Science.gov

Sample records for additional conservation measures

  1. Motor Energy Conservation Measures

    SciTech Connect

    Ian Metzger, Jesse Dean

    2010-12-31

    This software requires inputs of simple motor inventory information and calculates the energy and cost benefits of various retrofit opportunities. This tool includes energy conservation measures for: High Efficiency Motor retrofit and Cogged V-belts retrofit. This tool calculates energy savings, demand reduction, cost savings, and building life cycle costs including: simple payback, discounted payback, net-present value, and savings to investment ratio. In addition this tool also displays the environmental benefits of a project.

  2. Plug Loads Conservation Measures

    SciTech Connect

    Ian Metzger, Jesse Dean

    2010-12-31

    This software requires inputs of simple plug loads inventory information and calculates the energy and cost benefits of various retrofit opportunities. This tool includes energy conservation measures for: Vending Machine Misers, Delamp Vending Machine, Desktop to Laptop retrofit, CRT to LCD monitors retrofit, Computer Power Management Settings, and Energy Star Refrigerator retrofit. This tool calculates energy savings, demand reduction, cost savings, building life cycle costs including: simple payback, discounted payback, net-present value, and savings to investment ratio. In addition this tool also displays the environmental benefits of a project.

  3. Water Conservation Measures

    SciTech Connect

    Ian Metzger, Jesse Dean

    2010-12-31

    This software requires inputs of simple water fixture inventory information and calculates the water/energy and cost benefits of various retrofit opportunities. This tool includes water conservation measures for: Low-flow Toilets, Low-flow Urinals, Low-flow Faucets, and Low-flow Showheads. This tool calculates water savings, energy savings, demand reduction, cost savings, and building life cycle costs including: simple payback, discounted payback, net-present value, and savings to investment ratio. In addition this tool also displays the environmental benefits of a project.

  4. Steam System Energy Conservation Measures

    SciTech Connect

    Ian Metzger, Jesse Dean

    2010-12-31

    This software requires inputs of simple system inventory information and calculates the energy and cost benefits of various retrofit opportunities. This tool includes energy conservation measures for: fixing steam leaks. This tool calculates energy savings, demand reduction, cost savings, and building life cycle costs including: simple payback, discounted payback, net-present value, and savings to investment ratio. In addition this tool also displays the environmental benefits of a project.

  5. 43 CFR 418.31 - Conservation measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Conservation measures. 418.31 Section 418... Management and Conservation § 418.31 Conservation measures. (a) Specific conservation actions will be needed... part. The District is best able to determine the particular conservation measures that meet the...

  6. 43 CFR 418.31 - Conservation measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Conservation measures. 418.31 Section 418... Management and Conservation § 418.31 Conservation measures. (a) Specific conservation actions will be needed... part. The District is best able to determine the particular conservation measures that meet the...

  7. 43 CFR 418.31 - Conservation measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Conservation measures. 418.31 Section 418... Management and Conservation § 418.31 Conservation measures. (a) Specific conservation actions will be needed... part. The District is best able to determine the particular conservation measures that meet the...

  8. 43 CFR 418.31 - Conservation measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Conservation measures. 418.31 Section 418... Management and Conservation § 418.31 Conservation measures. (a) Specific conservation actions will be needed... part. The District is best able to determine the particular conservation measures that meet the...

  9. 43 CFR 418.31 - Conservation measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... THE INTERIOR OPERATING CRITERIA AND PROCEDURES FOR THE NEWLANDS RECLAMATION PROJECT, NEVADA Water Management and Conservation § 418.31 Conservation measures. (a) Specific conservation actions will be needed... of its water users. This ensures that the measures reflect the priorities and collective judgment...

  10. Additional Surgery after Breast-Conserving Surgery Varies Widely

    Cancer.gov

    A study published in the Feb. 1, 2012, issue of JAMA found that the number of women who have one or more additional surgeries to remove suspected residual tumor tissue (re-excisions) following breast-conserving surgery (BCS) for breast cancer varies widely across surgeons and hospitals.

  11. High-bay Lighting Energy Conservation Measures

    SciTech Connect

    Ian Metzger, Jesse Dean

    2010-12-31

    This software requires inputs of simple high-bay lighting system inventory information and calculates the energy and cost benefits of various retrofit opportunities. This tool includes energy conservation measures for: 1000 Watt to 750 Watt High-pressure Sodium lighting retrofit, 400 Watt to 360 Watt High Pressure Sodium lighting retrofit, High Intensity Discharge to T5 lighting retrofit, High Intensity Discharge to T8 lighting retrofit, and Daylighting. This tool calculates energy savings, demand reduction, cost savings, building life cycle costs including: simple payback, discounted payback, net-present value, and savings to investment ratio. In addition this tool also displays the environmental benefits of a project.

  12. Low-bay Lighting Energy Conservation Measures

    SciTech Connect

    Ian Metzger, Jesse Dean

    2010-12-31

    This software requires inputs of simple low-bay lighting system inventory information and calculates the energy and cost benefits of various retrofit opportunities. This tool includes energy conservation measures for: Low-wattage T8 lighting retrofit, T12 to T8 lighting retrofit, LED Exit signs retrofit, Occupancy sensors, Screw-in lighting retrofit, and central lighting controls. This tool calculates energy savings, demand reduction, cooling load reduction, heating load increases, cost savings, building life cycle costs including: Simple payback, discounted payback, net-present value, and savings to investment ratio. In addition this tool also displays the environmental benefits of a project.

  13. Identification of cost effective energy conservation measures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bierenbaum, H. S.; Boggs, W. H.

    1978-01-01

    In addition to a successful program of readily implemented conservation actions for reducing building energy consumption at Kennedy Space Center, recent detailed analyses have identified further substantial savings for buildings representative of technical facilities designed when energy costs were low. The techniques employed for determination of these energy savings consisted of facility configuration analysis, power and lighting measurements, detailed computer simulations and simulation verifications. Use of these methods resulted in identification of projected energy savings as large as $330,000 a year (approximately two year break-even period) in a single building. Application of these techniques to other commercial buildings is discussed

  14. Conservation caring: measuring the influence of zoo visitors' connection to wildlife on pro-conservation behaviors.

    PubMed

    Skibins, Jeffrey C; Powell, Robert B

    2013-01-01

    Zoos in the 21st century are striving to make effective contributions to conservation. Although zoos are extremely popular and host over 600 million visitors worldwide, one challenge zoos face is how to effectively engage visitors and raise awareness and action for conservation. To this end, zoos commonly rely on charismatic megafauna, which have been shown to elicit a connection with zoo visitors. However, little is known about how to measure a connection to a species or how this connection may influence conservation behaviors. This study had two sequential objectives. The first was to develop a scale to measure visitors' connection to a species (Conservation Caring). The second was to investigate the relationship of Conservation Caring to pro-conservation behaviors, following a zoo experience. Pre- (n = 411) and post-visit (n = 452) responses were collected from three sites in order to assess the reliability and validity of a scale to measure Conservation Caring. Structural equation modeling was used to explore the relationship between Conservation Caring and pro-conservation behaviors. Conservation Caring was deemed a valid and reliable scale and was a strong predictor of species oriented behaviors (β = 0.62), for example, "adopting" an animal, but a weak predictor for biodiversity oriented behaviors (β = 0.07), for example, supporting sustainability policies. Results support the role zoos can play in fostering a connection to wildlife and stimulating pro-conservation behaviors. Additionally, visitors connected to a wide array of animals. On the basis of these results, zoos may recruit a wider assemblage of species as potential flagships.

  15. How energy conservation limits our measurements.

    PubMed

    Navascués, Miguel; Popescu, Sandu

    2014-04-11

    Observations in quantum mechanics are subject to complex restrictions arising from the principle of energy conservation. Determining such restrictions, however, has been so far an elusive task, and only partial results are known. In this Letter, we discuss how constraints on the energy spectrum of a measurement device translate into limitations on the measurements which we can effect on a target system with a nonconstant energy operator. We provide efficient algorithms to characterize such limitations and, in case the target is a two-level quantum system, we quantify them exactly. Our Letter, thus, identifies the boundaries between what is possible or impossible to measure, i.e., between what we can see or not, when energy conservation is at stake.

  16. 40 CFR 412.47 - Additional measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Additional measures. 412.47 Section 412.47 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS CONCENTRATED ANIMAL FEEDING OPERATIONS (CAFO) POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Swine, Poultry, and...

  17. 40 CFR 412.47 - Additional measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2014-07-01 2012-07-01 true Additional measures. 412.47 Section 412.47 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS CONCENTRATED ANIMAL FEEDING OPERATIONS (CAFO) POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Swine, Poultry, and...

  18. 40 CFR 412.47 - Additional measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Additional measures. 412.47 Section 412.47 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS CONCENTRATED ANIMAL FEEDING OPERATIONS (CAFO) POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Swine, Poultry, and...

  19. 10 CFR 436.104 - Energy conservation measures and standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Energy conservation measures and standards. 436.104 Section 436.104 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION FEDERAL ENERGY MANAGEMENT AND PLANNING PROGRAMS Guidelines for General Operations Plans § 436.104 Energy conservation measures and standards....

  20. 10 CFR 436.104 - Energy conservation measures and standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Energy conservation measures and standards. 436.104 Section 436.104 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION FEDERAL ENERGY MANAGEMENT AND PLANNING PROGRAMS Guidelines for General Operations Plans § 436.104 Energy conservation measures and standards....

  1. 10 CFR 436.104 - Energy conservation measures and standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Energy conservation measures and standards. 436.104 Section 436.104 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION FEDERAL ENERGY MANAGEMENT AND PLANNING PROGRAMS Guidelines for General Operations Plans § 436.104 Energy conservation measures and standards....

  2. 10 CFR 436.104 - Energy conservation measures and standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Energy conservation measures and standards. 436.104 Section 436.104 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION FEDERAL ENERGY MANAGEMENT AND PLANNING PROGRAMS Guidelines for General Operations Plans § 436.104 Energy conservation measures and standards....

  3. 10 CFR 436.104 - Energy conservation measures and standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Energy conservation measures and standards. 436.104 Section 436.104 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION FEDERAL ENERGY MANAGEMENT AND PLANNING PROGRAMS Guidelines for General Operations Plans § 436.104 Energy conservation measures and standards....

  4. Conservation Covenants on Private Land: Issues with Measuring and Achieving Biodiversity Outcomes in Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitzsimons, James A.; Carr, C. Ben

    2014-09-01

    Conservation covenants and easements have become essential tools to secure biodiversity outcomes on private land, and to assist in meeting international protection targets. In Australia, the number and spatial area of conservation covenants has grown significantly in the past decade. Yet there has been little research or detailed policy analysis of conservation covenanting in Australia. We sought to determine how conservation covenanting agencies were measuring the biodiversity conservation outcomes achieved on covenanted properties, and factors inhibiting or contributing to measuring these outcomes. In addition, we also investigated the drivers and constraints associated with actually delivering the biodiversity outcomes, drawing on detailed input from covenanting programs. Although all conservation covenanting programs had the broad aim of maintaining or improving biodiversity in their covenants in the long term, the specific stated objectives of conservation covenanting programs varied. Programs undertook monitoring and evaluation in different ways and at different spatial and temporal scales. Thus, it was difficult to determine the extent Australian conservation covenanting agencies were measuring the biodiversity conservation outcomes achieved on covenanted properties on a national scale. Lack of time available to covenantors to undertake management was one of the biggest impediments to achieving biodiversity conservation outcomes. A lack of financial resources and human capital to monitor, knowing what to monitor, inconsistent monitoring methodologies, a lack of benchmark data, and length of time to achieve outcomes were all considered potential barriers to monitoring the biodiversity conservation outcomes of conservation covenants.

  5. Conservation covenants on private land: issues with measuring and achieving biodiversity outcomes in Australia.

    PubMed

    Fitzsimons, James A; Carr, C Ben

    2014-09-01

    Conservation covenants and easements have become essential tools to secure biodiversity outcomes on private land, and to assist in meeting international protection targets. In Australia, the number and spatial area of conservation covenants has grown significantly in the past decade. Yet there has been little research or detailed policy analysis of conservation covenanting in Australia. We sought to determine how conservation covenanting agencies were measuring the biodiversity conservation outcomes achieved on covenanted properties, and factors inhibiting or contributing to measuring these outcomes. In addition, we also investigated the drivers and constraints associated with actually delivering the biodiversity outcomes, drawing on detailed input from covenanting programs. Although all conservation covenanting programs had the broad aim of maintaining or improving biodiversity in their covenants in the long term, the specific stated objectives of conservation covenanting programs varied. Programs undertook monitoring and evaluation in different ways and at different spatial and temporal scales. Thus, it was difficult to determine the extent Australian conservation covenanting agencies were measuring the biodiversity conservation outcomes achieved on covenanted properties on a national scale. Lack of time available to covenantors to undertake management was one of the biggest impediments to achieving biodiversity conservation outcomes. A lack of financial resources and human capital to monitor, knowing what to monitor, inconsistent monitoring methodologies, a lack of benchmark data, and length of time to achieve outcomes were all considered potential barriers to monitoring the biodiversity conservation outcomes of conservation covenants.

  6. Conservation laws, uncertainty relations, and quantum limits of measurements.

    PubMed

    Ozawa, Masanao

    2002-02-04

    The uncertainty relation between the noise operator and the conserved quantity leads to a bound on the accuracy of general measurements. The bound extends the assertion by Wigner, Araki, and Yanase that conservation laws limit the accuracy of "repeatable," or "nondisturbing," measurements to general measurements, and improves the one previously obtained by Yanase for spin measurements. The bound represents an obstacle to making a small quantum computer.

  7. Synthesis and review: delivering on conservation promises: the challenges of managing and measuring conservation outcomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, Vanessa M.; Game, Edward T.; Bode, Michael

    2014-08-01

    Growing threats and limited resources have always been the financial realities of biodiversity conservation. As the conservation sector has matured, however, the accountability of conservation investments has become an increasingly debated topic, with two key topics being driven to the forefront of the discourse: understanding how to manage the risks associated with our conservation investments and demonstrating that our investments are making a difference through evidence-based analyses. A better understanding of the uncertainties associated with conservation decisions is a central component of managing risks to investments that is often neglected. This focus issue presents both theoretical and applied approaches to quantifying and managing risks. Furthermore, transparent and replicable approaches to measuring impacts of conservation investments are noticeably absent in many conservation programs globally. This focus issue contains state of the art conservation program impact evaluations that both demonstrate how these methods can be used to measure outcomes as well as directing future investments. This focus issue thus brings together current thinking and case studies that can provide a valuable resource for directing future conservation investments.

  8. 75 FR 74740 - Measure M2 Natural Community Conservation Plan/Habitat Conservation Plan/Master Streambed...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-01

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Measure M2 Natural Community Conservation Plan/Habitat Conservation Plan... Environmental Impact Report (EIR)/EIS for the Measure M2 (M2) Natural Community Conservation Plan/Habitat Conservation Plan/Master Streambed Alteration Agreement (NCCP/HCP/ MSAA). We are furnishing this notice...

  9. Do upland conservation measures reduce watershed sediment yield?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Implementation of conservation measures do not always result in an immediate and measurable sediment yield reduction at the outlet of large watersheds. In this study, instantaneous suspended sediment and discharge measurements, taken in 1943-1948 and again in 2004-2008, in the Fort Cobb Reservoir wa...

  10. Worldwide status of burbot and conservation measures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stapanian, Martin A.; Paragamian, Vaughn L.; Madenjian, Charles P.; Jackson, James R.; Lappalainen, Jyrki; Evenson, Matthew J.; Neufeld, Matthew D.

    2010-01-01

    Although burbot (Lota lota Gadidae) are widespread and abundant throughout much of their natural range, there are many populations that have been extirpated, endangered or are in serious decline. Due in part to the species’ lack of popularity as a game and commercial fish, few regions consider burbot in management plans. We review the worldwide population status of burbot and synthesize reasons why some burbot populations are endangered or declining, some burbot populations have recovered and some burbot populations do not recover despite management measures. Burbot have been extirpated in much of Western Europe and the United Kingdom and are threatened or endangered in much of North America and Eurasia. Pollution and habitat change, particularly the effects of dams, appear to be the main causes for declines in riverine burbot populations. Pollution and the adverse effects of invasive species appear to be the main reasons for declines in lacustrine populations. Warmer water temperatures, due either to discharge from dams or climate change, have been noted in declining burbot populations at the southern extent of their range. Currently, fishing pressure does not appear to be limiting burbot populations world-wide. We suggest mitigation measures for burbot population recovery, particularly those impacted by dams and invasive species.

  11. Labor and energy impacts of energy-conservation measures

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    Three papers are presented discussing the labor and energy impacts of energy-conservation measures, namely: Generation of the Industry/Occupation Wage Matrix and Related Matters, by Carole Green; Job Shifts from Energy Conservation (Salary Distribution Effects), by Robert A. Herendeen; and Energy and Labor Implication of Improving Thermal Integrity of New Houses, by John Joseph Nangle. A separate abstract was prepared for each paper.

  12. Emergency petroleum conservation: a review and analysis of selected measures

    SciTech Connect

    Boercker, F.D.; Balasubramaniam, M.; Hull, E.; Savadelis, J.; Valentini, J.J.

    1980-01-01

    ORNL was asked by the Economic Regulatory Administration to (1) collect, screen, and recommend a limited number of emergency measures that might conserve petroleum in residential and commercial buildings and in commercial transportation and (2) provide a detailed analysis of the energy savings and the economic and environmental impacts associated with restricting the hours of operation of commercial buildings. A total of 41 emergency measures were identified that might conserve petroleum, and these were reduced to a list of five that seemed most promising. Analysis of the measure to restrict hours of operation for commercial buildings shows that it might save 4 to 6% of annual commercial building energy use. The type of fuel conserved would vary widely from region to region, and appreciable negative economic impacts would result from implementing the measure.

  13. Conservative Sample Size Determination for Repeated Measures Analysis of Covariance.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Timothy M; Case, L Douglas

    2013-07-05

    In the design of a randomized clinical trial with one pre and multiple post randomized assessments of the outcome variable, one needs to account for the repeated measures in determining the appropriate sample size. Unfortunately, one seldom has a good estimate of the variance of the outcome measure, let alone the correlations among the measurements over time. We show how sample sizes can be calculated by making conservative assumptions regarding the correlations for a variety of covariance structures. The most conservative choice for the correlation depends on the covariance structure and the number of repeated measures. In the absence of good estimates of the correlations, the sample size is often based on a two-sample t-test, making the 'ultra' conservative and unrealistic assumption that there are zero correlations between the baseline and follow-up measures while at the same time assuming there are perfect correlations between the follow-up measures. Compared to the case of taking a single measurement, substantial savings in sample size can be realized by accounting for the repeated measures, even with very conservative assumptions regarding the parameters of the assumed correlation matrix. Assuming compound symmetry, the sample size from the two-sample t-test calculation can be reduced at least 44%, 56%, and 61% for repeated measures analysis of covariance by taking 2, 3, and 4 follow-up measures, respectively. The results offer a rational basis for determining a fairly conservative, yet efficient, sample size for clinical trials with repeated measures and a baseline value.

  14. Energy and Water Conservation Measures for Hanford (2013)

    SciTech Connect

    Reid, Douglas J.; Butner, Ryan S.

    2013-04-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) performed an energy and water evaluation of selected buildings on the Hanford Site during the months of May and June 2012. The audit was performed under the direction of the U.S. Department of Energy, Sustainability Performance Office to identify key energy conservation measures (ECMs) and water conservation measures (WCMs). The evaluations consisted of on-site facility walk-throughs conducted by PNNL staff, interviews with building-operating personnel, and an examination of building designs and layouts. Information on 38 buildings was collected to develop a list of energy and water conservation measures. Table ES.1 is a summary of the ECMs, while table ES.2 is a summary of the WCMs.

  15. Translocation of threatened plants as a conservation measure in China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hong; Ren, Hai; Liu, Qiang; Wen, XiangYing; Maunder, Michael; Gao, JiangYun

    2015-12-01

    We assessed the current status of plant conservation translocation efforts in China, a topic poorly reported in recent scientific literature. We identified 222 conservation translocation cases involving 154 species, of these 87 were Chinese endemic species and 101 (78%) were listed as threatened on the Chinese Species Red List. We categorized the life form of each species and, when possible, determined for each case the translocation type, propagule source, propagule type, and survival and reproductive parameters. A surprisingly large proportion (26%) of the conservation translocations in China were conservation introductions, largely implemented in response to large-scale habitat destruction caused by the Three-Gorge Dam and another hydropower project. Documentation and management of the translocations varied greatly. Less than half the cases had plant survival records. Statistical analyses showed that survival percentages were significantly correlated with plant life form and the type of planting materials. Thirty percent of the cases had records on whether or not individuals flowered or fruited. Results of information theoretic model selection indicated that plant life form, translocation type, propagule type, propagule source, and time since planting significantly influenced the likelihood of flowering and fruiting on the project level. We suggest that the scientific-based application of species conservation translocations should be promoted as part of a commitment to species recovery management. In addition, we recommend that the common practice of within and out of range introductions in nature reserves to be regulated more carefully due to its potential ecological risks. We recommend the establishment of a national office and database to coordinate conservation translocations in China. Our review effort is timely considering the need for a comprehensive national guideline for the newly announced nation-wide conservation program on species with extremely

  16. 50 CFR 622.179 - Conservation measures for protected resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    .../headboats—(1) Sea turtle conservation measures. (i) The owner or operator of a vessel for which a commercial... for Sea Turtle Release With Minimal Injury,” and must post inside the wheelhouse, or in an easily viewable area if no wheelhouse, the sea turtle handling and release guidelines provided by NMFS. (ii)...

  17. 50 CFR 622.179 - Conservation measures for protected resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    .../headboats—(1) Sea turtle conservation measures. (i) The owner or operator of a vessel for which a commercial... for Sea Turtle Release With Minimal Injury,” and must post inside the wheelhouse, or in an easily viewable area if no wheelhouse, the sea turtle handling and release guidelines provided by NMFS. (ii)...

  18. Renewable energy and conservation measures for non-residential buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grossman, Andrew James

    The energy demand in most countries is growing at an alarming rate and identifying economically feasible building retrofit solutions to decrease the need for fossil fuels so as to mitigate their environmental and societal impacts has become imperative. Two approaches are available for identifying feasible retrofit solutions: 1) the implementation of energy conservation measures; and 2) the production of energy from renewable sources. This thesis focuses on the development of retrofit software planning tools for the implementation of solar photovoltaic systems, and lighting system retrofits for mid-Michigan institutional buildings. The solar planning tool exploits the existing blueprint of a building's rooftop, and via image processing, the layouts of the solar photovoltaic arrays are developed based on the building's geographical location and typical weather patterns. The resulting energy generation of a PV system is estimated and is utilized to determine levelized energy costs. The lighting system retrofit analysis starts by a current utilization assessment of a building to determine the amount of energy used by the lighting system. Several LED lighting options are evaluated on the basis of color correlation temperature, color rendering index, energy consumption, and financial feasibility, to determine a retrofit solution. Solar photovoltaic installations in mid-Michigan are not yet financially feasible, but with the anticipated growth and dynamic complexity of the solar photovoltaic market, this solar planning tool is able to assist building proprietors make executive decisions regarding their energy usage. Additionally, a lighting system retrofit is shown to have significant financial and health benefits.

  19. Potential environmental effects of energy conservation measures in northwest industries

    SciTech Connect

    Baechler, M C; Gygi, K F; Hendrickson, P L

    1992-01-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration (Bonneville) has identified 101 plants in the Pacific Northwest that account for 80% of the region's industrial electricity consumption. These plants offer a precise target for a conservation program. PNL determined that most of these 101 plants were represented by 11 major industries. We then reviewed 36 major conservation technologies used in these 11 industrial settings to determine their potential environmental impacts. Energy efficiency technologies designed for industrial use may result in direct or indirect environmental impacts. Effects may result from the production of the conservation measure technology, changes in the working environment due to different energy and material requirements, or changes to waste streams. Industry type, work-place conditions, worker training, and environmental conditions inside and outside the plant are all key variables that may affect environmental outcomes. To address these issues this report has three objectives: Describe potential conservation measures that Bonneville may employ in industrial programs and discuss potential primary impacts. Characterize industrial systems and processes where the measure may be employed and describe general environmental issues associated with each industry type. Review environmental permitting, licensing, and other regulatory actions required for industries and summarize the type of information available from these sources for further analysis.

  20. 76 FR 28954 - International Conservation and Management Measures Recognized by the United States

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-19

    ... Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals. The international conservation and management measures... Agreement between the Government of the Kingdom of Norway and the Government of the USSR...

  1. Measuring urban water conservation policies: Toward a comprehensive index

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hess, David; Wold, Christopher; Worland, Scott C.; Hornberger, George M.

    2017-01-01

    This article (1) discusses existing efforts to measure water conservation policies (WCPs) in the United States (U.S.); (2) suggests general methodological guidelines for creating robust water conservation indices (WCIs); (3) presents a comprehensive template for coding WCPs; (4) introduces a summary index, the Vanderbilt Water Conservation Index (VWCI), which is derived from 79 WCP observations for 197 cities for the year 2015; and (5) compares the VWCI to WCP data extracted from the 2010 American Water Works Association (AWWA) Water and Wastewater Rates survey. Existing approaches to measuring urban WCPs in U.S. cities are limited because they consider only a portion of WCPs or they are restricted geographically. The VWCI consists of a more comprehensive set of 79 observations classified as residential, commercial/industrial, billing structure, drought plan, or general. Our comparison of the VWCI and AWWA survey responses indicate reasonable agreement (ρ = 0.76) between the two WCIs for 98 cities where the data overlap. The correlation suggests the AWWA survey responses can provide fairly robust longitudinal WCP information, but we argue the measurement of WCPs is still in its infancy, and our approach suggests strategies for improving existing methods.

  2. Creating Protected Areas on Public Lands: Is There Room for Additional Conservation?

    PubMed

    Arriagada, Rodrigo A; Echeverria, Cristian M; Moya, Danisa E

    2016-01-01

    Most evaluations of the effectiveness of PAs have relied on indirect estimates based on comparisons between protected and unprotected areas. Such methods can be biased when protection is not randomly assigned. We add to the growing literature on the impact of PAs by answering the following research questions: What is the impact of Chilean PAs on deforestation which occurred between 1986 and 2011? How do estimates of the impact of PAs vary when using only public land as control units? We show that the characteristics of the areas in which protected and unprotected lands are located differ significantly. To satisfactorily estimate the effects of PAs, we use matching methods to define adequate control groups, but not as in previous research. We construct control groups using separately non-protected private areas and non-protected public lands. We find that PAs avoid deforestation when using unprotected private lands as valid controls, however results show no impact when the control group is based only on unprotected public land. Different land management regimes, and higher levels of enforcement inside public lands may reduce the opportunity to add additional conservation benefits when the national systems for PAs are based on the protection of previously unprotected public lands. Given that not all PAs are established to avoid deforestation, results also admit the potential for future studies to include other outcomes including forest degradation (not just deforestation), biodiversity, wildlife, primary forests (not forests in general), among others.

  3. Creating Protected Areas on Public Lands: Is There Room for Additional Conservation?

    PubMed Central

    Arriagada, Rodrigo A.; Echeverria, Cristian M.; Moya, Danisa E.

    2016-01-01

    Most evaluations of the effectiveness of PAs have relied on indirect estimates based on comparisons between protected and unprotected areas. Such methods can be biased when protection is not randomly assigned. We add to the growing literature on the impact of PAs by answering the following research questions: What is the impact of Chilean PAs on deforestation which occurred between 1986 and 2011? How do estimates of the impact of PAs vary when using only public land as control units? We show that the characteristics of the areas in which protected and unprotected lands are located differ significantly. To satisfactorily estimate the effects of PAs, we use matching methods to define adequate control groups, but not as in previous research. We construct control groups using separately non-protected private areas and non-protected public lands. We find that PAs avoid deforestation when using unprotected private lands as valid controls, however results show no impact when the control group is based only on unprotected public land. Different land management regimes, and higher levels of enforcement inside public lands may reduce the opportunity to add additional conservation benefits when the national systems for PAs are based on the protection of previously unprotected public lands. Given that not all PAs are established to avoid deforestation, results also admit the potential for future studies to include other outcomes including forest degradation (not just deforestation), biodiversity, wildlife, primary forests (not forests in general), among others. PMID:26848856

  4. Prescribed fire as an alternative measure in European grassland conservation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valkó, Orsolya; Deák, Balázs; Török, Péter; Tóthmérész, Béla

    2015-04-01

    and generally combined with other measures, such as grazing, seed sowing or herbicide application. By this complex approach several nature conservation goals can be fulfilled like increasing landscape-scale heterogeneity and invasion control. We emphasize that for establishing a fine-tuned prescribed burning management plan for the European grasslands the general findings of carefully designed case studies should be combined with the practical knowledge of conservation managers concerning the local application circumstances to reach specific management objectives.

  5. Conservation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Audubon Society, New York, NY.

    This set of teaching aids consists of seven Audubon Nature Bulletins, providing the teacher and student with informational reading on various topics in conservation. The bulletins have these titles: Plants as Makers of Soil, Water Pollution Control, The Ground Water Table, Conservation--To Keep This Earth Habitable, Our Threatened Air Supply,…

  6. A novel experiment to measure ion self-helicity conservation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    You, Setthivoine; von der Linden, Jens; Paritsky, Lenny; Geier, James; Jacobs, Stewart

    2011-10-01

    A novel experiment is designed to test ion self-helicity conservation during plasma relaxation with unique diagnostics for observing plasma jet collisions with compact toroids. A pair of conical theta pinches merge two compact toroids while another pair of planar coaxial guns shoot smaller plasma jets tangentially on to the compact torus to induce net bulk angular rotation. A large vacuum chamber, flexible gas injection arrangements and power supplies are designed to allow for a range of S * β values and ion flow velocities to explore regimes with two-fluid effects on compact toroid configurations. Two sequential ion flow maps in each shot can be reconstructed from 3D vector tomography of multichannel bulk ion Doppler spectroscopy. With an insertable 3D array of B-dot probes, the ion self-helicity can be measured in the entire 3D volume twice in each discharge. A fast ion gauge measures time-resolved neutral gas profiles to optimize gas injection. A novel two-fluid plasma lattice Boltzmann numerical model is being developed to support the interpretation of experimental measurements.

  7. 10 CFR 455.102 - Energy conservation measure cost-share credit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Energy conservation measure cost-share credit. 455.102 Section 455.102 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION GRANT PROGRAMS FOR SCHOOLS AND HOSPITALS... cost-share for an energy conservation measure grant in that building: (a) A non-Federally...

  8. 10 CFR 455.102 - Energy conservation measure cost-share credit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Energy conservation measure cost-share credit. 455.102 Section 455.102 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION GRANT PROGRAMS FOR SCHOOLS AND HOSPITALS... Energy conservation measure cost-share credit. To the extent a State provides in its State Plan, DOE...

  9. 10 CFR 455.102 - Energy conservation measure cost-share credit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Energy conservation measure cost-share credit. 455.102 Section 455.102 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION GRANT PROGRAMS FOR SCHOOLS AND HOSPITALS... Energy conservation measure cost-share credit. To the extent a State provides in its State Plan, DOE...

  10. 10 CFR 455.102 - Energy conservation measure cost-share credit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Energy conservation measure cost-share credit. 455.102 Section 455.102 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION GRANT PROGRAMS FOR SCHOOLS AND HOSPITALS... Energy conservation measure cost-share credit. To the extent a State provides in its State Plan, DOE...

  11. 10 CFR 455.102 - Energy conservation measure cost-share credit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Energy conservation measure cost-share credit. 455.102 Section 455.102 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION GRANT PROGRAMS FOR SCHOOLS AND HOSPITALS... Energy conservation measure cost-share credit. To the extent a State provides in its State Plan, DOE...

  12. Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smalheer, C. V.

    1973-01-01

    The chemistry of lubricant additives is discussed to show what the additives are chemically and what functions they perform in the lubrication of various kinds of equipment. Current theories regarding the mode of action of lubricant additives are presented. The additive groups discussed include the following: (1) detergents and dispersants, (2) corrosion inhibitors, (3) antioxidants, (4) viscosity index improvers, (5) pour point depressants, and (6) antifouling agents.

  13. Cool roofs as an energy conservation measure for federal buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Taha, Haider; Akbari, Hashem

    2003-04-07

    We have developed initial estimates of the potential benefits of cool roofs on federal buildings and facilities (building scale) as well as extrapolated the results to all national facilities under the administration of the Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP). In addition, a spreadsheet ''calculator'' is devised to help FEMP estimate potential energy and cost savings of cool roof projects. Based on calculations for an average insulation level of R-11 for roofs, it is estimated that nationwide annual savings in energy costs will amount to $16M and $32M for two scenarios of increased roof albedo (moderate and high increases), respectively. These savings, corresponding to about 3.8 percent and 7.5 percent of the base energy costs for FEMP facilities, include the increased heating energy use (penalties) in winter. To keep the cost of conserved energy (CCE) under $0.08 kWh-1 as a nationwide average, the calculations suggest that the incremental cost for cool roofs should not exceed $0.06 ft-2, assuming that cool roofs have the same life span as their non-cool counterparts. However, cool roofs usually have extended life spans, e.g., 15-30 years versus 10 years for conventional roofs, and if the costs of re-roofing are also factored in, the cutoff incremental cost to keep CCE under $0.08 kWh-1 can be much higher. In between these two ends, there is of course a range of various combinations and options.

  14. Porosity Measurements and Analysis for Metal Additive Manufacturing Process Control

    PubMed Central

    Slotwinski, John A; Garboczi, Edward J; Hebenstreit, Keith M

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing techniques can produce complex, high-value metal parts, with potential applications as critical metal components such as those found in aerospace engines and as customized biomedical implants. Material porosity in these parts is undesirable for aerospace parts - since porosity could lead to premature failure - and desirable for some biomedical implants - since surface-breaking pores allows for better integration with biological tissue. Changes in a part’s porosity during an additive manufacturing build may also be an indication of an undesired change in the build process. Here, we present efforts to develop an ultrasonic sensor for monitoring changes in the porosity in metal parts during fabrication on a metal powder bed fusion system. The development of well-characterized reference samples, measurements of the porosity of these samples with multiple techniques, and correlation of ultrasonic measurements with the degree of porosity are presented. A proposed sensor design, measurement strategy, and future experimental plans on a metal powder bed fusion system are also presented. PMID:26601041

  15. Porosity Measurements and Analysis for Metal Additive Manufacturing Process Control.

    PubMed

    Slotwinski, John A; Garboczi, Edward J; Hebenstreit, Keith M

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing techniques can produce complex, high-value metal parts, with potential applications as critical metal components such as those found in aerospace engines and as customized biomedical implants. Material porosity in these parts is undesirable for aerospace parts - since porosity could lead to premature failure - and desirable for some biomedical implants - since surface-breaking pores allows for better integration with biological tissue. Changes in a part's porosity during an additive manufacturing build may also be an indication of an undesired change in the build process. Here, we present efforts to develop an ultrasonic sensor for monitoring changes in the porosity in metal parts during fabrication on a metal powder bed fusion system. The development of well-characterized reference samples, measurements of the porosity of these samples with multiple techniques, and correlation of ultrasonic measurements with the degree of porosity are presented. A proposed sensor design, measurement strategy, and future experimental plans on a metal powder bed fusion system are also presented.

  16. Modeling Errors in Daily Precipitation Measurements: Additive or Multiplicative?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tian, Yudong; Huffman, George J.; Adler, Robert F.; Tang, Ling; Sapiano, Matthew; Maggioni, Viviana; Wu, Huan

    2013-01-01

    The definition and quantification of uncertainty depend on the error model used. For uncertainties in precipitation measurements, two types of error models have been widely adopted: the additive error model and the multiplicative error model. This leads to incompatible specifications of uncertainties and impedes intercomparison and application.In this letter, we assess the suitability of both models for satellite-based daily precipitation measurements in an effort to clarify the uncertainty representation. Three criteria were employed to evaluate the applicability of either model: (1) better separation of the systematic and random errors; (2) applicability to the large range of variability in daily precipitation; and (3) better predictive skills. It is found that the multiplicative error model is a much better choice under all three criteria. It extracted the systematic errors more cleanly, was more consistent with the large variability of precipitation measurements, and produced superior predictions of the error characteristics. The additive error model had several weaknesses, such as non constant variance resulting from systematic errors leaking into random errors, and the lack of prediction capability. Therefore, the multiplicative error model is a better choice.

  17. 10 CFR 455.110 - Grant application submittals for technical assistance and energy conservation measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... assistance for energy conservation measures, including renewable resource measures, shall include the... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Grant application submittals for technical assistance and energy conservation measures. 455.110 Section 455.110 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY...

  18. 10 CFR 455.110 - Grant application submittals for technical assistance and energy conservation measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... assistance for energy conservation measures, including renewable resource measures, shall include the... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Grant application submittals for technical assistance and energy conservation measures. 455.110 Section 455.110 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY...

  19. 10 CFR 455.110 - Grant application submittals for technical assistance and energy conservation measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... assistance for energy conservation measures, including renewable resource measures, shall include the... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Grant application submittals for technical assistance and energy conservation measures. 455.110 Section 455.110 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY...

  20. 10 CFR 455.110 - Grant application submittals for technical assistance and energy conservation measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... assistance for energy conservation measures, including renewable resource measures, shall include the... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Grant application submittals for technical assistance and energy conservation measures. 455.110 Section 455.110 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY...

  1. Time optimal control of an additional food provided predator-prey system with applications to pest management and biological conservation.

    PubMed

    Srinivasu, P D N; Prasad, B S R V

    2010-04-01

    Use of additional food has been widely recognized by experimental scientists as one of the important tools for biological control such as species conservation and pest management. The quality and quantity of additional food supplied to the predators is known to play a vital role in the controllability of the system. The present study is continuation of a previous work that highlights the importance of quality and quantity of the additional food in the dynamics of a predator-prey system in the context of biological control. In this article the controllability of the predator-prey system is analyzed by considering inverse of quality of the additional food as the control variable. Control strategies are offered to steer the system from a given initial state to a required terminal state in a minimum time by formulating Mayer problem of optimal control. It is observed that an optimal strategy is a combination of bang-bang controls and could involve multiple switches. Properties of optimal paths are derived using necessary conditions for Mayer problem. In the light of the results evolved in this work it is possible to eradicate the prey from the eco-system in the minimum time by providing the predator with high quality additional food, which is relevant in the pest management. In the perspective of biological conservation this study highlights the possibilities to drive the state to an admissible interior equilibrium (irrespective of its stability nature) of the system in a minimum time.

  2. Conservation characteristics of wilted perennial ryegrass silage made using biological or chemical additives.

    PubMed

    Conaghan, P; O'Kiely, P; O'Mara, F P

    2010-02-01

    The effects of 7 additive treatments on the fermentation and aerobic stability characteristics of wilted grass silage were studied under laboratory conditions. Treatments included no additive applied (untreated control), ammonium tetraformate at 3 and 6 L/t, homofermentative lactic acid bacteria alone ((ho)LAB), a mixture of Lactobacillus buchneri plus homofermentative lactic acid bacteria ((he+ho)LAB), and an antimicrobial mixture of sodium benzoate, sodium propionate, sodium nitrite, and hexamethylenetetramine at 2.5 and 5 L/t. Additives were compared across 3 consecutive harvests of 2 perennial ryegrass cultivars (AberDart and Fennema) following a 24-h wilt. Silos were opened after at least 100 d of ensilage and aerobic stability was assessed. Season of harvest had a large effect on grass composition at ensiling, producing herbages of relatively low (approximately 145g/kg), medium (approximately 250g/kg), and high (approximately 365g/kg) dry matter (DM) concentrations. Within harvests there were lesser differences between cultivars. The untreated control and (ho)LAB additive produced badly fermented silage from the low-DM herbages and well-fermented silage from the medium- and high-DM herbages. The ammonium tetraformate treatments produced both well-fermented and badly fermented silage from the low-DM herbages depending on cultivar, and consistently well-fermented silage from the medium- and high-DM herbages. The (he+ho)LAB silages had similar or slightly lower standard of fermentation than the untreated and (ho)LAB silages. The antimicrobial mixture produced more silages of lower standard of fermentation than the untreated control and ammonium tetraformate and (ho)LAB additives. All additive treatments, including the untreated control, failed to consistently increase residual water-soluble carbohydrate concentrations at silo opening. Ammonium tetraformate at 6 L/t was the most successful and (he+ho)LAB the least successful additive at increasing residual WSC

  3. Using the conservative nature of fresh leaf surface density to measure foliar area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castillo, Omar S.; Zaragoza, Esther M.; Alvarado, Carlos J.; Barrera, Maria G.; Dasgupta-Schubert, Nabanita

    2014-10-01

    For a herbaceous species, the inverse of the fresh leaf surface density, the Hughes constant, is nearly conserved. We apply the Hughes constant to develop an absolute method of leafarea measurement that requires no regression fits, prior calibrations or oven-drying. The Hughes constant was determined in situ using a known geometry and weights of a sub-set obtained from the fresh leaves whose areas are desired. Subsequently, the leaf-areas (at any desired stratification level), were derived by utilizing the Hughes constant and the masses of the fresh leaves. The proof of concept was established for leaf-discs of the plants Mandevilla splendens and Spathiphyllum wallisii. The conservativeness of the Hughes constant over individual leaf-zones and different leaftypes from the leaves of each species was quantitatively validated. Using the globally averaged Hughes constant for each species, the leaf-area of these and additional co-species plants, were obtained. The leaf-area-measurement-by-mass was cross-checked with standard digital image analysis. There were no statistically significant differences between the leaf-area-measurement-by-mass and the digital image analysis measured leaf-areas and the linear correlation between the two methods was very good. Leaf-areameasurement- by-mass was found to be rapid and simple with accuracies comparable to the digital image analysis method. The greatly reduced cost of leaf-area-measurement-by-mass could be beneficial for small agri-businesses in developing countries.

  4. Health effects associated with energy conservation measures in commercial buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Stenner, R.D.; Baechler, M.C.

    1990-09-01

    Indoor air quality can be impacted by hundreds of different chemicals. More than 900 different organic compounds alone have been identified in indoor air. Health effects that could arise from exposure to individual pollutants or mixtures of pollutants cover the full range of acute and chronic effects, including largely reversible responses, such as rashes and irritations, to the irreversible toxic and carcinogenic effects. These indoor contaminants are emitted from a large variety of materials and substances that are widespread components of everyday life. Pacific Northwest Laboratory conducted a search of the peer-reviewed literature on health effects associated with indoor air contaminants for the Bonneville Power Administration to aid the agency in the preparation of environmental documents. Results are reported in two volumes. Volume 1 summarizes the results of the search of the peer-reviewed literature on health effects associated with a selected list of indoor air contaminants. In addition, the report discusses potential health effects of polychlorinated biphenyls and chlorofluorocarbons. All references to the literature reviewed are found in this document Volume 2. Volume 2 provides detailed information from the literature reviewed, summarizes potential health effects, reports health hazard ratings, and discusses quantitative estimates of carcinogenic risk in humans and animals. Contaminants discussed in this report are those that; have been measured in the indoor air of a public building; have been measured (significant concentrations) in test situations simulating indoor air quality (as presented in the referenced literature); and have a significant hazard rating. 38 refs., 7 figs., 23 tabs.

  5. Cleaning and Cleanliness Measurement of Additive Manufactured Parts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welker, Roger W.; Mitchell, Mark A.

    2015-01-01

    The successful acquisition and utilization of piece parts and assemblies for contamination sensitive applications requires application of cleanliness acceptance criteria. Contamination can be classified using many different schemes. One common scheme is classification as organic, ionic and particulate contaminants. These may be present in and on the surface of solid components and assemblies or may be dispersed in various gaseous or liquid media. This discussion will focus on insoluble particle contamination on the surface of piece parts and assemblies. Cleanliness of parts can be controlled using two strategies, referred to as gross cleanliness and precision cleanliness. Under a gross cleanliness strategy acceptance is based on visual cleanliness. This approach introduces a number of concerns that render it unsuitable for controlling cleanliness of high technology products. Under the precision cleanliness strategy, subjective, visual assessment of cleanliness is replaced by objective measurement of cleanliness. When a precision cleanliness strategy is adopted there naturally arises the question: How clean is clean enough? The six commonly used methods for establishing objective cleanliness acceptance limits will be discussed. Special emphasis shall focus on the use of multiple extraction, a technique that has been demonstrated for additively manufactured parts.

  6. 50 CFR 648.107 - Conservation equivalent measures for the summer flounder fishery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... summer flounder fishery. 648.107 Section 648.107 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND... NORTHEASTERN UNITED STATES Management Measures for the Summer Flounder Fisheries § 648.107 Conservation equivalent measures for the summer flounder fishery. (a) The Regional Administrator has determined that...

  7. 10 CFR 455.111 - Applicant certifications for technical assistance and energy conservation measure grants to...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... for technical assistance programs and energy conservation measures, including renewable resource... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Applicant certifications for technical assistance and energy conservation measure grants to institutions and coordinating agencies. 455.111 Section...

  8. An index of risk as a measure of biodiversity conservation achieved through land reform.

    PubMed

    Walker, Susan; Price, Robbie; Stephens, R T Theo

    2008-02-01

    We measured the net progress of land reform in achieving a national policy goal for biodiversity conservation in the context of ongoing clearing of native vegetation and additions of land to a highly nonrepresentative (residual) reserve network, interior South Island, New Zealand. We used systematic conservation-planning approaches to develop a spatially explicit index of risk of biodiversity loss (RBL). The index incorporated information from national data sets that describe New Zealand's remaining indigenous land cover, legal protection, and land environments and modeled risk to biodiversity on the basis of stated assumptions about the effects of past habitat loss and legal protection. The index identified irreplaceable and vulnerable native habitats in lowland environments as the most at risk of biodiversity loss, and risk was correlated with the density of threatened plant records. To measure achievement, we used changes in the index that reflected gains made and opportunity costs incurred by legal protection and privatization. Application of the index to measure the difference made by land reform showed it had caused a net increase in the risk of biodiversity loss because most land vulnerable to habitat modification and rich in threatened plant species was privatized and land at least risk of biodiversity loss was protected. The application revealed that new high-elevation reserves did little to mitigate biodiversity decline, that privatization of low-elevation land further jeopardized the most vulnerable biodiversity in lowland native habitats, and that outcomes of land reform for biodiversity deteriorated over time. Further development of robust achievement measures is needed to encourage more accountable biodiversity conservation decisions.

  9. A rainfall simulation experiment on soil and water conservation measures - Undesirable results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hösl, R.; Strauss, P.

    2012-04-01

    Sediment and nutrient inputs from agriculturally used land into surface waters are one of the main problems concerning surface water quality. On-site soil and water conservation measures are getting more and more popular throughout the last decades and a lot of research has been done within this issue. Numerous studies can be found about rainfall simulation experiments with different conservation measures tested like no till, mulching employing different types of soil cover, as well as sub soiling practices. Many studies document a more or less great success in preventing soil erosion and enhancing water quality by implementing no till and mulching techniques on farmland but few studies also indicate higher erosion rates with implementation of conservation tillage practices (Strauss et al., 2003). In May 2011 we conducted a field rainfall simulation experiment in Upper Austria to test 5 different maize cultivation techniques: no till with rough seedbed, no till with fine seedbed, mulching with disc harrow and rotary harrow, mulching with rotary harrow and conventional tillage using plough and rotary harrow. Rough seedbed refers to the seedbed preparation at planting of the cover crops. On every plot except on the conventionally managed one cover crops (a mix of Trifolium alexandrinum, Phacelia, Raphanus sativus and Herpestes) were sown in August 2010. All plots were rained three times with deionised water (<50 μS.cm-1) for one hour with 50mm.h-1 rainfall intensity. Surface runoff and soil erosion were measured. Additionally, soil cover by mulch was measured as well as soil texture, bulk density, penetration resistance, surface roughness and soil water content before and after the simulation. The simulation experiments took place about 2 weeks after seeding of maize in spring 2011. The most effective cultivation techniques for soil prevention expectedly proved to be the no till variants, mean erosion rate was about 0.1 kg.h-1, mean surface runoff was 29 l.h-1

  10. 10 CFR 455.111 - Applicant certifications for technical assistance and energy conservation measure grants to...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... energy conservation measure grants to institutions and coordinating agencies. 455.111 Section 455.111 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION GRANT PROGRAMS FOR SCHOOLS AND HOSPITALS AND BUILDINGS OWNED BY UNITS OF LOCAL GOVERNMENT AND PUBLIC CARE INSTITUTIONS Applicant Responsibilities-Grants...

  11. 10 CFR 455.111 - Applicant certifications for technical assistance and energy conservation measure grants to...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... energy conservation measure grants to institutions and coordinating agencies. 455.111 Section 455.111 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION GRANT PROGRAMS FOR SCHOOLS AND HOSPITALS AND BUILDINGS OWNED BY UNITS OF LOCAL GOVERNMENT AND PUBLIC CARE INSTITUTIONS Applicant Responsibilities-Grants...

  12. 10 CFR 455.111 - Applicant certifications for technical assistance and energy conservation measure grants to...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... energy conservation measure grants to institutions and coordinating agencies. 455.111 Section 455.111 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION GRANT PROGRAMS FOR SCHOOLS AND HOSPITALS AND BUILDINGS OWNED BY UNITS OF LOCAL GOVERNMENT AND PUBLIC CARE INSTITUTIONS Applicant Responsibilities-Grants...

  13. 10 CFR 455.111 - Applicant certifications for technical assistance and energy conservation measure grants to...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... energy conservation measure grants to institutions and coordinating agencies. 455.111 Section 455.111 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION GRANT PROGRAMS FOR SCHOOLS AND HOSPITALS AND BUILDINGS OWNED BY UNITS OF LOCAL GOVERNMENT AND PUBLIC CARE INSTITUTIONS Applicant Responsibilities-Grants...

  14. School Energy Management: An Analysis of Energy Conservation Measures under the Schools and Hospitals Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen (Shirley J.) Associates, Inc., Lake Jackson, TX.

    This report analyzes a 1981 survey of public school districts receiving energy conservation measure (ECM) grants under the National Energy Conservation Policy Act, Title III, Cycle 1. The report contains charts of data, analyses of projects, and sections presenting study design, data treatment, findings, and conclusions. The survey's purpose was…

  15. 40 CFR 73.81 - Qualified conservation measures and renewable energy generation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... renewable energy generation. 73.81 Section 73.81 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) SULFUR DIOXIDE ALLOWANCE SYSTEM Energy Conservation and Renewable Energy Reserve § 73.81 Qualified conservation measures and renewable energy generation. (a) Qualified...

  16. Economic tradeoffs between energy conservation measures and district heating in a large US city

    SciTech Connect

    Pine, G D; Sullivan, W G; Eksel, M; Karnitz, M A

    1982-01-01

    An examination is made of the economic implications of applying end-user conservation measures to buildings that are served by a proposed district heating system in the Minneapolis-St. Paul area. End-user conservation is a demand-side conservation strategy typified by changes in building operating procedures and changes in the building shell. District heating with cogeneration is a supply-side conservation method that allows scarce fossil fuels to be more efficiently converted into thermal and electrical energy. Technically these two conservation methods can be applied simultaneously to a densely populated urban are such as Minneapolis-St. Paul, but the implementation of one tends to reduce the economic feasibility of the other. This analysis suggests that building coservation measures will be difficult to justify economically in buildings that are connected to the proposed Minneapolis-St. Paul system.

  17. Additional studies for the spectrophotometric measurement of iodine in water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Previous work in iodine spectroscopy is briefly reviewed. Continued studies of the direct spectrophotometric determination of aqueous iodine complexed with potassium iodide show that free iodine is optimally determined at the isosbestic point for these solutions. The effects on iodine determinations of turbidity and chemical substances (in trace amounts) is discussed and illustrated. At the levels tested, iodine measurements are not significantly altered by such substances. A preliminary design for an on-line, automated iodine monitor with eventual capability of operating also as a controller was analyzed and developed in detail with respect single beam colorimeter operating at two wavelengths (using a rotating filter wheel). A flow-through sample cell allows the instrument to operate continuously, except for momentary stop flow when measurements are made. The timed automatic cycling of the system may be interrupted whenever desired, for manual operation. An analog output signal permits controlling an iodine generator.

  18. 50 CFR 622.273 - Conservation measures for protected species.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... § 622.270(a)(1), and that has on board a pelagic longline must post inside the wheelhouse the sea turtle... turtle bycatch mitigation measures, including gear requirements and sea turtle handling requirements,...

  19. 50 CFR 622.273 - Conservation measures for protected species.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... § 622.270(a)(1), and that has on board a pelagic longline must post inside the wheelhouse the sea turtle... turtle bycatch mitigation measures, including gear requirements and sea turtle handling requirements,...

  20. 50 CFR 622.10 - Conservation measures for protected resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... pelagic longline must post inside the wheelhouse the sea turtle handling and release guidelines provided by NMFS. Such owner or operator must also comply with the sea turtle bycatch mitigation measures, including gear requirements and sea turtle handling requirements, as specified in § 635.21(c)(5)(i) and...

  1. 50 CFR 622.10 - Conservation measures for protected resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... pelagic longline must post inside the wheelhouse the sea turtle handling and release guidelines provided by NMFS. Such owner or operator must also comply with the sea turtle bycatch mitigation measures, including gear requirements and sea turtle handling requirements, as specified in § 635.21(c)(5)(i) and...

  2. 50 CFR 622.10 - Conservation measures for protected resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... pelagic longline must post inside the wheelhouse the sea turtle handling and release guidelines provided by NMFS. Such owner or operator must also comply with the sea turtle bycatch mitigation measures, including gear requirements and sea turtle handling requirements, as specified in § 635.21(c)(5)(i) and...

  3. Cleaning and Cleanliness Measurement of Additive Manufactured Parts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, Mark A.; Raley, Randy

    2016-01-01

    The successful acquisition and utilization of piece parts and assemblies for contamination sensitive applications requires application of cleanliness acceptance criteria. Contamination can be classified using many different schemes. One common scheme is classification as organic, ionic and particulate contaminants. These may be present in and on the surface of solid components and assemblies or may be dispersed in various gaseous or liquid media. This discussion will focus on insoluble particle contamination on the surfaces of piece parts and assemblies. Cleanliness of parts can be controlled using two strategies, referred to as gross cleanliness and precision cleanliness. Under a gross cleanliness strategy acceptance is based on visual cleanliness. This approach introduces a number of concerns that render it unsuitable for controlling cleanliness of high technology products. Under the precision cleanliness strategy, subjective, visual assessment of cleanliness is replaced by objective measurement of cleanliness. When a precision cleanliness strategy is adopted there naturally arises the question: How clean is clean enough? The methods for establishing objective cleanliness acceptance limits will be discussed.

  4. 40 CFR 63.7533 - Can I use efficiency credits earned from implementation of energy conservation measures to comply...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... from implementation of energy conservation measures to comply with this subpart? 63.7533 Section 63... Can I use efficiency credits earned from implementation of energy conservation measures to comply with... implementing energy conservation measures identified in an energy assessment, you may demonstrate...

  5. Determining decision thresholds and evaluating indicators when conservation status is measured as a continuum.

    PubMed

    Connors, B M; Cooper, A B

    2014-12-01

    Categorization of the status of populations, species, and ecosystems underpins most conservation activities. Status is often based on how a system's current indicator value (e.g., change in abundance) relates to some threshold of conservation concern. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves can be used to quantify the statistical reliability of indicators of conservation status and evaluate trade-offs between correct (true positive) and incorrect (false positive) classifications across a range of decision thresholds. However, ROC curves assume a discrete, binary relationship between an indicator and the conservation status it is meant to track, which is a simplification of the more realistic continuum of conservation status, and may limit the applicability of ROC curves in conservation science. We describe a modified ROC curve that treats conservation status as a continuum rather than a discrete state. We explored the influence of this continuum and typical sources of variation in abundance that can lead to classification errors (i.e., random variation and measurement error) on the true and false positive rates corresponding to varying decision thresholds and the reliability of change in abundance as an indicator of conservation status, respectively. We applied our modified ROC approach to an indicator of endangerment in Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) (i.e., percent decline in geometric mean abundance) and an indicator of marine ecosystem structure and function (i.e., detritivore biomass). Failure to treat conservation status as a continuum when choosing thresholds for indicators resulted in the misidentification of trade-offs between true and false positive rates and the overestimation of an indicator's reliability. We argue for treating conservation status as a continuum when ROC curves are used to evaluate decision thresholds in indicators for the assessment of conservation status.

  6. A conservative method of testing whether combination analgesics produce additive or synergistic effects using evidence from acute pain and migraine.

    PubMed

    Moore, R A; Derry, C J; Derry, S; Straube, S; McQuay, H J

    2012-04-01

    Fixed-dose combination analgesics are used widely, and available both on prescription and over-the-counter. Combination drugs should provide more analgesia than with any single drug in the combination, but there is no evidence in humans about whether oral combinations have just additive effects, or are synergistic or even subadditive. We suggest that the measured result for the combination would be the summation of the absolute benefit increase (effect of active drug minus effect of placebo) of each component of a combination if effects were (merely) additive, and greater than the sum of the absolute benefits if they were synergistic. We tested measured effects of combination analgesics against the sum of the absolute benefits in acute pain and migraine using meta-analysis where individual components and combinations were tested against placebo in the same trials, and verified the result with meta-analyses where individual components and combinations were tested against placebo in different trials. Results showed that expected numbers needed to treat (NNT) for additive effects were generally within the 95% confidence interval of measured NNTs. This was true for combinations of paracetamol plus ibuprofen and paracetamol plus opioids in acute pain, and naproxen plus sumatriptan in migraine, but not where efficacy was very low or very high, nor combinations of paracetamol plus dextropropoxyphene. There was no evidence of synergy, defined as supra-additive effects.

  7. Energy conservation: Industry measures. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1997-05-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning techniques and equipment, and program overviews regarding industrial energy conservation measures. Topics include case histories and energy audits in a variety of industries, financial and investment aspects, and descriptions of specific energy conservation projects undertaken in the United States and abroad. The food, metals, pulp and paper, wood, and textile industries are among the industries discussed. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  8. Measures of physiological stress: a transparent or opaque window into the status, management and conservation of species?

    PubMed Central

    Dantzer, Ben; Fletcher, Quinn E.; Boonstra, Rudy; Sheriff, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    . We think that the use of measures of glucocorticoids in conservation physiology has tremendous potential, but there are still a number of methodological concerns, in addition to several crucial questions that should be addressed. PMID:27293644

  9. The Measurement of Time: Children's Construction of Transitivity, Unit Iteration, and Conservation of Speed.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Kathy; Kamii, Constance

    2001-01-01

    Interviews 120 children in kindergarten and grades 2, 4, and 6 with five Piagetian tasks to determine the grade level at which most have constructed transitive reasoning, unit iteration, and conservation of speed. Indicates that construction of the logic necessary to make sense of the measurement of time is generally not complete before sixth…

  10. Role of quantity of additional food to predators as a control in predator-prey systems with relevance to pest management and biological conservation.

    PubMed

    Srinivasu, P D N; Prasad, B S R V

    2011-10-01

    Necessity to understand the role of additional food as a tool in biological control programs is being increasingly felt, particularly due to its eco-friendly nature. A thorough mathematical analysis in this direction revealed the vital role of quality and quantity of the additional food in the controllability of the predator-prey systems. In this article controllability of the additional food--provided predator-prey system is studied from perspectives of pest eradication and biological conservation. Time optimal paths have been constructed to drive the state of the system to a desired terminal state by choosing quantity of the additional food as control variable. The theory developed in this article has been illustrated by solving problems related to pest eradication and biological conservation.

  11. Identification and classification of structural soil conservation measures based on very high resolution stereo satellite data.

    PubMed

    Eckert, Sandra; Tesfay Ghebremicael, Selamawit; Hurni, Hans; Kohler, Thomas

    2017-05-15

    Land degradation affects large areas of land around the globe, with grave consequences for those living off the land. Major efforts are being made to implement soil and water conservation measures that counteract soil erosion and help secure vital ecosystem services. However, where and to what extent such measures have been implemented is often not well documented. Knowledge about this could help to identify areas where soil and water conservation measures are successfully supporting sustainable land management, as well as areas requiring urgent rehabilitation of conservation structures such as terraces and bunds. This study explores the potential of the latest satellite-based remote sensing technology for use in assessing and monitoring the extent of existing soil and water conservation structures. We used a set of very high resolution stereo Geoeye-1 satellite data, from which we derived a detailed digital surface model as well as a set of other spectral, terrain, texture, and filtered information layers. We developed and applied an object-based classification approach, working on two segmentation levels. On the coarser level, the aim was to delimit certain landscape zones. Information about these landscape zones is useful in distinguishing different types of soil and water conservation structures, as each zone contains certain specific types of structures. On the finer level, the goal was to extract and identify different types of linear soil and water conservation structures. The classification rules were based mainly on spectral, textural, shape, and topographic properties, and included object relationships. This approach enabled us to identify and separate from other classes the majority (78.5%) of terraces and bunds, as well as most hillside terraces (81.25%). Omission and commission errors are similar to those obtained by the few existing studies focusing on the same research objective but using different types of remotely sensed data. Based on our results

  12. Evaluating the Impact of Conservation Measures on Urban Water Fluxes in Los Angeles, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manago, K. F.; Hogue, T. S.

