Science.gov

Sample records for additional contribution due

  1. Surface tension increment due to solute addition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsin, Wei Lun; Sheng, Yu-Jane; Lin, Shi-Yow; Tsao, Heng-Kwong

    2004-03-01

    Addition of solute into solvent may lead to an increase in surface tension, such as salt in water and water in alcohol, due to solute depletion at the interface. The repulsion of the solute from the interface may originate from electrostatic forces or solute-solvent attraction. On the basis of the square-well model for the interface-solute interaction, we derive the surface tension increment Δγ by both canonical and grand-canonical routes (Gibbs adsorption isotherm) for a spherical droplet. The surface tension is increased linearly with the bulk concentration of the solute cb and the interaction range λ. The theoretical results are consistent with those obtained by experiments and Monte Carlo simulations up to a few molarity. For weak repulsion, the increment is internal energy driven. When the repulsion is large enough, the surface tension increment is entropy driven and approaches the asymptotic limit, Δγ≃cbkBTλ, due to the nearly complete depletion of the solute at the interface. Our result may shed some light on the surface tension increment for electrolyte solutions with concentration above 0.2M.

  2. 26 CFR 1.162-15 - Contributions, dues, etc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Contributions, dues, etc. 1.162-15 Section 1.162... Contributions, dues, etc. (a) Contributions to organizations described in section 170—(1) In general. No deduction is allowable under section 162(a) for a contribution or gift by an individual or a corporation...

  3. ANALYSIS OF DISTRIBUTION FEEDER LOSSES DUE TO ADDITION OF DISTRIBUTED PHOTOVOLTAIC GENERATORS

    SciTech Connect

    Tuffner, Francis K.; Singh, Ruchi

    2011-08-09

    Distributed generators (DG) are small scale power supplying sources owned by customers or utilities and scattered throughout the power system distribution network. Distributed generation can be both renewable and non-renewable. Addition of distributed generation is primarily to increase feeder capacity and to provide peak load reduction. However, this addition comes with several impacts on the distribution feeder. Several studies have shown that addition of DG leads to reduction of feeder loss. However, most of these studies have considered lumped load and distributed load models to analyze the effects on system losses, where the dynamic variation of load due to seasonal changes is ignored. It is very important for utilities to minimize the losses under all scenarios to decrease revenue losses, promote efficient asset utilization, and therefore, increase feeder capacity. This paper will investigate an IEEE 13-node feeder populated with photovoltaic generators on detailed residential houses with water heater, Heating Ventilation and Air conditioning (HVAC) units, lights, and other plug and convenience loads. An analysis of losses for different power system components, such as transformers, underground and overhead lines, and triplex lines, will be performed. The analysis will utilize different seasons and different solar penetration levels (15%, 30%).

  4. Addition of organic amendments contributes to C sequestration in trace element contaminated soils.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    del Mar Montiel Rozas, María; Panettier, Marco; Madejón Rodríguez, Paula; Madejón Rodríguez, Engracia

    2015-04-01

    Nowadays, the study of global C cycle and the different natural sinks of C have become especially important in a climate change context. Fluxes of C have been modified by anthropogenic activities and, presently, the global objective is the decrease of net CO2 emission. For this purpose, many studies are being conducted at local level for evaluate different C sequestration strategies. These techniques must be, in addition to safe in the long term, environmentally friendly. Restoration of contaminated and degraded areas is considered as a strategy for SOC sequestration. Our study has been carried out in the Guadiamar Green Corridor (Seville, Spain) affected by the Aznalcóllar mining accident. This accident occurred 16 years ago, due to the failure of the tailing dam which contained 4-5 million m3 of toxic tailings (slurry and acid water).The affected soils had a layer of toxic sludge containing heavy metals as As, Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn. Restoration techniques began to be applied just after the accident, including the removal of the toxic sludge and a variable layer of topsoil (10-30 cm) from the surface. In a second phase, in a specific area (experimental area) of the Green Corridor the addition of organic amendments (Biosolid compost (BC) and Leonardite (LE), a low grade coal rich in humic acids) was carried out to increase pH, organic matter and fertility in a soil which lost its richest layer during the clean-up operation. In our experimental area, half of the plots (A) received amendments for four years (2002, 2003, 2006 and 2007) whereas the other half (B) received amendments only for two years (2002-2003). To compare, plots without amendments were also established. Net balance of C was carried out using values of Water Soluble Carbon (WSC) and Total Organic Carbon (TOC) for three years (2012, 2013 and 2015). To eliminate artificial changes carried out in the plots, amendment addition and withdrawal of biomass were taken into account to calculate balance of kg TOC

  5. Proton transport in functionalised additives for PEM fuel cells: contributions from atomistic simulations.

    PubMed

    Tölle, Pia; Köhler, Christof; Marschall, Roland; Sharifi, Monir; Wark, Michael; Frauenheim, Thomas

    2012-08-01

    The conventional polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) materials for fuel cell applications strongly rely on temperature and pressure conditions for optimal performance. In order to expand the range of operating conditions of these conventional PEM materials, mesoporous functionalised SiO(2) additives are developed. It has been demonstrated that these additives themselves achieve proton conductivities approaching those of conventional materials. However, the proton conduction mechanisms and especially factors influencing charge carrier mobility under different hydration conditions are not well known and difficult to separate from concentration effects in experiments. This tutorial review highlights contributions of atomistic computer simulations to the basic understanding and eventual design of these materials. Some basic introduction to the theoretical and computational framework is provided to introduce the reader to the field, the techniques are in principle applicable to a wide range of other situations as well. Simulation results are directly compared to experimental data as far as possible.

  6. Estimate of neutral atoms contribution to the Mercury exosphere due to a new flux of micrometeoroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borin, Patrizia; Bruno, Marco; Cremonese, Gabriele; Marzari, Francesco

    2010-05-01

    Meteoroid impacts are an important source of neutral atoms in the exosphere of Mercury. Recent papers attribute to impacting particles smaller than 1 cm most of the contribution to exospheric gases. In this work we calculate the vapour and neutral atoms production rates on Mercury, as due to the impacts of micrometeoroids in the size range between 5-100 μm according to the new dynamical model of Borin et al. (2009). The calculations have been performed taking into account two different calibration sources for the meteoroid flux provided by Love and Brownlee (1993) (as for Borin et al., 2009) and by Grun et al. (1985). Moreover, we give different values of the vapour production rates assuming both asteroidal and cometary sources of the dust particles (Wiegert, 2009; Dermott et al., 2002). Following the assumption that the surface of the planet is spatially homogeneous and made up of regolith with anorthositic composition (Cremonese et al., 2005) we provide the production rate for different neutral atoms.

  7. The contribution of additive genetic variation to personality variation: heritability of personality.

    PubMed

    Dochtermann, Ned A; Schwab, Tori; Sih, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Individual animals frequently exhibit repeatable differences from other members of their population, differences now commonly referred to as 'animal personality'. Personality differences can arise, for example, from differences in permanent environmental effects--including parental and epigenetic contributors--and the effect of additive genetic variation. Although several studies have evaluated the heritability of behaviour, less is known about general patterns of heritability and additive genetic variation in animal personality. As overall variation in behaviour includes both the among-individual differences that reflect different personalities and temporary environmental effects, it is possible for personality to be largely genetically influenced even when heritability of behaviour per se is quite low. The relative contribution of additive genetic variation to personality variation can be estimated whenever both repeatability and heritability are estimated for the same data. Using published estimates to address this issue, we found that approximately 52% of animal personality variation was attributable to additive genetic variation. Thus, while the heritability of behaviour is often moderate or low, the heritability of personality is much higher. Our results therefore (i) demonstrate that genetic differences are likely to be a major contributor to variation in animal personality and (ii) support the phenotypic gambit: that evolutionary inferences drawn from repeatability estimates may often be justified.

  8. Emotional expression in music: contribution, linearity, and additivity of primary musical cues.

    PubMed

    Eerola, Tuomas; Friberg, Anders; Bresin, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to manipulate musical cues systematically to determine the aspects of music that contribute to emotional expression, and whether these cues operate in additive or interactive fashion, and whether the cue levels can be characterized as linear or non-linear. An optimized factorial design was used with six primary musical cues (mode, tempo, dynamics, articulation, timbre, and register) across four different music examples. Listeners rated 200 musical examples according to four perceived emotional characters (happy, sad, peaceful, and scary). The results exhibited robust effects for all cues and the ranked importance of these was established by multiple regression. The most important cue was mode followed by tempo, register, dynamics, articulation, and timbre, although the ranking varied across the emotions. The second main result suggested that most cue levels contributed to the emotions in a linear fashion, explaining 77-89% of variance in ratings. Quadratic encoding of cues did lead to minor but significant increases of the models (0-8%). Finally, the interactions between the cues were non-existent suggesting that the cues operate mostly in an additive fashion, corroborating recent findings on emotional expression in music (Juslin and Lindström, 2010). PMID:23908642

  9. Changes of soil pore system due to soil macrofauna: an experimental approach to study the contribution of different taxa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gargiulo, Laura; Buscemi, Gilda; Mele, Giacomo; Terribile, Fabio

    2015-04-01

    Soil fauna contributes to the ecosystem functioning, for example, by means of its direct influence on soil structure which modifies the physical environment of the microbial community. Changes in habitat structure due to soil fauna activities can influence resource availability, species' abundances, and community composition of soil microorganisms. X-ray tomography has been increasingly used to obtain precise and non-destructive analysis mostly of the macroporosity resulting from earthworm activity in repacked soil cores. However also other macrofauna species contribute in different manner and extent to the modification of soil pore system, and then to the soil functioning, by means of their burrows and bioturbation activity. In this work we have developed an experimental approach based on the use of repacked soil mesocosms specifically constructed for the purpose of distinguish separately the contribution to soil structure changes of different organisms naturally present in field or inoculated in laboratory. Six different orders of macrofauna were studied and after four weeks of fauna activity the cores were imaged using a medical X-ray tomograph. Three-dimensional image processing was used in order to obtain 3D reconstructions and preliminary analysis of the identified biopores. In addition to the earthworms (Haplotaxida, genus Lombricus), among the studied taxa, Embioptera showed the most intense burrowing activity, while Coleoptera larvae (sp. Elater sanguineus) and Julida (class Diplopoda) produced the thickest pore network in our mesocosms. The used experimental approach showed a promising potential to provide new useful information about the widely differentiated contribution of many types of macrofauna to the modification of soil pore system.

  10. Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smalheer, C. V.

    1973-01-01

    The chemistry of lubricant additives is discussed to show what the additives are chemically and what functions they perform in the lubrication of various kinds of equipment. Current theories regarding the mode of action of lubricant additives are presented. The additive groups discussed include the following: (1) detergents and dispersants, (2) corrosion inhibitors, (3) antioxidants, (4) viscosity index improvers, (5) pour point depressants, and (6) antifouling agents.

  11. Anomalous yield reduction in direct-drive DT implosions due to 3He addition

    SciTech Connect

    Herrmann, Hans W; Langenbrunner, James R; Mack, Joseph M; Cooley, James H; Wilson, Douglas C; Evans, Scott C; Sedillo, Tom J; Kyrala, George A; Caldwell, Stephen E; Young, Carlton A; Nobile, Arthur; Wermer, Joseph R; Paglieri, Stephen N; Mcevoy, Aaron M; Kim, Yong Ho; Batha, Steven H; Horsfield, Colin J; Drew, Dave; Garbett, Warren; Rubery, Michael; Glebov, Vladimir Yu; Roberts, Samuel; Frenje, Johan A

    2008-01-01

    Glass capsules were imploded in direct drive on the OMEGA laser [T. R. Boehly et aI., Opt. Commun. 133, 495, 1997] to look for anomalous degradation in deuterium/tritium (DT) yield (i.e., beyond what is predicted) and changes in reaction history with {sup 3}He addition. Such anomalies have previously been reported for D/{sup 3}He plasmas, but had not yet been investigated for DT/{sup 3}He. Anomalies such as these provide fertile ground for furthering our physics understanding of ICF implosions and capsule performance. A relatively short laser pulse (600 ps) was used to provide some degree of temporal separation between shock and compression yield components for analysis. Anomalous degradation in the compression component of yield was observed, consistent with the 'factor of two' degradation previously reported by MIT at a 50% {sup 3}He atom fraction in D{sub 2} using plastic capsules [Rygg et aI., Phys. Plasmas 13, 052702 (2006)]. However, clean calculations (i.e., no fuel-shell mixing) predict the shock component of yield quite well, contrary to the result reported by MIT, but consistent with LANL results in D{sub 2}/{sup 3}He [Wilson, et aI., lml Phys: Conf Series 112, 022015 (2008)]. X-ray imaging suggests less-than-predicted compression ofcapsules containing {sup 3}He. Leading candidate explanations are poorly understood Equation-of-State (EOS) for gas mixtures, and unanticipated particle pressure variation with increasing {sup 3}He addition.

  12. Mechanism of wiggling enhancement due to HBr gas addition during amorphous carbon etching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kofuji, Naoyuki; Ishimura, Hiroaki; Kobayashi, Hitoshi; Une, Satoshi

    2015-06-01

    The effect of gas chemistry during etching of an amorphous carbon layer (ACL) on wiggling has been investigated, focusing especially on the changes in residual stress. Although the HBr gas addition reduces critical dimension loss, it enhances the surface stress and therefore increases wiggling. Attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy revealed that the increase in surface stress was caused by hydrogenation of the ACL surface with hydrogen radicals. Three-dimensional (3D) nonlinear finite element method analysis confirmed that the increase in surface stress is large enough to cause the wiggling. These results also suggest that etching with hydrogen compound gases using an ACL mask has high potential to cause the wiggling.

  13. On the super-additivity and estimation biases of quantile contributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taleb, Nassim Nicholas; Douady, Raphael

    2015-07-01

    Sample measures of top centile contributions to the total (concentration) are downward biased, unstable estimators, extremely sensitive to both sample and population size and concave in accounting for large deviations. It makes them particularly unfit in domains with power law tails, especially for low values of the exponent. These estimators can vary over time and increase with the population size, thus providing the illusion of structural changes in concentration. They are also inconsistent under aggregation and mixing distributions, as the weighted average of concentration measures for A and B will tend to be lower than that from A ∪ B. In addition, it can be shown that under such fat tails, increases in the total sum need to be accompanied by increased sample size of the concentration measurement. We examine the estimation superadditivity and bias under homogeneous and mixed distributions.

  14. CaMKII in addition to MLCK contributes to phosphorylation of regulatory light chain in cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Eikemo, Hilde; Moltzau, Lise Román; Hussain, Rizwan I; Nguyen, Cam H T; Qvigstad, Eirik; Levy, Finn Olav; Skomedal, Tor; Osnes, Jan-Bjørn

    2016-02-26

    The aim was to identify kinase activities involved in the phosphorylation of regulatory light chain (RLC) in situ in cardiomyocytes. In electrically stimulated rat cardiomyocytes, phosphatase inhibition by calyculin A unmasked kinase activities evoking an increase of phosphorylated RLC (P-RLC) from about 16% to about 80% after 80 min. The phosphorylation rate in cardiomyocytes was reduced by about 40% by the myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) inhibitor, ML-7. In rat ventricular muscle strips, calyculin A induced a positive inotropic effect that correlated with P-RLC levels. The inotropic effect and P-RLC elevation were abolished by ML-7 treatment. The kinase activities phosphorylating RLC in cardiomyocytes were reduced by about 60% by the non-selective kinase inhibitor staurosporine and by about 50% by the calmodulin antagonist W7. W7 eliminated the inhibitory effect of ML-7, suggesting that the cardiac MLCK is Ca(2+)/calmodulin (CaM)-dependent. The CaM-dependent kinase II (CaMKII) inhibitor KN-93 attenuated the calyculin A-induced RLC phosphorylation by about 40%, indicating a contribution from CaMKII. The residual phosphorylation in the presence of W7 indicated that also CaM-independent kinase activities might contribute. RLC phosphorylation was insensitive to protein kinase C inhibition. In conclusion, in addition to MLCK, CaMKII phosphorylates RLC in cardiomyocytes. Involvement of other kinases cannot be excluded.

  15. EFFECT ON 105KW NORTH WALL DUE TO ADDITION OF FILTRATION SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    CHO CS

    2010-03-08

    CHPRC D&D Projects is adding three filtration system on two 1-ft concrete pads adjacent to the north side of existing KW Basin building. This analysis is prepared to provide qualitative assessment based on the review of design information available for 105KW basin substructure. In the proposed heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) filtration pad designs a 2 ft gap will be maintained between the pads and the north end of the existing 1 05KW -Basin building. Filtration Skids No.2 and No.3 share one pad. It is conservative to evaluate the No.2 and No.3 skid pad for the wall assessment. Figure 1 shows the plan layout of the 105KW basin site and the location of the pads for the filtration system or HVAC skids. Figure 2 shows the cross-section elevation view of the pad. The concrete pad Drawing H-1-91482 directs the replacement of the existing 8-inch concrete pad with two new 1-ft think pads. The existing 8-inch pad is separated from the 105KW basin superstructure by an expansion joint of only half an inch. The concrete pad Drawing H-1-91482 shows the gap between the new proposed pads and the north wall and any overflow pits and sumps is 2-ft. Following analysis demonstrates that the newly added filtration units and their pads do not exceed the structural capacity of existing wall. The calculation shows that the total bending moment on the north wall due to newly added filtration units and pads including seismic load is 82.636 ft-kip/ft and is within the capacity of wall which is 139.0ft-kip/ft.

  16. Harmonic Resonance in Power Transmission Systems due to the Addition of Shunt Capacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patil, Hardik U.

    Shunt capacitors are often added in transmission networks at suitable locations to improve the voltage profile. In this thesis, the transmission system in Arizona is considered as a test bed. Many shunt capacitors already exist in the Arizona transmission system and more are planned to be added. Addition of these shunt capacitors may create resonance conditions in response to harmonic voltages and currents. Such resonance, if it occurs, may create problematic issues in the system. It is main objective of this thesis to identify potential problematic effects that could occur after placing new shunt capacitors at selected buses in the Arizona network. Part of the objective is to create a systematic plan for avoidance of resonance issues. For this study, a method of capacitance scan is proposed. The bus admittance matrix is used as a model of the networked transmission system. The calculations on the admittance matrix were done using Matlab. The test bed is the actual transmission system in Arizona; however, for proprietary reasons, bus names are masked in the thesis copy intended for the public domain. The admittance matrix was obtained from data using the PowerWorld Simulator after equivalencing the 2016 summer peak load (planning case). The full Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC) system data were used. The equivalencing procedure retains only the Arizona portion of the WECC. The capacitor scan results for single capacitor placement and multiple capacitor placement cases are presented. Problematic cases are identified in the form of 'forbidden response. The harmonic voltage impact of known sources of harmonics, mainly large scale HVDC sources, is also presented. Specific key results for the study indicated include: (1) The forbidden zones obtained as per the IEEE 519 standard indicates the bus 10 to be the most problematic bus. (2) The forbidden zones also indicate that switching values for the switched shunt capacitor (if used) at bus 3 should be

  17. Contribution of temperament to eating disorder symptoms in emerging adulthood: Additive and interactive effects.

    PubMed

    Burt, Nicole M; Boddy, Lauren E; Bridgett, David J

    2015-08-01

    Temperament characteristics, such as higher negative emotionality (NE) and lower effortful control (EC), are individual difference risk factors for developmental psychopathology. Research has also noted relations between temperament and more specific manifestations of psychopathology, such as eating disorders (EDs). Although work is emerging that indicates that NE and EC may additively contribute to risk for ED symptoms, no studies have considered the interactive effects of NE and EC in relation to ED symptoms. In the current investigation, we hypothesized that (1) low EC would be associated with increased ED symptoms, (2) high NE would be associated with increased ED symptoms, and (3) these temperament traits would interact, such that the relationship between NE and ED symptoms would be strongest in the presence of low EC. After controlling for gender and child trauma history, emerging adults' (N=160) lower EC (i.e., more difficulties with self-regulation) was associated with more ED symptoms. NE did not emerge as a direct predictor of ED symptoms. However, the anticipated interaction of these temperament characteristics on ED symptoms was found. The association between NE and ED symptoms was only significant in the context of low EC. These findings provide evidence that elevated NE may only be a risk factor for the development of eating disorders when individuals also have self-regulation difficulties. The implications of these findings for research and interventions are discussed.

  18. 77 FR 14041 - Major Portion Prices and Due Date for Additional Royalty Payments on Indian Gas Production in...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-08

    ... Office of Natural Resources Revenue Major Portion Prices and Due Date for Additional Royalty Payments on... leases, published August 10, 1999, require the Office of Natural Resources Revenue (ONRR) to determine... . Mailing address: Office of Natural Resources Revenue, Western Audit and Compliance Management, Team B,...

  19. HIV Stages Contributions to the Epidemic, Due to a Changing Viral Load

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Combadão, Jaime; Gomes, M. Gabriela M.

    2009-09-01

    It is very important to understand the contribution of the various HIV progression stages -acute, asymptomatic, late-, so as to optimize the fight against the HIV epidemic. In the last recent years, some have given the acute phase the responsibility for the majority of the new infections, while others thought that the late phase was more important, no doubt because these two phases are more infectious. More recently, it was argued that no HIV stage is dominant in the HIV epidemic in sub-Saharan Africa. Here, by a simple population model with continuous influx of susceptible individuals, and using known relationships between the viral load, the duration of the asymptomatic infection and transmission probability, we calculated the contributions of each stage to the spreading of the disease in a high risk group. Also, we analyzed some evolutionary scenarios, in which the virulence of the virus can evolve.

  20. Gene-Environment Interactions in Stress Response Contribute Additively to a Genotype-Environment Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Matsui, Takeshi; Ehrenreich, Ian M.

    2016-01-01

    How combinations of gene-environment interactions collectively give rise to genotype-environment interactions is not fully understood. To shed light on this problem, we genetically dissected an environment-specific poor growth phenotype in a cross of two budding yeast strains. This phenotype is detectable when certain segregants are grown on ethanol at 37°C (‘E37’), a condition that differs from the standard culturing environment in both its carbon source (ethanol as opposed to glucose) and temperature (37°C as opposed to 30°C). Using recurrent backcrossing with phenotypic selection, we identified 16 contributing loci. To examine how these loci interact with each other and the environment, we focused on a subset of four loci that together can lead to poor growth in E37. We measured the growth of all 16 haploid combinations of alleles at these loci in all four possible combinations of carbon source (ethanol or glucose) and temperature (30 or 37°C) in a nearly isogenic population. This revealed that the four loci act in an almost entirely additive manner in E37. However, we also found that these loci have weaker effects when only carbon source or temperature is altered, suggesting that their effect magnitudes depend on the severity of environmental perturbation. Consistent with such a possibility, cloning of three causal genes identified factors that have unrelated functions in stress response. Thus, our results indicate that polymorphisms in stress response can show effects that are intensified by environmental stress, thereby resulting in major genotype-environment interactions when multiple of these variants co-occur. PMID:27437938

  1. Heritability of heterozygosity offers a new way of understanding why dominant gene action contributes to additive genetic variance.

    PubMed

    Nietlisbach, Pirmin; Hadfield, Jarrod D

    2015-07-01

    Whenever allele frequencies are unequal, nonadditive gene action contributes to additive genetic variance and therefore the resemblance between parents and offspring. The reason for this has not been easy to understand. Here, we present a new single-locus decomposition of additive genetic variance that may give greater intuition about this important result. We show that the contribution of dominant gene action to parent-offspring resemblance only depends on the degree to which the heterozygosity of parents and offspring covary. Thus, dominant gene action only contributes to additive genetic variance when heterozygosity is heritable. Under most circumstances this is the case because individuals with rare alleles are more likely to be heterozygous, and because they pass rare alleles to their offspring they also tend to have heterozygous offspring. When segregating alleles are at equal frequency there are no rare alleles, the heterozygosities of parents and offspring are uncorrelated and dominant gene action does not contribute to additive genetic variance. PMID:26100570

  2. Rovibrational excitation of H2 and HD due to H: the contribution of reactive scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watson Cook, Alexander; Yang, Benhui H.; Stancil, Phillip C.; Forrey, Robert C.; Naduvalath, Balakrishnan

    2016-06-01

    Utilizing the hyperspherical method as implemented in the ABC computational suite of codes (Skouteris et al. 2000), the time-independent Schroedinger equation is solved for the reactive and inelastic scattering probabilities for interactions between hydrogen and its isotopes, particularly H, H2, and HD. A high quality potential energy surface (Miekle et all 2002) was adopted in the scattering Hamiltonian construction. Additionally, we aim to explore uses of GPU-centric computing to increase the efficiency of this method (Baraglia et al.) in order to obtain collisional rate coefficients for the full range of rovibrationally excited H2 and HD, extending the recent study of Lique (2015).Baraglia, R. et al. 2011, in Computational Science and Its ApplicationsLique, F. 2015, MNRAS, 453, 810Mielke, S. L. et al., 2002, J. Chem. Phys., 116, 4142Skouteris, D. et al., 2000, Comp. Phys. Comm., 133, 128The work at UGA is partially support by grant HST-AR-13899.

  3. 26 CFR 31.6001-2 - Additional records under Federal Insurance Contributions Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Insurance Contributions Act shall keep records of all remuneration, whether in cash or in a medium other... name are as shown on an account number card issued to the employee by the Social Security... number and name are as shown on an account number card issued to the employee by the Social...

  4. The Effect of Additional Dead Space on Respiratory Exchange Ratio and Carbon Dioxide Production Due to Training

    PubMed Central

    Smolka, Lukasz; Borkowski, Jacek; Zaton, Marek

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the effects of implementing additional respiratory dead space during cycloergometry-based aerobic training. The primary outcome measures were respiratory exchange ratio (RER) and carbon dioxide production (VCO2). Two groups of young healthy males: Experimental (Exp, n = 15) and Control (Con, n = 15), participated in this study. The training consisted of 12 sessions, performed twice a week for 6 weeks. A single training session consisted of continuous, constant-rate exercise on a cycle ergometer at 60% of VO2max which was maintained for 30 minutes. Subjects in Exp group were breathing through additional respiratory dead space (1200ml), while subjects in Con group were breathing without additional dead space. Pre-test and two post-training incremental exercise tests were performed for the detection of gas exchange variables. In all training sessions, pCO2 was higher and blood pH was lower in the Exp group (p < 0.001) ensuring respiratory acidosis. A 12-session training program resulted in significant increase in performance time in both groups (from 17”29 ± 1”31 to 18”47 ± 1”37 in Exp; p=0.02 and from 17”20 ± 1”18 to 18”45 ± 1”44 in Con; p = 0.02), but has not revealed a significant difference in RER and VCO2 in both post-training tests, performed at rest and during submaximal workload. We interpret the lack of difference in post-training values of RER and VCO2 between groups as an absence of inhibition in glycolysis and glycogenolysis during exercise with additional dead space. Key Points The purpose of the study was to investigate the effects of implementing additional respiratory dead space during cycloergometry-based aerobic training on respiratory exchange ratio and carbon dioxide production. In all training sessions, respiratory acidosis was gained by experimental group only. No significant difference in RER and VCO2 between experimental and control group due to the trainings. The lack of

  5. The effect of additional dead space on respiratory exchange ratio and carbon dioxide production due to training.

    PubMed

    Smolka, Lukasz; Borkowski, Jacek; Zaton, Marek

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the effects of implementing additional respiratory dead space during cycloergometry-based aerobic training. The primary outcome measures were respiratory exchange ratio (RER) and carbon dioxide production (VCO2). Two groups of young healthy males: Experimental (Exp, n = 15) and Control (Con, n = 15), participated in this study. The training consisted of 12 sessions, performed twice a week for 6 weeks. A single training session consisted of continuous, constant-rate exercise on a cycle ergometer at 60% of VO2max which was maintained for 30 minutes. Subjects in Exp group were breathing through additional respiratory dead space (1200ml), while subjects in Con group were breathing without additional dead space. Pre-test and two post-training incremental exercise tests were performed for the detection of gas exchange variables. In all training sessions, pCO2 was higher and blood pH was lower in the Exp group (p < 0.001) ensuring respiratory acidosis. A 12-session training program resulted in significant increase in performance time in both groups (from 17"29 ± 1"31 to 18"47 ± 1"37 in Exp; p=0.02 and from 17"20 ± 1"18 to 18"45 ± 1"44 in Con; p = 0.02), but has not revealed a significant difference in RER and VCO2 in both post-training tests, performed at rest and during submaximal workload. We interpret the lack of difference in post-training values of RER and VCO2 between groups as an absence of inhibition in glycolysis and glycogenolysis during exercise with additional dead space. Key PointsThe purpose of the study was to investigate the effects of implementing additional respiratory dead space during cycloergometry-based aerobic training on respiratory exchange ratio and carbon dioxide production.In all training sessions, respiratory acidosis was gained by experimental group only.No significant difference in RER and VCO2 between experimental and control group due to the trainings.The lack of difference in post

  6. Changes in the nanoparticle aggregation rate due to the additional effect of electrostatic and magnetic forces on mass transport coefficients.

    PubMed

    Rosická, Dana; Sembera, Jan

    2013-01-01

    : The need may arise to be able to simulate the migration of groundwater nanoparticles through the ground. Transportation velocities of nanoparticles are different from that of water and depend on many processes that occur during migration. Unstable nanoparticles, such as zero-valent iron nanoparticles, are especially slowed down by aggregation between them. The aggregation occurs when attracting forces outweigh repulsive forces between the particles. In the case of iron nanoparticles that are used for remediation, magnetic forces between particles contribute to attractive forces and nanoparticles aggregate rapidly. This paper describes the addition of attractive magnetic forces and repulsive electrostatic forces between particles (by 'particle', we mean both single nanoparticles and created aggregates) into a basic model of aggregation which is commonly used. This model is created on the basis of the flow of particles in the proximity of observed particles that gives the rate of aggregation of the observed particle. By using a limit distance that has been described in our previous work, the flow of particles around one particle is observed in larger spacing between the particles. Attractive magnetic forces between particles draw the particles into closer proximity and result in aggregation. This model fits more closely with rapid aggregation which occurs between magnetic nanoparticles.

  7. 38 CFR 3.361 - Benefits under 38 U.S.C. 1151(a) for additional disability or death due to hospital care, medical...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., error in judgment, or similar instance of fault on VA's part in furnishing hospital care, medical or.... 1151(a) for additional disability or death due to hospital care, medical or surgical treatment.... 1151(a) for additional disability or death due to hospital care, medical or surgical...

  8. 38 CFR 3.361 - Benefits under 38 U.S.C. 1151(a) for additional disability or death due to hospital care, medical...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., error in judgment, or similar instance of fault on VA's part in furnishing hospital care, medical or.... 1151(a) for additional disability or death due to hospital care, medical or surgical treatment.... 1151(a) for additional disability or death due to hospital care, medical or surgical...

  9. 38 CFR 3.361 - Benefits under 38 U.S.C. 1151(a) for additional disability or death due to hospital care, medical...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .... 1151(a) for additional disability or death due to hospital care, medical or surgical treatment.... 1151(a) for additional disability or death due to hospital care, medical or surgical treatment..., VA compares the veteran's condition immediately before the beginning of the hospital care, medical...

  10. 38 CFR 3.361 - Benefits under 38 U.S.C. 1151(a) for additional disability or death due to hospital care, medical...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    .... 1151(a) for additional disability or death due to hospital care, medical or surgical treatment.... 1151(a) for additional disability or death due to hospital care, medical or surgical treatment..., VA compares the veteran's condition immediately before the beginning of the hospital care, medical...

  11. 76 FR 13431 - Major Portion Prices and Due Date for Additional Royalty Payments on Indian Gas Production in...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-11

    ... Natural Resources Revenue (ONRR) to determine major portion prices and notify industry by publishing the prices in the Federal Register. The regulations also require ONRR to publish a due date for industry to... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE...

  12. SU-E-I-55: The Contribution to Skin Dose Due to Scatter From the Patient Table and the Head Holder During Fluoroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Islam, N; Xiong, Z; Vijayan, S; Rudin, S; Bednarek, D

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To determine contributions to skin dose due to scatter from the table and head holder used during fluoroscopy, and also to explore alternative design material to reduce the scatter dose. Methods: Measurements were made of the primary and scatter components of the xray beam exiting the patient table and a cylindrical head holder used on a Toshiba Infinix c-arm unit as a function of kVp for the various beam filters on the machine and for various field sizes. The primary component of the beam was measured in air with the object placed close to the x-ray tube with an air gap between it and a 6 cc parallel-plate ionization chamber and with the beam collimated to a size just larger than the chamber. The primary plus scatter radiation components were measured with the object moved to a position in the beam next to the chamber for larger field sizes. Both sets of measurements were preformed while keeping the source-to-chamber distance fixed. The scatter fraction was estimated by taking the ratio of the difference between the two measurements and the reading that included both primary and scatter. Similar measurements were also made for a 2.3 cm thick Styrofoam block which could substitute for the patient support. Results: The measured scatter fractions indicate that the patient table as well as the head holder contributes an additional 10–16% to the patient entrance dose depending on field size. Forward scatter was reduced with the Styrofoam block so that the scatter fraction was about 4–5%. Conclusion: The results of this investigation demonstrated that scatter from the table and head holder used in clinical fluoroscopy contribute substantially to the skin dose. The lower contribution of scatter from Styrofoam suggests that there is an opportunity to redesign patient support accessories to reduce the skin dose. Partial support from NIH grant R01EB002873 and Toshiba Medical Systems Corporation Equipment Grant.

  13. Common Ion Effects In Zeoponic Substrates: Dissolution And Cation Exchange Variations Due to Additions of Calcite, Dolomite and Wollastonite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beiersdorfer, R. E.; Ming, D. W.; Galindo, C., Jr.

    2003-01-01

    c1inoptilolite-rich tuff-hydroxyapatite mixture (zeoponic substrate) has the potential to serve as a synthetic soil-additive for plant growth. Essential plant macro-nutrients such as calcium, phosphorous, magnesium, ammonium and potassium are released into solution via dissolution of the hydroxyapatite and cation exchange on zeolite charged sites. Plant growth experiments resulting in low yield for wheat have been attributed to a Ca deficiency caused by a high degree of cation exchange by the zeolite. Batch-equilibration experiments were performed in order to determine if the Ca deficiency can be remedied by the addition of a second Ca-bearing, soluble, mineral such as calcite, dolomite or wollastonite. Variations in the amount of calcite, dolomite or wollastonite resulted in systematic changes in the concentrations of Ca and P. The addition of calcite, dolomite or wollastonite to the zeoponic substrate resulted in an exponential decrease in the phosphorous concentration in solution. The exponential rate of decay was greatest for calcite (5.60 wt. % -I), intermediate for wollastonite (2.85 wt.% -I) and least for dolomite (1.58 wt.% -I). Additions of the three minerals resulted in linear increases in the calcium concentration in solution. The rate of increase was greatest for calcite (3.64), intermediate for wollastonite (2.41) and least for dolomite (0.61). The observed changes in P and Ca concentration are consistent with the solubilities of calcite, dolomite and wollastonite and with changes expected from a common ion effect with Ca. Keywords: zeolite, zeoponics, common-ion effect, clinoptilolite, hydroxyapatite

  14. Calculation of enhanced slowing and cooling due to the addition of a traveling wave to an intense optical standing wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gottesman, D.; Mervis, J.; Prentiss, M.; Bigelow, N. P.

    1992-07-01

    We investigate the force on a two-level atom interacting with intense monochromatic laser fields which are combinations of standing and traveling waves. We present a continued-fraction solution to the optical Bloch equations. Using this solution to calculate the force on an atom, we have examined the slowing and cooling of a thermal Na atomic beam. We find that the addition of a traveling wave to an intense standing wave can significantly improve the slowing rate and simultaneously decrease the final velocity of the cooled beam.

  15. Growth and parameters of microflora in intestinal and faecal samples of piglets due to application of a phytogenic feed additive.

    PubMed

    Muhl, A; Liebert, F

    2007-10-01

    A commercial phytogenic feed additive (PFA), containing the fructopolysaccharide inulin, an essential oil mix (carvacrol, thymol), chestnut meal (tannins) and cellulose powder as carrier substance, was examined for effects on growth and faecal and intestinal microflora of piglets. Two experiments (35 days) were conducted, each with 40 male castrated weaned piglets. In experiment 1, graded levels of the PFA were supplied (A1: control; B1: 0.05% PFA; C1: 0.1% PFA; D1: 0.15% PFA) in diets based on wheat, barley, soybean meal and fish meal with lysine as the limiting amino acid. In experiment 2, a similar diet with 0.1% of the PFA (A2: control; B2: 0.1% PFA; C2: +0.35% lysine; D2: 0.1% PFA + 0.35% lysine) and lysine supplementation was utilized. During experiment 1, no significant effect of the PFA on growth, feed intake and feed conversion rate was observed (p > 0.05). Lysine supplementation in experiment 2 improved growth performance significantly, but no significant effect of the PFA was detected. Microbial counts in faeces (aerobes, Gram negatives, anaerobes and lactobacilli) during the first and fifth week did not indicate any significant PFA effect (p > 0.05). In addition, microflora in intestinal samples was not significantly modified by supplementing the PFA (p > 0.05). Lysine supplementation indicated lysine as limiting amino acid in the basal diet, but did not influence the microbial counts in faeces and small intestine respectively.

  16. Decrease in Corneal Damage due to Benzalkonium Chloride by the Addition of Mannitol into Timolol Maleate Eye Drops.

    PubMed

    Nagai, Noriaki; Yoshioka, Chiaki; Tanino, Tadatoshi; Ito, Yoshimasa; Okamoto, Norio; Shimomura, Yoshikazu

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the protective effects of mannitol on corneal damage caused by benzalkonium chloride (BAC), which is used as a preservative in commercially available timolol maleate eye drops, using rat debrided corneal epithelium and a human cornea epithelial cell line (HCE-T). Corneal wounds were monitored using a fundus camera TRC-50X equipped with a digital camera; eye drops were instilled into rat eyes five times a day after corneal epithelial abrasion. The viability of HCE-T cells was calculated by TetraColor One; and Escherichia coli (ATCC 8739) were used to measure antimicrobial activity. The reducing effects on transcorneal penetration and intraocular pressure (IOP) of the eye drops were determined using rabbits. The corneal wound healing rate and rate constant (kH), as well as cell viability, were higher following treatment with 0.005% BAC solution containing 0.5% mannitol than in the case BAC solution alone; the antimicrobial activity was approximately the same for BAC solutions with and without mannitol. In addition, the kH for rat eyes instilled with commercially available timolol maleate eye drops containing 0.5% mannitol was significantly higher than that for eyes instilled with timolol maleate eye drops without mannitol, and the addition of mannitol did not affect the corneal penetration or IOP reducing effect of the timolol maleate eye drops. A preservative system comprising BAC and mannitol may provide effective therapy for glaucoma patients requiring long-term treatment with anti-glaucoma agents.

  17. Anomalous yield reduction in direct-drive deuterium/tritium implosions due to {sup 3}He addition

    SciTech Connect

    Herrmann, H. W.; Langenbrunner, J. R.; Mack, J. M.; Cooley, J. H.; Wilson, D. C.; Evans, S. C.; Sedillo, T. J.; Kyrala, G. A.; Caldwell, S. E.; Young, C. S.; Nobile, A.; Wermer, J.; Paglieri, S.; McEvoy, A. M.; Kim, Y.; Batha, S. H.; Horsfield, C. J.; Drew, D.; Garbett, W.; Rubery, M.

    2009-05-15

    Glass capsules were imploded in direct drive on the OMEGA laser [Boehly et al., Opt. Commun. 133, 495 (1997)] to look for anomalous degradation in deuterium/tritium (DT) yield and changes in reaction history with {sup 3}He addition. Such anomalies have previously been reported for D/{sup 3}He plasmas but had not yet been investigated for DT/{sup 3}He. Anomalies such as these provide fertile ground for furthering our physics understanding of inertial confinement fusion implosions and capsule performance. Anomalous degradation in the compression component of yield was observed, consistent with the ''factor of 2'' degradation previously reported by Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) at a 50%{sup 3}He atom fraction in D{sub 2} using plastic capsules [Rygg, Phys. Plasmas 13, 052702 (2006)]. However, clean calculations (i.e., no fuel-shell mixing) predict the shock component of yield quite well, contrary to the result reported by MIT but consistent with Los Alamos National Laboratory results in D{sub 2}/{sup 3}He[Wilson et al., J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. 112, 022015 (2008)]. X-ray imaging suggests less-than-predicted compression of capsules containing {sup 3}He. Leading candidate explanations are poorly understood equation of state for gas mixtures and unanticipated particle pressure variation with increasing {sup 3}He addition.

  18. Additional Radiative Cooling of the Mesopause Region due to Small-Scale Temperature Fluctuations Associated with Gravity Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kutepov, A.; Feofilov, A.; Medvedev, A.; Pauldrach, A.; Hartogh, P.

    2008-05-01

    We address a previously unknown effect of the radiative cooling of the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT) produced by small-scale irregular temperature fluctuations (ITFs) associated with gravity waves. These disturbances are not resolved by present GCMs, but they alter the radiative transfer and the heating/cooling rates significantly. We apply a statistical model of gravity waves superimposed on large-scale temperature profiles, and perform direct calculations of the radiative cooling/heating in the MLT in the IR bands of CO2, O3 and H2O molecules taking into account the breakdown of the local thermodynamic equilibrium (non-LTE). We found that in the periods of strong wave activity the subgrid ITFs can cause an additional cooling up to 3 K/day near the mesopause. The effect is produced mainly by the fundamental 15 μm band of the main CO2 isotope. We derived a simple expression for the correction to mean (resolved by GCMs) temperature profiles using the variance of the temperature perturbations to account for the additional cooling effect. The suggested parameterization can be applied in GCMs in conjunction with existing gravity wave drag parameterizations.

  19. Neck Circumference, along with Other Anthropometric Indices, Has an Independent and Additional Contribution in Predicting Fatty Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Bi-xia; Zhu, Ming-fan; Wu, Ting; Zhou, Jing-ya; Liu, Yan; Chen, Xiao-lin; Zhou, Rui-fen; Wang, Li-jun; Chen, Yu-ming; Zhu, Hui-lian

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aim Previous studies have indicated that neck circumference is a valuable predictor for obesity and metabolic syndrome, but little evidence is available for fatty liver disease. We examined the association of neck circumference with fatty liver disease and evaluated its predictive value in Chinese adults. Methods This cross-sectional study comprised 4053 participants (1617 women and 2436 men, aged 20-88) recruited from the Health Examination Center in Guangzhou, China between May 2009 and April 2010. Anthropometric measurements were taken, abdominal ultrasonography was conducted and blood biochemical parameters were measured. Covariance, logistic regression and receiver operating characteristic curve analyses were employed. Results The mean neck circumference was greater in subjects with fatty liver disease than those without the disease in both women and men after adjusting for age (P<0.001). Logistic regression analysis showed that the age-adjusted ORs (95% CI) of fatty liver disease for quartile 4 (vs. quartile 1) of neck circumference were 7.70 (4.95-11.99) for women and 12.42 (9.22-16.74) for men. After further adjusting for other anthropometric indices, both individually and combined, the corresponding ORs remained significant (all P-trends<0.05) but were attenuated to 1.94-2.53 for women and 1.45-2.08 for men. An additive interaction existed between neck circumference and the other anthropometric measures (all P<0.05). A high neck circumference value was associated with a much greater prevalence of fatty liver disease in participants with both high and normal BMI, waist circumference and waist-to-hip ratio values. Conclusions Neck circumference was an independent predictor for fatty liver disease and provided an additional contribution when applied with other anthropometric measures. PMID:25679378

  20. Energy deposition by heavy ions: additivity of kinetic and potential energy contributions in hillock formation on CaF2.

    PubMed

    Wang, Y Y; Grygiel, C; Dufour, C; Sun, J R; Wang, Z G; Zhao, Y T; Xiao, G Q; Cheng, R; Zhou, X M; Ren, J R; Liu, S D; Lei, Y; Sun, Y B; Ritter, R; Gruber, E; Cassimi, A; Monnet, I; Bouffard, S; Aumayr, F; Toulemonde, M

    2014-07-18

    Modification of surface and bulk properties of solids by irradiation with ion beams is a widely used technique with many applications in material science. In this study, we show that nano-hillocks on CaF2 crystal surfaces can be formed by individual impact of medium energy (3 and 5 MeV) highly charged ions (Xe(22+) to Xe(30+)) as well as swift (kinetic energies between 12 and 58 MeV) heavy xenon ions. For very slow highly charged ions the appearance of hillocks is known to be linked to a threshold in potential energy (Ep) while for swift heavy ions a minimum electronic energy loss per unit length (Se) is necessary. With our results we bridge the gap between these two extreme cases and demonstrate, that with increasing energy deposition via Se the Ep-threshold for hillock production can be lowered substantially. Surprisingly, both mechanisms of energy deposition in the target surface seem to contribute in an additive way, which can be visualized in a phase diagram. We show that the inelastic thermal spike model, originally developed to describe such material modifications for swift heavy ions, can be extended to the case where both kinetic and potential energies are deposited into the surface.

  1. Energy deposition by heavy ions: additivity of kinetic and potential energy contributions in hillock formation on CaF2.

    PubMed

    Wang, Y Y; Grygiel, C; Dufour, C; Sun, J R; Wang, Z G; Zhao, Y T; Xiao, G Q; Cheng, R; Zhou, X M; Ren, J R; Liu, S D; Lei, Y; Sun, Y B; Ritter, R; Gruber, E; Cassimi, A; Monnet, I; Bouffard, S; Aumayr, F; Toulemonde, M

    2014-01-01

    Modification of surface and bulk properties of solids by irradiation with ion beams is a widely used technique with many applications in material science. In this study, we show that nano-hillocks on CaF2 crystal surfaces can be formed by individual impact of medium energy (3 and 5 MeV) highly charged ions (Xe(22+) to Xe(30+)) as well as swift (kinetic energies between 12 and 58 MeV) heavy xenon ions. For very slow highly charged ions the appearance of hillocks is known to be linked to a threshold in potential energy (Ep) while for swift heavy ions a minimum electronic energy loss per unit length (Se) is necessary. With our results we bridge the gap between these two extreme cases and demonstrate, that with increasing energy deposition via Se the Ep-threshold for hillock production can be lowered substantially. Surprisingly, both mechanisms of energy deposition in the target surface seem to contribute in an additive way, which can be visualized in a phase diagram. We show that the inelastic thermal spike model, originally developed to describe such material modifications for swift heavy ions, can be extended to the case where both kinetic and potential energies are deposited into the surface. PMID:25034006

  2. 20 CFR 404.1265 - Addition of interest to contributions-for wages paid prior to 1987.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... wages paid prior to 1987. 404.1265 Section 404.1265 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION... in computing the contributions (other than an error in applying the rate of contributions in effect... first wage report filed after notification of the underpayment by the Social Security Administration,...

  3. 20 CFR 404.1265 - Addition of interest to contributions-for wages paid prior to 1987.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... wages paid prior to 1987. 404.1265 Section 404.1265 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION... in computing the contributions (other than an error in applying the rate of contributions in effect... first wage report filed after notification of the underpayment by the Social Security Administration,...

  4. 20 CFR 404.1265 - Addition of interest to contributions-for wages paid prior to 1987.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... wages paid prior to 1987. 404.1265 Section 404.1265 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION... in computing the contributions (other than an error in applying the rate of contributions in effect... first wage report filed after notification of the underpayment by the Social Security Administration,...

  5. 20 CFR 404.1265 - Addition of interest to contributions-for wages paid prior to 1987.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... wages paid prior to 1987. 404.1265 Section 404.1265 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION... in computing the contributions (other than an error in applying the rate of contributions in effect... first wage report filed after notification of the underpayment by the Social Security Administration,...

  6. 20 CFR 404.1265 - Addition of interest to contributions-for wages paid prior to 1987.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... wages paid prior to 1987. 404.1265 Section 404.1265 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION... in computing the contributions (other than an error in applying the rate of contributions in effect... first wage report filed after notification of the underpayment by the Social Security Administration,...

  7. Microstructural evolution and intermetallic formation in Al-8wt% Si-0.8wt% Fe alloy due to grain refiner and modifier additions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassani, Amir; Ranjbar, Khalil; Sami, Sattar

    2012-08-01

    An alloy of Al-8wt% Si-0.8wt% Fe was cast in a metallic die, and its microstructural changes due to Ti-B refiner and Sr modifier additions were studied. Apart from usual refinement and modification of the microstructure, some mutual influences of the additives took place, and no mutual poisoning effects by these additives, in combined form, were observed. It was noticed that the dimensions of the iron-rich intermetallics were influenced by the additives causing them to become larger. The needle-shaped intermetallics that were obtained from refiner addition became thicker and longer when adding the modifier. It was also found that α-Al and eutectic silicon phases preferentially nucleate on different types of intermetallic compounds. The more iron content of the intermetallic compounds and the more changes in their dimensions occurred. Formation of the shrinkage porosities was also observed.

  8. Up-regulation of Thrombospondin-2 in Akt1-null Mice Contributes to Compromised Tissue Repair Due to Abnormalities in Fibroblast Function*

    PubMed Central

    Bancroft, Tara; Bouaouina, Mohamed; Roberts, Sophia; Lee, Monica; Calderwood, David A.; Schwartz, Martin; Simons, Michael; Sessa, William C.; Kyriakides, Themis R.

    2015-01-01

    Vascular remodeling is essential for tissue repair and is regulated by multiple factors, including thrombospondin-2 (TSP2) and hypoxia/VEGF-induced activation of Akt. In contrast to TSP2 knock-out (KO) mice, Akt1 KO mice have elevated TSP2 expression and delayed tissue repair. To investigate the contribution of increased TSP2 to Akt1 KO mice phenotypes, we generated Akt1/TSP2 double KO (DKO) mice. Full-thickness excisional wounds in DKO mice healed at an accelerated rate when compared with Akt1 KO mice. Isolated dermal Akt1 KO fibroblasts expressed increased TSP2 and displayed altered morphology and defects in migration and adhesion. These defects were rescued in DKO fibroblasts or after TSP2 knockdown. Conversely, the addition of exogenous TSP2 to WT cells induced cell morphology and migration rates that were similar to those of Akt1 KO cells. Akt1 KO fibroblasts displayed reduced adhesion to fibronectin with manganese stimulation when compared with WT and DKO cells, revealing an Akt1-dependent role for TSP2 in regulating integrin-mediated adhesions; however, this effect was not due to changes in β1 integrin surface expression or activation. Consistent with these results, Akt1 KO fibroblasts displayed reduced Rac1 activation that was dependent upon expression of TSP2 and could be rescued by a constitutively active Rac mutant. Our observations show that repression of TSP2 expression is a critical aspect of Akt1 function in tissue repair. PMID:25389299

  9. Antipodal Magnetic Anomalies on the Moon, Contributions from Impact Induced Currents Due to Positive Holes and Flexoelectric Phenomina and Dynamo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kletetschka, G.; Freund, F.; Wasilewski, P. J.; Mikula, V.; Kohout, Tomas

    2005-01-01

    Large impacts on the Moon generate large pressure pulses that penetrate the whole body. Several of these large impacts may have generated antipodal structure with anomalous magnetic intensity.These regions can be more than a thousand km across, with fields of the order of tens to hundreds of nT. This is the case of Orientale, Imbrium, Serenitatis, Crisium, and Nectaris impact basins. The production of large-scale magnetic fields and associated crustal magnetization due to lunar basin-forming impacts was hypothesized to have an origin in fields external to the impact plasma cloud that are produced by the magnetohydrodynamic interaction of the cloud with ambient magnetic fields and plasmas. During the period of compressed antipodal field amplification, seismic compressional waves from the impact converge at the antipode resulting in transient shock pressures that reach 2 GPa (20 kbar). This can produce conditions for shock magnetic acquisition of the crust antipodal to impact basins.

  10. 210Po and 210Pb Activity Concentrations in Cigarettes Produced in Vietnam and Their Estimated Dose Contribution Due to Smoking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran, Thuy-Ngan N.; Le, Cong-Hao; Chau, Van-Tao

    Smoking cigarettes contributes significantly to the increase of radiation in human body because 210Po and 210Pb exist relatively high in tobacco leaves. Therefore, these two radioisotopes in eighteen of the most frequently sold cigarette brands produced in Vietnam were examined in this study. 210Po was determined by alpha spectroscopy using a passivated implanted planar silicon (PIPS) detector after a procedure including radiochemical separation and spontaneous deposition of polonium on a copper disc (the deposition efficiency of 210Po on a copper disc was approximately 94%). Sequentially, 210Pb was determined through the ingrowth of 210Po after storing the sample solutions for approximately six months. The activity concentrations of 210Po in cigarettes ranged from 13.8 to 82.6 mBq/cigarette (the mean value was 26.4 mBq/cigarette) and the activity concentrations of 210Pb in cigarettes ranged from 13.9 to 78.8 mBq/cigarette (the mean value was 25.8 mBq/cigarette). The annual committed effective dose for smokers who smoke one pack per day was also estimated to be 295.4 µSv/year (223.0 µSv/year and 72.4 µSv/year from 210Po and 210Pb, respectively). These indicated that smoking increased the risk of developing lung cancer was approximately 60 times greater for smokers than for non-smokers.

  11. Additive Contributions of Childhood Adversity and Recent Stressors to Inflammation at Midlife: Findings from the MIDUS Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hostinar, Camelia E.; Lachman, Margie E.; Mroczek, Daniel K.; Seeman, Teresa E.; Miller, Gregory E.

    2015-01-01

    We examined the joint contributions of self-reported adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and recent life events (RLEs) to inflammation at midlife, by testing 3 competing theoretical models: stress generation, stress accumulation, and early life stress sensitization. We aimed to identify potential mediators between adversity and inflammation.…

  12. Limited contribution of common genetic variants to risk for liver injury due to a variety of drugs

    PubMed Central

    Urban, Thomas J.; Shen, Yufeng; Stolz, Andrew; Chalasani, Naga; Fontana, Robert J.; Rochon, James; Ge, Dongliang; Shianna, Kevin V.; Daly, Ann K.; Lucena, M. Isabel; Nelson, Matthew R.; Molokhia, Mariam; Aithal, Guruprasad P.; Floratos, Aris; Pe’er, Itsik; Serrano, Jose; Bonkovsky, Herbert; Davern, Timothy J.; Lee, William M.; Navarro, Victor J.; Talwalkar, Jayant A.; Goldstein, David B.; Watkins, Paul B.

