrity, the anatomic form and recurrent caries. Data were analyzed with SPSS 11. Chi-squared test was applied for the analysis. Statistical significance was set at P<0.05. Results. A total 34 restorations of 28 restorations (14 pairs) of the total restorations still survived after 24 months. Compomerrestorations showed significantly better results in marginal integrity. Recurrent caries was significantly lower incompomer restorations compared to amalgam restorations. Cumulative success rate at 24-month interval was significantlyhigher in compomer restorations compared to amalgam restorations. There was no statistically significant difference inanatomic form between the two materials. Conclusion. Compomer appears to be a suitable alternative to amalgam for Class II restorations in the first primary mo-lars. PMID:26236434

  16. Major histocompatibility complex class II antigens are required for both cytokine production and proliferation induced by mercuric chloride in vitro.

    PubMed

    Hu, H; Möller, G; Abedi-Valugerdi, M

    1997-10-01

    Autoimmune diseases induced by mercuric chloride are genetically determined, at least one gene being major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-linked. Previously, we showed that in vitro mercury stimulation induced a high proliferative response in lymphocytes from susceptible mice (high-responders) and that the proliferative response could be restored in lymphocytes from low-responders by pretreating the cells with mercury. We also found that the continuous presence of mercury induced IL-2 and IFN-gamma production, while pretreatment with mercury induced IL-4 production. In this study, we showed that anti-MHC class II monoclonal antibodies blocked both the mercury-induced proliferative responses in lymphocytes from high-responders and the restored proliferative responses in low-responders. In addition, anti-MHC class II antibodies also inhibited the mercury-induced IL-2, IFN-gamma and IL-4 cytokine production in vitro. The results demonstrate that MHC class II antigens directly participate in mercury-induced cytokine production and cell activation, and are required at the onset of the initiation.

  17. Expression of class II cytokine genes in children's skin.

    PubMed

    Reemann, Paula; Reimann, Ene; Suutre, Siim; Paavo, Maarjaliis; Loite, Ulvi; Porosaar, Orm; Abram, Kristi; Silm, Helgi; Vasar, Eero; Kõks, Sulev; Kingo, Külli

    2014-07-01

    Immune regulation of the skin plays an important role in susceptibility and development of illnesses. The aim of our study was to localise the interleukin (IL)-10 family of cytokines, in children's skin and to determine possible age-related differences in the expression level. The mRNA expression level of IL10, IL19, IL20, IL22, IL24, IL26, IL28B, IL29 and their receptors IL10RA, IL10RB, IL20RA, IL20RB, IL22RA1, IL22RA2, IL28RA was compared in skin biopsies of children and adults and in childrens' skin cells by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). Immunohistochemistry was performed to confirm the qRT-PCR findings. We found age-related differences in the expression of IL10RB, IL20, IL20RA, IL22RA1, IL22RA2, IL26 and IL28RA genes. Cell type-dependent expression of IL10 family cytokines was apparent in the skin. In addition to previously known differences in systemic immunological response of adults and children, the present results reveal differences in immune profile of adult and juvenile skin.

  18. Crystal Structure of Staphylococcal Enterotoxin I (SEI) in Complex with a Human Major Histocompatibility Complex Class II Molecule*

    PubMed Central

    Fernández, Marisa M.; Guan, Rongjin; Swaminathan, Chittoor P.; Malchiodi, Emilio L.; Mariuzza, Roy A.

    2009-01-01

    Superantigens are bacterial or viral proteins that elicit massive T cell activation through simultaneous binding to major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II and T cell receptors. This activation results in uncontrolled release of inflammatory cytokines, causing toxic shock. A remarkable property of superantigens, which distinguishes them from T cell receptors, is their ability to interact with multiple MHC class II alleles independently of MHC-bound peptide. Previous crystallographic studies have shown that staphylococcal and streptococcal superantigens belonging to the zinc family bind to a high affinity site on the class II β-chain. However, the basis for promiscuous MHC recognition by zinc-dependent superantigens is not obvious, because the β-chain is polymorphic and the MHC-bound peptide forms part of the binding interface. To understand how zinc-dependent superantigens recognize MHC, we determined the crystal structure, at 2.0 Å resolution, of staphylococcal enterotoxin I bound to the human class II molecule HLA-DR1 bearing a peptide from influenza hemagglutinin. Interactions between the superantigen and DR1 β-chain are mediated by a zinc ion, and 22% of the buried surface of peptide·MHC is contributed by the peptide. Comparison of the staphylococcal enterotoxin I·peptide·DR1 structure with ones determined previously revealed that zinc-dependent superantigens achieve promiscuous binding to MHC by targeting conservatively substituted residues of the polymorphic β-chain. Additionally, these superantigens circumvent peptide specificity by engaging MHC-bound peptides at their conformationally conserved N-terminal regions while minimizing sequence-specific interactions with peptide residues to enhance cross-reactivity. PMID:16829512

  19. 76 FR 40377 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Class II Special...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-08

    ... Collection; Comment Request; Class II Special Controls Guidance Document: Labeling for Natural Rubber Latex... for the labeling of natural rubber latex condoms. DATES: Submit either electronic or written comments... Document: Labeling for Natural Rubber Latex Condoms Classified Under 21 CFR 884.5300--(OMB Control...

  20. HLA class II linkage disequilibrium and haplotype evolution in the Cayapa Indians of Ecuador.

    PubMed Central

    Trachtenberg, E A; Erlich, H A; Rickards, O; DeStefano, G F; Klitz, W

    1995-01-01

    DNA-based typing of the HLA class II loci in a sample of the Cayapa Indians of Ecuador reveals several lines of evidence that selection has operated to maintain and to diversify the existing level of polymorphism in the class II region. As has been noticed for other Native American groups, the overall level of polymorphism at the DRB1, DQA1, DQB1, and DPB1 loci is reduced relative to that found in other human populations. Nonetheless, the relative evenness in the distribution of allele frequencies at each of the four loci points to the role of balancing selection in the maintenance of the polymorphism. The DQA1 and DQB1 loci, in particular, have near-maximum departures from the neutrality model, which suggests that balancing selection has been especially strong in these cases. Several novel DQA1-DQB1 haplotypes and the discovery of a new DRB1 allele demonstrate an evolutionary tendency favoring the diversification of class II alleles and haplotypes. The recombination interval between the centromeric DPB1 locus and the other class II loci will, in the absence of other forces such as selection, reduce disequilibrium across this region. However, nearly all common alleles were found to be part of DR-DP haplotypes in strong disequilibrium, consistent with the recent action of selection acting on these haplotypes in the Cayapa. PMID:7668268

  1. Evidence for multiple MHC class II β loci in New Zealand's critically endangered kakapo, Strigops habroptilus.

    PubMed

    Knafler, Gabrielle J; Fidler, Andrew; Jamieson, Ian G; Robertson, Bruce C

    2014-02-01

    Immunologically important genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) have been characterized in a number of avian species with the general finding of considerable variation in size and structural organization among organisms. A range of nonpasserines which represent early-diverging Neoave lineages have been described as having only one MHC class II β locus potentially leading to the conclusion that this is the ancestral condition. Here, we examine the monotypic, early-diverging, critically endangered kakapo, Strigops habroptilus, for allelic variation at MHC class II β exon 2, as part of species' recovery efforts. We found two to four confirmed sequence variants per individual indicating the presence of more than one MHC class II β locus. Given the kakapo's basal evolutionary status, evidence for multiple MHC class II β loci seems to counter the proposed mono-locus history of modern birds. However, MHC gene duplication, maintenance, and loss among and within bird species may confound avian relationships making it difficult to elucidate the ancestral state. This study adds essential data for disentangling the course of MHC structural evolution in birds.

  2. 40 CFR 82.16 - Phaseout schedule of class II controlled substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .... (d) Effective January 1, 2015, no person may produce class II controlled substances not previously... production allowances, or for exemptions permitted in § 82.15(f). Effective January 1, 2015, no person may... instrumentality of the U.S., or a non-governmental space vehicle entity, may petition EPA for HCFC-141b...

  3. 40 CFR 82.16 - Phaseout schedule of class II controlled substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... in equipment manufactured prior to January 1, 2010. (d) Effective January 1, 2015, no person may... § 82.15(f). Effective January 1, 2015, no person may import class II controlled substances not subject...-governmental space vehicle entity, may petition EPA for HCFC-141b exemption allowances for the production...

  4. 40 CFR 82.16 - Phaseout schedule of class II controlled substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... in equipment manufactured prior to January 1, 2010. (d) Effective January 1, 2015, no person may... § 82.15(f). Effective January 1, 2015, no person may import class II controlled substances not subject...-governmental space vehicle entity, may petition EPA for HCFC-141b exemption allowances for the production...

  5. 40 CFR 82.16 - Phaseout schedule of class II controlled substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    .... (d) Effective January 1, 2015, no person may produce class II controlled substances not previously... production allowances, or for exemptions permitted in § 82.15(f). Effective January 1, 2015, no person may... instrumentality of the U.S., or a non-governmental space vehicle entity, may petition EPA for HCFC-141b...

  6. 40 CFR 82.16 - Phaseout schedule of class II controlled substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... in equipment manufactured prior to January 1, 2010. (d) Effective January 1, 2015, no person may... § 82.15(f). Effective January 1, 2015, no person may import class II controlled substances not subject...-governmental space vehicle entity, may petition EPA for HCFC-141b exemption allowances for the production...

  7. Cephalometric evaluation of Class II malocclusion treatment with cervical headgear and mandibular fixed appliances.

    PubMed

    Freitas, M R; Lima, D V; Freitas, K M S; Janson, G; Henriques, J F C

    2008-10-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the cephalometric changes in Class II patients treated exclusively with cervical headgear (CHG) in the maxillary arch and fixed appliances in the mandibular arch as compared with a control group. The sample comprised 82 lateral cephalograms obtained pre- (T1) and post- (T2) treatment/observation of 41 subjects, divided into two groups: group 1-25 Class II division 1 patients (20 females and five males), with a mean pre-treatment age of 10.4 years, treated for a mean period of 2.5 years and group 2-16 Class II untreated subjects (12 females and four males), with a mean initial age of 9.9 years, followed for a mean period of 2.2 years. Treatment changes between the groups were compared by means of t-tests. The results showed restriction of maxillary forward displacement and also a restriction in maxillary length growth, improvement in the maxillomandibular relationship, restriction of mandibular incisor vertical development, reduction in overjet and overbite, and improvement in molar relationship. It was concluded that this treatment protocol corrected the Class II malocclusion characteristics primarily through maxillary forward growth restriction.

  8. 77 FR 58473 - Minimum Technical Standards for Class II Gaming Systems and Equipment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-21

    ... Class II Games. 73 FR 60508. The rule added a new part to the Commission's regulations establishing a.... 75 FR 70680. On April 4, 2011, after consulting with tribes and reviewing all comments, the NIGC... review. 76 FR 18457. Part 547 was included in the third regulatory group reviewed pursuant to the NRR....

  9. A Comparison of Two Methods for Evaluating Primary Class II Cavity Preparations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goepferd, Stephen J.; Kerber, Paul E.

    1980-01-01

    A study of an analytical system for evaluating class II cavity preparations in primary teeth was developed, tested, and compared with the traditional global evaluation method with respect to intraexaminer and interexaminer reliability. Interexaminer reliability was improved with the analytical system. (Author/MLW)

  10. Current Teaching of Proximal Retention Grooves for Class II Amalgam Preparations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, David L.

    1992-01-01

    A survey gathered information on methods of class II amalgam preparation taught in 59 dental schools. Focus was on the teaching and testing of proximal retention groove use, stated rationale for placing retention grooves, and the relationship of the instruction to board criteria for cavity preparation. (MSE)

  11. MHC class II molecules, cathepsins, and La/SSB proteins in lacrimal acinar cell endomembranes.

    PubMed

    Yang, T; Zeng, H; Zhang, J; Okamoto, C T; Warren, D W; Wood, R L; Bachmann, M; Mircheff, A K

    1999-11-01

    Sjögren's syndrome is a chronic autoimmune disease affecting the lacrimal glands and other epithelia. It has been suggested that acinar cells of the lacrimal glands provoke local autoimmune responses, leading to Sjögren's syndrome when they begin expressing major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules. We used isopycnic centrifugation and phase partitioning to resolve compartments that participate in traffic between the basolateral membranes and the endomembrane system to test the hypothesis that MHC class II molecules enter compartments that contain potential autoantigens, i.e., La/SSB, and enzymes capable of proteolytically processing autoantigen, i.e., cathepsins B and D. A series of compartments identified as secretory vesicle membranes, prelysosomes, and microdomains of the trans-Golgi network involved in traffic to the basolateral membrane, to the secretory vesicles, and to the prelysosomes were all prominent loci of MHC class II molecules, La/SSB, and cathepsins B and D. These observations support the thesis that lacrimal gland acinar cells that have been induced to express MHC class II molecules function as autoantigen processing and presenting cells.

  12. 37 GHz METHANOL MASERS : HORSEMEN OF THE APOCALYPSE FOR THE CLASS II METHANOL MASER PHASE?

    SciTech Connect

    Ellingsen, S. P.; Breen, S. L.; Sobolev, A. M.; Voronkov, M. A.; Caswell, J. L.; Lo, N.

    2011-12-01

    We report the results of a search for class II methanol masers at 37.7, 38.3, and 38.5 GHz toward a sample of 70 high-mass star formation regions. We primarily searched toward regions known to show emission either from the 107 GHz class II methanol maser transition, or from the 6.035 GHz excited OH transition. We detected maser emission from 13 sources in the 37.7 GHz transition, eight of these being new detections. We detected maser emission from three sources in the 38 GHz transitions, one of which is a new detection. We find that 37.7 GHz methanol masers are only associated with the most luminous 6.7 and 12.2 GHz methanol maser sources, which in turn are hypothesized to be the oldest class II methanol sources. We suggest that the 37.7 GHz methanol masers are associated with a brief evolutionary phase (of 1000-4000 years) prior to the cessation of class II methanol maser activity in the associated high-mass star formation region.

  13. 37 GHz Methanol Masers : Horsemen of the Apocalypse for the Class II Methanol Maser Phase?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellingsen, S. P.; Breen, S. L.; Sobolev, A. M.; Voronkov, M. A.; Caswell, J. L.; Lo, N.

    2011-12-01

    We report the results of a search for class II methanol masers at 37.7, 38.3, and 38.5 GHz toward a sample of 70 high-mass star formation regions. We primarily searched toward regions known to show emission either from the 107 GHz class II methanol maser transition, or from the 6.035 GHz excited OH transition. We detected maser emission from 13 sources in the 37.7 GHz transition, eight of these being new detections. We detected maser emission from three sources in the 38 GHz transitions, one of which is a new detection. We find that 37.7 GHz methanol masers are only associated with the most luminous 6.7 and 12.2 GHz methanol maser sources, which in turn are hypothesized to be the oldest class II methanol sources. We suggest that the 37.7 GHz methanol masers are associated with a brief evolutionary phase (of 1000-4000 years) prior to the cessation of class II methanol maser activity in the associated high-mass star formation region.

  14. HLA class II linkage disequilibrium and haplotype evolution in the Cayapa Indians of Ecuador

    SciTech Connect

    Trachtenberg, E.A.; Erlich, H.A.; Klitz, W.

    1995-08-01

    DNA-based typing of the HLA class II loci in a sample of the Cayapa Indians of Ecuador reveals several lines of evidence that selection has operated to maintain and to diversify the existing level of polymorphism in the class II region. As has been noticed for other Native American groups, the overall level of polymorphism at the DRB1, DQA1, DQB1, and DPB1 loci is reduced relative to that found in other human populations. Nonetheless, the relative eveness in the distribution of allele frequencies at each of the four loci points to the role of balancing selection in the maintenance of the polymorphism. The DQA1 and DQB1 loci, in particular, have near-maximum departures from the neutrality model, which suggests that balancing selection has been especially strong in these cases. Several novel DQA1-DQB1 haplotypes and the discovery of a new DRB1 allele demonstrate an evolutionary tendency favoring the diversification of class II alleles and haplotypes. The recombination interval between the centromeric DPB1 locus and the other class II loci will, in the absence of other forces such as selection, reduce disequilibrium across this region. However, nearly all common alleles were found to be part of DR-DP haplotypes in strong disequilibrium, consistent with the recent action of selection acting on these haplotypes in the Cayapa. 50 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  15. Macroautophagy in Endogenous Processing of Self- and Pathogen-Derived Antigens for MHC Class II Presentation

    PubMed Central

    Duraes, Fernanda V.; Niven, Jennifer; Dubrot, Juan; Hugues, Stéphanie; Gannagé, Monique

    2015-01-01

    Although autophagy is a process that has been studied for several years its link with antigen presentation and T cell immunity has only recently emerged. Autophagy, which means “self-eating,” is important to maintain cell homeostasis and refers to a collection of mechanisms that delivers intracellular material for degradation into lysosomes. Among them, macroautophagy pathway has many implications in different biological processes, including innate and adaptive immunity. In particular, macroautophagy can provide a substantial source of intracellular antigens for loading onto MHC class II molecules using the alternative MHC class II pathway. Through autophagosomes, endogenous self-antigens as well as antigens derived from intracellular pathogens can be delivered to MHC class II compartment and presented to CD4+ T cells. The pathway will, therefore, impact both peripheral T cell tolerance and the pathogen specific immune response. This review will describe the contribution of autophagy to intracellular presentation of endogenous self- or pathogen-derived antigens via MHC class II and its consequences on CD4+ T cell responses. PMID:26441964

  16. 78 FR 14015 - Medical Devices; Exemption From Premarket Notification; Class II Devices; Powered Patient Transport

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-04

    ..., 1998 (63 FR 3142). Section 510(m)(2) of the FD&C Act provides that FDA may exempt a device from..., p. 3.) In the Federal Register of June 1, 2012 (77 FR 32642), FDA published a notice announcing that... against the criteria laid out in the Class II 510(k) Exemption Guidance and in 63 FR 3142, and agrees...

  17. 78 FR 14013 - Medical Devices; Exemption From Premarket Notification; Class II Devices; Wheelchair Elevator

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-04

    ..., 1998 (63 FR 3142). Section 510(m)(2) of the FD&C Act provides that FDA may exempt a device from....) In the Federal Register of June 1, 2012 (77 FR 32644), FDA published a notice announcing that this... criteria laid out in the Class II 510(k) Exemption Guidance and in 63 FR 3142, and agrees they weigh...

