Science.gov

Sample records for additional control group

  1. Carbamate deposit control additives

    SciTech Connect

    Honnen, L.R.; Lewis, R.A.

    1980-11-25

    Deposit control additives for internal combustion engines are provided which maintain cleanliness of intake systems without contributing to combustion chamber deposits. The additives are poly(oxyalkylene) carbamates comprising a hydrocarbyloxyterminated poly(Oxyalkylene) chain of 2-5 carbon oxyalkylene units bonded through an oxycarbonyl group to a nitrogen atom of ethylenediamine.

  2. Smog control fuel additives

    SciTech Connect

    Lundby, W.

    1993-06-29

    A method is described of controlling, reducing or eliminating, ozone and related smog resulting from photochemical reactions between ozone and automotive or industrial gases comprising the addition of iodine or compounds of iodine to hydrocarbon-base fuels prior to or during combustion in an amount of about 1 part iodine per 240 to 10,000,000 parts fuel, by weight, to be accomplished by: (a) the addition of these inhibitors during or after the refining or manufacturing process of liquid fuels; (b) the production of these inhibitors for addition into fuel tanks, such as automotive or industrial tanks; or (c) the addition of these inhibitors into combustion chambers of equipment utilizing solid fuels for the purpose of reducing ozone.

  3. Addition polyimide adhesives containing various end groups

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saint Clair, A. K.; Saint Clair, T. L.

    1982-01-01

    Addition polyimode oligomers have been synthesized from 3,3 prime, 4,4 prime-benzophenone tetracarboxylic acid dianhydride and 3,3 prime-methylenedianiline using a variety of latent crosslinking groups as end-caps. The nominal 1300 molecular weight imide prepolymers were isolated and characterized for solubility in amide, chlorinated and ether solvents, melt-flow and cure properties, glass transition temperature, and thermal stability on heating in an air atmosphere. Adhesive strengths of the polyimides were obtained both at ambient and elevated temperatures before and after aging at 232 C. Properties of the novel addition polyimides were compared to a known nadic end-capped adhesive, LARC-13.

  4. Thermal Control Working Group report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haslett, Robert; Mahefkey, E. Thomas

    1986-01-01

    The Thermal Control Working Group limited its evaluation to issues associated with Earth orbiting and planetary spacecraft with power levels up to 50 kW. It was concluded that the space station technology is a necessary precursor but does not meet S/C 2000 needs (life, high heat flux, long term cryogenics, and survivability). Additional basic and applied research are required (fluid/materials compatibility and two phase system modeling). Scaling, the key issue, must define accelerated life test criteria. The two phase systems require 0g to 1 g correlation. Additional ground test beds are required and combined space environment tests of materials.

  5. Additive Bilingualism, Schooling, and Special Education: A Minority Group Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landry, R.

    1987-01-01

    The effect of schooling on the acquisition of an additive type of bilingualism is examined, focusing on additive bilingualism's relation to the ethnolinguistic vitality of linguistic groups and contributions of individual networks of linguistic contacts. A special and regular education merger without domination by a single cultural perspective is…

  6. Control systems on Lie groups.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jurdjevic, V.; Sussmann, H. J.

    1972-01-01

    The controllability properties of systems which are described by an evolution equation in a Lie group are studied. The revelant Lie algebras induced by a right invariant system are singled out, and the basic properties of attainable sets are derived. The homogeneous case and the general case are studied, and results are interpreted in terms of controllability. Five examples are given.

  7. The effect of addition of low dose fentanyl to epidural bupivacaine (0.5%) in patients undergoing elective caesarean section: A randomized, parallel group, double blind, placebo controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Parate, LH; Manjrekar, SP; Anandaswamy, TC; Manjunath, B