    2013-01-01

    Background and aims Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is a serious adverse drug event that is suspected to have a heritable component. We carried out a genome-wide association study of 783 individuals of European ancestry who experienced DILI due to more than 200 implicated drugs. Methods DILI patients from the US-based Drug-Induced Liver Injury Network (n = 401) and three international registries (n = 382) were genotyped with the Illumina 1Mduo BeadChip and compared with population controls (n = 3001). Potential associations were tested in 307 independent Drug-Induced Liver Injury Network cases. Results After accounting for known major histocompatibility complex risk alleles for flucloxacillin-DILI and amoxicillin/clavulanate-DILI, there were no genome-wide significant associations, including in the major histocompatibility complex region. Stratification of DILI cases according to clinical phenotypes (injury type, latency, age of onset) also did not show significant associations. An analysis of hepatocellular DILI (n = 285) restricted to 193 single-nucleotide polymorphisms previously associated with autoimmune disease showed a trend association for rs7574865, in the vicinity of signal transducer and activator of transcription 4 (STAT4) (P = 4.5 × 10−4). This association was replicated in an independent cohort of 168 hepatocellular DILI cases (P = 0.011 and 1.5 × 10−5 for combined cohorts). No significant associations were found with stratification by other clinical or demographic variables. Conclusion Although not significant at the genome-wide level, the association between hepatocellular DILI and STAT4 is consistent with the emerging role of the immune system in DILI. However, the lack of genome-wide association study findings supports the idea that strong genetic determinants of DILI may be largely drug-specific or may reflect rare genetic variations, which were not assessed in our study. PMID:22968431

  13. Patients with pelvic fractures due to falls: A paradigm that contributed to autopsy-based audit of trauma in Greece

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    was significantly higher in the PFx-group i.e. 70.3% of the PFx-group versus 42.7% of the control-group (p < 0.001). Conclusions The PFx-group shared common causative risk factors, high severity and multiplicity of injuries that define the PFx-group as a paradigm of injury for audit. This reduced sample of autopsies substantially contributed to the audit of functional, infrastructural, management and prevention issues requiring transformation to reduce mortality. PMID:21214946

  14. Exploring the uncertainty in attributing sediment contributions in fingerprinting studies due to uncertainty in determining element concentrations in source areas.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez, Jose Alfonso; Owens, Phillip N.; Koiter, Alex J.; Lobb, David

    2016-04-01

    One of the major sources of uncertainty in attributing sediment sources in fingerprinting studies is the uncertainty in determining the concentrations of the elements used in the mixing model due to the variability of the concentrations of these elements in the source materials (e.g., Kraushaar et al., 2015). The uncertainty in determining the "true" concentration of a given element in each one of the source areas depends on several factors, among them the spatial variability of that element, the sampling procedure and sampling density. Researchers have limited control over these factors, and usually sampling density tends to be sparse, limited by time and the resources available. Monte Carlo analysis has been used regularly in fingerprinting studies to explore the probable solutions within the measured variability of the elements in the source areas, providing an appraisal of the probability of the different solutions (e.g., Collins et al., 2012). This problem can be considered analogous to the propagation of uncertainty in hydrologic models due to uncertainty in the determination of the values of the model parameters, and there are many examples of Monte Carlo analysis of this uncertainty (e.g., Freeze, 1980; Gómez et al., 2001). Some of these model analyses rely on the simulation of "virtual" situations that were calibrated from parameter values found in the literature, with the purpose of providing insight about the response of the model to different configurations of input parameters. This approach - evaluating the answer for a "virtual" problem whose solution could be known in advance - might be useful in evaluating the propagation of uncertainty in mixing models in sediment fingerprinting studies. In this communication, we present the preliminary results of an on-going study evaluating the effect of variability of element concentrations in source materials, sampling density, and the number of elements included in the mixing models. For this study a virtual

  15. Exploring the uncertainty in attributing sediment contributions in fingerprinting studies due to uncertainty in determining element concentrations in source areas.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez, Jose Alfonso; Owens, Phillip N.; Koiter, Alex J.; Lobb, David

    2016-04-01

    One of the major sources of uncertainty in attributing sediment sources in fingerprinting studies is the uncertainty in determining the concentrations of the elements used in the mixing model due to the variability of the concentrations of these elements in the source materials (e.g., Kraushaar et al., 2015). The uncertainty in determining the "true" concentration of a given element in each one of the source areas depends on several factors, among them the spatial variability of that element, the sampling procedure and sampling density. Researchers have limited control over these factors, and usually sampling density tends to be sparse, limited by time and the resources available. Monte Carlo analysis has been used regularly in fingerprinting studies to explore the probable solutions within the measured variability of the elements in the source areas, providing an appraisal of the probability of the different solutions (e.g., Collins et al., 2012). This problem can be considered analogous to the propagation of uncertainty in hydrologic models due to uncertainty in the determination of the values of the model parameters, and there are many examples of Monte Carlo analysis of this uncertainty (e.g., Freeze, 1980; Gómez et al., 2001). Some of these model analyses rely on the simulation of "virtual" situations that were calibrated from parameter values found in the literature, with the purpose of providing insight about the response of the model to different configurations of input parameters. This approach - evaluating the answer for a "virtual" problem whose solution could be known in advance - might be useful in evaluating the propagation of uncertainty in mixing models in sediment fingerprinting studies. In this communication, we present the preliminary results of an on-going study evaluating the effect of variability of element concentrations in source materials, sampling density, and the number of elements included in the mixing models. For this study a virtual

  16. Copy number variation-based genome wide association study reveals additional variants contributing to meat quality in Swine

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ligang; Xu, Lingyang; Liu, Xin; Zhang, Tian; Li, Na; Hay, El Hamidi; Zhang, Yuebo; Yan, Hua; Zhao, Kebin; Liu, George E; Zhang, Longchao; Wang, Lixian

    2015-01-01

    Pork quality is important both to the meat processing industry and consumers’ purchasing attitude. Copy number variation (CNV) is a burgeoning kind of variants that may influence meat quality. In this study, a genome-wide association study (GWAS) was performed between CNVs and meat quality traits in swine. After false discovery rate (FDR) correction, a total of 8 CNVs on 6 chromosomes were identified to be significantly associated with at least one meat quality trait. All of the 8 CNVs were verified by next generation sequencing and six of them were verified by qPCR. Only the haplotype block containing CNV12 is adjacent to significant SNPs associated with meat quality, suggesting the effects of those CNVs were not likely captured by tag SNPs. The DNA dosage and EST expression of CNV12, which overlap with an obesity related gene Netrin-1 (Ntn1), were consistent with Ntn1 RNA expression, suggesting the CNV12 might be involved in the expression regulation of Ntn1 and finally influence meat quality. We concluded that CNVs may contribute to the genetic variations of meat quality beyond SNPs, and several candidate CNVs were worth further exploration. PMID:26234186

  17. Dissolved organic matter removal during coal slag additive soil aquifer treatment for secondary effluent recharging: Contribution of aerobic biodegradation.

    PubMed

    Wei, Liangliang; Li, Siliang; Noguera, Daniel R; Qin, Kena; Jiang, Junqiu; Zhao, Qingliang; Kong, Xiangjuan; Cui, Fuyi

    2015-06-01

    Recycling wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent at low cost via the soil aquifer treatment (SAT), which has been considered as a renewable approach in regenerating potable and non-potable water, is welcome in arid and semi-arid regions throughout the world. In this study, the effect of a coal slag additive on the bulk removal of the dissolved organic matter (DOM) in WWTP effluent during SAT operation was explored via the matrix configurations of both coal slag layer and natural soil layer. Azide inhibition and XAD-resins fractionation experiments indicated that the appropriate configuration designing of an upper soil layer (25 cm) and a mixture of soil/coal slag underneath would enhance the removal efficiency of adsorption and anaerobic biodegradation to the same level as that of aerobic biodegradation (31.7% vs 32.2%), while it was only 29.4% compared with the aerobic biodegradation during traditional 50 cm soil column operation. The added coal slag would preferentially adsorb the hydrophobic DOM, and those adsorbed organics could be partially biodegraded by the biomass within the SAT systems. Compared with the relatively lower dissolved organic carbon (DOC), ultraviolet light adsorption at 254 nm (UV-254) and trihalomethane formation potential (THMFP) removal rate of the original soil column (42.0%, 32.9%, and 28.0%, respectively), SSL2 and SSL4 columns would enhance the bulk removal efficiency to more than 60%. Moreover, a coal slag additive in the SAT columns could decline the aromatic components (fulvic-like organics and tryptophan-like proteins) significantly. PMID:25845997

  18. Dissolved organic matter removal during coal slag additive soil aquifer treatment for secondary effluent recharging: Contribution of aerobic biodegradation.

    PubMed

    Wei, Liangliang; Li, Siliang; Noguera, Daniel R; Qin, Kena; Jiang, Junqiu; Zhao, Qingliang; Kong, Xiangjuan; Cui, Fuyi

    2015-06-01

    Recycling wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent at low cost via the soil aquifer treatment (SAT), which has been considered as a renewable approach in regenerating potable and non-potable water, is welcome in arid and semi-arid regions throughout the world. In this study, the effect of a coal slag additive on the bulk removal of the dissolved organic matter (DOM) in WWTP effluent during SAT operation was explored via the matrix configurations of both coal slag layer and natural soil layer. Azide inhibition and XAD-resins fractionation experiments indicated that the appropriate configuration designing of an upper soil layer (25 cm) and a mixture of soil/coal slag underneath would enhance the removal efficiency of adsorption and anaerobic biodegradation to the same level as that of aerobic biodegradation (31.7% vs 32.2%), while it was only 29.4% compared with the aerobic biodegradation during traditional 50 cm soil column operation. The added coal slag would preferentially adsorb the hydrophobic DOM, and those adsorbed organics could be partially biodegraded by the biomass within the SAT systems. Compared with the relatively lower dissolved organic carbon (DOC), ultraviolet light adsorption at 254 nm (UV-254) and trihalomethane formation potential (THMFP) removal rate of the original soil column (42.0%, 32.9%, and 28.0%, respectively), SSL2 and SSL4 columns would enhance the bulk removal efficiency to more than 60%. Moreover, a coal slag additive in the SAT columns could decline the aromatic components (fulvic-like organics and tryptophan-like proteins) significantly.

  19. Further contributions to the Coleoptera fauna of New Brunswick with an addition to the fauna of Nova Scotia, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Webster, Reginald P.; Webster, Vincent L.; Alderson, Chantelle A.; Hughes, Cory C.; Sweeney, Jon D.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This paper treats 134 new records of Coleoptera for the province of New Brunswick, Canada from the following 41 families: Gyrinidae, Carabidae, Dytiscidae, Histeridae, Leiodidae, Scarabaeidae, Scirtidae, Buprestidae, Elmidae, Limnichidae, Heteroceridae, Ptilodactylidae, Eucnemidae, Throscidae, Elateridae, Lampyridae, Cantharidae, Dermestidae, Bostrichidae, Ptinidae, Cleridae, Melyridae, Monotomidae, Cryptophagidae, Silvanidae, Laemophloeidae, Nitidulidae, Endomychidae, Coccinellidae, Corylophidae, Latridiidae, Tetratomidae, Melandryidae, Mordellidae, Tenebrionidae, Mycteridae, Pyrochroidae, Aderidae, Scraptiidae, Megalopodidae, and Chrysomelidae. Among these, the following four species are newly recorded from Canada: Dirrhagofarsus ernae Otto, Muona & McClarin (Eucnemidae), Athous equestris (LeConte) (Elateridae), Ernobius opicus Fall (Ptinidae), and Stelidota coenosa Erichson (Nitidulidae). The Family Limnichidae is newly reported for New Brunswick, and one species is added to the fauna of Nova Scotia. Stephostethus productus Rosenhauer (Latridiidae), Tetratoma (Abstrulia) variegata Casey (Tetratomidae), and Chauliognathus marginatus (Fabricius) (Cantharidae) are removed from the faunal list of New Brunswick, and additional records of Lacconotus punctatus LeConte (Mycteridae) are presented and discussed. Lindgren funnel traps provided specimens for 104 (78%) of the species and were the sole source of specimens for 89 (66%) of the species reported here, suggesting they are a very useful tool for sampling Coleoptera fauna in the forests of New Brunswick. PMID:27110171

  20. Growth enhancement of Picea abies trees under long-term, low-dose N addition is due to morphological more than to physiological changes.

    PubMed

    Krause, Kim; Cherubini, Paolo; Bugmann, Harald; Schleppi, Patrick

    2012-12-01

    Human activities have drastically increased nitrogen (N) inputs into natural and near-natural terrestrial ecosystems such that critical loads are now being exceeded in many regions of the world. This implies that these ecosystems are shifting from natural N limitation to eutrophication or even N saturation. This process is expected to modify the growth of forests and thus, along with management, to affect their carbon (C) sequestration. However, knowledge of the physiological mechanisms underlying tree response to N inputs, especially in the long term, is still lacking. In this study, we used tree-ring patterns and a dual stable isotope approach (δ(13)C and δ(18)O) to investigate tree growth responses and the underlying physiological reactions in a long-term, low-dose N addition experiment (+23 kg N ha(-1) a(-1)). This experiment has been conducted for 14 years in a mountain Picea abies (L.) Karst. forest in Alptal, Switzerland, using a paired-catchment design. Tree stem C sequestration increased by ∼22%, with an N use efficiency (NUE) of ca. 8 kg additional C in tree stems per kg of N added. Neither earlywood nor latewood δ(13)C values changed significantly compared with the control, indicating that the intrinsic water use efficiency (WUE(i)) (A/g(s)) did not change due to N addition. Further, the isotopic signal of δ(18)O in early- and latewood showed no significant response to the treatment, indicating that neither stomatal conductance nor leaf-level photosynthesis changed significantly. Foliar analyses showed that needle N concentration significantly increased in the fourth to seventh treatment year, accompanied by increased dry mass and area per needle, and by increased tree height growth. Later, N concentration and height growth returned to nearly background values, while dry mass and area per needle remained high. Our results support the hypothesis that enhanced stem growth caused by N addition is mainly due to an increased leaf area index (LAI

  1. Pre- and post-experimental manipulation assessments confirm the increase in number of birds due to the addition of nest boxes.

    PubMed

    Cuatianquiz Lima, Cecilia; Macías Garcia, Constantino

    2016-01-01

    Secondary cavity nesting (SCN) birds breed in holes that they do not excavate themselves. This is possible where there are large trees whose size and age permit the digging of holes by primary excavators and only rarely happens in forest plantations, where we expected a deficit of both breeding holes and SCN species. We assessed whether the availability of tree cavities influenced the number of SCNs in two temperate forest types, and evaluated the change in number of SCNs after adding nest boxes. First, we counted all cavities within each of our 25-m radius sampling points in mature and young forest plots during 2009. We then added nest boxes at standardised locations during 2010 and 2011 and conducted fortnightly bird counts (January-October 2009-2011). In 2011 we added two extra plots of each forest type, where we also conducted bird counts. Prior to adding nest boxes, counts revealed more SCNs in mature than in young forest. Following the addition of nest boxes, the number of SCNs increased significantly in the points with nest boxes in both types of forest. Counts in 2011 confirmed the increase in number of birds due to the addition of nest boxes. Given the likely benefits associated with a richer bird community we propose that, as is routinely done in some countries, forest management programs preserve old tree stumps and add nest boxes to forest plantations in order to increase bird numbers and bird community diversity. PMID:26998410

  2. Pre- and post-experimental manipulation assessments confirm the increase in number of birds due to the addition of nest boxes

    PubMed Central

    Cuatianquiz Lima, Cecilia

    2016-01-01

    Secondary cavity nesting (SCN) birds breed in holes that they do not excavate themselves. This is possible where there are large trees whose size and age permit the digging of holes by primary excavators and only rarely happens in forest plantations, where we expected a deficit of both breeding holes and SCN species. We assessed whether the availability of tree cavities influenced the number of SCNs in two temperate forest types, and evaluated the change in number of SCNs after adding nest boxes. First, we counted all cavities within each of our 25-m radius sampling points in mature and young forest plots during 2009. We then added nest boxes at standardised locations during 2010 and 2011 and conducted fortnightly bird counts (January–October 2009–2011). In 2011 we added two extra plots of each forest type, where we also conducted bird counts. Prior to adding nest boxes, counts revealed more SCNs in mature than in young forest. Following the addition of nest boxes, the number of SCNs increased significantly in the points with nest boxes in both types of forest. Counts in 2011 confirmed the increase in number of birds due to the addition of nest boxes. Given the likely benefits associated with a richer bird community we propose that, as is routinely done in some countries, forest management programs preserve old tree stumps and add nest boxes to forest plantations in order to increase bird numbers and bird community diversity. PMID:26998410

  3. Variation in mechanical behavior due to different build directions of Titanium6Aluminum4Vanadium fabricated by electron beam additive manufacturing technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Lalit

    Titanium has always been a metal of great interest since its discovery especially for critical applications because of its excellent mechanical properties such as light weight (almost half of that of the steel), low density (4.4 gm/cc) and high strength (almost similar to steel). It creates a stable and adherent oxide layer on its surface upon exposure to air or water which gives it a great resistance to corrosion and has made it a great choice for structures in severe corrosive environment and sea water. Its non-allergic property has made it suitable for biomedical application for manufacturing implants. Having a very high melting temperature, it has a very good potential for high temperature applications. But high production and processing cost has limited its application. Ti6Al4V is the most used titanium alloy for which it has acquired the title as `workhouse' of the Ti family. Additive layer Manufacturing (ALM) has brought revolution in manufacturing industries. Today, this additive manufacturing has developed into several methods and formed a family. This method fabricates a product by adding layer after layer as per the geometry given as input into the system. Though the conception was developed to fabricate prototypes and making tools initially, but its highly economic aspect i.e., very little waste material for less machining and comparatively lower production lead time, obviation of machine tools have drawn attention for its further development towards mass production. Electron Beam Melting (EBM) is the latest addition to ALM family developed by Arcam, ABRTM located in Sweden. The electron beam that is used as heat source melts metal powder to form layers. For this thesis work, three different types of specimens have been fabricated using EBM system. These specimens differ in regard of direction of layer addition. Mechanical properties such as ultimate tensile strength, elastic modulus and yield strength, have been measured and compared with standard data

  4. The contribution to future flood risk in the Severn Estuary from extreme sea level rise due to ice sheet mass loss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinn, N.; Bates, P. D.; Siddall, M.

    2013-12-01

    The rate at which sea levels will rise in the coming century is of great interest to decision makers tasked with developing mitigation policies to cope with the risk of coastal inundation. Accurate estimates of future sea levels are vital in the provision of effective policy. Recent reports from UK Climate Impacts Programme (UKCIP) suggest that mean sea levels in the UK may rise by as much as 80 cm by 2100; however, a great deal of uncertainty surrounds model predictions, particularly the contribution from ice sheets responding to climatic warming. For this reason, the application of semi-empirical modelling approaches for sea level rise predictions has increased of late, the results from which suggest that the rate of sea level rise may be greater than previously thought, exceeding 1 m by 2100. Furthermore, studies in the Red Sea indicate that rapid sea level rise beyond 1m per century has occurred in the past. In light of such research, the latest UKCIP assessment has included a H++ scenario for sea level rise in the UK of up to 1.9 m which is defined as improbable but, crucially, physically plausible. The significance of such low-probability sea level rise scenarios upon the estimation of future flood risk is assessed using the Somerset levels (UK) as a case study. A simple asymmetric probability distribution is constructed to include sea level rise scenarios of up to 1.9 m by 2100 which are added to a current 1:200 year event water level to force a two-dimensional hydrodynamic model of coastal inundation. From the resulting ensemble predictions an estimation of risk by 2100 is established. The results indicate that although the likelihood of extreme sea level rise due to rapid ice sheet mass loss is low, the resulting hazard can be large, resulting in a significant (27%) increase to the projected annual risk. Furthermore, current defence construction guidelines for the coming century in the UK are expected to account for 95% of the sea level rise distribution

  5. Contributions of temporal segregation, oviposition choice, and non-additive effects of competitors to invasion success of Aedes japonicus (Diptera: Culicidae) in North America

    PubMed Central

    Murrell, Ebony G.; Noden, Bruce H.; Juliano, Steven A.

    2015-01-01

    The mosquito Aedes japonicus (Diptera: Culicidae) has spread rapidly through North America since its introduction in the 1990s. The mechanisms underlying its establishment in container communities occupied by competitors Aedes triseriatus and Aedes albopictus are unclear. Possibilities include (A) temporal separation of A. japonicus from other Aedes, (B) oviposition avoidance by A. japonicus of sites containing heterospecific Aedes larvae, and (C) non-additive competitive effects in assemblages of multiple Aedes. Containers sampled throughout the summer in an oak-hickory forest near Eureka, MO showed peak abundance for A. japonicus occurring significantly earlier in the season than either of the other Aedes species. Despite this, A. japonicus co-occurred with one other Aedes species in 53 % of samples when present, and co-occurred with both other Aedes in 18 % of samples. In a field oviposition experiment, A. japonicus laid significantly more eggs in forest edge containers than in forest interior containers, but did not avoid containers with low or high densities of larvae of A. triseriatus, A. albopictus, or both, compared to containers without larvae. Interspecific competitive effects (measured as decrease in the index of performance, λ′) of A. triseriatus or A. albopictus alone on A. japonicus larvae were not evident at the densities used, but the effect of both Aedes combined was significantly negative and super-additive of effects of individual interspecific competitors. Thus, neither oviposition avoidance of competitors nor non-additive competitive effects contribute to the invasion success of A. japonicus in North America. Distinct seasonal phenology may reduce competitive interactions with resident Aedes. PMID:26101466

  6. Ferrite Formation Dynamics and Microstructure Due to Inclusion Engineering in Low-Alloy Steels by Ti2O3 and TiN Addition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mu, Wangzhong; Shibata, Hiroyuki; Hedström, Peter; Jönsson, Pär Göran; Nakajima, Keiji

    2016-08-01

    The dynamics of intragranular ferrite (IGF) formation in inclusion engineered steels with either Ti2O3 or TiN addition were investigated using in situ high temperature confocal laser scanning microscopy. Furthermore, the chemical composition of the inclusions and the final microstructure after continuous cooling transformation was investigated using electron probe microanalysis and electron backscatter diffraction, respectively. It was found that there is a significant effect of the chemical composition of the inclusions, the cooling rate, and the prior austenite grain size on the phase fractions and the starting temperatures of IGF and grain boundary ferrite (GBF). The fraction of IGF is larger in the steel with Ti2O3 addition compared to the steel with TiN addition after the same thermal cycle has been imposed. The reason for this difference is the higher potency of the TiO x phase as nucleation sites for IGF formation compared to the TiN phase, which was supported by calculations using classical nucleation theory. The IGF fraction increases with increasing prior austenite grain size, while the fraction of IGF in both steels was the highest for the intermediate cooling rate of 70 °C/min, since competing phase transformations were avoided, the structure of the IGF was though refined with increasing cooling rate. Finally, regarding the starting temperatures of IGF and GBF, they decrease with increasing cooling rate and the starting temperature of GBF decreases with increasing grain size, while the starting temperature of IGF remains constant irrespective of grain size.

  7. The test and treatment methods of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo and an addition to the management of vertigo due to the superior vestibular canal (BPPV-SC).

    PubMed

    Rahko, T

    2002-10-01

    A review of the tests and treatment manoeuvres for benign paroxysmal positional vertigo of the posterior, horizontal and superior vestibular canals is presented. Additionally, a new way to test and treat positional vertigo of the superior vestibular canal is presented. In a prospective study, 57 out of 305 patients' visits are reported. They had residual symptoms and dizziness after the test and the treatment of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo of the horizontal canal (BPPV-HC) and posterior canal (PC). They were tested with a new test and treated with a new manoeuvre for superior canal benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV-SC). Results for vertigo in 53 patients were good; motion sickness and acrophobia disappeared. Reactive neck tension to BPPV was relieved. Older people were numerous among patients and their quality of life (QOL) improved.

  8. Addition of PM 2.5 into the national ambient air quality standards of China and the contribution to air pollution control: the case study of Wuhan, China.

    PubMed

    You, Mingqing

    2014-01-01

    PM2.5 has gradually become a major environmental problem of China with its rapid economic development, urbanization, and increasing of motor vehicles. Findings and awareness of serious PM2.5 pollution make the PM2.5 a new criterion pollutant of the Chinese National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) revised in 2012. The 2012 NAAQS sets the PM2.5 concentrate limitation with the 24-hour average value and the annual mean value. Wuhan is quite typical among central and southern China in climate, economy, development level, and energy consumption. The data are cited from the official website of Wuhan Environmental Protection Bureau and cover the period from 1 January to 30 June 2013. The data definitely confirm the existence of serious PM2.5 pollution in Wuhan and indicate that the addition of PM2.5 as a criterion pollutant significantly brings down the attainment rate of air quality. The example of Wuhan reveals that local governments should take measures to reduce the emission of PM2.5 if it affects the attainment rate and the performance evaluation value of air quality. The main contribution of 2012 NAAQS is that it brings down the attainment rate of the air quality and forces local governmental officials to take the measures accordingly.

  9. Independent contributions of the central executive, intelligence, and in-class attentive behavior to developmental change in the strategies used to solve addition problems.

    PubMed

    Geary, David C; Hoard, Mary K; Nugent, Lara

    2012-09-01

    Children's (N=275) use of retrieval, decomposition (e.g., 7=4+3 and thus 6+7=6+4+3), and counting to solve additional problems was longitudinally assessed from first grade to fourth grade, and intelligence, working memory, and in-class attentive behavior was assessed in one or several grades. The goal was to assess the relation between capacity of the central executive component of working memory, controlling for intelligence and in-class attentive behavior, and grade-related changes in children's use of these strategies. The predictor on intercept effects from multilevel models revealed that children with higher central executive capacity correctly retrieved more facts and used the most sophisticated counting procedure more frequently and accurately than their lower capacity peers at the beginning of first grade, but the predictor on slope effects indicated that this advantage disappeared (retrieval) or declined in importance (counting) from first grade to fourth grade. The predictor on slope effects also revealed that from first grade to fourth grade, children with higher capacity adopted the decomposition strategy more quickly than other children. The results remained robust with controls for children's sex, race, school site, speed of encoding Arabic numerals and articulating number words, and mathematics achievement in kindergarten. The results also revealed that intelligence and in-class attentive behavior independently contributed to children's strategy development.

  10. Addition of PM 2.5 into the national ambient air quality standards of China and the contribution to air pollution control: the case study of Wuhan, China.

    PubMed

    You, Mingqing

    2014-01-01

    PM2.5 has gradually become a major environmental problem of China with its rapid economic development, urbanization, and increasing of motor vehicles. Findings and awareness of serious PM2.5 pollution make the PM2.5 a new criterion pollutant of the Chinese National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) revised in 2012. The 2012 NAAQS sets the PM2.5 concentrate limitation with the 24-hour average value and the annual mean value. Wuhan is quite typical among central and southern China in climate, economy, development level, and energy consumption. The data are cited from the official website of Wuhan Environmental Protection Bureau and cover the period from 1 January to 30 June 2013. The data definitely confirm the existence of serious PM2.5 pollution in Wuhan and indicate that the addition of PM2.5 as a criterion pollutant significantly brings down the attainment rate of air quality. The example of Wuhan reveals that local governments should take measures to reduce the emission of PM2.5 if it affects the attainment rate and the performance evaluation value of air quality. The main contribution of 2012 NAAQS is that it brings down the attainment rate of the air quality and forces local governmental officials to take the measures accordingly. PMID:24982994

  11. Short-term salivary acetaldehyde increase due to direct exposure to alcoholic beverages as an additional cancer risk factor beyond ethanol metabolism

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background An increasing body of evidence now implicates acetaldehyde as a major underlying factor for the carcinogenicity of alcoholic beverages and especially for oesophageal and oral cancer. Acetaldehyde associated with alcohol consumption is regarded as 'carcinogenic to humans' (IARC Group 1), with sufficient evidence available for the oesophagus, head and neck as sites of carcinogenicity. At present, research into the mechanistic aspects of acetaldehyde-related oral cancer has been focused on salivary acetaldehyde that is formed either from ethanol metabolism in the epithelia or from microbial oxidation of ethanol by the oral microflora. This study was conducted to evaluate the role of the acetaldehyde that is found as a component of alcoholic beverages as an additional factor in the aetiology of oral cancer. Methods Salivary acetaldehyde levels were determined in the context of sensory analysis of different alcoholic beverages (beer, cider, wine, sherry, vodka, calvados, grape marc spirit, tequila, cherry spirit), without swallowing, to exclude systemic ethanol metabolism. Results The rinsing of the mouth for 30 seconds with an alcoholic beverage is able to increase salivary acetaldehyde above levels previously judged to be carcinogenic in vitro, with levels up to 1000 μM in cases of beverages with extreme acetaldehyde content. In general, the highest salivary acetaldehyde concentration was found in all cases in the saliva 30 sec after using the beverages (average 353 μM). The average concentration then decreased at the 2-min (156 μM), 5-min (76 μM) and 10-min (40 μM) sampling points. The salivary acetaldehyde concentration depends primarily on the direct ingestion of acetaldehyde contained in the beverages at the 30-sec sampling, while the influence of the metabolic formation from ethanol becomes the major factor at the 2-min sampling point. Conclusions This study offers a plausible mechanism to explain the increased risk for oral cancer associated with

  12. Examining food additives and spices for their anti-oxidant ability to counteract oxidative damage due to chronic exposure to free radicals from environmental pollutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, Raul A., III

    The main objective of this work was to examine food additives and spices (from the Apiaceae family) to determine their antioxidant properties to counteract oxidative stress (damage) caused by Environmental pollutants. Environmental pollutants generate Reactive Oxygen species and Reactive Nitrogen species. Star anise essential oil showed lower antioxidant activity than extracts using DPPH scavenging. Dill Seed -- Anethum Graveolens -the monoterpene components of dill showed to activate the enzyme glutathione-S-transferase , which helped attach the antioxidant molecule glutathione to oxidized molecules that would otherwise do damage in the body. The antioxidant activity of extracts of dill was comparable with ascorbic acid, alpha-tocopherol, and quercetin in in-vitro systems. Black Cumin -- Nigella Sativa: was evaluated the method 1,1-diphenyl2-picrylhhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity. Positive correlations were found between the total phenolic content in the black cumin extracts and their antioxidant activities. Caraway -- Carum Carvi: The antioxidant activity was evaluated by the scavenging effects of 1,1'-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). Caraway showed strong antioxidant activity. Cumin -- Cuminum Cyminum - the major polyphenolic were extracted and separated by HPTLC. The antioxidant activity of the cumin extract was tested on 1,1'-diphenyl-2- picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging. Coriander -- Coriandrum Sativum - the antioxidant and free-radical-scavenging property of the seeds was studied and also investigated whether the administration of seeds curtails oxidative stress. Coriander seed powder not only inhibited the process of Peroxidative damage, but also significantly reactivated the antioxidant enzymes and antioxidant levels. The seeds also showed scavenging activity against superoxides and hydroxyl radicals. The total polyphenolic content of the seeds was found to be 12.2 galic acid equivalents (GAE)/g while the total flavonoid content

  13. The C allele of JAK2 rs4495487 is an additional candidate locus that contributes to myeloproliferative neoplasm predisposition in the Japanese population

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Polycythemia vera (PV), essential thrombocythemia (ET), and primary myelofibrosis (PMF) are myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) characterized in most cases by a unique somatic mutation, JAK2 V617F. Recent studies revealed that JAK2 V617F occurs more frequently in a specific JAK2 haplotype, named JAK2 46/1 or GGCC haplotype, which is tagged by rs10974944 (C/G) and/or rs12343867 (T/C). This study examined the impact of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the JAK2 locus on MPNs in a Japanese population. Methods We sequenced 24 JAK2 SNPs in Japanese patients with PV. We then genotyped 138 MPN patients (33 PV, 96 ET, and 9 PMF) with known JAK2 mutational status and 107 controls for a novel SNP, in addition to two SNPs known to be part of the 46/1 haplotype (rs10974944 and rs12343867). Associations with risk of MPN were estimated by odds ratios and their 95% confidence intervals using logistic regression. Results A novel locus, rs4495487 (T/C), with a mutated T allele was significantly associated with PV. Similar to rs10974944 and rs12343867, rs4495487 in the JAK2 locus is significantly associated with JAK2-positive MPN. Based on the results of SNP analysis of the three JAK2 locus, we defined the "GCC genotype" as having at least one minor allele in each SNP (G allele in rs10974944, C allele in rs4495487, and C allele in rs12343867). The GCC genotype was associated with increased risk of both JAK2 V617F-positive and JAK2 V617F-negative MPN. In ET patients, leukocyte count and hemoglobin were significantly associated with JAK2 V617F, rather than the GCC genotype. In contrast, none of the JAK2 V617F-negative ET patients without the GCC genotype had thrombosis, and splenomegaly was frequently seen in this subset of ET patients. PV patients without the GCC genotype were significantly associated with high platelet count. Conclusions Our results indicate that the C allele of JAK2 rs4495487, in addition to the 46/1 haplotype, contributes significantly to the

  14. Examining food additives and spices for their anti-oxidant ability to counteract oxidative damage due to chronic exposure to free radicals from environmental pollutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, Raul A., III

    The main objective of this work was to examine food additives and spices (from the Apiaceae family) to determine their antioxidant properties to counteract oxidative stress (damage) caused by Environmental pollutants. Environmental pollutants generate Reactive Oxygen species and Reactive Nitrogen species. Star anise essential oil showed lower antioxidant activity than extracts using DPPH scavenging. Dill Seed -- Anethum Graveolens -the monoterpene components of dill showed to activate the enzyme glutathione-S-transferase , which helped attach the antioxidant molecule glutathione to oxidized molecules that would otherwise do damage in the body. The antioxidant activity of extracts of dill was comparable with ascorbic acid, alpha-tocopherol, and quercetin in in-vitro systems. Black Cumin -- Nigella Sativa: was evaluated the method 1,1-diphenyl2-picrylhhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity. Positive correlations were found between the total phenolic content in the black cumin extracts and their antioxidant activities. Caraway -- Carum Carvi: The antioxidant activity was evaluated by the scavenging effects of 1,1'-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). Caraway showed strong antioxidant activity. Cumin -- Cuminum Cyminum - the major polyphenolic were extracted and separated by HPTLC. The antioxidant activity of the cumin extract was tested on 1,1'-diphenyl-2- picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging. Coriander -- Coriandrum Sativum - the antioxidant and free-radical-scavenging property of the seeds was studied and also investigated whether the administration of seeds curtails oxidative stress. Coriander seed powder not only inhibited the process of Peroxidative damage, but also significantly reactivated the antioxidant enzymes and antioxidant levels. The seeds also showed scavenging activity against superoxides and hydroxyl radicals. The total polyphenolic content of the seeds was found to be 12.2 galic acid equivalents (GAE)/g while the total flavonoid content

  15. Factors contributing to adverse soft tissue reactions due to the use of tartar control toothpastes: report of a case and literature review.

    PubMed

    DeLattre, V F

    1999-07-01

    Tetrasodium and/or tetrapotassium pyrophosphate (Ppi) is the anticalculus component of most tartar control dentifrices on the market today. While pyrophosphates alone are not responsible for hypersensitivity reactions, several modifications which may lead to adverse oral manifestations may occur when pyrophosphates are added to a dentifrice. First, tetrasodium pyrophosphate in a dentifrice forms a slightly alkaline solution upon oral use which could irritate oral membranes. Second, increased concentrations of flavoring agents, known to be sensitizers, are needed to mask the strong bitter taste of pyrophosphates. Third, increased concentrations of detergents, capable of producing hypersensitivity reactions, are necessary to allow the pyrophosphates to become soluble in the dentifrice. Fourth, a pre-existing condition of reduced salivary flow may augment hypersensitivity to tartar control toothpastes. While pyrophosphates have been approved as additives in dentifrices, these compounds along with the increased concentrations of flavorings and detergents and their higher intraoral alkalinity are strongly implicated as the causative factor in certain hypersensitivity reactions.

  16. World Health Organization Estimates of the Relative Contributions of Food to the Burden of Disease Due to Selected Foodborne Hazards: A Structured Expert Elicitation

    PubMed Central

    Hald, Tine; Aspinall, Willy; Devleesschauwer, Brecht; Cooke, Roger; Corrigan, Tim; Havelaar, Arie H.; Gibb, Herman J.; Torgerson, Paul R.; Kirk, Martyn D.; Angulo, Fred J.; Lake, Robin J.; Speybroeck, Niko; Hoffmann, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    Background The Foodborne Disease Burden Epidemiology Reference Group (FERG) was established in 2007 by the World Health Organization (WHO) to estimate the global burden of foodborne diseases (FBDs). This estimation is complicated because most of the hazards causing FBD are not transmitted solely by food; most have several potential exposure routes consisting of transmission from animals, by humans, and via environmental routes including water. This paper describes an expert elicitation study conducted by the FERG Source Attribution Task Force to estimate the relative contribution of food to the global burden of diseases commonly transmitted through the consumption of food. Methods and Findings We applied structured expert judgment using Cooke’s Classical Model to obtain estimates for 14 subregions for the relative contributions of different transmission pathways for eleven diarrheal diseases, seven other infectious diseases and one chemical (lead). Experts were identified through international networks followed by social network sampling. Final selection of experts was based on their experience including international working experience. Enrolled experts were scored on their ability to judge uncertainty accurately and informatively using a series of subject-matter specific ‘seed’ questions whose answers are unknown to the experts at the time they are interviewed. Trained facilitators elicited the 5th, and 50th and 95th percentile responses to seed questions through telephone interviews. Cooke’s Classical Model uses responses to the seed questions to weigh and aggregate expert responses. After this interview, the experts were asked to provide 5th, 50th, and 95th percentile estimates for the ‘target’ questions regarding disease transmission routes. A total of 72 experts were enrolled in the study. Ten panels were global, meaning that the experts should provide estimates for all 14 subregions, whereas the nine panels were subregional, with experts

  17. Increased hepatic receptor interacting protein kinase 3 expression due to impaired proteasomal functions contributes to alcohol-induced steatosis and liver injury

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shaogui; Ni, Hong-Min; Dorko, Kenneth; Kumer, Sean C.; Schmitt, Timothy M.; Nawabi, Atta; Komatsu, Masaaki; Huang, Heqing; Ding, Wen-Xing

    2016-01-01

    Chronic alcohol exposure increased hepatic receptor-interacting protein kinase (RIP) 3 expression and necroptosis in the liver but its mechanisms are unclear. In the present study, we demonstrated that chronic alcohol feeding plus binge (Gao-binge) increased RIP3 but not RIP1 protein levels in mouse livers. RIP3 knockout mice had decreased serum alanine amino transferase activity and hepatic steatosis but had no effect on hepatic neutrophil infiltration compared with wild type mice after Gao-binge alcohol treatment. The hepatic mRNA levels of RIP3 did not change between Gao-binge and control mice, suggesting that alcohol-induced hepatic RIP3 proteins are regulated at the posttranslational level. We found that Gao-binge treatment decreased the levels of proteasome subunit alpha type-2 (PSMA2) and proteasome 26S subunit, ATPase 1 (PSMC1) and impaired hepatic proteasome function. Pharmacological or genetic inhibition of proteasome resulted in the accumulation of RIP3 in mouse livers. More importantly, human alcoholics had decreased expression of PSMA2 and PSMC1 but increased protein levels of RIP3 compared with healthy human livers. Moreover, pharmacological inhibition of RIP1 decreased Gao-binge-induced hepatic inflammation, neutrophil infiltration and NF-κB subunit (p65) nuclear translocation but failed to protect against steatosis and liver injury induced by Gao-binge alcohol. In conclusion, results from this study suggest that impaired hepatic proteasome function by alcohol exposure may contribute to hepatic accumulation of RIP3 resulting in necroptosis and steatosis while RIP1 kinase activity is important for alcohol-induced inflammation. PMID:26769846

  18. A non-additive repulsive contribution in an equation of state: The development for homonuclear square well chains equation of state validated against Monte Carlo simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trinh, Thi-Kim-Hoang; Passarello, Jean-Philippe; de Hemptinne, Jean-Charles; Lugo, Rafael; Lachet, Veronique

    2016-03-01

    This work consists of the adaptation of a non-additive hard sphere theory inspired by Malakhov and Volkov [Polym. Sci., Ser. A 49(6), 745-756 (2007)] to a square-well chain. Using the thermodynamic perturbation theory, an additional term is proposed that describes the effect of perturbing the chain of square well spheres by a non-additive parameter. In order to validate this development, NPT Monte Carlo simulations of thermodynamic and structural properties of the non-additive square well for a pure chain and a binary mixture of chains are performed. Good agreements are observed between the compressibility factors originating from the theory and those from molecular simulations.

  19. Independent Contributions of the Central Executive, Intelligence, and In-Class Attentive Behavior to Developmental Change in the Strategies Used to Solve Addition Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geary, David C.; Hoard, Mary K.; Nugent, Lara

    2012-01-01

    Children's (N = 275) use of retrieval, decomposition (e.g., 7 = 4+3 and thus 6+7 = 6+4+3), and counting to solve additional problems was longitudinally assessed from first grade to fourth grade, and intelligence, working memory, and in-class attentive behavior was assessed in one or several grades. The goal was to assess the relation between…

  20. Higher-order electric multipole contributions to retarded non-additive three-body dispersion interaction energies between atoms: equilateral triangle and collinear configurations.

    PubMed

    Salam, A

    2013-12-28

    The theory of molecular quantum electrodynamics (QED) is used to calculate higher electric multipole contributions to the dispersion energy shift between three atoms or molecules arranged in a straight line or in an equilateral triangle configuration. As in two-body potentials, three-body dispersion interactions are viewed in the QED formalism to arise from exchange of virtual photons between coupled pairs of particles. By employing an interaction Hamiltonian that is quadratic in the electric displacement field means that third-order perturbation theory can be used to yield the energy shift for a particular combination of electric multipole polarizable species, with only six time-ordered diagrams needing to be summed over. Specific potentials evaluated include dipole-dipole-quadrupole (DDQ), dipole-quadrupole-quadrupole (DQQ), and dipole-dipole-octupole (DDO) terms. For the geometries of interest, near-zone limiting forms are found to exhibit an R(-11) dependence on separation distance for the DDQ interaction, and an R(-13) behaviour for DQQ and DDO shifts, agreeing with an earlier semi-classical computation. Retardation weakens the potential in each case by R(-1) in the far-zone. It is found that by decomposing the octupole moment into its irreducible components of weights-1 and -3 that the former contribution to the DDO potential may be taken to be a higher-order correction to the leading triple dipole energy shift. PMID:24387355

  1. Higher-order electric multipole contributions to retarded non-additive three-body dispersion interaction energies between atoms: Equilateral triangle and collinear configurations

    SciTech Connect

    Salam, A.

    2013-12-28

    The theory of molecular quantum electrodynamics (QED) is used to calculate higher electric multipole contributions to the dispersion energy shift between three atoms or molecules arranged in a straight line or in an equilateral triangle configuration. As in two-body potentials, three-body dispersion interactions are viewed in the QED formalism to arise from exchange of virtual photons between coupled pairs of particles. By employing an interaction Hamiltonian that is quadratic in the electric displacement field means that third-order perturbation theory can be used to yield the energy shift for a particular combination of electric multipole polarizable species, with only six time-ordered diagrams needing to be summed over. Specific potentials evaluated include dipole-dipole-quadrupole (DDQ), dipole-quadrupole-quadrupole (DQQ), and dipole-dipole-octupole (DDO) terms. For the geometries of interest, near-zone limiting forms are found to exhibit an R{sup −11} dependence on separation distance for the DDQ interaction, and an R{sup −13} behaviour for DQQ and DDO shifts, agreeing with an earlier semi-classical computation. Retardation weakens the potential in each case by R{sup −1} in the far-zone. It is found that by decomposing the octupole moment into its irreducible components of weights-1 and -3 that the former contribution to the DDO potential may be taken to be a higher-order correction to the leading triple dipole energy shift.

  2. The construction of graph models for calculations of the properties of substitution isomers of basis structures on the basis of additivity of energy contributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nilov, D. Yu.; Smolyakov, V. M.

    2012-05-01

    A method for the construction of additive models for calculations of the properties of substitution isomers of basis structures is described for the example of a series of X-substituted methylsilanes CH3 - k X k -SiH3 - l X l (where X = CH3, F, Cl, …, k, l = 0, 1, 2, 3). The method is based on similarity of subgraphs in graphs of several molecules and the arrangement of polygonal numbers (triangular, tetrahedral) of the Pascal triangle. Parameters taking into account multiple nonvalence interactions (-C-Si<, >C-Si<, …) through two atoms along the molecular chain of an X-substituted methylsilane (X = CH3) were for the first time explicitly included in the calculation scheme. Taking these interactions into account allows us to completely differentiate all the structural isomers of certain molecules and obtain numerical parameter values for predicting properties P under consideration in various approximations. Numerical calculations of Δf H {g,298/K o} were performed for 16 alkylsilanes (as X-substituted methylsilanes), including 7 compounds not studied experimentally.

  3. Evaluation of Fluoride Retention Due to Most Commonly Consumed Estuarine Fishes Among Fish Consuming Population of Andhra Pradesh as a Contributing Factor to Dental Fluorosis: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Ganta, Shravani; Nagaraj, Anup; Pareek, Sonia; Sidiq, Mohsin; Singh, Kushpal; Vishnani, Preeti

    2015-01-01

    Background Fluoride in drinking water is known for both beneficial and detrimental effects on health. The principal sources of fluoride include water, some species of vegetation, certain edible marine animals, dust and industrial processes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the fluoride retention of most commonly consumed estuarine fishes among fish consuming population of Andhra Pradesh. Materials and Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted to evaluate the amount of fluoride retention due to ten most commonly consumed estuarine fishes as a contributing factor to Fluorosis by SPADNS Spectrophotometric method. The presence and severity of dental fluorosis among fish consuming population was recorded using Community Fluorosis Index. Statistical analysis was done using MedCalc v12.2.1.0 software. Results For Sea water fishes, the fluoride levels in bone were maximum in Indian Sardine (4.22 ppm). Amongst the river water fishes, the fluoride levels in bone were maximum in Catla (1.51 ppm). Also, the mean total fluoride concentrations of all the river fishes in skin, muscle and bone were less (0.86 ppm) as compared to the sea water fishes (2.59 ppm). It was unveiled that sea fishes accumulate relatively large amounts of Fluoride as compared to the river water fishes. The mean Community Fluorosis Index was found to be 1.06 amongst a sampled fish consuming population. Evaluation by Community Index for Dental fluorosis (CFI) suggested that fluorosis is of medium public health importance. Conclusion It was analysed that bone tends to accumulate more amount of fluoride followed by muscle and skin which might be due to the increased permeability and chemical trapping of fluoride inside the tissues. The amount of fluoride present in the fishes is directly related to the severity of fluorosis amongst fish consuming population, suggesting fishes as a contributing factor to fluorosis depending upon the dietary consumption. PMID:26266208

  4. Hyperproinsulinemia in a three-generation Caucasian family due to mutant proinsulin (Arg{sup 65}{yields}His) not associated with impaired glucose tolerance: The contribution of mutant proinsulin to insulin bioactivity

    SciTech Connect

    Roder, M.E.; Vissing, H.; Nauck, M.A.

    1996-04-01

    Familial hyperproinsulinemia is a genetic abnormality characterized by an increased proportion of proinsulin immunoreactivity in the circulation due to mutations affecting the posttranslational processing of proinsulin. In affected Japanese families, this has been associated with noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus or impaired glucose tolerance. A three-generation Caucasian family with hyperproinsulinemia was identified through unexplained hyperinsulinemia in a normal volunteer participating in a metabolic study. High pressure liquid chromatography analysis of fasting plasma revealed a major peak eluting close to the position of proinsulin. Direct sequencing of the proinsulin gene exon 3 showed a heterozygous point mutation (CGT{yields}CAT) resulting in the substitution of Arg{yields}His in position 65 (corresponding to the AC cleavage site) in the index case, his mother, and his maternal grandmother. All affected subjects had normal oral glucose tolerance. In the basal state and after oral glucose administration, their proinsulin responses were slightly reduced. However, when calculating insulin bioactivity by assuming 9% activity for mutant Arg{sup 65}{yields}His proinsulin, responses in affected subjects were comparable to those in normal subjects. In conclusion, our data demonstrate hyperproinsulinemia in a three-generation Caucasian family due to heterozygous mutant Arg{sup 65}{yields}His proinsulin. This was not associated with impaired glucose tolerance. These results suggest that this mutation in the heterozygous state per se does not affect glucose tolerance and that the biological activity of mutant proinsulin contributes to glucose homeostasis in this family. The association of the same mutation with impaired glucose tolerance or diabetes in previous studies may be the result of selection bias or associated conditions (e.g. the genetic background of the kindreds examined). 29 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. Food additives

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Michael

    1974-01-01

    Food additives are discussed from the food technology point of view. The reasons for their use are summarized: (1) to protect food from chemical and microbiological attack; (2) to even out seasonal supplies; (3) to improve their eating quality; (4) to improve their nutritional value. The various types of food additives are considered, e.g. colours, flavours, emulsifiers, bread and flour additives, preservatives, and nutritional additives. The paper concludes with consideration of those circumstances in which the use of additives is (a) justified and (b) unjustified. PMID:4467857

  6. Process Recovery after CaO Addition Due to Granule Formation in a CSTR Co-Digester—A Tool to Influence the Composition of the Microbial Community and Stabilize the Process?

    PubMed Central

    Liebrich, Marietta; Kleyböcker, Anne; Kasina, Monika; Miethling-Graff, Rona; Kassahun, Andrea; Würdemann, Hilke

    2016-01-01

    The composition, structure and function of granules formed during process recovery with calcium oxide in a laboratory-scale fermenter fed with sewage sludge and rapeseed oil were studied. In the course of over-acidification and successful process recovery, only minor changes were observed in the bacterial community of the digestate, while granules appeared during recovery. Fluorescence microscopic analysis of the granules showed a close spatial relationship between calcium and oil and/or long chain fatty acids. This finding further substantiated the hypothesis that calcium precipitated with carbon of organic origin and reduced the negative effects of overloading with oil. Furthermore, the enrichment of phosphate minerals in the granules was shown, and molecular biological analyses detected polyphosphate-accumulating organisms as well as methanogenic archaea in the core. Organisms related to Methanoculleus receptaculi were detected in the inner zones of a granule, whereas they were present in the digestate only after process recovery. This finding indicated more favorable microhabitats inside the granules that supported process recovery. Thus, the granule formation triggered by calcium oxide addition served as a tool to influence the composition of the microbial community and to stabilize the process after overloading with oil.

  7. Process Recovery after CaO Addition Due to Granule Formation in a CSTR Co-Digester-A Tool to Influence the Composition of the Microbial Community and Stabilize the Process?

    PubMed

    Liebrich, Marietta; Kleyböcker, Anne; Kasina, Monika; Miethling-Graff, Rona; Kassahun, Andrea; Würdemann, Hilke

    2016-03-17

    The composition, structure and function of granules formed during process recovery with calcium oxide in a laboratory-scale fermenter fed with sewage sludge and rapeseed oil were studied. In the course of over-acidification and successful process recovery, only minor changes were observed in the bacterial community of the digestate, while granules appeared during recovery. Fluorescence microscopic analysis of the granules showed a close spatial relationship between calcium and oil and/or long chain fatty acids. This finding further substantiated the hypothesis that calcium precipitated with carbon of organic origin and reduced the negative effects of overloading with oil. Furthermore, the enrichment of phosphate minerals in the granules was shown, and molecular biological analyses detected polyphosphate-accumulating organisms as well as methanogenic archaea in the core. Organisms related to Methanoculleus receptaculi were detected in the inner zones of a granule, whereas they were present in the digestate only after process recovery. This finding indicated more favorable microhabitats inside the granules that supported process recovery. Thus, the granule formation triggered by calcium oxide addition served as a tool to influence the composition of the microbial community and to stabilize the process after overloading with oil.

  8. Process Recovery after CaO Addition Due to Granule Formation in a CSTR Co-Digester-A Tool to Influence the Composition of the Microbial Community and Stabilize the Process?

    PubMed

    Liebrich, Marietta; Kleyböcker, Anne; Kasina, Monika; Miethling-Graff, Rona; Kassahun, Andrea; Würdemann, Hilke

    2016-01-01

    The composition, structure and function of granules formed during process recovery with calcium oxide in a laboratory-scale fermenter fed with sewage sludge and rapeseed oil were studied. In the course of over-acidification and successful process recovery, only minor changes were observed in the bacterial community of the digestate, while granules appeared during recovery. Fluorescence microscopic analysis of the granules showed a close spatial relationship between calcium and oil and/or long chain fatty acids. This finding further substantiated the hypothesis that calcium precipitated with carbon of organic origin and reduced the negative effects of overloading with oil. Furthermore, the enrichment of phosphate minerals in the granules was shown, and molecular biological analyses detected polyphosphate-accumulating organisms as well as methanogenic archaea in the core. Organisms related to Methanoculleus receptaculi were detected in the inner zones of a granule, whereas they were present in the digestate only after process recovery. This finding indicated more favorable microhabitats inside the granules that supported process recovery. Thus, the granule formation triggered by calcium oxide addition served as a tool to influence the composition of the microbial community and to stabilize the process after overloading with oil. PMID:27681911

  9. Process Recovery after CaO Addition Due to Granule Formation in a CSTR Co-Digester—A Tool to Influence the Composition of the Microbial Community and Stabilize the Process?

    PubMed Central

    Liebrich, Marietta; Kleyböcker, Anne; Kasina, Monika; Miethling-Graff, Rona; Kassahun, Andrea; Würdemann, Hilke

    2016-01-01

    The composition, structure and function of granules formed during process recovery with calcium oxide in a laboratory-scale fermenter fed with sewage sludge and rapeseed oil were studied. In the course of over-acidification and successful process recovery, only minor changes were observed in the bacterial community of the digestate, while granules appeared during recovery. Fluorescence microscopic analysis of the granules showed a close spatial relationship between calcium and oil and/or long chain fatty acids. This finding further substantiated the hypothesis that calcium precipitated with carbon of organic origin and reduced the negative effects of overloading with oil. Furthermore, the enrichment of phosphate minerals in the granules was shown, and molecular biological analyses detected polyphosphate-accumulating organisms as well as methanogenic archaea in the core. Organisms related to Methanoculleus receptaculi were detected in the inner zones of a granule, whereas they were present in the digestate only after process recovery. This finding indicated more favorable microhabitats inside the granules that supported process recovery. Thus, the granule formation triggered by calcium oxide addition served as a tool to influence the composition of the microbial community and to stabilize the process after overloading with oil. PMID:27681911

  10. Addition of the Neurokinin-1-Receptor Antagonist (RA) Aprepitant to a 5-Hydroxytryptamine-RA and Dexamethasone in the Prophylaxis of Nausea and Vomiting Due to Radiation Therapy With Concomitant Cisplatin

    SciTech Connect

    Jahn, Franziska; Jahn, Patrick; Sieker, Frank; Vordermark, Dirk; Jordan, Karin

    2015-08-01

    Purpose: To assess, in a prospective, observational study, the safety and efficacy of the addition of the neurokinin-1-receptor antagonist (NK1-RA) aprepitant to concomitant radiochemotherapy, for the prophylaxis of radiation therapy–induced nausea and vomiting. Patients and Methods: This prospective observational study compared the antiemetic efficacy of an NK1-RA (aprepitant), a 5-hydroxytryptamine-RA, and dexamethasone (aprepitant regimen) versus a 5-hydroxytryptamine-RA and dexamethasone (control regimen) in patients receiving concomitant radiochemotherapy with cisplatin at the Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Halle (Saale), Germany. The primary endpoint was complete response in the overall phase, defined as no vomiting and no use of rescue therapy in this period. Results: Fifty-nine patients treated with concomitant radiochemotherapy with cisplatin were included in this study. Thirty-one patients received the aprepitant regimen and 29 the control regimen. The overall complete response rates for cycles 1 and 2 were 75.9% and 64.5% for the aprepitant group and 60.7% and 54.2% for the control group, respectively. Although a 15.2% absolute difference was reached in cycle 1, a statistical significance was not detected (P=.22). Furthermore maximum nausea was 1.58 ± 1.91 in the control group and 0.73 ± 1.79 in the aprepitant group (P=.084); for the head-and-neck subset, 2.23 ± 2.13 in the control group and 0.64 ± 1.77 in the aprepitant group, respectively (P=.03). Conclusion: This is the first study of an NK1-RA–containing antiemetic prophylaxis regimen in patients receiving concomitant radiochemotherapy. Although the primary endpoint was not obtained, the absolute difference of 10% in efficacy was reached, which is defined as clinically meaningful for patients by international guidelines groups. Randomized phase 3 studies are necessary to further define the potential role of an NK1-RA in this setting.