  18. 40 CFR 147.50 - State-administered program-Class II wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Carry Out Underground Injection Control Program Relating to Class II Wells as Described in Federal Safe Drinking Water Act—Opinion by Assistant Attorney General,” May 28, 1982. (d) The Program Description and... wells. 147.50 Section 147.50 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED)...

  19. 40 CFR 147.50 - State-administered program-Class II wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Carry Out Underground Injection Control Program Relating to Class II Wells as Described in Federal Safe Drinking Water Act—Opinion by Assistant Attorney General,” May 28, 1982. (d) The Program Description and... wells. 147.50 Section 147.50 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED)...

  20. 40 CFR 147.50 - State-administered program-Class II wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Carry Out Underground Injection Control Program Relating to Class II Wells as Described in Federal Safe Drinking Water Act—Opinion by Assistant Attorney General,” May 28, 1982. (d) The Program Description and... wells. 147.50 Section 147.50 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED)...

  1. 40 CFR 147.50 - State-administered program-Class II wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Carry Out Underground Injection Control Program Relating to Class II Wells as Described in Federal Safe Drinking Water Act—Opinion by Assistant Attorney General,” May 28, 1982. (d) The Program Description and... wells. 147.50 Section 147.50 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED)...

  2. 40 CFR 147.50 - State-administered program-Class II wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Carry Out Underground Injection Control Program Relating to Class II Wells as Described in Federal Safe Drinking Water Act—Opinion by Assistant Attorney General,” May 28, 1982. (d) The Program Description and... wells. 147.50 Section 147.50 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED)...

  3. 76 FR 14686 - Notice of Proposed Class II Reinstatement of Terminated Oil and Gas Lease, Utah

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-17

    ... Terminated Oil and Gas Lease, Utah. SUMMARY: In accordance with Title IV of the Federal Oil and Gas Royalty Management Act (Pub. L. 97-451), Dudley & Associates timely filed a petition for reinstatement of oil and gas... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Proposed Class II Reinstatement of Terminated Oil and Gas Lease,...

  4. 76 FR 46838 - Notice of Proposed Class II Reinstatement of Terminated Oil and Gas Leases, Utah

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-03

    ... of the Federal Oil and Gas Royalty Management Act (Pub. L. 97-451), Delta Petroleum Corporation and Wapiti Oil and Gas LLC timely filed a petition for reinstatement of oil and gas leases UTU-85226 and UTU... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Proposed Class II Reinstatement of Terminated Oil and Gas...

  5. 7 CFR 1940.318 - Completing environmental assessments for Class II actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Completing environmental assessments for Class II actions. 1940.318 Section 1940.318 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued... AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) GENERAL...

  6. Class II haplotype differentially regulates immune response in HgCl2-treated mice.

    PubMed

    Hanley, G A; Schiffenbauer, J; Sobel, E S

    1997-09-01

    One of the most striking features of exposure to low doses of mercury in mice is the high-titer haplotype-linked anti-nucleolar (ANoA) autoantibody response. Mice of H-2(s) haplotype have been high responders, while H-2(b) mice have been low. This pattern has been attributed to the class II molecule itself, but the poor response of F1 crosses between high and low responders raised the possibility that the anti-fibrillarin specificity was actually due to a closely linked dominant negative gene. To test the role of class II explicitly, F1 crosses between congenic B6.SJL (H-2(s)) and C57BL/6 (H-2(b)) mice with a targeted deletion of I-AbAbeta were generated, creating mice heterozygous for all MHC loci, but expressing only I-As. In comparison with B6.SJL, no diminution of ANoA titers was found, proving that I-As itself was responsible for susceptibility and I-Ab for downregulation. Unlike I-A, expression of the I-E class II molecule could not downregulate the response in an otherwise susceptible mouse. These results suggest a complicated role for class II in the regulation of a novel, environmentally induced autoimmune response.

  7. The effect of anterior inclined plane treatment on the dentoskeletal of Class II division 1 patients.

    PubMed

    Emami, Meibodi Shahin; Jamilian, Abdolreza; Showkatbakhsh, Abdolrahman

    2007-01-01

    Most of Class II malocclusions are due to underdeveloped mandible with increased overjet and overbite. Lack of incisal contact results in the extrusion of the upper and lower anterior dentoalveolar complex, which helps to lock the mandible and prevent its normal growth and development, and this abnormality is exaggerated by soft tissue imbalance. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the skeletal and dental changes in patients treated with anterior inclined plane appliance in growing patients with moderate Class II Division 1 having deep overbite. In this study, 25 patients, including 15 girls and 10 boys, with a mean age of 9 +/-1.2 years were selected; all of them presented with moderate Class II deep bite with increased overjet and normal or horizontal growth pattern. Pre- and post-treatment X-rays and photos for an average of 8 months were taken. The statistical assessment of the data suggested that there were no significant changes in the vertical skeletal parameters. The mandibular incisors were protruded, whereas the maxillary incisors were retruded. Overbite and overjet were also reduced. There was significant increase in the mandibular length. The results revealed that in mixed dentition patients, the inclined plane corrected Class II discrepancies mostly through dentoskeletal changes.

  8. 40 CFR 82.19 - Apportionment of baseline consumption allowances for class II controlled substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Apportionment of baseline consumption... Consumption Controls § 82.19 Apportionment of baseline consumption allowances for class II controlled substances. Effective January 1, 2010, the following persons are apportioned baseline consumption...

  9. 40 CFR 82.19 - Apportionment of baseline consumption allowances for class II controlled substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Apportionment of baseline consumption... Consumption Controls § 82.19 Apportionment of baseline consumption allowances for class II controlled substances. Effective January 1, 2010, the following persons are apportioned baseline consumption...

  10. 40 CFR 144.2 - Promulgation of Class II programs for Indian lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Promulgation of Class II programs for Indian lands. 144.2 Section 144.2 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... appropriate to carry out the Safe Drinking Water Act....

  11. Characterization of anti-channel catfish MHC class II monoclonal antibodies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study characterizes four monoclonal antibodies (mAb) developed against the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II beta chain of the channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus. Immunoprecipitations using catfish clonal B cells revealed that each of these mAbs immunoselected proteins of appro...

  12. Comparison of interradicular distances and cortical bone thickness in Thai patients with Class I and Class II skeletal patterns using cone-beam computed tomography

    PubMed Central

    Khumsarn, Nattida; Patanaporn, Virush; Jotikasthira, Dhirawat

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This study evaluated and compared interradicular distances and cortical bone thickness in Thai patients with Class I and Class II skeletal patterns, using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). Materials and Methods Pretreatment CBCT images of 24 Thai orthodontic patients with Class I and Class II skeletal patterns were included in the study. Three measurements were chosen for investigation: the mesiodistal distance between the roots, the width of the buccolingual alveolar process, and buccal cortical bone thickness. All distances were recorded at five different levels from the cementoenamel junction (CEJ). Descriptive statistical analysis and t-tests were performed, with the significance level for all tests set at p<0.05. Results Patients with a Class II skeletal pattern showed significantly greater maxillary mesiodistal distances (between the first and second premolars) and widths of the buccolingual alveolar process (between the first and second molars) than Class I skeletal pattern patients at 10 mm above the CEJ. The maxillary buccal cortical bone thicknesses between the second premolar and first molar at 8 mm above the CEJ in Class II patients were likewise significantly greater than in Class I patients. Patients with a Class I skeletal pattern showed significantly wider mandibular buccolingual alveolar processes than did Class II patients (between the first and second molars) at 4, 6, and 8 mm below the CEJ. Conclusion In both the maxilla and mandible, the mesiodistal distances, the width of the buccolingual alveolar process, and buccal cortical bone thickness tended to increase from the CEJ to the apex in both Class I and Class II skeletal patterns. PMID:27358819

  13. 56-month clinical performance of Class I and II resin composite restorations

    PubMed Central

    PAZINATTO, Flavia Bittencourt; GIONORDOLI NETO, Ranulfo; WANG, Linda; MONDELLI, José; MONDELLI, Rafael Francisco Lia; NAVARRO, Maria Fidela de Lima

    2012-01-01

    Objective This study evaluated the 56-month clinical performance of Class I and II resin composite restorations. Filtek P60 was compared with Filtek Z250, which are both indicated for posterior restorations but differ in terms of handling characteristics. The null hypothesis tested was that there is no difference in the clinical performance of the two resin composites in posterior teeth. Material and Methods Thirty-three patients were treated by the same operator, who prepared 48 Class I and 42 Class II cavities, which were restored with Single Bond/Filtek Z250 or Single Bond/Filtek P60 restorative systems. Restorations were evaluated by two independent examiners at baseline and after 56 months, using the modified USPHS criteria. Data were analyzed statistically using Chi-square and Fisher's Exact tests (a=0.05). Results After 56 months, 25 patients (31 Class I and 36 Class II) were analyzed. A 3% failure rate occurred due to secondary caries and excessive loss of anatomic form for P60. For both restorative systems, there were no significant differences in secondary caries and postoperative sensitivity. However, significant changes were observed with respect to anatomic form, marginal discoloration, and marginal adaptation. Significant decreases in surface texture were observed exclusively for the Z250 restorations. Conclusions Both restorative systems can be used for posterior restorations and can be expected to perform well in the oral environment. PMID:22858698

  14. Immobilization of Cu(II), Pb(II) and Cd(II) by the addition of rice straw derived biochar to a simulated polluted Ultisol.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jun; Xu, Ren-kou; Jiang, Tian-yu; Li, Zhuo

    2012-08-30

    To develop new remediation methods for acidic soils polluted by heavy metals, the chemical fractions of Cu(II), Pb(II) and Cd(II) in an Ultisol with and without rice straw biochar were compared and the effect of biochar incorporation on the mobility and bioavailability of these metals was investigated. In light of the decreasing zeta potential and increasing CEC, the incorporation of biochar made the negative soil surface charge more negative. Additionally, the soil pH increased markedly after the addition of biochar. These changes in soil properties were advantageous for heavy metal immobilization in the bulk soil. The acid soluble Cu(II) and Pb(II) decreased by 19.7-100.0% and 18.8-77.0%, respectively, as the amount of biochar added increased. The descending range of acid soluble Cd(II) was 5.6-14.1%, which was much lower than that of Cu(II) and Pb(II). When 5.0 mmol/kg of these heavy metals was added, the reducible Pb(II) for treatments containing 3% and 5% biochar was 2.0 and 3.0 times higher than that of samples without biochar, while the reducible Cu(II) increased by 61.6% and 132.6% for the corresponding treatments, respectively. When 3% and 5% biochar was added, the oxidizable portion of Pb(II) increased by 1.18 and 1.94 times, respectively, while the oxidizable portion of Cu(II) increased by 8.13 and 7.16 times, respectively, primarily due to the high adsorption affinity of functional groups of biochar to Cu(II). The residual heavy metal contents were low and changed little with the incorporation of biochar. PMID:22704774

  15. MHC class I and class II phenotype, gene, and haplotype frequencies in Greeks using molecular typing data.

    PubMed

    Papassavas, E C; Spyropoulou-Vlachou, M; Papassavas, A C; Schipper, R F; Doxiadis, I N; Stavropoulos-Giokas, C

    2000-06-01

    In the present study, DNA typing for HLA-A, C, B, DRB1, DRB3, DRB4, DRB5, DQA1, DQB1, and DPB1 was performed for 246 healthy, unrelated Greek volunteers of 20-59 years of age. Phenotype, genotype frequencies, Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium fit, and 3-locus haplotype frequencies for HLA-A, C, B, HLA-A, B, DRB1, HLA-DRB1, DQA1, DQB1, and HLA-DRB1, DQB1, DPB1 were calculated. Furthermore, linkage disequilibrium, deltas, relative deltas and p-values for significance of the deltas were defined. The population studied is in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, and many MHC haplotypes are in linkage disequilibrium. The most frequent specificities were HLA-A*02 (phenotype frequency = 44.3%) followed by HLA-A*24 (27.2%), HLA-B*51 (28.5%), HLA-B*18 (26.8%) and HLA-B*35 (26.4%) and HLA-Cw*04 (30.1%) and HLA-Cw*12 (26.8%). The most frequent MHC class II alleles were HLA-DRB1*1104 (34.1%), HLA-DQB1*0301 (54.5%) and HLA-DPB1*0401 with a phenotype frequency of 59.8%. The most prominent HLA-A, C, B haplotypes were HLA-A*24, Cw*04, B*35, and HLA-A*02, Cw*04, B*35, each of them observed in 21/246 individuals. The most frequent HLA-A, B, DRB1 haplotype was HLA-A*02, B*18, DRB1*1104 seen in 20/246 individuals, while the haplotype HLA-DRB1*1104, DQB1*0301, DPB1*0401 was found in 49/246 individuals. Finally, the haplotype DRB1*1104, DQA1*0501, DQB1*0301 was observed in 83/246 individuals. These results can be used for the estimation of the probability of finding a suitable haplotypically identical related or unrelated stem cell donor for patients of Greek ancestry. In addition, they can be used for HLA and disease association studies, genetic distance studies in the Balkan and Mediterranean area, paternity cases, and matching probability calculations for the optimal allocation of kidneys in Greece.

  16. Multiple sclerosis-associated CLEC16A controls HLA class II expression via late endosome biogenesis.

    PubMed

    van Luijn, Marvin M; Kreft, Karim L; Jongsma, Marlieke L; Mes, Steven W; Wierenga-Wolf, Annet F; van Meurs, Marjan; Melief, Marie-José; der Kant, Rik van; Janssen, Lennert; Janssen, Hans; Tan, Rusung; Priatel, John J; Neefjes, Jacques; Laman, Jon D; Hintzen, Rogier Q

    2015-06-01

    C-type lectins are key players in immune regulation by driving distinct functions of antigen-presenting cells. The C-type lectin CLEC16A gene is located at 16p13, a susceptibility locus for several autoimmune diseases, including multiple sclerosis. However, the function of this gene and its potential contribution to these diseases in humans are poorly understood. In this study, we found a strong upregulation of CLEC16A expression in the white matter of multiple sclerosis patients (n = 14) compared to non-demented controls (n = 11), mainly in perivascular leukocyte infiltrates. Moreover, CLEC16A levels were significantly enhanced in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of multiple sclerosis patients (n = 69) versus healthy controls (n = 46). In peripheral blood mononuclear cells, CLEC16A was most abundant in monocyte-derived dendritic cells, in which it strongly co-localized with human leukocyte antigen class II. Treatment of these professional antigen-presenting cells with vitamin D, a key protective environmental factor in multiple sclerosis, downmodulated CLEC16A in parallel with human leukocyte antigen class II. Knockdown of CLEC16A in distinct types of model and primary antigen-presenting cells resulted in severely impaired cytoplasmic distribution and formation of human leucocyte antigen class II-positive late endosomes, as determined by immunofluorescence and electron microscopy. Mechanistically, CLEC16A participated in the molecular machinery of human leukocyte antigen class II-positive late endosome formation and trafficking to perinuclear regions, involving the dynein motor complex. By performing co-immunoprecipitations, we found that CLEC16A directly binds to two critical members of this complex, RILP and the HOPS complex. CLEC16A silencing in antigen-presenting cells disturbed RILP-mediated recruitment of human leukocyte antigen class II-positive late endosomes to perinuclear regions. Together, we identify CLEC16A as a pivotal gene in multiple sclerosis

  17. Multiple sclerosis-associated CLEC16A controls HLA class II expression via late endosome biogenesis

    PubMed Central

    van Luijn, Marvin M.; Kreft, Karim L.; Jongsma, Marlieke L.; Mes, Steven W.; Wierenga-Wolf, Annet F.; van Meurs, Marjan; Melief, Marie-José; van der Kant, Rik; Janssen, Lennert; Janssen, Hans; Tan, Rusung; Priatel, John J.; Neefjes, Jacques; Laman, Jon D.

    2015-01-01

    C-type lectins are key players in immune regulation by driving distinct functions of antigen-presenting cells. The C-type lectin CLEC16A gene is located at 16p13, a susceptibility locus for several autoimmune diseases, including multiple sclerosis. However, the function of this gene and its potential contribution to these diseases in humans are poorly understood. In this study, we found a strong upregulation of CLEC16A expression in the white matter of multiple sclerosis patients (n = 14) compared to non-demented controls (n = 11), mainly in perivascular leukocyte infiltrates. Moreover, CLEC16A levels were significantly enhanced in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of multiple sclerosis patients (n = 69) versus healthy controls (n = 46). In peripheral blood mononuclear cells, CLEC16A was most abundant in monocyte-derived dendritic cells, in which it strongly co-localized with human leukocyte antigen class II. Treatment of these professional antigen-presenting cells with vitamin D, a key protective environmental factor in multiple sclerosis, downmodulated CLEC16A in parallel with human leukocyte antigen class II. Knockdown of CLEC16A in distinct types of model and primary antigen-presenting cells resulted in severely impaired cytoplasmic distribution and formation of human leucocyte antigen class II-positive late endosomes, as determined by immunofluorescence and electron microscopy. Mechanistically, CLEC16A participated in the molecular machinery of human leukocyte antigen class II-positive late endosome formation and trafficking to perinuclear regions, involving the dynein motor complex. By performing co-immunoprecipitations, we found that CLEC16A directly binds to two critical members of this complex, RILP and the HOPS complex. CLEC16A silencing in antigen-presenting cells disturbed RILP-mediated recruitment of human leukocyte antigen class II-positive late endosomes to perinuclear regions. Together, we identify CLEC16A as a pivotal gene in multiple sclerosis

  18. Oligoclonal band phenotypes in MS differ in their HLA class II association, while specific KIR ligands at HLA class I show association to MS in general.

    PubMed

    Gustavsen, Marte W; Viken, Marte K; Celius, Elisabeth G; Berge, Tone; Mero, Inger-Lise; Berg-Hansen, Pål; Aarseth, Jan H; Myhr, Kjell-Morten; Søndergaard, Helle B; Sellebjerg, Finn; Oturai, Annette B; Hillert, Jan; Alfredsson, Lars; Olsson, Tomas; Kockum, Ingrid; Lie, Benedicte A; Harbo, Hanne F

    2014-09-15

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) patients have been reported to have different HLA class II allele profiles depending on oligoclonal bands (OCBs) in the cerebrospinal fluid, but HLA class I alleles and killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR) ligands have not been studied. We investigated the association of HLA alleles and KIR ligands according to OCB status in MS patients (n=3876). Specific KIR ligands were associated with patients when compared to controls (n=3148), supporting a role for NK cells in MS pathogenesis. HLA class I alleles and KIR ligands did not differ between OCB phenotypes, but HLA class II associations were convincingly replicated.