    2015-12-01

    California is experiencing one of the most severe droughts on record. In response, the State Water Resources Control Board adopted emergency regulations in May, implementing a mandatory 25% statewide reduction in potable urban water use. Prior to this, the Los Angeles Department of Water and Power had implemented mandatory restrictions and a pricing increase in 2009 and 2010, respectively to encourage reduced consumption. Understanding where conservation measures are having the greatest impact and how it is affecting water fluxes throughout the basin is critical, especially when considering the push for increased reliance on local water resources. Los Angeles is selected as the study area due to its high degree of urbanization, while the Ballona Creek watershed is used for runoff analysis due to the lack of dams and wastewater treatment plants altering flow in the channel. Utilizing a combination of runoff gages, groundwater monitoring well data, consumption data, and hydrologic models, we aim to evaluate how hydrologic processes have been influenced by water conservation measures. The work focuses on how changes in outdoor water use have influenced discharge patterns and groundwater recharge since most of the water conservation efforts have been focused on decreasing landscape irrigation. Previous work has shown that outdoor irrigation rates have decreased after the implementation of conservation measures, causing a decrease in vegetation greenness across the city. Runoff has also significantly decreased, especially dry season discharge. Further work is also being conducted to evaluate changes to evapotranspiration, using a combination of NLDAS model results and CIMIS reference ET data, as well as groundwater and recharge, utilizing a Bayesian Hierarchical model to fill missing groundwater monitoring well data. Results provide improved understanding of response to, and impacts of, conservation measures which ultimately allow for better water resources management

  13. Factors influencing the acceptance of nature conservation measures--a qualitative study in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Schenk, Anita; Hunziker, Marcel; Kienast, Felix

    2007-04-01

    Landscapes fulfil a multitude of ecological and social functions. Due to the fact that both traditional and everyday landscapes today face many different threats, regulatory measures have been undertaken in many countries to protect and further sustainable landscape development. They include legislation as well as economic incentives. In recent years, however, it has become clear that just to have a few laws and to spend money on subsidies is not enough. Factors other than legislation are also essential to further the sustainable development of landscapes. One of the basic factors affecting the success or failure of landscape conservation measures is public acceptance of these measures. Our project took this as its starting point. The objective was to determine which conditions and factors influence acceptance positively or negatively. To this end 22 Swiss who are directly affected by nature conservation measures, in particular by mire landscape and dry meadow conservation measures, were interviewed using qualitative interview techniques. It is shown that perception, communication, and possibilities to participate are the most decisive driving factors influencing the formation of a long-lasting acceptance. Furthermore, acceptance may be based mainly on economic criteria, on usefulness, on ecological or even aesthetic aspects. It can be shown that not all of these motivations lead to a long-lasting acceptance. Ecologically based acceptance seems the most promising because it is founded on general convictions. Economic incentives--though important--seem to generate only superficial acceptance and do not seem to be as important as is usually assumed.

  14. Are we making the grade? Practices and reported efficacy measures of primate conservation education programs.

    PubMed

    Kling, Katherine J; Hopkins, Mariah E

    2015-04-01

    Conservation education is often employed alongside primate conservation efforts with the aim of changing knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors toward non-human primates. Recommended best-use practices include longevity, use of program incentives, collaboration among educators, and adaptive program assessment, among others. This study surveys primate conservation education programs (PCEPs) to assess the frequency of suggested best-use practices, and to investigate impacts on program efficacy. Online surveys were collected from PCEPs in 2013-2014 (N = 43). The majority of programs reported lengths of 5-10 years, with participant involvement ranging widely from a day to several years. Non-economic and economic incentives were distributed by approximately half of all programs, with programs that provided economic incentives reporting positive participant attitude changes more frequently than those that did not (P = 0.03). While >70% of PCEPs consulted with community leaders, local teachers, and research scientists, only 45.9% collaborated with other conservation educators and only 27% collaborated with cultural experts such as cultural anthropologists. Programs that collaborated with other conservation educators were more likely to report reductions in threats to primates, specifically to bushmeat hunting and capture of primates for the pet trade (P = 0.07). Formal program evaluations were employed by 72.1% of all programs, with the majority of programs using surveys to assess changes to participant attitudes and knowledge. Formal evaluations of participant behavior, community attitudes and behaviors, and threats to primate populations were less common. While results indicate that PCEPs follow many suggested best-use practices, program impacts may be enhanced by greater discussion of economic incentivization, increased collaboration between conservation educators, and improved commitment to adaptive evaluation of changes to behaviors in addition to attitudes and

  15. Sustainable Farming Practices: Ghanaian Farmers' Perception of Erosion and Their Use of Conservation Measures.

    PubMed

    Veihe

    2000-04-01

    / Soil erosion in Africa has been in the limelight over the last two decades with researchers and policy-makers calling for sustainable farming practices. This is often based on the assumption that farmers have a poor perception and little knowledge about soil erosion and conservation measures and completely ignores the realities of the Africanenvironment and the socioeconomic constraints farmers are faced with. This paper investigates the way farmers in northern Ghana perceive soil erosion and their rationality when it comes to their choice of conservation measures, and the question is asked whether the existing farming practices can be considered sustainable. Based on this study it appears that farmers have a clear perception of the problem and adopt a wide range of conservation measures, depending on the availability of stones and grasses, possible side effects associated with using these measures, as well as the time spent on establishing and maintaining them. This study shows that when trying to find solutions to soil erosion problems, both the physical and socioeconomic realities of the environment have to be considered.

  16. Prospects for cost reductions from relaxing additional cross-border measures related to livestock trade.

    PubMed

    Hop, G E; Mourits, M C M; Slager, R; Oude Lansink, A G J M; Saatkamp, H W

    2013-05-01

    Compared with the domestic trade in livestock, intra-communal trade across the European Union (EU) is subject to costly, additional veterinary measures. Short-distance transportation just across a border requires more measures than long-distance domestic transportation, while the need for such additional cross-border measures can be questioned. This study examined the prospects for cost reductions from relaxing additional cross-border measures related to trade within the cross-border region of the Netherlands (NL) and Germany (GER); that is, North Rhine Westphalia and Lower Saxony. The study constructed a deterministic spread-sheet cost model to calculate the costs of both routine veterinary measures (standard measures that apply to both domestic and cross-border transport) and additional cross-border measures (extra measures that only apply to cross-border transport) as applied in 2010. This model determined costs by stakeholder, region and livestock sector, and studied the prospects for cost reduction by calculating the costs after the relaxation of additional cross-border measures. The selection criteria for relaxing these measures were (1) a low expected added value on preventing contagious livestock diseases, (2) no expected additional veterinary risks in case of relaxation of measures and (3) reasonable cost-saving possibilities. The total cost of routine veterinary measures and additional cross-border measures for the cross-border region was €22.1 million, 58% (€12.7 million) of which came from additional cross-border measures. Two-thirds of this €12.7 million resulted from the trade in slaughter animals. The main cost items were veterinary checks on animals (twice in the case of slaughter animals), export certification and control of export documentation. Four additional cross-border measures met the selection criteria for relaxation. The relaxation of these measures could save €8.2 million (€5.0 million for NL and €3.2 million for GER) annually

  17. Gene expression suggests conserved aspects of Hox gene regulation in arthropods and provides additional support for monophyletic Myriapoda.

    PubMed

    Janssen, Ralf; Budd, Graham E

    2010-07-05

    Antisense transcripts of Ultrabithorax (aUbx) in the millipede Glomeris and the centipede Lithobius are expressed in patterns complementary to that of the Ubx sense transcripts. A similar complementary expression pattern has been described for non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) of the bithoraxoid (bxd) locus in Drosophila, in which the transcription of bxd ncRNAs represses Ubx via transcriptional interference. We discuss our findings in the context of possibly conserved mechanisms of Ubx regulation in myriapods and the fly.Bicistronic transcription of Ubx and Antennapedia (Antp) has been reported previously for a myriapod and a number of crustaceans. In this paper, we show that Ubx/Antp bicistronic transcripts also occur in Glomeris and an onychophoran, suggesting further conserved mechanisms of Hox gene regulation in arthropods.Myriapod monophyly is supported by the expression of aUbx in all investigated myriapods, whereas in other arthropod classes, including the Onychophora, aUbx is not expressed. Of the two splice variants of Ubx/Antp only one could be isolated from myriapods, representing a possible further synapomorphy of the Myriapoda.

  18. Global evolutionary isolation measures can capture key local conservation species in Nearctic and Neotropical bird communities.

    PubMed

    Redding, David W; Mooers, Arne O; Şekercioğlu, Çağan H; Collen, Ben

    2015-02-19

    Understanding how to prioritize among the most deserving imperilled species has been a focus of biodiversity science for the past three decades. Though global metrics that integrate evolutionary history and likelihood of loss have been successfully implemented, conservation is typically carried out at sub-global scales on communities of species rather than among members of complete taxonomic assemblages. Whether and how global measures map to a local scale has received little scrutiny. At a local scale, conservation-relevant assemblages of species are likely to be made up of relatively few species spread across a large phylogenetic tree, and as a consequence there are potentially relatively large amounts of evolutionary history at stake. We ask to what extent global metrics of evolutionary history are useful for conservation priority setting at the community level by evaluating the extent to which three global measures of evolutionary isolation (evolutionary distinctiveness (ED), average pairwise distance (APD) and the pendant edge or unique phylogenetic diversity (PD) contribution) capture community-level phylogenetic and trait diversity for a large sample of Neotropical and Nearctic bird communities. We find that prioritizing the most ED species globally safeguards more than twice the total PD of local communities on average, but that this does not translate into increased local trait diversity. By contrast, global APD is strongly related to the APD of those same species at the community level, and prioritizing these species also safeguards local PD and trait diversity. The next step for biologists is to understand the variation in the concordance of global and local level scores and what this means for conservation priorities: we need more directed research on the use of different measures of evolutionary isolation to determine which might best capture desirable aspects of biodiversity.

  19. Computer simulated building energy consumption for verification of energy conservation measures in network facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plankey, B.

    1981-01-01

    A computer program called ECPVER (Energy Consumption Program - Verification) was developed to simulate all energy loads for any number of buildings. The program computes simulated daily, monthly, and yearly energy consumption which can be compared with actual meter readings for the same time period. Such comparison can lead to validation of the model under a variety of conditions, which allows it to be used to predict future energy saving due to energy conservation measures. Predicted energy saving can then be compared with actual saving to verify the effectiveness of those energy conservation changes. This verification procedure is planned to be an important advancement in the Deep Space Network Energy Project, which seeks to reduce energy cost and consumption at all DSN Deep Space Stations.

  20. Measuring the Effectiveness of Conservation: A Novel Framework to Quantify the Benefits of Sage-Grouse Conservation Policy and Easements in Wyoming

    PubMed Central

    Copeland, Holly E.; Pocewicz, Amy; Naugle, David E.; Griffiths, Tim; Keinath, Doug; Evans, Jeffrey; Platt, James

    2013-01-01

    Increasing energy and housing demands are impacting wildlife populations throughout western North America. Greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus), a species known for its sensitivity to landscape-scale disturbance, inhabits the same low elevation sage-steppe in which much of this development is occurring. Wyoming has committed to maintain sage-grouse populations through conservation easements and policy changes that conserves high bird abundance “core” habitat and encourages development in less sensitive landscapes. In this study, we built new predictive models of oil and gas, wind, and residential development and applied build-out scenarios to simulate future development and measure the efficacy of conservation actions for maintaining sage-grouse populations. Our approach predicts sage-grouse population losses averted through conservation action and quantifies return on investment for different conservation strategies. We estimate that without conservation, sage-grouse populations in Wyoming will decrease under our long-term scenario by 14–29% (95% CI: 4–46%). However, a conservation strategy that includes the “core area” policy and $250 million in targeted easements could reduce these losses to 9–15% (95% CI: 3–32%), cutting anticipated losses by roughly half statewide and nearly two-thirds within sage-grouse core breeding areas. Core area policy is the single most important component, and targeted easements are complementary to the overall strategy. There is considerable uncertainty around the magnitude of our estimates; however, the relative benefit of different conservation scenarios remains comparable because potential biases and assumptions are consistently applied regardless of the strategy. There is early evidence based on a 40% reduction in leased hectares inside core areas that Wyoming policy is reducing potential for future fragmentation inside core areas. Our framework using build-out scenarios to anticipate species declines

  1. Measuring the effectiveness of conservation: a novel framework to quantify the benefits of sage-grouse conservation policy and easements in Wyoming.

    PubMed

    Copeland, Holly E; Pocewicz, Amy; Naugle, David E; Griffiths, Tim; Keinath, Doug; Evans, Jeffrey; Platt, James

    2013-01-01

    Increasing energy and housing demands are impacting wildlife populations throughout western North America. Greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus), a species known for its sensitivity to landscape-scale disturbance, inhabits the same low elevation sage-steppe in which much of this development is occurring. Wyoming has committed to maintain sage-grouse populations through conservation easements and policy changes that conserves high bird abundance "core" habitat and encourages development in less sensitive landscapes. In this study, we built new predictive models of oil and gas, wind, and residential development and applied build-out scenarios to simulate future development and measure the efficacy of conservation actions for maintaining sage-grouse populations. Our approach predicts sage-grouse population losses averted through conservation action and quantifies return on investment for different conservation strategies. We estimate that without conservation, sage-grouse populations in Wyoming will decrease under our long-term scenario by 14-29% (95% CI: 4-46%). However, a conservation strategy that includes the "core area" policy and $250 million in targeted easements could reduce these losses to 9-15% (95% CI: 3-32%), cutting anticipated losses by roughly half statewide and nearly two-thirds within sage-grouse core breeding areas. Core area policy is the single most important component, and targeted easements are complementary to the overall strategy. There is considerable uncertainty around the magnitude of our estimates; however, the relative benefit of different conservation scenarios remains comparable because potential biases and assumptions are consistently applied regardless of the strategy. There is early evidence based on a 40% reduction in leased hectares inside core areas that Wyoming policy is reducing potential for future fragmentation inside core areas. Our framework using build-out scenarios to anticipate species declines provides estimates

  2. 49 CFR 192.935 - What additional preventive and mitigative measures must an operator take?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false What additional preventive and mitigative measures... STANDARDS Gas Transmission Pipeline Integrity Management § 192.935 What additional preventive and mitigative... those already required by Part 192 to prevent a pipeline failure and to mitigate the consequences of...

  3. Potential social, institutional, and environmental impacts of selected energy-conservation measures in two Washington communities. [Seattle and Yakima

    SciTech Connect

    Edelson, E.; Olsen, M.

    1980-03-01

    The likely environmental, social, and institutional impacts of selected energy-conservation measures in two communities in Washington state are reported. The five conservation measures investigated in this study were: (1) retrofitting existing buildings; (2) district heating and Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES); (3) small automobiles and vehicle redesign; (4) land-use and housing modifications; and (5) electric-utility rate reform. Twenty potential impact areas were selected for analysis. These areas were divided into five categories of environmental impacts, economic impacts, community impacts, personal impacts, and overall quality of life in the community. The research was conducted in Seattle and Yakima, Washington. In each location, about two dozen public officials and business, labor, and community leaders were interviewed. Their diverse views are summarized. The Seattle respondents saw energy conservation as a highly desirable policy with a number of temporary, transitional problems arising as energy-conservation measures were implemented. Yakima respondents, in contrast, did not expect to encounter many serious energy problems in the foreseeable future and consequently viewed energy conservation as a relatively minor community concern. Moreover, they anticipated that many conservation measures, if implemented by the government, would encounter either apathy or resistance in their community. Two broad generalizations can bedrawn from these interviews: (1) energy conservation will basically be beneficial for the natural environment and our society; and (2) if energy conservation does become a dominant thrust in our society, it could stimulate and reinforce a much broader process of fundamental social change. (LCL)

  4. Evaluation of corrective measures implemented for the preventive conservation of fresco paintings in Ariadne’s house (Pompeii, Italy)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background A microclimate monitoring study was conducted in 2008 aimed at assessing the conservation risks affecting the valuable wall paintings decorating Ariadne’s House (Pompeii, Italy). It was found that thermohygrometric conditions were very unfavorable for the conservation of frescoes. As a result, it was decided to implement corrective measures, and the transparent polycarbonate sheets covering three rooms (one of them delimited by four walls and the others composed of three walls) were replaced by opaque roofs. In order to examine the effectiveness of this measure, the same monitoring system comprised by 26 thermohygrometric probes was installed again in summer 2010. Data recorded in 2008 and 2010 were compared. Results Microclimate conditions were also monitored in a control room with the same roof in both years. The average temperature in this room was lower in 2010, and it was decided to consider a time frame of 18 summer days with the same mean temperature in both years. In the rooms with three walls, the statistical analysis revealed that the diurnal maximum temperature decreased about 3.5°C due to the roof change, and the minimum temperature increased 0.5°C. As a result, the daily thermohygrometric variations resulted less pronounced in 2010, with a reduction of approximately 4°C, which is favorable for the preservation of mural paintings. In the room with four walls, the daily fluctuations also decreased about 4°C. Based on the results, other alternative actions are discussed aimed at improving the conservation conditions of wall paintings. Conclusions The roof change has reduced the most unfavorable thermohygrometric conditions affecting the mural paintings, but additional actions should be adopted for a long term preservation of Pompeian frescoes. PMID:23683173

  5. UARS MILS O3 soundings compared with lidar measurements using the conservative coordinates reconstruction technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Redaelli, G.; Lait, L. R.; Schoeberl, M.; Newman, P. A.; Visconti, G.; D'Altorio, A.; Masci, F.; Rizi, V.; Froidevaux, L.; Waters, J. W.

    1994-01-01

    A technique based on conservative properties of certain meteorological fields is used to compare ozone measurements from the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) with soundings from a lidar system operated at midlatitudes by the University of L'Aquila, Italy. A few typical cases are analyzed in connection with the position of the vortex relative to the observing station, and it is shown that in general lidar observations taken within the vortex compare well with the UARS data, regardless of whether they are coincident with a satellite overpass. It is shown that such analysis may be useful for comparing measurements of the same quantity taken at different sites using different measurement techniques.

  6. Monitoring great ape and elephant abundance at large spatial scales: measuring effectiveness of a conservation landscape.

    PubMed

    Stokes, Emma J; Strindberg, Samantha; Bakabana, Parfait C; Elkan, Paul W; Iyenguet, Fortuné C; Madzoké, Bola; Malanda, Guy Aimé F; Mowawa, Brice S; Moukoumbou, Calixte; Ouakabadio, Franck K; Rainey, Hugo J

    2010-04-23

    Protected areas are fundamental to biodiversity conservation, but there is growing recognition of the need to extend beyond protected areas to meet the ecological requirements of species at larger scales. Landscape-scale conservation requires an evaluation of management impact on biodiversity under different land-use strategies; this is challenging and there exist few empirical studies. In a conservation landscape in northern Republic of Congo we demonstrate the application of a large-scale monitoring program designed to evaluate the impact of conservation interventions on three globally threatened species: western gorillas, chimpanzees and forest elephants, under three land-use types: integral protection, commercial logging, and community-based natural resource management. We applied distance-sampling methods to examine species abundance across different land-use types under varying degrees of management and human disturbance. We found no clear trends in abundance between land-use types. However, units with interventions designed to reduce poaching and protect habitats--irrespective of land-use type--harboured all three species at consistently higher abundance than a neighbouring logging concession undergoing no wildlife management. We applied Generalized-Additive Models to evaluate a priori predictions of species response to different landscape processes. Our results indicate that, given adequate protection from poaching, elephants and gorillas can profit from herbaceous vegetation in recently logged forests and maintain access to ecologically important resources located outside of protected areas. However, proximity to the single integrally protected area in the landscape maintained an overriding positive influence on elephant abundance, and logging roads--even subject to anti-poaching controls--were exploited by elephant poachers and had a major negative influence on elephant distribution. Chimpanzees show a clear preference for unlogged or more mature forests

  7. Effects of land use changes and conservation measures on land degradation under a Mediterranean climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohawesh, Y.; Taimeh, A.; Ziadat, F.

    2015-01-01

    Land degradation resulting from improper land use and management is a major cause of declined productivity in the arid environment. The objectives of this study were to examine the effects of a sequence of land use changes, soil conservation measures, and the time since their implementation on the degradation of selected soil properties. The climate for the selected 105 km2 watershed varies from semi-arid sub-tropical to Mediterranean sub-humid. Land use changes were detected using aerial photographs acquired in 1953, 1978, and 2008. A total of 218 samples were collected from 40 sites in three different rainfall zones to represent different land use changes and different lengths of time since the construction of stone walls. Analyses of variance were used to test the differences between the sequences of land use changes (interchangeable sequences of forest, orchards, field crops, and range), the time since the implementation of soil conservation measures, and rainfall on the thickness of the A-horizon, soil organic carbon content, and texture. Soil organic carbon reacts actively with different combinations and sequences of land use changes. The time since stone walls were constructed showed significant impacts on soil organic carbon and the thickness of the surface horizon. The effects of changing the land use and whether the changes were associated with the construction of stone walls, varied according to the annual rainfall. The results help in understanding the effects of land use changes on land degradation processes and carbon sequestration potential and in formulating sound soil conservation plans.

  8. Analysis of error-prone survival data under additive hazards models: measurement error effects and adjustments.

    PubMed

    Yan, Ying; Yi, Grace Y

    2016-07-01

    Covariate measurement error occurs commonly in survival analysis. Under the proportional hazards model, measurement error effects have been well studied, and various inference methods have been developed to correct for error effects under such a model. In contrast, error-contaminated survival data under the additive hazards model have received relatively less attention. In this paper, we investigate this problem by exploring measurement error effects on parameter estimation and the change of the hazard function. New insights of measurement error effects are revealed, as opposed to well-documented results for the Cox proportional hazards model. We propose a class of bias correction estimators that embraces certain existing estimators as special cases. In addition, we exploit the regression calibration method to reduce measurement error effects. Theoretical results for the developed methods are established, and numerical assessments are conducted to illustrate the finite sample performance of our methods.

  9. Analysis of occupational accidents: prevention through the use of additional technical safety measures for machinery

    PubMed Central

    Dźwiarek, Marek; Latała, Agata

    2016-01-01

    This article presents an analysis of results of 1035 serious and 341 minor accidents recorded by Poland's National Labour Inspectorate (PIP) in 2005–2011, in view of their prevention by means of additional safety measures applied by machinery users. Since the analysis aimed at formulating principles for the application of technical safety measures, the analysed accidents should bear additional attributes: the type of machine operation, technical safety measures and the type of events causing injuries. The analysis proved that the executed tasks and injury-causing events were closely connected and there was a relation between casualty events and technical safety measures. In the case of tasks consisting of manual feeding and collecting materials, the injuries usually occur because of the rotating motion of tools or crushing due to a closing motion. Numerous accidents also happened in the course of supporting actions, like removing pollutants, correcting material position, cleaning, etc. PMID:26652689

  10. Indwelling catheter and conservative measures in the treatment of abdominal compartment syndrome in fulminant acute pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Zhao-Xi; Huang, Hai-Rong; Zhou, Hong

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To study the effect of combined indwelling catheter, hemofiltration, respiration support and traditional Chinese medicine (e.g. Dahuang) in treating abdominal compartment syndrome of fulminant acute pancreatitis. METHODS: Patients with fulminant acute pancreatitis were divided randomly into 2 groups of combined indwelling catheter celiac drainage and intra-abdominal pressure monitoring and routine conservative measures group (group 1) and control group (group 2). Routine non-operative conservative treatments including hemofiltration, respiration support, gastrointestinal TCM ablution were also applied in control group patients. Effectiveness of the two groups was observed, and APACHE II scores were applied for analysis. RESULTS: On the second and fifth days after treatment, APACHE II scores of group 1 and 2 patients were significantly different. Comparison of effectiveness (abdominalgia and burbulence relief time, hospitalization time) between groups 1 and 2 showed significant difference, as well as incidence rates of cysts formation. Mortality rates of groups 1 and 2 were 10.0% and 20.7%, respectively. For patients in group 1, celiac drainage quantity and intra-abdominal pressure, and hospitalization time were positively correlated (r = 0.552, 0.748, 0.923, P < 0.01) with APACHE II scores. CONCLUSION: Combined indwelling catheter celiac drainage and intra-abdominal pressure monitoring, short veno-venous hemofiltration (SVVH), gastrointestinal TCM ablution, respiration support have preventive and treatment effects on abdominal compartment syndrome of fulminant acute pancreatitis. PMID:16937509

  11. 49 CFR 192.935 - What additional preventive and mitigative measures must an operator take?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... accordance with one of the risk assessment approaches in ASME/ANSI B31.8S (incorporated by reference, see § 192.7), section 5, a risk analysis of its pipeline to identify additional measures to protect the high.... (2) Outside force damage. If an operator determines that outside force (e.g., earth movement,...

  12. 49 CFR 192.935 - What additional preventive and mitigative measures must an operator take?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... accordance with one of the risk assessment approaches in ASME/ANSI B31.8S (incorporated by reference, see § 192.7), section 5, a risk analysis of its pipeline to identify additional measures to protect the high.... (2) Outside force damage. If an operator determines that outside force (e.g., earth movement,...

  13. Non-coincident Inter-instrument Comparisons of Ozone Measurements Using Quasi-conservative Coordinates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lait, L. R.; Newman, P. A.; Schoeberl, M. R.; McGee, T.; Twigg, T.; Browell, E.; Bevilacqua, R.; Andersen, S. B.; DeBacker, H.; Benesova, A.

    2004-01-01

    Ozone measurements from ozonesondes, AROTAL, DIAL, and POAM III instruments during the SOLVE-2/VINTERSOL period are composited in a time-varying, flow-following quasi-conservative (PV-6) coordinate space; the resulting composites from each instrument are mapped onto the other instruments locations and times. The mapped data are then used to intercompare data from the different instruments. Overall, the four data sets are found to be in good agreement. AROTAL shows somewhat lower values below 16 km, and DIAL has a positive bias at the upper limits of its altitude range. These intercomparisons are consistent with those obtained from more conventional near-coincident profiles, where available. Although the PV-theta mapping technique entails larger uncertainties of individual profile differences compared to direct near-coincident comparisons, the ability to include much larger numbers of comparisons can make this technique advantageous.

  14. Study raises questions about measurement of 'additionality,'or maintaining domestic health spending amid foreign donations.

    PubMed

    Garg, Charu C; Evans, David B; Dmytraczenko, Tania; Izazola-Licea, José-Antonio; Tangcharoensathien, Viroj; Ejeder, Tessa Tan-Torres

    2012-02-01

    Donor nations and philanthropic organizations increasingly require that funds provided for a specific health priority such as HIV should supplement domestic spending on that priority-a concept known as "additionality." We investigated the "additionality" concept using data from Honduras, Rwanda, and Thailand, and we found that the three countries increased funding for HIV in response to increased donor funding. In contrast, the study revealed that donors, faced with increased Global Fund resources for HIV in certain countries, tended to decrease their funding for HIV or shift funds for use in non-HIV health areas. More broadly, we found many problems in the measurement and interpretation of additionality. These findings suggest that it would be preferable for donors and countries to agree on how best to use available domestic and external funds to improve population health, and to develop better means of tracking outcomes, than to try to develop more sophisticated methods to track additionality.

  15. Methods of Measuring Vapor Pressures of Lubricants With Their Additives Using TGA and/or Microbalances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scialdone, John J.; Miller, Michael K.; Montoya, Alex F.

    1996-01-01

    The life of a space system may be critically dependent on the lubrication of some of its moving parts. The vapor pressure, the quantity of the available lubricant, the temperature and the exhaust venting conductance passage are important considerations in the selection and application of a lubricant. In addition, the oil additives employed to provide certain properties of low friction, surface tension, antioxidant and load bearing characteristics, are also very important and need to be known with regard to their amounts and vapor pressures. This paper reports on the measurements and analyses carried out to obtain those parameters for two often employed lubricants, the Apiezon(TM)-C and the Krytox(TM) AB. The measurements were made employing an electronic microbalance and a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) modified to operate in a vacuum. The results have been compared to other data on these oils when available. The identification of the mass fractions of the additives in the oil and their vapor pressures as a function of the temperature were carried out. These may be used to estimate the lubricant life given its quantity and the system vent exhaust conductance. It was found that the Apiezon(TM)-C has three main components with different rates of evaporation while the Krytox(TM) did not indicate any measurable additive.

  16. Energy conservation: Industry measures. January 1985-September 1991 (Citations from the NTIS Data Base). Rept. for Jan 85-Sep 91

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-08-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning techniques and equipment, and program overviews regarding industrial energy conservation measures. Topics include case histories and energy audits in a variety of industries, financial and investment aspects, and descriptions of specific energy conservation projects undertaken in the United States and abroad. The food, metals, pulp and paper, wood, and textile industries are among the industries discussed. (Contains 196 citations with title list and subject index.)

  17. Conservation Considerations for a Management Measure: An Integrated Approach to Hare Rearing and Release

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokos, Christos; Birtsas, Periklis; Papaspyropoulos, Konstantinos G.; Giannakopoulos, Alexios; Athanasiou, Labrini V.; Manolakou, Katerina; Spyrou, Vassiliki; Billinis, Charalambos

    2015-01-01

    Wildlife managers are challenged with the task of deciding whether a management measure is appropriate or not, and furthermore they have to convince others about the merits of their decision. Population decline of some hare species (genus Lepus) has resulted in their Red Listing and conservation measures are being undertaken. Release or restocking is a frequent measure in some countries, and thousands of hares are released annually, mainly for hunting purposes. These hares can be obtained by either intensive or extensive rearing or translocation of the wild animals. Each method entails difficulties and different survival rates in the wild. Survival rates in the wild are low for hares intensively reared in cages but are higher for hares reared extensively in enclosures and wild translocated hares. The benefits of the hare release practice are significantly lower than the action's implementation cost. Hare releases have not increased significantly the wild hare population or the hunting harvest in areas where the practice has been applied. The risk of genetic and evolutionary degradation and pathogen transmission is possible in wild populations. The need for wise management of this practice is evident and the term `Permitted Transferring Units' should be introduced to denote regions where hares should not be transferred for rearing and release.

  18. Conservation considerations for a management measure: an integrated approach to hare rearing and release.

    PubMed

    Sokos, Christos; Birtsas, Periklis; Papaspyropoulos, Konstantinos G; Giannakopoulos, Alexios; Athanasiou, Labrini V; Manolakou, Katerina; Spyrou, Vassiliki; Billinis, Charalambos

    2015-01-01

    Wildlife managers are challenged with the task of deciding whether a management measure is appropriate or not, and furthermore they have to convince others about the merits of their decision. Population decline of some hare species (genus Lepus) has resulted in their Red Listing and conservation measures are being undertaken. Release or restocking is a frequent measure in some countries, and thousands of hares are released annually, mainly for hunting purposes. These hares can be obtained by either intensive or extensive rearing or translocation of the wild animals. Each method entails difficulties and different survival rates in the wild. Survival rates in the wild are low for hares intensively reared in cages but are higher for hares reared extensively in enclosures and wild translocated hares. The benefits of the hare release practice are significantly lower than the action's implementation cost. Hare releases have not increased significantly the wild hare population or the hunting harvest in areas where the practice has been applied. The risk of genetic and evolutionary degradation and pathogen transmission is possible in wild populations. The need for wise management of this practice is evident and the term 'Permitted Transferring Units' should be introduced to denote regions where hares should not be transferred for rearing and release.

  19. Online measurement of bead geometry in GMAW-based additive manufacturing using passive vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Jun; Zhang, Guangjun

    2013-11-01

    Additive manufacturing based on gas metal arc welding is an advanced technique for depositing fully dense components with low cost. Despite this fact, techniques to achieve accurate control and automation of the process have not yet been perfectly developed. The online measurement of the deposited bead geometry is a key problem for reliable control. In this work a passive vision-sensing system, comprising two cameras and composite filtering techniques, was proposed for real-time detection of the bead height and width through deposition of thin walls. The nozzle to the top surface distance was monitored for eliminating accumulated height errors during the multi-layer deposition process. Various image processing algorithms were applied and discussed for extracting feature parameters. A calibration procedure was presented for the monitoring system. Validation experiments confirmed the effectiveness of the online measurement system for bead geometry in layered additive manufacturing.

  20. Estimating soil erosion risk and evaluating erosion control measures for soil conservation planning at Koga watershed in the highlands of Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molla, Tegegne; Sisheber, Biniam

    2017-01-01

    Soil erosion is one of the major factors affecting sustainability of agricultural production in Ethiopia. The objective of this paper is to estimate soil erosion using the universal soil loss equation (RUSLE) model and to evaluate soil conservation practices in a data-scarce watershed region. For this purpose, soil data, rainfall, erosion control practices, satellite images and topographic maps were collected to determine the RUSLE factors. In addition, measurements of randomly selected soil and water conservation structures were done at three sub-watersheds (Asanat, Debreyakob and Rim). This study was conducted in Koga watershed at upper part of the Blue Nile basin which is affected by high soil erosion rates. The area is characterized by undulating topography caused by intensive agricultural practices with poor soil conservation practices. The soil loss rates were determined and conservation strategies have been evaluated under different slope classes and land uses. The results showed that the watershed is affected by high soil erosion rates (on average 42 t ha-1 yr-1), greater than the maximum tolerable soil loss (18 t ha-1 yr-1). The highest soil loss (456 t ha-1 yr-1) estimated from the upper watershed occurred on cultivated lands of steep slopes. As a result, soil erosion is mainly aggravated by land-use conflicts and topographic factors and the rugged topographic land forms of the area. The study also demonstrated that the contribution of existing soil conservation structures to erosion control is very small due to incorrect design and poor management. About 35 % out of the existing structures can reduce soil loss significantly since they were constructed correctly. Most of the existing structures were demolished due to the sediment overload, vulnerability to livestock damage and intense rainfall. Therefore, appropriate and standardized soil and water conservation measures for different erosion-prone land uses and land forms need to be implemented in Koga

  1. Does addition of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) in conservative care of knee arthritis successfully postpone the need for joint replacement?

    PubMed

    Ip, David

    2015-12-01

    The current study evaluates whether the addition of low-level laser therapy into standard conventional physical therapy in elderly with bilateral symptomatic tri-compartmental knee arthritis can successfully postpone the need for joint replacement surgery. A prospective randomized cohort study of 100 consecutive unselected elderly patients with bilateral symptomatic knee arthritis with each knee randomized to receive either treatment protocol A consisting of conventional physical therapy or protocol B which is the same as protocol A with added low-level laser therapy. The mean follow-up was 6 years. Treatment failure was defined as breakthrough pain which necessitated joint replacement surgery. After a follow-up of 6 years, patients clearly benefited from treatment with protocol B as only one knee needed joint replacement surgery, while nine patients treated with protocol A needed surgery (p < 0.05). We conclude low-level laser therapy should be incorporated into standard conservative treatment protocol for symptomatic knee arthritis.

  2. Assessment of selected conservation measures for high-temperature process industries

    SciTech Connect

    Kusik, C L; Parameswaran, K; Nadkarni, R; O'Neill, J K; Malhotra, S; Hyde, R; Kinneberg, D; Fox, L; Rossetti, M

    1981-01-01

    Energy conservation projects involving high-temperature processes in various stages of development are assessed to quantify their energy conservation potential; to determine their present status of development; to identify their research and development needs and estimate the associated costs; and to determine the most effective role for the Federal government in developing these technologies. The program analyzed 25 energy conserving processes in the iron and steel, aluminium, copper, magnesium, cement, and glassmaking industries. A preliminary list of other potential energy conservation projects in these industries is also presented in the appendix. (MCW)

  3. Measurement of powder bed density in powder bed fusion additive manufacturing processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacob, G.; Donmez, A.; Slotwinski, J.; Moylan, S.

    2016-11-01

    Many factors influence the performance of additive manufacturing (AM) processes, resulting in a high degree of variation in process outcomes. Therefore, quantifying these factors and their correlations to process outcomes are important challenges to overcome to enable widespread adoption of emerging AM technologies. In the powder bed fusion AM process, the density of the powder layers in the powder bed is a key influencing factor. This paper introduces a method to determine the powder bed density (PBD) during the powder bed fusion (PBF) process. A complete uncertainty analysis associated with the measurement method was also described. The resulting expanded measurement uncertainty, U PBD (k  =  2), was determined as 0.004 g · cm-3. It was shown that this expanded measurement uncertainty is about three orders of magnitude smaller than the typical powder bed density. This method enables establishing correlations between the changes in PBD and the direction of motion of the powder recoating arm.

  4. A new approach to handle additive and multiplicative uncertainties in the measurement for ? LPV filtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacerda, Márcio J.; Tognetti, Eduardo S.; Oliveira, Ricardo C. L. F.; Peres, Pedro L. D.

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents a general framework to cope with full-order ? linear parameter-varying (LPV) filter design subject to inexactly measured parameters. The main novelty is the ability of handling additive and multiplicative uncertainties in the measurements, for both continuous and discrete-time LPV systems, in a unified approach. By conveniently modelling scheduling parameters and uncertainties affecting the measurements, the ? filter design problem can be expressed in terms of robust matrix inequalities that become linear when two scalar parameters are fixed. Therefore, the proposed conditions can be efficiently solved through linear matrix inequality relaxations based on polynomial solutions. Numerical examples are presented to illustrate the improved efficiency of the proposed approach when compared to other methods and, more important, its capability to deal with scenarios where the available strategies in the literature cannot be used.

  5. Classicality condition on a system observable in a quantum measurement and a relative-entropy conservation law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuramochi, Yui; Ueda, Masahito

    2015-03-01

    We consider the information flow on a system observable X corresponding to a positive-operator-valued measure under a quantum measurement process Y described by a completely positive instrument from the viewpoint of the relative entropy. We establish a sufficient condition for the relative-entropy conservation law which states that the average decrease in the relative entropy of the system observable X equals the relative entropy of the measurement outcome of Y , i.e., the information gain due to measurement. This sufficient condition is interpreted as an assumption of classicality in the sense that there exists a sufficient statistic in a joint successive measurement of Y followed by X such that the probability distribution of the statistic coincides with that of a single measurement of X for the premeasurement state. We show that in the case when X is a discrete projection-valued measure and Y is discrete, the classicality condition is equivalent to the relative-entropy conservation for arbitrary states. The general theory on the relative-entropy conservation is applied to typical quantum measurement models, namely, quantum nondemolition measurement, destructive sharp measurements on two-level systems, a photon counting, a quantum counting, homodyne and heterodyne measurements. These examples except for the nondemolition and photon-counting measurements do not satisfy the known Shannon-entropy conservation law proposed by Ban [M. Ban, J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 32, 1643 (1999), 10.1088/0305-4470/32/9/012], implying that our approach based on the relative entropy is applicable to a wider class of quantum measurements.

  6. Measuring the Contribution of Agricultural Conservation Practices to Observed Trends and Recent Condition in Water Quality Indicators in Ohio, USA.

    PubMed

    Miltner, Robert J

    2015-11-01

    Over the last three decades, significant investments made to upgrade wastewater infrastructure and manage pollution from diffuse sources have resulted in measurably improved water quality and biological conditions in Ohio's rivers and streams. Conservation measures to reduce soil loss appear to have contributed significantly to the improvement witnessed over the last two decades and should therefore be continued. Within the most recent timeframe examined, little difference was found in either total phosphorus or suspended sediment concentration in relation to conservation measures, indicating that the environmental benefits of measures targeting soil loss may be approaching an asymptote. Conservation measures targeting livestock and forage management, however, appear to have reduced nitrogen concentrations within the recent time frame. An examination of the interrelationships between habitat quality, conservation measures, and land use indicated that water quality was generally mediated by interactions with stream habitat quality. However, the positive effect of habitat quality was reduced in catchments draining fine-textured soils. The implication of these latter two findings suggest that proscriptively adding natural function to the large network of ditched and maintained conveyances draining agricultural lands would substantially improve water quality, but management at the field level is necessary to minimize phosphorus losses.

  7. Sixty-five: Communication and the Adoption of Energy Conservation Measures by the Elderly.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, Robert J.

    To determine the relationship of various forms of communication to adoption of energy conservation behavior among homeowners, and to compare the energy conserving behavior of those under 65 with those over 65, a three-year panel study was conducted in a Midwest suburban community. Heads of households who owned single family dwellings were…

  8. Biophysical and socioeconomic impacts of soil and water conservation measures. An evaluation of Sustainable Land Management in SE Spain.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Vente, J.; Solé-Benet, A.; López, J.; Boix-Fayos, C.

    2012-04-01

    In close collaboration with stakeholders promising soil and water conservation measures were selected as part of the EU funded DESIRE project. These measures were monitored for nearly three years at an experimental farm in the upper Guadalentin (SE-Spain). Four Sustainable Land Management (SLM) measures were implemented on rainfed almonds: a) reduced tillage, b) green manure, c) straw mulch, d) traditional water harvesting. A fifth measure (e) reduced tillage of cereals, was compared to conventional mouldboard tillage. Here, we present monitoring results according to biophysical and socioeconomic criteria. SLM measures a, b and e, aim to reduce soil and water loss through runoff. Therefore, for each measure three replica erosion-runoff plots and a control plot were installed to monitor soil and water loss and soil moisture content at two depths. SLM measures c and d aim to increase soil water content by preventing soil evaporation and adding additional water by water harvesting respectively. In these fields, the volume of harvested water was registered and soil water content was monitored. In all experiments, farm operation costs and crop harvest were monitored as well. In the almond fields, green manure and reduced tillage significantly reduced soil and water loss as compared to the control plot with normal tillage operations. Also for the cereal field, results show lower erosion rates under reduced tillage as compared to traditional tillage operation. In two successive years, the highest almond harvest was found in the field with water harvesting (d), followed by the green manure field (b), though no significant differences were found in soil water content with their control plots. Mulching did not show a significant effect on soil water content or harvest. Four of the selected SLM options showed a positive effect on the protection of soil and water resources, and were beneficial for crop yield. Whereas, reduced tillage also results in lower production costs, the

  9. Neutralizer for TRIUMF's experiment for measurements of parity non-conservation in francium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorelov, Alexandre; Behr, J. A.; Kalita, M. R.; Pearson, M. R.; Tandecki, M.,; L, D.; Aubin, S.; Collister, R.; Dehart, A. C.; Gwinner, G.; Gomez, E.; Orozco, L. A.; Z, J.

    2016-09-01

    The experiment at TRIUMF for measurements of parity non-conservation (PNC) effects in magneto-optically trapped (MOT) isotopes of francium to test the Standard Model at low energies underwent significant development. In particular, we have overhauled the design of the neutralizer, which catches ionized atoms from the ISAC radioactive beam facility and releases them in neutral form for trapping. We have adopted the design idea, proposed by group of researchers from State University of New York, Stony Brook. It assumed sequential collecting of radioactive species on cold foil, transport them to capture cell and release during short time heating of the foil. We have modified original electric connections to the foil, the way of mounting foil and replaced yttrium foil by zirconium one, more robust. Such modifications allowed us to ensure an operation of the neutralizer through more than 500,000 cycles (this makes possible continuous taking of data during 2 months) with the release about 10% of embedded atoms per cycle. This work is supported by the DOE and NSF (USA), CONACYT (Mexico) and NSERC (Canada). TRIUMF receives federal funding via a contribution agreement with the National Research Council of Canada.

  10. Boundedness of completely additive measures with application to 2-local triple derivations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamhalter, Jan; Kudaybergenov, Karimbergen; Peralta, Antonio M.; Russo, Bernard

    2016-02-01

    We prove a Jordan version of Dorofeev's boundedness theorem for completely additive measures and use it to show that every (not necessarily linear nor continuous) 2-local triple derivation on a continuous JBW∗-triple is a triple derivation. 2-local triple derivations are well understood on von Neumann algebras. JBW*-triples, which are properly defined in Section I, are intimately related to infinite dimensional holomorphy and include von Neumann algebras as special cases. In particular, continuous JBW∗-triples can be realized as subspaces of continuous von Neumann algebras which are stable for the triple product xy∗z + zy∗x and closed in the weak operator topology.

  11. Interactions between spatially explicit conservation and management measures: implications for the governance of marine protected areas.

    PubMed

    Cárcamo, P Francisco; Gaymer, Carlos F

    2013-12-01

    Marine protected areas are not established in an institutional and governance vacuum and managers should pay attention to the wider social-ecological system in which they are immersed. This article examines Islas Choros-Damas Marine Reserve, a small marine protected area located in a highly productive and biologically diverse coastal marine ecosystem in northern Chile, and the interactions between human, institutional, and ecological dimensions beyond those existing within its boundaries. Through documents analysis, surveys, and interviews, we described marine reserve implementation (governing system) and the social and natural ecosystem-to-be-governed. We analyzed the interactions and the connections between the marine reserve and other spatially explicit conservation and/or management measures existing in the area and influencing management outcomes and governance. A top-down approach with poor stakeholder involvement characterized the implementation process. The marine reserve is highly connected with other spatially explicit measures and with a wider social-ecological system through various ecological processes and socio-economic interactions. Current institutional interactions with positive effects on the management and governance are scarce, although several potential interactions may be developed. For the study area, any management action must recognize interferences from outside conditions and consider some of them (e.g., ecotourism management) as cross-cutting actions for the entire social-ecological system. We consider that institutional interactions and the development of social networks are opportunities to any collective effort aiming to improve governance of Islas Choros-Damas marine reserve. Communication of connections and interactions between marine protected areas and the wider social-ecological system (as described in this study) is proposed as a strategy to improve stakeholder participation in Chilean marine protected areas.

  12. Interactions Between Spatially Explicit Conservation and Management Measures: Implications for the Governance of Marine Protected Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cárcamo, P. Francisco; Gaymer, Carlos F.

    2013-12-01

    Marine protected areas are not established in an institutional and governance vacuum and managers should pay attention to the wider social-ecological system in which they are immersed. This article examines Islas Choros-Damas Marine Reserve, a small marine protected area located in a highly productive and biologically diverse coastal marine ecosystem in northern Chile, and the interactions between human, institutional, and ecological dimensions beyond those existing within its boundaries. Through documents analysis, surveys, and interviews, we described marine reserve implementation (governing system) and the social and natural ecosystem-to-be-governed. We analyzed the interactions and the connections between the marine reserve and other spatially explicit conservation and/or management measures existing in the area and influencing management outcomes and governance. A top-down approach with poor stakeholder involvement characterized the implementation process. The marine reserve is highly connected with other spatially explicit measures and with a wider social-ecological system through various ecological processes and socio-economic interactions. Current institutional interactions with positive effects on the management and governance are scarce, although several potential interactions may be developed. For the study area, any management action must recognize interferences from outside conditions and consider some of them (e.g., ecotourism management) as cross-cutting actions for the entire social-ecological system. We consider that institutional interactions and the development of social networks are opportunities to any collective effort aiming to improve governance of Islas Choros-Damas marine reserve. Communication of connections and interactions between marine protected areas and the wider social-ecological system (as described in this study) is proposed as a strategy to improve stakeholder participation in Chilean marine protected areas.

  13. A multiple additive regression tree analysis of three exposure measures during Hurricane Katrina.

    PubMed

    Curtis, Andrew; Li, Bin; Marx, Brian D; Mills, Jacqueline W; Pine, John

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyses structural and personal exposure to Hurricane Katrina. Structural exposure is measured by flood height and building damage; personal exposure is measured by the locations of 911 calls made during the response. Using these variables, this paper characterises the geography of exposure and also demonstrates the utility of a robust analytical approach in understanding health-related challenges to disadvantaged populations during recovery. Analysis is conducted using a contemporary statistical approach, a multiple additive regression tree (MART), which displays considerable improvement over traditional regression analysis. By using MART, the percentage of improvement in R-squares over standard multiple linear regression ranges from about 62 to more than 100 per cent. The most revealing finding is the modelled verification that African Americans experienced disproportionate exposure in both structural and personal contexts. Given the impact of exposure to health outcomes, this finding has implications for understanding the long-term health challenges facing this population.

  14. Ants as a measure of effectiveness of habitat conservation planning in southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mitrovich, Milan J.; Matsuda, Tritia; Pease, Krista H.; Fisher, Robert N.

    2010-01-01

    In the United States multispecies habitat conservation plans were meant to be the solution to conflicts between economic development and protection of biological diversity. Although now widely applied, questions exist concerning the scientific credibility of the conservation planning process and effectiveness of the plans. We used ants to assess performance of one of the first regional conservation plans developed in the United States, the Orange County Central-Coastal Natural Community Conservation Plan (NCCP), in meeting its broader conservation objectives of biodiversity and ecosystem-level protection. We collected pitfall data on ants for over 3 years on 172 sites established across a network of conservation lands in coastal southern California. Although recovered native ant diversity for the study area was high, site-occupancy models indicated the invasive and ecologically disruptive Argentine ant ( Linepithema humile) was present at 29% of sites, and sites located within 200 m of urban and agricultural areas were more likely to have been invaded. Within invaded sites, native ants were largely displaced, and their median species richness declined by more than 60% compared with uninvaded sites. At the time of planning, 24% of the 15,133-ha reserve system established by Orange County NCCP fell within 200 m of an urban or agricultural edge. With complete build out of lands surrounding the reserve, the proportion of the reserve system vulnerable to invasion will grow to 44%. Our data indicate that simply protecting designated areas from development is not enough. If habitat conservation plans are to fulfill their conservation promise of ecosystem-level protection, a more-integrated and systematic approach to the process of habitat conservation planning is needed.

  15. Inertial rotation measurement with atomic spins: From angular momentum conservation to quantum phase theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, C.; Yuan, H.; Tang, Z.; Quan, W.; Fang, J. C.

    2016-12-01

    Rotation measurement in an inertial frame is an important technology for modern advanced navigation systems and fundamental physics research. Inertial rotation measurement with atomic spin has demonstrated potential in both high-precision applications and small-volume low-cost devices. After rapid development in the last few decades, atomic spin gyroscopes are considered a promising competitor to current conventional gyroscopes—from rate-grade to strategic-grade applications. Although it has been more than a century since the discovery of the relationship between atomic spin and mechanical rotation by Einstein [Naturwissenschaften, 3(19) (1915)], research on the coupling between spin and rotation is still a focus point. The semi-classical Larmor precession model is usually adopted to describe atomic spin gyroscope measurement principles. More recently, the geometric phase theory has provided a different view of the rotation measurement mechanism via atomic spin. The theory has been used to describe a gyroscope based on the nuclear spin ensembles in diamond. A comprehensive understanding of inertial rotation measurement principles based on atomic spin would be helpful for future applications. This work reviews different atomic spin gyroscopes and their rotation measurement principles with a historical overlook. In addition, the spin-rotation coupling mechanism in the context of the quantum phase theory is presented. The geometric phase is assumed to be the origin of the measurable rotation signal from atomic spins. In conclusion, with a complete understanding of inertial rotation measurements using atomic spin and advances in techniques, wide application of high-performance atomic spin gyroscopes is expected in the near future.

  16. 40 CFR 63.7533 - Can I use efficiency credits earned from implementation of energy conservation measures to comply...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... the source. The benchmark shall be established for a one-year period before the date that an energy... from implementation of energy conservation measures to comply with this subpart? 63.7533 Section 63...) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED)...

  17. 10 CFR 455.113 - Grantee records and reports for technical assistance and energy conservation measure grants to...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    .... To the extent feasible, energy consumption data in each annual report should be the monthly usage... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Grantee records and reports for technical assistance and energy conservation measure grants to institutions and coordinating agencies. 455.113 Section...

  18. 10 CFR 455.113 - Grantee records and reports for technical assistance and energy conservation measure grants to...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    .... To the extent feasible, energy consumption data in each annual report should be the monthly usage... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Grantee records and reports for technical assistance and energy conservation measure grants to institutions and coordinating agencies. 455.113 Section...

  19. Measuring the difference made by conservation initiatives: protected areas and their environmental and social impacts

    PubMed Central

    Ferraro, Paul J.; Pressey, Robert L.

    2015-01-01

    Success in conservation depends on our ability to reduce human pressures in areas that harbour biological diversity and ecosystem services. Legally protecting some of these areas through the creation of protected areas is a key component of conservation efforts globally. To develop effective protected area networks, practitioners need credible, scientific evidence about the degree to which protected areas affect environmental and social outcomes, and how these effects vary with context. Such evidence has been lacking, but the situation is changing as conservation scientists adopt more sophisticated research designs for evaluating protected areas' past impacts and for predicting their future impacts. Complementing these scientific advances, conservation funders and practitioners are paying increasing attention to evaluating their investments with more scientifically rigorous evaluation designs. This theme issue highlights recent advances in the science of protected area evaluations and explores the challenges to developing a more credible evidence base that can help societies achieve their goals of protecting nature while enhancing human welfare. PMID:26460123

  20. Measuring the difference made by conservation initiatives: protected areas and their environmental and social impacts.

    PubMed

    Ferraro, Paul J; Pressey, Robert L

    2015-11-05

    Success in conservation depends on our ability to reduce human pressures in areas that harbour biological diversity and ecosystem services. Legally protecting some of these areas through the creation of protected areas is a key component of conservation efforts globally. To develop effective protected area networks, practitioners need credible, scientific evidence about the degree to which protected areas affect environmental and social outcomes, and how these effects vary with context. Such evidence has been lacking, but the situation is changing as conservation scientists adopt more sophisticated research designs for evaluating protected areas' past impacts and for predicting their future impacts. Complementing these scientific advances, conservation funders and practitioners are paying increasing attention to evaluating their investments with more scientifically rigorous evaluation designs. This theme issue highlights recent advances in the science of protected area evaluations and explores the challenges to developing a more credible evidence base that can help societies achieve their goals of protecting nature while enhancing human welfare.

  1. Measuring a professional conservation education training program for zoos and wildlife parks in China.

    PubMed

    Askue, Laurel; Heimlich, Joe; Yu, Jin Ping; Wang, Xiaohong; Lakly, Shelly

    2009-09-01

    Designed and implemented in 2006, the Academy for Conservation Training (ACT) is a conservation education academy modeled after the Association for Zoos and Aquariums' (AZA) professional conservation education course. ACT incorporates conservation education best practices utilized by AZA-accredited institutions to provide zoo and wildlife park professionals in China with the skills, knowledge, and tools needed to design, implement, and evaluate effective conservation education programs at their facilities. Initial findings indicate that the ACT model is an effective approach to connect these emerging educators with conservation education best practices. The strongest satisfaction responses in this study were in perceptions of the program preparing the individual for work and in personal development. In terms of the longitudinal survey conducted with ACT graduates after the training, the lowest scoring items were the opportunities to meet other zoo educators in China and the quantity of information provided. The most revealing trend in regards to preparedness in becoming zoo educators was that specific pedagogical skills were those where perceived gain was consistent and strong across all three academies.

  2. Additional Measurements and Analyses of H217O and H218O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearson, John; Yu, Shanshan; Walters, Adam; Daly, Adam M.

    2015-06-01

    Historically the analysis of the spectrum of water has been a balance between the quality of the data set and the applicability of the Hamiltonian to a highly non-rigid molecule. Recently, a number of different non-rigid analysis approaches have successfully been applied to 16O water resulting in a self-consistent set of transitions and energy levels to high J which allowed the spectrum to be modeled to experimental precision. The data set for 17O and 18O water was previously reviewed and many of the problematic measurements identified, but Hamiltonian modeling of the remaining data resulted in significantly poorer quality fits than that for the 16O parent. As a result, we have made additional microwave measurements and modeled the existing 17O and 18O data sets with an Euler series model. This effort has illuminated a number of additional problematic measurements in the previous data sets and has resulted in analyses of 17O and 18O water that are of similar quality to the 16O analysis. We report the new lines, the analyses and make recommendations on the quality of the experimental data sets. SS. Yu, J.C. Pearson, B.J. Drouin et al. J. Mol. Spectrosc. 279,~16-25 (2012) J. Tennyson, P.F. Bernath, L.R. Brown et al. J. Quant. Spectrosc. Rad. Trans. 117, 29-58 (2013) J. Tennyson, P.F. Bernath, L.R. Brown et al. J. Quant. Spectrosc. Rad. Trans. 110, 573-596 (2009) H.M. Pickett, J.C. Pearson, C.E. Miller J. Mol. Spectrosc. 233, 174-179 (2005)

  3. Longitudinal and transversal bioimpedance measurements in addition to diagnosis of heart failure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribas, N.; Nescolarde, L.; Domingo, M.; Gastelurrutia, P.; Bayés-Genis, A.; Rosell-Ferrer, J.

    2010-04-01

    Heart Failure (HF) is a clinical syndrome characterised by signs of systemic and pulmonary fluid retention, shortness of breath and/or fatigue. There is a lack of reliable indicators of disease state. Benefits and applicability of non-invasive bioimpedance measurement in the hydration state of soft tissues have been validated, fundamentally, in dialysis patients. Four impedance configurations (2 longitudinal and 2 transversal) were analyzed in 48 HF patients (M=28, F=20) classified according to a clinical disease severity score (CDSS) derived from the Framingham criteria: CDSS<=2 (G1: M = 23, F = 14) and CDSS>2 (G2: M = 5, F = 6). The aim of this study is to analyze longitudinal and transversal bioimpedance measurement at 50 kHz, in addition to clinical diagnosis parameters of heart failure, including: clinical disease severity score (CDSS) and a biomarker concentrations (NT-proBNP). The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was used for the normality test of all variables. The CDSS, NTproBNP and impedance parameters between groups (G1 and G2) were compared by mean of Mann Withney U-test. The statistical significance was considered with P < 0.05. Whole-body impedance measured was analyzed using RXc graph.

  4. Time-Resolved In Situ Measurements During Rapid Alloy Solidification: Experimental Insight for Additive Manufacturing

    DOE PAGES

    McKeown, Joseph T.; Zweiacker, Kai; Liu, Can; ...

    2016-01-27

    In research and industrial environments, additive manufacturing (AM) of metals and alloys is becoming a pervasive technology, though significant challenges remain before widespread implementation of AM can be realized. In situ investigations of rapid alloy solidification with high spatial and temporal resolutions can provide unique experimental insight into microstructure evolution and kinetics that are relevant for AM processing. Hypoeutectic thin-film Al–Cu and Al–Si alloys were investigated using dynamic transmission electron microscopy to monitor pulsed-laser-induced rapid solidification across microsecond timescales. Solid–liquid interface velocities measured from time-resolved images revealed accelerating solidification fronts in both alloys. We observed microstructure evolution, solidification product, andmore » presence of a morphological instability at the solid–liquid interface in the Al–4 at.%Cu alloy are related to the measured interface velocities and small differences in composition that affect the thermophysical properties of the alloys. These time-resolved in situ measurements can inform and validate predictive modeling efforts for AM.« less

  5. Time-Resolved In Situ Measurements During Rapid Alloy Solidification: Experimental Insight for Additive Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    McKeown, Joseph T.; Zweiacker, Kai; Liu, Can; Coughlin, Daniel R.; Clarke, Amy J.; Baldwin, J. Kevin; Gibbs, John W.; Roehling, John D.; Imhoff, Seth D.; Gibbs, Paul J.; Tourret, Damien; Wiezorek, Jörg M. K.; Campbell, Geoffrey H.

    2016-01-27

    In research and industrial environments, additive manufacturing (AM) of metals and alloys is becoming a pervasive technology, though significant challenges remain before widespread implementation of AM can be realized. In situ investigations of rapid alloy solidification with high spatial and temporal resolutions can provide unique experimental insight into microstructure evolution and kinetics that are relevant for AM processing. Hypoeutectic thin-film Al–Cu and Al–Si alloys were investigated using dynamic transmission electron microscopy to monitor pulsed-laser-induced rapid solidification across microsecond timescales. Solid–liquid interface velocities measured from time-resolved images revealed accelerating solidification fronts in both alloys. We observed microstructure evolution, solidification product, and presence of a morphological instability at the solid–liquid interface in the Al–4 at.%Cu alloy are related to the measured interface velocities and small differences in composition that affect the thermophysical properties of the alloys. These time-resolved in situ measurements can inform and validate predictive modeling efforts for AM.

  6. Phylogenetic analyses and characterization of RNase X25 from Drosophila melanogaster suggest a conserved housekeeping role and additional functions for RNase T2 enzymes in protostomes.

    PubMed

    Ambrosio, Linda; Morriss, Stephanie; Riaz, Ayesha; Bailey, Ryan; Ding, Jian; MacIntosh, Gustavo C

    2014-01-01

    Ribonucleases belonging to the RNase T2 family are enzymes associated with the secretory pathway that are almost absolutely conserved in all eukaryotes. Studies in plants and vertebrates suggest they have an important housekeeping function in rRNA recycling. However, little is known about this family of enzymes in protostomes. We characterized RNase X25, the only RNase T2 enzyme in Drosophila melanogaster. We found that RNase X25 is the major contributor of ribonuclease activity in flies as detected by in gel assays, and has an acidic pH preference. Gene expression analyses showed that the RNase X25 transcript is present in all adult tissues and developmental stages. RNase X25 expression is elevated in response to nutritional stresses; consistent with the hypothesis that this enzyme has a housekeeping role in recycling RNA. A correlation between induction of RNase X25 expression and autophagy was observed. Moreover, induction of gene expression was triggered by oxidative stress suggesting that RNase X25 may have additional roles in stress responses. Phylogenetic analyses of this family in protostomes showed that RNase T2 genes have undergone duplication events followed by divergence in several phyla, including the loss of catalytic residues, and suggest that RNase T2 proteins have acquired novel functions. Among those, it is likely that a role in host immunosuppression evolved independently in several groups, including parasitic Platyhelminthes and parasitoid wasps. The presence of only one RNase T2 gene in the D. melanogaster genome, without any other evident secretory RNase activity detected, makes this organism an ideal system to study the cellular functions of RNase T2 proteins associated with RNA recycling and maintenance of cellular homeostasis. On the other hand, the discovery of gene duplications in several protostome genomes also presents interesting new avenues to study additional biological functions of this ancient family of proteins.

