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Sample records for additional contextual information

  1. Contextual Sensing: Integrating Contextual Information with Human and Technical Geo-Sensor Information for Smart Cities

    PubMed Central

    Sagl, Günther; Resch, Bernd; Blaschke, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    types of contextual information, thus providing an additional, namely the geo-spatial perspective on the future development of smart cities. PMID:26184221

  2. Contextual Sensing: Integrating Contextual Information with Human and Technical Geo-Sensor Information for Smart Cities.

    PubMed

    Sagl, Günther; Resch, Bernd; Blaschke, Thomas

    2015-07-14

    types of contextual information, thus providing an additional, namely the geo-spatial perspective on the future development of smart cities.

  3. Contextual Sensing: Integrating Contextual Information with Human and Technical Geo-Sensor Information for Smart Cities.

    PubMed

    Sagl, Günther; Resch, Bernd; Blaschke, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    types of contextual information, thus providing an additional, namely the geo-spatial perspective on the future development of smart cities. PMID:26184221

  4. Cortical Integration of Contextual Information across Objects.

    PubMed

    Livne, Tomer; Bar, Moshe

    2016-07-01

    Recognizing objects in the environment and understanding our surroundings often depends on context: the presence of other objects and knowledge about their relations with each other. Such contextual information activates a set of medial lobe brain regions, the parahippocampal cortex and the retrosplenial complex. Both regions are more activated by single objects with a unique contextual association than by objects not associated with any specific context. Similarly they are more activated by spatially coherent arrangements of objects when those are consistent with their known spatial relations. The current study tested how context in multiple-object displays is represented in these regions in the absence of relevant spatial information. Using an fMRI slow-event-related design, we show that the precuneus (a subpart of the retrosplenial complex) is more activated by simultaneously presented contextually related objects than by unrelated objects. This suggests that the representation of context in this region is cumulative, representing integrated information across objects in the display. We discuss these findings in relation to processing of visual information and relate them to previous findings of contextual effects in perception. PMID:26942322

  5. Exploring the role of contextual information in bloodstain pattern analysis: A qualitative approach.

    PubMed

    Osborne, Nikola K P; Taylor, Michael C; Zajac, Rachel

    2016-03-01

    During Bloodstain Pattern Analysis (BPA), an analyst may encounter various sources of contextual information. Although contextual bias has emerged as a valid concern for the discipline, little is understood about how contextual information informs BPA. To address this issue, we asked 15 experienced bloodstain pattern analysts from New Zealand and Australia to think aloud as they classified bloodstain patterns from two homicide cases. Analysts could request items of contextual information, and were required to state how each item would inform their analysis. Pathology reports and additional photographs of the scene were the most commonly requested items of information. We coded analysts' reasons for requesting contextual information--and the way in which they integrated this information--according to thematic analysis. We identified considerable variation in both of these variables, raising important questions about the role and necessity of contextual information in decisions about bloodstain pattern evidence.

  6. A Spatial Classifier for Multispectral Data Using Contextual Information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hung, Chih-Cheng; Fahsi, Ahmed; Coleman, Tommy

    1998-01-01

    Connectivity describes the spatial relationship among pixels. A spatial classifier which employs the sigma probability concept of the Gaussian distribution and a type of contextual information connectivity of the pixels, is studied in this paper. This spatial classifier attempts to replicate the kind of spatial synthesis done by the human analyst during visual interpretation or to capture the spatial relationships inherent in an aerial photograph. Several classification results of the Landsat TM data using this classifier with different window sizes for capturing the contextual information are illustrated and compared.

  7. Overview of contextual tracking approaches in information fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blasch, Erik; Garcia Herrero, Jesus; Snidaro, Lauro; Llinas, James; Seetharaman, Guna; Palaniappan, Kannappan

    2013-05-01

    Many information fusion solutions work well in the intended scenarios; but the applications, supporting data, and capabilities change over varying contexts. One example is weather data for electro-optical target trackers of which standards have evolved over decades. The operating conditions of: technology changes, sensor/target variations, and the contextual environment can inhibit performance if not included in the initial systems design. In this paper, we seek to define and categorize different types of contextual information. We describe five contextual information categories that support target tracking: (1) domain knowledge from a user to aid the information fusion process through selection, cueing, and analysis, (2) environment-to-hardware processing for sensor management, (3) known distribution of entities for situation/threat assessment, (4) historical traffic behavior for situation awareness patterns of life (POL), and (5) road information for target tracking and identification. Appropriate characterization and representation of contextual information is needed for future high-level information fusion systems design to take advantage of the large data content available for a priori knowledge target tracking algorithm construction, implementation, and application.

  8. Quantifying contextuality.

    PubMed

    Grudka, A; Horodecki, K; Horodecki, M; Horodecki, P; Horodecki, R; Joshi, P; Kłobus, W; Wójcik, A

    2014-03-28

    Contextuality is central to both the foundations of quantum theory and to the novel information processing tasks. Despite some recent proposals, it still faces a fundamental problem: how to quantify its presence? In this work, we provide a universal framework for quantifying contextuality. We conduct two complementary approaches: (i) the bottom-up approach, where we introduce a communication game, which grasps the phenomenon of contextuality in a quantitative manner; (ii) the top-down approach, where we just postulate two measures, relative entropy of contextuality and contextuality cost, analogous to existent measures of nonlocality (a special case of contextuality). We then match the two approaches by showing that the measure emerging from the communication scenario turns out to be equal to the relative entropy of contextuality. Our framework allows for the quantitative, resource-type comparison of completely different games. We give analytical formulas for the proposed measures for some contextual systems, showing in particular that the Peres-Mermin game is by order of magnitude more contextual than that of Klyachko et al. Furthermore, we explore properties of these measures such as monotonicity or additivity. PMID:24724629

  9. Contextual Antecedents of Informal Feedback in the Workplace

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Rijt, Janine; van de Wiel, Margje W. J.; Van den Bossche, Piet; Segers, Mien S. R.; Gijselaers, Wim H.

    2012-01-01

    This study brings together findings from different research angles on informal feedback in the workplace. We explore the individual and joint influences of three contextual antecedents of seeking feedback: support for learning, psychological safety, and work pressure. Based on our survey of 138 employees from various organizations, hierarchical…

  10. Contextual information processing of brain in art appreciation.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Shigeko; Ejima, Yoshimichi

    2013-04-01

    A psycho-historical framework for the science of art appreciation will be an experimental discipline that may shed new light on the highest capacities of the human brain, yielding new scientific ways to talk about the art appreciation. The recent findings of the contextual information processing in the human brain make the concept of the art-historical context clear for empirical experimentation.

  11. The contextual nature of medical information.

    PubMed

    Berg, M; Goorman, E

    1999-12-01

    Successful design of information systems in health care starts with a thorough understanding of the practices in which the systems are to function. In this paper, we discuss the nature of 'medical information' from a sociological perspective. We focus on the (im)possibilities of the utilization of primary health care data for secondary purposes such as research and administration. In much of the literature on EPRs, this secondary utilization is only seen to depend on the question whether the IT connections are in place. It is then simply a matter of selecting which information to transport and to where. In this article, we argue that this view of medical information is mistaken. Information should be conceptualized as always entangled with the context of its production. The disentangling of information from its production context is possible, but that entails work. We propose the following 'law of medical information': the further information has to be able to circulate (i.e. the more diverse contexts it has to be usable in), the more work is required to disentangle the information from the context of its production. The question that then becomes pertinent is; who has to do this work, and who reaps the benefits?

  12. Contextual behavior and neural circuits

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Inah; Lee, Choong-Hee

    2013-01-01

    Animals including humans engage in goal-directed behavior flexibly in response to items and their background, which is called contextual behavior in this review. Although the concept of context has long been studied, there are differences among researchers in defining and experimenting with the concept. The current review aims to provide a categorical framework within which not only the neural mechanisms of contextual information processing but also the contextual behavior can be studied in more concrete ways. For this purpose, we categorize contextual behavior into three subcategories as follows by considering the types of interactions among context, item, and response: contextual response selection, contextual item selection, and contextual item–response selection. Contextual response selection refers to the animal emitting different types of responses to the same item depending on the context in the background. Contextual item selection occurs when there are multiple items that need to be chosen in a contextual manner. Finally, when multiple items and multiple contexts are involved, contextual item–response selection takes place whereby the animal either chooses an item or inhibits such a response depending on item–context paired association. The literature suggests that the rhinal cortical regions and the hippocampal formation play key roles in mnemonically categorizing and recognizing contextual representations and the associated items. In addition, it appears that the fronto-striatal cortical loops in connection with the contextual information-processing areas critically control the flexible deployment of adaptive action sets and motor responses for maximizing goals. We suggest that contextual information processing should be investigated in experimental settings where contextual stimuli and resulting behaviors are clearly defined and measurable, considering the dynamic top-down and bottom-up interactions among the neural systems for contextual behavior

  13. Contextual Information Drives the Reconsolidation-Dependent Updating of Retrieved Fear Memories.

    PubMed

    Jarome, Timothy J; Ferrara, Nicole C; Kwapis, Janine L; Helmstetter, Fred J

    2015-12-01

    Stored memories enter a temporary state of vulnerability following retrieval known as 'reconsolidation', a process that can allow memories to be modified to incorporate new information. Although reconsolidation has become an attractive target for treatment of memories related to traumatic past experiences, we still do not know what new information triggers the updating of retrieved memories. Here, we used biochemical markers of synaptic plasticity in combination with a novel behavioral procedure to determine what was learned during memory reconsolidation under normal retrieval conditions. We eliminated new information during retrieval by manipulating animals' training experience and measured changes in proteasome activity and GluR2 expression in the amygdala, two established markers of fear memory lability and reconsolidation. We found that eliminating new contextual information during the retrieval of memories for predictable and unpredictable fear associations prevented changes in proteasome activity and glutamate receptor expression in the amygdala, indicating that this new information drives the reconsolidation of both predictable and unpredictable fear associations on retrieval. Consistent with this, eliminating new contextual information prior to retrieval prevented the memory-impairing effects of protein synthesis inhibitors following retrieval. These results indicate that under normal conditions, reconsolidation updates memories by incorporating new contextual information into the memory trace. Collectively, these results suggest that controlling contextual information present during retrieval may be a useful strategy for improving reconsolidation-based treatments of traumatic memories associated with anxiety disorders such as post-traumatic stress disorder.

  14. Dynamic and Contextual Information in HMM Modeling for Handwritten Word Recognition.

    PubMed

    Bianne-Bernard, Anne-Laure; Menasri, Farès; Al-Hajj Mohamad, Rami; Mokbel, Chafic; Kermorvant, Christopher; Likforman-Sulem, Laurence

    2011-10-01

    This study aims at building an efficient word recognition system resulting from the combination of three handwriting recognizers. The main component of this combined system is an HMM-based recognizer which considers dynamic and contextual information for a better modeling of writing units. For modeling the contextual units, a state-tying process based on decision tree clustering is introduced. Decision trees are built according to a set of expert-based questions on how characters are written. Questions are divided into global questions, yielding larger clusters, and precise questions, yielding smaller ones. Such clustering enables us to reduce the total number of models and Gaussians densities by 10. We then apply this modeling to the recognition of handwritten words. Experiments are conducted on three publicly available databases based on Latin or Arabic languages: Rimes, IAM, and OpenHart. The results obtained show that contextual information embedded with dynamic modeling significantly improves recognition.

  15. Contextual information-aided kidney segmentation in CT sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Enwei; Liang, Yanmei; Fan, Hailun

    2013-03-01

    Based on the continuity of adjacent slices in a medical image sequence, a slice-based 3-D segmentation framework is constructed to extract the intact kidney by processing all slices automatically in the whole sequence. The framework includes four sections: initial segmentation, selection of the most reliable initial segmentation, location and modification of leakage. The crucial section of the proposed framework is selecting the most reliable initial segmentation image, which will be regarded as the reference image to evaluate the continuity of the following slice. Leakage location is carried out based on the contextual features, and the local iterative thresholding (LIT) is used to modify the leakage. As test examples of the framework, abdominal computed tomography (CT) images in enhanced phases are processed to segment kidney automatically. The total of 392 CT images in 7 sequences from 3 patients are selected as training images to determine the parameters in the database, and other 898 CT images in 21 sequences from 7 patients are used as test images to evaluate the effectiveness of the method. An average of three dimensional Dice similarity coefficient (3-D DSC) of 94.7% and average symmetric surface distance (ASSD) of 0.91 mm are obtained, which indicate that the intact kidney can be perfectly extracted with hardly any leakage automatically.

  16. 16 CFR 1102.16 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... PUBLICLY AVAILABLE CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY INFORMATION DATABASE Content Requirements § 1102.16 Additional... in the Database any additional information it determines to be in the public interest,...

  17. 16 CFR 1102.16 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... PUBLICLY AVAILABLE CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY INFORMATION DATABASE Content Requirements § 1102.16 Additional... in the Database any additional information it determines to be in the public interest,...

  18. 16 CFR 1102.16 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... PUBLICLY AVAILABLE CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY INFORMATION DATABASE Content Requirements § 1102.16 Additional... in the Database any additional information it determines to be in the public interest,...

  19. The Role of Morphological and Contextual Information in L2 Lexical Inference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamada, Megumi

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the role of morphological and contextual information in inferring the meaning of unknown L2 words during reading. Four groups of college-level ESL students, beginning (n?=?34), intermediate (n?=?27), high-intermediate (n?=?21), and advanced (n?=?25), chose the inferred meanings of 20 pseudo compounds (e.g.,…

  20. Contextual Factors Affecting Learning in Laos and the Implications for Information Literacy Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorner, Daniel G.; Gorman, G. E.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Laos is used as a case study of how factors such as culture and indigenous knowledge must be considered to plan for information literacy education that is culturally and contextually appropriate. Method: Data were obtained from observations during visits to four Lao schools and from interviews with fourteen teachers at these schools.…

  1. Updating contextual information during consolidation as result of a new memory trace.

    PubMed

    Suárez, Luis Daniel; Smal, Leticia; Delorenzi, Alejandro

    2010-05-01

    Reconsolidation studies have led to the hypothesis that memory, when labile, would be modified in order to incorporate new information. This view has reinstated original propositions suggesting that short-term memory provides the organism with an opportunity to evaluate and rearrange information before storing it, since it is concurrent with the labile state of consolidation. The Chasmagnathus associative memory model is used here to test whether during consolidation it is possible to change some attribute of recently acquired memories. In addition, it is tested whether these changes in behavioral memory features can be explained as modifications on the consolidating memory trace or as a consequence of a new memory trace. We show that short-term memory is, unlike long-term memory, not context specific. During this short period after learning, behavioral memory can be updated in order to incorporate new contextual information. We found that, during this period, the cycloheximide retrograde amnesic effect can be reverted by a single trial in a new context. Finally, by means of memory sensitivity to cycloheximide during consolidation and reconsolidation, we show that the learning of a new context (CS) during this short-term memory period builds up a new memory trace that sustains the behavioral memory update.

  2. A Contextual Information Acquisition Approach Based on Semantics and Mashup Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Yangfan; Li, Lu; He, Keqing; Chen, Xiuhong

    Pay per use is an essential feature of cloud computing. Users can make use of some parts of a large scale service to satisfy their requirements, merely at the cost of a little payment. A good understanding of the users' requirement is a prerequisite for choosing the service in need precisely. Context implies users' potential requirements, which can be a complement to the requirements delivered explicitly. However, traditional context-aware computing research always demands some specific kinds of sensors to acquire contextual information, which renders a threshold too high for an application to become context-aware. This paper comes up with an approach which combines contextual information obtained directly and indirectly from the cloud services. Semantic relationship between different kinds of contexts lays foundation for the searching of the cloud services. And mashup technology is adopted to compose the heterogonous services. Abundant contextual information may lend strong support to a comprehensive understanding of users' context and a bettered abstraction of contextual requirements.

  3. The Librarian’s Role in Linking Patients to Their Personal Health Data and Contextual Information

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Dixie A; Adams, Mararia; Garcia, Alejandro

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of this project were to make the institution’s patients aware of a new patient portal with contextual links to MedlinePlus. Through partnerships with information technology personnel and LSU Health Shreveport clinics, the Health Sciences Library created and distributed promotional and educational materials, and instructed patients on how to use MyChart and access reliable consumer health information via MedlinePlus Connect. Although most patients were not interested in coming to the library for demonstrations, many of them expressed interest in using MyChart. The contextual information in MedlinePlus Connect worked well for most topics. The institutional team leader for MyChart expressed gratitude for librarian involvement. PMID:24180654

  4. 17 CFR 230.408 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Additional information. 230... RULES AND REGULATIONS, SECURITIES ACT OF 1933 General Requirements § 230.408 Additional information. (a) In addition to the information expressly required to be included in a registration statement,...

  5. 17 CFR 230.408 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Additional information. 230... RULES AND REGULATIONS, SECURITIES ACT OF 1933 General Requirements § 230.408 Additional information. (a) In addition to the information expressly required to be included in a registration statement,...

  6. 47 CFR 25.111 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Additional information. 25.111 Section 25.111... Applications and Licenses General Application Filing Requirements § 25.111 Additional information. (a) The Commission may request from any party at any time additional information concerning any application, or...

  7. 10 CFR 810.14 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Additional information. 810.14 Section 810.14 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN ATOMIC ENERGY ACTIVITIES § 810.14 Additional information. The... activity to submit additional information....

  8. 47 CFR 25.111 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Additional information. 25.111 Section 25.111... Applications and Licenses General Application Filing Requirements § 25.111 Additional information. (a) The Commission may request from any party at any time additional information concerning any application, or...

  9. 10 CFR 725.13 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Additional information. 725.13 Section 725.13 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PERMITS FOR ACCESS TO RESTRICTED DATA Applications § 725.13 Additional information. The... and before the termination of the permit, require additional information in order to enable the...

  10. 47 CFR 25.111 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Additional information. 25.111 Section 25.111... Applications and Licenses General Application Filing Requirements § 25.111 Additional information. (a) The Commission may request from any party at any time additional information concerning any application, or...

  11. Brain networks for exploration decisions utilizing distinct modeled information types during contextual learning

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jane X.; Voss, Joel L.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Exploration permits acquisition of the most relevant information during learning. However, the specific information needed, the influences of this information on decision-making, and the relevant neural mechanisms remain poorly understood. We modeled distinct information types available during contextual association learning and used model-based fMRI in conjunction with manipulation of exploratory decision-making to identify neural activity associated with information-based decisions. We identified hippocampal-prefrontal contributions to advantageous decisions based on immediately available novel information, distinct from striatal contributions to advantageous decisions based on the sum total available (accumulated) information. Furthermore, network-level interactions among these regions during exploratory decision-making were related to learning success. These findings link strategic exploration decisions during learning to quantifiable information and advance understanding of adaptive behavior by identifying the distinct and interactive nature of brain-network contributions to decisions based on distinct information types. PMID:24908493

  12. 28 CFR 80.7 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Additional information. 80.7 Section 80.7... § 80.7 Additional information. If an issuer's or domestic concern's submission does not contain all of the information required by § 80.6, the Department of Justice may request whatever...

  13. 28 CFR 80.7 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Additional information. 80.7 Section 80.7... § 80.7 Additional information. If an issuer's or domestic concern's submission does not contain all of the information required by § 80.6, the Department of Justice may request whatever...

  14. 16 CFR 1102.16 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... PUBLICLY AVAILABLE CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY INFORMATION DATABASE (Eff. Jan. 10, 2011) Content Requirements... notices, the CPSC shall include in the Database any additional information it determines to be in...

  15. Domestic dogs use contextual information and tone of voice when following a human pointing gesture.

    PubMed

    Scheider, Linda; Grassmann, Susanne; Kaminski, Juliane; Tomasello, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Domestic dogs are skillful at using the human pointing gesture. In this study we investigated whether dogs take contextual information into account when following pointing gestures, specifically, whether they follow human pointing gestures more readily in the context in which food has been found previously. Also varied was the human's tone of voice as either imperative or informative. Dogs were more sustained in their searching behavior in the 'context' condition as opposed to the 'no context' condition, suggesting that they do not simply follow a pointing gesture blindly but use previously acquired contextual information to inform their interpretation of that pointing gesture. Dogs also showed more sustained searching behavior when there was pointing than when there was not, suggesting that they expect to find a referent when they see a human point. Finally, dogs searched more in high-pitched informative trials as opposed to the low-pitched imperative trials, whereas in the latter dogs seemed more inclined to respond by sitting. These findings suggest that a dog's response to a pointing gesture is flexible and depends on the context as well as the human's tone of voice.

  16. 10 CFR 810.14 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Additional information. 810.14 Section 810.14 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN ATOMIC ENERGY ACTIVITIES § 810.14 Additional information. The Department of Energy may at any time require a person engaging in any generally or specifically...

  17. 10 CFR 810.14 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Additional information. 810.14 Section 810.14 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN ATOMIC ENERGY ACTIVITIES § 810.14 Additional information. The Department of Energy may at any time require a person engaging in any generally or specifically...

  18. 10 CFR 810.14 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Additional information. 810.14 Section 810.14 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN ATOMIC ENERGY ACTIVITIES § 810.14 Additional information. The Department of Energy may at any time require a person engaging in any generally or specifically...

  19. 10 CFR 810.14 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Additional information. 810.14 Section 810.14 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN ATOMIC ENERGY ACTIVITIES § 810.14 Additional information. The Department of Energy may at any time require a person engaging in any generally or specifically...

  20. 25 CFR 214.5 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Additional information. 214.5 Section 214.5 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF OSAGE RESERVATION LANDS, OKLAHOMA, FOR MINING, EXCEPT OIL AND GAS § 214.5 Additional information. The officer in...

  1. 25 CFR 214.5 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Additional information. 214.5 Section 214.5 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF OSAGE RESERVATION LANDS, OKLAHOMA, FOR MINING, EXCEPT OIL AND GAS § 214.5 Additional information. The officer in charge may, at...

  2. 25 CFR 214.5 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Additional information. 214.5 Section 214.5 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF OSAGE RESERVATION LANDS, OKLAHOMA, FOR MINING, EXCEPT OIL AND GAS § 214.5 Additional information. The officer in...

  3. 25 CFR 214.5 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Additional information. 214.5 Section 214.5 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF OSAGE RESERVATION LANDS, OKLAHOMA, FOR MINING, EXCEPT OIL AND GAS § 214.5 Additional information. The officer in...

  4. 25 CFR 214.5 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Additional information. 214.5 Section 214.5 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF OSAGE RESERVATION LANDS, OKLAHOMA, FOR MINING, EXCEPT OIL AND GAS § 214.5 Additional information. The officer in...

  5. 34 CFR 75.231 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Office of the Secretary, Department of Education DIRECT GRANT PROGRAMS How Grants Are Made Procedures to Make A Grant § 75.231 Additional information. After selecting an application for funding, the Secretary may require the applicant to submit additional information. (Authority: 20 U.S.C. 1221e-3 and 3474)...

  6. 34 CFR 75.231 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Office of the Secretary, Department of Education DIRECT GRANT PROGRAMS How Grants Are Made Procedures to Make A Grant § 75.231 Additional information. After selecting an application for funding, the Secretary may require the applicant to submit additional information. (Authority: 20 U.S.C. 1221e-3 and 3474)...

  7. 34 CFR 75.231 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Office of the Secretary, Department of Education DIRECT GRANT PROGRAMS How Grants Are Made Procedures to Make A Grant § 75.231 Additional information. After selecting an application for funding, the Secretary may require the applicant to submit additional information. (Authority: 20 U.S.C. 1221e-3 and 3474)...

  8. 34 CFR 75.231 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Office of the Secretary, Department of Education DIRECT GRANT PROGRAMS How Grants Are Made Procedures to Make A Grant § 75.231 Additional information. After selecting an application for funding, the Secretary may require the applicant to submit additional information. (Authority: 20 U.S.C. 1221e-3 and 3474)...

  9. 34 CFR 75.231 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Office of the Secretary, Department of Education DIRECT GRANT PROGRAMS How Grants Are Made Procedures to Make A Grant § 75.231 Additional information. After selecting an application for funding, the Secretary may require the applicant to submit additional information. (Authority: 20 U.S.C. 1221e-3 and 3474)...

  10. Probing the depths of informant discrepancies: contextual influences on divergence and convergence.

    PubMed

    Hartley, Anselma G; Zakriski, Audrey L; Wright, Jack C

    2011-01-01

    This study examined how a contextual approach to child assessment can clarify the meaning of informant discrepancies by focusing on children's social experiences and their if…then reactions to them. In a sample of 123 children (M(age) = 13.30) referred to a summer program for children with behavior problems, parent-teacher agreement for syndromal measures of aggression and withdrawal was modest. Agreement remained low when informants assessed children's reactions to specific peer and adult events. The similarity of these events increased consistency within informants but had no effect on agreement between parents and teachers. In contrast, similarity in the pattern of social events children encountered at home and school predicted informant agreement for syndromal aggression and for aggression to aversive events. Our results underscore the robustness of informant discrepancies and illustrate how they can be studied as part of the larger mosaic of person-environment interactions.

  11. Anxiety, anticipation and contextual information: A test of attentional control theory.

    PubMed

    Cocks, Adam J; Jackson, Robin C; Bishop, Daniel T; Williams, A Mark

    2016-09-01

    We tested the assumptions of Attentional Control Theory (ACT) by examining the impact of anxiety on anticipation using a dynamic, time-constrained task. Moreover, we examined the involvement of high- and low-level cognitive processes in anticipation and how their importance may interact with anxiety. Skilled and less-skilled tennis players anticipated the shots of opponents under low- and high-anxiety conditions. Participants viewed three types of video stimuli, each depicting different levels of contextual information. Performance effectiveness (response accuracy) and processing efficiency (response accuracy divided by corresponding mental effort) were measured. Skilled players recorded higher levels of response accuracy and processing efficiency compared to less-skilled counterparts. Processing efficiency significantly decreased under high- compared to low-anxiety conditions. No difference in response accuracy was observed. When reviewing directional errors, anxiety was most detrimental to performance in the condition conveying only contextual information, suggesting that anxiety may have a greater impact on high-level (top-down) cognitive processes, potentially due to a shift in attentional control. Our findings provide partial support for ACT; anxiety elicited greater decrements in processing efficiency than performance effectiveness, possibly due to predominance of the stimulus-driven attentional system.

  12. What is genetic information, and why is it significant? A contextual, contrastive, approach.

    PubMed

    Manson, Neil C

    2006-01-01

    Is genetic information of special ethical significance? Does it require special regulation? There is considerable contemporary debate about this question (the 'genetic exceptionalism' debate). 'Genetic information' is an ambiguous term and, as an aid to avoiding conflation in the genetic exceptionalism debate, a detailed account is given of just how and why 'genetic information' is ambiguous. Whilst ambiguity is a ubiquitous problem of communication, it is suggested that 'genetic information' is ambiguous in a particular way, one that gives rise to the problem of 'significance creep' (i.e., where claims about the significance of certain kinds of genetic information in one context influence our thinking about the significance of other kinds of genetic information in other contexts). A contextual and contrastive methodology is proposed: evaluating the significance of genetic information requires us to be sensitive to the polysemy of 'genetic information' across contexts and then examine the contrast in significance (if any) of genetic, as opposed to nongenetic, information within contexts. This, in turn, suggests that a proper solution to the regulatory question requires us to pay more attention to how and why information, and its acquisition, possession and use, come to be of ethical significance.

  13. Stronger learning recruits additional cell-signaling cascades: c-Jun-N-terminal kinase 1 (JNK1) is necessary for expression of stronger contextual fear conditioning.

    PubMed

    Leach, Prescott T; Kenney, Justin W; Gould, Thomas J

    2015-02-01

    Increased training often results in stronger memories but the neural changes responsible for these stronger memories are poorly understood. It is proposed here that higher levels of training that result in stronger memories recruit additional cell signaling cascades. This study specifically examined if c-Jun N-terminal kinase 1 (JNK1) is involved in the formation of stronger fear conditioning memories. Wildtype (WT), JNK1 heterozygous (Het), and JNK1 knockout (KO) mice were fear conditioned with 1 trial, 2 trials, or 4 trials. All mice learned both contextual (hippocampus-dependent) and cued (hippocampus-independent) fear conditioning but for contextual fear conditioning only, the JNK1 KO mice did not show higher levels of learning with increased trials. That is, WT mice showed a significant linear increase in contextual fear conditioning as training trials increased from 1 to 2 to 4 trials whereas KO mice showed the same level of contextual fear conditioning as WT mice for 1 trial training but did not have increased levels of contextual fear conditioning with additional trials. These data suggest that JNK1 may not be critical for learning but when higher levels of hippocampus-dependent learning occur, JNK1 signaling is recruited and is necessary for stronger hippocampus-dependent memory formation.

  14. Generation of artificial biometric data enhanced with contextual information for game strategy-based behavioral biometrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yampolskiy, Roman V.; Govindaraju, Venu

    2008-03-01

    For the domain of strategy-based behavioral biometrics we propose the concept of profiles enhanced with spatial, temporal and contextual information. Inclusion of such information leads to a more stable baseline profile and as a result more secure systems. Such enhanced data is not always readily available and often is time consuming and expensive to acquire. One solution to this problem is the use of artificially generated data. In this paper a novel methodology for creation of feature-level synthetic biometric data is presented. Specifically generation of behavioral biometric data represented by game playing strategies is demonstrated. Data validation methods are described and encouraging results are obtained with possibility of expanding proposed methodologies to generation of artificial data in the domains other then behavioral biometrics.

  15. Aging and episodic memory: are elderly adults less likely to make connections between target and contextual information?

    PubMed

    Denney, N W; Larsen, J E

    1994-11-01

    The hypothesis that elderly individuals are less likely than young adults to connect target and contextual information was tested. Young and elderly adults were presented with a number of slides, each of which contained a word superimposed in the center of a background picture of a landscape or cityscape. Half of the subjects were told to remember the words and half were told to remember the word-and-background pairs. All subjects were then tested for their recognition memory of the word-and-background pairs. The results indicate that elderly adults have greater difficulty than young adults remembering the connections between words and background pictures but that this occurs whether the pictures are target information or contextual information. Therefore, the results of this study provide no support for the notion that elderly adults have a specific contextual encoding deficit.

  16. Event-related potential variations in the encoding and retrieval of different amounts of contextual information.

    PubMed

    Estrada-Manilla, Cinthya; Cansino, Selene

    2012-06-15

    Episodic memory events occur within multidimensional contexts; however, the electrophysiological manifestations associated with processing of more than one context have been rarely investigated. The effect of the amount of context on the ERPs was studied using two single and one double source memory tasks and by comparing full and partial context retrieval within a double source task. The single source tasks elicited waveforms with a larger amplitude during successful encoding and retrieval than the double source task. Compared with the waveforms elicited with a full source response, a partial source response elicited waveforms with a smaller amplitude, probably because the retrieval success for one context was combined with the retrieval attempt processes for the missing source. Comparing the tasks revealed that the larger the amount of contextual information processed, the smaller the amplitude of the ERPs, indicating that greater effort or further control processes were required during double source retrieval. PMID:22521837

  17. 42 CFR 1008.39 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Additional information. 1008.39 Section 1008.39 Public Health OFFICE OF INSPECTOR GENERAL-HEALTH CARE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OIG AUTHORITIES ADVISORY OPINIONS BY THE OIG Submission of a Formal Request for an Advisory Opinion §...

  18. Using geometrical, textural, and contextual information of land parcels for classification of detailed urban land use

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wu, S.-S.; Qiu, X.; Usery, E.L.; Wang, L.

    2009-01-01

    Detailed urban land use data are important to government officials, researchers, and businesspeople for a variety of purposes. This article presents an approach to classifying detailed urban land use based on geometrical, textural, and contextual information of land parcels. An area of 6 by 14 km in Austin, Texas, with land parcel boundaries delineated by the Travis Central Appraisal District of Travis County, Texas, is tested for the approach. We derive fifty parcel attributes from relevant geographic information system (GIS) and remote sensing data and use them to discriminate among nine urban land uses: single family, multifamily, commercial, office, industrial, civic, open space, transportation, and undeveloped. Half of the 33,025 parcels in the study area are used as training data for land use classification and the other half are used as testing data for accuracy assessment. The best result with a decision tree classification algorithm has an overall accuracy of 96 percent and a kappa coefficient of 0.78, and two naive, baseline models based on the majority rule and the spatial autocorrelation rule have overall accuracy of 89 percent and 79 percent, respectively. The algorithm is relatively good at classifying single-family, multifamily, commercial, open space, and undeveloped land uses and relatively poor at classifying office, industrial, civic, and transportation land uses. The most important attributes for land use classification are the geometrical attributes, particularly those related to building areas. Next are the contextual attributes, particularly those relevant to the spatial relationship between buildings, then the textural attributes, particularly the semivariance texture statistic from 0.61-m resolution images.

  19. Some aspects of the use of contextual information in production processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Has, Michael; Luidl, Christian; Schaeffner, Jochen; Klotzbuecher, Ute

    1998-09-01

    The production process in graphic arts can be divided in several work- or dataflows, which fundamentally differ. One deals with the creation and modification of content, i.e. photographing a scene, modifying text, retouch of pictur data, etc. The other attempts to generate, organize, and manage contextual information which can e.g. be of design, technical (screening, color definition), administrative (customer, invoice info) or product specific information (desired paperstock, finishing) character. In the paper under view those workflows are closer examined. It is shown that the creation of genres (generic product prototypes like books, flyers, etc.) may in certain cases be used to simplify both workflows. It may also be used to generate information required for both content creation (like layout) and technical purposes. The approach presented discusses a method to create a publication dependent on the information which genre is to be addressed. The concept is based on the reuse of intermediate products or of output data. For the implementation of the concept we introduce the fundamental workflows involved and an architecture containing some of the important elements required. In a final part a first overview of the implementation of the concept is given. It turns out that the job ticket, the design of the page elements and the layout are the crucial factors in a genre based production.

  20. Processing Coordinated Verb Phrases: The Relevance of Lexical-Semantic, Conceptual, and Contextual Information towards Establishing Verbal Parallelism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tutunjian, Damon A.

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation examines the influence of lexical-semantic representations, conceptual similarity, and contextual fit on the processing of coordinated verb phrases. The study integrates information gleaned from current linguistic theory with current psycholinguistic approaches to examining the processing of coordinated verb phrases. It has…

  1. The Impact of Scientific Information on Ecosystem Management: Making Sense of the Contextual Gap Between Information Providers and Decision Makers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Wyk, Ernita; Roux, Dirk J.; Drackner, Mikael; McCool, Stephen F.

    2008-05-01

    Scientific information is not always effectively incorporated into decision-making processes. This phenomenon seems to hold even when the information is aligned with an articulated need, is generated according to sound scientific procedures, and is packaged with end-user preferences in mind. We propose that contextual or cultural differences contribute significantly to the misalignment in communication between those who generate information and those who seek information for improved management of natural resources. The solution is to cultivate shared understanding, which in turn relies on acknowledgment and sharing of diverse values and attitudes. This constitutes a difficult challenge in a culturally diverse environment. Whereas cultural diversity represents wealth in experiences, knowledge and perspectives it can constrain the potential to develop the shared understandings necessary for effective integration of new information. This article illustrates how a lack of shared understanding among participants engaged in a resource-management process can produce and perpetuate divergent views of the world, to the extent that information and knowledge flows are ineffective and scientific information, even when requested, cannot be used effectively. Four themes were distilled from interviews with management and scientific staff of a natural resource-management agency in South Africa. The themes are used to illustrate how divergent views embedded in different cultures can discourage alignment of effort toward a common purpose. The article then presents a sense-making framework to illustrate the potential for developing shared understandings in a culturally diverse world.

  2. The impact of scientific information on ecosystem management: making sense of the contextual gap between information providers and decision makers.

    PubMed

    van Wyk, Ernita; Roux, Dirk J; Drackner, Mikael; McCool, Stephen F

    2008-05-01

    Scientific information is not always effectively incorporated into decision-making processes. This phenomenon seems to hold even when the information is aligned with an articulated need, is generated according to sound scientific procedures, and is packaged with end-user preferences in mind. We propose that contextual or cultural differences contribute significantly to the misalignment in communication between those who generate information and those who seek information for improved management of natural resources. The solution is to cultivate shared understanding, which in turn relies on acknowledgment and sharing of diverse values and attitudes. This constitutes a difficult challenge in a culturally diverse environment. Whereas cultural diversity represents wealth in experiences, knowledge and perspectives it can constrain the potential to develop the shared understandings necessary for effective integration of new information. This article illustrates how a lack of shared understanding among participants engaged in a resource-management process can produce and perpetuate divergent views of the world, to the extent that information and knowledge flows are ineffective and scientific information, even when requested, cannot be used effectively. Four themes were distilled from interviews with management and scientific staff of a natural resource-management agency in South Africa. The themes are used to illustrate how divergent views embedded in different cultures can discourage alignment of effort toward a common purpose. The article then presents a sense-making framework to illustrate the potential for developing shared understandings in a culturally diverse world.

  3. Demystifying "free will": the role of contextual information and evidence accumulation for predictive brain activity.

    PubMed

    Bode, Stefan; Murawski, Carsten; Soon, Chun Siong; Bode, Philipp; Stahl, Jutta; Smith, Philip L

    2014-11-01

    Novel multivariate pattern classification analyses have enabled the prediction of decision outcomes from brain activity prior to decision-makers' reported awareness. These findings are often discussed in relation to the philosophical concept of "free will". We argue that these studies demonstrate the role of unconscious processes in simple free choices, but they do not inform the philosophical debate. Moreover, these findings are difficult to relate to cognitive decision-making models, due to misleading assumptions about random choices. We review evidence suggesting that sequential-sampling models, which assume accumulation of evidence towards a decision threshold, can also be applied to free decisions. If external evidence is eliminated by the task instructions, decision-makers might use alternative, subtle contextual information as evidence, such as their choice history, that is not consciously monitored and usually concealed by the experimental design. We conclude that the investigation of neural activity patterns associated with free decisions should aim to investigate how decisions are jointly a function of internal and external contexts, rather than to resolve the philosophical "free will" debate.

  4. The influence of visual contextual information on the emergence of the especial skill in basketball.

    PubMed

    Stöckel, Tino; Breslin, Gavin

    2013-10-01

    We examined whether basketball throwing performance in general and motor skill specificity from the free throw distance in particular are influenced by visual contextual information. Experienced basketball players (N = 36) performed basketball set shots at five distances from the basket. Of particular interest was the performance from the free throw distance (4.23 m), at which experienced basketball players are expected to show superior performance compared with nearby locations as a result of massive amounts of practice. Whereas a control group performed the shots on a regular basketball court, the distance between the rim and the free throw line was either increased or decreased by 30 cm in two experimental groups. Findings showed that only the control group had a superior performance from the free throw distance, and the experimental groups did not. Moreover, all groups performed more accurately from the perceived free throw line (independent of its location) compared with nearby locations. The findings suggest that visual context information influences the presence of specificity effects in experienced performers. The findings have theoretical implications for explaining the memory representation underlying the especial skill effect in basketball.

  5. The influence of visual contextual information on the emergence of the especial skill in basketball.

    PubMed

    Stöckel, Tino; Breslin, Gavin

    2013-10-01

    We examined whether basketball throwing performance in general and motor skill specificity from the free throw distance in particular are influenced by visual contextual information. Experienced basketball players (N = 36) performed basketball set shots at five distances from the basket. Of particular interest was the performance from the free throw distance (4.23 m), at which experienced basketball players are expected to show superior performance compared with nearby locations as a result of massive amounts of practice. Whereas a control group performed the shots on a regular basketball court, the distance between the rim and the free throw line was either increased or decreased by 30 cm in two experimental groups. Findings showed that only the control group had a superior performance from the free throw distance, and the experimental groups did not. Moreover, all groups performed more accurately from the perceived free throw line (independent of its location) compared with nearby locations. The findings suggest that visual context information influences the presence of specificity effects in experienced performers. The findings have theoretical implications for explaining the memory representation underlying the especial skill effect in basketball. PMID:24197721

  6. Is the contextual effect weak in people with Williams syndrome? An investigation of information integration ability using pictures.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Ching-Fen

    2013-03-01

    Previous studies have shown that deficiencies in visuospatial perception and semantic processing in people with Williams syndrome (WS) are due to deficient central cohesiveness. Unlike previous studies that used abstract stimuli, this study used pictures to determine the relative ability of people with WS to integrate contextual information with the aim of exploring the nature of central coherence in people with WS. Participants were sequentially presented with a leading background picture followed by a single-item target picture and required to assess the congruence of the two pictures. The results showed that our participants with WS performed the same pattern as controls matched by chronological age (CA) and mental age (MA), demonstrating a contextual effect between congruent and incongruent conditions. Using concrete pictures, contextual integration was successfully induced in people with WS. There were differences between groups in response latencies and accuracy percentages, suggesting that contextual integration in information processing normally develops from childhood to adulthood, but is delayed in people with WS.

  7. Information Needs in a Community of Reading Specialists: What Information Needs Say about Contextual Frameworks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Normore, Lorraine

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: The perceived information needs of teachers who specialize in reading instruction for at-risk first graders were studied and related to frameworks for the role of social context in information needs, seeking and use. The frameworks considered were: disciplinarity, role theory in work settings, small worlds and information grounds and…

  8. Configural integration of temporal and contextual information in rats: Automated measurement in appetitive and aversive preparations.

    PubMed

    Dumigan, Natasha M; Lin, Tzu-Ching E; Good, Mark; Honey, Robert C

    2015-06-01

    Two experiments investigated the capacity of rats to learn configural discriminations requiring integration of contextual (where) with temporal (when) information. In Experiment 1, during morning training sessions, food was delivered in context A and not in context B, whereas during afternoon sessions food was delivered in context B and not in context A. Rats acquired this discrimination over the course of 20 days. Experiment 2 employed a directly analogous aversive conditioning procedure in which footshock served in place of food. This procedure allowed the acquisition of the discrimination to be assessed through changes in activity to the contextual + temporal configurations (i.e., inactivity or freezing) and modulation of the immediate impact of footshock presentations (i.e., post-shock activity bursts). Both measures provided evidence of configural learning over the course of 12 days, with a final test showing that the presentation of footshock resulted in more post-shock activity in the nonreinforced than reinforced configurations. These behavioral effects reveal important parallels between (i) configural discrimination learning involving components allied to episodic memory and (ii) simple conditioning. PMID:25762427

  9. SH2 Domains Recognize Contextual Peptide Sequence Information to Determine Selectivity*

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Bernard A.; Jablonowski, Karl; Shah, Eshana E.; Engelmann, Brett W.; Jones, Richard B.; Nash, Piers D.