  19. A CLASS I AND CLASS II CH{sub 3}OH MASER SURVEY OF EGOs FROM THE GLIMPSE SURVEY

    SciTech Connect

    Cyganowski, C. J.; Churchwell, E.; Brogan, C. L.; Hunter, T. R.

    2009-09-10

    We present the results of a high angular resolution Very Large Array (VLA) Class I 44 GHz and Class II 6.7 GHz CH{sub 3}OH maser survey of a sample of {approx}20 massive young stellar object (MYSO) outflow candidates selected on the basis of extended 4.5 {mu}m emission in Spitzer Galactic Legacy Infrared Mid-Plane Survey Extraordinaire images. These 4.5 {mu}m selected candidates are referred to as extended green objects (EGOs), for the common coding of this band as green in three-color Infrared Array Camera images. The detection rate of 6.7 GHz Class II CH{sub 3}OH masers, which are associated exclusively with massive YSOs, toward EGOs is {approx}>64%-nearly double the detection rate of surveys using other MYSO selection criteria. The detection rate of Class I 44 GHz CH{sub 3}OH masers, which trace molecular outflows, is {approx}89% toward EGOs associated with 6.7 GHz CH{sub 3}OH masers. The two types of CH{sub 3}OH masers exhibit different spatial distributions: 6.7 GHz masers are centrally concentrated and usually coincide with 24 {mu}m emission, while 44 GHz masers are widely distributed and generally trace diffuse 4.5 {mu}m features. We also present results of a complementary James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT) single-pointing molecular line survey of EGOs in the outflow tracers HCO{sup +}(3-2) and SiO(5-4). The HCO{sup +} line profiles and high SiO detection rate (90%) are indicative of the presence of active outflows. No 44 GHz continuum emission is detected at the 5 mJy beam{sup -1} (5{sigma}) level toward 95% of EGOs surveyed, excluding bright ultracompact H II regions as powering sources for the 4.5 {mu}m outflows. The results of our surveys constitute strong evidence that EGOs are young, massive YSOs, with active outflows, presumably powered by ongoing accretion.

  20. Molecular polymorphism and expression analysis of MHC class II B gene from red sea bream (Chrysophrys major).

    PubMed

    Chen, Song-Lin; Zhang, Yu-Xi; Xu, Mei-Yu; Ji, Xiang-Shan; Yu, Guo-Cai; Dong, Cheng-Fang

    2006-01-01

    MHC class II (major histocompatibility complex class II) plays an important role in the immune response of vertebrates. Its function is to present antigenic peptides to the T-cell receptor. In order to study the function and molecular polymorphism of class II B gene in fish, we have isolated cDNAs encoding class II B from spleen cDNA library of red sea bream (Chrysophrys major) by using EST sequencing, and examined genomic organization, molecular polymorphism and expression of red sea bream class II B gene. As in other vertebrates, five exons and four introns were identified in red sea bream class II B gene. Seven class II B alleles were identified from seven individuals of red sea bream. The deduced amino acid sequence of red sea bream MHC class II B 1(Chma-DAB*0101) had 87.1, 85.1, 87.1, 90.4, 87.1, 90.8% identity with those of red sea bream class II B 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7(Chma-DAB*0201-Chma-DAB*0701), respectively, and had 75.2, 74.5, 55.9, 55.1, 34.3 and 30.4% identity with those of striped sea bass, cichlid, rainbow trout, Atlantic salmon, mouse and human, respectively. Four different class II B alleles were observed in a single individual and two different 3' untranslated region (3' UTR) sequences from this individual may infer the existence of two loci at least. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR demonstrated that high expression was detected in liver, head kidney, kidney, intestine, gill, stomach, hear and spleen, low expression in muscle and blood. Challenge of red sea bream with the pathogenic bacteria, Vibrio anguillarum, resulted in a significant decrease in the expression of MHC class II B mRNA from 5 to 72 h after infection in liver, spleen, head kidney and intestine, followed by a recovery to normal level after 96 h.

  1. CD4 binding to major histocompatibility complex class II antigens induces LFA-1-dependent and -independent homotypic adhesion of B lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Kansas, G S; Cambier, J C; Tedder, T F

    1992-01-01

    T helper cells recognize processed antigen (Ag) in the context of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II antigens present on the surface of B cells and other Ag-presenting cells. This interaction is mediated through the T cell receptor complex with associate recognition of class II molecules by the CD4 molecule. In this study, the binding of a soluble recombinant CD4/Ig heavy chain fusion protein (CD4-gamma 3) or monoclonal antibody (mAb) to class II antigens on human B cells was shown to induce rapid and specific homotypic adhesion of B cells and most B lymphoblastoid cell lines. mAb reactive with CD4 inhibited CD4-gamma 3-induced adhesion and a mutant B lymphoblastoid cell line deficient in class II antigens failed to respond. Induction of homotypic adhesion was dependent on energy metabolism and a functional cytoskeleton, and class II+ pre-B cells did not exhibit adhesion in response to these stimuli, suggesting that cross-linking of class II molecules generated a transmembrane signal and did not simply aggregate cells. In addition, MHC class II-induced adhesion was Fc receptor independent, as 15 mAb of different Ig isotypes reactive with HLA-D or HLA-DQ gene products induced adhesion. Anti-class II mAb and CD4-gamma 3 were able to induce adhesion at concentrations as low as 10 ng/ml and 100 ng/ml, respectively. Suboptimal stimulation of B cell lines through HLA-D antigens induced homotypic adhesion that was dependent on the activation of LFA-1 (CD11a/CD18), and which could be blocked by specific mAb. However, at greater signal strengths, adhesion was not blocked by mAb against the known adhesion receptors, suggesting the induction of a novel adhesion pathway. Consistent with this, homotypic adhesion induced by engagement of MHC class II antigens was observed with LFA-1-deficient B cell lines, and was independent of CD49d or CD18 expression. Thus, the direct engagement of B cell class II antigens by CD4 is likely to generate transmembrane signals which

  2. Adenosine signaling inhibits CIITA-mediated MHC class II transactivation in lung fibroblast cells.

    PubMed

    Fang, Mingming; Xia, Jun; Wu, Xiaoyan; Kong, Hui; Wang, Hong; Xie, Weiping; Xu, Yong

    2013-08-01

    Efficient antigen presentation by major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules represents a critical process in adaptive immunity. Class II transactivator (CIITA) is considered the master regulator of MHC class II (MHC II) transcription. Previously, we have shown that CIITA expression is upregulated in smooth muscle cells deficient in A2b adenosine receptor. Here, we report that treatment with the adenosine receptor agonist adenosine-5'N-ethylcarboxamide (NECA) attenuated MHC II transcription in lung fibro-blast cells as a result of CIITA repression. Further analysis revealed that NECA preferentially abrogated CIITA transcription through promoters III and IV. Blockade with a selective A2b receptor antagonist MRS-1754 restored CIITA-dependent MHC II transactivation. Forskolin, an adenylyl cyclase activator, achieved the same effect as NECA. A2b signaling repressed CIITA transcription by altering histone modifications and recruitment of key factors on the CIITA promoters in a STAT1-dependent manner. MRS-1754 blocked the antagonism of transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) in CIITA induction by interferon gamma (IFN-γ), alluding to a potential dialogue between TGF-β and adenosine signaling pathways. Finally, A2b signaling attenuated STAT1 phosphorylation and stimulated TGF-β synthesis. In conclusion, we have identified an adenosine-A2b receptor-adenylyl cyclase axis that influences CIITA-mediated MHC II transactivation in lung fibroblast cells and as such have provided invaluable insights into the development of novel immune-modulatory strategies.

  3. Antigen Targeting to Human HLA Class II Molecules Increases Efficacy of DNA Vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Fredriksen, Agnete Brunsvik; Løset, Geir Åge; Vikse, Elisabeth; Fugger, Lars

    2016-01-01

    It has been difficult to translate promising results from DNA vaccination in mice to larger animals and humans. Previously, DNA vaccines encoding proteins that target Ag to MHC class II (MHC-II) molecules on APCs have been shown to induce rapid, enhanced, and long-lasting Ag-specific Ab titers in mice. In this study, we describe two novel DNA vaccines that as proteins target HLA class II (HLA-II) molecules. These vaccine proteins cross-react with MHC-II molecules in several species of larger mammals. When tested in ferrets and pigs, a single DNA delivery with low doses of the HLA-II–targeted vaccines resulted in rapid and increased Ab responses. Importantly, painless intradermal jet delivery of DNA was as effective as delivery by needle injection followed by electroporation. As an indication that the vaccines could also be useful for human application, HLA-II–targeted vaccine proteins were found to increase human CD4+ T cell responses by a factor of ×103 in vitro. Thus, targeting of Ag to MHC-II molecules may represent an attractive strategy for increasing efficacy of DNA vaccines in larger animals and humans. PMID:27671110

  4. 14 CFR 61.165 - Additional aircraft category and class ratings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRMEN CERTIFICATION: PILOTS, FLIGHT INSTRUCTORS, AND GROUND INSTRUCTORS Airline... helicopter class rating. A person applying for an airline transport certificate with a rotorcraft category and helicopter class rating who holds an airline transport pilot certificate with another...

  5. 14 CFR 61.165 - Additional aircraft category and class ratings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRMEN CERTIFICATION: PILOTS, FLIGHT INSTRUCTORS, AND GROUND INSTRUCTORS Airline... helicopter class rating. A person applying for an airline transport certificate with a rotorcraft category and helicopter class rating who holds an airline transport pilot certificate with another...

  6. 14 CFR 61.165 - Additional aircraft category and class ratings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRMEN CERTIFICATION: PILOTS, FLIGHT INSTRUCTORS, AND GROUND INSTRUCTORS Airline... helicopter class rating. A person applying for an airline transport certificate with a rotorcraft category and helicopter class rating who holds an airline transport pilot certificate with another...

  7. 14 CFR 61.165 - Additional aircraft category and class ratings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRMEN CERTIFICATION: PILOTS, FLIGHT INSTRUCTORS, AND GROUND INSTRUCTORS Airline... helicopter class rating. A person applying for an airline transport certificate with a rotorcraft category and helicopter class rating who holds an airline transport pilot certificate with another...

  8. Analysis of Class II human leucocyte antigens in Italian and Spanish systemic sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Rueda, Blanca; Marchini, Maurizio; Santaniello, Alessandro; Simeón, Carmen P.; Fonollosa, Vicente; Caronni, Monica; Rios-Fernandez, Raquel; Carreira, Patricia; Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Luis; Moreno, Antonia; López-Nevot, Miguel A.; Escalera, Ana; González-Escribano, Maria F.; Martin, Javier; Scorza, Raffaella

    2012-01-01

    Objective. To determine the role of Class II HLAs in SSc patients from Italy and Spain and in SSc patients of Caucasian ancestry. Methods. Nine hundred and forty-four SSc patients (Italy 392 patients; Spain 452 patients) and 1320 ethnically matched healthy controls (Italy 398 patients; Spain 922 patients) were genotyped up to the fourth digit by PCR with sequence-specific oligonucleotides for HLA-DRB1, DQA1 and DQB1 loci. Patients included 390 ACA-positive and 254 anti-topo I-positive subjects. Associations between SSc or SSc-specific antibodies and HLA alleles or HLA haplotypes were sought via the chi-square test after 10 000-fold permutation testing. A meta-analysis including this study cohort and other Caucasoids samples was also conducted. Results. In both the cohorts, the strongest association was observed between the HLA-DRB1*1104 allele and SSc or anti-topo I antibodies. The HLA-DRB1*1104 -DQA1*0501 -DQB1*0301 haplotype was overrepresented in Italian [odds ratio (OR) = 2.069, 95% asymptotic CIs (CI95) 1.486, 2.881; P < 0.001] and in Spanish patients (OR = 6.707, CI95 3.974, 11.319; P < 0.001) as well as in anti-topo-positive patients: Italy (OR = 2.642, CI95 1.78, 3.924; P < 0.001) and Spain (OR = 20.625, CI95 11.536, 36.876; P < 0.001). In both the populations we also identified an additional risk allele (HLA-DQB1*03) and a protective allele (HLA-DQB1*0501) in anti-topo-positive patients. The meta-analysis showed different statistically significant associations, the most interesting being the differential association between HLA-DRB1*01 alleles and ACAs (OR = 1.724, CI95 1.482, 2.005; P < 0.001) or topo I antibodies (OR = 0.5, CI95 0.384, 0.651; P < 0.001). Conclusions. We describe multiple robust associations between SSc and HLA Class II antigens in Caucasoids that may help to understand the genetic architecture of SSc. PMID:22087014

  9. 78 FR 21954 - Final Effect of Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Final Effect of Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure... notice concerning the final effect of the HHS decision to designate a class of employees from...

  10. 78 FR 70949 - Final Effect of Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Final Effect of Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure... notice concerning the final effect of the HHS decision to designate a class of employees from the...

  11. 77 FR 60437 - Final Effect of Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Final Effect of Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure... notice concerning the final effect of the HHS decision to designate a class of employees from the...

  12. 75 FR 3470 - Final Effect of Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Final Effect of Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure... notice concerning the final effect of the HHS decision to designate a class of employees at...

  13. 77 FR 38834 - Final Effect of Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Final Effect of Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure... notice concerning the final effect of the HHS decision to designate a class of employees from...

  14. 78 FR 3897 - Final Effect of Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Final Effect of Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure... notice concerning the final effect of the HHS decision to designate a class of employees from the...

  15. 75 FR 37812 - Final Effect of Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Final Effect of Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure... notice concerning the final effect of the HHS decision to designate a class of employees at the...

  16. 78 FR 21954 - Final Effect of Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Final Effect of Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure... notice concerning the final effect of the HHS decision to designate a class of employees from the...

  17. 77 FR 46438 - Final Effect of Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Final Effect of Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure... notice concerning the final effect of the HHS decision to designate a class of employees from the...

  18. 77 FR 15759 - Final Effect of Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Final Effect of Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure... notice concerning the final effect of the HHS decision to designate a class of employees from...

  19. 75 FR 3469 - Final Effect of Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Final Effect of Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure... notice concerning the final effect of the HHS decision to designate a class of employees at the...

  20. 78 FR 3898 - Final Effect of Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Final Effect of Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure... notice concerning the final effect of the HHS decision to designate a class of employees from Oak...

  1. 77 FR 60438 - Final Effect of Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Final Effect of Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure... notice concerning the final effect of the HHS decision to designate a class of employees from...

  2. 78 FR 3898 - Final Effect of Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Final Effect of Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure... notice concerning the final effect of the HHS decision to designate a class of employees from the...

  3. 78 FR 21955 - Final Effect of Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Final Effect of Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure... notice concerning the final effect of the HHS decision to designate a class of employees from the...

  4. 77 FR 69845 - Final Effect of Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Final Effect of Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure... notice concerning the final effect of the HHS decision to designate a class of employees from the...

  5. 40 CFR 144.21 - Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells. 144.21 Section 144.21 Protection of Environment... hydrocarbon storage) and III wells. (a) An existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon... decision; or (9) For Class II wells (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage), five years...

  6. 40 CFR 144.21 - Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells. 144.21 Section 144.21 Protection of Environment... hydrocarbon storage) and III wells. (a) An existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon... decision; or (9) For Class II wells (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage), five years...

  7. 40 CFR 144.21 - Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells. 144.21 Section 144.21 Protection of Environment... hydrocarbon storage) and III wells. (a) An existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon... decision; or (9) For Class II wells (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage), five years...

  8. 40 CFR 144.21 - Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells. 144.21 Section 144.21 Protection of Environment... hydrocarbon storage) and III wells. (a) An existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon... decision; or (9) For Class II wells (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage), five years...

  9. 40 CFR 144.21 - Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells. 144.21 Section 144.21 Protection of Environment... hydrocarbon storage) and III wells. (a) An existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon... decision; or (9) For Class II wells (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage), five years...

  10. 76 FR 6622 - Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Class II Special Controls Guidance...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-07

    ...; Class II Special Controls Guidance Document: Contact Cooling System for Aesthetic Use; Availability...: Contact Cooling System for Aesthetic Use.'' This guidance document describes a means by which contact... systems for aesthetic use into class II (special controls). The guidance document is immediately in...

  11. 76 FR 50436 - Class II Gaming Regulation Proposals Submitted by Poarch Band of Creek Indians on Behalf of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-15

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Indian Gaming Commission 25 CFR Chapter III Class II Gaming Regulation Proposals Submitted by Poarch Band of Creek Indians on Behalf of Tribal Gaming Working Group AGENCY... Gaming Commission (NIGC) is publishing for comment Class II Gaming Regulation Proposals submitted on...

  12. 77 FR 16123 - Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Class II Special Controls...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-19

    ... Guidance Document: Nucleic Acid-Based In Vitro Diagnostic Devices for the Detection of Mycobacterium...; Class II Special Controls Guidance Document: Nucleic Acid-Based In Vitro Diagnostic Devices for the... availability of a draft guidance entitled ``Class II Special Controls Guidance Document: Nucleic Acid-Based...

  13. 76 FR 28688 - Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Class II Special Controls...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-18

    ... Drug Administration Staff; Class II Special Controls Guidance Document: In Vitro Diagnostic Devices for... entitled ``Class II Special Controls Guidance Document: In Vitro Diagnostic Devices for Bacillus spp. Detection.'' This draft guidance document describes means by which in vitro diagnostic devices for...

  14. 25 CFR 547.8 - What are the minimum technical software standards applicable to Class II gaming systems?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... method such as an employee PIN and key or other auditable access control. (3) Accounting function data.... (l) Secured access. Class II gaming systems that use a logon or other means of secured access shall... applicable to Class II gaming systems? 547.8 Section 547.8 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING...

  15. 25 CFR 547.8 - What are the minimum technical software standards applicable to Class II gaming systems?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... method such as an employee PIN and key or other auditable access control. (3) Accounting function data.... (l) Secured access. Class II gaming systems that use a logon or other means of secured access shall... applicable to Class II gaming systems? 547.8 Section 547.8 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING...

  16. 25 CFR 547.12 - What are the minimum technical standards for downloading on a Class II gaming system?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... OF CLASS II GAMES § 547.12 What are the minimum technical standards for downloading on a Class II... software, files, data, and prize schedules. (2) Downloads of software, games, prize schedules, or other... performed in a manner that will not affect game play. (5) Downloads shall not affect the integrity...

  17. 25 CFR 547.12 - What are the minimum technical standards for downloading on a Class II gaming system?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... OF CLASS II GAMES § 547.12 What are the minimum technical standards for downloading on a Class II... software, files, data, and prize schedules. (2) Downloads of software, games, prize schedules, or other... performed in a manner that will not affect game play. (5) Downloads shall not affect the integrity...