    2015-01-01

    Background: Opioids have synergistic action with local anesthetics which may alter characteristics of epidural block. Giving opioids to mother before delivery of baby is still fully not accepted with some fearing risk of neonatal depression. Aims: Our primary aim was to evaluate the analgesic effect of addition of 50 μg fentanyl to epidural 0.5% bupivacaine in patients undergoing elective caesarean section using visual analog scale. The secondary aim was to assess onset of analgesia, volume of drug required to achieve T6 level, grade and duration of motor block and Apgar score. Materials and Methods: In this prospective, randomized, double blind, placebo controlled study 64 patients scheduled for elective caesarean section under epidural anesthesia were randomly divided into two groups of 32 each. The fentanyl group received 1ml of 50 μg fentanyl and the saline group received 1ml of normal saline mixed with 10ml of 0.5% bupivacaine for epidural anesthesia. VAS score, time to achieve T6 level, dose of bupivacaine, intraoperative analgesic consumption and duration of analgesia, grade and duration of motor block and any adverse maternal and neonatal effects were noted. Statistical Analysis: Data was analyzed using Students t test, chi-square test and Mann-Whitney U-test. The values of P < 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results: Fentanyl improved the VAS score significantly (1.6 ± 1.32) compared to the saline group (3.77 ± 1.0, P < 0.0001). It also reduced the intraoperaitve analgesic supplementation compared to the saline group. (P = 0.031). The postoperative duration of analgesia was prolonged in the fentanyl group (275.80 ± 13.61 min) compared to the saline group (191.47 ± 12.16 min, P < 0.0001). The other characteristics of epidural block were unaltered. Conclusion: Addition of 50 μg fentanyl to epidural 0.5% bupivacaine significantly reduces the VAS score. It also reduces intra-operative analgesia supplementation and prolongs the duration

  8. 34 CFR 300.308 - Additional group members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2011-07-01 2010-07-01 true Additional group members. 300.308 Section 300.308 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ASSISTANCE TO STATES FOR THE EDUCATION OF CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES Evaluations,...

  9. Combined dispersant fluid loss control additives

    SciTech Connect

    Villa, J. L.; Zeiner, R. N.

    1985-12-31

    Water soluble polymer compositions containing polyacrylic acid and copolymer of itaconic acid and acrylamide are useful as combined dispersant and fluid loss control additives for aqueous drilling fluids, particularly fresh water, gypsum and seawater muds. An example is a polymer composition containing about 80% by weight polyacrylic acid and about 20% by weight copolymer of itaconic acid and acrylamide in its ammonium salt form.

  10. Addition Theorems, Formal Group Laws and Integrable Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchstaber, V. M.; Bunkova, E. Yu.

    2010-11-01

    We consider elliptic curves, given in the Weierstrass parametrization by the equation y2+μ1xy+μ3y = x3+μ2x2+μ4x+μ6. In Tate coordinates t = -x/y and s = -1/y, the geometric addition laws on this curves correspond to the general elliptic formal group law over the ring Z[μ1,μ2,μ3,μ4,μ6]. This formal group law is well-known in the number theory and cryptography. One can find this law in recent works on the theory of elliptic functions and algebraic topology. In the focus of our interest are questions, important from the point of view of Hirzebruch genera and the theory of integrable systems (see references).

  11. Polyetherurethane oligomers with aldehyde groups as additives for lubricating oils

    SciTech Connect

    Nikolaev, V.N.; Abramov, E.G.; Tenyushev, A.I.

    1995-01-01

    Polyetherurethane oligomers with aldehyde groups, which we synthesized from polyoxypropylene diols (molecular weight 500, 1000, 1500, 2000, or 3000) with toluene diisocyanate and salicylaldehyde, are of interest as additives for lubricating oils. The effects of these oligomers on the service properties and physicochemical characteristics of lubricating oils were investigated by methods prreviously described. As the lube base stocks we used castor oil, a polyoxypropylene diol and a polyethoxysiloxane. The oligomers are readily soluble in organic solvents and in the lube base stocks, and their solutions are stable during storage and use. We found that the optimal concentration of oligomers is 5%, providing the best lubricating properties, in particular the best antiwear properties.

  12. Laboratory tests of sludge-control additives

    SciTech Connect

    Tatnall, R.E.

    1996-07-01

    Laboratory {open_quotes}jar{close_quotes} tests compared eleven different fuel oil and diesel fuel sludge-control additives. Factors studied included (1) ability to disperse and prevent buildup of sludge deposits on surfaces, (2) ability to protect steel from corrosion, (3) ability to inhibit growth and proliferation of bacteria, and (4) ability to disperse water. Results varied greatly, and it was found that many commercial products do not do what they claim. It is concluded that fuel retailers should not believe manufacturers` claims for their additive products, but rather should test such products themselves to be sure that the benefits of treatment are real. A simplified form of the procedure used here is proposed as one way for dealers to do such testing.