    2010-01-01

    Selective ligand recognition by modular protein interaction domains is a primary determinant of specificity in signaling pathways. Src homology 2 (SH2) domains fulfill this capacity immediately downstream of tyrosine kinases, acting to recruit their host polypeptides to ligand proteins harboring phosphorylated tyrosine residues. The degree to which SH2 domains are selective and the mechanisms underlying selectivity are fundamental to understanding phosphotyrosine signaling networks. An examination of interactions between 50 SH2 domains and a set of 192 phosphotyrosine peptides corresponding to physiological motifs within FGF, insulin, and IGF-1 receptor pathways indicates that individual SH2 domains have distinct recognition properties and exhibit a remarkable degree of selectivity beyond that predicted by previously described binding motifs. The underlying basis for such selectivity is the ability of SH2 domains to recognize both permissive amino acid residues that enhance binding and non-permissive amino acid residues that oppose binding in the vicinity of the essential phosphotyrosine. Neighboring positions affect one another so local sequence context matters to SH2 domains. This complex linguistics allows SH2 domains to distinguish subtle differences in peptide ligands. This newly appreciated contextual dependence substantially increases the accessible information content embedded in the peptide ligands that can be effectively integrated to determine binding. This concept may serve more broadly as a paradigm for subtle recognition of physiological ligands by protein interaction domains. PMID:20627867

  10. Hemispheric differences in the processing of contextual information during language comprehension.

    PubMed

    Gouldthorp, Bethanie

    2015-05-01

    This study investigated the proposition that the right hemisphere (RH) processes language in a global, integrative manner that maintains access to earlier contextual information, whereas the left hemisphere (LH) processes in a local fashion and only keeps active the most recent concept. Thirty-four right-handed participants completed a lexical decision task using a split visual-field paradigm, with reaction time and error rates recorded. Three sentences were presented, where an inference was required in order to produce coherence between the first and second sentences. The third sentence was not directly related to the inference generation, but was consistent with the scenario set out in the prior context. Targets were either "Global", where the target reflected the meaning of the inference generated in order for coherence to have been created; or "Local", where the target reflected the meaning of only the third sentence and therefore did not require integration of previous context. Significantly greater facilitation was observed for the RH/left visual field than LH/right visual field for "Global" targets, while no hemispheric differences were observed for "Local" targets. This study provides evidence for the distillation of current models of hemispheric language comprehension into underlying local and global processes.

  11. 47 CFR 25.111 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... information it requires for the Advance Publication, Coordination and Notification of frequency assignments..., with respect to individual administrations, by successfully completing coordination agreements. Any... terms and conditions as required to effect coordination of the frequency assignments with...

  12. 17 CFR 240.12b-20 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Additional information. 240... Securities Exchange Act of 1934 General Requirements As to Contents § 240.12b-20 Additional information. In addition to the information expressly required to be included in a statement or report, there shall...

  13. 17 CFR 270.8b-20 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Additional information. 270.8b...) RULES AND REGULATIONS, INVESTMENT COMPANY ACT OF 1940 § 270.8b-20 Additional information. In addition to the information expressly required to be included in a registration statement or report, there...

  14. 29 CFR 2570.39 - Opportunities to submit additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Opportunities to submit additional information. 2570.39... Prohibited Transaction Exemption Applications § 2570.39 Opportunities to submit additional information. (a) An applicant may notify the Department of its intent to submit additional information supporting...

  15. 43 CFR 3430.4-2 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Additional information. 3430.4-2 Section... Leases § 3430.4-2 Additional information. (a) If the applicant for a preference right lease has submitted timely, some, but not all of the information required in § 3430.4-1 of this title, the authorized...

  16. 34 CFR 303.212 - Additional information and assurances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... system as required by section 427(b) of GEPA; and (b) Other information and assurances as the Secretary... 34 Education 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Additional information and assurances. 303.212 Section... Additional information and assurances. Each application must contain— (a) A description of the steps...

  17. 34 CFR 303.212 - Additional information and assurances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... system as required by section 427(b) of GEPA; and (b) Other information and assurances as the Secretary... 34 Education 2 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Additional information and assurances. 303.212 Section... Additional information and assurances. Each application must contain— (a) A description of the steps...

  18. 29 CFR 2570.39 - Opportunities to submit additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Opportunities to submit additional information. 2570.39... Processing of Prohibited Transaction Exemption Applications § 2570.39 Opportunities to submit additional information. (a) An applicant may notify the Department of its intent to submit additional...

  19. 29 CFR 2570.39 - Opportunities to submit additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Opportunities to submit additional information. 2570.39... Processing of Prohibited Transaction Exemption Applications § 2570.39 Opportunities to submit additional information. (a) An applicant may notify the Department of its intent to submit additional...

  20. 29 CFR 2570.39 - Opportunities to submit additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Opportunities to submit additional information. 2570.39... Processing of Prohibited Transaction Exemption Applications § 2570.39 Opportunities to submit additional information. (a) An applicant may notify the Department of its intent to submit additional...

  1. Effects of Contextual Information on Seeing Pareidolic Religious Inscriptions on an Artifact: Implications for the Shroud of Turin.

    PubMed

    Sheen, Mercedes; Jordan, Timothy R

    2015-12-01

    Several reports suggest that images of the Shroud of Turin contain faint religious inscriptions that support the view that the Shroud has special religious significance. Against this background, we investigated effects of contextual information on detecting religious inscriptions using an image of plain modern linen with no religious provenance and containing no writing. The image was viewed in three contexts: In the Neutral Context, participants were told that the image was of a simple piece of linen; in the Religious Context, participants were told that the image was of an important religious artifact; and in the Religious Context + Options condition, participants were also given plausible word options. Very few words were detected in the Neutral Context, significantly more in the Religious Context, and most in the Religious Context+Options condition. Some implications of these findings for reports of inscriptions in the context-laden conditions surrounding the Shroud of Turin are discussed.

  2. Effects of Contextual Information on Seeing Pareidolic Religious Inscriptions on an Artifact: Implications for the Shroud of Turin.

    PubMed

    Sheen, Mercedes; Jordan, Timothy R

    2015-12-01

    Several reports suggest that images of the Shroud of Turin contain faint religious inscriptions that support the view that the Shroud has special religious significance. Against this background, we investigated effects of contextual information on detecting religious inscriptions using an image of plain modern linen with no religious provenance and containing no writing. The image was viewed in three contexts: In the Neutral Context, participants were told that the image was of a simple piece of linen; in the Religious Context, participants were told that the image was of an important religious artifact; and in the Religious Context + Options condition, participants were also given plausible word options. Very few words were detected in the Neutral Context, significantly more in the Religious Context, and most in the Religious Context+Options condition. Some implications of these findings for reports of inscriptions in the context-laden conditions surrounding the Shroud of Turin are discussed. PMID:26562867

  3. Contextual Text Mining

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mei, Qiaozhu

    2009-01-01

    With the dramatic growth of text information, there is an increasing need for powerful text mining systems that can automatically discover useful knowledge from text. Text is generally associated with all kinds of contextual information. Those contexts can be explicit, such as the time and the location where a blog article is written, and the…

  4. DETAIL OF PLAQUE WITH ADDITIONAL DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION INFORMATION, SOUTHEAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OF PLAQUE WITH ADDITIONAL DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION INFORMATION, SOUTHEAST ABUTMENT - Connecticut Avenue Bridge, Spans Rock Creek & Potomac Parkway at Connecticut Avenue, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  5. 19 CFR 111.60 - Request for additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Request for additional information. 111.60 Section 111.60 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT... particular language of the proposed statement of charges as to which additional information is needed. If...

  6. 40 CFR 141.154 - Required additional health information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Required additional health information... Required additional health information. (a) All reports must prominently display the following language... from their health care providers. EPA/CDC guidelines on appropriate means to lessen the risk...

  7. 40 CFR 141.154 - Required additional health information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Required additional health information... Required additional health information. (a) All reports must prominently display the following language... from their health care providers. EPA/CDC guidelines on appropriate means to lessen the risk...

  8. 40 CFR 141.154 - Required additional health information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Required additional health information... Required additional health information. (a) All reports must prominently display the following language... from their health care providers. EPA/CDC guidelines on appropriate means to lessen the risk...

  9. 40 CFR 141.154 - Required additional health information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Required additional health information... Required additional health information. (a) All reports must prominently display the following language... from their health care providers. EPA/CDC guidelines on appropriate means to lessen the risk...

  10. 40 CFR 141.154 - Required additional health information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Required additional health information... Required additional health information. (a) All reports must prominently display the following language... from their health care providers. EPA/CDC guidelines on appropriate means to lessen the risk...

  11. 10 CFR 71.39 - Requirement for additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Requirement for additional information. 71.39 Section 71.39 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) PACKAGING AND TRANSPORTATION OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL Application for Package Approval § 71.39 Requirement for additional information. The...

  12. Contextual and Serial Discriminations: A New Learning Paradigm to Assess Simultaneously the Effects of Acute Stress on Retrieval of Flexible or Stable Information in Mice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Celerier, Aurelie; Pierard, Christophe; Rachbauer, Dagmar; Sarrieau, Alain; Beracochea, Daniel

    2004-01-01

    The present study was aimed at simultaneously determining on the same subject, the effects of stress on retrieval of flexible (contextual or temporal) or stable (spatial) information. Three behavioral paradigms carried out in a four-hole board were designed as follows: (1) Simple Discrimination (SD), in which mice learned a single discrimination;…

  13. A Case for Contextual Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Souders, John; Prescott, Carolyn

    1999-01-01

    Establishing schooling/larger world connections is critical for adolescents. The contextual learning approach views learning as most effective when information is presented within a familiar framework. Employing puzzles, hands-on learning activities, project-based learning, contextual connections, applied math, mentoring, and wider audiences…

  14. Converting local spectral and spatial information from a priori classifiers into contextual knowledge for impervious surface classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Li; Mountrakis, Giorgos

    2011-09-01

    A classification model was demonstrated that explored spectral and spatial contextual information from previously classified neighbors to improve classification of remaining unclassified pixels. The classification was composed by two major steps, the a priori and the a posteriori classifications. The a priori algorithm classified the less difficult image portion. The a posteriori classifier operated on the more challenging image parts and strived to enhance accuracy by converting classified information from the a priori process into specific knowledge. The novelty of this work relies on the substitution of image-wide information with local spectral representations and spatial correlations, in essence classifying each pixel using exclusively neighboring behavior. Furthermore, the a posteriori classifier is a simple and intuitive algorithm, adjusted to perform in a localized setting for the task requirements. A 2001 and a 2006 Landsat scene from Central New York were used to assess the performance on an impervious classification task. The proposed method was compared with a back propagation neural network. Kappa statistic values in the corresponding applicable datasets increased from 18.67 to 24.05 for the 2006 scene, and from 22.92 to 35.76 for the 2001 scene classification, mostly correcting misclassifications between impervious and soil pixels. This finding suggests that simple classifiers have the ability to surpass complex classifiers through incorporation of partial results and an elegant multi-process framework.

  15. Using a 'value-added' approach for contextual design of geographic information.

    PubMed

    May, Andrew J

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this article is to demonstrate how a 'value-added' approach can be used for user-centred design of geographic information. An information science perspective was used, with value being the difference in outcomes arising from alternative information sets. Sixteen drivers navigated a complex, unfamiliar urban route, using visual and verbal instructions representing the distance-to-turn and junction layout information presented by typical satellite navigation systems. Data measuring driving errors, navigation errors and driver confidence were collected throughout the trial. The results show how driver performance varied considerably according to the geographic context at specific locations, and that there are specific opportunities to add value with enhanced geographical information. The conclusions are that a value-added approach facilitates a more explicit focus on 'desired' (and feasible) levels of end user performance with different information sets, and is a potentially effective approach to user-centred design of geographic information.

  16. A Public Opinion Survey on Correctional Education: Does Additional Information on Efficacy Lead to Additional Support?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waterland, Keri Lynn

    2009-01-01

    Though much research has been done on the efficacy of correctional education on reducing recidivism rates for prison inmates, there is little research on the effect that information about the efficacy of correctional education has on public opinion. This study examined whether providing additional information regarding the efficacy of correctional…

  17. 21 CFR 807.26 - Additional listing information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... FDA electronic device registration and listing system. Electronic submissions of such information must...) MEDICAL DEVICES ESTABLISHMENT REGISTRATION AND DEVICE LISTING FOR MANUFACTURERS AND INITIAL IMPORTERS OF DEVICES Procedures for Device Establishments § 807.26 Additional listing information. (a) Each owner...

  18. 21 CFR 807.26 - Additional listing information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... FDA electronic device registration and listing system. Electronic submissions of such information must...) MEDICAL DEVICES ESTABLISHMENT REGISTRATION AND DEVICE LISTING FOR MANUFACTURERS AND INITIAL IMPORTERS OF DEVICES Procedures for Device Establishments § 807.26 Additional listing information. (a) Each owner...

  19. Value Addition in Information Technology and Literacy: An Empirical Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanghera, Kamaljeet K.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the research is to analyze the value addition in students' information communication and technology (ICT) literacy level and confidence in using technology after completing a general education information technology course at a four-year university. An online survey was created to examine students' perceptions. The findings revealed…

  20. 28 CFR 4.4 - Supporting affidavit; additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... EMPLOYEE RETIREMENT INCOME SECURITY ACT OF 1974 § 4.4 Supporting affidavit; additional information. (a... together with any other person and the amount and source of all income during the immediately preceding five calendar years plus income to date of application. (12) Any other information which the...

  1. Square pegs in round holes: information systems, hospitals and the significance of contextual awareness.

    PubMed

    Tjora, Aksel Hagen; Scambler, Graham

    2009-02-01

    The considerable emphasis in the development and implementation of clinical information systems in hospitals internationally seems to have had a limited effect. In particular, the implementation of electronic patient record (EPR) systems has been slower and more difficult than anticipated and with little change in efficiency and security. This paper suggests why this might be the case. Well established research findings within the field of computer supported cooperative work (CSCW--an interdisciplinary research field between informatics and the social sciences) are cited to construct a case for greater awareness of (1) inter- and intra-professional interests, and (2) broader social and health policy contexts. We draw on Gouldner's work [(1957). Cosmopolitans and locals: toward an analysis of latent social roles--I. Administrative Science Quarterly, 2(3), 281-306; (1958). Cosmopolitans and locals: toward an analysis of latent social roles--II. Administrative Science Quarterly, 2 (4), 444-480] on organisational roles to develop a discussion of professional awareness; a pivotal notion is also the interactionist one of the hospital as a 'negotiated order'. Drawing for illustrative purposes on the Norwegian experience (that is, reviewing research on hospital information systems in Norway), we contend that enhanced awareness of the hospital itself as a social system may be a precondition of cost-effective hospital information and communication technologies. PMID:19054601

  2. Psychosocial approaches to violence and aggression: contextually anchored and trauma-informed interventions.

    PubMed

    Horowitz, Deborah; Guyer, Margaret; Sanders, Kathy

    2015-06-01

    Psychosocial interventions are part of the complex understanding and treatment of violent behavior in our state mental health hospitals. A comprehensive assessment of violence and aggression includes attention to all 3 domains of prevention and assessment (primary-institutional, secondary-structural, and tertiary-direct). Trauma experiences and their consequences may include behavioral violence and aggression. The authors' premise is that trauma is a universal component in the individual assessment of violent behavior. Therapeutic interventions must include a trauma-informed formulation to be effective. Organizational commitment to trauma-informed, person-centered, recovery-oriented (TPR) care is crucial to the efficacy of any of the interventions discussed. Thus, the dynamic nature of the individual, interpersonal, environmental, and cultural factors associated with the daily operations of the inpatient unit need to be assessed through the lens of primary and secondary violence prevention, building on the recognition that the majority of persons served and staff have significant trauma histories. Once a compassionate, respectful, empathic, and empowering approach is embraced by leadership and staff, the work with individuals can proceed more effectively. Interventions used include a variety of cognitive-behavioral, interpersonal, and somatosensory therapies. These interventions, when effectively applied, result in more self-esteem, self-mastery, self-control for the person served, and diminished behavioral violence.

  3. The striatum multiplexes contextual and kinematic information to constrain motor habits execution

    PubMed Central

    Rueda-Orozco, Pavel E; Robbe, David

    2014-01-01

    The striatum is required for the acquisition of procedural memories but its contribution to motor control once learning has occurred is unclear. Here we created a task in which rats learned a difficult motor sequence characterized by fine-tuned changes in running speed adjusted to spatial and temporal constraints. After training and extensive practice, we found that the behavior was habitual yet tetrode recordings in the dorsolateral striatum (DLS) revealed continuous integrative representations of running speed, position and time. These representations were weak in naive rats hand-guided to perform the same sequence and developed slowly after learning. Finally, DLS inactivation in well-trained animals preserved the structure of the sequence while increasing its trial-by-trial variability. We conclude that after learning the DLS continuously integrates task-relevant information to constrain the execution of motor habits. Our work provides a straightforward mechanism by which the basal ganglia may contribute to habit formation and motor control. PMID:25622144

  4. 25 CFR 215.17 - Additional information required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Additional information required. 215.17 Section 215.17 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEAD AND ZINC MINING... interested in lead and zinc mining leases, or land under the jurisdiction of the Quapaw Indian Agency,...

  5. 25 CFR 227.7 - Additional information from applicant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Additional information from applicant. 227.7 Section 227.7 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF CERTAIN LANDS IN WIND RIVER INDIAN RESERVATION, WYOMING, FOR OIL AND GAS MINING How to Acquire Leases §...

  6. 25 CFR 227.7 - Additional information from applicant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Additional information from applicant. 227.7 Section 227.7 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF CERTAIN LANDS IN WIND RIVER INDIAN RESERVATION, WYOMING, FOR OIL AND GAS MINING How to Acquire...

  7. 25 CFR 227.7 - Additional information from applicant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Additional information from applicant. 227.7 Section 227.7 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF CERTAIN LANDS IN WIND RIVER INDIAN RESERVATION, WYOMING, FOR OIL AND GAS MINING How to Acquire...

  8. 46 CFR 535.606 - Requests for additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requests for additional information. 535.606 Section 535.606 Shipping FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION REGULATIONS AFFECTING OCEAN SHIPPING IN FOREIGN COMMERCE OCEAN COMMON CARRIER AND MARINE TERMINAL OPERATOR AGREEMENTS SUBJECT TO THE SHIPPING ACT OF 1984...

  9. 21 CFR 207.31 - Additional drug listing information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Additional drug listing information. 207.31 Section 207.31 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL REGISTRATION OF PRODUCERS OF DRUGS AND LISTING OF DRUGS IN COMMERCIAL...

  10. 25 CFR 227.7 - Additional information from applicant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Additional information from applicant. 227.7 Section 227.7 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF CERTAIN LANDS IN WIND RIVER INDIAN RESERVATION, WYOMING, FOR OIL AND GAS MINING How to Acquire...

  11. 25 CFR 227.7 - Additional information from applicant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Additional information from applicant. 227.7 Section 227.7 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF CERTAIN LANDS IN WIND RIVER INDIAN RESERVATION, WYOMING, FOR OIL AND GAS MINING How to Acquire...

  12. 21 CFR 207.31 - Additional drug listing information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Additional drug listing information. 207.31 Section 207.31 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL REGISTRATION OF PRODUCERS OF DRUGS AND LISTING OF DRUGS IN COMMERCIAL...

  13. 21 CFR 207.31 - Additional drug listing information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Additional drug listing information. 207.31 Section 207.31 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL REGISTRATION OF PRODUCERS OF DRUGS AND LISTING OF DRUGS IN COMMERCIAL...

  14. 21 CFR 207.31 - Additional drug listing information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Additional drug listing information. 207.31 Section 207.31 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL REGISTRATION OF PRODUCERS OF DRUGS AND LISTING OF DRUGS IN COMMERCIAL...

  15. 49 CFR 235.12 - Additional required information-prints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... OR MATERIAL MODIFICATION OF A SIGNAL SYSTEM OR RELIEF FROM THE REQUIREMENTS OF PART 236 § 235.12... application should be shown uncolored. (Approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control number... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Additional required information-prints....

  16. 38 CFR 39.3 - Decisionmakers, notifications, and additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Decisionmakers, notifications, and additional information. 39.3 Section 39.3 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) AID TO STATES FOR ESTABLISHMENT, EXPANSION, AND IMPROVEMENT...

  17. Censored data treatment using additional information in intelligent medical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zenkova, Z. N.

    2015-11-01

    Statistical procedures are a very important and significant part of modern intelligent medical systems. They are used for proceeding, mining and analysis of different types of the data about patients and their diseases; help to make various decisions, regarding the diagnosis, treatment, medication or surgery, etc. In many cases the data can be censored or incomplete. It is a well-known fact that censorship considerably reduces the efficiency of statistical procedures. In this paper the author makes a brief review of the approaches which allow improvement of the procedures using additional information, and describes a modified estimation of an unknown cumulative distribution function involving additional information about a quantile which is known exactly. The additional information is used by applying a projection of a classical estimator to a set of estimators with certain properties. The Kaplan-Meier estimator is considered as an estimator of the unknown cumulative distribution function, the properties of the modified estimator are investigated for a case of a single right censorship by means of simulations.

  18. Selecting team players: Considering the impact of contextual performance and workplace deviance on selection decisions in the National Football League.

    PubMed

    Whiting, Steven W; Maynes, Timothy D

    2016-04-01

    Contextual performance and workplace deviance likely influence team functioning and effectiveness and should therefore be considered when evaluating job candidates for team-based roles. However, obtaining this information is difficult given a lack of reliable sources and the desire of job applicants to present themselves in a favorable light. Thus, it is unknown whether those selecting employees for teams incorporate prior contextual performance and workplace deviance into their evaluations, or whether doing so improves the quality of selection decisions. To address these issues, we examined the impact of prior task performance, contextual performance, and workplace deviance on National Football League (NFL) decision maker (organizational insider) and external expert (organizational outsider) evaluations of college football players in the NFL draft, using a content analysis methodology to generate measures of contextual performance and workplace deviance. Our findings indicate that insiders value contextual performance more than outsiders, which is likely because of differing interests and goals that lead to different levels of motivation and/or ability to acquire information about prior contextual performance. We also propose that prior task performance, contextual performance, and workplace deviance will predict player performance in the NFL. Our results support this prediction for task and contextual performance. In addition, we investigated the quality of insider and outsider judgments using Brunswik's (1952) lens model. Implications of our findings for the team selection, contextual performance, and workplace deviance literatures are discussed.

  19. Selecting team players: Considering the impact of contextual performance and workplace deviance on selection decisions in the National Football League.

    PubMed

    Whiting, Steven W; Maynes, Timothy D

    2016-04-01

    Contextual performance and workplace deviance likely influence team functioning and effectiveness and should therefore be considered when evaluating job candidates for team-based roles. However, obtaining this information is difficult given a lack of reliable sources and the desire of job applicants to present themselves in a favorable light. Thus, it is unknown whether those selecting employees for teams incorporate prior contextual performance and workplace deviance into their evaluations, or whether doing so improves the quality of selection decisions. To address these issues, we examined the impact of prior task performance, contextual performance, and workplace deviance on National Football League (NFL) decision maker (organizational insider) and external expert (organizational outsider) evaluations of college football players in the NFL draft, using a content analysis methodology to generate measures of contextual performance and workplace deviance. Our findings indicate that insiders value contextual performance more than outsiders, which is likely because of differing interests and goals that lead to different levels of motivation and/or ability to acquire information about prior contextual performance. We also propose that prior task performance, contextual performance, and workplace deviance will predict player performance in the NFL. Our results support this prediction for task and contextual performance. In addition, we investigated the quality of insider and outsider judgments using Brunswik's (1952) lens model. Implications of our findings for the team selection, contextual performance, and workplace deviance literatures are discussed. PMID:26595758

  20. Contextual determinants of pain judgments.

    PubMed

    Martel, M O; Thibault, P; Roy, C; Catchlove, R; Sullivan, M J L

    2008-10-31

    The objective of this study was to examine the influence of variations in contextual features of a physically demanding lifting task on the judgments of others' pain. Healthy undergraduates (n=98) were asked to estimate the pain experience of chronic pain patients who were filmed while lifting canisters at different distances from their body. Of interest was whether contextual information (i.e., lifting posture) contributed to pain estimates beyond the variance accounted for by pain behavior. Results indicated that the judgments of others' pain varied significantly as a function of the contextual features of the pain-eliciting task; observers estimated significantly more pain when watching patients lifting canisters positioned further away from the body than canisters closest from the body. Canister position contributed significant unique variance to the prediction of pain estimates even after controlling for observers' use of pain behavior as a basis of pain estimates. Correlational analyses revealed that greater use of the contextual features when judging others' pain was related to a lower discrepancy (higher accuracy) between estimated and self-reported pain ratings. Results also indicated that observers' level of catastrophizing was associated with more accurate pain estimates. The results of a regression analysis further showed that observers' level of catastrophizing contributed to the prediction of the accuracy of pain estimates over and above the variance accounted for by the utilisation of contextual features. Discussion addresses the processes that might underlie the utilisation of contextual features of a pain-eliciting task when estimating others' pain. PMID:18701219

  1. Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smalheer, C. V.

    1973-01-01

    The chemistry of lubricant additives is discussed to show what the additives are chemically and what functions they perform in the lubrication of various kinds of equipment. Current theories regarding the mode of action of lubricant additives are presented. The additive groups discussed include the following: (1) detergents and dispersants, (2) corrosion inhibitors, (3) antioxidants, (4) viscosity index improvers, (5) pour point depressants, and (6) antifouling agents.

  2. Contextuality supplies the 'magic' for quantum computation.

    PubMed

    Howard, Mark; Wallman, Joel; Veitch, Victor; Emerson, Joseph

    2014-06-19

    Quantum computers promise dramatic advantages over their classical counterparts, but the source of the power in quantum computing has remained elusive. Here we prove a remarkable equivalence between the onset of contextuality and the possibility of universal quantum computation via 'magic state' distillation, which is the leading model for experimentally realizing a fault-tolerant quantum computer. This is a conceptually satisfying link, because contextuality, which precludes a simple 'hidden variable' model of quantum mechanics, provides one of the fundamental characterizations of uniquely quantum phenomena. Furthermore, this connection suggests a unifying paradigm for the resources of quantum information: the non-locality of quantum theory is a particular kind of contextuality, and non-locality is already known to be a critical resource for achieving advantages with quantum communication. In addition to clarifying these fundamental issues, this work advances the resource framework for quantum computation, which has a number of practical applications, such as characterizing the efficiency and trade-offs between distinct theoretical and experimental schemes for achieving robust quantum computation, and putting bounds on the overhead cost for the classical simulation of quantum algorithms. PMID:24919152

  3. Contextuality supplies the 'magic' for quantum computation.

    PubMed

    Howard, Mark; Wallman, Joel; Veitch, Victor; Emerson, Joseph

    2014-06-19

    Quantum computers promise dramatic advantages over their classical counterparts, but the source of the power in quantum computing has remained elusive. Here we prove a remarkable equivalence between the onset of contextuality and the possibility of universal quantum computation via 'magic state' distillation, which is the leading model for experimentally realizing a fault-tolerant quantum computer. This is a conceptually satisfying link, because contextuality, which precludes a simple 'hidden variable' model of quantum mechanics, provides one of the fundamental characterizations of uniquely quantum phenomena. Furthermore, this connection suggests a unifying paradigm for the resources of quantum information: the non-locality of quantum theory is a particular kind of contextuality, and non-locality is already known to be a critical resource for achieving advantages with quantum communication. In addition to clarifying these fundamental issues, this work advances the resource framework for quantum computation, which has a number of practical applications, such as characterizing the efficiency and trade-offs between distinct theoretical and experimental schemes for achieving robust quantum computation, and putting bounds on the overhead cost for the classical simulation of quantum algorithms.

  4. Contextuality supplies the `magic' for quantum computation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howard, Mark; Wallman, Joel; Veitch, Victor; Emerson, Joseph

    2014-06-01

    Quantum computers promise dramatic advantages over their classical counterparts, but the source of the power in quantum computing has remained elusive. Here we prove a remarkable equivalence between the onset of contextuality and the possibility of universal quantum computation via `magic state' distillation, which is the leading model for experimentally realizing a fault-tolerant quantum computer. This is a conceptually satisfying link, because contextuality, which precludes a simple `hidden variable' model of quantum mechanics, provides one of the fundamental characterizations of uniquely quantum phenomena. Furthermore, this connection suggests a unifying paradigm for the resources of quantum information: the non-locality of quantum theory is a particular kind of contextuality, and non-locality is already known to be a critical resource for achieving advantages with quantum communication. In addition to clarifying these fundamental issues, this work advances the resource framework for quantum computation, which has a number of practical applications, such as characterizing the efficiency and trade-offs between distinct theoretical and experimental schemes for achieving robust quantum computation, and putting bounds on the overhead cost for the classical simulation of quantum algorithms.

  5. Critique, Contextualism and Consensus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Jane

    2004-01-01

    In an epistemology of contextualism, how robust does consensus need to be for critique to be practically effective? In 'Relativism and the Critical Potential of Philosophy of Education,' Frieda Heyting proposes a form of contextualism, but her argument raises a number of problems. The kinds of criteria that her version of contextualism will…

  6. Contextual Family Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frank, Catherine

    1984-01-01

    Examines the major principles and goals of contextual therapy and methods employed in its clinical application. A second article presents an interview with Dr. Ivan Boszormenyi-Nagy, who developed contextual family therapy. The interview ranges from Dr. Nagy's early training to the theoretical and clinical foundations of contextual family therapy.…

  7. Empathy and contextual social cognition.

    PubMed

    Melloni, Margherita; Lopez, Vladimir; Ibanez, Agustin

    2014-03-01

    Empathy is a highly flexible and adaptive process that allows for the interplay of prosocial behavior in many different social contexts. Empathy appears to be a very situated cognitive process, embedded with specific contextual cues that trigger different automatic and controlled responses. In this review, we summarize relevant evidence regarding social context modulation of empathy for pain. Several contextual factors, such as stimulus reality and personal experience, affectively link with other factors, emotional cues, threat information, group membership, and attitudes toward others to influence the affective, sensorimotor, and cognitive processing of empathy. Thus, we propose that the frontoinsular-temporal network, the so-called social context network model (SCNM), is recruited during the contextual processing of empathy. This network would (1) update the contextual cues and use them to construct fast predictions (frontal regions), (2) coordinate the internal (body) and external milieus (insula), and (3) consolidate the context-target associative learning of empathic processes (temporal sites). Furthermore, we propose these context-dependent effects of empathy in the framework of the frontoinsular-temporal network and examine the behavioral and neural evidence of three neuropsychiatric conditions (Asperger syndrome, schizophrenia, and the behavioral variant of frontotemporal dementia), which simultaneously present with empathy and contextual integration impairments. We suggest potential advantages of a situated approach to empathy in the assessment of these neuropsychiatric disorders, as well as their relationship with the SCNM.

  8. Contextual Pavlovian conditioning in the crab Chasmagnathus.

    PubMed

    Fustiñana, María Sol; Carbó Tano, Martín; Romano, Arturo; Pedreira, María Eugenia

    2013-03-01

    In contextual conditioning, a complex pattern of information is processed to associate the characteristics of a particular place with incentive or aversive reinforcements. This type of learning has been widely studied in mammals, but studies of other taxa are scarce. The context-signal memory (CSM) paradigm of the crab Chasmagnathus has been extensively used as a model of learning and memory. Although initially interpreted as habituation, some characteristics of contextual conditioning have been described. However, no anticipatory response has been detected for animals exposed to the training context. Thus, CSM could be interpreted either as an associative habituation or as contextual conditioning that occurs without a context-evoked anticipatory response. Here, we describe a training protocol developed for contextual Pavlovian conditioning (CPC). For each training trial, the context (conditioned stimulus, CS) was discretely presented and finished together with the unconditioned stimulus (US). In agreement with the CSM paradigm, a robust freezing response was acquired during the 15 training trials, and clear retention was found when tested with the US presentation after short (2 and 4 h) and long (1-4 days) delays. This CPC memory showed forward but not simultaneous presentation conditioning and was context specific and protein synthesis dependent. Additionally, a weak CPC memory was enhanced during consolidation. One day after training, CPC was extinguished by repeated CS presentation, while one presentation induced a memory labilisation-reconsolidation process. Finally, we found an anticipatory conditioned response (CR) during the CS presentation for both short-term (4 h) and long-term memory (24 h). These findings support the conditioning nature of the new paradigm.

  9. 29 CFR 2570.39 - Opportunities to submit additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... tentative denial letter. At the same time, the applicant should indicate generally the type of information... penalty of perjury attesting to the truth and correctness of the information provided, which is dated...

  10. 21 CFR 71.4 - Samples; additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... samples of the color additive, articles used as components thereof, or of the food, drug, or cosmetic in... additive, or articles used as components thereof, or of the food, drug, or cosmetic in which the color... respect to the safety of the color additive or the physical or technical effect it produces. The date...

  11. 21 CFR 71.4 - Samples; additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... samples of the color additive, articles used as components thereof, or of the food, drug, or cosmetic in... additive, or articles used as components thereof, or of the food, drug, or cosmetic in which the color... respect to the safety of the color additive or the physical or technical effect it produces. The date...

  12. Integrated contextual representation for objects' identities and their locations.

    PubMed

    Gronau, Nurit; Neta, Maital; Bar, Moshe

    2008-03-01

    Visual context plays a prominent role in everyday perception. Contextual information can facilitate recognition of objects within scenes by providing predictions about objects that are most likely to appear in a specific setting, along with the locations that are most likely to contain objects in the scene. Is such identity-related ("semantic") and location-related ("spatial") contextual knowledge represented separately or jointly as a bound representation? We conducted a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) priming experiment whereby semantic and spatial contextual relations between prime and target object pictures were independently manipulated. This method allowed us to determine whether the two contextual factors affect object recognition with or without interacting, supporting a unified versus independent representations, respectively. Results revealed a Semantic x Spatial interaction in reaction times for target object recognition. Namely, significant semantic priming was obtained when targets were positioned in expected (congruent), but not in unexpected (incongruent), locations. fMRI results showed corresponding interactive effects in brain regions associated with semantic processing (inferior prefrontal cortex), visual contextual processing (parahippocampal cortex), and object-related processing (lateral occipital complex). In addition, activation in fronto-parietal areas suggests that attention and memory-related processes might also contribute to the contextual effects observed. These findings indicate that object recognition benefits from associative representations that integrate information about objects' identities and their locations, and directly modulate activation in object-processing cortical regions. Such context frames are useful in maintaining a coherent and meaningful representation of the visual world, and in providing a platform from which predictions can be generated to facilitate perception and action.

  13. 77 FR 67655 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Food Additive...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-13

    ... Collection; Comment Request; Food Additive Petitions and Investigational Food Additive Exemptions; Extension... comment in response to the notice. This notice solicits comments on food additive petitions regarding... of information technology. Food Additive Petitions and Investigational Food Additive Exemptions,...

  14. Segmentation and Classification of Bone Marrow Cells Images Using Contextual Information for Medical Diagnosis of Acute Leukemias.

    PubMed

    Reta, Carolina; Altamirano, Leopoldo; Gonzalez, Jesus A; Diaz-Hernandez, Raquel; Peregrina, Hayde; Olmos, Ivan; Alonso, Jose E; Lobato, Ruben

    2015-01-01

    Morphological identification of acute leukemia is a powerful tool used by hematologists to determine the family of such a disease. In some cases, experienced physicians are even able to determine the leukemia subtype of the sample. However, the identification process may have error rates up to 40% (when classifying acute leukemia subtypes) depending on the physician's experience and the sample quality. This problem raises the need to create automatic tools that provide hematologists with a second opinion during the classification process. Our research presents a contextual analysis methodology for the detection of acute leukemia subtypes from bone marrow cells images. We propose a cells separation algorithm to break up overlapped regions. In this phase, we achieved an average accuracy of 95% in the evaluation of the segmentation process. In a second phase, we extract descriptive features to the nucleus and cytoplasm obtained in the segmentation phase in order to classify leukemia families and subtypes. We finally created a decision algorithm that provides an automatic diagnosis for a patient. In our experiments, we achieved an overall accuracy of 92% in the supervised classification of acute leukemia families, 84% for the lymphoblastic subtypes, and 92% for the myeloblastic subtypes. Finally, we achieved accuracies of 95% in the diagnosis of leukemia families and 90% in the diagnosis of leukemia subtypes.

  15. Segmentation and Classification of Bone Marrow Cells Images Using Contextual Information for Medical Diagnosis of Acute Leukemias

    PubMed Central

    Reta, Carolina; Altamirano, Leopoldo; Gonzalez, Jesus A.; Diaz-Hernandez, Raquel; Peregrina, Hayde; Olmos, Ivan; Alonso, Jose E.; Lobato, Ruben

    2015-01-01

    Morphological identification of acute leukemia is a powerful tool used by hematologists to determine the family of such a disease. In some cases, experienced physicians are even able to determine the leukemia subtype of the sample. However, the identification process may have error rates up to 40% (when classifying acute leukemia subtypes) depending on the physician’s experience and the sample quality. This problem raises the need to create automatic tools that provide hematologists with a second opinion during the classification process. Our research presents a contextual analysis methodology for the detection of acute leukemia subtypes from bone marrow cells images. We propose a cells separation algorithm to break up overlapped regions. In this phase, we achieved an average accuracy of 95% in the evaluation of the segmentation process. In a second phase, we extract descriptive features to the nucleus and cytoplasm obtained in the segmentation phase in order to classify leukemia families and subtypes. We finally created a decision algorithm that provides an automatic diagnosis for a patient. In our experiments, we achieved an overall accuracy of 92% in the supervised classification of acute leukemia families, 84% for the lymphoblastic subtypes, and 92% for the myeloblastic subtypes. Finally, we achieved accuracies of 95% in the diagnosis of leukemia families and 90% in the diagnosis of leukemia subtypes. PMID:26107374

  16. 78 FR 51265 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Application for Additional Visa Pages or...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-20

    ... Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Application for Additional Visa Pages or Miscellaneous...: Title of Information Collection: Application for Additional Visa Pages or Miscellaneous Passport... applies for the addition of visa pages to that passport, the Department must confirm the...

  17. 21 CFR 71.4 - Samples; additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... respect to the safety of the color additive or the physical or technical effect it produces. The date used for computing the 90-day limit for the purposes of section 721(d)(1) of the act shall be moved...

  18. 21 CFR 71.4 - Samples; additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... respect to the safety of the color additive or the physical or technical effect it produces. The date used for computing the 90-day limit for the purposes of section 721(d)(1) of the act shall be moved...

  19. An Ecologically Based Model of Alcohol-Consumption Decision Making: Evidence for the Discriminative and Predictive Role of Contextual Reward and Punishment Information*

    PubMed Central

    Bogg, Tim; Finn, Peter R.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Using insights from Ecological Systems Theory and Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory, the current study assessed the utility of a series of hypothetical role-based alcohol-consumption scenarios that varied in their presentation of rewarding and punishing information. Method: The scenarios, along with measures of impulsive sensation seeking and a self-report of weekly alcohol consumption, were administered to a sample of alcohol-dependent and non-alcohol-dependent college-age individuals (N = 170). Results: The results showed scenario attendance decisions were largely unaffected by alcohol-dependence status and variations in contextual reward and punishment information. In contrast to the attendance findings, the results for the alcohol-consumption decisions showed alcohol-dependent individuals reported a greater frequency of deciding to drink, as well as indicating greater alcohol consumption in the contexts of complementary rewarding or nonpunishing information. Regression results provided evidence for the criterion-related validity of scenario outcomes in an account of diagnostic alcohol problems. Conclusions: The results are discussed in terms of the conceptual and predictive gains associated with an assessment approach to alcohol-consumption decision making that combines situational information organized and balanced through the frameworks of Ecological Systems Theory and Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory. PMID:19371496

  20. 34 CFR 303.212 - Additional information and assurances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... State is taking to ensure equitable access to, and equitable participation in, the part C statewide system as required by section 427(b) of GEPA; and (b) Other information and assurances as the Secretary may reasonably require. (Approved by Office of Management and Budget under control number...

  1. Designing a theory-informed, contextually appropriate intervention strategy to improve delivery of paediatric services in Kenyan hospitals

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background District hospital services in Kenya and many low-income countries should deliver proven, effective interventions that could substantially reduce child and newborn mortality. However such services are often of poor quality. Researchers have therefore been challenged to identify intervention strategies that go beyond addressing knowledge, skill, or resource inadequacies to support health systems to deliver better services at scale. An effort to develop a system-oriented intervention tailored to local needs and context and drawing on theory is described. Methods An intervention was designed to improve district hospital services for children based on four main strategies: a reflective process to distill root causes for the observed problems with service delivery; developing a set of possible intervention approaches to address these problems; a search of literature for theory that provided the most appropriate basis for intervention design; and repeatedly moving backwards and forwards between identified causes, proposed interventions, identified theory, and knowledge of the existing context to develop an overarching intervention that seemed feasible and likely to be acceptable and potentially sustainable. Results and discussion In addition to human and resource constraints key problems included failures of relevant professionals to take responsibility for or ownership of the challenge of pediatric service delivery; inadequately prepared, poorly supported leaders of service units (mid-level managers) who are often professionally and geographically isolated and an almost complete lack of useful information for routinely monitoring or understanding service delivery practice or outcomes. A system-oriented intervention recognizing the pivotal role of leaders of service units but addressing the outer and inner setting of hospitals was designed to help shape and support an appropriate role for these professionals. It aims to foster a sense of ownership while

  2. Contextual analysis framework for bursty dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jo, Hang-Hyun; Pan, Raj Kumar; Perotti, Juan I.; Kaski, Kimmo

    2013-06-01

    To understand the origin of bursty dynamics in natural and social processes we provide a general analysis framework in which the temporal process is decomposed into subprocesses and then the bursts in subprocesses, called contextual bursts, are combined to collective bursts in the original process. For the combination of subprocesses, it is required to consider the distribution of different contexts over the original process. Based on minimal assumptions for interevent time statistics, we present a theoretical analysis for the relationship between contextual and collective interevent time distributions. Our analysis framework helps to exploit contextual information available in decomposable bursty dynamics.

  3. 78 FR 77119 - Proposed Information Collection Request; Comment Request; Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-20

    ... AGENCY Proposed Information Collection Request; Comment Request; Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives: 2011 Renewable Fuel Standards-- Petition for International Aggregate Compliance Approach AGENCY... to submit an information collection request (ICR), ``Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives:...

  4. 40 CFR Table 42 to Subpart Uuu of... - Additional Information for Initial Notification of Compliance Status

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Additional Information for Initial..., Table 42 Table 42 to Subpart UUU of Part 63—Additional Information for Initial Notification of... applies to you. For . . . You shall provide this additional information . . . 1. Identification...

  5. Ecological Modelling of Individual and Contextual Influences: A Person-in-Environment Framework for Hypothetico-Deductive Information Behaviour Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sin, Sei-Ching Joanna

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: This paper discusses the person-in-environment framework, which proposes the inclusion of environmental factors, alongside personal factors, as the explanatory factors of individual-level information behaviour and outcome. Method: The paper first introduces the principles and schematic formulas of the person-in-environment framework.…

  6. News Coverage and Access to Contextual Policy Information in the Case of Recreational Water Rights in Colorado

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crow, Deserai Anderson

    2011-01-01

    Local news media help shape the agendas from which new policies emerge. Furthermore, local media help determine public understanding of complex issues. Media should inform citizens and policymakers on important policy issues. This study uses a content analysis of 11 newspapers to understand the manner in which reporters covered a specific…

  7. Construction of a virtual EPR and automated contextual linkage to multiple sources of support information on the Oxford Clinical Intranet.

    PubMed

    Kay, J D; Nurse, D

    1999-01-01

    We have used internet-standard tools to provide access for clinicians to the components of the electronic patient record held on multiple remote disparate systems. Through the same interface we have provided access to multiple knowledgebases, some written locally and others published elsewhere. We have developed linkage between these two types of information which removes the need for the user to drill down into each knowledgebase to search for relevant information. This approach may help in the implementation of evidence-based practice. The major problems appear to be semantic rather than technological. The intranet was developed at low cost and is now in routine use. This approach appears to be transferable across systems and organisations.