  11. Phosphazene additives

    DOEpatents

    Harrup, Mason K; Rollins, Harry W

    2013-11-26

    An additive comprising a phosphazene compound that has at least two reactive functional groups and at least one capping functional group bonded to phosphorus atoms of the phosphazene compound. One of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with cellulose and the other of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with a resin, such as an amine resin of a polycarboxylic acid resin. The at least one capping functional group is selected from the group consisting of a short chain ether group, an alkoxy group, or an aryloxy group. Also disclosed are an additive-resin admixture, a method of treating a wood product, and a wood product.

  12. Potlining Additives

    SciTech Connect

    Rudolf Keller

    2004-08-10

    In this project, a concept to improve the performance of aluminum production cells by introducing potlining additives was examined and tested. Boron oxide was added to cathode blocks, and titanium was dissolved in the metal pool; this resulted in the formation of titanium diboride and caused the molten aluminum to wet the carbonaceous cathode surface. Such wetting reportedly leads to operational improvements and extended cell life. In addition, boron oxide suppresses cyanide formation. This final report presents and discusses the results of this project. Substantial economic benefits for the practical implementation of the technology are projected, especially for modern cells with graphitized blocks. For example, with an energy savings of about 5% and an increase in pot life from 1500 to 2500 days, a cost savings of $ 0.023 per pound of aluminum produced is projected for a 200 kA pot.

  13. Ca2+ toxicity due to reverse Na+/Ca2+ exchange contributes to degeneration of neurites of DRG neurons induced by a neuropathy-associated Nav1.7 mutation.

    PubMed

    Estacion, M; Vohra, B P S; Liu, S; Hoeijmakers, J; Faber, C G; Merkies, I S J; Lauria, G; Black, J A; Waxman, S G

    2015-09-01

    Gain-of-function missense mutations in voltage-gated sodium channel Nav1.7 have been linked to small-fiber neuropathy, which is characterized by burning pain, dysautonomia and a loss of intraepidermal nerve fibers. However, the mechanistic cascades linking Nav1.7 mutations to axonal degeneration are incompletely understood. The G856D mutation in Nav1.7 produces robust changes in channel biophysical properties, including hyperpolarized activation, depolarized inactivation, and enhanced ramp and persistent currents, which contribute to the hyperexcitability exhibited by neurons containing Nav1.8. We report here that cell bodies and neurites of dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons transfected with G856D display increased levels of intracellular Na(+) concentration ([Na(+)]) and intracellular [Ca(2+)] following stimulation with high [K(+)] compared with wild-type (WT) Nav1.7-expressing neurons. Blockade of reverse mode of the sodium/calcium exchanger (NCX) or of sodium channels attenuates [Ca(2+)] transients evoked by high [K(+)] in G856D-expressing DRG cell bodies and neurites. We also show that treatment of WT or G856D-expressing neurites with high [K(+)] or 2-deoxyglucose (2-DG) does not elicit degeneration of these neurites, but that high [K(+)] and 2-DG in combination evokes degeneration of G856D neurites but not WT neurites. Our results also demonstrate that 0 Ca(2+) or blockade of reverse mode of NCX protects G856D-expressing neurites from degeneration when exposed to high [K(+)] and 2-DG. These results point to [Na(+)] overload in DRG neurons expressing mutant G856D Nav1.7, which triggers reverse mode of NCX and contributes to Ca(2+) toxicity, and suggest subtype-specific blockade of Nav1.7 or inhibition of reverse NCX as strategies that might slow or prevent axon degeneration in small-fiber neuropathy. PMID:26156380

  14. Ca2+ toxicity due to reverse Na+/Ca2+ exchange contributes to degeneration of neurites of DRG neurons induced by a neuropathy-associated Nav1.7 mutation

    PubMed Central

    Estacion, M.; Vohra, B. P. S; Liu, S.; Hoeijmakers, J.; Faber, C. G.; Merkies, I. S. J.; Lauria, G.; Black, J. A.

    2015-01-01

    Gain-of-function missense mutations in voltage-gated sodium channel Nav1.7 have been linked to small-fiber neuropathy, which is characterized by burning pain, dysautonomia and a loss of intraepidermal nerve fibers. However, the mechanistic cascades linking Nav1.7 mutations to axonal degeneration are incompletely understood. The G856D mutation in Nav1.7 produces robust changes in channel biophysical properties, including hyperpolarized activation, depolarized inactivation, and enhanced ramp and persistent currents, which contribute to the hyperexcitability exhibited by neurons containing Nav1.8. We report here that cell bodies and neurites of dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons transfected with G856D display increased levels of intracellular Na+ concentration ([Na+]) and intracellular [Ca2+] following stimulation with high [K+] compared with wild-type (WT) Nav1.7-expressing neurons. Blockade of reverse mode of the sodium/calcium exchanger (NCX) or of sodium channels attenuates [Ca2+] transients evoked by high [K+] in G856D-expressing DRG cell bodies and neurites. We also show that treatment of WT or G856D-expressing neurites with high [K+] or 2-deoxyglucose (2-DG) does not elicit degeneration of these neurites, but that high [K+] and 2-DG in combination evokes degeneration of G856D neurites but not WT neurites. Our results also demonstrate that 0 Ca2+ or blockade of reverse mode of NCX protects G856D-expressing neurites from degeneration when exposed to high [K+] and 2-DG. These results point to [Na+] overload in DRG neurons expressing mutant G856D Nav1.7, which triggers reverse mode of NCX and contributes to Ca2+ toxicity, and suggest subtype-specific blockade of Nav1.7 or inhibition of reverse NCX as strategies that might slow or prevent axon degeneration in small-fiber neuropathy. PMID:26156380

  15. Positive and Negative Contributions in the Solvation Enthalpy due to Specific Interactions in Binary Mixtures of C1-C4 n-Alkanols and Chloroform with Butan-2-one.

    PubMed

    Varfolomeev, Mikhail A; Rakipov, Ilnaz T; Solomonov, Boris N; Lodowski, Piotr; Marczak, Wojciech

    2015-06-25

    In the paper, results of calorimetric measurements, IR spectra, and calculated ab initio stabilization energies of dimers are reported for binary systems butan-2-one + (methanol, ethanol, propan-1-ol, butan-1-ol, and chloroform). Changes in the total enthalpy of specific interactions due to dissolution of butan-2-one in the alcohols, calculated using equations derived in previous works, are positive. That results from the endothermic breaking of the O-H···O-H bonds not completely compensated by the exothermic effects of formation of the O-H···O═C ones. Moreover, the concentration of nonbonded molecules of butan-2-one is significant even in dilute solutions, as is evidenced by the shape of the C═O stretching vibrations band in the IR spectra. Apart from that, the spectra do not confirm 1:2 complexes in spite of two lone electron pairs in the carbonyl group of butan-2-one capable of forming the hydrogen bonds. The changes in enthalpy of specific interactions are negative for dilute solutions of alcohols and chloroform in butan-2-one and of butan-2-one in chloroform, because no hydrogen bonds occur in pure butan-2-one. The experimental results are positively correlated with the enthalpies estimated from the ab initio energies using a simple "chemical reaction" approach. PMID:26012694

  16. Positive and Negative Contributions in the Solvation Enthalpy due to Specific Interactions in Binary Mixtures of C1-C4 n-Alkanols and Chloroform with Butan-2-one.

    PubMed

    Varfolomeev, Mikhail A; Rakipov, Ilnaz T; Solomonov, Boris N; Lodowski, Piotr; Marczak, Wojciech

    2015-06-25

    In the paper, results of calorimetric measurements, IR spectra, and calculated ab initio stabilization energies of dimers are reported for binary systems butan-2-one + (methanol, ethanol, propan-1-ol, butan-1-ol, and chloroform). Changes in the total enthalpy of specific interactions due to dissolution of butan-2-one in the alcohols, calculated using equations derived in previous works, are positive. That results from the endothermic breaking of the O-H···O-H bonds not completely compensated by the exothermic effects of formation of the O-H···O═C ones. Moreover, the concentration of nonbonded molecules of butan-2-one is significant even in dilute solutions, as is evidenced by the shape of the C═O stretching vibrations band in the IR spectra. Apart from that, the spectra do not confirm 1:2 complexes in spite of two lone electron pairs in the carbonyl group of butan-2-one capable of forming the hydrogen bonds. The changes in enthalpy of specific interactions are negative for dilute solutions of alcohols and chloroform in butan-2-one and of butan-2-one in chloroform, because no hydrogen bonds occur in pure butan-2-one. The experimental results are positively correlated with the enthalpies estimated from the ab initio energies using a simple "chemical reaction" approach.

  17. A Profile of Corporate Contributions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Hayden W.

    The extent and distribution of charitable contributions by corporations were studied. In addition to a history of giving from 1936 to 1981, information is presented on corporate contributions in 1977 in terms of the distribution of companies (1) by size of contributions, (2) by contributions as percentage of net income, (3) by industry, and (4) by…

  18. Nobel Prizes: Contributions to Cardiology

    PubMed Central

    Mesquita, Evandro Tinoco; Marchese, Luana de Decco; Dias, Danielle Warol; Barbeito, Andressa Brasil; Gomes, Jonathan Costa; Muradas, Maria Clara Soares; Lanzieri, Pedro Gemal; Gismondi, Ronaldo Altenburg

    2015-01-01

    The Nobel Prize was created by Alfred Nobel. The first prize was awarded in 1901 and Emil Adolf von Behring was the first laureate in medicine due to his research in diphtheria serum. Regarding cardiology, Nobel Prize’s history permits a global comprehension of progress in pathophysiology, diagnosis and therapeutics of various cardiac diseases in last 120 years. The objective of this study was to review the major scientific discoveries contemplated by Nobel Prizes that contributed to cardiology. In addition, we also hypothesized why Carlos Chagas, one of our most important scientists, did not win the prize in two occasions. We carried out a non-systematic review of Nobel Prize winners, selecting the main studies relevant to heart diseaseamong the laureates. In the period between 1901 and 2013, 204 researches and 104 prizes were awarded in Nobel Prize, of which 16 (15%) studies were important for cardiovascular area. There were 33 (16%) laureates, and two (6%) were women. Fourteen (42%) were American, 15 (45%) Europeans and four (13%) were from other countries. There was only one winner born in Brazil, Peter Medawar, whose career was all in England. Reviewing the history of the Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine area made possible to identify which researchers and studies had contributed to advances in the diagnosis, prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Most winners were North Americans and Europeans, and male. PMID:25945466

  19. Nobel prizes: contributions to cardiology.

    PubMed

    Mesquita, Evandro Tinoco; Marchese, Luana de Decco; Dias, Danielle Warol; Barbeito, Andressa Brasil; Gomes, Jonathan Costa; Muradas, Maria Clara Soares; Lanzieri, Pedro Gemal; Gismondi, Ronaldo Altenburg

    2015-08-01

    The Nobel Prize was created by Alfred Nobel. The first prize was awarded in 1901 and Emil Adolf von Behring was the first laureate in medicine due to his research in diphtheria serum. Regarding cardiology, Nobel Prize's history permits a global comprehension of progress in pathophysiology, diagnosis and therapeutics of various cardiac diseases in last 120 years. The objective of this study was to review the major scientific discoveries contemplated by Nobel Prizes that contributed to cardiology. In addition, we also hypothesized why Carlos Chagas, one of our most important scientists, did not win the prize in two occasions. We carried out a non-systematic review of Nobel Prize winners, selecting the main studies relevant to heart diseaseamong the laureates. In the period between 1901 and 2013, 204 researches and 104 prizes were awarded in Nobel Prize, of which 16 (15%) studies were important for cardiovascular area. There were 33 (16%) laureates, and two (6%) were women. Fourteen (42%) were American, 15 (45%) Europeans and four (13%) were from other countries. There was only one winner born in Brazil, Peter Medawar, whose career was all in England. Reviewing the history of the Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine area made possible to identify which researchers and studies had contributed to advances in the diagnosis, prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Most winners were North Americans and Europeans, and male. PMID:25945466

  20. Nobel prizes: contributions to cardiology.

    PubMed

    Mesquita, Evandro Tinoco; Marchese, Luana de Decco; Dias, Danielle Warol; Barbeito, Andressa Brasil; Gomes, Jonathan Costa; Muradas, Maria Clara Soares; Lanzieri, Pedro Gemal; Gismondi, Ronaldo Altenburg

    2015-08-01

    The Nobel Prize was created by Alfred Nobel. The first prize was awarded in 1901 and Emil Adolf von Behring was the first laureate in medicine due to his research in diphtheria serum. Regarding cardiology, Nobel Prize's history permits a global comprehension of progress in pathophysiology, diagnosis and therapeutics of various cardiac diseases in last 120 years. The objective of this study was to review the major scientific discoveries contemplated by Nobel Prizes that contributed to cardiology. In addition, we also hypothesized why Carlos Chagas, one of our most important scientists, did not win the prize in two occasions. We carried out a non-systematic review of Nobel Prize winners, selecting the main studies relevant to heart diseaseamong the laureates. In the period between 1901 and 2013, 204 researches and 104 prizes were awarded in Nobel Prize, of which 16 (15%) studies were important for cardiovascular area. There were 33 (16%) laureates, and two (6%) were women. Fourteen (42%) were American, 15 (45%) Europeans and four (13%) were from other countries. There was only one winner born in Brazil, Peter Medawar, whose career was all in England. Reviewing the history of the Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine area made possible to identify which researchers and studies had contributed to advances in the diagnosis, prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Most winners were North Americans and Europeans, and male.

  1. Maternal mortality due to trauma.

    PubMed

    Romero, Vivian Carolina; Pearlman, Mark

    2012-02-01

    Maternal mortality is an important indicator of adequacy of health care in our society. Improvements in the obstetric care system as well as advances in technology have contributed to reduction in maternal mortality rates. Trauma complicates up to 7% of all pregnancies and has emerged as the leading cause of maternal mortality, becoming a significant concern for the public health system. Maternal mortality secondary to trauma can often be prevented by coordinated medical care, but it is essential that caregivers recognize the unique situation of providing simultaneous care to 2 patients who have a complex physiologic relationship. Optimal management of the pregnant trauma victim requires a multidisciplinary team, where the obstetrician plays a central role. This review focuses on the incidence of maternal mortality due to trauma, the mechanisms involved in traumatic injury, the important anatomic and physiologic changes that may predispose to mortality due to trauma, and finally, preventive strategies that may decrease the incidence of traumatic maternal death.

  2. Human due diligence.

    PubMed

    Harding, David; Rouse, Ted

    2007-04-01

    Most companies do a thorough job of financial due diligence when they acquire other companies. But all too often, deal makers simply ignore or underestimate the significance of people issues in mergers and acquisitions. The consequences are severe. Most obviously, there's a high degree of talent loss after a deal's announcement. To make matters worse, differences in decision-making styles lead to infighting; integration stalls; and productivity declines. The good news is that human due diligence can help companies avoid these problems. Done early enough, it helps acquirers decide whether to embrace or kill a deal and determine the price they are willing to pay. It also lays the groundwork for smooth integration. When acquirers have done their homework, they can uncover capability gaps, points of friction, and differences in decision making. Even more important, they can make the critical "people" decisions-who stays, who goes, who runs the combined business, what to do with the rank and file-at the time the deal is announced or shortly thereafter. Making such decisions within the first 30 days is critical to the success of a deal. Hostile situations clearly make things more difficult, but companies can and must still do a certain amount of human due diligence to reduce the inevitable fallout from the acquisition process and smooth the integration. This article details the steps involved in conducting human due diligence. The approach is structured around answering five basic questions: Who is the cultural acquirer? What kind of organization do you want? Will the two cultures mesh? Who are the people you most want to retain? And how will rank-and-file employees react to the deal? Unless an acquiring company has answered these questions to its satisfaction, the acquisition it is making will be very likely to end badly.

  3. 45 CFR 1627.5 - Contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contributions. 1627.5 Section 1627.5 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) LEGAL SERVICES CORPORATION SUBGRANTS AND MEMBERSHIP FEES OR DUES § 1627.5 Contributions. Any contributions or gifts of Corporation funds to...

  4. [Food additives and healthiness].

    PubMed

    Heinonen, Marina

    2014-01-01

    Additives are used for improving food structure or preventing its spoilage, for example. Many substances used as additives are also naturally present in food. The safety of additives is evaluated according to commonly agreed principles. If high concentrations of an additive cause adverse health effects for humans, a limit of acceptable daily intake (ADI) is set for it. An additive is a risk only when ADI is exceeded. The healthiness of food is measured on the basis of nutrient density and scientifically proven effects.

  5. The importance of the presence of a 5'-ribonucleotide and the contribution of the T1R1 + T1R3 heterodimer and an additional low-affinity receptor in the taste detection of L-glutamate as assessed psychophysically.

    PubMed

    Smith, Kimberly R; Spector, Alan C

    2014-09-24

    The molecular receptors underlying the purported "umami" taste quality commonly associated with l-glutamate have been controversial. Evidence supports the involvement of the T1R1 + T1R3 heterodimer, a GPCR broadly tuned to l-amino acids, but variants of two mGluRs expressed in taste buds have also been implicated. Using a rigorous psychophysical taste-testing paradigm, we demonstrated impaired, if not eliminated, detection of MSG in WT and T1R1, T1R2, T1R3, and T1R2 + T1R3 KO mice when the contribution of sodium was minimized by the epithelial sodium channel blocker amiloride. When inosine 5'-monophosphate (IMP), a ribonucleotide that potentiates the l-glutamate signal through the T1R1 + T1R3 heterodimer, was added, the WT and T1R2 KO mice were able to detect the compound stimulus across all MSG (+amiloride) concentrations due, in part, to the taste of IMP. In contrast, mice lacking T1R1 or T1R3 could not detect IMP alone, yet some were able to detect MSG + amiloride + IMP, but only at the higher MSG concentrations. Interestingly, the sensitivity of T1R1 KO mice to another l-amino acid, lysine, was unimpaired, suggesting that some l-amino acids can be detected through T1R1 + T1R3-independent receptors without sensitivity loss. Given that IMP is not thought to affect mGluRs, behavioral detection of l-glutamate appears to require the contribution of the T1R1 + T1R3 receptor. However, the partial competence observed in some T1R1 and T1R3 KO mice when MSG + amiloride + IMP was tested suggests that a T1R1 or T1R3 homodimer or an unidentified protein, perhaps in conjunction with T1R1 or T1R3, can serve as a low-affinity taste receptor for l-glutamate in the presence of IMP.

  6. Clinical effects of sulphite additives.

    PubMed

    Vally, H; Misso, N L A; Madan, V

    2009-11-01

    Sulphites are widely used as preservative and antioxidant additives in the food and pharmaceutical industries. Topical, oral or parenteral exposure to sulphites has been reported to induce a range of adverse clinical effects in sensitive individuals, ranging from dermatitis, urticaria, flushing, hypotension, abdominal pain and diarrhoea to life-threatening anaphylactic and asthmatic reactions. Exposure to the sulphites arises mainly from the consumption of foods and drinks that contain these additives; however, exposure may also occur through the use of pharmaceutical products, as well as in occupational settings. While contact sensitivity to sulphite additives in topical medications is increasingly being recognized, skin reactions also occur after ingestion of or parenteral exposure to sulphites. Most studies report a 3-10% prevalence of sulphite sensitivity among asthmatic subjects following ingestion of these additives. However, the severity of these reactions varies, and steroid-dependent asthmatics, those with marked airway hyperresponsiveness, and children with chronic asthma, appear to be at greater risk. In addition to episodic and acute symptoms, sulphites may also contribute to chronic skin and respiratory symptoms. To date, the mechanisms underlying sulphite sensitivity remain unclear, although a number of potential mechanisms have been proposed. Physicians should be aware of the range of clinical manifestations of sulphite sensitivity, as well as the potential sources of exposure. Minor modifications to diet or behaviour lead to excellent clinical outcomes for sulphite-sensitive individuals.

  7. Food additives and preschool children.

    PubMed

    Martyn, Danika M; McNulty, Breige A; Nugent, Anne P; Gibney, Michael J

    2013-02-01

    Food additives have been used throughout history to perform specific functions in foods. A comprehensive framework of legislation is in place within Europe to control the use of additives in the food supply and ensure they pose no risk to human health. Further to this, exposure assessments are regularly carried out to monitor population intakes and verify that intakes are not above acceptable levels (acceptable daily intakes). Young children may have a higher dietary exposure to chemicals than adults due to a combination of rapid growth rates and distinct food intake patterns. For this reason, exposure assessments are particularly important in this age group. The paper will review the use of additives and exposure assessment methods and examine factors that affect dietary exposure by young children. One of the most widely investigated unfavourable health effects associated with food additive intake in preschool-aged children are suggested adverse behavioural effects. Research that has examined this relationship has reported a variety of responses, with many noting an increase in hyperactivity as reported by parents but not when assessed using objective examiners. This review has examined the experimental approaches used in such studies and suggests that efforts are needed to standardise objective methods of measuring behaviour in preschool children. Further to this, a more holistic approach to examining food additive intakes by preschool children is advisable, where overall exposure is considered rather than focusing solely on behavioural effects and possibly examining intakes of food additives other than food colours.

  8. Polyimide processing additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fletcher, James C. (Inventor); Pratt, J. Richard (Inventor); St.clair, Terry L. (Inventor); Stoakley, Diane M. (Inventor); Burks, Harold D. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A process for preparing polyimides having enhanced melt flow properties is described. The process consists of heating a mixture of a high molecular weight poly-(amic acid) or polyimide with a low molecular weight amic acid or imide additive in the range of 0.05 to 15 percent by weight of additive. The polyimide powders so obtained show improved processability, as evidenced by lower melt viscosity by capillary rheometry. Likewise, films prepared from mixtures of polymers with additives show improved processability with earlier onset of stretching by TMA.

  9. Polyimide processing additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pratt, J. Richard (Inventor); St.clair, Terry L. (Inventor); Stoakley, Diane M. (Inventor); Burks, Harold D. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A process for preparing polyimides having enhanced melt flow properties is described. The process consists of heating a mixture of a high molecular weight poly-(amic acid) or polyimide with a low molecular weight amic acid or imide additive in the range of 0.05 to 15 percent by weight of the additive. The polyimide powders so obtained show improved processability, as evidenced by lower melt viscosity by capillary rheometry. Likewise, films prepared from mixtures of polymers with additives show improved processability with earlier onset of stretching by TMA.

  10. [An infant with a fatal cerebral hemorrhage due to vitamin K deficiency].

    PubMed

    Hack, W W; van der Blij, J F; Tegelaers, F P; Peters, M

    1996-04-27

    A 7-week old, male infant died from an intracerebral haemorrhage due to vitamin K deficiency. He had been exclusively breast-fed. Directly after birth no vitamin K was administered. From day 10 a daily dose of 25 microgram vitamin K was given orally. At post mortem a mild cholestasis was found which may have been an additional factor contributing to late vitamin K deficiency.

  11. Additional Types of Neuropathy

    MedlinePlus

    ... A A Listen En Español Additional Types of Neuropathy Charcot's Joint Charcot's Joint, also called neuropathic arthropathy, ... can stop bone destruction and aid healing. Cranial Neuropathy Cranial neuropathy affects the 12 pairs of nerves ...

  12. Food Additives and Hyperkinesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wender, Ester H.

    1977-01-01

    The hypothesis that food additives are causally associated with hyperkinesis and learning disabilities in children is reviewed, and available data are summarized. Available from: American Medical Association 535 North Dearborn Street Chicago, Illinois 60610. (JG)

  13. Smog control fuel additives

    SciTech Connect

    Lundby, W.

    1993-06-29

    A method is described of controlling, reducing or eliminating, ozone and related smog resulting from photochemical reactions between ozone and automotive or industrial gases comprising the addition of iodine or compounds of iodine to hydrocarbon-base fuels prior to or during combustion in an amount of about 1 part iodine per 240 to 10,000,000 parts fuel, by weight, to be accomplished by: (a) the addition of these inhibitors during or after the refining or manufacturing process of liquid fuels; (b) the production of these inhibitors for addition into fuel tanks, such as automotive or industrial tanks; or (c) the addition of these inhibitors into combustion chambers of equipment utilizing solid fuels for the purpose of reducing ozone.

  14. Additives for cement compositions based on modified peat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopanitsa, Natalya; Sarkisov, Yurij; Gorshkova, Aleksandra; Demyanenko, Olga

    2016-01-01

    High quality competitive dry building mixes require modifying additives for various purposes to be included in their composition. There is insufficient amount of quality additives having stable properties for controlling the properties of cement compositions produced in Russia. Using of foreign modifying additives leads to significant increasing of the final cost of the product. The cost of imported modifiers in the composition of the dry building mixes can be up to 90% of the material cost, depending on the composition complexity. Thus, the problem of import substitution becomes relevant, especially in recent years, due to difficult economic situation. The article discusses the possibility of using local raw materials as a basis for obtaining dry building mixtures components. The properties of organo-mineral additives for cement compositions based on thermally modified peat raw materials are studied. Studies of the structure and composition of the additives are carried out by physicochemical research methods: electron microscopy and X-ray analysis. Results of experimental research showed that the peat additives contribute to improving of cement-sand mortar strength and hydrophysical properties.

  15. Additive Manufacturing Infrared Inspection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaddy, Darrell

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing is a rapid prototyping technology that allows parts to be built in a series of thin layers from plastic, ceramics, and metallics. Metallic additive manufacturing is an emerging form of rapid prototyping that allows complex structures to be built using various metallic powders. Significant time and cost savings have also been observed using the metallic additive manufacturing compared with traditional techniques. Development of the metallic additive manufacturing technology has advanced significantly over the last decade, although many of the techniques to inspect parts made from these processes have not advanced significantly or have limitations. Several external geometry inspection techniques exist such as Coordinate Measurement Machines (CMM), Laser Scanners, Structured Light Scanning Systems, or even traditional calipers and gages. All of the aforementioned techniques are limited to external geometry and contours or must use a contact probe to inspect limited internal dimensions. This presentation will document the development of a process for real-time dimensional inspection technique and digital quality record of the additive manufacturing process using Infrared camera imaging and processing techniques.

  16. Phenylethynyl Containing Reactive Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John W. (Inventor); Smith, Joseph G., Jr. (Inventor); Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Phenylethynyl containing reactive additives were prepared from aromatic diamine, containing phenylethvnvl groups and various ratios of phthalic anhydride and 4-phenylethynviphthalic anhydride in glacial acetic acid to form the imide in one step or in N-methyl-2-pvrrolidinone to form the amide acid intermediate. The reactive additives were mixed in various amounts (10% to 90%) with oligomers containing either terminal or pendent phenylethynyl groups (or both) to reduce the melt viscosity and thereby enhance processability. Upon thermal cure, the additives react and become chemically incorporated into the matrix and effect an increase in crosslink density relative to that of the host resin. This resultant increase in crosslink density has advantageous consequences on the cured resin properties such as higher glass transition temperature and higher modulus as compared to that of the host resin.

  17. Multifunctional fuel additives

    SciTech Connect

    Baillargeon, D.J.; Cardis, A.B.; Heck, D.B.

    1991-03-26

    This paper discusses a composition comprising a major amount of a liquid hydrocarbyl fuel and a minor low-temperature flow properties improving amount of an additive product of the reaction of a suitable diol and product of a benzophenone tetracarboxylic dianhydride and a long-chain hydrocarbyl aminoalcohol.

  18. Biobased lubricant additives

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fully biobased lubricants are those formulated using all biobased ingredients, i.e. biobased base oils and biobased additives. Such formulations provide the maximum environmental, safety, and economic benefits expected from a biobased product. Currently, there are a number of biobased base oils that...

  19. Pulmonary Complications due to Esophagectomy

    PubMed Central

    Shirinzadeh, Abulfazl; Talebi, Yashar

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Esophageal carcinoma is the scourge of human beings. Pulmonary complications in patients who have undergone operation are common (20-30% of cases) and there are no suitable tools and ways to predict these complications. Methods During a period of 10 years, from March 1998 to February 2007, 200 patients (150 male and 50 female) underwent Esophagectomy due to esophageal carcinoma in thoracic surgery ward retrospectively. Complications include the length of hospitalization, mechanical ventilation, morbidity and mortality. Patients’ risk factors include age, preoperative chemo-radiotherapy, stage of the disease and preoperative spirometry condition. Results We grouped our patients into three categories: Normal (FEV1 ≥ 80% predicted), mildly impaired (FEV1 65% to 79% predicted), more severely impaired (FEV1 < 65% predicted).Although almost all patients had radiographic pulmonary abnormalities, significant pulmonary complications occurred in 40 patients (20%) which underwent Esophagectomy. Pleural effusion and atelectasia in 160 patients (80%). 24 patients needed chest-tube insertion. 20 patients (10%) developed ARDS. 14 patients (7%) developed chylothorax. 20 patients (10%) of patients died during their postoperative hospital stay. 30 patients (15%) required mechanical ventilation for greater than 48 hours. Conclusion We reviewed a number of preoperative clinical variables to determine whether they contributed to postoperative pulmonary complications as well as other outcomes. In general, age, impaired pulmonary function especially in those patients with FEV1 less than 65% predicted was associated with prolonged hospital length of stay (LOS). In fact pulmonary complications rate after Esophagectomy are high and there was associated mortality and morbidity. PMID:24250962

  20. Vinyl capped addition polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vannucci, Raymond D. (Inventor); Malarik, Diane C. (Inventor); Delvigs, Peter (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    Polyimide resins (PMR) are generally useful where high strength and temperature capabilities are required (at temperatures up to about 700 F). Polyimide resins are particularly useful in applications such as jet engine compressor components, for example, blades, vanes, air seals, air splitters, and engine casing parts. Aromatic vinyl capped addition polyimides are obtained by reacting a diamine, an ester of tetracarboxylic acid, and an aromatic vinyl compound. Low void materials with improved oxidative stability when exposed to 700 F air may be fabricated as fiber reinforced high molecular weight capped polyimide composites. The aromatic vinyl capped polyimides are provided with a more aromatic nature and are more thermally stable than highly aliphatic, norbornenyl-type end-capped polyimides employed in PMR resins. The substitution of aromatic vinyl end-caps for norbornenyl end-caps in addition polyimides results in polymers with improved oxidative stability.

  1. Tackifier for addition polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, J. M.; St.clair, T. L.

    1980-01-01

    A modification to the addition polyimide, LaRC-160, was prepared to improve tack and drape and increase prepeg out-time. The essentially solventless, high viscosity laminating resin is synthesized from low cost liquid monomers. The modified version takes advantage of a reactive, liquid plasticizer which is used in place of solvent and helps solve a major problem of maintaining good prepeg tack and drape, or the ability of the prepeg to adhere to adjacent plies and conform to a desired shape during the lay up process. This alternate solventless approach allows both longer life of the polymer prepeg and the processing of low void laminates. This approach appears to be applicable to all addition polyimide systems.

  2. Electrophilic addition of astatine

    SciTech Connect

    Norseev, Yu.V.; Vasaros, L.; Nhan, D.D.; Huan, N.K.

    1988-03-01

    It has been shown for the first time that astatine is capable of undergoing addition reactions to unsaturated hydrocarbons. A new compound of astatine, viz., ethylene astatohydrin, has been obtained, and its retention numbers of squalane, Apiezon, and tricresyl phosphate have been found. The influence of various factors on the formation of ethylene astatohydrin has been studied. It has been concluded on the basis of the results obtained that the univalent cations of astatine in an acidic medium is protonated hypoastatous acid.

  3. Functional Generalized Additive Models.

    PubMed

    McLean, Mathew W; Hooker, Giles; Staicu, Ana-Maria; Scheipl, Fabian; Ruppert, David

    2014-01-01

    We introduce the functional generalized additive model (FGAM), a novel regression model for association studies between a scalar response and a functional predictor. We model the link-transformed mean response as the integral with respect to t of F{X(t), t} where F(·,·) is an unknown regression function and X(t) is a functional covariate. Rather than having an additive model in a finite number of principal components as in Müller and Yao (2008), our model incorporates the functional predictor directly and thus our model can be viewed as the natural functional extension of generalized additive models. We estimate F(·,·) using tensor-product B-splines with roughness penalties. A pointwise quantile transformation of the functional predictor is also considered to ensure each tensor-product B-spline has observed data on its support. The methods are evaluated using simulated data and their predictive performance is compared with other competing scalar-on-function regression alternatives. We illustrate the usefulness of our approach through an application to brain tractography, where X(t) is a signal from diffusion tensor imaging at position, t, along a tract in the brain. In one example, the response is disease-status (case or control) and in a second example, it is the score on a cognitive test. R code for performing the simulations and fitting the FGAM can be found in supplemental materials available online.

  4. Acoustic-optic spectrometer. 1: Noise contributions and system consideration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chin, G.

    1984-01-01

    An acousto-optic spectrometer (AOS) used as an IF spectrometer to a heterodyne receiver is modeled as a total power multi-channel integrating receiver. Systematic noise contributions common to all total power, time integrating receivers, as well as noise terms unique to the use of optical elements and photo-detectors in an AOS are identified and discussed. In addition, degradation of signal-to-noise ratio of an unbalanced Dicke receiver compared to a balanced Dicke receiver is found to be due to gain calibration processing and is not an instrumental effect.

  5. Reduction in maternal mortality due to sepsis.

    PubMed

    Chhabra, S; Kaipa, A; Kakani, A

    2005-02-01

    The present study was undertaken at a rural medical institute in India to analyse the trends in maternal mortality due to sepsis and the factors associated with change, if any. During the study period of 20 years, a total of 37,155 women delivered, 192 deaths occurred and forty deaths (20.83%) were due to sepsis and it's sequlae. It was revealed that there is a definite decrease in the proportion of deaths due to sepsis, to 10% in the last five years from 35% in earlier years. The change seems to be due to the advocacy of clean deliveries and reduction in case fatality because of alterations in medication and earlier surgical intervention. However the percentage contribution of septic abortion has remained the same. Septic abortion continues to exist inspite of all the current laws and discussion about the availability of a liberal law, which permits abortion almost on request. Most of the women who had died due to septic abortion were married (65%). Deaths due to septic abortion, are persisting even in married women and it is a matter of concern for health providers, policy makers and governments. PMID:15814392

  6. Performance Boosting Additive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Mainstream Engineering Corporation was awarded Phase I and Phase II contracts from Goddard Space Flight Center's Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program in early 1990. With support from the SBIR program, Mainstream Engineering Corporation has developed a unique low cost additive, QwikBoost (TM), that increases the performance of air conditioners, heat pumps, refrigerators, and freezers. Because of the energy and environmental benefits of QwikBoost, Mainstream received the Tibbetts Award at a White House Ceremony on October 16, 1997. QwikBoost was introduced at the 1998 International Air Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration Exposition. QwikBoost is packaged in a handy 3-ounce can (pressurized with R-134a) and will be available for automotive air conditioning systems in summer 1998.

  7. Sewage sludge additive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalvinskas, J. J.; Mueller, W. A.; Ingham, J. D. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    The additive is for a raw sewage treatment process of the type where settling tanks are used for the purpose of permitting the suspended matter in the raw sewage to be settled as well as to permit adsorption of the dissolved contaminants in the water of the sewage. The sludge, which settles down to the bottom of the settling tank is extracted, pyrolyzed and activated to form activated carbon and ash which is mixed with the sewage prior to its introduction into the settling tank. The sludge does not provide all of the activated carbon and ash required for adequate treatment of the raw sewage. It is necessary to add carbon to the process and instead of expensive commercial carbon, coal is used to provide the carbon supplement.

  8. Perspectives on Additive Manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourell, David L.

    2016-07-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) has skyrocketed in visibility commercially and in the public sector. This article describes the development of this field from early layered manufacturing approaches of photosculpture, topography, and material deposition. Certain precursors to modern AM processes are also briefly described. The growth of the field over the last 30 years is presented. Included is the standard delineation of AM technologies into seven broad categories. The economics of AM part generation is considered, and the impacts of the economics on application sectors are described. On the basis of current trends, the future outlook will include a convergence of AM fabricators, mass-produced AM fabricators, enabling of topology optimization designs, and specialization in the AM legal arena. Long-term developments with huge impact are organ printing and volume-based printing.

  9. Sarks as additional fermions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agrawal, Jyoti; Frampton, Paul H.; Jack Ng, Y.; Nishino, Hitoshi; Yasuda, Osamu

    1991-03-01

    An extension of the standard model is proposed. The gauge group is SU(2) X ⊗ SU(3) C ⊗ SU(2) S ⊗ U(1) Q, where all gauge symmetries are unbroken. The colour and electric charge are combined with SU(2) S which becomes strongly coupled at approximately 500 GeV and binds preons to form fermionic and vector bound states. The usual quarks and leptons are singlets under SU(2) X but additional fermions, called sarks. transform under it and the electroweak group. The present model explains why no more than three light quark-lepton families can exist. Neutral sark baryons, called narks, are candidates for the cosmological dark matter having the characteristics designed for WIMPS. Further phenomenological implications of sarks are analyzed i including electron-positron annihilation. Z 0 decay, flavor-changing neutral currents. baryon-number non-conservation, sarkonium and the neutron electric dipole moment.

  10. A novel addition polyimide adhesive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    St.clair, T. L.; Progar, D. J.

    1981-01-01

    An addition polyimide adhesive, LARC 13, was developed which shows promise for bonding both titanium and composites for applications which require service temperatures in excess of 533 K. The LARC 13 is based on an oligomeric bis nadimide containing a meta linked aromatic diamine. The adhesive melts prior to polymerization due to its oligomeric nature, thereby allowing it to be processed at 344 kPa or less. Therefore, LARC 13 is ideal for the bonding of honeycomb sandwich structures. After melting, the resin thermosets during the cure of the nadic endcaps to a highly crosslinked system. Few volatiles are evolved, thus allowing large enclosed structures to be bonded. Preparation of the adhesive as well as bonding, aging, and testing of lap shear and honeycomb samples are discussed.

  11. Additive lattice kirigami

    PubMed Central

    Castle, Toen; Sussman, Daniel M.; Tanis, Michael; Kamien, Randall D.

    2016-01-01

    Kirigami uses bending, folding, cutting, and pasting to create complex three-dimensional (3D) structures from a flat sheet. In the case of lattice kirigami, this cutting and rejoining introduces defects into an underlying 2D lattice in the form of points of nonzero Gaussian curvature. A set of simple rules was previously used to generate a wide variety of stepped structures; we now pare back these rules to their minimum. This allows us to describe a set of techniques that unify a wide variety of cut-and-paste actions under the rubric of lattice kirigami, including adding new material and rejoining material across arbitrary cuts in the sheet. We also explore the use of more complex lattices and the different structures that consequently arise. Regardless of the choice of lattice, creating complex structures may require multiple overlapping kirigami cuts, where subsequent cuts are not performed on a locally flat lattice. Our additive kirigami method describes such cuts, providing a simple methodology and a set of techniques to build a huge variety of complex 3D shapes. PMID:27679822

  12. Additive lattice kirigami

    PubMed Central

    Castle, Toen; Sussman, Daniel M.; Tanis, Michael; Kamien, Randall D.

    2016-01-01

    Kirigami uses bending, folding, cutting, and pasting to create complex three-dimensional (3D) structures from a flat sheet. In the case of lattice kirigami, this cutting and rejoining introduces defects into an underlying 2D lattice in the form of points of nonzero Gaussian curvature. A set of simple rules was previously used to generate a wide variety of stepped structures; we now pare back these rules to their minimum. This allows us to describe a set of techniques that unify a wide variety of cut-and-paste actions under the rubric of lattice kirigami, including adding new material and rejoining material across arbitrary cuts in the sheet. We also explore the use of more complex lattices and the different structures that consequently arise. Regardless of the choice of lattice, creating complex structures may require multiple overlapping kirigami cuts, where subsequent cuts are not performed on a locally flat lattice. Our additive kirigami method describes such cuts, providing a simple methodology and a set of techniques to build a huge variety of complex 3D shapes.

  13. Irreversible climate change due to carbon dioxide emissions.

    PubMed

    Solomon, Susan; Plattner, Gian-Kasper; Knutti, Reto; Friedlingstein, Pierre

    2009-02-10

    The severity of damaging human-induced climate change depends not only on the magnitude of the change but also on the potential for irreversibility. This paper shows that the climate change that takes place due to increases in carbon dioxide concentration is largely irreversible for 1,000 years after emissions stop. Following cessation of emissions, removal of atmospheric carbon dioxide decreases radiative forcing, but is largely compensated by slower loss of heat to the ocean, so that atmospheric temperatures do not drop significantly for at least 1,000 years. Among illustrative irreversible impacts that should be expected if atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations increase from current levels near 385 parts per million by volume (ppmv) to a peak of 450-600 ppmv over the coming century are irreversible dry-season rainfall reductions in several regions comparable to those of the "dust bowl" era and inexorable sea level rise. Thermal expansion of the warming ocean provides a conservative lower limit to irreversible global average sea level rise of at least 0.4-1.0 m if 21st century CO(2) concentrations exceed 600 ppmv and 0.6-1.9 m for peak CO(2) concentrations exceeding approximately 1,000 ppmv. Additional contributions from glaciers and ice sheet contributions to future sea level rise are uncertain but may equal or exceed several meters over the next millennium or longer.

  14. Irreversible climate change due to carbon dioxide emissions.

    PubMed

    Solomon, Susan; Plattner, Gian-Kasper; Knutti, Reto; Friedlingstein, Pierre

    2009-02-10

    The severity of damaging human-induced climate change depends not only on the magnitude of the change but also on the potential for irreversibility. This paper shows that the climate change that takes place due to increases in carbon dioxide concentration is largely irreversible for 1,000 years after emissions stop. Following cessation of emissions, removal of atmospheric carbon dioxide decreases radiative forcing, but is largely compensated by slower loss of heat to the ocean, so that atmospheric temperatures do not drop significantly for at least 1,000 years. Among illustrative irreversible impacts that should be expected if atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations increase from current levels near 385 parts per million by volume (ppmv) to a peak of 450-600 ppmv over the coming century are irreversible dry-season rainfall reductions in several regions comparable to those of the "dust bowl" era and inexorable sea level rise. Thermal expansion of the warming ocean provides a conservative lower limit to irreversible global average sea level rise of at least 0.4-1.0 m if 21st century CO(2) concentrations exceed 600 ppmv and 0.6-1.9 m for peak CO(2) concentrations exceeding approximately 1,000 ppmv. Additional contributions from glaciers and ice sheet contributions to future sea level rise are uncertain but may equal or exceed several meters over the next millennium or longer. PMID:19179281

  15. 5 CFR 831.406 - Withdrawal of voluntary contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Withdrawal of voluntary contributions... SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) RETIREMENT Voluntary Contributions § 831.406 Withdrawal of voluntary contributions. (a) Before receiving additional annuity payments based on the voluntary contributions, a...

  16. Modification of gravity due to torsion

    SciTech Connect

    Nair, V. P.; Nikiforova, V.; Randjbar-Daemi, S.; Rubakov, V.

    2010-01-01

    Modifications of general relativity have been considered as one of the possible ways of addressing some of the outstanding problems related to the large scale gravitational physics. In this contribution we review some of the recent results which are due to the inclusion of dynamical torsion. More specifically we shall discuss the propagation of massive spin-2 particles in flat and curved space times. We shall show that, contrary to what is generally believed, spinning matter is not the sole source of torsion field. A symmetric energy momentum tensor can also couple to torsion degrees of freedom. The massive and massless spin-2 particles mix giving rise to an infrared modification of gravity.

  17. An evaluation of different contributions to flame stretch for stationary premixed flames

    SciTech Connect

    Goey, L.P.H. de; Mallens, R.M.M.; Thije Boonkkamp, J.H.M. ten

    1997-07-01

    The concept of flame stretch is extended to study stationary premixed flames with a finite thickness. It is shown that the analysis results in additional contributions to the stretch rate due to changes in the flame thickness and due to density variations along the flame. Extended expressions are derived that describe the effect of stretch on variations in scalar quantities, such as the enthalpy. These expressions are used to determine local variations in the flame temperature, and it is shown that known results are recovered when a number of approximations are introduced. The extended stretch formalism might be useful to analyze and quantify the different flame stretch contributions and their effects in numerical flame studies. Finally, the different contributions to the total stretch rate and the effects thereof on the flame stabilization are numerically computed for the flame tip of a two-dimensional Bunsen flame as illustration.

  18. Addition Table of Colours: Additive and Subtractive Mixtures Described Using a Single Reasoning Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mota, A. R.; Lopes dos Santos, J. M. B.

    2014-01-01

    Students' misconceptions concerning colour phenomena and the apparent complexity of the underlying concepts--due to the different domains of knowledge involved--make its teaching very difficult. We have developed and tested a teaching device, the addition table of colours (ATC), that encompasses additive and subtractive mixtures in a single…

  19. Onychomycosis Due to Nondermatophytic Molds

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Sung Min; Ha, Gyoung Yim

    2012-01-01

    Background Although there have been many studies about onychomycosis due to nondermatophytic molds (NDM), few studies about etiologic agents including NDM in onychomycosis have been reported in Korea. Objective: This study investigated onychomycosis due to NDM in the Gyeongju area of Korea. Objective This study investigated onychomycosis due to NDM in the Gyeongju area of Korea. Methods In the 10-year period from 1999~2009, we reviewed 59 patients with onychomycosis due to NDM. The etiologic agents were identified by cultures on Sabouraud's Dextrose agar with and without cycloheximide. In some cases, internal transcribed spacer sequence analysis was done. NDM isolated considered pathogens when the presence of fungal elements was identified by direct microscopy observation and in follow-up cultures yielding the same fungi. Results Onychomycosis due to NDM comprised 2.3% of all onychomycosis. Of the 59 patients with onychomycosis due to NDM, 84.7% were toenail onychomycosis and 15.3% were fingernail onychomycosis. The incidence rate was highest in the fifth decade (27.1%). The ratio of male to female patients was 1:1.6. The frequency of associated diseases, in descending order, was hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and cerebral hematoma. Distal and lateral subungual onychomycosis (86.4%) was the most common clinical type of onychomycosis. Aspergillus spp. was the most frequently isolated etiologic agent of onychomycosis due to NDM (83.0%). Other causative agents were Scopulariopsis brevicaulis (10.2%), Acremonium spp. (3.4%), Fusarium solani (1.7%), and Chaetomium globosum (1.7%). Conclusion Because of the increase in onychomycosis due to NDM, we suggest the need of a careful mycological examination in patients with onychomycosis. PMID:22577268

  20. Additives in fibers and fabrics.

    PubMed

    Barker, R H

    1975-06-01

    The additives and contaminants which occur in textile fibers vary widely, depending on the type of fiber and the pretreatment which it has received. Synthetic fibers such as nylon and polyester contain trace amounts of contaminants such as catalysts and catalyst deactivators which remain after the synthesis of the basic polymers. In addition, there are frequently a number of materials which are added to perform specific functions in almost all man-made fibers. Examples of these would include traces of metals or metal salts used as tracers for identification of specific lots of fiber, TiO2 or similar materials added as delustrants, and a host of organic species added for such special purposes as antistatic agents or flame retardants. There may also be considerable quantities of residual monomer or small oligomers dissolved in the polymer matrix. The situation becomes even more complex after the fibers are converted into fabric form. Numerous materials are applied at various stages of fabric preparation to act as lubricants, sizing agents, antistats, bleaches, and wetting agents to facilitate the processing, but these are normally removed before the fabric reaches the cutters of the ultimate consumers and therefore usually do not constitute potential hazards. However, there are many other chemical agents which are frequently added during the later stages of fabric preparation and which are not designed to be removed. Aside from dyes and printing pigments, the most common additive for apparel fabrics is a durable press treatment. This generally involves the use of materials capable of crosslinking cellulosics by reacting through such functions as N-methylolated amides or related compounds such as ureas and carbamates. These materials pose some potential hazards due to both the nitrogenous bases and the formaldehyde which they usually release. There is usually also some residual catalyst in fabrics which have received such treatments. Other types of chemical treatments

  1. Additives in fibers and fabrics.

    PubMed Central

    Barker, R H

    1975-01-01

    The additives and contaminants which occur in textile fibers vary widely, depending on the type of fiber and the pretreatment which it has received. Synthetic fibers such as nylon and polyester contain trace amounts of contaminants such as catalysts and catalyst deactivators which remain after the synthesis of the basic polymers. In addition, there are frequently a number of materials which are added to perform specific functions in almost all man-made fibers. Examples of these would include traces of metals or metal salts used as tracers for identification of specific lots of fiber, TiO2 or similar materials added as delustrants, and a host of organic species added for such special purposes as antistatic agents or flame retardants. There may also be considerable quantities of residual monomer or small oligomers dissolved in the polymer matrix. The situation becomes even more complex after the fibers are converted into fabric form. Numerous materials are applied at various stages of fabric preparation to act as lubricants, sizing agents, antistats, bleaches, and wetting agents to facilitate the processing, but these are normally removed before the fabric reaches the cutters of the ultimate consumers and therefore usually do not constitute potential hazards. However, there are many other chemical agents which are frequently added during the later stages of fabric preparation and which are not designed to be removed. Aside from dyes and printing pigments, the most common additive for apparel fabrics is a durable press treatment. This generally involves the use of materials capable of crosslinking cellulosics by reacting through such functions as N-methylolated amides or related compounds such as ureas and carbamates. These materials pose some potential hazards due to both the nitrogenous bases and the formaldehyde which they usually release. There is usually also some residual catalyst in fabrics which have received such treatments. Other types of chemical treatments

  2. Sustainability Characterization for Additive Manufacturing

    PubMed Central

    Mani, Mahesh; Lyons, Kevin W; Gupta, SK

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) has the potential to create geometrically complex parts that require a high degree of customization, using less material and producing less waste. Recent studies have shown that AM can be an economically viable option for use by the industry, yet there are some inherent challenges associated with AM for wider acceptance. The lack of standards in AM impedes its use for parts production since industries primarily depend on established standards in processes and material selection to ensure the consistency and quality. Inability to compare AM performance against traditional manufacturing methods can be a barrier for implementing AM processes. AM process sustainability has become a driver due to growing environmental concerns for manufacturing. This has reinforced the importance to understand and characterize AM processes for sustainability. Process characterization for sustainability will help close the gaps for comparing AM performance to traditional manufacturing methods. Based on a literature review, this paper first examines the potential environmental impacts of AM. A methodology for sustainability characterization of AM is then proposed to serve as a resource for the community to benchmark AM processes for sustainability. Next, research perspectives are discussed along with relevant standardization efforts. PMID:26601038

  3. Additively manufactured porous tantalum implants.

    PubMed

    Wauthle, Ruben; van der Stok, Johan; Amin Yavari, Saber; Van Humbeeck, Jan; Kruth, Jean-Pierre; Zadpoor, Amir Abbas; Weinans, Harrie; Mulier, Michiel; Schrooten, Jan

    2015-03-01

    The medical device industry's interest in open porous, metallic biomaterials has increased in response to additive manufacturing techniques enabling the production of complex shapes that cannot be produced with conventional techniques. Tantalum is an important metal for medical devices because of its good biocompatibility. In this study selective laser melting technology was used for the first time to manufacture highly porous pure tantalum implants with fully interconnected open pores. The architecture of the porous structure in combination with the material properties of tantalum result in mechanical properties close to those of human bone and allow for bone ingrowth. The bone regeneration performance of the porous tantalum was evaluated in vivo using an orthotopic load-bearing bone defect model in the rat femur. After 12 weeks, substantial bone ingrowth, good quality of the regenerated bone and a strong, functional implant-bone interface connection were observed. Compared to identical porous Ti-6Al-4V structures, laser-melted tantalum shows excellent osteoconductive properties, has a higher normalized fatigue strength and allows for more plastic deformation due to its high ductility. It is therefore concluded that this is a first step towards a new generation of open porous tantalum implants manufactured using selective laser melting.

  4. Additively manufactured porous tantalum implants.

    PubMed

    Wauthle, Ruben; van der Stok, Johan; Amin Yavari, Saber; Van Humbeeck, Jan; Kruth, Jean-Pierre; Zadpoor, Amir Abbas; Weinans, Harrie; Mulier, Michiel; Schrooten, Jan

    2015-03-01

    The medical device industry's interest in open porous, metallic biomaterials has increased in response to additive manufacturing techniques enabling the production of complex shapes that cannot be produced with conventional techniques. Tantalum is an important metal for medical devices because of its good biocompatibility. In this study selective laser melting technology was used for the first time to manufacture highly porous pure tantalum implants with fully interconnected open pores. The architecture of the porous structure in combination with the material properties of tantalum result in mechanical properties close to those of human bone and allow for bone ingrowth. The bone regeneration performance of the porous tantalum was evaluated in vivo using an orthotopic load-bearing bone defect model in the rat femur. After 12 weeks, substantial bone ingrowth, good quality of the regenerated bone and a strong, functional implant-bone interface connection were observed. Compared to identical porous Ti-6Al-4V structures, laser-melted tantalum shows excellent osteoconductive properties, has a higher normalized fatigue strength and allows for more plastic deformation due to its high ductility. It is therefore concluded that this is a first step towards a new generation of open porous tantalum implants manufactured using selective laser melting. PMID:25500631

  5. Sustainability Characterization for Additive Manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Mani, Mahesh; Lyons, Kevin W; Gupta, S K

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) has the potential to create geometrically complex parts that require a high degree of customization, using less material and producing less waste. Recent studies have shown that AM can be an economically viable option for use by the industry, yet there are some inherent challenges associated with AM for wider acceptance. The lack of standards in AM impedes its use for parts production since industries primarily depend on established standards in processes and material selection to ensure the consistency and quality. Inability to compare AM performance against traditional manufacturing methods can be a barrier for implementing AM processes. AM process sustainability has become a driver due to growing environmental concerns for manufacturing. This has reinforced the importance to understand and characterize AM processes for sustainability. Process characterization for sustainability will help close the gaps for comparing AM performance to traditional manufacturing methods. Based on a literature review, this paper first examines the potential environmental impacts of AM. A methodology for sustainability characterization of AM is then proposed to serve as a resource for the community to benchmark AM processes for sustainability. Next, research perspectives are discussed along with relevant standardization efforts.

  6. Occupational asthma due to formaldehyde.

    PubMed Central

    Burge, P S; Harries, M G; Lam, W K; O'Brien, I M; Patchett, P A

    1985-01-01

    Bronchial provocation studies on 15 workers occupationally exposed to formaldehyde are described. The results show that formaldehyde exposure can cause asthmatic reactions, and suggest that these are sometimes due to hypersensitivity and sometimes to a direct irritant effect. Three workers had classical occupational asthma caused by formaldehyde fumes, which was likely to be due to hypersensitivity, with late asthmatic reactions following formaldehyde exposure. Six workers developed immediate asthmatic reactions, which were likely to be due to a direct irritant effect as the reactions were shorter in duration than those seen after soluble allergen exposure and were closely related to histamine reactivity. The breathing zone concentrations of formaldehyde required to elicit these irritant reactions (mean 4.8 mg/m3) were higher than those encountered in buildings recently insulated with urea formaldehyde foam, but within levels sometimes found in industry. Images PMID:4023975

  7. Injuries due to falling coconuts.

    PubMed

    Barss, P

    1984-11-01

    Falling coconuts can cause injury to the head, back, and shoulders. A 4-year review of trauma admissions to the Provincial Hospital, Alotau, Milne Bay Province, Papua New Guinea, revealed that 2.5% of such admissions were due to being struck by falling coconuts. Since mature coconut palms may have a height of 24 up to 35 meters and an unhusked coconut may weigh 1 to 4 kg, blows to the head of a force exceeding 1 metric ton are possible. Four patients with head injuries due to falling coconuts are described. Two required craniotomy. Two others died instantly in the village after being struck by dropping nuts.