  13. Radical additions to chiral hydrazones: stereoselectivity and functional group compatibility.

    PubMed

    Friestad, Gregory K

    2012-01-01

    Free radical additions to imino compounds offer increased synthetic accessibility of chiral amines, but lack of general methods for stereocontrol has hindered their development. This review focuses on two asymmetric amine synthesis strategies designed to address this problem, with emphasis on addition of functionalized radicals which may facilitate applications to synthesis of complex targets. First, chiral N-acylhydrazones are acceptors for intermolecular radical additions of a wide range of primary, secondary, and tertiary alkyl halides to the C=N bond, with radicals generated under manganese-, tin-, or boron-mediated conditions. A variety of aldehydes and ketones serve as viable precursors for the chiral hydrazones, and the highly stereoselective reactions tolerate electrophilic functionality in both coupling components. Second, radical precursors may be linked to chiral α-hydroxyhydrazones via a silicon tether to the hydroxyl group; conformational constraints impart stereocontrol during 5-exo radical cyclization under stannyl- or thiyl-mediated conditions. The silicon tether may later be removed to reveal the formal adducts of hydroxymethyl, vinyl, acetyl, and 2-oxoethyl radicals to the C=N bond. Methodology development and applications to biologically important targets are discussed. PMID:21842359

  14. Alkenes as Chelating Groups in Diastereoselective Additions of Organometallics to Ketones

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Alkenes have been discovered to be chelating groups to Zn(II), enforcing highly stereoselective additions of organozincs to β,γ-unsaturated ketones. 1H NMR studies and DFT calculations provide support for this surprising chelation mode. The results expand the range of coordinating groups for chelation-controlled carbonyl additions from heteroatom Lewis bases to simple C–C double bonds, broadening the 60 year old paradigm. PMID:25328269

  15. Quality Control in Small Groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemmens, L. F.

    2008-11-01

    The smallness of some groups in a set up to control the quality of a service using questionnaires limits the size of the samples, this limitation has several consequences. Indeed the common approach used for relatively large groups, based on the central limit theorem and the law of large numbers, cannot be used anymore to construct estimators for the parameters of the model. Using an inverse probability will lift these restrictions. A questionnaire is a collection of items. In an item the respondent indicates on a Likert scale his or her agreement with a statement. Dimensions are a set of items dealing with one aspect of the service. In a questionnaire several dimensions are addressed but usually the items are presented in a random sequence. The model for an item is hierarchical with following components: a multivariate hypergeometric model takes the sampling in a finite population into account, the multinomial serves as a prior for the sampling and the Dirichlet-distribution serves as a prior for the multinomials. The composition of dimensions allows to use the posterior for one of the items as a prior for another item of that dimension and so on. After analysis of several questionnaires using this model, the reliability of the responses from some respondents turned out to be a key-problem, in the sense the responses can be classified into at least two classes and a decision rule had to be developed to neglect some of them. The influence of rejecting some answers, on the confidence for the most plausible statement can be estimated. This leads often to the result that there is only minimal evidence for the most probable statement.

  16. Matching with Multiple Control Groups with Adjustment for Group Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuart, Elizabeth A.; Rubin, Donald B.

    2008-01-01

    When estimating causal effects from observational data, it is desirable to approximate a randomized experiment as closely as possible. This goal can often be achieved by choosing a subsample from the original control group that matches the treatment group on the distribution of the observed covariates. However, sometimes the original control group…

  17. A Comparison of Group-Oriented Contingencies for Addition Fluency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Thomas J.; Duhon, Gary J.; Shutte, Greg; Rowland, Julie E.

    2016-01-01

    Math fact fluency is critical for understanding complex mathematics. Explicit timing interventions have shown promise for improving math fluency, and they may benefit from being paired with group-oriented contingencies. Further, investigations of independent and dependent group-oriented contingencies would help to identify their relative…

  18. Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smalheer, C. V.

    1973-01-01

    The chemistry of lubricant additives is discussed to show what the additives are chemically and what functions they perform in the lubrication of various kinds of equipment. Current theories regarding the mode of action of lubricant additives are presented. The additive groups discussed include the following: (1) detergents and dispersants, (2) corrosion inhibitors, (3) antioxidants, (4) viscosity index improvers, (5) pour point depressants, and (6) antifouling agents.