  8. Physicians' Perceptions on the usefulness of contextual information for prioritizing and presenting alerts in computerized physician order entry systems

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background One possible approach towards avoiding alert overload and alert fatigue in Computerized Physician Order Entry (CPOE) systems is to tailor their drug safety alerts to the context of the clinical situation. Our objective was to identify the perceptions of physicians on the usefulness of clinical context information for prioritizing and presenting drug safety alerts. Methods We performed a questionnaire survey, inquiring CPOE-using physicians from four hospitals in four European countries to estimate the usefulness of 20 possible context factors. Results The 223 participants identified the ‘severity of the effect’ and the ‘clinical status of the patient’ as the most useful context factors. Further important factors are the ‘complexity of the case’ and the ‘risk factors of the patient’. Conclusions Our findings confirm the results of a prior, comparable survey inquiring CPOE researchers. Further research should focus on implementing these context factors in CPOE systems and on subsequently evaluating their impact. PMID:23031275

  9. 16 CFR 2.20 - Petitions for review of requests for additional information or documentary material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... or documentary material issued under 16 CFR 803.20. (b) Second request procedures—(1) Notice. Every request for additional information or documentary material issued under 16 CFR 803.20 shall inform the... additional information or documentary material. 2.20 Section 2.20 Commercial Practices FEDERAL...

  10. 21 CFR 71.15 - Confidentiality of data and information in color additive petitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Confidentiality of data and information in color... and information in color additive petitions. (a) The following data and information in a color... because of the deficiencies involved: (1) All safety and functionality data and information submitted...

  11. 42 CFR 435.955 - Additional requirements regarding information released by a Federal agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Additional requirements regarding information... requirements regarding information released by a Federal agency. (a) Unless waived under paragraph (d) of this section, based on information received from a computerized data match in which information on...

  12. Contextual medical-image viewer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno, Ramon A.; Furuie, Sergio S.

    2004-04-01

    One of the greatest difficulties of dealing with medical images is their distinct characteristics, in terms of generation process and noise that requires different forms of treatment for visualization and processing. Besides that, medical images are only a compounding part of the patient"s history, which should be accessible for the user in an understandable way. Other factors that can be used to enhance the user capability and experience are: the computational power of the client machine; available knowledge about the case; if the access is local or remote and what kind of user is accessing the system (physician, nurse, administrator, etc...). These information compose the context of an application and should define its behavior during execution time. In this article, we present the architecture of a viewer that takes into account the contextual information that is present at the moment of execution. We also present a viewer of X-Ray Angiographic images that uses contextual information about the client's hardware and the kind of user to, if necessary, reduce the image size and hide demographic information of the patient. The proposed architecture is extensible, allowing the inclusion of new tools and viewers, being adaptive along time to the evolution of the medical systems.

  13. The Role of the Basal Ganglia in Implicit Contextual Learning: A Study of Parkinson's Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Asselen, Marieke; Almeida, Ines; Andre, Rui; Januario, Cristina; Goncalves, Antonio Freire; Castelo-Branco, Miguel

    2009-01-01

    Implicit contextual learning refers to the ability to memorize contextual information from our environment. This contextual information can then be used to guide our attention to a specific location. Although the medial temporal lobe is important for this type of learning, the basal ganglia might also be involved considering its role in many…

  14. 49 CFR 260.25 - Additional information for Applicants not having a credit rating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Additional information for Applicants not having a... Financial Assistance § 260.25 Additional information for Applicants not having a credit rating. Each application submitted by Applicants not having a recent credit rating from one or more nationally...

  15. Can metabolomics in addition to genomics add to prognostic and predictive information in breast cancer?

    PubMed

    Howell, Anthony

    2010-11-16

    Genomic data from breast cancers provide additional prognostic and predictive information that is beginning to be used for patient management. The question arises whether additional information derived from other 'omic' approaches such as metabolomics can provide additional information. In an article published this month in BMC Cancer, Borgan et al. add metabolomic information to genomic measures in breast tumours and demonstrate, for the first time, that it may be possible to further define subgroups of patients which could be of value clinically. See research article: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2407/10/628.

  16. 75 FR 77645 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Color Additive...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-13

    ... Collection; Comment Request; Color Additive Certification Requests and Recordkeeping AGENCY: Food and Drug... certification of color additives manufactured for use in foods, drugs, cosmetics or medical devices in the... of information technology. Color Additive Certification Requests and Recordkeeping--21 CFR Part...

  17. The Parahippocampal Cortex Mediates Contextual Associative Memory: Evidence from an fMRI Study

    PubMed Central

    Li, Mi; Zhong, Ning

    2016-01-01

    The parahippocampal cortex (PHC) plays a key role in episodic memory, spatial processing, and the encoding of novel stimuli. Recent studies proposed that the PHC is largely involved in contextual associative processing. Consequently, the function of this region has been a hot debate in cognitive neuroscience. To test this assumption, we used two types of experimental materials to form the contextual associative memory: visual objects in reality and meaningless visual shapes. New associations were modeled from either the contextual objects or the contextual shapes. Both contextual objects and shapes activated the bilateral PHC more than the noncontextual ones. The contextual objects with semantics significantly activated the left PHC areas, whereas the meaningless contextual shapes significantly elicited the right PHC. The results clearly demonstrate that the PHC influences the processing of contextual information and provides experimental evidence for an understanding of the different functions of bilateral PHC in contextual associative memory. PMID:27247946

  18. Effects of Prediction and Contextual Support on Lexical Processing: Prediction takes Precedence

    PubMed Central

    Brothers, Trevor; Swaab, Tamara Y.; Traxler, Matthew J.

    2014-01-01

    Readers may use contextual information to anticipate and pre-activate specific lexical items during reading. However, prior studies have not clearly dissociated the effects of accurate lexical prediction from other forms of contextual facilitation such as plausibility or semantic priming. In this study, we measured electrophysiological responses to predicted and unpredicted target words in passages providing varying levels of contextual support. This method was used to isolate the neural effects of prediction from other potential contextual influences on lexical processing. While both prediction and discourse context influenced ERP amplitudes within the time range of the N400, the effects of prediction occurred much more rapidly, preceding contextual facilitation by approximately 100ms. In addition, a frontal, post-N400 positivity (PNP) was modulated by both prediction accuracy and the overall plausibility of the preceding passage. These results suggest a unique temporal primacy for prediction in facilitating lexical access. They also suggest that the frontal PNP may index the costs of revising discourse representations following an incorrect lexical prediction. PMID:25497522

  19. Neural processes mediating contextual influences on human choice behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Rigoli, Francesco; Friston, Karl J.; Dolan, Raymond J.

    2016-01-01

    Contextual influences on choice are ubiquitous in ecological settings. Current evidence suggests that subjective values are normalized with respect to the distribution of potentially available rewards. However, how this context-sensitivity is realised in the brain remains unknown. To address this, here we examine functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data during performance of a gambling task where blocks comprise values drawn from one of two different, but partially overlapping, reward distributions or contexts. At the beginning of each block (when information about context is provided), hippocampus is activated and this response is enhanced when contextual influence on choice increases. In addition, response to value in ventral tegmental area/substantia nigra (VTA/SN) shows context-sensitivity, an effect enhanced with an increased contextual influence on choice. Finally, greater response in hippocampus at block start is associated with enhanced context sensitivity in VTA/SN. These findings suggest that context-sensitive choice is driven by a brain circuit involving hippocampus and dopaminergic midbrain. PMID:27535770

  20. Neural processes mediating contextual influences on human choice behaviour.

    PubMed

    Rigoli, Francesco; Friston, Karl J; Dolan, Raymond J

    2016-01-01

    Contextual influences on choice are ubiquitous in ecological settings. Current evidence suggests that subjective values are normalized with respect to the distribution of potentially available rewards. However, how this context-sensitivity is realised in the brain remains unknown. To address this, here we examine functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data during performance of a gambling task where blocks comprise values drawn from one of two different, but partially overlapping, reward distributions or contexts. At the beginning of each block (when information about context is provided), hippocampus is activated and this response is enhanced when contextual influence on choice increases. In addition, response to value in ventral tegmental area/substantia nigra (VTA/SN) shows context-sensitivity, an effect enhanced with an increased contextual influence on choice. Finally, greater response in hippocampus at block start is associated with enhanced context sensitivity in VTA/SN. These findings suggest that context-sensitive choice is driven by a brain circuit involving hippocampus and dopaminergic midbrain. PMID:27535770

  1. Contextual Variability in Free Recall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lohnas, Lynn J.; Polyn, Sean M.; Kahana, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    According to contextual-variability theory, experiences encoded at different times tend to be associated with different contextual states. The gradual evolution of context implies that spaced items will be associated with more distinct contextual states, and thus have more unique retrieval cues, than items presented in proximity. Ross and Landauer…

  2. The transfer of Cfunc contextual control through equivalence relations.

    PubMed

    Perez, William F; Fidalgo, Adriana P; Kovac, Roberta; Nico, Yara C

    2015-05-01

    Derived relational responding is affected by contextual stimuli (Cfunc) that select specific stimulus functions. The present study investigated the transfer of Cfunc contextual control through equivalence relations by evaluating both (a) the maintenance of Cfunc contextual control after the expansion of a relational network, and (b) the establishment of novel contextual stimuli by the transfer of Cfunc contextual control through equivalence relations. Initially, equivalence relations were established and contingencies were arranged so that colors functioned as Cfunc stimuli controlling participants' key-pressing responses in the presence of any stimulus from a three-member equivalence network. To investigate the first research question, the three-member equivalence relations were expanded to five members and the novel members were presented with the Cfunc stimuli in the key-pressing task. To address the second goal of this study, the colors (Cfunc) were established as equivalent to certain line patterns. The transfer of contextual cue function (Cfunc) was tested replacing the colored backgrounds with line patterns in the key-pressing task. Results suggest that the Cfunc contextual control was transferred to novel stimuli that were added to the relational network. In addition, the line patterns indirectly acquired the contextual cue function (Cfunc) initially established for the colored backgrounds. The conceptual and applied implications of Cfunc contextual control are discussed. PMID:25892218

  3. The transfer of Cfunc contextual control through equivalence relations.

    PubMed

    Perez, William F; Fidalgo, Adriana P; Kovac, Roberta; Nico, Yara C

    2015-05-01

    Derived relational responding is affected by contextual stimuli (Cfunc) that select specific stimulus functions. The present study investigated the transfer of Cfunc contextual control through equivalence relations by evaluating both (a) the maintenance of Cfunc contextual control after the expansion of a relational network, and (b) the establishment of novel contextual stimuli by the transfer of Cfunc contextual control through equivalence relations. Initially, equivalence relations were established and contingencies were arranged so that colors functioned as Cfunc stimuli controlling participants' key-pressing responses in the presence of any stimulus from a three-member equivalence network. To investigate the first research question, the three-member equivalence relations were expanded to five members and the novel members were presented with the Cfunc stimuli in the key-pressing task. To address the second goal of this study, the colors (Cfunc) were established as equivalent to certain line patterns. The transfer of contextual cue function (Cfunc) was tested replacing the colored backgrounds with line patterns in the key-pressing task. Results suggest that the Cfunc contextual control was transferred to novel stimuli that were added to the relational network. In addition, the line patterns indirectly acquired the contextual cue function (Cfunc) initially established for the colored backgrounds. The conceptual and applied implications of Cfunc contextual control are discussed.

  4. 30 CFR 250.418 - What additional information must I submit with my APD?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Drilling Operations Applying for A Permit to Drill § 250.418 What additional information must...

  5. 30 CFR 250.418 - What additional information must I submit with my APD?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Drilling Operations Applying for A Permit to Drill § 250.418 What additional information must...

  6. Generation and Memory for Contextual Detail

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulligan, Neil W.

    2004-01-01

    Generation enhances item memory but may not enhance other aspects of memory. In 12 experiments, the author investigated the effect of generation on context memory, motivated in part by the hypothesis that generation produces a trade-off in encoding item and contextual information. Participants generated some study words (e.g., hot-___) and read…

  7. Contributions of the Medial Temporal Lobe to Declarative Memory Retrieval: Manipulating the Amount of Contextual Retrieval

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tendolkar, Indira; Arnold, Jennifer; Petersson, Karl Magnus; Weis, Susanne; Brockhaus-Dumke, Anke; van Eijndhoven, Philip; Buitelaar, Jan; Fernandez, Guillen

    2008-01-01

    We investigated how the hippocampus and its adjacent mediotemporal structures contribute to contextual and noncontextual declarative memory retrieval by manipulating the amount of contextual information across two levels of the same contextual dimension in a source memory task. A first analysis identified medial temporal lobe (MTL) substructures…

  8. 18 CFR 33.4 - Additional information requirements for applications involving vertical competitive impacts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Additional information requirements for applications involving vertical competitive impacts. 33.4 Section 33.4 Conservation of Power... FEDERAL POWER ACT APPLICATIONS UNDER FEDERAL POWER ACT SECTION 203 § 33.4 Additional...

  9. 18 CFR 33.4 - Additional information requirements for applications involving vertical competitive impacts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Additional information requirements for applications involving vertical competitive impacts. 33.4 Section 33.4 Conservation of Power... FEDERAL POWER ACT APPLICATIONS UNDER FEDERAL POWER ACT SECTION 203 § 33.4 Additional...

  10. Generalizing Contextual Analysis.

    PubMed

    Bourrat, Pierrick

    2016-06-01

    Okasha, in Evolution and the Levels of Selection, convincingly argues that two rival statistical decompositions of covariance, namely contextual analysis and the neighbour approach, are better causal decompositions than the hierarchical Price approach. However, he claims that this result cannot be generalized in the special case of soft selection and argues that the Price approach represents in this case a better option. He provides several arguments to substantiate this claim. In this paper, I demonstrate that these arguments are flawed and argue that neither the Price equation nor the contextual and neighbour partitionings sensu Okasha are adequate causal decompositions in cases of soft selection. The Price partitioning is generally unable to detect cross-level by-products and this naturally also applies to soft selection. Both contextual and neighbour partitionings violate the fundamental principle of determinism that the same cause always produces the same effect. I argue that a fourth partitioning widely used in the contemporary social sciences, under the generic term of 'hierarchical linear model' and related to contextual analysis understood broadly, addresses the shortcomings of the three other partitionings and thus represents a better causal decomposition. I then defend this model against the argument that because it predicts that there is some organismal selection in some specific cases of segregation distortion then it should be rejected. I show that cases of segregation distortion that intuitively seem to contradict the conclusion drawn from the hierarchical linear model are in fact cases of multilevel selection 2 while the assessment of the different partitionings are restricted to multilevel selection 1. PMID:27230419

  11. "The Dose Makes the Poison": Informing Consumers About the Scientific Risk Assessment of Food Additives.

    PubMed

    Bearth, Angela; Cousin, Marie-Eve; Siegrist, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Intensive risk assessment is required before the approval of food additives. During this process, based on the toxicological principle of "the dose makes the poison,ˮ maximum usage doses are assessed. However, most consumers are not aware of these efforts to ensure the safety of food additives and are therefore sceptical, even though food additives bring certain benefits to consumers. This study investigated the effect of a short video, which explains the scientific risk assessment and regulation of food additives, on consumers' perceptions and acceptance of food additives. The primary goal of this study was to inform consumers and enable them to construct their own risk-benefit assessment and make informed decisions about food additives. The secondary goal was to investigate whether people have different perceptions of food additives of artificial (i.e., aspartame) or natural origin (i.e., steviolglycoside). To attain these research goals, an online experiment was conducted on 185 Swiss consumers. Participants were randomly assigned to either the experimental group, which was shown a video about the scientific risk assessment of food additives, or the control group, which was shown a video about a topic irrelevant to the study. After watching the video, the respondents knew significantly more, expressed more positive thoughts and feelings, had less risk perception, and more acceptance than prior to watching the video. Thus, it appears that informing consumers about complex food safety topics, such as the scientific risk assessment of food additives, is possible, and using a carefully developed information video is a successful strategy for informing consumers. PMID:25951078

  12. "The Dose Makes the Poison": Informing Consumers About the Scientific Risk Assessment of Food Additives.

    PubMed

    Bearth, Angela; Cousin, Marie-Eve; Siegrist, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Intensive risk assessment is required before the approval of food additives. During this process, based on the toxicological principle of "the dose makes the poison,ˮ maximum usage doses are assessed. However, most consumers are not aware of these efforts to ensure the safety of food additives and are therefore sceptical, even though food additives bring certain benefits to consumers. This study investigated the effect of a short video, which explains the scientific risk assessment and regulation of food additives, on consumers' perceptions and acceptance of food additives. The primary goal of this study was to inform consumers and enable them to construct their own risk-benefit assessment and make informed decisions about food additives. The secondary goal was to investigate whether people have different perceptions of food additives of artificial (i.e., aspartame) or natural origin (i.e., steviolglycoside). To attain these research goals, an online experiment was conducted on 185 Swiss consumers. Participants were randomly assigned to either the experimental group, which was shown a video about the scientific risk assessment of food additives, or the control group, which was shown a video about a topic irrelevant to the study. After watching the video, the respondents knew significantly more, expressed more positive thoughts and feelings, had less risk perception, and more acceptance than prior to watching the video. Thus, it appears that informing consumers about complex food safety topics, such as the scientific risk assessment of food additives, is possible, and using a carefully developed information video is a successful strategy for informing consumers.

  13. Contextualizing CBPR: Key Principles of CBPR meet the Indigenous research context

    PubMed Central

    LaVeaux, Deborah; Christopher, Suzanne

    2009-01-01

    This paper addresses two questions regarding the use of Community-based Participatory Research (CBPR) approaches with tribal communities. First, how do “gold standard” CBPR principles hold up when applied to Native American communities and what additional contextual information is necessary to understand and work with these principles in this setting? Second, what additional principles or recommendations are helpful for researchers interested in conducting research using a CBPR approach with tribal communities? We studied a variety of literature sources on CBPR and Native health research to answer these questions. We are unaware of any publications that contextualize CBPR principles for working with specific populations. This information has direct application for conducting research with tribal communities, and confirms the importance of using CBPR approaches in this setting. PMID:20150951

  14. An adult development study of contextual memory.

    PubMed

    Denney, N W; Miller, B V; Dew, J R; Levav, A L

    1991-03-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that there is a relatively greater decrease in memory for contextual features than in memory for target information with increasing age. Young, middle-aged, and elderly adults were presented with a number of slides, each of which contained a word centered on a background composed of either a landscape/cityscape or a border design. One third of the subjects were told to remember the words, one third were told to remember the backgrounds, and one third were told to remember the word-and-background pairs. Recognition memory for both words, backgrounds, and word-and-background pairings was tested in all subjects. The interaction between age, instruction condition, and type of information tested was not significant. Thus, there was no support for the hypothesis that older adults have a greater deficit in contextual memory than in memory for target information when compared to younger adults.

  15. 38 CFR 61.15 - Capital grants-obtaining additional information and awarding capital grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Capital grants-obtaining additional information and awarding capital grants. 61.15 Section 61.15 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) VA HOMELESS PROVIDERS GRANT AND PER DIEM PROGRAM Capital Grants § 61.15...

  16. 16 CFR 803.21 - Additional information shall be supplied within reasonable time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Additional information shall be supplied within reasonable time. 803.21 Section 803.21 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION RULES, REGULATIONS, STATEMENTS AND INTERPRETATIONS UNDER THE HART-SCOTT-RODINO ANTITRUST IMPROVEMENTS ACT OF...

  17. 16 CFR 803.21 - Additional information shall be supplied within reasonable time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Additional information shall be supplied within reasonable time. 803.21 Section 803.21 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION RULES, REGULATIONS, STATEMENTS AND INTERPRETATIONS UNDER THE HART-SCOTT-RODINO ANTITRUST IMPROVEMENTS ACT OF...

  18. 13 CFR 126.403 - May SBA require additional information from a HUBZone SBC?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false May SBA require additional information from a HUBZone SBC? 126.403 Section 126.403 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS... adverse inference from the failure of a HUBZone SBC to cooperate with a program examination or...

  19. 13 CFR 126.403 - May SBA require additional information from a HUBZone SBC?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false May SBA require additional information from a HUBZone SBC? 126.403 Section 126.403 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS... adverse inference from the failure of a HUBZone SBC to cooperate with a program examination or...

  20. 13 CFR 126.403 - May SBA require additional information from a HUBZone SBC?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false May SBA require additional information from a HUBZone SBC? 126.403 Section 126.403 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS... adverse inference from the failure of a HUBZone SBC to cooperate with a program examination or...

  1. 18 CFR 33.3 - Additional information requirements for applications involving horizontal competitive impacts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Additional information... and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE... role that entry could play in mitigating adverse competitive effects of the transaction; (3)...

  2. 18 CFR 33.3 - Additional information requirements for applications involving horizontal competitive impacts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Additional information... and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE... role that entry could play in mitigating adverse competitive effects of the transaction; (3)...

  3. 18 CFR 33.4 - Additional information requirements for applications involving vertical competitive impacts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Additional information... and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE... competitive effects of the transaction. (ii) The potential for entry in the market and the role that...

  4. 18 CFR 33.4 - Additional information requirements for applications involving vertical competitive impacts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Additional information... and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE... competitive effects of the transaction. (ii) The potential for entry in the market and the role that...

  5. 18 CFR 33.4 - Additional information requirements for applications involving vertical competitive impacts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Additional information... and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE... competitive effects of the transaction. (ii) The potential for entry in the market and the role that...

  6. 21 CFR 71.15 - Confidentiality of data and information in color additive petitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Confidentiality of data and information in color additive petitions. 71.15 Section 71.15 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH... established in § 20.61 of this chapter. (6) All records showing the Food and Drug Administration's testing...

  7. 76 FR 24854 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Additional Protocol Report Forms

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-03

    ... International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) on a number of commercial nuclear and nuclear-related items, materials... for a nuclear weapons program. These forms provides the IAEA with information about additional aspects...; buildings on sites of facilities selected by the IAEA from the U.S. Eligible Facilities List;...

  8. 30 CFR 250.418 - What additional information must I submit with my APD?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What additional information must I submit with my APD? 250.418 Section 250.418 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, REGULATION, AND... plot if the well is to be directionally drilled; (d) A Hydrogen Sulfide Contingency Plan (see §...

  9. 30 CFR 250.418 - What additional information must I submit with my APD?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Drilling Operations Applying for A Permit to Drill § 250.418 What additional information must I submit with my APD? You must include the following with the APD: (a) Rated capacities of the drilling rig and...

  10. 38 CFR 39.4 - Decision makers, notifications, and additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Decision makers, notifications, and additional information. 39.4 Section 39.4 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) AID TO STATES FOR ESTABLISHMENT, EXPANSION, AND IMPROVEMENT,...

  11. 38 CFR 39.4 - Decision makers, notifications, and additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Decision makers, notifications, and additional information. 39.4 Section 39.4 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) AID FOR THE ESTABLISHMENT, EXPANSION, AND IMPROVEMENT, OR...

  12. 38 CFR 39.4 - Decision makers, notifications, and additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Decision makers, notifications, and additional information. 39.4 Section 39.4 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) AID FOR THE ESTABLISHMENT, EXPANSION, AND IMPROVEMENT, OR...

  13. 38 CFR 39.4 - Decision makers, notifications, and additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Decision makers, notifications, and additional information. 39.4 Section 39.4 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) AID FOR THE ESTABLISHMENT, EXPANSION, AND IMPROVEMENT, OR...

  14. 26 CFR 1.852-7 - Additional information required in returns of shareholders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... shareholders. 1.852-7 Section 1.852-7 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... Trusts § 1.852-7 Additional information required in returns of shareholders. Any person who fails or....852-6 requires the company to demand from its shareholders shall submit as a part of his income...

  15. 75 FR 35119 - 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Form DS-4085 Application for Additional Visa...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-21

    ... Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Form DS-4085 Application for Additional Visa Pages or... the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995. Title of Information Collection: Application for Additional Visa... collection: The information collected on the DS-4085 is used to facilitate the issuance of additional...

  16. 26 CFR 301.6223(c)-1 - Additional information regarding partners furnished to the Internal Revenue Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... shown on the partnership return, the Internal Revenue Service will use additional information as... additional information at any time by filing a written statement with the Internal Revenue Service. However...) of this section. (f) Internal Revenue Service may use other information. In addition to...

  17. Why Contextual Preference Reversals Maximize Expected Value

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Contextual preference reversals occur when a preference for one option over another is reversed by the addition of further options. It has been argued that the occurrence of preference reversals in human behavior shows that people violate the axioms of rational choice and that people are not, therefore, expected value maximizers. In contrast, we demonstrate that if a person is only able to make noisy calculations of expected value and noisy observations of the ordinal relations among option features, then the expected value maximizing choice is influenced by the addition of new options and does give rise to apparent preference reversals. We explore the implications of expected value maximizing choice, conditioned on noisy observations, for a range of contextual preference reversal types—including attraction, compromise, similarity, and phantom effects. These preference reversal types have played a key role in the development of models of human choice. We conclude that experiments demonstrating contextual preference reversals are not evidence for irrationality. They are, however, a consequence of expected value maximization given noisy observations. PMID:27337391

  18. Why contextual preference reversals maximize expected value.

    PubMed

    Howes, Andrew; Warren, Paul A; Farmer, George; El-Deredy, Wael; Lewis, Richard L

    2016-07-01

    Contextual preference reversals occur when a preference for one option over another is reversed by the addition of further options. It has been argued that the occurrence of preference reversals in human behavior shows that people violate the axioms of rational choice and that people are not, therefore, expected value maximizers. In contrast, we demonstrate that if a person is only able to make noisy calculations of expected value and noisy observations of the ordinal relations among option features, then the expected value maximizing choice is influenced by the addition of new options and does give rise to apparent preference reversals. We explore the implications of expected value maximizing choice, conditioned on noisy observations, for a range of contextual preference reversal types-including attraction, compromise, similarity, and phantom effects. These preference reversal types have played a key role in the development of models of human choice. We conclude that experiments demonstrating contextual preference reversals are not evidence for irrationality. They are, however, a consequence of expected value maximization given noisy observations. (PsycINFO Database Record

  19. Why contextual preference reversals maximize expected value.

    PubMed

    Howes, Andrew; Warren, Paul A; Farmer, George; El-Deredy, Wael; Lewis, Richard L

    2016-07-01

    Contextual preference reversals occur when a preference for one option over another is reversed by the addition of further options. It has been argued that the occurrence of preference reversals in human behavior shows that people violate the axioms of rational choice and that people are not, therefore, expected value maximizers. In contrast, we demonstrate that if a person is only able to make noisy calculations of expected value and noisy observations of the ordinal relations among option features, then the expected value maximizing choice is influenced by the addition of new options and does give rise to apparent preference reversals. We explore the implications of expected value maximizing choice, conditioned on noisy observations, for a range of contextual preference reversal types-including attraction, compromise, similarity, and phantom effects. These preference reversal types have played a key role in the development of models of human choice. We conclude that experiments demonstrating contextual preference reversals are not evidence for irrationality. They are, however, a consequence of expected value maximization given noisy observations. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27337391

  20. Contextual consistency facilitates long-term memory of perceptual detail in barely seen images.

    PubMed

    Gronau, Nurit; Shachar, Meytal

    2015-08-01

    It is long known that contextual information affects memory for an object's identity (e.g., its basic level category), yet it is unclear whether schematic knowledge additionally enhances memory for the precise visual appearance of an item. Here we investigated memory for visual detail of merely glimpsed objects. Participants viewed pairs of contextually related and unrelated stimuli, presented for an extremely brief duration (24 ms, masked). They then performed a forced-choice memory-recognition test for the precise perceptual appearance of 1 of 2 objects within each pair (i.e., the "memory-target" item). In 3 experiments, we show that memory-target stimuli originally appearing within contextually related pairs are remembered better than targets appearing within unrelated pairs. These effects are obtained whether the target is presented at test with its counterpart pair object (i.e., when reiterating the original context at encoding) or whether the target is presented alone, implying that the contextual consistency effects are mediated predominantly by processes occurring during stimulus encoding, rather than during stimulus retrieval. Furthermore, visual detail encoding is improved whether object relations involve implied action or not, suggesting that, contrary to some prior suggestions, action is not a necessary component for object-to-object associative "grouping" processes. Our findings suggest that during a brief glimpse, but not under long viewing conditions, contextual associations may play a critical role in reducing stimulus competition for attention selection and in facilitating rapid encoding of sensory details. Theoretical implications with respect to classic frame theories are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26010591

  1. PAT-1 safety analysis report addendum author responses to request for additional information.

    SciTech Connect

    Weiner, Ruth F.; Schmale, David T.; Kalan, Robert J.; Akin, Lili A.; Miller, David Russell; Knorovsky, Gerald Albert; Yoshimura, Richard Hiroyuki; Lopez, Carlos; Harding, David Cameron; Jones, Perry L.; Morrow, Charles W.

    2010-09-01

    The Plutonium Air Transportable Package, Model PAT-1, is certified under Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations Part 71 by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) per Certificate of Compliance (CoC) USA/0361B(U)F-96 (currently Revision 9). The National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) submitted SAND Report SAND2009-5822 to NRC that documented the incorporation of plutonium (Pu) metal as a new payload for the PAT-1 package. NRC responded with a Request for Additional Information (RAI), identifying information needed in connection with its review of the application. The purpose of this SAND report is to provide the authors responses to each RAI. SAND Report SAND2010-6106 containing the proposed changes to the Addendum is provided separately.

  2. 20 CFR 30.518 - Can OWCP require the recipient of the overpayment to submit additional financial information?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... overpayment to submit additional financial information? 30.518 Section 30.518 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF... OWCP require the recipient of the overpayment to submit additional financial information? (a) The recipient of the overpayment is responsible for providing information about income, expenses and assets...

  3. Contextual emergence of mental states.

    PubMed

    Atmanspacher, Harald

    2015-11-01

    The concept of contextual emergence has been proposed as a non-reductive, yet well-defined relation between different levels of description of physical and other systems. It yields a formally sound and empirically applicable procedure to translate between descriptive levels in an overall consistent fashion. This will be discussed for the contextual emergence of mental states from a neural level of description. PMID:26018611

  4. Recommendations from Friends Anytime and Anywhere: Toward a Model of Contextual Offer and Consumption Values

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Xiao-Liang; Wang, Nan

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The ubiquity and portability of mobile devices provide additional opportunities for information retrieval. People can easily access mobile applications anytime and anywhere when they need to acquire specific context-aware recommendations (contextual offer) from their friends. This study, thus, represents an initial attempt to understand users' acceptance of a mobile-based social reviews platform, where recommendations from friends can be obtained with mobile devices. Based on the consumption value theory, a theoretical model is proposed and empirically examined using survey data from 218 mobile users. The findings demonstrate that contextual offers based on users' profiles, access time, and geographic positions significantly predict their value perceptions (utilitarian, hedonic, and social), which, in turn, affect their intention to use a mobile social reviews platform. This study is also believed to provide some useful insights to both research and practice. PMID:23530548

  5. Recommendations from friends anytime and anywhere: toward a model of contextual offer and consumption values.

    PubMed

    Shen, Xiao-Liang; Sun, Yongqiang; Wang, Nan

    2013-05-01

    The ubiquity and portability of mobile devices provide additional opportunities for information retrieval. People can easily access mobile applications anytime and anywhere when they need to acquire specific context-aware recommendations (contextual offer) from their friends. This study, thus, represents an initial attempt to understand users' acceptance of a mobile-based social reviews platform, where recommendations from friends can be obtained with mobile devices. Based on the consumption value theory, a theoretical model is proposed and empirically examined using survey data from 218 mobile users. The findings demonstrate that contextual offers based on users' profiles, access time, and geographic positions significantly predict their value perceptions (utilitarian, hedonic, and social), which, in turn, affect their intention to use a mobile social reviews platform. This study is also believed to provide some useful insights to both research and practice. PMID:23530548

  6. Emerging Technologies in the Built Environment: Geographic Information Science (GIS), 3D Printing, and Additive Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    New, Joshua Ryan

    2014-01-01

    Abstract 1: Geographic information systems emerged as a computer application in the late 1960s, led in part by projects at ORNL. The concept of a GIS has shifted through time in response to new applications and new technologies, and is now part of a much larger world of geospatial technology. This presentation discusses the relationship of GIS and estimating hourly and seasonal energy consumption profiles in the building sector at spatial scales down to the individual parcel. The method combines annual building energy simulations for city-specific prototypical buildings and commonly available geospatial data in a GIS framework. Abstract 2: This presentation focuses on 3D printing technologies and how they have rapidly evolved over the past couple of years. At a basic level, 3D printing produces physical models quickly and easily from 3D CAD, BIM (Building Information Models), and other digital data. Many AEC firms have adopted 3D printing as part of commercial building design development and project delivery. This presentation includes an overview of 3D printing, discusses its current use in building design, and talks about its future in relation to the HVAC industry. Abstract 3: This presentation discusses additive manufacturing and how it is revolutionizing the design of commercial and residential facilities. Additive manufacturing utilizes a broad range of direct manufacturing technologies, including electron beam melting, ultrasonic, extrusion, and laser metal deposition for rapid prototyping. While there is some overlap with the 3D printing talk, this presentation focuses on the materials aspect of additive manufacturing and also some of the more advanced technologies involved with rapid prototyping. These technologies include design of carbon fiber composites, lightweight metals processing, transient field processing, and more.

  7. CONTEXTUAL INTERFERENCE AND INTROVERSION/EXTRAVERSION IN MOTOR LEARNING.

    PubMed

    Meira, Cassio M; Fairbrother, Jeffrey T; Perez, Carlos R

    2015-10-01

    The Introversion/Extraversion dimension may interact with contextual interference, as random and blocked practice schedules imply distinct levels of variation. This study investigated the effect of different practice schedules in the acquisition of a motor skill in extraverts and introverts. Forty male undergraduate students (M = 24.3 yr., SD = 5.6) were classified as extraverts (n = 20) and introverts (n = 20) by the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire and allocated in one of two practice schedules with different levels of contextual interference: blocked (low contextual interference) and random (high contextual interference). Half of each group was assigned to a blocked practice schedule, and the other half was assigned to a random practice schedule. The design had two phases: acquisition and transfer (5 min. and 24 hr.). The participants learned variations of a sequential timing keypressing task. Each variation required the same sequence but different timing; three variations were used in acquisition, and one variation of intermediate length was used in transfer. Results for absolute error and overall timing error (root mean square error) indicated that the contextual interference effect was more pronounced for introverts. In addition, introverts who practiced according to the blocked schedule committed more errors during the 24-hr. transfer, suggesting that introverts did not appear to be challenged by a low contextual interference practice schedule. PMID:26447746

  8. The Influence of Contextual and Psychosocial Factors on Handwashing.

    PubMed

    Seimetz, Elisabeth; Boyayo, Anne-Marie; Mosler, Hans-Joachim

    2016-06-01

    Even though washing hands with soap is among the most effective measures to reduce the risk of infection, handwashing rates in infrastructure-restricted settings remain seriously low. Little is known about how context alone and in interaction with psychosocial factors influence hand hygiene behavior. The aim of this article was to explore how both contextual and psychosocial factors affect handwashing practices. A cross-sectional survey was conducted with 660 caregivers of primary school children in rural Burundi. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that household wealth, the amount of water per person, and having a designated place for washing hands were contextual factors significantly predicting handwashing frequency, whereas the contextual factors, time spent collecting water and amount of money spent on soap, were not significant predictors. The contextual factors explained about 13% of the variance of reported handwashing frequency. The addition of the psychosocial factors to the regression model resulted in a significant 41% increase of explained variation in handwashing frequency. In this final model, the amount of water was the only contextual factor that remained a significant predictor. The most important predictors were a belief of self-efficacy, planning how, when, and where to wash hands, and always remembering to do so. The findings suggest that contextual constraints might be perceived rather than actual barriers and highlight the role of psychosocial factors in understanding hygiene behaviors. PMID:27139449

  9. The effect of sleep deprivation on the encoding of contextual and non-contextual aspects of emotional memory.

    PubMed

    Tempesta, Daniela; Socci, Valentina; Coppo, Martina; Dello Ioio, Giada; Nepa, Valeria; De Gennaro, Luigi; Ferrara, Michele

    2016-05-01

    Sleep loss affects emotional memory, but the specific effects on its contextual and non-contextual aspects are unknown. In this study we investigated the possible differential influence of one night of sleep deprivation on the encoding and subsequent recall of these two aspects of emotional information. Forty-eight healthy subjects, divided in a sleep deprivation (SD) and a well-rested group (WR), completed two testing sessions: the encoding session took place after one night of sleep for the WR and after one night of sleep deprivation for the SD group; the recall session after two nights of recovery sleep for both groups. During the encoding session, 6 clips of films of different valence (2 positive, 2 neutral and 2 negative) were presented to the participants. During the recall session, the non-contextual emotional memory was assessed by a recognition task, while the contextual emotional memory was evaluated by a temporal order task. The SD group showed a worst non-contextual recognition of positive and neutral events compared to WR subjects, while recognition of negative items was similar in the two groups. Instead, the encoding of the temporal order resulted deteriorated in the SD participants, independent of the emotional valence of the items. These results indicate that sleep deprivation severely impairs the encoding of both contextual and non-contextual aspects of memory, resulting in significantly worse retention two days later. However, the preserved recognition of negative non-contextual events in sleep deprived subjects suggests that the encoding of negative stimuli is more "resistant" to the disruptive effects of sleep deprivation. PMID:26976090

  10. Contextualizing the self: the emergence of a biographical understanding in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Habermas, Tilmann; Hatiboğlu, Neşe

    2014-01-01

    In adolescence, remembering the personal past and understanding what kind of person one is intertwine to form a story of one's life as the most extant, informative, and flexible form of self-representation. In adolescence, the striving for self-coherence translates into a quest for global coherence of the life story. We suggest that contextualizing is a fifth means for creating global coherence in life narratives besides the cultural concept of biography, temporal, causal-motivational, and thematic coherence. We present three kinds of contextualizing in life narratives, the temporal macrostructure, sociohistorical contextualizing of one's life, and hierarchical and linear segmenting of the text and life. These three forms of contextualizing in life narratives by their authors are complemented by three forms of contextual influences on life narratives analyzed by researchers, namely the historical, personal, and communicative situation in which they are recounted. Contextualizing is exemplified by the life narrative of a young migrant.

  11. Recent Advances in Contextuality Tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Jayne; Kurzyński, Paweł; Lee, Su-Yong; Soeda, Akihito; Kaszlikowski, Dagomir

    2016-07-01

    Our everyday experiences support the hypothesis that physical systems exist independently of the act of observation. Concordant theories are characterized by the objective realism assumption whereby the act of measurement simply reveals preexisting well-defined elements of reality. In stark contrast quantum mechanics portrays a world in which reality loses its objectivity and is in fact created by observation. Quantum contextuality as first discovered by Bell [1] and Kochen-Specker [2] captures aspects of this philosophical clash between classical and quantum descriptions of the world. Here we briefly summarize some of the more recent advances in the field of quantum contextuality. We approach quantum contextuality through its close relation to Bell type nonlocal scenarios and highlight some of the rapidly developing tests and experimental implementations.

  12. Annual Research Review: Embracing Not Erasing Contextual Variability in Children's Behavior--Theory and Utility in the Selection and Use of Methods and Informants in Developmental Psychopathology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dirks, Melanie A.; De Los Reyes, Andres; Briggs-Gowan, Margaret; Cella, David; Wakschlag, Lauren S.

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the selection and use of multiple methods and informants for the assessment of disruptive behavior syndromes and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, providing a critical discussion of (a) the bidirectional linkages between theoretical models of childhood psychopathology and current assessment techniques; and (b) current…

  13. Systematics of the family Plectopylidae in Vietnam with additional information on Chinese taxa (Gastropoda, Pulmonata, Stylommatophora)

    PubMed Central

    Páll-Gergely, Barna; Hunyadi, András; Ablett, Jonathan; Lương, Hào Văn; Fred Naggs; Asami, Takahiro

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Vietnamese species from the family Plectopylidae are revised based on the type specimens of all known taxa, more than 600 historical non-type museum lots, and almost 200 newly-collected samples. Altogether more than 7000 specimens were investigated. The revision has revealed that species diversity of the Vietnamese Plectopylidae was previously overestimated. Overall, thirteen species names (anterides Gude, 1909, bavayi Gude, 1901, congesta Gude, 1898, fallax Gude, 1909, gouldingi Gude, 1909, hirsuta Möllendorff, 1901, jovia Mabille, 1887, moellendorffi Gude, 1901, persimilis Gude, 1901, pilsbryana Gude, 1901, soror Gude, 1908, tenuis Gude, 1901, verecunda Gude, 1909) were synonymised with other species. In addition to these, Gudeodiscus hemmeni sp. n. and Gudeodiscus messageri raheemi ssp. n. are described from north-western Vietnam. Sixteen species and two subspecies are recognized from Vietnam. The reproductive anatomy of eight taxa is described. Based on anatomical information, Halongella gen. n. is erected to include Plectopylis schlumbergeri and Plectopylis fruhstorferi. Additionally, the genus Gudeodiscus is subdivided into two subgenera (Gudeodiscus and Veludiscus subgen. n.) on the basis of the morphology of the reproductive anatomy and the radula. The Chinese Gudeodiscus phlyarius werneri Páll-Gergely, 2013 is moved to synonymy of Gudeodiscus phlyarius. A spermatophore was found in the organ situated next to the gametolytic sac in one specimen. This suggests that this organ in the Plectopylidae is a diverticulum. Statistically significant evidence is presented for the presence of calcareous hook-like granules inside the penis being associated with the absence of embryos in the uterus in four genera. This suggests that these probably play a role in mating periods before disappearing when embryos develop. Sicradiscus mansuyi is reported from China for the first time. PMID:25632253

  14. Lateralization of High-Frequency Clicks Based on Interaural Time: Additivity of Information across Frequency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wenzel, Elizabeth Marie

    Lateralization performance based on interaural differences of time (IDTs) was measured for trains of Gaussian clicks which varied in spectral content. In the first experiment, thresholds ((DELTA)IDTs) were measured as a function of the number of clicks in the train (n = 1 to 32), the interclick interval (ICI = 2.5 or 5 ms), and the spectral content (1 vs. 2 or 4 carriers). Subjects' performance was compared to perfect statistical summation which predicts slopes of -.50 when log-(DELTA)IDT vs. long -n is plotted. The results showed that increasing the spectral content of the clicks decreased the intercepts of the log -log functions (decreased thresholds) while having little effect on their slopes. Shortening the ICIs caused the slopes of the functions to decrease in absolute value. To estimate the bandwidth of frequency-interaction in lateralization, d's were measured for clicks with constant IDTs (n = 1) with a fixed carrier (FF = 4000, 5200, 6000 or 7200 Hz), both alone and combined with a second click whose carrier (F) varied from 3500 to 8500 Hz. Performance in combined conditions was compared to independent summation of the information carried by the two frequency-bands. Performance improved as the separation between F and FF increased until the level predicted by independence was reached. The final experiment investigated the interaction of frequency content with IDT. d's were measured as a function of the IDT in clicks with carriers of 5200, 6000 or 7200 Hz, both alone and combined with a 4000-Hz click with a fixed IDT. Performance in combined conditions was again compared to independent additivity. The improvement with frequency was explained by an increase in the number of samples of the IDT reaching the binaural centers due to spread of excitation along the basilar membrane. Less than independent summation was explained by correlation between overlapping bands which reduced the amount of information exciting independent channels. The data also suggest that

  15. Reinstatement of contextual anxiety in humans: Effects of state anxiety.

    PubMed

    Glotzbach-Schoon, Evelyn; Andreatta, Marta; Mühlberger, Andreas; Pauli, Paul

    2015-12-01

    After successful extinction of conditioned fear, the presentation of an unsignaled unconditioned stimulus (US) leads to return of fear, thus, the previously extinguished conditioned stimulus (CS) triggers fear responses again. Human studies on such reinstatement processes are still inconclusive. Some revealed a general increase of fear reactions, both to the fear (CS+) and the safety stimulus (CS-), whereas other studies discovered a differential return of fear with enhanced fear responses to the CS+ only. Moreover, we know little about reinstatement of contextual anxiety, a state of general anxious apprehension and chronic worry. Therefore, the present study investigated reinstatement of contextual anxiety with an ecological valid virtual reality (VR) design. Additionally, we examined whether the current state anxiety might modulate the reinstatement of contextual anxiety. To this end, two groups underwent context conditioning on Day 1, i.e., one context (CXT+) became paired with unpredictable USs, but not the other context (CXT-), and an extinction training on Day 2. On Day 3 a reinstatement test was conducted, i.e., one group (reinstatement group, n=21) received one unsignaled US before testing, whereas the control group (n=21) did not. Only the reinstatement group showed a differential return of contextual anxiety as measured by fear-potentiated startle and anxiety ratings. Interestingly, the reinstatement of fear-potentiated startle was additionally influenced by state anxiety. Conclusively, an anxious state before an unsignaled aversive event might favor a return of contextual anxiety. PMID:26232063

  16. Developmental Differences in the Impact of Contextual Factors on Susceptibility to Retroactive Interference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy-Gigi, Einat; Vakil, Eli

    2010-01-01

    The influence of contextual similarity on children's recognition memory performance was examined using a retroactive interference paradigm. In the study, 9- and 12-year-olds were randomly assigned to one of two contextual conditions. In both conditions, target and interfering information were presented in distinctive contexts by using different…

  17. The Contextual Approach to Teaching Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkinson, John W.

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the meaning of a "contextual approach" to teaching physics. Advances a model of contextual physics teaching that can also be applied to other science disciplines. (Contains 54 references.) (Author/WRM)

  18. Generalization of contextual fear depends on associative rather than non-associative memory components.

    PubMed

    Sauerhöfer, Elisabeth; Pamplona, Fabricio A; Bedenk, Benedikt; Moll, Gunther H; Dawirs, Ralph R; von Hörsten, Stephan; Wotjak, Carsten T; Golub, Yulia

    2012-08-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is characterized by the presence of three major symptom clusters: persistent fear memories, hyperarousal, and avoidance. With a passage of time after the trauma, PTSD patients show an increase in unspecific fear and avoidance, a phenomenon termed "fear generalization". It is not clear whether fear generalization arises from the time-dependent growth of hyperarousal or changes in associative fear. The present study investigated behavioral and neuroanatomical correlates of non-associative and associative fear memory one week vs. one month after a trauma in a mouse model of PTSD with immediate vs. delayed foot shock application. The immediate shock procedure led to a lower contextual fear, but did not influence the hyperarousal (i.e. increased acoustic startle responses) assessed within the first week after the trauma. Only delayed shocked mice demonstrated generalization of contextual fear and an increase in generalized avoidance behavior, with no changes in hyperarousal one month after trauma. We observed the same increase in c-Fos expression following delayed and immediate shock presentation within the lateral, basolateral, central amygdala and CA1, CA3 and dentate gyrus of hippocampus, suggesting that all of these structures contribute to the development of hyperarousal. Only basolateral amygdala and dentate gyrus appeared to be additionally involved in encoding of contextual information. In summary, our results demonstrate the independence of associative and non-associative trauma-related fear. They support the hypothesis that generalized fear emerges in consequence of forgetting specific stimulus attributes associated with the shock context.