  7. Non-additivity of molecule-surface van der Waals potentials from force measurements

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Christian; Fournier, Norman; Ruiz, Victor G.; Li, Chen; Müllen, Klaus; Rohlfing, Michael; Tkatchenko, Alexandre; Temirov, Ruslan; Tautz, F. Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Van der Waals (vdW) forces act ubiquitously in condensed matter. Despite being weak on an atomic level, they substantially influence molecular and biological systems due to their long range and system-size scaling. The difficulty to isolate and measure vdW forces on a single-molecule level causes our present understanding to be strongly theory based. Here we show measurements of the attractive potential between differently sized organic molecules and a metal surface using an atomic force microscope. Our choice of molecules and the large molecule-surface separation cause this attraction to be purely of vdW type. The experiment allows testing the asymptotic vdW force law and its validity range. We find a superlinear growth of the vdW attraction with molecular size, originating from the increased deconfinement of electrons in the molecules. Because such non-additive vdW contributions are not accounted for in most first-principles or empirical calculations, we suggest further development in that direction. PMID:25424490

  8. Nonlinearity measurements of solar cells with an LED-based combinatorial flux addition method

    PubMed Central

    Hamadani, Behrang H.; Shore, Andrew; Roller, John; Yoon, Howard W; Campanelli, Mark

    2016-01-01

    We present a light emitting diode (LED)-based system utilizing a combinatorial flux addition method to investigate the nonlinear relationship in solar cells between the output current of the cell and the incident irradiance level. The magnitude of the light flux is controlled by the supplied currents to two LEDs (or two sets of them) in a combinatorial fashion. The signals measured from the cell are arranged within a related overdetermined linear system of equations derived from an appropriately chosen Nth degree polynomial representing the relationship between the measured signals and the incident fluxes. The flux values and the polynomial coefficients are then solved for by linear least squares to obtain the best fit. The technique can be applied to any solar cell, under either monochromatic or broadband spectrum. For the unscaled solution, no reference detectors or prior calibrations of the light flux are required. However, if at least one calibrated irradiance value is known, then the entire curve can be scaled to an appropriate spectral responsivity value. Using this technique, a large number of data points can be obtained in a relatively short time scale over a large signal range. PMID:27524837

  9. Nonlinearity measurements of solar cells with an LED-based combinatorial flux addition method.

    PubMed

    Hamadani, Behrang H; Shore, Andrew; Roller, John; Yoon, Howard W; Campanelli, Mark

    2016-02-01

    We present a light emitting diode (LED)-based system utilizing a combinatorial flux addition method to investigate the nonlinear relationship in solar cells between the output current of the cell and the incident irradiance level. The magnitude of the light flux is controlled by the supplied currents to two LEDs (or two sets of them) in a combinatorial fashion. The signals measured from the cell are arranged within a related overdetermined linear system of equations derived from an appropriately chosen N(th) degree polynomial representing the relationship between the measured signals and the incident fluxes. The flux values and the polynomial coefficients are then solved for by linear least squares to obtain the best fit. The technique can be applied to any solar cell, under either monochromatic or broadband spectrum. For the unscaled solution, no reference detectors or prior calibrations of the light flux are required. However, if at least one calibrated irradiance value is known, then the entire curve can be scaled to an appropriate spectral responsivity value. Using this technique, a large number of data points can be obtained in a relatively short time scale over a large signal range.

  10. 40 CFR Appendix A to Subpart F of... - List of Qualified Energy Conservation Measures, Qualified Renewable Generation, and Measures...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... • Geothermal heating and pre-heat units 1.3.7Other End-uses and miscellaneous • Refrigeration system retrofit... (CONTINUED) SULFUR DIOXIDE ALLOWANCE SYSTEM Energy Conservation and Renewable Energy Reserve Pt. 73, Subpt. F... • Electric furnace improvements (intermittent ignition, automatic vent dampers, and heating element...

  11. 40 CFR Appendix A to Subpart F of... - List of Qualified Energy Conservation Measures, Qualified Renewable Generation, and Measures...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... • Geothermal heating and pre-heat units 1.3.7Other End-uses and miscellaneous • Refrigeration system retrofit... (CONTINUED) SULFUR DIOXIDE ALLOWANCE SYSTEM Energy Conservation and Renewable Energy Reserve Pt. 73, Subpt. F... • Electric furnace improvements (intermittent ignition, automatic vent dampers, and heating element...

  12. 40 CFR Appendix A to Subpart F of... - List of Qualified Energy Conservation Measures, Qualified Renewable Generation, and Measures...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... • Geothermal heating and pre-heat units 1.3.7Other End-uses and miscellaneous • Refrigeration system retrofit... (CONTINUED) SULFUR DIOXIDE ALLOWANCE SYSTEM Energy Conservation and Renewable Energy Reserve Pt. 73, Subpt. F... • Electric furnace improvements (intermittent ignition, automatic vent dampers, and heating element...

  13. 40 CFR Appendix A to Subpart F of... - List of Qualified Energy Conservation Measures, Qualified Renewable Generation, and Measures...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... • Geothermal heating and pre-heat units 1.3.7Other End-uses and miscellaneous • Refrigeration system retrofit... (CONTINUED) SULFUR DIOXIDE ALLOWANCE SYSTEM Energy Conservation and Renewable Energy Reserve Pt. 73, Subpt. F... • Electric furnace improvements (intermittent ignition, automatic vent dampers, and heating element...

  14. 40 CFR Appendix A to Subpart F of... - List of Qualified Energy Conservation Measures, Qualified Renewable Generation, and Measures...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... • Geothermal heating and pre-heat units 1.3.7Other End-uses and miscellaneous • Refrigeration system retrofit... (CONTINUED) SULFUR DIOXIDE ALLOWANCE SYSTEM Energy Conservation and Renewable Energy Reserve Pt. 73, Subpt. F... • Electric furnace improvements (intermittent ignition, automatic vent dampers, and heating element...

  15. 40 CFR 73.81 - Qualified conservation measures and renewable energy generation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... wastes, landfill gas, energy crops, and eligible components of municipal solid waste), solar, geothermal... renewable energy generation. 73.81 Section 73.81 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) SULFUR DIOXIDE ALLOWANCE SYSTEM Energy Conservation and Renewable...

  16. 40 CFR 73.81 - Qualified conservation measures and renewable energy generation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... wastes, landfill gas, energy crops, and eligible components of municipal solid waste), solar, geothermal... renewable energy generation. 73.81 Section 73.81 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) SULFUR DIOXIDE ALLOWANCE SYSTEM Energy Conservation and Renewable...

  17. 40 CFR 73.81 - Qualified conservation measures and renewable energy generation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... wastes, landfill gas, energy crops, and eligible components of municipal solid waste), solar, geothermal... renewable energy generation. 73.81 Section 73.81 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) SULFUR DIOXIDE ALLOWANCE SYSTEM Energy Conservation and Renewable...

  18. Public Schools Energy Conservation Measures, Report Number 10: Washington Elementary School, Kennewick, Washington.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of School Administrators, Arlington, VA.

    Reported is an engineering study of energy conservation opportunities at Washington Elementary School, Kennewick, Washington. The investigation is a component of the first phase of a five-part Saving Schoolhouse Energy Project initiated by the American Association of School Administrators and funded in part by the Federal Energy Administration.…

  19. Public Schools Energy Conservation Measures, Report Number 2: Central Elementary School, Glen Rock, New Jersey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of School Administrators, Arlington, VA.

    The engineering study presented is a component of the first phase of the five-part Saving Schoolhouse Energy Project initiated by the American Association of School Administrators and funded in part by the Federal Energy Administration. Reported in this document is an investigation of energy conservation opportunities at Central Elementary School,…

  20. 40 CFR 73.81 - Qualified conservation measures and renewable energy generation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... wastes, landfill gas, energy crops, and eligible components of municipal solid waste), solar, geothermal... renewable energy generation. 73.81 Section 73.81 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) SULFUR DIOXIDE ALLOWANCE SYSTEM Energy Conservation and Renewable...

  1. Public Schools Energy Conservation Measures, Report Number 8: Garfield Elementary School, Sioux Falls, South Dakota.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of School Administrators, Arlington, VA.

    Presented is an investigation of the possibilities for reducing energy consumption at Garfield Elementary School, Sioux Falls, South Dakota. The report summarizes methodology and findings of the building investigations, computer simulations and assessments of energy conservation opportunities. Results indicate that approximately 62% of the present…

  2. Public Schools Energy Conservation Measures, Report Number 9: Plover Whiting Elementary School, Stevens Point, Wisconsin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of School Administrators, Arlington, VA.

    This report is part of the first phase of the five-part Saving Schoolhouse Energy Project initiated by the American Association of School Administrators and funded partially by the Federal Energy Administration. Presented is an investigation of energy conservation opportunities at Plover Whiting Elementary School, Stevens Point, Wisconsin. This…

  3. How much is enough? The recurrent problem of setting measurable objectives in conservation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tear, T.H.; Kareiva, P.; Angermeier, P.L.; Comer, P.; Czech, B.; Kautz, R.; Landon, L.; Mehlman, D.; Murphy, K.; Ruckelshaus, M.; Scott, J.M.; Wilhere, G.

    2005-01-01

    International agreements, environmental laws, resource management agencies, and environmental nongovernmental organizations all establish objectives that define what they hope to accomplish. Unfortunately, quantitative objectives in conservation are typically set without consistency and scientific rigor. As a result, conservationists are failing to provide credible answers to the question "How much is enough?" This is a serious problem because objectives profoundly shape where and how limited conservation resources are spent, and help to create a shared vision for the future. In this article we develop guidelines to help steer conservation biologists and practitioners through the process of objective setting. We provide three case studies to highlight the practical challenges of objective setting in different social, political, and legal contexts. We also identify crucial gaps in our science, including limited knowledge of species distributions and of large-scale, long-term ecosystem dynamics, that must be filled if we hope to do better than setting conservation objectives through intuition and best guesses. ?? 2005 American Institute of Biological Sciences.

  4. Public Schools Energy Conservation Measures, Report Number 1: Scott Elementary School, Warwick, Rhode Island.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of School Administrators, Washington, DC.

    This study is the first of a five phase program of the American Association of School Administrators directed toward reducing energy consumption in existing schools. This report summarizes the results of the field investigations, computer simulation and evaluations of the energy conserving opportunities available in the Scott Elementary School in…

  5. Nitrate removal in stream ecosystems measured by 15N addition experiments: 2. Denitrification

    SciTech Connect

    Mulholland, Patrick J; Hall, Robert; Sobota, Daniel; Dodds, Walter; Findlay, Stuart; Grimm, Nancy; Hamilton, Stephen; McDowell, William; O'Brien, Jon; Tank, Jennifer; Ashkenas, Linda; Cooper, Lee W; Dahm, Cliff; Gregory, Stanley; Johnson, Sherri; Meyer, Judy; Peterson, Bruce; Poole, Geoff; Valett, H. Maurice; Webster, Jackson; Arango, Clay; Beaulieu, Jake; Bernot, Melody; Burgin, Amy; Crenshaw, Chelsea; Helton, Ashley; Johnson, Laura; Niederlehner, Bobbie; Potter, Jody; Sheibley, Rich; Thomas, Suzanne

    2009-01-01

    We measured denitrification rates using a field {sup 15}N-NO{sub 3}{sup -} tracer-addition approach in a large, cross-site study of nitrate uptake in reference, agricultural, and suburban-urban streams. We measured denitrification rates in 49 of 72 streams studied. Uptake length due to denitrification (S{sub Wden}) ranged from 89 m to 184 km (median of 9050 m) and there were no significant differences among regions or land-use categories, likely because of the wide range of conditions within each region and land use. N{sub 2} production rates far exceeded N{sub 2}O production rates in all streams. The fraction of total NO{sub 3}{sup -} removal from water due to denitrification ranged from 0.5% to 100% among streams (median of 16%), and was related to NH{sub 4}{sup +} concentration and ecosystem respiration rate (ER). Multivariate approaches showed that the most important factors controlling S{sub Wden} were specific discharge (discharge/width) and NO{sub 3}{sup -} concentration (positive effects), and ER and transient storage zones (negative effects). The relationship between areal denitrification rate (U{sub den}) and NO{sub 3}{sup -} concentration indicated a partial saturation effect. A power function with an exponent of 0.5 described this relationship better than a Michaelis-Menten equation. Although U{sub den} increased with increasing NO{sub 3}{sup -} concentration, the efficiency of NO{sub 3}{sup -} removal from water via denitrification declined, resulting in a smaller proportion of streamwater NO{sub 3}{sup -} load removed over a given length of stream. Regional differences in stream denitrification rates were small relative to the proximate factors of NO{sub 3}{sup -} concentration and ecosystem respiration rate, and land use was an important but indirect control on denitrification in streams, primarily via its effect on NO{sub 3}{sup -} concentration.

  6. Nitrate removal in stream ecosystems measured by 15N addition experiments: Total uptake

    SciTech Connect

    Mulholland, Patrick J; Hall, Robert; Tank, Jennifer; Sobota, Daniel; O'Brien, Jon; Webster, Jackson; Valett, H. Maurice; Dodds, Walter; Poole, Geoff; Peterson, Chris G.; Meyer, Judy; McDowell, William; Johnson, Sherri; Hamilton, Stephen; Gregory, Stanley; Grimm, Nancy; Dahm, Cliff; Cooper, Lee W; Ashkenas, Linda; Thomas, Suzanne; Sheibley, Rich; Potter, Jody; Niederlehner, Bobbie; Johnson, Laura; Helton, Ashley; Crenshaw, Chelsea; Burgin, Amy; Bernot, Melody; Beaulieu, Jake; Arango, Clay

    2009-01-01

    We measured uptake length of {sup 15}NO{sub 3}{sup -} in 72 streams in eight regions across the United States and Puerto Rico to develop quantitative predictive models on controls of NO{sub 3}{sup -} uptake length. As part of the Lotic Intersite Nitrogen Experiment II project, we chose nine streams in each region corresponding to natural (reference), suburban-urban, and agricultural land uses. Study streams spanned a range of human land use to maximize variation in NO{sub 3}{sup -} concentration, geomorphology, and metabolism. We tested a causal model predicting controls on NO{sub 3}{sup -} uptake length using structural equation modeling. The model included concomitant measurements of ecosystem metabolism, hydraulic parameters, and nitrogen concentration. We compared this structural equation model to multiple regression models which included additional biotic, catchment, and riparian variables. The structural equation model explained 79% of the variation in log uptake length (S{sub Wtot}). Uptake length increased with specific discharge (Q/w) and increasing NO{sub 3}{sup -} concentrations, showing a loss in removal efficiency in streams with high NO{sub 3}{sup -} concentration. Uptake lengths shortened with increasing gross primary production, suggesting autotrophic assimilation dominated NO{sub 3}{sup -} removal. The fraction of catchment area as agriculture and suburban-urban land use weakly predicted NO{sub 3}{sup -} uptake in bivariate regression, and did improve prediction in a set of multiple regression models. Adding land use to the structural equation model showed that land use indirectly affected NO{sub 3}{sup -} uptake lengths via directly increasing both gross primary production and NO{sub 3}{sup -} concentration. Gross primary production shortened S{sub Wtot}, while increasing NO{sub 3}{sup -} lengthened S{sub Wtot} resulting in no net effect of land use on NO{sub 3}{sup -} removal.

  7. Modeling particulate matter concentrations measured through mobile monitoring in a deletion/substitution/addition approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Jason G.; Hopke, Philip K.; Tian, Yilin; Baldwin, Nichole; Thurston, Sally W.; Evans, Kristin; Rich, David Q.

    2015-12-01

    Land use regression modeling (LUR) through local scale circular modeling domains has been used to predict traffic-related air pollution such as nitrogen oxides (NOX). LUR modeling for fine particulate matters (PM), which generally have smaller spatial gradients than NOX, has been typically applied for studies involving multiple study regions. To increase the spatial coverage for fine PM and key constituent concentrations, we designed a mobile monitoring network in Monroe County, New York to measure pollutant concentrations of black carbon (BC, wavelength at 880 nm), ultraviolet black carbon (UVBC, wavelength at 3700 nm) and Delta-C (the difference between the UVBC and BC concentrations) using the Clarkson University Mobile Air Pollution Monitoring Laboratory (MAPL). A Deletion/Substitution/Addition (D/S/A) algorithm was conducted, which used circular buffers as a basis for statistics. The algorithm maximizes the prediction accuracy for locations without measurements using the V-fold cross-validation technique, and it reduces overfitting compared to other approaches. We found that the D/S/A LUR modeling approach could achieve good results, with prediction powers of 60%, 63%, and 61%, respectively, for BC, UVBC, and Delta-C. The advantage of mobile monitoring is that it can monitor pollutant concentrations at hundreds of spatial points in a region, rather than the typical less than 100 points from a fixed site saturation monitoring network. This research indicates that a mobile saturation sampling network, when combined with proper modeling techniques, can uncover small area variations (e.g., 10 m) in particulate matter concentrations.

  8. Nitrate removal in stream ecosystems measured by 15N addition experiments: Denitrification

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mulholland, P.J.; Hall, R.O.; Sobota, D.J.; Dodds, W.K.; Findlay, S.E.G.; Grimm, N. B.; Hamilton, S.K.; McDowell, W.H.; O'Brien, J. M.; Tank, J.L.; Ashkenas, L.R.; Cooper, L.W.; Dahm, Clifford N.; Gregory, S.V.; Johnson, S.L.; Meyer, J.L.; Peterson, B.J.; Poole, G.C.; Valett, H.M.; Webster, J.R.; Arango, C.P.; Beaulieu, J.J.; Bernot, M.J.; Burgin, A.J.; Crenshaw, C.L.; Helton, A.M.; Johnson, L.T.; Niederlehner, B.R.; Potter, J.D.; Sheibley, R.W.; Thomasn, S.M.

    2009-01-01

    We measured denitrification rates using a field 15N-NO- 3 tracer-addition approach in a large, cross-site study of nitrate uptake in reference, agricultural, and suburban-urban streams. We measured denitrification rates in 49 of 72 streams studied. Uptake length due to denitrification (SWden) ranged from 89 m to 184 km (median of 9050 m) and there were no significant differences among regions or land-use categories, likely because of the wide range of conditions within each region and land use. N2 production rates far exceeded N2O production rates in all streams. The fraction of total NO-3 removal from water due to denitrification ranged from 0.5% to 100% among streams (median of 16%), and was related to NHz 4 concentration and ecosystem respiration rate (ER). Multivariate approaches showed that the most important factors controlling SWden were specific discharge (discharge / width) and NO-3 concentration (positive effects), and ER and transient storage zones (negative effects). The relationship between areal denitrification rate (Uden) and NO- 3 concentration indicated a partial saturation effect. A power function with an exponent of 0.5 described this relationship better than a Michaelis-Menten equation. Although Uden increased with increasing NO- 3 concentration, the efficiency of NO-3 removal from water via denitrification declined, resulting in a smaller proportion of streamwater NO-3 load removed over a given length of stream. Regional differences in stream denitrification rates were small relative to the proximate factors of NO-3 concentration and ecosystem respiration rate, and land use was an important but indirect control on denitrification in streams, primarily via its effect on NO-3 concentration. ?? 2009.

  9. Effect of silica fume addition on the PGNAA measurement of chlorine in concrete.

    PubMed

    Naqvi, A A; Maslehuddin, M; Garwan, M A; Nagadi, M M; Al-Amoudi, O S B; Raashid, M; Khateeb-ur-Rehman

    2010-03-01

    Pozzolanic materials, such as fly ash (FA), silica fume (SF), and blast furnace slag (BFS) are added to Portland cement in concrete to prevent reinforcement steel corrosion in concrete. Further preventive measure against reinforcement steel corrosion require monitoring of chloride salts concentration in concrete using non-destructive techniques, such as the prompt gamma-ray neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) technique. Due to interferences between gamma-rays from chlorine and calcium in PGNAA technique, detection limit of chlorine in concrete strongly depends upon calcium concentration in concrete. SF mainly contains silica and its addition to cement concrete reduces overall concentration of calcium in concrete. This may result in an improvement in detection limit of chlorine in SF-based concrete in PGNAA studies. Particularly for chlorine detection using 6.11 and 6.62 MeV prompt gamma-rays that strongly interfere with 6.42 MeV prompt gamma-rays from calcium. In this study, SF was added to Portland cement to prevent concrete reinforcement steel from corrosion. The chlorine concentration in SF cement concrete specimens containing 0.2-3.0 wt% chlorine was measured through yield of 1.16, 1.95, 6.11, 6.62, 7.41, 7.79, and 8.58 MeV chlorine gamma-rays using PGNAA technique. An excellent agreement was noted between the experimental yield of the prompt gamma-rays and the gamma-ray yield calculated through the Monte Carlo simulations. Further the minimum detectable concentration (MDC) of chlorine in SF cement concrete was calculated and compared with the MDC values of chlorine in plain concrete and concrete mixed with fly ash cement. The MDC of chlorine in SF-based concrete through 6.11 MeV, and 6.62 MeV chlorine gamma-rays was found to be improved as compared to those in plain concrete and concrete mixed with fly ash cement.

  10. Nitrate removal in stream ecosystems measured by 15N addition experiments: Total uptake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hall, R.O.; Tank, J.L.; Sobota, D.J.; Mulholland, P.J.; O'Brien, J. M.; Dodds, W.K.; Webster, J.R.; Valett, H.M.; Poole, G.C.; Peterson, B.J.; Meyer, J.L.; McDowell, W.H.; Johnson, S.L.; Hamilton, S.K.; Grimm, N. B.; Gregory, S.V.; Dahm, Clifford N.; Cooper, L.W.; Ashkenas, L.R.; Thomas, S.M.; Sheibley, R.W.; Potter, J.D.; Niederlehner, B.R.; Johnson, L.T.; Helton, A.M.; Crenshaw, C.M.; Burgin, A.J.; Bernot, M.J.; Beaulieu, J.J.; Arangob, C.P.

    2009-01-01

    We measured uptake length of 15NO-3 in 72 streams in eight regions across the United States and Puerto Rico to develop quantitative predictive models on controls of NO-3 uptake length. As part of the Lotic Intersite Nitrogen eXperiment II project, we chose nine streams in each region corresponding to natural (reference), suburban-urban, and agricultural land uses. Study streams spanned a range of human land use to maximize variation in NO-3 concentration, geomorphology, and metabolism. We tested a causal model predicting controls on NO-3 uptake length using structural equation modeling. The model included concomitant measurements of ecosystem metabolism, hydraulic parameters, and nitrogen concentration. We compared this structural equation model to multiple regression models which included additional biotic, catchment, and riparian variables. The structural equation model explained 79% of the variation in log uptake length (S Wtot). Uptake length increased with specific discharge (Q/w) and increasing NO-3 concentrations, showing a loss in removal efficiency in streams with high NO-3 concentration. Uptake lengths shortened with increasing gross primary production, suggesting autotrophic assimilation dominated NO-3 removal. The fraction of catchment area as agriculture and suburban-urban land use weakly predicted NO-3 uptake in bivariate regression, and did improve prediction in a set of multiple regression models. Adding land use to the structural equation model showed that land use indirectly affected NO-3 uptake lengths via directly increasing both gross primary production and NO-3 concentration. Gross primary production shortened SWtot, while increasing NO-3 lengthened SWtot resulting in no net effect of land use on NO- 3 removal. ?? 2009.

  11. Mental self-government: development of the additional democratic learning style scale using Rasch measurement models.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Tine; Kreiner, Svend; Styles, Irene

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the development and validation of a democratic learning style scale intended to fill a gap in Sternberg's theory of mental self-government and the associated learning style inventory (Sternberg, 1988, 1997). The scale was constructed as an 8-item scale with a 7-category response scale. The scale was developed following an adapted version of DeVellis' (2003) guidelines for scale development. The validity of the Democratic Learning Style Scale was assessed by items analysis using graphical loglinear Rasch models (Kreiner and Christensen, 2002, 2004, 2006) The item analysis confirmed that the full 8-item revised Democratic Learning Style Scale fitted a graphical loglinear Rasch model with no differential item functioning but weak to moderate uniform local dependence between two items. In addition, a reduced 6-item version of the scale fitted the pure Rasch model with a rating scale parameterization. The revised Democratic Learning Style Scale can therefore be regarded as a sound measurement scale meeting requirements of both construct validity and objectivity.

  12. Evaluation of estimated energy conservation measure costs and benefits in the residential multifamily sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1982-09-01

    Supporting data for a policy review to determine how the multifamily buildings subsector is responding to market signals was sought. What role, if any, the federal government should play in encouraging conservation in multifamily buildings is discussed. The policy review seeks to develop an understanding of the current level of and trends in energy conservation activity in multifamily housing. The availability of the required data is determined and information in a form which facilitates its use by policy analysts is compiled. The results are presented in four parts. Part I provides an overview. Part II presents, in tabular form, the cost of selected retrofit items and the resulting energy and cost savings. As an aid to understanding the data in Part II, the salient assumptions underlying the data are also included in this part. Part III describes how the data in Part II were developed.

  13. Genetic diversity measures of local European beef cattle breeds for conservation purposes

    PubMed Central

    Cañón, Javier; Alexandrino, Paolo; Bessa, Isabel; Carleos, Carlos; Carretero, Yolanda; Dunner, Susana; Ferran, Nuno; Garcia, David; Jordana, Jordi; Laloë, Denis; Pereira, Albano; Sanchez, Armand; Moazami-Goudarzi, Katayoun

    2001-01-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the genetic structure, evolutionary relationships, and the genetic diversity among 18 local cattle breeds from Spain, Portugal, and France using 16 microsatellites. Heterozygosities, estimates of Fst, genetic distances, multivariate and diversity analyses, and assignment tests were performed. Heterozygosities ranged from 0.54 in the Pirenaica breed to 0.72 in the Barrosã breed. Seven percent of the total genetic variability can be attributed to differences among breeds (mean Fst = 0.07; P < 0.01). Five different genetic distances were computed and compared with no correlation found to be significantly different from 0 between distances based on the effective size of the population and those which use the size of the alleles. The Weitzman recursive approach and a multivariate analysis were used to measure the contribution of the breeds diversity. The Weitzman approach suggests that the most important breeds to be preserved are those grouped into two clusters: the cluster formed by the Mirandesa and Alistana breeds and that of the Sayaguesa and Tudanca breeds. The hypothetical extinction of one of those clusters represents a 17% loss of diversity. A correspondence analysis not only distinguished four breed groups but also confirmed results of previous studies classifying the important breeds contributing to diversity. In addition, the variation between breeds was sufficiently high so as to allow individuals to be assigned to their breed of origin with a probability of 99% for simulated samples. PMID:11403750

  14. 49 CFR 192.935 - What additional preventive and mitigative measures must an operator take?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... STANDARDS Gas Transmission Pipeline Integrity Management § 192.935 What additional preventive and mitigative... detection systems, replacing pipe segments with pipe of heavier wall thickness, providing additional... supervision of known excavation work. (ii) Collecting in a central database information that is...

  15. The economic efficiency of conservation measures for amphibians in organic farming--results from bio-economic modelling.

    PubMed

    Schuler, Johannes; Sattler, Claudia; Helmecke, Angela; Zander, Peter; Uthes, Sandra; Bachinger, Johann; Stein-Bachinger, Karin

    2013-01-15

    This paper presents a whole farm bio-economic modelling approach for the assessment and optimisation of amphibian conservation conditions applied at the example of a large scale organic farm in North-Eastern Germany. The assessment focuses mainly on the habitat quality as affected by conservation measures such as through specific adapted crop production activities (CPA) and in-field buffer strips for the European tree frog (Hyla arborea), considering also interrelations with other amphibian species (i.e. common spadefoot toad (Pelobates fuscus), fire-bellied toad (Bombina bombina)). The aim of the approach is to understand, analyse and optimize the relationships between the ecological and economic performance of an organic farming system, based on the expectation that amphibians are differently impacted by different CPAs. The modelling system consists of a set of different sub-models that generate a farm model on the basis of environmentally evaluated CPAs. A crop-rotation sub-model provides a set of agronomically sustainable crop rotations that ensures overall sufficient nitrogen supply and controls weed, pest and disease infestations. An economic sub-model calculates the gross margins for each possible CPA including costs of inputs such as labour and machinery. The conservation effects of the CPAs are assessed with an ecological sub-model evaluates the potential negative or positive effect that each work step of a CPA has on amphibians. A mathematical programming sub-model calculates the optimal farm organization taking into account the limited factors of the farm (e.g. labour, land) as well as ecological improvements. In sequential model runs, the habitat quality is to be improved by the model, while the highest possible gross margin is still to be achieved. The results indicate that the model can be used to show the scope of action that a farmer has to improve habitat quality by reducing damage to amphibian population on its land during agricultural activities

  16. The Effect of Preventive Conservation Measures on the Technical Condition of A Religious Building Located in the Mining Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barycz, Stanisław; Firek, Karol; Kocot, Wojciech; Malinowska, Agnieszka

    2016-06-01

    The article presents the case study of a historical religious building located in the area of "Bogdanka" S.A. Coal Mine. As the building lacked adequate resistance to the expected effects of mining, the Mine undertook efforts so that it was fully protected against mining impacts before the commencement of mining operations. A preventive conservation system was used, consisting of an external stiffening reinforced concrete plate at the ground level and a system of steel tie rods established at the level of vault supports. The article assesses the effect of undertaken preventive conservation measures on the current technical condition of the building. The basis for the assessment was the extent of damage to the building confirmed after the occurrence of impacts from the performed mining operations combined with the analysis of ground deformation.

  17. An electrical conductivity method for measuring the effects of additives on effective diffusivities in Portland cement pastes

    SciTech Connect

    Kyi, A.A. ); Batchelor, B. . Civil Engineering)

    1994-01-01

    Effective diffusivities are important in describing corrosion and leaching of contaminants in cementitious systems. An electrical conductivity procedure has been used to measure the effective diffusivities of compounds in cementitious systems containing the additives fly ash, silica fume, sodium silicate and bentonite. Silica fume was the most effective additive in reducing the effective diffusivity, but fly ash was the most cost effective. Diffusivities that have been measured with techniques that rely on flux of a compound through the solid were generally lower than those measured with the electrical conductivity procedure. Porosity and bulk density are not well correlated with effective diffusivity in systems containing additives.

  18. 75 FR 73090 - Medicare Program; Listening Session on Development of Additional Imaging Efficiency Measures for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-29

    ..., cell phones, and palm pilots, are subject to physical inspection. We cannot assume responsibility for... measures that CMS could consider. Measure developers, hospitals, medical specialty societies, medical... medical technology costs. The imaging efficiency measures fill a significant gap in the availability...

  19. Criteria for protected areas and other conservation measures in the Antarctic region

    SciTech Connect

    Angel, M.V.

    1987-01-01

    The Antarctic region is threatened by three major anthropogenic influences: climatic change brought about by increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide, the effects of persistent pollutants carried into the region via atmosphere and ocean, and the increase in Man's activities. These include radioactive wastes, organochlorides, freons, PCBs and heavy metals. Vulnerable ecosystems can be considered as those which are under direct pressure from Man's activities, whereas fragile ecosystems are the more likely to suffer irreversible change when perturbed, but are not necessarily threatened at present. Three of the main habitat types, terrestrial, inland waters, and islands, are likely to be fragile. However, all these can be conserved reasonably adequately with a system of protected and managed areas, so long as the area covered is adequate and representative. The fourth habitat type, the oceanic ecosystem, contains few fragile elements because it is dominated by the highly dynamic physical oceanic processes. Elements of the ecosystem are vulnerable to further exploitation, and although only the whales and some of the fish stocks can be regarded as fragile, there is considerably uncertainty as what synergistic effect exploitation of apparently key elements of the ecosystem, such as the krill, will have on other important components of the communities. The highly dynamic structure of oceanic environments renders the concept of conservation based on limited protected areas developed for terrestrial environments ineffective in the majority of marine environments. Instead the whole marine environment of the Antarctic region must be considered to be a single entity and managed as such.

  20. How to mitigate impacts of wind farms on bats? A review of potential conservation measures in the European context

    SciTech Connect

    Peste, Filipa; Paula, Anabela; Silva, Luís P. da; Bernardino, Joana; Pereira, Pedro; Mascarenhas, Miguel; Costa, Hugo; Vieira, José; Bastos, Carlos; Pereira, Maria João Ramos

    2015-02-15

    Wind energy is growing worldwide as a source of power generation. Bat assemblages may be negatively affected by wind farms due to the fatality of a significant number of individuals after colliding with the moving turbines or experiencing barotrauma. The implementation of wind farms should follow standard procedures to prevent such negative impacts: avoid, reduce and offset, in what is known as the mitigation hierarchy. According to this approach avoiding impacts is the priority, followed by the minimisation of the identified impacts, and finally, when residual negative impacts still remain, those must be offset or at least compensated. This paper presents a review on conservation measures for bats and presents some guidelines within the compensation scenario, focusing on negative impacts that remain after avoidance and minimisation measures. The conservation strategies presented aim at the improvement of the ecological conditions for the bat assemblage as a whole. While developed under the European context, the proposed measures are potentially applicable elsewhere, taking into consideration the specificity of each region in terms of bat assemblages present, landscape features and policy context regarding nature and biodiversity conservation and management. An analysis of potential opportunities and constraints arising from the implementation of offset/compensation programmes and gaps in the current knowledge is also considered. - Highlights: • Wind energy impacts bat populations in ways not yet fully understood. • As the use of windfarms is growing worldwide greater impacts on bat populations are also expected. • Mitigation hierarchy provides a way to reduce impacts from new wind farm facilities. • Compensation measures may be used to reduce the residual effects on bat populations. • Identify bats ecological needs and compensate according to the existing surroundings.

  1. Large-scale soil conservation measures contribute to water insecurity in NW China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lulu; Feger, Karl-Heinz; Schwärzel, Kai

    2014-05-01

    The Loess Plateau of NW China is one of the most degraded environments worldwide with an annual soil loss rate of ~20,000 t/km². To improve the situation, a national policy against erosion has been implemented in this region since 1950s. This policy includes biological (tree and grass plantation) and engineering (terrace and check-dam construction) measures. However, subject to enormous alteration in land cover / form, an undesired drastic reduction of runoff has appeared hampering economic growth, agricultural production and thus threatening social stability. As a consequence, adaptive innovative management strategies are necessary for mitigating water use conflicts and ensuring regional sustainable development. For successful implementation of such strategies, an improved understanding and quantification of hydrological response to land use and climate change across different scales is essential. For this purpose, the hydrological response to different land cover / form and climate change in the past 50 years was analyzed in small and medium-scale catchments using the upstream of Jing River (Gansu province) as a case. It appears that the driving factors of runoff reduction at different scales are different in terms of land use and climate change. Our study gave evidence that in a small catchment (19 km²), land cover / form change and precipitation variability are the major factors reducing runoff. After separating their contribution, we found that land use change was responsible for 74% of runoff decline while decreased precipitation accounted for 26%. Surprisingly, the annual runoff exhibits a good correlation with precipitation and the percentage area of various land use. Notably, with increasing catchment size the impact of land use on runoff attenuates, while the role of climate ascends. In addition to land use and precipitation, energy supply (evaporative demand of the atmosphere) becomes another dominant climatic factor affecting runoff on the larger

  2. 49 CFR 192.935 - What additional preventive and mitigative measures must an operator take?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... detection systems, replacing pipe segments with pipe of heavier wall thickness, providing additional training to personnel on response procedures, conducting drills with local emergency responders and... must, at least, consider the following factors—swiftness of leak detection and pipe...

  3. EPA Announces $3.3 Million in Funding for Water Reuse and Conservation Research/Research will measure health and ecological impacts of water conservation practices

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    WASHINGTON-- Today, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced funding to five institutions to research human and ecological health impacts associated with water reuse and conservation practices.

  4. Measuring, understanding and implementing (or at least trying) soil and water conservation in agricultural areas in Mediterranean conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez, Jose Alfonso; Burguet, María; Castillo, Carlos; de Luna, Elena; Guzmán, Gema; Lora, Ángel; Lorite, Ignacio; Mora, José; Pérez, Rafael; Soriano, María A.; Taguas, Encarnación V.

    2015-04-01

    Understanding soil erosion processes is the first step for designing and implementing effective soil conservation strategies. In agricultural areas, spatially in arid and semiarid conditions, water conservation is interlinked with soil conservation, and usually need to be addressed simultaneously to achieve success in their use by farmers. This is so for different reasons, but usually because some reduction in runoff is required to prevent soil erosion or to the need to design soil conservation systems that do maintain a favourable water balance for the crop to prevent yield reductions. The team presenting this communication works around both issues in Southern Spain, interconnecting several lines of research with the final objective of contribute to reverse some severe issues relating soil conservation in agricultural areas, mostly on tree crops (olives and vineyards). One of these lines is long-term experiments measuring, runoff and sediment losses at plot and small catchment scale. In these experiments we test the effect of different soil management alternatives on soil and water conservation. We also measured the evolution of soil properties and, in some cases, the evolution of soil moisture as well as nutrient and carbon losses with runoff and sediment. We also tests in these experiments new cover crops, from species better adapted to the rainfall regime of the region to mixes with several species to increase biodiversity. We complement these studies with surveys of soil properties in commercial farms. I some of these farms we follow the introduction by farmers of the cover crop strategies previously developed in our experimental fields. These data are invaluable to elaborate, calibrate and validate different runoff generation, water balance, and water erosion models and hillslope and small catchment scale. This allows us to elaborate regional analysis of the effect of different strategies to soil and water conservation in olive growing areas, and to refine

  5. Sensitivity test of a blue-detuned dipole trap designed for parity non-conservation measurements in Fr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheng, D.; Zhang, J.; Orozco, L. A.

    2012-04-01

    A dynamic blue-detuned optical dipole trap with stable 87Rb atoms produces a differential ac Stark shift of 18 Hz in the ground state hyperfine transition, and it preserves the ground state hyperfine superpositions for a long coherence time of 180 ms. The trapped atoms undergoing microwave Rabi oscillations are sensitive to a small signal, artificially generated with a second microwave source, phase locked to the first allowing a simple and effective method for determining signal-to-noise ratio limits through interference techniques. This provides an excellent means of calibrating sensitivity in experiments such as our ongoing Fr parity non-conservation measurement.

  6. Physiology in conservation translocations

    PubMed Central

    Tarszisz, Esther; Dickman, Christopher R.; Munn, Adam J.

    2014-01-01

    Conservation translocations aim to restore species to their indigenous ranges, protect populations from threats and/or reinstate ecosystem functions. They are particularly important for the conservation and management of rare and threatened species. Despite tremendous efforts and advancement in recent years, animal conservation translocations generally have variable success, and the reasons for this are often uncertain. We suggest that when little is known about the physiology and wellbeing of individuals either before or after release, it will be difficult to determine their likelihood of survival, and this could limit advancements in the science of translocations for conservation. In this regard, we argue that physiology offers novel approaches that could substantially improve translocations and associated practices. As a discipline, it is apparent that physiology may be undervalued, perhaps because of the invasive nature of some physiological measurement techniques (e.g. sampling body fluids, surgical implantation). We examined 232 publications that dealt with translocations of terrestrial vertebrates and aquatic mammals and, defining ‘success’ as high or low, determined how many of these studies explicitly incorporated physiological aspects into their protocols and monitoring. From this review, it is apparent that physiological evaluation before and after animal releases could progress and improve translocation/reintroduction successes. We propose a suite of physiological measures, in addition to animal health indices, for assisting conservation translocations over the short term and also for longer term post-release monitoring. Perhaps most importantly, we argue that the incorporation of physiological assessments of animals at all stages of translocation can have important welfare implications by helping to reduce the total number of animals used. Physiological indicators can also help to refine conservation translocation methods. These approaches fall

  7. Measuring Children's Proportional Reasoning, The "Tendency" for an Additive Strategy and The Effect of Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Misailadou, Christina; Williams, Julian

    2003-01-01

    We report a study of 10-14 year old children's use of additive strategies while solving ratio and proportion tasks. Rasch methodology was used to develop a diagnostic instrument that reveals children's misconceptions. Two versions of this instrument, one with "models" thought to facilitate proportional reasoning and one without were…

  8. The cost of conserving livestock diversity? Incentive measures and conservation options for maintaining indigenous Pelón pigs in Yucatan, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Pattison, J; Drucker, A G; Anderson, S

    2007-06-01

    In the Mexican state of Yucatan the Pel6n pig breed has been identified as being endangered. The gradual disappearance of this indigenous breed that is able to survive well in an extreme environment and under low-input conditions undermines food and livestock security for Yucatan's rural poor. This study uses contingent valuation to identify those backyard pig producers who require least compensation to conserve the Pel6n breed. Understanding the conditions under which livestock keepers most committed to the use of the indigenous breed would be willing to participate in different conservation scenarios allows for a comparative analysis of alternate conservation schemes, in terms of cost and breed population growth. The findings suggest that establishing a community-based conservation scheme could be sufficient to ensure that the Pel6n pig reaches a 'not at risk' extinction status. Alternatively, establishing open-nucleus breeding schemes would result in a higher effective population size, but at relatively greater cost. We conclude that for the specific case of the Pel6n pig in Yucatan, Mexico, if effectively designed, the cost of conservation and sustainable use strategies may be little more than the cost of facilitating access to the animal genetic resource for those most reliant upon it.

  9. Voice measures of workload in the advanced flight deck: Additional studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, Sid J.; Alpert, Murray

    1989-01-01

    These studies investigated acoustical analysis of the voice as a measure of workload in individual operators. In the first study, voice samples were recorded from a single operator during high, medium, and low workload conditions. Mean amplitude, frequency, syllable duration, and emphasis all tended to increase as workload increased. In the second study, NASA test pilots performed a laboratory task, and used a flight simulator under differing work conditions. For two of the pilots, high workload in the simulator brought about greater amplitude, peak duration, and stress. In both the laboratory and simulator tasks, high workload tended to be associated with more statistically significant drop-offs in the acoustical measures than were lower workload levels. There was a great deal of intra-subject variability in the acoustical measures. The results suggested that in individual operators, increased workload might be revealed by high initial amplitude and frequency, followed by rapid drop-offs over time.

  10. Additional atmospheric opacity measurements at lambda = 1.1 mm from Mauna Kea Observatory, Hawaii

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parrish, A.; De Zafra, R. L.; Barrett, J. W.; Solomon, P.; Connor, B.

    1987-01-01

    Atmospheric opacity values in the zenith direction are given for a wavelength of 1.1 mm (278 GHz) at the summit of Mauna Kea in the Hawaiian Islands. A total of 75 days is covered during the period 1983-1986. Observations were made on a quasi-continuous basis, with opacity measured every 20 minutes around the clock for significant periods of time. A conversion from opacity at lambda = 1.1 mm to the equivalent precipitable water vapor column is given from the measurements of Zammit and Ade (1981), from which opacities at other wavelengths may be derived.

  11. 40 CFR 52.1163 - Additional control measures for East Boston.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...”) shall each submit to the Regional Administrator a study or studies of various alternative strategies to... consistent with the national primary ambient air quality standards. These studies may be combined into one or more joint studies. These studies shall contain recommendations for control measures to be...

  12. 40 CFR 52.1163 - Additional control measures for East Boston.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...”) shall each submit to the Regional Administrator a study or studies of various alternative strategies to... consistent with the national primary ambient air quality standards. These studies may be combined into one or more joint studies. These studies shall contain recommendations for control measures to be...

  13. Measurement of Insertion Loss of an Acoustic Treatment in the Presence of Additional Uncorrelated Sound Sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klos, Jacob; Palumbo, Daniel L.

    2003-01-01

    A method to intended for measurement of the insertion loss of an acoustic treatment applied to an aircraft fuselage in-situ is documented in this paper. Using this method, the performance of a treatment applied to a limited portion of an aircraft fuselage can be assessed even though the untreated fuselage also radiates into the cabin, corrupting the intensity measurement. This corrupting noise in the intensity measurement incoherent with the panel vibration of interest is removed by correlating the intensity to reference transducers such as accelerometers. Insertion loss of the acoustic treatments is estimated from the ratio of correlated intensity measurements with and without a treatment applied. In the case of turbulent boundary layer excitation of the fuselage, this technique can be used to assess the performance of noise control methods without requiring treatment of the entire fuselage. Several experimental studies and numerical simulations have been conducted, and results from three case studies are documented in this paper. Conclusions are drawn about the use of this method to study aircraft sidewall treatments.

  14. An Additional Measure of Overall Effect Size for Logistic Regression Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Jeff; Le, Huy

    2008-01-01

    Users of logistic regression models often need to describe the overall predictive strength, or effect size, of the model's predictors. Analogs of R[superscript 2] have been developed, but none of these measures are interpretable on the same scale as effects of individual predictors. Furthermore, R[superscript 2] analogs are not invariant to the…

  15. 42 CFR 414.1230 - Additional measures for groups of physicians.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... diabetes. The rate of potentially preventable hospital admissions for diabetes is a composite measure of uncontrolled diabetes, short term diabetes complications, long term diabetes complications and lower extremity amputation for diabetes. (b) A composite of rates of potentially preventable hospital admissions...

  16. 42 CFR 414.1230 - Additional measures for groups of physicians.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... diabetes. The rate of potentially preventable hospital admissions for diabetes is a composite measure of uncontrolled diabetes, short term diabetes complications, long term diabetes complications and lower extremity amputation for diabetes. (b) A composite of rates of potentially preventable hospital admissions...

  17. Turbulence measurements over immobile gravel with additions of sand from supply limited to capacity transport conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Measurement of the turbulence that drives sand transport over and through immobile gravels is relevant to efforts to model sediment movement downstream of dams, where fine sediments are eroded from coarse substrates and are not replaced due to the presence of the upstream dam. The relative elevatio...

  18. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) for Major Sources: Industrial, Commercial, and Institutional Boilers - Guidance for Calculating Emission Credits Resulting from Implementation of Energy Conservation Measures

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The purpose of this July 2012 document is to provide guidance for developing a consistent approach to documenting efficiency credits generated from energy conservation measures in the Implementation Plan for boilers covered by the Boiler MACT rule.

  19. Marketing Conservation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, William B.

    1987-01-01

    In 1986, Northeast Utilities began helping shool administrators combat school building energy wastage through a program called Energy Alliance. The typical school can reduce its energy bill by 30 percent by adopting a wide range of conservation measures, including cogeneration, relamping, and energy audits. (MLH)

  20. Energy savings modelling of re-tuning energy conservation measures in large office buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Fernandez, Nick; Katipamula, Srinivas; Wang, Weimin; Huang, Yunzhi; Liu, Guopeng

    2014-10-20

    Today, many large commercial buildings use sophisticated building automation systems (BASs) to manage a wide range of building equipment. While the capabilities of BASs have increased over time, many buildings still do not fully use the BAS’s capabilities and are not properly commissioned, operated or maintained, which leads to inefficient operation, increased energy use, and reduced lifetimes of the equipment. This paper investigates the energy savings potential of several common HVAC system re-tuning measures on a typical large office building, using the Department of Energy’s building energy modeling software, EnergyPlus. The baseline prototype model uses roughly as much energy as an average large office building in existing building stock, but does not utilize any re-tuning measures. Individual re-tuning measures simulated against this baseline include automatic schedule adjustments, damper minimum flow adjustments, thermostat adjustments, as well as dynamic resets (set points that change continuously with building and/or outdoor conditions) to static pressure, supply-air temperature, condenser water temperature, chilled and hot water temperature, and chilled and hot water differential pressure set points. Six combinations of these individual measures have been formulated – each designed to conform to limitations to implementation of certain individual measures that might exist in typical buildings. All the individual measures and combinations were simulated in 16 climate locations representative of specific U.S. climate zones. The modeling results suggest that the most effective energy savings measures are those that affect the demand-side of the building (air-systems and schedules). Many of the demand-side individual measures were capable of reducing annual total HVAC system energy consumption by over 20% in most cities that were modeled. Supply side measures affecting HVAC plant conditions were only modestly successful (less than 5% annual HVAC energy

  1. Assessing the use of an infrared spectrum hyperpixel array imager to measure temperature during additive and subtractive manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitenton, Eric; Heigel, Jarred; Lane, Brandon; Moylan, Shawn

    2016-05-01

    Accurate non-contact temperature measurement is important to optimize manufacturing processes. This applies to both additive (3D printing) and subtractive (material removal by machining) manufacturing. Performing accurate single wavelength thermography suffers numerous challenges. A potential alternative is hyperpixel array hyperspectral imaging. Focusing on metals, this paper discusses issues involved such as unknown or changing emissivity, inaccurate greybody assumptions, motion blur, and size of source effects. The algorithm which converts measured thermal spectra to emissivity and temperature uses a customized multistep non-linear equation solver to determine the best-fit emission curve. Emissivity dependence on wavelength may be assumed uniform or have a relationship typical for metals. The custom software displays residuals for intensity, temperature, and emissivity to gauge the correctness of the greybody assumption. Initial results are shown from a laser powder-bed fusion additive process, as well as a machining process. In addition, the effects of motion blur are analyzed, which occurs in both additive and subtractive manufacturing processes. In a laser powder-bed fusion additive process, the scanning laser causes the melt pool to move rapidly, causing a motion blur-like effect. In machining, measuring temperature of the rapidly moving chip is a desirable goal to develop and validate simulations of the cutting process. A moving slit target is imaged to characterize how the measured temperature values are affected by motion of a measured target.

  2. Velocity measurements in a high-Reynolds-number, momentum-conserving, axisymmetric, turbulent jet

    SciTech Connect

    Hussein, H.J.; Capp, S.P.; George, W.K.

    1994-01-01

    The turbulent flow resulting from a top-hat jet exhausting into a large room was investigated. The Reynolds number based on exit conditions was approximately 10(exp 5). Velocity moments to third order were obtained using flying and stationary hot-wire and burst-mode laser-Doppler anemometry (LDA) techniques. The entire room was fully seeded for the LDA measurements. The measurements are shown to satisfy the differential and integral momentum equations for a round jet in an infinite environment. The results differ substantially from those reported by some earlier investigators, both in the level and shape of the profiles. These differences are attributed to the smaller enclosures used in the earlier works and the recirculation within them. Also, the flying hot-wire and burst-mode LDA measurements made here differ from the stationary wire measurements, especially the higher moments and away from the flow centreline. These differences are attributed to the cross-flow and rectification errors on the latter at the high turbulence intensities present in this flow (30% minimum at centreline). The measurements are used, together with recent dissipation measurements, to compute the energy balance for the jet, and an attempt is made to estimate the pressure-velocity and pressure-strain rate correlations.

  3. Efficient method for computing the maximum-likelihood quantum state from measurements with additive Gaussian noise.

    PubMed

    Smolin, John A; Gambetta, Jay M; Smith, Graeme

    2012-02-17

    We provide an efficient method for computing the maximum-likelihood mixed quantum state (with density matrix ρ) given a set of measurement outcomes in a complete orthonormal operator basis subject to Gaussian noise. Our method works by first changing basis yielding a candidate density matrix μ which may have nonphysical (negative) eigenvalues, and then finding the nearest physical state under the 2-norm. Our algorithm takes at worst O(d(4)) for the basis change plus O(d(3)) for finding ρ where d is the dimension of the quantum state. In the special case where the measurement basis is strings of Pauli operators, the basis change takes only O(d(3)) as well. The workhorse of the algorithm is a new linear-time method for finding the closest probability distribution (in Euclidean distance) to a set of real numbers summing to one.

  4. Single-Molecule FRET Measurements in Additive-Enriched Aqueous Solutions.

    PubMed

    Kempe, Daryan; Cerminara, Michele; Poblete, Simón; Schöne, Antonie; Gabba, Matteo; Fitter, Jörg

    2017-01-03

    The addition of high amounts of chemical denaturants, salts, viscosity enhancers or macro-molecular crowding agents has an impact on the physical properties of buffer solutions. Among others, the (microscopic) viscosity, the refractive index, the dielectric constant, and the ionic strength can be affected. Here, we systematically evaluate the importance of solvent characteristics with respect to single-molecule FRET (smFRET) data. First, we present a confocal based method for the determination of fluorescence quantum yields to facilitate a fast characterization of smFRET-samples at sub-nM-concentrations. As a case study, we analyze smFRET data of structurally rigid, double-stranded DNA-oligonucleotides in aqueous buffer and in buffers with specific amounts of glycerol, guanidine hydrochloride (GdnHCl), and sodium chloride (NaCl) added. We show that the calculation of interdye distances, without taking into account solvent-induced spectral and photophysical changes of the labels, leads to deviations of up to 4 Å from the real interdye distances. Additionally, we demonstrate that electrostatic dye-dye repulsions are negligible for the interdye distance regime considered here (>50 Å). Finally, we use our approach to validate the further compaction of the already unfolded state of phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK) with decreasing denaturant concentrations, a mechanism known as coil-globule transition.

  5. Rates of False-Positive Classification Resulting From the Analysis of Additional Embedded Performance Validity Measures.

    PubMed

    Silk-Eglit, Graham M; Stenclik, Jessica H; Miele, Andrea S; Lynch, Julie K; McCaffrey, Robert J

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have documented improvements in the classification accuracy of performance validity tests (PVTs) when they are combined to form aggregated models. Fewer studies have evaluated the impact of aggregating additional PVTs and changing the classification threshold within these models. A recent Monte Carlo simulation demonstrated that to maintain a false-positive rate (FPR) of ≤.10, only 1, 4, 8, 10, and 15 PVTs should be analyzed at classification thresholds of failing at least 1, at least 2, at least 3, at least 4, and at least 5 PVTs, respectively. The current study sought to evaluate these findings with embedded PVTs in a sample of real-life litigants and to highlight a potential danger in analytic flexibility with embedded PVTs. Results demonstrated that to maintain an FPR of ≤.10, only 3, 7, 10, 14, and 15 PVTs should be analyzed at classification thresholds of failing at least 1, at least 2, at least 3, at least 4, and at least 5 PVTs, respectively. Analyzing more than these numbers of PVTs resulted in a dramatic increase in the FPR. In addition, in the most extreme case, flexibility in analyzing and reporting embedded PVTs increased the FPR by 67%. Given these findings, a more objective approach to analyzing and reporting embedded PVTs should be introduced.

  6. Development of the laser absorption radiation thermometry technique to measure thermal diffusivity in addition to temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levick, Andrew; Lobato, Killian; Edwards, Gordon

    2003-01-01

    A comparative technique based on photothermal radiometry has been developed to measure thermal diffusivity of semi-infinite targets with arbitrary geometry. The technique exploits the principle that the frequency response of the temperature modulation induced by a periodic modulated heating source (in this case a laser spot) scales with thermal diffusivity. To demonstrate this technique, a photothermal radiometer has been developed, which detects modulated thermal radiance at a wavelength of 2 μm due to a small temperature modulation induced on the target surface by a modulated erbium fiber laser of power 1 W. Two frequency responses were measured for platinum and oxidized Inconel 600 targets (the frequency response is a scan of the amplitude of the modulated thermal radiance over laser modulation frequency). Scaling the two responses with respect to frequency gives a ratio of thermal diffusivities Dplatinum/DInconel of 4.45(33) which compares with a literature value of 4.46(50). The aim is to combine this technique with laser absorption radiation thermometry to produce multithermal property instrument for measuring "industrial" targets.

  7. Modest additive effects of integrated vector control measures on malaria prevalence and transmission in western Kenya

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The effect of integrating vector larval intervention on malaria transmission is unknown when insecticide-treated bed-net (ITN) coverage is very high, and the optimal indicator for intervention evaluation needs to be determined when transmission is low. Methods A post hoc assignment of intervention-control cluster design was used to assess the added effect of both indoor residual spraying (IRS) and Bacillus-based larvicides (Bti) in addition to ITN in the western Kenyan highlands in 2010 and 2011. Cross-sectional, mass parasite screenings, adult vector populations, and cohort of active case surveillance (ACS) were conducted before and after the intervention in three study sites with two- to three-paired intervention-control clusters at each site each year. The effect of larviciding, IRS, ITNs and other determinants of malaria risk was assessed by means of mixed estimating methods. Results Average ITN coverage increased from 41% in 2010 to 92% in 2011 in the study sites. IRS intervention had significant added impact on reducing vector density in 2010 but the impact was modest in 2011. The effect of IRS on reducing parasite prevalence was significant in 2011 but was seasonal specific in 2010. ITN was significantly associated with parasite densities in 2010 but IRS application was significantly correlated with reduced gametocyte density in 2011. IRS application reduced about half of the clinical malaria cases in 2010 and about one-third in 2011 compare to non-intervention areas. Conclusion Compared with a similar study conducted in 2005, the efficacy of the current integrated vector control with ITN, IRS, and Bti reduced three- to five-fold despite high ITN coverage, reflecting a modest added impact on malaria transmission. Additional strategies need to be developed to further reduce malaria transmission. PMID:23870708

  8. Cl2 Measurements in Polluted Coastal Air Using a Br- Addition CIMS Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawler, M. J.; Saltzman, E. S.

    2008-12-01

    Molecular chlorine (Cl2) was measured in ambient air using chemical ionization mass spectrometry (CIMS) with Br- as a reagent ion. Ionization was carried out by adding CHBr3 to ambient air and flowing the gas mixture through a 63Ni ion source maintained at 300 Torr. The resulting Cl2Br- adduct was collisionally dissociated in a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer and detected as Cl-. Ambient Cl2 measurements were made at Irvine, CA, from August 1-8, 2008. Air was drawn to the instrument from outside via a ~4m long laminar flow inlet. Inlet and instrument blanks were assessed by passing ambient air through carbonate-coated glass wool, and the instrument was calibrated with a Cl2 permeation tube. During this study, the mean detection limit for Cl2 was estimated at approximately 2 ppt. Cl2 showed a diel cycle on the days it was detectable, with nighttime mixing ratios up to about 15 ppt and daytime values of a few ppt or less. A rapid decrease in Cl2 in surface air was observed overnight in association with stagnation of the nocturnal surface layer.

  9. Neutron measurements of stresses in a test artifact produced by laser-based additive manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Gnäupel-Herold, Thomas; Slotwinski, John; Moylan, Shawn

    2014-02-18

    A stainless steel test artifact produced by Direct Metal Laser Sintering and similar to a proposed standardized test artifact was examined using neutron diffraction. The artifact contained a number of structures with different aspect ratios pertaining to wall thickness, height above base plate, and side length. Through spatial resolutions of the order of one millimeter the volumetric distribution of stresses in several was measured. It was found that the stresses peak in the tensile region around 500 MPa near the top surface, with balancing compressive stresses in the interior. The presence of a support structure (a one millimeter high, thin walled, hence weaker, lattice structure deposited on the base plate, followed by a fully dense AM structure) has only minor effects on the stresses.

  10. Time- and isomer-resolved measurements of sequential addition of acetylene to the propargyl radical

    DOE PAGES

    Savee, John D.; Selby, Talitha M.; Welz, Oliver; ...

    2015-10-06

    Soot formation in combustion is a complex process in which polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are believed to play a critical role. Recent works concluded that three consecutive additions of acetylene (C2H2) to propargyl (C3H3) create a facile route to the PAH indene (C9H8). However, the isomeric forms of C5H5 and C7H7 intermediates in this reaction sequence are not known. We directly investigate these intermediates using time- and isomer-resolved experiments. Both the resonance stabilized vinylpropargyl (vp-C5H5) and 2,4-cyclopentadienyl (c-C5H5) radical isomers of C5H5 are produced, with substantially different intensities at 800 K vs 1000 K. In agreement with literature master equationmore » calculations, we find that c-C5H5 + C2H2 produces only the tropyl isomer of C7H7 (tp-C7H7) below 1000 K, and that tp-C7H7 + C2H2 terminates the reaction sequence yielding C9H8 (indene) + H. Lastly, this work demonstrates a pathway for PAH formation that does not proceed through benzene.« less

  11. A New Method for Finding Optical Aberrations on the Basis of Analysis of the Object Hologram Without Additional Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matkivsky, V. A.; Moiseev, A. A.; Shilyagin, P. A.; Shabanov, D. V.; Gelikonov, G. V.; Gelikonov, V. M.

    2016-11-01

    We propose a new method of compensating for the wavefront aberrations during the image processing. The method employs the digital-holography potential. The developed algorithms allow one to find the wavefront distortions caused by the optical-path nonuniformities during the interference recording of images without additional measurements (i.e., without using the reference point source and measuring the wavefront distortions). The possibility of decreasing the wavefront aberrations from tens to several radians using digital methods is demonstrated.

  12. Time- and isomer-resolved measurements of sequential addition of acetylene to the propargyl radical

    SciTech Connect

    Savee, John D.; Selby, Talitha M.; Welz, Oliver; Taatjes, Craig A.; Osborn, David L.

    2015-10-06

    Soot formation in combustion is a complex process in which polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are believed to play a critical role. Recent works concluded that three consecutive additions of acetylene (C2H2) to propargyl (C3H3) create a facile route to the PAH indene (C9H8). However, the isomeric forms of C5H5 and C7H7 intermediates in this reaction sequence are not known. We directly investigate these intermediates using time- and isomer-resolved experiments. Both the resonance stabilized vinylpropargyl (vp-C5H5) and 2,4-cyclopentadienyl (c-C5H5) radical isomers of C5H5 are produced, with substantially different intensities at 800 K vs 1000 K. In agreement with literature master equation calculations, we find that c-C5H5 + C2H2 produces only the tropyl isomer of C7H7 (tp-C7H7) below 1000 K, and that tp-C7H7 + C2H2 terminates the reaction sequence yielding C9H8 (indene) + H. Lastly, this work demonstrates a pathway for PAH formation that does not proceed through benzene.

  13. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act corrective measures study: Area 6 decontamination pond facility, corrective action unit no. 92

    SciTech Connect

    1997-10-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) No. 92, the Area 6 Decontamination Pond Facility (DPF), is an historic disposal unit located at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) in Nye County, Nevada (Figures 1 - 1, 1-2, and 1-3). The NTS is operated by the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV), which has been required by the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) to characterize the DPF under the requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Part A Permit (NDEP, 1995) for the NTS and Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 265 (1996c). The DPF is prioritized in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO, 1996) but is governed by the permit. The DPF was characterized through sampling events in 1994, 1996, and 1997. The results of these sampling events are contained in the Final Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Industrial Site Environmental Restoration Site Characterization Report, Area 6 Decontamination Pond Facility, Revision I (DOE/NV, 1997). This Corrective Measures Study (CMS) for the Area 6 DPF has been prepared for the DOE/NV`s Environmental Restoration Project. The CMS has been developed to support the preparation of a Closure Plan for the DPF. Because of the complexities of the contamination and regulatory issues associated with the DPF, DOE/NV determined a CMS would be beneficial to the evaluation and selection of a closure alternative.

  14. Full statistics of energy conservation in two-time measurement protocols.

    PubMed

    Benoist, Tristan; Jakšić, Vojkan; Panati, Annalisa; Pautrat, Yan; Pillet, Claude-Alain

    2015-09-01

    The first law of thermodynamics states that the average total energy current between different reservoirs vanishes at large times. In this paper we examine this fact at the level of the full statistics of two-time measurement protocols, also known as the Full Counting Statistics. Under very general conditions, we establish a tight form of the first law asserting that the fluctuations of the total energy current computed from the energy variation distribution are exponentially suppressed in the large time limit. We illustrate this general result using two examples: the Anderson impurity model and a two-dimensional spin lattice model.