  19. 34 CFR 300.308 - Additional group members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Educational Placements Additional Procedures for Identifying Children with Specific Learning Disabilities... learning disability is a child with a disability as defined in § 300.8, must be made by the child's...

  20. 34 CFR 300.308 - Additional group members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... examinations of children, such as a school psychologist, speech-language pathologist, or remedial reading... CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES Evaluations, Eligibility Determinations, Individualized Education Programs, and Educational Placements Additional Procedures for Identifying Children with Specific Learning...

  1. 34 CFR 300.308 - Additional group members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... examinations of children, such as a school psychologist, speech-language pathologist, or remedial reading... CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES Evaluations, Eligibility Determinations, Individualized Education Programs, and Educational Placements Additional Procedures for Identifying Children with Specific Learning...

  2. Iron-control additives improve acidizing

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, M.; Dill, W. ); Besler, M. )

    1989-07-24

    Iron sulfide and sulfur precipitation in sour wells can be controlled with iron-sequestering agents and sulfide modifiers. Oil production has been routinely increased in sour wells where precipitation of iron sulfide and elemental sulfur has been brought under control. Production increases have been especially noteworthy on wells that had a history of rapid production decline after acid stimulation. Twenty-fold production increases have been recorded. Key to the production increase has been to increase permeability with: Iron chelating agents that control precipitation of iron sulfide. A sulfide modifier that reduces precipitation of solids in the presence of excessive amounts of hydrogen sulfide and prevents precipitation of elemental sulfur.

  3. CONTROL ROD ALLOY CONTAINING NOBLE METAL ADDITIONS

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, W.K.; Ray, W.E.

    1960-05-01

    Silver-base alloys suitable for use in the fabrication of control rods for neutronic reactors are given. The alloy consists of from 0.5 wt.% to about 1.5 wt.% of a noble metal of platinum, ruthenium, rhodium, osmium, or palladium, up to 10 wt.% of cadmium, from 2 to 20 wt.% indium, the balance being silver.

  4. Silage Microbiology and Its Control through Additives

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ensiling is a method of preserving a moist crop. A moist crop can support the growth of a wide range of microorganisms, most of which will degrade the nutrient value to livestock. However, ensiling generally controls microbial activity by a combination of an anaerobic environment and a natural ferme...

  5. Attitude Control Working Group report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, Daniel F.; Studer, Phillip A.

    1986-01-01

    The goals were to establish the Attitude Control System (ACS) requirements, constraints, technology assessment, technology shortfalls, expected in the year 2000. These were based upon all missions, military and civil, for LEO and GEO. The critical ACS technology issues were identified and ACS programs developed to address these critical issues.

  6. Additions to the flora of the Wilcox group

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Berry, Edward Wilber

    1923-01-01

    A rather full account of the extensive flora contained in the lower Eocene strata of the Mississippi embayment which are referred to the Wilcox group was published in 1916. At that time it was not possible to obtain sections of the numerous specimens of petrified wood that had been collected from these beds. These woods have since been sectioned and studied, and it seems eminently desirable to place the results of this study on record, for although much of the material had suffered greatly from decay before silicification, some of it is fairly well preserved and shows, among other results, that conifers were individually much more plentiful during Wilcox time than would be inferred from the almost total absence of their foliage in the very large collections of remains of this class that have been studied.

  7. Microstructural Control of Additively Manufactured Metallic Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, P. C.; Brice, D. A.; Samimi, P.; Ghamarian, I.; Fraser, H. L.

    2016-07-01

    In additively manufactured (AM) metallic materials, the fundamental interrelationships that exist between composition, processing, and microstructure govern these materials’ properties and potential improvements or reductions in performance. For example, by using AM, it is possible to achieve highly desirable microstructural features (e.g., highly refined precipitates) that could not otherwise be achieved by using conventional approaches. Simultaneously, opportunities exist to manage macro-level microstructural characteristics such as residual stress, porosity, and texture, the last of which might be desirable. To predictably realize optimal microstructures, it is necessary to establish a framework that integrates processing variables, alloy composition, and the resulting microstructure. Although such a framework is largely lacking for AM metallic materials, the basic scientific components of the framework exist in literature. This review considers these key components and presents them in a manner that highlights key interdependencies that would form an integrated framework to engineer microstructures using AM.