  19. Neural representations of contextual guidance in visual search of real-world scenes.

    PubMed

    Preston, Tim J; Guo, Fei; Das, Koel; Giesbrecht, Barry; Eckstein, Miguel P

    2013-05-01

    Exploiting scene context and object-object co-occurrence is critical in guiding eye movements and facilitating visual search, yet the mediating neural mechanisms are unknown. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging while observers searched for target objects in scenes and used multivariate pattern analyses (MVPA) to show that the lateral occipital complex (LOC) can predict the coarse spatial location of observers' expectations about the likely location of 213 different targets absent from the scenes. In addition, we found weaker but significant representations of context location in an area related to the orienting of attention (intraparietal sulcus, IPS) as well as a region related to scene processing (retrosplenial cortex, RSC). Importantly, the degree of agreement among 100 independent raters about the likely location to contain a target object in a scene correlated with LOC's ability to predict the contextual location while weaker but significant effects were found in IPS, RSC, the human motion area, and early visual areas (V1, V3v). When contextual information was made irrelevant to observers' behavioral task, the MVPA analysis of LOC and the other areas' activity ceased to predict the location of context. Thus, our findings suggest that the likely locations of targets in scenes are represented in various visual areas with LOC playing a key role in contextual guidance during visual search of objects in real scenes. PMID:23637176

  20. Cultural-Related, Contextual, and Asthma-Specific Risks Associated with Asthma Morbidity in Urban Children

    PubMed Central

    McQuaid, Elizabeth L.; Kopel, Sheryl J.; Esteban, Cynthia A.; Ortega, Alexander N.; Seifer, Ronald; Garcia-Coll, Cynthia; Klein, Robert; Cespedes, Elizabeth; Canino, Glorisa; Fritz, Gregory K.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine associations between specific dimensions of the multidimensional cumulative risk index (CRI) and asthma morbidity in urban, school-aged children from African American, Latino and Non-Latino White backgrounds. An additional goal of the study was to identify the proportion of families that qualify for high-risk status on each dimension of the CRI by ethnic group. A total of 264 children with asthma, ages 7–15 (40% female; 76% ethnic minority) and their primary caregivers completed interview-based questionnaires assessing cultural, contextual, and asthma-specific risks that can impact asthma morbidity. Higher levels of asthma-related risks were associated with more functional morbidity for all groups of children, despite ethnic group background. Contextual and cultural risk dimensions contributed to more morbidity for African-American and Latino children. Analyses by Latino ethnic subgroup revealed that contextual and cultural risks are significantly related to more functional morbidity for Puerto Rican children compared to Dominican children. Findings suggest which type of risks may more meaningfully contribute to variations in asthma morbidity for children from specific ethnic groups. These results can inform culturally sensitive clinical interventions for urban children with asthma whose health outcomes lag far behind their non-Latino White counterparts. PMID:20157798

  1. Immigrant Incorporation in American Cities: Contextual Determinants of Irish, German and British Intermarriage in 1880

    PubMed Central

    Logan, John R.; Shin, Hyoung-jin

    2013-01-01

    This study adds to a growing body of research on the contextual determinants of marriage choice and provides new information on ethnic intermarriage in the late 19th Century. Census microdata for 66 major cities in 1880 are used to estimate a multilevel model of assortative mating of Irish, German, and British immigrants. Results demonstrate that marital choices made by individuals are significantly affected by the local urban context where they live. In addition the very large disparity in endogamy between the British and other groups can mainly be attributed to the smaller size of the British population in these cities. PMID:24259757

  2. Contextual Constraints on Adolescents' Leisure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silbereisen, Rainer K.

    2003-01-01

    Interlinks crucial cultural themes emerging from preceding chapters, highlighting the contextual constraints in adolescents' use of free time. Draws parallels across the nations discussed on issues related to how school molds leisure time, the balance of passive versus active leisure, timing of leisure pursuits, and the cumulative effect of…

  3. A Sociological Perspective on Contextualism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Sydney Carroll

    1996-01-01

    Reviews key assumptions of two contextualist theories (constructivism and interactionism), examines the theories' claims, and offers suggestions as to how a sociological analysis of human development can remedy some of the major theoretical failings while building on the basic strengths. Also discusses how a critical contextualism might help…

  4. 40 CFR 79.21 - Information and assurances to be provided by the additive manufacturer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... fuel additive will be sold, offered for sale, or introduced into commerce, and the fuel additive manufacturer's recommended range of concentration and purpose-in-use for each such type of fuel. (e) Such other... (e) of this section as provided in § 79.5(b). (g) Assurances that the additive manufacturer will...

  5. Contextual repetition facilitates word learning via fast mapping.

    PubMed

    Axelsson, Emma L; Horst, Jessica S

    2014-10-01

    The current study explores whether contextual repetition during fast mapping facilitates word learning. Three-year-old children completed fast mapping and test trials using a touchscreen computer. For half of the children, the non-targets (competitors) repeated across learning trials and for other children there was no repetition. All children received the same test trials. Children who experienced contextual repetition, that is, children for whom the competitors repeated during the initial fast mapping task, demonstrated word learning. These data demonstrate that children's word learning is facilitated by the presence of extraneous yet predictable information in the initial fast mapping task.

  6. Contextual constraints for the design of patient-centered health IT tools.

    PubMed

    Gonzales, Michael J; O'Connor, Maria Francesca; Riek, Laurel D

    2013-01-01

    Technologists are constantly working to improve clinical practice by developing new health information technology (Health IT) tools, yet may not always consider the context of how these tools may be used. Patient preferences can vary widely as a result of demographics, health conditions, physical limitations, and personal inclinations, with healthcare providers having to adapt clinical encounters to better suit patient needs. Health IT tools, too, need to be agile across different healthcare contexts, with each stakeholder's specific needs in mind. In this paper, we discuss the challenges and limitations associated with the design and automation of contextually sensitive devices in the healthcare environment. We target the various contexts in which health information is presented in patient-provider encounters, and discuss contextual constraints that may apply to the aforementioned situations. In addition, we present a number of suggestions for informational constraints and the design of informational tools in these settings so that patient and provider informational needs can be better met in clinical communication contexts.

  7. Bell Inequalities, Experimental Protocols and Contextuality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kupczynski, Marian

    2015-07-01

    In this paper we give additional arguments in favor of the point of view that the violation of Bell, CHSH and CH inequalities is not due to a mysterious non locality of nature. We concentrate on an intimate relation between a protocol of a random experiment and a probabilistic model which is used to describe it. We discuss in a simple way differences between attributive joint probability distributions and generalized joint probability distributions of outcomes from distant experiments which depend on how the pairing of these outcomes is defined. We analyze in detail experimental protocols implied by local realistic and stochastic hidden variable models and show that they are incompatible with the protocols used in spin polarization correlation experiments. We discuss also the meaning of "free will", differences between quantum and classical filters, contextuality of Kolmogorov models, contextuality of quantum theory (QT) and show how this contextuality has to be taken into account in probabilistic models trying to explain in an intuitive way the predictions of QT. The long range imperfect correlations between the clicks of distant detectors can be explained by partially preserved correlations between the signals created by a source. These correlations can only be preserved if the clicks are produced in a local and deterministic way depending on intrinsic parameters describing signals and measuring devices in the moment of the measurement. If an act of a measurement was irreducibly random they would be destroyed. It seems to indicate that QT may be in fact emerging from some underlying more detailed theory of physical phenomena. If this was a case then there is a chance to find in time series of experimental data some fine structures not predicted by QT. This would be a major discovery because it would not only prove that QT does not provide a complete description of individual physical systems but it would prove that it is not predictably complete.

  8. Contextual advertisement placement in printed media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Sam; Joshi, Parag

    2010-02-01

    Advertisements today provide the necessary revenue model supporting the WWW ecosystem. Targeted or contextual ad insertion plays an important role in optimizing the financial return of this model. Nearly all the current ads that appear on web sites are geared for display purposes such as banner and "pay-per-click". Little attention, however, is focused on deriving additional ad revenues when the content is repurposed for alternative mean of presentation, e.g. being printed. Although more and more content is moving to the Web, there are still many occasions where printed output of web content is desirable, such as maps and articles; thus printed ad insertion can potentially be lucrative. In this paper, we describe a contextual ad insertion network aimed to realize new revenue for print service providers for web printing. We introduce a cloud print service that enables contextual ads insertion, with respect to the main web page content, when a printout of the page is requested. To encourage service utilization, it would provide higher quality printouts than what is possible from current browser print drivers, which generally produce poor outputs, e.g. ill formatted pages. At this juncture we will limit the scope to only article-related web pages although the concept can be extended to arbitrary web pages. The key components of this system include (1) the extraction of article from web pages, (2) the extraction of semantics from article, (3) querying the ad database for matching advertisement or coupon, and (4) joint content and ad layout for print outputs.

  9. 41 CFR 102-75.140 - In addition to the title report, and all necessary environmental information and certifications...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 102-75.140 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false In addition to the title report, and all necessary environmental information and certifications, what information must...

  10. 3. OBLIQUE CONTEXTUAL VIEW FROM NORTHWEST, SHOWING OVER HALF OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. OBLIQUE CONTEXTUAL VIEW FROM NORTHWEST, SHOWING OVER HALF OF MILLS HALL MAIN WING, NORTH WALL, ALL OF MILLS HALL NORTH WING WEST WALL, AND ADDITION NORTH AND WEST WALLS. - Mills Hall, Mills College, 5000 MacArthur Boulevard, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  11. 41 CFR 102-79.111 - Where may Executive agencies find additional information on Integrated Workplace concepts?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Where may Executive agencies find additional information on Integrated Workplace concepts? 102-79.111 Section 102-79.111 Public... Integrated Workplace concepts? The GSA Office of Governmentwide Policy provides additional guidance in...

  12. Does the anti-prothrombin antibodies measurement provide additional information in patients with thrombosis?

    PubMed

    Bardin, Nathalie; Alessi, Marie Christine; Dignat-George, Francoise; Vague, Irene Juhan; Sampol, Jose; Harlé, Jean Robert; Sanmarco, Marielle

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study is to get new insight into the relevance of IgG anti-prothrombin antibodies in patients with thrombosis and to determine whether human prothrombin alone (aPT) or complexed to phosphatidylserine (aPS/PT) should be preferentially used for measuring these antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). To this end, prevalence of anti-prothrombin antibodies, their characteristics in terms of avidity and heterogeneity, and their relationship with anti-beta2 glycoprotein I antibodies (abeta2GPI) were studied in 152 patients with thrombosis. Patients were divided into two groups according to the presence or absence of antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL), called aPL+ or aPL-, respectively. In the aPL- group (n=90), the prevalence of anti-prothrombin antibodies was substantial (10%) but not significantly different from that of control (5%). In the aPL+ group (n=62), lupus anticoagulant (LA) or anticardiolipin antibodies (aCL) positive, 61% were positive for anti-prothrombin antibodies with no statistical difference between aPT and aPS/PT prevalence (42% vs. 55%, respectively). In the whole thrombotic population, 19% were only aPT and 34% only aPS/PT suggesting the presence of different antibodies. Absorption experiments confirmed the heterogeneity of aPT and aPS/PT. No difference in their avidity was demonstrated. From the aPL+ group, 60 were LA positive. Among them, 18% were negative for abeta2GPI and anti-prothrombin antibodies showing that the detection of these antibodies could not substitute for LA determination. In conclusion, our data show that the screening of the different anti-prothrombin antibodies is not warranted in the aPL+ group since these antibodies do not provide additional information compared to aCL, LA and/or abeta2GPI measurement. Nevertheless, the substantial prevalence of anti-prothrombin antibodies in the aPL- group should be further explored in a large prospective study. PMID:17678713

  13. CMR Quantification of Myocardial Scar Provides Additive Prognostic Information in Nonischemic Cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Neilan, Tomas G.; Coelho-Filho, Otavio R.; Danik, Stephan B.; Shah, Ravi V.; Dodson, John A.; Verdini, Daniel J.; Tokuda, Michifumi; Daly, Caroline A.; Tedrow, Usha B.; Stevenson, William G.; Jerosch-Herold, Michael; Ghoshhajra, Brian B.; Kwong, Raymond Y.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES This study sought to determine whether the extent of late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) can provide additive prognostic information in patients with a nonischemic dilated cardiomyopathy (NIDC) with an indication for implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) therapy for the primary prevention of sudden cardiac death (SCD). BACKGROUND Data suggest that the presence of LGE is a strong discriminator of events in patients with NIDC. Limited data exist on the role of LGE quantification. METHODS The extent of LGE and clinical follow-up were assessed in 162 patients with NIDC prior to ICD insertion for primary prevention of SCD. LGE extent was quantified using both the standard deviation–based (2-SD) method and the full-width half-maximum (FWHM) method. RESULTS We studied 162 patients with NIDC (65% male; mean age: 55 years; left ventricular ejection fraction [LVEF]: 26 ± 8%) and followed up for major adverse cardiac events (MACE), including cardiovascular death and appropriate ICD therapy, for a mean of 29 ± 18 months. Annual MACE rates were substantially higher in patients with LGE (24%) than in those without LGE (2%). By univariate association, the presence and the extent of LGE demonstrated the strongest associations with MACE (LGE presence, hazard ratio [HR]: 14.5 [95% confidence interval (CI): 6.1 to 32.6; p < 0.001]; LGE extent, HR: 1.15 per 1% increase in volume of LGE [95% CI: 1.12 to 1.18; p < 0.0001]). Multivariate analyses showed that LGE extent was the strongest predictor in the best overall model for MACE, and a 7-fold hazard was observed per 10% LGE extent after adjustments for patient age, sex, and LVEF (adjusted HR: 7.61; p < 0.0001). LGE quantitation by 2-SD and FWHM both demonstrated robust prognostic association, with the highest MACE rate observed in patients with LGE involving >6.1% of LV myocardium. CONCLUSIONS LGE extent may provide further risk stratification in patients with NIDC with a current indication for ICD implantation for

  14. 14 CFR 121.317 - Passenger information requirements, smoking prohibitions, and additional seat belt requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Passenger information requirements, smoking... OPERATIONS Instrument and Equipment Requirements § 121.317 Passenger information requirements, smoking... command. (c) No person may operate an airplane on a flight on which smoking is prohibited by part 252...

  15. 14 CFR 121.317 - Passenger information requirements, smoking prohibitions, and additional seat belt requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Passenger information requirements, smoking... OPERATIONS Instrument and Equipment Requirements § 121.317 Passenger information requirements, smoking... command. (c) No person may operate an airplane on a flight on which smoking is prohibited by part 252...

  16. 14 CFR 121.317 - Passenger information requirements, smoking prohibitions, and additional seat belt requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Passenger information requirements, smoking... OPERATIONS Instrument and Equipment Requirements § 121.317 Passenger information requirements, smoking... command. (c) No person may operate an airplane on a flight on which smoking is prohibited by part 252...

  17. 14 CFR 121.317 - Passenger information requirements, smoking prohibitions, and additional seat belt requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Passenger information requirements, smoking... OPERATIONS Instrument and Equipment Requirements § 121.317 Passenger information requirements, smoking... command. (c) No person may operate an airplane on a flight on which smoking is prohibited by part 252...

  18. 14 CFR 121.317 - Passenger information requirements, smoking prohibitions, and additional seat belt requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Passenger information requirements, smoking... OPERATIONS Instrument and Equipment Requirements § 121.317 Passenger information requirements, smoking... command. (c) No person may operate an airplane on a flight on which smoking is prohibited by part 252...

  19. [Personal contextual factors, part I].

    PubMed

    Viol, M; Grotkamp, S; van Treeck, B; Nüchtern, E; Hagen, T; Manegold, B; Eckardt, S; Penz, M; Seger, W

    2006-12-01

    The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) does not yet classify personal contextual factors. To determine the interaction of these factors on activities and participation of a person as well as their influence on the probable outcome of interventions, they must be taken into account in individual sociomedical expertises. Therefore, a group of medical experts working for the social health insurance medical advisory boards in Germany compiled a proposal for a systematic classification of personal contextual factors into domains, categories and items with respect to the ethical guidelines of the ICF. In a second step the main issues were transferred into the preliminary draft for a short version which will be published later to give support for practical daily use in health insurance matters. PMID:17203449

  20. Achieving incremental semantic interpretation through contextual representation.

    PubMed

    Sedivy, J C; Tanenhaus, M K; Chambers, C G; Carlson, G N

    1999-06-22

    While much work has been done investigating the role of context in the incremental processing of syntactic indeterminacies, relatively little is known about online semantic interpretation. The experiments in this article made use of the eye-tracking paradigm with spoken language and visual contexts in order to examine how, and when listeners make use of contextually-defined contrast in interpreting simple prenominal adjectives. Experiment 1 focused on intersective adjectives. Experiment 1A provided further evidence that intersective adjectives are processed incrementally. Experiment 1B compared response times to follow instructions such as 'Pick up the blue comb' under conditions where there were two blue objects (e.g. a blue pen and a blue comb), but only one of these objects had a contrasting member in the display. Responses were faster to objects with a contrasting member, establishing that the listeners initially assume a contrastive interpretation for intersective adjectives. Experiments 2 and 3 focused on vague scalar adjectives examining the time course with which listeners establish contrast for scalar adjectives such as tall using information provided by the head noun (e.g. glass) and information provided by the visual context. Use of head-based information was examined by manipulating the typicality of the target object (e.g. whether it was a good or poor example of a tall glass. Use of context-dependent contrast was examined by either having only a single glass in the display (the no contrast condition) or a contrasting object (e.g. a smaller glass). The pattern of results indicated that listeners interpreted the scalar adjective incrementally taking into account context-specific contrast prior to encountering the head. Moreover, the presence of a contrasting object, sharply reduced, and in some conditions completely eliminated, typicality effects. The results suggest a language processing system in which semantic interpretation, as well as syntactic

  1. 78 FR 27936 - Request for Extension and Revision of a Currently Approved Information Collection With Additional...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service Request for Extension and Revision of a Currently Approved Information... of Fresh and Processed Fruits, Vegetables and Other Products AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing...

  2. Towards Contextualized Learning Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Specht, Marcus

    Personalization of feedback and instruction has often been considered as a key feature in learning support. The adaptations of the instructional process to the individual and its different aspects have been investigated from different research perspectives as learner modelling, intelligent tutoring systems, adaptive hypermedia, adaptive instruction and others. Already in the 1950s first commercial systems for adaptive instruction for trainings of keyboard skills have been developed utilizing adaptive configuration of feedback based on user performance and interaction footprints (Pask 1964). Around adaptive instruction there is a variety of research issues bringing together interdisciplinary research from computer science, engineering, psychology, psychotherapy, cybernetics, system dynamics, instructional design, and empirical research on technology enhanced learning. When classifying best practices of adaptive instruction different parameters of the instructional process have been identified which are adapted to the learner, as: sequence and size of task difficulty, time of feedback, pace of learning speed, reinforcement plan and others these are often referred to the adaptation target. Furthermore Aptitude Treatment Interaction studies explored the effect of adapting instructional parameters to different characteristics of the learner (Tennyson and Christensen 1988) as task performance, personality characteristics, or cognitive abilities, this is information is referred to as adaptation mean.

  3. Twenty-five additional cases of trisomy 9 mosaic: Birth information, medical conditions, and developmental status.

    PubMed

    Bruns, Deborah A; Campbell, Emily

    2015-05-01

    Limited literature exists on children and adults diagnosed with the mosaic form of trisomy 9. Data from the Tracking Rare Incidence Syndromes (TRIS) project has provided physical characteristics and medical conditions for 14 individuals. This article provides TRIS Survey results of 25 additional cases at two data points (birth and survey completion) as well as developmental status. Results confirmed a number of phenotypic features and medical conditions. In addition, a number of cardiac anomalies were reported along with feeding and respiratory difficulties in the immediate postnatal period. In addition, developmental status data indicated a range in functioning level up to skills in the 36 and 48-month range. Strengths were also noted across the sample in language and communication, fine motor and social-emotional development. Implications for professionals caring for children with this genetic condition are offered. PMID:25755087

  4. Testing 1...2...3...: Additional Files Available for Test Information Online.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fabiano, Emily

    1984-01-01

    Reviews databases providing information on published, standardized and unpublished, non-standardized test instruments: Educational Testing Service File, Mental Measurements Yearbook Database, Dissertation Abstracts Online, ERIC, and Psychological Abstracts. Search strategies, search examples, and a summary chart of searchable fields for test…

  5. 17 CFR 229.1118 - (Item 1118) Reports and additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... transaction documents. Describe the reports or other documents provided to security holders required under the... Commission maintains an Internet site that contains reports, proxy and information statements, and other... electronically filed with, or furnished to, the Commission. (2) Disclose whether other reports to...

  6. 75 FR 68608 - Information Collection; Request for Authorization of Additional Classification and Rate, Standard...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-08

    ...(c), and 5.15 (records to be kept by employers under the Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA), 29 CFR 516... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: A. Purpose This regulation prescribes labor standards for federally financed and assisted construction contracts subject to the Davis-Bacon and Related Acts (DBRA), as well as...

  7. 49 CFR 260.25 - Additional information for Applicants not having a credit rating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... corresponding to those used in this section, the following information: (a) A narrative statement detailing...; and (f) A narrative description of Applicant's management team, including: (1) Rail experience of top... narrative description of Applicant's workforce and the historical rate of employee turnover....

  8. 49 CFR 260.25 - Additional information for Applicants not having a credit rating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... corresponding to those used in this section, the following information: (a) A narrative statement detailing...; and (f) A narrative description of Applicant's management team, including: (1) Rail experience of top... narrative description of Applicant's workforce and the historical rate of employee turnover....

  9. Software for Information Storage and Retrieval Tested, Evaluated and Compared: Part VI--Various Additional Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sieverts, Eric G.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Reports on tests evaluating nine microcomputer software packages designed for information storage and retrieval: BRS-Search, dtSearch, InfoBank, Micro-OPC, Q&A, STN-PFS, Strix, TINman, and ZYindex. Tables and narrative evaluations detail results related to security, hardware, user features, search capability, indexing, input, maintenance of files,…

  10. 78 FR 22937 - 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Application for Additional Visa Pages or...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE 60-Day... Passport Services ACTION: Notice of request for public comment. SUMMARY: The Department of State is seeking Office of Management and ] Budget (OMB) approval for the information collection described below....

  11. 21 CFR 71.15 - Confidentiality of data and information in color additive petitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... shall be made that any such ingredient list is incomplete. (5) An assay method or other analytical method, unless it serves no regulatory or compliance purpose and is shown to fall within the exemption... information as defined in § 20.61 of this chapter: (1) Manufacturing methods or processes, including...

  12. 21 CFR 71.15 - Confidentiality of data and information in color additive petitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... shall be made that any such ingredient list is incomplete. (5) An assay method or other analytical method, unless it serves no regulatory or compliance purpose and is shown to fall within the exemption... information as defined in § 20.61 of this chapter: (1) Manufacturing methods or processes, including...

  13. 21 CFR 71.15 - Confidentiality of data and information in color additive petitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... shall be made that any such ingredient list is incomplete. (5) An assay method or other analytical method, unless it serves no regulatory or compliance purpose and is shown to fall within the exemption... information as defined in § 20.61 of this chapter: (1) Manufacturing methods or processes, including...

  14. 77 FR 58911 - Additional Identifying Information for One (1) Individual Designated Pursuant to Executive Order...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-24

    ... Threaten to Disrupt the Middle East Peace Process'' (the ``Order''). DATES: The addition by the Director of... sanctions on persons who threaten to disrupt the Middle East peace process. The President identified in the... Middle East peace ] process; or (2) assist in, sponsor, or provide financial, material, or...

  15. 40 CFR 79.21 - Information and assurances to be provided by the additive manufacturer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., percentage by weight, and method of analysis of each element in the additive are required provided, however, that a percentage figure combining the percentages of carbon, hydrogen, and/or oxygen may be provided unless the breakdown into percentages for these individual elements is already known to the...

  16. 40 CFR 79.21 - Information and assurances to be provided by the additive manufacturer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., percentage by weight, and method of analysis of each element in the additive are required provided, however, that a percentage figure combining the percentages of carbon, hydrogen, and/or oxygen may be provided unless the breakdown into percentages for these individual elements is already known to the...

  17. 40 CFR 79.21 - Information and assurances to be provided by the additive manufacturer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., percentage by weight, and method of analysis of each element in the additive are required provided, however, that a percentage figure combining the percentages of carbon, hydrogen, and/or oxygen may be provided unless the breakdown into percentages for these individual elements is already known to the...

  18. Facing Facts: Can the Face-Name Mnemonic Strategy Accommodate Additional Factual Information?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carney, Russell N.; Levin, Joel R.

    2012-01-01

    In 3 experiments, undergraduates used their own best method (control) or an "imposed" face-name mnemonic strategy to associate 18 caricatured faces, names, and additional facts. On all immediate tests (prompted by the faces), and on the delayed tests of Experiments 2a and 2b combined, mnemonic students statistically outperformed control students…

  19. 75 FR 62404 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Additional...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-08

    ...-counter (OTC) drugs as generally recognized as safe and effective and not misbranded. DATES: Submit either... additional criteria and procedures for classifying OTC drugs as generally recognized as safe and effective and not misbranded (2002 TEA final rule). The regulations in Sec. 330.14 state that OTC drug...

  20. 10 CFR 52.80 - Contents of applications; additional technical information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    .... 52.80 Section 52.80 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Combined Licenses § 52.80 Contents of applications; additional technical... environmental report, either in accordance with 10 CFR 51.50(c) if a limited work authorization under 10 CFR...

  1. 10 CFR 52.158 - Contents of application; additional technical information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    .... 52.158 Section 52.158 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Manufacturing Licenses § 52.158 Contents of application; additional... environmental report as required by 10 CFR 51.54. (2) If the manufacturing license application references...

  2. 10 CFR 52.80 - Contents of applications; additional technical information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    .... 52.80 Section 52.80 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Combined Licenses § 52.80 Contents of applications; additional technical... environmental report, either in accordance with 10 CFR 51.50(c) if a limited work authorization under 10 CFR...

  3. 10 CFR 52.80 - Contents of applications; additional technical information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    .... 52.80 Section 52.80 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Combined Licenses § 52.80 Contents of applications; additional technical... environmental report, either in accordance with 10 CFR 51.50(c) if a limited work authorization under 10 CFR...

  4. 10 CFR 52.80 - Contents of applications; additional technical information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    .... 52.80 Section 52.80 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Combined Licenses § 52.80 Contents of applications; additional technical... environmental report, either in accordance with 10 CFR 51.50(c) if a limited work authorization under 10 CFR...

  5. 10 CFR 52.158 - Contents of application; additional technical information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    .... 52.158 Section 52.158 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Manufacturing Licenses § 52.158 Contents of application; additional... environmental report as required by 10 CFR 51.54. (2) If the manufacturing license application references...

  6. 10 CFR 52.158 - Contents of application; additional technical information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    .... 52.158 Section 52.158 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Manufacturing Licenses § 52.158 Contents of application; additional... environmental report as required by 10 CFR 51.54. (2) If the manufacturing license application references...

  7. 10 CFR 52.80 - Contents of applications; additional technical information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    .... 52.80 Section 52.80 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Combined Licenses § 52.80 Contents of applications; additional technical... environmental report, either in accordance with 10 CFR 51.50(c) if a limited work authorization under 10 CFR...

  8. 10 CFR 52.158 - Contents of application; additional technical information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    .... 52.158 Section 52.158 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Manufacturing Licenses § 52.158 Contents of application; additional... environmental report as required by 10 CFR 51.54. (2) If the manufacturing license application references...

  9. Interactive Visual Contextualization of Space Weather Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Törnros, M.; Ynnerman, A.; Emmart, C.; Berrios, D.; Harberts, R.

    2012-12-01

    Linköping University, the American Museum of Natural History (AMNH), and the Community Coordinated Modeling Center (CCMC) at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center are collaborating on a new open source visualization software for astrovisualization. The CCMC is providing real-time and historical space weather data from the Integrated Space Weather Analysis System (iSWA), including timely modeled coronal mass ejection events simulated by the Space Weather Research Center at NASA GSFC. Linköping University is developing a new modular visualization tool with multi-channel capabilities to support planetarium exhibits, displaying the real-time space weather data contextualized using fieldlines, volumetric visualization techniques, and planetary information. This collaboration aims to engage the public about space weather and real-time events at the AMNH. We present an overview of this collaboration and demo some of the capabilities.

  10. Quantum theory allows for absolute maximal contextuality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amaral, Barbara; Cunha, Marcelo Terra; Cabello, Adán

    2015-12-01

    Contextuality is a fundamental feature of quantum theory and a necessary resource for quantum computation and communication. It is therefore important to investigate how large contextuality can be in quantum theory. Linear contextuality witnesses can be expressed as a sum S of n probabilities, and the independence number α and the Tsirelson-like number ϑ of the corresponding exclusivity graph are, respectively, the maximum of S for noncontextual theories and for the theory under consideration. A theory allows for absolute maximal contextuality if it has scenarios in which ϑ /α approaches n . Here we show that quantum theory allows for absolute maximal contextuality despite what is suggested by the examination of the quantum violations of Bell and noncontextuality inequalities considered in the past. Our proof is not constructive and does not single out explicit scenarios. Nevertheless, we identify scenarios in which quantum theory allows for almost-absolute-maximal contextuality.

  11. Prefrontal neuronal circuits of contextual fear conditioning.

    PubMed

    Rozeske, R R; Valerio, S; Chaudun, F; Herry, C

    2015-01-01

    Over the past years, numerous studies have provided a clear understanding of the neuronal circuits and mechanisms involved in the formation, expression and extinction phases of conditioned cued fear memories. Yet, despite a strong clinical interest, a detailed understanding of these memory phases for contextual fear memories is still missing. Besides the well-known role of the hippocampus in encoding contextual fear behavior, growing evidence indicates that specific regions of the medial prefrontal cortex differentially regulate contextual fear acquisition and storage in both animals and humans that ultimately leads to expression of contextual fear memories. In this review, we provide a detailed description of the recent literature on the role of distinct prefrontal subregions in contextual fear behavior and provide a working model of the neuronal circuits involved in the acquisition, expression and generalization of contextual fear memories. PMID:25287656

  12. Contextual Valence and Sociality Jointly Influence the Early and Later Stages of Neutral Face Processing

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Mengsi; Li, Zhiai; Diao, Liuting; Fan, Lingxia; Yang, Dong

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that face perception is influenced by emotional contextual information. However, because facial expressions are routinely decoded and understood during social communication, sociality should also be considered—that is, it seems necessary to explore whether emotional contextual effects are influenced by the sociality of contextual information. Furthermore, although one behavioral study has explored the effects of context on selective attention to faces, the exact underlying mechanisms remain unknown. Therefore, the current study investigated how valence and sociality of contextual information influenced the early and later stages of neutral face processing. We first employed an established affective learning procedure, wherein neutral faces were paired with verbal information that differed in valence (negative, neutral) and sociality (social, non-social), to manipulate contextual information. Then, to explore the effects of context on face perception, participants performed a face perception task, while the N170, early posterior negativity (EPN), and late positive potential (LPP) components were measured. Finally, to explore the effects of context on selective attention, participants performed a dot probe task while the N2pc was recorded. The results showed that, in the face perception task, faces paired with negative social information elicited greater EPN and LPP than did faces paired with neutral social information; no differences existed between faces paired with negative and neutral non-social information. In the dot probe task, faces paired with negative social information elicited a more negative N2pc amplitude (indicating attentional bias) than did faces paired with neutral social information; the N2pc did not differ between faces paired with negative and neutral non-social information. Together, these results suggest that contextual information influenced both face perception and selective attention, and these context

  13. Contextual Valence and Sociality Jointly Influence the Early and Later Stages of Neutral Face Processing

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Mengsi; Li, Zhiai; Diao, Liuting; Fan, Lingxia; Yang, Dong

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that face perception is influenced by emotional contextual information. However, because facial expressions are routinely decoded and understood during social communication, sociality should also be considered—that is, it seems necessary to explore whether emotional contextual effects are influenced by the sociality of contextual information. Furthermore, although one behavioral study has explored the effects of context on selective attention to faces, the exact underlying mechanisms remain unknown. Therefore, the current study investigated how valence and sociality of contextual information influenced the early and later stages of neutral face processing. We first employed an established affective learning procedure, wherein neutral faces were paired with verbal information that differed in valence (negative, neutral) and sociality (social, non-social), to manipulate contextual information. Then, to explore the effects of context on face perception, participants performed a face perception task, while the N170, early posterior negativity (EPN), and late positive potential (LPP) components were measured. Finally, to explore the effects of context on selective attention, participants performed a dot probe task while the N2pc was recorded. The results showed that, in the face perception task, faces paired with negative social information elicited greater EPN and LPP than did faces paired with neutral social information; no differences existed between faces paired with negative and neutral non-social information. In the dot probe task, faces paired with negative social information elicited a more negative N2pc amplitude (indicating attentional bias) than did faces paired with neutral social information; the N2pc did not differ between faces paired with negative and neutral non-social information. Together, these results suggest that contextual information influenced both face perception and selective attention, and these context

  14. Contextual Valence and Sociality Jointly Influence the Early and Later Stages of Neutral Face Processing.

    PubMed

    Xu, Mengsi; Li, Zhiai; Diao, Liuting; Fan, Lingxia; Yang, Dong

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that face perception is influenced by emotional contextual information. However, because facial expressions are routinely decoded and understood during social communication, sociality should also be considered-that is, it seems necessary to explore whether emotional contextual effects are influenced by the sociality of contextual information. Furthermore, although one behavioral study has explored the effects of context on selective attention to faces, the exact underlying mechanisms remain unknown. Therefore, the current study investigated how valence and sociality of contextual information influenced the early and later stages of neutral face processing. We first employed an established affective learning procedure, wherein neutral faces were paired with verbal information that differed in valence (negative, neutral) and sociality (social, non-social), to manipulate contextual information. Then, to explore the effects of context on face perception, participants performed a face perception task, while the N170, early posterior negativity (EPN), and late positive potential (LPP) components were measured. Finally, to explore the effects of context on selective attention, participants performed a dot probe task while the N2pc was recorded. The results showed that, in the face perception task, faces paired with negative social information elicited greater EPN and LPP than did faces paired with neutral social information; no differences existed between faces paired with negative and neutral non-social information. In the dot probe task, faces paired with negative social information elicited a more negative N2pc amplitude (indicating attentional bias) than did faces paired with neutral social information; the N2pc did not differ between faces paired with negative and neutral non-social information. Together, these results suggest that contextual information influenced both face perception and selective attention, and these context

  15. Facets of contextual realism in quantum mechanics

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, Alok Kumar; Home, Dipankar

    2011-09-23

    In recent times, there is an upsurge of interest in demonstrating the quantum contextuality. In this proceedings, we explore the two different forms of arguments that have been used for showing the contextual character of quantum mechanics. First line of study concerns the violations of the noncontextual realist models by quantum mechanics, where second line of study that is qualitatively distinct from the earlier one, demonstrates the contextuality within the formalism of quantum mechanics.

  16. 50 CFR 23.25 - What additional information is required on a non-Party CITES document?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false What additional information is required on a non-Party CITES document? 23.25 Section 23.25 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND..., BARTER, EXPORTATION, AND IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) CONVENTION ON INTERNATIONAL...

  17. 50 CFR 23.25 - What additional information is required on a non-Party CITES document?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What additional information is required on a non-Party CITES document? 23.25 Section 23.25 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND..., BARTER, EXPORTATION, AND IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) CONVENTION ON INTERNATIONAL...

  18. 12 CFR 516.220 - If OTS requests additional information to complete my application, how will it process my...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... complete my application, how will it process my application? 516.220 Section 516.220 Banks and Banking... Standard Treatment § 516.220 If OTS requests additional information to complete my application, how will it... your response. OTS will notify you that it has extended the period before the end of the initial...

  19. 12 CFR 116.220 - If the OCC requests additional information to complete my application, how will it process my...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... complete my application, how will it process my application? 116.220 Section 116.220 Banks and Banking... Treatment § 116.220 If the OCC requests additional information to complete my application, how will it... that it has extended the period before the end of the initial 15-day period and will briefly...

  20. 12 CFR 516.220 - If OTS requests additional information to complete my application, how will it process my...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... complete my application, how will it process my application? 516.220 Section 516.220 Banks and Banking... Standard Treatment § 516.220 If OTS requests additional information to complete my application, how will it... your response. OTS will notify you that it has extended the period before the end of the initial...

  1. 12 CFR 390.128 - If the FDIC requests additional information to complete my application, how will it process my...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... complete my application, how will it process my application? 390.128 Section 390.128 Banks and Banking... additional information to complete my application, how will it process my application? (a) You may use the... will notify you that it has extended the period before the end of the initial 15-day period and...

  2. A guide for developing plain-language and contextual summaries of systematic reviews in agri-food public health.

    PubMed

    Young, Ian; Kerr, Ashley; Waddell, Lisa; Pham, Mai T; Greig, Judy; McEwen, Scott A; Rajić, Andrijana

    2014-12-01

    The application of systematic reviews is increasing in the agri-food public health sector to investigate the efficacy of policy-relevant interventions. In order to enhance the uptake and utility of these reviews for decision-making, there is a need to develop summary formats that are written in plain language and incorporate supporting contextual information. The objectives of this study were (1) to develop a guideline for summarizing systematic reviews in one- and three-page formats, and (2) to apply the guideline on two published systematic reviews that investigated the efficacy of vaccination and targeted feed and water additives to reduce Salmonella colonization in broiler chickens. Both summary formats highlight the key systematic review results and implications in plain language. Three-page summaries also incorporated four categories of contextual information (cost, availability, practicality, and other stakeholder considerations) to complement the systematic review findings. We collected contextual information through structured rapid reviews of the peer-reviewed and gray literature and by conducting interviews with 12 topic specialists. The overall utility of the literature searches and interviews depended on the specific intervention topic and contextual category. In general, interviews with topic specialists were the most useful and efficient method of gathering contextual information. Preliminary evaluation with five end-users indicated positive feedback on the summary formats. We estimate that one-page summaries could be developed by trained science-to-policy professionals in 3-5 days, while three-page summaries would require additional resources and time (e.g., 2-4 weeks). Therefore, one-page summaries are more suited for routine development, while three-page summaries could be developed for a more limited number of high-priority reviews. The summary guideline offers a structured and transparent approach to support the utilization of systematic reviews

  3. Inclusion of Additional Plant Species and Trait Information in Dynamic Vegetation Modeling of Arctic Tundra and Boreal Forest Ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Euskirchen, E. S.; Patil, V.; Roach, J.; Griffith, B.; McGuire, A. D.

    2015-12-01

    Dynamic vegetation models (DVMs) have been developed to model the ecophysiological characteristics of plant functional types in terrestrial ecosystems. They have frequently been used to answer questions pertaining to processes such as disturbance, plant succession, and community composition under historical and future climate scenarios. While DVMs have proved useful in these types of applications, it has often been questioned if additional detail, such as including plant dynamics at the species-level and/or including species-specific traits would make these models more accurate and/or broadly applicable. A sub-question associated with this issue is, 'How many species, or what degree of functional diversity, should we incorporate to sustain ecosystem function in modeled ecosystems?' Here, we focus on how the inclusion of additional plant species and trait information may strengthen dynamic vegetation modeling in applications pertaining to: (1) forage for caribou in northern Alaska, (2) above- and belowground carbon storage in the boreal forest and lake margin wetlands of interior Alaska, and (3) arctic tundra and boreal forest leaf phenology. While the inclusion of additional information generally proved valuable in these three applications, this additional detail depends on field data that may not always be available and may also result in increased computational complexity. Therefore, it is important to assess these possible limitations against the perceived need for additional plant species and trait information in the development and application of dynamic vegetation models.