  18. 25 CFR 547.12 - What are the minimum technical standards for downloading on a Class II gaming system?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... OF CLASS II GAMES § 547.12 What are the minimum technical standards for downloading on a Class II... software, files, data, and prize schedules. (2) Downloads of software, games, prize schedules, or other... performed in a manner that will not affect game play. (5) Downloads shall not affect the integrity...

  19. 25 CFR 547.7 - What are the minimum technical hardware standards applicable to Class II gaming systems?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... OF CLASS II GAMES § 547.7 What are the minimum technical hardware standards applicable to Class II... the game, and are specially manufactured or proprietary and not off-the-shelf, shall display a unique... outcome or integrity of any game, progressive award, financial instrument, cashless transaction,...

  20. 25 CFR 547.10 - What are the minimum standards for Class II gaming system critical events?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... are the minimum standards for Class II gaming system critical events? (a) Fault events. (1) The following are fault events that must be capable of being recorded by the Class II gaming system: Event Definition and action to be taken (i) Component fault Reported when a fault on a component is detected....

  1. Induction of tolerance against the arthritogenic antigen with type-II collagen peptide-linked soluble MHC class II molecules

    PubMed Central

    Park, Yoon-Kyung; Jung, Sundo; Park, Se-Ho

    2016-01-01

    In murine collagen-induced arthritis (CIA), self-reactive T cells can recognize peptide antigens derived from type-II collagen (CII). Activation of T cells is an important mediator of autoimmune diseases. Thus, T cells have become a focal point of study to treat autoimmune diseases. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of recombinant MHC class II molecules in the regulation of antigen-specific T cells by using a self peptide derived from CII (CII260-274; IAGFKGEQGPKGEPG) linked to mouseI-Aq in a murine CIA model. We found that recombinant I-Aq/CII260-274 molecules could be recognized by CII-specific T cells and inhibit the same T cells in vitro. Furthermore, the development of CIA in mice was successfully prevented by in vivo injection of recombinant I-Aq/CII260-274 molecules. Thus, treatment with recombinant soluble MHC class II molecules in complex with an immunodominant self-peptide might offer a potential therapeutic for chronic inflammation in autoimmune disease such as rheumatoid arthritis. [BMB Reports 2016; 49(6): 331-336 PMID:26779996

  2. The Microfloral Analysis of Secondary Caries Biofilm around Class I and Class II Composite and Amalgam Fillings

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Secondary caries is responsible for 60 percent of all replacement restorations in the typical dental practice. The diversity of the bacterial sources and the different types of filling materials could play a role in secondary caries. The aim of this study was to determine and compare the microbial spectrum of secondary caries biofilms around amalgam and composite resin restorations. Methods Clinical samples were collected from freshly extracted teeth diagnosed with clinical secondary caries. Samples were categorized into four groups according to the types of restoration materials and the classification of the cavity. Biofilms were harvested from the tooth-restoration interface using a dental explorer and after dilution were incubated on special agars. The bacteria were identified using the biochemical appraisal system. Statistical calculations were carried out using SPSS11.5 software to analyze the prevalence of the bacteria involved in secondary caries. Results Samples from a total of four groups were collected: two groups were collected from amalgam restorations, each had 21 samples from both Class I and Class II caries; and the other two groups were from composite resin restorations, each had 13 samples from both class I and class II caries. Our results showed: (1) Anaerobic species were dominant in both restoration materials. (2) In terms of the types of individual bacteria, no significant differences were found among the four groups according to the geometric mean of the detected bacteria (P > 0.05). However, there were significant differences among the detected bacteria within each group (P < 0.05). The composition of each bacterium had no statistical difference among the four groups (P > 0.05), but showed significant differences among the detected bacteria in each group (P < 0.05). (3) Among the four groups, there were no significant differences for the detection rate of each bacterium (P > 0.05), however, the detection rate of each bacterium

  3. Dentoskeletal Comparison of Changes Seen in Class II Cases Treated by Twin Block and Forsus

    PubMed Central

    Tarvade, Suchita Madhukar; Chaudhari, Charushila Vinay; Daokar, Sadashiv Gopinath; Biday, Suhas Shriram; Ramkrishna, Sheetal; Handa, Amit Satish

    2014-01-01

    Background: To evaluate skeletal and dentoalveolar effects of Forsus fatigue resistant devices (FRD) and twin-block (TB) appliance in Class II malocclusion cases. Materials and Methods: Twenty young adult patients (age 13-17 years, overjet 6-10 mm) with a Class II division 1 malocclusion were randomly divided into two groups: group I included 10 patients treated with TB, Group II included 10 patients treated with FRD. Dentoskeletal changes were analyzed on lateral cephalograms taken before (T1) and (T2) at the end of the treatment. Inter-group differences were evaluated with Wilcoxon signed rank test, and intra-group differences were assessed with Mann–Whitney test at the P < 0.05 level. Results: Both were useful in improving the esthetics. However, more AP skeletal changes were seen with TB appliances as compared with Forsus. Vertical skeletal measurements were increased after functional appliances. These results were more pronounced with Forsus appliance than TB. Increase in incisor mandibular plane angle was seen in both groups, but was found to be more pronounced with Forsus group. Similarly, extrusion of upper and lower molars and lower incisors was also seen in both groups. Conclusion: In this study we found TB to have more mandibular lengthening effect as compared to Forsus, and thus was found to be more effective in treatment of Class II cases. How to cite the article: Tarvade SM, Chaudhari CV, Daokar SG, Biday SS, Ramkrishna S, Handa AS. Dentoskeletal comparison of changes seen in class II cases treated by Twin Block and Forsus. J Int Oral Health 2014;6(3):27-31. PMID:25083029

  4. A Class of Asymmetric Gapped Hamiltonians on Quantum Spin Chains and its Characterization II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogata, Yoshiko

    2016-06-01

    We give a characterization of the class of gapped Hamiltonians introduced in Part I (Ogata, A class of asymmetric gapped Hamiltonians on quantum spin chains and its classification I, 2015). The Hamiltonians in this class are given as MPS (Matrix product state) Hamiltonians. In Ogata (A class of asymmetric gapped Hamiltonians on quantum spin chains and its classification I, 2015), we list up properties of ground state structures of Hamiltonians in this class. In this Part II, we show the converse. Namely, if a (not necessarily MPS) Hamiltonian H satisfies five of the listed properties, there is a Hamiltonian H' from the class by Ogata (A class of asymmetric gapped Hamiltonians on quantum spin chains and its classification I, 2015), satisfying the following: The ground state spaces of the two Hamiltonians on the infinite interval coincide. The spectral projections onto the ground state space of H on each finite intervals are approximated by that of H' exponentially well, with respect to the interval size. The latter property has an application to the classification problem with open boundary conditions.

  5. 76 FR 33762 - Final Effect of Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-09

    ... decision to designate a class of employees from the Wah Chang facility, Albany, Oregon, as an addition to... who worked in any building at the Wah Chang facility in Albany, Oregon, for the operational...

  6. Occurrence of classes I and II integrons in Enterobacteriaceae collected from Zagazig University Hospitals, Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Malek, Mai M.; Amer, Fatma A.; Allam, Ayman A.; El-Sokkary, Rehab H.; Gheith, Tarek; Arafa, Mohamed A.

    2015-01-01

    Integrons are genetic units characterized by the ability to capture and incorporate gene cassettes, thus can contribute to the emergence and transfer of antibiotic resistance. The objectives of this study were: (1) to investigate the presence and distribution of class I and class II integrons and the characteristics of the gene cassettes they carry in Enterobacteriaceae isolated from nosocomial infections at Zagzig University Hospital in Egypt, (2) to determine their impact on resistance, and (3) to identify risk factors for the existence of integrons. Relevant samples and full clinical history were collected from 118 inpatients. Samples were processed; isolated microbes were identified and tested for antibiotic susceptibilities. Integrons were detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and were characterized into class I or II by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). Integron-positive isolates were subjected to another PCR to detect gene cassette, followed by gene cassette sequencing. Risk factors were analyzed by logistic regression analysis. Seventy-six Enterobacteriaceae isolates were recognized, 41 of them (53.9%) were integron-positive; 39 strains carried class I and 2 strains carried class II integrons. Integrons had gene cassettes encoding different combinations and types of resistance determinants. Interestingly, blaOXA129 gene was found and ereA gene was carried on class I integrons. The same determinants were carried within isolates of the same species as well as isolates of different species. The presence of integrons was significantly associated with multidrug resistance (MDR). No risk factors were associated for integron carriage. We conclude that integrons carrying gene cassettes encoding antibiotic resistance are significantly present among Enterobacteriaceae causing nosocomial infection in our hospital. Risk factors for acquisition remain to be identified. PMID:26157425

  7. Computed Tomography Evaluation of Craniomandibular Articulation in Class II Division 1 Malocclusion and Class I Normal Occlusion Subjects in North Indian Population

    PubMed Central

    Prabhat, K. C.; Kumar Verma, Sanjeev; Maheshwari, Sandhya; Ahmad, Ibne; Tariq, Mohd.

    2012-01-01

    Objective. The purpose of this study is to investigate the Craniomandibular articulation morphology and position of condyle in mandibular fossae in Angle's class I normal occlusion and Angle's class II division 1 malocclusion. Materials and Methods. The present study was conducted on 40 subjects with 20 subjects in each group, and the computed tomography images were obtained using spiral computed tomography technique. Each measurement was compared by two-factor analysis of variance (ANOVA) while changes in anterior and posterior joint spaces were done by paired t-test. Results. Statistically significant anterior positioning of condyle (P > 0.05) was observed in class I normal malocclusion, and it was significant only on right side in class II division 1 malocclusion. Conclusions. There was no difference found in the condylar process and joint morphology between right and left sides of both Angle's Class I normal occlusion and Angle's class II division 1 malocclusion. Evaluation of the position of the condyles in their respective mandibular fossae showed concentric position with a tendency towards anterior positioning for both right and left sides of the subjects with Angle's Class I normal occlusion as well as subjects with Angle's class II division 1 malocclusion. PMID:22957261

  8. 49 CFR 1150.35 - Procedures and relevant dates-transactions that involve creation of Class I or Class II carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Procedures and relevant dates-transactions that involve creation of Class I or Class II carriers. 1150.35 Section 1150.35 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) SURFACE TRANSPORTATION BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES OF PRACTICE CERTIFICATE TO...

  9. 40 CFR Figure C-2 to Subpart C of... - Illustration of the Slope and Intercept Limits for Class II and Class III PM2.5 Candidate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Illustration of the Slope and Intercept Limits for Class II and Class III PM2.5 Candidate Equivalent Methods C Figure C-2 to Subpart C of Part 53... Methods and Reference Methods Pt. 53, Subpt. C, Fig. C-2 Figure C-2 to Subpart C of Part...

  10. 40 CFR Figure C-2 to Subpart C of... - Illustration of the Slope and Intercept Limits for Class II and Class III PM 2.5 Candidate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Illustration of the Slope and Intercept Limits for Class II and Class III PM 2.5 Candidate Equivalent Methods C Figure C-2 to Subpart C of Part... Candidate Methods and Reference Methods Pt. 53, Subpt. C, Fig. C-2 Figure C-2 to Subpart C of Part...

  11. 40 CFR Figure C-3 to Subpart C of... - Illustration of the Slope and Intercept Limits for Class II and Class III PM 10-2,5 Candidate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Illustration of the Slope and Intercept Limits for Class II and Class III PM 10-2,5 Candidate Equivalent Methods C Figure C-3 to Subpart C of... Candidate Methods and Reference Methods Pt. 53, Subpt. C, Fig. C-3 Figure C-3 to Subpart C of Part...

  12. 40 CFR Figure C-3 to Subpart C of... - Illustration of the Slope and Intercept Limits for Class II and Class III PM 10-2.5 Candidate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Illustration of the Slope and Intercept Limits for Class II and Class III PM 10-2.5 Candidate Equivalent Methods C Figure C-3 to Subpart C of... Candidate Methods and Reference Methods Pt. 53, Subpt. C, Fig. C-3 Figure C-3 to Subpart C of Part...

  13. 40 CFR Figure C-2 to Subpart C of... - Illustration of the Slope and Intercept Limits for Class II and Class III PM 2.5 Candidate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Illustration of the Slope and Intercept Limits for Class II and Class III PM 2.5 Candidate Equivalent Methods C Figure C-2 to Subpart C of Part... Candidate Methods and Reference Methods Pt. 53, Subpt. C, Fig. C-2 Figure C-2 to Subpart C of Part...

  14. 40 CFR Figure C-2 to Subpart C of... - Illustration of the Slope and Intercept Limits for Class II and Class III PM2.5 Candidate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Illustration of the Slope and Intercept Limits for Class II and Class III PM2.5 Candidate Equivalent Methods C Figure C-2 to Subpart C of Part 53... Methods and Reference Methods Pt. 53, Subpt. C, Fig. C-2 Figure C-2 to Subpart C of Part...

  15. 49 CFR 1150.35 - Procedures and relevant dates-transactions that involve creation of Class I or Class II carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Procedures and relevant dates-transactions that involve creation of Class I or Class II carriers. 1150.35 Section 1150.35 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) SURFACE TRANSPORTATION BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES OF PRACTICE CERTIFICATE TO...

  16. Cu(II) removal by Anoxybacillus flavithermus-iron oxide composites during the addition of Fe(II)aq

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franzblau, Rachel E.; Daughney, Christopher J.; Swedlund, Peter J.; Weisener, Christopher G.; Moreau, Magali; Johannessen, Bernt; Harmer, Sarah L.

    2016-01-01

    There is currently poor understanding of metal removal by composites of bacteria and iron oxide minerals, even though they commonly co-occur and are among the most important sorbents in near-surface fluid-rock environments. This study evaluated Cu removal by composites of Anoxybacillus flavithermus and iron oxide over time during the addition, oxidation, and hydrolysis of Fe(II)aq and precipitation of the mineral, in comparison to Cu removal in the two single-sorbent end-member systems. In the absence of iron oxide, Cu removal by A. flavithermus was well described by a previously published surface complexation model, after inclusion of additional reactions describing aqueous complexation by exudate ligands released by the bacteria. In the absence of bacterial cells, Cu removal by iron oxide synthesized in the presence of the bacterial exudate ligands demonstrated the formation of ternary surface complexes. Removal of Cu by the A. flavithermus-iron oxide composites was ca. 20% greater than the prediction based on assumption of additivity in the two end-member systems. This non-additive behavior was attributed to (1) progressive physical blockage of bacterial surface sites by the iron oxide particles, (2) physical blockage of adsorption sites as a result of self-aggregation of the iron oxide particles, and (3) the reduction of Cu(II) to Cu(I) at the bacterial cell surface, as demonstrated by X-ray absorption spectroscopy. The extent of reduction of Cu(II) to Cu(I) was proportional to the concentration of solid phase Fe(II), suggesting that iron oxidation and copper reduction are linked. This study has shown that Cu removal by bacteria-iron oxide composites is greatly affected by redox processes such as Cu(II) reduction on the cell surface both by other bacterial surface ligands and the oxidation of sorbed Fe(II), as well as Fe(II) redox interactions, and aging effects of the mineral (i.e. surface site masking).

  17. Topology of Type II REases revisited; structural classes and the common conserved core.

    PubMed

    Niv, Masha Y; Ripoll, Daniel R; Vila, Jorge A; Liwo, Adam; Vanamee, Eva S; Aggarwal, Aneel K; Weinstein, Harel; Scheraga, Harold A

    2007-01-01

    Type II restriction endonucleases (REases) are deoxyribonucleases that cleave DNA sequences with remarkable specificity. Type II REases are highly divergent in sequence as well as in topology, i.e. the connectivity of secondary structure elements. A widely held assumption is that a structural core of five beta-strands flanked by two alpha-helices is common to these enzymes. We introduce a systematic procedure to enumerate secondary structure elements in an unambiguous and reproducible way, and use it to analyze the currently available X-ray structures of Type II REases. Based on this analysis, we propose an alternative definition of the core, which we term the alphabetaalpha-core. The alphabetaalpha-core includes the most frequently observed secondary structure elements and is not a sandwich, as it consists of a five-strand beta-sheet and two alpha-helices on the same face of the beta-sheet. We use the alphabetaalpha-core connectivity as a basis for grouping the Type II REases into distinct structural classes. In these new structural classes, the connectivity correlates with the angles between the secondary structure elements and with the cleavage patterns of the REases. We show that there exists a substructure of the alphabetaalpha-core, namely a common conserved core, ccc, defined here as one alpha-helix and four beta-strands common to all Type II REase of known structure.

  18. The MHC class II ligand lymphocyte activation gene-3 is co-distributed with CD8 and CD3-TCR molecules after their engagement by mAb or peptide-MHC class I complexes.

    PubMed

    Hannier, S; Triebel, F

    1999-11-01

    Previous studies indicated that signaling through lymphocyte activation gene-3 (LAG-3), a MHC class II ligand, induced by multivalent anti-receptor antibodies led to unresponsiveness to TCR stimulation. Here, lateral distribution of the LAG-3 molecules and its topological relationship (mutual proximity) to the TCR, CD8, CD4, and MHC class I and II molecules were studied in the plasma membrane of activated human T cells in co-capping experiments and conventional fluorescence microscopy. Following TCR engagement by either TCR-specific mAb or MHC-peptide complex recognition in T-B cell conjugates, LAG-3 was found to be specifically associated with the CD3-TCR complex. Similarly, following CD8 engagement LAG-3 and CD8 were co-distributed on the cell surface while only a low percentage of CD4-capped cells displayed LAG-3 co-caps. In addition, LAG-3 was found to be associated with MHC class II (i.e. DR, DP and DQ) and partially with MHC class I molecules. The supramolecular assemblies described here between LAG-3, CD3, CD8 and MHC class II molecules may result from an organization in raft microdomains, a phenomenon known to regulate early events of T cell activation.