  8. Testing for Additivity at Select Mixture Groups of Interest Based on Statistical Equivalence Testing Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Stork, LeAnna M.; Gennings, Chris; Carchman, Richard; Carter, Jr., Walter H.; Pounds, Joel G.; Mumtaz, Moiz

    2006-12-01

    Several assumptions, defined and undefined, are used in the toxicity assessment of chemical mixtures. In scientific practice mixture components in the low-dose region, particularly subthreshold doses, are often assumed to behave additively (i.e., zero interaction) based on heuristic arguments. This assumption has important implications in the practice of risk assessment, but has not been experimentally tested. We have developed methodology to test for additivity in the sense of Berenbaum (Advances in Cancer Research, 1981), based on the statistical equivalence testing literature where the null hypothesis of interaction is rejected for the alternative hypothesis of additivity when data support the claim. The implication of this approach is that conclusions of additivity are made with a false positive rate controlled by the experimenter. The claim of additivity is based on prespecified additivity margins, which are chosen using expert biological judgment such that small deviations from additivity, which are not considered to be biologically important, are not statistically significant. This approach is in contrast to the usual hypothesis-testing framework that assumes additivity in the null hypothesis and rejects when there is significant evidence of interaction. In this scenario, failure to reject may be due to lack of statistical power making the claim of additivity problematic. The proposed method is illustrated in a mixture of five organophosphorus pesticides that were experimentally evaluated alone and at relevant mixing ratios. Motor activity was assessed in adult male rats following acute exposure. Four low-dose mixture groups were evaluated. Evidence of additivity is found in three of the four low-dose mixture groups.The proposed method tests for additivity of the whole mixture and does not take into account subset interactions (e.g., synergistic, antagonistic) that may have occurred and cancelled each other out.

  9. Poly(oxyalkylene) aminoether carbamates as deposit control additives

    SciTech Connect

    Plavac, F.

    1987-09-22

    This patent describes deposit control additives to maintain cleanliness in internal combustion engines which are provided. The additives are hydrocarbyl-terminated poly(oxyalkylene) aminohydrocarbyloxyhydrocarbyl carbamates, also referred to as polyether aminoether carbamates.

  10. [Critical of the additive model of the randomized controlled trial].

    PubMed

    Boussageon, Rémy; Gueyffier, François; Bejan-Angoulvant, Theodora; Felden-Dominiak, Géraldine

    2008-01-01

    Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trials are currently the best way to demonstrate the clinical effectiveness of drugs. Its methodology relies on the method of difference (John Stuart Mill), through which the observed difference between two groups (drug vs placebo) can be attributed to the pharmacological effect of the drug being tested. However, this additive model can be questioned in the event of statistical interactions between the pharmacological and the placebo effects. Evidence in different domains has shown that the placebo effect can influence the effect of the active principle. This article evaluates the methodological, clinical and epistemological consequences of this phenomenon. Topics treated include extrapolating results, accounting for heterogeneous results, demonstrating the existence of several factors in the placebo effect, the necessity to take these factors into account for given symptoms or pathologies, as well as the problem of the "specific" effect. PMID:18387273

  11. 40 CFR 79.56 - Fuel and fuel additive grouping system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fuel and fuel additive grouping system. 79.56 Section 79.56 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGISTRATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Testing Requirements for Registration § 79.56 Fuel and fuel additive grouping system....

  12. Control of complex physically simulated robot groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brogan, David C.

    2001-10-01

    Actuated systems such as robots take many forms and sizes but each requires solving the difficult task of utilizing available control inputs to accomplish desired system performance. Coordinated groups of robots provide the opportunity to accomplish more complex tasks, to adapt to changing environmental conditions, and to survive individual failures. Similarly, groups of simulated robots, represented as graphical characters, can test the design of experimental scenarios and provide autonomous interactive counterparts for video games. The complexity of writing control algorithms for these groups currently hinders their use. A combination of biologically inspired heuristics, search strategies, and optimization techniques serve to reduce the complexity of controlling these real and simulated characters and to provide computationally feasible solutions.