  15. Ocular accommodation and cognitive demand: An additional indicator besides pupil size and cardiovascular measures?

    PubMed Central

    Jainta, Stephanie; Hoormann, Joerg; Jaschinski, Wolfgang

    2008-01-01

    Background The aim of the present study was to assess accommodation as a possible indicator of changes in the autonomic balance caused by altered cognitive demand. Accounting for accommodative responses from a human factors perspective may be motivated by the interest of designing virtual image displays or by establishing an autonomic indicator that allows for remote measurement at the human eye. Heart period, pulse transit time, and the pupillary response were considered as reference for possible closed-loop accommodative effects. Cognitive demand was varied by presenting monocularly numbers at a viewing distance of 5 D (20 cm) which had to be read, added or multiplied; further, letters were presented in a "n-back" task. Results Cardiovascular parameters and pupil size indicated a change in autonomic balance, while error rates and reaction time confirmed the increased cognitive demand during task processing. An observed decrease in accommodation could not be attributed to the cognitive demand itself for two reasons: (1) the cognitive demand induced a shift in gaze direction which, for methodological reasons, accounted for a substantial part of the observed accommodative changes. (2) Remaining effects disappeared when the correctness of task processing was taken into account. Conclusion Although the expectation of accommodation as possible autonomic indicator of cognitive demand was not confirmed, the present results are informative for the field of applied psychophysiology noting that it seems not to be worthwhile to include closed-loop accommodation in future studies. From a human factors perspective, expected changes of accommodation due to cognitive demand are of minor importance for design specifications – of, for example, complex visual displays. PMID:18721478

  16. Measuring Productive Elements of Multi-Word Phrase Vocabulary Knowledge among Children with English as an Additional or Only Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Sara A.; Murphy, Victoria A.

    2015-01-01

    Vocabulary plays a critical role in language and reading development for children, particularly those learning English as an additional language (EAL) (Stahl & Nagy, 2006). Previous research on vocabulary has mainly focused on measuring individual words without considering multi-word phrase knowledge, despite evidence that these items occur…

  17. Test of the conserved vector current hypothesis by a {beta}-ray angular distribution measurement in the mass-8 system

    SciTech Connect

    Sumikama, T.; Matsuta, K.; Ogura, M.; Iwakoshi, T.; Nakashima, Y.; Fujiwara, H.; Fukuda, M.; Mihara, M.; Nagatomo, T.; Minamisono, K.; Yamaguchi, T.; Minamisono, T.

    2011-06-15

    The {beta}-ray angular correlations for the spin alignments of {sup 8}Li and {sup 8}B have been observed in order to test the conserved vector current (CVC) hypothesis. The alignment correlation terms were combined with the known {beta}-{alpha} angular correlation terms to determine all the matrix elements contributing to the correlation terms. The weak magnetism term, 7.5{+-}0.2, deduced from the {beta}-ray correlation terms was consistent with the CVC prediction 7.3{+-}0.2, deduced from the analog-{gamma} decay measurement based on the CVC hypothesis. However, there was no consistent CVC prediction for the second-forbidden term associated with the weak vector current. The experimental value for the second-forbidden term was 1.0{+-}0.3, while the CVC prediction was 0.1{+-}0.4 or 2.1{+-}0.5.

  18. Test of the conserved vector current hypothesis by a β-ray angular distribution measurement in the mass-8 system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sumikama, T.; Matsuta, K.; Nagatomo, T.; Ogura, M.; Iwakoshi, T.; Nakashima, Y.; Fujiwara, H.; Fukuda, M.; Mihara, M.; Minamisono, K.; Yamaguchi, T.; Minamisono, T.

    2011-06-01

    The β-ray angular correlations for the spin alignments of Li8 and B8 have been observed in order to test the conserved vector current (CVC) hypothesis. The alignment correlation terms were combined with the known β-α angular correlation terms to determine all the matrix elements contributing to the correlation terms. The weak magnetism term, 7.5±0.2, deduced from the β-ray correlation terms was consistent with the CVC prediction 7.3±0.2, deduced from the analog-γ decay measurement based on the CVC hypothesis. However, there was no consistent CVC prediction for the second-forbidden term associated with the weak vector current. The experimental value for the second-forbidden term was 1.0±0.3, while the CVC prediction was 0.1±0.4 or 2.1±0.5.

  19. Additional Value of CH₄ Measurement in a Combined (13)C/H₂ Lactose Malabsorption Breath Test: A Retrospective Analysis.

    PubMed

    Houben, Els; De Preter, Vicky; Billen, Jaak; Van Ranst, Marc; Verbeke, Kristin

    2015-09-07

    The lactose hydrogen breath test is a commonly used, non-invasive method for the detection of lactose malabsorption and is based on an abnormal increase in breath hydrogen (H₂) excretion after an oral dose of lactose. We use a combined (13)C/H₂ lactose breath test that measures breath (13)CO₂ as a measure of lactose digestion in addition to H₂ and that has a better sensitivity and specificity than the standard test. The present retrospective study evaluated the results of 1051 (13)C/H₂ lactose breath tests to assess the impact on the diagnostic accuracy of measuring breath CH₄ in addition to H₂ and (13)CO₂. Based on the (13)C/H₂ breath test, 314 patients were diagnosed with lactase deficiency, 138 with lactose malabsorption or small bowel bacterial overgrowth (SIBO), and 599 with normal lactose digestion. Additional measurement of CH₄ further improved the accuracy of the test as 16% subjects with normal lactose digestion and no H₂-excretion were found to excrete CH₄. These subjects should have been classified as subjects with lactose malabsorption or SIBO. In conclusion, measuring CH₄-concentrations has an added value to the (13)C/H₂ breath test to identify methanogenic subjects with lactose malabsorption or SIBO.

  20. Determining causes of genetic isolation in a large carnivore (Ursus americanus) population to direct contemporary conservation measures.

    PubMed

    Pelletier, Agnès; Obbard, Martyn E; Harnden, Matthew; McConnell, Sabine; Howe, Eric J; Burrows, Frank G; White, Bradley N; Kyle, Christopher J

    2017-01-01

    The processes leading to genetic isolation influence a population's local extinction risk, and should thus be identified before conservation actions are implemented. Natural or human-induced circumstances can result in historical or contemporary barriers to gene flow and/or demographic bottlenecks. Distinguishing between these hypotheses can be achieved by comparing genetic diversity and differentiation in isolated vs. continuous neighboring populations. In Ontario, American black bears (Ursus americanus) are continuously distributed, genetically diverse, and exhibit an isolation-by-distance structuring pattern, except on the Bruce Peninsula (BP). To identify the processes that led to the genetic isolation of BP black bears, we modelled various levels of historical and contemporary migration and population size reductions using forward simulations. We compared simulation results with empirical genetic indices from Ontario black bear populations under different levels of geographic isolation, and conducted additional simulations to determine if translocations could help achieve genetic restoration. From a genetic standpoint, conservation concerns for BP black bears are warranted because our results show that: i) a recent demographic bottleneck associated with recently reduced migration best explains the low genetic diversity on the BP; and ii) under sustained isolation, BP black bears could lose between 70% and 80% of their rare alleles within 100 years. Although restoring migration corridors would be the most effective method to enhance long-term genetic diversity and prevent inbreeding, it is unrealistic to expect connectivity to be re-established. Current levels of genetic diversity could be maintained by successfully translocating 10 bears onto the peninsula every 5 years. Such regular translocations may be more practical than landscape restoration, because areas connecting the peninsula to nearby mainland black bear populations have been irreversibly modified

  1. Determining causes of genetic isolation in a large carnivore (Ursus americanus) population to direct contemporary conservation measures

    PubMed Central

    Obbard, Martyn E.; Harnden, Matthew; McConnell, Sabine; Howe, Eric J.; Burrows, Frank G.; White, Bradley N.; Kyle, Christopher J.

    2017-01-01

    The processes leading to genetic isolation influence a population’s local extinction risk, and should thus be identified before conservation actions are implemented. Natural or human-induced circumstances can result in historical or contemporary barriers to gene flow and/or demographic bottlenecks. Distinguishing between these hypotheses can be achieved by comparing genetic diversity and differentiation in isolated vs. continuous neighboring populations. In Ontario, American black bears (Ursus americanus) are continuously distributed, genetically diverse, and exhibit an isolation-by-distance structuring pattern, except on the Bruce Peninsula (BP). To identify the processes that led to the genetic isolation of BP black bears, we modelled various levels of historical and contemporary migration and population size reductions using forward simulations. We compared simulation results with empirical genetic indices from Ontario black bear populations under different levels of geographic isolation, and conducted additional simulations to determine if translocations could help achieve genetic restoration. From a genetic standpoint, conservation concerns for BP black bears are warranted because our results show that: i) a recent demographic bottleneck associated with recently reduced migration best explains the low genetic diversity on the BP; and ii) under sustained isolation, BP black bears could lose between 70% and 80% of their rare alleles within 100 years. Although restoring migration corridors would be the most effective method to enhance long-term genetic diversity and prevent inbreeding, it is unrealistic to expect connectivity to be re-established. Current levels of genetic diversity could be maintained by successfully translocating 10 bears onto the peninsula every 5 years. Such regular translocations may be more practical than landscape restoration, because areas connecting the peninsula to nearby mainland black bear populations have been irreversibly modified

  2. Real-time interferometric monitoring and measuring of photopolymerization based stereolithographic additive manufacturing process: sensor model and algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, X.; Rosen, D. W.

    2017-01-01

    As additive manufacturing is poised for growth and innovations, it faces barriers of lack of in-process metrology and control to advance into wider industry applications. The exposure controlled projection lithography (ECPL) is a layerless mask-projection stereolithographic additive manufacturing process, in which parts are fabricated from photopolymers on a stationary transparent substrate. To improve the process accuracy with closed-loop control for ECPL, this paper develops an interferometric curing monitoring and measuring (ICM&M) method which addresses the sensor modeling and algorithms issues. A physical sensor model for ICM&M is derived based on interference optics utilizing the concept of instantaneous frequency. The associated calibration procedure is outlined for ICM&M measurement accuracy. To solve the sensor model, particularly in real time, an online evolutionary parameter estimation algorithm is developed adopting moving horizon exponentially weighted Fourier curve fitting and numerical integration. As a preliminary validation, simulated real-time measurement by offline analysis of a video of interferograms acquired in the ECPL process is presented. The agreement between the cured height estimated by ICM&M and that measured by microscope indicates that the measurement principle is promising as real-time metrology for global measurement and control of the ECPL process.

  3. High resolution three-dimensional (256 to the 3rd) spatio-temporal measurements of the conserved scalar field in turbulent shear flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahm, Werner J. A.; Buch, Kenneth A.

    Results from highly resolved three-dimensional spatio-temporal measurements of the conserved scalar field zeta(x,t) in a turbulent shear flow. Each of these experiments consists of 256 to the 3rd individual point measurements of the local instantaneous conserved scalar value in the flow. The spatial and temporal resolution of these measurements reach beyond the local Kolmogorov scale and resolve the local strain-limited molecular diffusion scale in the flow. The results clearly show molecular mixing occurring in thin strained laminar diffusion layers in a turbulent flow.

  4. Conservative Extensions of Linkage Disequilibrium Measures from Pairwise to Multi-loci and Algorithms for Optimal Tagging SNP Selection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarpine, Ryan; Lam, Fumei; Istrail, Sorin

    We present results on two classes of problems. The first result addresses the long standing open problem of finding unifying principles for Linkage Disequilibrium (LD) measures in population genetics (Lewontin 1964 [10], Hedrick 1987 [8], Devlin and Risch 1995 [5]). Two desirable properties have been proposed in the extensive literature on this topic and the mutual consistency between these properties has remained at the heart of statistical and algorithmic difficulties with haplotype and genome-wide association study analysis. The first axiom is (1) The ability to extend LD measures to multiple loci as a conservative extension of pairwise LD. All widely used LD measures are pairwise measures. Despite significant attempts, it is not clear how to naturally extend these measures to multiple loci, leading to a "curse of the pairwise". The second axiom is (2) The Interpretability of Intermediate Values. In this paper, we resolve this mutual consistency problem by introducing a new LD measure, directed informativeness overrightarrow{I} (the directed graph theoretic counterpart of the informativeness measure introduced by Halldorsson et al. [6]) and show that it satisfies both of the above axioms. We also show the maximum informative subset of tagging SNPs based on overrightarrow{I} can be computed exactly in polynomial time for realistic genome-wide data. Furthermore, we present polynomial time algorithms for optimal genome-wide tagging SNPs selection for a number of commonly used LD measures, under the bounded neighborhood assumption for linked pairs of SNPs. One problem in the area is the search for a quality measure for tagging SNPs selection that unifies the LD-based methods such as LD-select (implemented in Tagger, de Bakker et al. 2005 [4], Carlson et al. 2004 [3]) and the information-theoretic ones such as informativeness. We show that the objective function of the LD-select algorithm is the Minimal Dominating Set (MDS) on r 2-SNP graphs and show that we can

  5. Measurement of water by oven evaporation using a novel oven design. 2. Water in motor oils and motor oil additives.

    PubMed

    Margolis, Sam A; Vaishnav, Kevin; Sieber, John R

    2004-11-01

    The measurement of water in lubricating oils is important because water accelerates the corrosion of metal parts and bearings in motors. Some of the additives added to lubricating oils to improve their performance react with the Karl Fischer reagent (KFR) causing a positive bias in the water measurement. A new oven evaporation technique for measuring water in oils has been developed that is automated, requires less sample handling, is easily calibrated, and is capable of measuring relatively small mass fractions of water (> or =50 mg/kg sample). A series of motor oils was analyzed with the standard KFR, a reagent that detects interfering substances that reduce iodine, and the aldehyde-ketone reagent that does not detect substances that react with methanol and form water. The oil samples were heated to 107 degrees C and then reheated to 160 degrees C. At both temperatures, material was measured by both KFRs, but only zinc dithiophosphate released sulfur compounds that would react with the reagent that detects interfering substances. Mass fractions of between 20 and 70% of the volatile material released at either temperature were measured with the standard KFR but not with the aldehyde-ketone reagent. These results demonstrate that there are a number of sources of positive bias in the measurement of water in motor oils and that the standard KFR cannot be used to measure water in motor oils and motor oil additives. These results also indicate that some of the material reacts with methanol to form water. Finally, these results suggest that some of the material that is volatile at 160 degrees C and not at 107 degrees C may be water that is physically occluded or may be substances that react with diethyleneglycol monomethylether to produce water.

  6. Measuring and explaining the willingness to pay for forest conservation: evidence from a survey experiment in Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakaki, Zorzeta; Bernauer, Thomas

    2016-11-01

    Recent research suggests that there is substantial public support (including willingness to pay) for forest conservation. Based on a nationwide survey experiment in Brazil (N = 2500) the largest and richest of the world’s tropical developing countries, we shed new light on this issue. To what extent does the public in fact support forest conservation and what factors are influencing support levels? Unlike previous studies, our results show that the willingness to pay for tropical forest conservation in Brazil is rather low. Moreover, framing forest conservation in terms of biodiversity protection, which tends to create more local benefits, does not induce more support than framing conservation in terms of mitigating global climate change. The results also show that low levels of trust in public institutions have a strong negative impact on the public’s willingness to pay for forest conservation, individually and/or via government spending. What could other (richer) countries do, in this context, to encourage forest conservation in Brazil and other tropical developing countries? One key issue is whether prospects of foreign funding for forest conservation are likely to crowd out or, conversely, enhance the motivation for domestic level conservation efforts. We find that prospects of foreign funding have no significant effect on willingness to pay for forest conservation. These findings have at least three policy implications, namely, that the Brazilian public’s willingness to pay for forest conservation is very limited, that large-scale international funding is probably needed, and that such funding is unlikely to encourage more domestic effort, but is also unlikely to crowd out domestic efforts. Restoring public trust in the Brazilian government is key to increasing public support for forest conservation in Brazil.

  7. Conservation in Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finkel, Edward

    1991-01-01

    Discussed is the physical concept of conservation as it is framed within the laws of conservation of mass, of momentum, and of energy. The derivation of Ohm's Law as a generalization of the relationship between the observed measurements of voltage and current serves as the exemplar of how conservation theories are formed. (JJK)

  8. Teaching renewable energy using online PBL in investigating its effect on behaviour towards energy conservation among Malaysian students: ANOVA repeated measures approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nordin, Norfarah; Samsudin, Mohd Ali; Hadi Harun, Abdul

    2017-01-01

    This research aimed to investigate whether online problem based learning (PBL) approach to teach renewable energy topic improves students’ behaviour towards energy conservation. A renewable energy online problem based learning (REePBaL) instruction package was developed based on the theory of constructivism and adaptation of the online learning model. This study employed a single group quasi-experimental design to ascertain the changed in students’ behaviour towards energy conservation after underwent the intervention. The study involved 48 secondary school students in a Malaysian public school. ANOVA Repeated Measure technique was employed in order to compare scores of students’ behaviour towards energy conservation before and after the intervention. Based on the finding, students’ behaviour towards energy conservation improved after the intervention.

  9. Fourier Analysis of Conservation Patterns in Protein Secondary Structure.

    PubMed

    Palaniappan, Ashok; Jakobsson, Eric

    2017-01-01

    Residue conservation is a common observation in alignments of protein families, underscoring positions important in protein structure and function. Though many methods measure the level of conservation of particular residue positions, currently we do not have a way to study spatial oscillations occurring in protein conservation patterns. It is known that hydrophobicity shows spatial oscillations in proteins, which is characterized by computing the hydrophobic moment of the protein domains. Here, we advance the study of moments of conservation of protein families to know whether there might exist spatial asymmetry in the conservation patterns of regular secondary structures. Analogous to the hydrophobic moment, the conservation moment is defined as the modulus of the Fourier transform of the conservation function of an alignment of related protein, where the conservation function is the vector of conservation values at each column of the alignment. The profile of the conservation moment is useful in ascertaining any periodicity of conservation, which might correlate with the period of the secondary structure. To demonstrate the concept, conservation in the family of potassium ion channel proteins was analyzed using moments. It was shown that the pore helix of the potassium channel showed oscillations in the moment of conservation matching the period of the α-helix. This implied that one side of the pore helix was evolutionarily conserved in contrast to its opposite side. In addition, the method of conservation moments correctly identified the disposition of the voltage sensor of voltage-gated potassium channels to form a 310 helix in the membrane.

  10. A method of analyzing nonstationary ionic channel current fluctuations in the presence of an additive measurement noise.

    PubMed

    Mino, H

    1993-03-01

    A method of estimating the parameters of nonstationary ionic channel current fluctuations (NST-ICF's) in the presence of an additive measurement noise is proposed. The case is considered in which the sample records of NST-ICT's corrupted by the measurement noise are available for estimation, where the experiment can be repeated many times to calculate the statistics of noisy NST-ICF's. The conventional second-order regression model expressed in terms of the mean and variance of noisy NST-ICF's is derived theoretically, assuming that NST-ICF's are binomially distributed. Since the coefficients of the regression model are explicitly related to not only the parameters of NST-ICF's but also the measurement noise component, the parameters of NST-ICF's that are of interest can be estimated without interference from the additive measurement noise by identifying the regression coefficients. Furthermore, the accuracy of the parameter estimates is theoretically evaluated using the error-covariance matrix of the regression coefficients. The validity and effectiveness of the proposed method are demonstrated in a Monte Carlo simulation in which a fundamental kinetic scheme of Na+ channels is treated as a specific example.

  11. Analysis of the laser powder bed fusion additive manufacturing process through experimental measurement and finite element modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunbar, Alexander Jay

    The objective in this work is to provide rigourous experimental measurements to aid in the development of laser powder bed fusion (LPBF) additive manufacturing (AM). A specialized enclosed instrumented measurement system is designed to provide in situ experimental measurements of temperature and distortion. Experiments include comparisons of process parameters, materials and LPBF machines. In situ measurements of distortion and temperature made throughout the build process highlight inter-layer distortion effects previously undocumented for laser powder bed fusion. Results from these experiments are also be implemented in the development and validation of finite element models of the powder bed build process. Experimental analysis is extended from small-scale to larger part-scale builds where experimental post-build measurements are used in analysis of distortion profiles. Experimental results provided from this study are utilized in the validation of a finite element model capable of simulating production scale parts. The validated finite element model is then implemented in the analysis of the part to provide information regarding the distortion evolution process. A combination of experimental measurements and simulation results are used to identify the mechanism that results in the measured distortion profile for this geometry. Optimization of support structure primarily focuses on the minimization of material use and scan time, but no information regarding failure criteria for support structure is available. Tensile test samples of LPBF built support structure are designed, built, and tested to provide measurements of mechanical properties of the support structure. Experimental tests show that LPBF built support structure has only 30-40% of the ultimate tensile strength of solid material built in the same machine. Experimental measurement of LPBF built support structure provides clear failure criteria to be utilized in the future design and implementation of

  12. Conservation characteristics of corn ears and stover ensiled with the addition of Lactobacillus plantarum MTD-1, Lactobacillus plantarum 30114, or Lactobacillus buchneri 11A44.

    PubMed

    Lynch, J P; O'Kiely, P; Waters, S M; Doyle, E M

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of inoculating 3 contrasting lactic acid bacteria on the fermentation profile, estimated nutritive value, and aerobic stability of corn ears and stover produced under marginal growing conditions. Ears and stover were separated from whole-crop corn plants obtained from 3 replicate field blocks. Representative subsamples were precision chopped and allocated to 1 of the following treatments: an uninoculated control, Lactobacillus plantarum MTD-1 (LP1), L. plantarum 30114 (LP2), or Lactobacillus buchneri 11A44 (LB). Each bacterial additive was applied at a rate of 1 × 10(6) cfu/g of fresh herbage. Triplicate samples of each treatment were ensiled in laboratory silos at 15°C for 3, 10, 35, or 130 d. No difference was observed between the dry matter recoveries of uninoculated ear or stover silages and silages made with LP1, and the aerobic stability of uninoculated ear and stover silages did not differ from silages made with LB. Stover silages made with LP2 and ensiled for 35 d had a lower proportion of lactic acid in total fermentation products compared with LP1. The aerobic stability and dry matter recovery of ear and stover silages in this study were not improved when made with LB, LP1, or LP2, due to the indigenous highly heterolactic fermentation that prevailed in the uninoculated ear and stover during 130-d ensilage.

  13. Near-road modeling and measurement of cerium-containing particles generated by nanoparticle diesel fuel additive use.

    PubMed

    Gantt, Brett; Hoque, Shamia; Willis, Robert D; Fahey, Kathleen M; Delgado-Saborit, Juana Mari; Harrison, Roy M; Erdakos, Garnet B; Bhave, Prakash V; Zhang, K Max; Kovalcik, Kasey; Pye, Havala O T

    2014-09-16

    Cerium oxide nanoparticles (nCe) are used as a fuel-borne catalyst in diesel engines to reduce particulate emissions, yet the environmental and human health impacts of the exhaust particles are not well understood. To bridge the gap between emission measurements and ambient impacts, size-resolved measurements of particle composition and mass concentration have been performed in Newcastle-upon-Tyne, United Kingdom, where buses have used an nCe additive since 2005. These observations show that the noncrustal cerium fraction thought to be associated with the use of nCe has a mass concentration ∼ 0.3 ng m(-3) with a size distribution peaking at 100-320 nm in aerodynamic diameter. Simulations with a near-roadway multicomponent sectional aerosol dynamic model predict that the use of nCe additives increases the number concentration of nuclei mode particles (<50 nm in diameter) while decreasing the total mass concentration. The near-road model predicts a downwind mass size distribution of cerium-containing particles peaking at 150 nm in aerodynamic diameter, a value similar to that measured for noncrustal cerium in Newcastle. This work shows that both the emission and atmospheric transformation of cerium-containing particles needs to be taken into account by regional modelers, exposure scientists, and policymakers when determining potential environmental and human health impacts.

  14. Influence of oxygen addition to the carrier gas on laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy measurements on aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palazzo, N.; Migliorini, F.; Dondè, R.; Maffi, S.; De Iuliis, S.

    2016-01-01

    In this work, laser-induced breakdown spectrosopy is implemented on aerosol particles for absolute concentration analysis. The aim of this work is the investigation of the effect of the bath gas used for nebulizing the aerosol. Nitrogen, air, and 50% O2 in N2 mixture have been chosen as carrier gasses in order to analyze the effect of oxygen addition to the gas. LIBS measurements have been carried out on aerosol particles produced from CuCl2 2H2O solutions, and the 324.7 nm Cu line is considered. As a first analysis, plasma parameters, such as temperature and electron density, have been evaluated changing the carrier gas. Measurements to derive the LIBS calibration curve of the 324.7 nm Cu line are carried out in air and in N2. The significant difference in the slope of the resulting calibration curves has to be attributed to the oxygen addition to the bath gas. To explore such behavior, time-resolved measurements of the Cu line and peak/base ratio have been performed. The presence of two competitive effects have been observed that becomes significant increasing the amount of oxygen in the carrier gas. One is the oxygen-quenching effect, already observed in the literature, and the other one is the enhancement of the Cu LIBS signal, expecially at short delay times. These effects have been observed also at other Cu lines and changing the analyte source. The results are presented and widely discussed.

  15. Effect of polyglycerol esters additive on palm oil crystallization using focused beam reflectance measurement and differential scanning calorimetry.

    PubMed

    Saw, M H; Hishamuddin, E; Chong, C L; Yeoh, C B; Lim, W H

    2017-01-01

    The effect of 0.1-0.7% (w/w) of polyglycerol esters (PGEmix-8) on palm oil crystallization was studied using focused beam reflectance measurement (FBRM) to analyze the in-line changes of crystal size distribution during the crystallization. FBRM results show that 0.1-0.5% (w/w) of PGEmix-8 did not significantly affect nucleation but slightly retarded crystal growth. The use of 0.7% (w/w) additive showed greater heterogeneous nucleation compared to those with lower dosages of additive. Crystal growth was also greatly reduced when using 0.7% (w/w) dosage. The morphological study indicated that the palm oil crystals were smaller and more even in size than when more additive was added. Isothermal crystallization studies using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) showed increased inhibitory effects on palm oil crystal growth with increasing concentration of PGEmix-8. These results imply that PGEmix-8 is a nucleation enhancing and crystal growth retarding additive in palm oil crystallization at 0.7% (w/w) dosage.

  16. Review on measurement techniques of transport properties of nanowires Additions and Corrections. See DOI:10.1039/C3NR03242F Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Rojo, Miguel Muñoz; Calero, Olga Caballero; Lopeandia, A. F.; Rodriguez-Viejo, J.

    2013-01-01

    Physical properties at the nanoscale are novel and different from those in bulk materials. Over the last few decades, there has been an ever growing interest in the fabrication of nanowire structures for a wide variety of applications including energy generation purposes. Nevertheless, the study of their transport properties, such as thermal conductivity, electrical conductivity or Seebeck coefficient, remains an experimental challenge. For instance, in the particular case of nanostructured thermoelectrics, theoretical calculations have shown that nanowires offer a promising way of enhancing the hitherto low efficiency of these materials in the conversion of temperature differences into electricity. Therefore, within the thermoelectrical community there has been a great experimental effort in the measurement of these quantities in actual nanowires. The measurements of these properties at the nanoscale are also of interest in fields other than energy, such as electrical components for microchips, field effect transistors, sensors, and other low scale devices. For all these applications, knowing the transport properties is mandatory. This review deals with the latest techniques developed to perform the measurement of these transport properties in nanowires. A thorough overview of the most important and modern techniques used for the characterization of different kinds of nanowires will be shown. PMID:24113712

  17. The 1998-2000 SHADOZ (Southern Hemisphere ADditional Ozonesondes) Tropical Ozone Climatology: Comparison with TOMS and Ground-Based Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Anne M.; Witte, Jacquelyn; McPeters, Richard D.; Oltmans, Samuel J.; Schmidlin, Francis J.; Logan, Jennifer A.; Fujiwara, Masatormo; Kirchhoff, Volker W. J. H.; Posny, Francoise; Coetzee, Gerhard J. R.; Bhartia, P. K. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    A network of 10 southern hemisphere tropical and Subtropical stations, designated the Southern Hemisphere ADditional OZonesondes, (SHADOZ) project and established from operational sites, provided over 1000 ozone profiles during the period 1998-2000. Balloon-borne electrochemical concentration cell (ECC) ozonesondes, combined with standard radiosondes for pressure, temperature and relative humidity measurements, collected profiles in the troposphere and lower- to mid-stratosphere at: Ascension Island; Nairobi, Kenya; Irene, South Africa: Reunion Island, Watukosek Java; Fiji; Tahiti; American Samoa; San Cristobal, Galapagos; Natal, Brazil.

  18. Photon Doppler Velocimeter to Measure Entrained Additive Manufactured Bulk Metal Powders in Hot Subsonic and Supersonic Oxygen Gas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tylka, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Parts produced by additive manufacturing, particularly selective laser melting (SLM), have been shown to silt metal particulate even after undergoing stringent precision aerospace cleaning processes (Lowrey 2016). As printed parts are used in oxygen systems with increased pressures, temperatures, and gas velocity, the risk of ignition by particle impact, the most common direct ignition source of metals in oxygen, substantially increases. The White Sands Test Facility (WSTF), in collaboration with Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), desires to test the ignitability of SLM metals by particle impact in heated oxygen. The existing test systems rely on gas velocity calculations to infer particle velocity in both subsonic and supersonic particle impact systems. Until now, it was not possible to directly measure particle velocity. To increase the fidelity of planned SLM ignition studies, it is necessary to validate that the Photon Doppler Velocimetry(PDV) test system can accurately measure particle velocity.

  19. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Major Sources. Industrial, Commercial, and Institutional Boilers; Guidance for Calculating Emission Credits Resulting from Implementation of Energy Conservation Measures

    SciTech Connect

    Papar, Riyaz; Wright, Anthony; Cox, Daryl

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide guidance for developing a consistent approach to documenting efficiency credits generated from energy conservation measures in the Implementation Plan for boilers covered by the Boiler MACT rule (i.e., Subpart DDDDD of CFR Part 63).

  20. The life closure scale: additional psychometric testing of a tool to measure psychological adaptation in death and dying.

    PubMed

    Dobratz, Marjorie C

    2004-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct additional psychometric testing on an instrument designed to measure psychological adaptation in end-of-life populations across a wide spectrum of terminal illnesses. A sample of 20 participants completed initial testing of the Life Closure Scale (LCS); however, its usefulness was limited by the small sample size. A larger sample of 113 home hospice individuals who met established criteria and who gave informed consent completed the 27-item LCS for additional psychometric testing. Cronbach's alphas and correlation coefficients were computed, and factor analysis was conducted to establish internal consistency reliability, theoretical clarity, and criterion-related validity. The number of scale items was reduced to 20, with a total alpha of.87. Cronbach's alphas for the two subscales were.80 (self-reconciled) and.82 (self-restructuring). Item-total correlations for the subscales ranged from a low of.37 to a high of.68, with confirmatory factor analysis yielding two loadings. These findings lend credence to the usefulness of the LCS in measuring psychological adaptation in dying persons.

  1. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Major Sources: Industrial, Commercial, and Institutional Boilers; Guidance for Calculating Emission Credits Resulting from Implementation of Energy Conservation Measures

    SciTech Connect

    Cox, Daryl; Papar, Riyaz; Wright, Dr. Anthony

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide guidance for developing a consistent approach to documenting efficiency credits generated from energy conservation measures in the Implementation Plan for boilers covered by the Boiler MACT rule (i.e., subpart DDDDD of CFR part 63). This document divides Boiler System conservation opportunities into four functional areas: 1) the boiler itself, 2) the condensate recovery system, 3) the distribution system, and 4) the end uses of the steam. This document provides technical information for documenting emissions credits proposed in the Implementation Plan for functional areas 2) though 4). This document does not include efficiency improvements related to the Boiler tune-ups.

  2. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Major Sources: Industrial, Commercial, and Institutional Boilers; Guidance for Calculating Efficiency Credits Resulting from Implementation of Energy Conservation Measures

    SciTech Connect

    Cox, Daryl; Papar, Riyaz; Wright, Dr. Anthony

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide guidance for developing a consistent approach to documenting efficiency credits generated from energy conservation measures in the Implementation Plan for boilers covered by the Boiler MACT rule (i.e., subpart DDDDD of CFR part 63). This document divides Boiler System conservation opportunities into four functional areas: 1) the boiler itself, 2) the condensate recovery system, 3) the distribution system, and 4) the end uses of the steam. This document provides technical information for documenting emissions credits proposed in the Implementation Plan for functional areas 2) though 4). This document does not include efficiency improvements related to the Boiler tune-ups.

  3. Conserved DNA methylation patterns in healthy blood cells and extensive changes in leukemia measured by a new quantitative technique.

    PubMed

    Jelinek, Jaroslav; Liang, Shoudan; Lu, Yue; He, Rong; Ramagli, Louis S; Shpall, Elizabeth J; Estecio, Marcos R H; Issa, Jean-Pierre J

    2012-12-01

    Genome wide analysis of DNA methylation provides important information in a variety of diseases, including cancer. Here, we describe a simple method, Digital Restriction Enzyme Analysis of Methylation (DREAM), based on next generation sequencing analysis of methylation-specific signatures created by sequential digestion of genomic DNA with SmaI and XmaI enzymes. DREAM provides information on 150,000 unique CpG sites, of which 39,000 are in CpG islands and 30,000 are at transcription start sites of 13,000 RefSeq genes. We analyzed DNA methylation in healthy white blood cells and found methylation patterns to be remarkably uniform. Inter individual differences > 30% were observed only at 227 of 28,331 (0.8%) of autosomal CpG sites. Similarly, > 30% differences were observed at only 59 sites when we comparing the cord and adult blood. These conserved methylation patterns contrasted with extensive changes affecting 18-40% of CpG sites in a patient with acute myeloid leukemia and in two leukemia cell lines. The method is cost effective, quantitative (r ( 2) = 0.93 when compared with bisulfite pyrosequencing) and reproducible (r ( 2) = 0.997). Using 100-fold coverage, DREAM can detect differences in methylation greater than 10% or 30% with a false positive rate below 0.05 or 0.001, respectively. DREAM can be useful in quantifying epigenetic effects of environment and nutrition, correlating developmental epigenetic variation with phenotypes, understanding epigenetics of cancer and chronic diseases, measuring the effects of drugs on DNA methylation or deriving new biological insights into mammalian genomes.

  4. Optimum allocation of conservation funds and choice of conservation programs for a set of African cattle breeds

    PubMed Central

    Reist-Marti, Sabine B; Abdulai, Awudu; Simianer, Henner

    2006-01-01

    Although funds for livestock conservation are limited there is little known about the optimal allocation of conservation funds. A new algorithm was used to allocate Mio US$ 1, 2, 3, 5 or unlimited funds, discounted over 50 years, on 23 African cattle breeds conserved with four different possible conservation programs. Additionally, Mio US$ 1 was preferably allocated to breeds with special traits. The conceptional in situ conservation programs strongly involve breeders and give them part of the responsibility for the conservation of the breed. Therefore, the pure in situ conservation was more efficient than cryoconservation or combined in situ and cryoconservation. The average annual discounted conservation cost for a breed can be as low as US$ 1000 to US$ 4400 depending on the design of the conservation program and the economic situation of the country of conservation. The choice of the breeds and the optimal conservation program and the amount of money allocated to each breed depend on many factors such as the amount of funds available, the conservation potential of each breed, the effects of the conservation program as well as its cost. With Mio US$ 1, 64% of the present diversity could be maintained over 50 years, which is 13% more than would be maintained if no conservation measures were implemented. Special traits could be conserved with a rather small amount of the total funds. Diversity can not be conserved completely, not even with unlimited funds. A maximum of 92% of the present diversity could be conserved with Mio US$ 10, leaving 8% of the diversity to unpredictable happenings. The suggested algorithm proved to be useful for optimal allocation of conservation funds. It allocated the funds optimally among breeds by identifying the most suited conservation program for each breed, also accounting for differences in currency exchange rates between the different countries. PMID:16451794

  5. The National Fuel End-Use Efficiency Field Test: Energy Savings and Performance of an Improved Energy Conservation Measure Selection Technique

    SciTech Connect

    Ternes, M.P.

    1991-01-01

    The performance of an advanced residential energy conservation measure (ECM) selection technique was tested in Buffalo, New York, to verify the energy savings and program improvements achieved from use of the technique in conservation programs and provide input into determining whether utility investments in residential gas end-use conservation are cost effective. The technique analyzes a house to identify all ECMs that are cost effective in the building envelope, space-heating system, and water-heating system. The benefit-to-cost ratio (BCR) for each ECM is determined and cost-effective ECMs (BCR > 1.0) are selected once interactions between ECMs are taken into account. Eighty-nine houses with the following characteristics were monitored for the duration of the field test: occupants were low-income, houses were single-family detached houses but not mobile homes, and primary space- and water-heating systems were gas-fired. Forty-five houses received a mix of ECMs as selected by the measure selection technique (audit houses) and 44 served as a control group. Pre-weatherization data were collected from January to April 1988 and post-weatherization data were collected from December 1988 to April 1989. Space- and waterheating gas consumption and indoor temperature were monitored weekly during the two winters. A house energy consumption model and regression analysis were employed to normalize the space-heating energy savings to average outdoor temperature conditions and a 68 F indoor temperature. Space and water-heating energy savings for the audit houses were adjusted by the savings for the control houses. The average savings of 257 therms/year for the audit houses was 17% of the average pre-weatherization house gas consumption and 78% of that predicted. Average space-heating energy savings was 252 therms/year (25% of pre-weatherization space-heating energy consumption and 85% of the predicted value) and average water-heating savings was 5 therms/year (2% of pre

  6. Building robust conservation plans.

    PubMed

    Visconti, Piero; Joppa, Lucas

    2015-04-01

    Systematic conservation planning optimizes trade-offs between biodiversity conservation and human activities by accounting for socioeconomic costs while aiming to achieve prescribed conservation objectives. However, the most cost-efficient conservation plan can be very dissimilar to any other plan achieving the set of conservation objectives. This is problematic under conditions of implementation uncertainty (e.g., if all or part of the plan becomes unattainable). We determined through simulations of parallel implementation of conservation plans and habitat loss the conditions under which optimal plans have limited chances of implementation and where implementation attempts would fail to meet objectives. We then devised a new, flexible method for identifying conservation priorities and scheduling conservation actions. This method entails generating a number of alternative plans, calculating the similarity in site composition among all plans, and selecting the plan with the highest density of neighboring plans in similarity space. We compared our method with the classic method that maximizes cost efficiency with synthetic and real data sets. When implementation was uncertain--a common reality--our method provided higher likelihood of achieving conservation targets. We found that χ, a measure of the shortfall in objectives achieved by a conservation plan if the plan could not be implemented entirely, was the main factor determining the relative performance of a flexibility enhanced approach to conservation prioritization. Our findings should help planning authorities prioritize conservation efforts in the face of uncertainty about future condition and availability of sites.

  7. Plant conservation genetics in a changing world.

    PubMed

    Kramer, Andrea T; Havens, Kayri

    2009-11-01

    Plant conservation genetics provides tools to guide conservation and restoration efforts, measure and monitor success, and ultimately minimize extinction risk by conserving species as dynamic entities capable of evolving in the face of changing conditions. We consider the application of these tools to rare and common species alike, as ongoing threats that increasingly limit their resilience, evolutionary potential and survival. Whereas neutral marker studies have contributed much to conservation genetics, we argue for a renewed focus on quantitative genetic studies to determine how, or if, species will adapt to changing conditions. Because restoration plays an increasingly vital role in conservation, we discuss additional genetic considerations and research questions that must be actively studied now to effectively inform future actions.

  8. Analysis of the Capacity of Google Trends to Measure Interest in Conservation Topics and the Role of Online News.

    PubMed

    Nghiem, Le T P; Papworth, Sarah K; Lim, Felix K S; Carrasco, Luis R

    2016-01-01

    With the continuous growth of internet usage, Google Trends has emerged as a source of information to investigate how social trends evolve over time. Knowing how the level of interest in conservation topics--approximated using Google search volume--varies over time can help support targeted conservation science communication. However, the evolution of search volume over time and the mechanisms that drive peaks in searches are poorly understood. We conducted time series analyses on Google search data from 2004 to 2013 to investigate: (i) whether interests in selected conservation topics have declined and (ii) the effect of news reporting and academic publishing on search volume. Although trends were sensitive to the term used as benchmark, we did not find that public interest towards conservation topics such as climate change, ecosystem services, deforestation, orangutan, invasive species and habitat loss was declining. We found, however, a robust downward trend for endangered species and an upward trend for ecosystem services. The quantity of news articles was related to patterns in Google search volume, whereas the number of research articles was not a good predictor but lagged behind Google search volume, indicating the role of news in the transfer of conservation science to the public.

  9. Analysis of the Capacity of Google Trends to Measure Interest in Conservation Topics and the Role of Online News

    PubMed Central

    Nghiem, Le T. P.; Papworth, Sarah K.; Lim, Felix K. S.; Carrasco, Luis R.

    2016-01-01

    With the continuous growth of internet usage, Google Trends has emerged as a source of information to investigate how social trends evolve over time. Knowing how the level of interest in conservation topics—approximated using Google search volume—varies over time can help support targeted conservation science communication. However, the evolution of search volume over time and the mechanisms that drive peaks in searches are poorly understood. We conducted time series analyses on Google search data from 2004 to 2013 to investigate: (i) whether interests in selected conservation topics have declined and (ii) the effect of news reporting and academic publishing on search volume. Although trends were sensitive to the term used as benchmark, we did not find that public interest towards conservation topics such as climate change, ecosystem services, deforestation, orangutan, invasive species and habitat loss was declining. We found, however, a robust downward trend for endangered species and an upward trend for ecosystem services. The quantity of news articles was related to patterns in Google search volume, whereas the number of research articles was not a good predictor but lagged behind Google search volume, indicating the role of news in the transfer of conservation science to the public. PMID:27028399

  10. Design and analysis of a piezoelectric material based touch screen with additional pressure and its acceleration measurement functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Xiang-Cheng; Liu, Jia-Yi; Gao, Ren-Long; Chang, Jie; Li, Long-Tu

    2013-12-01

    Touch screens are becoming more and more prevalent in everyday environments due to their convenience and humanized operation. In this paper, a piezoelectric material based touch screen is developed and investigated. Piezoelectric ceramics arrayed under the touch panel at the edges or corners are used as tactile sensors to measure the touch positioning point similarly to conventional touch screens. However, additional touch pressure and its acceleration performance can also be obtained to obtain a higher-level human-machine interface. The piezoelectric ceramics can also be added to a traditional touch screen structure, or they can be used independently to construct a novel touch screen with a high light transmittance approach to a transparent glass. The piezoelectric ceramics were processed from PZT piezoelectric ceramic powder into a round or rectangular shape. According to the varied touch position and physical press strength of a finger, or even a gloved hand or fingernail, the piezoelectric tactile sensors will have different output voltage responses. By calculating the ratio of different piezoelectric tactile sensors’ responses and summing up all piezoelectric tactile sensors’ output voltages, the touch point position, touch pressure and touch force acceleration can be detected. A prototype of such a touch screen is manufactured and its position accuracy, touch pressure and response speed are measured in detail. The experimental results show that the prototype has many advantages such as high light transmittance, low energy cost and high durability.

  11. Future battlegrounds for conservation under global change

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Tien Ming; Jetz, Walter

    2008-01-01

    Global biodiversity is under significant threat from the combined effects of human-induced climate and land-use change. Covering 12% of the Earth's terrestrial surface, protected areas are crucial for conserving biodiversity and supporting ecological processes beneficial to human well-being, but their selection and design are usually uninformed about future global change. Here, we quantify the exposure of the global reserve network to projected climate and land-use change according to the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment and set these threats in relation to the conservation value and capacity of biogeographic and geopolitical regions. We find that geographical patterns of past human impact on the land cover only poorly predict those of forecasted change, thus revealing the inadequacy of existing global conservation prioritization templates. Projected conservation risk, measured as regional levels of land-cover change in relation to area protected, is the greatest at high latitudes (due to climate change) and tropics/subtropics (due to land-use change). Only some high-latitude nations prone to high conservation risk are also of high conservation value, but their high relative wealth may facilitate additional conservation efforts. In contrast, most low-latitude nations tend to be of high conservation value, but they often have limited capacity for conservation which may exacerbate the global biodiversity extinction crisis. While our approach will clearly benefit from improved land-cover projections and a thorough understanding of how species range will shift under climate change, our results provide a first global quantitative demonstration of the urgent need to consider future environmental change in reserve-based conservation planning. They further highlight the pressing need for new reserves in target regions and support a much extended ‘north–south’ transfer of conservation resources that maximizes biodiversity conservation while mitigating global climate

  12. Future battlegrounds for conservation under global change.

    PubMed

    Lee, Tien Ming; Jetz, Walter

    2008-06-07

    Global biodiversity is under significant threat from the combined effects of human-induced climate and land-use change. Covering 12% of the Earth's terrestrial surface, protected areas are crucial for conserving biodiversity and supporting ecological processes beneficial to human well-being, but their selection and design are usually uninformed about future global change. Here, we quantify the exposure of the global reserve network to projected climate and land-use change according to the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment and set these threats in relation to the conservation value and capacity of biogeographic and geopolitical regions. We find that geographical patterns of past human impact on the land cover only poorly predict those of forecasted change, thus revealing the inadequacy of existing global conservation prioritization templates. Projected conservation risk, measured as regional levels of land-cover change in relation to area protected, is the greatest at high latitudes (due to climate change) and tropics/subtropics (due to land-use change). Only some high-latitude nations prone to high conservation risk are also of high conservation value, but their high relative wealth may facilitate additional conservation efforts. In contrast, most low-latitude nations tend to be of high conservation value, but they often have limited capacity for conservation which may exacerbate the global biodiversity extinction crisis. While our approach will clearly benefit from improved land-cover projections and a thorough understanding of how species range will shift under climate change, our results provide a first global quantitative demonstration of the urgent need to consider future environmental change in reserve-based conservation planning. They further highlight the pressing need for new reserves in target regions and support a much extended 'north-south' transfer of conservation resources that maximizes biodiversity conservation while mitigating global climate change.

  13. Evaluation of soil and water conservation measures in a semi-arid river basin in Tunisia using SWAT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Merguellil catchment (Central Tunisia) is a typical Mediterranean semi-arid basin which suffers from regular water shortage aggravated by current droughts. During the recent decades the continuous construction of small and large dams and Soil and Water Conservation Works (i.e. Contour ridges) ha...

  14. Measuring Zoo Visitor Learning and Understanding about Orangutans: Evaluation to Enhance Learning Outcomes and to Foster Conservation Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearson, Elissa L.; Dorrian, Jillian; Litchfield, Carla A.

    2013-01-01

    Despite the endangered status of the orangutan, very little research has sought to understand what people know about this species or the conservation challenges they face. As zoos are well placed to influence such understandings, the present study sought to explore knowledge following a visit to orangutan exhibits at three Australian zoos…

  15. Energy Conservation Measures for the Charles E. Shea Senior High School, Pawtucket, Rhode Island. Public Service Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New England Innovation Group, Providence, RI.

    Presented is a study of energy conservation opportunities in a Rhode Island high school. With the aid of an infrared camera system, researchers documented heat losses that were not evident to the naked eye. Each infrared thermogram obtained showed one or more types of heat loss and identified the specific sections of the building where the…

  16. Collections Conservation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeCandido, Robert

    Collections conservation is an approach to the preservation treatment of books and book-like materials that is conceptualized and organized in terms of large groups of materials. This guide is intended to enable a library to evaluate its current collections conservation activities. The introduction describes collections conservation and gives…

  17. Use of modified threat reduction assessments to estimate success of conservation measures within and adjacent to Kruger National Park, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Anthony, Brandon P

    2008-12-01

    The importance of biodiversity as natural capital for economic development and sustaining human welfare is well documented. Nevertheless, resource degradation rates and persistent deterioration of human welfare in developing countries is increasingly worrisome. Developing effective monitoring and evaluation schemes and measuring biodiversity loss continue to pose unique challenges, particularly when there is a paucity of historical data. Threat reduction assessment (TRA) has been proposed as a method to measure conservation success and as a proxy measurement of conservation impact, monitoring threats to resources rather than changes to biological parameters themselves. This tool is considered a quick, practical alternative to more cost- and time-intensive approaches, but has inherent weaknesses. I conducted TRAs to evaluate the effectiveness of Kruger National Park (KNP) and Limpopo Province, South Africa, in mitigating threats to biodiversity from 1994 to 2004 in 4 geographical areas. I calculated TRA index values in these TRAs by using the original scoring developed by Margoluis and Salafsky (2001)and a modified scoring system that assigned negative mitigation values to incorporate new or worsening threats. Threats were standardized to allow comparisons across the sites. Modified TRA index values were significantly lower than values derived from the original scoring exercise. Five of the 11 standardized threats were present in all 4 assessment areas, 2 were restricted to KNP, 2 to Limpopo Province, and 2 only to Malamulele municipality. These results indicate, first, the need to integrate negative mitigation values into TRA scoring. By including negative values, investigators will be afforded a more accurate picture of biodiversity threats and of temporal and spatial trends across sites. Where the original TRA scoring was used to measure conservation success, reevaluation of these cases with the modified scoring is recommended. Second, practitioners must

  18. Supply curves of conserved energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meier, A. K.

    1982-05-01

    Supply curves of conserved energy provide an accounting framework that expresses the potential for energy conservation. The economic worthiness of a conservation measure is expressed in terms of the cost of conserved energy, and a measure is considered economical when the cost of conserved energy is less than the price of the energy it replaces. A supply curve of conserved energy is independent of energy prices; however, the economical reserves of conserved energy will depend on energy prices. Double-counting of energy savings and error propagation are common problems when estimating conservation potentials, but supply curves minimize these difficulties and make their consequences predictable. The sensitivity of the cost of conserved energy is examined, as are variations in the optimal investment strategy in response to changes in inputs. Guidelines are presented for predicting the consequences of such changes.

  19. Effectiveness of Conservation Measures in Reducing Runoff and Soil Loss Under Different Magnitude-Frequency Storms at Plot and Catchment Scales in the Semi-arid Agricultural Landscape.

    PubMed

    Zhu, T X

    2016-03-01

    In this study, multi-year stormflow data collected at both catchment and plot scales on an event basis were used to evaluate the efficiency of conservation. At the catchment scale, soil loss from YDG, an agricultural catchment with no conservation measures, was compared with that from CZG, an agricultural catchment with an implementation of a range of conservation measures. With an increase of storm recurrence intervals in the order of <1, 1-2, 2-5, 5-10, 10-20, and >20 years, the mean event sediment yield was 639, 1721, 5779, 15191, 19627, and 47924 t/km(2) in YDG, and was 244, 767, 3077, 4679, 8388, and 15868 t/km(2) in CZG, which represented a reduction effectiveness of 61.8, 55.4, 46.7, 69.2, 57.2, and 66.8 %, respectively. Storm events with recurrence intervals greater than 2 years contributed about two-thirds of the total runoff and sediment in both YDG and CZG catchments. At the plot scale, soil loss from one cultivated slopeland was compared with that from five conservation plots. The mean event soil loss was 1622 t/km(2) on the cultivated slopeland, in comparison to 27.7 t/km(2) on the woodland plot, 213 t/km(2) on the grassland plot, 467 t/km(2) on the alfalfa plot, 236 t/km(2) on the terraceland plot, and 642 t/km(2) on the earthbank plot. Soil loss per unit area from all the plots was significantly less than that from the catchments for storms of all categories of recurrence intervals.

  20. Effectiveness of Conservation Measures in Reducing Runoff and Soil Loss Under Different Magnitude-Frequency Storms at Plot and Catchment Scales in the Semi-arid Agricultural Landscape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, T. X.

    2016-03-01

    In this study, multi-year stormflow data collected at both catchment and plot scales on an event basis were used to evaluate the efficiency of conservation. At the catchment scale, soil loss from YDG, an agricultural catchment with no conservation measures, was compared with that from CZG, an agricultural catchment with an implementation of a range of conservation measures. With an increase of storm recurrence intervals in the order of <1, 1-2, 2-5, 5-10, 10-20, and >20 years, the mean event sediment yield was 639, 1721, 5779, 15191, 19627, and 47924 t/km2 in YDG, and was 244, 767, 3077, 4679, 8388, and 15868 t/km2 in CZG, which represented a reduction effectiveness of 61.8, 55.4, 46.7, 69.2, 57.2, and 66.8 %, respectively. Storm events with recurrence intervals greater than 2 years contributed about two-thirds of the total runoff and sediment in both YDG and CZG catchments. At the plot scale, soil loss from one cultivated slopeland was compared with that from five conservation plots. The mean event soil loss was 1622 t/km2 on the cultivated slopeland, in comparison to 27.7 t/km2 on the woodland plot, 213 t/km2 on the grassland plot, 467 t/km2 on the alfalfa plot, 236 t/km2 on the terraceland plot, and 642 t/km2 on the earthbank plot. Soil loss per unit area from all the plots was significantly less than that from the catchments for storms of all categories of recurrence intervals.

  1. Conservation Laws

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dewitt, Bryce; Christensen, Steven M.

    In the case of the free particle, we interpreted various components of the energy-momentum-stress density as fluxes of energy and momentum. This interpretation can obviously be extended also to particle ensembles and gases. When we speak of fluxes we usually think of quantities that are conserved. In special relativity, energy and momentum are conserved. In general relativity, they are no longer generally conserved, at least if we do not include the energy and momentum of the gravitational field itself. Nevertheless, their densities and fluxes satisfy a covariant generalization of a true conservation law, which is quite easy to obtain.

  2. Effectiveness assessment of soil conservation measures in reducing soil erosion in Baiquan County of Northeastern China by using (137)Cs techniques.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qing-Wen; Li, Yong

    2014-05-01

    Accelerated soil erosion is considered as a major land degradation process resulting in increased sediment production and sediment-associated nutrient inputs to the rivers. Over the last decade, several soil conservation programs for erosion control have been conducted throughout Northeastern China. Reliable information on soil erosion rates is an essential prerequisite to assess the effectiveness of soil conservation measures. A study was carried out in Baiquan County of Northeastern China to assess the effectiveness of soil conservation measures in reducing soil erosion using the (137)Cs tracer technique and related techniques. This study reports the use of (137)Cs measurements to quantify medium-term soil erosion rates in traditional slope farmland, contour cropping farmland and terrace farmland in the Dingjiagou catchment and the Xingsheng catchment of Baiquan County. The (137)Cs reference inventory of 2532 ± 670 Bq m(-2) was determined. Based on the principle of the (137)Cs tracer technique, soil erosion rates were estimated. The results showed that severe erosion on traditional slope farmland is the dominant soil erosion process in the area. The terrace measure reduced soil erosion rates by 16% for the entire slope. Typical net soil erosion rates are estimated to be 28.97 Mg per hectare per year for traditional slope farmland and 25.04 Mg per hectare per year for terrace farmland in the Dingjiagou catchment. In contrast to traditional slope farmland with a soil erosion rate of 34.65 Mg per hectare per year, contour cultivation reduced the soil erosion rate by 53% resulting in a soil erosion rate of 22.58 Mg per hectare per year in the Xingsheng catchment. These results indicated that soil losses can be controlled by changing tillage practices from the traditional slope farmland cultivation to the terrace or contour cultivation.

  3. Employing individual measures of baseline glucocorticoids as population-level conservation biomarkers: considering within-individual variation in a breeding passerine

    PubMed Central

    Madliger, Christine L.; Love, Oliver P.

    2016-01-01

    Labile physiological variables, such as stress hormones [i.e. glucocorticoids (GCs)], allow individuals to react to perturbations in their environment and may therefore reflect the effect of disturbances or positive conservation initiatives in advance of population-level demographic measures. Although the application of GCs as conservation biomarkers has been of extensive interest, few studies have explicitly investigated whether baseline GC concentrations respond to disturbances consistently across individuals. However, confirmation of consistent responses is of paramount importance to assessing the ease of use of GCs in natural systems and to making valid interpretations regarding population-level change (or lack of change) in GC concentrations. We investigated whether free-ranging female tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) display individually specific changes in baseline glucocorticoid concentrations naturally over the breeding season (from incubation to offspring provisioning) and in response to a manipulation of foraging profitability (representing a decrease in access to food resources). We show that baseline GC concentrations are repeatable within individuals over reproduction in natural conditions. However, in response to a reduction in foraging ability, baseline GC concentrations increase at the population level but are not repeatable within individuals, indicating a high level of within-individual variation. Overall, we suggest that baseline GCs measured on a subset of individuals may not provide a representative indication of responses to environmental change at the population level, and multiple within-individual measures may be necessary to determine the fitness correlates of GC concentrations. Further validation should be completed across a variety of taxa and life-history stages. Moving beyond a traditional cross-sectional approach by incorporating repeated-measures methods will be necessary to assess the suitability of baseline GCs as biomarkers of

  4. Cost-effective conservation planning: lessons from economics.

    PubMed

    Duke, Joshua M; Dundas, Steven J; Messer, Kent D

    2013-08-15

    Economists advocate that the billions of public dollars spent on conservation be allocated to achieve the largest possible social benefit. This is "cost-effective conservation"-a process that incorporates both monetized benefits and costs. Though controversial, cost-effective conservation is poorly understood and rarely implemented by planners. Drawing from the largest publicly financed conservation programs in the United States, this paper seeks to improve the communication from economists to planners and to overcome resistance to cost-effective conservation. Fifteen practical lessons are distilled, including the negative implications of limiting selection with political constraints, using nonmonetized benefit measures or benefit indices, ignoring development risk, using incomplete cost measures, employing cost measures sequentially, and using benefit indices to capture costs. The paper highlights interrelationships between benefits and complications such as capitalization and intertemporal planning. The paper concludes by identifying the challenges at the research frontier, including incentive problems associated with adverse selection, additionality, and slippage.

  5. Conservation and behavioral neuroendocrinology.

    PubMed

    Cockrem, J F

    2005-11-01

    The total number of threatened species of vertebrates is likely to be more than 10,000, with approximately one quarter of the world's mammal species, one eighth of the birds and one third of the amphibians threatened with extinction. The rate of loss of animal species and hence of biodiversity is increasing and may become even greater as ecosystems become affected by climate change due to global warming. Behavioral neuroendocrinology, which considers interactions between behavior and neuroendocrine function in animals from all vertebrate taxa, can contribute to animal conservation. Research with laboratory animals can address questions in basic biology relevant to conservation and develop methods for use with threatened animals. Field work with free-living animals considers the basic biology of new species and the use of endocrine tools to assess the susceptibility of species to threats. Non-invasive measurements of hormone concentrations, especially fecal steroids, are extensively used to assess reproductive function and the stress status of animals in captive breeding programs and in the wild. Biodiversity and natural selection both depend on individual variation, and conservation programs often work with animals on an individual basis. The consideration of data from individuals is essential in conservation endocrinology. Direct contributions to conservation programs are challenging as study situations are determined by practical conservation concerns. Indirect contributions such as the provision of scientific input to conservation plans and participation in public education programs offer significant benefits for conservation programs. Directly and indirectly, there are many opportunities for behavioral neuroendocrinologists to contribute to conservation.

  6. Study of adsorption of detergent-dispersion additives on solid particles dispersed in oil using the method of electrical conductivity measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Waligora, B.; Buczak, H.; Olszewska, A.; Szeglowski, Z.

    1984-01-01

    By measuring electrical conductivity of paraffin oil solutions in isooctane (1:1 by volume) the variation in concentration of detergent-dispersant additives is studied; this variation is caused by their adsorption on solid particles (carbon black, aluminum powder). It is shown that dispersants have an improved ability to undergo adsorption, compared with detergents. Studies of adsorption of additives on model sorbents may be used to develop tests for evaluating additive properties. 7 references, 4 figures.

  7. Peptidase specificity from the substrate cleavage collection in the MEROPS database and a tool to measure cleavage site conservation

    PubMed Central

    Rawlings, Neil D.

    2016-01-01

    One peptidase can usually be distinguished from another biochemically by its action on proteins, peptides and synthetic substrates. Since 1996, the MEROPS database (http://merops.sanger.ac.uk) has accumulated a collection of cleavages in substrates that now amounts to 66,615 cleavages. The total number of peptidases for which at least one cleavage is known is 1700 out of a total of 2457 different peptidases. This paper describes how the cleavages are obtained from the scientific literature, how they are annotated and how cleavages in peptides and proteins are cross-referenced to entries in the UniProt protein sequence database. The specificity profiles of 556 peptidases are shown for which ten or more substrate cleavages are known. However, it has been proposed that at least 40 cleavages in disparate proteins are required for specificity analysis to be meaningful, and only 163 peptidases (6.6%) fulfil this criterion. Also described are the various displays shown on the website to aid with the understanding of peptidase specificity, which are derived from the substrate cleavage collection. These displays include a logo, distribution matrix, and tables to summarize which amino acids or groups of amino acids are acceptable (or not acceptable) in each substrate binding pocket. For each protein substrate, there is a display to show how it is processed and degraded. Also described are tools on the website to help with the assessment of the physiological relevance of cleavages in a substrate. These tools rely on the hypothesis that a cleavage site that is conserved in orthologues is likely to be physiologically relevant, and alignments of substrate protein sequences are made utilizing the UniRef50 database, in which in each entry sequences are 50% or more identical. Conservation in this case means substitutions are permitted only if the amino acid is known to occupy the same substrate binding pocket from at least one other substrate cleaved by the same peptidase. PMID

  8. Conservation Tillage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gebhardt, Maurice R.; Daniel, Tommy C.; Schweizer, Edward E.; Allmaras, Raymond R.

    1985-11-01

    Conservation production systems combine tillage and planting practices to reduce soil erosion and loss of water from farmland. Successful conservation tillage practices depend on the ability of farm managers to integrate sound crop production practices with effective pest management systems. More scientific information is needed to determine the relations between tillage practices and physical, chemical, and biological soil factors that affect plant and pest ecology. There is a need to devise improved pest management strategies for conservation tillage and to better understand the impact of conservation tillage on water quality, especially as it is related to use of agricultural chemicals. While savings in fuel, labor, and soil have induced many farmers to adopt conservation tillage, improved methods and equipment should increase adoption even more.