  4. The Role of Search Speed in the Contextual Cueing of Children’s Attention

    PubMed Central

    Darby, Kevin; Burling, Joseph; Yoshida, Hanako

    2013-01-01

    The contextual cueing effect is a robust phenomenon in which repeated exposure to the same arrangement of random elements guides attention to relevant information by constraining search. The effect is measured using an object search task in which a target (e.g., the letter T) is located within repeated or nonrepeated visual contexts (e.g., configurations of the letter L). Decreasing response times for the repeated configurations indicates that contextual information has facilitated search. Although the effect is robust among adult participants, recent attempts to document the effect in children have yielded mixed results. We examined the effect of search speed on contextual cueing with school-aged children, comparing three types of stimuli that promote different search times in order to observe how speed modulates this effect. Reliable effects of search time were found, suggesting that visual search speed uniquely constrains the role of attention toward contextually cued information. PMID:24505167

  5. Tautomers of a Fluorescent G Surrogate and Their Distinct Photophysics Provide Additional Information Channels.

    PubMed

    Sholokh, Marianna; Improta, Roberto; Mori, Mattia; Sharma, Rajhans; Kenfack, Cyril; Shin, Dongwon; Voltz, Karine; Stote, Roland H; Zaporozhets, Olga A; Botta, Maurizio; Tor, Yitzhak; Mély, Yves

    2016-07-01

    Thienoguanosine ((th) G) is an isomorphic nucleoside analogue acting as a faithful fluorescent substitute of G, with respectable quantum yield in oligonucleotides. Photophysical analysis of (th) G reveals the existence of two ground-state tautomers with significantly shifted absorption and emission wavelengths, and high quantum yield in buffer. Using (TD)-DFT calculations, the tautomers were identified as the H1 and H3 keto-amino tautomers. When incorporated into the loop of (-)PBS, the (-)DNA copy of the HIV-1 primer binding site, both tautomers are observed and show differential sensitivity to protein binding. The red-shifted H1 tautomer is strongly favored in matched (-)/(+)PBS duplexes, while the relative emission of the H3 tautomer can be used to detect single nucleotide polymorphisms. These tautomers and their distinct environmental sensitivity provide unprecedented information channels for analyzing G residues in oligonucleotides and their complexes.

  6. Extracting additional risk managers information from a risk assessment of Listeria monocytogenes in deli meats.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Rodríguez, F; van Asselt, E D; Garcia-Gimeno, R M; Zurera, G; Zwietering, M H

    2007-05-01

    The risk assessment study of Listeria monocytogenes in ready-to-eat foods conducted by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration is an example of an extensive quantitative microbiological risk assessment that could be used by risk analysts and other scientists to obtain information and by managers and stakeholders to make decisions on food safety management. The present study was conducted to investigate how detailed sensitivity analysis can be used by assessors to extract more information on risk factors and how results can be communicated to managers and stakeholders in an understandable way. The extended sensitivity analysis revealed that the extremes at the right side of the dose distribution (at consumption, 9 to 11.5 log CFU per serving) were responsible for most of the cases of listeriosis simulated. For concentration at retail, values below the detection limit of 0.04 CFU/g and the often used limit for L. monocytogenes of 100 CFU/g (also at retail) were associated with a high number of annual cases of listeriosis (about 29 and 82%, respectively). This association can be explained by growth of L. monocytogenes at both average and extreme values of temperature and time, indicating that a wide distribution can lead to high risk levels. Another finding is the importance of the maximal population density (i.e., the maximum concentration of L. monocytogenes assumed at a certain temperature) for accurately estimating the risk of infection by opportunistic pathogens such as L. monocytogenes. According to the obtained results, mainly concentrations corresponding to the highest maximal population densities caused risk in the simulation. However, sensitivity analysis applied to the uncertainty parameters revealed that prevalence at retail was the most important source of uncertainty in the model.

  7. Perspectives on contextual vulnerability in discourses of climate conflict

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okpara, U. T.; Stringer, L. C.; Dougill, A. J.

    2015-12-01

    The science of climate security and conflict is replete with controversies. Yet the increasing vulnerability of politically fragile countries to the security consequences of climate change is widely acknowledged. Although climate conflict reflects a continuum of conditional forces that coalesce around the notion of vulnerability, how different portrayals of vulnerability influence the discursive formation of climate conflict relations remains an exceptional but under-researched issue. This paper combines a systematic discourse analysis with a vulnerability interpretation diagnostic tool to explore: (i) how discourses of climate conflict are constructed and represented, (ii) how vulnerability is communicated across discourse lines, and (iii) the strength of contextual vulnerability against a deterministic narrative of scarcity-induced conflict, such as that pertaining to land. Systematically characterising climate conflict discourses based on the central issues constructed, assumptions about mechanistic relationships, implicit normative judgements and vulnerability portrayals, provides a useful way of understanding where discourses differ. While discourses show a wide range of opinions "for" and "against" climate conflict relations, engagement with vulnerability has been less pronounced - except for the dominant context centrism discourse concerned about human security (particularly in Africa). In exploring this discourse, we observe an increasing sense of contextual vulnerability that is oriented towards a concern for complexity rather than predictability. The article concludes by illustrating that a turn towards contextual vulnerability thinking will help advance a constructivist theory-informed climate conflict scholarship that recognises historicity, specificity and variability as crucial elements of contextual totalities of any area affected by climate conflict.

  8. Perspectives on contextual vulnerability in discourses of climate conflict

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okpara, U. T.; Stringer, L. C.; Dougill, A. J.

    2016-02-01

    The science of climate security and conflict is replete with controversies. Yet the increasing vulnerability of politically fragile countries to the security consequences of climate change is widely acknowledged. Although climate conflict reflects a continuum of conditional forces that coalesce around the notion of vulnerability, how different portrayals of vulnerability influence the discursive formation of climate conflict relations remains an exceptional but under-researched issue. This paper combines a systematic discourse analysis with a vulnerability interpretation diagnostic tool to explore (i) how discourses of climate conflict are constructed and represented, (ii) how vulnerability is communicated across discourse lines, and (iii) the strength of contextual vulnerability against a deterministic narrative of scarcity-induced conflict, such as that pertaining to land. Systematically characterising climate conflict discourses based on the central issues constructed, assumptions about mechanistic relationships, implicit normative judgements and vulnerability portrayals, provides a useful way of understanding where discourses differ. While discourses show a wide range of opinions "for" and "against" climate conflict relations, engagement with vulnerability has been less pronounced - except for the dominant context centrism discourse concerned about human security (particularly in Africa). In exploring this discourse, we observe an increasing sense of contextual vulnerability that is oriented towards a concern for complexity rather than predictability. The article concludes by illustrating that a turn towards contextual vulnerability thinking will help advance a constructivist theory-informed climate conflict scholarship that recognises historicity, specificity, and variability as crucial elements of contextual totalities of any area affected by climate conflict.

  9. Contextualizing Object Detection and Classification.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qiang; Song, Zheng; Dong, Jian; Huang, Zhongyang; Hua, Yang; Yan, Shuicheng

    2015-01-01

    We investigate how to iteratively and mutually boost object classification and detection performance by taking the outputs from one task as the context of the other one. While context models have been quite popular, previous works mainly concentrate on co-occurrence relationship within classes and few of them focus on contextualization from a top-down perspective, i.e. high-level task context. In this paper, our system adopts a new method for adaptive context modeling and iterative boosting. First, the contextualized support vector machine (Context-SVM) is proposed, where the context takes the role of dynamically adjusting the classification score based on the sample ambiguity, and thus the context-adaptive classifier is achieved. Then, an iterative training procedure is presented. In each step, Context-SVM, associated with the output context from one task (object classification or detection), is instantiated to boost the performance for the other task, whose augmented outputs are then further used to improve the former task by Context-SVM. The proposed solution is evaluated on the object classification and detection tasks of PASCAL Visual Object Classes Challenge (VOC) 2007, 2010 and SUN09 data sets, and achieves the state-of-the-art performance.

  10. Contextual marketing--the real business of the Internet.

    PubMed

    Kenny, D; Marshall, J F

    2000-01-01

    The painful truth is that the Internet has been a letdown for most companies--largely because the dominant model for Internet commerce, the destination Web site, doesn't suit the needs of those companies or their customers. Most consumer product companies don't provide enough value or dynamic information to induce customers to make the repeat visits--and disclose the detailed information--that make such sites profitable. In this article, David Kenny and John F. Marshall suggest that companies discard the notion that a Web site equals an Internet strategy. Instead of trying to create destinations that people will come to, companies need to use the power and reach of the Internet to deliver tailored messages and information to customers. Companies have to become what the authors call "contextual marketers." Delivering the most relevant information possible to consumers in the most timely manner possible will become feasible, the authors say, as access moves beyond the PC to shopping malls, retail stores, airports, bus stations, and even cars. The authors describe how the ubiquitous Internet will hasten the demise of the destination Web site--and open up scads of opportunities to reach customers through marketing "mobilemediaries," such as smart cards, e-wallets, and bar code scanners. The companies that master the complexity of the ubiquitous Internet will gain significant advantages: they'll gain greater intimacy with customers and target market segments more efficiently. The ones that don't will be dismissed as nuisances, the authors conclude. They suggest ways to become welcome additions--not unwelcome intrusions--to customers' lives. PMID:11184966

  11. Contextual modulation of value signals in reward and punishment learning.

    PubMed

    Palminteri, Stefano; Khamassi, Mehdi; Joffily, Mateus; Coricelli, Giorgio

    2015-08-25

    Compared with reward seeking, punishment avoidance learning is less clearly understood at both the computational and neurobiological levels. Here we demonstrate, using computational modelling and fMRI in humans, that learning option values in a relative--context-dependent--scale offers a simple computational solution for avoidance learning. The context (or state) value sets the reference point to which an outcome should be compared before updating the option value. Consequently, in contexts with an overall negative expected value, successful punishment avoidance acquires a positive value, thus reinforcing the response. As revealed by post-learning assessment of options values, contextual influences are enhanced when subjects are informed about the result of the forgone alternative (counterfactual information). This is mirrored at the neural level by a shift in negative outcome encoding from the anterior insula to the ventral striatum, suggesting that value contextualization also limits the need to mobilize an opponent punishment learning system.

  12. Contextual modulation of value signals in reward and punishment learning

    PubMed Central

    Palminteri, Stefano; Khamassi, Mehdi; Joffily, Mateus; Coricelli, Giorgio

    2015-01-01

    Compared with reward seeking, punishment avoidance learning is less clearly understood at both the computational and neurobiological levels. Here we demonstrate, using computational modelling and fMRI in humans, that learning option values in a relative—context-dependent—scale offers a simple computational solution for avoidance learning. The context (or state) value sets the reference point to which an outcome should be compared before updating the option value. Consequently, in contexts with an overall negative expected value, successful punishment avoidance acquires a positive value, thus reinforcing the response. As revealed by post-learning assessment of options values, contextual influences are enhanced when subjects are informed about the result of the forgone alternative (counterfactual information). This is mirrored at the neural level by a shift in negative outcome encoding from the anterior insula to the ventral striatum, suggesting that value contextualization also limits the need to mobilize an opponent punishment learning system. PMID:26302782

  13. Contextual modulation of value signals in reward and punishment learning.

    PubMed

    Palminteri, Stefano; Khamassi, Mehdi; Joffily, Mateus; Coricelli, Giorgio

    2015-01-01

    Compared with reward seeking, punishment avoidance learning is less clearly understood at both the computational and neurobiological levels. Here we demonstrate, using computational modelling and fMRI in humans, that learning option values in a relative--context-dependent--scale offers a simple computational solution for avoidance learning. The context (or state) value sets the reference point to which an outcome should be compared before updating the option value. Consequently, in contexts with an overall negative expected value, successful punishment avoidance acquires a positive value, thus reinforcing the response. As revealed by post-learning assessment of options values, contextual influences are enhanced when subjects are informed about the result of the forgone alternative (counterfactual information). This is mirrored at the neural level by a shift in negative outcome encoding from the anterior insula to the ventral striatum, suggesting that value contextualization also limits the need to mobilize an opponent punishment learning system. PMID:26302782

  14. Novel learning accelerates systems consolidation of a contextual fear memory.

    PubMed

    Haubrich, Josue; Cassini, Lindsey Freitas; Diehl, Felipe; Santana, Fabiana; Fürstenau de Oliveira, Lucas; de Oliveira Alvares, Lucas; Quillfeldt, Jorge Alberto

    2016-07-01

    After initial encoding memories may undergo a time-dependent reorganization, becoming progressively independent from the hippocampus (HPC) and dependent on cortical regions such as the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Although the mechanisms underlying systems consolidation are somewhat known, the factors determining its temporal dynamics are still poorly understood. Here, we studied the influence of novel learning occurring between training and test sessions on the time-course of HPC- and ACC-dependency of contextual fear conditioning (CFC) memory expression. We found that muscimol was disruptive when infused into the HPC up to 35 days after training, while the ACC is vulnerable only after 45 days. However, when animals were subjected to a series of additional, distinct tasks to be learned within the first 3 weeks, muscimol became effective sooner. Muscimol had no effect in the HPC at 20 days after training, exactly when the ACC becomes responsive to this treatment. Thus, our data indicates that the encoding of new information generates a tight interplay between distinct memories, accelerating the reorganization of previously stored long term memories between the hippocampal and cortical areas. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. A Constructivist's Perspective on Functional Contextualism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jonassen, David H.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, the author presents his arguments to Fox's premise that functional contextualism has an implications for designing instruction. Fox argues that functional contextualism is an alternative to constructivism because constructivism has not empirically demonstrated its effectiveness. However, the author finds this assertion troubling for…

  16. Contextual Factors and Effective School Improvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Hechuan; Creemers, Bert P. M.; de Jong, Rob

    2007-01-01

    This research provides policy-makers, researchers, and educators at all levels with a glimpse of the contextual influence on effective school improvement (ESI) in 8 European countries. What are the factors at the contextual level, particularly at the national level, which influence ESI? Are there any similarities or differences between the…

  17. Contextual Cueing Effects across the Lifespan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merrill, Edward C.; Conners, Frances A.; Roskos, Beverly; Klinger, Mark R.; Klinger, Laura Grofer

    2013-01-01

    The authors evaluated age-related variations in contextual cueing, which reflects the extent to which visuospatial regularities can facilitate search for a target. Previous research produced inconsistent results regarding contextual cueing effects in young children and in older adults, and no study has investigated the phenomenon across the life…

  18. Contextual Factors in Adolescent Substance Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hochhauser, Mark; And Others

    Research on adolescent substance use has focused on prevalence and incidence; however, contextual factors have been largely ignored. A survey of 155 adolescents from a Minneapolis suburb was conducted to assess contextual factors affecting adolescent substance use. Subjects reported their use of alcohol, cigarettes, and marihuana with respect to…

  19. Effects of Forward and Backward Contextual Elaboration on Lexical Inferences: Evidence from a Semantic Relatedness Judgment Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamada, Akira

    2015-01-01

    Three experiments examined whether the process of lexical inferences differs according to the direction of contextual elaboration using a semantic relatedness judgment task. In Experiment 1, Japanese university students read English sentences where target unknown words were semantically elaborated by prior contextual information (forward lexical…

  20. A new species of Neparholaspis (Acari: Parholaspididae) from Russia, with additional information on Neparholaspis evansi Krantz, 1960.

    PubMed

    Marchenko, Irina I

    2016-01-01

    Neparholaspis dubatolovi sp. nov. is described and illustrated from adult females and males collected from litter and moss in montane forest in north-eastern Sikhote-Alin Ridge in the Far East of Russia. Additional morphological information and illustrations of Neparholaspis evansi Krantz, 1960 are provided, based on examination of a paratype. A key to the world species of Neparholaspis is provided. PMID:27615851

  1. Differential roles of the dorsal and ventral hippocampus in predator odor contextual fear conditioning.

    PubMed

    Wang, Melissa E; Fraize, Nicolas P; Yin, Linda; Yuan, Robin K; Petsagourakis, Despina; Wann, Ellen G; Muzzio, Isabel A

    2013-06-01

    The study of fear memory is important for understanding various anxiety disorders in which patients experience persistent recollections of traumatic events. These memories often involve associations of contextual cues with aversive events; consequently, Pavlovian classical conditioning is commonly used to study contextual fear learning. The use of predator odor as a fearful stimulus in contextual fear conditioning has become increasingly important as an animal model of anxiety disorders. Innate fear responses to predator odors are well characterized and reliable; however, attempts to use these odors as unconditioned stimuli in fear conditioning paradigms have proven inconsistent. Here we characterize a contextual fear conditioning paradigm using coyote urine as the unconditioned stimulus. We found that contextual conditioning induced by exposure to coyote urine produces long-term freezing, a stereotypic response to fear observed in mice. This paradigm is context-specific and parallels shock-induced contextual conditioning in that it is responsive to extinction training and manipulations of predator odor intensity. Region-specific lesions of the dorsal and ventral hippocampus indicate that both areas are independently required for the long-term expression of learned fear. These results in conjunction with c-fos immunostaining data suggest that while both the dorsal and ventral hippocampus are required for forming a contextual representation, the ventral region also modulates defensive behaviors associated with predators. This study provides information about the individual contributions of the dorsal and ventral hippocampus to ethologically relevant fear learning.

  2. Testing conditions in shock-based contextual fear conditioning influence both the behavioral responses and the activation of circuits potentially involved in contextual avoidance.

    PubMed

    Viellard, Juliette; Baldo, Marcus Vinicius C; Canteras, Newton Sabino

    2016-12-15

    Previous studies from our group have shown that risk assessment behaviors are the primary contextual fear responses to predatory and social threats, whereas freezing is the main contextual fear response to physically harmful events. To test contextual fear responses to a predator or aggressive conspecific threat, we developed a model that involves placing the animal in an apparatus where it can avoid the threat-associated environment. Conversely, in studies that use shock-based fear conditioning, the animals are usually confined inside the conditioning chamber during the contextual fear test. In the present study, we tested shock-based contextual fear responses using two different behavioral testing conditions: confining the animal in the conditioning chamber or placing the animal in an apparatus with free access to the conditioning compartment. Our results showed that during the contextual fear test, the animals confined to the shock chamber exhibited significantly more freezing. In contrast, the animals that could avoid the conditioning compartment displayed almost no freezing and exhibited risk assessment responses (i.e., crouch-sniff and stretch postures) and burying behavior. In addition, the animals that were able to avoid the shock chamber had increased Fos expression in the juxtadorsomedial lateral hypothalamic area, the dorsomedial part of the dorsal premammillary nucleus and the lateral and dorsomedial parts of the periaqueductal gray, which are elements of a septo/hippocampal-hypothalamic-brainstem circuit that is putatively involved in mediating contextual avoidance. Overall, the present findings show that testing conditions significantly influence both behavioral responses and the activation of circuits involved in contextual avoidance. PMID:27544875

  3. High-affinity α4β2 nicotinic receptors mediate the impairing effects of acute nicotine on contextual fear extinction.

    PubMed

    Kutlu, Munir Gunes; Holliday, Erica; Gould, Thomas J

    2016-02-01

    Previously, studies from our lab have shown that while acute nicotine administered prior to training and testing enhances contextual fear conditioning, acute nicotine injections prior to extinction sessions impair extinction of contextual fear. Although there is also strong evidence showing that the acute nicotine's enhancing effects on contextual fear conditioning require high-affinity α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), it is unknown which nAChR subtypes are involved in the acute nicotine-induced impairment of contextual fear extinction. In this study, we investigated the effects of acute nicotine administration on contextual fear extinction in knock-out (KO) mice lacking α4, β2 or α7 subtypes of nAChRs and their wild-type (WT) littermates. Both KO and WT mice were first trained and tested for contextual fear conditioning and received a daily contextual extinction session for 4 days. Subjects received intraperitoneal injections of nicotine (0.18 mg/kg) or saline 2-4 min prior to each extinction session. Our results showed that the mice that lack α4 and β2 subtypes of nAChRs showed normal contextual fear extinction but not the acute nicotine-induced impairment while the mice that lack the α7 subtype showed both normal contextual extinction and nicotine-induced impairment of contextual extinction. In addition, control experiments showed that acute nicotine-induced impairment of contextual fear extinction persisted when nicotine administration was ceased and repeated acute nicotine administrations alone did not induce freezing behavior in the absence of context-shock learning. These results clearly demonstrate that high-affinity α4β2 nAChRs are necessary for the effects of acute nicotine on contextual fear extinction.

  4. High-affinity α4β2 nicotinic receptors mediate the impairing effects of acute nicotine on contextual fear extinction.

    PubMed

    Kutlu, Munir Gunes; Holliday, Erica; Gould, Thomas J

    2016-02-01

    Previously, studies from our lab have shown that while acute nicotine administered prior to training and testing enhances contextual fear conditioning, acute nicotine injections prior to extinction sessions impair extinction of contextual fear. Although there is also strong evidence showing that the acute nicotine's enhancing effects on contextual fear conditioning require high-affinity α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), it is unknown which nAChR subtypes are involved in the acute nicotine-induced impairment of contextual fear extinction. In this study, we investigated the effects of acute nicotine administration on contextual fear extinction in knock-out (KO) mice lacking α4, β2 or α7 subtypes of nAChRs and their wild-type (WT) littermates. Both KO and WT mice were first trained and tested for contextual fear conditioning and received a daily contextual extinction session for 4 days. Subjects received intraperitoneal injections of nicotine (0.18 mg/kg) or saline 2-4 min prior to each extinction session. Our results showed that the mice that lack α4 and β2 subtypes of nAChRs showed normal contextual fear extinction but not the acute nicotine-induced impairment while the mice that lack the α7 subtype showed both normal contextual extinction and nicotine-induced impairment of contextual extinction. In addition, control experiments showed that acute nicotine-induced impairment of contextual fear extinction persisted when nicotine administration was ceased and repeated acute nicotine administrations alone did not induce freezing behavior in the absence of context-shock learning. These results clearly demonstrate that high-affinity α4β2 nAChRs are necessary for the effects of acute nicotine on contextual fear extinction. PMID:26688111

  5. Attentional and Contextual Priors in Sound Perception

    PubMed Central

    Wolmetz, Michael; Elhilali, Mounya

    2016-01-01

    Behavioral and neural studies of selective attention have consistently demonstrated that explicit attentional cues to particular perceptual features profoundly alter perception and performance. The statistics of the sensory environment can also provide cues about what perceptual features to expect, but the extent to which these more implicit contextual cues impact perception and performance, as well as their relationship to explicit attentional cues, is not well understood. In this study, the explicit cues, or attentional prior probabilities, and the implicit cues, or contextual prior probabilities, associated with different acoustic frequencies in a detection task were simultaneously manipulated. Both attentional and contextual priors had similarly large but independent impacts on sound detectability, with evidence that listeners tracked and used contextual priors for a variety of sound classes (pure tones, harmonic complexes, and vowels). Further analyses showed that listeners updated their contextual priors rapidly and optimally, given the changing acoustic frequency statistics inherent in the paradigm. A Bayesian Observer model accounted for both attentional and contextual adaptations found with listeners. These results bolster the interpretation of perception as Bayesian inference, and suggest that some effects attributed to selective attention may be a special case of contextual prior integration along a feature axis. PMID:26882228

  6. Attentional and Contextual Priors in Sound Perception.

    PubMed

    Wolmetz, Michael; Elhilali, Mounya

    2016-01-01

    Behavioral and neural studies of selective attention have consistently demonstrated that explicit attentional cues to particular perceptual features profoundly alter perception and performance. The statistics of the sensory environment can also provide cues about what perceptual features to expect, but the extent to which these more implicit contextual cues impact perception and performance, as well as their relationship to explicit attentional cues, is not well understood. In this study, the explicit cues, or attentional prior probabilities, and the implicit cues, or contextual prior probabilities, associated with different acoustic frequencies in a detection task were simultaneously manipulated. Both attentional and contextual priors had similarly large but independent impacts on sound detectability, with evidence that listeners tracked and used contextual priors for a variety of sound classes (pure tones, harmonic complexes, and vowels). Further analyses showed that listeners updated their contextual priors rapidly and optimally, given the changing acoustic frequency statistics inherent in the paradigm. A Bayesian Observer model accounted for both attentional and contextual adaptations found with listeners. These results bolster the interpretation of perception as Bayesian inference, and suggest that some effects attributed to selective attention may be a special case of contextual prior integration along a feature axis.

  7. Contextual modeling of functional MR images with conditional random fields.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yang; Rajapakse, Jagath C

    2006-06-01

    This paper presents a conditional random field (CRF) approach to fuse contextual dependencies in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data for the detection of brain activation. The interactions among both activation (activated/inactive) labels and observed data of brain voxels are unified in a probabilistic framework based on the CRF, where the interaction strength can be adaptively adjusted in terms of the data similarity of neighboring sites. Compared to earlier detection methods, including statistical parametric mapping and Markov random field, the proposed method avoids the suppression of high frequency information and relaxes the strong assumption of conditional independence of observed data. Experimental results show that the proposed approach effectively integrates contextual constraints within the detection process and robustly detects brain activities from fMRI data.

  8. A Protocol for Evaluating Contextual Design Principles

    PubMed Central

    Stamps, Arthur

    2014-01-01

    This paper explains how scientific data can be incorporated into urban design decisions, such as evaluating contextual design principles. The recommended protocols are based on the Cochrane Reviews that have been widely used in medical research. The major concepts of a Cochrane Review are explained, as well as the underlying mathematics. The underlying math is meta-analysis. Data are reported for three applications and seven contextual design policies. It is suggested that use of the Cochrane protocols will be of great assistance to planners by providing scientific data that can be used to evaluate the efficacies of contextual design policies prior to implementing those policies. PMID:25431448

  9. Contextualization of HIV and HPV risk and prevention among Pacific Islander young adults in Southern California

    PubMed Central

    DiStefano, Anthony S.; Hui, Brian; Barrera-Ng, Angelica; Quitugua, Lourdes F.; Peters, Ruth; Dimaculangan, Jeany; Vunileva, Isileli; Tui’one, Vanessa; Takahashi, Lois M.; Tanjasiri, Sora Park

    2012-01-01

    HIV and sexually transmitted human papillomavirus (HPV) are associated with each other and with the development of comorbid cancer. Current epidemiology indicates that among Pacific Islanders in the United States, young adults are at highest risk of HIV and HPV. In our inductive community based participatory research study, we used focus groups and key informant interviews (March – August 2010) with young adults, parents, community leaders, and providers (n = 95) to identify and contextualize factors that shape HIV and HPV risk and prevention among young adults in Chamorro and Tongan communities in Southern California. We identified nine themes that incorporated the following principal factors: misinformation and otherization; dominant concerns regarding premarital pregnancy; restricted intergenerational communication; family shame and privacy; gendered manifestations of religio-cultural norms; barriers impeding access to sexual health resources; parents’ role in prevention; community vs. individual responsibility; and family and ethnic pride. Our thematic findings fit well with Rhodes’ “risk and enabling environment” heuristic (2009), which we used to contextualize risk and prevention at micro and macro levels of physical, social, economic, and policy environments. We propose the addition of a separate cultural environment to the heuristic and conclude that a focus on applying individual and community agency at the micro-level would be an approachable starting point for intervention for our local Pacific Islander communities and groups in similar ecological contexts globally. Enhanced community-led education programs and engagement of religious and other community leaders to facilitate intergenerational communication could counteract taboos that obstruct prevention. PMID:22647562

  10. Contextualization of HIV and HPV risk and prevention among Pacific Islander young adults in Southern California.

    PubMed

    DiStefano, Anthony S; Hui, Brian; Barrera-Ng, Angelica; Quitugua, Lourdes F; Peters, Ruth; Dimaculangan, Jeany; Vunileva, Isileli; Tui'one, Vanessa; Takahashi, Lois M; Tanjasiri, Sora Park

    2012-08-01

    HIV and sexually transmitted human papillomavirus (HPV) are associated with each other and with the development of comorbid cancer. Current epidemiology indicates that among Pacific Islanders in the United States, young adults are at highest risk of HIV and HPV. In our inductive community based participatory research study, we used focus groups and key informant interviews (March-August 2010) with young adults, parents, community leaders, and providers (n = 95) to identify and contextualize factors that shape HIV and HPV risk and prevention among young adults in Chamorro and Tongan communities in Southern California. We identified nine themes that incorporated the following principal factors: misinformation and otherization; dominant concerns regarding premarital pregnancy; restricted intergenerational communication; family shame and privacy; gendered manifestations of religio-cultural norms; barriers impeding access to sexual health resources; parents' role in prevention; community vs. individual responsibility; and family and ethnic pride. Our thematic findings fit well with Rhodes' "risk and enabling environment" heuristic (2009), which we used to contextualize risk and prevention at micro and macro levels of physical, social, economic, and policy environments. We propose the addition of a separate cultural environment to the heuristic and conclude that a focus on applying individual and community agency at the micro-level would be an approachable starting point for intervention for our local Pacific Islander communities and groups in similar ecological contexts globally. Enhanced community-led education programs and engagement of religious and other community leaders to facilitate intergenerational communication could counteract taboos that obstruct prevention.

  11. Primary Contextualization of Science Learning through Immersion in Content-Rich Settings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giamellaro, Michael

    2014-11-01

    This paper reports on a study of primary contextualization processes during science immersion trips and the resultant student learning. Four High School Ecology classes (n = 67) and teachers participated. Through a pre-/post-assessment of science concept knowledge (Pathfinder Network Modeling) and follow-up interviews with students, it was determined that (1) significant learning was associated with these immersion experiences, though overcontextualization was problematic for some, (2) there was a positive interaction between degree of contextualization (primary vs. secondary) and degree of learning, and (3) key primary contextualization processes included the situating of knowledge in time and place as well as the collection of personalized visual or embodied evidence for science concepts. The study contributes to our understanding of contextualization in the learning process and has the potential to inform field, classroom, and virtual learning environments.

  12. Using the Virtual Reality-Cognitive Rehabilitation Approach to Improve Contextual Processing in Children with Autism

    PubMed Central

    Reid, Denise

    2013-01-01

    Background. This pilot study investigated the efficacy of a novel virtual reality-cognitive rehabilitation (VR-CR) intervention to improve contextual processing of objects in children with autism. Previous research supports that children with autism show deficits in contextual processing, as well as deficits in its elementary components: abstraction and cognitive flexibility. Methods. Four children with autism participated in a multiple-baseline, single-subject study. The children were taught how to see objects in context by reinforcing attention to pivotal contextual information. Results. All children demonstrated statistically significant improvements in contextual processing and cognitive flexibility. Mixed results were found on the control test and changes in context-related behaviours. Conclusions. Larger-scale studies are warranted to determine the effectiveness and usability in comprehensive educational programs. PMID:24324379

  13. Testing for potential contextual bias effects during the verification stage of the ACE-V methodology when conducting fingerprint comparisons.

    PubMed

    Langenburg, Glenn; Champod, Christophe; Wertheim, Pat

    2009-05-01

    This study was conducted to assess if fingerprint specialists could be influenced by extraneous contextual information during a verification process. Participants were separated into three groups: a control group (no contextual information was given), a low bias group (minimal contextual information was given in the form of a report prompting conclusions), and a high bias group (an internationally recognized fingerprint expert provided conclusions and case information to deceive this group into believing that it was his case and conclusions). A similar experiment was later conducted with laypersons. The results showed that fingerprint experts were influenced by contextual information during fingerprint comparisons, but not towards making errors. Instead, fingerprint experts under the biasing conditions provided significantly fewer definitive and erroneous conclusions than the control group. In contrast, the novice participants were more influenced by the bias conditions and did tend to make incorrect judgments, especially when prompted towards an incorrect response by the bias prompt.

  14. Effects of the swimming exercise on the consolidation and persistence of auditory and contextual fear memory.

    PubMed

    Faria, Rodolfo Souza; Gutierres, Luís Felipe Soares; Sobrinho, Fernando César Faria; Miranda, Iris do Vale; Reis, Júlia Dos; Dias, Elayne Vieira; Sartori, Cesar Renato; Moreira, Dalmo Antonio Ribeiro

    2016-08-15

    Exposure to negative environmental events triggers defensive behavior and leads to the formation of aversive associative memory. Cellular and molecular changes in the central nervous system underlie this memory formation, as well as the associated behavioral changes. In general, memory process is established in distinct phases such as acquisition, consolidation, evocation, persistence, and extinction of the acquired information. After exposure to a particular event, early changes in involved neural circuits support the memory consolidation, which corresponds to the short-term memory. Re-exposure to previously memorized events evokes the original memory, a process that is considered essential for the reactivation and consequent persistence of memory, ensuring that long-term memory is established. Different environmental stimuli may modulate the memory formation process, as well as their distinct phases. Among the different environmental stimuli able of modulating memory formation is the physical exercise which is a potent modulator of neuronal activity. There are many studies showing that physical exercise modulates learning and memory processes, mainly in the consolidation phase of the explicit memory. However, there are few reports in the literature regarding the role of physical exercise in implicit aversive associative memory, especially at the persistence phase. Thus, the present study aimed to investigate the relationship between swimming exercise and the consolidation and persistence of contextual and auditory-cued fear memory. Male Wistar rats were submitted to sessions of swimming exercise five times a week, over six weeks. After that, the rats were submitted to classical aversive conditioning training by a pairing tone/foot shock paradigm. Finally, rats were evaluated for consolidation and persistence of fear memory to both auditory and contextual cues. Our results demonstrate that classical aversive conditioning with tone/foot shock pairing induced

  15. Effects of the swimming exercise on the consolidation and persistence of auditory and contextual fear memory.

    PubMed

    Faria, Rodolfo Souza; Gutierres, Luís Felipe Soares; Sobrinho, Fernando César Faria; Miranda, Iris do Vale; Reis, Júlia Dos; Dias, Elayne Vieira; Sartori, Cesar Renato; Moreira, Dalmo Antonio Ribeiro

    2016-08-15

    Exposure to negative environmental events triggers defensive behavior and leads to the formation of aversive associative memory. Cellular and molecular changes in the central nervous system underlie this memory formation, as well as the associated behavioral changes. In general, memory process is established in distinct phases such as acquisition, consolidation, evocation, persistence, and extinction of the acquired information. After exposure to a particular event, early changes in involved neural circuits support the memory consolidation, which corresponds to the short-term memory. Re-exposure to previously memorized events evokes the original memory, a process that is considered essential for the reactivation and consequent persistence of memory, ensuring that long-term memory is established. Different environmental stimuli may modulate the memory formation process, as well as their distinct phases. Among the different environmental stimuli able of modulating memory formation is the physical exercise which is a potent modulator of neuronal activity. There are many studies showing that physical exercise modulates learning and memory processes, mainly in the consolidation phase of the explicit memory. However, there are few reports in the literature regarding the role of physical exercise in implicit aversive associative memory, especially at the persistence phase. Thus, the present study aimed to investigate the relationship between swimming exercise and the consolidation and persistence of contextual and auditory-cued fear memory. Male Wistar rats were submitted to sessions of swimming exercise five times a week, over six weeks. After that, the rats were submitted to classical aversive conditioning training by a pairing tone/foot shock paradigm. Finally, rats were evaluated for consolidation and persistence of fear memory to both auditory and contextual cues. Our results demonstrate that classical aversive conditioning with tone/foot shock pairing induced

  16. Temporal judgments and contextual change.

    PubMed

    Block, R A

    1982-11-01

    Three experiments investigated effects of environmental context on temporal memory judgments. An equal number of items occurred within each of two equal durations (D1 and D2). Subjects subsequently were asked to judge the length of a given duration in comparison with the other, then to discriminate the correct list and serial position for each recognized item on a test. If environmental context was unchanged, D1 was remembered as being longer than D2; if the context was disrupted during the interval separating D1 and D2, this effect was reduced; and if the context prevailing during D2 also was changed, the effect was eliminated. List discrimination was improved only if the context was changed. Serial-position judgment was not affected by either manipulation. Changes in process context--the internal context produced by the performance of specific cognitive processes--lengthened remembered duration, but the effect did not simply add on to the effects of environmental context. Results are discussed in terms of a contextual-change hypothesis.

  17. A Combinatorial Approach to Nonlocality and Contextuality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acín, Antonio; Fritz, Tobias; Leverrier, Anthony; Sainz, Ana Belén

    2015-03-01

    So far, most of the literature on (quantum) contextuality and the Kochen-Specker theorem seems either to concern particular examples of contextuality, or be considered as quantum logic. Here, we develop a general formalism for contextuality scenarios based on the combinatorics of hypergraphs, which significantly refines a similar recent approach by Cabello, Severini and Winter (CSW). In contrast to CSW, we explicitly include the normalization of probabilities, which gives us a much finer control over the various sets of probabilistic models like classical, quantum and generalized probabilistic. In particular, our framework specializes to (quantum) nonlocality in the case of Bell scenarios, which arise very naturally from a certain product of contextuality scenarios due to Foulis and Randall. In the spirit of CSW, we find close relationships to several graph invariants. The recently proposed Local Orthogonality principle turns out to be a special case of a general principle for contextuality scenarios related to the Shannon capacity of graphs. Our results imply that it is strictly dominated by a low level of the Navascués-Pironio-Acín hierarchy of semidefinite programs, which we also apply to contextuality scenarios. We derive a wealth of results in our framework, many of these relating to quantum and supraquantum contextuality and nonlocality, and state numerous open problems. For example, we show that the set of quantum models on a contextuality scenario can in general not be characterized in terms of a graph invariant. In terms of graph theory, our main result is this: there exist two graphs and with the properties

  18. Applying contextual interference to the Pawlata roll.

    PubMed

    Smith, P J; Davies, M

    1995-12-01

    Contextual interference is manipulated by changing the practice order of a number of similar motor tasks, so that the learning context of each interferes with that of the other. The effect has been found to generalize to baseball batting, badminton serving and volleyball skills. The present study examined whether this practice technique could be applied to a Pawlata roll in a kayak. The study was further motivated by the fact that many instructors in Britain currently advocate learning the Pawlata roll in one direction only to a criterion of accuracy, thereafter transferring to the opposite direction. Contextual interference literature predicts that skill retention would be better served by practising on alternate sides. Accordingly, 16 undergraduate students with no kayaking experience were randomly allocated to either a low contextual interference group, which followed U'ren's (1993) recommendations, or a high contextual interference group, which practised the skill on alternate sides. The high contextual interference group took less time to acquire the skill, and were also quicker to achieve successful performance in retention (full roll) and transfer (half roll) tests, regardless of the direction of the roll, 1 week later. The time savings in practice were not expected, as acquisition under high contextual interference was improved rather than impaired. This finding suggests that bilateral transfer was increased by randomizing practice. These results are worthy of further investigation, in that they suggest that the recommended training methods may not be optimal. PMID:8850571

  19. Applying contextual interference to the Pawlata roll.

    PubMed

    Smith, P J; Davies, M

    1995-12-01

    Contextual interference is manipulated by changing the practice order of a number of similar motor tasks, so that the learning context of each interferes with that of the other. The effect has been found to generalize to baseball batting, badminton serving and volleyball skills. The present study examined whether this practice technique could be applied to a Pawlata roll in a kayak. The study was further motivated by the fact that many instructors in Britain currently advocate learning the Pawlata roll in one direction only to a criterion of accuracy, thereafter transferring to the opposite direction. Contextual interference literature predicts that skill retention would be better served by practising on alternate sides. Accordingly, 16 undergraduate students with no kayaking experience were randomly allocated to either a low contextual interference group, which followed U'ren's (1993) recommendations, or a high contextual interference group, which practised the skill on alternate sides. The high contextual interference group took less time to acquire the skill, and were also quicker to achieve successful performance in retention (full roll) and transfer (half roll) tests, regardless of the direction of the roll, 1 week later. The time savings in practice were not expected, as acquisition under high contextual interference was improved rather than impaired. This finding suggests that bilateral transfer was increased by randomizing practice. These results are worthy of further investigation, in that they suggest that the recommended training methods may not be optimal.

  20. Medial Prefrontal Cortex Lesions Abolish Contextual Control of Competing Responses

    PubMed Central

    Haddon, J.E; Killcross, A.S

    2005-01-01

    There is much debate as to the extent and nature of functional specialization within the different subregions of the prefrontal cortex. The current study was undertaken to investigate the effect of damage to medial prefrontal cortex subregions in the rat. Rats were trained on two biconditional discrimination tasks, one auditory and one visual, in two different contexts. At test, they received presentations of audiovisual compounds of these training stimuli in extinction. These compounds had dictated either the same (congruent trials) or different (incongruent trials) responses during training. In sham-operated controls, contextual cues came to control responding to conflicting information provided by incongruent stimulus compounds. Experiment 1 demonstrated that this contextual control of responding was not evident in individual rats with large amounts of damage that included the prelimbic and cingulate subregions of the prefrontal cortex. Experiment 2 further dissociated the result of Experiment 1, demonstrating that lesions specific to the anterior cingulate cortex were sufficient to produce a deficit early on during presentation of an incongruent stimulus compound but that performance was unimpaired as presentation progressed. This early deficit suggests a role for the anterior cingulate cortex in the detection of response conflict, and for the medial prefrontal cortex in the contextual control of competing responses, providing evidence for functional specialization within the rat prefrontal cortex. PMID:16596976

  1. Contextual interference effects with skilled baseball players.

    PubMed

    Hall, K G; Domingues, D A; Cavazos, R

    1994-06-01

    The learning benefits of contextual interference have been frequently demonstrated in different settings using novice learners. The purpose of the present study was to test such effects with skilled athletic performers. Scheduling differences for biweekly additional ("extra") batting-practice sessions of a collegiate baseball team were examined. 30 players (ns = 10) were blocked on skill and then randomly assigned to one of three groups. The random and blocked groups received 2 additional batting-practice sessions each week for 6 wk. (12 sessions), while the control group received no additional practice. The extra sessions consisted of 45 pitches, 15 fastballs, 15 curveballs, and 15 change-up pitches. The random group received these pitches in a random order, while the blocked group received all 15 of one type, then 15 of the next type, and finally 15 of the last type of pitch in a blocked fashion. All subjects received a pretest of 45 randomly presented pitches of the three varieties. After 6 wk. of extra batting practice, all subjects received two transfer tests, each of 45 trials; one was presented randomly and one blocked. The transfer tests were counterbalanced across subjects. Pretest analysis showed no significant differences among groups. On both the random and blocked transfer tests, however, the random group performed with reliably higher scores than the blocked group, who performed better than the control group. When comparing the pretest to the random transfer test, the random group improved 56.7%, the blocked group 24.8%, and the control group only 6.2%.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  2. Tracking Adolescents with GPS-enabled Cell Phones to Study Contextual Exposures and Alcohol and Marijuana Use: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Byrnes, Hilary F.; Miller, Brenda A.; Wiebe, Douglas J.; Morrison, Christopher N.; Remer, Lillian G.; Wiehe, Sarah E.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Measuring activity spaces, places adolescents spend time, provides information about relations between contextual exposures and risk behaviors. We studied whether contextual exposures in adolescents’ activity spaces differ from contextual risks present in residential contexts and examined relationships between contextual exposures in activity spaces and alcohol/marijuana use. Methods Adolescents (N=18) aged 16–17 carried GPS-enabled smartphones for one week, with locations tracked. Activity spaces were created by connecting GPS points sequentially and adding buffers. Contextual exposure data (e.g., alcohol outlets) were connected to routes. Adolescents completed texts regarding behaviors. Results Adolescent activity spaces intersected 24.3 census tracts and contained 9 times more alcohol outlets than residential census tracts. Outlet exposure in activity spaces was related to drinking. Low SES exposure was related to marijuana use. Conclusions Findings suggest substantial differences between activity spaces and residential contexts, and suggest that activity spaces are relevant for adolescent risk behaviors. PMID:26206448

  3. 43 CFR 3276.13 - What additional information must I give BLM in the monthly report for flash and dry steam...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... BLM in the monthly report for flash and dry steam facilities? 3276.13 Section 3276.13 Public Lands... What additional information must I give BLM in the monthly report for flash and dry steam facilities? In addition to the regular monthly report information required by § 3276.12, send to BLM: (a)...