  19. Shared HLA Class II in Six Autoimmune Diseases in Latin America: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Cruz-Tapias, Paola; Pérez-Fernández, Oscar M.; Rojas-Villarraga, Adriana; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Alberto; Arango, María-Teresa; Anaya, Juan-Manuel

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence and genetic susceptibility of autoimmune diseases (ADs) may vary depending on latitudinal gradient and ethnicity. The aims of this study were to identify common human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II alleles that contribute to susceptibility to six ADs in Latin Americans through a meta-analysis and to review additional clinical, immunological, and genetic characteristics of those ADs sharing HLA alleles. DRB1∗03:01 (OR: 4.04; 95%CI: 1.41–11.53) was found to be a risk factor for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), Sjögren's syndrome (SS), and type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D). DRB1∗04:05 (OR: 4.64; 95%CI: 2.14–10.05) influences autoimmune hepatitis (AIH), rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and T1D; DRB1∗04:01 (OR: 3.86; 95%CI: 2.32–6.42) is a susceptibility factor for RA and T1D. Opposite associations were found between multiple sclerosis (MS) and T1D. DQB1∗06:02 and DRB1∗15 alleles were risk factors for MS but protective factors for T1D. Likewise, DQB1∗06:03 allele was a risk factor for AIH but a protective one for T1D. Several common autoantibodies and clinical associations as well as additional shared genes have been reported in these ADs, which are reviewed herein. These results indicate that in Latin Americans ADs share major loci and immune characteristics. PMID:22577522

  20. Ligation of MHC class I and class II molecules can lead to heterologous desensitization of signal transduction pathways that regulate homotypic adhesion in human lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Wagner, N; Engel, P; Vega, M; Tedder, T F

    1994-06-01

    Engagement of lymphocyte MHC class I and class II Ags activates an array of intracellular signal transduction pathways that up-regulates the activity of cell-surface adhesion receptors, resulting in homotypic cell-cell aggregation. In this study, engagement of MHC class I and class II molecules with specific mAbs was shown to also inhibit lymphocyte homotypic adhesion. Two mAbs reactive with class II Ag, homotypic adhesion blocking mAb (HAB)-2, and HAB-3, and one mAb reactive with class I Ag, HAB-4, were generated that inhibited homotypic adhesion of activated lymphocytes and B and T cell lines at concentrations as low as 0.1 microgram/ml. Binding of these mAbs resulted in heterologous desensitization of other surface signal transduction molecules as homotypic adhesion induced through class I, class II, CD19, CD20, CD39, CD40, Leu-13, and PMA was also inhibited. The spontaneous adhesion exhibited by some cell lines was also abrogated by binding of these mAbs. Abs that either induced, blocked, or had no effect on adhesion bound to distinct epitopes on class I, whereas the anti-class II mAbs recognized either distinct or overlapping epitopes. Thus, engagement of distinct epitopes on MHC molecules can result in homologous or heterologous desensitization of cell-surface signaling molecules. The induction or inhibition of homotypic adhesion through class I molecules did not require the presence of the cytoplasmic domain, as deletion of this portion of the class I molecule had no effect. In contrast, the transmembrane region was essential for signal transduction as the mAbs binding to a chimeric molecule in which the transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains of class I were exchanged with those of the HB15 molecule did not induce or inhibit homotypic adhesion. Although this report is the first demonstration that homotypic adhesion can be influenced in a negative manner through MHC molecules, these findings demonstrate a considerable level of cross-talk between MHC molecules

  1. Anti-coreceptor antibodies profoundly affect staining with peptide-MHC class I and class II tetramers.

    PubMed

    Wooldridge, Linda; Scriba, Thomas J; Milicic, Anita; Laugel, Bruno; Gostick, Emma; Price, David A; Phillips, Rodney E; Sewell, Andrew K

    2006-07-01

    The T cell coreceptors CD8 and CD4 bind to invariable regions of peptide-MHC class I (pMHCI) and class II (pMHCII) molecules, respectively, and facilitate antigen recognition by a number of mechanisms. It is established that some antibodies (Ab) specific for the CD8 molecule, which stabilizes TCR/pMHCI interactions, can alter the binding of pMHCI tetramers to cell surface TCR. In contrast, the extremely weak pMHCII/CD4 interaction does not stabilize TCR/pMHCII interactions or contribute to cognate tetramer binding; consequently, it is assumed that anti-CD4 Ab do not affect pMHCII binding. Here, we used a panel of point-mutated HLA A2 molecules with a range of affinities for CD8 spanning over three orders of magnitude to demonstrate that anti-CD8 Ab-mediated inhibition of pMHCI tetramer binding and cognate T cell activation correlates directly with the strength of the pMHCI/CD8 interaction. Further, some anti-CD4 Ab were found to block pMHCII tetramer binding; these effects were also paralleled in T cell activation assays. In sum, these data challenge the assertion that anti-coreceptor Ab exert their effects on T cell activation and pMHC binding solely by blocking pMHC/coreceptor interactions.

  2. Wild-Type Phosphoribosylpyrophosphate Synthase (PRS) from Mycobacterium tuberculosis: A Bacterial Class II PRS?

    PubMed Central

    Breda, Ardala; Martinelli, Leonardo K. B.; Bizarro, Cristiano V.; Rosado, Leonardo A.; Borges, Caroline B.; Santos, Diógenes S.; Basso, Luiz A.

    2012-01-01

    The 5-phospho-α-D-ribose 1-diphosphate (PRPP) metabolite plays essential roles in several biosynthetic pathways, including histidine, tryptophan, nucleotides, and, in mycobacteria, cell wall precursors. PRPP is synthesized from α-D-ribose 5-phosphate (R5P) and ATP by the Mycobacterium tuberculosis prsA gene product, phosphoribosylpyrophosphate synthase (MtPRS). Here, we report amplification, cloning, expression and purification of wild-type MtPRS. Glutaraldehyde cross-linking results suggest that MtPRS predominates as a hexamer, presenting varied oligomeric states due to distinct ligand binding. MtPRS activity measurements were carried out by a novel coupled continuous spectrophotometric assay. MtPRS enzyme activity could be detected in the absence of Pi. ADP, GDP and UMP inhibit MtPRS activity. Steady-state kinetics results indicate that MtPRS has broad substrate specificity, being able to accept ATP, GTP, CTP, and UTP as diphosphoryl group donors. Fluorescence spectroscopy data suggest that the enzyme mechanism for purine diphosphoryl donors follows a random order of substrate addition, and for pyrimidine diphosphoryl donors follows an ordered mechanism of substrate addition in which R5P binds first to free enzyme. An ordered mechanism for product dissociation is followed by MtPRS, in which PRPP is the first product to be released followed by the nucleoside monophosphate products to yield free enzyme for the next round of catalysis. The broad specificity for diphosphoryl group donors and detection of enzyme activity in the absence of Pi would suggest that MtPRS belongs to Class II PRS proteins. On the other hand, the hexameric quaternary structure and allosteric ADP inhibition would place MtPRS in Class I PRSs. Further data are needed to classify MtPRS as belonging to a particular family of PRS proteins. The data here presented should help augment our understanding of MtPRS mode of action. Current efforts are toward experimental structure determination of Mt

  3. Wild-type phosphoribosylpyrophosphate synthase (PRS) from Mycobacterium tuberculosis: a bacterial class II PRS?

    PubMed

    Breda, Ardala; Martinelli, Leonardo K B; Bizarro, Cristiano V; Rosado, Leonardo A; Borges, Caroline B; Santos, Diógenes S; Basso, Luiz A

    2012-01-01

    The 5-phospho-α-D-ribose 1-diphosphate (PRPP) metabolite plays essential roles in several biosynthetic pathways, including histidine, tryptophan, nucleotides, and, in mycobacteria, cell wall precursors. PRPP is synthesized from α-D-ribose 5-phosphate (R5P) and ATP by the Mycobacterium tuberculosis prsA gene product, phosphoribosylpyrophosphate synthase (MtPRS). Here, we report amplification, cloning, expression and purification of wild-type MtPRS. Glutaraldehyde cross-linking results suggest that MtPRS predominates as a hexamer, presenting varied oligomeric states due to distinct ligand binding. MtPRS activity measurements were carried out by a novel coupled continuous spectrophotometric assay. MtPRS enzyme activity could be detected in the absence of P(i). ADP, GDP and UMP inhibit MtPRS activity. Steady-state kinetics results indicate that MtPRS has broad substrate specificity, being able to accept ATP, GTP, CTP, and UTP as diphosphoryl group donors. Fluorescence spectroscopy data suggest that the enzyme mechanism for purine diphosphoryl donors follows a random order of substrate addition, and for pyrimidine diphosphoryl donors follows an ordered mechanism of substrate addition in which R5P binds first to free enzyme. An ordered mechanism for product dissociation is followed by MtPRS, in which PRPP is the first product to be released followed by the nucleoside monophosphate products to yield free enzyme for the next round of catalysis. The broad specificity for diphosphoryl group donors and detection of enzyme activity in the absence of P(i) would suggest that MtPRS belongs to Class II PRS proteins. On the other hand, the hexameric quaternary structure and allosteric ADP inhibition would place MtPRS in Class I PRSs. Further data are needed to classify MtPRS as belonging to a particular family of PRS proteins. The data here presented should help augment our understanding of MtPRS mode of action. Current efforts are toward experimental structure determination of

  4. The CALS Test Network MIL-D-28000 Class II reference drawing packet: Revision C

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-27

    This CALS Test Network MIL-D-28000 Class II Reference Drawing Packet contains the information needed to conduct tests of the engineering drawing subset, Class II, of the military specification MIL-D-28000 using IGES processors. The material is intended to demonstrate industry's and government's use of MIL-D-28000 in accordance with the CALS initiative. The CALS Test Network (CTN) is the organization tasked with demonstrating this digital data interchange among industry and government and will use this packet during CTN structured testing. The results derived from this testing will allow the CTN to suggest modifications to drafting techniques, CAD vendors' IGES processors, the IGES specification, and most importantly, the MIL-D-28000 military specification.

  5. Characterisation of four major histocompatibility complex class II genes of the koala (Phascolarctos cinereus).

    PubMed

    Lau, Quintin; Jobbins, Sarah E; Belov, Katherine; Higgins, Damien P

    2013-01-01

    Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules have an integral role in the adaptive immune response, as they bind and present antigenic peptides to T helper lymphocytes. In this study of koalas, species-specific primers were designed to amplify exon 2 of the MHC class II DA and DB genes, which contain much of the peptide-binding regions of the α and β chains. A total of two DA α1 domain variants and eight DA β1 (DAB), three DB α1 and five DB β1 variants were amplified from 20 koalas from two free-living populations from South East Queensland and the Port Macquarie region in northern New South Wales. We detected greater variation in the β1 than in the α1 domains as well as evidence of positive selection in DAB. The present study provides a springboard to future investigation of the role of MHC in disease susceptibility in koalas.

  6. Long-term surgical versus functional Class II correction: a comparison of identical twins.

    PubMed

    Chhibber, Aditya; Upadhyay, Madhur; Uribe, Flavio; Nanda, Ravindra

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this twin case comparison was to assess the short- and long-term effects of nonsurgical treatment vs orthognathic surgical treatment for Class II correction. Two identical twins (age 13 years 3 months) were treated for Class II correction where one patient was treated nonsurgically using a fixed functional appliance, while the other was treated using orthognathic mandibular advancement surgery. The patients were recalled and evaluated 5 years in retention. Comparing changes in the short and long term, surgical treatment led to superior skeletal results compared to the nonsurgical twin. However, the soft tissue profile was remarkably similar for both patients suggesting that soft tissue profile changes may not necessarily follow similar changes in the bony skeletal structures. PMID:25075777

  7. Isolation and characterization of major histocompatibility complex class II B genes in cranes.

    PubMed

    Kohyama, Tetsuo I; Akiyama, Takuya; Nishida, Chizuko; Takami, Kazutoshi; Onuma, Manabu; Momose, Kunikazu; Masuda, Ryuichi

    2015-11-01

    In this study, we isolated and characterized the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II B genes in cranes. Genomic sequences spanning exons 1 to 4 were amplified and determined in 13 crane species and three other species closely related to cranes. In all, 55 unique sequences were identified, and at least two polymorphic MHC class II B loci were found in most species. An analysis of sequence polymorphisms showed the signature of positive selection and recombination. A phylogenetic reconstruction based on exon 2 sequences indicated that trans-species polymorphism has persisted for at least 10 million years, whereas phylogenetic analyses of the sequences flanking exon 2 revealed a pattern of concerted evolution. These results suggest that both balancing selection and recombination play important roles in the crane MHC evolution. PMID:26452363

  8. Efficacy of MTA and CEM Cement with Collagen Membranes for Treatment of Class II Furcation Defects

    PubMed Central

    Ghanbari, Habib Ollah; Taheri, Morteza; Abolfazli, Salman; Asgary, Saeed; Gharechahi, Maryam

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: This study aimed to compare the efficacy of MTA and CEM cement in Class II furcation defects in human mandibular molars. Materials and Methods: Forty furcation defects were treated in 16 patients with chronic periodontitis. The clinical parameters of probing depth (PD), vertical and horizontal clinical attachment levels (VCAL and HCAL), open vertical and horizontal furcation depths (OVFD and OHFD), and gingival margin level (GML) were measured at baseline and at 3- and 6-month (re-entry surgery) postoperatively. Data were analyzed at a significance level of P<0.05. Results: Use of MTA and CEM caused significant decreases in PD, VCAL, HCAL, OVFD and OHFD at re-entry, with no statistically significant differences between the two treatment options in soft and hard tissue parameters. Conclusion: Both treatment modalities caused significant gains in attachment levels and bone fills, proving efficacy for treatment of Class II furcation involvements. PMID:25628670

  9. Drug carrier systems for solubility enhancement of BCS class II drugs: a critical review.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sumit; Bhargava, Deepak; Thakkar, Arti; Arora, Saahil

    2013-01-01

    Poor aqueous solubility impedes a drug's bioavailability and challenges its pharmaceutical development. Pharmaceutical development of drugs with poor water solubility requires the establishment of a suitable formulation layout among various techniques. Various approaches have been investigated extensively to improve the aqueous solubility and poor dissolution rate of BCS class II and IV drugs. In this literature review, novel formulation options, particularly for class II drugs designed for applications such as micronization, self-emulsification, cyclodextrin complexation, co-crystallisation, super critical fluid technology, solubilisation by change in pH, salt formation, co-solvents, melt granulation, and solid dispersion, liposomal/niosomal formulations, are discussed in detail to introduce biopharmaceutical challenges and recent approaches to facilitate more efficient drug formulation and development. PMID:23614647

  10. Early treatment outcomes of class II malocclusion with twin-block facial profile and cephalometric changes

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Mousumi Goswami; Vashisth, Pallavi; Chaudhary, Seema; Sinha, Ashish

    2012-01-01

    Esthetic improvement is highly valued by patients seeking orthodontic treatment. Subjects with a class II malocclusion are a good example of patients who seek treatment primarily for esthetic improvement. A young growing child with convex profile due to a small, retropositioned mandible, normal midface and lower tip trap is more suitable for functional appliance treatment. Functional appliances encourage adaptive skeletal growth by maintaining the mandible in a corrected forward position for a sufficient period of time to allow adaptive skeletal changes to occur in response to a functional stimulus. The aim of this article is to describe two cases of class II malocclusion in late mixed dentition period treated with twin-block. The cephalometric and facial profile changes have been discussed PMID:25756036

  11. 77 FR 58382 - Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-20

    ... designate a class of employees from Winchester Engineering and Analytical Center in Winchester... Analytical Center in Winchester, Massachusetts, from January 1, 1952, through December 31, 1961, for a...

  12. Species specificity and augmentation of responses to class II major histocompatibility complex molecules in human CD4 transgenic mice

    PubMed Central

    1992-01-01

    Murine T cell responses to human class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules were shown to be a minimum of 20-70-fold lower than responses to allogeneic molecules. Transgenic mice expressing slightly below normal (75-95%) or very high (250-380%) cell surface levels of human CD4 were utilized to determine whether this was due to a species-specific interaction between murine CD4 and class II molecules. Human CD4 was shown to function in signal transduction events in murine T cells based on the ability of anti-human CD4 antibody to synergize with suboptimal doses of anti-murine CD3 antibody in stimulating T cell proliferation. In mice expressing lower levels of human CD4, T cell responses to human class II molecules were enhanced up to threefold, whereas allogeneic responses were unaltered. In mice expressing high levels of human CD4, responses to human class II molecules were enhanced at least 10-fold, whereas allogeneic responses were between one and three times the level of normal responses. The relatively greater enhancement of the response to human class II molecules in both lines argues for a preferential interaction between human CD4 and human class II molecules. In mice expressing lower levels of human CD4, responses to human class II molecules were blocked by antibodies to CD4 of either species, indicating participation by both molecules. In mice expressing high levels of human CD4, responses to both human and murine class II molecules were almost completely blocked with anti-human CD4 antibody, whereas anti-murine CD4 antibody had no effect. However, anti-murine CD4 continued to synergize with anti-CD3 in stimulating T cell proliferation in these mice. Thus, overexpression of human CD4 selectively impaired the ability of murine CD4 to assist in the process of antigen recognition. The ability of human CD4 to support a strong allogeneic response under these conditions indicates that this molecule can interact with murine class II molecules to a

  13. Anteroposterior and vertical changes in skeletal class II patients treated with modified Thurow appliance.

    PubMed

    Pithon, Matheus Melo; dos Santos, Rogério Lacerda; Sampaio, Gêisa Aiane de Morais; de Meneses, Izaura Helena Chaves; Coqueiro, Raildo Silva

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the post-treatment anteroposterior and vertical alterations in skeletal Class II malocclusion with different maxillary patterns in patients treated with modified Thurow appliance. Forty-five patients (22 girls and 23 boys) with skeletal Class II and angle SN.GoGn ≤ 35 and different maxillary patterns (n = 15), as follows: retrusive (SNA<80°), normal (SNA = 80°- 84°) or protrusive (SNA>84°) maxilla; mean age 9 years at pre-treatment (T1) and 9 years and 10 months at post-treatment (T2), were treated with modified Thurow cervical traction appliance, with expander screw and extraoral face bow with 10° to 20° fold in relation to the intraoral arch. Force of 500 gf was applied and use for 12 to 14 h/day, with fortnightly adjustments. Analysis of variance ANOVA followed by post-hoc Tukey and Kruskal-Wallis test, followed by Mann-Whitney were used (α = 5%). In changes obtained from stage T1 to T2, no statistically significant differences were found among the groups Protrusive, normal and retrusive maxilla for the variables SNB, SN.GoGn, 1.NA, overjet, overbite and Class II discrepancy (right and left) (p>0.05). Angular measurements SNA and ANB in the protrusive maxilla group were significantly greater than in the normal and retrusive maxilla groups (p<0.01). However, in the normal maxilla group these values did not differ significantly from those of the retrusive maxilla group (p>0.05). Within the limits of this study, it may be concluded that the modified Thurow cervical traction appliance was efficient for the correction of skeletal Class II irrespective of the maxillary pattern. The mandible had no significant rotation during treatment.