  9. Problems and pressures, management and measures in a site of marine conservation importance: Carmarthen Bay and Estuaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bullimore, Blaise

    2014-10-01

    Management of anthropogenic activities that cause pressure on estuarine wildlife and biodiversity is beset by a wide range of challenges. Some, such as the differing environmental and socio-economic objectives and conflicting views and priorities, are common to many estuaries; others are site specific. The Carmarthen Bay and Estuaries European Marine Site encompasses four estuaries of European wildlife and conservation importance and considerable socio-economic value. The estuaries and their wildlife are subject to a range of pressures and threats and the statutory authorities responsible for management in and adjacent to the Site have developed a management scheme to address these. Preparation of the management scheme included an assessment of human activities known to occur in and adjacent to the Site for their potential to cause a threat to the designated habitats and species features, and identified actions the management authorities need to take to minimise or eliminate pressures and threats. To deliver the scheme the partner authorities need to accept the requirement for management actions and work together to achieve them. The Welsh Government also needs to work with these authorities because it is responsible for management of many of the most important pressure-causing activities. However, the absence of statutory obligations for partnership working has proved an impediment to successful management.

  10. Quantitative simulation tools to analyze up- and downstream interactions of soil and water conservation measures: supporting policy making in the Green Water Credits program of Kenya.

    PubMed

    Hunink, J E; Droogers, P; Kauffman, S; Mwaniki, B M; Bouma, J

    2012-11-30

    Upstream soil and water conservation measures in catchments can have positive impact both upstream in terms of less erosion and higher crop yields, but also downstream by less sediment flow into reservoirs and increased groundwater recharge. Green Water Credits (GWC) schemes are being developed to encourage upstream farmers to invest in soil and water conservation practices which will positively effect upstream and downstream water availability. Quantitative information on water and sediment fluxes is crucial as a basis for such financial schemes. A pilot design project in the large and strategically important Upper-Tana Basin in Kenya has the objective to develop a methodological framework for this purpose. The essence of the methodology is the integration and use of a collection of public domain tools and datasets: the so-called Green water and Blue water Assessment Toolkit (GBAT). This toolkit was applied in order to study different options to implement GWC in agricultural rainfed land for the pilot study. Impact of vegetative contour strips, mulching, and tied ridges were determined for: (i) three upstream key indicators: soil loss, crop transpiration and soil evaporation, and (ii) two downstream indicators: sediment inflow in reservoirs and groundwater recharge. All effects were compared with a baseline scenario of average conditions. Thus, not only actual land management was considered but also potential benefits of changed land use practices. Results of the simulations indicate that especially applying contour strips or tied ridges significantly reduces soil losses and increases groundwater recharge in the catchment. The model was used to build spatial expressions of the proposed management practices in order to assess their effectiveness. The developed procedure allows exploring the effects of soil conservation measures in a catchment to support the implementation of GWC.

  11. A rapid automated procedure for laboratory and shipboard spectrophotometric measurements of seawater alkalinity: continuously monitored single-step acid additions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, X.; Byrne, R. H.; Lindemuth, M.; Easley, R. A.; Patsavas, M. C.

    2012-12-01

    An automated system for shipboard and laboratory alkalinity measurements is presented. The simple system, which consists of a Dosimat titrator to deliver acid volumetrically and a USB 4000 spectrophotometer to monitor the titration progress, provides fast, precise and accurate measurements of total alkalinity for oceanographic research. The analytical method is based on single-point HCl titrations of seawater samples of a known volume; bromol cresol purple is used as an indicator to determine the final pH. Field data from an Arctic cruise demonstrates accuracy and precision around 1 micro mol/kg and a sample processing rate of 6 min per sample.

  12. Effectiveness Of Miraba an Indigenous Soil and Water Conservation Measures On Reducing Runoff And Soil Loss In Arable Land Of Western Usambara Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Msita, H. B.; Kimaro, D. N.; Mtakwa, P. W.; Msanya, B. M.; Dondyene, S.; Poesen, J.; Deckers, J.

    2012-04-01

    Soil erosion by water is rampant mainly in mountainous areas of Tanzania leading to environmental hazards, low land productivity, low income and increased poverty. Despite the severity of the soil erosion problem, there is not much quantitative data on the erosion effects and effectiveness of indigenous soil and water conservation (SWC) measures. The consequence is that indigenous knowledge in SWC planning is ignored. The on-farm field experiment was conducted for three years in Migambo village, Lushoto district in Tanzania, to determine the effectiveness of improved Miraba (IM) an indigenous soil erosion control measure on reducing runoff and soil loss. Management practices were tested viz: control that is without any soil conservation measure (C), Miraba alone (M), Miraba with farmyard manure and mulching (MFM) replicated three times in CRD setting. Maize (Zea mays) and beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) were used as test crops, due to their importance as food crops and the high erosion rates on fields with these crops. The crops were planted in rotation, maize and beans in short and long rains respectively. Gerlach troughs and runoff plots were used to evaluate the physical effectiveness. Results show significant effects of IM against control on crop yields, soil loss, surface runoff and moisture retention. MFM is the most effective measure in reducing soil and water losses followed by MF and M. The results further showed that these management practices can be implemented to reduce soil erosion and nutrient losses in the study area and areas with similar ecological setting. To facilitate adoption of these practices further research works is recommended for identifying economically feasible indigenous SWC measures under different biophysical and socio-economic conditions.

  13. Near-road modeling and measurement of cerium-containing particles generated by nanoparticle diesel fuel additive use

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cerium oxide nanoparticles (nCe) are used as a fuel-borne catalyst in diesel engines to reduce particulate emissions, yet the environmental and human health impacts of the exhaust particles are not well understood. To bridge the gap between emission measurements and ambient impac...

  14. Paradigms for parasite conservation.

    PubMed

    Dougherty, Eric R; Carlson, Colin J; Bueno, Veronica M; Burgio, Kevin R; Cizauskas, Carrie A; Clements, Christopher F; Seidel, Dana P; Harris, Nyeema C

    2016-08-01

    Parasitic species, which depend directly on host species for their survival, represent a major regulatory force in ecosystems and a significant component of Earth's biodiversity. Yet the negative impacts of parasites observed at the host level have motivated a conservation paradigm of eradication, moving us farther from attainment of taxonomically unbiased conservation goals. Despite a growing body of literature highlighting the importance of parasite-inclusive conservation, most parasite species remain understudied, underfunded, and underappreciated. We argue the protection of parasitic biodiversity requires a paradigm shift in the perception and valuation of their role as consumer species, similar to that of apex predators in the mid-20th century. Beyond recognizing parasites as vital trophic regulators, existing tools available to conservation practitioners should explicitly account for the unique threats facing dependent species. We built upon concepts from epidemiology and economics (e.g., host-density threshold and cost-benefit analysis) to devise novel metrics of margin of error and minimum investment for parasite conservation. We define margin of error as the risk of accidental host extinction from misestimating equilibrium population sizes and predicted oscillations, while minimum investment represents the cost associated with conserving the additional hosts required to maintain viable parasite populations. This framework will aid in the identification of readily conserved parasites that present minimal health risks. To establish parasite conservation, we propose an extension of population viability analysis for host-parasite assemblages to assess extinction risk. In the direst cases, ex situ breeding programs for parasites should be evaluated to maximize success without undermining host protection. Though parasitic species pose a considerable conservation challenge, adaptations to conservation tools will help protect parasite biodiversity in the face of

  15. Energy Conservation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abelson, Philip H.

    1972-01-01

    Comments on The Potential for Energy Conservation,'' a study by the Office of Emergency Preparedness, emphasizing the coming dependence on foreign oil, and presses for government influence to encourage development of more efficient cars. (AL)

  16. Conservation Presentation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friday, Gerald

    2001-01-01

    Introduces a project in which students teach about the importance of recycling and conservation by presenting demonstrations. Includes demonstrations on water, plastic, and other recycling products such as steel. (YDS)

  17. Embargo on Lion Hunting Trophies from West Africa: An Effective Measure or a Threat to Lion Conservation?

    PubMed

    Bouché, Philippe; Crosmary, William; Kafando, Pierre; Doamba, Benoit; Kidjo, Ferdinand Claude; Vermeulen, Cédric; Chardonnet, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    The W-Arly-Pendjari (WAP) ecosystem, shared among Benin, Burkina Faso and Niger, represents the last lion stronghold of West Africa. To assess the impact of trophy hunting on lion populations in hunting areas of the WAP, we analyzed trends in harvest rates from 1999 to 2014. We also investigated whether the hunting areas with higher initial hunting intensity experienced steeper declines in lion harvest between 1999 and 2014, and whether lion densities in hunting areas were lower than in national parks. Lion harvest rate remained overall constant in the WAP. At initial hunting intensities below 1.5 lions/1000km2, most hunting areas experienced an increase in lion harvest rate, although that increase was of lower magnitude for hunting areas with higher initial hunting intensity. The proportion of hunting areas that experienced a decline in lion harvest rate increased at initial hunting intensities above 1.5 lions/1000km2. In 2014, the lion population of the WAP was estimated with a spoor count at 418 (230-648) adults and sub-adult individuals, comparable to the 311 (123-498) individuals estimated in the previous 2012 spoor survey. We found no significant lion spoor density differences between national parks and hunting areas. Hunting areas with higher mean harvest rates did not have lower lion densities. The ratio of large adult males, females and sub-adults was similar between the national parks and the hunting areas. These results suggested that the lion population was not significantly affected by hunting in the WAP. We concluded that a quota of 1 lion/1000km2 would be sustainable for the WAP. Based on our results, an import embargo on lion trophies from the WAP would not be justified. It could ruin the incentive of local actors to conserve lions in hunting areas, and lead to a drastic reduction of lion range in West Africa.

  18. Embargo on Lion Hunting Trophies from West Africa: An Effective Measure or a Threat to Lion Conservation?

    PubMed Central

    Bouché, Philippe; Crosmary, William; Kafando, Pierre; Doamba, Benoit; Kidjo, Ferdinand Claude; Vermeulen, Cédric; Chardonnet, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    The W-Arly-Pendjari (WAP) ecosystem, shared among Benin, Burkina Faso and Niger, represents the last lion stronghold of West Africa. To assess the impact of trophy hunting on lion populations in hunting areas of the WAP, we analyzed trends in harvest rates from 1999 to 2014. We also investigated whether the hunting areas with higher initial hunting intensity experienced steeper declines in lion harvest between 1999 and 2014, and whether lion densities in hunting areas were lower than in national parks. Lion harvest rate remained overall constant in the WAP. At initial hunting intensities below 1.5 lions/1000km2, most hunting areas experienced an increase in lion harvest rate, although that increase was of lower magnitude for hunting areas with higher initial hunting intensity. The proportion of hunting areas that experienced a decline in lion harvest rate increased at initial hunting intensities above 1.5 lions/1000km2. In 2014, the lion population of the WAP was estimated with a spoor count at 418 (230–648) adults and sub-adult individuals, comparable to the 311 (123–498) individuals estimated in the previous 2012 spoor survey. We found no significant lion spoor density differences between national parks and hunting areas. Hunting areas with higher mean harvest rates did not have lower lion densities. The ratio of large adult males, females and sub-adults was similar between the national parks and the hunting areas. These results suggested that the lion population was not significantly affected by hunting in the WAP. We concluded that a quota of 1 lion/1000km2 would be sustainable for the WAP. Based on our results, an import embargo on lion trophies from the WAP would not be justified. It could ruin the incentive of local actors to conserve lions in hunting areas, and lead to a drastic reduction of lion range in West Africa. PMID:27182985

  19. Wigner-Araki-Yanase theorem beyond conservation laws

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tukiainen, Mikko

    2017-01-01

    The ability to measure every quantum observable is ensured by a fundamental result in quantum measurement theory. Nevertheless, additive conservation laws associated with physical symmetries, such as the angular momentum conservation, may lead to restrictions on the measurability of the observables. Such limitations are imposed by the theorem of Wigner, Araki, and Yanase (WAY). In this paper a formulation of the WAY theorem is presented rephrasing the measurability limitations in terms of quantum incompatibility. This broader mathematical basis enables us to both capture and generalize the WAY theorem by allowing us to drop the assumptions of additivity and even conservation of the involved quantities. Moreover, we extend the WAY theorem to the general level of positive operator-valued measures.

  20. Electric field induced in the human body by uniform 50 Hz electric or magnetic fields: bibliography analysis and method for conservatively deriving measurable limits.

    PubMed

    Magne, Isabelle; Deschamps, François

    2016-09-01

    Health guidelines for electric and magnetic fields in the low frequency range define exposure limits for electric and magnetic fields in terms of induced electric field in the human body, which is not directly measurable, requiring use of dosimetry. However many parameters, such as human models, calculation codes and post-processing methods influence the calculation results. Based upon many published papers and therefore covering a wide range of these influence parameters, this paper proposes a method for conservatively deriving measurable levels of electric and magnetic fields equivalent to the basic restrictions. Following this method, we found that, regarding exposure to uniform fields, the ICNIRP 2010 occupational basic restrictions are equivalent to a 2 mT and 7 mT magnetic field and to a 35 kV m(-1) and 35 kV m(-1) electric field at 50 Hz when applied respectively to the central and peripheral nervous system.

  1. The Conservation Effects Assessment Project (CEAP): a national scale natural resources and conservation needs assessment and decision support tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, M.-V. V.; Norfleet, M. L.; Atwood, J. D.; Behrman, K. D.; Kiniry, J. R.; Arnold, J. G.; White, M. J.; Williams, J.

    2015-07-01

    The Conservation Effects Assessment Project (CEAP) was initiated to quantify the impacts of agricultural conservation practices at the watershed, regional, and national scales across the United States. Representative cropland acres in all major U.S. watersheds were surveyed in 2003-2006 as part of the seminal CEAP Cropland National Assessment. Two process-based models, the Agricultural Policy Environmental eXtender(APEX) and the Soil Water Assessment Tool (SWAT), were applied to the survey data to provide a quantitative assessment of current conservation practice impacts, establish a benchmark against which future conservation trends and efforts could be measured, and identify outstanding conservation concerns. The flexibility of these models and the unprecedented amount of data on current conservation practices across the country enabled Cropland CEAP to meet its Congressional mandate of quantifying the value of current conservation practices. It also enabled scientifically grounded exploration of a variety of conservation scenarios, empowering CEAP to not only inform on past successes and additional needs, but to also provide a decision support tool to help guide future policy development and conservation practice decision making. The CEAP effort will repeat the national survey in 2015-2016, enabling CEAP to provide analyses of emergent conservation trends, outstanding needs, and potential costs and benefits of pursuing various treatment scenarios for all agricultural watersheds across the United States.

  2. Measurement of [Formula: see text] production with additional jet activity, including [Formula: see text] quark jets, in the dilepton decay channel using pp collisions at [Formula: see text].

    PubMed

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    2016-01-01

    Jet multiplicity distributions in top quark pair ([Formula: see text]) events are measured in pp collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 8 TeV with the CMS detector at the LHC using a data set corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 19.7[Formula: see text]. The measurement is performed in the dilepton decay channels ([Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], and [Formula: see text]). The absolute and normalized differential cross sections for [Formula: see text] production are measured as a function of the jet multiplicity in the event for different jet transverse momentum thresholds and the kinematic properties of the leading additional jets. The differential [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] cross sections are presented for the first time as a function of the kinematic properties of the leading additional [Formula: see text] jets. Furthermore, the fraction of events without additional jets above a threshold is measured as a function of the transverse momenta of the leading additional jets and the scalar sum of the transverse momenta of all additional jets. The data are compared and found to be consistent with predictions from several perturbative quantum chromodynamics event generators and a next-to-leading order calculation.

  3. Transit Timing Variation Measurements of WASP-12b and Qatar-1b: No Evidence Of Additional Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, Karen A.; Kielkopf, John F.; Stassun, Keivan G.

    2017-02-01

    WASP-12b and Qatar-1b are transiting hot Jupiters for which previous works have suggested the presence of transit timing variations (TTVs) indicative of additional bodies in these systems—an Earth-mass planet in WASP-12 and a brown-dwarf mass object in Qatar-1. Here, we present 23 new WASP-12b and 18 new Qatar-1b complete (or nearly complete) transit observations. We perform global system fits to all of our light curves for each system, as well as RV and stellar spectroscopic parameters from the literature. The global fits provide refined system parameters and uncertainties for each system, including precise transit center times for each transit. The transit model residuals of the combined and five minute binned light curves have an rms of 183 and 255 parts per million (ppm) for WASP-12b and Qatar-1b, respectively. Most of the WASP-12b system parameter values from this work are consistent with values from previous studies, but have ∼40%–50% smaller uncertainties. Most of the Qatar-1b system parameter values and uncertainties from this work are consistent with values recently reported in the literature. We find no convincing evidence for sinusoidal TTVs with a semi-amplitude of more than ∼35 and ∼25 s in the WASP-12b and Qatar-1b systems, respectively.

  4. Measurement and characterization of a soundscape of captive southern white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum simum) at a wildlife park conservation center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiseman, Susan M.

    Many animals, including the myopic rhinoceros, depend on hearing and smell for navigation and to interpret their environment. For them, the "soundscape" and "scentscape" are equivalent to our landscape. Noise damages humans physiologically, including reproductively, and likely damages other mammals. Rhinos vocalize sonically and infrasonically but audiograms are unavailable. Infrasonic noise tends to be chronic in urban areas, which frequently surround city zoos. Rhinos' biological and social management have been studied but little attention, if any, has been paid to their soundscapes. This project develops a standard by which such soundscapes may be measured, documented, and compared, so that once a wide range of rhino facilities have been similarly investigated, correlations could be sought between their sound metrics and the health and well-being of their animals. The interests of geographers overlap many disciplines, but the questions raised by, and the approaches of geographers frequently differ from those addressed by the original specialists, so a broader understanding of the soundscape and ways to record it may well add value to acoustic studies while simultaneously deepening geographic knowledge. This research asks: How can a soundscape of captive southern white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum simum) be comprehensively measured and characterized? What does doing so inform about their environment of captivity? How can this method be employed to understand the contrasts of the soundscapes of captivity and natural habitats? To begin to answer these questions, the following goals are addressed: 1. To develop a series of procedures to comprehensively record, measure, analyze, and characterize a broadband white rhino soundscape; 2. To note their vocalizations, and to roughly estimate the bandwidth used by these particular animals; 3. By demonstrating that techniques and language not normally used in the discipline of Geography could broaden its scope and expand

  5. The Additive Effects of Values Clarification Training to an Online Goal-Setting Procedure on Measures of Student Retention and Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chase, Jared A.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to provide individuals with online tutorials to help participants generate strategies to achieve their academic goals and clarify their academic values to assess the additive effects of values clarification training to an online goal-setting training procedure on (1) measures of academic performance and (2) student…

  6. [Conservation Units.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Education Agency, Austin.

    Each of the six instructional units deals with one aspect of conservation: forests, water, rangeland, minerals (petroleum), and soil. The area of the elementary school curriculum with which each correlates is indicated. Lists of general and specific objectives are followed by suggested teaching procedures, including ideas for introducing the…

  7. [Conservation Units.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Education Agency, Austin.

    Instructional units deal with each aspect of conservation: forests, wildlife, rangelands, water, minerals, and soil. The area of the secondary school curriculum with which each is correlated is indicated. Lists of general and specific objectives are followed by suggested teaching procedures, including ideas for introducing the topic, questions to…

  8. Lighting Conservation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Frank D.

    1975-01-01

    With the energy crisis has come an awareness of wasteful consumption practices. One area where research is being done is in lighting conservation. Information in this article is concerned with finding more effective and efficient lighting designs which include daylight utilization, task-oriented lighting, and lighting controls. (MA)

  9. Colorful Conservation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skophammer, Karen

    2011-01-01

    Some people only think about conservation on Earth Day. Being in the "art business" however, this author is always conscious of the many products she thinks get wasted when they could be reused, recycled, and restored--especially in a school building and art room. In this article, she describes an art lesson that allows students to paint…

  10. International Society for Wildlife Endocrinology: the future of endocrine measures for reproductive science, animal welfare and conservation biology.

    PubMed

    Ganswindt, André; Brown, Janine L; Freeman, Elizabeth W; Kouba, Andrew J; Penfold, Linda M; Santymire, Rachel M; Vick, Mandi M; Wielebnowski, Nadja; Willis, Erin L; Milnes, Matthew R

    2012-10-23

    Hormone analysis is a precise and widely accepted tool for monitoring reproductive function and responses to stressors. Although hormones are present and can be measured in various biological matrices, non-invasive methods have gained popularity over the past 30 years as a more practical approach for assessing ovarian, testicular and, more recently, adrenocortical activity in intractable wildlife species. Non-invasive hormone monitoring also has been key to understanding biological mechanisms related to observed behaviours of captive and free-ranging animals. Despite the increasing popularity of this research field, wildlife endocrinologists have not had a specific forum for sharing and discussing their latest findings, technical developments and common challenges. To provide such a communication platform, the International Society for Wildlife Endocrinology (ISWE) was established in 2010, followed by an international meeting held on 3-4 November 2011 at the Toronto Zoo, Canada. Over several sessions, keynote speakers and participants discussed recent developments of new and innovative methods for hormone monitoring, as well as the latest advances in basic endocrinology as applied to adrenal function, reproductive physiology, animal health, ecology and evolution. Here, we introduce ISWE to the scientific community and discuss how this new society will serve as a resource for wildlife endocrinologists worldwide.

  11. Food additives

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Michael

    1974-01-01

    Food additives are discussed from the food technology point of view. The reasons for their use are summarized: (1) to protect food from chemical and microbiological attack; (2) to even out seasonal supplies; (3) to improve their eating quality; (4) to improve their nutritional value. The various types of food additives are considered, e.g. colours, flavours, emulsifiers, bread and flour additives, preservatives, and nutritional additives. The paper concludes with consideration of those circumstances in which the use of additives is (a) justified and (b) unjustified. PMID:4467857

  12. Heron conservation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kushlan, J.A.; Hafner, H.

    2000-01-01

    Herons are large, popular and, in many cases, spectacular birds found in wetlands world-wide, both tropical and temperate, natural and man-made. Some populations are very small and localized, some have decreased, some have expanded their ranges, and a few are pests of human activities. In the fifteen years since the publication of the latest monographic treatment of the family, The Herons Handbook, there has been a tremendous increase in our knowledge of heron status and conservation requirements, set against a backdrop of increasing concern about the future of the world?s wetland habitats. This book provides a comprehensive update following two distinct threads. The status and conservation needs of herons are first presented on a regional basis, in a series of chapters set at a continental or subcontinental scale. Over 200 biologists and heron conservationists have contributed to the data summarized here, and the very latest census and survey results provide the most up-to-date and detailed picture of heron populations currently available. Chapters discussing several critical issues in heron conservation follow, tending to focus on the international nature of the problems.

  13. Long-term measurement of gastric motility using passive telemetry and effect of guar and cellulose as food additives in dogs.

    PubMed

    Burger, D M; Wiestner, T; Montavon, P M; Kündig, H; Hubler, M; Binder, H; Arnold, S

    2006-03-01

    The suitability of passive telemetry for long-term measurements of gastric motility in two groups of dogs with different body weights, four Beagles and four Labrador Retrievers, was investigated. An intra-abdominal measuring device, with a pressure sensor and electrodes within the gastric wall, allowed the continuous recording of the intensity and frequency of contractions simultaneously with an electromyogram (EMG). In fasting dogs a typical inter-digestive motility cycle was reproducible. Within 15 min of feeding the integral of the pressure curve increased significantly, reaching its maximum 30-45 min post-prandially. The peak frequency also significantly increased immediately after feeding, reaching the maximum of 22 contractions per 5 min. The post-prandial motility patterns of the groups were significantly different. The pressure amplitudes of the Labradors were significantly higher and the peak frequencies significantly lower than the Beagles. The addition of guar to the food (2.5% or 5%) leads to a significant reduction of the intensity of the antral contractions, whereas the frequency was hardly affected. In comparison, the effect of cellulose, as a food additive (2.5% or 5%), was rather modest. The intensity of the post-prandial contractions, influenced by cellulose, was significantly increased in Beagles, but was decreased in Labradors. Passive telemetry has been proven to be a suitable method for the long-term investigation of the physiological gastric motility and the effect of food additives. The measuring device was still functional after removal 8 weeks later.

  14. Supply Curves of Conserved Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, Alan Kevin

    1982-05-01

    Supply curves of conserved energy provide an accounting framework that expresses the potential for energy conservation. The economic worthiness of a conservation measure is expressed in terms of the cost of conserved energy, and a measure is considered economical when the cost of conserved energy is less than the price of the energy it replaces. A supply curve of conserved energy is independent of energy prices; however, the economical reserves of conserved energy will depend on energy prices. Double-counting of energy savings and error propagation are common problems when estimating conservation potentials, but supply curves minimize these difficulties and make their consequences predictable. The sensitivity of the cost of conserved energy is examined, as are variations in the optimal investment strategy in response to changes in inputs. Guidelines are presented for predicting the consequences of such changes. The conservation supply curve concept can be applied to peak power, water, pollution, and other markets where consumers demand a service rather than a particular good.

  15. Quantifying solute transport processes: are chemically "conservative" tracers electrically conservative?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Singha, Kamini; Li, Li; Day-Lewis, Frederick D.; Regberg, Aaron B.

    2012-01-01

    The concept of a nonreactive or conservative tracer, commonly invoked in investigations of solute transport, requires additional study in the context of electrical geophysical monitoring. Tracers that are commonly considered conservative may undergo reactive processes, such as ion exchange, thus changing the aqueous composition of the system. As a result, the measured electrical conductivity may reflect not only solute transport but also reactive processes. We have evaluated the impacts of ion exchange reactions, rate-limited mass transfer, and surface conduction on quantifying tracer mass, mean arrival time, and temporal variance in laboratory-scale column experiments. Numerical examples showed that (1) ion exchange can lead to resistivity-estimated tracer mass, velocity, and dispersivity that may be inaccurate; (2) mass transfer leads to an overestimate in the mobile tracer mass and an underestimate in velocity when using electrical methods; and (3) surface conductance does not notably affect estimated moments when high-concentration tracers are used, although this phenomenon may be important at low concentrations or in sediments with high and/or spatially variable cation-exchange capacity. In all cases, colocated groundwater concentration measurements are of high importance for interpreting geophysical data with respect to the controlling transport processes of interest.

  16. Assessment of the improvements in accuracy of aerosol characterization resulted from additions of polarimetric measurements to intensity-only observations using GRASP algorithm (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubovik, O.; Litvinov, P.; Lapyonok, T.; Herman, M.; Fedorenko, A.; Lopatin, A.; Goloub, P.; Ducos, F.; Aspetsberger, M.; Planer, W.; Federspiel, C.

    2013-12-01

    During last few years we were developing GRASP (Generalized Retrieval of Aerosol and Surface Properties) algorithm designed for the enhanced characterization of aerosol properties from spectral, multi-angular polarimetric remote sensing observations. The concept of GRASP essentially relies on the accumulated positive research heritage from previous remote sensing aerosol retrieval developments, in particular those from the AERONET and POLDER retrieval activities. The details of the algorithm are described by Dubovik et al. (Atmos. Meas. Tech., 4, 975-1018, 2011). The GRASP retrieves properties of both aerosol and land surface reflectance in cloud-free environments. It is based on highly advanced statistically optimized fitting and deduces nearly 50 unknowns for each observed site. The algorithm derives a similar set of aerosol parameters as AERONET including detailed particle size distribution, the spectrally dependent the complex index of refraction and the fraction of non-spherical particles. The algorithm uses detailed aerosol and surface models and fully accounts for all multiple interactions of scattered solar light with aerosol, gases and the underlying surface. All calculations are done on-line without using traditional look-up tables. In addition, the algorithm uses the new multi-pixel retrieval concept - a simultaneous fitting of a large group of pixels with additional constraints limiting the time variability of surface properties and spatial variability of aerosol properties. This principle is expected to result in higher consistency and accuracy of aerosol products compare to conventional approaches especially over bright surfaces where information content of satellite observations in respect to aerosol properties is limited. The GRASP is a highly versatile algorithm that allows input from both satellite and ground-based measurements. It also has essential flexibility in measurement processing. For example, if observation data set includes spectral

  17. Energy Conservation Simplified

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hecht, Eugene

    2008-02-01

    The standard formulation of energy conservation involves the subsidiary ideas of kinetic energy (KE), work (W), thermal energy, internal energy, and a half-dozen different kinds of potential energy (PE): elastic, chemical, nuclear, gravitational, and so forth. These quantities came to be recognized during the centuries over which the principle developed. The final conservation law, although rich in specificity, is fairly involved. More significantly, it obscures a fundamental underlying simplicity, which could only be appreciated post-relativity (1905). Energy is the scalar measure of physical change. Using the special theory it will be shown that there are only two all-encompassing classifications of energy—energy of rest and energy of motion—and that we can apply the idea of conservation of energy to all physical processes using only these two energy types as quantified by mass and KE.

  18. Energy Conservation

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, P.

    1995-06-01

    There are two fundamental reasons or motivations for energy conservation: (1) economics; and (2) consideration of energy - its sources and availability. Economics speaks for itself and needs little explanation: a project is undertaken, the cost is recovered in a given period of time (we hope) and our company realizes cost savings thereafter. We study and propose a project; we estimate the payback. If approved, we implement the project. Then, we eagerly watch for its effectiveness - for the proposed payback. The second consideration in regard to energy conservation might - in the foreseeable future - become by far the most important - that of availability. Very knowledgeable persons have stated that this - in reality - is the most serious problem facing our nation today. Readily available, reasonably priced energy has given to the US the high form of living experienced today. An interruption in this flow could catapult our nation in an awesome catastrophe. The energy shortage of the late 70`s might be a forerunner of such an experience.

  19. Food additives

    MedlinePlus

    ... or natural. Natural food additives include: Herbs or spices to add flavor to foods Vinegar for pickling ... Certain colors improve the appearance of foods. Many spices, as well as natural and man-made flavors, ...

  20. A Systems Framework for Assessing Plumbing Products-Related Water Conservation

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Alison; Dunham Whitehead, Camilla; Lutz, James

    2011-12-02

    Reducing the water use of plumbing products—toilets, urinals, faucets, and showerheads —has been a popular conservation measure. Improved technologies have created opportunities for additional conservation in this area. However, plumbing products do not operate in a vacuum. This paper reviews the literature related to plumbing products to determine a systems framework for evaluating future conservation measures using these products. The main framework comprises the following categories: water use efficiency, product components, product performance, source water, energy, and plumbing/sewer infrastructure. This framework for analysis provides a starting point for professionals considering future water conservation measures to evaluate the need for additional research, collaboration with other standards or codes committees, and attachment of additional metrics to water use efficiency (such as performance).

  1. Measurement of [Formula: see text] production with a veto on additional central jet activity in pp collisions at [Formula: see text] TeV using the ATLAS detector.

    PubMed

    Aad, G; Abbott, B; Abdallah, J; Abdel Khalek, S; Abdelalim, A A; Abdesselam, A; Abdinov, O; Abi, B; Abolins, M; AbouZeid, O S; Abramowicz, H; Abreu, H; Acerbi, E; Acharya, B S; Adamczyk, L; Adams, D L; Addy, T N; Adelman, J; Aderholz, M; Adomeit, S; Adragna, P; Adye, T; Aefsky, S; Aguilar-Saavedra, J A; Aharrouche, M; Ahlen, S P; Ahles, F; Ahmad, A; Ahsan, M; Aielli, G; Akdogan, T; Åkesson, T P A; Akimoto, G; Akimov, A V; Akiyama, A; Alam, M S; Alam, M A; Albert, J; Albrand, S; Aleksa, M; Aleksandrov, I N; Alessandria, F; Alexa, C; Alexander, G; Alexandre, G; Alexopoulos, T; Alhroob, M; Aliev, M; Alimonti, G; Alison, J; Aliyev, M; Allbrooke, B M M; Allport, P P; Allwood-Spiers, S E; Almond, J; Aloisio, A; Alon, R; Alonso, A; Alvarez Gonzalez, B; Alviggi, M G; Amako, K; Amaral, P; Amelung, C; Ammosov, V V; Amorim, A; Amorós, G; Amram, N; Anastopoulos, C; Ancu, L S; Andari, N; Andeen, T; Anders, C F; Anders, G; Anderson, K J; Andreazza, A; Andrei, V; Andrieux, M-L; Anduaga, X S; Angerami, A; Anghinolfi, F; Anisenkov, A; Anjos, N; Annovi, A; Antonaki, A; Antonelli, M; Antonov, A; Antos, J; Anulli, F; Aoun, S; Aperio Bella, L; Apolle, R; Arabidze, G; Aracena, I; Arai, Y; Arce, A T H; Arfaoui, S; Arguin, J-F; Arik, E; Arik, M; Armbruster, A J; Arnaez, O; Arnal, V; Arnault, C; Artamonov, A; Artoni, G; Arutinov, D; Asai, S; Asfandiyarov, R; Ask, S; Åsman, B; Asquith, L; Assamagan, K; Astbury, A; Aubert, B; Auge, E; Augsten, K; Aurousseau, M; Avolio, G; Avramidou, R; Axen, D; Ay, C; Azuelos, G; Azuma, Y; Baak, M A; Baccaglioni, G; Bacci, C; Bach, A M; Bachacou, H; Bachas, K; Backes, M; Backhaus, M; Badescu, E; Bagnaia, P; Bahinipati, S; Bai, Y; Bailey, D C; Bain, T; Baines, J T; Baker, O K; Baker, M D; Baker, S; Banas, E; Banerjee, P; Banerjee, Sw; Banfi, D; Bangert, A; Bansal, V; Bansil, H S; Barak, L; Baranov, S P; Barashkou, A; Barbaro Galtieri, A; Barber, T; Barberio, E L; Barberis, D; Barbero, M; Bardin, D Y; Barillari, T; Barisonzi, M; Barklow, T; Barlow, N; Barnett, B M; Barnett, R M; Baroncelli, A; Barone, G; Barr, A J; Barreiro, F; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, J; Barrillon, P; Bartoldus, R; Barton, A E; Bartsch, V; Bates, R L; Batkova, L; Batley, J R; Battaglia, A; Battistin, M; Bauer, F; Bawa, H S; Beale, S; Beau, T; Beauchemin, P H; Beccherle, R; Bechtle, P; Beck, H P; Becker, S; Beckingham, M; Becks, K H; Beddall, A J; Beddall, A; Bedikian, S; Bednyakov, V A; Bee, C P; Begel, M; Behar Harpaz, S; Behera, P K; Beimforde, M; Belanger-Champagne, C; Bell, P J; Bell, W H; Bella, G; Bellagamba, L; Bellina, F; Bellomo, M; Belloni, A; Beloborodova, O; Belotskiy, K; Beltramello, O; Benary, O; Benchekroun, D; Bendel, M; Bendtz, K; Benekos, N; Benhammou, Y; Benhar Noccioli, E; Benitez Garcia, J A; Benjamin, D P; Benoit, M; Bensinger, J R; Benslama, K; Bentvelsen, S; Berge, D; Bergeaas Kuutmann, E; Berger, N; Berghaus, F; Berglund, E; Beringer, J; Bernat, P; Bernhard, R; Bernius, C; Berry, T; Bertella, C; Bertin, A; Bertinelli, F; Bertolucci, F; Besana, M I; Besson, N; Bethke, S; Bhimji, W; Bianchi, R M; Bianco, M; Biebel, O; Bieniek, S P; Bierwagen, K; Biesiada, J; Biglietti, M; Bilokon, H; Bindi, M; Binet, S; Bingul, A; Bini, C; Biscarat, C; Bitenc, U; Black, K M; Blair, R E; Blanchard, J-B; Blanchot, G; Blazek, T; Blocker, C; Blocki, J; Blondel, A; Blum, W; Blumenschein, U; Bobbink, G J; Bobrovnikov, V B; Bocchetta, S S; Bocci, A; Boddy, C R; Boehler, M; Boek, J; Boelaert, N; Bogaerts, J A; Bogdanchikov, A; Bogouch, A; Bohm, C; Bohm, J; Boisvert, V; Bold, T; Boldea, V; Bolnet, N M; Bomben, M; Bona, M; Bondarenko, V G; Bondioli, M; Boonekamp, M; Booth, C N; Bordoni, S; Borer, C; Borisov, A; Borissov, G; Borjanovic, I; Borri, M; Borroni, S; Bortolotto, V; Bos, K; Boscherini, D; Bosman, M; Boterenbrood, H; Botterill, D; Bouchami, J; Boudreau, J; Bouhova-Thacker, E V; Boumediene, D; Bourdarios, C; Bousson, N; Boveia, A; Boyd, J; Boyko, I R; Bozhko, N I; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I; Bracinik, J; Braem, A; Branchini, P; Brandenburg, G W; Brandt, A; Brandt, G; 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Chevalier, L; Chiefari, G; Chikovani, L; Childers, J T; Chilingarov, A; Chiodini, G; Chisholm, A S; Chislett, R T; Chizhov, M V; Choudalakis, G; Chouridou, S; Christidi, I A; Christov, A; Chromek-Burckhart, D; Chu, M L; Chudoba, J; Ciapetti, G; Ciftci, A K; Ciftci, R; Cinca, D; Cindro, V; Ciocca, C; Ciocio, A; Cirilli, M; Citterio, M; Ciubancan, M; Clark, A; Clark, P J; Cleland, W; Clemens, J C; Clement, B; Clement, C; Clifft, R W; Coadou, Y; Cobal, M; Coccaro, A; Cochran, J; Coe, P; Cogan, J G; Coggeshall, J; Cogneras, E; Colas, J; Colijn, A P; Collins, N J; Collins-Tooth, C; Collot, J; Colon, G; Conde Muiño, P; Coniavitis, E; Conidi, M C; Consonni, M; Consonni, S M; Consorti, V; Constantinescu, S; Conta, C; Conti, G; Conventi, F; Cook, J; Cooke, M; Cooper, B D; Cooper-Sarkar, A M; Copic, K; Cornelissen, T; Corradi, M; Corriveau, F; Cortes-Gonzalez, A; Cortiana, G; Costa, G; Costa, M J; Costanzo, D; Costin, T; Côté, D; Courneyea, L; Cowan, G; Cowden, C; Cox, B E; Cranmer, K; Crescioli, F; 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    A measurement of the jet activity in [Formula: see text] events produced in proton-proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV is presented, using 2.05 fb(-1) of integrated luminosity collected by the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider. The [Formula: see text] events are selected in the dilepton decay channel with two identified b-jets from the top quark decays. Events are vetoed if they contain an additional jet with transverse momentum above a threshold in a central rapidity interval. The fraction of events surviving the jet veto is presented as a function of this threshold for four different central rapidity interval definitions. An alternate measurement is also performed, in which events are vetoed if the scalar transverse momentum sum of the additional jets in each rapidity interval is above a threshold. In both measurements, the data are corrected for detector effects and compared to the theoretical models implemented in MC@NLO, Powheg, Alpgen and Sherpa. The experimental uncertainties are often smaller than the spread of theoretical predictions, allowing deviations between data and theory to be observed in some regions of phase space.

  2. The Oklahoma Field Test: Air-conditioning electricity savings from standard energy conservation measures, radiant barriers, and high-efficiency window air conditioners

    SciTech Connect

    Ternes, M.P.; Levins, W.P.

    1992-08-01

    A field test Involving 104 houses was performed in Tulsa, Oklahoma, to measure the air-conditioning electricity consumption of low-income houses equipped with window air conditioners, the reduction in this electricity consumption attributed to the installation of energy conservation measures (ECMS) as typically installed under the Oklahoma Weatherization Assistance Program (WAP), and the reduction achieved by the replacement of low-efficiency window air conditioners with high-efficiency units and the installation of attic radiant barriers. Air-conditioning electricity consumption and indoor temperature were monitored weekly during the pre-weatherization period (June to September 1988) and post-weatherization period (May to September 1989). House energy consumption models and regression analyses were used to normalize the air-conditioning electricity savings to average outdoor temperature conditions and the pre-weatherization indoor temperature of each house. The following conclusions were drawn from the study: (1) programs directed at reducing air-conditioning electricity consumption should be targeted at clients with high consumption to improve cost effectiveness; (2) replacing low-efficiency air conditioners with high-efficiency units should be considered an option in a weatherization program directed at reducing air-conditioning electricity consumption; (3) ECMs currently being installed under the Oklahoma WAP (chosen based on effectiveness at reducing space-heating energy consumption) should continue to be justified based on their space-heating energy savings potential only; and (4) attic radiant barriers should not be included in the Oklahoma WAP if alternatives with verified savings are available or until further testing demonstrates energy savings or other benefits in this typo of housing.

  3. An Investigation of Portions of a Model for Acquisition of Conservation and Measurement of Length Based on Performance of Selected Second Grade Children on Six Piaget-Type Tasks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamps, Kenneth George

    The purpose was to test portions of Piaget's model for the development of operational conservation and measurement of length. A random selection of 102 second grade students from three different cities was used; one group had participated in the AAAS "Science - A Process Approach" science program in grades K-2, one group had received…

  4. Expression of the Celsr/flamingo homologue, c-fmi1, in the early avian embryo indicates a conserved role in neural tube closure and additional roles in asymmetry and somitogenesis.

    PubMed

    Formstone, Caroline J; Mason, Ivor

    2005-02-01

    Flamingo is one of a core group of proteins that regulate planar cell polarity of epithelial structures within the Drosophila embryo while their vertebrate counterparts have been implicated in the coordination of convergent extension movements during gastrulation and in neural tube closure, suggesting that planar polarity mechanisms also function in these processes. Failure of neural tube closure is one of the most common human birth defects, and a murine flamingo (fmi) homologue, Celsr1/fmi-1, was identified as the defective gene in two mouse mutants exhibiting failure of closure 1 of the neural tube. This failure resulted in craniorachischisis in which the neural tube is open from the midbrain posteriorly. The avian embryo provides a tractable system to study neural tube closure. We have identified a chick Celsr1/fmi-1 orthologue, c-fmi1 and provide the first study of expression of an avian flamingo gene. We show that expression is highly dynamic in the early embryo and that c-fmi1 transcripts become enriched within the avian neural epithelium at the initiation of neural tube closure, suggesting a conserved function for Flamingo proteins in this process. Our data also suggest a role for c-fmi1 in myotome development.

  5. Phylodiversity to inform conservation policy: An Australian example.

    PubMed

    Laity, Tania; Laffan, Shawn W; González-Orozco, Carlos E; Faith, Daniel P; Rosauer, Dan F; Byrne, Margaret; Miller, Joseph T; Crayn, Darren; Costion, Craig; Moritz, Craig C; Newport, Karl

    2015-11-15

    Phylodiversity measures summarise the phylogenetic diversity patterns of groups of organisms. By using branches of the tree of life, rather than its tips (e.g., species), phylodiversity measures provide important additional information about biodiversity that can improve conservation policy and outcomes. As a biodiverse nation with a strong legislative and policy framework, Australia provides an opportunity to use phylogenetic information to inform conservation decision-making. We explored the application of phylodiversity measures across Australia with a focus on two highly biodiverse regions, the south west of Western Australia (SWWA) and the South East Queensland bioregion (SEQ). We analysed seven diverse groups of organisms spanning five separate phyla on the evolutionary tree of life, the plant genera Acacia and Daviesia, mammals, hylid frogs, myobatrachid frogs, passerine birds, and camaenid land snails. We measured species richness, weighted species endemism (WE) and two phylodiversity measures, phylogenetic diversity (PD) and phylogenetic endemism (PE), as well as their respective complementarity scores (a measure of gains and losses) at 20 km resolution. Higher PD was identified within SEQ for all fauna groups, whereas more PD was found in SWWA for both plant groups. PD and PD complementarity were strongly correlated with species richness and species complementarity for most groups but less so for plants. PD and PE were found to complement traditional species-based measures for all groups studied: PD and PE follow similar spatial patterns to richness and WE, but highlighted different areas that would not be identified by conventional species-based biodiversity analyses alone. The application of phylodiversity measures, particularly the novel weighted complementary measures considered here, in conservation can enhance protection of the evolutionary history that contributes to present day biodiversity values of areas. Phylogenetic measures in conservation

  6. Potlining Additives

    SciTech Connect

    Rudolf Keller

    2004-08-10

    In this project, a concept to improve the performance of aluminum production cells by introducing potlining additives was examined and tested. Boron oxide was added to cathode blocks, and titanium was dissolved in the metal pool; this resulted in the formation of titanium diboride and caused the molten aluminum to wet the carbonaceous cathode surface. Such wetting reportedly leads to operational improvements and extended cell life. In addition, boron oxide suppresses cyanide formation. This final report presents and discusses the results of this project. Substantial economic benefits for the practical implementation of the technology are projected, especially for modern cells with graphitized blocks. For example, with an energy savings of about 5% and an increase in pot life from 1500 to 2500 days, a cost savings of $ 0.023 per pound of aluminum produced is projected for a 200 kA pot.

  7. Phosphazene additives

    DOEpatents

    Harrup, Mason K; Rollins, Harry W

    2013-11-26

    An additive comprising a phosphazene compound that has at least two reactive functional groups and at least one capping functional group bonded to phosphorus atoms of the phosphazene compound. One of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with cellulose and the other of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with a resin, such as an amine resin of a polycarboxylic acid resin. The at least one capping functional group is selected from the group consisting of a short chain ether group, an alkoxy group, or an aryloxy group. Also disclosed are an additive-resin admixture, a method of treating a wood product, and a wood product.

  8. Conservation of body calcium by increased dietary intake of potassium: A potential measure to reduce the osteoporosis process during prolonged exposure to microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nechay, Bohdan R.

    1989-01-01

    During the 1988 NASA Summer Faculty Fellowship Program, it was proposed that the loss of skeletal calcium upon prolonged exposure to microgravity could be explained, in part, by a renal maladjustment characterized by an increased urinary excretion of calcium. It was theorized that because the conservation of body fluids and electrolytes depends upon the energy of adenosine triphosphate and enzymes that control the use of its energy for renal ion transport, an induction of renal sodium and potassium-dependent adenosine triphosphatase (Na + K ATPase) by oral loading with potassium would increase the reabsorption of sodium directly and that of calcium indirectly, leading to improved hydration and to reduced calcium loss. Preliminary studies showed the following. Rats drinking water containing 0.2 M potassium chloride for six to 13 days excreted in urine 22 muEq of calcium and 135 muEq of sodium per 100 grams of body weight per day. The corresponding values for control rats drinking tap water were 43 muEq and 269 muEq respectively. Renal Na + K ATPase activity in potassium loaded rats was higher than in controls. Thus, oral potassium loading resulted in increased Na + K ATPase activity and diminished urinary excretion of calcium and of sodium as predicted by the hypothesis. An extension of these studies to humans has the potential of resulting in development of harmless, non-invasive, drug-free, convenient measures to reduce bone loss and other electrolyte and fluid problems in space travelers exposed to prolonged periods of microgravity.

  9. Homogenizing and diversifying effects of intensive agricultural land-use on plant species beta diversity in Central Europe - A call to adapt our conservation measures.

    PubMed

    Buhk, Constanze; Alt, Martin; Steinbauer, Manuel J; Beierkuhnlein, Carl; Warren, Steven D; Jentsch, Anke

    2017-01-15

    The prevention of biodiversity loss in agricultural landscapes to protect ecosystem stability and functions is of major importance to stabilize overall diversity. Intense agriculture leads to a loss in species richness and homogenization of species pools, but the processes behind are poorly understood due to a lack of systematic case studies: The specific impacts by agriculture in contrast to other land-use creating open habitat are not studied as such landscapes hardly exist in temperate regions. Applying systematic grids, we compared the plant species distribution at the landscape scale between an active military training areas in Europe and an adjacent rather intensively used agricultural landscape. As the study areas differ mainly in the type of disturbance regime (agricultural vs. non-agricultural), differences in species pattern can be traced back more or less directly to the management. Species trait analyses and multiple measures of beta diversity were applied to differentiate between species similarities between plots, distance-decay, or nestedness. Contrary to our expectation, overall beta diversity in the agricultural area was not reduced but increased under agricultural. This was probably the result of species nestedness due to fragmentation. The natural process of increasing dissimilarity with distance (distance-decay) was suppressed by intense agricultural land-use, generalist and long-distance dispersers gained importance, while rare species lost continuity. There are two independent processes that need to be addressed separately to halt biodiversity loss in agricultural land. There is a need to conserve semi-natural open habitat patches of diverse size to favor poor dispersers and specialist species. At the same time, we stress the importance of mediating biotic homogenization caused by the decrease of distance-decay: The spread of long-distance dispersers in agricultural fields may be acceptable, however, optimized fertilizer input and erosion

  10. The Oklahoma Field Test: Air-Conditioning Electricity Savings from Standard Energy Conservation Measures, Radiant Barriers, and High-Efficiency Window Air Conditioners

    SciTech Connect

    Ternes, M.P.

    1992-01-01

    A field test involving 104 houses was performed in Tulsa, Oklahoma, to measure the air-conditioning electricity consumption of low-income houses equipped with window air conditioners, the reduction in this electricity consumption attributed to the installation of energy conservation measures (ECMs) as typically installed under the Oklahoma Weatherization Assistance Program (WAP), and the reduction achieved by the replacement of low-efficiency window air conditioners with high-efficiency units and the installation of attic radiant barriers. Air-conditioning electricity consumption and indoor temperature were monitored weekly during the pre-weatherization period (June to September 1988) and post-weatherization period (May to September 1989). House energy consumption models and regression analyses were used to normalize the air-conditioning electricity savings to average outdoor temperature conditions and the pre-weatherization indoor temperature of each house. The average measured pre-weatherization air-conditioning electricity consumption was 1664 kWh/year ($119/year). Ten percent of the houses used less than 250 kWh/year, while another 10% used more than 3000 kWh/year. An average reduction in air-conditioning electricity consumption of 535 kWh/year ($38/year and 28% of pre-weatherization consumption) was obtained from replacement of one low-efficiency window air conditioner (EER less than 7.0) per house with a high-efficiency unit (EER greater than 9.0). For approximately the same cost, savings tripled to 1503 kWh/year ($107/year and 41% of pre-weatherization consumption) in those houses with initial air-conditioning electricity consumption greater than 2750 kWh/year. For these houses, replacement of a low-efficiency air conditioner with a high-efficiency unit was cost effective using the incremental cost of installing a new unit now rather than later; the average installation cost for these houses under a weatherization program was estimated to be $786. The

  11. Energy Conservation and Mentally Retarded Citizens.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fogelman, Charles J.; And Others

    Suggested are some principles of developing energy conservation programs where retarded persons might be particularly affected, ways to conserve energy, and pertinent references. It is thought that the retarded, particularly the retarded in institutions, are more likely to suffer from energy conservation measures than members of the larger…

  12. Extreme conservation leads to recovery of the Virunga mountain gorillas.

    PubMed

    Robbins, Martha M; Gray, Markye; Fawcett, Katie A; Nutter, Felicia B; Uwingeli, Prosper; Mburanumwe, Innocent; Kagoda, Edwin; Basabose, Augustin; Stoinski, Tara S; Cranfield, Mike R; Byamukama, James; Spelman, Lucy H; Robbins, Andrew M

    2011-01-01

    As wildlife populations are declining, conservationists are under increasing pressure to measure the effectiveness of different management strategies. Conventional conservation measures such as law enforcement and community development projects are typically designed to minimize negative human influences upon a species and its ecosystem. In contrast, we define "extreme" conservation as efforts targeted to deliberately increase positive human influences, including veterinary care and close monitoring of individual animals. Here we compare the impact of both conservation approaches upon the population growth rate of the critically endangered Virunga mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei beringei), which increased by 50% since their nadir in 1981, from approximately 250 to nearly 400 gorillas. Using demographic data from 1967-2008, we show an annual decline of 0.7%±0.059% for unhabituated gorillas that received intensive levels of conventional conservation approaches, versus an increase 4.1%±0.088% for habituated gorillas that also received extreme conservation measures. Each group of habituated gorillas is now continuously guarded by a separate team of field staff during daylight hours and receives veterinary treatment for snares, respiratory disease, and other life-threatening conditions. These results suggest that conventional conservation efforts prevented a severe decline of the overall population, but additional extreme measures were needed to achieve positive growth. Demographic stochasticity and socioecological factors had minimal impact on variability in the growth rates. Veterinary interventions could account for up to 40% of the difference in growth rates between habituated versus unhabituated gorillas, with the remaining difference likely arising from greater protection against poachers. Thus, by increasing protection and facilitating veterinary treatment, the daily monitoring of each habituated group contributed to most of the difference in growth rates

  13. Extreme Conservation Leads to Recovery of the Virunga Mountain Gorillas

    PubMed Central

    Robbins, Martha M.; Gray, Markye; Fawcett, Katie A.; Nutter, Felicia B.; Uwingeli, Prosper; Mburanumwe, Innocent; Kagoda, Edwin; Basabose, Augustin; Stoinski, Tara S.; Cranfield, Mike R.; Byamukama, James; Spelman, Lucy H.; Robbins, Andrew M.

    2011-01-01

    As wildlife populations are declining, conservationists are under increasing pressure to measure the effectiveness of different management strategies. Conventional conservation measures such as law enforcement and community development projects are typically designed to minimize negative human influences upon a species and its ecosystem. In contrast, we define “extreme” conservation as efforts targeted to deliberately increase positive human influences, including veterinary care and close monitoring of individual animals. Here we compare the impact of both conservation approaches upon the population growth rate of the critically endangered Virunga mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei beringei), which increased by 50% since their nadir in 1981, from approximately 250 to nearly 400 gorillas. Using demographic data from 1967–2008, we show an annual decline of 0.7%±0.059% for unhabituated gorillas that received intensive levels of conventional conservation approaches, versus an increase 4.1%±0.088% for habituated gorillas that also received extreme conservation measures. Each group of habituated gorillas is now continuously guarded by a separate team of field staff during daylight hours and receives veterinary treatment for snares, respiratory disease, and other life-threatening conditions. These results suggest that conventional conservation efforts prevented a severe decline of the overall population, but additional extreme measures were needed to achieve positive growth. Demographic stochasticity and socioecological factors had minimal impact on variability in the growth rates. Veterinary interventions could account for up to 40% of the difference in growth rates between habituated versus unhabituated gorillas, with the remaining difference likely arising from greater protection against poachers. Thus, by increasing protection and facilitating veterinary treatment, the daily monitoring of each habituated group contributed to most of the difference in growth

  14. Conservative treatment for repetitive strain injury.

    PubMed

    Konijnenberg, H S; de Wilde, N S; Gerritsen, A A; van Tulder, M W; de Vet, H C

    2001-10-01

    Various conservative treatment options for repetitive strain injury are widely used, despite questionable evidence of their effectiveness. This systematic review evaluates the effectiveness of these treatment options for relieving symptoms of repetitive strain injury and improving activities of daily living. Searches in Medline and Embase, with additional reference checking resulted in 15 eligible trials for this review. Methodological quality was assessed, and data-extraction was performed. With the use of a "best-evidence synthesis", no strong evidence was found for the effectiveness of any of the treatment options. There is limited evidence that multidisciplinary rehabilitation, ergonomic intervention measures, exercises, and spinal manipulation combined with soft tissue therapy are effective in providing symptom relief or improving activities of daily living. There is conflicting evidence for the effectiveness of behavioral therapy. In conclusion, little is known about the effectiveness of conservative treatment options for repetitive strain injury. To establish strong evidence, more high-quality trials are needed.

  15. Addition of posttraumatic stress and sensory hypersensitivity more accurately estimates disability and pain than fear avoidance measures alone after whiplash injury.

    PubMed

    Pedler, Ashley; Kamper, Steven J; Sterling, Michele

    2016-08-01

    The fear avoidance model (FAM) has been proposed to explain the development of chronic disability in a variety of conditions including whiplash-associated disorders (WADs). The FAM does not account for symptoms of posttraumatic stress and sensory hypersensitivity, which are associated with poor recovery from whiplash injury. The aim of this study was to explore a model for the maintenance of pain and related disability in people with WAD including symptoms of PTSD, sensory hypersensitivity, and FAM components. The relationship between individual components in the model and disability and how these relationships changed over the first 12 weeks after injury were investigated. We performed a longitudinal study of 103 (74 female) patients with WAD. Measures of pain intensity, cold and mechanical pain thresholds, symptoms of posttraumatic stress, pain catastrophising, kinesiophobia, and fear of cervical spine movement were collected within 6 weeks of injury and at 12 weeks after injury. Mixed-model analysis using Neck Disability Index (NDI) scores and average 24-hour pain intensity as the dependent variables revealed that overall model fit was greatest when measures of fear of movement, posttraumatic stress, and sensory hypersensitivity were included. The interactive effects of time with catastrophising and time with fear of activity of the cervical spine were also included in the best model for disability. These results provide preliminary support for the addition of neurobiological and stress system components to the FAM to explain poor outcome in patients with WAD.

  16. Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesondes (SHADOZ) 1998-2000 tropical ozone climatology 1. Comparison with Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) and ground-based measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Anne M.; Witte, Jacquelyn C.; McPeters, Richard D.; Oltmans, Samuel J.; Schmidlin, Francis J.; Logan, Jennifer A.; Fujiwara, Masatomo; Kirchhoff, Volker W. J. H.; Posny, FrançOise; Coetzee, Gert J. R.; Hoegger, Bruno; Kawakami, Shuji; Ogawa, Toshihiro; Johnson, Bryan J.; VöMel, Holger; Labow, Gordon

    2003-01-01

    A network of 10 southern hemisphere tropical and subtropical stations, designated the Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesondes (SHADOZ) project and established from operational sites, provided over 1000 ozone profiles during the period 1998-2000. Balloon-borne electrochemical concentration cell (ECC) ozonesondes, combined with standard radiosondes for pressure, temperature, and relative humidity measurements, collected profiles in the troposphere and lower to midstratosphere at: Ascension Island; Nairobi, Kenya; Irene, South Africa; Réunion Island; Watukosek, Java; Fiji; Tahiti; American Samoa; San Cristóbal, Galapagos; and Natal, Brazil. The archived data are available at: . In this paper, uncertainties and accuracies within the SHADOZ ozone data set are evaluated by analyzing: (1) imprecisions in profiles and in methods of extrapolating ozone above balloon burst; (2) comparisons of column-integrated total ozone from sondes with total ozone from the Earth-Probe/Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) satellite and ground-based instruments; and (3) possible biases from station to station due to variations in ozonesonde characteristics. The key results are the following: (1) Ozonesonde precision is 5%. (2) Integrated total ozone column amounts from the sondes are usually to within 5% of independent measurements from ground-based instruments at five SHADOZ sites and overpass measurements from the TOMS satellite (version 7 data). (3) Systematic variations in TOMS-sonde offsets and in ground-based-sonde offsets from station to station reflect biases in sonde technique as well as in satellite retrieval. Discrepancies are present in both stratospheric and tropospheric ozone. (4) There is evidence for a zonal wave-one pattern in total and tropospheric ozone, but not in stratospheric ozone.

  17. Energy-conservation indicators

    SciTech Connect

    Belzer, D.B.

    1982-06-01

    A series of Energy Conservation Indicators were developed for the Department of Energy to assist in the evaluation of current and proposed conservation strategies. As descriptive statistics that signify current conditions and trends related to efficiency of energy use, indicators provide a way of measuring, monitoring, or inferring actual responses by consumers in markets for energy services. Related sets of indicators are presented in some 30 one-page indicator summaries. Indicators are shown graphically, followed by several paragraphs that explain their derivation and highlight key findings. Indicators are classified according to broad end-use sectors: Aggregate (economy), Residential, Commercial, Industrial, and transportation. In most cases annual time series information is presented covering the period 1960 through 1981.

  18. Commercial building design and energy conservation: A preliminary assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nieves, A. L.; Rosoff, D.

    1982-02-01

    The purpose of the research was to determine the degree of change in commercial building design practice relating to energy conservation since the enactment of the Energy Conservation Standard for New Buildings Act of 1976. Data on current design practices consisted of information from 400 buildings advertised for bids or under construction in 1979 to 1980 on glass in windows and doors, exterior wall systems, roof system, heating plants, and lighting systems. In addition to these building design components, energy conservation measures used included: natural lighting; deadband thermostat; greenhouse-effect atrium collector, heat recovery from the top of the atrium, greenhouse passive heating panels; natural ventilation; insulating shutters, closable skylights, thermal shutters, Trombe wall, corridor trombe; attic ventilation; wind shielding, concrete wall; titled windows; night flushing cycle; and cooling coils using cooling tower water. A brief explanation of these measures is given.

  19. Commercial building design and energy conservation: a preliminary assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Nieves, A.; Rosoff, D.

    1982-02-01

    The purpose of the research was to determine the degree of change in commercial building design practice relating to energy conservation since the enactment of the Energy Conservation Standard for New Buildings Act of 1976. Data on current design practices consisted of information from 400 buildings advertised for bids or under construction in 1979 to 1980 on glass in windows and doors, exterior wall systems, roof system, heating plants, and lighting systems. In addition to these building design components, energy conservation measures used included: natural lighting; deadband thermostat; greenhouse-effect atrium collector, heat recovery from the top of the atrium, greenhouse passive heating panels; natural ventilation; insulating shutters, closable skylights, thermal shutters, Trombe wall, corridor trombe; attic ventilation; wind shielding, concrete wall; titlted windows; night flushing cycle; and cooling coils using cooling tower water. A brief explanation of these measures is given. (MCW)

  20. Conserving biodiversity and ecosystem function through limited development: an empirical evaluation.

    PubMed

    Milder, Jeffrey C; Lassoie, James P; Bedford, Barbara L

    2008-02-01

    Suburban, exurban, and rural development in the United States consumes nearly 1 million hectares of land per year and is a leading threat to biodiversity. In response to this threat, conservation development has been advanced as a way to combine land development and land conservation while providing functional protection for natural resources. Yet, although conservation development techniques have been in use for decades, there have been few critical evaluations of their conservation effectiveness. We addressed this deficiency by assessing the conservation outcomes of one type of conservation development project: conservation and limited development projects (CLDPs). Conducted by land trusts, landowners, and developers, CLDPs use revenue from limited development to finance the protection of land and natural resources. We compared a sample of 10 CLDPs from the eastern United States with their respective baseline scenarios (conventional development) and with a sample of conservation subdivisions--a different conservation development technique characterized by higher-density development. To measure conservation success, we created an evaluation method containing eight indicators that quantify project impacts to terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems at the site and in the surrounding landscape. The CLDPs protected and managed threatened natural resources including rare species and ecological communities. In terms of conservation benefits, the CLDPs significantly outperformed their respective baseline scenarios and the conservation subdivisions. These results imply that CLDPs can offer a low-impact alternative to conventional development and a low-cost method for protecting land when conventional conservation techniques are too expensive. In addition, our evaluation method demonstrates how planners and developers can incorporate appropriate ecological considerations when designing, reviewing, and evaluating conservation development projects.