  13. Additivity of Feature-Based and Symmetry-Based Grouping Effects in Multiple Object Tracking

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chundi; Zhang, Xuemin; Li, Yongna; Lyu, Chuang

    2016-01-01

    Multiple object tracking (MOT) is an attentional process wherein people track several moving targets among several distractors. Symmetry, an important indicator of regularity, is a general spatial pattern observed in natural and artificial scenes. According to the “laws of perceptual organization” proposed by Gestalt psychologists, regularity is a principle of perceptual grouping, such as similarity and closure. A great deal of research reported that feature-based similarity grouping (e.g., grouping based on color, size, or shape) among targets in MOT tasks can improve tracking performance. However, no additive feature-based grouping effects have been reported where the tracking objects had two or more features. “Additive effect” refers to a greater grouping effect produced by grouping based on multiple cues instead of one cue. Can spatial symmetry produce a similar grouping effect similar to that of feature similarity in MOT tasks? Are the grouping effects based on symmetry and feature similarity additive? This study includes four experiments to address these questions. The results of Experiments 1 and 2 demonstrated the automatic symmetry-based grouping effects. More importantly, an additive grouping effect of symmetry and feature similarity was observed in Experiments 3 and 4. Our findings indicate that symmetry can produce an enhanced grouping effect in MOT and facilitate the grouping effect based on color or shape similarity. The “where” and “what” pathways might have played an important role in the additive grouping effect. PMID:27199875

  14. Additivity of Feature-Based and Symmetry-Based Grouping Effects in Multiple Object Tracking.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chundi; Zhang, Xuemin; Li, Yongna; Lyu, Chuang

    2016-01-01

    Multiple object tracking (MOT) is an attentional process wherein people track several moving targets among several distractors. Symmetry, an important indicator of regularity, is a general spatial pattern observed in natural and artificial scenes. According to the "laws of perceptual organization" proposed by Gestalt psychologists, regularity is a principle of perceptual grouping, such as similarity and closure. A great deal of research reported that feature-based similarity grouping (e.g., grouping based on color, size, or shape) among targets in MOT tasks can improve tracking performance. However, no additive feature-based grouping effects have been reported where the tracking objects had two or more features. "Additive effect" refers to a greater grouping effect produced by grouping based on multiple cues instead of one cue. Can spatial symmetry produce a similar grouping effect similar to that of feature similarity in MOT tasks? Are the grouping effects based on symmetry and feature similarity additive? This study includes four experiments to address these questions. The results of Experiments 1 and 2 demonstrated the automatic symmetry-based grouping effects. More importantly, an additive grouping effect of symmetry and feature similarity was observed in Experiments 3 and 4. Our findings indicate that symmetry can produce an enhanced grouping effect in MOT and facilitate the grouping effect based on color or shape similarity. The "where" and "what" pathways might have played an important role in the additive grouping effect. PMID:27199875

  15. 78 FR 46851 - Controlled Group Regulation Examples

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-02

    ... controlled group rules should be applied in connection with the RIC ``asset diversification'' test. This...)(B) provides that, to qualify as a RIC, a taxpayer must meet an asset diversification test pursuant... the asset diversification test has been met, the proportion of any investment in the securities...

  16. One of two rotodip feeders used to control addition of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    One of two rotodip feeders used to control addition of alum solution into the water - Division Avenue Pumping Station & Filtration Plant, West 45th Street and Division Avenue, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  17. Control of pyrite addition in coal liquefaction process

    DOEpatents

    Schmid, Bruce K.; Junkin, James E.

    1982-12-21

    Pyrite addition to a coal liquefaction process (22, 26) is controlled (118) in inverse proportion to the calcium content of the feed coal to maximize the C.sub.5 --900.degree. F. (482.degree. C.) liquid yield per unit weight of pyrite added (110). The pyrite addition is controlled in this manner so as to minimize the amount of pyrite used and thus reduce pyrite contribution to the slurry pumping load and disposal problems connected with pyrite produced slag.

  18. Radical Energies and the Regiochemistry of Addition to Heme Groups. Methylperoxy and Nitrite Radical Additions to the Heme of Horseradish Peroxidase

    PubMed Central

    Wojciechowski, Grzegorz; Ortiz de Montellano, Paul R.