  4. 43 CFR 3276.13 - What additional information must I give BLM in the monthly report for flash and dry steam...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... BLM in the monthly report for flash and dry steam facilities? 3276.13 Section 3276.13 Public Lands... What additional information must I give BLM in the monthly report for flash and dry steam facilities? In addition to the regular monthly report information required by § 3276.12, send to BLM: (a)...

  5. 43 CFR 3276.13 - What additional information must I give BLM in the monthly report for flash and dry steam...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... BLM in the monthly report for flash and dry steam facilities? 3276.13 Section 3276.13 Public Lands... What additional information must I give BLM in the monthly report for flash and dry steam facilities? In addition to the regular monthly report information required by § 3276.12, send to BLM: (a)...

  6. 43 CFR 3276.13 - What additional information must I give BLM in the monthly report for flash and dry steam...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... BLM in the monthly report for flash and dry steam facilities? 3276.13 Section 3276.13 Public Lands... What additional information must I give BLM in the monthly report for flash and dry steam facilities? In addition to the regular monthly report information required by § 3276.12, send to BLM: (a)...

  7. Right temporoparietal junction activation by a salient contextual cue facilitates target discrimination.

    PubMed

    Geng, Joy J; Mangun, George R

    2011-01-01

    The right temporoparietal junction (R TPJ) is involved in stimulus-driven attentional control in response to the appearance of an unexpected target or a distractor that shares features with a task-relevant target. An unresolved question is whether these responses in R TPJ are due simply to the presence of a stimulus that is a potential target, or instead responds to any task-relevant information. Here, we addressed this issue by testing the sensitivity of R TPJ to a perceptually salient, non-target stimulus - a contextual cue. Although known to be a non-target, the contextual cue carried probabilistic information regarding the presence of a target in the opposite visual field. The contextual cue was therefore always of potential behavioral relevance, but only sometimes paired with a target. The appearance of the contextual cue alone increased activation in R TPJ, but more so when it appeared with a target. There was also greater connectivity between R TPJ and a network of attentional control and decision areas when the contextual cue was present. These results demonstrate that R TPJ is involved in the stimulus-driven representation of task-relevant information that can be used to engage an appropriate behavioral response.

  8. Measuring Contextual Characteristics for Community Health

    PubMed Central

    Hillemeier, Marianne M; Lynch, John; Harper, Sam; Casper, Michele

    2003-01-01

    Objective To conceptualize and measure community contextual influences on population health and health disparities. Data Sources We use traditional and nontraditional secondary sources of data comprising a comprehensive array of community characteristics. Study Design Using a consultative process, we identify 12 overarching dimensions of contextual characteristics that may affect community health, as well as specific subcomponents relating to each dimension. Data Collection An extensive geocoded library of data indicators relating to each dimension and subcomponent for metropolitan areas in the United States is assembled. Principal Findings We describe the development of community contextual health profiles, present the rationale supporting each of the profile dimensions, and provide examples of relevant data sources. Conclusions Our conceptual framework for community contextual characteristics, including a specified set of dimensions and components, can provide practical ways to monitor health-related aspects of the economic, social, and physical environments in which people live. We suggest several guiding principles useful for understanding how aspects of contextual characteristics can affect health and health disparities. PMID:14727793

  9. Equivalence Relations, Contextual Control, and Naming

    PubMed Central

    Randell, Tom; Remington, Bob

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports two experiments that investigated the role of verbal behavior in the emergence and generalization of contextually controlled equivalence classes. During both experiments, participants were trained with two different combinations of the same easily nameable, yet formally unrelated, pictorial stimuli. Match-to-sample baselines for eight four-member classes were established under the contextual control of two colors. In the presence of one color, conditional relations were established between stimuli whose normative names rhymed. In the presence of the other color, conditional relations were established between stimuli whose normative names did not rhyme. Although, during Experiment 1, all participants demonstrated equivalence classes involving rhyming stimuli, none demonstrated the formation of nonrhyme equivalence classes. To investigate this finding, Experiment 2 evaluated whether participants would demonstrate both rhyme and nonrhyme equivalence classes given more extensive exposure to the experimental contingencies. All participants demonstrated contextually controlled rhyme and nonrhyme equivalence classes, although rhyme classes were demonstrated with greater facility than nonrhyme classes. Results indicate that visual stimuli are named, that verbal bases for stimulus classification can affect the emergence of contextually controlled equivalence classes, and that untrained contextually controlled conditional discriminations involving novel stimuli can emerge on the basis of participants' verbal behavior. PMID:17191757

  10. The effects of practice on speed of information processing using the Adjusting-Paced Serial Addition Test (Adjusting-PSAT) and the Computerized Tests of Information Processing (CTIP).

    PubMed

    Baird, B J; Tombaugh, Thomas N; Francis, M

    2007-01-01

    Three experiments were conducted to determine the effects of practice on the Adjusting-Paced Serial Addition Task (Adjusting-PSAT) (Tombaugh, 1999) and the Computerized Tests of Information Processing (CTIP) (Tombaugh & Rees, 2000). The Adjusting-PSAT is a computerized modification of the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test (PASAT) (Gronwall, 1977) that makes the interval between digits contingent on the correctness of the response. This titration procedure permits a threshold value to be derived that represents the shortest presentation interval in which a person can process the digits to produce the correct sum. The CTIP consists of three reaction time tests that are progressively more difficult. Results showed that robust practice effects occurred with the Adjusting-PSAT, with the greatest increase in performance occurring on the first retest trial. Practice effects were equally prominent regardless of whether the first retest trial occurred 20A min, 1 week, or 3 months after the first administration. These gains were maintained for periods up to 6 months and were independent of modality of presentation (visual or auditory) and type of number list (easy or hard). In contrast to the findings with the Adjusting-PSAT, only minimal practice effects were observed with the CTIP. The major clinical implication of the study is that the high reliability coefficients for the CTIP, the lack of anxiety associated with its administration, and its insensitivity to variables such as numerical and verbal ability make the CTIP ideally suited for the serial evaluation of cognitive status. These characteristics also make the CTIP a viable alternative to the Adjusting-PSAT or PASAT for measuring speed of information processing. If the Adjusting-PSAT is administered repeatedly in clinical evaluations, a "dual baseline" or "run in" procedure should be used, with the second administration serving as the baseline measurement. PMID:17523883

  11. Teaching a neuromedical-contextual approach to psychosomatic medicine.

    PubMed

    Jimenez, Xavier F; Azzam, Pierre N; Gopalan, Priya

    2015-04-01

    The practice of psychosomatic medicine in the general hospital setting can be challenging, particularly for the inexperienced trainee. Guidance for how to approach a psychiatric consultation can be nonspecific or lacking altogether. In response, we offer a pedagogical model that emphasizes patient-specific neurological, medical, and contextual variables. A stepwise, "ABC" approach to psychiatric consultation is elaborated, beginning with collection of critical history ("Admission, Background, Consultation Question"), followed by both patient encounter ("Appearance, Behavior, Context") and actual patient examination ("Arousal, Brain/Body, Cognitive Assessment"), ultimately informing any given case formulation. Multiple clinical vignettes illustrate this approach and are offered for educational purposes in dissemination to trainees. PMID:25026951

  12. The contextual brain: implications for fear conditioning, extinction and psychopathology

    PubMed Central

    Maren, Stephen; Phan, K. Luan; Liberzon, Israel

    2016-01-01

    Contexts surround and imbue meaning to events; they are essential for recollecting the past, interpreting the present and anticipating the future. Indeed, the brain’s capacity to contextualize information permits enormous cognitive and behavioural flexibility. Studies of Pavlovian fear conditioning and extinction in rodents and humans suggest that a neural circuit including the hippocampus, amygdala and medial prefrontal cortex is involved in the learning and memory processes that enable context-dependent behaviour. Dysfunction in this network may be involved in several forms of psychopathology, including post-traumatic stress disorder, schizophrenia and substance abuse disorders. PMID:23635870

  13. Contextual specificity in perception and action

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Proffitt, Dennis R.

    1991-01-01

    The visually guided control of helicopter flight is a human achievement, and, thus, understanding this skill is, in part, a psychological problem. The abilities of skilled pilots are impressive, and yet it is of concern that pilots' performance is less than ideal: they suffer from workload constraints, make occasional errors, and are subject to such debilities as simulator sickness. Remedying such deficiencies is both an engineering and a psychological problem. When studying the psychological aspects of this problem, it is desirable to simplify the problem as much as possible, and thereby, sidestep as many intractable psychological issues as possible. Simply stated, we do not want to have to resolve such polemics as the mind-body problem in order to contribute to the design of more effective helicopter systems. On the other hand, the study of human behavior is a psychological endeavor and certain problems cannot be evaded. Four related issues that are of psychological significance in understanding the visually guided control of helicopter flight are discussed. First, a selected discussion of the nature of descriptive levels in analyzing human perception and performance is presented. It is argued that the appropriate level of description for perception is kinematical, and for performance, it is procedural. Second, it is argued that investigations into pilot performance cannot ignore the nature of pilots' phenomenal experience. The conscious control of actions is not based upon environmental states of affairs, nor upon the optical information that specifies them. Actions are coupled to perceptions. Third, the acquisition of skilled actions in the context of inherent misperceptions is discussed. Such skills may be error prone in some situations, but not in others. Finally, I discuss the contextual relativity of human errors. Each of these four issues relates to a common theme: the control of action is mediated by phenomenal experience, the veracity of which is context

  14. Perceptual grouping determines haptic contextual modulation.

    PubMed

    Overvliet, K E; Sayim, B

    2016-09-01

    Since the early phenomenological demonstrations of Gestalt principles, one of the major challenges of Gestalt psychology has been to quantify these principles. Here, we show that contextual modulation, i.e. the influence of context on target perception, can be used as a tool to quantify perceptual grouping in the haptic domain, similar to the visual domain. We investigated the influence of target-flanker grouping on performance in haptic vernier offset discrimination. We hypothesized that when, despite the apparent differences between vision and haptics, similar grouping principles are operational, a similar pattern of flanker interference would be observed in the haptic as in the visual domain. Participants discriminated the offset of a haptic vernier. The vernier was flanked by different flanker configurations: no flankers, single flanking lines, 10 flanking lines, rectangles and single perpendicular lines, varying the degree to which the vernier grouped with the flankers. Additionally, we used two different flanker widths (same width as and narrower than the target), again to vary target-flanker grouping. Our results show a clear effect of flankers: performance was much better when the vernier was presented alone compared to when it was presented with flankers. In the majority of flanker configurations, grouping between the target and the flankers determined the strength of interference, similar to the visual domain. However, in the same width rectangular flanker condition we found aberrant results. We discuss the results of our study in light of similarities and differences between vision and haptics and the interaction between different grouping principles. We conclude that in haptics, similar organization principles apply as in visual perception and argue that grouping and Gestalt are key organization principles not only of vision, but of the perceptual system in general.

  15. Cultural and contextual issues in exemplar research.

    PubMed

    King, Pamela Ebstyne; Mueller, Ross A Oakes; Furrow, James

    2013-01-01

    This chapter specifically addresses how exemplar methods are especially relevant to examining cultural and contextual issues. Cross-cultural, cultural, and indigenous psychologies are discussed in order to highlight how studying actual exemplars in their unique and complex developmental contexts has the potential to identify themes that either differ between or hold constant across distinct peoples and cultures. The chapter addresses basic assumptions of exemplar research and specifics of the method that are sensitive to the incorporation of cultural and contextual influences. Suggestions are made as to how exemplarity research can be even more effective to explore development in a valid means across cultures and be more attentive and applicable to local cultures.

  16. Contextual control using a go/no-go procedure with compound abstract stimuli.

    PubMed

    Modenesi, Rafael Diego; Debert, Paula

    2015-05-01

    Contextual control has been described as (1) a five-term contingency, in which the contextual stimulus exerts conditional control over conditional discriminations, and (2) allowing one stimulus to be a member of different equivalence classes without merging them into one. Matching-to-sample is the most commonly employed procedure to produce and study contextual control. The present study evaluated whether the go/no-go procedure with compound stimuli produces equivalence classes that share stimuli. This procedure does not allow the identification of specific stimulus functions (e.g., contextual, conditional, or discriminative functions). If equivalence classes were established with this procedure, then only the latter part of the contextual control definition (2) would be met. Six undergraduate students participated in the present study. In the training phases, responses to AC, BD, and XY compounds with stimuli from the same classes were reinforced, and responses to AC, BD, and XY compounds with stimuli from different classes were not. In addition, responses to X1A1B1, X1A2B2, X2A1B2, and X2A2B1 compounds were reinforced and responses to the other combinations were not. During the tests, the participants had to respond to new combinations of stimuli compounds YCD to indicate the formation of four equivalence classes that share stimuli: X1A1B1Y1C1D1, X1A2B2Y1C2D2, X2A1B2Y2C1D2, and X2A2B1Y2C2D1. Four of the six participants showed the establishment of these classes. These results indicate that establishing contextual stimulus functions is unnecessary to produce equivalence classes that share stimuli. Therefore, these results are inconsistent with the first part of the definition of contextual control. PMID:25969336

  17. Clarifying Functional Contextualism: A Reply to Commentaries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Eric J.

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author, who wrote "Constructing a Pragmatic Science of Learning and Instruction with Functional Contextualism," feels honored that his article received commentary from several distinguished scholars in the field of instructional design and technology (IDT). In response to their comments, the author briefly discusses some of…

  18. Introduction to Contextual Teaching and Learning. Fastback.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sears, Susan

    This fastback shows teachers and teacher educators how contextual teaching and learning (CTL) can change classrooms and teacher education programs. It introduces CTL in the classroom through the fictional Ms. Walters, a veteran classroom teacher who implements CTL strategies. The fastback examines the theories that support her instructional…

  19. Cultural and Contextual Issues in Exemplar Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Pamela Ebstyne; Oakes Mueller, Ross A.; Furrow, James

    2013-01-01

    This chapter specifically addresses how exemplar methods are especially relevant to examining cultural and contextual issues. Cross-cultural, cultural, and indigenous psychologies are discussed in order to highlight how studying actual exemplars in their unique and complex developmental contexts has the potential to identify themes that either…

  20. Contextual Influences on Superintendents' Time Usage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Kim; Howley, Aimee

    2009-01-01

    Using data from a survey of superintendents in four states, this study explored how contextual factors and the real and perceived stringency of accountability measures influence the attention superintendents pay to the different roles comprising their work. A major concern was the extent to which stringent accountability was associated with…

  1. Contextual Factors Related to Elementary Principal Turnover

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Partlow, Michelle C.

    2007-01-01

    The issue of school leadership instability and how it affects schools and student achievement has been studied. The question of how to predict turnover of the principal remains an unknown. The purpose of this research was to search for possible relationships between certain contextual variables and principal turnover and to test the independent…

  2. What Is the Difference? Using Contextualized Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tillema, Erik S.

    2012-01-01

    Mr. Carter is about to start a two-day lesson on subtraction of integers with his sixth-grade prealgebra students. He plans to use contextualized problems that will allow his students to develop an interpretation of subtraction that involves the idea of "difference." This article outlines one way to teach students develop number line…

  3. Contextualism: The World View of Behavior Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Edward K.

    1988-01-01

    Argues that the world view of contemporary behavior analysis, especially behavior analysis of child development, is contextualistic, not mechanistic. The history of behavior analysis is presented in a revised account that focuses on philosophic movements. Contextualism of behavior analysis is contrasted with mechanism with respect to five core…

  4. Contextualized Science for Teaching Science and Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koul, Ravinder; Dana, Thomas M.

    1997-01-01

    Discusses science education in India, arguing that a contextualized curriculum is a powerful means of improvement. The paper presents results from an analysis of the treatment of the nature of science and technology in current Indian textbooks and uses India's controversial Sadar Sarovar Hydro-Electric Project as a case example. (SM)

  5. Scene-Based Contextual Cueing in Pigeons

    PubMed Central

    Wasserman, Edward A.; Teng, Yuejia; Brooks, Daniel I.

    2014-01-01

    Repeated pairings of a particular visual context with a specific location of a target stimulus facilitate target search in humans. We explored an animal model of such contextual cueing. Pigeons had to peck a target which could appear in one of four locations on color photographs of real-world scenes. On half of the trials, each of four scenes was consistently paired with one of four possible target locations; on the other half of the trials, each of four different scenes was randomly paired with the same four possible target locations. In Experiments 1 and 2, pigeons exhibited robust contextual cueing when the context preceded the target by 1 s to 8 s, with reaction times to the target being shorter on predictive-scene trials than on random-scene trials. Pigeons also responded more frequently during the delay on predictive-scene trials than on random-scene trials; indeed, during the delay on predictive-scene trials, pigeons predominately pecked toward the location of the upcoming target, suggesting that attentional guidance contributes to contextual cueing. In Experiment 3, involving left-right and top-bottom scene reversals, pigeons exhibited stronger control by global than by local scene cues. These results attest to the robustness and associative basis of contextual cueing in pigeons. PMID:25546098

  6. Scene-based contextual cueing in pigeons.

    PubMed

    Wasserman, Edward A; Teng, Yuejia; Brooks, Daniel I

    2014-10-01

    Repeated pairings of a particular visual context with a specific location of a target stimulus facilitate target search in humans. We explored an animal model of such contextual cueing. Pigeons had to peck a target, which could appear in 1 of 4 locations on color photographs of real-world scenes. On half of the trials, each of 4 scenes was consistently paired with 1 of 4 possible target locations; on the other half of the trials, each of 4 different scenes was randomly paired with the same 4 possible target locations. In Experiments 1 and 2, pigeons exhibited robust contextual cueing when the context preceded the target by 1 s to 8 s, with reaction times to the target being shorter on predictive-scene trials than on random-scene trials. Pigeons also responded more frequently during the delay on predictive-scene trials than on random-scene trials; indeed, during the delay on predictive-scene trials, pigeons predominately pecked toward the location of the upcoming target, suggesting that attentional guidance contributes to contextual cueing. In Experiment 3, involving left-right and top-bottom scene reversals, pigeons exhibited stronger control by global than by local scene cues. These results attest to the robustness and associative basis of contextual cueing in pigeons.

  7. The Contextual Interference Effect in Applied Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barreiros, Joao; Figueiredo, Teresa; Godinho, Mario

    2007-01-01

    This paper analyses the research literature that approaches the contextual interference effect in applied settings. In contrast to the laboratory settings, in which high interference conditions depress acquisition and promote learning evaluated in retention and transfer tests, in applied settings most of the studies (60%) fail to observe positive…

  8. Equivalence Relations, Contextual Control, and Naming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randell, Tom; Remington, Bob

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports two experiments that investigated the role of verbal behavior in the emergence and generalization of contextually controlled equivalence classes. During both experiments, participants were trained with two different combinations of the same easily nameable, yet formally unrelated, pictorial stimuli. Match-to-sample baselines for…

  9. Locality and realism in contextual theories

    SciTech Connect

    Hoekzema, D.

    1987-08-01

    Two types of contextual theories are distinguished and shown to be related. For theories of each type a criterion of locality is formulated which is weaker than the classical requirement of separability at spacelike intervals. The relations between the concepts of locality, realism, and ontic chance are discussed.

  10. Contextual control of emergent equivalence relations.

    PubMed

    Bush, K M; Sidman, M; de Rose, T

    1989-01-01

    Three college students in Experiment 1 and 1 student in Experiment 2 learned visual conditional discriminations under contextual control by tones; the visual comparison stimulus that was correct with a given sample stimulus depended on whether a high tone or a low tone was present. Two of the subjects in Experiment 1 then demonstrated the emergence of two sets of contextually controlled three-member classes of equivalent stimuli, and the subject in Experiment 2 showed the emergence of contextually controlled four-member classes; the class membership of each stimulus varied as a function of the tones. Class membership was demonstrated by the subjects' performance of new conditional discriminations that they had never been taught directly. In Experiment 2, the procedures were intended to ensure that the tones exerted second-order conditional control and did not simply form compounds with each of the visual stimuli, but the subject's verbal description of the tasks suggested that this intention might not have been successful. It could not be ascertained, therefore, whether the tones exerted contextual control as independent second-order conditional stimuli or simply as common elements of auditory-visual stimulus compounds.

  11. Real-Life Contextual Manifestations of Wisdom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Shih-Ying

    2008-01-01

    Wisdom pertains to managing human affairs, and it arises in highly contextualized situations. The present study aims to investigate manifestations of wisdom in real-life contexts through semi-structured interviews with 66 individuals nominated as wise persons. All nominees were ethnic Chinese from Taiwan, an East Asian country which has…

  12. Enrichment rescues contextual discrimination deficit associated with immediate shock.

    PubMed

    Clemenson, Gregory D; Lee, Star W; Deng, Wei; Barrera, Vanessa R; Iwamoto, Kei S; Fanselow, Michael S; Gage, Fred H

    2015-03-01

    Adult animals continue to modify their behavior throughout life, a process that is highly influenced by past experiences. To shape behavior, specific mechanisms of neural plasticity to learn, remember, and recall information are required. One of the most robust examples of adult plasticity in the brain occurs in the dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus, through the process of adult neurogenesis. Adult neurogenesis is strongly upregulated by external factors such as voluntary wheel running (RUN) and environmental enrichment (EE); however, the functional differences between these two factors remain unclear. Although both manipulations result in increased neurogenesis, RUN dramatically increases the proliferation of newborn cells and EE promotes their survival. We hypothesize that the method by which these newborn neurons are induced influences their functional role. Furthermore, we examine how EE-induced neurons may be primed to encode and recognize features of novel environments due to their previous enrichment experience. Here, we gave mice a challenging contextual fear-conditioning (FC) procedure to tease out the behavioral differences between RUN-induced neurogenesis and EE-induced neurogenesis. Despite the robust increases in neurogenesis seen in the RUN mice, we found that only EE mice were able to discriminate between similar contexts in this task, indicating that EE mice might use a different cognitive strategy when processing contextual information. Furthermore, we showed that this improvement was dependent on EE-induced neurogenesis, suggesting a fundamental functional difference between RUN-induced neurogenesis and EE-induced neurogenesis.

  13. Using Contextual Teaching and Learning in Foods and Nutrition Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Shana; Smith, Bettye P.

    2006-01-01

    Contextual teaching and learning is a relatively new concept in the field of education. However, the principles and practices of contextual teaching and learning have been around for centuries (Dijkstra, 1998). Contextual teaching and learning is defined as a conception of teaching and learning that helps teachers relate subject matter content to…

  14. The Use of Contextual Problems to Support Mathematical Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Widjaja, Wanty

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the use of contextual problems to support mathematical learning based on current classroom practice. The use of contextual problems offers some potentials to engage and motivate students in learning mathematics but it also presents some challenges for students in classrooms. Examples of the use of contextual problems from…

  15. Contextual Analysis of Fluid Intelligence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salthouse, Timothy A.; Pink, Jeffrey E.; Tucker-Drob, Elliot M.

    2008-01-01

    The nature of fluid intelligence was investigated by identifying variables that were, and were not, significantly related to this construct. Relevant information was obtained from three sources: re-analyses of data from previous studies, a study in which 791 adults performed storage-plus-processing working memory tasks, and a study in which 236…

  16. Multilevel Mediation: Cumulative Contextual Risk, Maternal Differential Treatment, and Children's Behavior within Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meunier, Jean Christophe; Boyle, Michael; O'Connor, Thomas G.; Jenkins, Jennifer M.

    2013-01-01

    This study tests the hypothesis that links between contextual risk and children's outcomes are partially explained by differential parenting. Using multi-informant measurement and including up to four children per family (M[subscript age] = 3.51, SD = 2.38) in a sample of 397 families, indirect effects (through maternal differential…

  17. Dissociation of the Neural Correlates of Visual and Auditory Contextual Encoding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gottlieb, Lauren J.; Uncapher, Melina R.; Rugg, Michael D.

    2010-01-01

    The present study contrasted the neural correlates of encoding item-context associations according to whether the contextual information was visual or auditory. Subjects (N = 20) underwent fMRI scanning while studying a series of visually presented pictures, each of which co-occurred with either a visually or an auditorily presented name. The task…

  18. Contextual Supports and Barriers to Academic Choices: A Policy-Capturing Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dahling, Jason J.; Thompson, Mindi N.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we use an experimental methodology called policy capturing to examine the effects of contextual barriers and supports on students' decisions to change academic majors. Consistent with Social Cognitive Career Theory (SCCT), we found that information about family supportiveness, peer supportiveness, financial status, and job market…

  19. Can Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorders Extract Emotions out of Contextual Cues?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Da Fonseca, David; Santos, Andreia; Bastard-Rosset, Delphine; Rondan, Cecilie; Poinso, Francois; Deruelle, Christine

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine whether children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are able to recognize facial expressions of emotion and objects missing on the basis of contextual cues. While most of these studies focused on facial emotion recognition, here we examined the ability to extract emotional information on the basis…

  20. Cortical Dynamics of Contextually Cued Attentive Visual Learning and Search: Spatial and Object Evidence Accumulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Tsung-Ren; Grossberg, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    How do humans use target-predictive contextual information to facilitate visual search? How are consistently paired scenic objects and positions learned and used to more efficiently guide search in familiar scenes? For example, humans can learn that a certain combination of objects may define a context for a kitchen and trigger a more efficient…

  1. 36 CFR 1281.12 - What information must be provided to NARA for its report to Congress on a change or addition to a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... provided to NARA for its report to Congress on a change or addition to a Presidential library facility... ADMINISTRATION NARA FACILITIES PRESIDENTIAL LIBRARY FACILITIES § 1281.12 What information must be provided to NARA for its report to Congress on a change or addition to a Presidential library facility? (a)...

  2. 36 CFR 1281.12 - What information must be provided to NARA for its report to Congress on a change or addition to a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... provided to NARA for its report to Congress on a change or addition to a Presidential library facility... ADMINISTRATION NARA FACILITIES PRESIDENTIAL LIBRARY FACILITIES § 1281.12 What information must be provided to NARA for its report to Congress on a change or addition to a Presidential library facility? (a)...

  3. 36 CFR 1281.12 - What information must be provided to NARA for its report to Congress on a change or addition to a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... provided to NARA for its report to Congress on a change or addition to a Presidential library facility... ADMINISTRATION NARA FACILITIES PRESIDENTIAL LIBRARY FACILITIES § 1281.12 What information must be provided to NARA for its report to Congress on a change or addition to a Presidential library facility? (a)...

  4. 36 CFR 1281.12 - What information must be provided to NARA for its report to Congress on a change or addition to a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... provided to NARA for its report to Congress on a change or addition to a Presidential library facility... ADMINISTRATION NARA FACILITIES PRESIDENTIAL LIBRARY FACILITIES § 1281.12 What information must be provided to NARA for its report to Congress on a change or addition to a Presidential library facility? (a)...

  5. 76 FR 64366 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection for Public Comment: Additional On-Site Data Collection...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-18

    ... Collection for the Housing Choice Voucher Program Administrative Fee Study AGENCY: Office of the Policy... lists the following information: Title of Proposal: Housing Choice Voucher Program Administrative...

  6. Can Contextualization Increase Understanding During Man-Machine Communication? A Theory-Driven Study

    PubMed Central

    Alpay, L.L; Verhoef, J; Te’eni, D; Putter, H; Toussaint, P.J; Zwetsloot-Schonk, J.H.M

    2008-01-01

    The Internet offers unlimited possibilities for finding health information. However, the user is often faced with the problem of understanding it. Contextualization has a role to play in enhancing the user’s comprehension. We report on a study which addresses this issue, using a theoretical model of communication whose central theme is that of context. A randomized controlled experimental design was chosen, using as a test-bed the website SeniorGezond we had previously developed. The study was composed of a pre-test, the intervention with the website and a post-test. Participants (n=40) were randomly assigned to exposure or no exposure to contextualization with the website. Results show that contextualization increases understanding for non-knowledgeable users. Furthermore, the participant’s cognitive style was found to be a significant factor on understanding. We also found that participants bring their own contexts such as social context and psychological context to support their understanding. PMID:19415137

  7. Effects of contextual interference on acquisition and retention of three volleyball skills.

    PubMed

    Jones, Laura L; French, Karen E

    2007-12-01

    Manipulating the organization of practice conditions, through contextual interference, was identified as a method to promote motor skill acquisition by Brady in 1998. The generalizability of this learning effect is questionable and the amount of repetition versus the amount of change in task presentation requires investigation. The purpose of this study was to explore explanations for the performance of learners practicing the AAHPERD volleyball skills test when the change in task presentation varied. High school students were randomly assigned to blocked, random, and random-blocked practice groups. While all groups significantly improved all skills during acquisition, there was no support for the contextual interference effect. Potential explanations might be dependent upon the learners' skill and the complexity of the task to be learned. Further research is warranted examining contextual interference effect on practice organization at levels of difficulty appropriate to facilitate cognitive processing of task-related information. PMID:18229542

  8. Contextual and cued fear conditioning test using a video analyzing system in mice.

    PubMed

    Shoji, Hirotaka; Takao, Keizo; Hattori, Satoko; Miyakawa, Tsuyoshi

    2014-03-01

    The contextual and cued fear conditioning test is one of the behavioral tests that assesses the ability of mice to learn and remember an association between environmental cues and aversive experiences. In this test, mice are placed into a conditioning chamber and are given parings of a conditioned stimulus (an auditory cue) and an aversive unconditioned stimulus (an electric footshock). After a delay time, the mice are exposed to the same conditioning chamber and a differently shaped chamber with presentation of the auditory cue. Freezing behavior during the test is measured as an index of fear memory. To analyze the behavior automatically, we have developed a video analyzing system using the ImageFZ application software program, which is available as a free download at http://www.mouse-phenotype.org/. Here, to show the details of our protocol, we demonstrate our procedure for the contextual and cued fear conditioning test in C57BL/6J mice using the ImageFZ system. In addition, we validated our protocol and the video analyzing system performance by comparing freezing time measured by the ImageFZ system or a photobeam-based computer measurement system with that scored by a human observer. As shown in our representative results, the data obtained by ImageFZ were similar to those analyzed by a human observer, indicating that the behavioral analysis using the ImageFZ system is highly reliable. The present movie article provides detailed information regarding the test procedures and will promote understanding of the experimental situation.

  9. Contextual and individual assessment of dental pain period prevalence in adolescents: a multilevel approach

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Despite evidence that health and disease occur in social contexts, the vast majority of studies addressing dental pain exclusively assessed information gathered at individual level. Objectives To assess the association between dental pain and contextual and individual characteristics in Brazilian adolescents. In addition, we aimed to test whether contextual Human Development Index is independently associated with dental pain after adjusting for individual level variables of socio-demographics and dental characteristics. Methods The study used data from an oral health survey carried out in São Paulo, Brazil, which included dental pain, dental exams, individual socioeconomic and demographic conditions, and Human Development Index at area level of 4,249 12-year-old and 1,566 15-year-old schoolchildren. The Poisson multilevel analysis was performed. Results Dental pain was found among 25.6% (95%CI = 24.5-26.7) of the adolescents and was 33% less prevalent among those living in more developed areas of the city than among those living in less developed areas. Girls, blacks, those whose parents earn low income and have low schooling, those studying at public schools, and those with dental treatment needs presented higher dental-pain prevalence than their counterparts. Area HDI remained associated with dental pain after adjusting for individual level variables of socio demographic and dental characteristics. Conclusions Girls, students whose parents have low schooling, those with low per capita income, those classified as having black skin color and those with dental treatment needs had higher dental pain prevalence than their counterparts. Students from areas with low Human Development Index had higher prevalence of dental pain than those from the more developed areas regardless of individual characteristics. PMID:20707920

  10. Contextual and Cued Fear Conditioning Test Using a Video Analyzing System in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Shoji, Hirotaka; Takao, Keizo; Hattori, Satoko; Miyakawa, Tsuyoshi

    2014-01-01

    The contextual and cued fear conditioning test is one of the behavioral tests that assesses the ability of mice to learn and remember an association between environmental cues and aversive experiences. In this test, mice are placed into a conditioning chamber and are given parings of a conditioned stimulus (an auditory cue) and an aversive unconditioned stimulus (an electric footshock). After a delay time, the mice are exposed to the same conditioning chamber and a differently shaped chamber with presentation of the auditory cue. Freezing behavior during the test is measured as an index of fear memory. To analyze the behavior automatically, we have developed a video analyzing system using the ImageFZ application software program, which is available as a free download at http://www.mouse-phenotype.org/. Here, to show the details of our protocol, we demonstrate our procedure for the contextual and cued fear conditioning test in C57BL/6J mice using the ImageFZ system. In addition, we validated our protocol and the video analyzing system performance by comparing freezing time measured by the ImageFZ system or a photobeam-based computer measurement system with that scored by a human observer. As shown in our representative results, the data obtained by ImageFZ were similar to those analyzed by a human observer, indicating that the behavioral analysis using the ImageFZ system is highly reliable. The present movie article provides detailed information regarding the test procedures and will promote understanding of the experimental situation. PMID:24637495

  11. Lack of contextual modulation of habituated neuroendocrine responses to repeated audiogenic stress

    PubMed Central

    Nyhuis, Tara J.; Sasse, Sarah K.; Masini, Cher V.; Day, Heidi E.W.; Campeau, Serge

    2010-01-01

    Exposure to stress reliably activates the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis response in rodents, which is significantly reduced (habituated) following repeated exposures. In the current study, it was first established that HPA axis response habituation to repeated loud noise lasted for at least four weeks in rats. In the next Experiment, a contextual extinction procedure following repeated loud noise exposures failed to restore the habituated HPA axis response. Although an additional study indicated some recovery of responses when the context was modified on a test day following habituation, this effect could be mostly attributed to the familiarity with the contextual cues. A final study confirmed that rats could distinguish between the contexts employed and further indicated that context pre-exposures reduce acute HPA axis responses to loud noise. These studies therefore provide no support for the hypothesis that contextual cues regulate HPA axis response habituation. PMID:21038933

  12. Demonstrating quantum contextuality of indistinguishable particles by a single family of noncontextuality inequalities.

    PubMed

    Su, Hong-Yi; Chen, Jing-Ling; Liang, Yeong-Cherng

    2015-06-25

    Quantum theory has the intriguing feature that is inconsistent with noncontextual hidden variable models, for which the outcome of a measurement does not depend on which other compatible measurements are being performed concurrently. While various proofs of such contextual behavior of quantum systems have been established, relatively little is known concerning the possibility to demonstrate this intriguing feature for indistinguishable particles. Here, we show in a simple and systematic manner that with projective measurements alone, it is possible to demonstrate quantum contextuality for such systems of arbitrary Hilbert space dimensions, including those corresponding to a qubit. Our demonstration is applicable to a single fermion as well as multiple fermions, and thus also a composite boson formed from an even number of fermions. In addition, our approach gives a clear demonstration of the intimate connection between complementarity and contextuality, two seemingly unrelated aspects of quantum theory.

  13. The contextual influence of coal abandoned mine lands in communities and type 2 diabetes in Pennsylvania.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ann Y; Curriero, Frank C; Glass, Thomas A; Stewart, Walter F; Schwartz, Brian S

    2013-07-01

    Coal abandoned mine lands (AMLs), persistent and prevalent across Pennsylvania, offer an instructive evaluation of potential contextual influences of chronic environmental contamination (CEC) on individual health. We evaluated associations between the burden of AMLs, represented by 10 contextual metrics at the community level, and individual-level type 2 diabetes using hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) as a biomarker. Cross-sectional and longitudinal multilevel analyses were conducted with over 28,000 diabetic primary care patients of the Geisinger Clinic. Adjusted models revealed five AML burden measures were associated (p<0.05), and three additional were borderline associated (0.05≤p≤0.10), with higher and/or change in HbA1c levels. This study provides key empirical evidence of adverse impacts of CEC in communities on an important chronic disease, illustrating the contextual effects of living in long-term degraded landscapes and communities.

  14. Demonstrating quantum contextuality of indistinguishable particles by a single family of noncontextuality inequalities

    PubMed Central

    Su, Hong-Yi; Chen, Jing-Ling; Liang, Yeong-Cherng

    2015-01-01

    Quantum theory has the intriguing feature that is inconsistent with noncontextual hidden variable models, for which the outcome of a measurement does not depend on which other compatible measurements are being performed concurrently. While various proofs of such contextual behavior of quantum systems have been established, relatively little is known concerning the possibility to demonstrate this intriguing feature for indistinguishable particles. Here, we show in a simple and systematic manner that with projective measurements alone, it is possible to demonstrate quantum contextuality for such systems of arbitrary Hilbert space dimensions, including those corresponding to a qubit. Our demonstration is applicable to a single fermion as well as multiple fermions, and thus also a composite boson formed from an even number of fermions. In addition, our approach gives a clear demonstration of the intimate connection between complementarity and contextuality, two seemingly unrelated aspects of quantum theory. PMID:26109325

  15. Contexts for Column Addition and Subtraction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez Fernandez, Jorge M.; Velazquez Estrella, Aileen

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the authors discuss their approach to column addition and subtraction algorithms. Adapting an original idea of Paul Cobb and Erna Yackel's from "A Contextual Investigation of Three-Digit Addition and Subtraction" related to packing and unpacking candy in a candy factory, the authors provided an analogous context by designing…

  16. Faces in context: a review and systematization of contextual influences on affective face processing.

    PubMed

    Wieser, Matthias J; Brosch, Tobias

    2012-01-01

    Facial expressions are of eminent importance for social interaction as they convey information about other individuals' emotions and social intentions. According to the predominant "basic emotion" approach, the perception of emotion in faces is based on the rapid, automatic categorization of prototypical, universal expressions. Consequently, the perception of facial expressions has typically been investigated using isolated, de-contextualized, static pictures of facial expressions that maximize the distinction between categories. However, in everyday life, an individual's face is not perceived in isolation, but almost always appears within a situational context, which may arise from other people, the physical environment surrounding the face, as well as multichannel information from the sender. Furthermore, situational context may be provided by the perceiver, including already present social information gained from affective learning and implicit processing biases such as race bias. Thus, the perception of facial expressions is presumably always influenced by contextual variables. In this comprehensive review, we aim at (1) systematizing the contextual variables that may influence the perception of facial expressions and (2) summarizing experimental paradigms and findings that have been used to investigate these influences. The studies reviewed here demonstrate that perception and neural processing of facial expressions are substantially modified by contextual information, including verbal, visual, and auditory information presented together with the face as well as knowledge or processing biases already present in the observer. These findings further challenge the assumption of automatic, hardwired categorical emotion extraction mechanisms predicted by basic emotion theories. Taking into account a recent model on face processing, we discuss where and when these different contextual influences may take place, thus outlining potential avenues in future research

  17. Faces in Context: A Review and Systematization of Contextual Influences on Affective Face Processing

    PubMed Central

    Wieser, Matthias J.; Brosch, Tobias

    2012-01-01

    Facial expressions are of eminent importance for social interaction as they convey information about other individuals’ emotions and social intentions. According to the predominant “basic emotion” approach, the perception of emotion in faces is based on the rapid, automatic categorization of prototypical, universal expressions. Consequently, the perception of facial expressions has typically been investigated using isolated, de-contextualized, static pictures of facial expressions that maximize the distinction between categories. However, in everyday life, an individual’s face is not perceived in isolation, but almost always appears within a situational context, which may arise from other people, the physical environment surrounding the face, as well as multichannel information from the sender. Furthermore, situational context may be provided by the perceiver, including already present social information gained from affective learning and implicit processing biases such as race bias. Thus, the perception of facial expressions is presumably always influenced by contextual variables. In this comprehensive review, we aim at (1) systematizing the contextual variables that may influence the perception of facial expressions and (2) summarizing experimental paradigms and findings that have been used to investigate these influences. The studies reviewed here demonstrate that perception and neural processing of facial expressions are substantially modified by contextual information, including verbal, visual, and auditory information presented together with the face as well as knowledge or processing biases already present in the observer. These findings further challenge the assumption of automatic, hardwired categorical emotion extraction mechanisms predicted by basic emotion theories. Taking into account a recent model on face processing, we discuss where and when these different contextual influences may take place, thus outlining potential avenues in future

  18. Faces in context: a review and systematization of contextual influences on affective face processing.

    PubMed

    Wieser, Matthias J; Brosch, Tobias

    2012-01-01

    Facial expressions are of eminent importance for social interaction as they convey information about other individuals' emotions and social intentions. According to the predominant "basic emotion" approach, the perception of emotion in faces is based on the rapid, automatic categorization of prototypical, universal expressions. Consequently, the perception of facial expressions has typically been investigated using isolated, de-contextualized, static pictures of facial expressions that maximize the distinction between categories. However, in everyday life, an individual's face is not perceived in isolation, but almost always appears within a situational context, which may arise from other people, the physical environment surrounding the face, as well as multichannel information from the sender. Furthermore, situational context may be provided by the perceiver, including already present social information gained from affective learning and implicit processing biases such as race bias. Thus, the perception of facial expressions is presumably always influenced by contextual variables. In this comprehensive review, we aim at (1) systematizing the contextual variables that may influence the perception of facial expressions and (2) summarizing experimental paradigms and findings that have been used to investigate these influences. The studies reviewed here demonstrate that perception and neural processing of facial expressions are substantially modified by contextual information, including verbal, visual, and auditory information presented together with the face as well as knowledge or processing biases already present in the observer. These findings further challenge the assumption of automatic, hardwired categorical emotion extraction mechanisms predicted by basic emotion theories. Taking into account a recent model on face processing, we discuss where and when these different contextual influences may take place, thus outlining potential avenues in future research.

  19. 33 CFR 148.108 - What if a Federal or State agency or other interested party requests additional information?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... impact statement or environmental assessment. MARAD will consider the request before making a final... time and effort required by the applicant in gathering the information will result in an undue delay...