  1. [Food additives and healthiness].

    PubMed

    Heinonen, Marina

    2014-01-01

    Additives are used for improving food structure or preventing its spoilage, for example. Many substances used as additives are also naturally present in food. The safety of additives is evaluated according to commonly agreed principles. If high concentrations of an additive cause adverse health effects for humans, a limit of acceptable daily intake (ADI) is set for it. An additive is a risk only when ADI is exceeded. The healthiness of food is measured on the basis of nutrient density and scientifically proven effects.

  2. Personal circumstances and social characteristics as determinants of landholder participation in biodiversity conservation programs.

    PubMed

    Moon, Katie; Marshall, Nadine; Cocklin, Chris

    2012-12-30

    Adequate conservation of biodiversity on private land remains elusive due, in part, to a failure to understand the personal circumstances and social characteristics of private landholders. Our aim was to identify those personal and social dimensions of landholders that might contribute to improved conservation policy and program design and, thereby, participation in private land conservation. We tested whether personal circumstances of landholders (e.g., lifestyle and wellbeing, information and knowledge, financial security) and social characteristics (e.g., attitudes, norms, and trust) would be important predictors of landholders' capacity and willingness to participate in biodiversity conservation programs. Forty-five participants and twenty-nine non-participants of biodiversity conservation programs in north Queensland, Australia, were surveyed to: 1) examine differences between their personal circumstances and social characteristics that may influence participation; and 2) explore whether personal circumstances and social characteristics were influenced by participation. The results revealed that, compared to participants, non-participants in conservation programs had significantly different personal circumstances and social characteristics for four of eight measured variables. Compared to participants, non-participants demonstrated a reduced capacity and willingness to participate in conservation programs. Participation did not appear to have a strong influence on participants' personal circumstances or social characteristics, and when social norms supported conservation, programs did not demonstrate additionality. Conservation policies that maintain or improve landholders' personal circumstances and that promote pro-environmental norms may result in increased participation and thereby conservation outcomes.

  3. Comparative genomics for biodiversity conservation

    PubMed Central

    Grueber, Catherine E.

    2015-01-01

    Genomic approaches are gathering momentum in biology and emerging opportunities lie in the creative use of comparative molecular methods for revealing the processes that influence diversity of wildlife. However, few comparative genomic studies are performed with explicit and specific objectives to aid conservation of wild populations. Here I provide a brief overview of comparative genomic approaches that offer specific benefits to biodiversity conservation. Because conservation examples are few, I draw on research from other areas to demonstrate how comparing genomic data across taxa may be used to inform the characterisation of conservation units and studies of hybridisation, as well as studies that provide conservation outcomes from a better understanding of the drivers of divergence. A comparative approach can also provide valuable insight into the threatening processes that impact rare species, such as emerging diseases and their management in conservation. In addition to these opportunities, I note areas where additional research is warranted. Overall, comparing and contrasting the genomic composition of threatened and other species provide several useful tools for helping to preserve the molecular biodiversity of the global ecosystem. PMID:26106461

  4. Effects of water additions, chemical amendments, and plants on in situ measures of nutrient bioavailability in calcareous soils of southeastern Utah, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, M.E.; Belnap, J.; Beatty, S.W.; Webb, B.L.

    2006-01-01

    We used ion-exchange resin bags to investigate effects of water additions, chemical amendments, and plant presence on in situ measures of nutrient bioavailability in conjunction with a study examining soil controls of ecosystem invasion by the exotic annual grass Bromus tectorum L. At five dryland sites in southeastern Utah, USA, resin bags were buried in experimental plots randomly assigned to combinations of two watering treatments (wet and dry), four chemical-amendment treatments (KCl, MgO, CaO, and no amendment), and four plant treatments (B. tectorum alone, the perennial bunchgrass Stipa hymenoides R. & S. alone, B. tectorum and S. hymenoides together, and no plants). Resin bags were initially buried in September 1997; replaced in January, April, and June 1998; and removed at the end of the study in October 1998. When averaged across watering treatments, plots receiving KCl applications had lower resin-bag NO 3- than plots receiving no chemical amendments during three of four measurement periods-probably due to NO 3- displacement from resin bags by Cl- ions. During the January-April period, KCl application in wet plots (but not dry plots) decreased resin-bag NH 4+ and increased resin-bag NO 3- . This interaction effect likely resulted from displacement of NH 4+ from resins by K+ ions, followed by nitrification and enhanced NO 3- capture by resin bags. In plots not receiving KCl applications, resin-bag NH 4+ was higher in wet plots than in dry plots during the same period. During the January-April period, resin-bag measures for carbonate-related ions HPO 42- , Ca2+, and Mn2+ tended to be greater in the presence of B. tectorum than in the absence of B. tectorum. This trend was evident only in wet plots where B. tectorum densities were much higher than in dry plots. We attribute this pattern to the mobilization of carbonate-associated ions by root exudates of B. tectorum. These findings indicate the importance of considering potential indirect effects of soil

  5. Understanding Conservation: A Playful Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kefaloukos, Mary-Anne; Bobis, Janette

    2011-01-01

    This article describes some aspects of Piaget's Theory of Cognitive Development. It highlights the importance of giving young children specific access to explore conservation in measurement, which will give students invaluable experiences in measurement that in years to come will be regarded as their prior knowledge of the concept. This is…

  6. Laser conservation paleontology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asmus, John F.

    2001-10-01

    Just as lasers have found countless applications in science, industry, medicine, and entertainment, an array of real and potential uses for lasers in art-conservation analytes and practice have been investigated over the past thirty years. These include holographic recording, holographic recording, holographic nondestructive testing, laser-induced ultrasonic imaging, laser-scattering surface characterization, atomic and molecular analyses, photoacoustic spectroscopy, surface modification, as well as surface divestment and cleaning. The initial endeavors in exploring and assessing the utility of these tools for art conservation are recounted for investigations involving ruby, glass, ion, YAG, carbon dioxide, dye, and excimer lasers as well as high-intensity nonlaser light generators such as xenon flashlamps and argon pinchlamps. Initially, laser divestment/cleaning was, by general consensus, the least plausible laser application in art conservation. In the past ten years it has emerged to dominate all the other applications noted above. Today, at least a dozen firms supply user-friendly laser systems optimized for a range of art-conservation divestment applications. The first-generation laser-cleaning tools are essentially a laser, a beam-delivery device, and a debris- collection accessory. Advanced developmental work has turned in large measure to ancillary subsystems for more sophisticated process control. Of particular importance are acoustic, optical, spectral, EMP, and electronic-vision process control. Beam direction may be via manual, translational-scanner, or robotic beam positioning implemented by means of fiber optics, minors, or prisms and computer control. Substrate thermal alteration and debris redeposition may be minimized or avoided through the incorporation of a gas jet, fluid or fluid jet, or dry-ice blast.

  7. National energy conservation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    A set of energy conservation actions that cut across all sectors of the economy were analyzed so that all actions under consideration be analyzed systematically and as a whole. The actions considered were as follows: (1) roll back the price of newly discovered oil, (2) freeze gasoline production for 3 years at 1972 levels, (3) mandate automobile mileage improvements, (4) require industry to improve energy efficiency, (5) require manufacture of household appliances with greater efficiency, (6) force conversion of many power plants from gas and oil to coal. The results showed that considerable gas and oil would be saved by forcing switches to coal. However, the large scale switch to coal was shown to require greatly increased outputs from many other industries that in turn require more energy. It was estimated that nearly 2.5 quads of additional coal were needed to produce these additional requirements. Also, the indirect requirements would create more jobs.

  8. Equity implications of utility energy conservation programs

    SciTech Connect

    Sutherland, R.J.

    1994-03-15

    This paper uses the Residential Energy Consumption Survey undertaken by the Energy Information Administration in 1990 to estimate the statistical association between household income and participation in electric utility energy conservation programs and the association between participation and the electricity consumption. The results indicate that utility rebates, energy audits, load management programs and other conservation measures tend to be undertaken at greater frequency by high income households than by low income households. Participants in conservation programs tend to occupy relatively new and energy efficient residences and undertake conservation measures other than utility programs, which suggests that utility sponsored programs are substitutes for other conservation investments. Electricity consumption during 1990 is not significantly less for households participating in utility programs than for nonparticipants, which also implies that utility conservation programs are displacing other conservation investments. Apparently, utility programs are not avoiding costs of new construction and instead are transferring wealth, particularly to high income participating households.

  9. Effectiveness of amphibians as biodiversity surrogates in pond conservation.

    PubMed

    Ilg, Christiane; Oertli, Beat

    2017-04-01

    Amphibian decline has led to worldwide conservation efforts, including the identification and designation of sites for their protection. These sites could also play an important role in the conservation of other freshwater taxa. In 89 ponds in Switzerland, we assessed the effectiveness of amphibians as a surrogate for 4 taxonomic groups that occur in the same freshwater ecosystems as amphibians: dragonflies, aquatic beetles, aquatic gastropods, and aquatic plants. The ponds were all of high value for amphibian conservation. Cross-taxon correlations were tested for species richness and conservation value, and Mantel tests were used to investigate community congruence. Species richness, conservation value, and community composition of amphibians were weakly congruent with these measures for the other taxonomic groups. Paired comparisons for the 5 groups considered showed that for each metric, amphibians had the lowest degree of congruence. Our results imply that site designation for amphibian conservation will not necessarily provide protection for freshwater biodiversity as a whole. To provide adequate protection for freshwater species, we recommend other taxonomic groups be considered in addition to amphibians in the prioritization and site designation process.

  10. Bonneville Power Administration`s Commercial Sector Conservation Market.

    SciTech Connect

    Gordan, Frederick M.

    1992-11-10

    Bonneville has, as part of its resource plan, accepted targets for commercial conservation which are quite ambitious. To meet these targets, Bonneville will need to acquire as much cost-effective conservation as possible over the next twelve years. With this in mind, this document explores the relative importance of different commercial market segments and the types of assistance each market needs to install as many cost-effective conservation measures in as many buildings as possible. This document reviews Bonneville`s marketing environment and position, and suggests goals for commercial sector conservation marketing at Bonneville. Then it presents a broad market segmentation and series of additional demographic analyses. These analyses assess what groups of consumers Bonneville must reach to achieve most of the commercial conservation potential and what is needed to reach them. A final section reviews the success of Bonneville programs at reaching various markets. The market segmentation identifies different types of consumers and opportunities which would require distinct program approaches. Four large market segments are identified that have distinct program needs. Then four ``building life-cycle events`` are identified which provide important conservation opportunities and also require distinct program services. This creates a matrix of 16 cells which delineate distinct needs for program marketing. Each of the four key market segments manages at least 20% of the Region`s commercial floorspace.

  11. Federal energy efficiency and water conservation funding study

    SciTech Connect

    1998-01-01

    This report contains the results of a study required by section 162 of the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPAct). It outlines options for financing energy and water conservation measures at Federal facilities as required by Part 3 of Title V of the National Energy Policy and Conservation Act (NECPA) (42 U.S.C. 8251 et seq.) as amended by EPAct. It addresses: (1) the estimated Federal financial investment necessary to install energy and water conservation measures to meet NECPA and Executive Order requirements; (2) the use of revolving funds and other funding mechanisms which offer stable, long-term financing of energy and water conservation measures; and (3) the means for capitalizing such funds. On March 8, 1994, President Clinton signed Executive Order 12902. This Executive Order is an aggressive mandate to improve energy efficiency and water conservation in Federal buildings nationwide. This Executive Order is designed to meet and exceed requirements for Federal energy and water efficiency that were contained in section 152 of EPAct. Section 152 mandated that Federal agencies use all cost effective measures with less than a ten year payback to reduce energy consumption in their facilities by 20% by the year 2000 compared to 1985 levels. In addition, Executive Order 12902 established a requirement to use cost effective measures to reduce energy use by fiscal year 2005 by 30% compared to 1985 energy use. This report provides estimates for the energy and water conservation investments needed to achieve the NECPA and Executive Order goals as well as estimates for the contribution from various funding sources and a review of the mechanisms for funding these investments.

  12. Conservation Seeds Activities Book. An Early Childhood Conservation Education Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, Sherri

    This activities book is used with an early childhood conservation education program. The activities are presented in four color-coded sections, each section representing one of the four seasons. Each activity includes a statement of purpose, list of materials needed, instructional strategies, and a list of supplementary activities. In addition to…

  13. Metal-Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Mixture Toxicity in Hyalella azteca. 1. Response Surfaces and Isoboles To Measure Non-additive Mixture Toxicity and Ecological Risk.

    PubMed

    Gauthier, Patrick T; Norwood, Warren P; Prepas, Ellie E; Pyle, Greg G

    2015-10-06

    Mixtures of metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) occur ubiquitously in aquatic environments, yet relatively little is known regarding their potential to produce non-additive toxicity (i.e., antagonism or potentiation). A review of the lethality of metal-PAH mixtures in aquatic biota revealed that more-than-additive lethality is as common as strictly additive effects. Approaches to ecological risk assessment do not consider non-additive toxicity of metal-PAH mixtures. Forty-eight-hour water-only binary mixture toxicity experiments were conducted to determine the additive toxic nature of mixtures of Cu, Cd, V, or Ni with phenanthrene (PHE) or phenanthrenequinone (PHQ) using the aquatic amphipod Hyalella azteca. In cases where more-than-additive toxicity was observed, we calculated the possible mortality rates at Canada's environmental water quality guideline concentrations. We used a three-dimensional response surface isobole model-based approach to compare the observed co-toxicity in juvenile amphipods to predicted outcomes based on concentration addition or effects addition mixtures models. More-than-additive lethality was observed for all Cu-PHE, Cu-PHQ, and several Cd-PHE, Cd-PHQ, and Ni-PHE mixtures. Our analysis predicts Cu-PHE, Cu-PHQ, Cd-PHE, and Cd-PHQ mixtures at the Canadian Water Quality Guideline concentrations would produce 7.5%, 3.7%, 4.4% and 1.4% mortality, respectively.

  14. The additive effect of harmonics on conservative and dissipative interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, Sergio; Gadelrab, Karim R.; Barcons, Victor; Font, Josep; Stefancich, Marco; Chiesa, Matteo

    2012-12-01

    Multifrequency atomic force microscopy holds promise as a tool for chemical and topological imaging with nanoscale resolution. Here, we solve the equation of motion exactly for the fundamental mode in terms of the cantilever mean deflection, the fundamental frequency of oscillation, and the higher harmonic amplitudes and phases. The fundamental frequency provides information about the mean force, dissipation, and variations in the magnitude of the attractive and the repulsive force components during an oscillation cycle. The contributions of the higher harmonics to the position, velocity, and acceleration can be added gradually where the details of the true instantaneous force are recovered only when tens of harmonics are included. A formalism is developed here to decouple and quantify the viscous term of the force in the short and long range. It is also shown that the viscosity independent paths on tip approach and tip retraction can also be decoupled by simply acquiring a FFT at two different cantilever separations. The two paths correspond to tip distances at which metastability is present as, for example, in the presence of capillary interactions and where there is surface energy hysteresis.

  15. Conservation potential of agricultural water conservation subsidies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huffaker, Ray

    2008-07-01

    A current policy subsidizes farmers to invest in improved on-farm irrigation efficiency, expecting water to be conserved off farm. Contrary to expectation, water has been increasingly depleted in some regions after such improvements. This paper investigates the policy's failure to conserve water consistently by (1) formulating an economic model of irrigated crop production to determine a profit-maximizing irrigator's range of responses to a subsidy and (2) embedding these responses into hypothetical streamflow diagrams to ascertain their potential to conserve water under various hydrologic regimes. Testable hypotheses are developed to predict the conservation potential of a subsidy in real-world application.

  16. Tabulated pressure measurements of a NASA supercritical-wing research airplane model with and without fuselage area-rule additions at Mach 0.25 to 1.00

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, C. D.; Bartlett, D. W.

    1972-01-01

    Basic pressure measurements were made on a 0.087-scale model of a supercritical wing research airplane in the Langley 8 foot transonic pressure tunnel at Mach numbers from 0.25 to 1.00 to determine the effects on the local aerodynamic loads over the wing and rear fuselage of area-rule additions to the sides of the fuselage. In addition, pressure measurements over the surface of the area-rule additions themselves were obtained at angles of sideslip of approximately - 5 deg, 0 deg, and 5 deg to aid in the structural design of the additions. Except for representative figures, results are presented in tabular form without analysis.

  17. Arizona Conserve Water Educators Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Project WET Foundation, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This award-winning, 350-page, full-color book provides a thorough study of Arizona water resources from a water conservation perspective. Its background section contains maps, graphs, diagrams and photos that facilitate the teaching of 15 interactive, multi-disciplinary lessons to K-12 students. In addition, 10 Arizona case studies are highlighted…

  18. Selling energy conservation.

    PubMed

    Hinrichsen, D

    1995-01-01

    This article concerns the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) crisis and its impact on energy efficiency measures in the US. In 1985, when the OPEC collapsed, the US government had avoided the need to construct 350 gigawatts of new electric capacity. The most successful efficiency improvements, especially in household appliances and equipment, lighting and tightened energy efficiency standards in new buildings, resulted from the OPEC event. The real innovation of that time was the change in profit rules for utilities. This revolution and the way some US utilities view energy have not caught on elsewhere. Despite the initiative toward improving energy efficiency in homes, offices and industries, the change has been slow. Partly to blame are the big development banks, which pointed out that short-term conservation and efficiency measures could save at least 15% of the total energy demand without the need for major investment. The benefits of energy conservation was shown during the oil shock when per capita energy consumption fell by 5% in the member states of the Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development, while the per capita gross domestic product grew by a third. There has been a decrease in energy expenditure worldwide, and the scope for further energy savings is enormous, but governments need to recognize and seize the opportunity.

  19. Energy Conservation in the Food Industry : Follow-up Report.

    SciTech Connect

    United Industries Corporation.

    1986-06-01

    United Industries Corporation (UIC) conducted an energy analysis at five food processing plants (SIC 20) in the winter of 1984-1985. Tour of plants (Alpac, Carnation, Terminal flour mill, Tree Top) were revisited eighteen months later to determine what energy conservation measures (ECM's) had been or would be implemented. Additionally, the follow-up investigation evaluated the actual energy savings that accrued for the implemented ECM's and recorded the plants' views on the usefulness of the energy analysis.

  20. 18 CFR 5.21 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Additional information. 5.21 Section 5.21 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL POWER ACT INTEGRATED LICENSE APPLICATION PROCESS §...

  1. 18 CFR 5.21 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Additional information. 5.21 Section 5.21 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL POWER ACT INTEGRATED LICENSE APPLICATION PROCESS §...

  2. 18 CFR 5.21 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Additional information. 5.21 Section 5.21 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL POWER ACT INTEGRATED LICENSE APPLICATION PROCESS §...

  3. 18 CFR 5.21 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Additional information. 5.21 Section 5.21 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL POWER ACT INTEGRATED LICENSE APPLICATION PROCESS §...

  4. 18 CFR 5.21 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Additional information. 5.21 Section 5.21 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL POWER ACT INTEGRATED LICENSE APPLICATION PROCESS §...

  5. 18 CFR 33.10 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Additional information. 33.10 Section 33.10 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL POWER ACT APPLICATIONS UNDER FEDERAL POWER ACT SECTION...

  6. Assessment of the industrial energy-conservation program. Final report of the Committee on Assessment of the Industrial Energy Conservation Program

    SciTech Connect

    1982-01-01

    Industrial operations in the United States account for some 37% of the nation's consumptions of energy. It has been estimated that this figure will increase to 50% by 1990 unless appropriate industrial energy conservation measures are adopted. However, such measures are difficult to implement in spite of the potential of various existing, emerging, and advanced technologies that can be applied to the problem. Specifically, the application of many industrial energy conservation measures entails high economic, technological, and institutional risks and uncertainties that constrain industries from adopting such measures. Accordingly, in 1975 the federal government started a program designed to mitigate these risks and uncertainties via government-industry partnership arrangements in the interests of national energy conservation. An important element of this program is the Industrial Energy Conservation Program in the Federal Department of Energy (DOE). In June 1980, DOE asked the National Materials Advisory Board, a unit of the National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council, to form a study committee to assess the effectiveness of the Industrial Energy Conservation Program. The committee concluded that federal support embodied in the DOE program, present and planned, is important to conserving additional industrial energy. However, the committee also concluded that the program needs various improvements in project selection and management and in transfer of results to industry. The committee's findings and recommendations and the results of the deliberation of the committee's three panels, a special report on heat and power, and a report on the visit by four members of the committee to Japan are presented.

  7. Energy Conservation Guidelines - 2: Energy Conservation in School Facilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Irving M., Ed.; Gates, Richard M., Ed.

    The suggestions contained in this guide are intended to help reduce energy consumption in school facilities. Energy conservation measures are discussed on three levels: (1) the educational program and activities schedule, (2) operation of the facility and supporting systems, and (3) the physical plant. Discussed are high cost, medium cost, and low…

  8. Mars Albedo Measurement in the Near IR Range for Additional Calibration of the TIRVIM Instrument of the ExoMars-2016 Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maslov, I. A.; Shenavrin, V. I.; Grigoriev, A. V.; Moshkin, B. E.; Shakun, A. V.

    2017-01-01

    Results of ground-based measurements of the Mars albedo in the spectral range 1-5 μm, which were held in the days close to the session of measurements from the Mars orbit by the Russian device TIRVIM, are presented. The obtained data can be used to refine the calibration of the instrument.

  9. On nonepistemic values in conservation biology.

    PubMed

    Baumgaertner, Bert; Holthuijzen, Wieteke

    2017-02-01

    Conservation biology is a uniquely interdisciplinary science with strong roots in ecology, but it also embraces a value-laden and mission-oriented framework. This combination of science and values causes conservation biology to be at the center of critique regarding the discipline's scientific credibility-especially the division between the realms of theory and practice. We identify this dichotomy between seemingly objective (fact-based) and subjective (value-laden) practices as the measure-value dichotomy, whereby measure refers to methods and analyses used in conservation biology (i.e., measuring biodiversity) and value refers to nonepistemic values. We reviewed and evaluated several landmark articles central to the foundation of conservation biology and concepts of biodiversity with respect to their attempts to separate measures and values. We argue that the measure-value dichotomy is false and that conservation biology can make progress in ways unavailable to other disciplines because its practitioners are tasked with engaging in both the realm of theory and the realm of practice. The entanglement of measures and values is by no means a weakness of conservation biology. Because central concepts such as biodiversity contain both factual and evaluative aspects, conservation biologists can make theoretical progress by examining, reviewing, and forming the values that are an integral part of those concepts. We suggest that values should be included and analyzed with respect to the methods, results, and conclusions of scientific work in conservation biology.

  10. Conservation: Threatened by Luxury.

    PubMed

    Webb, Thomas J

    2016-06-20

    When animals are traded in lucrative international luxury markets, individuals really do matter to conservation. Identifying the intrinsic and extrinsic factors that make some species especially vulnerable to this kind of threat helps set guidelines for more effective conservation.

  11. Meeting global conservation challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2016-10-01

    Hot on the heels of last year's Sustainable Development Goals and the Paris Agreement, representatives from the global conservation community met to set the conservation agenda that will help to implement these targets.

  12. Conservation Action Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Rifle Association, Washington, DC.

    Conservation problems are identified, with some suggestions for action. General areas covered are: Wildlife Conservation, Soil Conservation, Clean Water, Air Pollution Action, and Outdoor Recreation Action. Appendices list private organizations or agencies concerned with natural resource use and/or management, congressional committees considering…

  13. Drought Resilience and Water Conservation Technical Brief

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    In many areas of the US, the frequency, intensity, and duration of drought events are increasing, this brief highlights EPA drought and conservation activities across the nation and includes links to additional materials and reference documents.

  14. Quantifying the effectiveness of conservation measures to control the spread of anthropogenic hybridization in stream salmonids: a climate adaptation case study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Al-Chokhachy, Robert K.; Muhlfeld, Clint C.; Boyer, Matthew; Jones, Leslie A.; Steed, Amber; Kershner, Jeffrey L.

    2014-01-01

    Quantifying the effectiveness of management actions to mitigate the effects of changing climatic conditions (i.e., climate adaptation) can be difficult, yet critical for conservation. We used population genetic data from 1984 to 2011 to assess the degree to which ambient climatic conditions and targeted suppression of sources of nonnative Rainbow Trout Oncorhynchus mykiss have influenced the spread of introgressive hybridization in native populations of Westslope Cutthroat Trout O. clarkii lewisi. We found rapid expansion in the spatial distribution and proportion of nonnative genetic admixture in hybridized populations from 1984 to 2004, but minimal change since 2004. The spread of hybridization was negatively correlated with the number of streamflow events in May that exceeded the 75th percentile of historic flows (r = −0.98) and positively correlated with August stream temperatures (r = 0.89). Concomitantly, suppression data showed a 60% decline in catch per unit effort for fish with a high proportion of Rainbow Trout admixture, rendering some uncertainty as to the relative strength of factors controlling the spread of hybridization. Our results illustrate the importance of initiating management actions to mitigate the potential effects of climate change, even where data describing the effectiveness of such actions are initially limited but the risks are severe.

  15. Measurements of CP-conserving trilinear gauge boson couplings WWV (V≡ γ,Z) in e+e- collisions at LEP2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdallah, J.; Abreu, P.; Adam, W.; Adzic, P.; Albrecht, T.; Alemany-Fernandez, R.; Allmendinger, T.; Allport, P. P.; Amaldi, U.; Amapane, N.; Amato, S.; Anashkin, E.; Andreazza, A.; Andringa, S.; Anjos, N.; Antilogus, P.; Apel, W.-D.; Arnoud, Y.; Ask, S.; Asman, B.; Augustin, J. E.; Augustinus, A.; Baillon, P.; Ballestrero, A.; Bambade, P.; Barbier, R.; Bardin, D.; Barker, G. J.; Baroncelli, A.; Battaglia, M.; Baubillier, M.; Becks, K.-H.; Begalli, M.; Behrmann, A.; Ben-Haim, E.; Benekos, N.; Benvenuti, A.; Berat, C.; Berggren, M.; Bertrand, D.; Besancon, M.; Besson, N.; Bloch, D.; Blom, M.; Bluj, M.; Bonesini, M.; Boonekamp, M.; Booth, P. S. L.; Borisov, G.; Botner, O.; Bouquet, B.; Bowcock, T. J. V.; Boyko, I.; Bracko, M.; Brenner, R.; Brodet, E.; Bruckman, P.; Brunet, J. M.; Buschbeck, B.; Buschmann, P.; Calvi, M.; Camporesi, T.; Canale, V.; Carena, F.; Castro, N.; Cavallo, F.; Chapkin, M.; Charpentier, Ph.; Checchia, P.; Chierici, R.; Chliapnikov, P.; Chudoba, J.; Chung, S. U.; Cieslik, K.; Collins, P.; Contri, R.; Cosme, G.; Cossutti, F.; Costa, M. J.; Crennell, D.; Cuevas, J.; D'Hondt, J.; da Silva, T.; da Silva, W.; Della Ricca, G.; de Angelis, A.; de Boer, W.; de Clercq, C.; de Lotto, B.; de Maria, N.; de Min, A.; de Paula, L.; di Ciaccio, L.; di Simone, A.; Doroba, K.; Drees, J.; Eigen, G.; Ekelof, T.; Ellert, M.; Elsing, M.; Espirito Santo, M. C.; Fanourakis, G.; Fassouliotis, D.; Feindt, M.; Fernandez, J.; Ferrer, A.; Ferro, F.; Flagmeyer, U.; Foeth, H.; Fokitis, E.; Fulda-Quenzer, F.; Fuster, J.; Gandelman, M.; Garcia, C.; Gavillet, Ph.; Gazis, E.; Gokieli, R.; Golob, B.; Gomez-Ceballos, G.; Goncalves, P.; Graziani, E.; Grosdidier, G.; Grzelak, K.; Guy, J.; Haag, C.; Hallgren, A.; Hamacher, K.; Hamilton, K.; Haug, S.; Hauler, F.; Hedberg, V.; Hennecke, M.; Hoffman, J.; Holmgren, S.-O.; Holt, P. J.; Houlden, M. A.; Jackson, J. N.; Jarlskog, G.; Jarry, P.; Jeans, D.; Johansson, E. K.; Jonsson, P.; Joram, C.; Jungermann, L.; Kapusta, F.; Katsanevas, S.; Katsoufis, E.; Kernel, G.; Kersevan, B. P.; Kerzel, U.; King, B. T.; Kjaer, N. J.; Kluit, P.; Kokkinias, P.; Kostioukhine, V.; Kourkoumelis, C.; Kouznetsov, O.; Krumstein, Z.; Kucharczyk, M.; Lamsa, J.; Leder, G.; Ledroit, F.; Leinonen, L.; Leitner, R.; Lemonne, J.; Lepeltier, V.; Lesiak, T.; Libby, J.; Liebig, W.; Liko, D.; Lipniacka, A.; Lopes, J. H.; Lopez, J. M.; Loukas, D.; Lutz, P.; Lyons, L.; MacNaughton, J.; Malek, A.; Maltezos, S.; Mandl, F.; Marco, J.; Marco, R.; Marechal, B.; Margoni, M.; Marin, J.-C.; Mariotti, C.; Markou, A.; Martinez-Rivero, C.; Masik, J.; Mastroyiannopoulos, N.; Matorras, F.; Matteuzzi, C.; Mazzucato, F.; Mazzucato, M.; Mc Nulty, R.; Meroni, C.; Migliore, E.; Mitaroff, W.; Mjoernmark, U.; Moa, T.; Moch, M.; Moenig, K.; Monge, R.; Montenegro, J.; Moraes, D.; Moreno, S.; Morettini, P.; Mueller, U.; Muenich, K.; Mulders, M.; Mundim, L.; Murray, W.; Muryn, B.; Myatt, G.; Myklebust, T.; Nassiakou, M.; Navarria, F.; Nawrocki, K.; Nemecek, S.; Nicolaidou, R.; Nikolenko, M.; Oblakowska-Mucha, A.; Obraztsov, V.; Olshevski, A.; Onofre, A.; Orava, R.; Osterberg, K.; Ouraou, A.; Oyanguren, A.; Paganoni, M.; Paiano, S.; Palacios, J. P.; Palka, H.; Papadopoulou, Th. D.; Pape, L.; Parkes, C.; Parodi, F.; Parzefall, U.; Passeri, A.; Passon, O.; Peralta, L.; Perepelitsa, V.; Perrotta, A.; Petrolini, A.; Piedra, J.; Pieri, L.; Pierre, F.; Pimenta, M.; Piotto, E.; Podobnik, T.; Poireau, V.; Pol, M. E.; Polok, G.; Pozdniakov, V.; Pukhaeva, N.; Pullia, A.; Radojicic, D.; Rebecchi, P.; Rehn, J.; Reid, D.; Reinhardt, R.; Renton, P.; Richard, F.; Ridky, J.; Rivero, M.; Rodriguez, D.; Romero, A.; Ronchese, P.; Roudeau, P.; Rovelli, T.; Ruhlmann-Kleider, V.; Ryabtchikov, D.; Sadovsky, A.; Salmi, L.; Salt, J.; Sander, C.; Savoy-Navarro, A.; Schwickerath, U.; Sekulin, R.; Siebel, M.; Sisakian, A.; Smadja, G.; Smirnova, O.; Sokolov, A.; Sopczak, A.; Sosnowski, R.; Spassov, T.; Stanitzki, M.; Stocchi, A.; Strauss, J.; Stugu, B.; Szczekowski, M.; Szeptycka, M.; Szumlak, T.; Tabarelli, T.; Tegenfeldt, F.; Terranova, F.; Timmermans, J.; Tkatchev, L.; Tobin, M.; Todorovova, S.; Tome, B.; Tonazzo, A.; Tortosa, P.; Travnicek, P.; Treille, D.; Tristram, G.; Trochimczuk, M.; Troncon, C.; Turluer, M.-L.; Tyapkin, I. A.; Tyapkin, P.; Tzamarias, S.; Uvarov, V.; Valenti, G.; van Dam, P.; van Eldik, J.; van Lysebetten, A.; van Remortel, N.; van Vulpen, I.; Vegni, G.; Veloso, F.; Venus, W.; Verdier, P.; Verzi, V.; Vilanova, D.; Vitale, L.; Vrba, V.; Wahlen, H.; Washbrook, A. J.; Weiser, C.; Wicke, D.; Wickens, J.; Wilkinson, G.; Winter, M.; Witek, M.; Yushchenko, O.; Zalewska, A.; Zalewski, P.; Zavrtanik, D.; Zhuravlov, V.; Zimin, N. I.; Zintchenko, A.; Zupan, M.; DELPHI Collaboration

    2010-03-01

    The data taken by Delphi at centre-of-mass energies between 189 and 209 GeV are used to place limits on the CP-conserving trilinear gauge boson couplings Δ gZ1, λ γ and Δ κ γ associated to W + W - and single W production at Lep2. Using data from the jj ℓ ν, jjjj, jjX and ℓ X final states, where j, ℓ and X represent a jet, a lepton and missing four-momentum, respectively, the following limits are set on the couplings when one parameter is allowed to vary and the others are set to their Standard Model values of zero: begin{array}{l}Δ g^Z_1=-0.025^{+0.033}_{-0.030}, noalign{}λ_γ =0.002^{+0.035}_{-0.035}qquadand noalign{}Δkappa_γ =0.024^{+0.077}_{-0.081}. Results are also presented when two or three parameters are allowed to vary. All observations are consistent with the predictions of the Standard Model and supersede the previous results on these gauge coupling parameters published by Delphi.

  16. 50 CFR 660.131 - Pacific whiting fishery management measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...) product, but does not make, and does not have on board, surimi (fish paste with additives), fillets (meat... measures. 660.131 Section 660.131 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL... conservation zone. The ocean area surrounding the Klamath River mouth bounded on the north by 41°38.80′ N....

  17. 50 CFR 660.131 - Pacific whiting fishery management measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...) product, but does not make, and does not have on board, surimi (fish paste with additives), fillets (meat... measures. 660.131 Section 660.131 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL... conservation zone. The ocean area surrounding the Klamath River mouth bounded on the north by 41°38.80′ N....

  18. Exactly conservative integrators

    SciTech Connect

    Shadwick, B.A.; Bowman, J.C.; Morrison, P.J.

    1995-07-19

    Traditional numerical discretizations of conservative systems generically yield an artificial secular drift of any nonlinear invariants. In this work we present an explicit nontraditional algorithm that exactly conserves invariants. We illustrate the general method by applying it to the Three-Wave truncation of the Euler equations, the Volterra-Lotka predator-prey model, and the Kepler problem. We discuss our method in the context of symplectic (phase space conserving) integration methods as well as nonsymplectic conservative methods. We comment on the application of our method to general conservative systems.

  19. Conservation: Toward firmer ground

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The following aspects of energy conservation were reviewed in order to place the problems in proper perspective: history and goals, conservation accounting-criteria, and a method to overcome obstacles. The effect of changing prices and available supplies of energy sources and their causes on consumption levels during the last few decades were described. Some examples of attainable conservation goals were listed and justified. A number of specific criteria applicable to conservation accounting were given. Finally, a discussion was presented to relate together the following aspects of energy conservation: widespread impact, involvement of government, industry, politics, moral and ethical aspects, urgency and time element.

  20. 30 CFR 250.406 - What additional safety measures must I take when I conduct drilling operations on a platform that...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... when I conduct drilling operations on a platform that has producing wells or has other hydrocarbon flow... hydrocarbon flow? You must take the following safety measures when you conduct drilling operations on a platform with producing wells or that has other hydrocarbon flow: (a) You must install an...

  1. A Bioacoustic Record of a Conservancy in the Mount Kenya Ecosystem

    PubMed Central

    Muchiri, David; Njoroge, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background Environmental degradation is a major threat facing ecosystems around the world. In order to determine ecosystems in need of conservation interventions, we must monitor the biodiversity of these ecosystems effectively. Bioacoustic approaches offer a means to monitor ecosystems of interest in a sustainable manner. In this work we show how a bioacoustic record from the Dedan Kimathi University wildlife conservancy, a conservancy in the Mount Kenya ecosystem, was obtained in a cost effective manner. A subset of the dataset was annotated with the identities of bird species present since they serve as useful indicator species. These data reveal the spatial distribution of species within the conservancy and also point to the effects of major highways on bird populations. This dataset will provide data to train automatic species recognition systems for birds found within the Mount Kenya ecosystem. Such systems are necessary if bioacoustic approaches are to be employed at the large scales necessary to influence wildlife conservation measures. New information We provide acoustic recordings from the Dedan Kimathi University wildlife conservancy, a conservancy in the Mount Kenya ecosystem, obtained using a low cost acoustic recorder. A total of 2701 minute long recordings are provided including both daytime and nighttime recordings. We present an annotation of a subset of the daytime recordings indicating the bird species present in the recordings. The dataset contains recordings of at least 36 bird species. In addition, the presence of a few nocturnal species within the conservancy is also confirmed. PMID:27932917

  2. Energy Conservation--The Global Imperative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murthy, K. K.

    1978-01-01

    Presents energy as a pivotal prerequisite of highly developed economic and social structure. Discusses: (1) fossil-fuel resources and demand in various countries; (2) energy conservation; (3) measures for conservation; (4) technology transfer; and (5) considerations to be regarded internationally. (HM)

  3. Fixism and conservation science.

    PubMed

    Robert, Alexandre; Fontaine, Colin; Veron, Simon; Monnet, Anne-Christine; Legrand, Marine; Clavel, Joanne; Chantepie, Stéphane; Couvet, Denis; Ducarme, Frédéric; Fontaine, Benoît; Jiguet, Frédéric; le Viol, Isabelle; Rolland, Jonathan; Sarrazin, François; Teplitsky, Céline; Mouchet, Maud

    2016-12-10

    The field of biodiversity conservation has recently been criticized as relying on a fixist view of the living world in which existing species constitute at the same time targets of conservation efforts and static states of reference, which is in apparent disagreement with evolutionary dynamics. We reviewed the prominent role of species as conservation units and the common benchmark approach to conservation that aims to use past biodiversity as a reference to conserve current biodiversity. We found that the species approach is justified by the discrepancy between the time scales of macroevolution and human influence and that biodiversity benchmarks are based on reference processes rather than fixed reference states. Overall, we argue that the ethical and theoretical frameworks underlying conservation research are based on macroevolutionary processes, such as extinction dynamics. Current species, phylogenetic, community, and functional conservation approaches constitute short-term responses to short-term human effects on these reference processes, and these approaches are consistent with evolutionary principles.

  4. A Longitudinal Analysis of Logical Reasoning Relationships: Conservation and Transitive Inference. Technical Report No. 380.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hooper, Frank H.; Toniolo, Thomas A.

    Kindergarten and third grade children originally assessed in 1973 were retested one year later on a series of conservation and transitive inference tasks (length and weight content areas). An additional sample of matched cohort/grade subjects was assessed in the second year only to permit evaluation of repeat measurement biases for the…

  5. The integrated water conservation program at Sandia National Laboratories

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, D.

    1997-08-22

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), located on Kirkland Air Force Base (KAFB) in Albuquerque, NM, is implementing a comprehensive water conservation program. Because the average rainfall in this metropolitan area of 500,000 is approximately 8 inches per year, conservation of this precious resource is critical to the economic health of the city and state, and the continued operations at SNL/NM. To address this need, SNL/NM is taking a systematic, comprehensive approach to water conservation. The approach is to estimate the water consumption for all of SNL/NM by type of consumption. For each type of water consumption, all cost effective measures for reducing, reclaiming, and/or recycling that usage will be ranked. These water conservation measures range from the simple such as retrofitting plumbing fixtures with low cost devices to reduce water required to flush toilets to the very complex. As an example of the very complex, a Microelectronics Development Laboratory (MDL) lab will implement a near zero water discharge from clean room wet benches. Deionized (DI) water can be sent back to the DI water input generation stream when the DI water is not being used for rinsing wafers. This paper discusses completed, ongoing and proposed projects at SNL/NM to reduce water consumption and recycle water to maximize its use, and how water conservation has resulted in energy savings, reductions in wastewater discharges, reductions in water treatment chemicals, and reduction in hazardous waste. Additionally the paper discusses preparation of SNL/NM`s Water Conservation Plan, and solutions to overcoming programmatic and bureaucratic hurdles to achieve reductions in water use, wastewater discharges, chemical use and energy.

  6. Stellar Diameters and Temperatures. III. Main-sequence A, F, G, and K Stars: Additional High-precision Measurements and Empirical Relations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyajian, Tabetha S.; von Braun, Kaspar; van Belle, Gerard; Farrington, Chris; Schaefer, Gail; Jones, Jeremy; White, Russel; McAlister, Harold A.; ten Brummelaar, Theo A.; Ridgway, Stephen; Gies, Douglas; Sturmann, Laszlo; Sturmann, Judit; Turner, Nils H.; Goldfinger, P. J.; Vargas, Norm

    2013-07-01

    Based on CHARA Array measurements, we present the angular diameters of 23 nearby, main-sequence stars, ranging from spectral types A7 to K0, 5 of which are exoplanet host stars. We derive linear radii, effective temperatures, and absolute luminosities of the stars using Hipparcos parallaxes and measured bolometric fluxes. The new data are combined with previously published values to create an Angular Diameter Anthology of measured angular diameters to main-sequence stars (luminosity classes V and IV). This compilation consists of 125 stars with diameter uncertainties of less than 5%, ranging in spectral types from A to M. The large quantity of empirical data is used to derive color-temperature relations to an assortment of color indices in the Johnson (BVR J I J JHK), Cousins (R C I C), Kron (R K I K), Sloan (griz), and WISE (W 3 W 4) photometric systems. These relations have an average standard deviation of ~3% and are valid for stars with spectral types A0-M4. To derive even more accurate relations for Sun-like stars, we also determined these temperature relations omitting early-type stars (T eff > 6750 K) that may have biased luminosity estimates because of rapid rotation; for this subset the dispersion is only ~2.5%. We find effective temperatures in agreement within a couple of percent for the interferometrically characterized sample of main-sequence stars compared to those derived via the infrared flux method and spectroscopic analysis.

  7. RCS auditor trainee manual: renewable resource measures (revised). United States Department of Energy Technical Assistance Program for the Residential Conservation Service Program

    SciTech Connect

    1980-10-01

    This manual describes the use of renewable measures and the procedures used to audit for them. Included are active solar space and water heating systems, passive solar space and water heating systems, and wind energy systems. Sample audit forms are completed for a house in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma. A summary of installation standards for active solar systems is included. (WHK)

  8. STELLAR DIAMETERS AND TEMPERATURES. III. MAIN-SEQUENCE A, F, G, AND K STARS: ADDITIONAL HIGH-PRECISION MEASUREMENTS AND EMPIRICAL RELATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Boyajian, Tabetha S.; Jones, Jeremy; White, Russel; McAlister, Harold A.; Gies, Douglas; Von Braun, Kaspar; Van Belle, Gerard; Farrington, Chris; Schaefer, Gail; Ten Brummelaar, Theo A.; Sturmann, Laszlo; Sturmann, Judit; Turner, Nils H.; Goldfinger, P. J.; Vargas, Norm; Ridgway, Stephen

    2013-07-01

    Based on CHARA Array measurements, we present the angular diameters of 23 nearby, main-sequence stars, ranging from spectral types A7 to K0, 5 of which are exoplanet host stars. We derive linear radii, effective temperatures, and absolute luminosities of the stars using Hipparcos parallaxes and measured bolometric fluxes. The new data are combined with previously published values to create an Angular Diameter Anthology of measured angular diameters to main-sequence stars (luminosity classes V and IV). This compilation consists of 125 stars with diameter uncertainties of less than 5%, ranging in spectral types from A to M. The large quantity of empirical data is used to derive color-temperature relations to an assortment of color indices in the Johnson (BVR{sub J} I{sub J} JHK), Cousins (R{sub C} I{sub C}), Kron (R{sub K} I{sub K}), Sloan (griz), and WISE (W{sub 3} W{sub 4}) photometric systems. These relations have an average standard deviation of {approx}3% and are valid for stars with spectral types A0-M4. To derive even more accurate relations for Sun-like stars, we also determined these temperature relations omitting early-type stars (T{sub eff} > 6750 K) that may have biased luminosity estimates because of rapid rotation; for this subset the dispersion is only {approx}2.5%. We find effective temperatures in agreement within a couple of percent for the interferometrically characterized sample of main-sequence stars compared to those derived via the infrared flux method and spectroscopic analysis.

  9. The limitations of tissue-oxygen measurement and positron emission tomography as additional methods for postoperative breast reconstruction free-flap monitoring.

    PubMed

    Schrey, Aleksi; Niemi, Tarja; Kinnunen, Ilpo; Minn, Heikki; Vahlberg, Tero; Kalliokoski, Kari; Suominen, Erkki; Grénman, Reidar; Aitasalo, Kalle

    2010-02-01

    Twelve patients who underwent breast reconstruction with a microvascular flap were monitored postoperatively with continuous partial tissue oxygenation (p(ti)O(2)) measurement. The regional blood flow (BF) of the entire flap was evaluated with positron emission tomography (PET) using oxygen-15-labelled water on the first postoperative (POP) morning to achieve data of the perfusion of the entire flap. A re-exploration was carried out if the p(ti)O(2) value remained lower than 15 mmHg for over 30 min. The mean p(ti)O(2) value of the flaps was 52.9+/-5.5 mmHg, whereas the mean BF values were 3.3+/-1.0 ml per 100 g min(-1). One false-positive result was detected by p(ti)O(2) measurement, resulting in an unnecessary re-exploration. Another re-operation suggested by the low p(ti)O(2) results was avoided due to the normal BF results assessed with PET. Totally, three flaps were re-explored. This prospective study suggests that continuous tissue-oxygen measurement with a polarographic needle probe is reliable for monitoring free breast flaps from one part of the flap, but assessing perfusion of the entire flap requires more complex monitoring methods, for example, PET. Clinical examination by experienced personnel remains important in free-breast-flap monitoring. PET could be useful in assessing free-flap perfusion in selected high-risk patients as an alternative to a re-operation when clinical examination and evaluation by other means are unreliable or present controversial results.

  10. Measurement of $\\mathrm{ t \\bar{t} } $ production with additional jet activity, including b quark jets, in the dilepton decay channel using pp collisions at $\\sqrt{s} =$ 8 TeV

    SciTech Connect

    Khachatryan, Vardan

    2016-07-07

    Jet multiplicity distributions in top quark pair (tt-bar) events are measured in pp collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 8 TeV with the CMS detector at the LHC using a data set corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 19.7 fb-1. The measurement is performed in the dilepton decay channels (e+e-+μ- and e±μ). Furthermore, the absolute and normalized differential cross sections for tt-bar production are measured as a function of the jet multiplicity in the event for different jet transverse momentum thresholds and the kinematic properties of the leading additional jets. The differential tt-barb and tt-barbb-bar cross sections are presented for the first time as a function of the kinematic properties of the leading additional b jets. Furthermore, the fraction of events without additional jets above a threshold is measured as a function of the transverse momenta of the leading additional jets and the scalar sum of the transverse momenta of all additional jets. Finally, the data are compared and found to be consistent with predictions from several perturbative quantum chromodynamics event generators and a next-to-leading ordercalculation.

  11. Measurement of $$\\mathrm{ t \\bar{t} } $$ production with additional jet activity, including b quark jets, in the dilepton decay channel using pp collisions at $$\\sqrt{s} =$$ 8 TeV

    DOE PAGES

    Khachatryan, Vardan

    2016-07-07

    Jet multiplicity distributions in top quark pair (tt-bar) events are measured in pp collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 8 TeV with the CMS detector at the LHC using a data set corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 19.7 fb-1. The measurement is performed in the dilepton decay channels (e+e-,μ+μ- and e±μ∓). Furthermore, the absolute and normalized differential cross sections for tt-bar production are measured as a function of the jet multiplicity in the event for different jet transverse momentum thresholds and the kinematic properties of the leading additional jets. The differential tt-barb and tt-barbb-bar cross sections are presented formore » the first time as a function of the kinematic properties of the leading additional b jets. Furthermore, the fraction of events without additional jets above a threshold is measured as a function of the transverse momenta of the leading additional jets and the scalar sum of the transverse momenta of all additional jets. Finally, the data are compared and found to be consistent with predictions from several perturbative quantum chromodynamics event generators and a next-to-leading ordercalculation.« less

  12. Measurement of toverline{t} production with additional jet activity, including b quark jets, in the dilepton decay channel using pp collisions at √{s} = 8 {TeV}

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khachatryan, V.; Sirunyan, A. M.; Tumasyan, A.; Adam, W.; Asilar, E.; Bergauer, T.; Brandstetter, J.; Brondolin, E.; Dragicevic, M.; Erö, J.; Friedl, M.; Frühwirth, R.; Ghete, V. M.; Hartl, C.; Hörmann, N.; Hrubec, J.; Jeitler, M.; Knünz, V.; König, A.; Krammer, M.; Krätschmer, I.; Liko, D.; Matsushita, T.; Mikulec, I.; Rabady, D.; Rahbaran, B.; Rohringer, H.; Schieck, J.; Schöfbeck, R.; Strauss, J.; Treberer-Treberspurg, W.; Waltenberger, W.; Wulz, C.-E.; Mossolov, V.; Shumeiko, N.; Suarez Gonzalez, J.; Alderweireldt, S.; Cornelis, T.; de Wolf, E. A.; Janssen, X.; Knutsson, A.; Lauwers, J.; Luyckx, S.; van de Klundert, M.; van Haevermaet, H.; van Mechelen, P.; van Remortel, N.; van Spilbeeck, A.; Abu Zeid, S.; Blekman, F.; D'Hondt, J.; Daci, N.; de Bruyn, I.; Deroover, K.; Heracleous, N.; Keaveney, J.; Lowette, S.; Moreels, L.; Olbrechts, A.; Python, Q.; Strom, D.; Tavernier, S.; van Doninck, W.; van Mulders, P.; van Onsem, G. P.; van Parijs, I.; Barria, P.; Brun, H.; Caillol, C.; Clerbaux, B.; de Lentdecker, G.; Fasanella, G.; Favart, L.; Grebenyuk, A.; Karapostoli, G.; Lenzi, T.; Léonard, A.; Maerschalk, T.; Marinov, A.; Perniè, L.; Randle-Conde, A.; Reis, T.; Seva, T.; Vander Velde, C.; Yonamine, R.; Vanlaer, P.; Yonamine, R.; Zenoni, F.; Zhang, F.; Adler, V.; Beernaert, K.; Benucci, L.; Cimmino, A.; Crucy, S.; Dobur, D.; Fagot, A.; Garcia, G.; Gul, M.; McCartin, J.; Ocampo Rios, A. A.; Poyraz, D.; Ryckbosch, D.; Salva, S.; Sigamani, M.; Strobbe, N.; Tytgat, M.; van Driessche, W.; Yazgan, E.; Zaganidis, N.; Basegmez, S.; Beluffi, C.; Bondu, O.; Brochet, S.; Bruno, G.; Caudron, A.; Ceard, L.; da Silveira, G. G.; Delaere, C.; Favart, D.; Forthomme, L.; Giammanco, A.; Hollar, J.; Jafari, A.; Jez, P.; Komm, M.; Lemaitre, V.; Mertens, A.; Musich, M.; Nuttens, C.; Perrini, L.; Pin, A.; Piotrzkowski, K.; Popov, A.; Quertenmont, L.; Selvaggi, M.; Vidal Marono, M.; Beliy, N.; Hammad, G. H.; Júnior, W. L. Aldá; Alves, F. L.; Alves, G. A.; Brito, L.; Correa Martins Junior, M.; Hamer, M.; Hensel, C.; Mora Herrera, C.; Moraes, A.; Pol, M. E.; Rebello Teles, P.; Belchior Batista Das Chagas, E.; Carvalho, W.; Chinellato, J.; Custódio, A.; da Costa, E. M.; de Jesus Damiao, D.; de Oliveira Martins, C.; Fonseca de Souza, S.; Huertas Guativa, L. M.; Malbouisson, H.; Matos Figueiredo, D.; Mundim, L.; Nogima, H.; Prado da Silva, W. L.; Santoro, A.; Sznajder, A.; Tonelli Manganote, E. J.; Vilela Pereira, A.; Ahuja, S.; Bernardes, C. A.; de Souza Santos, A.; Dogra, S.; Fernandez Perez Tomei, T. R.; Gregores, E. M.; Mercadante, P. G.; Moon, C. S.; Novaes, S. F.; Padula, Sandra S.; Romero Abad, D.; Ruiz Vargas, J. C.; Aleksandrov, A.; Hadjiiska, R.; Iaydjiev, P.; Rodozov, M.; Stoykova, S.; Sultanov, G.; Vutova, M.; Dimitrov, A.; Glushkov, I.; Litov, L.; Pavlov, B.; Petkov, P.; Ahmad, M.; Bian, J. G.; Chen, G. M.; Chen, H. S.; Chen, M.; Cheng, T.; Du, R.; Jiang, C. H.; Plestina, R.; Romeo, F.; Shaheen, S. M.; Spiezia, A.; Tao, J.; Wang, C.; Wang, Z.; Zhang, H.; Asawatangtrakuldee, C.; Ban, Y.; Li, Q.; Liu, S.; Mao, Y.; Qian, S. J.; Wang, D.; Xu, Z.; Avila, C.; Cabrera, A.; Chaparro Sierra, L. F.; Florez, C.; Gomez, J. P.; Gomez Moreno, B.; Sanabria, J. C.; Godinovic, N.; Lelas, D.; Puljak, I.; Ribeiro Cipriano, P. M.; Antunovic, Z.; Kovac, M.; Brigljevic, V.; Kadija, K.; Luetic, J.; Micanovic, S.; Sudic, L.; Attikis, A.; Mavromanolakis, G.; Mousa, J.; Nicolaou, C.; Ptochos, F.; Razis, P. A.; Rykaczewski, H.; Bodlak, M.; Finger, M.; Finger, M.; El Sawy, M.; El-Khateeb, E.; Elkafrawy, T.; Mohamed, A.; Salama, E.; Calpas, B.; Kadastik, M.; Murumaa, M.; Raidal, M.; Tiko, A.; Veelken, C.; Eerola, P.; Pekkanen, J.; Voutilainen, M.; Härkönen, J.; Karimäki, V.; Kinnunen, R.; Lampén, T.; Lassila-Perini, K.; Lehti, S.; Lindén, T.; Luukka, P.; Mäenpää, T.; Peltola, T.; Tuominen, E.; Tuominiemi, J.; Tuovinen, E.; Wendland, L.; Talvitie, J.; Tuuva, T.; Besancon, M.; Couderc, F.; Dejardin, M.; Denegri, D.; Fabbro, B.; Faure, J. L.; Favaro, C.; Ferri, F.; Ganjour, S.; Givernaud, A.; Gras, P.; Hamel de Monchenault, G.; Jarry, P.; Locci, E.; Machet, M.; Malcles, J.; Rander, J.; Rosowsky, A.; Titov, M.; Zghiche, A.; Antropov, I.; Baffioni, S.; Beaudette, F.; Busson, P.; Cadamuro, L.; Chapon, E.; Charlot, C.; Dahms, T.; Davignon, O.; Filipovic, N.; Florent, A.; Granier de Cassagnac, R.; Lisniak, S.; Mastrolorenzo, L.; Miné, P.; Naranjo, I. N.; Nguyen, M.; Ochando, C.; Ortona, G.; Paganini, P.; Pigard, P.; Regnard, S.; Salerno, R.; Sauvan, J. B.; Sirois, Y.; Strebler, T.; Yilmaz, Y.; Zabi, A.; Agram, J.-L.; Andrea, J.; Aubin, A.; Bloch, D.; Brom, J.-M.; Buttignol, M.; Chabert, E. C.; Chanon, N.; Collard, C.; Conte, E.; Coubez, X.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Gelé, D.; Goerlach, U.; Goetzmann, C.

    2016-07-01

    Jet multiplicity distributions in top quark pair ({t}{overline{t}}) events are measured in pp collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 8 TeV with the CMS detector at the LHC using a data set corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 19.7 {fb}^ {-1}. The measurement is performed in the dilepton decay channels (e^+e^-, μ^+ μ^-, and e^{±} μ^{∓}). The absolute and normalized differential cross sections for {t}overline{t} production are measured as a function of the jet multiplicity in the event for different jet transverse momentum thresholds and the kinematic properties of the leading additional jets. The differential {t overline{t} b} and {t overline{t} b overline{b}} cross sections are presented for the first time as a function of the kinematic properties of the leading additional b jets. Furthermore, the fraction of events without additional jets above a threshold is measured as a function of the transverse momenta of the leading additional jets and the scalar sum of the transverse momenta of all additional jets. The data are compared and found to be consistent with predictions from several perturbative quantum chromodynamics event generators and a next-to-leading order calculation.

  13. Seismic Absorption and Modulus Measurements in Porous Rocks in Lab and Field: Physical, Chemical, and Biological Effects of Fluids (Detecting a Biosurfactant Additive in a Field Irrigation Experiment)

    SciTech Connect

    Spetzler, Hartmut

    2006-05-01

    We have been exploring a new technology that is based on using low-frequency seismic attenuation data to monitor changes in fluid saturation conditions in two-fluid phase porous materials. The seismic attenuation mechanism is related to the loss of energy due to the hysteresis of resistance to meniscus movement (changes in surface tension, wettability) when a pore containing two fluids is stressed at very low frequencies (< 10 Hz). This technology has potential applications to monitoring changes in (1) leakage at buried waste sites, (2) contaminant remediation, and (3) flooding during enhanced petroleum recovery. We have concluded a three year field study at the Maricopa Agricultural Center site of the University of Arizona. Three sets of instruments were installed along an East-West line perpendicular to the 50m by 50m inigation site. Each set of instruments consisted of one three component seismometer and one tiltmeter. Microseisms and solid Earth-tides served as strain sources. The former have a power peak at a period of about 6 seconds and the tides have about two cycles per day. Installation of instruments commenced in late summer of 2002. The instruments operated nearly continuously until April 2005. During the fall of 2003 the site was irrigated with water and one year later with water containing 150 ppm of a biosurfactant additive. This biodegradable additive served to mimic a class of contaminants that change the surface tension of the inigation fluid. Tilt data clearly show tidal tilts superimposed on local tilts due to agricultural irrigation and field work. When the observed signals were correlated with site specific theoretical tilt signals we saw no anomalies for the water irrigation in 2003, but large anomalies on two stations for the surfactant irrigation in 2004. Occasional failures of seismometers as well as data acquisition systems contributed to less than continuous coverage. These data are noisier than the tilt data, but do also show possible

  14. Conservation planning with multiple organizations and objectives.

    PubMed

    Bode, Michael; Probert, Will; Turner, Will R; Wilson, Kerrie A; Venter, Oscar

    2011-04-01

    There has been a dramatic increase in the number of conservation organizations worldwide. It is now common for multiple organizations to operate in the same landscape in pursuit of different conservation goals. New objectives, such as maintenance of ecosystem services, will attract additional funding and new organizations to conservation. Systematic conservation planning helps in the design of spatially explicit management actions that optimally conserve multiple landscape features (e.g., species, ecosystems, or ecosystem services). But the methods used in its application implicitly assume that a single actor implements the optimal plan. We investigated how organizational behavior and conservation outcomes are affected by the presence of autonomous implementing organizations with different objectives. We used simulation models and game theory to explore how alternative behaviors (e.g., organizations acting independently or explicitly cooperating) affected an organization's ability to protect their feature of interest, and investigated how the distribution of features in the landscape influenced organizations' attitudes toward cooperation. Features with highly correlated spatial distributions, although typically considered an opportunity for mutually beneficial conservation planning, can lead to organizational interactions that result in lower levels of protection. These detrimental outcomes can be avoided by organizations that cooperate when acquiring land. Nevertheless, for cooperative purchases to benefit both organizations' objectives, each must forgo the protection of land parcels that they would consider to be of high conservation value. Transaction costs incurred during cooperation and the sources of conservation funding could facilitate or hinder cooperative behavior.

  15. Fused Lasso Additive Model

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Ashley; Witten, Daniela; Simon, Noah

    2016-01-01

    We consider the problem of predicting an outcome variable using p covariates that are measured on n independent observations, in a setting in which additive, flexible, and interpretable fits are desired. We propose the fused lasso additive model (FLAM), in which each additive function is estimated to be piecewise constant with a small number of adaptively-chosen knots. FLAM is the solution to a convex optimization problem, for which a simple algorithm with guaranteed convergence to a global optimum is provided. FLAM is shown to be consistent in high dimensions, and an unbiased estimator of its degrees of freedom is proposed. We evaluate the performance of FLAM in a simulation study and on two data sets. Supplemental materials are available online, and the R package flam is available on CRAN. PMID:28239246

  16. Fallout radionuclide-based techniques for assessing the impact of soil conservation measures on erosion control and soil quality: an overview of the main lessons learnt under an FAO/IAEA Coordinated Research Project.