  8. Bacteremia due to Elizabethkingia meningoseptica

    PubMed Central

    Shinha, Takashi; Ahuja, Rakesh

    2015-01-01

    Elizabethkingia meningoseptica is a nonfermentative gram-negative bacillus that is ubiquitously found in hospital environments and as such, it has been associated with various nosocomial infections. Immunocompromised individuals are particularly at increased risk for developing severe infections due to E. meningoseptica, including bacteremia. E. meningoseptica is resistant to multiple antimicrobials commonly used for gram-negative bacteria and conventional empirical antimicrobials targeting those organisms may result in unfavorable outcome. We report a case of bacteremia due to E. meningoseptica in a patient who necessitated chronic hemodialysis therapy to heighten awareness of this emerging pathogen among patients on hemodialysis. PMID:26793448

  9. Due Process Hearing Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bateman, David F.; Jones, Marni Gail

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a due process hearing case study of a mother who contended that his son, D.J., has been denied of a free and appropriate public education (FAPE) of his School District after being suspended from school. D.J., an elementary student, had been described as hyperactive, inattentive, defiant, and often volatile. He was identified…

  10. Avicenna's contribution to cardiology.

    PubMed

    Chamsi-Pasha, Mohammed A R; Chamsi-Pasha, Hassan

    2014-01-01

    Ibn Sina, known in the West as Avicenna, was the most famous and influential of all the Islamic philosopher-scientists. His most important medical works are the Canon of Medicine medical encyclopedia and a treatise on cardiac drugs. His Canon of Medicine remained the standard text in both the East and West until the 16(th) century. Avicenna's description of cardiac diseases was logically presented perhaps for the first time in the history of medicine. Avicenna was the first to describe carotid sinus hypersensitivity, which presents with vasovagal syncope. He was a pioneer in pulsology and the first correct explanation of pulsation was given by Avicenna, after he refined Galen's theory of the pulse. Besides, he discussed the action of available drugs on the heart in details and mentioned their indications and contraindications. In conclusion, Avicenna made important contributions to cardiology. This article describes some of his contributions in this field. PMID:24678465

  11. Avicenna's contribution to cardiology

    PubMed Central

    Chamsi-Pasha, Mohammed A.R.; Chamsi-Pasha, Hassan

    2014-01-01

    Ibn Sina, known in the West as Avicenna, was the most famous and influential of all the Islamic philosopher-scientists. His most important medical works are the Canon of Medicine medical encyclopedia and a treatise on cardiac drugs. His Canon of Medicine remained the standard text in both the East and West until the 16th century. Avicenna's description of cardiac diseases was logically presented perhaps for the first time in the history of medicine. Avicenna was the first to describe carotid sinus hypersensitivity, which presents with vasovagal syncope. He was a pioneer in pulsology and the first correct explanation of pulsation was given by Avicenna, after he refined Galen's theory of the pulse. Besides, he discussed the action of available drugs on the heart in details and mentioned their indications and contraindications. In conclusion, Avicenna made important contributions to cardiology. This article describes some of his contributions in this field. PMID:24678465

  12. Abstracts of contributed papers

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-01

    This volume contains 571 abstracts of contributed papers to be presented during the Twelfth US National Congress of Applied Mechanics. Abstracts are arranged in the order in which they fall in the program -- the main sessions are listed chronologically in the Table of Contents. The Author Index is in alphabetical order and lists each paper number (matching the schedule in the Final Program) with its corresponding page number in the book.

  13. Factors contributing to dystocia due to fetal malpresentation in beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Holland, M D; Speer, N C; Lefever, D G; Taylor, R E; Field, T G; Odde, K G

    1993-04-01

    Records on 3873 calvings over a 21-year period (1971 to 1991) from the Colorado State University Resident Instruction beef cattle herd were used to examine factors associated with malpresentations at birth. Approximately 82% of the calvings were unassisted and 18% were assisted in some manner. Of the assisted deliveries, severe traction, mild traction, malpresentation and caesarean section accounted for 44.5, 31.8, 22.4 and 1.3%, respectively, of the total. Ninety-six percent of all births were normal presentations and 4% were malpresentations. The incidence of malpresentations was affected by year, sex of calf, and sire of calf within breed. Most of the malpresentations were in the posterior dorsal position (72.8%) followed by unilateral carpal or shoulder flexion (11.4%), breech (8.2%), lateral deviation of the head (2.5%), incomplete extension of the elbow (1.9%), posterior ventral (1.3%), transverse (1.3%) and oblique ventro-vertical (0.6%). Factors influencing the incidence of posterior dorsal presentations were year, sex of calf, sire of calf within breed, and age of dam. Malpresentation heritability estimates as traits of the calf were 0.088 and 0.003 for Hereford and Angus breeds, respectively. Posterior presentation heritability estimates for Hereford and Angus cattle were 0.173 and 0.0, respectively. Heritabilities as traits of the dam and repeatabilities for malpresentation, and posterior presentation were minimal.

  14. Methanotrophs Contribute to Peatland Nitrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larmola, Tuula; Leppänen, Sanna M.; Tuittila, Eeva-Stiina; Aarva, Maija; Merilä, Päivi; Fritze, Hannu; Tiirola, Marja

    2016-04-01

    Atmospheric nitrogen (N2) fixation is potentially an important N input mechanism to peatland ecosystems, but the extent of this process may have been underestimated because of the methods traditionally used inhibit the activity of methanothrophs. We examined the linkage of methane (CH4) oxidation and N2 fixation using 15N2 technique. Dominant flark and hummock Sphagnum species were collected from twelve pristine peatlands in Siikajoki, Finland, which varied in age from 200 to 2,500 y due to the postglacial rebound. The mosses were incubated in a two-day field 15N2 and 13CH4 pulse labelling experiment and the incorporation of 15N2 and 13CH4 in biomass was measured with Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometer. The rates of Sphagnum-associated N2 fixation (0.1-2.9 g N m-2 y-1) were up to 10 times the current N deposition rates. Methane-induced N2 fixation contributed to over 1/3 of moss-associated N2 fixation in younger stages, but was switched off in old successional stages, despite active CH4 oxidation in these stages. Both the N2 fixation rates and the methanotrophic contribution to N2 fixation during peatland succession were primarily constrained by phosphorus availability. Previously overlooked methanotrophic N contribution may explain rapid peat and N accumulation during fen stages of peatland development. Reference. Larmola T., Leppänen S.M., Tuittila E.-S, Aarva M., Merilä P., Fritze H., Tiirola M. (2014) Methanotrophy induces nitrogen fixation during peatland development. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 111 (2): 734-739.

  15. Wage differentials due to gender.

    PubMed

    Smith, N; Westergard-nielsen, N

    1988-10-01

    "In this paper, a longitudinal data set covering 5% of all Danish wage earners over a 9-year period is used to shed light on the observed wage differentials due to gender. A human capital model is used to isolate the effects of changes in experience, schooling and unemployment, together with other factors.... Despite the observation from macro statistics that women have had the highest observed increases in wage rates, the models show that this increase is mainly due to an improvement in their background characteristics and that men still receive a higher return to their characteristics. The main difference between genders appears to be that female workers do not, in general, get any return to their experience. The estimates also show negative effects on the wage rate of previous spells of unemployment." PMID:12282508

  16. Severe hypercalcemia due to teriparatide

    PubMed Central

    Karatoprak, Cumali; Kayatas, Kadir; Kilicaslan, Hanifi; Yolbas, Servet; Yazimci, Nurhan Aliye; Gümüskemer, Tolga; Demirtunç, Refik

    2012-01-01

    Osteoporosis that is by far the most common metabolic bone disease, has been defined as a skeletal disorder characterized by compromised bone strength predisposing a person to an increased risk of fracture. Anabolic therapy with teriparatide, recombinant human parathyroid hormone (PTH 1-34), stimulates bone formation and resorption and improves trabecular and cortical microarchitecture. Teriparatide is indicated for the treatment of men and postmenopausal women with osteoporosis who are at high risk for fracture, including those who have failed or are intolerant of previous osteoporosis therapy. In conclusion, although teriparatide seems quite effective in the treatment of osteoporosis, it may cause life-threatening hypercalcemia. Therefore, patients should be closely monitored if symptoms of hypercalcemia are present during teriparatide treatment. Sustained hypercalcemia due to teriparatide treatment can not be seen in literature so we wanted to emphasize that severe hypercalcemia may develop due to teriperatide. PMID:22529492

  17. Osborn waves in the electrocardiogram, hypothermia not due to exposure, and death due to diabetic ketoacidosis.

    PubMed

    Sheikh, Abdul M; Hurst, J Willis

    2003-12-01

    Hypothermia usually occurs because a patient has been exposed to a cold environment; however, a number of nonenvironmental conditions may produce hypothermia. This report relates the clinical course of a patient whose hypothermia was due to severe diabetic ketoacidosis. In addition, we review the causes of hypothermia and Osborn waves beyond exposure to cold temperature. Hypothermia due to diabetic ketoacidosis is an uncommon complication of a common disease that carries with it clinically significant consequences. Accordingly, we believe that all clinicians should be aware of this potential complication of diabetic ketoacidosis and should be able to recognize the importance of the electrocardiogram in such patients. PMID:14677808

  18. Jesuits' Contribution to Meteorology.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Udías, Agustín

    1996-10-01

    Starting in the middle of the nineteenth century, as part of their scientific tradition, Jesuits founded a considerable number of meteorological observatories throughout the world. In many countries, Jesuits established and maintained the first meteorological stations during the period from 1860 to 1950. The Jesuits' most important contribution to atmospheric science was their pioneer work related to the study and forecast of tropical hurricanes. That research was carried out at observatories of Belén (Cuba), Manila (Philippines), and Zikawei (China). B. Viñes, M. Decheyrens, J. Aigué, and C.E. Deppermann stood out in this movement.

  19. Examining suicide: imaging's contributions.

    PubMed

    Church, Elizabeth J

    2015-01-01

    For many people, the death of hope leads inexorably to the conclusion that the only viable solution, the only way to put an end to unendurable pain, is suicide. What leads a person to commit this final, desperate act, and how might we predict, intervene, and prevent suicide? Health care workers, including radiologic technologists, can play an important role in detecting warning signs in patients and in better understanding what factors may lead to suicide. Although certain forms of suicide such as suicide bombings and assisted suicide are beyond its scope, this article explores medical imaging's contributions to the study of this phenomenon.

  20. Genetic and environmental contributions.

    PubMed

    Jensen, M D

    2000-03-01

    There is a remarkable variability in insulin action in humans. Depending upon the definition of the insulin resistance syndrome, different inheritability/environmental influences on insulin action are reported. The environmental contributions to insulin resistance appear to account for approximately 50% of this syndrome. Obese and sedentary insulin-resistant individuals can see dramatic improvement in insulin sensitivity with weight reduction and fitness training. The degree to which obesity is determined by genetic influences will have a substantial impact on insulin resistance in the Western populations. Familial components also appear to account for approximately 50% of the variation and insulin action (as commonly defined by glucose metabolic effects).

  1. 76 FR 18490 - Contributions to the Telecommunications Relay Service Fund

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-04

    ... impact upon small entities. 26. Additionally, the TRS rules currently impose a minimum $25 contribution... COMMISSION 47 CFR Parts 1 and 64 Contributions to the Telecommunications Relay Service Fund AGENCY: Federal... summary of the Commission's Contributions to the Telecommunications Relay Service Fund, Notice of...

  2. Incorporation of additives into polymers

    DOEpatents

    McCleskey, T. Mark; Yates, Matthew Z.

    2003-07-29

    There has been invented a method for incorporating additives into polymers comprising: (a) forming an aqueous or alcohol-based colloidal system of the polymer; (b) emulsifying the colloidal system with a compressed fluid; and (c) contacting the colloidal polymer with the additive in the presence of the compressed fluid. The colloidal polymer can be contacted with the additive by having the additive in the compressed fluid used for emulsification or by adding the additive to the colloidal system before or after emulsification with the compressed fluid. The invention process can be carried out either as a batch process or as a continuous on-line process.

  3. [Patch-testing methods: additional specialised or additional series].

    PubMed

    Cleenewerck, M-B

    2009-01-01

    The tests in the European standard battery must occasionally be supplemented by specialised or additional batteries, particularly where the contact allergy is thought to be of occupational origin. These additional batteries cover all allergens associated with various professional activities (hairdressing, baking, dentistry, printing, etc.) and with different classes of materials and chemical products (glue, plastic, rubber...). These additional tests may also include personal items used by patients on a daily basis such as cosmetics, shoes, plants, textiles and so on.

  4. Active mineral additives of sapropel ashes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khomich, V. A.; Danilina, E. V.; Krivonos, O. I.; Plaksin, G. V.

    2015-01-01

    The goal of the presented research is to establish a scientific rational for the possibility of sapropel ashes usage as an active mineral additive. The research included the study of producing active mineral additives from sapropels by their thermal treatment at 850900 °C and afterpowdering, the investigation of the properties of paste matrix with an ash additive, and the study of the ash influence on the cement bonding agent. Thermogravimetric analysis and X-ray investigations allowed us to establish that while burning, organic substances are removed, clay minerals are dehydrated and their structure is broken. Sapropel ashes chemical composition was determined. An amorphous ash constituent is mainly formed from silica of the mineral sapropel part and alumosilicagels resulted from clay minerals decomposition. Properties of PC 400 and PC 500A0 sparopel ash additives were studied. Adding ashes containing Glenium plasticizer to the cement increases paste matrix strength and considerably reduces its water absorption. X-ray phase analysis data shows changes in the phase composition of the paste matrix with an ash additive. Ash additives produce a pozzolanic effect on the cement bonding agent. Besides, an ash additive due to the alumosilicagels content causes transformation from unstable calcium aluminate forms to the stable ones.

  5. Phaeohyphomycosis due to Cladosporium cladosporioides.

    PubMed

    Vieira, M R; Milheiro, A; Pacheco, F A

    2001-02-01

    Phaeohyphomycosis is a clinical entity caused by dematiaceous fungi. We describe a clinical case of phaeohyphomycosis due to Cladosporium cladosporioides in a 45-year-old white male, apparently healthy, human immunodeficiency virus-negative. The patient was treated with terbinafine for 9 months, with regression of a skin lesion. Three months after discontinuation of the therapy, there was a clinical and mycological relapse. After progression of the disease with inadequate treatment, there was no response to amphotericin B and flucytosine. Finally, we obtained a clinical response with itraconazole oral solution at 600 mg day(-1) for a 6-month period.

  6. Anaphylaxis Due to Head Injury

    PubMed Central

    Bruner, Heather C.; Bruner, David I.

    2015-01-01

    Both anaphylaxis and head injury are often seen in the emergency department, but they are rarely seen in combination. We present a case of a 30-year-old woman who presented with anaphylaxis with urticaria and angioedema following a minor head injury. The patient responded well to intramuscular epinephrine without further complications or airway compromise. Prior case reports have reported angioedema from hereditary angioedema during dental procedures and maxillofacial surgery, but there have not been any cases of first-time angioedema or anaphylaxis due to head injury. PMID:25987924

  7. Additive manufacturing of optical components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinrich, Andreas; Rank, Manuel; Maillard, Philippe; Suckow, Anne; Bauckhage, Yannick; Rößler, Patrick; Lang, Johannes; Shariff, Fatin; Pekrul, Sven

    2016-08-01

    The development of additive manufacturing methods has enlarged rapidly in recent years. Thereby, the work mainly focuses on the realization of mechanical components, but the additive manufacturing technology offers a high potential in the field of optics as well. Owing to new design possibilities, completely new solutions are possible. This article briefly reviews and compares the most important additive manufacturing methods for polymer optics. Additionally, it points out the characteristics of additive manufactured polymer optics. Thereby, surface quality is of crucial importance. In order to improve it, appropriate post-processing steps are necessary (e.g. robot polishing or coating), which will be discussed. An essential part of this paper deals with various additive manufactured optical components and their use, especially in optical systems for shape metrology (e.g. borehole sensor, tilt sensor, freeform surface sensor, fisheye lens). The examples should demonstrate the potentials and limitations of optical components produced by additive manufacturing.

  8. Some aspects of aircraft dynamic loads due to flow separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mabey, D. G.

    Topics discussed in this paper include the need for consistent definitions of buffet and buffeting, the advantages of a consistent notation, buffeting due to wings and other components, the alleviation of buffeting, the special difficulties of flight tests and the special advantages of buffeting measurements in cryogenic wind-tunnels. Single degree of freedom flutter due to flow separation is not discussed, but may contribute significant dynamic loads.

  9. Historical accounts of George Washington Carver's contributions to the study of fungi and fungal diseases of plants in the southestern United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    George Washington Carver is well known for his many discoveries and contributions for increasing the utility of several classes of food due to numerous processing procedures resulting in additional value products. Dr. Carver's training as microbiologist, botanist, and plant pathologist began as a s...

  10. 45 CFR 1321.67 - Service contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... providers to follow either the addition alternative or the cost sharing alternatives as stated in 45 CFR 92..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION ON AGING, OLDER AMERICANS PROGRAMS GRANTS TO STATE AND COMMUNITY PROGRAMS ON AGING Service Requirements § 1321.67 Service contributions. (a) For...

  11. Additional historical solid rocket motor burns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiedemann, Carsten; Homeister, Maren; Oswald, Michael; Stabroth, Sebastian; Klinkrad, Heiner; Vörsmann, Peter

    2009-06-01

    The use of orbital solid rocket motors (SRM) is responsible for the release of a high number of slag and Al 2O 3 dust particles which contribute to the space debris environment. This contribution has been modeled for the ESA space debris model MASTER (Meteoroid and Space Debris Terrestrial Environment Reference). The current model version, MASTER-2005, is based on the simulation of 1076 orbital SRM firings which mainly contributed to the long-term debris environment. SRM firings on very low earth orbits which produce only short living particles are not considered. A comparison of the modeled flux with impact data from returned surfaces shows that the shape and quantity of the modeled SRM dust distribution matches that of recent Hubble Space Telescope (HST) solar array measurements very well. However, the absolute flux level for dust is under-predicted for some of the analyzed Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) surfaces. This indicates that some past SRM firings are not included in the current event database. Thus it is necessary to investigate, if additional historical SRM burns, like the retro-burn of low orbiting re-entry capsules, may be responsible for these dust impacts. The most suitable candidates for these firings are the large number of SRM retro-burns of return capsules. This paper focuses on the SRM retro-burns of Russian photoreconnaissance satellites, which were used in high numbers during the time of the LDEF mission. It is discussed which types of satellites and motors may have been responsible for this historical contribution. Altogether, 870 additional SRM retro-burns have been identified. An important task is the identification of such missions to complete the current event data base. Different types of motors have been used to de-orbit both large satellites and small film return capsules. The results of simulation runs are presented.

  12. Contamination Effects Due to Space Environmental Interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Philip T.; Paquin, Krista C. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Molecular and particulate contaminants are commonly generated from the orbital spacecraft operations that are under the influence of the space environment. Once generated, these contaminants may attach to the surfaces of the spacecraft or may remain in the vicinity of the spacecraft. In the event these contaminants come to rest on the surfaces of the spacecraft or situated in the line-of-sight of the observation path, they will create various degrees of contamination effect which may cause undesirable effects for normal spacecraft operations, There will be circumstances in which the spacecraft may be subjected to special space environment due to operational conditions. Interactions between contaminants and special space environment may alter or greatly increase the contamination effect due to the synergistic effect. This paper will address the various types of contamination generation on orbit, the general effects of the contamination on spacecraft systems, and the typical impacts on the spacecraft operations due to the contamination effect. In addition, this paper will explain the contamination effect induced by the space environment and will discuss the intensified contamination effect resulting from the synergistic effect with the special space environment.

  13. Single fatherhood due to cancer.

    PubMed

    Yopp, Justin M; Rosenstein, Donald L

    2012-12-01

    Cancer is a leading cause of widowed fatherhood in the USA. Fathers whose spouses have died from cancer constitute a potentially vulnerable population as they adjust to their role as sole or primary caregiver while managing their own grief and that of their children. The importance of addressing the psychological needs of widowed fathers is underscored by data showing that father's coping and emotional availability are closely tied to their bereaved children's mental health. Surprisingly, scant attention has been given to the phenomenon of widowed fatherhood with virtually no clinical resources or research studies devoted to fathers who have lost their wives to cancer. This commentary highlights key challenges facing this underserved population of widowers and calls for development of research agendas and clinical interventions for single fathers due to cancer.

  14. Inductance due to spin current

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Wei

    2014-03-21

    The inductance of spintronic devices that transport charge neutral spin currents is discussed. It is known that in a media that contains charge neutral spins, a time-varying electric field induces a spin current. We show that since the spin current itself produces an electric field, this implies existence of inductance and electromotive force when the spin current changes with time. The relations between the electromotive force and the corresponding flux, which is a vector calculated by the cross product of electric field and the trajectory of the device, are clarified. The relativistic origin generally renders an extremely small inductance, which indicates the advantage of spin current in building low inductance devices. The same argument also explains the inductance due to electric dipole current and applies to physical dipoles consist of polarized bound charges.

  15. Occupational injuries due to violence.

    PubMed

    Hales, T; Seligman, P J; Newman, S C; Timbrook, C L

    1988-06-01

    Each year in the United States, an estimated 800 to 1,400 people are murdered at work, and an unknown number of nonfatal injuries due to workplace violence occur. Based on Ohio's workers' compensation claims from 1983 through 1985, police officers, gasoline service station employees, employees of the real estate industry, and hotel/motel employees were found to be at the highest risk for occupational violent crime (OVC) injury and death. Grocery store employees, specifically those working in convenience food stores, and employees of the real estate industry had the most reported rapes. Four previously unidentified industries at increased risk of employee victimization were described. Identification of industries and occupations at high risk for crime victimization provides the opportunity to focus preventive strategies to promote employee safety and security in the workplace. PMID:3392614

  16. Occupational injuries due to violence.

    PubMed

    Hales, T; Seligman, P J; Newman, S C; Timbrook, C L

    1988-06-01

    Each year in the United States, an estimated 800 to 1,400 people are murdered at work, and an unknown number of nonfatal injuries due to workplace violence occur. Based on Ohio's workers' compensation claims from 1983 through 1985, police officers, gasoline service station employees, employees of the real estate industry, and hotel/motel employees were found to be at the highest risk for occupational violent crime (OVC) injury and death. Grocery store employees, specifically those working in convenience food stores, and employees of the real estate industry had the most reported rapes. Four previously unidentified industries at increased risk of employee victimization were described. Identification of industries and occupations at high risk for crime victimization provides the opportunity to focus preventive strategies to promote employee safety and security in the workplace.

  17. Spontaneous Pneumoperitoneum due to Constipation

    PubMed Central

    Yamana, Ippei; Noritomi, Tomoaki; Takeno, Shinsuke; Tatsuya, Hashimoto; Sato, Keisuke; Shimaoka, Hideki; Yamaguchi, Ryosuke; Ishii, Fumiaki; Yamada, Teppei; Yamashita, Yuichi

    2015-01-01

    We report a rare case of spontaneous pneumoperitoneum. An 82-year-old Japanese male patient was referred to our hospital because of constipation and abdominal pain. Abdominal computed tomography revealed a large amount of feces in the colon and rectum, and free air in the abdomen. Based on these findings, the patient was diagnosed with gastrointestinal perforation. Emergency exploratory laparotomy was performed. Neither perforation nor ischemic changes were recognized in the digestive tract. The patient's defecation was managed postoperatively until discharge on the 13th postoperative day. The authors assumed that free air, which was released after a mucosal injury due to the internal pressure caused by the presence of a large amount of feces in the colon and rectum, had penetrated the bowel wall through the bowel mucosa. We herein report the present case while also reviewing the pertinent literature. PMID:26676063

  18. Collisional Aggregation Due to Turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pumir, Alain; Wilkinson, Michael

    2016-03-01

    Collisions between particles suspended in a fluid play an important role in many physical processes. As an example, collisions of microscopic water droplets in clouds are a necessary step in the production of macroscopic raindrops. Collisions of dust grains are also conjectured to be important for planet formation in the gas surrounding young stars and to play a role in the dynamics of sand storms. In these processes, collisions are favored by fast turbulent motions. Here we review recent advances in the understanding of collisional aggregation due to turbulence. We discuss the role of fractal clustering of particles and caustic singularities of their velocities. We also discuss limitations of the Smoluchowski equation for modeling such processes. These advances lead to a semiquantitative understanding on the influence of turbulence on collision rates and point to deficiencies in the current understanding of rainfall and planet formation.

  19. Enantioselective Michael Addition of Water

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Bi-Shuang; Resch, Verena; Otten, Linda G; Hanefeld, Ulf

    2015-01-01

    The enantioselective Michael addition using water as both nucleophile and solvent has to date proved beyond the ability of synthetic chemists. Herein, the direct, enantioselective Michael addition of water in water to prepare important β-hydroxy carbonyl compounds using whole cells of Rhodococcus strains is described. Good yields and excellent enantioselectivities were achieved with this method. Deuterium labeling studies demonstrate that a Michael hydratase catalyzes the water addition exclusively with anti-stereochemistry. PMID:25529526

  20. Enantioselective Michael addition of water.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bi-Shuang; Resch, Verena; Otten, Linda G; Hanefeld, Ulf

    2015-02-01

    The enantioselective Michael addition using water as both nucleophile and solvent has to date proved beyond the ability of synthetic chemists. Herein, the direct, enantioselective Michael addition of water in water to prepare important β-hydroxy carbonyl compounds using whole cells of Rhodococcus strains is described. Good yields and excellent enantioselectivities were achieved with this method. Deuterium labeling studies demonstrate that a Michael hydratase catalyzes the water addition exclusively with anti-stereochemistry.

  1. [Lung disorders due to metals].

    PubMed

    Rüegger, M

    1995-03-11

    Though metals represent the largest group of elements they rather rarely cause respiratory diseases. This article will therefore review the most important ones caused by inhaled dusts of metals and some of their inorganic compounds, but leaving aside silicosis and silicatosis as well as iatrogenically induced metal pneumopathies. Among toxic inflammatory diseases metal fume fever, an influenza-like condition caused by zinc oxide, ranks as the commonest. Activities such as oxi-acetylene cutting and welding of zinc covered metal pieces account for about 90% of all cases compensated in Switzerland. Due to the non-recurrent character of this type of work, the typical waning of symptoms while exposure is going on has become seldom. Toxic pneumonia caused by inhaled metal fumes occurs rather seldom. However, serious cases have been reported where soldiers were exposed to zinc chloride from smoke bombs. The existence and extent of chronic airflow limitation due to occupational exposure to metallic dusts have not been widely examined but are to be assumed when there is poor occupational hygiene. Concerning asthma, there are at least four metals and several of their compounds which have been proven to cause variable airway narrowing, namely chromium, nickel, platinum and cobalt (the latter as hardmetal). Platinum complex salts (chloro-compounds) are very potent sensitizers leading to a notable prevalence of asthma among exposed workforces. Nevertheless, there have been no such cases in Switzerland for more than ten years. Hard-metal not only causes asthma but also an alveolitis-like interstitial lung disease progressing to fibrosis.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  2. Interactions between sealing materials and lubricating oil additives

    SciTech Connect

    Winkenbach, R.; Von Arndt, E.M.; Mindermann, H.

    1987-01-01

    Due to the increasingly higher application demands, engine and transmission manufactures are today using lubrication oils with more and more additives. The result is that seal materials are being damaged when exposed to such conditions and such additives. This paper shows the effects of basic oils with, and without, additives on elastomeric materials such as NBR, ACM, MVQ and FPM.

  3. Gasoline additives, emissions, and performance

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    The papers included in this publication deal with the influence of fuel, additive, and hardware changes on a variety of vehicle performance characteristics. Advanced techniques for measuring these performance parameters are also described. Contents include: Fleet test evaluation of gasoline additives for intake valve and combustion chamber deposit clean up; A technique for evaluating octane requirement additives in modern engines on dynamometer test stands; A fleet test of two additive technologies comparing their effects on tailpipe emissions; Investigation into the vehicle exhaust emissions of high percentage ethanol blends; Variability in hydrocarbon speciation measurements at low emission (ULEV) levels; and more.

  4. Energy System Contributions During Incremental Exercise Test

    PubMed Central

    Bertuzzi, Rômulo; Nascimento, Eduardo M.F.; Urso, Rodrigo P.; Damasceno, Mayara; Lima-Silva, Adriano E.

    2013-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to determine the relative contributions of the aerobic and glycolytic systems during an incremental exercise test (IET). Ten male recreational long-distance runners performed an IET consisting of three-minute incremental stages on a treadmill. The fractions of the contributions of the aerobic and glycolytic systems were calculated for each stage based on the oxygen uptake and the oxygen energy equivalents derived by blood lactate accumulation, respectively. Total metabolic demand (WTOTAL) was considered as the sum of these two energy systems. The aerobic (WAER) and glycolytic (WGLYCOL) system contributions were expressed as a percentage of the WTOTAL. The results indicated that WAER (86-95%) was significantly higher than WGLYCOL (5-14%) throughout the IET (p < 0.05). In addition, there was no evidence of the sudden increase in WGLYCOL that has been previously reported to support to the “anaerobic threshold” concept. These data suggest that the aerobic metabolism is predominant throughout the IET and that energy system contributions undergo a slow transition from low to high intensity. Key Points The aerobic metabolism contribution is the predominant throughout the maximal incremental test. The speed corresponding to the aerobic threshold can be considered the point in which aerobic metabolism reaches its maximal contribution. Glycolytic metabolism did not contribute largely to the energy expenditure at intensities above the anaerobic threshold. PMID:24149151

  5. Color Addition and Subtraction Apps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruiz, Frances; Ruiz, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Color addition and subtraction apps in HTML5 have been developed for students as an online hands-on experience so that they can more easily master principles introduced through traditional classroom demonstrations. The evolution of the additive RGB color model is traced through the early IBM color adapters so that students can proceed step by step…

  6. Theory of knight shift due to indirect nuclear hyperfine interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tripathi, G. S.; Mishra, B.; Misra, P. K.

    1987-06-01

    We derive a theory of Knight shift ( K) in solids including the effects of periodic potential, spin-orbit interaction, magnetic hyperfine interactions and indirect nuclear hyperfine interaction. We use a temperature dependent Green's function technique to evaluate the thermodynamic potential which is then used to obtain a general expresion for the Knight shift. Our formula for K is expressed as a sum of contributions due to conduction electrons and localized electrons of either d- or f-type: Kcond and Kloc. While Kcond is the same as our previous expression for K derived in the absence of localized magnetic moments, Kloc is a new contribution and is due to the hybridization of conduction and localized electron magnetic moments. We also briefly discuss the many-body effects on the different contributions to K. Finally, the importance of the present theory in possible applications to metals, alloys and compounds containing transition and rare-earth elements, and magnetic semiconductors is discussed.

  7. 26 CFR 31.6001-2 - Additional records under Federal Insurance Contributions Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... name are as shown on an account number card issued to the employee by the Social Security... therefrom as tax or for any other reason) and the period of services covered by such payment. (iii) The... not equal, the reason therefor. (2) Every employer shall keep records of the details of...

  8. 26 CFR 31.6001-2 - Additional records under Federal Insurance Contributions Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... name are as shown on an account number card issued to the employee by the Social Security... therefrom as tax or for any other reason) and the period of services covered by such payment. (iii) The... not equal, the reason therefor. (2) Every employer shall keep records of the details of...

  9. CNV-based genome wide association study reveals additional variants contributing to meat quality in swine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pork quality is important both to the meat processing industry and consumers’ purchasing attitudes. Copy number variation (CNV) is a burgeoning kind of variant that may influence meat quality. Herein, a genome-wide association study (GWAS) was performed between CNVs and meat quality traits in swine....

  10. Additive Bilingualism, Schooling, and Special Education: A Minority Group Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landry, R.

    1987-01-01

    The effect of schooling on the acquisition of an additive type of bilingualism is examined, focusing on additive bilingualism's relation to the ethnolinguistic vitality of linguistic groups and contributions of individual networks of linguistic contacts. A special and regular education merger without domination by a single cultural perspective is…

  11. The DUE Globwetland-2 Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paganini, Marc; Weise, Kathrin; Fitoka, Eleni; Hansen, Herbert; Fernandez, Diego; Arino, Olivier

    2010-12-01

    The overall objective of the Ramsar convention is the conservation and wise use of wetlands by national actions and international cooperation as a means to achieving sustainable development. This complex and challenging task requires national, local and international bodies involved in the implementation of the convention to rely on suitable geo-information in order to better understand wetland areas, complete national inventories, perform monitoring activities, carry out assessments and put in practice suitable management plans based on up to date and reliable information. In the recent years, the use of satellite earth observations (EO) within innovative geo-spatial analysis has revealed to be a key tool and unique information source to support the environmental community in different application domains, including wetlands conservation and management. The paper presents the main results and findings of the GlobWetland I project, providing an overview of the current capabilities and limits of EO technology as a tool to support the implementation of the Ramsar convention. It also summarises the major recommendations of the GlobWetland symposium "GlobWetland: Looking at Wetlands from Space" which principal aim was to strengthen the links between the different actors involved in the implementation of the Ramsar convention, and the earth observation community, in order to review the state of the art in the use of EO technology for wetlands management. Finally it presents the objective and scope of the GlobWetland II project, which will contribute to the establishment of a Global Wetlands Observing System (G-WOS) in accordance with the Strategic Plan 2009-2015 of the Ramsar convention on wetlands adopted as the last Conference of the Parties. The GlobWetland II project aims principally at developing a G-WOS pilot information system for the production of a number of wetland related geo-information maps and indicators, over 200 wetland sites and surrounding areas

  12. Ionospheric current contribution to the main impulse of a negative sudden impulse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vichare, Geeta; Rawat, Rahul; Bhaskar, Ankush; Pathan, Bashir M.

    2014-12-01

    The geomagnetic field response to a moderate-amplitude negative sudden impulse (SI-) that occurred on 14 May 2009 at 10:30 UT was examined at 97 geomagnetic observatories situated all over the globe. The response signature contains a contribution from magnetospheric as well as ionospheric currents. The main impulse (MI) is defined as the maximum depression in the observed geomagnetic field. It is observed that for low-to-high latitudes, the amplitude of the MI is larger in the afternoon to post-dusk sector than in the dawn-noon sector, indicating asymmetry in the MI amplitude. We estimated the contribution at various observatories due to the Chapman-Ferraro magnetopause currents using the Tsyganenko model (T01) and subtracted this from the observed MI amplitude to obtain the contribution due to ionospheric currents. It is found that the ionospheric currents contribute significantly to the MI amplitude of moderate SI- even at low-to-mid latitudes and that the contribution is in the same direction as that from the magnetopause currents near dusk and in the opposite direction near dawn. The equivalent current vectors reveal a clockwise (anticlockwise) ionospheric current loop in the afternoon (morning) sector during the MI of the negative pressure impulse. This evidences an ionospheric twin-cell-vortex current system (DP2) due to field-aligned currents (FACs) associated with the dusk-to-dawn convection electric field during the MI of an SI-. We also estimated the magnetic field variation due to prompt penetration electric fields, which is found to be very small at low latitudes in the present case. The studied SI- is not associated with shock, and hence no preliminary reverse impulse was evident. In addition, the summer hemisphere reveals larger MI amplitudes than the winter hemisphere, indicating once again the role of ionospheric currents.

  13. Telomere Attrition Due to Infection

    PubMed Central

    Ilmonen, Petteri; Kotrschal, Alexander; Penn, Dustin J.

    2008-01-01

    Background Telomeres–the terminal caps of chromosomes–become shorter as individuals age, and there is much interest in determining what causes telomere attrition since this process may play a role in biological aging. The leading hypothesis is that telomere attrition is due to inflammation, exposure to infectious agents, and other types of oxidative stress, which damage telomeres and impair their repair mechanisms. Several lines of evidence support this hypothesis, including observational findings that people exposed to infectious diseases have shorter telomeres. Experimental tests are still needed, however, to distinguish whether infectious diseases actually cause telomere attrition or whether telomere attrition increases susceptibility to infection. Experiments are also needed to determine whether telomere erosion reduces longevity. Methodology/Principal Findings We experimentally tested whether repeated exposure to an infectious agent, Salmonella enterica, causes telomere attrition in wild-derived house mice (Mus musculus musculus). We repeatedly infected mice with a genetically diverse cocktail of five different S. enterica strains over seven months, and compared changes in telomere length with sham-infected sibling controls. We measured changes in telomere length of white blood cells (WBC) after five infections using a real-time PCR method. Our results show that repeated Salmonella infections cause telomere attrition in WBCs, and particularly for males, which appeared less disease resistant than females. Interestingly, we also found that individuals having long WBC telomeres at early age were relatively disease resistant during later life. Finally, we found evidence that more rapid telomere attrition increases mortality risk, although this trend was not significant. Conclusions/Significance Our results indicate that infectious diseases can cause telomere attrition, and support the idea that telomere length could provide a molecular biomarker for assessing

  14. Color Addition and Subtraction Apps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz, Frances; Ruiz, Michael J.

    2015-10-01

    Color addition and subtraction apps in HTML5 have been developed for students as an online hands-on experience so that they can more easily master principles introduced through traditional classroom demonstrations. The evolution of the additive RGB color model is traced through the early IBM color adapters so that students can proceed step by step in understanding mathematical representations of RGB color. Finally, color addition and subtraction are presented for the X11 colors from web design to illustrate yet another real-life application of color mixing.

  15. EMSL Contribution Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, Allison A.

    2008-12-01

    This Contribution Plan is EMSL’s template for achieving our vision of simultaneous excellence in all aspects of our mission as a national scientific user facility. It reflects our understanding of the long-term stewardship we must work toward to meet the scientific challenges faced by the Department of Energy (DOE) and the nation. During the next decade, we will implement the strategies contained in this Plan, working closely with the scientific community, our advisory committees, DOE’s Office of Biological and Environmental Research, and other key stakeholders. This Plan is fully aligned with the strategic plans of DOE, its Office of Science, and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). We recognize that shifts in science and technology, national priorities, and resources made available through the Federal budget process create planning uncertainties and, ultimately, a highly dynamic planning environment. Accordingly, this Plan should be viewed as a living document and we continually evaluate the changing needs and opportunities posed by our stakeholders (i.e., DOE, users, staff, advisory committees), work closely with them to understand and respond to those changes, and align our strategy accordingly. This Plan is organized around two sections. Section 1 describes our vision and four strategic outcomes: 1) Scientific Innovation, 2) Capabilities that Transform Science, 3) Outstanding Management and Operations, and Engaged and Proactive Users. These outcomes provide the framework for seven critical actions we must take during the next 3 to 5 years: 1) Establishing leadership in EMSL science themes, 2) building and deploying transformational capabilities, 3) integrating computation with experiment, 4) ensuring EMSL’s workforce meets the scientific challenges of the future, 5) creating partnerships, 6) attracting and engaging users in EMSL’s long-term strategy, and 7) building a research infrastructure that meets emerging scientific needs. Section 2

  16. [Intolerance to food additives: an update].

    PubMed

    Cardinale, F; Mangini, F; Berardi, M; Sterpeta Loffredo, M; Chinellato, I; Dellino, A; Cristofori, F; Di Domenico, F; Mastrototaro, M F; Cappiello, A; Centoducati, T; Carella, F; Armenio, L

    2008-12-01

    Contrary to common believing, the prevalence of the intolerance to food additives in the general population is rather low. Nowadays many doubts persist with regard both to the pathogenetic mechanisms and to the clinical and diagnostic aspects in this field. Symptoms due to, or exacerbated from, food additives usually involve non-IgE-mediate mechanisms (pseudo-allergic reactions, PAR) and are usually less severe of those induced by food allergy. The most frequent clinical feature of the intolerance to food additives still remains the urticaria-angioedema syndrome, although these substances are really involved only in a minority of patients. Other possible clinical features include anaphylaxis, atopic eczema, behaviour disturbances, asthma and non-allergic rhinitis. The diagnostic approach consists in diary cards, reporting symptoms and food habits, elimination diet and double blinded placebo-controlled oral challenge with suspected additives. However, such procedure still remains poorly standardized and numerous uncertainties persist with regard to optimal conditions for performing and interpret the challenge results. The therapeutic approach consists in the exclusion of foods and products containing the additive involved, and, in patients not compliant to the diet, in treatment with symptomatic drugs.

  17. Teebi hypertelorism syndrome: additional cases.

    PubMed

    Machado-Paula, Ligiane Alves; Guion-Almeida, Maria Leine

    2003-03-01

    We report on two unrelated Brazilian boys who have craniofacial and digital anomalies resembling those reported with Teebi hypertelorism syndrome. Additional features such as cleft lip and palate, large uvula, atypical chin and abnormal scapulae were observed.

  18. Polyolefins as additives in plastics

    SciTech Connect

    Deanin, R.D.

    1993-12-31

    Polyolefins are not only major commodity plastics - they are also very useful as additives, both in other polyolefins and also in other types of plastics. This review covers ethylene, propylene, butylene and isobutylene polymers, in blends with each other, and as additives to natural rubber, styrene/butadiene rubber, polystyrene, polyvinyl chloride, polymethyl methacrylate, polyphenylene oxide, polycarbonate, thermoplastic polyesters, polyurethanes, polyamides, and mixed automotive plastics recycling.

  19. Additive manufacturing in production: challenges and opportunities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahuja, Bhrigu; Karg, Michael; Schmidt, Michael

    2015-03-01

    Additive manufacturing, characterized by its inherent layer by layer fabrication methodology has been coined by many as the latest revolution in the manufacturing industry. Due to its diversification of Materials, processes, system technology and applications, Additive Manufacturing has been synonymized with terminology such as Rapid prototyping, 3D printing, free-form fabrication, Additive Layer Manufacturing, etc. A huge media and public interest in the technology has led to an innovative attempt of exploring the technology for applications beyond the scope of the traditional engineering industry. Nevertheless, it is believed that a critical factor for the long-term success of Additive Manufacturing would be its ability to fulfill the requirements defined by the traditional manufacturing industry. A parallel development in market trends and product requirements has also lead to a wider scope of opportunities for Additive Manufacturing. The presented paper discusses some of the key challenges which are critical to ensure that Additive Manufacturing is truly accepted as a mainstream production technology in the industry. These challenges would highlight on various aspects of production such as product requirements, process management, data management, intellectual property, work flow management, quality assurance, resource planning, etc. In Addition, changing market trends such as product life cycle, mass customization, sustainability, environmental impact and localized production will form the foundation for the follow up discussion on the current limitations and the corresponding research opportunities. A discussion on ongoing research to address these challenges would include topics like process monitoring, design complexity, process standardization, multi-material and hybrid fabrication, new material development, etc.

  20. Isotropic Contraction Of Mercury Due To Despinning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuyama, Isamu; Bills, B. G.

    2009-09-01

    Mercury's slow rotation period of 59 days is presumably the result of solar tides driving its initial rotational state to the present 3:2 spin-orbit resonance. The observed large gravity coefficients can be explained as due to a remnant rotational bulge recording an initial rotation period of a few days (Matsuyama and Nimmo 2009). Despinning changes the shape of the rotational bulge, generating both compressional and extensional stresses (Melosh 1977). However, Mercury's surface is dominated by compressional tectonic features (Watters et al. 1998), and the inferred global contraction has been explained as due to thermal cooling (Solomon 1976). In addition to non-isotropic changes associated with the rotational flattening, despinning causes isotropic contraction of the entire planet. We consider the effect of the compressional stresses generated by this isotropic contraction on the predicted tectonic pattern. References Matsuyama and Nimmo. Gravity and tectonic patterns of Mercury: Effect of tidal deformation, spin-orbit resonance, nonzero eccentricity, despinning, and reorientation. J. Geophys. Res. (2009) vol. 114 pp. E01010 Melosh. Global tectonics of a despun planet. Icarus (1977) vol. 31 pp. 221-243 Solomon. Some aspects of core formation in Mercury. Icarus (1976) vol. 28 pp. 509-521 Watters et al. Topography of lobate scarps on Mercury: New constraints on the planet's contraction. Geology (1998) vol. 26 pp. 991-994

  1. Large leg ulcers due to autoimmune diseases

    PubMed Central

    Rozin, Alexander P.; Egozi, Dana; Ramon, Yehuda; Toledano, Kohava; Braun-Moscovici, Yolanda; Markovits, Doron; Schapira, Daniel; Bergman, Reuven; Melamed, Yehuda; Ullman, Yehuda; Balbir-Gurman, Alexandra

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background Large leg ulcers (LLU) may complicate autoimmune diseases. They pose a therapeutic challenge and are often resistant to treatment. To report three cases of autoimmune diseases complicated with LLU. Case Report Case 1. A 55-year old woman presented with long-standing painful LLU due to mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD). Biopsy from the ulcer edge showed small vessel vasculitis. IV methylprednisolone (MethP) 1 G/day, prednisolone (PR) 1mg/kg, monthly IV cyclophosphamide (CYC), cyclosporine (CyA) 100mg/day, IVIG 125G, ciprofloxacin+IV Iloprost+enoxaparin+aspirin (AAVAA), hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HO), maggot debridement and autologous skin transplantation were performed and the LLU healed. Case 2. A 45-year old women with MCTD developed multiple LLU’s with non-specific inflammation by biopsy. MethP, PR, hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), azathioprine (AZA), CYC, IVIG, AAVAA failed. Treatment for underlying the LLU tibial osteomyelitis and addition of CyA was followed by the LLU healing. Case 3. A 20-year-old man with history of polyarteritis nodosa (PAN) developed painful LLU’s due to small vessel vasculitis (biopsy). MethP, PR 1 mg/kg, CYC, CyA 100 mg/d, AAVAA failed. MRSA sepsis and relapse of systemic PAN developed. IV vancomycin, followed by ciprofloxacin, monthly IVIG (150 g/for 5 days) and infliximab (5 mg/kg) were instituted and the LLU’s healed. Conclusions LLU are extremely resistant to therapy. Combined use of multiple medications and services are needed for healing of LLU due to autoimmune diseases. PMID:21169912

  2. Sea salt CCN contribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudson, J. G.; Jha, V.; Noble, S.

    2011-12-01

    Volatility measurements (Twomey 1971; Hudson and Da 1996) showed that most CCN over the ocean are not NaCl. However, other reports indicate NaCl as a major CCN component. Here we contrast cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) spectral volatility (thermal fractionation) measurements from three aircraft field projects to provide insight into the relative contribution of sea salt. The most remote location, PASE (mid-Pacific), had the highest average CCN concentrations (NCCN) probably because it was the least cloudy whereas the less remote, but more cloudy,RICO(Caribbean)had the lowest average NCCN (Hudson and Noble 2009). In RICO particle concentrations in all size ranges larger than 0.3 micrometers were well correlated with wind speed (R ~ 0.87) but uncorrelated with NCCN (Fig. 1A). Smaller particles in RICO were correlated with NCCN but uncorrelated with wind speed. In PASE only particles larger than 10 micrometers were correlated with wind speed and concentrations in these size ranges were uncorrelated with NCCN. Particles smaller than 10 micrometers in PASE were uncorrelated with wind speed but well correlated with NCCN. In both projects particle concentrations smaller than these respective sizes were highly correlated with NCCN, at all S in PASE but mainly with NCCN at high S in RICO. CCN volatility measurements showed high correlations between refractory NCCN and wind speed, especially for low supersaturation (S) NCCN, and no correlation of volatile NCCN at all S with wind speed. In PASE there was only a weak positive correlation between refractory NCCN and wind and also no correlation between volatile NCCN and wind. These results indicate that in clean maritime air the wind originated component of NCCN can be substantial (i.e., > 30% for wind > 14 m/s) but that in maritime air with higher NCCN the wind derived CCN component is probably less than 10%. The contrast in cloudiness between the two projects was responsible for many of the differences noted between them. A

  3. Experimental investigations of the hydrogen addition effects on diesel engine performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirica, I.; Pana, C.; Negurescu, N.; Cernat, A.; Nutu, C.

    2016-08-01

    In the global content regarding the impact on the environmental of the gases emissions resulted from the fossil fuels combustion, an interest aspect discussed on the 21st Session of the Conference of the Parties from the 2015 Paris Climate Conference and the gradual diminution of the worldwide oil reserves contribute to the necessity of searching of alternative energy from durable and renewable resources. At the use of hydrogen as addition in air to diesel engine, the level of CO, HC and smoke from the exhaust gases will decrease due to the improvement of the combustion process. At low and medium partial loads and low hydrogen energetic ratios used the NOX emission level can decrease comparative to classic diesel engine. The hydrogen use as fuel for diesel engine leads to the improving of the energetic and emissions performance of the engine due to combustion improvement and reduction of carbon content. The paper presents, in a comparative way, results of the experimental researches carried on a truck compression ignition engine fuelled with diesel fuel and with hydrogen diesel fuel and hydrogen as addition in air at different engine operation regimes. The results obtained during experimental investigations show better energetic and pollution performance of the engine fuelled with hydrogen as addition in air comparative to classic engine. The influences of hydrogen addition on engine operation are shown.

  4. Extension of the standard addition method by blank addition.

    PubMed

    Steliopoulos, Panagiotis

    2015-01-01

    Standard addition involves adding varying amounts of the analyte to sample portions of fixed mass or fixed volume and submitting those portions to the sample preparation procedure. After measuring the final extract solutions, the observed signals are linearly regressed on the spiked amounts. The original unknown amount is estimated by the opposite of the abscissa intercept of the fitted straight line [1]. A limitation of this method is that only data points with abscissa values equal to and greater than zero are available so that there is no information on whether linearity holds below the spiking level zero. An approach to overcome this limitation is introduced.•Standard addition is combined with blank addition.•Blank addition means that defined mixtures of blank matrix and sample material are subjected to sample preparation to give final extract solutions.•Equations are presented to estimate the original unknown amount and to calculate the 1-2α confidence interval about this estimate using the combined data set.

  5. ADDITIVITY ASSESSMENT OF TRIHALOMETHANE MIXTURES BY PROPORTIONAL RESPONSE ADDITION

    EPA Science Inventory

    If additivity is known or assumed, the toxicity of a chemical mixture may be predicted from the dose response curves of the individual chemicals comprising the mixture. As single chemical data are abundant and mixture data sparse, mixture risk methods that utilize single chemical...

  6. Extension of the standard addition method by blank addition

    PubMed Central

    Steliopoulos, Panagiotis

    2015-01-01

    Standard addition involves adding varying amounts of the analyte to sample portions of fixed mass or fixed volume and submitting those portions to the sample preparation procedure. After measuring the final extract solutions, the observed signals are linearly regressed on the spiked amounts. The original unknown amount is estimated by the opposite of the abscissa intercept of the fitted straight line [1]. A limitation of this method is that only data points with abscissa values equal to and greater than zero are available so that there is no information on whether linearity holds below the spiking level zero. An approach to overcome this limitation is introduced.•Standard addition is combined with blank addition.•Blank addition means that defined mixtures of blank matrix and sample material are subjected to sample preparation to give final extract solutions.•Equations are presented to estimate the original unknown amount and to calculate the 1-2α confidence interval about this estimate using the combined data set. PMID:26844210

  7. [INVITED] Lasers in additive manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinkerton, Andrew J.

    2016-04-01

    Additive manufacturing is a topic of considerable ongoing interest, with forecasts predicting it to have major impact on industry in the future. This paper focusses on the current status and potential future development of the technology, with particular reference to the role of lasers within it. It begins by making clear the types and roles of lasers in the different categories of additive manufacturing. This is followed by concise reviews of the economic benefits and disadvantages of the technology, current state of the market and use of additive manufacturing in different industries. Details of these fields are referenced rather than expanded in detail. The paper continues, focusing on current indicators to the future of additive manufacturing. Barriers to its development, trends and opportunities in major industrial sectors, and wider opportunities for its development are covered. Evidence indicates that additive manufacturing may not become the dominant manufacturing technology in all industries, but represents an excellent opportunity for lasers to increase their influence in manufacturing as a whole.

  8. Evaluation of certain food additives.

    PubMed

    2015-01-01

    This report represents the conclusions of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee convened to evaluate the safety of various food additives, including flavouring agents, and to prepare specifications for identity and purity. The first part of the report contains a general discussion of the principles governing the toxicological evaluation of and assessment of dietary exposure to food additives, including flavouring agents. A summary follows of the Committee's evaluations of technical, toxicological and dietary exposure data for eight food additives (Benzoe tonkinensis; carrageenan; citric and fatty acid esters of glycerol; gardenia yellow; lutein esters from Tagetes erecta; octenyl succinic acid-modified gum arabic; octenyl succinic acid-modified starch; paprika extract; and pectin) and eight groups of flavouring agents (aliphatic and alicyclic hydrocarbons; aliphatic and aromatic ethers; ionones and structurally related substances; miscellaneous nitrogen-containing substances; monocyclic and bicyclic secondary alcohols, ketones and related esters; phenol and phenol derivatives; phenyl-substituted aliphatic alcohols and related aldehydes and esters; and sulfur-containing heterocyclic compounds). Specifications for the following food additives were revised: citric acid; gellan gum; polyoxyethylene (20) sorbitan monostearate; potassium aluminium silicate; and Quillaia extract (Type 2). Annexed to the report are tables summarizing the Committee's recommendations for dietary exposures to and toxicological evaluations of all of the food additives and flavouring agents considered at this meeting.

  9. Transferability and additivity of dihedral parameters in polarizable and nonpolarizable empirical force fields.

    PubMed

    Zgarbová, Marie; Rosnik, Andreana M; Luque, F Javier; Curutchet, Carles; Jurečka, Petr

    2015-09-30

    Recent advances in polarizable force fields have revealed that major reparameterization is necessary when the polarization energy is treated explicitly. This study is focused on the torsional parameters, which are crucial for the accurate description of conformational equilibria in biomolecules. In particular, attention is paid to the influence of polarization on the (i) transferability of dihedral terms between molecules, (ii) transferability between different environments, and (iii) additivity of dihedral energies. To this end, three polarizable force fields based on the induced point dipole model designed for use in AMBER are tested, including two recent ff02 reparameterizations. Attention is paid to the contributions due to short range interactions (1-2, 1-3, and 1-4) within the four atoms defining the dihedral angle. The results show that when short range 1-2 and 1-3 polarization interactions are omitted, as for instance in ff02, the 1-4 polarization contribution is rather small and unlikely to improve the description of the torsional energy. Conversely, when screened 1-2 and 1-3 interactions are included, the polarization contribution is sizeable and shows potential to improve the transferability of parameters between different molecules and environments as well as the additivity of dihedral terms. However, to reproduce intramolecular polarization effects accurately, further fine-tuning of the short range damping of polarization is necessary.

  10. Transferability and additivity of dihedral parameters in polarizable and nonpolarizable empirical force fields.

    PubMed

    Zgarbová, Marie; Rosnik, Andreana M; Luque, F Javier; Curutchet, Carles; Jurečka, Petr

    2015-09-30

    Recent advances in polarizable force fields have revealed that major reparameterization is necessary when the polarization energy is treated explicitly. This study is focused on the torsional parameters, which are crucial for the accurate description of conformational equilibria in biomolecules. In particular, attention is paid to the influence of polarization on the (i) transferability of dihedral terms between molecules, (ii) transferability between different environments, and (iii) additivity of dihedral energies. To this end, three polarizable force fields based on the induced point dipole model designed for use in AMBER are tested, including two recent ff02 reparameterizations. Attention is paid to the contributions due to short range interactions (1-2, 1-3, and 1-4) within the four atoms defining the dihedral angle. The results show that when short range 1-2 and 1-3 polarization interactions are omitted, as for instance in ff02, the 1-4 polarization contribution is rather small and unlikely to improve the description of the torsional energy. Conversely, when screened 1-2 and 1-3 interactions are included, the polarization contribution is sizeable and shows potential to improve the transferability of parameters between different molecules and environments as well as the additivity of dihedral terms. However, to reproduce intramolecular polarization effects accurately, further fine-tuning of the short range damping of polarization is necessary. PMID:26224547

  11. Additive Manufacturing of Hybrid Circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarobol, Pylin; Cook, Adam; Clem, Paul G.; Keicher, David; Hirschfeld, Deidre; Hall, Aaron C.; Bell, Nelson S.