  14. Anteroposterior and vertical changes in skeletal class II patients treated with modified Thurow appliance.

    PubMed

    Pithon, Matheus Melo; dos Santos, Rogério Lacerda; Sampaio, Gêisa Aiane de Morais; de Meneses, Izaura Helena Chaves; Coqueiro, Raildo Silva

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the post-treatment anteroposterior and vertical alterations in skeletal Class II malocclusion with different maxillary patterns in patients treated with modified Thurow appliance. Forty-five patients (22 girls and 23 boys) with skeletal Class II and angle SN.GoGn ≤ 35 and different maxillary patterns (n = 15), as follows: retrusive (SNA<80°), normal (SNA = 80°- 84°) or protrusive (SNA>84°) maxilla; mean age 9 years at pre-treatment (T1) and 9 years and 10 months at post-treatment (T2), were treated with modified Thurow cervical traction appliance, with expander screw and extraoral face bow with 10° to 20° fold in relation to the intraoral arch. Force of 500 gf was applied and use for 12 to 14 h/day, with fortnightly adjustments. Analysis of variance ANOVA followed by post-hoc Tukey and Kruskal-Wallis test, followed by Mann-Whitney were used (α = 5%). In changes obtained from stage T1 to T2, no statistically significant differences were found among the groups Protrusive, normal and retrusive maxilla for the variables SNB, SN.GoGn, 1.NA, overjet, overbite and Class II discrepancy (right and left) (p>0.05). Angular measurements SNA and ANB in the protrusive maxilla group were significantly greater than in the normal and retrusive maxilla groups (p<0.01). However, in the normal maxilla group these values did not differ significantly from those of the retrusive maxilla group (p>0.05). Within the limits of this study, it may be concluded that the modified Thurow cervical traction appliance was efficient for the correction of skeletal Class II irrespective of the maxillary pattern. The mandible had no significant rotation during treatment. PMID:25140724

  15. Class II, Division 1 Angle malocclusion with severe proclination of maxillary incisors.

    PubMed

    Montanha, Kátia

    2016-01-01

    Protrusion of maxillary incisors is a common complaint among patients seeking orthodontic treatment. This report addresses the correction of Class II Angle malocclusion with excessively bucally proclined maxillary incisors, in an adolescent female patient, through the use of extraoral and fixed appliances. This case was presented to the Brazilian Board of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics (BBO) as part of the requirements for obtaining the title of certified by the BBO. PMID:27007768

  16. Duplicating the form and function of posterior teeth with Class II resin-based composite.

    PubMed

    Christensen, John Juel

    2012-01-01

    The most common material used to fill Class II restorations in posterior teeth is resin-based composite (RBC). Despite the popularity of RBC restorations, there are challenges to placing them properly. Improperly shaped restorations with sharp edges and corners will chip and fracture, resulting in premature failure. Properly placed RBC restorations will duplicate the embrasures, contact area, marginal ridge, and occlusal fossa of natural teeth. RBC restorations should mimic the smooth and rounded contours of the natural dentition to ensure longevity.

  17. Unilateral Maxillary First Molar Extraction in Class II Subdivision: An Unconventional Treatment Alternative

    PubMed Central

    Booij, J. W.; Livas, Christos

    2016-01-01

    The asymmetrical intra-arch relationship in Class II subdivision malocclusion poses challenges in the treatment planning and mechanotherapy of such cases. This case report demonstrates a treatment technique engaging unilateral extraction of a maxillary first molar and Begg fixed appliances. The outcome stability and the enhancing effect on the eruption of the third molar in the extraction segment were confirmed by a 4-year follow-up examination. PMID:27200194

  18. Treatment of a Class II division 1 anterior open bite malocclusion.

    PubMed

    Ong, H B

    2001-06-01

    A case report of an 11-year-old Caucasian female who presented with a Class II div I anterior open bite malocclusion. Overjet is 6 mm and the anterior open bite 2 mm. There was a history of digit sucking till she was eight years old. She was successfully treated by non-extraction with pre-adjusted Edgewise appliances and high-pull headgear for a period of 27 months.

  19. MHC Class II Binding Prediction—A Little Help from a Friend

    PubMed Central

    Dimitrov, Ivan; Garnev, Panayot; Flower, Darren R.; Doytchinova, Irini

    2010-01-01

    Vaccines are the greatest single instrument of prophylaxis against infectious diseases, with immeasurable benefits to human wellbeing. The accurate and reliable prediction of peptide-MHC binding is fundamental to the robust identification of T-cell epitopes and thus the successful design of peptide- and protein-based vaccines. The prediction of MHC class II peptide binding has hitherto proved recalcitrant and refractory. Here we illustrate the utility of existing computational tools for in silico prediction of peptides binding to class II MHCs. Most of the methods, tested in the present study, detect more than the half of the true binders in the top 5% of all possible nonamers generated from one protein. This number increases in the top 10% and 15% and then does not change significantly. For the top 15% the identified binders approach 86%. In terms of lab work this means 85% less expenditure on materials, labour and time. We show that while existing caveats are well founded, nonetheless use of computational models of class II binding can still offer viable help to the work of the immunologist and vaccinologist. PMID:20508817

  20. Pulse-chase analysis for studies of MHC class II biosynthesis, maturation, and peptide loading

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Tieying; Rinderknecht, Cornelia H; Hadjinicolaou, Andreas V; Busch, Robert; Mellins, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Pulse-chase analysis is a commonly used technique for studying the synthesis, processing and transport of proteins. Cultured cells expressing proteins of interest are allowed to take up radioactively labeled amino acids for a brief interval (“pulse”), during which all newly synthesized proteins incorporate the label. The cells are then returned to non-radioactive culture medium for various times (“chase”), during which proteins may undergo conformational changes, trafficking, or degradation. Proteins of interest are isolated (usually by immunoprecipitation) and resolved by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), and the fate of radiolabeled molecules is examined by autoradiography. This chapter describes a pulse-chase protocol suitable for studies of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II biosynthesis and maturation. We discuss how results are affected by the recognition by certain anti-class II antibodies of distinct class II conformations associated with particular biosynthetic states. Our protocol can be adapted to follow the fate of many other endogenously synthesized proteins, including viral or transfected gene products, in cultured cells. PMID:23329504

  1. Contact sensitizers specifically increase MHC class II expression on murine immature dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Herouet, C; Cottin, M; LeClaire, J; Enk, A; Rousset, F

    2000-01-01

    Contact sensitivity is a T-cell-mediated immune disease that can occur when low-molecular-weight chemicals penetrate the skin. In vivo topical application of chemical sensitizers results in morphological modification of Langerhans cells (LC). Moreover, within 18 h, LC increase their major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II antigens expression and migrate to lymph nodes where they present the sensitizer to T lymphocytes. We wanted to determine if such an effect could also be observed in vitro. However, because of the high genetic diversity encountered in humans, assays were performed with dendritic cells (DC) obtained from a Balb/c mouse strain. The capacity of a strong sensitizer, DNBS (2,4-dinitrobenzene sulfonic acid), to modulate the phenotype of bone marrow-derived DC in vitro, was investigated. A specific and marked increase of MHC class II molecules expression was observed within 18 h. To eliminate the use of animals in sensitization studies, the XS52 DC line was tested at an immature stage. A 30-min contact with the strong sensitizers DNBS and oxazolone, or the moderate mercaptobenzothiazole, resulted in upregulation of MHC class II molecules expression, analyzed after 18-h incubation. This effect was not observed with irritants (dimethyl sulfoxide and sodium lauryl sulfate) nor with a neutral molecule (sodium chloride). These data suggested the possibility of developing an in vitro model for the identification of the sensitizing potential of chemicals, using a constant and non animal-consuming material.

  2. HLA class II allele and haplotype frequencies in Ethiopian Amhara and Oromo populations.

    PubMed

    Fort, M; de Stefano, G F; Cambon-Thomsen, A; Giraldo-Alvarez, P; Dugoujon, J M; Ohayon, E; Scano, G; Abbal, M

    1998-04-01

    HLA class II alleles were identified in 181 healthy unrelated Ethiopian children of both sexes and in 350 European controls from the South of France. The Ethiopian individuals belonged to the two major ethnic groups of the country: Oromo (N=83) and Amhara (N=98). In both panels, genetic polymorphism of HLA class II alleles was analysed for the first time by molecular typing of DRB1, DQA1 and DQB1 loci. Allelic and phenotypic frequencies were compared with those of European controls and other African populations. Construction of HLA class II three-locus haplotypes was also performed. The study revealed some differences between the two groups. Characteristic features of Central and North African populations appeared on the Ethiopian HLA genotypes. Surprisingly, DRB1*11 presented one of the lowest gene frequencies in both Ethiopian ethnic groups in contrast to Europeans and West Africans. Furthermore, this decrease was more marked than those observed using serological techniques in other geographically close East African countries. Oromo and Amhara only showed minor differences in spite of their different origins and histories. One significant difference consisted of a lower DRB1*01 gene frequency in Oromo as reported in most West African people. Some new or rare haplotypes were also observed in the Oromo group. Our results underline the distinctive features of the Ethiopian populations among the few HLA genotyping data available for East African groups and emphasise the major interest of such investigations in this region of Africa.

  3. Management of a growing Skeletal Class II Patient: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Narendra Shriram

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Sagittal and transverse discrepancies often coexist in skeletal class II malocclusions. Orthopedic growth modification can work well in such cases, provided that the remaining pubertal growth is adequate and that the clinician can provide timely treatment to coincide with the peak growth period. The transverse discrepancy is generally corrected first, establishing a proper base for the sagittal correction to follow. For example, in a skeletal class II case with a narrow maxillary arch and retrusive mandible, maxillary expansion is performed initially to facilitate functional mandibular advancement. The present article illustrates an exception to this rule, in a case where sagittal correction was undertaken before transverse correction to make optimal use of the patient's pubertal growth spurt in first phase followed by a second phase of fixed appliance therapy during adolescence to achieve optimal results. How to cite this article: Sharma NS. Management of a growing Skeletal Class II Patient: A Case Report. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2013;6(1):48-54. PMID:25206189

  4. Stress-induced alterations in interferon production and class II histocompatibility antigen expression

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonnenfeld, G.; Cunnick, J. E.; Armfield, A. V.; Wood, P. G.; Rabin, B. S.

    1992-01-01

    Mild electric foot-shock has been shown to be a stressor that can alter immune responses. Male Lewis rats were exposed to one session of 16 5.0-s 1.6-mA foot-shocks. Production of interferon-gamma by splenocytes in response to concanavalin-A was decreased in spleens from the shocked rats compared to control spleens. Spleen cells from rats treated with nadolol, a peripherally acting beta-adrenergic receptor antagonist, and then shocked, showed dose-dependent attenuation of the suppression of interferon-gamma production. This suggests that catecholamines mediate shock-induced suppression of interferon-gamma production. The percentage of splenic mononuclear cells expressing class II histocompatibility (Ia) antigens on their surfaces from spleens of shocked rats was determined by flow cytometry. Significantly decreased class II positive mononuclear cells were present in the spleens of shocked rats in comparison to the spleens of control rats. This may reflect an alteration of cell trafficking or decreased production of class II antigens.

  5. Engineering an intracellular pathway for major histocompatibility complex class II presentation of antigens.

    PubMed Central

    Wu, T C; Guarnieri, F G; Staveley-O'Carroll, K F; Viscidi, R P; Levitsky, H I; Hedrick, L; Cho, K R; August, J T; Pardoll, D M

    1995-01-01

    The presentation of antigenic peptides by major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules to CD4+ T cells is critical to the function of the immune system. In this study, we have utilized the sorting signal of the lysosomal-associated membrane protein LAMP-1 to target a model antigen, human papillomavirus 16 E7 (HPV-16 E7), into the endosomal and lysosomal compartments. The LAMP-1 sorting signal reroutes the antigen into the MHC class II processing pathway, resulting in enhanced presentation to CD4+ cells in vitro. In vivo immunization experiments in mice demonstrated that vaccinia containing the chimeric E7/LAMP-1 gene generated greater E7-specific lymphoproliferative activity, antibody titers, and cytotoxic T-lymphocyte activities than vaccinia containing the wild-type HPV-16 E7 gene. These results suggest that specific targeting of an antigen to the endosomal and lysosomal compartments enhances MHC class II presentation and vaccine potency. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:8524826

  6. Temporal characterization of petawatt class laser at Shen Guang II facility.

    PubMed

    Ouyang, Xiaoping; Cui, Yong; Zhu, Jian; Zhu, Baoqiang; Zhu, Jianqiang

    2016-09-20

    Temporal characterization is important to diagnose and measure a petawatt (PW) class laser. We obtained the V curve of the pulse width versus the grating position using pulse width measurement with a mirror image configuration. The temporal range for pulse width was 18 ps with a resolution of 0.05 ps. We measured the pulse contrast between the -60  ps and -6  ps PW class laser within a single shot in the Shen Guang II facility. We measured the pulse contrast between the -91  ps and -60  ps PW class laser after expanding the temporal range. The temporal range was 70 ps, with a dynamic range of eight orders of magnitude. PMID:27661580

  7. Class I HDACs regulate angiotensin II-dependent cardiac fibrosis via fibroblasts and circulating fibrocytes.

    PubMed

    Williams, Sarah M; Golden-Mason, Lucy; Ferguson, Bradley S; Schuetze, Katherine B; Cavasin, Maria A; Demos-Davies, Kim; Yeager, Michael E; Stenmark, Kurt R; McKinsey, Timothy A

    2014-02-01

    Fibrosis, which is defined as excessive accumulation of fibrous connective tissue, contributes to the pathogenesis of numerous diseases involving diverse organ systems. Cardiac fibrosis predisposes individuals to myocardial ischemia, arrhythmias and sudden death, and is commonly associated with diastolic dysfunction. Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors block cardiac fibrosis in pre-clinical models of heart failure. However, which HDAC isoforms govern cardiac fibrosis, and the mechanisms by which they do so, remains unclear. Here, we show that selective inhibition of class I HDACs potently suppresses angiotensin II (Ang II)-mediated cardiac fibrosis by targeting two key effector cell populations, cardiac fibroblasts and bone marrow-derived fibrocytes. Class I HDAC inhibition blocks cardiac fibroblast cell cycle progression through derepression of the genes encoding the cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitors, p15 and p57. In contrast, class I HDAC inhibitors block agonist-dependent differentiation of fibrocytes through a mechanism involving repression of ERK1/2 signaling. These findings define novel roles for class I HDACs in the control of pathological cardiac fibrosis. Furthermore, since fibrocytes have been implicated in the pathogenesis of a variety of human diseases, including heart, lung and kidney failure, our results suggest broad utility for isoform-selective HDAC inhibitors as anti-fibrotic agents that function, in part, by targeting these circulating mesenchymal cells.

  8. Human class II (pi) alcohol dehydrogenase has a redox-specific function in norepinephrine metabolism.

    PubMed Central

    Mårdh, G; Dingley, A L; Auld, D S; Vallee, B L

    1986-01-01

    Studies of the function of human alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) have revealed substrates that are virtually unique for class II ADH (pi ADH). It catalyzes the formation of the intermediary glycols of norepinephrine metabolism, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylglycol and 4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenylglycol, from the corresponding aldehydes 3,4-dihydroxymandelaldehyde and 4-hydroxy-3-methoxymandelaldehyde with Km values of 55 and 120 microM and kcat/Km ratios of 14,000 and 17,000 mM-1 X min-1; these are from 60- to 210-fold higher than those obtained with class I ADH isozymes. The catalytic preference of class II ADH also extends to benzaldehydes. The kcat/Km values for the reduction of benzaldehyde, 3,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde and 4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzaldehyde by pi ADH are from 9- to 29-fold higher than those for a class I isozyme, beta 1 gamma 2 ADH. Furthermore, the norepinephrine aldehydes are potent inhibitors of alcohol (ethanol) oxidation by pi ADH. The high catalytic activity of pi ADH-catalyzed reduction of the aldehydes in combination with a possible regulatory function of the aldehydes in the oxidative direction leads to essentially "unidirectional" catalysis by pi ADH. These features and the presence of pi ADH in human liver imply a physiological role for pi ADH in the degradation of circulating epinephrine and norepinephrine. PMID:3466164

  9. HLA Class I and II study in a mestizo family with high incidence of autoimmune disease.

    PubMed

    de Sorrentino, Alicia Habegger; Young, Marcela; Marinic, Karina; Motta, Patricia Fabiana; Baruzzo, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    There are many factors that influence the pathogenesis of autoimmune disease of which host genetic factors play an important role. The aim of this study was to investigate the HLA Class I and II genes in a family with a high incidence of AID to establish whether they contribute to the development of these disease. Four of them had been diagnosed with SLE and one with AHA. The patients with SLE showed the presence of HLA-A*02 B*40 DRB1*04:07 DQB1*03:02 haplotype with a high statistical significance. This haplotype was not present in the healthy individuals and in the patient with AHA, although the DRB1*04:07 DQB1*03:02 haplotype (carried by both parents) was found in the AHA patients and one of the healthy individuals. We must consider how HLA Class I in linkage disequilibrium with HLA Class II may be involved in susceptibility or in the development of SLE. An extensive study in this population should be conducted to establish the true participation of the HLA Class I region.

  10. 77 FR 76490 - Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-28

    ... designate a class of employees from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (X-10) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, as an... Program Act of 2000. On December 7, 2012, the Secretary of HHS designated the following class of employees... their contractors and subcontractors who worked in any area at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory...