  20. Role of contextual cues on the perception of spectrally reduced interrupted speech.

    PubMed

    Patro, Chhayakanta; Mendel, Lisa Lucks

    2016-08-01

    Understanding speech within an auditory scene is constantly challenged by interfering noise in suboptimal listening environments when noise hinders the continuity of the speech stream. In such instances, a typical auditory-cognitive system perceptually integrates available speech information and "fills in" missing information in the light of semantic context. However, individuals with cochlear implants (CIs) find it difficult and effortful to understand interrupted speech compared to their normal hearing counterparts. This inefficiency in perceptual integration of speech could be attributed to further degradations in the spectral-temporal domain imposed by CIs making it difficult to utilize the contextual evidence effectively. To address these issues, 20 normal hearing adults listened to speech that was spectrally reduced and spectrally reduced interrupted in a manner similar to CI processing. The Revised Speech Perception in Noise test, which includes contextually rich and contextually poor sentences, was used to evaluate the influence of semantic context on speech perception. Results indicated that listeners benefited more from semantic context when they listened to spectrally reduced speech alone. For the spectrally reduced interrupted speech, contextual information was not as helpful under significant spectral reductions, but became beneficial as the spectral resolution improved. These results suggest top-down processing facilitates speech perception up to a point, and it fails to facilitate speech understanding when the speech signals are significantly degraded. PMID:27586760

  1. Role of contextual cues on the perception of spectrally reduced interrupted speech.

    PubMed

    Patro, Chhayakanta; Mendel, Lisa Lucks

    2016-08-01

    Understanding speech within an auditory scene is constantly challenged by interfering noise in suboptimal listening environments when noise hinders the continuity of the speech stream. In such instances, a typical auditory-cognitive system perceptually integrates available speech information and "fills in" missing information in the light of semantic context. However, individuals with cochlear implants (CIs) find it difficult and effortful to understand interrupted speech compared to their normal hearing counterparts. This inefficiency in perceptual integration of speech could be attributed to further degradations in the spectral-temporal domain imposed by CIs making it difficult to utilize the contextual evidence effectively. To address these issues, 20 normal hearing adults listened to speech that was spectrally reduced and spectrally reduced interrupted in a manner similar to CI processing. The Revised Speech Perception in Noise test, which includes contextually rich and contextually poor sentences, was used to evaluate the influence of semantic context on speech perception. Results indicated that listeners benefited more from semantic context when they listened to spectrally reduced speech alone. For the spectrally reduced interrupted speech, contextual information was not as helpful under significant spectral reductions, but became beneficial as the spectral resolution improved. These results suggest top-down processing facilitates speech perception up to a point, and it fails to facilitate speech understanding when the speech signals are significantly degraded.

  2. Contextualizing immigrant access to health resources.

    PubMed

    Yang, Joshua S

    2010-06-01

    A vast majority of our understanding of immigrant health centers around traits of individuals and groups. While useful, current approaches to research on immigrant health decontextualize the experience of immigrants in the United States. This paper uses a historical case study of the Chinese community in San Francisco to develop a contextual framework to understand the levels of influence that impact the availability of health resources in immigrant communities. International, transnational, transcommunity, and enclave contexts have shaped health care access for Chinese immigrants in San Francisco. The conceptual framework provides a basis for future research, programmatic, and policy work that integrates individual and contextual factors in assessing and improving immigrant access to health resources.

  3. Intimate partner violence theoretical considerations: moving towards a contextual framework.

    PubMed

    Bell, Kathryn M; Naugle, Amy E

    2008-10-01

    Several theories have been developed to provide a conceptual understanding of intimate partner violence (IPV) episodes. Although each of these theories has found some degree of empirical support, they are limited in their explanatory power of IPV episodes and their ability to significantly impact the efficacy of IPV prevention and treatment programs. The current paper provides a review and critique of current IPV theories and highlights strategies for improving upon these theories. An alternative theoretical conceptualization is introduced that incorporates existing IPV and functional analytic literature into a contextual framework for conceptualizing IPV episodes. Components of the IPV contextual framework include distal, static and proximal antecedents; motivating factors; behavioral repertoire; discriminative stimuli (i.e. environmental cues/signals); verbal rules; and IPV consequences. The proposed theoretical framework offers two primary advantages over former IPV theories. First, it provides a comprehensive conceptualization of IPV by integrating components of previous IPV theories and their related empirical findings into one, cohesive conceptual framework. Additionally, it allows for a more fine-grained analysis of more proximal variables potentially related to discrete IPV episodes. A discussion of how the proposed theoretical framework may influence future IPV research and clinical practice is provided.

  4. Examining contextual control in roulette gambling.

    PubMed

    Whiting, Seth W; Dixon, Mark R

    2015-01-01

    We examined the influence of derived rules on roulette betting. Twelve college students selected between red and black bets on a roulette wheel in a pretest, then participated in a relational training procedure that established functions of more than for the color bet least often and less than for the color bet more frequently. When playing roulette again, 11 of the 12 participants increased betting on the color with the same formal properties of the contextual cue for more than in relational training.

  5. Proposed test of macroscopic quantum contextuality

    SciTech Connect

    Cabello, Adan

    2010-09-15

    We show that, for any system with a number of levels which can be identified with n qubits, there is an inequality for the correlations between three compatible dichotomic measurements which must be satisfied by any noncontextual theory, but is violated by any quantum state. Remarkably, the violation grows exponentially with n, and the tolerated error per correlation also increases with n, showing that state-independent quantum contextuality is experimentally observable in complex systems.

  6. [Personal contextual factors (short version), part II].

    PubMed

    Viol, M; Grotkamp, S; Seger, W

    2007-01-01

    In this journal a group of medical experts recently compiled a proposal for a systemic classification of personal contextual factors into domains, categories and items with respect to the ethical guidelines of the ICF (part I). In a second step the main issues have been transferred into the preliminary draft for a short version which is presented in this paper to give support for practical daily use in health insurance matters (part II). PMID:17347930

  7. Contextual fear conditioning induces differential alternative splicing.

    PubMed

    Poplawski, Shane G; Peixoto, Lucia; Porcari, Giulia S; Wimmer, Mathieu E; McNally, Anna G; Mizuno, Keiko; Giese, K Peter; Chatterjee, Snehajyoti; Koberstein, John N; Risso, Davide; Speed, Terence P; Abel, Ted

    2016-10-01

    The process of memory consolidation requires transcription and translation to form long-term memories. Significant effort has been dedicated to understanding changes in hippocampal gene expression after contextual fear conditioning. However, alternative splicing by differential transcript regulation during this time period has received less attention. Here, we use RNA-seq to determine exon-level changes in expression after contextual fear conditioning and retrieval. Our work reveals that a short variant of Homer1, Ania-3, is regulated by contextual fear conditioning. The ribosome biogenesis regulator Las1l, small nucleolar RNA Snord14e, and the RNA-binding protein Rbm3 also change specific transcript usage after fear conditioning. The changes in Ania-3 and Las1l are specific to either the new context or the context-shock association, while the changes in Rbm3 occur after context or shock only. Our analysis revealed novel transcript regulation of previously undetected changes after learning, revealing the importance of high throughput sequencing approaches in the study of gene expression changes after learning. PMID:27451143

  8. Generalization of Contextual Fear in Humans.

    PubMed

    Andreatta, Marta; Leombruni, Estelle; Glotzbach-Schoon, Evelyn; Pauli, Paul; Mühlberger, Andreas

    2015-09-01

    Enhanced fear responses to cues, which were not associated with the threat but share perceptual characteristics with the threat signal, indicate generalization of conditioned fear. Here, we investigated for the first time generalization processes in contextual fear conditioning. Thirty-two participants were guided through two virtual offices (acquisition phases). Mildly painful electric shocks (unconditioned stimulus, US) were unpredictably delivered in one office (anxiety context, CTX+), but never in the other office (safety context, CTX-). During the generalization test, participants were guided through CTX+, CTX-, and the generalization context (G-CTX), which contained features of both the CTX+ and the CTX-, but no US was delivered. We found successful contextual fear conditioning (i.e., the CTX+ compared to the CTX- elicited potentiated startle responses and was rated with more negative valence, higher arousal and higher anxiety). Importantly, implicit and explicit responses dissociated in the generalization test. Thus, participants rated the G-CTX as more arousing and anxiogenic than the CTX- indicating anxiety generalization, but they showed enhanced startle responses to the CTX+ only, while the G-CTX and the CTX- did not differ. In summary, healthy participants on an explicit level responded to the generalization context like to the anxiety context, but on an implicit level responded to the generalization context like to the safety context. Possibly, this dissociation suggests distinct and specific generalization processes underlying contextual fear.

  9. Behavioral and central correlates of contextual fear learning and contextual modulation of cued fear in posttraumatic stress disorder.

    PubMed

    Steiger, Frauke; Nees, Frauke; Wicking, Manon; Lang, Simone; Flor, Herta

    2015-12-01

    Patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) show persistent fear responses to trauma cues in contexts in which these cues no longer predict danger. This might be related to deficient context and enhanced cue conditioning. To test this hypothesis, we examined context conditioning directly followed by a cue conditioning phase against the background of the previously conditioned context in 12 patients with PTSD, 14 traumatized control subjects without PTSD and 11 matched never-traumatized controls. We used differential context and cue conditioning paradigms, with rooms as contexts and geometric figures as cues, and assessed valence, arousal and contingency ratings as well as brain responses using functional magnetic resonance imaging. The PTSD patients showed more hippocampal activation and differentiated the threat and safe contexts less in their contingency ratings than the healthy controls during context acquisition. In the subsequent cue acquisition against the background of the conditioned context, they displayed similar threat versus safe cue differentiation in contingency ratings as the two control groups. Moreover, PTSD patients failed to extinguish the differential conditioned context and cued fear responses and showed increased fear to both the dangerous and the safe conditioned contexts and cues in some ratings. This study provides evidence for a dissociation of brain responses and contingency awareness in PTSD which represents impaired context learning and a deficient contextual modulation of cue-related associations. In addition, extinction and extinction recall were impaired in PTSD. These changes were related to PTSD symptoms and suggest that contextual learning deficits may contribute to PTSD. PMID:26149734

  10. 45 CFR 1351.19 - What additional information should an applicant or grantee have about a Runaway and Homeless...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Homeless Youth Program grants. These include: (1) The provisions of 45 CFR part 74 pertaining to the Administration of Grants; (2) The provisions of 45 CFR part 16, Departmental Grants Appeal Process, and the provisions of Informal Grant Appeal Procedures (Indirect Costs) in volume 45 CFR part 75; (3) The...

  11. 45 CFR 1351.19 - What additional information should an applicant or grantee have about a Runaway and Homeless...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Homeless Youth Program grants. These include: (1) The provisions of 45 CFR part 74 pertaining to the Administration of Grants; (2) The provisions of 45 CFR part 16, Departmental Grants Appeal Process, and the provisions of Informal Grant Appeal Procedures (Indirect Costs) in volume 45 CFR part 75; (3) The...

  12. 45 CFR 1351.19 - What additional information should an applicant or grantee have about a Runaway and Homeless...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Homeless Youth Program grants. These include: (1) The provisions of 45 CFR part 74 pertaining to the Administration of Grants; (2) The provisions of 45 CFR part 16, Departmental Grants Appeal Process, and the provisions of Informal Grant Appeal Procedures (Indirect Costs) in volume 45 CFR part 75; (3) The...

  13. 45 CFR 1351.19 - What additional information should an applicant or grantee have about a Runaway and Homeless...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Homeless Youth Program grants. These include: (1) The provisions of 45 CFR part 74 pertaining to the Administration of Grants; (2) The provisions of 45 CFR part 16, Departmental Grants Appeal Process, and the provisions of Informal Grant Appeal Procedures (Indirect Costs) in volume 45 CFR part 75; (3) The...

  14. 36 CFR 1290.4 - Types of materials included in scope of assassination record and additional records and information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION JFK ASSASSINATION RECORDS... COLLECTION ACT OF 1992 (JFK ACT) § 1290.4 Types of materials included in scope of assassination record and... information includes, for purposes of interpreting and implementing the JFK Act: (a) Papers, maps, and...

  15. 36 CFR 1290.4 - Types of materials included in scope of assassination record and additional records and information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION JFK ASSASSINATION RECORDS... COLLECTION ACT OF 1992 (JFK ACT) § 1290.4 Types of materials included in scope of assassination record and... information includes, for purposes of interpreting and implementing the JFK Act: (a) Papers, maps, and...

  16. 36 CFR 1290.4 - Types of materials included in scope of assassination record and additional records and information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION JFK ASSASSINATION RECORDS... COLLECTION ACT OF 1992 (JFK ACT) § 1290.4 Types of materials included in scope of assassination record and... information includes, for purposes of interpreting and implementing the JFK Act: (a) Papers, maps, and...

  17. 36 CFR 1290.4 - Types of materials included in scope of assassination record and additional records and information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION JFK ASSASSINATION RECORDS... COLLECTION ACT OF 1992 (JFK ACT) § 1290.4 Types of materials included in scope of assassination record and... information includes, for purposes of interpreting and implementing the JFK Act: (a) Papers, maps, and...

  18. 36 CFR 1290.4 - Types of materials included in scope of assassination record and additional records and information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION JFK ASSASSINATION RECORDS... COLLECTION ACT OF 1992 (JFK ACT) § 1290.4 Types of materials included in scope of assassination record and... information includes, for purposes of interpreting and implementing the JFK Act: (a) Papers, maps, and...

  19. Fearful contextual expression impairs the encoding and recognition of target faces: an ERP study

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Huiyan; Schulz, Claudia; Straube, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Previous event-related potential (ERP) studies have shown that the N170 to faces is modulated by the emotion of the face and its context. However, it is unclear how the encoding of emotional target faces as reflected in the N170 is modulated by the preceding contextual facial expression when temporal onset and identity of target faces are unpredictable. In addition, no study as yet has investigated whether contextual facial expression modulates later recognition of target faces. To address these issues, participants in the present study were asked to identify target faces (fearful or neutral) that were presented after a sequence of fearful or neutral contextual faces. The number of sequential contextual faces was random and contextual and target faces were of different identities so that temporal onset and identity of target faces were unpredictable. Electroencephalography (EEG) data was recorded during the encoding phase. Subsequently, participants had to perform an unexpected old/new recognition task in which target face identities were presented in either the encoded or the non-encoded expression. ERP data showed a reduced N170 to target faces in fearful as compared to neutral context regardless of target facial expression. In the later recognition phase, recognition rates were reduced for target faces in the encoded expression when they had been encountered in fearful as compared to neutral context. The present findings suggest that fearful compared to neutral contextual faces reduce the allocation of attentional resources towards target faces, which results in limited encoding and recognition of target faces. PMID:26388751

  20. Space Takes Time: Concentration Dependent Output Codes from Primary Olfactory Networks Rapidly Provide Additional Information at Defined Discrimination Thresholds.

    PubMed

    Daly, Kevin C; Bradley, Samual; Chapman, Phillip D; Staudacher, Erich M; Tiede, Regina; Schachtner, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    As odor concentration increases, primary olfactory network representations expand in spatial distribution, temporal complexity and duration. However, the direct relationship between concentration dependent odor representations and the psychophysical thresholds of detection and discrimination is poorly understood. This relationship is absolutely critical as thresholds signify transition points whereby representations become meaningful to the organism. Here, we matched stimulus protocols for psychophysical assays and intracellular recordings of antennal lobe (AL) projection neurons (PNs) in the moth Manduca sexta to directly compare psychophysical thresholds and the output representations they elicit. We first behaviorally identified odor detection and discrimination thresholds across an odor dilution series for a panel of structurally similar odors. We then characterized spatiotemporal spiking patterns across a population of individually filled and identified AL PNs in response to those odors at concentrations below, at, and above identified thresholds. Using spatial and spatiotemporal based analyses we observed that each stimulus produced unique representations, even at sub-threshold concentrations. Mean response latency did not decrease and the percent glomerular activation did not increase with concentration until undiluted odor. Furthermore, correlations between spatial patterns for odor decreased, but only significantly with undiluted odor. Using time-integrated Euclidean distance (ED) measures, we determined that added spatiotemporal information was present at the discrimination but not detection threshold. This added information was evidenced by an increase in integrated distance between the sub-detection and discrimination threshold concentrations (of the same odor) that was not present in comparison of the sub-detection and detection threshold. After consideration of delays for information to reach the AL we find that it takes ~120-140 ms for the AL to

  1. Space Takes Time: Concentration Dependent Output Codes from Primary Olfactory Networks Rapidly Provide Additional Information at Defined Discrimination Thresholds

    PubMed Central

    Daly, Kevin C.; Bradley, Samual; Chapman, Phillip D.; Staudacher, Erich M.; Tiede, Regina; Schachtner, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    As odor concentration increases, primary olfactory network representations expand in spatial distribution, temporal complexity and duration. However, the direct relationship between concentration dependent odor representations and the psychophysical thresholds of detection and discrimination is poorly understood. This relationship is absolutely critical as thresholds signify transition points whereby representations become meaningful to the organism. Here, we matched stimulus protocols for psychophysical assays and intracellular recordings of antennal lobe (AL) projection neurons (PNs) in the moth Manduca sexta to directly compare psychophysical thresholds and the output representations they elicit. We first behaviorally identified odor detection and discrimination thresholds across an odor dilution series for a panel of structurally similar odors. We then characterized spatiotemporal spiking patterns across a population of individually filled and identified AL PNs in response to those odors at concentrations below, at, and above identified thresholds. Using spatial and spatiotemporal based analyses we observed that each stimulus produced unique representations, even at sub-threshold concentrations. Mean response latency did not decrease and the percent glomerular activation did not increase with concentration until undiluted odor. Furthermore, correlations between spatial patterns for odor decreased, but only significantly with undiluted odor. Using time-integrated Euclidean distance (ED) measures, we determined that added spatiotemporal information was present at the discrimination but not detection threshold. This added information was evidenced by an increase in integrated distance between the sub-detection and discrimination threshold concentrations (of the same odor) that was not present in comparison of the sub-detection and detection threshold. After consideration of delays for information to reach the AL we find that it takes ~120–140 ms for the AL to

  2. Anchoring contextual analysis in health policy and systems research: A narrative review of contextual factors influencing health committees in low and middle income countries.

    PubMed

    George, Asha; Scott, Kerry; Garimella, Surekha; Mondal, Shinjini; Ved, Rajani; Sheikh, Kabir

    2015-05-01

    Health committees, councils or boards (HCs) mediate between communities and health services in many health systems. Despite their widespread prevalence, HC functions vary due to their diversity and complexity, not least because of their context specific nature. We undertook a narrative review to better understand the contextual features relevant to HCs, drawing from Scopus and the internet. We found 390 English language articles from journals and grey literature since 1996 on health committees, councils and boards. After screening with inclusion and exclusion criteria, we focused on 44 articles. Through an iterative process of exploring previous attempts at understanding context in health policy and systems research (HPSR) and the HC literature, we developed a conceptual framework that delineates these contextual factors into four overlapping spheres (community, health facilities, health administration, society) with cross-cutting issues (awareness, trust, benefits, resources, legal mandates, capacity-building, the role of political parties, non-governmental organizations, markets, media, social movements and inequalities). While many attempts at describing context in HPSR result in empty arenas, generic lists or amorphous detail, we suggest anchoring an understanding of context to a conceptual framework specific to the phenomena of interest. By doing so, our review distinguishes between contextual elements that are relatively well understood and those that are not. In addition, our review found that contextual elements are dynamic and porous in nature, influencing HCs but also being influenced by them due to the permeability of HCs. While reforms focus on tangible HC inputs and outputs (training, guidelines, number of meetings held), our review of contextual factors highlights the dynamic relationships and broader structural elements that facilitate and/or hinder the role of health committees in health systems. Such an understanding of context points to its

  3. Anchoring contextual analysis in health policy and systems research: A narrative review of contextual factors influencing health committees in low and middle income countries.

    PubMed

    George, Asha; Scott, Kerry; Garimella, Surekha; Mondal, Shinjini; Ved, Rajani; Sheikh, Kabir

    2015-05-01

    Health committees, councils or boards (HCs) mediate between communities and health services in many health systems. Despite their widespread prevalence, HC functions vary due to their diversity and complexity, not least because of their context specific nature. We undertook a narrative review to better understand the contextual features relevant to HCs, drawing from Scopus and the internet. We found 390 English language articles from journals and grey literature since 1996 on health committees, councils and boards. After screening with inclusion and exclusion criteria, we focused on 44 articles. Through an iterative process of exploring previous attempts at understanding context in health policy and systems research (HPSR) and the HC literature, we developed a conceptual framework that delineates these contextual factors into four overlapping spheres (community, health facilities, health administration, society) with cross-cutting issues (awareness, trust, benefits, resources, legal mandates, capacity-building, the role of political parties, non-governmental organizations, markets, media, social movements and inequalities). While many attempts at describing context in HPSR result in empty arenas, generic lists or amorphous detail, we suggest anchoring an understanding of context to a conceptual framework specific to the phenomena of interest. By doing so, our review distinguishes between contextual elements that are relatively well understood and those that are not. In addition, our review found that contextual elements are dynamic and porous in nature, influencing HCs but also being influenced by them due to the permeability of HCs. While reforms focus on tangible HC inputs and outputs (training, guidelines, number of meetings held), our review of contextual factors highlights the dynamic relationships and broader structural elements that facilitate and/or hinder the role of health committees in health systems. Such an understanding of context points to its

  4. The contextual nature of usability and its relevance to medical informatics.

    PubMed

    Svanaes, Dag; Das, Anita; Alsos, Ole Andreas

    2008-01-01

    We report from three usability evaluations of health information systems that illustrate the value of seeing usability as a context dependent property of a product. We show how the definition of usability in ISO 9241-11 can be used as a guiding principle in the evaluation, specification and design of such systems. The contextual view on usability is particularly important for health information systems because of their great diversity concerning user groups, tasks, and work environments. PMID:18487787

  5. State-independent contextuality sets for a qutrit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Zhen-Peng; Chen, Jing-Ling; Su, Hong-Yi

    2015-09-01

    We present a generalized set of complex rays for a qutrit in terms of parameter q =e i 2 π / k, a k-th root of unity. Remarkably, when k = 2 , 3, the set reduces to two well-known state-independent contextuality (SIC) sets: the Yu-Oh set and the Bengtsson-Blanchfield-Cabello set. Based on the Ramanathan-Horodecki criterion and the violation of a noncontextuality inequality, we have proven that the sets with k = 3 m and k = 4 are SIC sets, while the set with k = 5 is not. Our generalized set of rays will theoretically enrich the study of SIC proofs, and stimulate the novel application to quantum information processing.

  6. Quantum nonlocality via local contextuality with qubit-qubit entanglement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, Debashis; Cabello, Adán; Choudhary, Sujit K.; Pawłowski, Marcin

    2016-04-01

    Quantum nonlocality can be revealed "via local contextuality" in qudit-qudit entangled systems with d >2 , that is, through the violation of inequalities containing Alice-Bob correlations that admit a local description, and Alice-Alice correlations (between the results of sequences of measurements on Alice's subsystem) that admit a local (but contextual) description. A fundamental question to understand the respective roles of entanglement and local contextuality is whether nonlocality via local contextuality exists when the parties have only qubit-qubit entanglement. Here we respond affirmatively to this question. This result further clarifies the connection between contextuality and nonlocality and opens the door for observing nonlocality via local contextuality in actual experiments.

  7. Additional evidence that rosacea pathogenesis may involve demodex: new information from the topical efficacy of ivermectin and praziquantel.

    PubMed

    Abokwidir, Manal; Fleischer, Alan B

    2015-09-01

    Additional evidence that Demodex folliculorum may contribute to the pathogenesis of papulopustular rosacea are new studies of two topical antiparasitic agents. Ivermectin and praziquantel have recently been shown to be effective in decreasing the severity of papulopustular rosacea. These two agents significantly differ in molecular structure, but yield similar antiparasitic mechanisms of action. Higher numbers of Demodex mites are found in the skin of patients with rosacea than in people with normal skin. If Demodex play a role in pathogenesis, then hypersensitivity to the mites, their flora, or their products could explain the observed efficacy of antidemodectic therapy. PMID:26437294

  8. Geospatial and Contextual Approaches to Energy Balance and Health

    PubMed Central

    Berrigan, David; Hipp, J. Aaron; Hurvitz, Philip M.; James, Peter; Jankowska, Marta M.; Kerr, Jacqueline; Laden, Francine; Leonard, Tammy; McKinnon, Robin A.; Powell-Wiley, Tiffany M.; Tarlov, Elizabeth; Zenk, Shannon N.

    2016-01-01

    In the past 15 years, a major research enterprise has emerged that is aimed at understanding associations between geographic and contextual features of the environment (especially the built environment) and elements of human energy balance, including diet, weight, and physical activity. Here we highlight aspects of this research area with a particular focus on research and opportunities in the United States as an example. We address four main areas: 1) The importance of valid and comparable data concerning behavior across geographies, 2) The ongoing need to identify and explore new environmental variables, 3) The challenge of identifying the causally relevant context, and 4) The pressing need for stronger study designs and analytical methods. Additionally, we discuss existing sources of geo-referenced health data which might be exploited by interdisciplinary research teams, personnel challenges and some aspects of funding for geospatial research by the US National Institutes of Health in the past decade, including funding for international collaboration and training opportunities. PMID:27076868

  9. EPA evaluation of the SYNERGY-1 fuel additive under Section 511 of the Motor Vehicle Information and Cost Savings Act. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Syria, S.L.

    1981-06-01

    This document announces the conclusions of the EPA evaluation of the 'SYNERGY-1' device under provisions of Section 511 of the Motor Vehicle Information and Cost Savings Act. This additive is intended to improve fuel economy and exhaust emission levels of two and four cycle gasoline fueled engines.

  10. Informal Reading-Thinking Inventory: An Informal Reading Inventory (IRI) with Options for Assessing Additional Elements of Higher-Order Literacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manzo, Anthony V.; And Others

    Focusing on better assessing the thinking, or meaning-making, aspects of reading that are emphasized in current views of the reading process, this book presents the Informal Reading-Thinking Inventory (IR-TI) which offers options to enhance assessment beyond assessing students' listening level, oral reading of words, and basic comprehension. The…

  11. Contextual chemosensory urine signaling in an African cichlid fish

    PubMed Central

    Maruska, Karen P.; Fernald, Russell D.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Chemosensory signaling is crucial for communication in many fish species, but little is known about how signalers modulate chemical output in response to sensory information and social context. Here, we tested the hypothesis that dominant male African cichlid fish (Astatotilapia burtoni) use urine signals during social interactions, and demonstrate that this signaling depends on social context (reproductive; territorial) and on available sensory information (visual cues; full interaction). We injected males with dye to visualize urine pulses and exposed them to full sensory information or visual cues alone of four types: (1) dominant male; (2) gravid (reproductively receptive) females; (3) mouth-brooding (non-receptive) females; or (4) control (no fish). We found that males released urine sooner and increased their urination frequency when visually exposed to gravid females as compared with mouth-brooding females and or no-fish controls. While males could distinguish female reproductive states using visual cues alone, courtship behavior rates were ∼10-fold higher when they fully interacted with gravid females compared with receiving visual cues alone. Males also increased their urination and territorial behaviors when exposed to another male, suggesting that chemical signals may convey information on dominance status. These data support the hypothesis that dominant males use urine as a chemical signal and adjust the frequency of their urine output based on contextual information. PMID:22162854

  12. Contextual view of building 733; camera facing southeast. Mare ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Contextual view of building 733; camera facing southeast. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, WAVES Officers Quarters, Cedar Avenue, west side between Tisdale Avenue & Eighth Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  13. The influence of contextual diversity on eye movements in reading

    PubMed Central

    Plummer, Patrick; Perea, Manuel; Rayner, Keith

    2014-01-01

    Recent research has shown contextual diversity (i.e., the number of passages in which a given word appears) to be a reliable predictor of word processing difficulty. It has also been demonstrated that word-frequency has little or no effect on word recognition speed when accounting for contextual diversity in isolated word processing tasks. An eye-movement experiment was conducted wherein the effects of word-frequency and contextual diversity were directly contrasted in a normal sentence reading scenario. Subjects read sentences with embedded target words which varied in word frequency and contextual diversity. All first-pass and later reading times were significantly longer for words with lower contextual diversity compared to words with higher contextual diversity when controlling for word-frequency and other important lexical properties. Furthermore, there was no difference in reading times for higher frequency and lower frequency words when controlling for contextual diversity. The results confirm prior findings regarding contextual diversity and word-frequency effects and demonstrate that contextual diversity is a more accurate predictor of word processing speed than word-frequency within a normal reading task. PMID:23937235

  14. Contextual view showing northeastern eucalyptus windbreak and portion of citrus ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Contextual view showing northeastern eucalyptus windbreak and portion of citrus orchard. Camera facing 118" east-southeast. - Goerlitz House, 9893 Highland Avenue, Rancho Cucamonga, San Bernardino County, CA

  15. The influence of contextual diversity on eye movements in reading.

    PubMed

    Plummer, Patrick; Perea, Manuel; Rayner, Keith

    2014-01-01

    Recent research has shown contextual diversity (i.e., the number of passages in which a given word appears) to be a reliable predictor of word processing difficulty. It has also been demonstrated that word-frequency has little or no effect on word recognition speed when accounting for contextual diversity in isolated word processing tasks. An eye-movement experiment was conducted wherein the effects of word-frequency and contextual diversity were directly contrasted in a normal sentence reading scenario. Subjects read sentences with embedded target words that varied in word-frequency and contextual diversity. All 1st-pass and later reading times were significantly longer for words with lower contextual diversity compared to words with higher contextual diversity when controlling for word-frequency and other important lexical properties. Furthermore, there was no difference in reading times for higher frequency and lower frequency words when controlling for contextual diversity. The results confirm prior findings regarding contextual diversity and word-frequency effects and demonstrate that contextual diversity is a more accurate predictor of word processing speed than word-frequency within a normal reading task. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:23937235

  16. The Contextualization of Archetypes: Clinical Template Governance.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Rune; Ulriksen, Gro-Hilde; Ellingsen, Gunnar

    2015-01-01

    This paper is a status report from a large-scale openEHR-based EPR project from the North Norway Regional Health Authority. It concerns the standardization of a regional ICT portfolio and the ongoing development of a new process oriented EPR systems encouraged by the unfolding of a national repository for openEHR archetypes. Subject of interest; the contextualization of clinical templates is governed over multiple national boundaries which is complex due to the dependency of clinical resources. From the outset of this, we are interested in how local, regional, and national organizers maneuver to standardize while applying OpenEHR technology. PMID:26262546

  17. OpenSpace: An Open-Source Framework for Data Visualization and Contextualization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bock, A.; Pembroke, A. D.; Mays, M. L.; Emmart, C. B.; Ynnerman, A.

    2015-12-01

    We present an open-source software development effort called OpenSpace that is tailored for the dissemination of space-related data visualization. In the current stages of the project, we have focussed on the public dissemination of space missions (Rosetta and New Horizons) as well as the support of space weather forecasting. The presented work will focus on the latter of these foci and elaborate on the efforts that have gone into developing a system that allows the user to assess the accuracy and validity of ENLIL ensemble simulations. It becomes possible to compare the results of ENLIL CME simulations with STEREO and SOHO images using an optical flow algorithm. This allows the user to compare velocities in the volumetric rendering of ENLIL data with the movement of CMEs through the field-of-views of various instruments onboard the space craft. By allowing the user access to these comparisons, new information about the time evolution of CMEs through the interplanetary medium is possible. Additionally, contextualizing this information in three-dimensional rendering scene, allows the analyst and the public to disseminate this data. This dissemination is further improved by the ability to connect multiple instances of the software and, thus, reach a broader audience. In a second step, we plan to combine the two foci of the project to enable the visualization of the SWAP instrument onboard New Horizons in context with a far-reaching ENLIL simulation, thus providing additional information about the solar wind dynamics of the outer solar system. The initial work regarding this plan will be presented.

  18. Memory under pressure: secondary-task effects on contextual cueing of visual search.

    PubMed

    Annac, Efsun; Manginelli, Angela A; Pollmann, Stefan; Shi, Zhuanghua; Müller, Hermann J; Geyer, Thomas

    2013-11-04

    Repeated display configurations improve visual search. Recently, the question has arisen whether this contextual cueing effect (Chun & Jiang, 1998) is itself mediated by attention, both in terms of selectivity and processing resources deployed. While it is accepted that selective attention modulates contextual cueing (Jiang & Leung, 2005), there is an ongoing debate whether the cueing effect is affected by a secondary working memory (WM) task, specifically at which stage WM influences the cueing effect: the acquisition of configural associations (e.g., Travis, Mattingley, & Dux, 2013) versus the expression of learned associations (e.g., Manginelli, Langer, Klose, & Pollmann, 2013). The present study re-investigated this issue. Observers performed a visual search in combination with a spatial WM task. The latter was applied on either early or late search trials--so as to examine whether WM load hampers the acquisition of or retrieval from contextual memory. Additionally, the WM and search tasks were performed either temporally in parallel or in succession--so as to permit the effects of spatial WM load to be dissociated from those of executive load. The secondary WM task was found to affect cueing in late, but not early, experimental trials--though only when the search and WM tasks were performed in parallel. This pattern suggests that contextual cueing involves a spatial WM resource, with spatial WM providing a workspace linking the current search array with configural long-term memory; as a result, occupying this workspace by a secondary WM task hampers the expression of learned configural associations.

  19. Contextual Determinants of Adolescent Perceived Early Fatality.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, Gregory M; Rees, Carter; Farrell, Chelsea

    2016-08-01

    Adolescents overestimate their risk for early or premature death. In turn, perceived early fatality is associated with a host of adverse developmental outcomes. Research on the correlates of perceived early fatality is nascent, and an examination of the contextual determinants of perceived early fatality is largely absent from the literature. Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health), this study examines whether friendship networks and the school climate impact youth's perceptions of premature death. Analysis using hierarchical linear models on 9617 youth (52.0 % female) within 113 middle and high schools across the U.S. assess the extent to which peer and school future orientation climate and friendship network characteristics (network size, density, popularity, and centrality) impact respondents' life expectancy. Consistent with hypotheses: (1) higher levels of life expectancy in respondents' friendship networks and schools are associated with more optimistic expectations about the future among sample respondents; and (2) youth embedded in larger and denser friendship networks report higher levels of life expectancy. The results are consistent with the literature on peer effects, studies documenting the insulating effects of extensive and closely knit peer networks, and research on the contextual effects of the school environment. More generally, the results suggest that adolescent friendship networks and the school climate are key contexts in which youth develop expectations for the future. PMID:27325518

  20. Contextual Poverty, Nutrition and Chronic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Gutiérrez, Orlando M.

    2014-01-01

    Nutrition plays an important role in chronic kidney disease (CKD) outcomes. One of the strongest factors that impacts nutrition is socioeconomic status as evidenced by the large body of epidemiologic data showing that income and education are directly associated with diet quality. Apart from individual-level markers of socioeconomic status such as income and education, contextual factors such as availability of and transportation to food outlets that provide healthy food options and the density of fast food restaurants within particular regions markedly impact the ability of individuals to comply with nutrition recommendations. This is particularly true for nutrition guidelines most specific to individuals with CKD such as the consumption of protein, saturated fat, sodium and phosphorus, all of which have been shown to impact CKD health and are influenced by the availability of healthy food options within individual neighborhood food environments. Because of the strong association of contextual poverty with the diet quality, any serious attempt to improve the diet of CKD patients must include a discussion of the environmental barriers that each individual faces in trying to access healthy foods and health care providers should take account of these barriers when tailoring specific recommendations. PMID:25573510

  1. Contextual poverty, nutrition, and chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, Orlando M

    2015-01-01

    Nutrition plays an important role in CKD outcomes. One of the strongest factors that affects nutrition is socioeconomic status as evidenced by the large body of epidemiologic data showing that income and education are directly associated with diet quality. Apart from individual-level markers of socioeconomic status such as income and education, contextual factors such as availability of and transportation to food outlets that provide healthy food options and the density of fast-food restaurants within particular regions markedly affect the ability of individuals to comply with nutrition recommendations. This is particularly true for nutrition guidelines most specific to individuals with CKD such as the consumption of protein, saturated fat, sodium, and phosphorus, all of which have been shown to affect CKD health and are influenced by the availability of healthy food options within individual neighborhood food environments. Because of the strong association of contextual poverty with the diet quality, any serious attempt to improve the diet of CKD patients must include a discussion of the environmental barriers that each individual faces in trying to access healthy foods, and health care providers should take account of these barriers when tailoring specific recommendations.

  2. Contextual Determinants of Adolescent Perceived Early Fatality.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, Gregory M; Rees, Carter; Farrell, Chelsea

    2016-08-01

    Adolescents overestimate their risk for early or premature death. In turn, perceived early fatality is associated with a host of adverse developmental outcomes. Research on the correlates of perceived early fatality is nascent, and an examination of the contextual determinants of perceived early fatality is largely absent from the literature. Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health), this study examines whether friendship networks and the school climate impact youth's perceptions of premature death. Analysis using hierarchical linear models on 9617 youth (52.0 % female) within 113 middle and high schools across the U.S. assess the extent to which peer and school future orientation climate and friendship network characteristics (network size, density, popularity, and centrality) impact respondents' life expectancy. Consistent with hypotheses: (1) higher levels of life expectancy in respondents' friendship networks and schools are associated with more optimistic expectations about the future among sample respondents; and (2) youth embedded in larger and denser friendship networks report higher levels of life expectancy. The results are consistent with the literature on peer effects, studies documenting the insulating effects of extensive and closely knit peer networks, and research on the contextual effects of the school environment. More generally, the results suggest that adolescent friendship networks and the school climate are key contexts in which youth develop expectations for the future.

  3. Contextual Feedback to Superficial Layers of V1

    PubMed Central

    Muckli, Lars; De Martino, Federico; Vizioli, Luca; Petro, Lucy S.; Smith, Fraser W.; Ugurbil, Kamil; Goebel, Rainer; Yacoub, Essa

    2015-01-01

    Summary Neuronal cortical circuitry comprises feedforward, lateral, and feedback projections, each of which terminates in distinct cortical layers [1–3]. In sensory systems, feedforward processing transmits signals from the external world into the cortex, whereas feedback pathways signal the brain’s inference of the world [4–11]. However, the integration of feedforward, lateral, and feedback inputs within each cortical area impedes the investigation of feedback, and to date, no technique has isolated the feedback of visual scene information in distinct layers of healthy human cortex. We masked feedforward input to a region of V1 cortex and studied the remaining internal processing. Using high-resolution functional brain imaging (0.8 mm3) and multivoxel pattern information techniques, we demonstrate that during normal visual stimulation scene information peaks in mid-layers. Conversely, we found that contextual feedback information peaks in outer, superficial layers. Further, we found that shifting the position of the visual scene surrounding the mask parametrically modulates feedback in superficial layers of V1. Our results reveal the layered cortical organization of external versus internal visual processing streams during perception in healthy human subjects. We provide empirical support for theoretical feedback models such as predictive coding [10, 12] and coherent infomax [13] and reveal the potential of high-resolution fMRI to access internal processing in sub-millimeter human cortex. PMID:26441356

  4. Prosody and informativity: A cross-linguistic investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouyang, Iris Chuoying

    the speaker and the interlocutor: speakers prosodically emphasize contextually probable corrections and the corrections in response to contextually improbable misstatements. Experiment 4 demonstrates the multi-functionality of prosody by investigating its discourse-level functions in Mandarin Chinese, a tone language where a word's prosodic patterns is crucial to its meaning. The results show that, although prosody serves fundamental, lexical-level functions in Mandarin Chinese, it nevertheless provides cues to information structure as well. Similar to what has been found with English, corrective information is prosodically more prominent than non-corrective information, and new information is prosodically more prominent than given information. Taken together, these experiments demonstrate the complex relationship between prosody and the different types of information it encodes in a given language. To better understand prosody, it is important to integrate insights from different traditions of research and to investigate across languages. In addition, the findings of this research suggest that speakers' assumptions about what their interlocutors know -- as well as speakers' ability to update these expectations -- play a key role in shaping the prosody of utterances. I hypothesize that prosodic prominence may reflect the gap between what speakers had expected their interlocutors to say and what their interlocutors have actually said.

  5. Not on the face alone: perception of contextualized face expressions in Huntington's disease.

    PubMed

    Aviezer, Hillel; Bentin, Shlomo; Hassin, Ran R; Meschino, Wendy S; Kennedy, Jeanne; Grewal, Sonya; Esmail, Sherali; Cohen, Sharon; Moscovitch, Morris

    2009-06-01

    Numerous studies have demonstrated that Huntington's disease mutation-carriers have deficient explicit recognition of isolated facial expressions. There are no studies, however, which have investigated the recognition of facial expressions embedded within an emotional body and scene context. Real life facial expressions are typically embedded in contexts which may dramatically change the emotion recognized in the face. Moreover, a recent study showed that the magnitude of the contextual bias is modulated by the similarity between the actual expression of the presented face and the facial expression that would typically fit the context, e.g. disgust faces are more similar to anger than to sadness faces and, consequently, are more strongly influenced by contexts expressing anger than by contexts expressing sadness. Since context effects on facial expression perception are not explicitly controlled, their pattern serves as an implicit measure of the processing of facial expressions. In this study we took advantage of the face-in-context design to compare explicit recognition of face-expressions by Huntington's disease mutation-carriers, with evidence for processing the expressions deriving from implicit measures. In an initial experiment we presented a group of 21 Huntington's disease mutation-carriers with standard tests of face-expression recognition. Relative to controls, they displayed deficits in recognizing disgust and anger faces despite intact recognition of these emotions from non-facial images. In a subsequent experiment, we embedded the disgust faces on images of people conveying sadness and anger as expressed by body language and additional paraphernalia. In addition, sadness and anger faces were embedded on context images conveying disgust. In both cases participants were instructed to categorize the facial expressions, ignoring the context. Despite the deficient explicit recognition of isolated disgust and anger faces, the perception of the emotions

  6. Not on the face alone: perception of contextualized face expressions in Huntington's disease

    PubMed Central

    Bentin, Shlomo; Hassin, Ran R.; Meschino, Wendy S.; Kennedy, Jeanne; Grewal, Sonya; Esmail, Sherali; Cohen, Sharon; Moscovitch, Morris

    2009-01-01

    Numerous studies have demonstrated that Huntington's disease mutation-carriers have deficient explicit recognition of isolated facial expressions. There are no studies, however, which have investigated the recognition of facial expressions embedded within an emotional body and scene context. Real life facial expressions are typically embedded in contexts which may dramatically change the emotion recognized in the face. Moreover, a recent study showed that the magnitude of the contextual bias is modulated by the similarity between the actual expression of the presented face and the facial expression that would typically fit the context, e.g. disgust faces are more similar to anger than to sadness faces and, consequently, are more strongly influenced by contexts expressing anger than by contexts expressing sadness. Since context effects on facial expression perception are not explicitly controlled, their pattern serves as an implicit measure of the processing of facial expressions. In this study we took advantage of the face-in-context design to compare explicit recognition of face-expressions by Huntington's disease mutation-carriers, with evidence for processing the expressions deriving from implicit measures. In an initial experiment we presented a group of 21 Huntington's disease mutation-carriers with standard tests of face-expression recognition. Relative to controls, they displayed deficits in recognizing disgust and anger faces despite intact recognition of these emotions from non-facial images. In a subsequent experiment, we embedded the disgust faces on images of people conveying sadness and anger as expressed by body language and additional paraphernalia. In addition, sadness and anger faces were embedded on context images conveying disgust. In both cases participants were instructed to categorize the facial expressions, ignoring the context. Despite the deficient explicit recognition of isolated disgust and anger faces, the perception of the emotions

  7. Measuring student engagement in science classrooms: An investigation of the contextual factors and longitudinal outcomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spicer, Justina Judy

    This dissertation includes three separate but related studies that examine the different dimensions of student experiences in science using data from two different datasets: the High School Longitudinal Study of 2009 (HSLS:09), and a dataset constructed using the Experience Sampling Method (ESM). This mixed-dataset approach provides a unique perspective on student engagement and the contexts in which it exists. Engagement is operationalized across the three studies using aspects of flow theory to evaluate how the challenges in science classes are experienced at the student level. The data provides information on a student's skill-level and efficacy during the challenge, as well as their interest level and persistence. The data additionally track how situations contribute to optimal learning moments, along with longitudinal attitudes and behaviors towards science. In the first part of this study, the construct of optimal moments is explored using in the moment data from the ESM dataset. Several different measures of engagement are tested and validated to uncover relationships between various affective states and optimal learning experiences with a focus on science classrooms. Additional analyses include investigating the links between in the moment engagement (situational), and cross-situational (stable) measures of engagement in science. The second part of this dissertation analyzes the ESM data in greater depth by examining how engagement varies across students and their contextual environment. The contextual characteristics associated with higher engagement levels are evaluated to see if these conditions hold across different types of students. Chapter three more thoroughly analyzes what contributes to students persisting through challenging learning moments, and the variation in levels of effort put forth when facing difficulty while learning in science. In chapter four, this dissertation explores additional outcomes associated with student engagement in science

  8. An electrophysiological analysis of contextual and temporal constraints on parafoveal word processing

    PubMed Central

    Barber, Horacio A.; van der Meij, Maartje; Kutas, Marta

    2014-01-01

    During natural reading, parafoveal information is processed to some degree. Although isolated words can be fully processed in the parafovea, not all sentence reading experiments have found evidence of semantic processing in the parafovea. We suggest a possible reconciliation for these mixed results via two ERP studies in which volunteers read sentences presented word by word at fixation, flanked bilaterally by the next word to its right and the previous word to its left. Half the words in the right parafovea of critical triads and in the fovea for the subsequent triad were semantically incongruent. The conditions under which parafoveal words elicit canonical visual N400 congruity effects suggest that they are processed in parallel with foveal words, but that the extraction of semantic information parafoveally is a function of contextual constraint and presentation rate, most likely under high contextual constraint and at slower rates. PMID:23153323

  9. The Effects of Varying Contextual Demands on Age-related Positive Gaze Preferences

    PubMed Central

    Noh, Soo Rim; Isaacowitz, Derek M.