    2016-07-01

    There is a rising interest in developing functional electronics using additively manufactured components. Considerations in materials selection and pathways to forming hybrid circuits and devices must demonstrate useful electronic function; must enable integration; and must complement the complex shape, low cost, high volume, and high functionality of structural but generally electronically passive additively manufactured components. This article reviews several emerging technologies being used in industry and research/development to provide integration advantages of fabricating multilayer hybrid circuits or devices. First, we review a maskless, noncontact, direct write (DW) technology that excels in the deposition of metallic colloid inks for electrical interconnects. Second, we review a complementary technology, aerosol deposition (AD), which excels in the deposition of metallic and ceramic powder as consolidated, thick conformal coatings and is additionally patternable through masking. Finally, we show examples of hybrid circuits/devices integrated beyond 2-D planes, using combinations of DW or AD processes and conventional, established processes.

  12. Postmarketing surveillance of food additives.

    PubMed

    Butchko, H H; Tschanz, C; Kotsonis, F N

    1994-08-01

    Postmarketing surveillance of consumption and of anecdotal reports of adverse health effects has been recognized by a number of regulatory authorities as a potentially useful method to provide further assurance of the safety of new food additives. Surveillance of consumption is used to estimate more reliably actual consumption levels relative to the acceptable daily intake of a food additive. Surveillance of anecdotal reports of adverse health effects is used to determine the presence of infrequent idiosyncratic responses that may not be predictable from premarket evaluations. The high-intensity sweetner, aspartame, is a food additive that has been the subject of extensive evaluation during the postmarketing period and is thus used as an example to discuss postmarketing surveillance.

  13. Charming penguin contributions to B{r_arrow}K{pi}

    SciTech Connect

    Isola, C.; Ladisa, M.; Nardulli, G.; Pham, T. N.; Santorelli, P.

    2001-07-01

    We present calculations of the charming-penguin long-distance contributions to B{r_arrow}K{pi} decays due to intermediate charmed meson states. Our calculation is based on the chiral effective Lagrangian for light and heavy mesons, corrected for the hard pion and kaon momenta. We find that the charming-penguin contributions increase significantly the B{r_arrow}K{pi} decay rates in comparison with the short-distance contributions, giving results in better agreement with experimental data.

  14. Sensitivity analysis of geometric errors in additive manufacturing medical models.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Jose Miguel; Arrieta, Cristobal; Andia, Marcelo E; Uribe, Sergio; Ramos-Grez, Jorge; Vargas, Alex; Irarrazaval, Pablo; Tejos, Cristian

    2015-03-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) models are used in medical applications for surgical planning, prosthesis design and teaching. For these applications, the accuracy of the AM models is essential. Unfortunately, this accuracy is compromised due to errors introduced by each of the building steps: image acquisition, segmentation, triangulation, printing and infiltration. However, the contribution of each step to the final error remains unclear. We performed a sensitivity analysis comparing errors obtained from a reference with those obtained modifying parameters of each building step. Our analysis considered global indexes to evaluate the overall error, and local indexes to show how this error is distributed along the surface of the AM models. Our results show that the standard building process tends to overestimate the AM models, i.e. models are larger than the original structures. They also show that the triangulation resolution and the segmentation threshold are critical factors, and that the errors are concentrated at regions with high curvatures. Errors could be reduced choosing better triangulation and printing resolutions, but there is an important need for modifying some of the standard building processes, particularly the segmentation algorithms.

  15. Polyelectrolyte decomplexation via addition of salt: charge correlation driven zipper.

    PubMed

    Antila, Hanne S; Sammalkorpi, Maria

    2014-03-20

    We report the first atomic scale studies of polyelectrolyte decomplexation. The complex between DNA and polylysine is shown to destabilize and spontaneously open in a gradual, reversible zipper-like mechanism driven by an increase in solution salt concentration. Divalent CaCl2 is significantly more effective than monovalent NaCl in destabilizing the complex due to charge correlations and water binding capability. The dissociation occurs accompanied by charge reversal in which charge correlations and ion binding chemistry play a key role. Our results are in agreement with experimental work on complex dissociation but in addition show the underlying microstructural correlations driving the behavior. Comparison of our full atomic level detail and dynamics results with theoretical works describing the PEs as charged, rigid rods reveals that although charge correlation involved theories provide qualitatively similar responses, considering also specific molecular chemistry and molecular level water contributions provides a more complete understanding of PE complex stability and dynamics. The findings may facilitate controlled release in gene delivery and more in general tuning of PE membrane permeability and mechanical characteristics through ionic strength.

  16. [Addition to "Chen Muhua Speaks" at family planning meeting].

    PubMed

    1980-02-14

    The following addition supplied from Beijing Renmin Ribao in Chinese of February 3, 1980 from page 1 should be made to the article "Chen Muhua, Bo Yibo Speak at Family Planning Meeting," published in the February 4 People's Republic of China Daily Report on page L2: Page L2, 1st paragraph, line 3: "...in due course, so that the total population of China will be controlled at about 1.2 billion by the end of this century, in order to insure greater and faster economic development in the country and improvements in the people's living standards, and to raise the cultural level of the Chinese nation." "Chen Muhua made this calculation: If young people marry at age 20, there will be 5 generations in a century; but if they marry at age 25, there will be only 4. The reduction by a whole generation of people is a matter of great importance in controlling population growth. Besides, in his prime a youth should be wholeheartedly devoted to his study and work in order to make greater contributions to the 4 modernizations. For this reason, for both the nation and the indivduals concerned it is profitable for citizens to delay marriages and childbirth and exercise birth control." She was speaking...

  17. Tougher Addition Polyimides Containing Siloxane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    St. Clair, T. L.; Maudgal, S.

    1986-01-01

    Laminates show increased impact resistances and other desirable mechanical properties. Bismaleamic acid extended by reaction of diaminosiloxane with maleic anhydride in 1:1 molar ratio, followed by reaction with half this molar ratio of aromatic dianhydride. Bismaleamic acid also extended by reaction of diaminosiloxane with maleic anhydride in 1:2 molar ratio, followed by reaction with half this molar ratio of aromatic diamine (Michael-addition reaction). Impact resistances improved over those of unmodified bismaleimide, showing significant increase in toughness. Aromatic addition polyimides developed as both matrix and adhesive resins for applications on future aircraft and spacecraft.

  18. Modification of chemical additives to elastomeric compositions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukhutdinov, A. A.; Grishin, B. S.

    1994-08-01

    The physicochemical principles of the modification of crystalline chemical additives to elastomeric compositions are examined. A classification of various types of modifications based on scientific principles is given. The modifications are subdivided into physical and physicochemical depending on the configuration of the molecules in the crystals, the defectiveness and dispersity of the crystalline particles, the melting points of the crystals, and the presence of necleophilic and electrophylic centres in the molecules of the components of binary and complex eutectic mixtures. The effectiveness of the modification of the chemical additives is determined by the manifestation in binary systems of these components in elastomeric compositions of physical and chemical synergism due to the occurrence of the relevant processes in such systems. A relation has been discovered between the physical and chemical phenomena accompanying the modification of the chemical additives in binary and complex eutectic mixtures, their influence on the properties of the elastomeric composition is examined, the ecological problems associated with the processing of such materials are discussed, and the relation between the structure and properties of the molecules of the additives is analysed using quantum-chemical calculations. The bibliography includes 92 references.

  19. Does the kappa opioid receptor system contribute to pain aversion?

    PubMed Central

    Cahill, Catherine M.; Taylor, Anna M. W.; Cook, Christopher; Ong, Edmund; Morón, Jose A.; Evans, Christopher J.

    2014-01-01

    The kappa opioid receptor (KOR) and the endogenous peptide-ligand dynorphin have received significant attention due the involvement in mediating a variety of behavioral and neurophysiological responses, including opposing the rewarding properties of drugs of abuse including opioids. Accumulating evidence indicates this system is involved in regulating states of motivation and emotion. Acute activation of the KOR produces an increase in motivational behavior to escape a threat, however, KOR activation associated with chronic stress leads to the expression of symptoms indicative of mood disorders. It is well accepted that KOR can produce analgesia and is engaged in chronic pain states including neuropathic pain. Spinal studies have revealed KOR-induced analgesia in reversing pain hypersensitivities associated with peripheral nerve injury. While systemic administration of KOR agonists attenuates nociceptive sensory transmission, this effect appears to be a stress-induced effect as anxiolytic agents, including delta opioid receptor agonists, mitigate KOR agonist-induced analgesia. Additionally, while the role of KOR and dynorphin in driving the dysphoric and aversive components of stress and drug withdrawal has been well characterized, how this system mediates the negative emotional states associated with chronic pain is relatively unexplored. This review provides evidence that dynorphin and the KOR system contribute to the negative affective component of pain and that this receptor system likely contributes to the high comorbidity of mood disorders associated with chronic neuropathic pain. PMID:25452729

  20. Lubricating additive for drilling muds

    SciTech Connect

    Gutierrez, A.; Brois, S. J.; Brownawell, D. W.; Walker, T. O.

    1985-01-01

    Aqueous drilling fluids containing a minor amount of an additive composition featuring oxazolines of C/sub 1/-C/sub 30/ alkylthioglycolic acid. Such fluids are especially useful where reduced torque drilling fluids are needed. Another embodiment of this invention relates to a method of drilling utilizing the above-described fluids.

  1. Tetrasulfide extreme pressure lubricant additives

    SciTech Connect

    Gast, L.E.; Kenney, H.E.; Schwab, A.W.

    1980-08-19

    A novel class of compounds has been prepared comprising the tetrasulfides of /sup 18/C hydrocarbons, /sup 18/C fatty acids, and /sup 18/C fatty and alkyl and triglyceride esters. These tetrasulfides are useful as extreme pressure lubricant additives and show potential as replacements for sulfurized sperm whale oil.

  2. Promoting Additive Acculturation in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, Margaret A.

    1995-01-01

    A study focusing on 113 ninth graders of Mexican descent indicates that most students and their parents adhere to a strategy of additive acculturation (incorporating skills of the new culture and language), but that the school curriculum and general school climate devalue Mexican culture. (SLD)

  3. Individualized Additional Instruction for Calculus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takata, Ken

    2010-01-01

    College students enrolling in the calculus sequence have a wide variance in their preparation and abilities, yet they are usually taught from the same lecture. We describe another pedagogical model of Individualized Additional Instruction (IAI) that assesses each student frequently and prescribes further instruction and homework based on the…

  4. Out of bounds additive manufacturing

    DOE PAGES

    Holshouser, Chris; Newell, Clint; Palas, Sid; Love, Lonnie J.; Kunc, Vlastimil; Lind, Randall F.; Lloyd, Peter D.; Rowe, John C.; Blue, Craig A.; Duty, Chad E.; et al

    2013-03-01

    Lockheed Martin and Oak Ridge National Laboratory are working on an additive manufacturing system capable of manufacturing components measured not in terms of inches or feet, but multiple yards in all dimensions with the potential to manufacture parts that are completely unbounded in size.

  5. Tinkertoy Color-Addition Device.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Joe L.

    1995-01-01

    Describes construction and use of a simple home-built device, using an overhead projector, for use in demonstrations of the addition of various combinations of red, green, and blue light. Useful in connection with discussions of color, color vision, or color television. (JRH)

  6. Additional Financial Resources for Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubbard, Ben C.

    This paper discusses the continuing need for additional educational funds and suggests that the only way to gain these funds is through concerted and persistent political efforts by supporters of education at both the federal and state levels. The author first points out that for many reasons declining enrollment may not decrease operating costs…

  7. Evaluation of certain food additives.

    PubMed

    2012-01-01

    This report represents the conclusions of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee convened to evaluate the safety of various food additives, including flavouring agents, with a view to concluding as to safety concerns and to preparing specifications for identity and purity. The first part of the report contains a general discussion of the principles governing the toxicological evaluation of and assessment of dietary exposure to food additives, including flavouring agents. A summary follows of the Committee's evaluations of technical, toxicological and dietary exposure data for five food additives (magnesium dihydrogen diphosphate; mineral oil (medium and low viscosity) classes II and III; 3-phytase from Aspergillus niger expressed in Aspergillus niger; serine protease (chymotrypsin) from Nocardiopsis prasina expressed in Bacillus licheniformis; and serine protease (trypsin) from Fusarium oxysporum expressed in Fusarium venenatum) and 16 groups of flavouring agents (aliphatic and aromatic amines and amides; aliphatic and aromatic ethers; aliphatic hydrocarbons, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids and related esters, sulfides, disulfides and ethers containing furan substitution; aliphatic linear alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes, acids and related alcohols, acetals and esters; amino acids and related substances; epoxides; furfuryl alcohol and related substances; linear and branched-chain aliphatic, unsaturated, unconjugated alcohols, aldehydes, acids and related esters; miscellaneous nitrogen-containing substances; phenol and phenol derivatives; pyrazine derivatives; pyridine, pyrrole and quinoline derivatives; saturated aliphatic acyclic branched-chain primary alcohols, aldehydes and acids; simple aliphatic and aromatic sulfides and thiols; sulfur-containing heterocyclic compounds; and sulfur-substituted furan derivatives). Specifications for the following food additives were revised: ethyl cellulose, mineral oil (medium viscosity), modified starches and titanium

  8. Evaluation of certain food additives.

    PubMed

    2012-01-01

    This report represents the conclusions of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee convened to evaluate the safety of various food additives, including flavouring agents, with a view to concluding as to safety concerns and to preparing specifications for identity and purity. The first part of the report contains a general discussion of the principles governing the toxicological evaluation of and assessment of dietary exposure to food additives, including flavouring agents. A summary follows of the Committee's evaluations of technical, toxicological and dietary exposure data for five food additives (magnesium dihydrogen diphosphate; mineral oil (medium and low viscosity) classes II and III; 3-phytase from Aspergillus niger expressed in Aspergillus niger; serine protease (chymotrypsin) from Nocardiopsis prasina expressed in Bacillus licheniformis; and serine protease (trypsin) from Fusarium oxysporum expressed in Fusarium venenatum) and 16 groups of flavouring agents (aliphatic and aromatic amines and amides; aliphatic and aromatic ethers; aliphatic hydrocarbons, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids and related esters, sulfides, disulfides and ethers containing furan substitution; aliphatic linear alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes, acids and related alcohols, acetals and esters; amino acids and related substances; epoxides; furfuryl alcohol and related substances; linear and branched-chain aliphatic, unsaturated, unconjugated alcohols, aldehydes, acids and related esters; miscellaneous nitrogen-containing substances; phenol and phenol derivatives; pyrazine derivatives; pyridine, pyrrole and quinoline derivatives; saturated aliphatic acyclic branched-chain primary alcohols, aldehydes and acids; simple aliphatic and aromatic sulfides and thiols; sulfur-containing heterocyclic compounds; and sulfur-substituted furan derivatives). Specifications for the following food additives were revised: ethyl cellulose, mineral oil (medium viscosity), modified starches and titanium

  9. Water addition, evaporation and water holding capacity of poultry litter.

    PubMed

    Dunlop, Mark W; Blackall, Patrick J; Stuetz, Richard M

    2015-12-15

    Litter moisture content has been related to ammonia, dust and odour emissions as well as bird health and welfare. Improved understanding of the water holding properties of poultry litter as well as water additions to litter and evaporation from litter will contribute to improved litter moisture management during the meat chicken grow-out. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate how management and environmental conditions over the course of a grow-out affect the volume of water A) applied to litter, B) able to be stored in litter, and C) evaporated from litter on a daily basis. The same unit of measurement has been used to enable direct comparison-litres of water per square metre of poultry shed floor area, L/m(2), assuming a litter depth of 5cm. An equation was developed to estimate the amount of water added to litter from bird excretion and drinking spillage, which are sources of regular water application to the litter. Using this equation showed that water applied to litter from these sources changes over the course of a grow-out, and can be as much as 3.2L/m(2)/day. Over a 56day grow-out, the total quantity of water added to the litter was estimated to be 104L/m(2). Litter porosity, water holding capacity and water evaporation rates from litter were measured experimentally. Litter porosity decreased and water holding capacity increased over the course of a grow-out due to manure addition. Water evaporation rates at 25°C and 50% relative humidity ranged from 0.5 to 10L/m(2)/day. Evaporation rates increased with litter moisture content and air speed. Maintaining dry litter at the peak of a grow-out is likely to be challenging because evaporation rates from dry litter may be insufficient to remove the quantity of water added to the litter on a daily basis.

  10. An Inventory of Methods for the Assessment of Additive Increased Addictiveness of Tobacco Products

    PubMed Central

    van de Nobelen, Suzanne; Kienhuis, Anne S.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Cigarettes and other forms of tobacco contain the addictive drug nicotine. Other components, either naturally occurring in tobacco or additives that are intentionally added during the manufacturing process, may add to the addictiveness of tobacco products. As such, these components can make cigarette smokers more easily and heavily dependent. Efforts to regulate tobacco product dependence are emerging globally. Additives that increase tobacco dependence will be prohibited under the new European Tobacco Product Directive. Objective: This article provides guidelines and recommendations for developing a regulatory strategy for assessment of increase in tobacco dependence due to additives. Relevant scientific literature is summarized and criteria and experimental studies that can define increased dependence of tobacco products are described. Conclusions: Natural tobacco smoke is a very complex matrix of components, therefore analysis of the contribution of an additive or a combination of additives to the level of dependence on this product is challenging. We propose to combine different type of studies analyzing overall tobacco product dependence potential and the functioning of additives in relation to nicotine. By using a combination of techniques, changes associated with nicotine dependence such as behavioral, physiological, and neurochemical alterations can be examined to provide sufficient information. Research needs and knowledge gaps will be discussed and recommendations will be made to translate current knowledge into legislation. As such, this article aids in implementation of the Tobacco Product Directive, as well as help enable regulators and researchers worldwide to develop standards to reduce dependence on tobacco products. Implications: This article provides an overall view on how to assess tobacco product constituents for their potential contribution to use and dependence. It provides guidelines that help enable regulators worldwide to

  11. Extraordinary Hall effect in Kondo-type systems: Contributions from anomalous velocity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levy, P. M.

    1988-10-01

    Kondo systems exhibit a relatively large extraordinary Hall effect which is due to asymmetric resonant scattering of conduction electrons. Theories based on the skew scattering mechanism account for data at high temperatures T>TK (the Kondo temperature) but are unable to explain the very-low-temperature variation of the Hall constant observed in heavy-fermion compounds. Aside from the ordinary Hall effect, caused by the Lorentz force and skew scattering (which makes the scattering probability antisymmetric with respect to interchange of scattering vectors), there exists an additional contribution to the Hall effect known as the anomalous-velocity contribution. This contribution is due to a change in the expression for the current operator in the presence of spin-orbit forces. We derive an expression for the anomalous velocity in terms of the T matrices describing conduction-electron scattering; it is not limited to weak spin-orbit scattering as were previous results. We use the Anderson model of local moments in metals to write this scattering in terms of the mixing interaction between local and conduction electrons, and the local state's Green's function. The transverse Hall current due to anomalous velocity is determined and evaluated in two limits. At high temperature, we use the weak-coupling form of the local state's Green's function; at T=0 K a phase-shift analysis is used, and we rely on the Friedel-Langreth sum rule to give us the phase shift at the Fermi surface. At high temperatures we find that the contribution from anomalous velocity to the Hall constant is quite small compared to that from skew scattering. On the contrary, at low temperatures the anomalous velocity makes the dominant contribution to the Hall constant in Kondo systems.

  12. Modeling of geomagnetic activity due to passage of different structures and features of high speed streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mustajab, Fainana

    2016-07-01

    observed for the group of streams having speed >550km/s. Also, the contribution of severe storms increases from the group 400-500km/s to >650km/s. Correlation fit in between Dst and V, Dst and BV2 during main phase and also during recovery phase. B and BV represent good correlation with Dst during recovery phase duration for the group according the duration of passage of HSS. The best correlation between Dst with V during main phase and recovery phase and for the case of coronal hole (single or multiple), BV shows good correlation with Dst during main phase. Also B, BV and BV res to the power 2 represent the good correlation with Dst for recovery phase duration. In addition, BV res to the power 2 also shows good correlation when the source is coronal hole during recovery phase. Quiet and severe storms are found to increase when the passage of stream duration increases, while moderate and weak storms do not have any such relation between duration and storm type. When the source is single coronal hole, 73% contribution for geomagnetic storm of quiet and weak type are observed, while 68% due to multiple coronal hole. For single coronal mass ejection source, 60% moderate and severe storms are contributed and multiple coronal mass ejections contribute 89% of moderate and severe storms.The coronel mass ejections are more geoeffective in compare to coronal holes. Plasma/field parameters and their derivatives give amplitude increases as the storm size increases shock associated HSS are more geoeffective than no-shock associated HSS.

  13. CONTINUUM CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE SDO/AIA PASSBANDS DURING SOLAR FLARES

    SciTech Connect

    Milligan, Ryan O.; McElroy, Sarah A.

    2013-11-01

    Data from the Multiple EUV Grating Spectrograph component of the Extreme-ultraviolet Variability Experiment (EVE) on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) were used to quantify the contribution of continuum emission to each of the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) channels of the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA), also on SDO, during an X-class solar flare that occurred on 2011 February 15. Both the pre-flare-subtracted EVE spectra and fits to the associated free-free continuum were convolved with the AIA response functions of the seven EUV passbands at 10 s cadence throughout the course of the flare. It was found that 10%-25% of the total emission in the 94 Å, 131 Å, 193 Å, and 335 Å passbands throughout the main phase of the flare was due to free-free emission. Reliable measurements could not be made for the 171 Å channel, while the continuum contribution to the 304 Å channel was negligible due to the presence of the strong He II emission line. Up to 50% of the emission in the 211 Å channel was found to be due to free-free emission around the peak of the flare, while an additional 20% was due to the recombination continuum of He II. The analysis was extended to a number of M- and X-class flares and it was found that the level of free-free emission contributing to both the 171 Å and 211 Å passbands increased with increasing GOES class. These results suggest that the amount of continuum emission that contributes to AIA observations during flares is more significant than stated in previous studies which used synthetic, rather than observed, spectra. These findings highlight the importance of spectroscopic observations carried out in conjunction with those from imaging instruments so that the data are interpreted correctly.

  14. Decontamination formulation with sorbent additive

    DOEpatents

    Tucker; Mark D. , Comstock; Robert H.

    2007-10-16

    A decontamination formulation and method of making that neutralizes the adverse health effects of both chemical and biological compounds, especially chemical warfare (CW) and biological warfare (BW) agents, and toxic industrial chemicals. The formulation provides solubilizing compounds that serve to effectively render the chemical and biological compounds, particularly CW and BW compounds, susceptible to attack, and at least one reactive compound that serves to attack (and detoxify or kill) the compound. The formulation includes at least one solubilizing agent, a reactive compound, a bleaching activator, a sorbent additive, and water. The highly adsorbent, water-soluble sorbent additive (e.g., sorbitol or mannitol) is used to "dry out" one or more liquid ingredients, such as the liquid bleaching activator (e.g., propylene glycol diacetate or glycerol diacetate) and convert the activator into a dry, free-flowing powder that has an extended shelf life, and is more convenient to handle and mix in the field.

  15. Additive-free digital microfluidics.

    PubMed

    Freire, Sergio L S; Tanner, Brendan

    2013-07-16

    Digital microfluidics, a technique for manipulation of droplets, is becoming increasingly important for the development of miniaturized platforms for laboratory processes. Despite the enthusiasm, droplet motion is frequently hindered by the desorption of proteins or other analytes to surfaces. Current approaches to minimize this unwanted surface fouling involve the addition of extra species to the droplet or its surroundings, which might be problematic depending on the droplet content. Here, a new strategy is introduced to move droplets containing cells and other analytes on solid substrates, without extra moieties; in particular, droplets with bovine serum albumin could be moved at a concentration 2000 times higher than previously reported (without additives). This capability is achieved by using a soot-based superamphiphobic surface combined with a new device geometry, which favors droplet rolling. Contrasting with electrowetting, wetting forces are not required for droplet motion.

  16. Additive concentrates for distillate fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Rossi, A.; Lewtas, K.

    1985-08-27

    An additive concentrate for incorporation into wax containing petroleum fuel oil compositions to improve low temperature flow properties comprising an oil solution containing: 3% to 90 wt. % of a C30-C300 oil-soluble nitrogen compound wax crystal growth inhibitor having at least one straight C8-C40 alkyl chain and partial esters, and at least one mole per mole of an organic acid capable of hydrogen bonding to improve the solubility in the oil.

  17. Cascaded second-order contribution to the third-order nonlinear susceptibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolleck, Christian

    2004-05-01

    Cascading of second-order nonlinear effects leads to an effective third-order nonlinearity. In addition to the macroscopic electric field at the intermediate frequencies another term has to be taken into account which is due to the locality of the intermediate polarization sources. Combining the correction terms at the three intermediate frequencies gives rise to a third-order susceptibility tensor, which exhibits the same symmetry properties as an intrinsic susceptibility. This particularly applies to the contributions from the rectified and the second-harmonic fields to the degenerate susceptibility.

  18. Additive manufacturing of hybrid circuits

    DOE PAGES

    Bell, Nelson S.; Sarobol, Pylin; Cook, Adam; Clem, Paul G.; Keicher, David M.; Hirschfeld, Deidre; Hall, Aaron Christopher

    2016-03-26

    There is a rising interest in developing functional electronics using additively manufactured components. Considerations in materials selection and pathways to forming hybrid circuits and devices must demonstrate useful electronic function; must enable integration; and must complement the complex shape, low cost, high volume, and high functionality of structural but generally electronically passive additively manufactured components. This article reviews several emerging technologies being used in industry and research/development to provide integration advantages of fabricating multilayer hybrid circuits or devices. First, we review a maskless, noncontact, direct write (DW) technology that excels in the deposition of metallic colloid inks for electrical interconnects.more » Second, we review a complementary technology, aerosol deposition (AD), which excels in the deposition of metallic and ceramic powder as consolidated, thick conformal coatings and is additionally patternable through masking. As a result, we show examples of hybrid circuits/devices integrated beyond 2-D planes, using combinations of DW or AD processes and conventional, established processes.« less

  19. 5 CFR 732.301 - Due process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Due process. 732.301 Section 732.301...) NATIONAL SECURITY POSITIONS Due Process and Reporting § 732.301 Due process. When an agency makes an... any determination. (b) Comply with all applicable administrative due process requirements, as...

  20. Additionality of global benefits and financial additionality in the context of the AIJ negotiations

    SciTech Connect

    Puhl, I.

    1996-12-31

    The Conference of the Party at their first meeting (COP1) took a decision regarding criteria for joint implementation as indicated in Art. 4.2 (a) of the FCCC which established a pilot phase for activities implemented jointly (AIJ) under the pilot phase. Besides some more technical issues this decision specified that such measures should bring about real, measurable and long-term environmental benefits related to the mitigation of climate change that would not have occurred in the absence of such activities. It also established that the financing of AIJ shall be additional to the financial obligations of developed country parties. These two requirements are called the additionality criteria for AIJ. The first refers to the realness of GHG emission abatement (which means reduction compared to a baseline) whereas the second describes that funds earmarked for AIJ have no other objective (i.e. profit making, export promotion) but to reduce GHG emissions to avoid the free-riding of investors and subsequently developed country parties. The reporting framework as well as the reporting requirements under national programs do not specify further the two types of additionality and even though research focuses on issues like baseline determination there has been no attempt so far to identify approaches which contribute towards defining strict and practicable methods and guidelines to frame additionality criteria. The first FCCC assessment of pilot project reporting revealed that in the reporting of activities, emissions additionality often remained unclear, especially in cases where AIJ was only a portion of an existing or already planned project, and that there is a point about how to account for financial additionality. It subsequently proposed to develop a uniform approach to baseline determination and the assessment of emission (reduction) additionality and financial additionality.

  1. Evaluation of certain food additives.

    PubMed

    2009-01-01

    This report represents the conclusions of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee convened to evaluate the safety of various food additives, including flavouring agents, with a view to recommending acceptable daily intakes (ADIs) and to preparing specifications for identity and purity. The first part of the report contains a general discussion of the principles governing the toxicological evaluation and assessment of intake of food additives (in particular, flavouring agents). A summary follows of the Committee's evaluations of technical, toxicological and intake data for certain food additives (asparaginase from Aspergillus niger expressed in A. niger, calcium lignosulfonate (40-65), ethyl lauroyl arginate, paprika extract, phospholipase C expressed in Pichia pastoris, phytosterols, phytostanols and their esters, polydimethylsiloxane, steviol glycosides and sulfites [assessment of dietary exposure]) and 10 groups of related flavouring agents (aliphatic branched-chain saturated and unsaturated alcohols, aldehydes, acids and related esters; aliphatic linear alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes, acids and related alcohols, acetals and esters; aliphatic secondary alcohols, ketones and related esters; alkoxy-substituted allylbenzenes present in foods and essential oils and used as flavouring agents; esters of aliphatic acyclic primary alcohols with aliphatic linear saturated carboxylic acids; furan-substituted aliphatic hydrocarbons, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids and related esters, sulfides, disulfides and ethers; miscellaneous nitrogen-containing substances; monocyclic and bicyclic secondary alcohols, ketones and related esters; hydroxy- and alkoxy-substituted benzyl derivatives; and substances structurally related to menthol). Specifications for the following food additives were revised: canthaxanthin; carob bean gum and carob bean gum (clarified); chlorophyllin copper complexes, sodium and potassium salts; Fast Green FCF; guar gum and guar gum (clarified

  2. Fire-Retardant Polymeric Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Martha K.; Smith, Trent M.

    2011-01-01

    Polyhydroxyamide (PHA) and polymethoxyamide (PMeOA) are fire-retardant (FR) thermoplastic polymers and have been found to be useful as an additive for imparting fire retardant properties to other compatible, thermoplastic polymers (including some elastomers). Examples of compatible flammable polymers include nylons, polyesters, and acrylics. Unlike most prior additives, PHA and PMeOA do not appreciably degrade the mechanical properties of the matrix polymer; indeed, in some cases, mechanical properties are enhanced. Also, unlike some prior additives, PHA and PMeOA do not decompose into large amounts of corrosive or toxic compounds during combustion and can be processed at elevated temperatures. PMeOA derivative formulations were synthesized and used as an FR additive in the fabrication of polyamide (PA) and polystyrene (PS) composites with notable reduction (>30 percent for PS) in peak heat release rates compared to the neat polymer as measured by a Cone Calorimeter (ASTM E1354). Synergistic effects were noted with nanosilica composites. These nanosilica composites had more than 50-percent reduction in peak heat release rates. In a typical application, a flammable thermoplastic, thermoplastic blend, or elastomer that one seeks to render flame-retardant is first dry-mixed with PHA or PMeOA or derivative thereof. The proportion of PHA or PMeOA or derivative in the mixture is typically chosen to lie between 1 and 20 weight percent. The dry blend can then be melt-extruded. The extruded polymer blend can further be extruded and/or molded into fibers, pipes, or any other of a variety of objects that may be required to be fire-retardant. The physical and chemical mechanisms which impart flame retardancy of the additive include inhibiting free-radical oxidation in the vapor phase, preventing vaporization of fuel (the polymer), and cooling through the formation of chemical bonds in either the vapor or the condensed phase. Under thermal stress, the cyclic hydroxyl/ methoxy

  3. Evaluating Additive Interaction Using Survival Percentiles.

    PubMed

    Bellavia, Andrea; Bottai, Matteo; Orsini, Nicola

    2016-05-01

    Evaluation of statistical interaction in time-to-event analysis is usually limited to the study of multiplicative interaction, via inclusion of a product term in a Cox proportional-hazard model. Measures of additive interaction are available but seldom used. All measures of interaction in survival analysis, whether additive or multiplicative, are in the metric of hazard, usually assuming that the interaction between two predictors of interest is constant during the follow-up period. We introduce a measure to evaluate additive interaction in survival analysis in the metric of time. This measure can be calculated by evaluating survival percentiles, defined as the time points by which different subpopulations reach the same incidence proportion. Using this approach, the probability of the outcome is fixed and the time variable is estimated. We also show that by using a regression model for the evaluation of conditional survival percentiles, including a product term between the two exposures in the model, interaction is evaluated as a deviation from additivity of the effects. In the simple case of two binary exposures, the product term is interpreted as excess/decrease in survival time (i.e., years, months, days) due to the presence of both exposures. This measure of interaction is dependent on the fraction of events being considered, thus allowing evaluation of how interaction changes during the observed follow-up. Evaluation of interaction in the context of survival percentiles allows deriving a measure of additive interaction without assuming a constant effect over time, overcoming two main limitations of commonly used approaches.

  4. Communication: Non-additivity of van der Waals interactions between nanostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Tao, Jianmin; Perdew, John P.

    2014-10-14

    Due to size-dependent non-additivity, the van der Waals interaction (vdW) between nanostructures remains elusive. Here we first develop a model dynamic multipole polarizability for an inhomogeneous system that allows for a cavity. The model recovers the exact zero- and high-frequency limits and respects the paradigms of condensed matter physics (slowly varying density) and quantum chemistry (one- and two-electron densities). We find that the model can generate accurate vdW coefficients for both spherical and non-spherical clusters, with an overall mean absolute relative error of 4%, without any fitting. Based on this model, we study the non-additivity of vdW interactions. We find that there is strong non-additivity of vdW interactions between nanostructures, arising from electron delocalization, inequivalent contributions of atoms, and non-additive many-body interactions. Furthermore, we find that the non-additivity can have increasing size dependence as well as decreasing size dependence with cluster size.

  5. Contribution from pressure-sensitive adhesives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunningham, Gilbert

    1996-03-01

    The successful use of many security papers, foils and films depends on the technology of chemical fastening systems -- especially pressure sensitive adhesives. These are adhesives activated not by heat or by the evaporation of water or some other solvent, but simply by the act of application -- by pressure. These adhesives provide the means whereby laminations, substrates and seals are made effective. In addition to their physical properties these adhesives are often required to possess optical properties to allow the security materials to be visibly active and indeed the adhesive system may itself contribute as a carrier for a variety of security materials. Recent advances in adhesives chemistry have made it possible to achieve virtually all the required physical performance characteristics combined with a choice of optical properties ranging from total opacity to invisibility and including controlled translucency and tinting. The implications for security printing and packaging are important. Opacity is easy to achieve, for example by loading the adhesive with aluminum powder, by the selection of totally opaque materials like metallized film or by various printing processes. But achieving transparency is a different matter, and transparency is mandatory for applications involving the protection of documents, photographs, etc. with a clear film over-laminate. Obvious examples would be for passports, visas and other personal identification. But some security devices may themselves require protection; for example holograms or embossings. And transparency in the test laboratory is not enough. The Australian driving licence is stuck to the windshield, so the transparency of the adhesive must be sustained over long periods without deterioration due to prolonged u/v exposure, climatic conditions or aging. The commercial label market has helped to push the technology forward. There is a strong demand for the 'no-label look' for packaging of clear plastic and glass

  6. Bond additivity corrections for quantum chemistry methods

    SciTech Connect

    C. F. Melius; M. D. Allendorf

    1999-04-01

    In the 1980's, the authors developed a bond-additivity correction procedure for quantum chemical calculations called BAC-MP4, which has proven reliable in calculating the thermochemical properties of molecular species, including radicals as well as stable closed-shell species. New Bond Additivity Correction (BAC) methods have been developed for the G2 method, BAC-G2, as well as for a hybrid DFT/MP2 method, BAC-Hybrid. These BAC methods use a new form of BAC corrections, involving atomic, molecular, and bond-wise additive terms. These terms enable one to treat positive and negative ions as well as neutrals. The BAC-G2 method reduces errors in the G2 method due to nearest-neighbor bonds. The parameters within the BAC-G2 method only depend on atom types. Thus the BAC-G2 method can be used to determine the parameters needed by BAC methods involving lower levels of theory, such as BAC-Hybrid and BAC-MP4. The BAC-Hybrid method should scale well for large molecules. The BAC-Hybrid method uses the differences between the DFT and MP2 as an indicator of the method's accuracy, while the BAC-G2 method uses its internal methods (G1 and G2MP2) to provide an indicator of its accuracy. Indications of the average error as well as worst cases are provided for each of the BAC methods.

  7. Metal Additive Manufacturing: A Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frazier, William E.

    2014-06-01

    This paper reviews the state-of-the-art of an important, rapidly emerging, manufacturing technology that is alternatively called additive manufacturing (AM), direct digital manufacturing, free form fabrication, or 3D printing, etc. A broad contextual overview of metallic AM is provided. AM has the potential to revolutionize the global parts manufacturing and logistics landscape. It enables distributed manufacturing and the productions of parts-on-demand while offering the potential to reduce cost, energy consumption, and carbon footprint. This paper explores the material science, processes, and business consideration associated with achieving these performance gains. It is concluded that a paradigm shift is required in order to fully exploit AM potential.

  8. Individualized additional instruction for calculus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takata, Ken

    2010-10-01

    College students enrolling in the calculus sequence have a wide variance in their preparation and abilities, yet they are usually taught from the same lecture. We describe another pedagogical model of Individualized Additional Instruction (IAI) that assesses each student frequently and prescribes further instruction and homework based on the student's performance. Our study compares two calculus classes, one taught with mandatory remedial IAI and the other without. The class with mandatory remedial IAI did significantly better on comprehensive multiple-choice exams, participated more frequently in classroom discussion and showed greater interest in theorem-proving and other advanced topics.

  9. The Mozart Effect: Additional Data.

    PubMed

    Hughes, John R.

    2002-04-01

    After the review of the Mozart effect was published in this journal (Hughes JR. Epilepsy Behav 2001;2:369-417), additional data from the music of Haydn and Liszt have been analyzed that may account for the decrease in seizure activity originally reported during Mozart music. Even with these added data Mozart music continued to score significantly higher than the selections from the other six composers in one of the important characteristics of this music, namely, the repetition of the melody. However Haydn's values were second highest among Mozart, J. S. Bach, Wagner, Beethoven, Chopin, and Liszt.

  10. VLF signal perturbation due to the total solar eclipse of March 2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nait Amor, Samir; Bouderba, Yasmina

    2016-07-01

    On March 20 2015 a total Solar eclipse occurred and covered several regions in north America, Greenland, west of Europe and north Africa with different occultation rates. During this event, many VLF paths recorded at Algiers receiver were perturbed. In this contribution, we will present a qualitative analysis of two paths (GQD and DHO) which were disturbed differently since the occultation rate at the transmitter locations was different. In addition to the qualitative study, we determined the newly formed reference height and β values at different times during the eclipse transit. From these determined parameters the time profile of the electron density is then deduced. The results showed that the new reference height, β and the electron density are different from one transmitter analysis to other due to the occultation rate difference.

  11. One hundred years of Arctic surface temperature variation due to anthropogenic influence

    PubMed Central

    Fyfe, John C.; von Salzen, Knut; Gillett, Nathan P.; Arora, Vivek K.; Flato, Gregory M.; McConnell, Joseph R.

    2013-01-01

    Observations show that Arctic-average surface temperature increased from 1900 to 1940, decreased from 1940 to 1970, and increased from 1970 to present. Here, using new observational data and improved climate models employing observed natural and anthropogenic forcings, we demonstrate that contributions from greenhouse gas and aerosol emissions, along with explosive volcanic eruptions, explain most of this observed variation in Arctic surface temperature since 1900. In addition, climate model simulations without natural and anthropogenic forcings indicate very low probabilities that the observed trends in each of these periods were due to internal climate variability alone. Arctic climate change has important environmental and economic impacts and these results improve our understanding of past Arctic climate change and our confidence in future projections. PMID:24025852

  12. Current subsidence rates due to compaction of Holocene sediments in southern Louisiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meckel, T.A.; ten Brink, U.S.; Williams, S.J.

    2006-01-01

    Relative contributions of geologic and anthropogenic processes to subsidence of southern Louisiana are vigorously debated. Of these, shallow sediment compaction is often considered dominant, although this has never been directly observed or effectively demonstrated. Quantitative understanding of subsidence is important for predicting relative sea level rise, storm surge flooding due to hurricanes, and for successful wetland restoration. Despite many shallow borings, few appropriate stratigraphic and geotechnical data are available for site-specific calculations. We overcome this by determining present compaction rates from Monte Carlo simulations of the incremental sedimentation and compaction of stratigraphies typical of the Holocene of southern Louisiana. This approach generates distributions of present compaction rates that are not expected to exceed 5 mm/yr, but may locally. Locations with present subsidence rates greater than the predicted maximum probable shallow compaction rates are likely influenced by additional processes.

  13. One hundred years of Arctic surface temperature variation due to anthropogenic influence.

    PubMed

    Fyfe, John C; von Salzen, Knut; Gillett, Nathan P; Arora, Vivek K; Flato, Gregory M; McConnell, Joseph R

    2013-01-01

    Observations show that Arctic-average surface temperature increased from 1900 to 1940, decreased from 1940 to 1970, and increased from 1970 to present. Here, using new observational data and improved climate models employing observed natural and anthropogenic forcings, we demonstrate that contributions from greenhouse gas and aerosol emissions, along with explosive volcanic eruptions, explain most of this observed variation in Arctic surface temperature since 1900. In addition, climate model simulations without natural and anthropogenic forcings indicate very low probabilities that the observed trends in each of these periods were due to internal climate variability alone. Arctic climate change has important environmental and economic impacts and these results improve our understanding of past Arctic climate change and our confidence in future projections. PMID:24025852

  14. Fire extinct experiments with water mist by adding additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Lijun; Zhao, Jianbo

    2011-12-01

    The effects of fire extinguishment with water mist by adding different additives were studied. Tens of chemical substances (including alkali metal salt, dilution agent and surface active agent) were selected as additives due to their different extinct mechanisms. At first the performance of fire extinguishment with single additive was studied, then the effects of the same kinds of chemical substances under the same mass fraction were compared to study their influences on the fire extinguishment factors, including extinct time, fire temperature and oxygen concentration from which the fire extinct mechanism with additives could be concluded. Based on this the experiments were conducted to study the cooperate effect of the complexity of different additives. It indicated the relations between different firefighting mechanisms and different additives were competitive. From a large number of experiments the extinct mechanism with water mist by adding additives was concluded and an optimal compounding additive was selected.

  15. A fatality due to cyproheptadine and citalopram.

    PubMed

    Hargrove, Veronica; Molina, D Kimberley

    2009-10-01

    Cyproheptadine (Periactin) is a first-generation antihistamine available in over-the-counter cold medications and is used to treat allergic-type symptoms. Although antihistamines in general have long been known to cause serious side effects, especially when taken in overdose, few reports that specifically address cyproheptadine-related fatalities exist. A 42-year-old healthy female was found dead at her home with no anatomic cause of death and a recent history of suicidal ideations. Toxicology revealed cyproheptadine and citalopram in the femoral postmortem blood at concentrations of 0.49 and 2.3 mg/L, respectively. Vitreous, urine, and bile analysis were also performed, yielding concentrations of < 0.04 and 0.80 mg/L in the vitreous for cyproheptadine and citalopram, respectively; 0.23 and 8.2 mg/L in the urine; and 30.7 and 9.0 mg/L in the bile. The cause of death was determined to be cyproheptadine and citalopram intoxication, and the manner was ruled a suicide. Although cyproheptadine is widely available in the United States and Europe, there are only two published fatalities due to this antihistamine and only one that specifically cites blood and tissue concentrations. Therefore, this case study will be beneficial to the forensic toxicology community by providing additional information regarding postmortem interpretation.

  16. Additive manufacturing of RF absorbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mills, Matthew S.

    The ability of additive manufacturing techniques to fabricate integrated electromagnetic absorbers tuned for specific radio frequency bands within structural composites allows for unique combinations of mechanical and electromagnetic properties. These composites and films can be used for RF shielding of sensitive electromagnetic components through in-plane and out-of-plane RF absorption. Structural composites are a common building block of many commercial platforms. These platforms may be placed in situations in which there is a need for embedded RF absorbing properties along with structural properties. Instead of adding radar absorbing treatments to the external surface of existing structures, which adds increased size, weight and cost; it could prove to be advantageous to integrate the microwave absorbing properties directly into the composite during the fabrication process. In this thesis, a method based on additive manufacturing techniques of composites structures with prescribed electromagnetic loss, within the frequency range 1 to 26GHz, is presented. This method utilizes screen printing and nScrypt micro dispensing to pattern a carbon based ink onto low loss substrates. The materials chosen for this study will be presented, and the fabrication technique that these materials went through to create RF absorbing structures will be described. The calibration methods used, the modeling of the RF structures, and the applications in which this technology can be utilized will also be presented.

  17. Fuel Additives: Canada bans MMT

    SciTech Connect

    Sissell, K.

    1997-04-16

    The Canadian Senate voted late last week to ban use of the manganese-based fuel additive MMT, produced only in the US by Ethyl. MMT, which has been sold in Canada for the past 20 years and accounts for about half of Ethyl`s Canadian sales, has been criticized by environmentalists, who have raised public health concerns, and automakers, who say it harms emission control systems. {open_quotes}Canada`s vote is a great victory for public health and the environment,{close_quotes} says Environmental Defense Fund executive director Fred Krupp. {open_quotes}The US should move swiftly to follow suit and suspend sales of MMT until adequate toxicity testing on the additive is completed.{close_quotes} EPA had refused to approve MMT for sale because of health concerns but was compelled to do so by a December 1995 court ruling. Ethyl asserts the ban violates Canada`s obligations under Nafta and says it will file a damage claim with the Nafta arbitration panel.

  18. Control of pyrite addition in coal liquefaction process

    DOEpatents

    Schmid, Bruce K.; Junkin, James E.

    1982-12-21

    Pyrite addition to a coal liquefaction process (22, 26) is controlled (118) in inverse proportion to the calcium content of the feed coal to maximize the C.sub.5 --900.degree. F. (482.degree. C.) liquid yield per unit weight of pyrite added (110). The pyrite addition is controlled in this manner so as to minimize the amount of pyrite used and thus reduce pyrite contribution to the slurry pumping load and disposal problems connected with pyrite produced slag.

  19. The gluon contribution to nucleon spin

    SciTech Connect

    Antje Bruell

    2006-04-06

    EIC is the ideal machine to finally determine the contribution of the gluons to the nucleon spin. Measurements of G{sub 1} will allow: (1) a determination of {Delta}G/G from its scaling violation and (2) a statistically very precise determination of the Bjorken Sum (systematics due to uncertainty in proton beam polarization). Measurements of charm cross section asymmetries will provide a precise determination of {Delta}G/G for 0.003 < x < 0.5 at a fixed value of Q{sup 2} of {approx} GeV{sup 2} provided they can measure the scattered electron at extremely small angles; separate the primary and secondary vertex with sufficient precision; and control the contribution of resolved photons. More work is needed to define the necessary detector requirements.

  20. Neutron Characterization for Additive Manufacturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watkins, Thomas; Bilheux, Hassina; An, Ke; Payzant, Andrew; DeHoff, Ryan; Duty, Chad; Peter, William; Blue, Craig; Brice, Craig A.

    2013-01-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is leveraging decades of experience in neutron characterization of advanced materials together with resources such as the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) and the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) shown in Fig. 1 to solve challenging problems in additive manufacturing (AM). Additive manufacturing, or three-dimensional (3-D) printing, is a rapidly maturing technology wherein components are built by selectively adding feedstock material at locations specified by a computer model. The majority of these technologies use thermally driven phase change mechanisms to convert the feedstock into functioning material. As the molten material cools and solidifies, the component is subjected to significant thermal gradients, generating significant internal stresses throughout the part (Fig. 2). As layers are added, inherent residual stresses cause warping and distortions that lead to geometrical differences between the final part and the original computer generated design. This effect also limits geometries that can be fabricated using AM, such as thin-walled, high-aspect- ratio, and overhanging structures. Distortion may be minimized by intelligent toolpath planning or strategic placement of support structures, but these approaches are not well understood and often "Edisonian" in nature. Residual stresses can also impact component performance during operation. For example, in a thermally cycled environment such as a high-pressure turbine engine, residual stresses can cause components to distort unpredictably. Different thermal treatments on as-fabricated AM components have been used to minimize residual stress, but components still retain a nonhomogeneous stress state and/or demonstrate a relaxation-derived geometric distortion. Industry, federal laboratory, and university collaboration is needed to address these challenges and enable the U.S. to compete in the global market. Work is currently being conducted on AM technologies at the ORNL

  1. An Additive Manufacturing Test Artifact.

    PubMed

    Moylan, Shawn; Slotwinski, John; Cooke, April; Jurrens, Kevin; Donmez, M Alkan

    2014-01-01

    A test artifact, intended for standardization, is proposed for the purpose of evaluating the performance of additive manufacturing (AM) systems. A thorough analysis of previously proposed AM test artifacts as well as experience with machining test artifacts have inspired the design of the proposed test artifact. This new artifact is designed to provide a characterization of the capabilities and limitations of an AM system, as well as to allow system improvement by linking specific errors measured in the test artifact to specific sources in the AM system. The proposed test artifact has been built in multiple materials using multiple AM technologies. The results of several of the builds are discussed, demonstrating how the measurement results can be used to characterize and improve a specific AM system. PMID:26601039

  2. An Additive Manufacturing Test Artifact

    PubMed Central

    Moylan, Shawn; Slotwinski, John; Cooke, April; Jurrens, Kevin; Donmez, M Alkan

    2014-01-01

    A test artifact, intended for standardization, is proposed for the purpose of evaluating the performance of additive manufacturing (AM) systems. A thorough analysis of previously proposed AM test artifacts as well as experience with machining test artifacts have inspired the design of the proposed test artifact. This new artifact is designed to provide a characterization of the capabilities and limitations of an AM system, as well as to allow system improvement by linking specific errors measured in the test artifact to specific sources in the AM system. The proposed test artifact has been built in multiple materials using multiple AM technologies. The results of several of the builds are discussed, demonstrating how the measurement results can be used to characterize and improve a specific AM system. PMID:26601039

  3. SIPSEY WILDERNESS AND ADDITIONS, ALABAMA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schweinfurth, Stanley P.; Mory, Peter C.

    1984-01-01

    On the basis of geologic, geochemical, and mineral surveys the Sipsey Wilderness and additions are deemed to have little promise for the occurrence of metallic mineral resources. Although limestone, shale, and sandstone resources that occur in the area are physically suitable for a variety of uses, similar materials are available outside the area closer to transportation routes and potential markets. A small amount of coal has been identified in the area, occurring as nonpersistent beds less than 28 in. thick. Oil and (or) natural gas resources may be present if suitable structural traps exist in the subsurface. Therefore, the area has a probable oil and gas potential. Small amounts of asphaltic sandstone and limestone, commonly referred to as tar sands, may also occur in the subsurface. 5 refs.

  4. An Additive Manufacturing Test Artifact.

    PubMed

    Moylan, Shawn; Slotwinski, John; Cooke, April; Jurrens, Kevin; Donmez, M Alkan

    2014-01-01

    A test artifact, intended for standardization, is proposed for the purpose of evaluating the performance of additive manufacturing (AM) systems. A thorough analysis of previously proposed AM test artifacts as well as experience with machining test artifacts have inspired the design of the proposed test artifact. This new artifact is designed to provide a characterization of the capabilities and limitations of an AM system, as well as to allow system improvement by linking specific errors measured in the test artifact to specific sources in the AM system. The proposed test artifact has been built in multiple materials using multiple AM technologies. The results of several of the builds are discussed, demonstrating how the measurement results can be used to characterize and improve a specific AM system.

  5. Adverse reactions to food additives.

    PubMed

    Simon, R A

    1986-01-01

    There are thousands of agents that are intentionally added to the food that we consume. These include preservatives, stabilizers, conditioners, thickeners, colorings, flavorings, sweeteners, antioxidants, etc. etc. Yet only a surprisingly small number have been associated with hypersensitivity reactions. Amongst all the additives, FD&C dyes have been most frequently associated with adverse reactions. Tartrazine is the most notorious of them all; however, critical review of the medical literature and current Scripps Clinic studies would indicate that tartrazine has been confirmed to be at best only occasionally associated with flares of urticaria or asthma. There is no convincing evidence in the literature of reactivity to the other azo or nonazo dyes. This can also be said of BHA/BHT, nitrites/nitrates and sorbates. Parabens have been shown to elicit IgE mediated hypersensitivity reactions when used as pharmaceutical preservatives; however, as with the other additives noted above, ingested parabens have only occasionally been associated with adverse reactions. MSG, the cause of the 'Chinese restaurant syndrome' has only been linked to asthma in one report. Sulfiting agents used primarily as food fresheners and to control microbial growth in fermented beverages have been established as the cause of any where from mild to severe and even fatal reactions in at least 5% of the asthmatic population. Other reactions reported to follow sulfite ingestion include anaphylaxis, gastro intestinal complaints and dermatological eruptions. The prevalence of these non asthmatic reactions is unknown. The mechanism of sulfite sensitive asthma is also unknown but most likely involves hyperreactivity to inhale SO2 in the great majority of cases; however, there are reports of IgE mediated reactions and other sulfite sensitive asthmatics have been found with low levels of sulfite oxidase; necessary to oxidize endogenous sulfite to sulfate.

  6. 27 CFR 31.111 - Date registration form is due.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Date registration form is....111 Date registration form is due. (a) General. Dealers must register by filing the registration form... form was filed, no additional registration is required. If the registration form is received in...

  7. JEA Dues through SPAs Provide Reciprocal Benefits.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Margaret M.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses how it would be beneficial to high school journalism teachers and publications advisers if they could pay Journalism Education Association dues at the same time they pay dues for state Scholastic Press Associations. (MS)

  8. Contribution of methane to aerosol carbon mass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianchi, F.; Barmet, P.; Stirnweis, L.; El Haddad, I.; Platt, S. M.; Saurer, M.; Lötscher, C.; Siegwolf, R.; Bigi, A.; Hoyle, C. R.; DeCarlo, P. F.; Slowik, J. G.; Prévôt, A. S. H.; Baltensperger, U.; Dommen, J.