    PubMed

    Dercon, G; Mabit, L; Hancock, G; Nguyen, M L; Dornhofer, P; Bacchi, O O S; Benmansour, M; Bernard, C; Froehlich, W; Golosov, V N; Haciyakupoglu, S; Hai, P S; Klik, A; Li, Y; Lobb, D A; Onda, Y; Popa, N; Rafiq, M; Ritchie, J C; Schuller, P; Shakhashiro, A; Wallbrink, P; Walling, D E; Zapata, F; Zhang, X

    2012-05-01

    This paper summarizes key findings and identifies the main lessons learnt from a 5-year (2002-2008) coordinated research project (CRP) on "Assessing the effectiveness of soil conservation measures for sustainable watershed management and crop production using fallout radionuclides" (D1.50.08), organized and funded by the International Atomic Energy Agency through the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture. The project brought together nineteen participants, from Australia, Austria, Brazil, Canada, Chile, China, Japan, Morocco, Pakistan, Poland, Romania, Russian Federation, Turkey, United Kingdom, United States of America and Vietnam, involved in the use of nuclear techniques and, more particularly, fallout radionuclides (FRN) to assess the relative impacts of different soil conservation measures on soil erosion and land productivity. The overall objective of the CRP was to develop improved land use and management strategies for sustainable watershed management through effective soil erosion control practices, by the use of ¹³⁷Cs (half-life of 30.2 years), ²¹⁰Pb(ex) (half-life of 22.3 years) and ⁷Be (half-life of 53.4 days) for measuring soil erosion over several spatial and temporal scales. The environmental conditions under which the different research teams applied the tools based on the use of fallout radionuclides varied considerably--a variety of climates, soils, topographies and land uses. Nevertheless, the achievements of the CRP, as reflected in this overview paper, demonstrate that fallout radionuclide-based techniques are powerful tools to assess soil erosion/deposition at several spatial and temporal scales in a wide range of environments, and offer potential to monitor soil quality. The success of the CRP has stimulated an interest in many IAEA Member States in the use of these methodologies to identify factors and practices that can enhance sustainable agriculture and minimize land degradation.

  17. Benefits of the ballot box for species conservation.

    PubMed

    Kroetz, Kailin; Sanchirico, James N; Armsworth, Paul R; Banzhaf, H Spencer

    2014-03-01

    Recent estimates reaffirm that conservation funds are insufficient to meet biodiversity conservation goals. Organisations focused on biodiversity conservation therefore need to capitalise on investments that societies make in environmental protection that provide ancillary benefits to biodiversity. Here, we undertake the first assessment of the potential ancillary benefits from the ballot box in the United States, where citizens vote on referenda to conserve lands for reasons that may not include biodiversity directly but that indirectly might enhance biodiversity conservation. Our results suggest that referenda occur in counties with significantly greater biodiversity than counties chosen at random. We also demonstrate that large potential gains for conservation are possible if the past and likely future outcomes of these ballot box measures are directly incorporated into national-scale conservation planning efforts. The possible synergies between ballot box measures and other biodiversity conservation efforts offer an under-utilised resource for supporting conservation.

  18. Conservation: Toward firmer ground

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The following aspects of energy conservation were discussed: conservation history and goals, conservation modes, conservation accounting-criteria, and a method to overcome obstacles. The conservation modes tested fall into one of the following categories: reduced energy consumption, increased efficiency of energy utilization, or substitution of one or more forms of energy for another which is in shorter supply or in some sense thought to be of more value. The conservation accounting criteria include net energy reduction, economic, and technical criteria. A method to overcome obstacles includes (approaches such as: direct personal impact (life style, income, security, aspiration), an element of crisis, large scale involvement of environmental, safety, and health issues, connections to big government, big business, big politics, involvement of known and speculative science and technology, appeal to moral and ethical standards, the transient nature of opportunities to correct the system.

  19. Community-Based Health Education Programs Designed to Improve Clinical Measures Are Unlikely to Reduce Short-Term Costs or Utilization Without Additional Features Targeting These Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Burton, Joe; Eggleston, Barry; Brenner, Jeffrey; Truchil, Aaron; Zulkiewicz, Brittany A; Lewis, Megan A

    2016-06-07

    Stakeholders often expect programs for persons with chronic conditions to "bend the cost curve." This study assessed whether a diabetes self-management education (DSME) program offered as part of a multicomponent initiative could affect emergency department (ED) visits, hospital stays, and the associated costs for an underserved population in addition to the clinical indicators that DSME programs attempt to improve. The program was implemented in Camden, New Jersey, by the Camden Coalition of Healthcare Providers to address disparities in diabetes care. Data used are from medical records and from patient-level information about hospital services from Camden's hospitals. Using multivariate regression models to control for individual characteristics, changes in utilization over time and changes relative to 2 comparison groups were assessed. No reductions in ED visits, inpatient stays, or costs for participants were found over time or relative to the comparison groups. High utilization rates and costs for diabetes are associated with longer term disease progression and its sequelae; thus, DSME or peer support may not affect these in the near term. Some clinical indicators improved among participants, and these might lead to fewer costly adverse health events in the future. DSME deployed at the community level, without explicit segmentation and targeting of high health care utilizers or without components designed to affect costs and utilization, should not be expected to reduce short-term medical needs for participating individuals or care-seeking behaviors such that utilization is reduced. Stakeholders must include financial outcomes in a program's design if those outcomes are to improve. (Population Health Management 20XX;XX:XXX-XXX).

  20. Energy Conservation Guidelines for Pennsylvania Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennsylvania State Dept. of Education, Harrisburg.

    Energy conservation measures that can be effected in the architecture and engineering of new and existing school buildings are listed. Guidelines are also offered for general school operation and maintenance. (MLF)

  1. Energy Experts Call for Conservation Steps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1974

    1974-01-01

    Summarizes energy conservation measures suggested by a leading energy supplier, a leading energy consumer, and a top government official, involving more coal use as an energy resource and an adequate balance between energy supply and environmental restrictions. (CC)

  2. Additive Manufacturing Infrared Inspection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaddy, Darrell

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing is a rapid prototyping technology that allows parts to be built in a series of thin layers from plastic, ceramics, and metallics. Metallic additive manufacturing is an emerging form of rapid prototyping that allows complex structures to be built using various metallic powders. Significant time and cost savings have also been observed using the metallic additive manufacturing compared with traditional techniques. Development of the metallic additive manufacturing technology has advanced significantly over the last decade, although many of the techniques to inspect parts made from these processes have not advanced significantly or have limitations. Several external geometry inspection techniques exist such as Coordinate Measurement Machines (CMM), Laser Scanners, Structured Light Scanning Systems, or even traditional calipers and gages. All of the aforementioned techniques are limited to external geometry and contours or must use a contact probe to inspect limited internal dimensions. This presentation will document the development of a process for real-time dimensional inspection technique and digital quality record of the additive manufacturing process using Infrared camera imaging and processing techniques.

  3. Analysis of conservative tracer measurement results using the Frechet distribution at planted horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands filled with coarse gravel and showing the effect of clogging processes.

    PubMed

    Dittrich, Ernő; Klincsik, Mihály

    2015-11-01

    A mathematical process, developed in Maple environment, has been successful in decreasing the error of measurement results and in the precise calculation of the moments of corrected tracer functions. It was proved that with this process, the measured tracer results of horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands filled with coarse gravel (HSFCW-C) can be fitted more accurately than with the conventionally used distribution functions (Gaussian, Lognormal, Fick (Inverse Gaussian) and Gamma). This statement is true only for the planted HSFCW-Cs. The analysis of unplanted HSFCW-Cs needs more research. The result of the analysis shows that the conventional solutions (completely stirred series tank reactor (CSTR) model and convection-dispersion transport (CDT) model) cannot describe these types of transport processes with sufficient accuracy. These outcomes can help in developing better process descriptions of very difficult transport processes in HSFCW-Cs. Furthermore, a new mathematical process can be developed for the calculation of real hydraulic residence time (HRT) and dispersion coefficient values. The presented method can be generalized to other kinds of hydraulic environments.

  4. Agricultural intensification escalates future conservation costs.

    PubMed

    Phelps, Jacob; Carrasco, Luis Roman; Webb, Edward L; Koh, Lian Pin; Pascual, Unai

    2013-05-07

    The supposition that agricultural intensification results in land sparing for conservation has become central to policy formulations across the tropics. However, underlying assumptions remain uncertain and have been little explored in the context of conservation incentive schemes such as policies for Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation, conservation, sustainable management, and enhancement of carbon stocks (REDD+). Incipient REDD+ forest carbon policies in a number of countries propose agricultural intensification measures to replace extensive "slash-and-burn" farming systems. These may result in conservation in some contexts, but will also increase future agricultural land rents as productivity increases, creating new incentives for agricultural expansion and deforestation. While robust governance can help to ensure land sparing, we propose that conservation incentives will also have to increase over time, tracking future agricultural land rents, which might lead to runaway conservation costs. We present a conceptual framework that depicts these relationships, supported by an illustrative model of the intensification of key crops in the Democratic Republic of Congo, a leading REDD+ country. A von Thünen land rent model is combined with geographic information systems mapping to demonstrate how agricultural intensification could influence future conservation costs. Once postintensification agricultural land rents are considered, the cost of reducing forest sector emissions could significantly exceed current and projected carbon credit prices. Our analysis highlights the importance of considering escalating conservation costs from agricultural intensification when designing conservation initiatives.

  5. Agricultural intensification escalates future conservation costs

    PubMed Central

    Phelps, Jacob; Carrasco, Luis Roman; Webb, Edward L.; Koh, Lian Pin; Pascual, Unai

    2013-01-01

    The supposition that agricultural intensification results in land sparing for conservation has become central to policy formulations across the tropics. However, underlying assumptions remain uncertain and have been little explored in the context of conservation incentive schemes such as policies for Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation, conservation, sustainable management, and enhancement of carbon stocks (REDD+). Incipient REDD+ forest carbon policies in a number of countries propose agricultural intensification measures to replace extensive “slash-and-burn” farming systems. These may result in conservation in some contexts, but will also increase future agricultural land rents as productivity increases, creating new incentives for agricultural expansion and deforestation. While robust governance can help to ensure land sparing, we propose that conservation incentives will also have to increase over time, tracking future agricultural land rents, which might lead to runaway conservation costs. We present a conceptual framework that depicts these relationships, supported by an illustrative model of the intensification of key crops in the Democratic Republic of Congo, a leading REDD+ country. A von Thünen land rent model is combined with geographic information systems mapping to demonstrate how agricultural intensification could influence future conservation costs. Once postintensification agricultural land rents are considered, the cost of reducing forest sector emissions could significantly exceed current and projected carbon credit prices. Our analysis highlights the importance of considering escalating conservation costs from agricultural intensification when designing conservation initiatives. PMID:23589860

  6. Biodiversity Conservation and Conservation Biotechnology Tools

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This special issue is dedicated to the in vitro tools and methods used to conserve the genetic diversity of rare and threatened species from around the world. Species that are on the brink of extinction, due to the rapid loss of genetic diversity and habitat, come mainly from resource poor areas the...

  7. Introducing Conservation of Momentum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brunt, Marjorie; Brunt, Geoff

    2013-01-01

    The teaching of the principle of conservation of linear momentum is considered (ages 15 + ). From the principle, the momenta of two masses in an isolated system are considered. Sketch graphs of the momenta make Newton's laws appear obvious. Examples using different collision conditions are considered. Conservation of momentum is considered…

  8. Creative Soil Conservation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Martha

    2010-01-01

    Take plant lessons outdoors with this engaging and inquiry-based activity in which third-grade students learn how to apply soil conservation methods to growing plants. They also collect data and draw conclusions about the effectiveness of their method of soil conservation. An added benefit to this activity is that the third-grade students played…

  9. Water Conservation Resource List.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    NJEA Review, 1981

    1981-01-01

    Alarmed by the growing water shortage, the New Jersey State Office of Dissemination has prepared this annotated list of free or inexpensive instructional materials for teaching about water conservation, K-l2. A tipsheet for home water conservation is appended. (Editor/SJL)

  10. Setting conservation priorities.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Kerrie A; Carwardine, Josie; Possingham, Hugh P

    2009-04-01

    A generic framework for setting conservation priorities based on the principles of classic decision theory is provided. This framework encapsulates the key elements of any problem, including the objective, the constraints, and knowledge of the system. Within the context of this framework the broad array of approaches for setting conservation priorities are reviewed. While some approaches prioritize assets or locations for conservation investment, it is concluded here that prioritization is incomplete without consideration of the conservation actions required to conserve the assets at particular locations. The challenges associated with prioritizing investments through time in the face of threats (and also spatially and temporally heterogeneous costs) can be aided by proper problem definition. Using the authors' general framework for setting conservation priorities, multiple criteria can be rationally integrated and where, how, and when to invest conservation resources can be scheduled. Trade-offs are unavoidable in priority setting when there are multiple considerations, and budgets are almost always finite. The authors discuss how trade-offs, risks, uncertainty, feedbacks, and learning can be explicitly evaluated within their generic framework for setting conservation priorities. Finally, they suggest ways that current priority-setting approaches may be improved.

  11. Conservation in transportation

    SciTech Connect

    1980-05-30

    A nationwide examination was made of grassroots energy conservation programs related to transportation. Information compiled from civic groups, trade associations, and corporations is included on driver awareness/mass transit; travel; and ride sharing. It is concluded that a willingness by the public to cooperate in transportation energy conservation exists and should be exploited. (LCL)

  12. On exactly conservative integrators

    SciTech Connect

    Bowman, J.C.; Shadwick, B.A.; Morrison, P.J.

    1997-06-01

    Traditional explicit numerical discretizations of conservative systems generically predict artificial secular drifts of nonlinear invariants. These algorithms are based on polynomial functions of the time step. The authors discuss a general approach for developing explicit algorithms that conserve such invariants exactly. They illustrate the method by applying it to the truncated two-dimensional Euler equations.

  13. Conservation--Selected Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Australian Conservation Foundation, Parkville, Victoria.

    Developed by the Australian Conservation Foundation to meet the need for a general conservation bibliography, this booklet offers resources for a wide spectrum of possible users. Material selected is that which is relevant and helpful for conservationists in their various fields of activity and what is likely to be in print and obtainable without…

  14. The Syntax of Conservation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hargis, Charles H.

    This paper outlines the syntactic structures which represent a stage in the cognitive development of children, and focusses on an aspect of cognitive development known as conservation. The cognitive components of conservation are presented as the primordial base for the set of syntactic structures which map or mirror them. Piaget proposed four…

  15. Resource Conservation Glossary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soil Conservation Society of America, Ankeny, IA.

    This glossary is a composite of terms selected from 13 technologies, and is the expanded revision of the original 1952 edition of "The Soil and Water Conservation Glossary." The terms were selected from these areas: agronomy, biology, conservation, ecology, economics, engineering, forestry, geology, hydrology, range, recreation, soils, and…

  16. Conservation Science Fair Projects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soil Conservation Society of America, Ankeny, IA.

    Included are ideas, suggestions, and examples for selecting and designing conservation science projects. Over 70 possible conservation subject areas are presented with suggested projects. References are cited with each of these subject areas, and a separate list of annotated references is included. The references pertain to general subject…

  17. Home Energy Conservation Primer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeLuca, V. William; And Others

    This guide was prepared to support a program of training for community specialists in contemporary and practical techniques of home energy conservation. It is designed to assist professionals in efficient operation of energy conservation programs and to provide ideas for expanding education operations. Eight major sections are presented: (1)…

  18. Conservative mastectomies: an overview

    PubMed Central

    Nava, Maurizio Bruno; Catanuto, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Conservative mastectomies provide removal of the entire breast parenchyma, saving the outer covering of the mammary gland with the possibility of performing an immediate reconstruction preserving women body image. We rationalised and systematically organized our reconstructive algorythms giving a new different light to mastectomies, the so-called “conservative mastectomies”, an oxymoron indicating skin-sparing mastectomies (SSM), nipple-areola complex-sparing mastectomies (NSM) and skin-reducing mastectomies (SRM). Eventhough randomized controlled trials comparing conservative mastectomies with traditional mastectomy and breast conserving surgery would be auspicable in order to achieve higher levels of evidence, we could confidently conclude that conservative mastectomies offer the psychological advantages of good cosmesis and maintenance of woman body image without compromising the oncological safety of mastectomy. PMID:26645000

  19. Wilderness and biodiversity conservation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mittermeier, R. A.; Mittermeier, C. G.; Brooks, T. M.; Pilgrim, J. D.; Konstant, W. R.; da Fonseca, G. A. B.; Kormos, C.

    2003-09-01

    Human pressure threatens many species and ecosystems, so conservation efforts necessarily prioritize saving them. However, conservation should clearly be proactive wherever possible. In this article, we assess the biodiversity conservation value, and specifically the irreplaceability in terms of species endemism, of those of the planet's ecosystems that remain intact. We find that 24 wilderness areas, all > 1 million hectares, are > 70% intact and have human densities of less than or equal to five people per km2. This wilderness covers 44% of all land but is inhabited by only 3% of people. Given this sparse population, wilderness conservation is cost-effective, especially if ecosystem service value is incorporated. Soberingly, however, most wilderness is not speciose: only 18% of plants and 10% of terrestrial vertebrates are endemic to individual wildernesses, the majority restricted to Amazonia, Congo, New Guinea, the Miombo-Mopane woodlands, and the North American deserts. Global conservation strategy must target these five wildernesses while continuing to prioritize threatened biodiversity hotspots.

  20. Conservation of North American rallids

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eddleman, William R.; Knopf, Fritz L.; Manley, Brooke; Reid, Frederic A.; Zembal, Richard

    1988-01-01

    The Rallidae are a diverse group in their habitat selection, yet most North American species occur in or near wetlands As a consequence, most species are subject to habitat enhancement or perturbation from waterfowl management programs. The overall effects of these management programs relative to rallid conservation have been assessed for few species, and there is a need for synthesis of such information. In the cases of some species or raves, population status is not known, and suggested directions for conservation and management are needed. Rare, endangered, or status undetermined species or races often occur in areas where related species are classified as game birds, and the effects of such hunting on rarer forms are not known. Their generally secretive nature, the endangered status of several races and populations, and continued loss of habitat and threats to present habitat, warrant an examination of the conservation status of the North American taxa in this group. In 1977, a committee of the International Association of Fish and Wildlife Agencies summarized available information on management and biology of American Coots (Fulica americana), rails, and gallinules in North America (Holliman 1977). That summary was intended to provide relatively complete information on conservation of these species, and also to provide guidance for research within the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service's (FWS) Accelerated Research Program for Webless Migratory Shore and Upland Game Birds (ARP). Subsequently, a number of rallid studies were funded under this program. The program was eliminated in 1982, following substantial research activities on North American rallids. Since the demise of the ARP, additional research on rallids in North America has focused on an area the International Association of Fish and Wildlife Agencies report failed to cover in detail--that of endangered rallids in the U.S. and their possessions. Most of these studies have been of threatened and endangered

  1. A conservation law for virus infection kinetics in vitro.

    PubMed

    Kakizoe, Yusuke; Morita, Satoru; Nakaoka, Shinji; Takeuchi, Yasuhiro; Sato, Kei; Miura, Tomoyuki; Beauchemin, Catherine A A; Iwami, Shingo

    2015-07-07

    Conservation laws are among the most important properties of a physical system, but are not commonplace in biology. We derived a conservation law from the basic model for viral infections which consists in a small set of ordinary differential equations. We challenged the conservation law experimentally for the case of a virus infection in a cell culture. We found that the derived, conserved quantity remained almost constant throughout the infection period, implying that the derived conservation law holds in this biological system. We also suggest a potential use for the conservation law in evaluating the accuracy of experimental measurements.

  2. Conservation priority of global Galliformes species based on phylogenetic diversity.

    PubMed

    Chen, Youhua

    2014-06-01

    In this study, based on phylogenetic diversity (PD), I develop a conservation strategy for Galliformes species around the world. A cladogram of 197 Galliformes species derived from a previous study was used for calculating PD metrics. Branch length is an important aspect of the phylogenetic information a tree can convey, but 2 traditionally-used metrics, the number of phylogenetic groups to which a taxon belongs (I) and the proportion that each taxon contributes to the total diversity of the group (W), are fully node-based and do not take branch length into account. Therefore, to measure PD more appropriately, I combined a branch-related metric, pendant edge (P), in addition to I and W. A final combined rank for Galliformes species was obtained by summing the ranks of the 3 metrics. My results showed that the 5% top priority species for conserving evolutionary potential were Galloperdix lunulata, Haematortyx sanguiniceps, Margaroperdix madagarensis, Syrmaticus soemmerringii, Coturnix pectoralis, Polyplectron napoleonis, Alectoris melanocephala, Xenoperdix udzungwensis, Afropavo congensis and Syrmaticus reevesii. The current species priority ranking based on pylogenetic diversity and the official International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) ranking of Galliformes species was significantly correlated when considering the 5 categories of IUCN (critical endangered, endangered, vulnerable, near threatened and least concern). This indicated the feasibility of introducing the PD index into the network of IUCN regional Red List assessment. The 5% top priority countries selected using the complementarity principle possessing diversified Galliformes genetic resources were China, Indonesia, Mexico, India, Colombia, Australia, Brazil, Angola, Congo and Japan (in descending order). China, Indonesia, Mexico, Brazil, India and Colombia are consistently selected among the 4 top priority sets of richness, rarity, endemicity and PD. This result indicated that the priority

  3. Measurements of fiducial cross-sections for [Formula: see text] production with one or two additional b-jets in pp collisions at [Formula: see text]=8 TeV using the ATLAS detector.

    PubMed

    Aad, G; Abbott, B; Abdallah, J; Abdinov, O; Aben, R; Abolins, M; AbouZeid, O S; Abramowicz, H; Abreu, H; Abreu, R; Abulaiti, Y; Acharya, B S; Adamczyk, L; Adams, D L; Adelman, J; Adomeit, S; Adye, T; Affolder, A A; Agatonovic-Jovin, T; Agricola, J; Aguilar-Saavedra, J A; Ahlen, S P; Ahmadov, F; Aielli, G; Akerstedt, H; Åkesson, T P A; Akimov, A V; Alberghi, G L; Albert, J; Albrand, S; Alconada Verzini, M J; Aleksa, M; Aleksandrov, I N; Alexa, C; Alexander, G; Alexopoulos, T; Alhroob, M; Alimonti, G; Alio, L; Alison, J; Alkire, S P; Allbrooke, B M M; Allport, P P; Aloisio, A; Alonso, A; Alonso, F; Alpigiani, C; Altheimer, A; Alvarez Gonzalez, B; Álvarez Piqueras, D; Alviggi, M G; Amadio, B T; Amako, K; Amaral Coutinho, Y; Amelung, C; Amidei, D; Amor Dos Santos, S P; Amorim, A; Amoroso, S; Amram, N; Amundsen, G; Anastopoulos, C; Ancu, L S; Andari, N; Andeen, T; Anders, C F; Anders, G; Anders, J K; Anderson, K J; Andreazza, A; Andrei, V; Angelidakis, S; Angelozzi, I; Anger, P; Angerami, A; Anghinolfi, F; Anisenkov, A V; Anjos, N; Annovi, A; Antonelli, M; Antonov, A; Antos, J; Anulli, F; Aoki, M; Aperio Bella, L; Arabidze, G; Arai, Y; Araque, J P; Arce, A T H; Arduh, F A; Arguin, J-F; Argyropoulos, S; Arik, M; Armbruster, A J; Arnaez, O; Arnold, H; Arratia, M; Arslan, O; Artamonov, A; Artoni, G; Asai, S; Asbah, N; Ashkenazi, A; Åsman, B; Asquith, L; Assamagan, K; Astalos, R; Atkinson, M; Atlay, N B; Augsten, K; Aurousseau, M; Avolio, G; Axen, B; Ayoub, M K; Azuelos, G; Baak, M A; Baas, A E; Baca, M J; Bacci, C; Bachacou, H; Bachas, K; Backes, M; Backhaus, M; Bagiacchi, P; Bagnaia, P; Bai, Y; Bain, T; Baines, J T; Baker, O K; Baldin, E M; Balek, P; Balestri, T; Balli, F; Balunas, W K; Banas, E; Banerjee, Sw; Bannoura, A A E; Barak, L; Barberio, E L; Barberis, D; Barbero, M; Barillari, T; Barisonzi, M; Barklow, T; Barlow, N; Barnes, S L; Barnett, B M; Barnett, R M; Barnovska, Z; Baroncelli, A; Barone, G; Barr, A J; Barreiro, F; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, J; Bartoldus, R; Barton, A E; Bartos, P; Basalaev, A; Bassalat, A; Basye, A; Bates, R L; Batista, S J; Batley, J R; Battaglia, M; Bauce, M; Bauer, F; Bawa, H S; Beacham, J B; Beattie, M D; Beau, T; Beauchemin, P H; Beccherle, R; Bechtle, P; Beck, H P; Becker, K; Becker, M; Beckingham, M; Becot, C; Beddall, A J; Beddall, A; Bednyakov, V A; Bee, C P; Beemster, L J; Beermann, T A; Begel, M; Behr, J K; Belanger-Champagne, C; Bell, W H; Bella, G; Bellagamba, L; Bellerive, A; Bellomo, M; Belotskiy, K; Beltramello, O; Benary, O; Benchekroun, D; Bender, M; Bendtz, K; Benekos, N; Benhammou, Y; Benhar Noccioli, E; Benitez Garcia, J A; Benjamin, D P; Bensinger, J R; Bentvelsen, S; Beresford, L; Beretta, M; Berge, D; Bergeaas Kuutmann, E; Berger, N; Berghaus, F; Beringer, J; Bernard, C; Bernard, N R; Bernius, C; Bernlochner, F U; Berry, T; Berta, P; Bertella, C; Bertoli, G; Bertolucci, F; Bertsche, C; Bertsche, D; Besana, M I; Besjes, G J; Bessidskaia Bylund, O; Bessner, M; Besson, N; Betancourt, C; Bethke, S; Bevan, A J; Bhimji, W; Bianchi, R M; Bianchini, L; Bianco, M; Biebel, O; Biedermann, D; Bieniek, S P; Biglietti, M; Bilbao De Mendizabal, J; Bilokon, H; Bindi, M; Binet, S; Bingul, A; Bini, C; Biondi, S; Bjergaard, D M; Black, C W; Black, J E; Black, K M; Blackburn, D; Blair, R E; Blanchard, J-B; Blanco, J E; Blazek, T; Bloch, I; Blocker, C; Blum, W; Blumenschein, U; Blunier, S; Bobbink, G J; Bobrovnikov, V S; Bocchetta, S S; Bocci, A; Bock, C; Boehler, M; Bogaerts, J A; Bogavac, D; Bogdanchikov, A G; Bohm, C; Boisvert, V; Bold, T; Boldea, V; Boldyrev, A S; Bomben, M; Bona, M; Boonekamp, M; Borisov, A; Borissov, G; Borroni, S; Bortfeldt, J; Bortolotto, V; Bos, K; Boscherini, D; Bosman, M; Boudreau, J; Bouffard, J; Bouhova-Thacker, E V; Boumediene, D; Bourdarios, C; Bousson, N; Boutle, S K; Boveia, A; Boyd, J; Boyko, I R; Bozic, I; Bracinik, J; Brandt, A; Brandt, G; Brandt, O; Bratzler, U; Brau, B; Brau, J E; Braun, H M; Breaden Madden, W D; Brendlinger, K; Brennan, A J; Brenner, L; Brenner, R; Bressler, S; Bristow, K; Bristow, T M; Britton, D; Britzger, D; Brochu, F M; Brock, I; Brock, R; Bronner, J; Brooijmans, G; Brooks, T; Brooks, W K; Brosamer, J; Brost, E; Bruckman de Renstrom, P A; Bruncko, D; Bruneliere, R; Bruni, A; Bruni, G; Bruschi, M; Bruscino, N; Bryngemark, L; Buanes, T; Buat, Q; Buchholz, P; Buckley, A G; Buda, S I; Budagov, I A; Buehrer, F; Bugge, L; Bugge, M K; Bulekov, O; Bullock, D; Burckhart, H; Burdin, S; Burgard, C D; Burghgrave, B; Burke, S; Burmeister, I; Busato, E; Büscher, D; Büscher, V; Bussey, P; Butler, J M; Butt, A I; Buttar, C M; Butterworth, J M; Butti, P; Buttinger, W; Buzatu, A; Buzykaev, A R; Cabrera Urbán, S; Caforio, D; Cairo, V M; Cakir, O; Calace, N; Calafiura, P; Calandri, A; Calderini, G; Calfayan, P; Caloba, L P; Calvet, D; Calvet, S; Camacho Toro, R; Camarda, S; Camarri, P; Cameron, D; Caminal Armadans, R; Campana, S; Campanelli, M; Campoverde, A; Canale, V; Canepa, A; Cano Bret, M; Cantero, J; Cantrill, R; Cao, T; Capeans Garrido, M D M; Caprini, I; Caprini, M; Capua, M; Caputo, R; Cardarelli, R; Cardillo, F; Carli, T; Carlino, G; Carminati, L; Caron, S; Carquin, E; Carrillo-Montoya, G D; Carter, J R; Carvalho, J; Casadei, D; Casado, M P; Casolino, M; Castaneda-Miranda, E; Castelli, A; Castillo Gimenez, V; Castro, N F; Catastini, P; Catinaccio, A; Catmore, J R; Cattai, A; Caudron, J; Cavaliere, V; Cavalli, D; Cavalli-Sforza, M; Cavasinni, V; Ceradini, F; Cerio, B C; Cerny, K; Cerqueira, A S; Cerri, A; Cerrito, L; Cerutti, F; Cerv, M; Cervelli, A; Cetin, S A; Chafaq, A; Chakraborty, D; Chalupkova, I; Chang, P; Chapman, J D; Charlton, D G; Chau, C C; Chavez Barajas, C A; Cheatham, S; Chegwidden, A; Chekanov, S; Chekulaev, S V; Chelkov, G A; Chelstowska, M A; Chen, C; Chen, H; Chen, K; Chen, L; Chen, S; Chen, S; Chen, X; Chen, Y; Cheng, H C; Cheng, Y; Cheplakov, A; Cheremushkina, E; Cherkaoui El Moursli, R; Chernyatin, V; Cheu, E; Chevalier, L; Chiarella, V; Chiarelli, G; Chiodini, G; Chisholm, A S; Chislett, R T; Chitan, A; Chizhov, M V; 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Zimmermann, C; Zimmermann, S; Zinonos, Z; Zinser, M; Ziolkowski, M; Živković, L; Zobernig, G; Zoccoli, A; Zur Nedden, M; Zurzolo, G; Zwalinski, L

    Fiducial cross-sections for [Formula: see text] production with one or two additional b-jets are reported, using an integrated luminosity of 20.3 fb[Formula: see text] of proton-proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 8 TeV at the Large Hadron Collider, collected with the ATLAS detector. The cross-section times branching ratio for [Formula: see text] events with at least one additional b-jet is measured to be 950 [Formula: see text] 70 (stat.) [Formula: see text] (syst.) fb in the lepton-plus-jets channel and 50 [Formula: see text] 10 (stat.) [Formula: see text] (syst.) fb in the [Formula: see text] channel. The cross-section times branching ratio for events with at least two additional b-jets is measured to be 19.3 [Formula: see text] 3.5 (stat.) [Formula: see text] 5.7 (syst.) fb in the dilepton channel ([Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], and  ee) using a method based on tight selection criteria, and 13.5 [Formula: see text] 3.3 (stat.) [Formula: see text] 3.6 (syst.) fb using a looser selection that allows the background normalisation to be extracted from data. The latter method also measures a value of 1.30 [Formula: see text] 0.33 (stat.) [Formula: see text] 0.28 (syst.)% for the ratio of [Formula: see text] production with two additional b-jets to [Formula: see text] production with any two additional jets. All measurements are in good agreement with recent theory predictions.

  4. Measurements of fiducial cross-sections for tt¯ production with one or two additional b-jets in pp collisions at √s = 8 TeV using the ATLAS detector

    SciTech Connect

    Aad, G.; Abbott, B.; Abdallah, J.; Abdinov, O.; Aben, R.; Abolins, M.; AbouZeid, O. S.; Abramowicz, H.; Abreu, H.; Abreu, R.; Abulaiti, Y.; Acharya, B. S.; Adamczyk, L.; Adams, D. L.; Adelman, J.; Adomeit, S.; Adye, T.; Affolder, A. A.; Agatonovic-Jovin, T.; Agricola, J.; Aguilar-Saavedra, J. A.; Ahlen, S. P.; Ahmadov, F.; Aielli, G.; Akerstedt, H.; Åkesson, T. P. A.; Akimov, A. V.; Alberghi, G. L.; Albert, J.; Albrand, S.; Alconada Verzini, M. J.; Aleksa, M.; Aleksandrov, I. N.; Alexa, C.; Alexander, G.; Alexopoulos, T.; Alhroob, M.; Alimonti, G.; Alio, L.; Alison, J.; Alkire, S. P.; Allbrooke, B. M. M.; Allport, P. P.; Aloisio, A.; Alonso, A.; Alonso, F.; Alpigiani, C.; Altheimer, A.; Alvarez Gonzalez, B.; Álvarez Piqueras, D.; Alviggi, M. G.; Amadio, B. T.; Amako, K.; Amaral Coutinho, Y.; Amelung, C.; Amidei, D.; Amor Dos Santos, S. P.; Amorim, A.; Amoroso, S.; Amram, N.; Amundsen, G.; Anastopoulos, C.; Ancu, L. S.; Andari, N.; Andeen, T.; Anders, C. F.; Anders, G.; Anders, J. K.; Anderson, K. J.; Andreazza, A.; Andrei, V.; Angelidakis, S.; Angelozzi, I.; Anger, P.; Angerami, A.; Anghinolfi, F.; Anisenkov, A. V.; Anjos, N.; Annovi, A.; Antonelli, M.; Antonov, A.; Antos, J.; Anulli, F.; Aoki, M.; Aperio Bella, L.; Arabidze, G.; Arai, Y.; Araque, J. P.; Arce, A. T. H.; Arduh, F. A.; Arguin, J-F.; Argyropoulos, S.; Arik, M.; Armbruster, A. J.; Arnaez, O.; Arnold, H.; Arratia, M.; Arslan, O.; Artamonov, A.; Artoni, G.; Asai, S.; Asbah, N.; Ashkenazi, A.; Åsman, B.; Asquith, L.; Assamagan, K.; Astalos, R.; Atkinson, M.; Atlay, N. B.; Augsten, K.; Aurousseau, M.; Avolio, G.; Axen, B.; Ayoub, M. K.; Azuelos, G.; Baak, M. A.; Baas, A. E.; Baca, M. J.; Bacci, C.; Bachacou, H.; Bachas, K.; Backes, M.; Backhaus, M.; Bagiacchi, P.; Bagnaia, P.; Bai, Y.; Bain, T.; Baines, J. T.; Baker, O. K.; Baldin, E. M.; Balek, P.; Balestri, T.; Balli, F.; Balunas, W. K.; Banas, E.; Banerjee, Sw.; Bannoura, A. A. E.; Barak, L.; Barberio, E. L.; Barberis, D.; Barbero, M.; Barillari, T.; Barisonzi, M.; Barklow, T.; Barlow, N.; Barnes, S. L.; Barnett, B. M.; Barnett, R. M.; Barnovska, Z.; Baroncelli, A.; Barone, G.; Barr, A. J.; Barreiro, F.; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, J.; Bartoldus, R.; Barton, A. E.; Bartos, P.; Basalaev, A.; Bassalat, A.; Basye, A.; Bates, R. L.; Batista, S. J.; Batley, J. R.; Battaglia, M.; Bauce, M.; Bauer, F.; Bawa, H. S.; Beacham, J. B.; Beattie, M. D.; Beau, T.; Beauchemin, P. H.; Beccherle, R.; Bechtle, P.; Beck, H. P.; Becker, K.; Becker, M.; Beckingham, M.; Becot, C.; Beddall, A. J.; Beddall, A.; Bednyakov, V. A.; Bee, C. P.; Beemster, L. J.; Beermann, T. A.; Begel, M.; Behr, J. K.; Belanger-Champagne, C.; Bell, W. H.; Bella, G.; Bellagamba, L.; Bellerive, A.; Bellomo, M.; Belotskiy, K.; Beltramello, O.; Benary, O.; Benchekroun, D.; Bender, M.; Bendtz, K.; Benekos, N.; Benhammou, Y.; Benhar Noccioli, E.; Benitez Garcia, J. A.; Benjamin, D. P.; Bensinger, J. R.; Bentvelsen, S.; Beresford, L.; Beretta, M.; Berge, D.; Bergeaas Kuutmann, E.; Berger, N.; Berghaus, F.; Beringer, J.; Bernard, C.; Bernard, N. R.; Bernius, C.; Bernlochner, F. U.; Berry, T.; Berta, P.; Bertella, C.; Bertoli, G.; Bertolucci, F.; Bertsche, C.; Bertsche, D.; Besana, M. I.; Besjes, G. J.; Bessidskaia Bylund, O.; Bessner, M.; Besson, N.; Betancourt, C.; Bethke, S.; Bevan, A. J.; Bhimji, W.; Bianchi, R. M.; Bianchini, L.; Bianco, M.; Biebel, O.; Biedermann, D.; Bieniek, S. P.; Biglietti, M.; Bilbao De Mendizabal, J.; Bilokon, H.; Bindi, M.; Binet, S.; Bingul, A.; Bini, C.; Biondi, S.; Bjergaard, D. M.; Black, C. W.; Black, J. E.; Black, K. M.; Blackburn, D.; Blair, R. E.; Blanchard, J. -B.; Blanco, J. E.; Blazek, T.; Bloch, I.; Blocker, C.; Blum, W.; Blumenschein, U.; Blunier, S.; Bobbink, G. J.; Bobrovnikov, V. S.; Bocchetta, S. S.; Bocci, A.; Bock, C.; Boehler, M.; Bogaerts, J. A.; Bogavac, D.; Bogdanchikov, A. G.; Bohm, C.; Boisvert, V.; Bold, T.; Boldea, V.; Boldyrev, A. S.; Bomben, M.; Bona, M.; Boonekamp, M.; Borisov, A.; Borissov, G.; Borroni, S.; Bortfeldt, J.; Bortolotto, V.; Bos, K.; Boscherini, D.; Bosman, M.; Boudreau, J.; Bouffard, J.; Bouhova-Thacker, E. V.; Boumediene, D.; Bourdarios, C.; Bousson, N.; Boutle, S. K.; Boveia, A.; Boyd, J.; Boyko, I. R.; Bozic, I.; Bracinik, J.; Brandt, A.; Brandt, G.; Brandt, O.; Bratzler, U.; Brau, B.; Brau, J. E.; Braun, H. M.; Breaden Madden, W. D.; Brendlinger, K.; Brennan, A. J.; Brenner, L.; Brenner, R.; Bressler, S.; Bristow, K.; Bristow, T. M.; Britton, D.; Britzger, D.; Brochu, F. M.; Brock, I.; Brock, R.; Bronner, J.; Brooijmans, G.; Brooks, T.; Brooks, W. K.; Brosamer, J.; Brost, E.; Bruckman de Renstrom, P. A.; Bruncko, D.; Bruneliere, R.; Bruni, A.; Bruni, G.; Bruschi, M.; Bruscino, N.; Bryngemark, L.; Buanes, T.; Buat, Q.; Buchholz, P.; Buckley, A. G.; Buda, S. I.; Budagov, I. A.; Buehrer, F.; Bugge, L.; Bugge, M. K.; Bulekov, O.; Bullock, D.; Burckhart, H.; Burdin, S.; Burgard, C. D.; Burghgrave, B.; Burke, S.; Burmeister, I.; Busato, E.; Büscher, D.; Büscher, V.; Bussey, P.; Butler, J. M.; Butt, A. I.; Buttar, C. M.; Butterworth, J. M.; Butti, P.; Buttinger, W.; Buzatu, A.; Buzykaev, A. R.; Cabrera Urbán, S.; Caforio, D.; Cairo, V. M.; Cakir, O.; Calace, N.; Calafiura, P.; Calandri, A.; Calderini, G.; Calfayan, P.; Caloba, L. P.; Calvet, D.; Calvet, S.; Camacho Toro, R.; Camarda, S.; Camarri, P.; Cameron, D.; Caminal Armadans, R.; Campana, S.; Campanelli, M.; Campoverde, A.; Canale, V.; Canepa, A.; Cano Bret, M.; Cantero, J.; Cantrill, R.; Cao, T.; Capeans Garrido, M. D. M.; Caprini, I.; Caprini, M.; Capua, M.; Caputo, R.; Cardarelli, R.; Cardillo, F.; Carli, T.; Carlino, G.; Carminati, L.; Caron, S.; Carquin, E.; Carrillo-Montoya, G. D.; Carter, J. R.; Carvalho, J.; Casadei, D.; Casado, M. P.; Casolino, M.; Castaneda-Miranda, E.; Castelli, A.; Castillo Gimenez, V.; Castro, N. F.; Catastini, P.; Catinaccio, A.; Catmore, J. R.; Cattai, A.; Caudron, J.; Cavaliere, V.; Cavalli, D.; Cavalli-Sforza, M.; Cavasinni, V.; Ceradini, F.; Cerio, B. C.; Cerny, K.; Cerqueira, A. S.; Cerri, A.; Cerrito, L.; Cerutti, F.; Cerv, M.; Cervelli, A.; Cetin, S. A.; Chafaq, A.; Chakraborty, D.; Chalupkova, I.; Chang, P.; Chapman, J. D.; Charlton, D. G.; Chau, C. C.; Chavez Barajas, C. A.; Cheatham, S.; Chegwidden, A.; Chekanov, S.; Chekulaev, S. V.; Chelkov, G. A.; Chelstowska, M. A.; Chen, C.; Chen, H.; Chen, K.; Chen, L.; Chen, S.; Chen, S.; Chen, X.; Chen, Y.; Cheng, H. C.; Cheng, Y.; Cheplakov, A.; Cheremushkina, E.; Cherkaoui El Moursli, R.; Chernyatin, V.; Cheu, E.; Chevalier, L.; Chiarella, V.; Chiarelli, G.; Chiodini, G.; Chisholm, A. S.; Chislett, R. T.; Chitan, A.; Chizhov, M. V.; Choi, K.; Chouridou, S.; Chow, B. K. B.; Christodoulou, V.; Chromek-Burckhart, D.; Chudoba, J.; Chuinard, A. J.; Chwastowski, J. J.; Chytka, L.; Ciapetti, G.; Ciftci, A. K.; Cinca, D.; Cindro, V.; Cioara, I. A.; Ciocio, A.; Cirotto, F.; Citron, Z. H.; Ciubancan, M.; Clark, A.; Clark, B. L.; Clark, P. J.; Clarke, R. N.; Clement, C.; Coadou, Y.; Cobal, M.; Coccaro, A.; Cochran, J.; Coffey, L.; Cogan, J. G.; Colasurdo, L.; Cole, B.; Cole, S.; Colijn, A. P.; Collot, J.; Colombo, T.; Compostella, G.; Conde Muiño, P.; Coniavitis, E.; Connell, S. H.; Connelly, I. A.; Consorti, V.; Constantinescu, S.; Conta, C.; Conti, G.; Conventi, F.; Cooke, M.; Cooper, B. D.; Cooper-Sarkar, A. M.; Cornelissen, T.; Corradi, M.; Corriveau, F.; Corso-Radu, A.; Cortes-Gonzalez, A.; Cortiana, G.; Costa, G.; Costa, M. J.; Costanzo, D.; Côté, D.; Cottin, G.; Cowan, G.; Cox, B. E.; Cranmer, K.; Cree, G.; Crépé-Renaudin, S.; Crescioli, F.; Cribbs, W. A.; Crispin Ortuzar, M.; Cristinziani, M.; Croft, V.; Crosetti, G.; Cuhadar Donszelmann, T.; Cummings, J.; Curatolo, M.; Cúth, J.; Cuthbert, C.; Czirr, H.; Czodrowski, P.; D’Auria, S.; D’Onofrio, M.; Da Cunha Sargedas De Sousa, M. J.; Da Via, C.; Dabrowski, W.; Dafinca, A.; Dai, T.; Dale, O.; Dallaire, F.; Dallapiccola, C.; Dam, M.; Dandoy, J. R.; Dang, N. P.; Daniells, A. C.; Danninger, M.; Dano Hoffmann, M.; Dao, V.; Darbo, G.; Darmora, S.; Dassoulas, J.; Dattagupta, A.; Davey, W.; David, C.; Davidek, T.; Davies, E.; Davies, M.; Davison, P.; Davygora, Y.; Dawe, E.; Dawson, I.; Daya-Ishmukhametova, R. K.; De, K.; de Asmundis, R.; De Benedetti, A.; De Castro, S.; De Cecco, S.; De Groot, N.; de Jong, P.; De la Torre, H.; De Lorenzi, F.; De Pedis, D.; De Salvo, A.; De Sanctis, U.; De Santo, A.; De Vivie De Regie, J. B.; Dearnaley, W. J.; Debbe, R.; Debenedetti, C.; Dedovich, D. V.; Deigaard, I.; Del Peso, J.; Del Prete, T.; Delgove, D.; Deliot, F.; Delitzsch, C. M.; Deliyergiyev, M.; Dell’Acqua, A.; Dell’Asta, L.; Dell’Orso, M.; Della Pietra, M.; della Volpe, D.; Delmastro, M.; Delsart, P. A.; Deluca, C.; DeMarco, D. A.; Demers, S.; Demichev, M.; Demilly, A.; Denisov, S. P.; Derendarz, D.; Derkaoui, J. E.; Derue, F.; Dervan, P.; Desch, K.; Deterre, C.; Deviveiros, P. O.; Dewhurst, A.; Dhaliwal, S.; Di Ciaccio, A.; Di Ciaccio, L.; Di Domenico, A.; Di Donato, C.; Di Girolamo, A.; Di Girolamo, B.; Di Mattia, A.; Di Micco, B.; Di Nardo, R.; Di Simone, A.; Di Sipio, R.; Di Valentino, D.; Diaconu, C.; Diamond, M.; Dias, F. A.; Diaz, M. A.; Diehl, E. B.; Dietrich, J.; Diglio, S.; Dimitrievska, A.; Dingfelder, J.; Dita, P.; Dita, S.; Dittus, F.; Djama, F.; Djobava, T.; Djuvsland, J. I.; do Vale, M. A. B.; Dobos, D.; Dobre, M.; Doglioni, C.; Dohmae, T.; Dolejsi, J.; Dolezal, Z.; Dolgoshein, B. A.; Donadelli, M.; Donati, S.; Dondero, P.; Donini, J.; Dopke, J.; Doria, A.; Dova, M. T.; Doyle, A. T.; Drechsler, E.; Dris, M.; Dubreuil, E.; Duchovni, E.; Duckeck, G.; Ducu, O. A.; Duda, D.; Dudarev, A.; Duflot, L.; Duguid, L.; Dührssen, M.; Dunford, M.; Duran Yildiz, H.; Düren, M.; Durglishvili, A.; Duschinger, D.; Dyndal, M.; Eckardt, C.; Ecker, K. M.; Edgar, R. C.; Edson, W.; Edwards, N. C.; Ehrenfeld, W.; Eifert, T.; Eigen, G.; Einsweiler, K.; Ekelof, T.; El Kacimi, M.; Ellert, M.; Elles, S.; Ellinghaus, F.; Elliot, A. A.; Ellis, N.; Elmsheuser, J.; Elsing, M.; Emeliyanov, D.; Enari, Y.; Endner, O. C.; Endo, M.; Erdmann, J.; Ereditato, A.; Ernis, G.; Ernst, J.; Ernst, M.; Errede, S.; Ertel, E.; Escalier, M.; Esch, H.; Escobar, C.; Esposito, B.; Etienvre, A. I.; Etzion, E.; Evans, H.; Ezhilov, A.; Fabbri, L.; Facini, G.; Fakhrutdinov, R. M.; Falciano, S.; Falla, R. J.; Faltova, J.; Fang, Y.; Fanti, M.; Farbin, A.; Farilla, A.; Farooque, T.; Farrell, S.; Farrington, S. M.; Farthouat, P.; Fassi, F.; Fassnacht, P.; Fassouliotis, D.; Faucci Giannelli, M.; Favareto, A.; Fayard, L.; Fedin, O. L.; Fedorko, W.; Feigl, S.; Feligioni, L.; Feng, C.; Feng, E. J.; Feng, H.; Fenyuk, A. B.; Feremenga, L.; Fernandez Martinez, P.; Fernandez Perez, S.; Ferrando, J.; Ferrari, A.; Ferrari, P.; Ferrari, R.; Ferreira de Lima, D. E.; Ferrer, A.; Ferrere, D.; Ferretti, C.; Ferretto Parodi, A.; Fiascaris, M.; Fiedler, F.; Filipčič, A.; Filipuzzi, M.; Filthaut, F.; Fincke-Keeler, M.; Finelli, K. D.; Fiolhais, M. C. N.; Fiorini, L.; Firan, A.; Fischer, A.; Fischer, C.; Fischer, J.; Fisher, W. C.; Flaschel, N.; Fleck, I.; Fleischmann, P.; Fletcher, G. T.; Fletcher, G.; Fletcher, R. R. M.; Flick, T.; Floderus, A.; Flores Castillo, L. R.; Flowerdew, M. J.; Formica, A.; Forti, A.; Fournier, D.; Fox, H.; Fracchia, S.; Francavilla, P.; Franchini, M.; Francis, D.; Franconi, L.; Franklin, M.; Frate, M.; Fraternali, M.; Freeborn, D.; French, S. T.; Friedrich, F.; Froidevaux, D.; Frost, J. A.; Fukunaga, C.; Fullana Torregrosa, E.; Fulsom, B. G.; Fusayasu, T.; Fuster, J.; Gabaldon, C.; Gabizon, O.; Gabrielli, A.; Gabrielli, A.; Gach, G. P.; Gadatsch, S.; Gadomski, S.; Gagliardi, G.; Gagnon, P.; Galea, C.; Galhardo, B.; Gallas, E. J.; Gallop, B. J.; Gallus, P.; Galster, G.; Gan, K. K.; Gao, J.; Gao, Y.; Gao, Y. S.; Garay Walls, F. M.; Garberson, F.; García, C.; García Navarro, J. E.; Garcia-Sciveres, M.; Gardner, R. W.; Garelli, N.; Garonne, V.; Gatti, C.; Gaudiello, A.; Gaudio, G.; Gaur, B.; Gauthier, L.; Gauzzi, P.; Gavrilenko, I. L.; Gay, C.; Gaycken, G.; Gazis, E. N.; Ge, P.; Gecse, Z.; Gee, C. N. P.; Geich-Gimbel, Ch.; Geisler, M. P.; Gemme, C.; Genest, M. H.; Gentile, S.; George, M.; George, S.; Gerbaudo, D.; Gershon, A.; Ghasemi, S.; Ghazlane, H.; Giacobbe, B.; Giagu, S.; Giangiobbe, V.; Giannetti, P.; Gibbard, B.; Gibson, S. M.; Gignac, M.; Gilchriese, M.; Gillam, T. P. S.; Gillberg, D.; Gilles, G.; Gingrich, D. M.; Giokaris, N.; Giordani, M. P.; Giorgi, F. M.; Giorgi, F. M.; Giraud, P. F.; Giromini, P.; Giugni, D.; Giuliani, C.; Giulini, M.; Gjelsten, B. K.; Gkaitatzis, S.; Gkialas, I.; Gkougkousis, E. L.; Gladilin, L. K.; Glasman, C.; Glatzer, J.; Glaysher, P. C. F.; Glazov, A.; Goblirsch-Kolb, M.; Goddard, J. R.; Godlewski, J.; Goldfarb, S.; Golling, T.; Golubkov, D.; Gomes, A.; Gonçalo, R.; Goncalves Pinto Firmino Da Costa, J.; Gonella, L.; González de la Hoz, S.; Gonzalez Parra, G.; Gonzalez-Sevilla, S.; Goossens, L.; Gorbounov, P. A.; Gordon, H. A.; Gorelov, I.; Gorini, B.; Gorini, E.; Gorišek, A.; Gornicki, E.; Goshaw, A. T.; Gössling, C.; Gostkin, M. I.; Goujdami, D.; Goussiou, A. G.; Govender, N.; Gozani, E.; Grabas, H. M. X.; Graber, L.; Grabowska-Bold, I.; Gradin, P. O. J.; Grafström, P.; Grahn, K-J.; Gramling, J.; Gramstad, E.; Grancagnolo, S.; Gratchev, V.; Gray, H. M.; Graziani, E.; Greenwood, Z. D.; Grefe, C.; Gregersen, K.; Gregor, I. M.; Grenier, P.; Griffiths, J.; Grillo, A. A.; Grimm, K.; Grinstein, S.; Gris, Ph.; Grivaz, J. -F.; Grohs, J. P.; Grohsjean, A.; Gross, E.; Grosse-Knetter, J.; Grossi, G. C.; Grout, Z. J.; Guan, L.; Guenther, J.; Guescini, F.; Guest, D.; Gueta, O.; Guido, E.; Guillemin, T.; Guindon, S.; Gul, U.; Gumpert, C.; Guo, J.; Guo, Y.; Gupta, S.; Gustavino, G.; Gutierrez, P.; Gutierrez Ortiz, N. G.; Gutschow, C.; Guyot, C.; Gwenlan, C.; Gwilliam, C. B.; Haas, A.; Haber, C.; Hadavand, H. K.; Haddad, N.; Haefner, P.; Hageböck, S.; Hajduk, Z.; Hakobyan, H.; Haleem, M.; Haley, J.; Hall, D.; Halladjian, G.; Hallewell, G. D.; Hamacher, K.; Hamal, P.; Hamano, K.; Hamilton, A.; Hamity, G. N.; Hamnett, P. G.; Han, L.; Hanagaki, K.; Hanawa, K.; Hance, M.; Haney, B.; Hanke, P.; Hanna, R.; Hansen, J. B.; Hansen, J. D.; Hansen, M. C.; Hansen, P. H.; Hara, K.; Hard, A. S.; Harenberg, T.; Hariri, F.; Harkusha, S.; Harrington, R. D.; Harrison, P. F.; Hartjes, F.; Hasegawa, M.; Hasegawa, Y.; Hasib, A.; Hassani, S.; Haug, S.; Hauser, R.; Hauswald, L.; Havranek, M.; Hawkes, C. M.; Hawkings, R. J.; Hawkins, A. D.; Hayashi, T.; Hayden, D.; Hays, C. P.; Hays, J. M.; Hayward, H. S.; Haywood, S. J.; Head, S. J.; Heck, T.; Hedberg, V.; Heelan, L.; Heim, S.; Heim, T.; Heinemann, B.; Heinrich, L.; Hejbal, J.; Helary, L.; Hellman, S.; Hellmich, D.; Helsens, C.; Henderson, J.; Henderson, R. C. W.; Heng, Y.; Hengler, C.; Henkelmann, S.; Henrichs, A.; Henriques Correia, A. M.; Henrot-Versille, S.; Herbert, G. H.; Hernández Jiménez, Y.; Herten, G.; Hertenberger, R.; Hervas, L.; Hesketh, G. G.; Hessey, N. P.; Hetherly, J. W.; Hickling, R.; Higón-Rodriguez, E.; Hill, E.; Hill, J. C.; Hiller, K. H.; Hillier, S. J.; Hinchliffe, I.; Hines, E.; Hinman, R. R.; Hirose, M.; Hirschbuehl, D.; Hobbs, J.; Hod, N.; Hodgkinson, M. C.; Hodgson, P.; Hoecker, A.; Hoeferkamp, M. R.; Hoenig, F.; Hohlfeld, M.; Hohn, D.; Holmes, T. R.; Homann, M.; Hong, T. M.; Hopkins, W. H.; Horii, Y.; Horton, A. J.; Hostachy, J-Y.; Hou, S.; Hoummada, A.; Howard, J.; Howarth, J.; Hrabovsky, M.; Hristova, I.; Hrivnac, J.; Hryn’ova, T.; Hrynevich, A.; Hsu, C.; Hsu, P. J.; Hsu, S. -C.; Hu, D.; Hu, Q.; Hu, X.; Huang, Y.; Hubacek, Z.; Hubaut, F.; Huegging, F.; Huffman, T. B.; Hughes, E. W.; Hughes, G.; Huhtinen, M.; Hülsing, T. A.; Huseynov, N.; Huston, J.; Huth, J.; Iacobucci, G.; Iakovidis, G.; Ibragimov, I.; Iconomidou-Fayard, L.; Ideal, E.; Idrissi, Z.; Iengo, P.; Igonkina, O.; Iizawa, T.; Ikegami, Y.; Ikematsu, K.; Ikeno, M.; Ilchenko, Y.; Iliadis, D.; Ilic, N.; Ince, T.; Introzzi, G.; Ioannou, P.; Iodice, M.; Iordanidou, K.; Ippolito, V.; Irles Quiles, A.; Isaksson, C.; Ishino, M.; Ishitsuka, M.; Ishmukhametov, R.; Issever, C.; Istin, S.; Iturbe Ponce, J. M.; Iuppa, R.; Ivarsson, J.; Iwanski, W.; Iwasaki, H.; Izen, J. M.; Izzo, V.; Jabbar, S.; Jackson, B.; Jackson, M.; Jackson, P.; Jaekel, M. R.; Jain, V.; Jakobs, K.; Jakobsen, S.; Jakoubek, T.; Jakubek, J.; Jamin, D. O.; Jana, D. K.; Jansen, E.; Jansky, R.; Janssen, J.; Janus, M.; Jarlskog, G.; Javadov, N.; Javůrek, T.; Jeanty, L.; Jejelava, J.; Jeng, G. -Y.; Jennens, D.; Jenni, P.; Jentzsch, J.; Jeske, C.; Jézéquel, S.; Ji, H.; Jia, J.; Jiang, Y.; Jiggins, S.; Jimenez Pena, J.; Jin, S.; Jinaru, A.; Jinnouchi, O.; Joergensen, M. D.; Johansson, P.; Johns, K. A.; Johnson, W. J.; Jon-And, K.; Jones, G.; Jones, R. W. L.; Jones, T. J.; Jongmanns, J.; Jorge, P. M.; Joshi, K. D.; Jovicevic, J.; Ju, X.; Jussel, P.; Juste Rozas, A.; Kaci, M.; Kaczmarska, A.; Kado, M.; Kagan, H.; Kagan, M.; Kahn, S. J.; Kajomovitz, E.; Kalderon, C. W.; Kama, S.; Kamenshchikov, A.; Kanaya, N.; Kaneti, S.; Kantserov, V. A.; Kanzaki, J.; Kaplan, B.; Kaplan, L. S.; Kapliy, A.; Kar, D.; Karakostas, K.; Karamaoun, A.; Karastathis, N.; Kareem, M. J.; Karentzos, E.; Karnevskiy, M.; Karpov, S. N.; Karpova, Z. M.; Karthik, K.; Kartvelishvili, V.; Karyukhin, A. N.; Kasahara, K.; Kashif, L.; Kass, R. D.; Kastanas, A.; Kataoka, Y.; Kato, C.; Katre, A.; Katzy, J.; Kawagoe, K.; Kawamoto, T.; Kawamura, G.; Kazama, S.; Kazanin, V. F.; Keeler, R.; Kehoe, R.; Keller, J. S.; Kempster, J. J.; Keoshkerian, H.; Kepka, O.; Kerševan, B. P.; Kersten, S.; Keyes, R. A.; Khalil-zada, F.; Khandanyan, H.; Khanov, A.; Kharlamov, A. G.; Khoo, T. J.; Khovanskiy, V.; Khramov, E.; Khubua, J.; Kido, S.; Kim, H. Y.; Kim, S. H.; Kim, Y. K.; Kimura, N.; Kind, O. M.; King, B. T.; King, M.; King, S. B.; Kirk, J.; Kiryunin, A. E.; Kishimoto, T.; Kisielewska, D.; Kiss, F.; Kiuchi, K.; Kivernyk, O.; Kladiva, E.; Klein, M. H.; Klein, M.; Klein, U.; Kleinknecht, K.; Klimek, P.; Klimentov, A.; Klingenberg, R.; Klinger, J. A.; Klioutchnikova, T.; Kluge, E. -E.; Kluit, P.; Kluth, S.; Knapik, J.; Kneringer, E.; Knoops, E. B. F. G.; Knue, A.; Kobayashi, A.; Kobayashi, D.; Kobayashi, T.; Kobel, M.; Kocian, M.; Kodys, P.; Koffas, T.; Koffeman, E.; Kogan, L. 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E.; Sidiropoulou, O.; Sidorov, D.; Sidoti, A.; Siegert, F.; Sijacki, Dj.; Silva, J.; Silver, Y.; Silverstein, S. B.; Simak, V.; Simard, O.; Simic, Lj.; Simion, S.; Simioni, E.; Simmons, B.; Simon, D.; Sinervo, P.; Sinev, N. B.; Sioli, M.; Siragusa, G.; Sisakyan, A. N.; Sivoklokov, S. Yu.; Sjölin, J.; Sjursen, T. B.; Skinner, M. B.; Skottowe, H. P.; Skubic, P.; Slater, M.; Slavicek, T.; Slawinska, M.; Sliwa, K.; Smakhtin, V.; Smart, B. H.; Smestad, L.; Smirnov, S. Yu.; Smirnov, Y.; Smirnova, L. N.; Smirnova, O.; Smith, M. N. K.; Smith, R. W.; Smizanska, M.; Smolek, K.; Snesarev, A. A.; Snidero, G.; Snyder, S.; Sobie, R.; Socher, F.; Soffer, A.; Soh, D. A.; Sokhrannyi, G.; Solans, C. A.; Solar, M.; Solc, J.; Soldatov, E. Yu.; Soldevila, U.; Solodkov, A. A.; Soloshenko, A.; Solovyanov, O. V.; Solovyev, V.; Sommer, P.; Song, H. Y.; Soni, N.; Sood, A.; Sopczak, A.; Sopko, B.; Sopko, V.; Sorin, V.; Sosa, D.; Sosebee, M.; Sotiropoulou, C. L.; Soualah, R.; Soukharev, A. M.; South, D.; Sowden, B. C.; Spagnolo, S.; Spalla, M.; Spangenberg, M.; Spanò, F.; Spearman, W. R.; Sperlich, D.; Spettel, F.; Spighi, R.; Spigo, G.; Spiller, L. A.; Spousta, M.; Denis, R. D. St.; Stabile, A.; Staerz, S.; Stahlman, J.; Stamen, R.; Stamm, S.; Stanecka, E.; Stanescu, C.; Stanescu-Bellu, M.; Stanitzki, M. M.; Stapnes, S.; Starchenko, E. A.; Stark, J.; Staroba, P.; Starovoitov, P.; Staszewski, R.; Steinberg, P.; Stelzer, B.; Stelzer, H. J.; Stelzer-Chilton, O.; Stenzel, H.; Stewart, G. A.; Stillings, J. A.; Stockton, M. C.; Stoebe, M.; Stoicea, G.; Stolte, P.; Stonjek, S.; Stradling, A. R.; Straessner, A.; Stramaglia, M. E.; Strandberg, J.; Strandberg, S.; Strandlie, A.; Strauss, E.; Strauss, M.; Strizenec, P.; Ströhmer, R.; Strom, D. M.; Stroynowski, R.; Strubig, A.; Stucci, S. A.; Stugu, B.; Styles, N. A.; Su, D.; Su, J.; Subramaniam, R.; Succurro, A.; Sugaya, Y.; Suk, M.; Sulin, V. V.; Sultansoy, S.; Sumida, T.; Sun, S.; Sun, X.; Sundermann, J. E.; Suruliz, K.; Susinno, G.; Sutton, M. R.; Suzuki, S.; Svatos, M.; Swiatlowski, M.; Sykora, I.; Sykora, T.; Ta, D.; Taccini, C.; Tackmann, K.; Taenzer, J.; Taffard, A.; Tafirout, R.; Taiblum, N.; Takai, H.; Takashima, R.; Takeda, H.; Takeshita, T.; Takubo, Y.; Talby, M.; Talyshev, A. A.; Tam, J. Y. C.; Tan, K. G.; Tanaka, J.; Tanaka, R.; Tanaka, S.; Tannenwald, B. B.; Tannoury, N.; Tapprogge, S.; Tarem, S.; Tarrade, F.; Tartarelli, G. F.; Tas, P.; Tasevsky, M.; Tashiro, T.; Tassi, E.; Tavares Delgado, A.; Tayalati, Y.; Taylor, F. E.; Taylor, G. N.; Taylor, P. T. E.; Taylor, W.; Teischinger, F. A.; Teixeira Dias Castanheira, M.; Teixeira-Dias, P.; Temming, K. K.; Temple, D.; Ten Kate, H.; Teng, P. K.; Teoh, J. J.; Tepel, F.; Terada, S.; Terashi, K.; Terron, J.; Terzo, S.; Testa, M.; Teuscher, R. J.; Theveneaux-Pelzer, T.; Thomas, J. P.; Thomas-Wilsker, J.; Thompson, E. N.; Thompson, P. D.; Thompson, R. J.; Thompson, A. S.; Thomsen, L. A.; Thomson, E.; Thomson, M.; Thun, R. P.; Tibbetts, M. J.; Ticse Torres, R. E.; Tikhomirov, V. O.; Tikhonov, Yu. A.; Timoshenko, S.; Tiouchichine, E.; Tipton, P.; Tisserant, S.; Todome, K.; Todorov, T.; Todorova-Nova, S.; Tojo, J.; Tokár, S.; Tokushuku, K.; Tollefson, K.; Tolley, E.; Tomlinson, L.; Tomoto, M.; Tompkins, L.; Toms, K.; Torrence, E.; Torres, H.; Torró Pastor, E.; Toth, J.; Touchard, F.; Tovey, D. R.; Trefzger, T.; Tremblet, L.; Tricoli, A.; Trigger, I. M.; Trincaz-Duvoid, S.; Tripiana, M. F.; Trischuk, W.; Trocmé, B.; Troncon, C.; Trottier-McDonald, M.; Trovatelli, M.; Truong, L.; Trzebinski, M.; Trzupek, A.; Tsarouchas, C.; Tseng, J. C-L.; Tsiareshka, P. V.; Tsionou, D.; Tsipolitis, G.; Tsirintanis, N.; Tsiskaridze, S.; Tsiskaridze, V.; Tskhadadze, E. G.; Tsukerman, I. I.; Tsulaia, V.; Tsuno, S.; Tsybychev, D.; Tudorache, A.; Tudorache, V.; Tuna, A. N.; Tupputi, S. A.; Turchikhin, S.; Turecek, D.; Turra, R.; Turvey, A. J.; Tuts, P. M.; Tykhonov, A.; Tylmad, M.; Tyndel, M.; Ueda, I.; Ueno, R.; Ughetto, M.; Ugland, M.; Ukegawa, F.; Unal, G.; Undrus, A.; Unel, G.; Ungaro, F. C.; Unno, Y.; Unverdorben, C.; Urban, J.; Urquijo, P.; Urrejola, P.; Usai, G.; Usanova, A.; Vacavant, L.; Vacek, V.; Vachon, B.; Valderanis, C.; Valencic, N.; Valentinetti, S.; Valero, A.; Valery, L.; Valkar, S.; Vallecorsa, S.; Valls Ferrer, J. A.; Van Den Wollenberg, W.; Van Der Deijl, P. C.; van der Geer, R.; van der Graaf, H.; van Eldik, N.; van Gemmeren, P.; Van Nieuwkoop, J.; van Vulpen, I.; van Woerden, M. C.; Vanadia, M.; Vandelli, W.; Vanguri, R.; Vaniachine, A.; Vannucci, F.; Vardanyan, G.; Vari, R.; Varnes, E. W.; Varol, T.; Varouchas, D.; Vartapetian, A.; Varvell, K. E.; Vazeille, F.; Vazquez Schroeder, T.; Veatch, J.; Veloce, L. M.; Veloso, F.; Velz, T.; Veneziano, S.; Ventura, A.; Ventura, D.; Venturi, M.; Venturi, N.; Venturini, A.; Vercesi, V.; Verducci, M.; Verkerke, W.; Vermeulen, J. C.; Vest, A.; Vetterli, M. C.; Viazlo, O.; Vichou, I.; Vickey, T.; Vickey Boeriu, O. E.; Viehhauser, G. H. A.; Viel, S.; Vigne, R.; Villa, M.; Villaplana Perez, M.; Vilucchi, E.; Vincter, M. G.; Vinogradov, V. B.; Vivarelli, I.; Vives Vaque, F.; Vlachos, S.; Vladoiu, D.; Vlasak, M.; Vogel, M.; Vokac, P.; Volpi, G.; Volpi, M.; von der Schmitt, H.; von Radziewski, H.; von Toerne, E.; Vorobel, V.; Vorobev, K.; Vos, M.; Voss, R.; Vossebeld, J. H.; Vranjes, N.; Vranjes Milosavljevic, M.; Vrba, V.; Vreeswijk, M.; Vuillermet, R.; Vukotic, I.; Vykydal, Z.; Wagner, P.; Wagner, W.; Wahlberg, H.; Wahrmund, S.; Wakabayashi, J.; Walder, J.; Walker, R.; Walkowiak, W.; Wang, C.; Wang, F.; Wang, H.; Wang, H.; Wang, J.; Wang, J.; Wang, K.; Wang, R.; Wang, S. M.; Wang, T.; Wang, T.; Wang, X.; Wanotayaroj, C.; Warburton, A.; Ward, C. P.; Wardrope, D. R.; Washbrook, A.; Wasicki, C.; Watkins, P. M.; Watson, A. T.; Watson, I. J.; Watson, M. F.; Watts, G.; Watts, S.; Waugh, B. M.; Webb, S.; Weber, M. S.; Weber, S. W.; Webster, J. S.; Weidberg, A. R.; Weinert, B.; Weingarten, J.; Weiser, C.; Weits, H.; Wells, P. S.; Wenaus, T.; Wengler, T.; Wenig, S.; Wermes, N.; Werner, M.; Werner, P.; Wessels, M.; Wetter, J.; Whalen, K.; Wharton, A. M.; White, A.; White, M. J.; White, R.; White, S.; Whiteson, D.; Wickens, F. J.; Wiedenmann, W.; Wielers, M.; Wienemann, P.; Wiglesworth, C.; Wiik-Fuchs, L. A. M.; Wildauer, A.; Wilkens, H. G.; Williams, H. H.; Williams, S.; Willis, C.; Willocq, S.; Wilson, A.; Wilson, J. A.; Wingerter-Seez, I.; Winklmeier, F.; Winter, B. T.; Wittgen, M.; Wittkowski, J.; Wollstadt, S. J.; Wolter, M. W.; Wolters, H.; Wosiek, B. K.; Wotschack, J.; Woudstra, M. J.; Wozniak, K. W.; Wu, M.; Wu, M.; Wu, S. L.; Wu, X.; Wu, Y.; Wyatt, T. R.; Wynne, B. M.; Xella, S.; Xu, D.; Xu, L.; Yabsley, B.; Yacoob, S.; Yakabe, R.; Yamada, M.; Yamaguchi, D.; Yamaguchi, Y.; Yamamoto, A.; Yamamoto, S.; Yamanaka, T.; Yamauchi, K.; Yamazaki, Y.; Yan, Z.; Yang, H.; Yang, H.; Yang, Y.; Yao, W-M.; Yasu, Y.; Yatsenko, E.; Yau Wong, K. H.; Ye, J.; Ye, S.; Yeletskikh, I.; Yen, A. L.; Yildirim, E.; Yorita, K.; Yoshida, R.; Yoshihara, K.; Young, C.; Young, C. J. S.; Youssef, S.; Yu, D. R.; Yu, J.; Yu, J. M.; Yu, J.; Yuan, L.; Yuen, S. P. Y.; Yurkewicz, A.; Yusuff, I.; Zabinski, B.; Zaidan, R.; Zaitsev, A. M.; Zalieckas, J.; Zaman, A.; Zambito, S.; Zanello, L.; Zanzi, D.; Zeitnitz, C.; Zeman, M.; Zemla, A.; Zeng, Q.; Zengel, K.; Zenin, O.; Ženiš, T.; Zerwas, D.; Zhang, D.; Zhang, F.; Zhang, G.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, R.; Zhang, X.; Zhang, Z.; Zhao, X.; Zhao, Y.; Zhao, Z.; Zhemchugov, A.; Zhong, J.; Zhou, B.; Zhou, C.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, M.; Zhou, N.; Zhu, C. G.; Zhu, H.; Zhu, J.; Zhu, Y.; Zhuang, X.; Zhukov, K.; Zibell, A.; Zieminska, D.; Zimine, N. I.; Zimmermann, C.; Zimmermann, S.; Zinonos, Z.; Zinser, M.; Ziolkowski, M.; Živković, L.; Zobernig, G.; Zoccoli, A.; zur Nedden, M.; Zurzolo, G.; Zwalinski, L.