  11. Susceptibility of amphibians to chytridiomycosis is associated with MHC class II conformation

    PubMed Central

    Bataille, Arnaud; Cashins, Scott D.; Grogan, Laura; Skerratt, Lee F.; Hunter, David; McFadden, Michael; Scheele, Benjamin; Brannelly, Laura A.; Macris, Amy; Harlow, Peter S.; Bell, Sara; Berger, Lee; Waldman, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    The pathogenic chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) can cause precipitous population declines in its amphibian hosts. Responses of individuals to infection vary greatly with the capacity of their immune system to respond to the pathogen. We used a combination of comparative and experimental approaches to identify major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC-II) alleles encoding molecules that foster the survival of Bd-infected amphibians. We found that Bd-resistant amphibians across four continents share common amino acids in three binding pockets of the MHC-II antigen-binding groove. Moreover, strong signals of selection acting on these specific sites were evident among all species co-existing with the pathogen. In the laboratory, we experimentally inoculated Australian tree frogs with Bd to test how each binding pocket conformation influences disease resistance. Only the conformation of MHC-II pocket 9 of surviving subjects matched those of Bd-resistant species. This MHC-II conformation thus may determine amphibian resistance to Bd, although other MHC-II binding pockets also may contribute to resistance. Rescuing amphibian biodiversity will depend on our understanding of amphibian immune defence mechanisms against Bd. The identification of adaptive genetic markers for Bd resistance represents an important step forward towards that goal. PMID:25808889

  12. Susceptibility of amphibians to chytridiomycosis is associated with MHC class II conformation.

    PubMed

    Bataille, Arnaud; Cashins, Scott D; Grogan, Laura; Skerratt, Lee F; Hunter, David; McFadden, Michael; Scheele, Benjamin; Brannelly, Laura A; Macris, Amy; Harlow, Peter S; Bell, Sara; Berger, Lee; Waldman, Bruce

    2015-04-22

    The pathogenic chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) can cause precipitous population declines in its amphibian hosts. Responses of individuals to infection vary greatly with the capacity of their immune system to respond to the pathogen. We used a combination of comparative and experimental approaches to identify major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC-II) alleles encoding molecules that foster the survival of Bd-infected amphibians. We found that Bd-resistant amphibians across four continents share common amino acids in three binding pockets of the MHC-II antigen-binding groove. Moreover, strong signals of selection acting on these specific sites were evident among all species co-existing with the pathogen. In the laboratory, we experimentally inoculated Australian tree frogs with Bd to test how each binding pocket conformation influences disease resistance. Only the conformation of MHC-II pocket 9 of surviving subjects matched those of Bd-resistant species. This MHC-II conformation thus may determine amphibian resistance to Bd, although other MHC-II binding pockets also may contribute to resistance. Rescuing amphibian biodiversity will depend on our understanding of amphibian immune defence mechanisms against Bd. The identification of adaptive genetic markers for Bd resistance represents an important step forward towards that goal. PMID:25808889

  13. Susceptibility of amphibians to chytridiomycosis is associated with MHC class II conformation.

    PubMed

    Bataille, Arnaud; Cashins, Scott D; Grogan, Laura; Skerratt, Lee F; Hunter, David; McFadden, Michael; Scheele, Benjamin; Brannelly, Laura A; Macris, Amy; Harlow, Peter S; Bell, Sara; Berger, Lee; Waldman, Bruce

    2015-04-22

    The pathogenic chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) can cause precipitous population declines in its amphibian hosts. Responses of individuals to infection vary greatly with the capacity of their immune system to respond to the pathogen. We used a combination of comparative and experimental approaches to identify major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC-II) alleles encoding molecules that foster the survival of Bd-infected amphibians. We found that Bd-resistant amphibians across four continents share common amino acids in three binding pockets of the MHC-II antigen-binding groove. Moreover, strong signals of selection acting on these specific sites were evident among all species co-existing with the pathogen. In the laboratory, we experimentally inoculated Australian tree frogs with Bd to test how each binding pocket conformation influences disease resistance. Only the conformation of MHC-II pocket 9 of surviving subjects matched those of Bd-resistant species. This MHC-II conformation thus may determine amphibian resistance to Bd, although other MHC-II binding pockets also may contribute to resistance. Rescuing amphibian biodiversity will depend on our understanding of amphibian immune defence mechanisms against Bd. The identification of adaptive genetic markers for Bd resistance represents an important step forward towards that goal.

  14. Type-II Dirac fermions in the PtSe2 class of transition metal dichalcogenides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Huaqing; Zhou, Shuyun; Duan, Wenhui

    2016-09-01

    Recently, a new "type-II" Weyl fermion, which exhibits exotic phenomena, such as an angle-dependent chiral anomaly, was discovered in a new phase of matter where electron and hole pockets contact at isolated Weyl points [Nature (London) 527, 495 (2015), 10.1038/nature15768]. This raises an interesting question about whether its counterpart, i.e., a type-II Dirac fermion, exists in real materials. Here, we predict the existence of symmetry-protected type-II Dirac fermions in a class of transition metal dichalcogenide materials. Our first-principles calculations on PtSe2 reveal its bulk type-II Dirac fermions which are characterized by strongly tilted Dirac cones, novel surface states, and exotic doping-driven Lifshitz transition. Our results show that the existence of type-II Dirac fermions in PtSe2-type materials is closely related to its structural P 3 ¯m 1 symmetry, which provides useful guidance for the experimental realization of type-II Dirac fermions and intriguing physical properties distinct from those of the standard Dirac fermions known before.

  15. Regulation of major histocompatibility complex class II synthesis by interleukin-10

    PubMed Central

    Morel, Anne-Sophie; Coulton, Gary; Londei, Marco

    2002-01-01

    We have shown previously that interleukin-10 (IL-10) blocks the development and T-cell stimulatory capacity of human monocyte-derived dendritic cells, without apparently down-regulating the surface expression of co-stimulatory molecules or human leucocyte antigen (HLA) molecules. In the majority of donors (60%), the cell surface levels of HLA-DR actually increased upon IL-10 treatment. Here we have shown that IL-10 does not regulate HLA-DR transcription as assessed by polymerase chain reation. Epifluorescence microscopy analysis showed that IL-10 primarily increased the intracellular pool of HLA-DR. In fact, IL-10 directly increased HLA-DR protein synthesis. However, IL-10 did not significantly alter the synthesis of invariant chain (Ii), which plays a crucial role in the assembly, transport and loading of newly formed HLA class II molecules, nor the amount of Ii reaching the cell-surface. In contrast, IL-10 increased the amount of HLA-DR-bound Iip33 shortly after the HLA-DR complex assembly. We postulate that, upon IL-10 treatment, immature Ii-associated HLA II molecules can still transit to the cell surface as they do in immature dendritic cells and recycle to the intracellular space, where they accumulate. A higher proportion of Ii-associated HLA-DR, coupled to increased membrane recycling, may contribute to the lower T-cell stimulatory capacity of IL-10-treated dendritic cells. PMID:12047752

  16. High-throughput engineering and analysis of peptide binding to class II MHC

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Wei; Boder, Eric T.

    2010-01-01

    Class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC-II) proteins govern stimulation of adaptive immunity by presenting antigenic peptides to CD4+ T lymphocytes. Many allelic variants of MHC-II exist with implications in peptide presentation and immunity; thus, high-throughput experimental tools for rapid and quantitative analysis of peptide binding to MHC-II are needed. Here, we present an expression system wherein peptide and MHC-II are codisplayed on the surface of yeast in an intracellular association-dependent manner and assayed by flow cytometry. Accordingly, the relative binding of different peptides and/or MHC-II variants can be assayed by genetically manipulating either partner, enabling the application of directed evolution approaches for high-throughput characterization or engineering. We demonstrate the application of this tool to map the side-chain preference for peptides binding to HLA-DR1 and to evolve novel HLA-DR1 mutants with altered peptide-binding specificity. PMID:20622157

  17. Long-term stability of Class II, Division 1, nonextraction cervical face-bow therapy: II. Cephalometric analysis.

    PubMed

    Elms, T N; Buschang, P H; Alexander, R G

    1996-04-01

    The long-term stability of Class II, Division 1 nonextraction therapy, using cervical face-bows with full fixed orthodontic appliances was evaluated for 42 randomly selected patients. Part 1, a study model analysis, was published in the March 1996 issue of the JOURNAL. Each patient was treated by the same practitioner, with the same techniques, and the treatment goals had been attained for all patients. Pretreatment records were taken at a mean age of 11.5 years; the posttreatment and postretention records were taken 3.0 and 11.6 years later, respectively. The results showed that the ANB angle decreased 2 degrees during treatment, most of which was due to the 1.6 degree decrease of the SNA angle. The mandibular plane angle was not changed significantly during treatment. Although upper incisor inclination was maintained during treatment, the lower incisor was proclined 2.3 degrees and the lower molar was tipped back 4 degrees. Of the 22 cephalometric measures evaluated, only four indicated relapse related with the treatment change. Three of the four measures pertain to lower incisor retroclination subsequent to excessive proclination. The ratio of treatment proclination of incisors to posttreatment retroclination is approximately 5:1. Similarly, for every 3 degrees of molar tip back, there was approximately 1 degree of relapse. It is concluded that nonextraction therapy for Class II malocclusion can be largely stable when the orthodontist ensures proper patient selection and compliance and attains treatment objectives.

  18. Characterization of New Punch Mutations: Identification of Two Additional Mutant Classes

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, E. R.; O'Donnell, J. M.

    1988-01-01

    The Punch locus of Drosophila melanogaster which encodes the pteridine biosynthetic enzyme, GTP cyclohydrolase, is genetically complex. Lethal alleles of the locus resolve into an array of interallelic complementation groups, and at least one class of mutations is developmentally specific, affecting GTP cyclohydrolase activity only in the heads of adults. All previously isolated Punch alleles were identified on the basis of a mutant eye color phenotype. By screening mutagenized chromosomes over Punch region deficiencies, we have now isolated new alleles on the basis of lethal and visible phenotypes. Most of these alleles fall into previously identified genetic classes, but two new classes of mutations were also found. One class contains two alleles that behave as dominant lethal mutations in some genetic backgrounds. The other class represents a second developmentally specific set of alleles that affect the function of the Punch locus only during embryogenesis. PMID:3136053

  19. Two distinct genetic loci regulating class II gene expression are defective in human mutant and patient cell lines.

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Z; Accolla, R S; Pious, D; Zegers, B J; Strominger, J L

    1988-01-01

    Heterokaryons were prepared and analyzed shortly after cell fusion using two mutant class-II-negative human B cell lines (RJ 2.2.5 and 6.1.6) and a cell line (TF) from a patient with a class-II-negative Bare Lymphocyte Syndrome. The resulting transient heterokaryons were analyzed by using an anti-HLA-DR monoclonal antibody to assess the cell surface expression of HLA-DR (the major subtype of class II antigens) by immunofluorescence microscopy and by using uniformly 32P-labeled SP6 RNA probes in Northern blots and RNase protection assays to assess mRNA synthesis. We find that class II gene expression in a B cell line from a Bare Lymphocyte Syndrome patient (TF) is rescued by a B cell line which expresses class II antigens indicating that this disease, at least in part, is caused by a defect(s) in a genetic locus encoding a factor(s) necessary for class II gene expression. Secondly, reciprocal genetic complementation was demonstrated in the heterokaryons 6.1.6 x RJ 2.2.5 and TF x RJ 2.2.5 (but not in TF x 6.1.6) by detection of cell surface DR by immunofluorescence microscopy and by a novel class II mRNA typing technique which allows characterization of distinct class II alleles. Thus, the two mutants generated in vitro have defects at two different genetic loci encoding specific regulatory factors necessary for human class II gene expression. One of these mutant cell lines, but not the other, complements the defect in the patient cell line, TF. Images PMID:2458252

  20. Distribution and origin of bovine major histocompatibility complex class II DQA1 genes in Japan.

    PubMed

    Takeshima, S; Chen, S; Miki, M; Kado, M; Aida, Y

    2008-09-01

    We sequenced the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II DQA1 gene in 352 Japanese cattle (95 Japanese Black, 91 Holstein, 102 Japanese Shorthorn and 64 Jersey cattle) using a new sequence-based typing method. In total, 19 bovine MHC (BoLA)-DQA1 alleles, of which two were novel alleles, were detected. The Holstein, Jersey, Japanese Shorthorn and Japanese Black breeds had 13, 12, 10 and 15 alleles, respectively. The dendrogram that was constructed by the neighbor-joining method on the basis of the DQA1 gene allele frequencies of the four Japanese cattle breeds showed that the Holstein and Japanese Black breeds were closest to each other, with Jersey being farther from these two breeds than Japanese Shorthorn. In addition, Wu-Kabat analysis showed that the DQA1 alleles of the Holstein and Japanese Black were the most and least polymorphic, respectively. Phylogenetic analyses indicated that the DQA1 gene of Bovidae such as cattle, sheep, bison and goat were more similar to pig SLA-DQA genes than to human HLA-DQA1 and dog DLA-DQA genes. The cattle, goat, bison, sheep, human and pig DQA1 molecules had similar rates of amino acid sequence polymorphism, but the distribution of their polymorphic residues differed from that in the dog DQA1 protein. However, the Bovidae DQA1 molecule had more polymorphic residues than the human, pig and dog DQA molecules at two regions, namely positions 52-53 and 65-66. This indicates that the Bovidae DQA1 locus is more polymorphic than the DQA loci of other species.

  1. Immune complexes (IC) down-regulate the basal and interferon-γ-induced expression of MHC Class II on human monocytes

    PubMed Central

    Barrionuevo, P; Beigier-Bompadre, M; De La Barrera, S; Alves-Rosa, M F; Fernandez, G; Palermo, M S; Isturiz, M A

    2001-01-01

    The interaction of Fc receptors for IgG (FcγRs) on monocytes/macrophages with immune complexes (IC) triggers regulatory and effector functions. Previous studies have shown that FcγR–IC interactions inhibit the IFN-γ-induced expression of MHC class II in murine macrophages. However, the mechanism(s) responsible for these effects have not been elucidated. In addition, whether this IC-dependent effect also occurs in human cells is not known. Taking into account the fact that IC and IFN-γ are frequently found in infections and autoimmune disorders, together with the crucial role MHC class II molecules play in the regulation of immune response, we explored the effect and mechanism of IC-induced MHC class II down-regulation in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). This effect was studied either in the presence or absence of IFN-γ. We demonstrate that IC exert a drastic inhibition of basal and IFN-γ-induced expression of MHC class II on human monocytes. This effect was mediated through the interaction of IC with both FcγRI and FcγRII. Moreover, similar results were obtained using supernatants from IC-treated PBMC. The IC-induced down-regulation of MHC class II is abrogated by pepstatin and phosphoramidon, supporting the role of aspartic protease(s) and metalloprotease(s) in this process. In parallel with MHC class II expression, antigen presentation was markedly inhibited in the presence of IC. PMID:11529917

  2. Antigen processing by epidermal Langerhans cells correlates with the level of biosynthesis of major histocompatibility complex class II molecules and expression of invariant chain

    PubMed Central

    1990-01-01

    Two prior studies with a small number of T cell lines have shown that the presentation of native protein antigens by epidermal Langerhans cells (LC) is regulated. When freshly isolated, LC are efficient antigen-presenting cells (APC), but after a period of culture LC are inefficient or even inactive. The deficit in culture seems to be a selective loss in antigen processing, since cultured LC are otherwise rich in major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II products and are active APC for alloantigens and mitogens, which do not require processing. We have extended the analysis by studying presentation to bulk populations of primed lymph node and a T-T hybrid. Only freshly isolated LC can be pulsed with the protein antigens myoglobin and conalbumin, but once pulsed, antigen is retained in an immunogenic form for at least 2 d. The acquisition of antigen, presumably as MHC-peptide complexes, is inhibited if the fresh LC are exposed to foreign protein in the presence of chloroquine or cycloheximide. The latter, in contrast, improves the efficacy of antigen pulsing in anti-Ig- stimulated B blasts. In additional studies of mechanism, we noted that both fresh and cultured LC endocytose similar amounts of an antigen, rhodamineovalbumin, into perinuclear granules. However, freshly isolated LC synthesize high levels class II MHC molecules and express higher amounts of the class II-associated invariant chain. Fresh LC are at least 5-10 times more active than many other cells types in the level of biosynthesis of MHC class II products. These findings provide a physiologic model in which newly synthesized MHC class II molecules appear to be the principal vehicle for effective antigen processing by APC of the dendritic cell lineage. Another APC, the B lymphoblast, does not appear to require newly synthesized MHC class II molecules for presentation. PMID:2121888

  3. Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smalheer, C. V.

    1973-01-01

    The chemistry of lubricant additives is discussed to show what the additives are chemically and what functions they perform in the lubrication of various kinds of equipment. Current theories regarding the mode of action of lubricant additives are presented. The additive groups discussed include the following: (1) detergents and dispersants, (2) corrosion inhibitors, (3) antioxidants, (4) viscosity index improvers, (5) pour point depressants, and (6) antifouling agents.

  4. HLA class II-like antiidiotypic antibodies from highly sensitized patients inhibit T-cell alloresponses.

    PubMed

    Hack, N; Angra, S; McKnight, T; Denhollander, N; Cardella, C J

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify factors in the sera of highly sensitized (HS) patients (pts) that inhibit T-cell alloresponses. An in vitro assay was used to measure HLA class I and class II-like antiidiotypic antibodies (anti-ids). The stimulation index (SI) was used to measure PBL and T-cell responses to alloantigens. All HS sera (32 pts) and the IgG fraction inhibited PBL and CD4(+) T-cell responses to alloantigens. The SI with HS IgG was 7.9 +/- 1.7 as compared to 31.5 +/- 5.9 with normal IgG (p = 0.0003). In a subset of pts who were transiently sensitized, the SI was 6.6 +/- 1.0 with a high panel reactive antibody (PRA), but when their PRA was zero, the SI was 17.8 +/- 1.3 (p = 0.0000001). Anti-ids were found in 100% of 17 pts with a high PRA. The T-cell inhibitory factors reduced CD4(+) T-cell responses of HS pts to alloantigens in the presence of autologous anti-ids, were MHC restricted and were inactivated by in vitro generated antibodies to HLA class II-like anti-ids. The HLA class II-like anti-id IgG molecules bind to the TCR of CD4(+) T cells and may impair their ability to help in the downregulating antibody response to anti-ids.

  5. Eukaryotic class II cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer photolyase structure reveals basis for improved ultraviolet tolerance in plants.