    2016-09-01

    Small volatile organic compounds (VOC) such as methane (CH4) have long been considered non-relevant to aerosol formation due to the high volatility of their oxidation products. However, even low aerosol yields from CH4, the most abundant VOC in the atmosphere, would contribute significantly to the total particulate carbon budget. In this study, organic aerosol (OA) mass yields from CH4 oxidation were evaluated at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) smog chamber in the presence of inorganic and organic seed aerosols. Using labeled 13C methane, we could detect its oxidation products in the aerosol phase, with yields up to 0.09

  9. Contribution of lubricating oil to particulate matter emissions from light-duty gasoline vehicles in Kansas City.

    PubMed

    Sonntag, Darrell B; Bailey, Chad R; Fulper, Carl R; Baldauf, Richard W

    2012-04-01

    The contribution of lubricating oil to particulate matter (PM) emissions representative of the in-use 2004 light-duty gasoline vehicles fleet is estimated from the Kansas City Light-Duty Vehicle Emissions Study (KCVES). PM emissions are apportioned to lubricating oil and gasoline using aerosol-phase chemical markers measured in PM samples obtained from 99 vehicles tested on the California Unified Driving Cycle. The oil contribution to fleet-weighted PM emission rates is estimated to be 25% of PM emission rates. Oil contributes primarily to the organic fraction of PM, with no detectable contribution to elemental carbon emissions. Vehicles are analyzed according to pre-1991 and 1991-2004 groups due to differences in properties of the fitting species between newer and older vehicles, and to account for the sampling design of the study. Pre-1991 vehicles contribute 13.5% of the KC vehicle population, 70% of oil-derived PM for the entire fleet, and 33% of the fuel-derived PM. The uncertainty of the contributions is calculated from a survey analysis resampling method, with 95% confidence intervals for the oil-derived PM fraction ranging from 13% to 37%. The PM is not completely apportioned to the gasoline and oil due to several contributing factors, including varied chemical composition of PM among vehicles, metal emissions, and PM measurement artifacts. Additional uncertainties include potential sorption of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons into the oil, contributions of semivolatile organic compounds from the oil to the PM measurements, and representing the in-use fleet with a limited number of vehicles. PMID:22369074

  10. Contribution of lubricating oil to particulate matter emissions from light-duty gasoline vehicles in Kansas City.

    PubMed

    Sonntag, Darrell B; Bailey, Chad R; Fulper, Carl R; Baldauf, Richard W

    2012-04-01

    The contribution of lubricating oil to particulate matter (PM) emissions representative of the in-use 2004 light-duty gasoline vehicles fleet is estimated from the Kansas City Light-Duty Vehicle Emissions Study (KCVES). PM emissions are apportioned to lubricating oil and gasoline using aerosol-phase chemical markers measured in PM samples obtained from 99 vehicles tested on the California Unified Driving Cycle. The oil contribution to fleet-weighted PM emission rates is estimated to be 25% of PM emission rates. Oil contributes primarily to the organic fraction of PM, with no detectable contribution to elemental carbon emissions. Vehicles are analyzed according to pre-1991 and 1991-2004 groups due to differences in properties of the fitting species between newer and older vehicles, and to account for the sampling design of the study. Pre-1991 vehicles contribute 13.5% of the KC vehicle population, 70% of oil-derived PM for the entire fleet, and 33% of the fuel-derived PM. The uncertainty of the contributions is calculated from a survey analysis resampling method, with 95% confidence intervals for the oil-derived PM fraction ranging from 13% to 37%. The PM is not completely apportioned to the gasoline and oil due to several contributing factors, including varied chemical composition of PM among vehicles, metal emissions, and PM measurement artifacts. Additional uncertainties include potential sorption of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons into the oil, contributions of semivolatile organic compounds from the oil to the PM measurements, and representing the in-use fleet with a limited number of vehicles.

  11. Additional Support Needs Reforms and Social Justice in Scotland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riddell, Sheila; Stead, Joan; Weedon, Elisabet; Wright, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    New additional support-needs legislation in Scotland sought to recognise the way in which poverty, as well as individual impairment, contribute to the creation of children's difficulties in learning. As well as identifying a wider range of needs, the legislation sought to provide parents, irrespective of social background, with more powerful means…

  12. Intolerance to food additives - does it exist?

    PubMed

    Turner, Paul J; Kemp, Andrew S

    2012-02-01

    'Food intolerance' is often confused with a range of adverse symptoms which may be coincidental to ingestion of food. 'Food intolerance' is defined as a reaction in which symptoms must be objectively reproducible and not known to involve an immunological mechanism. A more precise term is non-allergic food hypersensitivity, which contrasts with food allergies which are due to an immunological mechanism. Some children will experience food reactions to food additives. Reported symptoms range from urticaria/angioedema to hyperactive behaviours. While parents/carers report that over one fifth of children experience of food reaction, only 1 in 20 of these are confirmed to have a non-allergic food hypersensitivity on testing.

  13. Additively Manufactured Metals in Oxygen Systems Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tylka, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Metals produced by additive manufacturing methods, such as Powder Bed Fusion Technology, are now mature enough to be considered for qualification in human spaceflight oxygen systems. The mechanical properties of metals produced through AM processes are being systematically studied. However, it is unknown whether AM metals in oxygen applications may present an increased risk of flammability or ignition as compared to wrought metals of the same metallurgical composition due to increased porosity. Per NASA-STD-6001B materials to be used in oxygen system applications shall be based on flammability and combustion test data, followed by a flammability assessment. Without systematic flammability and ignition testing in oxygen there is no credible method for NASA to accurately evaluate the risk of using AM metals in oxygen systems.

  14. Additives for high-temperature liquid lubricants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawton, Emil A.; Yavrouian, Andre H.; Repar, John

    1988-01-01

    A preliminary research program was conducted to demonstrate a new concept for additives to liquid lubricants. It was demonstrated that suspensions of o-phthalonitrile and a substituted 1,2-maleonitrile in mineral oil and dilute solutions of o-phthalonitrile and tetrafluoro-o-phthalonitrile extended the lifetime of bearings under boundary lubricating conditions. The solutions exhibited coefficients of friction under high loads of 0.02-0.03. These results were consistent with the hypothesis that these compounds react with the hot metal surface to form a planar lubricating film by means of a metal or metal oxide template reaction. Also, the adherence was very strong due to the chelating action of the planar macrocycles postulated to form under the experimental conditions.

  15. 34 CFR 602.25 - Due process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Due process. 602.25 Section 602.25 Education... Required Operating Policies and Procedures § 602.25 Due process. The agency must demonstrate that the procedures it uses throughout the accrediting process satisfy due process. The agency meets this...

  16. 34 CFR 602.25 - Due process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Due process. 602.25 Section 602.25 Education... Required Operating Policies and Procedures § 602.25 Due process. The agency must demonstrate that the procedures it uses throughout the accrediting process satisfy due process. The agency meets this...

  17. 34 CFR 602.25 - Due process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Due process. 602.25 Section 602.25 Education... Required Operating Policies and Procedures § 602.25 Due process. The agency must demonstrate that the procedures it uses throughout the accrediting process satisfy due process. The agency meets this...

  18. 29 CFR 4007.11 - Due dates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Due dates. (a) In general. For flat-rate and variable-rate premiums, the premium filing due date for... variable-rate premium payment must be made by the last day of the sixteenth full calendar month following... payment year. (ii) The due date for the variable-rate premium required by § 4006.3(b) of this chapter...

  19. 29 CFR 4007.11 - Due dates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Due dates. (a) In general. In general: (1) The flat-rate and variable-rate premium filing due date is... payment year. (2) If the variable-rate premium paid by the premium filing due date is estimated as described in § 4007.8(g)(1)(ii), a reconciliation filing and any required variable-rate premium payment...

  20. 29 CFR 4007.11 - Due dates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Due dates. (a) In general. For flat-rate and variable-rate premiums, the premium filing due date for... variable-rate premium payment must be made by the last day of the sixteenth full calendar month following... payment year. (ii) The due date for the variable-rate premium required by § 4006.3(b) of this chapter...

  1. 29 CFR 4007.11 - Due dates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Due dates. (a) In general. For flat-rate and variable-rate premiums, the premium filing due date for... variable-rate premium payment must be made by the last day of the sixteenth full calendar month following... payment year. (ii) The due date for the variable-rate premium required by § 4006.3(b) of this chapter...

  2. Additive attacks on speaker recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrokh Baroughi, Alireza; Craver, Scott

    2014-02-01

    Speaker recognition is used to identify a speaker's voice from among a group of known speakers. A common method of speaker recognition is a classification based on cepstral coefficients of the speaker's voice, using a Gaussian mixture model (GMM) to model each speaker. In this paper we try to fool a speaker recognition system using additive noise such that an intruder is recognized as a target user. Our attack uses a mixture selected from a target user's GMM model, inverting the cepstral transformation to produce noise samples. In our 5 speaker data base, we achieve an attack success rate of 50% with a noise signal at 10dB SNR, and 95% by increasing noise power to 0dB SNR. The importance of this attack is its simplicity and flexibility: it can be employed in real time with no processing of an attacker's voice, and little computation is needed at the moment of detection, allowing the attack to be performed by a small portable device. For any target user, knowing that user's model or voice sample is sufficient to compute the attack signal, and it is enough that the intruder plays it while he/she is uttering to be classiffed as the victim.

  3. Additive Transforms Paint into Insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Tech Traders Inc. sought assistance developing low-cost, highly effective coatings and paints that created useful thermal reflectance and were safe and non-toxic. In cooperation with a group of engineers at Kennedy Space Center., Tech Traders created Insuladd, a powder additive made up of microscopic, inert gas-filled, ceramic microspheres that can be mixed into ordinary interior or exterior paint, allowing the paint to act like a layer of insulation. When the paint dries, this forms a radiant heat barrier, turning the ordinary house paint into heat-reflecting thermal paint. According to Tech Traders, the product works with all types of paints and coatings and will not change the coverage rate, application, or adhesion of the paint. Other useful applications include feed storage silos to help prevent feed spoilage, poultry hatcheries to reduce the summer heat and winter cold effects, and on military vehicles and ships. Tech Traders has continued its connection to the aerospace community by recently providing Lockheed Martin Corporation with one of its thermal products for use on the F-22 Raptor.

  4. Enthalpic and Entropic Contributions to Hydrophobicity.

    PubMed

    Schauperl, Michael; Podewitz, Maren; Waldner, Birgit J; Liedl, Klaus R

    2016-09-13

    Hydrophobic hydration plays a key role in a vast variety of biological processes, ranging from the formation of cells to protein folding and ligand binding. Hydrophobicity scales simplify the complex process of hydration by assigning a value describing the averaged hydrophobic character to each amino acid. Previously published scales were not able to calculate the enthalpic and entropic contributions to the hydrophobicity directly. We present a new method, based on Molecular Dynamics simulations and Grid Inhomogeneous Solvation Theory, that calculates hydrophobicity from enthalpic and entropic contributions. Instead of deriving these quantities from the temperature dependence of the free energy of hydration or as residual of the free energy and the enthalpy, we directly obtain these values from the phase space occupied by water molecules. Additionally, our method is able to identify regions with specific enthalpic and entropic properties, allowing to identify so-called "unhappy water" molecules, which are characterized by weak enthalpic interactions and unfavorable entropic constraints. PMID:27442443

  5. Enthalpic and Entropic Contributions to Hydrophobicity

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Hydrophobic hydration plays a key role in a vast variety of biological processes, ranging from the formation of cells to protein folding and ligand binding. Hydrophobicity scales simplify the complex process of hydration by assigning a value describing the averaged hydrophobic character to each amino acid. Previously published scales were not able to calculate the enthalpic and entropic contributions to the hydrophobicity directly. We present a new method, based on Molecular Dynamics simulations and Grid Inhomogeneous Solvation Theory, that calculates hydrophobicity from enthalpic and entropic contributions. Instead of deriving these quantities from the temperature dependence of the free energy of hydration or as residual of the free energy and the enthalpy, we directly obtain these values from the phase space occupied by water molecules. Additionally, our method is able to identify regions with specific enthalpic and entropic properties, allowing to identify so-called “unhappy water” molecules, which are characterized by weak enthalpic interactions and unfavorable entropic constraints. PMID:27442443

  6. Employer involvement in defined contribution investment education.

    PubMed

    Blau, G; VanDerhei, J L

    2000-01-01

    In this paper the authors consider the personnel problems that may arise for defined contribution plan sponsors if major market corrections cause older employees to delay retirement beyond previous expectations. We move from that basic premise to argue that, given the continued evolution from defined benefit (DB) to defined contribution (DC) retirement plans, employers need to be more "proactive" in educating their employees about their retirement planning. A human resources perspective is used to support this argument, apart from and in addition to legal considerations such as ERISA Section 404(c). Specifics of employer involvement and its place as a component of an organization's culture are discussed. Finally, recommendations are given for employers to consider.

  7. Sound-driven enhancement of vision: disentangling detection-level from decision-level contributions.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Bellido, Alexis; Soto-Faraco, Salvador; López-Moliner, Joan

    2013-02-01

    Cross-modal enhancement can be mediated both by higher-order effects due to attention and decision making and by detection-level stimulus-driven interactions. However, the contribution of each of these sources to behavioral improvements has not been conclusively determined and quantified separately. Here, we apply psychophysical analysis based on Piéron functions in order to separate stimulus-dependent changes from those accounted by decision-level contributions. Participants performed a simple visual speeded detection task on Gabor patches of different spatial frequencies and contrast values, presented with and without accompanying sounds. On one hand, we identified an additive cross-modal improvement in mean reaction times across all types of visual stimuli that would be well explained by interactions not strictly based on stimulus-driven modulations (e.g., due to reduction of temporal uncertainty and motor times). On the other hand, we singled out an audio-visual benefit that strongly depended on stimulus features such as frequency and contrast. This particular enhancement was selective to low-visual spatial frequency stimuli, optimized for magnocellular sensitivity. We therefore conclude that interactions at detection stages and at decisional processes in response selection that contribute to audio-visual enhancement can be separated online and express on partly different aspects of visual processing.

  8. The ESA DUE GlobVapour Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schröder, M.; ESA Due Globvapour Project Team

    2010-12-01

    DUE GlobVapour project is the preparation of recognised data sets and successful concepts that can be used to ensure a sustainable provision of such data from operational entities such as the European Organisation for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites (EUMETSAT) Satellite Application Facility (SAF) network. Key scientific questions which GlobVapour data can contribute to are climate monitoring and attribution, assimilation of different water vapour datasets to form a consistent analysis, model process studies, evaluation of in-situ water vapour measurements, validation of climate models and reanalyses, assessing the relationship between water vapour and dynamics, research and development for operational applications and input to atmospheric reanalyses. This presentation will introduce the GlobVapour project and concept as well as the products which are the global total column water vapour (TCWV) time series from a combination of MERIS and SSM/I as well as TCWV data sets derived from the GOME/SCIAMACHY/GOME-2 and the (A)ATSR instruments. A shorter time series of water vapour profiles will be derived from a combination of IASI and SEVIRI. The retrieval and combination methods as well as first validation results will also be discussed.

  9. Startle activation is additive with voluntary cortical activation irrespective of stimulus modality.

    PubMed

    Maslovat, Dana; Drummond, Neil M; Carter, Michael J; Carlsen, Anthony N

    2015-10-01

    When a startling acoustic stimulus (SAS) is presented during a simple reaction time (RT) task, it can trigger the prepared response through an involuntary initiation pathway. Previous research modelling the effects of presenting a SAS at various intervals following a non-startling auditory imperative signal (IS) suggested that involuntary initiation-related neural activation is additive with the voluntary initiation processes. The current study tested the predictions of this additive model when the SAS and IS are of different modalities by using a visual rather than auditory go-signal. Because voluntary RT latencies are delayed for visual stimuli compared to acoustic stimuli, it was hypothesised that the time course of additive activation would be similarly delayed. Participants performed 150 RT trials requiring a targeted 20° wrist extension task with a SAS presented 0-125 ms following a visual go-signal. Results were not different to those predicted by an additive model (p=0.979), yet were significantly different to those predicted by a horse-race model (p=0.037), indicating a joint contribution of voluntary and involuntary activation, even when the IS and SAS are of different modalities. Furthermore, the results indicated that voluntary RT differences due to stimulus modality are attributable to processes that occur prior to the increase in initiation-related activation.

  10. Aromatase inhibiting and combined estrogenic effects of parabens and estrogenic effects of other additives in cosmetics

    SciTech Connect

    Meeuwen, J.A. van Son, O. van; Piersma, A.H.; Jong, P.C. de; Berg, M. van den

    2008-08-01

    There is concern widely on the increase in human exposure to exogenous (anti)estrogenic compounds. Typical are certain ingredients in cosmetic consumer products such as musks, phthalates and parabens. Monitoring a variety of human samples revealed that these ingredients, including the ones that generally are considered to undergo rapid metabolism, are present at low levels. In this in vitro research individual compounds and combinations of parabens and endogenous estradiol (E{sub 2}) were investigated in the MCF-7 cell proliferation assay. The experimental design applied a concentration addition model (CA). Data were analyzed with the estrogen equivalency (EEQ) and method of isoboles approach. In addition, the catalytic inhibitory properties of parabens on an enzyme involved in a rate limiting step in steroid genesis (aromatase) were studied in human placental microsomes. Our results point to an additive estrogenic effect in a CA model for parabens. In addition, it was found that parabens inhibit aromatase. Noticeably, the effective levels in both our in vitro systems were far higher than the levels detected in human samples. However, estrogenic compounds may contribute in a cumulative way to the circulating estrogen burden. Our calculation for the extra estrogen burden due to exposure to parabens, phthalates and polycyclic musks indicates an insignificant estrogenic load relative to the endogenous or therapeutic estrogen burden.

  11. Aromatase inhibiting and combined estrogenic effects of parabens and estrogenic effects of other additives in cosmetics.

    PubMed

    van Meeuwen, J A; van Son, O; Piersma, A H; de Jong, P C; van den Berg, M

    2008-08-01

    There is concern widely on the increase in human exposure to exogenous (anti)estrogenic compounds. Typical are certain ingredients in cosmetic consumer products such as musks, phthalates and parabens. Monitoring a variety of human samples revealed that these ingredients, including the ones that generally are considered to undergo rapid metabolism, are present at low levels. In this in vitro research individual compounds and combinations of parabens and endogenous estradiol (E(2)) were investigated in the MCF-7 cell proliferation assay. The experimental design applied a concentration addition model (CA). Data were analyzed with the estrogen equivalency (EEQ) and method of isoboles approach. In addition, the catalytic inhibitory properties of parabens on an enzyme involved in a rate limiting step in steroid genesis (aromatase) were studied in human placental microsomes. Our results point to an additive estrogenic effect in a CA model for parabens. In addition, it was found that parabens inhibit aromatase. Noticeably, the effective levels in both our in vitro systems were far higher than the levels detected in human samples. However, estrogenic compounds may contribute in a cumulative way to the circulating estrogen burden. Our calculation for the extra estrogen burden due to exposure to parabens, phthalates and polycyclic musks indicates an insignificant estrogenic load relative to the endogenous or therapeutic estrogen burden.

  12. [Asthma and allergy due to carmine dye].

    PubMed

    Tabar, A I; Acero, S; Arregui, C; Urdánoz, M; Quirce, S

    2003-01-01

    Cochineal carmine, or simply carmine (E120), is a red colouring that is obtained from the dried bodies of the female insect Dactylopius coccus Costa (the cochineal insect). We have evaluated the prevalence of sensitization and asthma caused by carmine in a factory using natural colouring, following the diagnosis of two workers with occupational asthma. The accumulated incidence of sensitization and occupational asthma due to carmine in this factory are 48.1% and 18.5% respectively, figures that make the introduction of preventive measures obligatory. Occupational asthma caused by inhaling carmine should be considered as a further example of the capacity of certain protein particles of arthropods (in this case cochineal insects) to act as aeroallergens. Carmine should be added to the list of agents capable of producing occupational asthma, whose mechanism, according to our studies, would be immunological mediated by IgE antibodies in the face of diverse allergens of high molecular weight, which can vary from patient to patient. Nonetheless, given the existence of different components in carmine, it cannot be ruled out that substances of low molecular weight, such as carminic acid, might act as haptenes. Besides, since we are dealing with a colouring that is widely used as a food additive, as a pharmaceutical excipient and in the composition of numerous cosmetics, it is not surprising that allergic reactions can appear both through ingestion and through direct cutaneous contact. We find ourselves facing a new example of an allergen that can act through both inhalation and digestion, giving rise to an allergolical syndrome that can show itself clinically with expressions of both respiratory allergy and alimentary allergy. PMID:13679965

  13. Additive manufacturing of glass for optical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Junjie; Gilbert, Luke J.; Bristow, Douglas A.; Landers, Robert G.; Goldstein, Jonathan T.; Urbas, Augustine M.; Kinzel, Edward C.

    2016-04-01

    Glasses including fused quartz have significant scientific and engineering applications including optics, communications, electronics, and hermetic seals. This paper investigates a filament fed process for Additive Manufacturing (AM) of fused quartz. Additive manufacturing has several potential benefits including increased design freedom, faster prototyping, and lower processing costs for small production volumes. However, current research in AM of glasses is limited and has focused on non-optical applications. Fused quartz is studied here because of its desirability for high-quality optics due to its high transmissivity and thermal stability. Fused quartz also has a higher working temperature than soda lime glass which poses a challenge for AM. In this work, fused quartz filaments are fed into a CO2 laser generated melt pool, smoothly depositing material onto the work piece. Single tracks are printed to explore the effects that different process parameters have on the morphology of printed fused quartz. A spectrometer is used to measure the thermal radiation incandescently emitted from the melt pool. Thin-walls are printed to study the effects of layer-to-layer height. Finally, a 3D fused quartz cube is printed using the newly acquired layer height and polished on each surface. The transmittance and index homogeneity of the polished cube are both measured. These results show that the filament fed process has the potential to print fused quartz with optical transparency and of index of refraction uniformity approaching bulk processed glass.

  14. Compression and Cavitation of Externally Applied Magnetic Field on a Hohlraum due to Non-Local Heat Flow Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joglekar, Archis; Thomas, Alec; Ridgers, Chris; Kingham, Rob

    2015-11-01

    In this study, we present full-scale 2D kinetic modeling of externally imposed magnetic fields on hohlraums with laser heating. We observe magnetic field cavitation and compression due to thermal energy transport. Self-consistent modeling of the electron momentum equation allows for a complete treatment of the heat flow equation and Ohm's Law. A complete Ohm's Law contains magnetic field advection through the Nernst mechanism that arises due to the heat flow. Magnetic field amplification by a factor of 3 occurs due to magnetic flux pile-up from Nernst convection. The magnetic field cavitates towards the hohlraum axis over a 0.5 ns time scale due to Nernst convection. This results in significantly different magnetic field profiles and slower cavitation than can be expected due to the plasma bulk flow. Non-local electrons contribute to the heat flow down the density gradient resulting in an augmented Nernst convection mechanism that is included self-consistently through kinetic modeling. In addition to showing the prevalence of non-local heat flows, we show effects such as anomalous heat flow up the density gradient induced by inverse bremsstrahlung heating. This research was supported by the DOE through Grant No. DE SC0010621 and in part through computational resources and services provided by Advanced Research Computing at the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor.

  15. The Application of Quasi-Mean-Element-Method to LEO under Additional Perturbation due to Change of Coordinate System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Jing-shi; Liu, Lin

    2010-10-01

    The perturbation caused by the oscillation of Earth's equator plane must be taken into account when working on the motion of satellite on a low Earth orbit (LEO) in the geocentric celestial coordinate system. Since 1960 s, an intermediate orbit coordinate system using true equator and mean equinox (TEME) is introduced. It effectively solves the problem and has been widely used in various applications till today. But this traditional reference frame is purely conceptual and has always been a headache when performing the transition between these systems especially for those who are unfamiliar with celestial frames. As proved in a previous paper, it is possible to avoid the intermediate TEME frame, and conversions between osculating elements and mean elements can be completed in a consistent geocentric celestial coordinate system where only short-period terms are required. In this paper, after including the improved secular and long-period terms, the quasi-mean-element-method is available to predict the orbit analytically, reaching the accuracy of 10 -6 in Earth's radius. And all these can be done in the same celestial frame. The results suggest that the celestial coordinate system (J2000.0 nowadays) can be used throughout any applications without having to introduce TEME system as intermediate frame any more.

  16. 75 FR 22159 - Major Portion Prices and Due Date for Additional Royalty Payments on Indian Gas Production in...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-27

    ... INFORMATION CONTACT: John Barder, Manager, Team B, Western Audit and Compliance, Minerals Revenue Management..., Western Audit and Compliance, Minerals Revenue Management; telephone (303) 231-3741; fax (303) 231-3755; e-mail Michael.Curry@mms.gov . Mailing address: Minerals Management Service, Minerals Revenue...

  17. 78 FR 14834 - Major Portion Prices and Due Date for Additional Royalty Payments on Indian Gas Production in...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-07

    ... ``Amendments to Gas Valuation Regulations for Indian Leases'' effective January 1, 2000 (64 FR 43506). The... Reservation 4.16 4.05 3.70 3.98 Rocky Boys Reservation 3.84 3.64 3.63 3.72 ONRR-Designated areas May 2011 Jun... Reservation 4.04 4.07 4.11 4.14 Rocky Boys Reservation 3.82 3.95 3.78 3.58 ONRR-Designated areas Sep 2011...

  18. Mechanical properties of additively manufactured octagonal honeycombs.

    PubMed

    Hedayati, R; Sadighi, M; Mohammadi-Aghdam, M; Zadpoor, A A

    2016-12-01

    Honeycomb structures have found numerous applications as structural and biomedical materials due to their favourable properties such as low weight, high stiffness, and porosity. Application of additive manufacturing and 3D printing techniques allows for manufacturing of honeycombs with arbitrary shape and wall thickness, opening the way for optimizing the mechanical and physical properties for specific applications. In this study, the mechanical properties of honeycomb structures with a new geometry, called octagonal honeycomb, were investigated using analytical, numerical, and experimental approaches. An additive manufacturing technique, namely fused deposition modelling, was used to fabricate the honeycomb from polylactic acid (PLA). The honeycombs structures were then mechanically tested under compression and the mechanical properties of the structures were determined. In addition, the Euler-Bernoulli and Timoshenko beam theories were used for deriving analytical relationships for elastic modulus, yield stress, Poisson's ratio, and buckling stress of this new design of honeycomb structures. Finite element models were also created to analyse the mechanical behaviour of the honeycombs computationally. The analytical solutions obtained using Timoshenko beam theory were close to computational results in terms of elastic modulus, Poisson's ratio and yield stress, especially for relative densities smaller than 25%. The analytical solutions based on the Timoshenko analytical solution and the computational results were in good agreement with experimental observations. Finally, the elastic properties of the proposed honeycomb structure were compared to those of other honeycomb structures such as square, triangular, hexagonal, mixed, diamond, and Kagome. The octagonal honeycomb showed yield stress and elastic modulus values very close to those of regular hexagonal honeycombs and lower than the other considered honeycombs. PMID:27612831

  19. Mechanical properties of additively manufactured octagonal honeycombs.

    PubMed

    Hedayati, R; Sadighi, M; Mohammadi-Aghdam, M; Zadpoor, A A

    2016-12-01

    Honeycomb structures have found numerous applications as structural and biomedical materials due to their favourable properties such as low weight, high stiffness, and porosity. Application of additive manufacturing and 3D printing techniques allows for manufacturing of honeycombs with arbitrary shape and wall thickness, opening the way for optimizing the mechanical and physical properties for specific applications. In this study, the mechanical properties of honeycomb structures with a new geometry, called octagonal honeycomb, were investigated using analytical, numerical, and experimental approaches. An additive manufacturing technique, namely fused deposition modelling, was used to fabricate the honeycomb from polylactic acid (PLA). The honeycombs structures were then mechanically tested under compression and the mechanical properties of the structures were determined. In addition, the Euler-Bernoulli and Timoshenko beam theories were used for deriving analytical relationships for elastic modulus, yield stress, Poisson's ratio, and buckling stress of this new design of honeycomb structures. Finite element models were also created to analyse the mechanical behaviour of the honeycombs computationally. The analytical solutions obtained using Timoshenko beam theory were close to computational results in terms of elastic modulus, Poisson's ratio and yield stress, especially for relative densities smaller than 25%. The analytical solutions based on the Timoshenko analytical solution and the computational results were in good agreement with experimental observations. Finally, the elastic properties of the proposed honeycomb structure were compared to those of other honeycomb structures such as square, triangular, hexagonal, mixed, diamond, and Kagome. The octagonal honeycomb showed yield stress and elastic modulus values very close to those of regular hexagonal honeycombs and lower than the other considered honeycombs.

  20. TRADEOFFs in climate effects through aircraft routing: forcing due to radiatively active gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stordal, F.; Gauss, M.; Myhre, G.; Mancini, E.; Hauglustaine, D. A.; Köhler, M. O.; Berntsen, T.; . G Stordal, E. J.; Iachetti, D.; Pitari, G.; Isaksen, I. S. A.

    2006-10-01

    We have estimated impacts of alternative aviation routings on the radiative forcing. Changes in ozone and OH have been estimated in four Chemistry Transport Models (CTMs) participating in the TRADEOFF project. Radiative forcings due to ozone and methane have been calculated accordingly. In addition radiative forcing due to CO2 is estimated based on fuel consumption. Three alternative routing cases are investigated; one scenario assuming additional polar routes and two scenarios assuming aircraft cruising at higher (+2000 ft) and lower (-6000 ft) altitudes. Results from the base case in year 2000 are included as a reference. Taking first a steady state backward looking approach, adding the changes in the forcing from ozone, CO2 and CH4, the ranges of the models used in this work are -0.8 to -1.8 and 0.3 to 0.6 m Wm-2 in the lower (-6000 ft) and higher (+2000 ft) cruise levels, respectively. In relative terms, flying 6000ft lower reduces the forcing by 5-10% compared to the current flight pattern, whereas flying higher, while saving fuel and presumably flying time, increases the forcing by about 2-3%. Taking next a forward looking approach we have estimated the integrated forcing (m Wm-2 yr) over 20 and 100 years time horizons. The relative contributions from each of the three climate gases are somewhat different from the backward looking approach. The differences are moderate adopting 100 year time horizon, whereas under the 20 year horizon CO2 naturally becomes less important relatively. Thus the forcing agents impact climate differently on various time scales. Also, we have found significant differences between the models for ozone and methane. We conclude that we are not yet at a point where we can include non-CO2 effects of aviation in emission trading schemes. Nevertheless, the rerouting cases that have been studied here yield relatively small changes in the radiative forcing due to the radiatively active gases.

  1. Non-additive and Additive Genetic Effects on Extraversion in 3314 Dutch Adolescent Twins and Their Parents

    PubMed Central

    Rebollo-Mesa, Irene; Hudziak, James J.; Willemsen, Gonneke; Boomsma, Dorret I.

    2012-01-01

    The influence of non-additive genetic influences on personality traits has been increasingly reported in adult populations. Less is known, however, with respect to younger samples. In this study, we examine additive and non-additive genetic contributions to the personality trait of extraversion in 1,689 Dutch twin pairs, 1,505 mothers and 1,637 fathers of the twins. The twins were on average 15.5 years (range 12–18 years). To increase statistical power to detect non-additive genetic influences, data on extraversion were also collected in parents and simultaneously analyzed. Genetic modeling procedures incorporating age as a potential modifier of heritability showed significant influences of additive (20–23%) and non-additive genetic factors (31–33%) in addition to unshared environment (46–48%) for adolescents and for their parents. The additive genetic component was slightly and positively related to age. No significant sex differences were found for either extraversion means or for the magnitude of the genetic and environmental influences. There was no evidence of non-random mating for extraversion in the parental generation. Results show that in addition to additive genetic influences, extraversion in adolescents is influenced by non-additive genetic factors. PMID:18240014

  2. First-order electroweak phase transition powered by additional F-term loop effects in an extended supersymmetric Higgs sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanemura, Shinya; Senaha, Eibun; Shindou, Tetsuo

    2011-11-01

    We investigate the one-loop effect of new charged scalar bosons on the Higgs potential at finite temperatures in the supersymmetric standard model with four Higgs doublet chiral superfields as well as a pair of charged singlet chiral superfields. In this model, the mass of the lightest Higgs boson h is determined only by the D-term in the Higgs potential at the tree-level, while the triple Higgs boson coupling for hhh can receive a significant radiative correction due to nondecoupling one-loop contributions of the additional charged scalar bosons. We find that the same nondecoupling mechanism can also contribute to realize stronger first order electroweak phase transition than that in the minimal supersymmetric standard model, which is definitely required for a successful scenario of electroweak baryogenesis. Therefore, this model can be a new candidate for a model in which the baryon asymmetry of the Universe is explained at the electroweak scale.

  3. Additivity in the Analysis and Design of HIV Protease Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Jorissen, Robert N.; Kiran Kumar Reddy, G. S.; Ali, Akbar; Altman, Michael D.; Chellappan, Sripriya; Anjum, Saima G.; Tidor, Bruce; Schiffer, Celia A.; Rana, Tariq M.; Gilson, Michael K.

    2009-01-01

    We explore the applicability of an additive treatment of substituent effects to the analysis and design of HIV protease inhibitors. Affinity data for a set of inhibitors with a common chemical framework were analyzed to provide estimates of the free energy contribution of each chemical substituent. These estimates were then used to design new inhibitors, whose high affinities were confirmed by synthesis and experimental testing. Derivations of additive models by least-squares and ridge-regression methods were found to yield statistically similar results. The additivity approach was also compared with standard molecular descriptor-based QSAR; the latter was not found to provide superior predictions. Crystallographic studies of HIV protease-inhibitor complexes help explain the perhaps surprisingly high degree of substituent additivity in this system, and allow some of the additivity coefficients to be rationalized on a structural basis. PMID:19193159

  4. Antimicrobial chemotherapy of septicemia due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed Central

    Cafferkey, M T; Hone, R; Keane, C T

    1985-01-01

    The outcome of treatment of 48 episodes of septicemia due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in 44 patients was assessed. Twenty-six of the patients died; nineteen of them died of infection, and infection was a major contributing factor to the deaths of the remaining seven patients. Fourteen of fifteen patients treated with inadequate antibiotic therapy died, and the other patient developed a mycotic aneurysm of the femoral artery, for which amputation was necessary. Eight of eleven patients treated with amikacin (alone or combined with another antimicrobial) died, and three recovered slowly; only one recovered fully without sequelae. In an additional two patients who failed to respond to amikacin, treatment was changed to vancomycin. Vancomycin was used to treat 18 episodes of MRSA septicemia in 17 patients. In 14 of these episodes the patients recovered fully. One patient died of uncontrolled infection, and in three, infection was a contributing factor but not the major cause of death. Vancomycin was confirmed as antibiotic of choice in treating MRSA septicemia. PMID:3878691

  5. Finite Element Analysis of Brain Injury due to Head Impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suh, Chang Min; Kim, Sung Ho; Goldsmith, Werner

    Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) due to head impact by external impactor was analyzed using Finite Element Method (FEM). Two-dimensiona modeling was performed according to Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) data of Mongolian subject. Pressure variation in a cranium due to external impact was analyzed in order to simulate Nahum et al.'s cadaver test.6 And, analyzed results were compared with Nahum et al.'s experimental data.6 As results, stress and strain behaviors of the brain during impact were accorded with experimental data qualitatively even though there were some differences in quantitative values. In addition, they were accorded with other references about brain injury as well.

  6. 75 FR 43799 - Employee Contribution Elections and Contribution Allocations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-27

    ..., the Agency published a proposed rule with request for comments in the Federal Register (75 FR 34388... ``Automatic Contribution Arrangements'' 74 FR 8200, 8206 (February 24, 2009). The TSP must follow applicable....37 Employing Agency Notice Authority: Sec. 102, Pub. L. 111-31, div. B. tit. I, 123 Stat. 1776,...

  7. 75 FR 34388 - Employee Contribution Elections and Contribution Allocations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-17

    ... forfeited to the TSP. 26 CFR 1.414(w)-1(d)(2), 72 FR 63144, 63148. After the expiration of the 90-day period... Matching contributions 1600.37 Employing agency notice Authority: Sec. 102, Pub. L. 111-31, div. B. tit....

  8. Surface and bulk contribution to Cu(111) quantum efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Pedersoli, Emanuele; Greaves, Corin Michael Ricardo; Wan, Weishi; Coleman-Smith, Christopher; Padmore, Howard A.; Pagliara, Stefania; Cartella, Andrea; Lamarca, Fabrizio; Ferrini, Gabriele; Galimberti, Gianluca; Montagnese, Matteo; dal Conte, Stefano; Parmigiani, Fulvio

    2008-11-04

    The quantum efficiency (QE) of Cu(111) is measured for different impinging light angles with photon energies just above the work function. We observe that the vectorial photoelectric effect, an enhancement of the QE due to illumination with light with an electric vector perpendicular to the sample surface, is stronger in the more surface sensitive regime. This can be explained by a contribution to photoemission due to the variation in the electromagnetic potential at the surface. The contributions of bulk and surface electrons can then be determined.

  9. ETS Psychometric Contributions: Focus on Test Scores. Research Report. ETS RR-13-15. ETS R&D Scientific and Policy Contributions Series. ETS SPC-13-03

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moses, Tim

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to review ETS psychometric contributions that focus on test scores. Two major sections review contributions based on assessing test scores' measurement characteristics and other contributions about using test scores as predictors in correlational and regression relationships. An additional section reviews additional…

  10. Mapping watershed potential to contribute phosphorus from geologic materials to receiving streams, southeastern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Terziotti, Silvia; Hoos, Anne B.; Harned, Douglas; Garcia, Ana Maria

    2010-01-01

    As part of the southeastern United States SPARROW (SPAtially Referenced Regressions On Watershed attributes) water-quality model implementation, the U.S. Geological Survey created a dataset to characterize the contribution of phosphorus to streams from weathering and erosion of surficial geologic materials. SPARROW provides estimates of total nitrogen and phosphorus loads in surface waters from point and nonpoint sources. The characterization of the contribution of phosphorus from geologic materials is important to help separate the effects of natural or background sources of phosphorus from anthropogenic sources of phosphorus, such as municipal wastewater or agricultural practices. The potential of a watershed to contribute phosphorus from naturally occurring geologic materials to streams was characterized by using geochemical data from bed-sediment samples collected from first-order streams in relatively undisturbed watersheds as part of the multiyear U.S. Geological Survey National Geochemical Survey. The spatial pattern of bed-sediment phosphorus concentration is offered as a tool to represent the best available information at the regional scale. One issue may weaken the use of bed-sediment phosphorus concentration as a surrogate for the potential for geologic materials in the watershed to contribute to instream levels of phosphorus-an unknown part of the variability in bed-sediment phosphorus concentration may be due to the rates of net deposition and processing of phosphorus in the streambed rather than to variability in the potential of the watershed's geologic materials to contribute phosphorus to the stream. Two additional datasets were created to represent the potential of a watershed to contribute phosphorus from geologic materials disturbed by mining activities from active mines and

  11. Redefining RECs: Additionality in the voluntary Renewable Energy Certificate market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillenwater, Michael Wayne

    In the United States, electricity consumers are told that they can "buy" electricity from renewable energy projects, versus fossil fuel-fired facilities, through participation in a voluntary green power program. The marketing messages communicate to consumers that their participation and premium payments for a green label will cause additional renewable energy generation and thereby allow them to claim they consume electricity that is absent pollution as well as reduce pollutant emissions. Renewable Energy Certificates (RECs) and wind energy are the basis for the majority of the voluntary green power market in the United States. This dissertation addresses the question: Do project developers respond to the voluntary REC market in the United States by altering their decisions to invest in wind turbines? This question is investigated by modeling and probabilistically quantifying the effect of the voluntary REC market on a representative wind power investor in the United States using data from formal expert elicitations of active participants in the industry. It is further explored by comparing the distribution of a sample of wind power projects supplying the voluntary green power market in the United States against an economic viability model that incorporates geographic factors. This dissertation contributes the first quantitative analysis of the effect of the voluntary REC market on project investment. It is found that 1) RECs should be not treated as equivalent to emission offset credits, 2) there is no clearly credible role for voluntary market RECs in emissions trading markets without dramatic restructuring of one or both markets and the environmental commodities they trade, and 3) the use of RECs in entity-level GHG emissions accounting (i.e., "carbon footprinting") leads to double counting of emissions and therefore is not justified. The impotence of the voluntary REC market was, at least in part, due to the small magnitude of the REC price signal and lack of

  12. Leaf Litter Mixtures Alter Microbial Community Development: Mechanisms for Non-Additive Effects in Litter Decomposition

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, Samantha K.; Newman, Gregory S.; Hart, Stephen C.; Schweitzer, Jennifer A.; Koch, George W.

    2013-01-01

    To what extent microbial community composition can explain variability in ecosystem processes remains an open question in ecology. Microbial decomposer communities can change during litter decomposition due to biotic interactions and shifting substrate availability. Though relative abundance of decomposers may change due to mixing leaf litter, linking these shifts to the non-additive patterns often recorded in mixed species litter decomposition rates has been elusive, and links community composition to ecosystem function. We extracted phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) from single species and mixed species leaf litterbags after 10 and 27 months of decomposition in a mixed conifer forest. Total PLFA concentrations were 70% higher on litter mixtures than single litter types after 10 months, but were only 20% higher after 27 months. Similarly, fungal-to-bacterial ratios differed between mixed and single litter types after 10 months of decomposition, but equalized over time. Microbial community composition, as indicated by principal components analyses, differed due to both litter mixing and stage of litter decomposition. PLFA biomarkers a15∶0 and cy17∶0, which indicate gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria respectively, in particular drove these shifts. Total PLFA correlated significantly with single litter mass loss early in decomposition but not at later stages. We conclude that litter mixing alters microbial community development, which can contribute to synergisms in litter decomposition. These findings advance our understanding of how changing forest biodiversity can alter microbial communities and the ecosystem processes they mediate. PMID:23658639

  13. Recent Langley helicopter acoustics contributions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, Homer G.; Pao, S. P.; Powell, C. A.

    1988-01-01

    The helicopter acoustics program at NASA Langley has included technology for elements of noise control ranging from sources of noise to receivers of noise. The scope of Langley contributions for about the last decade is discussed. Specifically, the resolution of two certification noise quantification issues by subjective acoustics research, the development status of the helicopter system noise prediction program ROTONET are reviewed and the highlights from research on blade rotational, broadband, and blade vortex interaction noise sources are presented. Finally, research contributions on helicopter cabin (or interior) noise control are presented. A bibliography of publications from the Langley helicopter acoustics program for the past 10 years is included.

  14. What Do You Know about Due Process?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boivin, Real G.

    1983-01-01

    A questionnaire on due process allows readers to compare their responses to hypothetical cases, beliefs concerning the impact of recent court action, and relevant legal knowledge with responses by administrators participating in a study. This study showed that administrators directly responsible for discipline complied least with due process…

  15. Communication: Origin of the contributions to DNA structure in phages.

    PubMed

    Myers, Christopher G; Pettitt, B Montgomery

    2013-02-21

    Cryo electron microscopy (cryo-EM) data of the interior of phages show ordering of the interior DNA that has been interpreted as a nearly perfectly ordered polymer. We show surface-induced correlations, excluded volume, and electrostatic forces are sufficient to predict most of the major features of the current structural data for DNA packaged within viral capsids without additional ordering due to elastic bending forces for the polymer. Current models assume highly-ordered, even spooled, hexagonally packed conformations based on interpretation of cryo-EM density maps. We show herein that the surface induced packing of short (6mer), unconnected DNA polymer segments is the only necessary ingredient in creating ringed densities consistent with experimental density maps. This implies the ensemble of possible conformations of polymeric DNA within the capsid that are consistent with cryo-EM data may be much larger than implied by traditional interpretations where such rings can only result from highly-ordered spool-like conformations. This opens the possibility of a more disordered, entropically-driven view of phage packaging thermodynamics. We also show the electrostatics of the DNA contributes a large portion of the internal hydrostatic and osmotic pressures of a phage virion, suggesting that nonlinear elastic anomalies might reduce the overall elastic bending enthalpy of more disordered conformations to have allowable free energies.

  16. Contribution of peat fires to the 2015 Indonesian fires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaiser, Johannes W.; Heil, Angelika; Wooster, Martin J.; van der Werf, Guido R.

    2016-04-01

    Indonesia experienced widespread fires and severe air quality degradation due to smoke during September and October 2015. The fires are thought to have originated from the combination of El-Niño-induced drought and human activities. Fires ignited for land clearing escaped into drained peatlands and burned until the onset of the monsoonal rain. In addition to the health impact, these fires are thought to have emitted large amounts of greenhouse gases, e.g. more than Japan over the entire year. The Copernicus Atmosphere Monitoring Service (CAMS) has detected and quantified the fires with the Global Fire Assimilation System (GFAS) and the smoke dispersion with the Chemistry-Integrated Forecasting System (C-IFS) in near real time. GFAS and C-IFS are constrained by satellite-based observations of fire and smoke constituents, respectively. The distinction between peat and above-ground fires is a crucial and difficult step in fire emission estimation as it introduces errors of up to one order of magnitude. Here, we quantify the contribution of peat fires to the total emission flux of the 2015 Indonesian fires by (1) using an improved peat map in GFAS and (2) analysing the observed diurnal cycle of the fire activity as represented in a new development for GFAS. Furthermore, we link the fires occurrence to economic activity by analysing the coincidence with concessions for palm oil plantations and other industrial forest uses.

  17. Contribution of goethite to laser-induced stone yellowing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Oliveira, Cécile; Vergès-Belmin, Véronique; Lafait, Jacques; Swider, Miko; Andraud, Christine; Tournié, Aurélie; Galoisy, Laurence

    2016-04-01

    The development of the laser technology for stone cleaning purposes has been undermined in the recent years because the technique occasionally conveys a yellow hue to the cleaned surfaces. Several components of black gypsum crusts have been suggested to be potentially responsible for the phenomenon, more specifically some granular fractions of their components. The contribution of these particles to laser yellowing is studied here on powdery deposits collected at Saint-Denis Basilica (France). The powder is characterized by optical and scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and Raman spectroscopy before and after the laser irradiation. Irradiation of the samples results in a significant yellowing, along with particle fragmentation, while no mineralogical change is evidenced by powder diffractometry. Haematite and goethite micro-Raman signatures obtained before laser irradiation are replaced after irradiation by a strong fluorescence in addition to weak goethite signatures in Raman spectra. The powdery deposit is further analyzed by diffuse reflectance spectrometry after a specific preparation, which increases both its cohesion and its content in new phases potentially formed. The powdery material shows a phase with a spectral signature similar to goethite, which subsides after laser irradiation. The yellow appearance caused by laser irradiation seems to be due, in part, to a selective elimination of the black components (soots) from the powdery deposit. This elimination reveals a color, which could be related to a preexisting phase containing iron, possibly goethite or another phase containing iron and having the same spectral signature in the visible range.

  18. Contributions to Crustal Mechanics on Europa from Subterranean Ocean Vibrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayes, Robert

    2016-03-01

    The recent discovery of subduction zones on Europa demonstrated a significant step forward in understanding the moon's surface mechanics. This work promotes the additional consideration that the surface mechanics have contributions from small relative pressure differentials in the subsurface ocean that create cracks in the surface which are then filled, sealed and healed. Crack formation can be small, as interior pressure can relatively easily breach the surface crust, generating cracks followed by common fracture formation backfilled with frozen liquid. This process will slowly increase the overall surface area of the moon with each sealed crack and fracture increasing the total surface area. This creeping growth of surface area monotonically decreases subsurface pressure which can eventually catastrophically subduct large areas of surface and so is consistent with current knowledge of observational topology on Europa. This tendency is attributed to a relatively lower energy threshold to crack the surface from interior overpressures, but a higher energy threshold to crush the spherical surface due to subsurface underpressures. Proposed mechanisms for pressure differentials include tidal forces whose Fourier components build up the resonant oscillatory modes of the subsurface ocean creating periodic under and overpressure events below the crust. This mechanism provides a means to continually reform the surface of the moon over short geological time scales. This work supported in part by federal Grant NRC-HQ-84-14-G-0059.

  19. Employer`s contributions to the training of professional statisticians

    SciTech Connect

    Rustagi, J.S.; Wright, T. |

    1995-07-01

    Statistical science provides important techniques for decision making in a large variety of fields of human endeavor mainly through statistical practice. According to Deming (1965), ``Statistical practice is mostly a collaborative venture between (professional) statisticians and experts in subject-matter (area).`` The professional statistician must be properly trained in areas of statistical science most suited to the discipline in which the applications are made. Due to a large variety of applications. The education of a professional statistician by universities can only be very general. Higher education provides the theoretical basis of statistical science whereas the specific expertise needed by the professional statistician is given by the application areas. In this paper, the authors review the approach of academic programs which are geared towards applications and discuss some of the innovative strategies for preparing statisticians as consultants in industry and business. A survey (census) of statisticians at the national laboratories of the US Department of Energy was made to assess their training by universities and to get a broad view of additional training which has brought them to their present professional status. A particular interest is the extent to which employers have contributed to the training of statisticians. A few recommendations are made which may serve to improve the future training of statisticians for applied collaborative work by universities and employers.

  20. Contributions of Camillo Golgi to renal histology and embryology.

    PubMed

    Dal Canton, I; Calligaro, A L; Dal Canton, F; Frosio-Roncalli, M; Calligaro, A

    1999-01-01

    Camillo Golgi was awarded the Nobel prize in 1906 for his studies on the fine anatomy of the central nervous system. His wide present popularity depends on his discovery of the cell apparatus, the tendon mechanoreceptor and the tactile corpuscles of the fingertips that are named after him. However, Golgi also made important contributions to nephrology. In 1882, he published novel observations on the mechanism of renal hypertrophy, which he understood to be due to renal cell proliferation. Two years later, he described tubular cell mitoses in the kidney of a patient with tubulointerstitial nephritis, which he interpreted as an essential part of the repair process. His most important findings, published in 1889, were obtained by studying the microscopic anatomy of the kidney with an original technique that allowed the isolation of whole intact nephrons. He discovered that the ascending limb of Henle's loop always returned to the glomerulus from which the tubule originated, and he realized that the early distal tubule passed between the glomerular arterioles. In addition, applying the same method to dissect nephrons in progressive phases of development, he identified exactly what tubular segments originated from the various parts of the metanephric early S-shaped structure.

  1. A death due to perirenal hematoma complicating extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy.

    PubMed

    Uemura, Koichi; Takahashi, Sayuri; Shintani-Ishida, Kaori; Nakajima, Makoto; Saka, Kanju; Yoshida, Ken-ichi

    2008-03-01

    Perirenal hematoma is an occasional complication of extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL) which does not usually require treatment. A 79-year-old woman died 23 h after ESWL. Forensic autopsy was performed to determine whether medical treatment contributed to her death. The cause of death was hemorrhagic shock due to massive hematoma from a ruptured small vein in the perirenal adipose capsule. No injury to other organs was found and the patient had neither coagulation abnormality nor venous disease. Perirenal hematoma can easily be diagnosed with abdominal sonography, if pain or symptoms of anemia develop. Doctors must be aware of the possibilities of severe renal hematomas after ESWL.

  2. Neural crest contributions to the lamprey head

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCauley, David W.; Bronner-Fraser, Marianne

    2003-01-01

    The neural crest is a vertebrate-specific cell population that contributes to the facial skeleton and other derivatives. We have performed focal DiI injection into the cranial neural tube of the developing lamprey in order to follow the migratory pathways of discrete groups of cells from origin to destination and to compare neural crest migratory pathways in a basal vertebrate to those of gnathostomes. The results show that the general pathways of cranial neural crest migration are conserved throughout the vertebrates, with cells migrating in streams analogous to the mandibular and hyoid streams. Caudal branchial neural crest cells migrate ventrally as a sheet of cells from the hindbrain and super-pharyngeal region of the neural tube and form a cylinder surrounding a core of mesoderm in each pharyngeal arch, similar to that seen in zebrafish and axolotl. In addition to these similarities, we also uncovered important differences. Migration into the presumptive caudal branchial arches of the lamprey involves both rostral and caudal movements of neural crest cells that have not been described in gnathostomes, suggesting that barriers that constrain rostrocaudal movement of cranial neural crest cells may have arisen after the agnathan/gnathostome split. Accordingly, neural crest cells from a single axial level contributed to multiple arches and there was extensive mixing between populations. There was no apparent filling of neural crest derivatives in a ventral-to-dorsal order, as has been observed in higher vertebrates, nor did we find evidence of a neural crest contribution to cranial sensory ganglia. These results suggest that migratory constraints and additional neural crest derivatives arose later in gnathostome evolution.

  3. Recent additions in the treatment of cough

    PubMed Central

    Gibson, Peter G.

    2014-01-01

    Background Worldwide, cough is regarded as a challenging clinical problem due to its frequency and often limited therapeutic options. Chronic cough that remains refractory to usual medical treatment causes significant quality of life impairment in people with this problem. Methods We have examined current evidence on recent additions in the treatment of cough, specifically treatment of refractory chronic cough with speech pathology and gabapentin. Relevant randomised control trials, reviews and case reports were identified through a PubMed and SCOPUS search of English-language literature referring to these concepts over the last eight years. Summary Of the one hundred and two articles comprising this review the majority investigated the role of the transient receptor potential (TRP) receptors TRP Vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) and TRPA1 in cough and the potential of TRP antagonists as effective anti-tussives. However, these have only been tested in the laboratory and therefore their clinical effectiveness is unknown. Behavioural treatments such as speech pathology have gained momentum and this was evident in the increasing number of articles investigating its positive effect on cough. Investigation on the effectiveness of neuromodulating medications in the treatment of cough have been supported primarily through case series reports and prospective reviews however; their use (particularly gabapentin) has been significantly advanced through recently conducted randomised controlled trials. Conclusions Recent additions in the treatment of chronic cough have been significant as they consider cough to have a unifying diagnosis of cough hypersensitivity with or without the presence of a neuropathic basis. Primarily, effective treatments for chronic cough target these areas and include behavioural treatment such as speech pathology and pharmaceutical treatment with neuromodulating medications such as gabapentin. PMID:25383209

  4. Career Education: Contributions and Challenges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoyt, Kenneth B.

    The Center for Vocational and Technical Education at the Ohio State University has made many praiseworthy contributions to developing the concept of career education by focusing its major attention on producing research leading toward improving the quality, variety, and opportunity of vocational and technical education and by making vocational…

  5. Feminist Contributions to Counseling Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, Lucia Albino; Osipow, Samuel H.

    1991-01-01

    The feminist movement has influenced counseling psychology in the following areas: (1) policy and leadership; (2) theory and research; (3) training and practice; and (4) recognition of feminist scholarship and contributions by women. Tracing these areas of impact reveals feminism as a major force in developing inquiry and practice. (SLD)

  6. Processed foods: contributions to nutrition.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Connie M; Dwyer, Johanna; Fulgoni, Victor L; King, Janet C; Leveille, Gilbert A; MacDonald, Ruth S; Ordovas, Jose; Schnakenberg, David

    2014-06-01

    Both fresh and processed foods make up vital parts of the food supply. Processed food contributes to both food security (ensuring that sufficient food is available) and nutrition security (ensuring that food quality meets human nutrient needs). This ASN scientific statement focuses on one aspect of processed foods: their nutritional impacts. Specifically, this scientific statement 1) provides an introduction to how processed foods contribute to the health of populations, 2) analyzes the contribution of processed foods to "nutrients to encourage" and "constituents to limit" in the American diet as recommended by the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 3) identifies the responsibilities of various stakeholders in improving the American diet, and 4) reviews emerging technologies and the research needed for a better understanding of the role of processed foods in a healthy diet. Analyses of the NHANES 2003-2008 show that processed foods provide both nutrients to encourage and constituents to limit as specified in the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Of the nutrients to encourage, processed foods contributed 55% of dietary fiber, 48% of calcium, 43% of potassium, 34% of vitamin D, 64% of iron, 65% of folate, and 46% of vitamin B-12. Of the constituents to limit, processed foods contributed 57% of energy, 52% of saturated fat, 75% of added sugars, and 57% of sodium. Diets are more likely to meet food guidance recommendations if nutrient-dense foods, either processed or not, are selected. Nutrition and food science professionals, the food industry, and other stakeholders can help to improve the diets of Americans by providing a nutritious food supply that is safe, enjoyable, affordable, and sustainable by communicating effectively and accurately with each other and by working together to improve the overall knowledge of consumers.