    2008-01-01

    The heme of hemoproteins, as exemplified by horseradish peroxidase (HRP), can undergo additions at the meso carbons and/or vinyl groups of the electrophilic or radical species generated in the catalytic oxidation of halides, pseudohalides, carboxylic acids, aryl and alkyl hydrazines, and other substrates. The determinants of the regiospecificity of these reactions, however, are unclear. We report here modification of the heme of HRP by autocatalytically generated, low energy NO2• and CH3OO• radicals. The NO2• radical adds regioselectively to the 4- over the 2-vinyl group but does not add to the meso positions. Reaction of HRP with tert-BuOOH does not lead to heme modification, but reaction with the F152M mutant, in which the heme vinyls are more sterically accessible, results in conversion of the heme 2-vinyl into a 1-hydroxy-2-(methylperoxy)-ethyl group [-CH(OH)CH2OOCH3]. [18O]-labeling studies indicate that the hydroxyl group in this adduct derives from water and the methylperoxide oxygens from O2. Under anaerobic conditions, methyl radicals formed by fragmentation of the autocatalytically generated tert-BuO• radical add to both the δ-meso-carbon and the 2-vinyl group. The regiochemistry of these and the other known additions to the heme indicate that only high-energy radicals (e.g., CH3•) add to the meso-carbon. Less energetic radicals, including NO2• and CH3OO•, add to heme vinyl groups if they are small enough but do not add to the meso-carbons. Electrophilic species such as HOBr, HOCl, and HOSCN add to vinyl groups but do not react with the meso-carbons. This meso- versus vinyl-reactivity paradigm, which appears to be general for autocatalytic additions to heme prosthetic groups, suggests that meso-hydroxylation of the heme by heme oxygenase occurs by a controlled radical reaction rather than by electrophilic addition. PMID:17249668

  19. Substrate-controlled Michael additions of chiral ketones to enones.

    PubMed

    Fàbregas, Mireia; Gómez-Palomino, Alejandro; Pellicena, Miquel; Reina, Daniel F; Romea, Pedro; Urpí, Fèlix; Font-Bardia, Mercè

    2014-12-01

    Substrate-controlled Michael additions of the titanium(IV) enolate of lactate-derived ketone 1 to acyclic α,β-unsaturated ketones in the presence of a Lewis acid (TiCl4 or SnCl4) provide the corresponding 2,4-anti-4,5-anti dicarbonyl compounds in good yields and excellent diastereomeric ratios. Likely, the nucleophilic species involved in such additions are bimetallic enolates that may add to enones through cyclic transition states. Finally, further studies indicate that a structurally related β-benzyloxy chiral ketone can also participate in such stereocontrolled conjugate additions. PMID:25423031

  20. Defense style changes with the addition of psychodynamic group therapy to clonazepam in social anxiety disorder.

    PubMed

    Knijnik, Daniela Z; Salum, Giovanni Abrahão; Blanco, Carlos; Moraes, Carolina; Hauck, Simone; Mombach, Clarissa K; Strapasson, Atahualpa C P; Manfro, Gisele G; Eizirik, Cláudio L

    2009-07-01

    Psychodynamic Group Therapy (PGT) and clonazepam are strategies to reduce symptoms of generalized social anxiety disorder (GSAD). The addition of PGT might lead to changes in defense styles. The objective of this study is to examine changes in defense styles when comparing clonazepam to psychodynamic group therapy plus clonazepam in GSAD during 12 weeks. Fifty-seven patients that met DSM-IV criteria for GSAD participated. social anxiety disorder symptoms were evaluated with the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale, and defense styles with the Defense Style Questionnaire. All defense styles changed overtime for both groups, especially mature defense style, which increased independently of the treatment allocation group. Regression analyses found that overtime there was a reduction in neurotic defenses in the combined group, whereas there was an increase in the clonazepam group. Neurotic defense style can change toward greater adaptiveness with the addition of PGT to clonazepam in GSAD, even in 12 weeks. PMID:19597364

  1. Ultrafast amplifier additive timing jitter characterization and control.

    PubMed

    Casanova, Alexis; D'Acremont, Quentin; Santarelli, Giorgio; Dilhaire, Stefan; Courjaud, Antoine