    2016-01-07

    Fiducial cross-sections for tt¯ production with one or two additional b -jets are reported, using an integrated luminosity of 20.3 fb–1 of proton–proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 8 TeV at the Large Hadron Collider, collected with the ATLAS detector. The cross-section times branching ratio for tt¯ events with at least one additional b-jet is measured to be 950 ± 70 (stat.) +240-190 (syst.) fb in the lepton-plus-jets channel and 50 ± 10 (stat.) +15-10 (syst.) fb in the eμ channel. The cross-section times branching ratio for events with at least two additional b -jets is measured to be 19.3 ± 3.5 (stat.) ± 5.7 (syst.) fb in the dilepton channel ( eμ , μμ , and ee ) using a method based on tight selection criteria, and 13.5 ± 3.3 (stat.) ± 3.6 (syst.) fb using a looser selection that allows the background normalisation to be extracted from data. The latter method also measures a value of 1.30 ± 0.33 (stat.) ± 0.28 (syst.)% for the ratio of tt¯ production with two additional b-jets to tt¯ production with any two additional jets. As a result, all measurements are in good agreement with recent theory predictions.

  5. Measurements of fiducial cross-sections for tt¯ production with one or two additional b-jets in pp collisions at √s = 8 TeV using the ATLAS detector

    DOE PAGES

    Aad, G.; Abbott, B.; Abdallah, J.; ...

    2016-01-07

    Fiducial cross-sections for tt¯ production with one or two additional b -jets are reported, using an integrated luminosity of 20.3 fb–1 of proton–proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 8 TeV at the Large Hadron Collider, collected with the ATLAS detector. The cross-section times branching ratio for tt¯ events with at least one additional b-jet is measured to be 950 ± 70 (stat.) +240-190 (syst.) fb in the lepton-plus-jets channel and 50 ± 10 (stat.) +15-10 (syst.) fb in the eμ channel. The cross-section times branching ratio for events with at least two additional b -jets is measured to bemore » 19.3 ± 3.5 (stat.) ± 5.7 (syst.) fb in the dilepton channel ( eμ , μμ , and ee ) using a method based on tight selection criteria, and 13.5 ± 3.3 (stat.) ± 3.6 (syst.) fb using a looser selection that allows the background normalisation to be extracted from data. The latter method also measures a value of 1.30 ± 0.33 (stat.) ± 0.28 (syst.)% for the ratio of tt¯ production with two additional b-jets to tt¯ production with any two additional jets. As a result, all measurements are in good agreement with recent theory predictions.« less

  6. 24 CFR 965.306 - Energy conservation equipment and practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Energy conservation equipment and... URBAN DEVELOPMENT PHA-OWNED OR LEASED PROJECTS-GENERAL PROVISIONS Energy Audits and Energy Conservation Measures § 965.306 Energy conservation equipment and practices. In purchasing original or, when...

  7. 24 CFR 965.306 - Energy conservation equipment and practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Energy conservation equipment and... URBAN DEVELOPMENT PHA-OWNED OR LEASED PROJECTS-GENERAL PROVISIONS Energy Audits and Energy Conservation Measures § 965.306 Energy conservation equipment and practices. In purchasing original or, when...

  8. 24 CFR 965.306 - Energy conservation equipment and practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Energy conservation equipment and... URBAN DEVELOPMENT PHA-OWNED OR LEASED PROJECTS-GENERAL PROVISIONS Energy Audits and Energy Conservation Measures § 965.306 Energy conservation equipment and practices. In purchasing original or, when...

  9. 24 CFR 965.306 - Energy conservation equipment and practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Energy conservation equipment and... URBAN DEVELOPMENT PHA-OWNED OR LEASED PROJECTS-GENERAL PROVISIONS Energy Audits and Energy Conservation Measures § 965.306 Energy conservation equipment and practices. In purchasing original or, when...

  10. 24 CFR 965.306 - Energy conservation equipment and practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Energy conservation equipment and... URBAN DEVELOPMENT PHA-OWNED OR LEASED PROJECTS-GENERAL PROVISIONS Energy Audits and Energy Conservation Measures § 965.306 Energy conservation equipment and practices. In purchasing original or, when...

  11. Teardrop bladder: additional considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Wechsler, R.J.; Brennan, R.E.

    1982-07-01

    Nine cases of teardrop bladder (TDB) seen at excretory urography are presented. In some of these patients, the iliopsoas muscles were at the upper limit of normal in size, and additional evaluation of the perivesical structures with computed tomography (CT) was necessary. CT demonstrated only hypertrophied muscles with or without perivesical fat. The psoas muscles and pelvic width were measured in 8 patients and compared with the measurements of a control group of males without TDB. Patients with TDB had large iliopsoas muscles and narrow pelves compared with the control group. The psoas muscle width/pelvic width ratio was significantly greater (p < 0.0005) in patients with TDB than in the control group, with values of 1.04 + 0.05 and 0.82 + 0.09, respectively. It is concluded that TDB is not an uncommon normal variant in black males. Both iliopsoas muscle hypertrophy and a narrow pelvis are factors that predispose a patient to TDB.

  12. 40 CFR 412.37 - Additional measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... used in sizing the impoundment for no discharge. (3) Corrective actions. Any deficiencies found as a...; (3) Records documenting any actions taken to correct deficiencies required under paragraph (a)(3) of this section. Deficiencies not corrected within 30 days must be accompanied by an explanation of...

  13. 40 CFR 412.37 - Additional measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... used in sizing the impoundment for no discharge. (3) Corrective actions. Any deficiencies found as a...; (3) Records documenting any actions taken to correct deficiencies required under paragraph (a)(3) of this section. Deficiencies not corrected within 30 days must be accompanied by an explanation of...

  14. 40 CFR 412.37 - Additional measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... used in sizing the impoundment for no discharge. (3) Corrective actions. Any deficiencies found as a...; (3) Records documenting any actions taken to correct deficiencies required under paragraph (a)(3) of this section. Deficiencies not corrected within 30 days must be accompanied by an explanation of...

  15. 40 CFR 412.37 - Additional measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... production area. At a minimum, the following must be visually inspected: (i) Weekly inspections of all storm water diversion devices, runoff diversion structures, and devices channelling contaminated storm water... capacity necessary to contain the maximum runoff and direct precipitation associated with the design...

  16. 40 CFR 412.37 - Additional measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... production area. At a minimum, the following must be visually inspected: (i) Weekly inspections of all storm water diversion devices, runoff diversion structures, and devices channelling contaminated storm water... capacity necessary to contain the maximum runoff and direct precipitation associated with the design...

  17. Monitoring for conservation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nichols, J.D.; Williams, B.K.

    2006-01-01

    Human-mediated environmental changes have resulted in appropriate concern for the conservation of ecological systems and have led to the development of many ecological monitoring programs worldwide. Many programs that are identified with the purpose of `surveillance? represent an inefficient use of conservation funds and effort. Here, we revisit the 1964 paper by Platt and argue that his recommendations about the conduct of science are equally relevant to the conduct of ecological monitoring programs. In particular, we argue that monitoring should not be viewed as a stand-alone activity, but instead as a component of a larger process of either conservation-oriented science or management. Corresponding changes in monitoring focus and design would lead to substantial increases in the efficiency and usefulness of monitoring results in conservation.

  18. The Librarian as Conservator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, James W.; Krupp, Robert G.

    1970-01-01

    Guideposts for the librarian who seeks to establish a total conservation program: organizing the program and management in selection, screening, maintenance, treatment, personnel, costs, and cooperation. (Author/JS)

  19. Energy: Conservation, Energy Briefs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nation's Schools and Colleges, 1975

    1975-01-01

    A comprehensive energy conservation program at College of the Holy Cross has saved nearly one-third of the fuel oil and one-fifth of the electricity used at the college; briefs on boilers, lights, design. (Author/MLF)

  20. Potential conservation laws

    SciTech Connect

    Kunzinger, Michael; Popovych, Roman O.

    2008-10-15

    We prove that potential conservation laws have characteristics depending only on local variables if and only if they are induced by local conservation laws. Therefore, characteristics of pure potential conservation laws have to essentially depend on potential variables. This statement provides a significant generalization of results of the recent paper by Bluman et al. [J. Math. Phys. 47, 113505 (2006)]. Moreover, we present extensions to gauged potential systems, Abelian and general coverings, and general foliated systems of differential equations. An example illustrating possible applications of these results is given. A special version of the Hadamard lemma for fiber bundles and the notions of weighted jet spaces are proposed as new tools for the investigation of potential conservation laws.

  1. Conservation of wading birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kushlan, J.A.

    1996-01-01

    The conservation and management of wading birds has received considerable attention over the past twenty years, through research, population monitoring, habitat protection, and through activities of specialist groups devoted to all three groups, the herons, ibises and allies, and flamingos. While populations are best known in North America, greatest advances in knowledge may have come in Australasia. The status of most species and many populations is now sufficiently known to allow assessment of risk. Conservation and management techniques allow creation of global and regional action plans for conservation of many species. Global action plans are being developed, but few regional plans have been undertaken. Management of nesting sites is now particularly well appreciated. Although known in broad stroke, much remains to be learned about managing feeding habitat. Problems related to disturbance, conflict with humans, habitat loss, contaminants and other environmental stresses remain for some species and many populations. New challenges lie in creating conservation action that account for genetic stocks.

  2. Conservation among Elderly Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughston, George A.; Protinsky, Howard O.

    1979-01-01

    The majority of 63 elderly women were able to pass tests in the conservation of mass (98 percent), volume (100 percent), and surface area (65 percent). These results conflict with previous research about Piagetian abilities of elderly people. (RL)

  3. Sequence Fingerprints of MicroRNA Conservation

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Bing; Gao, Wei; Wang, Juan

    2012-01-01

    It is known that the conservation of protein-coding genes is associated with their sequences both various species, such as animals and plants. However, the association between microRNA (miRNA) conservation and their sequences in various species remains unexplored. Here we report the association of miRNA conservation with its sequence features, such as base content and cleavage sites, suggesting that miRNA sequences contain the fingerprints for miRNA conservation. More interestingly, different species show different and even opposite patterns between miRNA conservation and sequence features. For example, mammalian miRNAs show a positive/negative correlation between conservation and AU/GC content, whereas plant miRNAs show a negative/positive correlation between conservation and AU/GC content. Further analysis puts forward the hypothesis that the introns of protein-coding genes may be a main driving force for the origin and evolution of mammalian miRNAs. At the 5′ end, conserved miRNAs have a preference for base U, while less-conserved miRNAs have a preference for a non-U base in mammals. This difference does not exist in insects and plants, in which both conserved miRNAs and less-conserved miRNAs have a preference for base U at the 5′ end. We further revealed that the non-U preference at the 5′ end of less-conserved mammalian miRNAs is associated with miRNA function diversity, which may have evolved from the pressure of a highly sophisticated environmental stimulus the mammals encountered during evolution. These results indicated that miRNA sequences contain the fingerprints for conservation, and these fingerprints vary according to species. More importantly, the results suggest that although species share common mechanisms by which miRNAs originate and evolve, mammals may develop a novel mechanism for miRNA origin and evolution. In addition, the fingerprint found in this study can be predictor of miRNA conservation, and the findings are helpful in achieving a

  4. Energy conservation in infants.

    PubMed

    Blass, Elliott

    2015-08-01

    Energy acquisition through suckling has been widely studied in rat and human infants. Processes mediating energy conservation, however, have not received the attention that they deserve. This essay, in honor of Professor Jerry Hogan, discusses parallel behaviors used by rat and human mothers to minimize energy loss in their offspring. Parallel mechanisms underlying energy preservation have been identified in rats and humans, suggesting phylogenetic conservation and possibly continuity. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: In Honor of Jerry Hogan.

  5. Conservation ethics and anaesthesia.

    PubMed

    Houghton, I T

    2003-10-01

    The current attitude of conservators towards restoration is to preserve objects and materials in the condition as they are but without attempting to restore them 'as new'. Museum objects have generally ceased to serve their original utilitarian function but have become objects for study, information and inspiration. Conservation and restoration are discussed in relation to anaesthetic exhibits. Conservation is the prevention, detection, containment, control and recovery but risk avoidance and monitoring hopefully will lessen the need for conservation. Some objects such as rubber and plastic items are, by their very nature, prone to ageing, accident and mistreatment. Cleaning and maintenance may lead to loss of original detail and is 'an act of critical interpretation'. Reshaping of distorted objects and repair of broken pieces can sometimes be justified but, in other work, the actual restoration may become part of the object's history that should not be lost in trying to restore something to a presumed earlier state. The mind interprets images by reference to earlier patterns and so imperfections, if not disguised, may be unduly distracting. Museums exist for information, evidence, enlightenment and even entertainment. Conservation must serve these purposes and is not an end in its own right. The professional actions of the conservator must be governed by a total respect for physical, historic, and aesthetic integrity but this must be interpreted widely.

  6. Conservation Kickstart- Catalyzing Conservation Initiatives Worldwide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Treinish, G.

    2014-12-01

    Adventurers and Scientists for Conservation (ASC) is a nonprofit organization that collects environmental data to catalyze conservation initiatives worldwide. Adventure athletes have the skills and motivation to reach the most remote corners of the world. ASC utilizes those skills to provide the scientific community with data while providing the outdoor community with purpose beyond the personal high of reaching a summit or rowing across an ocean. We carefully select projects, choosing partnerships that will maximize the impact of ASC volunteers. Each project must have a clear path to a tangible conservation outcome and demonstrate a clear need for our brand of volunteers. We partner with government agencies, universities, and independant reseachers to kickstart data collection efforts around the world. Last year, through a partnership with the Olympic National Forest, 20 volunteers from the Seattle area set up and monitored camera traps in an effort to survey for costal Pacific marten. Our work led to the species' listing as "critically imperiled" with NatureServe. A partnership with the inaugural Great Pacific Race, engaging trans-Pacific rowing teams, searched for microplastics in the Pacific Ocean as part of our ongoing microplastics campaign. In a multi-year partnership with the American Prairie Reserve (APR), ASC volunteer crews live and work on the Reserve collecting wildlife data year round. The data we obtain directly informs the Reserve's wildlife management decisions. On this project, our crews have safely and effectively navigated temperature extremes from -30 degrees to 100+ degrees while traveling in a remote location. We are currently scouting projects in the Okavango Delta of Botswana and the rainforest of Suriname where we will be able to cover large amounts of area in a short periord of time. ASC is at the crossroads of the adventure and coservation science communities. Our approach of answering specific questions by using highly skilled and

  7. Resource Management and Conservation Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arey, David G.; Baumann, Duane D.

    1972-01-01

    The definition of conservation, the future of resource availability, the status of conservation education today are topics examined and suggestions are made on improving the content and emphasis of conservation courses. (Author)

  8. Household attitudes toward energy conservation in the Pacific Northwest: overview and comparisons

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, J.M.

    1985-06-01

    This report presents an overview of a baseline residential energy conservation study for the Pacific Northwest conducted in November 1983 by RMH Research, Inc. It also compares the study results with available data from other surveys. The primary focus of the RMH study is conservation marketing. As such it assesses the attitudes, perceptions, and past conservation actions of the region's residents and provides market segmentation based upon past conservation actions and the propensity to invest in conservation in the future. Excluding renters, who account for about 24% of the region's households, three prospect groups for marketing conservation investments are identified: First Tier Prospects who are very likely to invest in additional conservation measures requiring larger sums of money (estimated at about 547,000 households, or 18 percent of the region's households); Second Tier Prospects who are somewhat likely to invest in full weatherization (estimated at about 22% of the region's households or 695,700); and Non-Prospects who are unlikely to invest in energy conservation in the near future (estimated to be 1,113,400 or 36% of the regional total). A summary comparison of the most important distinguishing attributes of the three prospect groups is presented. Considering the current surplus status of the region's electricity supply situation and the overall strategy in capability building, implications include (1) using public information programs through utilities and the news media to maintain the conservation interests of the first-tier prospects and (2) exploring ways to move the second-tier prospects into the first tier and to reach the so-called non-prospect and rental housing groups.

  9. Global distribution and conservation of marine mammals

    PubMed Central

    Pompa, Sandra; Ehrlich, Paul R.; Ceballos, Gerardo

    2011-01-01

    We identified 20 global key conservation sites for all marine (123) and freshwater (6) mammal species based on their geographic ranges. We created geographic range maps for all 129 species and a Geographic Information System database for a 46,184 1° x 1° grid-cells, ∼10,000-km2. Patterns of species richness, endemism, and risk were variable among all species and species groups. Interestingly, marine mammal species richness was correlated strongly with areas of human impact across the oceans. Key conservation sites in the global geographic grid were determined either by their species richness or by their irreplaceability or uniqueness, because of the presence of endemic species. Nine key conservation sites, comprising the 2.5% of the grid cells with the highest species richness, were found, mostly in temperate latitudes, and hold 84% of marine mammal species. In addition, we identified 11 irreplaceable key conservation sites, six of which were found in freshwater bodies and five in marine regions. These key conservation sites represent critical areas of conservation value at a global level and can serve as a first step for adopting global strategies with explicit geographic conservation targets for Marine Protected Areas. PMID:21808012

  10. Incorporating climate change into systematic conservation planning

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Groves, Craig R.; Game, Edward T.; Anderson, Mark G.; Cross, Molly; Enquist, Carolyn; Ferdana, Zach; Girvetz, Evan; Gondor, Anne; Hall, Kimberly R.; Higgins, Jonathan; Marshall, Rob; Popper, Ken; Schill, Steve; Shafer, Sarah L.

    2012-01-01

    The principles of systematic conservation planning are now widely used by governments and non-government organizations alike to develop biodiversity conservation plans for countries, states, regions, and ecoregions. Many of the species and ecosystems these plans were designed to conserve are now being affected by climate change, and there is a critical need to incorporate new and complementary approaches into these plans that will aid species and ecosystems in adjusting to potential climate change impacts. We propose five approaches to climate change adaptation that can be integrated into existing or new biodiversity conservation plans: (1) conserving the geophysical stage, (2) protecting climatic refugia, (3) enhancing regional connectivity, (4) sustaining ecosystem process and function, and (5) capitalizing on opportunities emerging in response to climate change. We discuss both key assumptions behind each approach and the trade-offs involved in using the approach for conservation planning. We also summarize additional data beyond those typically used in systematic conservation plans required to implement these approaches. A major strength of these approaches is that they are largely robust to the uncertainty in how climate impacts may manifest in any given region.

  11. Identification of areas in Brazil that optimize conservation of forest carbon, jaguars, and biodiversity.

    PubMed

    De Barros, Alan E; MacDonald, Ewan A; Matsumoto, Marcelo H; Paula, Rogério C; Nijhawan, Sahil; Malhi, Y; MacDonald, David W

    2014-04-01

    A major question in global environmental policy is whether schemes to reduce carbon pollution through forest management, such as Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation (REDD+), can also benefit biodiversity conservation in tropical countries. We identified municipalities in Brazil that are priorities for reducing rates of deforestation and thus preserving carbon stocks that are also conservation targets for the endangered jaguar (Panthera onca) and biodiversity in general. Preliminary statistical analysis showed that municipalities with high biodiversity were positively associated with high forest carbon stocks. We used a multicriteria decision analysis to identify municipalities that offered the best opportunities for the conservation of forest carbon stocks and biodiversity conservation under a range of scenarios with different rates of deforestation and carbon values. We further categorized these areas by their representativeness of the entire country (through measures such as percent forest cover) and an indirect measure of cost (number of municipalities). The municipalities that offered optimal co-benefits for forest carbon stocks and conservation were termed REDDspots (n = 159), and their spatial distribution was compared with the distribution of current and proposed REDD projects (n = 135). We defined REDDspots as the municipalities that offer the best opportunities for co-benefits between the conservation of forest carbon stocks, jaguars, and other wildlife. These areas coincided in 25% (n = 40) of municipalities. We identified a further 95 municipalities that may have the greatest potential to develop additional REDD+ projects while also targeting biodiversity conservation. We concluded that REDD+ strategies could be an efficient tool for biodiversity conservation in key locations, especially in Amazonian and Atlantic Forest biomes.

  12. Vulnerability of dynamic genetic conservation units of forest trees in Europe to climate change.

    PubMed

    Schueler, Silvio; Falk, Wolfgang; Koskela, Jarkko; Lefèvre, François; Bozzano, Michele; Hubert, Jason; Kraigher, Hojka; Longauer, Roman; Olrik, Ditte C

    2014-05-01

    A transnational network of genetic conservation units for forest trees was recently documented in Europe aiming at the conservation of evolutionary processes and the adaptive potential of natural or man-made tree populations. In this study, we quantified the vulnerability of individual conservation units and the whole network to climate change using climate favourability models and the estimated velocity of climate change. Compared to the overall climate niche of the analysed target species populations at the warm and dry end of the species niche are underrepresented in the network. However, by 2100, target species in 33-65 % of conservation units, mostly located in southern Europe, will be at the limit or outside the species' current climatic niche as demonstrated by favourabilities below required model sensitivities of 95%. The highest average decrease in favourabilities throughout the network can be expected for coniferous trees although they are mainly occurring within units in mountainous landscapes for which we estimated lower velocities of change. Generally, the species-specific estimates of favourabilities showed only low correlations to the velocity of climate change in individual units, indicating that both vulnerability measures should be considered for climate risk analysis. The variation in favourabilities among target species within the same conservation units is expected to increase with climate change and will likely require a prioritization among co-occurring species. The present results suggest that there is a strong need to intensify monitoring efforts and to develop additional conservation measures for populations in the most vulnerable units. Also, our results call for continued transnational actions for genetic conservation of European forest trees, including the establishment of dynamic conservation populations outside the current species distribution ranges within European assisted migration schemes.

  13. Youth Development in the Youth Conservation Corps: An Exploratory Study of Personal and Social Development in Participants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Stephen F.; Stewart, Steven K.

    The impact of participation in Youth Conservation Corps (YCC) on the personal and social development of youth is measured with the Psychosocial Maturity Inventory. In addition, informal observations are recorded by staff members and participants. Personal background information and pretest scores indicate that participants differ substantially.…

  14. Conservation and the Antarctic environment: the working group reports of the joint IUCN/SCAR symposium on the scientific requirements for Antarctic conservation

    SciTech Connect

    Bonner, W.N.; Angel, M.V.

    1987-01-01

    Six working groups were set up at the joint IUCN/SCAR Symposium on the scientific requirements for Antarctic conservation. These were charged with (i) identifying gaps in the scientific understanding of ecosystems that inhibit rational management, and (ii) considering whether present conservation practices were taking enough account of what is known of the region, particularly with regard to protected areas. There is still a need for synthesis and further work on stocks and the life history of krill in the pelagic ecosystem. Studies of crabeater seals deserve priority. The network of existing protected areas is inadequate for preserving all species of birds, seals and whales; new criteria are needed for effective conservation. On land, the Agreed Measures provide an adequate framework for conservation, though additional steps are needed to ensure adherence to their provisions. Selection criteria are deficient and additional measures are required. Commercial mineral exploitation in the Antarctic is a long way in the future but exploitation could result from political motives. There is a need for a data base for the design of investigations and impact assessment. Operational hazards need to be modelled in advance. The relevance of existing drilling technology (both for mining and for deep stratographical information) onshore and offshore, and the applicability of Arctic experience to future operations in the Antarctic need to be assessed. Operational hazards, such as icebergs, pressures encountered while drilling, well blow-outs, and oil spills, need to the anticipated and modelled in advance.

  15. Climate change, wine, and conservation

    PubMed Central

    Hannah, Lee; Roehrdanz, Patrick R.; Ikegami, Makihiko; Shepard, Anderson V.; Shaw, M. Rebecca; Tabor, Gary; Zhi, Lu; Marquet, Pablo A.; Hijmans, Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    Climate change is expected to impact ecosystems directly, such as through shifting climatic controls on species ranges, and indirectly, for example through changes in human land use that may result in habitat loss. Shifting patterns of agricultural production in response to climate change have received little attention as a potential impact pathway for ecosystems. Wine grape production provides a good test case for measuring indirect impacts mediated by changes in agriculture, because viticulture is sensitive to climate and is concentrated in Mediterranean climate regions that are global biodiversity hotspots. Here we demonstrate that, on a global scale, the impacts of climate change on viticultural suitability are substantial, leading to possible conservation conflicts in land use and freshwater ecosystems. Area suitable for viticulture decreases 25% to 73% in major wine producing regions by 2050 in the higher RCP 8.5 concentration pathway and 19% to 62% in the lower RCP 4.5. Climate change may cause establishment of vineyards at higher elevations that will increase impacts on upland ecosystems and may lead to conversion of natural vegetation as production shifts to higher latitudes in areas such as western North America. Attempts to maintain wine grape productivity and quality in the face of warming may be associated with increased water use for irrigation and to cool grapes through misting or sprinkling, creating potential for freshwater conservation impacts. Agricultural adaptation and conservation efforts are needed that anticipate these multiple possible indirect effects. PMID:23569231

  16. Climate change, wine, and conservation.

    PubMed

    Hannah, Lee; Roehrdanz, Patrick R; Ikegami, Makihiko; Shepard, Anderson V; Shaw, M Rebecca; Tabor, Gary; Zhi, Lu; Marquet, Pablo A; Hijmans, Robert J

    2013-04-23

    Climate change is expected to impact ecosystems directly, such as through shifting climatic controls on species ranges, and indirectly, for example through changes in human land use that may result in habitat loss. Shifting patterns of agricultural production in response to climate change have received little attention as a potential impact pathway for ecosystems. Wine grape production provides a good test case for measuring indirect impacts mediated by changes in agriculture, because viticulture is sensitive to climate and is concentrated in Mediterranean climate regions that are global biodiversity hotspots. Here we demonstrate that, on a global scale, the impacts of climate change on viticultural suitability are substantial, leading to possible conservation conflicts in land use and freshwater ecosystems. Area suitable for viticulture decreases 25% to 73% in major wine producing regions by 2050 in the higher RCP 8.5 concentration pathway and 19% to 62% in the lower RCP 4.5. Climate change may cause establishment of vineyards at higher elevations that will increase impacts on upland ecosystems and may lead to conversion of natural vegetation as production shifts to higher latitudes in areas such as western North America. Attempts to maintain wine grape productivity and quality in the face of warming may be associated with increased water use for irrigation and to cool grapes through misting or sprinkling, creating potential for freshwater conservation impacts. Agricultural adaptation and conservation efforts are needed that anticipate these multiple possible indirect effects.

  17. Concept of scientific wildlife conservation and its dissemination

    PubMed Central

    ZHOU, Xue-Hong; WAN, Xiao-Tong; JIN, Yu-Hui; ZHANG, Wei

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, wildlife conservation has attracted great public attention. However, substantial distinctions can be found in the prevailing concepts of wildlife conservation, particularly with the recent notion that emphasizes animal rights. Wildlife welfare and wildlife rights are not synonymous, with welfare more compatible with the reasonable and legal utilization of wildlife. The key to scientific wildlife conservation is the appropriate awareness and appreciation of the relationship between wildlife conservation and utilization and the theoretical basis of holism. Nevertheless, rational biases regarding the public’s understanding of wildlife conservation and the spread of information via social media still exist. As such, expansion of the concept of scientific wildlife conservation requires the application of several measures. Wildlife conservation researchers should be regarded as the most important disseminators of scientifically-based information, with education in schools and universities of growing importance. Furthermore, the media should shoulder the social responsibility for the accurate dissemination of conservation information. PMID:27686785

  18. Concept of scientific wildlife conservation and its dissemination.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xue-Hong; Wan, Xiao-Tong; Jin, Yu-Hui; Zhang, Wei

    2016-09-18

    In recent years, wildlife conservation has attracted great public attention. However, substantial distinctions can be found in the prevailing concepts of wildlife conservation, particularly with the recent notion that emphasizes animal rights. Wildlife welfare and wildlife rights are not synonymous, with welfare more compatible with the reasonable and legal utilization of wildlife. The key to scientific wildlife conservation is the appropriate awareness and appreciation of the relationship between wildlife conservation and utilization and the theoretical basis of holism. Nevertheless, rational biases regarding the public's understanding of wildlife conservation and the spread of information via social media still exist. As such, expansion of the concept of scientific wildlife conservation requires the application of several measures. Wildlife conservation researchers should be regarded as the most important disseminators of scientifically-based information, with education in schools and universities of growing importance. Furthermore, the media should shoulder the social responsibility for the accurate dissemination of conservation information.

  19. Hydrology and Conservation Ecology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayanan, M.

    2006-12-01

    Responses to change in the behavior of ecological systems are largely governed by interactions at different levels. Research is essential and is to be necessarily designed to gain insights into various interactions at the community level. Sustainable resource management is only possible if conservation of biodiversity can be accomplished by properly using the knowledge discovered. It is well known that the United States Department of Agriculture provides technical information, resources, and data necessary to assist the researchers in addressing their conservation needs. Conservation aims to protect, preserve and conserve the earth's natural resources. These include, but not limited to the conservation of soil, water, minerals, air, plants and all living beings. The United States Department of Agriculture also encourages farmers and ranchers to voluntarily address threats to soil and water. Protection of wetlands and wildlife habitat has been on the radar screen of conservation experts for a very long time. The main objective has always been to help farmers and landowners conform and comply with federal and state environmental laws. During the implementation phase, farmers should be encouraged to make beneficial, cost-effective changes to methods of irrigation systems. In some cases, the hydrologic regime of the project area can be thought of as principally an issue of river flow regimes for floodplain forests. In this presentation, the author tries to focus on the impact of hydrology and conservation ecology on global warming. He also discusses the impact of hydrology and conservation ecology global air concerns such as greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere. References: Chow, V. T, D. R. Maidment, and L. W. Mays. 1988. Applied Hydrology. McGraw-Hill, Inc. U.S. Soil Conservation Service. Technical Release 55: Urban Hydrology for Small Watersheds. USDA (U.S. Department of Agriculture). June 1986. Lehner, B. and P. Döll (2004). Development and validation

  20. Wilderness and biodiversity conservation.

    PubMed

    Mittermeier, R A; Mittermeier, C G; Brooks, T M; Pilgrim, J D; Konstant, W R; da Fonseca, G A B; Kormos, C

    2003-09-02

    Human pressure threatens many species and ecosystems, so conservation efforts necessarily prioritize saving them. However, conservation should clearly be proactive wherever possible. In this article, we assess the biodiversity conservation value, and specifically the irreplaceability in terms of species endemism, of those of the planet's ecosystems that remain intact. We find that 24 wilderness areas, all > or = 1 million hectares, are > or = 70% intact and have human densities of less than or equal to five people per km2. This wilderness covers 44% of all land but is inhabited by only 3% of people. Given this sparse population, wilderness conservation is cost-effective, especially if ecosystem service value is incorporated. Soberingly, however, most wilderness is not speciose: only 18% of plants and 10% of terrestrial vertebrates are endemic to individual wildernesses, the majority restricted to Amazonia, Congo, New Guinea, the Miombo-Mopane woodlands, and the North American deserts. Global conservation strategy must target these five wildernesses while continuing to prioritize threatened biodiversity hotspots.

  1. Creative Conservation Communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houston, Jason

    2015-04-01

    I am a fellow with the International League of Conservation photographers (iLCP) and have been focused on photographing conservation dynamics at the intersection of social and environmental issues for a decade. Subjects have included traditional concerns such as deforestation, water conservation, endangered species, and fisheries. However, I rarely make photographs of the traditional nature, wildlife, landscapes, or environmental atrocities that most people think of when they think about environmentalism. Instead, I photograph people and how they live on the planet, as I believe passionately that without also considering social and cultural concerns, we will not be able to effectively and sustainably do conservation work or achieve positive environmental change. My presentation will share recent photography projects on forest conservation in Indonesian Borneo and fisheries management in Central America where I used a 'stakeholder profile-based' process to broadly survey the complexity of the issues while also making personal connections for these projects' diverse audiences. Through these case studies I will explore the opportunities and challenges of combining the authenticity, accuracy, and scientific validity of journalistic and documentary work with the emotional impact of the conventions of art and storytelling.

  2. Measurement of tbar{t} production with a veto on additional central jet activity in pp collisions at √{s}=7 TeV using the ATLAS detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aad, G.; Abbott, B.; Abdallah, J.; Abdel Khalek, S.; Abdelalim, A. A.; Abdesselam, A.; Abdinov, O.; Abi, B.; Abolins, M.; AbouZeid, O. S.; Abramowicz, H.; Abreu, H.; Acerbi, E.; Acharya, B. S.; Adamczyk, L.; Adams, D. L.; Addy, T. N.; Adelman, J.; Aderholz, M.; Adomeit, S.; Adragna, P.; Adye, T.; Aefsky, S.; Aguilar-Saavedra, J. A.; Aharrouche, M.; Ahlen, S. P.; Ahles, F.; Ahmad, A.; Ahsan, M.; Aielli, G.; Akdogan, T.; Åkesson, T. P. A.; Akimoto, G.; Akimov, A. V.; Akiyama, A.; Alam, M. S.; Alam, M. A.; Albert, J.; Albrand, S.; Aleksa, M.; Aleksandrov, I. N.; Alessandria, F.; Alexa, C.; Alexander, G.; Alexandre, G.; Alexopoulos, T.; Alhroob, M.; Aliev, M.; Alimonti, G.; Alison, J.; Aliyev, M.; Allbrooke, B. M. M.; Allport, P. P.; Allwood-Spiers, S. E.; Almond, J.; Aloisio, A.; Alon, R.; Alonso, A.; Alvarez Gonzalez, B.; Alviggi, M. G.; Amako, K.; Amaral, P.; Amelung, C.; Ammosov, V. V.; Amorim, A.; Amorós, G.; Amram, N.; Anastopoulos, C.; Ancu, L. S.; Andari, N.; Andeen, T.; Anders, C. F.; Anders, G.; Anderson, K. J.; Andreazza, A.; Andrei, V.; Andrieux, M.-L.; Anduaga, X. S.; Angerami, A.; Anghinolfi, F.; Anisenkov, A.; Anjos, N.; Annovi, A.; Antonaki, A.; Antonelli, M.; Antonov, A.; Antos, J.; Anulli, F.; Aoun, S.; Aperio Bella, L.; Apolle, R.; Arabidze, G.; Aracena, I.; Arai, Y.; Arce, A. T. H.; Arfaoui, S.; Arguin, J.-F.; Arik, E.; Arik, M.; Armbruster, A. J.; Arnaez, O.; Arnal, V.; Arnault, C.; Artamonov, A.; Artoni, G.; Arutinov, D.; Asai, S.; Asfandiyarov, R.; Ask, S.; Åsman, B.; Asquith, L.; Assamagan, K.; Astbury, A.; Aubert, B.; Auge, E.; Augsten, K.; Aurousseau, M.; Avolio, G.; Avramidou, R.; Axen, D.; Ay, C.; Azuelos, G.; Azuma, Y.; Baak, M. A.; Baccaglioni, G.; Bacci, C.; Bach, A. M.; Bachacou, H.; Bachas, K.; Backes, M.; Backhaus, M.; Badescu, E.; Bagnaia, P.; Bahinipati, S.; Bai, Y.; Bailey, D. C.; Bain, T.; Baines, J. T.; Baker, O. K.; Baker, M. D.; Baker, S.; Banas, E.; Banerjee, P.; Banerjee, Sw.; Banfi, D.; Bangert, A.; Bansal, V.; Bansil, H. S.; Barak, L.; Baranov, S. P.; Barashkou, A.; Barbaro Galtieri, A.; Barber, T.; Barberio, E. L.; Barberis, D.; Barbero, M.; Bardin, D. Y.; Barillari, T.; Barisonzi, M.; Barklow, T.; Barlow, N.; Barnett, B. M.; Barnett, R. M.; Baroncelli, A.; Barone, G.; Barr, A. J.; Barreiro, F.; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, J.; Barrillon, P.; Bartoldus, R.; Barton, A. E.; Bartsch, V.; Bates, R. L.; Batkova, L.; Batley, J. R.; Battaglia, A.; Battistin, M.; Bauer, F.; Bawa, H. S.; Beale, S.; Beau, T.; Beauchemin, P. H.; Beccherle, R.; Bechtle, P.; Beck, H. P.; Becker, S.; Beckingham, M.; Becks, K. H.; Beddall, A. J.; Beddall, A.; Bedikian, S.; Bednyakov, V. A.; Bee, C. P.; Begel, M.; Behar Harpaz, S.; Behera, P. K.; Beimforde, M.; Belanger-Champagne, C.; Bell, P. J.; Bell, W. H.; Bella, G.; Bellagamba, L.; Bellina, F.; Bellomo, M.; Belloni, A.; Beloborodova, O.; Belotskiy, K.; Beltramello, O.; Benary, O.; Benchekroun, D.; Bendel, M.; Bendtz, K.; Benekos, N.; Benhammou, Y.; Benhar Noccioli, E.; Benitez Garcia, J. A.; Benjamin, D. P.; Benoit, M.; Bensinger, J. R.; Benslama, K.; Bentvelsen, S.; Berge, D.; Bergeaas Kuutmann, E.; Berger, N.; Berghaus, F.; Berglund, E.; Beringer, J.; Bernat, P.; Bernhard, R.; Bernius, C.; Berry, T.; Bertella, C.; Bertin, A.; Bertinelli, F.; Bertolucci, F.; Besana, M. I.; Besson, N.; Bethke, S.; Bhimji, W.; Bianchi, R. M.; Bianco, M.; Biebel, O.; Bieniek, S. P.; Bierwagen, K.; Biesiada, J.; Biglietti, M.; Bilokon, H.; Bindi, M.; Binet, S.; Bingul, A.; Bini, C.; Biscarat, C.; Bitenc, U.; Black, K. M.; Blair, R. E.; Blanchard, J.-B.; Blanchot, G.; Blazek, T.; Blocker, C.; Blocki, J.; Blondel, A.; Blum, W.; Blumenschein, U.; Bobbink, G. J.; Bobrovnikov, V. B.; Bocchetta, S. S.; Bocci, A.; Boddy, C. R.; Boehler, M.; Boek, J.; Boelaert, N.; Bogaerts, J. A.; Bogdanchikov, A.; Bogouch, A.; Bohm, C.; Bohm, J.; Boisvert, V.; Bold, T.; Boldea, V.; Bolnet, N. M.; Bomben, M.; Bona, M.; Bondarenko, V. G.; Bondioli, M.; Boonekamp, M.; Booth, C. N.; Bordoni, S.; Borer, C.; Borisov, A.; Borissov, G.; Borjanovic, I.; Borri, M.; Borroni, S.; Bortolotto, V.; Bos, K.; Boscherini, D.; Bosman, M.; Boterenbrood, H.; Botterill, D.; Bouchami, J.; Boudreau, J.; Bouhova-Thacker, E. V.; Boumediene, D.; Bourdarios, C.; Bousson, N.; Boveia, A.; Boyd, J.; Boyko, I. R.; Bozhko, N. I.; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I.; Bracinik, J.; Braem, A.; Branchini, P.; Brandenburg, G. W.; Brandt, A.; Brandt, G.; Brandt, O.; Bratzler, U.; Brau, B.; Brau, J. E.; Braun, H. M.; Brelier, B.; Bremer, J.; Brendlinger, K.; Brenner, R.; Bressler, S.; Britton, D.; Brochu, F. M.; Brock, I.; Brock, R.; Brodbeck, T. J.; Brodet, E.; Broggi, F.; Bromberg, C.; Bronner, J.; Brooijmans, G.; Brooks, W. K.; Brown, G.; Brown, H.; Bruckman de Renstrom, P. A.; Bruncko, D.; Bruneliere, R.

    2012-06-01

    A measurement of the jet activity in tbar{t} events produced in proton-proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV is presented, using 2.05 fb-1 of integrated luminosity collected by the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider. The tbar{t} events are selected in the dilepton decay channel with two identified b-jets from the top quark decays. Events are vetoed if they contain an additional jet with transverse momentum above a threshold in a central rapidity interval. The fraction of events surviving the jet veto is presented as a function of this threshold for four different central rapidity interval definitions. An alternate measurement is also performed, in which events are vetoed if the scalar transverse momentum sum of the additional jets in each rapidity interval is above a threshold. In both measurements, the data are corrected for detector effects and compared to the theoretical models implemented in MC@NLO, Powheg, Alpgen and Sherpa. The experimental uncertainties are often smaller than the spread of theoretical predictions, allowing deviations between data and theory to be observed in some regions of phase space.

  3. Biodiversity conservation in running waters

    SciTech Connect

    Allan, J.D. ); Flecker, A.S. )

    1993-01-01

    In the concerns about biodiversity conservation, fresh waters have received less attention than tropical forests and oceans. However, running waters harbor a diverse panoply of species, habitats, and ecosystems, including some of the most threatened and many having great value to human society. An overview of the biological diversity of running waters and the state of imperilment is presented. Six major factors that threaten destruction of running water species and ecosystems are discussed: habitat loss and degradation; species invasions; overharvesting; secondary extinctions; chemical and organic pollution; global climate change. General measures for recovery and restoration of running waters conclude the article.

  4. Electrochemical performance evaluations and safety investigations of pentafluoro(phenoxy)cyclotriphosphazene as a flame retardant electrolyte additive for application in lithium ion battery systems using a newly designed apparatus for improved self-extinguishing time measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dagger, Tim; Lürenbaum, Constantin; Schappacher, Falko M.; Winter, Martin

    2017-02-01

    A modified self-extinguishing time (SET) device which enhances the reproducibility of the results is presented. Pentafluoro(phenoxy)cyclotriphosphazene (FPPN) is investigated as flame retardant electrolyte additive for lithium ion batteries (LIBs) in terms of thermal stability and electrochemical performance. SET measurements and adiabatic reaction calorimetry are applied to determine the flammability and the reactivity of a standard LIB electrolyte containing 5% FPPN. The results reveal that the additive-containing electrolyte is nonflammable for 10 s whereas the commercially available reference electrolyte inflames instantaneously after 1 s of ignition. The onset temperature of the safety enhanced electrolyte is delayed by ≈ 21 °C. Compatibility tests in half cells show that the electrolyte is reductively stable while the cyclic voltammogram indicates oxidative decomposition during the first cycle. Cycling experiments in full cells show improved cycling performance and rate capability, which can be attributed to cathode passivation during the first cycle. Post-mortem analysis of the electrolyte by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry confirms the presence of the additive in high amounts after 501 cycles which ensures enhanced safety of the electrolyte. The investigations present FPPN as stable electrolyte additive that improves the intrinsic safety of the electrolyte and its cycling performance at the same time.

  5. The alignment of agricultural and nature conservation policies in the European Union.

    PubMed

    Hodge, Ian; Hauck, Jennifer; Bonn, Aletta

    2015-08-01

    Europe is a region of relatively high population density and productive agriculture subject to substantial government intervention under the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP). Many habitats and species of high conservation interest have been created by the maintenance of agricultural practices over long periods. These practices are often no longer profitable, and nature conservation initiatives require government support to cover the cost for them to be continued. The CAP has been reformed both to reduce production of agricultural commodities at costs in excess of world prices and to establish incentives for landholders to adopt voluntary conservation measures. A separate nature conservation policy has established an extensive series of protected sites (Natura 2000) that has, as yet, failed to halt the loss of biodiversity. Additional broader scale approaches have been advocated for conservation in the wider landscape matrix, including the alignment of agricultural and nature conservation policies, which remains a challenge. Possibilities for alignment include further shifting of funds from general support for farmers toward targeted payments for biodiversity goals at larger scales and adoption of an ecosystem approach. The European response to the competing demands for land resources may offer lessons globally as demands on rural land increase.

  6. 18 CFR 154.400 - Additional requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER NATURAL GAS ACT RATE SCHEDULES AND TARIFFS Limited Rate Changes § 154... proposal to implement a limited rate change must comply with this subpart. ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Additional...

  7. Conservation reaches new heights.

    PubMed

    Pepall, J; Khanal, P

    1992-10-01

    The conservation program with the management assistance of the Woodlands Mountain Institute in 2 contiguous parks, the Mount Everest National Park in Nepal and the Qomolangma Nature Reserve in China, in 2 countries is described. The focus is on conservation of the complex ecosystem with sustainable development by showing local people how to benefit from the park without environmental damage. Cultural diversity is as important as biological diversity. The area has been designated by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site with the "last pure ecological seed" of the Himalayas. The regional geography and culture are presented. Population growth has impacted natural resources through overgrazing, cultivation of marginal land, and deforestation; future plans to build a dam and road bordering the nature reserve pose other threats. Proposed management plans for the Makalu-Barun Nature Park (established in November 1991) and Conservation Area include a division of the park into nature reserve areas free of human activity, protected areas which permit traditional land use, and special sites and trail for tourists and religious pilgrims. The conservation area will act as a buffer for the park and provide economic opportunities; further subdivisions include land use for biodiversity protection, community forest and pasture, agroforestry, and agriculture and settlement. Efforts will be made to increase the welfare of women and local people; proposed projects include the introduction of higher milk-producing animals for stall feeding. Also proposed is a cultural and natural history museum. 70% of the project's resources will be directed to local community participation in consultation and park maintenance. The project is a model of how conservation and protection of natural resources can coexist with local economic development and participation; an integration of preservation of biological diversity, mountain wisdom, and the value of local people as resources for conservation.

  8. Conservation of tidal marshes

    SciTech Connect

    Daiber, F.C.

    1986-01-01

    This book is the first attempt to examine collectively the various uses and the consequences of marsh conservation efforts. Author Franklin Daiber emphasizes tidal marsh conservation from a holistic perspective rather than from the perspective of a single purpose or special economic interest. He addresses a topic receiving increasing attention, namely the concept of open marsh management as a means of controlling mosquito production without harmful effects on other marsh organisms. Topics considered include: water management; dikes, impoundments, ponds and ditches; reclaimed land and impoundments; ditching and ponding for mosquito control; sewage disposal and waste treatment; dredge material for wetland restoration; insecticides; oil pollution; and petroleum hydrocarbon interactions.

  9. Two Centuries of Soil Conservation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helms, Douglas

    1991-01-01

    Narrates U.S. soil conservation history since the late eighteenth century. Discusses early practices such as contour plowing. Profiles individuals who promoted soil conservation and were largely responsible for the creation of the Soil Conservation Service. Explains the causes of erosion and how soil conservation districts help farmers prevent…

  10. Measuring $\

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, Jessica Sarah

    2011-01-01

    The MINOS Experiment consists of two steel-scintillator calorimeters, sampling the long baseline NuMI muon neutrino beam. It was designed to make a precise measurement of the ‘atmospheric’ neutrino mixing parameters, Δm2 atm. and sin2 (2 atm.). The Near Detector measures the initial spectrum of the neutrino beam 1km from the production target, and the Far Detector, at a distance of 735 km, measures the impact of oscillations in the neutrino energy spectrum. Work performed to validate the quality of the data collected by the Near Detector is presented as part of this thesis. This thesis primarily details the results of a vμ disappearance analysis, and presents a new sophisticated fitting software framework, which employs a maximum likelihood method to extract the best fit oscillation parameters. The software is entirely decoupled from the extrapolation procedure between the detectors, and is capable of fitting multiple event samples (defined by the selections applied) in parallel, and any combination of energy dependent and independent sources of systematic error. Two techniques to improve the sensitivity of the oscillation measurement were also developed. The inclusion of information on the energy resolution of the neutrino events results in a significant improvement in the allowed region for the oscillation parameters. The degree to which sin2 (2θ )= 1.0 could be disfavoured with the exposure of the current dataset if the true mixing angle was non-maximal, was also investigated, with an improved neutrino energy reconstruction for very low energy events. The best fit oscillation parameters, obtained by the fitting software and incorporating resolution information were: | Δm2| = 2.32+0.12 -0.08×10-3 eV2 and sin2 (2θ ) > 0.90(90% C.L.). The analysis provides the current world best measurement of the atmospheric neutrino mass

  11. Hearing conservation and noise management practices in professional orchestras.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Ian; Driscoll, Tim; Ackermann, Bronwen

    2012-01-01

    Hearing conservation and noise exposure management for professional orchestras is a difficult issue resistant to standard control measures as used in other industries with excessive noise problems. Although there has been a great deal of research into this area in terms of the audiological status of musicians and their exposure to noise, there are relatively few industry-specific strategies that can be adopted by an orchestra looking to address these issues. Australia does not have a uniform approach to hearing conservation management in its orchestras; however, each orchestra actively grapples with the challenges of balancing legal, practical, and artistic concerns. This study systematically investigated hearing conservation practices, noise exposure management, and audiological screening protocols in eight professional orchestras. The research involved personal interviews with staff at each orchestra, including inspection of venues and facilities. While all these orchestras were aware of the risks and were actively taking significant steps to reduce noise exposure, a range of approaches, with varying degrees of effectiveness and understanding of the issue, were found across the sector. There was limited evidence of educational programs for either the musicians at risk of excessive noise exposure or the staff responsible for devising and implementing control measures. In addition, the reported use of adequate personal hearing protection by musicians was poor. As Australia has recently introduced a national approach to workplace health and safety, a similar approach to noise and audiological management across the country's orchestral sector is proposed, drawn from existing research and practice. This will enable both consistent procedures and meaningful dialogue between the orchestras on the topics of hearing conservation, audiological monitoring, and educational practices.

  12. Increasing the impact of conservation projects.

    PubMed

    Dietz, Lou Ann; Brown, Marcia; Swaminathan, Vinaya

    2010-05-01

    To assure a future for endangered primates and many other species, we must develop and carry out projects for their conservation as quickly and effectively as possible, even with only limited information about the complex systems of biological, political, social, economic, and cultural factors influencing the conservation situation. Adaptive management, defined as the integration of design, management, and monitoring to systematically test assumptions to learn and adapt, provides practitioners a method for improving strategies to achieve and sustain the desired conservation impact. The Conservation Measures Partnership, a joint venture of conservation NGOs, developed the Open Standards for the Practice of Conservation, a freely available framework that guides practitioners through implementation of best conservation practices. Using this process, project teams are explicit about the assumptions behind the strategies they choose, and thus able to trace their successes and failures back to good or poor theory, implementation, or a combination of the two. The Open Standards comprise five steps that constitute the project management cycle: (1) Conceptualize what you will achieve in the context of where you are working--involves defining your project team, scope, vision, conservation targets, critical threats, and analyzing the situation; (2) Plan your actions and monitoring--involves developing an action plan including goals, strategies, assumptions, objectives, and activities; a monitoring plan including indicators for measuring the status of goals, objectives, and assumptions; and an operational plan specifying the resources needed; (3) Implement your actions and monitoring--includes developing and implementing detailed work plans and ensuring sufficient resources, capacity, and partners; (4) Analyze, use, and adapt--involves managing monitoring data, regular analysis to convert them to useful information, and adapting the project plans accordingly; and (5) Capture

  13. Conservation--In the People's Hands.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, A.B.; And Others

    Because of increasing population and industrialization and decreasing supplies of natural resources, the need for sound conservation practices has become paramount, particularly within the last decade. In addition, the process of urbanization has limited the contacts large numbers of children have with the outdoors. Education must assume a…

  14. Collections Management, Collections Maintenance, and Conservation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of Museums, Washington, DC.

    This national survey of the state of the nation's museum collections investigates collection care policies and practices, conservation issues, and private sector and federal support for museum needs. It consists of two major projects and four additional information gathering projects. The Museum Collection Survey is designed to examine all major…

  15. Conserved herpesvirus protein kinases

    PubMed Central

    Gershburg, Edward; Pagano, Joseph S.

    2008-01-01

    Conserved herpesviral protein kinases (CHPKs) are a group of enzymes conserved throughout all subfamilies of Herpesviridae. Members of this group are serine/threonine protein kinases that are likely to play a conserved role in viral infection by interacting with common host cellular and viral factors; however along with a conserved role, individual kinases may have unique functions in the context of viral infection in such a way that they are only partially replaceable even by close homologues. Recent studies demonstrated that CHPKs are crucial for viral infection and suggested their involvement in regulation of numerous processes at various infection steps (primary infection, nuclear egress, tegumentation), although the mechanisms of this regulation remain unknown. Notwithstanding, recent advances in discovery of new CHPK targets, and studies of CHPK knockout phenotypes have raised their attractiveness as targets for antiviral therapy. A number of compounds have been shown to inh