  7. Many people unable to obtain dental care due to cost.

    PubMed

    Waldman, H Barry; Cannella, Dolores; Perlman, Steven P

    2012-11-01

    While overall spending for dental services appears to be favorable during the period after the last recession, a review of a series of government and private agency reports indicates an increasing proportion of the population is unable to secure needed services due to cost factors. In addition, projections for annual increases in future spending for dental services are lower than for other professional health services.

  8. Electromotive force due to magnetohydrodynamic fluctuations in sheared rotating turbulence.

    PubMed

    Squire, J; Bhattacharjee, A

    2015-11-01

    This article presents a calculation of the mean electromotive force arising from general small-scale magnetohydrodynamical turbulence, within the framework of the second-order correlation approximation. With the goal of improving understanding of the accretion disk dynamo, effects arising through small-scale magnetic fluctuations, velocity gradients, density and turbulence stratification, and rotation, are included. The primary result, which supplements numerical findings, is that an off-diagonal turbulent resistivity due to magnetic fluctuations can produce large-scale dynamo action-the magnetic analog of the "shear-current" effect. In addition, consideration of α effects in the stratified regions of disks gives the puzzling result that there is no strong prediction for a sign of α, since the effects due to kinetic and magnetic fluctuations, as well as those due to shear and rotation, are each of opposing signs and tend to cancel each other. PMID:26651796

  9. Electromotive force due to magnetohydrodynamic fluctuations in sheared rotating turbulence.

    PubMed

    Squire, J; Bhattacharjee, A

    2015-11-01

    This article presents a calculation of the mean electromotive force arising from general small-scale magnetohydrodynamical turbulence, within the framework of the second-order correlation approximation. With the goal of improving understanding of the accretion disk dynamo, effects arising through small-scale magnetic fluctuations, velocity gradients, density and turbulence stratification, and rotation, are included. The primary result, which supplements numerical findings, is that an off-diagonal turbulent resistivity due to magnetic fluctuations can produce large-scale dynamo action-the magnetic analog of the "shear-current" effect. In addition, consideration of α effects in the stratified regions of disks gives the puzzling result that there is no strong prediction for a sign of α, since the effects due to kinetic and magnetic fluctuations, as well as those due to shear and rotation, are each of opposing signs and tend to cancel each other.

  10. Electromotive force due to magnetohydrodynamic fluctuations in sheared rotating turbulence

    SciTech Connect

    Squire, J.; Bhattacharjee, A.

    2015-11-02

    Here, this article presents a calculation of the mean electromotive force arising from general small-scale magnetohydrodynamical turbulence, within the framework of the second-order correlation approximation. With the goal of improving understanding of the accretion disk dynamo, effects arising through small-scale magnetic fluctuations, velocity gradients, density and turbulence stratification, and rotation, are included. The primary result, which supplements numerical findings, is that an off-diagonal turbulent resistivity due to magnetic fluctuations can produce large-scale dynamo action-the magnetic analog of the "shear-current" effect. In addition, consideration of alpha effects in the stratified regions of disks gives the puzzling result that there is no strong prediction for a sign of alpha, since the effects due to kinetic and magnetic fluctuations, as well as those due to shear and rotation, are each of opposing signs and tend to cancel each other.

  11. Electromotive force due to magnetohydrodynamic fluctuations in sheared rotating turbulence

    DOE PAGES

    Squire, J.; Bhattacharjee, A.

    2015-11-02

    Here, this article presents a calculation of the mean electromotive force arising from general small-scale magnetohydrodynamical turbulence, within the framework of the second-order correlation approximation. With the goal of improving understanding of the accretion disk dynamo, effects arising through small-scale magnetic fluctuations, velocity gradients, density and turbulence stratification, and rotation, are included. The primary result, which supplements numerical findings, is that an off-diagonal turbulent resistivity due to magnetic fluctuations can produce large-scale dynamo action-the magnetic analog of the "shear-current" effect. In addition, consideration of alpha effects in the stratified regions of disks gives the puzzling result that there is nomore » strong prediction for a sign of alpha, since the effects due to kinetic and magnetic fluctuations, as well as those due to shear and rotation, are each of opposing signs and tend to cancel each other.« less

  12. Lattice Strain Due to an Atomic Vacancy

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shidong; Sellers, Michael S.; Basaran, Cemal; Schultz, Andrew J.; Kofke, David A.

    2009-01-01

    Volumetric strain can be divided into two parts: strain due to bond distance change and strain due to vacancy sources and sinks. In this paper, efforts are focused on studying the atomic lattice strain due to a vacancy in an FCC metal lattice with molecular dynamics simulation (MDS). The result has been compared with that from a continuum mechanics method. It is shown that using a continuum mechanics approach yields constitutive results similar to the ones obtained based purely on molecular dynamics considerations. PMID:19582230

  13. 18. Interior detail, windows, original Library, addition, Engine Stores Building, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. Interior detail, windows, original Library, addition, Engine Stores Building, Southern Pacific Railroad Carlin Shops, view to north-northwest (90mm lens). Note the milled tongue-and-groove ceiling, and deterioration of bricks near floor level due to rising damp. - Southern Pacific Railroad, Carlin Shops, Engine Stores Building, Foot of Sixth Street, Carlin, Elko County, NV

  14. 75 FR 78977 - Procurement List Proposed Addition and Deletions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-17

    ... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List Proposed Addition and Deletions AGENCY... deletions from the Procurement List. SUMMARY: The Committee is proposing to add a service to the Procurement...) 603-0655, or e-mail CMTEFedReg@AbilityOne.gov . Due to Federal holidays occurring on Friday,...

  15. 75 FR 78976 - Procurement List Proposed Addition and Deletions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-17

    ... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List Proposed Addition and Deletions AGENCY... deletions from the Procurement List. SUMMARY: The Committee is proposing to add a service to the Procurement...) 603-0655, or e-mail CMTEFedReg@AbilityOne.gov . Due to Federal holidays occurring on Friday,...

  16. Interrelatedness between dysbiosis in the gut microbiota due to immunodeficiency and disease penetrance of colitis.

    PubMed

    Ray, Avijit; Dittel, Bonnie N

    2015-11-01

    The composition of the microbiome in health and disease has only recently become a major research focus. Although it is clear that an imbalance or dysbiosis in the microbiota is associated with disease, its interrelatedness to disease penetrance is largely unknown. Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is an excellent disease in which to explore these questions because of the extensive genetic studies identifying disease susceptibility loci and the ability to easily sample the intestinal microbiota in IBD patients due to the accessibility of stool samples. In addition, mouse models of IBD have contributed to our understanding of the interrelatedness of the gut microbiota and genes associated with IBD. The power of the mouse studies is that multiple colitis models exist that can be used in combination with genetically modified mice that harbour deficiencies in IBD susceptibility genes. Collectively, these studies revealed that bacterial dysbiosis does occur in human IBD and in mouse colitis models. In addition, with an emphasis on immune genes, the mouse studies provided evidence that specific immune regulatory proteins associated with IBD influence the gut microbiota in a manner consistent with disease penetrance. In this review, we will discuss studies in both humans and mice that demonstrate the impact of immunodeficiences in interleukin-10, interleukin-17, nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD) 2, NOD-like receptor proteins 3 and 6, Toll-like receptor or IgA have on the interrelatedness between the composition of the gut microbiota and disease penetrance of IBD and its mouse models.

  17. Inspection of additive-manufactured layered components.

    PubMed

    Cerniglia, D; Scafidi, M; Pantano, A; Rudlin, J

    2015-09-01

    Laser powder deposition (LPD) is a rapid additive manufacturing process to produce, layer upon layer, 3D geometries or to repair high-value components. Currently there is no nondestructive technique that can guarantee absence of flaws in LPD products during manufacturing. In this paper a laser ultrasonic technique for in-line inspection of LPD components is proposed. Reference samples were manufactured from Inconel and machined flaws were created to establish the sensitivity of the technique. Numerical models of laser-generated ultrasonic waves have been created to gain a deeper understanding of physics, to optimize the set-up and to verify the experimental measurements. Results obtained on two sets of reference samples are shown. A proof-of-concept prototype has been demonstrated on some specific deposition samples with induced flaws, that were confirmed by an ultra-high sensitivity X-ray technique. Experimental outcomes prove that typical micro-defects due to the layer-by-layer deposition process, such as near-surface and surface flaws in a single layer deposit, can be detected.

  18. [Recurrent intestinal ischemia due to factor VIII].

    PubMed

    Castellanos Monedero, Jesús Javier; Legaz Huidobro, María Luisa; Galindo Andugar, María Angeles; Rodríguez Pérez, Alvaro; Mantrana del Valle, José María

    2008-01-01

    Intestinal ischemia is difficult to diagnose and can be caused by several etiologic processes. We report the case of a female patient with recurrent bowel ischemia due to small vessel thrombosis, which is caused by factor VIII, a procoagulant factor.

  19. 16 CFR 1102.16 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... PUBLICLY AVAILABLE CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY INFORMATION DATABASE Content Requirements § 1102.16 Additional... in the Database any additional information it determines to be in the public interest,...

  20. 16 CFR 1102.16 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... PUBLICLY AVAILABLE CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY INFORMATION DATABASE Content Requirements § 1102.16 Additional... in the Database any additional information it determines to be in the public interest,...

  1. 16 CFR 1102.16 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... PUBLICLY AVAILABLE CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY INFORMATION DATABASE Content Requirements § 1102.16 Additional... in the Database any additional information it determines to be in the public interest,...

  2. The effect of activated carbon addition on membrane bioreactor processes for wastewater treatment and reclamation - A critical review.

    PubMed

    Skouteris, George; Saroj, Devendra; Melidis, Paraschos; Hai, Faisal I; Ouki, Sabèha

    2015-06-01

    This review concentrates on the effect of activated carbon (AC) addition to membrane bioreactors (MBRs) treating wastewaters. Use of AC-assisted MBRs combines adsorption, biodegradation and membrane filtration. This can lead to advanced removal of recalcitrant pollutants and mitigation of membrane fouling. The relative contribution of adsorption and biodegradation to overall removal achieved by an AC-assisted MBR process can vary, and "biological AC" may not fully develop due to competition of target pollutants with bulk organics in wastewater. Thus periodic replenishment of spent AC is necessary. Sludge retention time (SRT) governs the frequency of spent AC withdrawal and addition of fresh AC, and is an important parameter that significantly influences the performance of AC-assisted MBRs. Of utmost importance is AC dosage because AC overdose may aggravate membrane fouling, increase sludge viscosity, impair mass transfer and reduce sludge dewaterability. PMID:25801795

  3. The effect of activated carbon addition on membrane bioreactor processes for wastewater treatment and reclamation - A critical review.

    PubMed

    Skouteris, George; Saroj, Devendra; Melidis, Paraschos; Hai, Faisal I; Ouki, Sabèha

    2015-06-01

    This review concentrates on the effect of activated carbon (AC) addition to membrane bioreactors (MBRs) treating wastewaters. Use of AC-assisted MBRs combines adsorption, biodegradation and membrane filtration. This can lead to advanced removal of recalcitrant pollutants and mitigation of membrane fouling. The relative contribution of adsorption and biodegradation to overall removal achieved by an AC-assisted MBR process can vary, and "biological AC" may not fully develop due to competition of target pollutants with bulk organics in wastewater. Thus periodic replenishment of spent AC is necessary. Sludge retention time (SRT) governs the frequency of spent AC withdrawal and addition of fresh AC, and is an important parameter that significantly influences the performance of AC-assisted MBRs. Of utmost importance is AC dosage because AC overdose may aggravate membrane fouling, increase sludge viscosity, impair mass transfer and reduce sludge dewaterability.

  4. Greenhouse effect due to atmospheric nitrous oxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yung, Y. L.; Wang, W. C.; Lacis, A. A.

    1976-01-01

    The greenhouse effect due to nitrous oxide in the present atmosphere is about 0.8 K. Increase in atmospheric N2O due to perturbation of the nitrogen cycle by man may lead to an increase in surface temperature as large as 0.5 K by 2025, or 1.0 K by 2100. Other climatic effects of N2O are briefly discussed.

  5. Myocardial infarction due to lightning strike.

    PubMed

    Karadas, Sevdegul; Vuruskan, Ertan; Dursun, Recep; Sincer, Isa; Gonullu, Hayriye; Akkaya, Emre

    2013-09-01

    Cardiac events due to lightning strike and their severity vary according to the strength of the electric current and the duration of exposure. The electrophysiological effects of lightning on the heart can result in ventricular fibrillation, asystole, QT prolongation, supraventricular tachycardia, and non-specific ST-T wave changes. In this report, a case of a patient who suffered myocardial infarction due to lightning strike is presented, which is a rare complication. PMID:24601203

  6. Fatal necrotizing fasciitis due to Vibrio damsela.

    PubMed

    Yuen, K Y; Ma, L; Wong, S S; Ng, W F

    1993-01-01

    A patient who succumbed to fulminant necrotizing fasciitis due to Vibrio damsela after injury by a rabbitfish is described. Despite the absence of any known underlying illness, he did not respond to appropriate antibiotic therapy and radical surgical intervention. This represents the first documented case of necrotizing fasciitis due to this organism, and is also the first reported case in Southeast Asia inflicted by rabbitfish.

  7. Myocardial infarction due to lightning strike.

    PubMed

    Karadas, Sevdegul; Vuruskan, Ertan; Dursun, Recep; Sincer, Isa; Gonullu, Hayriye; Akkaya, Emre

    2013-09-01

    Cardiac events due to lightning strike and their severity vary according to the strength of the electric current and the duration of exposure. The electrophysiological effects of lightning on the heart can result in ventricular fibrillation, asystole, QT prolongation, supraventricular tachycardia, and non-specific ST-T wave changes. In this report, a case of a patient who suffered myocardial infarction due to lightning strike is presented, which is a rare complication.

  8. Acidic stream mitigation by limestone sand addition

    SciTech Connect

    Brant, D.L.; Marich, A.J. Jr.; Largent, K.L.

    1996-12-31

    The Town Line Run watershed comprises an area of 3,600 wooded acres. The tributaries feeding the stream consist of sandstone springs that do not contribute alkalinity to the watershed, leaving the stream susceptible to acid precipitation. This has a negative affect on Iser`s Run, a native brook trout fishery above the confluence with Town Line Run. The objective in stream liming is to improve water chemistry by increasing pH, alkalinity, and reducing acidity, aluminum, and iron. Introducing crushed limestone directly into a stream from a dump truck is an inexpensive but temporary solution to accomplish this objective. In this type of liming operation, a bed of limestone is spread down the stream channel by the momentum of the stream from the introduction point, rather than manually. Water moving across this bed dissolves the limestone, increasing the pH, alkalinity, and calcium while decreasing the acidity, iron, and aluminum concentrations of the water. The size of the limestone particles is important for this purpose because particles that are too small (<150 microns) will carried away, while particles that are too large (>1000 microns) will remain at the introduction point. Our study placed 80 tons of sand-sized limestone (85% calcite) in the stream channel at a single point. Water samples were collected monthly at the following sites (1) directly upstream of the addition site, (2) 100 yards downstream of the site, and (3) 2500 yards downstream of the site. Other sample locations include (4) upstream and (5) downstream of the Town Line Run- Iser`s Run confluence and the Casselman River upstream (6) and downstream (7) of Town Line Run. The samples were analyzed for pH. Specific conductivity, Alkalinity, Acidity, Iron, Manganese, Aluminum, and Sulfate.

  9. Contributions of the Onsala Space Observatory to the GGOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haas, Rüdiger; Elgered, Gunnar; Hobiger, Thomas; Scherneck, Hans-Georg

    2015-04-01

    The Onsala Space Observatory on the Swedish west coast is the fundamental geodetic station of Sweden and operates several geodetic and geophysical infrastructures that contribute to the GGOS. Onsala is the European observatory with the longest history in Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI). Already 1968 Onsala was involved in geodetic/astrometric VLBI observations, at that time with the 25 m telescope. Since 1979 the 20 m telescope is used for geodetic/astrometric VLBI, and currently about 40-50 sessions per year are observed in the programs of the International VLBI Service for Geodesy and Astrometry (IVS). Onsala also participated in all continuous (CONT) campaigns of the IVS. In 2011 we received funding for twin telescopes at Onsala, to be part of the VLBI2010 Global Observing System (VGOS) network. The project has been delayed due to difficulties to get the necessary building permits, but finally a contract to purchase the new telescopes has been signed in late 2014. We expect that the Onsala Twin Telescopes will become operational in 2016/2017. In parallel to the VLBI activities, the observatory operates other instrumentation for geosciences, in particular receivers for Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS), and ground-based microwave radiometers. There are several monuments used for GNSS measurements, and Onsala is actively contributing to the International GNSS Service (IGS). Recently a GNSS array consisting of six new GNSS monuments, in the area around the Onsala Twin Telescopes, has been installed. Also several microwave radiometers are operated for tropospheric measurements. A superconducting gravimeter is operated at the observatory since 2009 in a dedicated gravity laboratory which is also hosting visiting absolute gravimeters, and in 2011 a seismometer station has been installed that is part of the Swedish National Seismic Network (SNSN). Since 2010 we operate a so-called GNSS-R tide gauge, based on the principle of reflectometry. Additional

  10. Influence of bio-additives on combustion of liquid fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patsch, Marek; Durčanský, Peter

    2016-06-01

    In this contribution there are analyses of the course of the pressure curves, which were measured in the diesel engine MD UR IV, which is often used in cogeneration units. The results of the analyses confront the properties and quality of fuels. The measuring was realized with a constant rotation speed of the engine and by using different fuels. The fuels were pure diesel fuels and diesel fuel with bio-additives of hydrogenate RO (rape oil), FAME, and bioethanol.

  11. The elastic contribution to the linewidths

    SciTech Connect

    Bertuccelli, D.; Di Rocco, H.O.

    1996-07-01

    The elastic contribution to the linewidths was calculated with the use of Quantum Defect Theory. The method is based on the connection at the ionization threshold between the quantum defects {Delta}{sub {ital l}}, associated with the bound states, with the scattering phase shifts {mu}{sub {ital l}}, associated with the short range potential due to the atomic core. Agreement with measurements of the line 5419 A of XeII at low electron temperatures is very good and reproduces the experimental trend {ital w}{proportional_to}{ital T}{sup {minus}1}, whereas the semiempirical calculations predict {ital w}{proportional_to}{ital T}{sup {minus}1/2}. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  12. Changes in accounting for contributions.

    PubMed

    Pelfrey, S

    1992-03-01

    A proposed accounting change in the timing of income recognition for restricted contributions and pledges can greatly impact a hospital's excess of revenue over expenses (net income). The author addresses steps that administrators can take to lessen its impact. With this knowledge, nurse administrators and other hospital executives can plan alternatives to reduce the income recognition and prepare themselves to answer questions posed by patients and members of the community regarding increased hospital profits.

  13. Townes' contribution to nonlinear optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garmire, Elsa

    2015-03-01

    In honour of the Fiftieth Anniversary of the Nobel Prize in Physics, this talk introduced the contributions of Nicholas Basov and Alexei Prokhorov, who shared the prize with Charles Townes. The talk then detailed the quantum electronics research of Townes, particularly at MIT, which was related to nonlinear optics. The years from 1961 to 1968 were particularly exciting, as the ruby laser enabled a wide variety of new physics to be discovered and explored.

  14. Changes in accounting for contributions.

    PubMed

    Pelfrey, S

    1992-03-01

    A proposed accounting change in the timing of income recognition for restricted contributions and pledges can greatly impact a hospital's excess of revenue over expenses (net income). The author addresses steps that administrators can take to lessen its impact. With this knowledge, nurse administrators and other hospital executives can plan alternatives to reduce the income recognition and prepare themselves to answer questions posed by patients and members of the community regarding increased hospital profits. PMID:1541991

  15. [Ralph M. Steinman, 2011 Nobel for his contributions on immunity].

    PubMed

    Bonifaz, Laura C

    2012-01-01

    Ralph M. Steinman was the recipient of the 2011 Nobel Prize of Physiology and Medicine due to the discovery of dendritic cells, which have a crucial role on the onset of acquired immunity, a fundamental event in the organism's defense. Today, dendritic cells are used in the development of vaccines and in cancer therapy. Steinman's contributions have been fundamental in the understanding of immunity.

  16. 5 CFR 1600.22 - Maximum contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maximum contributions. 1600.22 Section 1600.22 Administrative Personnel FEDERAL RETIREMENT THRIFT INVESTMENT BOARD EMPLOYEE CONTRIBUTION ELECTIONS AND CONTRIBUTION ALLOCATIONS Program of Contributions § 1600.22 Maximum contributions. (a)...

  17. 13 CFR 120.912 - Borrowed contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Borrowed contributions. 120.912... Company Loan Program (504) The Borrower's Contribution § 120.912 Borrowed contributions. The Borrower may borrow its cash contribution from the CDC or a third party. If any of the contribution is borrowed,...

  18. Why the proton spin is not due to quarks

    SciTech Connect

    Karliner, M.

    1988-07-01

    Recent EMC data on the spin-dependent proton structure function suggest that very little of the proton spin is due to the helicity of the quarks inside it. We argue that, at leading order in the 1/N/sub c/ expansion, none of the proton spin would be carried by quarks in the chiral limit where m/sub q/ = 0. This model-independent result is based on a physical picture of the nucleon as a soliton solution of the effective chiral Lagrangian of large-N/sub c/ QCD. The Skyrme model is then used to estimate quark contribution to the proton spin when chiral symmetry and flavor SU(3) are broken: this contribution turns out to be small, as suggested by the EMC. Next, we discuss the other possible contributions to the proton helicity in the infinite-momentum frame---polarized gluons (..delta..G), and orbital angular momentum (L/sub z/). We argue on general grounds and by explicit example the ..delta..G = 0 and that if the parameters of the chiral Lagrangian are adjusted so that gluons carry /approximately/50% of the proton momentum, most of the orbital angular momentum L/sub z/ is carried by quarks. We mention several experiments to test the EMC results and their interpretation. 43 refs., 3 figs.

  19. GISH analysis of disomic Brassica napus-Crambe abyssinica chromosome addition lines produced by microspore culture from monosomic addition lines.

    PubMed

    Wang, Youping; Sonntag, Karin; Rudloff, Eicke; Wehling, Peter; Snowdon, Rod J

    2006-02-01

    Two Brassica napus-Crambe abyssinica monosomic addition lines (2n=39, AACC plus a single chromosome from C. abyssinca) were obtained from the F(2) progeny of the asymmetric somatic hybrid. The alien chromosome from C. abyssinca in the addition line was clearly distinguished by genomic in situ hybridization (GISH). Twenty-seven microspore-derived plants from the addition lines were obtained. Fourteen seedlings were determined to be diploid plants (2n=38) arising from spontaneous chromosome doubling, while 13 seedlings were confirmed as haploid plants. Doubled haploid plants produced after treatment with colchicine and two disomic chromosome addition lines (2n=40, AACC plus a single pair of homologous chromosomes from C. abyssinca) could again be identified by GISH analysis. The lines are potentially useful for molecular genetic analysis of novel C. abyssinica genes or alleles contributing to traits relevant for oilseed rape (B. napus) breeding.

  20. Assessing the Risk of Crew Injury Due to Dynamic Loads During Spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Somers, J. T.; Gernhardt, M.; Newby, N.

    2014-01-01

    Spaceflight requires tremendous amounts of energy to achieve Earth orbit and to attain escape velocity for interplanetary missions. Although the majority of the energy is managed in such a way as to limit the accelerations on the crew, several mission phases may result in crew exposure to dynamic loads. In the automotive industry, risk of serious injury can be tolerated because the probability of a crash is remote each time a person enters a vehicle, resulting in a low total risk of injury. For spaceflight, the level of acceptable injury risk must be lower to achieve a low total risk of injury because the dynamic loads are expected on each flight. To mitigate the risk of injury due to dynamic loads, the NASA Human Research Program has developed a research plan to inform the knowledge gaps and develop relevant tools for assessing injury risk. The risk of injury due to dynamic loads can be further subdivided into extrinsic and intrinsic risk factors. Extrinsic risk factors include the vehicle dynamic profile, seat and restraint design, and spacesuit design. Human tolerance to loads varies considerably depending on the direction, amplitude, and rise-time of acceleration therefore the orientation of the body to the dynamic vector is critical to determining crew risk of injury. Although a particular vehicle dynamic profile may be safe for a particular design, the seat, restraint, and suit designs can affect the risk of injury due to localized effects. In addition, characteristics intrinsic to the crewmember may also contribute to the risk of injury, such as crewmember sex, age, anthropometry, and deconditioning due to spaceflight, and each astronaut may have a different risk profile because of these factors. The purpose of the research plan is to address any knowledge gaps in the risk factors to mitigate injury risk. Methods for assessing injury risk have been well documented in other analogous industries and include human volunteer testing, human exposure to dynamic

  1. Gut Microbiota: A Contributing Factor to Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Harakeh, Steve M.; Khan, Imran; Kumosani, Taha; Barbour, Elie; Almasaudi, Saad B.; Bahijri, Suhad M.; Alfadul, Sulaiman M.; Ajabnoor, Ghada M. A.; Azhar, Esam I.

    2016-01-01

    Obesity, a global epidemic of the modern era, is a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and diabetes. The pervasiveness of obesity and overweight in both developed as well as developing populations is on the rise and placing a huge burden on health and economic resources. Consequently, research to control this emerging epidemic is of utmost importance. Recently, host interactions with their resident gut microbiota (GM) have been reported to be involved in the pathogenesis of many metabolic diseases, including obesity, diabetes, and CVD. Around 1014 microorganisms reside within the lower human intestine and many of these 1014 microorganisms have developed mutualistic or commensal associations with the host and actively involved in many physiological processes of the host. However, dysbiosis (altered gut microbial composition) with other predisposing genetic and environmental factors, may contribute to host metabolic disorders resulting in many ailments. Therefore, delineating the role of GM as a contributing factor to obesity is the main objective of this review. Obesity research, as a field is expanding rapidly due to major advances in nutrigenomics, metabolomics, RNA silencing, epigenetics, and other disciplines that may result in the emergence of new technologies and methods to better interpret causal relationships between microbiota and obesity.

  2. Gut Microbiota: A Contributing Factor to Obesity.

    PubMed

    Harakeh, Steve M; Khan, Imran; Kumosani, Taha; Barbour, Elie; Almasaudi, Saad B; Bahijri, Suhad M; Alfadul, Sulaiman M; Ajabnoor, Ghada M A; Azhar, Esam I

    2016-01-01

    Obesity, a global epidemic of the modern era, is a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and diabetes. The pervasiveness of obesity and overweight in both developed as well as developing populations is on the rise and placing a huge burden on health and economic resources. Consequently, research to control this emerging epidemic is of utmost importance. Recently, host interactions with their resident gut microbiota (GM) have been reported to be involved in the pathogenesis of many metabolic diseases, including obesity, diabetes, and CVD. Around 10(14) microorganisms reside within the lower human intestine and many of these 10(14) microorganisms have developed mutualistic or commensal associations with the host and actively involved in many physiological processes of the host. However, dysbiosis (altered gut microbial composition) with other predisposing genetic and environmental factors, may contribute to host metabolic disorders resulting in many ailments. Therefore, delineating the role of GM as a contributing factor to obesity is the main objective of this review. Obesity research, as a field is expanding rapidly due to major advances in nutrigenomics, metabolomics, RNA silencing, epigenetics, and other disciplines that may result in the emergence of new technologies and methods to better interpret causal relationships between microbiota and obesity. PMID:27625997

  3. Gut Microbiota: A Contributing Factor to Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Harakeh, Steve M.; Khan, Imran; Kumosani, Taha; Barbour, Elie; Almasaudi, Saad B.; Bahijri, Suhad M.; Alfadul, Sulaiman M.; Ajabnoor, Ghada M. A.; Azhar, Esam I.

    2016-01-01

    Obesity, a global epidemic of the modern era, is a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and diabetes. The pervasiveness of obesity and overweight in both developed as well as developing populations is on the rise and placing a huge burden on health and economic resources. Consequently, research to control this emerging epidemic is of utmost importance. Recently, host interactions with their resident gut microbiota (GM) have been reported to be involved in the pathogenesis of many metabolic diseases, including obesity, diabetes, and CVD. Around 1014 microorganisms reside within the lower human intestine and many of these 1014 microorganisms have developed mutualistic or commensal associations with the host and actively involved in many physiological processes of the host. However, dysbiosis (altered gut microbial composition) with other predisposing genetic and environmental factors, may contribute to host metabolic disorders resulting in many ailments. Therefore, delineating the role of GM as a contributing factor to obesity is the main objective of this review. Obesity research, as a field is expanding rapidly due to major advances in nutrigenomics, metabolomics, RNA silencing, epigenetics, and other disciplines that may result in the emergence of new technologies and methods to better interpret causal relationships between microbiota and obesity. PMID:27625997

  4. Small meteoroids' major contribution to Mercury's exosphere

    PubMed Central

    Grotheer, E.B.; Livi, S.A.

    2014-01-01

    The contribution of the meteoroid population to the generation of Mercury's exosphere is analyzed to determine which segment contributes most greatly to exospheric refilling via the process of meteoritic impact vaporization. For the meteoroid data, a differential mass distribution based on work by Grün et al. (Grün, E., Zook, H.A., Fechtig, H., Giese, R.H. [1985]. Icarus 62(2), 244–272) and a differential velocity distribution based on the work of Zook (Zook, H.A. [1975]. In: 6th Lunar Science Conference, vol. 2. Pergamon Press, Inc., Houston, TX, pp. 1653–1672) is used. These distributions are then evaluated using the method employed by Cintala (Cintala, M.J. [1992]. J. Geophys. Res. 97(E1), 947–974) to determine impact rates for selected mass and velocity segments of the meteoroid population. The amount of vapor created by a single meteor impact is determined by using the framework created by Berezhnoy and Klumov (Berezhnoy, A.A., Klumov, B.A. [2008] Icarus, 195(2), 511–522). By combining the impact rate of meteoroids with the amount of vapor a single such impact creates, we derive the total vapor production rate which that meteoroid mass segment contributes to the Herman exosphere. It is shown that meteoroids with a mass of 2.1 × 10−4 g release the largest amount of vapor into Mercury's exosphere. For meteoroids in the mass range of 10−18 g to 10 g, 90% of all the vapor produced is due to impacts by meteoroids in the mass range 4.2 × 10−7 g ≤ m ≤ 8.3 × 10−2 g. PMID:24817768

  5. Small meteoroids' major contribution to Mercury's exosphere.

    PubMed

    Grotheer, E B; Livi, S A

    2014-01-01

    The contribution of the meteoroid population to the generation of Mercury's exosphere is analyzed to determine which segment contributes most greatly to exospheric refilling via the process of meteoritic impact vaporization. For the meteoroid data, a differential mass distribution based on work by Grün et al. (Grün, E., Zook, H.A., Fechtig, H., Giese, R.H. [1985]. Icarus 62(2), 244-272) and a differential velocity distribution based on the work of Zook (Zook, H.A. [1975]. In: 6th Lunar Science Conference, vol. 2. Pergamon Press, Inc., Houston, TX, pp. 1653-1672) is used. These distributions are then evaluated using the method employed by Cintala (Cintala, M.J. [1992]. J. Geophys. Res. 97(E1), 947-974) to determine impact rates for selected mass and velocity segments of the meteoroid population. The amount of vapor created by a single meteor impact is determined by using the framework created by Berezhnoy and Klumov (Berezhnoy, A.A., Klumov, B.A. [2008] Icarus, 195(2), 511-522). By combining the impact rate of meteoroids with the amount of vapor a single such impact creates, we derive the total vapor production rate which that meteoroid mass segment contributes to the Herman exosphere. It is shown that meteoroids with a mass of 2.1 × 10(-4) g release the largest amount of vapor into Mercury's exosphere. For meteoroids in the mass range of 10(-18) g to 10 g, 90% of all the vapor produced is due to impacts by meteoroids in the mass range 4.2 × 10(-7) g ≤ m ≤ 8.3 × 10(-2) g. PMID:24817768

  6. Small meteoroids' major contribution to Mercury's exosphere.

    PubMed

    Grotheer, E B; Livi, S A

    2014-01-01

    The contribution of the meteoroid population to the generation of Mercury's exosphere is analyzed to determine which segment contributes most greatly to exospheric refilling via the process of meteoritic impact vaporization. For the meteoroid data, a differential mass distribution based on work by Grün et al. (Grün, E., Zook, H.A., Fechtig, H., Giese, R.H. [1985]. Icarus 62(2), 244-272) and a differential velocity distribution based on the work of Zook (Zook, H.A. [1975]. In: 6th Lunar Science Conference, vol. 2. Pergamon Press, Inc., Houston, TX, pp. 1653-1672) is used. These distributions are then evaluated using the method employed by Cintala (Cintala, M.J. [1992]. J. Geophys. Res. 97(E1), 947-974) to determine impact rates for selected mass and velocity segments of the meteoroid population. The amount of vapor created by a single meteor impact is determined by using the framework created by Berezhnoy and Klumov (Berezhnoy, A.A., Klumov, B.A. [2008] Icarus, 195(2), 511-522). By combining the impact rate of meteoroids with the amount of vapor a single such impact creates, we derive the total vapor production rate which that meteoroid mass segment contributes to the Herman exosphere. It is shown that meteoroids with a mass of 2.1 × 10(-4) g release the largest amount of vapor into Mercury's exosphere. For meteoroids in the mass range of 10(-18) g to 10 g, 90% of all the vapor produced is due to impacts by meteoroids in the mass range 4.2 × 10(-7) g ≤ m ≤ 8.3 × 10(-2) g.

  7. Imaging of Acoustically Coupled Oscillations Due to Flow Past a Shallow Cavity: Effect of Cavity Length Scale

    SciTech Connect

    P. Oshkai; M. Geveci; D. Rockwell; M. Pollack

    2002-12-12

    Flow-acoustic interactions due to fully turbulent inflow past a shallow axisymmetric cavity mounted in a pipe are investigated using a technique of high-image-density particle image velocimetry in conjunction with unsteady pressure measurements. This imaging leads to patterns of velocity, vorticity, streamline topology, and hydrodynamic contributions to the acoustic power integral. Global instantaneous images, as well as time-averaged images, are evaluated to provide insight into the flow physics during tone generation. Emphasis is on the manner in which the streamwise length scale of the cavity alters the major features of the flow structure. These image-based approaches allow identification of regions of the unsteady shear layer that contribute to the instantaneous hydrodynamic component of the acoustic power, which is necessary to maintain a flow tone. In addition, combined image analysis and pressure measurements allow categorization of the instantaneous flow patterns that are associated with types of time traces and spectra of the fluctuating pressure. In contrast to consideration based solely on pressure spectra, it is demonstrated that locked-on tones may actually exhibit intermittent, non-phase-locked images, apparently due to low damping of the acoustic resonator. Locked-on flow tones (without modulation or intermittency), locked-on flow tones with modulation, and non-locked-on oscillations with short-term, highly coherent fluctuations are defined and represented by selected cases. Depending on which of,these regimes occur, the time-averaged Q (quality)-factor and the dimensionless peak pressure are substantially altered.

  8. Comparative phylogeography of two marine species of crustacean: Recent divergence and expansion due to environmental changes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Daizhen; Ding, Ge; Ge, Baoming; Zhang, Huabin; Tang, Boping; Yang, Guang

    2014-10-15

    Environmental changes, such as changes in the coastal topography due to Eurasian plate movements, climate oscillation during the Pleistocene, and alteration of ocean currents, have complicated the geographical structure of marine species and deepened their divergence between populations. As two widely distributed species of crustacean (Oratosquilla oratoria and Eriocheir japonica), weak differences were expected due to their high dispersal potential of planktonic larvae with ocean currents. However, results showed a significant genetic divergence between north of China and south of China in the study. In addition, the estimated north-south divergence time (27-30.5 Myr) of mantis shrimp was near the time of the Himalayan movement, and the China-Japan clade divergence time (10.5-11.9 Myr) of mitten crabs was also coincident with the time of the opening of the Sea of Japan. Thus, we hypothesized that environmental changes in the coastal topography contributed to the marine species divergence. Furthermore, based on phylogenetic analysis, network analysis and haplotype distribution, we surmised that mitten crabs originated from a population with the oldest haplotype (H6) and then divided into the north and south populations due to the recent Eurasian plate movements and ocean currents. And lineage of Japan originated from the north population for the opening of the Sea of Japan. While O. oratoria was guessed to originate from two separate populations in the China Sea. The results of "star-like" network, negative values in neutral test, and Tajima's D statistics of two marine species supported a recent rapid population expansion event after the Pleistocene glaciations.

  9. Comparative phylogeography of two marine species of crustacean: Recent divergence and expansion due to environmental changes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Daizhen; Ding, Ge; Ge, Baoming; Zhang, Huabin; Tang, Boping; Yang, Guang

    2014-10-15

    Environmental changes, such as changes in the coastal topography due to Eurasian plate movements, climate oscillation during the Pleistocene, and alteration of ocean currents, have complicated the geographical structure of marine species and deepened their divergence between populations. As two widely distributed species of crustacean (Oratosquilla oratoria and Eriocheir japonica), weak differences were expected due to their high dispersal potential of planktonic larvae with ocean currents. However, results showed a significant genetic divergence between north of China and south of China in the study. In addition, the estimated north-south divergence time (27-30.5 Myr) of mantis shrimp was near the time of the Himalayan movement, and the China-Japan clade divergence time (10.5-11.9 Myr) of mitten crabs was also coincident with the time of the opening of the Sea of Japan. Thus, we hypothesized that environmental changes in the coastal topography contributed to the marine species divergence. Furthermore, based on phylogenetic analysis, network analysis and haplotype distribution, we surmised that mitten crabs originated from a population with the oldest haplotype (H6) and then divided into the north and south populations due to the recent Eurasian plate movements and ocean currents. And lineage of Japan originated from the north population for the opening of the Sea of Japan. While O. oratoria was guessed to originate from two separate populations in the China Sea. The results of "star-like" network, negative values in neutral test, and Tajima's D statistics of two marine species supported a recent rapid population expansion event after the Pleistocene glaciations. PMID:25106858

  10. Postfixed Brachial Plexus Radiculopathy Due to Thoracic Disc Herniation in a Collegiate Wrestler: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Kuzma, Scott A.; Doberstein, Scott T.; Rushlow, David R.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To present the unique case of a collegiate wrestler with C7 neurologic symptoms due to T1–T2 disc herniation. Background: A 23-year-old male collegiate wrestler injured his neck in a wrestling tournament match and experienced pain, weakness, and numbness in his left upper extremity. He completed that match and 1 additional match that day with mild symptoms. Evaluation by a certified athletic trainer 6 days postinjury showed radiculopathy in the C7 distribution of his left upper extremity. He was evaluated further by the team physician, a primary care physician, and a neurosurgeon. Differential Diagnosis: Cervical spine injury, stinger/burner, peripheral nerve injury, spinal cord injury, thoracic outlet syndrome, brachial plexus radiculopathy. Treatment: The patient initially underwent nonoperative management with ice, heat, massage, electrical stimulation, shortwave diathermy, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs without symptom resolution. Cervical spine radiographs were negative for bony pathologic conditions. Magnetic resonance imaging showed evidence of T1–T2 disc herniation. The patient underwent surgery to resolve the symptoms and enable him to participate for the remainder of the wrestling season. Uniqueness: Whereas brachial plexus radiculopathy commonly is seen in collision sports, a postfixed brachial plexus in which the T2 nerve root has substantial contribution to the innervation of the upper extremity is a rare anatomic variation with which many health care providers are unfamiliar. Conclusions: The injury sustained by the wrestler appeared to be C7 radiculopathy due to a brachial plexus traction injury. However, it ultimately was diagnosed as radiculopathy due to a T1–T2 thoracic intervertebral disc herniation causing impingement of a postfixed brachial plexus and required surgical intervention. Athletic trainers and physicians need to be aware of the anatomic variations of the brachial plexus when evaluating and caring for

  11. Dry building mixture with complex dispersed mineral additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Il'ina, Liliia; Mukhina, Irina; Teplov, Alexandr

    2016-01-01

    The effectiveness of the complex dispersed mineral additive consisting of diopside and limestone was provided by the following factors. Diopside, due to the high hardness, reinforces formed hardened cement paste and prevents the spread of micro-cracks in it under the action of loads. Furthermore, diopside due to the greater elastic modulus than cement paste causes redistribution of stress between the additive particles and the cement. Limestone, since it has chemical affinity with the clinker minerals and products of their hydration hardening, effects on the hydration process and the formation of the contact area between the additive particles and the cement. The optimum quantity of complex dispersed mineral additive is 7%. At the same time the strength of the solution, made of dry building mixture "rough leveler for floor", increased by 22.1%, and the strength of the solution, made of dry mortar "masonry mixture" increased by 32.7%. With the mineral additive introduction the offset of the endoeffect temperatures to higher temperatures on derivatograms is fixed. If there is a mineral additive in the hardened cement paste, which may act as substrate for the tumors crystallization, the hardened cement paste structure strengthening while the complex thermal analysis is seen.

  12. Muscle contributions to whole-body sagittal plane angular momentum during walking.

    PubMed

    Neptune, R R; McGowan, C P

    2011-01-01

    Walking is a complex dynamic task that requires the regulation of whole-body angular momentum to maintain dynamic balance while performing walking subtasks such as propelling the body forward and accelerating the leg into swing. In human walking, the primary mechanism to regulate angular momentum is muscle force generation. Muscles accelerate body segments and generate ground reaction forces that alter angular momentum about the body's center-of-mass to restore and maintain dynamic stability. In addition, gravity contributes to whole-body angular momentum through its contribution to the ground reaction forces. The purpose of this study was to generate a muscle-actuated forward dynamics simulation of normal walking to quantify how individual muscles and gravity contribute to whole-body angular momentum in the sagittal plane. In early stance, the uniarticular hip and knee extensors (GMAX and VAS), biarticular hamstrings (HAM) and ankle dorsiflexors (TA) generated backward angular momentum while the ankle plantar flexors (SOL and GAS) generated forward momentum. In late stance, SOL and GAS were the primary contributors and generated angular momentum in opposite directions. SOL generated primarily forward angular momentum while GAS generated backward angular momentum. The difference between muscles was due to their relative contributions to the horizontal and vertical ground reaction forces. Gravity contributed to the body's angular momentum in early stance and to a lesser extent in late stance, which was counteracted primarily by the plantar flexors. These results may provide insight into balance and movement disorders and provide a basis for developing locomotor therapies that target specific muscle groups.

  13. Relative contributions of hypoxia and natural gas extraction to atmospheric methane emissions from Lake Erie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Disbennett, D. A.; Townsend-Small, A.; Bourbonniere, R.; Mackay, R.

    2013-12-01

    Reduced oxygen availability in lakes due to summer stratification can create conditions suitable for methanogenic activity, which ultimately contributes to atmospheric methane emissions. Lake Erie has persistent low oxygen conditions in bottom waters during summer, which contributes to methane production through anaerobic organic matter respiration. Lake Erie also has substantial subsurface natural gas deposits that are currently being extracted in Canadian waters. We hypothesized that the lake would be a source of methane to the atmosphere in late summer, prior to fall turnover, and that natural gas wells and pipelines would contribute to additional methane emissions from resource extraction areas in Canadian waters. Initial sampling was conducted at a total of 20 sites in central and western Lake Erie during early September 2012. Sites were selected to collect samples from a wide range of environmental conditions in order to better establish the baseline flux from these areas. We selected an array of sites in the offshore environment, sites from a very shallow bay and sites within the Canadian gas fields. Air samples were gathered using floating flux chambers tethered to the research vessel. Dissolved gas water samples were collected using a Van Dorn bottle. We found a consistent positive flux of methane throughout the lake during late summer, with flux rates adjacent to natural gas pipelines up to an order of magnitude greater than elsewhere. Stable isotope analysis yielded results that were not entirely expected. The δ13C of surface samples from areas of fossil fuel extraction and suspected biogenic sources were very similar, likely due to oxidation of methane in the water column. Additional sampling occurred during 2012 and 2013 concentrating on bottom waters and surface fluxes which should allow us to further constrain sources of CH4 from Lake Erie. This project is an effort to constrain the global warming potential of hypoxia in the Great Lakes, and

  14. Outpatient commitment and procedural due process.

    PubMed

    Player, Candice Teri-Lowe

    2015-01-01

    A large empirical literature on Kendra's Law has assessed the impact of court ordered outpatient treatment on outcomes such as treatment adherence, psychiatric hospitalization, quality of life, and treatment costs. Missing from the empirical literature, however, is a better understanding of procedural due process under Kendra's Law. Procedural due process concerns the safeguards that must be in place when governments deprive persons of their liberties, for example--notice, the right to a hearing and the right to appeal. This article reports the findings from a qualitative study of procedural due process and assisted outpatient treatment hearings under Kendra's Law. Attorneys reported significant barriers to effective advocacy on behalf of their clients. Further, despite the shift from a medical model of civil commitment to a judicial model in the 1970s, by and large judges continue to accord great deference to clinical testimony.

  15. Substantive due process after Gonzales v. Carhart.

    PubMed

    Calabresi, Steven G

    2008-06-01

    This Article begins in Part I with a doctrinal evaluation of the status of Washington v. Glucksberg ten years after that decision was handed down. Discussion begins with consideration of the Roberts Court's recent decision in Gonzales v. Carhart and then turns to the subject of Justice Kennedy's views in particular on substantive due process. In Part II, the Article goes on to consider whether the Glucksberg test for substantive due process decision making is correct in light of the original meaning of the Fourteenth Amendment. The Article concludes in Parts II and III that Glucksberg is right to confine substantive due process rights recognition to recognition only of those rights that are deeply rooted in history and tradition. PMID:18595213

  16. [Carpal tunnel syndrome. The contribution of ultrasonography].

    PubMed

    Pardal-Fernandez, J M

    2014-11-16

    Carpal tunnel syndrome is the most frequent mononeuropathy. Its incidence is huge and the ensuing community health problems are therefore the cause of much concern. Such a situation has made it necessary to develop a key point in the management of the illness, that is, to find flexible, sensitive, specific and cost-effective diagnostic procedures. Today tools of proven worth are now available, especially electrophysiology, and quite recently we also have ultrasonography. Both of these techniques allow us to confirm and characterise neuropathies due to entrapment and indeed a large number of papers dealing with ultrasound imaging have been published in the literature over the last few years. It therefore comes as no surprise that many renowned authors have acknowledged the usefulness of this technique. Here, we review the pathophysiological and diagnostic aspects of carpal tunnel syndrome, with greater emphasis on how ultrasonography has contributed to the morphological evaluation of the entrapped nerve. This method has proved itself to have significant advantages not only due to its being readily available, inexpensive, fast and painless, but also, and above all, because of its high capacity to detect neural and perineural alterations. A critical review of the literature supports this thesis and shows its incorporation into routine daily evaluation to be highly recommendable.

  17. Electric utility use of fireside additives. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Locklin, D.W.; Krause, H.H.; Anson, D.; Reid, W.

    1980-01-01

    Fireside additives have been used or proposed for use in fossil-fired utility boilers to combat a number of problems related to boiler performance and reliability. These problems include corrosion, fouling, superheat control, and acidic emissions. Fuel additives and other fireside additives have been used mainly with oil firing; however, there is growing experience with additives in coal-firing, especially for flyash conditioning to improve the performance of electrostatic precipitators. In decisions regarding the selection and use of additives, utilities have had to rely extensively on empiricism, due partly to an incomplete understanding of processes involved and partly to the limited amount of quantitative data. The study reported here was sponsored by the Electric Power Research Institute to assemble and analyze pertinent operating experience and to recommend guidelines for utility decisions on the use of additives. The combined results of the state-of-the-art review of technical literature and a special survey of utility experience are reported. A total of 38 utilities participated in the survey, providing information on trials conducted on 104 units in 93 different plants. Altogether, 445 separate trials were reported, each representing a unit/additive/fuel combination. Additives used in these trials included 90 different additive formulations, both pure compounds and proprietary products. These formulations were categorized into 37 generic classes according to their chemical constituents, and the results of the survey are presented by these generic classes. The findings are organized according to the operating problems for which fireside additives are used. Guidelines are presented for utility use in additive selection and in planning additive trials.

  18. Conducting financial due diligence of medical practices.

    PubMed

    Louiselle, P

    1995-12-01

    Many healthcare organizations are acquiring medical practices in an effort to build more integrated systems of healthcare products and services. This acquisition activity must be approached cautiously to ensure that medical practices being acquired do not have deficiencies that would jeopardize integration efforts. Conducting a thorough due diligence analysis of medical practices before finalizing the transaction can limit the acquiring organizations' legal and financial exposure and is a necessary component to the acquisition process. The author discusses the components of a successful financial due diligence analysis and addresses some of the risk factors in a practice acquisition. PMID:10152892

  19. Traumatic Endophthalmitis due to Cellulosimicrobium cellulans

    PubMed Central

    Jaru-ampornpan, Pimkwan; Agarwal, Anita; Midha, Narinder K.; Kim, Stephen J.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. To report a case of traumatic endophthalmitis due to Cellulosimicrobium cellulans. Design. Case report. Methods. Retrospective chart review. Results. To our knowledge, this is the first report of traumatic endophthalmitis due to C. cellulans, which did not respond to intravitreal antibiotics or repeat vitrectomy and ultimately led to the discovery of an occult intraocular foreign body. Conclusions. C. cellulans is a rare cause of endophthalmitis. Greater awareness of this bacterium in the ophthalmic literature as a cause of endophthalmitis and its association with foreign bodies may allow earlier and more purposeful intervention in future cases. PMID:22606461

  20. Acute renal failure due to traumatic rhabdomyolysis.

    PubMed

    Naqvi, R; Ahmed, E; Akhtar, F; Yazdani, I; Bhatti, S; Aziz, T; Naqvi, A; Rizvi, A

    1996-07-01

    Between 1990 and 1993, we studied 14 cases of acute renal failure due to prolonged muscular exercise (e.g., squat jumping, sit-ups) and blunt trauma inflicted by law enforcement personnel using sticks or leather belts. None of the patients had a prior history of myopathy, neuropathy, or renal disease. All were critically ill and required renal support in the form of dialysis. Although the morbidity was high, 13 of the patients recovered normal renal function. One patient expired due to sepsis.

  1. Contribution of autophagy to antiviral immunity.

    PubMed

    Rey-Jurado, Emma; Riedel, Claudia A; González, Pablo A; Bueno, Susan M; Kalergis, Alexis M

    2015-11-14

    Although identified in the 1960's, interest in autophagy has significantly increased in the past decade with notable research efforts oriented at understanding as to how this multi-protein complex operates and is regulated. Autophagy is commonly defined as a "self-eating" process evolved by eukaryotic cells to recycle senescent organelles and expired proteins, which is significantly increased during cellular stress responses. In addition, autophagy can also play important roles during human diseases, such as cancer, neurodegenerative and autoimmune disorders. Furthermore, novel findings suggest that autophagy contributes to the host defense against microbial infections. In this article, we review the role of macroautophagy in antiviral immune responses and discuss molecular mechanisms evolved by viral pathogens to evade this process. A role for autophagy as an effector mechanism used both, by innate and adaptive immunity is also discussed.

  2. IVS contribution to ITRF2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachmann, Sabine; Thaller, Daniela; Roggenbuck, Ole; Lösler, Michael; Messerschmitt, Linda

    2016-07-01

    Every few years the International Terrestrial Reference System (ITRS) Center of the International Earth Rotation and Reference Systems Service (IERS) decides to generate a new version of the International Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF). For the upcoming ITRF2014 the official contribution of the International VLBI Service for Geodesy and Astrometry (IVS) comprises 5796 combined sessions in SINEX file format from 1979.6 to 2015.0 containing 158 stations, overall. Nine AC contributions were included in the combination process, using five different software packages. Station coordinate time series of the combined solution show an overall repeatability of 3.3 mm for the north, 4.3 mm for the east and 7.5 mm for the height component over all stations. The minimum repeatabilities are 1.5 mm for north, 2.1 mm for east and 2.9 mm for height. One of the important differences between the IVS contribution to the ITRF2014 and the routine IVS combination is the omission of the correction for non-tidal atmospheric pressure loading (NTAL). Comparisons between the amplitudes of the annual signals derived by the VLBI observations and the annual signals from an NTAL model show that for some stations, NTAL has a high impact on station height variation. For other stations, the effect of NTAL is low. Occasionally other loading effects have a higher influence (e.g. continental water storage loading). External comparisons of the scale parameter between the VTRF2014 (a TRF based on combined VLBI solutions), DTRF2008 (DGFI-TUM realization of ITRS) and ITRF2008 revealed a significant difference in the scale. A scale difference of 0.11 ppb (i.e. 0.7 mm on the Earth's surface) has been detected between the VTRF2014 and the DTRF2008, and a scale difference of 0.44 ppb (i.e. 2.8 mm on the Earth's surface) between the VTRF2014 and ITRF2008. Internal comparisons between the EOP of the combined solution and the individual solutions from the AC contributions show a WRMS in X- and Y-Pole between

  3. A Due Diligence Report on New Zealand's Educational Contribution to the UN Decade of Education for Sustainable Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, David; Flaws, Mary; Le Heron, Richard

    2006-01-01

    Rather than assuming New Zealand's educational sectors and institutions will be active and effective contributors to the United Nations Decade of Education for Sustainable Development (UNDESD) the authors ask instead: "Are New Zealand's school and university sectors actually in a position to respond programmatically to the UN initiative?" The…

  4. Additional potential for older, Antrim Shale wells

    SciTech Connect

    Frantz, J.H. Jr.; Hopkins, C.W.; Hill, D.G.

    1995-09-01

    The Gas Research Institute (GRI) has been performing evaluations to estimate the recompletion and restimulation potential in older, Antrim Shale wells. The recompletion potential is two-fold: (1) wells that can be deepened to the productive Norwood interval, and (2) wells with Upper Antrim potential. There are also numerous restimulation candidates due to sand flowback and/or other problems. The Antrim Shale is an organic-rich naturally fractured formation which produces both gas and water. Operators today typically complete the Lachine and Norwood intervals but many older wells were not drilled deep enough to encounter to Norwood. We performed an evaluation to determine the optimal deepening method using actual and simulated data. We estimate there are over 500 deepening candidates with total potential reserve additions of 50 Bscf. The Upper antrim formation can be added in approximately 1,500 existing wells throughout several counties. This interval is uphole from the Lachine and Norwood. In this phase of the project, we collected production and reservoir data from several Upper Antrim tests across the basin. We estimate the Upper Antrim could add total new reserves of 100 to 200 Bscf from al the recompletion candidates across the basin. In the restimulation evaluation, we developed a novel injection test unit to help operators identify the best restimulation candidates in a cost effective manner. The injection test determines if an effective hydraulic fracture is connected to the wellbore. Based on 60 test wells, we estimate the restimulations could add 50 to 200 Bscf of future reserves from the 500 to 1,000 candidate wells.

  5. Septic tank additive impacts on microbial populations.

    PubMed

    Pradhan, S; Hoover, M T; Clark, G H; Gumpertz, M; Wollum, A G; Cobb, C; Strock, J

    2008-01-01

    Environmental health specialists, other onsite wastewater professionals, scientists, and homeowners have questioned the effectiveness of septic tank additives. This paper describes an independent, third-party, field scale, research study of the effects of three liquid bacterial septic tank additives and a control (no additive) on septic tank microbial populations. Microbial populations were measured quarterly in a field study for 12 months in 48 full-size, functioning septic tanks. Bacterial populations in the 48 septic tanks were statistically analyzed with a mixed linear model. Additive effects were assessed for three septic tank maintenance levels (low, intermediate, and high). Dunnett's t-test for tank bacteria (alpha = .05) indicated that none of the treatments were significantly different, overall, from the control at the statistical level tested. In addition, the additives had no significant effects on septic tank bacterial populations at any of the septic tank maintenance levels. Additional controlled, field-based research iswarranted, however, to address additional additives and experimental conditions.