    PubMed

    Hitomi, Kenichi; Arvai, Andrew S; Yamamoto, Junpei; Hitomi, Chiharu; Teranishi, Mika; Hirouchi, Tokuhisa; Yamamoto, Kazuo; Iwai, Shigenori; Tainer, John A; Hidema, Jun; Getzoff, Elizabeth D

    2012-04-01

    Ozone depletion increases terrestrial solar ultraviolet B (UV-B; 280-315 nm) radiation, intensifying the risks plants face from DNA damage, especially covalent cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPD). Without efficient repair, UV-B destroys genetic integrity, but plant breeding creates rice cultivars with more robust photolyase (PHR) DNA repair activity as an environmental adaptation. So improved strains of Oryza sativa (rice), the staple food for Asia, have expanded rice cultivation worldwide. Efficient light-driven PHR enzymes restore normal pyrimidines to UV-damaged DNA by using blue light via flavin adenine dinucleotide to break pyrimidine dimers. Eukaryotes duplicated the photolyase gene, producing PHRs that gained functions and adopted activities that are distinct from those of prokaryotic PHRs yet are incompletely understood. Many multicellular organisms have two types of PHR: (6-4) PHR, which structurally resembles bacterial CPD PHRs but recognizes different substrates, and Class II CPD PHR, which is remarkably dissimilar in sequence from bacterial PHRs despite their common substrate. To understand the enigmatic DNA repair mechanisms of PHRs in eukaryotic cells, we determined the first crystal structure of a eukaryotic Class II CPD PHR from the rice cultivar Sasanishiki. Our 1.7 Å resolution PHR structure reveals structure-activity relationships in Class II PHRs and tuning for enhanced UV tolerance in plants. Structural comparisons with prokaryotic Class I CPD PHRs identified differences in the binding site for UV-damaged DNA substrate. Convergent evolution of both flavin hydrogen bonding and a Trp electron transfer pathway establish these as critical functional features for PHRs. These results provide a paradigm for light-dependent DNA repair in higher organisms. PMID:22170053

  6. Toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 binds to major histocompatibility complex class II molecules.

    PubMed Central

    Scholl, P; Diez, A; Mourad, W; Parsonnet, J; Geha, R S; Chatila, T

    1989-01-01

    Toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 (TSST-1) is a 22-kDa exotoxin produced by strains of Staphylococcus aureus and implicated in the pathogenesis of toxic shock syndrome. In common with other staphylococcal exotoxins, TSST-1 has diverse immunological effects. These include the induction of interleukin 2 receptor expression, interleukin 2 synthesis, proliferation of human T lymphocytes, and stimulation of interleukin 1 synthesis by human monocytes. In the present study, we demonstrate that TSST-1 binds with saturation kinetics and with a dissociation constant of 17-43 nM to a single class of binding sites on human mononuclear cells. There was a strong correlation between the number of TSST-1 binding sites and the expression of major histocompatibility complex class II molecules, and interferon-gamma induced the expression of class II molecules as well as TSST-1 binding sites on human skin-derived fibroblasts. Monoclonal antibodies to HLA-DR, but not to HLA-DP or HLA-DQ, strongly inhibited TSST-1 binding. Affinity chromatography of 125I-labeled cell membranes over TSST-1-agarose resulted in the recovery of two bands of 35 kDa and 31 kDa that comigrated, respectively, with the alpha and beta chains of HLA-DR and that could be immunoprecipitated with anti-HLA-DR monoclonal antibodies. Binding of TSST-1 was demonstrated to HLA-DR and HLA-DQ L-cell transfectants. These results indicate that major histocompatibility complex class II molecules represent the major binding site for TSST-1 on human cells. Images PMID:2542966

  7. Treatment of Class II, Division 2 in the late growth period.

    PubMed

    Eberhard, H; Hirschfelder, U

    1998-01-01

    The "Deckbiss" with skeletal Class II jaw relationship sometimes presents a considerable therapeutic problem, particularly in the late growth period (DP3U), as regards the coordination of dental and skeletal treatment objectives. An effective treatment approach was demonstrated: a modified Herbst appliance used simultaneously with fixed appliances in the maxilla. The sample comprised 12 male (14.0 +/- 0.9 years old) and 10 female (12.3 +/- 0.4 years old) patients. Correction of the distal occlusion was achieved in all patients by means of the Herbst appliance, which was removed after an average time period of 6.4 +/- 0.2 months. In the mandible the multibracket appliances were then immediately inserted, and Class II elastics were used for retention. Maximum anchorage was required in the maxilla as well as in the mandible. Complete diagnostic records were made at the beginning of the treatment as well as 6 and 12 months later, in order to document skeletal and dental changes. A dental and skeletal Class I relationship was achieved in all cases. A significant improvement was recorded in the vertical jaw base relationship; this was still stable after a period of 12 months. In the dental area in particular, a so-called high-pull headgear effect (intrusion and distalization 16, 26) and intrusion of teeth 34, 44 were registered. Only a minor protrusion of the mandibular incisors was observed. Reinforcement of the bands reduced the failure rate significantly. The Herbst appliance does not represent a standard treatment for Class II. Its indication range is limited.

  8. Microleakage in class II composite resin restorations: application of a clearing protocol.

    PubMed

    Federlin, Marianne; Thonemann, Birger; Hiller, Karl-Anton; Fertig, Christina; Schmalz, Gottfried

    2002-06-01

    Microleakage at the cervical tooth/restoration interface of class II restorations was evaluated, either on multiple sections or on teeth rendered transparent, in order to determine whether a modified clearing protocol could be established as a routine method for microleakage evaluation in class II restorations. Forty-eight class II cavities were restored with a composite/bonding agent (Tetric Universal/Heliobond, Vivadent, Schaan, Liechtenstein) in bulk technique (BT) (n=24) and with a composite/dentin adhesive system (Tetric Universal/Heliobond/Syntac Classic) in increments (IT) (n=24). The 24 specimens were assigned to two groups. Group I: dye penetration (India ink), multiple sectioning (conventional method). Group II: dye penetration (India ink) and modified clearing protocol. Linear microleakage (% dye/section) along the cervical tooth/restoration interface on multiple sections, and microleakage patterns (% dye/surface) at the cervical surface on transparent teeth were evaluated with an image analyzing system. The data were statistically analyzed with the Mann Whitney U-test, Wilcoxon's rank sum test, and the error rates method. The application of the modified clearing protocol allowed for distinct evaluation of microleakage patterns. Either protocol revealed lower penetration values for IT than for BT. With the conventional protocol, the median (25-75% percentiles) percentage of dye penetration was 2% (1-46%) for IT and 40% (23-85%) for BT. The clearing protocol revealed dye penetration of 5% (1-22%) for IT and 16% (4-24%) for BT. The clearing protocol together with the use of India ink as tracer allows for evaluation and visualization of the continuous distribution of microleakage at the cervical tooth/restoration interface without loss of information due to sectioning, although this method seems to be less discriminative than the conventional sectioning technique.

  9. Identification of Disease-Promoting HLA Class I and Protective Class II Modifiers in Japanese Patients with Familial Mediterranean Fever

    PubMed Central

    Yasunami, Michio; Nakamura, Hitomi; Agematsu, Kazunaga; Nakamura, Akinori; Yazaki, Masahide; Kishida, Dai; Yachie, Akihiro; Toma, Tomoko; Masumoto, Junya; Ida, Hiroaki; Koga, Tomohiro; Kawakami, Atsushi; Eguchi, Katsumi; Furukawa, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Tadashi; Nakamura, Minoru; Migita, Kiyoshi

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The genotype-phenotype correlation of MEFV remains unclear for the familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) patients, especially without canonical MEFV mutations in exon 10. The risk of FMF appeared to be under the influence of other factors in this case. The contribution of HLA polymorphisms to the risk of FMF was examined as strong candidates of modifier genes. Methods Genotypes of HLA-B and -DRB1 loci were determined for 258 mutually unrelated Japanese FMF patients, who satisfied modified Tel-Hashomer criteria, and 299 healthy controls. The effects of carrier status were evaluated for the risk of FMF by odds ratio (OR). The HLA effects were also assessed for clinical forms of FMF, subsets of FMF with certain MEFV genotypes and responsiveness to colchicine treatment. Results The carriers of B*39:01 were increased in the patients (OR = 3.25, p = 0.0012), whereas those of DRB1*15:02 were decreased (OR = 0.45, p = 0.00050), satisfying Bonferroni’s correction for multiple statistical tests (n = 28, p<0.00179). The protective effect of DRB1*15:02 was completely disappeared in the co-existence of B*40:01. The HLA effects were generally augmented in the patients without a canonical MEFV variant allele M694I, in accordance with the notion that the lower penetrance of the mutations is owing to the larger contribution of modifier genes in the pathogenesis, with a few exceptions. Further, 42.9% of 14 colchicine-resistant patients and 13.5% of 156 colchicine-responders possessed B*35:01 allele, giving OR of 4.82 (p = 0.0041). Conclusions The differential effects of HLA class I and class II polymorphisms were identified for Japanese FMF even in those with high-penetrance MEFV mutations. PMID:25974247

  10. 78 FR 18351 - Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-26

    ... designate a class of employees from the Battelle Laboratories King Avenue facility in Columbus, Ohio, as an... Battelle Laboratories in Columbus, Ohio, during the period from April 16, 1943, through June 30, 1956,...

  11. 77 FR 58381 - Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-20

    ... designate a class of employees from Clarksville Modification Center, Ft. Campbell, in Clarksville, Tennessee... Campbell, in Clarksville, Tennessee, from August 1, 1949, through December 31, 1967, for a number of...

  12. 76 FR 28435 - Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-17

    ...). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: HHS gives notice of a decision to designate a class of employees from the Vitro... Employer employees who worked at Vitro Manufacturing in Canonsburg, Pennsylvania, from January 1,...

  13. 76 FR 68459 - Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-04

    ...). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: HHS gives notice of a decision to designate a class of employees from Vitro... Employees who worked at Vitro Manufacturing in Canonsburg, Pennsylvania, from January 1, 1960...

  14. 75 FR 44967 - Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-30

    ... of a decision to designate a class of employees from the Mound Plant in Miamisburg, Ohio, as an... Mound Plant in Miamisburg, Ohio from March 1, 1959 through March 5, 1980, for a number of work...

  15. Prediction of peptides binding to MHC class I and II alleles by temporal motif mining

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex) is a key player in the immune response of most vertebrates. The computational prediction of whether a given antigenic peptide will bind to a specific MHC allele is important in the development of vaccines for emerging pathogens, the creation of possibilities for controlling immune response, and for the applications of immunotherapy. One of the problems that make this computational prediction difficult is the detection of the binding core region in peptides, coupled with the presence of bulges and loops causing variations in the total sequence length. Most machine learning methods require the sequences to be of the same length to successfully discover the binding motifs, ignoring the length variance in both motif mining and prediction steps. In order to overcome this limitation, we propose the use of time-based motif mining methods that work position-independently. Results The prediction method was tested on a benchmark set of 28 different alleles for MHC class I and 27 different alleles for MHC class II. The obtained results are comparable to the state of the art methods for both MHC classes, surpassing the published results for some alleles. The average prediction AUC values are 0.897 for class I, and 0.858 for class II. Conclusions Temporal motif mining using partial periodic patterns can capture information about the sequences well enough to predict the binding of the peptides and is comparable to state of the art methods in the literature. Unlike neural networks or matrix based predictors, our proposed method does not depend on peptide length and can work with both short and long fragments. This advantage allows better use of the available training data and the prediction of peptides of uncommon lengths. PMID:23368521

  16. Arabidopsis Class I and Class II TCP Transcription Factors Regulate Jasmonic Acid Metabolism and Leaf Development Antagonistically1[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Danisman, Selahattin; van der Wal, Froukje; Dhondt, Stijn; Waites, Richard; de Folter, Stefan; Bimbo, Andrea; van Dijk, Aalt DJ; Muino, Jose M.; Cutri, Lucas; Dornelas, Marcelo C.; Angenent, Gerco C.; Immink, Richard G.H.

    2012-01-01

    TEOSINTE BRANCHED1/CYCLOIDEA/PROLIFERATING CELL FACTOR1 (TCP) transcription factors control developmental processes in plants. The 24 TCP transcription factors encoded in the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) genome are divided into two classes, class I and class II TCPs, which are proposed to act antagonistically. We performed a detailed phenotypic analysis of the class I tcp20 mutant, showing an increase in leaf pavement cell sizes in 10-d-old seedlings. Subsequently, a glucocorticoid receptor induction assay was performed, aiming to identify potential target genes of the TCP20 protein during leaf development. The LIPOXYGENASE2 (LOX2) and class I TCP9 genes were identified as TCP20 targets, and binding of TCP20 to their regulatory sequences could be confirmed by chromatin immunoprecipitation analyses. LOX2 encodes for a jasmonate biosynthesis gene, which is also targeted by class II TCP proteins that are under the control of the microRNA JAGGED AND WAVY (JAW), although in an antagonistic manner. Mutation of TCP9, the second identified TCP20 target, resulted in increased pavement cell sizes during early leaf developmental stages. Analysis of senescence in the single tcp9 and tcp20 mutants and the tcp9tcp20 double mutants showed an earlier onset of this process in comparison with wild-type control plants in the double mutant only. Both the cell size and senescence phenotypes are opposite to the known class II TCP mutant phenotype in JAW plants. Altogether, these results point to an antagonistic function of class I and class II TCP proteins in the control of leaf development via the jasmonate signaling pathway. PMID:22718775

  17. Semi-longitudinal Study of the Mcnamara Cephalometric Triangle in Class II and Class III Subjects Grouped by Cervical Vertebrae Maturation Stage.

    PubMed

    Arriola-Guillén, Luis E; Fitzcarrald, Fernando D; Flores-Mir, Carlos

    2015-12-01

    The aim was to compare the McNamara cephalometric triangle values in untreated normodivergent Class II and Class III malocclusion subjects of Latin American origin grouped by cervical vertebrae maturation stage to an untreated Class I malocclusion normodivergent control group. The study was conducted on a sample of 610 pretreatment lateral cephalograms (250 male, 360 female), examined and grouped according to their anteroposterior skeletal relationship (Class I, II or III), cervical vertebrae maturation stage (Pre Pubertal Peak P1 = CS1 and CS2, Pubertal Peak P2= CS3 and CS4, and Post Pubertal Peak P3 = CS5 and CS6) and sex. Co-A, Co-Gn and ENA-Me were measured in each lateral cephalogram. ANOVA and Tukey HSD post-hoc tests were performed to determine differences between the groups. The results showed that in males, the greatest maxillary and mandibular dimensional increases occurred during the P3 stage (CS5 to CS6), while in females, they occurred in the P2 stage (CS3 to CS4). The Co-A and Co-Gn showed significant differences between the malocclusion classes (p<0.05). The maxillary lengths in Class II subjects and the mandibular lengths in Class III subjects were already higher at the beginning of the period evaluated (P1). A worsening trend for the Class II and III malocclusions was identified during the period evaluated. Finally, changes in the McNamara cephalometric triangle values were markedly different in the three normodivergent skeletal malocclusion classes. In these Latin American subjects the pubertal growth spurt occurred at different times with respect to the Caucasian and Asian norms.

  18. Alveolar and symphysis regions of patients with skeletal class II division 1 anomalies with different vertical growth patterns

    PubMed Central

    Esenlik, Elcin; Sabuncuoglu, Fidan Alakus

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the alveolar and symphysis region properties in hyper-, hypo-, and normodivergent Class II division 1 anomalies. Methods: Pretreatment lateral cephalograms of 111 young adult female patients with skeletal Class II division 1 anomalies were compared to those of 54 Class I normal subjects (control group). Class II cases were divided into hyperdivergent (n = 58), hypodivergent (n = 19), and normodivergent groups (n = 34). The heights and widths of the symphysis and alveolus and the depth of maxillary palate were measured on the lateral cephalograms. Results: Mean symphysis width was wider in the hypodivergent Class II group than in the other groups, while mean symphysis height was similar among all groups. Maxillary palatal depth, upper incisor angle, upper and lower molar alveolar heights, and Id–Id′ width were also similar among groups. Conclusion: Symphysis width is the main factor in the differential diagnosis of Class II division 1 anomaly rather than symphysis height and hypodivergent Class II Division 1 anomaly is more suitable for mandibular incisors movements. PMID:22509114

  19. Self-esteem in adolescents with Angle Class I, II and III malocclusion in a Peruvian sample

    PubMed Central

    Florián-Vargas, Karla; Honores, Marcos J. Carruitero; Bernabé, Eduardo; Flores-Mir, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To compare self-esteem scores in 12 to 16-year-old adolescents with different Angle malocclusion types in a Peruvian sample. Material and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in a sample of 276 adolescents (159, 52 and 65 with Angle Class I, II and III malocclusions, respectively) from Trujillo, Peru. Participants were asked to complete the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES) and were also clinically examined, so as to have Angle malocclusion classification determined. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used to compare RSES scores among adolescents with Class I, II and III malocclusions, with participants' demographic factors being controlled. Results: Mean RSES scores for adolescents with Class I, II and III malocclusions were 20.47 ± 3.96, 21.96 ± 3.27 and 21.26 ± 4.81, respectively. The ANCOVA test showed that adolescents with Class II malocclusion had a significantly higher RSES score than those with Class I malocclusion, but there were no differences between other malocclusion groups. Supplemental analysis suggested that only those with Class II, Division 2 malocclusion might have greater self-esteem when compared to adolescents with Class I malocclusion. Conclusion: This study shows that, in general, self-esteem did not vary according to adolescents' malocclusion in the sample studied. Surprisingly, only adolescents with Class II malocclusion, particularly Class II, Division 2, reported better self-esteem than those with Class I malocclusion. A more detailed analysis assessing the impact of anterior occlusal features should be conducted. PMID:27275616

  20. Disruption of hydrogen bonds between major histocompatibility complex class II and the peptide N-terminus is not sufficient to form a human leukocyte antigen-DM receptive state of major histocompatibility complex class II.

    PubMed

    Schulze, Monika-Sarah E D; Anders, Anne-Kathrin; Sethi, Dhruv K; Call, Melissa J

    2013-01-01

    Peptide presentation by MHC class II is of critical importance to the function of CD4+ T cells. HLA-DM resides in the endosomal pathway and edits the peptide repertoire of newly synthesized MHC class II molecules before they are exported to the cell surface. HLA-DM ensures MHC class II molecules bind high affinity peptides by targeting unstable MHC class II:peptide complexes for peptide exchange. Research over the past decade has implicated the peptide N-terminus in modulating the ability of HLA-DM to target a given MHC class II:peptide combination. In particular, attention has been focused on both the hydrogen bonds between MHC class II and peptide, and the occupancy of the P1 anchor pocket. We sought to solve the crystal structure of a HLA-DR1 molecule containing a truncated hemagglutinin peptide missing three N-terminal residues compared to the full-length sequence (residues 306-318) to determine the nature of the MHC class II:peptide species that binds HLA-DM. Here we present structural evidence that HLA-DR1 that is loaded with a peptide truncated to the P1 anchor residue such that it cannot make select hydrogen bonds with the peptide N-terminus, adopts the same conformation as molecules loaded with full-length peptide. HLA-DR1:peptide combinations that were unable to engage up to four key hydrogen bonds were also unable to bind HLA-DM, while those truncated to the P2 residue bound well. These results indicate that the conformational changes in MHC class II molecules that are recognized by HLA-DM occur after disengagement of the P1 anchor residue.