    2015-01-01

    Despite many studies on the age-related positivity effect and its role in visual attention, discrepancies remain regarding whether one’s full attention is required for age-related differences to emerge. The present study took a new approach to this question by varying the contextual demands of emotion processing. This was done by adding perceptual distractions, such as visual and auditory noise, that could disrupt attentional control. Younger and older participants viewed pairs of happy–neutral and fearful–neutral faces while their eye movements were recorded. Facial stimuli were shown either without noise, embedded in a background of visual noise (low, medium, or high), or with simultaneous auditory babble. Older adults showed positive gaze preferences, looking toward happy faces and away from fearful faces; however, their gaze preferences tended to be influenced by the level of visual noise. Specifically, the tendency to look away from fearful faces was not present in conditions with low and medium levels of visual noise, but was present where there were high levels of visual noise. It is important to note, however, that in the high-visual-noise condition, external cues were present to facilitate the processing of emotional information. In addition, older adults’ positive gaze preferences disappeared or were reduced when they first viewed emotional faces within a distracting context. The current results indicate that positive gaze preferences may be less likely to occur in distracting contexts that disrupt control of visual attention. PMID:26030774

  10. Intrapersonal, interpersonal, and contextual risk factors for overprovision of partner support in marriage.

    PubMed

    Brock, Rebecca L; Lawrence, Erika

    2014-02-01

    Recent research indicates that receiving too much support from one's spouse (i.e., overprovision of support) is actually more detrimental to marriage than not receiving enough support. The principal goal of the present study was to develop a novel framework for explaining the pathways through which couples experience overprovision of support in their marriages. Intrapersonal factors (anxious and avoidant attachment), interpersonal factors (conflict management and emotional intimacy), and contextual factors (stress originating outside of the marriage) were assessed during the transition into marriage as potential risk factors for experiencing higher levels of support overprovision during the first 5 years of marriage in a sample of 103 couples using growth curve analytic techniques. To the extent that (a) husbands were higher in avoidant attachment, (b) husbands reported greater chronic role strain, and (c) couples had lower levels of emotional intimacy, support overprovision was greater for both husbands and wives. In addition, emotional intimacy (lower levels) was a partial pathway through which husband avoidant attachment contributed to support overprovision. Finally, factors placing couples at risk for support overprovision in their marriages appear to be distinct from those increasing the risk for support underprovision. The potential for results to inform contemporary marital theories and marital preparation programs is discussed.

  11. Context-Based Tourism Information Filtering with a Semantic Rule Engine

    PubMed Central

    Lamsfus, Carlos; Martin, David; Alzua-Sorzabal, Aurkene; López-de-Ipiña, Diego; Torres-Manzanera, Emilio

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the CONCERT framework, a push/filter information consumption paradigm, based on a rule-based semantic contextual information system for tourism. CONCERT suggests a specific insight of the notion of context from a human mobility perspective. It focuses on the particular characteristics and requirements of travellers and addresses the drawbacks found in other approaches. Additionally, CONCERT suggests the use of digital broadcasting as push communication technology, whereby tourism information is disseminated to mobile devices. This information is then automatically filtered by a network of ontologies and offered to tourists on the screen. The results obtained in the experiments carried out show evidence that the information disseminated through digital broadcasting can be manipulated by the network of ontologies, providing contextualized information that produces user satisfaction. PMID:22778584

  12. Context-based tourism information filtering with a semantic rule engine.

    PubMed

    Lamsfus, Carlos; Martin, David; Alzua-Sorzabal, Aurkene; López-de-Ipiña, Diego; Torres-Manzanera, Emilio

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the CONCERT framework, a push/filter information consumption paradigm, based on a rule-based semantic contextual information system for tourism. CONCERT suggests a specific insight of the notion of context from a human mobility perspective. It focuses on the particular characteristics and requirements of travellers and addresses the drawbacks found in other approaches. Additionally, CONCERT suggests the use of digital broadcasting as push communication technology, whereby tourism information is disseminated to mobile devices. This information is then automatically filtered by a network of ontologies and offered to tourists on the screen. The results obtained in the experiments carried out show evidence that the information disseminated through digital broadcasting can be manipulated by the network of ontologies, providing contextualized information that produces user satisfaction.

  13. Contextual Cueing in Naturalistic Scenes: Global and Local Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brockmole, James R.; Castelhano, Monica S.; Henderson, John M.

    2006-01-01

    In contextual cueing, the position of a target within a group of distractors is learned over repeated exposure to a display with reference to a few nearby items rather than to the global pattern created by the elements. The authors contrasted the role of global and local contexts for contextual cueing in naturalistic scenes. Experiment 1 showed…

  14. The Elicited Language Inventory and the Influence of Contextual Cues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Lauren K.; Weber-Olsen, Marcia

    1980-01-01

    The Elicited Language Inventory (ELI) was administered in standardized fashion and in a modified procedure with contextually supported cues and grammatical morpheme use under the two ELI presentation conditions was compared with use of the same morphemes in spontaneous speech. Results favored modified use of the ELI with contextually cued items…

  15. Consequences of contextual factors on clinical reasoning in resident physicians.

    PubMed

    McBee, Elexis; Ratcliffe, Temple; Picho, Katherine; Artino, Anthony R; Schuwirth, Lambert; Kelly, William; Masel, Jennifer; van der Vleuten, Cees; Durning, Steven J

    2015-12-01

    Context specificity and the impact that contextual factors have on the complex process of clinical reasoning is poorly understood. Using situated cognition as the theoretical framework, our aim was to evaluate the verbalized clinical reasoning processes of resident physicians in order to describe what impact the presence of contextual factors have on their clinical reasoning. Participants viewed three video recorded clinical encounters portraying straightforward diagnoses in internal medicine with select patient contextual factors modified. After watching each video recording, participants completed a think-aloud protocol. Transcripts from the think-aloud protocols were analyzed using a constant comparative approach. After iterative coding, utterances were analyzed for emergent themes with utterances grouped into categories, themes and subthemes. Ten residents participated in the study with saturation reached during analysis. Participants universally acknowledged the presence of contextual factors in the video recordings. Four categories emerged as a consequence of the contextual factors: (1) emotional reactions (2) behavioral inferences (3) optimizing the doctor patient relationship and (4) difficulty with closure of the clinical encounter. The presence of contextual factors may impact clinical reasoning performance in resident physicians. When confronted with the presence of contextual factors in a clinical scenario, residents experienced difficulty with closure of the encounter, exhibited as diagnostic uncertainty. This finding raises important questions about the relationship between contextual factors and clinical reasoning activities and how this relationship might influence the cost effectiveness of care. This study also provides insight into how the phenomena of context specificity may be explained using situated cognition theory.

  16. The Influence of Contextual Diversity on Eye Movements in Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plummer, Patrick; Perea, Manuel; Rayner, Keith

    2014-01-01

    Recent research has shown contextual diversity (i.e., the number of passages in which a given word appears) to be a reliable predictor of word processing difficulty. It has also been demonstrated that word-frequency has little or no effect on word recognition speed when accounting for contextual diversity in isolated word processing tasks. An…

  17. Social Psychology, Contexts of Aging, and a Contextual World View.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blank, Thomas O.

    1989-01-01

    Describes contextualism (which assumes that action and thought are developed within relationships that then form contexts for particular actions) as third-world view beyond mechanism and organicism. Illustrates use of contextual approach in three areas of social gerontological and social psychological research--environmental relations,…

  18. Consequences of Contextual Factors on Clinical Reasoning in Resident Physicians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBee, Elexis; Ratcliffe, Temple; Picho, Katherine; Artino, Anthony R., Jr.; Schuwirth, Lambert; Kelly, William; Masel, Jennifer; van der Vleuten, Cees; Durning, Steven J.

    2015-01-01

    Context specificity and the impact that contextual factors have on the complex process of clinical reasoning is poorly understood. Using situated cognition as the theoretical framework, our aim was to evaluate the verbalized clinical reasoning processes of resident physicians in order to describe what impact the presence of contextual factors have…

  19. Neural Correlates of Contextual Cueing Are Modulated by Explicit Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westerberg, Carmen E.; Miller, Brennan B.; Reber, Paul J.; Cohen, Neal J.; Paller, Ken A.

    2011-01-01

    Contextual cueing refers to the facilitated ability to locate a particular visual element in a scene due to prior exposure to the same scene. This facilitation is thought to reflect implicit learning, as it typically occurs without the observer's knowledge that scenes repeat. Unlike most other implicit learning effects, contextual cueing can be…

  20. A Contextual Approach to Investigating Verbal and Nonverbal Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Douglas M.; Wilson, Barry

    This investigation utilized a recent concept developed by researchers and theoreticians studying nonverbal behavior--the contextual framework. Instruments of demonstrated reliability were employed to record simultaneous verbal and nonverbal data within the selected contextual framework of student-initiated questions. Data was collected at the…

  1. Consequences of contextual factors on clinical reasoning in resident physicians.

    PubMed

    McBee, Elexis; Ratcliffe, Temple; Picho, Katherine; Artino, Anthony R; Schuwirth, Lambert; Kelly, William; Masel, Jennifer; van der Vleuten, Cees; Durning, Steven J

    2015-12-01

    Context specificity and the impact that contextual factors have on the complex process of clinical reasoning is poorly understood. Using situated cognition as the theoretical framework, our aim was to evaluate the verbalized clinical reasoning processes of resident physicians in order to describe what impact the presence of contextual factors have on their clinical reasoning. Participants viewed three video recorded clinical encounters portraying straightforward diagnoses in internal medicine with select patient contextual factors modified. After watching each video recording, participants completed a think-aloud protocol. Transcripts from the think-aloud protocols were analyzed using a constant comparative approach. After iterative coding, utterances were analyzed for emergent themes with utterances grouped into categories, themes and subthemes. Ten residents participated in the study with saturation reached during analysis. Participants universally acknowledged the presence of contextual factors in the video recordings. Four categories emerged as a consequence of the contextual factors: (1) emotional reactions (2) behavioral inferences (3) optimizing the doctor patient relationship and (4) difficulty with closure of the clinical encounter. The presence of contextual factors may impact clinical reasoning performance in resident physicians. When confronted with the presence of contextual factors in a clinical scenario, residents experienced difficulty with closure of the encounter, exhibited as diagnostic uncertainty. This finding raises important questions about the relationship between contextual factors and clinical reasoning activities and how this relationship might influence the cost effectiveness of care. This study also provides insight into how the phenomena of context specificity may be explained using situated cognition theory. PMID:25753295

  2. Stability of Recent and Remote Contextual Fear Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frankland, Paul W.; Ding, Hoi-Ki; Takahashi, Eiki; Suzuki, Akinobu; Kida, Satoshi; Silva, Alcino J.

    2006-01-01

    Following initial encoding, memories undergo a prolonged period of reorganization. While such reorganization may occur in many different memory systems, its purpose is not clear. Previously, we have shown that recall of recent contextual fear memories engages the dorsal hippocampus (dHPC). In contrast, recall of remote contextual fear memories…

  3. Focal Event, Contextualization, and Effective Communication in the Mathematics Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nilsson, Per; Ryve, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this article is to develop analytical tools for studying mathematical communication in collaborative activities. The theoretical construct of contextualization is elaborated methodologically in order to study diversity in individual thinking in relation to effective communication. The construct of contextualization highlights issues of…

  4. Cultural and Contextual Influences on Parenting in Mexican American Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Rebecca M. B.; Roosa, Mark W.; Weaver, Scott R.; Nair, Rajni L.

    2009-01-01

    Family stress theory can explain associations between contextual stressors and parenting. The theory, however, has not been tested among Mexican Americans or expanded to include cultural-contextual risks. This study examined associations between neighborhood, economic, and acculturative stressors and parenting behaviors in a sample of 570…

  5. Contextual Stress and Health Risk Behaviors among African American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Copeland-Linder, Nikeea; Lambert, Sharon F.; Chen, Yi-Fu; Ialongo, Nicholas S.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the longitudinal association between contextual stress and health risk behaviors and the role of protective factors in a community epidemiologically-defined sample of urban African American adolescents (N = 500; 46.4% female). Structural equation modeling was used to create a latent variable measuring contextual stress…

  6. Does an additional structured information program during the intensive care unit stay reduce anxiety in ICU patients?: a multicenter randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Communication and information in order to reduce anxiety in the intensive care unit (ICU) has been described as area needing improvement. Therefore, the aim of this trial was to evaluate whether a structured information program that intensifies information given in standard care process reduces anxiety in ICU patients. Methods Multicenter, two-armed, non-blinded, parallel-group randomized controlled trial in hospitals in the cities of Marburg, Halle, and Stuttgart (Germany). The trial was performed in cardiac surgery, general surgery, and internal medicine ICUs. Two-hundred and eleven elective and non-elective ICU patients were enrolled in the study (intervention group, n = 104; control group, n = 107). The experimental intervention comprised a single episode of structured oral information that was given in addition to standard care and covered two main parts: (1) A more standardized part about predefined ICU specific aspects – mainly procedural, sensory and coping information, and (2) an individualized part about fears and questions of the patient. The control group received a non-specific episodic conversation of similar length additional to standard care. Both conversations took place at the beginning of the ICU stay and lasted 10–15 minutes. Study nurses administered both interventions. The primary outcome ICU-related anxiety (CINT-Score, 0–100 pts., higher scores indicate higher anxiety) was assessed after admission to a regular ward. Results The primary outcome could be measured in 82 intervention group participants and 90 control group participants resulting in mean values of 20.4 (SD 14.4) compared to 20.8 (SD 14.7) and a mean difference of −0.2 (CI 95% -4.5 to 4.1). Conclusions A structured information intervention additional to standard care during ICU stay had no demonstrated additional benefit compared to an unspecific communication of similar duration. Reduction of anxiety in ICU patients will probably require more continuous

  7. CDinFusion--submission-ready, on-line integration of sequence and contextual data.

    PubMed

    Hankeln, Wolfgang; Wendel, Norma Johanna; Gerken, Jan; Waldmann, Jost; Buttigieg, Pier Luigi; Kostadinov, Ivaylo; Kottmann, Renzo; Yilmaz, Pelin; Glöckner, Frank Oliver

    2011-01-01

    State of the art (DNA) sequencing methods applied in "Omics" studies grant insight into the 'blueprints' of organisms from all domains of life. Sequencing is carried out around the globe and the data is submitted to the public repositories of the International Nucleotide Sequence Database Collaboration. However, the context in which these studies are conducted often gets lost, because experimental data, as well as information about the environment are rarely submitted along with the sequence data. If these contextual or metadata are missing, key opportunities of comparison and analysis across studies and habitats are hampered or even impossible. To address this problem, the Genomic Standards Consortium (GSC) promotes checklists and standards to better describe our sequence data collection and to promote the capturing, exchange and integration of sequence data with contextual data. In a recent community effort the GSC has developed a series of recommendations for contextual data that should be submitted along with sequence data. To support the scientific community to significantly enhance the quality and quantity of contextual data in the public sequence data repositories, specialized software tools are needed. In this work we present CDinFusion, a web-based tool to integrate contextual and sequence data in (Multi)FASTA format prior to submission. The tool is open source and available under the Lesser GNU Public License 3. A public installation is hosted and maintained at the Max Planck Institute for Marine Microbiology at http://www.megx.net/cdinfusion. The tool may also be installed locally using the open source code available at http://code.google.com/p/cdinfusion.

  8. CDinFusion – Submission-Ready, On-Line Integration of Sequence and Contextual Data

    PubMed Central

    Hankeln, Wolfgang; Wendel, Norma Johanna; Gerken, Jan; Waldmann, Jost; Buttigieg, Pier Luigi; Kostadinov, Ivaylo; Kottmann, Renzo; Yilmaz, Pelin; Glöckner, Frank Oliver

    2011-01-01

    State of the art (DNA) sequencing methods applied in “Omics” studies grant insight into the ‘blueprints’ of organisms from all domains of life. Sequencing is carried out around the globe and the data is submitted to the public repositories of the International Nucleotide Sequence Database Collaboration. However, the context in which these studies are conducted often gets lost, because experimental data, as well as information about the environment are rarely submitted along with the sequence data. If these contextual or metadata are missing, key opportunities of comparison and analysis across studies and habitats are hampered or even impossible. To address this problem, the Genomic Standards Consortium (GSC) promotes checklists and standards to better describe our sequence data collection and to promote the capturing, exchange and integration of sequence data with contextual data. In a recent community effort the GSC has developed a series of recommendations for contextual data that should be submitted along with sequence data. To support the scientific community to significantly enhance the quality and quantity of contextual data in the public sequence data repositories, specialized software tools are needed. In this work we present CDinFusion, a web-based tool to integrate contextual and sequence data in (Multi)FASTA format prior to submission. The tool is open source and available under the Lesser GNU Public License 3. A public installation is hosted and maintained at the Max Planck Institute for Marine Microbiology at http://www.megx.net/cdinfusion. The tool may also be installed locally using the open source code available at http://code.google.com/p/cdinfusion. PMID:21935468

  9. Perceiving speech in context: Compensation for contextual variability during acoustic cue encoding and categorization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toscano, Joseph Christopher

    Several fundamental questions about speech perception concern how listeners understand spoken language despite considerable variability in speech sounds across different contexts (the problem of lack of invariance in speech). This contextual variability is caused by several factors, including differences between individual talkers' voices, variation in speaking rate, and effects of coarticulatory context. A number of models have been proposed to describe how the speech system handles differences across contexts. Critically, these models make different predictions about (1) whether contextual variability is handled at the level of acoustic cue encoding or categorization, (2) whether it is driven by feedback from category-level processes or interactions between cues, and (3) whether listeners discard fine-grained acoustic information to compensate for contextual variability. Separating the effects of cue- and category-level processing has been difficult because behavioral measures tap processes that occur well after initial cue encoding and are influenced by task demands and linguistic information. Recently, we have used the event-related brain potential (ERP) technique to examine cue encoding and online categorization. Specifically, we have looked at differences in the auditory N1 as a measure of acoustic cue encoding and the P3 as a measure of categorization. This allows us to examine multiple levels of processing during speech perception and can provide a useful tool for studying effects of contextual variability. Here, I apply this approach to determine the point in processing at which context has an effect on speech perception and to examine whether acoustic cues are encoded continuously. Several types of contextual variability (talker gender, speaking rate, and coarticulation), as well as several acoustic cues (voice onset time, formant frequencies, and bandwidths), are examined in a series of experiments. The results suggest that (1) at early stages of speech

  10. Contextual reasoning is NP-complete

    SciTech Connect

    Massacci, F.

    1996-12-31

    The logic of context with the ist (c, p) modality has been proposed by McCarthy as a foundation for contextual reasoning. This paper shows that propositional logic of context is NP-complete and therefore more tractable than multimodal logics or Multi Language hierarchical logics which are PSPACE-complete. This result is given in a proof-theoretical way by providing a tableau calculus, which can be used as a decision procedure for automated reasoning. The computational gap between logic of context and modal logics is analyzed and some indications for the use of either formalisms are drawn on the basis of the tradeoff between compactness of representation and tractability of reasoning.

  11. Group adaptation, formal darwinism and contextual analysis.

    PubMed

    Okasha, S; Paternotte, C

    2012-06-01

    We consider the question: under what circumstances can the concept of adaptation be applied to groups, rather than individuals? Gardner and Grafen (2009, J. Evol. Biol.22: 659-671) develop a novel approach to this question, building on Grafen's 'formal Darwinism' project, which defines adaptation in terms of links between evolutionary dynamics and optimization. They conclude that only clonal groups, and to a lesser extent groups in which reproductive competition is repressed, can be considered as adaptive units. We re-examine the conditions under which the selection-optimization links hold at the group level. We focus on an important distinction between two ways of understanding the links, which have different implications regarding group adaptationism. We show how the formal Darwinism approach can be reconciled with G.C. Williams' famous analysis of group adaptation, and we consider the relationships between group adaptation, the Price equation approach to multi-level selection, and the alternative approach based on contextual analysis.

  12. `They might know a lot of things that I don't know': investigating differences in preservice teachers' ideas about contextualizing science instruction in multilingual classrooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tolbert, Sara; Knox, Corey

    2016-05-01

    This paper describes the results from a qualitative study of 72 preservice teachers' initial ideas about contextualizing science instruction with language minority students. Participants drew primarily on local ecological and multicultural contexts as resources for contextualizing instruction. However, preservice teachers enrolled in the bilingual certification program articulated more asset-oriented and less stereotypical ideas than those not seeking bilingual certification. Results can inform teacher education programs that aim to prepare graduates for teaching science in multilingual classrooms.

  13. Metal Additive Manufacturing: A Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frazier, William E.

    2014-06-01

    This paper reviews the state-of-the-art of an important, rapidly emerging, manufacturing technology that is alternatively called additive manufacturing (AM), direct digital manufacturing, free form fabrication, or 3D printing, etc. A broad contextual overview of metallic AM is provided. AM has the potential to revolutionize the global parts manufacturing and logistics landscape. It enables distributed manufacturing and the productions of parts-on-demand while offering the potential to reduce cost, energy consumption, and carbon footprint. This paper explores the material science, processes, and business consideration associated with achieving these performance gains. It is concluded that a paradigm shift is required in order to fully exploit AM potential.

  14. Power and Liberty: A Long-Term Course Planning Strategy to Encourage the Contextualization of Events in American History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Endacott, Jason L.

    2011-01-01

    Applying a consistent historical theme throughout a social studies course is an effective long-term planning strategy that can promote student engagement, retention of information, and contextualized knowledge of history's continuity and change. This article demonstrates how one such theme, power and liberty, might be incorporated into a secondary…

  15. The Relative Effects of Environmental, Internal and Contextual Factors on Organizational Learning: The Case of Hong Kong Schools under Reforms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Y. L. Jack; Pang, S. K. Nicholas

    2003-01-01

    Path analyses of information from 780 Hong Kong elementary and 1,197 secondary teachers in the midst of national reforms indicated that internal school conditions (transformational leadership, supportive culture, flexible structure) promoted organizational learning and change. External and contextual conditions provided incentives and motivation…

  16. Combining Contextual and Morphemic Cues Is Beneficial during Incidental Vocabulary Acquisition: Semantic Transparency in Novel Compound Word Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brusnighan, Stephen M.; Folk, Jocelyn R.

    2012-01-01

    In two studies, we investigated how skilled readers use contextual and morphemic information in the process of incidental vocabulary acquisition during reading. In Experiment 1, we monitored skilled readers' eye movements while they silently read sentence pairs containing novel and known English compound words that were either semantically…

  17. On the Role of Linguistic Contextual Factors for Morphosyntactic Stabilization in High-Level L2 French

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartning, Inge; Lundell, Fanny Forsberg; Hancock, Victorine

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to offer contextual linguistic explanations for morphosyntactic deviances (MSDs) in high-level second language (L2) French (30 nonnative speakers vs. 10 native speakers). It is hypothesized that the distribution of formulaic sequences (FSs) and the complexity of information structure will influence the occurrence of…

  18. "That's in the Time of the Romans!" Knowledge and Strategies Students Use to Contextualize Historical Images and Documents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Boxtel, Carla; van Drie, Jannet

    2012-01-01

    An important goal of history education is the development of a chronological frame of reference that can be used to interpret and date historical images and documents. Despite the importance of this contextualization goal, little is known about the knowledge and strategies that allow students to situate information historically. Two studies were…

  19. Hierarchical acquisition of visual specificity in spatial contextual cueing.

    PubMed

    Lie, Kin-Pou

    2015-01-01

    Spatial contextual cueing refers to visual search performance's being improved when invariant associations between target locations and distractor spatial configurations are learned incidentally. Using the instance theory of automatization and the reverse hierarchy theory of visual perceptual learning, this study explores the acquisition of visual specificity in spatial contextual cueing. Two experiments in which detailed visual features were irrelevant for distinguishing between spatial contexts found that spatial contextual cueing was visually generic in difficult trials when the trials were not preceded by easy trials (Experiment 1) but that spatial contextual cueing progressed to visual specificity when difficult trials were preceded by easy trials (Experiment 2). These findings support reverse hierarchy theory, which predicts that even when detailed visual features are irrelevant for distinguishing between spatial contexts, spatial contextual cueing can progress to visual specificity if the stimuli remain constant, the task is difficult, and difficult trials are preceded by easy trials. However, these findings are inconsistent with instance theory, which predicts that when detailed visual features are irrelevant for distinguishing between spatial contexts, spatial contextual cueing will not progress to visual specificity. This study concludes that the acquisition of visual specificity in spatial contextual cueing is more plausibly hierarchical, rather than instance-based.

  20. Family-supportive supervisor behaviors, work engagement, and subjective well-being: a contextually dependent mediated process.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Russell A; Mills, Maura J; Trout, Rachel C; English, Lucy

    2014-04-01

    Grounded in a multistudy framework, we examined the relationship between family-supportive supervisor behaviors, work engagement, and subjective well-being as a contextually dependent mediated process. In Study 1 (N = 310), based on broaden-and-build and conservation of resources theories, we tested the proposed mediated process while controlling for perceived organizational support and perceived managerial effectiveness. We also demonstrated that family-supportive supervisor behaviors are distinguishable from general supervisor behaviors. In Study 2 (N = 1,640), using multigroup structural equation modeling, we validated and extended Study 1 results by examining how the mediated model varied based on 2 contextualizing constructs: (a) dependent care responsibilities and (b) availability of family-friendly benefits. Although the mediational results were contextually dependent, they were not necessarily consistent with hypothesizing based on conservation of resources theory. Practical implications are emphasized in addition to future research directions. PMID:24730426

  1. Family-supportive supervisor behaviors, work engagement, and subjective well-being: a contextually dependent mediated process.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Russell A; Mills, Maura J; Trout, Rachel C; English, Lucy

    2014-04-01

    Grounded in a multistudy framework, we examined the relationship between family-supportive supervisor behaviors, work engagement, and subjective well-being as a contextually dependent mediated process. In Study 1 (N = 310), based on broaden-and-build and conservation of resources theories, we tested the proposed mediated process while controlling for perceived organizational support and perceived managerial effectiveness. We also demonstrated that family-supportive supervisor behaviors are distinguishable from general supervisor behaviors. In Study 2 (N = 1,640), using multigroup structural equation modeling, we validated and extended Study 1 results by examining how the mediated model varied based on 2 contextualizing constructs: (a) dependent care responsibilities and (b) availability of family-friendly benefits. Although the mediational results were contextually dependent, they were not necessarily consistent with hypothesizing based on conservation of resources theory. Practical implications are emphasized in addition to future research directions.

  2. The Mediating Roles of Career Self-Efficacy and Career Decidedness in the Relationship between Contextual Support and Persistence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Restubog, Simon Lloyd D.; Florentino, Afryll R.; Garcia, Patrick Raymund James M.

    2010-01-01

    Drawing from Social cognitive career theory, we examined how types of contextual support (e.g., parental support and number of career counseling sessions received) influence persistence. In addition, we test the roles of career self-efficacy and career decidedness as mediating mechanisms in the relationship between these types of contextual…

  3. Contextual Risk, Caregiver Emotionality, and the Problem Behaviors of Six- and Seven-Year-Old Children from Economically Disadvantaged Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ackerman, Brian P.; Izard, Carroll E.; Schoff, Kristen; Youngstrom, Eric A.; Kogos, Jen

    1999-01-01

    Explored relations between additive and cumulative representations of contextual risk, caregiver emotionality, child adaptability, and teacher reports of problem behaviors of 6- and 7-year-olds from economically disadvantaged families. Found evidence that the relation for cumulative risk may be moderated by caregiver negative emotionality and…

  4. Role of the somatostatin system in contextual fear memory and hippocampal synaptic plasticity.

    PubMed

    Kluge, Christian; Stoppel, Christian; Szinyei, Csaba; Stork, Oliver; Pape, Hans-Christian

    2008-04-01

    Somatostatin has been implicated in various cognitive and emotional functions, but its precise role is still poorly understood. Here, we have made use of mice with somatostatin deficiency, based upon genetic invalidation or pharmacologically induced depletion, and Pavlovian fear conditioning in order to address the contribution of the somatostatin system to associative fear memory. The results demonstrate an impairment of foreground and background contextual but not tone fear conditioning in mice with targeted ablation of the somatostatin gene. These deficits were associated with a decrease in long-term potentiation in the CA1 area of the hippocampus. Both the behavioral and the electrophysiological phenotypes were mimicked in wild-type mice through application of the somatostatin-depleting substance cysteamine prior to fear training, whereas no further deficits were observed upon application in the somatostatin null mutants. These results suggest that the somatostatin system plays a critical role in the acquisition of contextual fear memory, but not tone fear learning, and further highlights the role of hippocampal synaptic plasticity for information processing concerning contextual information.

  5. Contextual inquiry method for user-centred clinical IT system design.

    PubMed

    Viitanen, Johanna

    2011-01-01

    Little can be found in the literature about the applicability of field study methods, particularly contextual inquiry, in the health informatics field. This paper aims to inform and promote the use of contextual inquiry for user-oriented design of clinical information technology (IT) systems. The paper describes how the method was applied in two empirical studies to gather data about end-users' needs, as well as the use and usability of dictation solutions and electronic nursing documentation systems from the viewpoint of their end-users' in real working surroundings. Experience indicates that, compared to typical usability evaluation methods, contextual inquiry may provide valuable support for user-centred design activities: the method is suitable for increasing researchers' understanding of clinical practices, contexts of work, and end-users' interaction with numerous IT systems. However, in clinical settings there are special challenges related to recording and privacy issues, a wide variety of clinical practices and contexts of technology usage, as well as the hectic nature of clinical work.

  6. Personal contextual characteristics and cognitions: predicting child abuse potential and disciplinary style.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Christina M

    2010-02-01

    According to Social Information Processing theory, parents' cognitive processes influence their decisions to engage in physical maltreatment, although cognitions occur in the context of other aspects of the parents' life. The present study investigated whether cognitive processes (external locus of control, inappropriate developmental expectations) predicted child abuse potential and overreactive disciplinary style beyond personal contextual factors characteristic of the parent (hostility, stress, and coping). 363 parents were recruited online. Results highlight the relative importance of the contextual characteristics (particularly stress, avoidant coping, and irritability) relative to cognitive processes in predicting abuse potential and overreactive discipline strategies, although an external locus of control also significantly contributed. Findings do not support that parents' developmental expectations uniquely predict elevated abuse risk. Results indicate stressed parents who utilize avoidance coping strategies are more likely to use overreactive discipline and report increased abuse potential. Findings are discussed with regard to implications for prevention/intervention efforts.

  7. A contextual role-based access control authorization model for electronic patient record.

    PubMed

    Motta, Gustavo H M B; Furuie, Sergio S

    2003-09-01

    The design of proper models for authorization and access control for electronic patient record (EPR) is essential to a wide scale use of EPR in large health organizations. In this paper, we propose a contextual role-based access control authorization model aiming to increase the patient privacy and the confidentiality of patient data, whereas being flexible enough to consider specific cases. This model regulates user's access to EPR based on organizational roles. It supports a role-tree hierarchy with authorization inheritance; positive and negative authorizations; static and dynamic separation of duties based on weak and strong role conflicts. Contextual authorizations use environmental information available at access time, like user/patient relationship, in order to decide whether a user is allowed to access an EPR resource. This enables the specification of a more flexible and precise authorization policy, where permission is granted or denied according to the right and the need of the user to carry out a particular job function.

  8. Configural learning in contextual cuing of visual search.

    PubMed

    Beesley, Tom; Vadillo, Miguel A; Pearson, Daniel; Shanks, David R

    2016-08-01

    Two experiments were conducted to explore the role of configural representations in contextual cuing of visual search. Repeating patterns of distractors (contexts) were trained incidentally as predictive of the target location. Training participants with repeating contexts of consistent configurations led to stronger contextual cuing than when participants were trained with contexts of inconsistent configurations. Computational simulations with an elemental associative learning model of contextual cuing demonstrated that purely elemental representations could not account for the results. However, a configural model of associative learning was able to simulate the ordinal pattern of data. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26913779

  9. Food additives

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Michael

    1974-01-01

    Food additives are discussed from the food technology point of view. The reasons for their use are summarized: (1) to protect food from chemical and microbiological attack; (2) to even out seasonal supplies; (3) to improve their eating quality; (4) to improve their nutritional value. The various types of food additives are considered, e.g. colours, flavours, emulsifiers, bread and flour additives, preservatives, and nutritional additives. The paper concludes with consideration of those circumstances in which the use of additives is (a) justified and (b) unjustified. PMID:4467857

  10. 4. Contextual view of EPA Farm showing radwaste tank, facing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Contextual view of EPA Farm showing rad-waste tank, facing south-southeast. - Nevada Test Site, Environmental Protection Agency Farm, Area 15, Yucca Flat, 10-2 Road near Circle Road, Mercury, Nye County, NV

  11. 6. Contextual view of EPA Farm showing cattle shelter, facing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Contextual view of EPA Farm showing cattle shelter, facing southeast. - Nevada Test Site, Environmental Protection Agency Farm, Area 15, Yucca Flat, 10-2 Road near Circle Road, Mercury, Nye County, NV

  12. 2. Contextual view of EPA Farm showing milliongallon reservoir, facing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Contextual view of EPA Farm showing million-gallon reservoir, facing east-southeast. - Nevada Test Site, Environmental Protection Agency Farm, Area 15, Yucca Flat, 10-2 Road near Circle Road, Mercury, Nye County, NV

  13. 5. Contextual view of EPA Farm showing holding pens, facing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Contextual view of EPA Farm showing holding pens, facing west-southwest. - Nevada Test Site, Environmental Protection Agency Farm, Area 15, Yucca Flat, 10-2 Road near Circle Road, Mercury, Nye County, NV

  14. CONTEXTUAL VIEW OF BUILDING 459 LOOKING ALONG WALNUT AVENUE; CAMERA ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CONTEXTUAL VIEW OF BUILDING 459 LOOKING ALONG WALNUT AVENUE; CAMERA FACING SOUTH - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Bachelor Enlisted Quarters & Offices, Walnut Avenue, east side between D Street & C Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  15. Contextual view showing building 253 in foreground; camera facing southeast. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Contextual view showing building 253 in foreground; camera facing southeast. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Supply Building, Walnut Avenue, southeast corner of Walnut Avenue & Fifth Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  16. Contextual view of building 47 looking across Walnut Avenue, with ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Contextual view of building 47 looking across Walnut Avenue, with building 521 in foreground; camera facing northeast. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Old Administrative Offices, Eighth Street, north side between Railroad Avenue & Walnut Avenue, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  17. Contextual view of building 47 looking across Walnut Avenue, showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Contextual view of building 47 looking across Walnut Avenue, showing south elevation; camera facing northwest. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Old Administrative Offices, Eighth Street, north side between Railroad Avenue & Walnut Avenue, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  18. CONTEXTUAL VIEW OF BUILDING 459 LOOKING ALONG WALNUT AVENUE, SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CONTEXTUAL VIEW OF BUILDING 459 LOOKING ALONG WALNUT AVENUE, SHOWING WEST ELEVATION. CAMERA FACING SOUTH - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Bachelor Enlisted Quarters & Offices, Walnut Avenue, east side between D Street & C Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  19. Contextual view showing drainage culvert in foreground boarding east side ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Contextual view showing drainage culvert in foreground boarding east side of knoll with eucalyptus windbreak. Camera facing 278" southwest. - Goerlitz House, 9893 Highland Avenue, Rancho Cucamonga, San Bernardino County, CA

  20. Contextual view of Goerlitz Property, showing eucalyptus trees along west ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Contextual view of Goerlitz Property, showing eucalyptus trees along west side of driveway; parking lot and utility pole in foreground. Camera facing 38" northeast - Goerlitz House, 9893 Highland Avenue, Rancho Cucamonga, San Bernardino County, CA

  1. Contextual view facing southeast Fitzsimons General Hospital, Swimming Pool, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Contextual view facing southeast - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Swimming Pool, Southeast corner of East Nineteenth Place (formerly East McAfee Avenue) & Wheeling Street (formerly South Van Valzah Street), Aurora, Adams County, CO

  2. Contextual view looking down California Avenue, showing south and east ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Contextual view looking down California Avenue, showing south and east elevations; camera facing northwest. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Central Power Plant, California Avenue, norhtwest corner of California Avenue & Seventh Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  3. Contextual view of building 253 looking down Walnut Avenue, showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Contextual view of building 253 looking down Walnut Avenue, showing south elevation at right; camera facing north. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Supply Building, Walnut Avenue, southeast corner of Walnut Avenue & Fifth Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  4. Contextual view looking down railroad avenue with building 680 at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Contextual view looking down railroad avenue with building 680 at left and building 390 at right; camera facing south. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Machine Shop, California Avenue, southwest corner of California Avenue & Thirteenth Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  5. Contextual view showing northwest corner of building 46, looking down ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Contextual view showing northwest corner of building 46, looking down California Avenue; camera facing southwest. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Smithery, California Avenue, west side at California Avenue & Eighth Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  6. Contextual view looking down clubhouse drive. Showing west elevation of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Contextual view looking down clubhouse drive. Showing west elevation of H1 on right; camera facing east. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Hospital Headquarters, Johnson Lane, west side at intersection of Johnson Lane & Cossey Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  7. Contextual view showing new wing and north portion of building ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Contextual view showing new wing and north portion of building 46, looking down California Avenue; camera facing northwest. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Smithery, California Avenue, west side at California Avenue & Eighth Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  8. Contextual view of Quarters 1 and 2, with landscape elements ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Contextual view of Quarters 1 and 2, with landscape elements visible, camera facing southwest - Naval Training Station, Senior Officers' Quarters District, Naval Station Treasure Island, Yerba Buena Island, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  9. 23. CONTEXTUAL, RAIL CARS IN MU SHED Delaware, Lackawanna ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. CONTEXTUAL, RAIL CARS IN MU SHED - Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad Freight & Rail Yard, Multiple Unit Light Inspection Shed, New Jersey Transit Hoboken Terminal Rail Yard, Hoboken, Hudson County, NJ

  10. View northeast, oblique contextual view of hoboken rail yard in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View northeast, oblique contextual view of hoboken rail yard in immediate background, Manhattan Skyline in distance. - Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad Freight & Rail Yard, Long Slip Canal, New Jersey Transit Hoboken Rail Yard, Hoboken, Hudson County, NJ

  11. Contextual view of building no. 541, looking northeast. Structure no. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Contextual view of building no. 541, looking northeast. Structure no. 1043 in foreground. - Naval Base Philadelphia-Philadelphia Naval Shipyard, Structural Assembly Shop, League Island, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  12. Contextual view of building 733 along Cedar Avenue; camera facing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Contextual view of building 733 along Cedar Avenue; camera facing southwest. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, WAVES Officers Quarters, Cedar Avenue, west side between Tisdale Avenue & Eighth Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  13. Contextual view of building no. 541, looking southwest. Structure no. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Contextual view of building no. 541, looking southwest. Structure no. 1051 in left foreground and structure no. 1045 in right foreground. - Naval Base Philadelphia-Philadelphia Naval Shipyard, Structural Assembly Shop, League Island, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  14. Contextual view of building showing relation to building 91 at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Contextual view of building showing relation to building 91 at right; camera facing southwest. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Mechanics Shop, Waterfront Avenue, west side between A Street & Third Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  15. CONTEXTUAL VIEW FROM HOTEL; HAMILTON BUNGALOW IN FOREGROUND; BUNGALOW NO. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CONTEXTUAL VIEW FROM HOTEL; HAMILTON BUNGALOW IN FOREGROUND; BUNGALOW NO. 3 DIRECTLY BEHIND; HINDS & CONNER AND "A" BUNGALOWS IN REAR. VISTA DEL ARROYO HOTEL ON RIGHT - Vista del Arroyo Hotel, 125 South Grand Avenue, Pasadena, Los Angeles County, CA

  16. Contextual view of ILWU Hall, facing southsouthwest, with ocean bank ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Contextual view of ILWU Hall, facing south-southwest, with ocean bank visible in the background - International Longshoremen's & Warehousemen's Union Hall, Naval Civil Engineering Laboratory, Port Hueneme Road, Port Hueneme, Ventura County, CA

  17. Contextual view of ILWU Hall, facing northwest with commercial port ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Contextual view of ILWU Hall, facing northwest with commercial port buildings visible in the background - International Longshoremen's & Warehousemen's Union Hall, Naval Civil Engineering Laboratory, Port Hueneme Road, Port Hueneme, Ventura County, CA

  18. Contextual view of ILWU Hall, facing east, with the city ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Contextual view of ILWU Hall, facing east, with the city of Port Hueneme visible in the background - International Longshoremen's & Warehousemen's Union Hall, Naval Civil Engineering Laboratory, Port Hueneme Road, Port Hueneme, Ventura County, CA

  19. 1. West side of bridge. Overall contextual view (looking) eastsoutheast ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. West side of bridge. Overall contextual view (looking) east-southeast or upstream. (Deer Creek flows east to west). 90mm lens. - Gault Bridge, Spanning Deer Creek at South Pine Street, Nevada City, Nevada County, CA

  20. Contextual control of equivalence-based transformation of functions.

    PubMed Central

    Dougher, Michael; Perkins, David R; Greenway, David; Koons, Ashton; Chiasson, Carmenne

    2002-01-01

    The transformation of functions refers to the untrained acquisition of stimulus functions among members of stimulus equivalence classes or relational frames. Although it is widely assumed that contextual control over the transformation of fuctions must exist, this has not yet been conclusively demonstrated in laboratory studies. Four experiments are reported in which (a) stimulus equivalence classes were established, (b) a conditional stimulus function was trained for one member of each of the classes, and (c) multiple-exemplar procedures were used to train and test for contextual control over the transformation of the stimulus function within the classes and to assess whether it generalized to new equivalence classes. Although a significant amount of training was required, the procedures ultimately resulted in the contextual control of function transformation for 9 of 10 participants and generalized contextual control for 4 of 5 participants. PMID:12144312