  6. Intestinal Sucrase as a Novel Target Contributing to the Regulation of Glycemia by Prebiotics

    PubMed Central

    Neyrinck, Audrey M.; Pachikian, Barbara; Taminiau, Bernard; Daube, Georges; Frédérick, Raphaël; Cani, Patrice D.; Bindels, Laure B.; Delzenne, Nathalie M.

    2016-01-01

    Inulin-type fructans (ITF) are known for their capacity to modulate gut microbiota, energy metabolism and to improve glycemia in several animal models of obesity, and in humans. The potential contribution of ITF as modulators of sugar digestion by host enzymes has not been evaluated yet. A sucrose challenge has been performed on naive mice fed a standard diet supplemented with or without native chicory inulin (Fibruline 5%) for 3 weeks. The area under the curve of glycemia as well as sucrase activity in the small intestine were lowered after inulin treatment. Pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene confirmed important changes in gut microbiota (mostly in favor of Blautia genus) due to inulin extract supplementation. Interestingly, the suppressive effect of inulin extract on postprandial glycemia also occurred when inulin was directly added to the sucrose solution, suggesting that the effect on sucrose digestion did not require chronic inulin administration. In vitro tests confirmed a direct inhibition of sucrase enzyme by the inulin extract, thereby suggesting that native chicory inulin, in addition to its well-known prebiotic effect, is also able to decrease the digestibility of carbohydrates, a phenomenon that can contribute in the control of post prandial glycemia. We may not exclude that the sucrose escaping the digestion could also contribute to the changes in the gut microbiota after a chronic treatment with inulin. PMID:27532866

  7. Intestinal Sucrase as a Novel Target Contributing to the Regulation of Glycemia by Prebiotics.

    PubMed

    Neyrinck, Audrey M; Pachikian, Barbara; Taminiau, Bernard; Daube, Georges; Frédérick, Raphaël; Cani, Patrice D; Bindels, Laure B; Delzenne, Nathalie M

    2016-01-01

    Inulin-type fructans (ITF) are known for their capacity to modulate gut microbiota, energy metabolism and to improve glycemia in several animal models of obesity, and in humans. The potential contribution of ITF as modulators of sugar digestion by host enzymes has not been evaluated yet. A sucrose challenge has been performed on naive mice fed a standard diet supplemented with or without native chicory inulin (Fibruline 5%) for 3 weeks. The area under the curve of glycemia as well as sucrase activity in the small intestine were lowered after inulin treatment. Pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene confirmed important changes in gut microbiota (mostly in favor of Blautia genus) due to inulin extract supplementation. Interestingly, the suppressive effect of inulin extract on postprandial glycemia also occurred when inulin was directly added to the sucrose solution, suggesting that the effect on sucrose digestion did not require chronic inulin administration. In vitro tests confirmed a direct inhibition of sucrase enzyme by the inulin extract, thereby suggesting that native chicory inulin, in addition to its well-known prebiotic effect, is also able to decrease the digestibility of carbohydrates, a phenomenon that can contribute in the control of post prandial glycemia. We may not exclude that the sucrose escaping the digestion could also contribute to the changes in the gut microbiota after a chronic treatment with inulin. PMID:27532866

  8. Kinetic and Potential Sputtering of Lunar Regolith: Contribution of Solar-Wind Heavy Ions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, F. W.; Harris, P. R.; Meyer, H. M., III; Hijiazi, H.; Barghouty, A. F.

    2013-01-01

    Sputtering of lunar regolith by protons as well as solar-wind heavy ions is considered. From preliminary measurements of H+, Ar+1, Ar+6 and Ar+9 ion sputtering of JSC-1A AGGL lunar regolith simulant at solar wind velocities, and TRIM simulations of kinetic sputtering yields, the relative contributions of kinetic and potential sputtering contributions are estimated. An 80-fold enhancement of oxygen sputtering by Ar+ over same-velocity H+, and an additional x2 increase for Ar+9 over same-velocity Ar+ was measured. This enhancement persisted to the maximum fluences investigated is approximately 1016/cm (exp2). Modeling studies including the enhanced oxygen ejection by potential sputtering due to the minority heavy ion multicharged ion solar wind component, and the kinetic sputtering contribution of all solar wind constituents, as determined from TRIM sputtering simulations, indicate an overall 35% reduction of near-surface oxygen abundance. XPS analyses of simulant samples exposed to singly and multicharged Ar ions show the characteristic signature of reduced (metallic) Fe, consistent with the preferential ejection of oxygen atoms that can occur in potential sputtering of some metal oxides.

  9. A Genome-Wide Association Analysis Reveals Epistatic Cancellation of Additive Genetic Variance for Root Length in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Lachowiec, Jennifer; Shen, Xia; Queitsch, Christine; Carlborg, Örjan

    2015-01-01

    Efforts to identify loci underlying complex traits generally assume that most genetic variance is additive. Here, we examined the genetics of Arabidopsis thaliana root length and found that the genomic narrow-sense heritability for this trait in the examined population was statistically zero. The low amount of additive genetic variance that could be captured by the genome-wide genotypes likely explains why no associations to root length could be found using standard additive-model-based genome-wide association (GWA) approaches. However, as the broad-sense heritability for root length was significantly larger, and primarily due to epistasis, we also performed an epistatic GWA analysis to map loci contributing to the epistatic genetic variance. Four interacting pairs of loci were revealed, involving seven chromosomal loci that passed a standard multiple-testing corrected significance threshold. The genotype-phenotype maps for these pairs revealed epistasis that cancelled out the additive genetic variance, explaining why these loci were not detected in the additive GWA analysis. Small population sizes, such as in our experiment, increase the risk of identifying false epistatic interactions due to testing for associations with very large numbers of multi-marker genotypes in few phenotyped individuals. Therefore, we estimated the false-positive risk using a new statistical approach that suggested half of the associated pairs to be true positive associations. Our experimental evaluation of candidate genes within the seven associated loci suggests that this estimate is conservative; we identified functional candidate genes that affected root development in four loci that were part of three of the pairs. The statistical epistatic analyses were thus indispensable for confirming known, and identifying new, candidate genes for root length in this population of wild-collected A. thaliana accessions. We also illustrate how epistatic cancellation of the additive genetic variance

  10. A Genome-Wide Association Analysis Reveals Epistatic Cancellation of Additive Genetic Variance for Root Length in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Lachowiec, Jennifer; Shen, Xia; Queitsch, Christine; Carlborg, Örjan

    2015-01-01

    Efforts to identify loci underlying complex traits generally assume that most genetic variance is additive. Here, we examined the genetics of Arabidopsis thaliana root length and found that the genomic narrow-sense heritability for this trait in the examined population was statistically zero. The low amount of additive genetic variance that could be captured by the genome-wide genotypes likely explains why no associations to root length could be found using standard additive-model-based genome-wide association (GWA) approaches. However, as the broad-sense heritability for root length was significantly larger, and primarily due to epistasis, we also performed an epistatic GWA analysis to map loci contributing to the epistatic genetic variance. Four interacting pairs of loci were revealed, involving seven chromosomal loci that passed a standard multiple-testing corrected significance threshold. The genotype-phenotype maps for these pairs revealed epistasis that cancelled out the additive genetic variance, explaining why these loci were not detected in the additive GWA analysis. Small population sizes, such as in our experiment, increase the risk of identifying false epistatic interactions due to testing for associations with very large numbers of multi-marker genotypes in few phenotyped individuals. Therefore, we estimated the false-positive risk using a new statistical approach that suggested half of the associated pairs to be true positive associations. Our experimental evaluation of candidate genes within the seven associated loci suggests that this estimate is conservative; we identified functional candidate genes that affected root development in four loci that were part of three of the pairs. The statistical epistatic analyses were thus indispensable for confirming known, and identifying new, candidate genes for root length in this population of wild-collected A. thaliana accessions. We also illustrate how epistatic cancellation of the additive genetic variance

  11. Breast abscess due to Actinomyces europaeus.

    PubMed

    Silva, W A; Pinheiro, A M; Jahns, B; Bögli-Stuber, K; Droz, S; Zimmerli, S

    2011-06-01

    Actinomyces europaeus was first described in 1997 as a new species causing predominantly skin and soft-tissue infections. Mastitis due to A. europaeus is an unusual condition. This article reports a case of primary breast abscess caused by A. europaeus in a postmenopausal woman.

  12. Freezing of Water Droplet due to Evaporation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satoh, Isao; Fushinobu, Kazuyoshi; Hashimoto, Yu

    In this study, the feasibility of cooling/freezing of phase change.. materials(PCMs) due to evaporation for cold storage systems was experimentally examined. A pure water was used as the test PCM, since the latent heat due to evaporation of water is about 7 times larger than that due to freezing. A water droplet, the diameter of which was 1-4 mm, was suspended in a test cell by a fine metal wire (O. D.= 100μm),and the cell was suddenly evacuated up to the pressure lower than the triple-point pressure of water, so as to enhance the evaporation from the water surface. Temperature of the droplet was measured by a thermocouple, and the cooling/freezing behavior and the temperature profile of the droplet surface were captured by using a video camera and an IR thermo-camera, respectively. The obtained results showed that the water droplet in the evacuated cell is effectively cooled by the evaporation of water itself, and is frozen within a few seconds through remarkable supercooling state. When the initial temperature of the droplet is slightly higher than the room temperature, boiling phenomena occur in the droplet simultaneously with the freezing due to evaporation. Under such conditions, it was shown that the degree of supercooling of the droplet is reduced by the bubbles generated in the droplet.

  13. [Scalp burns due to hair bleach].

    PubMed

    Wagenblast, Lene

    2011-02-28

    We present two cases of scalp burn or possible chemical reaction due to use of hair highlight products. One case was treated with serial excision of the scarred bald area after the burn, and the other case was treated with implantation of expanders and subsequent excision of the bald area.

  14. Onychomycosis due to Hendersonula toruloidea in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Gugnani, H C; Nzelibe, F K; Osunkwo, I C

    1986-06-01

    Clinical features of a case of finger and toe nail infection due to Hendersonula toruloidea and the characteristics of the isolate are described. The isolate was sensitive to clotrimazole at a concentration of 10 micrograms ml-1. The patient responded well to topical application of a lotion of this antimycotic.

  15. Vertebral osteomyelitis due to Staphylococcus lugdunensis.

    PubMed Central

    Murdoch, D R; Everts, R J; Chambers, S T; Cowan, I A

    1996-01-01

    We present the first reported case of vertebral osteomyelitis due to Staphylococcus lugdunensis. The infection occurred in an 80-year-old woman who had been taking glucocorticosteroids. S. lugdunensis is a coagulase-negative staphylococcus with considerable potential as a human pathogen. Isolation of this organism should be regarded as significant unless evidence suggests otherwise. PMID:8815128

  16. Consort contact dermatitis due to oak moss.

    PubMed

    Held, J L; Ruszkowski, A M; Deleo, V A

    1988-02-01

    An allergic contact dermatitis in a woman was found to be due to oak moss in her husband's after-shave lotion. When routine patch testing reveals a positive reaction, the dermatologist should consider exposure to the antigen not only in the patient but also through contact with the patient's consort.

  17. The Enlightenment and Due Process of Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nettleship, Lois

    The purpose of this module for college students is to describe the economic, social, intellectual, and political changes which took place during the Enlightenment period and to show the interrelationship between these changes and concepts behind due process of law. This resource contains an introduction to the module; a list of objectives for the…

  18. Myocardial infection due to Fusobacterium nucleatum.

    PubMed

    Storm, Jeremy C; Ford, Bradley A; Streit, Judy A

    2013-12-01

    Fusobacterium nucleatum is an anaerobic gram-negative bacillus, which inhabits the oropharynx, gastrointestinal tract, and female genital tract. Infections classically affect the head and neck. We report a patient with a myocardial mass due to F. nucleatum, initially thought to be a neoplasm, and discuss anaerobic cardiac infections.

  19. AFT Chief Promises Due-Process Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawchuk, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    The president of the American Federation of Teachers (AFT), Randi Weingarten, is putting the sensitive issue of due process on the education reform table, with a pledge to work with districts to streamline the often-cumbersome procedures for dismissing teachers who fail to improve their performance after receiving help and support. She has also…

  20. What to Expect After Your Due Date

    MedlinePlus

    ... baby is not born by the due date, tests can help the health care provider check on the baby’s health. Some tests, ... your baby move. Others are done in the health care provider’s office or in the hospital. These tests involve electronic fetal monitoring and include the nonstress ...

  1. [Scalp burns due to hair bleach].

    PubMed

    Wagenblast, Lene

    2011-02-28

    We present two cases of scalp burn or possible chemical reaction due to use of hair highlight products. One case was treated with serial excision of the scarred bald area after the burn, and the other case was treated with implantation of expanders and subsequent excision of the bald area. PMID:21362396

  2. Replacing equipment due to obsolescence, fuel efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Harbor, V.

    1982-08-23

    Southern Natural Gas' engine replacement program with regard to expansion problems, replacement justification, meeting requirements (e.g. FERC regulations), economics, and removal and replacement was examined. As a result of replacement, gas supplies are more plentiful; and due to increased load factors, the replacing of four 1,300-hp units is now under way.

  3. Single grain heating due to inelasltic cotunneling.

    SciTech Connect

    Glatz, A.; Beloborodov, I. S.; Materials Science Division; Cal State Univ. at Northridge

    2010-01-25

    We study heating effects of a single metallic quantum dot weakly coupled to two leads. The dominant mechanism for heating at low temperatures is due to inelastic electron cotunneling processes. We calculate the grain temperature profile as a function of grain parameters, bias voltage, and time and show that for nanoscale size grains the heating effects are pronounced and easily measurable in experiments.

  4. Due Process for Non Tenured Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lampshire, Richard H.

    This chapter explores the rights of nontenured teachers in light of recent court decisions and the implications of those decisions for boards of education and administrators. The discussion is limited primarily to discussion of due process. Five generalizations can be made--nontenured teachers enjoy only those property rights found in or implied…

  5. Inherited peripheral neuropathies due to mitochondrial disorders.

    PubMed

    Cassereau, J; Codron, P; Funalot, B

    2014-05-01

    Mitochondrial disorders (MIDs) are frequently responsible for neuropathies with variable severity. Mitochondrial diseases causing peripheral neuropathies (PNP) may be due to mutations of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), as is the case in MERRF and MELAS syndromes, or to mutations of nuclear genes. Secondary abnormalities of mtDNA (such as multiple deletions of muscle mtDNA) may result from mitochondrial disorders due to mutations in nuclear genes involved in mtDNA maintenance. This is the case in several syndromes caused by impaired mtDNA maintenance, such as Sensory Ataxic Neuropathy, Dysarthria and Ophthalmoplegia (SANDO) due to recessive mutations in the POLG gene, which encodes the catalytic subunit of mtDNA polymerase (DNA polymerase gamma), or Mitochondrial Neuro-Gastro-Intestinal Encephalomyopathy (MNGIE), due to recessive mutations in the TYMP gene, which encodes thymidine phosphorylase. The last years have seen a growing list of evidence demonstrating that mitochondrial bioenergetics and dynamics might be dysfunctional in axonal Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT2), and these mechanisms might present a common link between dissimilar CMT2-causing genes.

  6. EVIDENCE OF CONTRIBUTION OF INTERVENING CLOUDS TO GAMMA-RAY BURST'S X-RAY COLUMN DENSITY

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, J.

    2013-10-20

    The origin of excess of X-ray column density with respect to optical extinction in gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) is still a puzzle. A proposed explanation of the excess is the photoelectric absorption due to the intervening clouds along a GRB's line of sight. Here, we test this scenario by using the intervening Mg II absorption as a tracer of the neutral hydrogen column density of the intervening clouds. We identify a connection between the large X-ray column density (and large column density ratio of log (N{sub H,X}/N{sub H{sub I}})∼0.5) and large neutral hydrogen column density probed by the Mg II doublet ratio (DR). In addition, GRBs with large X-ray column density (and large ratio of log (N{sub H,X}/N{sub H{sub I}})>0) tend to have multiple saturated intervening absorbers with DR < 1.2. These results therefore indicate an additional contribution from the intervening system to the observed X-ray column density in some GRBs, although the contribution from the host galaxy alone cannot be excluded based on this study.

  7. Timing shifts due to NIF beam repointing

    SciTech Connect

    Koch, J

    2007-08-15

    Repointing a NIF beam to hit a target position off target chamber center (TCC) will introduce a timing shift due to changes in the light pathlength. This shift could be important for target experiment requirements even for targets placed at TCC, since beam timing test shots will place beams up to 15 mm off TCC in order to spatially separate them on foil targets. In particular, timing errors due to beam repointing need to be considered against the 30 ps RMS timing requirement. Since the repointing process will keep the beam passing through a fixed point in the final optics assembly (the conversion crystal) by tip/tilt adjustments of two turning mirrors (LM5 and LM7), the problem naturally divides into two parts: Timing offsets past the conversion crystal due to target positioning changes, and timing offsets behind the fixed point on the conversion crystal due to turning mirror adjustments. Timing offsets past the conversion crystal can be significant, but are trivial to calculate exactly; however, an exact calculation of timing offsets behind the fixed point on the conversion crystal would require a three-dimensional optomechanical raytrace model to be developed for every beamline, and this would be difficult and expensive. In this memo, I estimate the magnitude of timing offsets due to pathlength changes behind the conversion crystal by analysis of a worst-case model. I conclude that these timing offsets are insignificant compared with the current allocation in the 30 ps RMS timing requirement, and that more detailed raytrace modeling of individual beams is not necessary.

  8. Accelerating procelain formation by incorporating a complex additive

    SciTech Connect

    Maslennikova, G.N.; Dubovitskii, S.A.; Moroz, I.K.

    1986-05-01

    The authors studied the influence of a complex additive consisting of oxides of calcium, zinc, and magnesium on the formaton of porcelain. In order to achieve a more uniform distribution of the complex additive in the porcelain body it was incorporated in the form of water soluble salts-nitrates, which ensured comparability of results and excluded the effect of the different types of anions. The study of the main parameters of sintering (porosity, shrinkage, and mechanical strength) for the test bodies showed that they sinter at lower temperatures and attain zero porosity, maximum shrinkage, and mechanical strength. The most typical bodies indentified in this way were investigated by methods of complex differential thermal analysis and x-ray diffraction. Thus, the introduction of complex additives consisting of calcium, zinc, and magnesium oxides contributes to the earlier formation of porcelain. With the reduction of firing temperatures by 100/sup 0/C the authors observe an improvement in the basic properties of porcelain.

  9. Contribution of wall material to the vibrational excitation and negative ion formation in hydrogen negative ion sources (invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bacal, M.; Ivanov, A. A.; Glass-Maujean, M.; Matsumoto, Y.; Nishiura, M.; Sasao, M.; Wada, M.

    2004-05-01

    The wall production contribution to the negative hydrogen ion formation in multicusp ion sources has been investigated using the photodetachment diagnostic (for determining the negative ion density and temperature), negative ion and electron extraction, and vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) emission spectroscopy. The wall material was modified either by depositing thin films from filaments made of different material or by depositing fresh material of the same filament. Thus we show that a fresh tantalum film leads to enhanced negative ion density and enhanced temperature of the hot negative ion population. The slow poisoning effect due to argon additive also indicates the presence of the wall contribution to H- formation. The study of the VUV spectra with different wall materials indicates the presence of vibrationally excited states of H2.

  10. Additive Manufacturing of Aerospace Propulsion Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Misra, Ajay K.; Grady, Joseph E.; Carter, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The presentation will provide an overview of ongoing activities on additive manufacturing of aerospace propulsion components, which included rocket propulsion and gas turbine engines. Future opportunities on additive manufacturing of hybrid electric propulsion components will be discussed.

  11. 46 CFR 355.5 - Additional material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... STATES CITIZENSHIP § 355.5 Additional material. If additional material is determined to be essential to clarify or support the evidence of U.S. citizenship, such material shall be furnished by...

  12. 46 CFR 355.5 - Additional material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... STATES CITIZENSHIP § 355.5 Additional material. If additional material is determined to be essential to clarify or support the evidence of U.S. citizenship, such material shall be furnished by...

  13. 46 CFR 355.5 - Additional material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... STATES CITIZENSHIP § 355.5 Additional material. If additional material is determined to be essential to clarify or support the evidence of U.S. citizenship, such material shall be furnished by...

  14. 46 CFR 355.5 - Additional material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... STATES CITIZENSHIP § 355.5 Additional material. If additional material is determined to be essential to clarify or support the evidence of U.S. citizenship, such material shall be furnished by...

  15. 46 CFR 355.5 - Additional material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... STATES CITIZENSHIP § 355.5 Additional material. If additional material is determined to be essential to clarify or support the evidence of U.S. citizenship, such material shall be furnished by...

  16. [Safety of food additives in Japan].

    PubMed

    Ito, Sumio

    2011-01-01

    Recently, many accidents relating to food happened in Japan. The consumer's distrust for food, food companies, and the administration is increasing. The consumer especially has an extreme refusal feeling for chemicals such as food additives and agricultural chemicals, and begins to request agricultural chemical-free vegetables and food additive-free food. Food companies also state no agricultural chemicals and no food additives to correspond with consumers' request and aim at differentiating. The food additive is that the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare specifies the one that person's health might not be ruined by providing for Food Sanitation Law Article 10 in our country. The standard for food additives and standard for use of food additives are provided according to regulations of Food Sanitation Law Article 11. Therefore, it is thought that the food additive used is safe now. Then, it reports on the procedure and the safety examination, etc. in our country for designation for food additive this time.

  17. 42 CFR 412.115 - Additional payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Payment Systems § 412.115 Additional payments. (a) Bad debts. An additional payment is made to each hospital in accordance with § 413.89 of this chapter for bad debts attributable to deductible...

  18. 42 CFR 412.115 - Additional payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Payment Systems § 412.115 Additional payments. (a) Bad debts. An additional payment is made to each hospital in accordance with § 413.89 of this chapter for bad debts attributable to deductible...

  19. 42 CFR 412.115 - Additional payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Payment Systems § 412.115 Additional payments. (a) Bad debts. An additional payment is made to each hospital in accordance with § 413.89 of this chapter for bad debts attributable to deductible...

  20. 26 CFR 1.403(b)-4 - Contribution limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... (c) of this section. See paragraph (f) of this section for special rules concerning excess... annual contribution—(1) General rule. In accordance with section 415(a)(2) and § 1.403(b)-3(a)(9), the... contribution means any annual addition, as defined in section 415(c). (2) Special rules. See section...

  1. Award for Distinguished Scientific Contributions: Alice H. Eagly

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Alice H. Eagly, winner of the Award for Distinguished Scientific Contributions, is cited for her work in the field of social psychology, the psychology of gender, and the use of meta-analytic techniques. She envisions a psychology that extends from individual cognitions to societal structures. In addition to the citation, a biography and selected…

  2. Behavior Analytic Contributions to the Study of Creativity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kubina, Richard M., Jr.; Morrison, Rebecca S.; Lee, David L.

    2006-01-01

    As researchers continue to study creativity, a behavior analytic perspective may provide new vistas by offering an additional perspective. Contemporary behavior analysis began with B. F. Skinner and offers a selectionist approach to the scientific investigation of creativity. Behavior analysis contributes to the study of creativity by…

  3. Award for Distinguished Scientific Contributions: Steven F. Maier

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Steven F. Maier, winner of the Award for Distinguished Scientific Contributions, is cited for his work in the fields of learned helplessness; cytokines, depressed mood, and cognitive interference; and the brain structures that produce and counteract learned helplessness. In addition to the citation, a biography and selected bibliography of Maier's…

  4. Sexual Dysfunction Due to Psychotropic Medications.

    PubMed

    Clayton, Anita H; Alkis, Andrew R; Parikh, Nishant B; Votta, Jennifer G

    2016-09-01

    Sexual functioning is important to assess in patients with psychiatric illness as both the condition and associated treatment may contribute to sexual dysfunction (SD). Antidepressant medications, mood stabilizers, antipsychotics, and antianxiety agents may be associated with SD related to drug mechanism of action. Sexual adverse effects may be related to genetic risk factors, impact on neurotransmitters and hormones, and psychological elements. Effective strategies to manage medication-induced sexual dysfunction are initial choice of a drug unlikely to cause SD, switching to a different medication, and adding an antidote to reverse SD. Appropriate interventions should be determined on a clinical case-by-case basis. PMID:27514298

  5. IDS contribution to ITRF2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valette, J.; Lemoine, F.; Ferrage, P.; Altamimi, Z.; Willis, P.; Stepanek, P.; Otten, M.; Govind, R.; Kuzin, S.; Le Bail, K.; Moore, P.; Yaya, P.; Soudarin, L.

    2009-12-01

    The International DORIS Service (IDS), in operation since 2003, submitted three sets of solutions to ITRF2005 from the IGN/JPL, LEGOS/CLS, and INASAN analysis centers, but no DORIS technique combination. Since that time new analysis centers have become operational including the Geodetic Observatory Pecny (GOP), the European Space Operations Center (ESOC), Geoscience Australia (GAU), the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSC), and the University of Newcastle (NCL). These analysis centers run different software, including Gypsy (IGN & INASAN), GINS (LCA), Bernese (GOP), NAPEOS (ESOC), GEODYN (Geoscience Australia and NASA GSFC) and FAUST (NCL). In order to contribute to ITRF2008, seven analysis centers processed DORIS data from TOPEX/Poseidon, SPOT2, SPOT3, SPOT4, SPOT5, and ENVISAT from 1992 to 2008, producing weekly SINEX solutions or normal equations. The weekly SINEX files from seven AC’s were processed with the CATREF software. Three iterations of an IDS weekly combined time series were completed. The IDS-1, and IDS-2 combinations were preliminary station-only solutions. In the final combination, IDS-3, both stations and the Earth Orientation Paramters (EOP’s) were adjusted. Between each of the IDS combinations, the combination strategy (station filtering, outliers, weighting, scale or geocenter contributions) was improved and the AC’s SINEX series were refined. Some series were extended in data span while others were recomputed to correct anomalies or to improve the quality of the submissions, based on feedback from the combination analyses and intercenter comparisons. For example in IDS-1, both the GAU and GSC solutions were affected by a 20 mm scale offset that was removed in IDS-2 and IDS-3 after the application of improved troposphere modelling in the GEODYN software. The analysis for IDS-1 showed a higher station position WRMS in the vicinity of the high solar flux periods (late 2001-2002). Consequently for IDS-2, several AC’s (LCA, GAU, GSC

  6. 17 CFR 230.408 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Additional information. 230... RULES AND REGULATIONS, SECURITIES ACT OF 1933 General Requirements § 230.408 Additional information. (a) In addition to the information expressly required to be included in a registration statement,...

  7. 17 CFR 230.408 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Additional information. 230... RULES AND REGULATIONS, SECURITIES ACT OF 1933 General Requirements § 230.408 Additional information. (a) In addition to the information expressly required to be included in a registration statement,...

  8. 47 CFR 25.111 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Additional information. 25.111 Section 25.111... Applications and Licenses General Application Filing Requirements § 25.111 Additional information. (a) The Commission may request from any party at any time additional information concerning any application, or...

  9. 10 CFR 810.14 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Additional information. 810.14 Section 810.14 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN ATOMIC ENERGY ACTIVITIES § 810.14 Additional information. The... activity to submit additional information....

  10. 47 CFR 25.111 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Additional information. 25.111 Section 25.111... Applications and Licenses General Application Filing Requirements § 25.111 Additional information. (a) The Commission may request from any party at any time additional information concerning any application, or...

  11. 10 CFR 725.13 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Additional information. 725.13 Section 725.13 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PERMITS FOR ACCESS TO RESTRICTED DATA Applications § 725.13 Additional information. The... and before the termination of the permit, require additional information in order to enable the...

  12. 47 CFR 25.111 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Additional information. 25.111 Section 25.111... Applications and Licenses General Application Filing Requirements § 25.111 Additional information. (a) The Commission may request from any party at any time additional information concerning any application, or...

  13. 20 CFR 802.215 - Additional briefs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Additional briefs. 802.215 Section 802.215 Employees' Benefits BENEFITS REVIEW BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Prereview Procedures Initial Processing § 802.215 Additional briefs. Additional briefs may be filed or ordered in...

  14. 10 CFR 55.7 - Additional requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Additional requirements. 55.7 Section 55.7 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) OPERATORS' LICENSES General Provisions § 55.7 Additional requirements. The Commission may, by rule, regulation, or order, impose upon any licensee such requirements, in addition...

  15. 10 CFR 55.7 - Additional requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Additional requirements. 55.7 Section 55.7 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) OPERATORS' LICENSES General Provisions § 55.7 Additional requirements. The Commission may, by rule, regulation, or order, impose upon any licensee such requirements, in addition...

  16. 77 FR 53180 - Procurement List; Additions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-31

    ... INFORMATION: Additions On 6/15/2012 (77 FR 35942-35944) and 6/29/2012 (77 FR 38775-38776), the Committee for... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Additions AGENCY: Committee for Purchase from People who are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Additions to the Procurement List. SUMMARY:...

  17. 76 FR 35415 - Procurement List; Addition

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-17

    ... INFORMATION: Additions On 4/29/2011 (76 FR 23998), the Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Addition AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Addition to the Procurement List. SUMMARY: This...

  18. 78 FR 9386 - Procurement List; Addition

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-08

    ... INFORMATION: Addition On 11/30/2012 (77 FR 71400-71401), the Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Addition AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Addition to the Procurement List. SUMMARY: This...

  19. 77 FR 31335 - Procurement List; Additions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-25

    ... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Additions On March 16, 2012 (77 FR 15736) and March 23, 2012 (77 FR 17035), the... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Additions AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Additions to the Procurement List. SUMMARY:...

  20. 76 FR 19751 - Procurement List; Addition

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-08

    ... INFORMATION: Addition On 1/28/2011 (76 FR 5142-5143), the Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Addition AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Addition to the Procurement List. SUMMARY: This...

  1. 75 FR 4784 - Procurement List; Addition

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-29

    ... INFORMATION: Addition On 11/16/2009 (74 FR 58949-58950), the Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Addition AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Addition to the Procurement List. SUMMARY: This...

  2. 76 FR 23997 - Procurement List; Addition

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-29

    ... INFORMATION: Addition On 2/25/2011 (76 FR 10571), the Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Addition AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Addition to the Procurement List. SUMMARY: This...

  3. 75 FR 22745 - Procurement List Additions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-30

    ... INFORMATION: Additions On 10/23/2009 (74 FR 54783-54784) and 3/5/2010 (75 FR 10223-10224), the Committee for... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List Additions AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Additions to the Procurement List. SUMMARY:...

  4. 77 FR 71400 - Procurement List, Additions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-30

    ... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Additions On 8/24/2012 (77 FR 51522-51523) and 10/5/2012 (77 FR 60969), the Committee... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List, Additions AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Additions to the Procurement List. SUMMARY:...

  5. 75 FR 72815 - Procurement List Additions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-26

    ... INFORMATION: Additions On 6/4/2010 (75 FR 31768-31769) and 10/1/2010 (75 FR 60739-60740), the Committee for... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List Additions AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Additions to the Procurement List. SUMMARY:...

  6. 77 FR 59595 - Procurement List; Additions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-28

    ... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Additions On 7/9/2012 (77 FR 40344-40345) and 7/20/2012 (77 FR 42701-42702), the... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Additions AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Additions to the Procurement List. SUMMARY:...

  7. 77 FR 34025 - Procurement List; Addition

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-08

    ... INFORMATION: ] Addition On 4/132012 (77 FR 22289-22290), the Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Addition AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Addition to the Procurement List. SUMMARY: This...

  8. 78 FR 2378 - Procurement List, Addition

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-11

    ... INFORMATION: Addition On 11/9/2012 (77 FR 67343-67344), the Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List, Addition AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Addition to the Procurement List. SUMMARY: This...

  9. 76 FR 54741 - Procurement List; Additions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-02

    ... INFORMATION: Additions On 7/8/2011 (76 FR 40342-40343), the Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Additions AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Additions to the Procurement List. SUMMARY:...

  10. Polymeric Additives For Graphite/Epoxy Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kourtides, D. A.; Nir, Z.

    1990-01-01

    Report describes experimental studies of properties of several graphite/epoxy composites containing polymeric additives as flexibilizing or toughening agents. Emphasizes effects of brominated polymeric additives (BPA's) with or without carboxy-terminated butadiene acrylonitrile rubber. Reviews effects of individual and combined additives on fracture toughnesses, environmental stabilities, hot/wet strengths, thermomechanical behaviors, and other mechanical properties of composites.

  11. 14 CFR 29.927 - Additional tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Additional tests. 29.927 Section 29.927... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Rotor Drive System § 29.927 Additional tests. (a) Any additional dynamic, endurance, and operational tests, and vibratory investigations necessary to...

  12. 14 CFR 27.927 - Additional tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Additional tests. 27.927 Section 27.927... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Rotor Drive System § 27.927 Additional tests. (a) Any additional dynamic, endurance, and operational tests, and vibratory investigations necessary to...

  13. 14 CFR 29.927 - Additional tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Additional tests. 29.927 Section 29.927... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Rotor Drive System § 29.927 Additional tests. (a) Any additional dynamic, endurance, and operational tests, and vibratory investigations necessary to...

  14. 14 CFR 27.927 - Additional tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Additional tests. 27.927 Section 27.927... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Rotor Drive System § 27.927 Additional tests. (a) Any additional dynamic, endurance, and operational tests, and vibratory investigations necessary to...

  15. 14 CFR 29.927 - Additional tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Additional tests. 29.927 Section 29.927... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Rotor Drive System § 29.927 Additional tests. (a) Any additional dynamic, endurance, and operational tests, and vibratory investigations necessary to...

  16. 14 CFR 27.927 - Additional tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Additional tests. 27.927 Section 27.927... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Rotor Drive System § 27.927 Additional tests. (a) Any additional dynamic, endurance, and operational tests, and vibratory investigations necessary to...

  17. 7 CFR 1944.686 - Additional grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2011-01-01 2009-01-01 true Additional grants. 1944.686 Section 1944.686...) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) HOUSING Housing Preservation Grants § 1944.686 Additional grants. An additional HPG grant may be made when the grantee has achieved or nearly achieved the goals established...

  18. 7 CFR 1944.545 - Additional grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Additional grants. 1944.545 Section 1944.545...) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) HOUSING Technical and Supervisory Assistance Grants § 1944.545 Additional grants. An additional grant may be made to an applicant that has previously received a TSA grant and...

  19. 7 CFR 1944.545 - Additional grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2011-01-01 2009-01-01 true Additional grants. 1944.545 Section 1944.545...) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) HOUSING Technical and Supervisory Assistance Grants § 1944.545 Additional grants. An additional grant may be made to an applicant that has previously received a TSA grant and...

  20. 7 CFR 1944.686 - Additional grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Additional grants. 1944.686 Section 1944.686...) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) HOUSING Housing Preservation Grants § 1944.686 Additional grants. An additional HPG grant may be made when the grantee has achieved or nearly achieved the goals established...

  1. 24 CFR 964.410 - Additional definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Additional definitions. 964.410... Additional definitions. The following additional definitions apply to this subpart only: Directly assisted... assisted by a public housing agency; (2) Whose name appears on the lease; and (3) Is eighteen years of...

  2. 24 CFR 964.410 - Additional definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Additional definitions. 964.410... Additional definitions. The following additional definitions apply to this subpart only: Directly assisted... assisted by a public housing agency; (2) Whose name appears on the lease; and (3) Is eighteen years of...

  3. 24 CFR 964.410 - Additional definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Additional definitions. 964.410... Additional definitions. The following additional definitions apply to this subpart only: Directly assisted... assisted by a public housing agency; (2) Whose name appears on the lease; and (3) Is eighteen years of...

  4. 10 CFR 55.7 - Additional requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Additional requirements. 55.7 Section 55.7 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) OPERATORS' LICENSES General Provisions § 55.7 Additional requirements. The Commission may, by rule, regulation, or order, impose upon any licensee such requirements, in addition to those established in...

  5. 44 CFR 6.81 - Additional copies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Additional copies. 6.81... HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL IMPLEMENTATION OF THE PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 Fees § 6.81 Additional copies. A reasonable number of additional copies shall be provided for the applicable fee to a requestor who...

  6. A global analysis of soil acidification caused by nitrogen addition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Dashuan; Niu, Shuli

    2015-02-01

    Nitrogen (N) deposition-induced soil acidification has become a global problem. However, the response patterns of soil acidification to N addition and the underlying mechanisms remain far from clear. Here, we conducted a meta-analysis of 106 studies to reveal global patterns of soil acidification in responses to N addition. We found that N addition significantly reduced soil pH by 0.26 on average globally. However, the responses of soil pH varied with ecosystem types, N addition rate, N fertilization forms, and experimental durations. Soil pH decreased most in grassland, whereas boreal forest was not observed a decrease to N addition in soil acidification. Soil pH decreased linearly with N addition rates. Addition of urea and NH4NO3 contributed more to soil acidification than NH4-form fertilizer. When experimental duration was longer than 20 years, N addition effects on soil acidification diminished. Environmental factors such as initial soil pH, soil carbon and nitrogen content, precipitation, and temperature all influenced the responses of soil pH. Base cations of Ca2+, Mg2+ and K+ were critical important in buffering against N-induced soil acidification at the early stage. However, N addition has shifted global soils into the Al3+ buffering phase. Overall, this study indicates that acidification in global soils is very sensitive to N deposition, which is greatly modified by biotic and abiotic factors. Global soils are now at a buffering transition from base cations (Ca2+, Mg2+ and K+) to non-base cations (Mn2+ and Al3+). This calls our attention to care about the limitation of base cations and the toxic impact of non-base cations for terrestrial ecosystems with N deposition.

  7. [Kinetic analysis of additive effect on desulfurization activity].

    PubMed

    Han, Kui-hua; Zhao, Jian-li; Lu, Chun-mei; Wang, Yong-zheng; Zhao, Gai-ju; Cheng, Shi-qing

    2006-02-01

    The additive effects of A12O3, Fe2O3 and MnCO3 on CaO sulfation kinetics were investigated by thermogravimetic analysis method and modified grain model. The activation energy (Ea) and the pre-exponential factor (k0) of surface reaction, the activation energy (Ep) and the pre-exponential factor (D0) of product layer diffusion reaction were calculated according to the model. Additions of MnCO3 can enhance the initial reaction rate, product layer diffusion and the final CaO conversion of sorbents, the effect mechanism of which is similar to that of Fe2O3. The method based isokinetic temperature Ts and activation energy can not estimate the contribution of additive to the sulfation reactivity, the rate constant of the surface reaction (k), and the effective diffusivity of reactant in the product layer (Ds) under certain experimental conditions can reflect the effect of additives on the activation. Unstoichiometric metal oxide may catalyze the surface reaction and promote the diffusivity of reactant in the product layer by the crystal defect and distinct diffusion of cation and anion. According to the mechanism and effect of additive on the sulfation, the effective temperature and the stoichiometric relation of reaction, it is possible to improve the utilization of sorbent by compounding more additives to the calcium-based sorbent.

  8. The design of impact absorbing structures for additive manufacture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brennan-Craddock, J.; Brackett, D.; Wildman, R.; Hague, R.

    2012-08-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) is increasingly becoming a viable manufacturing process due to dramatic advantages that it facilitates in the area of design complexity. This paper investigates the potential of additively manufactured lattice structures for the application of tailored impact absorption specifically for conformal body protection. It explores lattice cell types based on foam microstructures and assesses their suitability for impact absorption. The effect of varying the cell strut edge design is also investigated. The implications of scaling these cells up for AM are discussed as well as the design issues regarding the handling of geometric complexity and the requirement for body conformity. The suitability of AM materials for this application is also discussed.

  9. How neuroinflammation contributes to neurodegeneration.

    PubMed

    Ransohoff, Richard M

    2016-08-19

    Neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and frontotemporal lobar dementia are among the most pressing problems of developed societies with aging populations. Neurons carry out essential functions such as signal transmission and network integration in the central nervous system and are the main targets of neurodegenerative disease. In this Review, I address how the neuron's environment also contributes to neurodegeneration. Maintaining an optimal milieu for neuronal function rests with supportive cells termed glia and the blood-brain barrier. Accumulating evidence suggests that neurodegeneration occurs in part because the environment is affected during disease in a cascade of processes collectively termed neuroinflammation. These observations indicate that therapies targeting glial cells might provide benefit for those afflicted by neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:27540165

  10. Hadron Contribution to Vacuum Polarisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davier, M.; Hoecker, A.; Malaescu, B.; Zhang, Z.

    2016-10-01

    Precision tests of the Standard Theory require theoretical predictions taking into account higher-order quantum corrections. Among these vacuum polarisation plays a predominant role. Vacuum polarisation originates from creation and annihilation of virtual particle-antiparticle states. Leptonic vacuum polarisation can be computed from quantum electrodynamics. Hadronic vacuum polarisation cannot because of the non-perturbative nature of QCD at low energy. The problem is remedied by establishing dispersion relations involving experimental data on the cross section for e+ e- annihilation into hadrons. This chapter sets the theoretical and experimental scene and reviews the progress achieved in the last decades thanks to more precise and complete data sets. Among the various applications of hadronic vacuum polarisation calculations, two are emphasised: the contribution to the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon, and the running of the fine structure constant α to the Z mass scale. They are fundamental ingredients to high precision tests of the Standard Theory.

  11. Carl Neumann's Contributions to Electrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlote, Karl-Heinz

    2004-09-01

    I examine the publications of Carl Neumann (1832 1925) on electrodynamics, which constitute a major part of his work and which illuminate his approach to mathematical physics. I show how Neumann contributed to physics at an important stage in its development and how his work led to a polemic with Hermann Helmholtz (1821 1894). Neumann advanced and extended the ideas of the Königsberg school of mathematical physics. His investigations were aimed at founding a mathematically exact physical theory of electrodynamics, following the approach of Carl G.J. Jacobi (1804 1851) on the foundation of a physical theory as outlined in Jacobi’s lectures on analytical mechanics. Neumann’s work also shows how he clung to principles that impeded him in appreciating and developing new ideas such as those on field theory that were proposed by Michael Faraday (1791 1867) and James Clerk Maxwell (1831 1879).

  12. Ergonomics contributions to company strategies.

    PubMed

    Dul, Jan; Neumann, W Patrick

    2009-07-01

    Managers usually associate ergonomics with occupational health and safety and related legislation, not with business performance. In many companies, these decision makers seem not to be positively motivated to apply ergonomics for reasons of improving health and safety. In order to strengthen the position of ergonomics and ergonomists in the business and management world, we discuss company strategies and business goals to which ergonomics could contribute. Conceptual models are presented and examples are given to illustrate: (1) the present situation in which ergonomics is not part of regular planning and control cycles in organizations to ensure business performance; and (2) the desired situation in which ergonomics is an integrated part of strategy formulation and implementation. In order to realize the desired situation, considerable changes must take place within the ergonomics research, education and practice community by moving from a health ergonomics paradigm to a business ergonomics paradigm, without losing the health and safety goals.

  13. Magmatic contributions to hydrothermal systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muffler, L. J. Patrick; Hedenquist, Jeffrey W.; Kesler, Stephen E.; Izawa, Eiji

    Although there is agreement that many hydrothermal systems in the upper crust derive their thermal energy from magmas, debate continues over the extent to which magmas contribute water, metals, and sulfur to hydrothermal systems. A multidisciplinary seminar was held November 10-16, 1991, in Ebino and Kagoshima, Japan, to establish current understanding about this topic and to explore the major unanswered questions and the most promising research directions. The thirty-eight participants were from Japan (eighteen), the U.S. (thirteen), Canada and New Zealand (two each), and England, the Philippines, and Russia (one each). Disciplines represented were volcanology, geochemistry (volcanic-gas, water, isotopes, experimental, and modeling), igneous petrology, geothermal geology, economic geology, fluid-inclusion study, geophysics, and physical modeling.

  14. Tracheobronchial injury due to blunt chest trauma.

    PubMed

    Mahmodlou, Rahim; Sepehrvand, Nariman

    2015-01-01

    Tracheobronchial avulsion resulting from blunt trauma is a very rare and serious condition, mostly due to high-speed traffic crashes. In this article, we briefly report the case of an 18-year-old man who was injured in a car accident and because of massive persistent air leakage (despite appropriate chest tube drainage), deemed to have a deep tracheobronchial injury. Due to a rapid drop in the patient's O2 saturation, he underwent an anterolateral thoracotomy. Endotracheal intubation was performed under direct visualization. The right mainstem bronchus was disrupted from the carina with a 1.5-cm stump remaining on the carina, and the remainder was crushed to the origin of the right superior lobe bronchus. Hence, a right superior lobectomy was performed and the postoperative course was uneventful. PMID:26157657

  15. Information Security due to Electromagnetic Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekiguchi, Hidenori; Seto, Shinji

    Generally, active electronic devices emit slightly unintentional electromagnetic noise. From long ago, electromagnetic emission levels have been regulated from the aspect of electromagnetic compatibility (EMC). Also, it has been known the electromagnetic emissions have been generated from the ON/OFF of signals in the device. Recently, it becomes a topic of conversation on the information security that the ON/OFF on a desired signal in the device can be reproduced or guessed by receiving the electromagnetic emission. For an example, a display image on a personal computer (PC) can be reconstructed by receiving and analyzing the electromagnetic emission. In sum, this fact makes known information leakage due to electromagnetic emission. “TEMPEST" that has been known as a code name originated in the U. S. Department of Defense is to prevent the information leakage caused by electromagnetic emissions. This paper reports the brief summary of the information security due to electromagnetic emissions from information technology equipments.

  16. Fixed drug eruption due to levocetirizine.

    PubMed

    Jhaj, Ratinder; Asati, Dinesh Prasad; Chaudhary, Deepa

    2016-01-01

    A fixed drug eruption (FDE) is a cutaneous adverse drug reaction due to Type IV or delayed cell-mediated hypersensitivity. Antihistamines, which antagonize the action of histamine during an allergic reaction by blocking the H1 histamine receptors, are used routinely for the treatment of various allergic disorders such as urticaria, eczemas, and also in itchy lesions of skin like scabies. Levocetirizine, an active (R)-enantiomer of cetirizine, is a newer or second generation antihistamine, with more specific actions and fewer side effects, including cutaneous reactions. FDE due to levocetirizine as well as with cetirizine are rare. We report a case of levocetirizine induced FDE in a 49-year-old male patient with scabies. The patient had a history of cetirizine induced FDE in the past. PMID:27440959

  17. Phosphate treatment of hypercalcaemia due to carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Thalassinos, N; Joplin, G F

    1968-10-01

    Thirteen patients with hypercalcaemia due to carcinoma received inorganic phosphate, orally or intravenously, as palliative treatment for their high serum calcium levels. The serum calcium promptly fell in all patients fully treated, and there was a striking clinical improvement in most patients. The blood urea was usually unchanged or became nearer to normal, while the serum phosphate altered variably. Only two of the eight patients who were studied at necropsy had microscopical nephrocalcinosis; corneal calcification was evident in both before phosphate treatment was started.This oral inorganic phosphate (1 gramme thrice daily) is a safe and effective means of treating hypercalcaemia due to carcinoma. An intravenous infusion of 1 gramme over eight hours may sometimes be required initially for patients who are vomiting.

  18. Weibel instability due to inverse bremsstrahlung absorption

    SciTech Connect

    Bendib, A.; Bendib, K.,; Bendib, A.; Bendib, K.; Sid, A.,; Bendib, K.,

    1997-06-01

    A new Weibel source due to the inverse bremsstrahlung absorption is presented. It has been shown that in homogeneous plasmas, this mechanism may drive strong collisionless Weibel modes with growth rates of order of {gamma}{approximately}10{sup 11}s{sup {minus}1} and negligible group velocities. In the laser-produced plasmas, for short laser wavelengths ({lambda}{sub L}{lt}1{mu}m) and high laser fluxes (I{gt}10{sup 14}W/cm{sup 2}), this Weibel source is most efficient as the ones due to the heat flux and the plasma expansion. The useful scaling law of the convective e-foldings, with respect to the laser and the plasma parameters, is also derived. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  19. Phosphate Treatment of Hypercalcaemia Due to Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Thalassinos, N.; Joplin, G. F.

    1968-01-01

    Thirteen patients with hypercalcaemia due to carcinoma received inorganic phosphate, orally or intravenously, as palliative treatment for their high serum calcium levels. The serum calcium promptly fell in all patients fully treated, and there was a striking clinical improvement in most patients. The blood urea was usually unchanged or became nearer to normal, while the serum phosphate altered variably. Only two of the eight patients who were studied at necropsy had microscopical nephrocalcinosis; corneal calcification was evident in both before phosphate treatment was started. This oral inorganic phosphate (1 gramme thrice daily) is a safe and effective means of treating hypercalcaemia due to carcinoma. An intravenous infusion of 1 gramme over eight hours may sometimes be required initially for patients who are vomiting. PMID:4175670

  20. Fixed drug eruption due to levocetirizine

    PubMed Central

    Jhaj, Ratinder; Asati, Dinesh Prasad; Chaudhary, Deepa

    2016-01-01

    A fixed drug eruption (FDE) is a cutaneous adverse drug reaction due to Type IV or delayed cell-mediated hypersensitivity. Antihistamines, which antagonize the action of histamine during an allergic reaction by blocking the H1 histamine receptors, are used routinely for the treatment of various allergic disorders such as urticaria, eczemas, and also in itchy lesions of skin like scabies. Levocetirizine, an active (R)-enantiomer of cetirizine, is a newer or second generation antihistamine, with more specific actions and fewer side effects, including cutaneous reactions. FDE due to levocetirizine as well as with cetirizine are rare. We report a case of levocetirizine induced FDE in a 49-year-old male patient with scabies. The patient had a history of cetirizine induced FDE in the past. PMID:27440959

  1. 47 CFR 54.706 - Contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contributions. 54.706 Section 54.706... SERVICE Administration § 54.706 Contributions. (a) Entities that provide interstate telecommunications to... revenues, net of projected contributions. (c) Any entity required to contribute to the federal...

  2. 13 CFR 120.910 - Borrower contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Borrower contributions. 120.910... Company Loan Program (504) The Borrower's Contribution § 120.910 Borrower contributions. (a) The Borrower... circumstances. (b) The source of the contribution may be a CDC or any other source except an SBA business...

  3. 5 CFR 831.1004 - Agency contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Agency contributions. 831.1004 Section... (CONTINUED) RETIREMENT CSRS Offset § 831.1004 Agency contributions. The employing agency, the Secretary of... instructions issued by OPM, a contribution to the CSRS equal to the amount required to be contributed for...

  4. 7 CFR 550.15 - Resource contribution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Resource contribution. 550.15 Section 550.15... Agreements § 550.15 Resource contribution. Each party must contribute resources towards the successful completion of the project. Required resource contributions must be substantial enough to substantiate a...

  5. 5 CFR 1600.12 - Contribution elections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Contribution elections. 1600.12 Section 1600.12 Administrative Personnel FEDERAL RETIREMENT THRIFT INVESTMENT BOARD EMPLOYEE CONTRIBUTION ELECTIONS AND CONTRIBUTION ALLOCATIONS Elections § 1600.12 Contribution elections. (a) An employee may...

  6. 13 CFR 120.911 - Land contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Land contributions. 120.911... Company Loan Program (504) The Borrower's Contribution § 120.911 Land contributions. The Borrower's contribution may be land (including buildings, structures and other site improvements which will be part of...

  7. 7 CFR 3560.203 - Tenant contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tenant contributions. 3560.203 Section 3560.203... AGRICULTURE DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Rents § 3560.203 Tenant contributions. (a) Tenant contributions. A tenant's contribution to rent charged for a rental unit in an Agency financed housing...

  8. 5 CFR 1604.3 - Contribution elections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... § 1604.3 Contribution elections. A service member may make contribution elections as described in 5 CFR... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Contribution elections. 1604.3 Section... incentive pay when the contribution election is made); those elections will take effect when the...

  9. 16 CFR 1105.12 - Advance contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Advance contributions. 1105.12 Section 1105... CONTRIBUTIONS TO COSTS OF PARTICIPANTS IN DEVELOPMENT OF CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY STANDARDS § 1105.12 Advance contributions. The Commission may make its contribution in advance upon specific request, and the...

  10. 20 CFR 345.111 - Contribution reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Contribution reports. 345.111 Section 345.111 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT EMPLOYERS' CONTRIBUTIONS AND CONTRIBUTION REPORTS Reporting and Collecting Contributions §...

  11. 22 CFR 130.6 - Political contribution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Political contribution. 130.6 Section 130.6 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS POLITICAL CONTRIBUTIONS, FEES AND COMMISSIONS § 130.6 Political contribution. Political contribution means any loan,...

  12. 7 CFR 915.43 - Contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Contributions. 915.43 Section 915.43 Agriculture... Regulating Handling Expenses and Assessments § 915.43 Contributions. The committee may accept voluntary contributions. Such contributions shall be free from any encumbrances by the donor and the committee...

  13. 5 CFR 1604.4 - Contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Contributions. (a) Employee contributions. Subject to the regulations at 5 CFR part 1600 and the following limitations, a service member may make regular contributions to the TSP from basic pay. If the service member... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Contributions. 1604.4 Section...

  14. 5 CFR 837.302 - Agency contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Agency contributions. 837.302 Section 837... (CONTINUED) REEMPLOYMENT OF ANNUITANTS Coverage and Contributions § 837.302 Agency contributions. (a) FERS...) of this part shall make contributions, as specified in 5 U.S.C. 8423, to the Fund, based on...

  15. 7 CFR 958.46 - Contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Contributions. 958.46 Section 958.46 Agriculture... Contributions. The committee may accept voluntary contributions but these shall only be used to pay expenses incurred pursuant to § 958.47. Furthermore, such contributions shall be free from any encumbrances by...

  16. 7 CFR 1739.14 - Matching contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Matching contributions. 1739.14 Section 1739.14... AGRICULTURE BROADBAND GRANT PROGRAM Community Connect Grant Program § 1739.14 Matching contributions. (a) The grant applicant must contribute a Matching Contribution which is at least fifteen percent (15%) of...

  17. Defined contribution: a part of our future.

    PubMed Central

    Baugh, Reginald F.

    2003-01-01

    Rising employer health care costs and consumer backlash against managed care are trends fostering the development of defined contribution plans. Defined contribution plans limit employer responsibility to a fixed financial contribution rather than a benefit program and dramatically increase consumer responsibility for health care decision making. Possible outcomes of widespread adoption of defined contribution plans are presented. PMID:12934869

  18. 7 CFR 550.15 - Resource contribution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Resource contribution. 550.15 Section 550.15... Agreements § 550.15 Resource contribution. Each party must contribute resources towards the successful completion of the project. Required resource contributions must be substantial enough to substantiate a...

  19. 7 CFR 550.15 - Resource contribution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Resource contribution. 550.15 Section 550.15... Agreements § 550.15 Resource contribution. Each party must contribute resources towards the successful completion of the project. Required resource contributions must be substantial enough to substantiate a...

  20. 5 CFR 1600.12 - Contribution elections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Contribution elections. 1600.12 Section... ELECTIONS, CONTRIBUTION ALLOCATIONS, AND AUTOMATIC ENROLLMENT PROGRAM Elections § 1600.12 Contribution elections. (a) An employee may make a contribution election at any time. (b) A participant must submit...