    2016-03-01

    We report on the characterization and long-term compensation of additive timing jitter introduced by a femtosecond ytterbium regenerative amplifier with a 100 kHz repetition rate. A balanced optical cross-correlation technique is used to generate a jitter error signal. This approach is well suited to characterize the additive timing jitter of Yb amplifiers seeded by narrow spectrum Yb oscillators. The balanced optical cross-correlator is in a noncollinear configuration allowing a background free coindence detection. This setup enables the measurement of additive timing jitter from the amplifier, with a noise floor of 300 as integrated from 10 Hz to 10 kHz. The measured additive timing jitter level is about 5 fs, integrated from 0.1 Hz to 10 kHz. The amplifier timing drift characterization and control are performed for more than an hour. PMID:26974074

  2. Additives and method for controlling clathrate hydrates in fluid systems

    DOEpatents

    Sloan, E.D. Jr.; Christiansen, R.L.; Lederhos, J.P.; Long, J.P.; Panchalingam, V.; Du, Y.; Sum, A.K.W.

    1997-06-17

    Discussed is a process for preventing clathrate hydrate masses from detrimentally impeding the possible flow of a fluid susceptible to clathrate hydrate formation. The process is particularly useful in the natural gas and petroleum production, transportation and processing industry where gas hydrate formation can cause serious problems. Additives preferably contain one or more five member, six member and/or seven member cyclic chemical groupings. Additives include polymers having lactam rings. Additives can also contain polyelectrolytes that are believed to improve conformance of polymer additives through steric hindrance and/or charge repulsion. Also, polymers having an amide on which a C{sub 1}-C{sub 4} group is attached to the nitrogen and/or the carbonyl carbon of the amide may be used alone, or in combination with ring-containing polymers for enhanced effectiveness. Polymers having at least some repeating units representative of polymerizing at least one of an oxazoline, an N-substituted acrylamide and an N-vinyl alkyl amide are preferred.

  3. Additives and method for controlling clathrate hydrates in fluid systems

    DOEpatents

    Sloan, Jr., Earle Dendy; Christiansen, Richard Lee; Lederhos, Joseph P.; Long, Jin Ping; Panchalingam, Vaithilingam; Du, Yahe; Sum, Amadeu Kun Wan

    1997-01-01

    Discussed is a process for preventing clathrate hydrate masses from detrimentally impeding the possible flow of a fluid susceptible to clathrate hydrate formation. The process is particularly useful in the natural gas and petroleum production, transportation and processing industry where gas hydrate formation can cause serious problems. Additives preferably contain one or more five member, six member and/or seven member cyclic chemical groupings. Additives include polymers having lactam rings. Additives can also contain polyelectrolytes that are believed to improve conformance of polymer additives through steric hinderance and/or charge repulsion. Also, polymers having an amide on which a C.sub.1 -C.sub.4 group is attached to the nitrogen and/or the carbonyl carbon of the amide may be used alone, or in combination with ring-containing polymers for enhanced effectiveness. Polymers having at least some repeating units representative of polymerizing at least one of an oxazoline, an N-substituted acrylamide and an N-vinyl alkyl amide are preferred.

  4. Emission control devices, fuel additive, and fuel composition changes.

    PubMed Central

    Piver, W T

    1977-01-01

    Emission control devices are installed to meet the exhaust standards of the Clean Air Act for carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons, and it is necessary to know, from a public health point of view, how exhaust emissions may be affected by changes in fuel additives and fuel composition. Since these topics are concerned with developing technologies, the available literature on exhaust emission characteristics and the limited information on health effects, is reviewed. PMID:71235

  5. Emission control devices, fuel additive, and fuel composition changes.

    PubMed

    Piver, W T

    1977-08-01

    Emission control devices are installed to meet the exhaust standards of the Clean Air Act for carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons, and it is necessary to know, from a public health point of view, how exhaust emissions may be affected by changes in fuel additives and fuel composition. Since these topics are concerned with developing technologies, the available literature on exhaust emission characteristics and the limited information on health effects, is reviewed. PMID:71235

  6. Striving for group agency: threat to personal control increases the attractiveness of agentic groups

    PubMed Central

    Stollberg, Janine; Fritsche, Immo; Bäcker, Anna

    2015-01-01

    When their sense of personal control is threatened people try to restore perceived control through the social self. We propose that it is the perceived agency of ingroups that provides the self with a sense of control. In three experiments, we for the first time tested the hypothesis that threat to personal control increases the attractiveness of being part or joining those groups that are perceived as coherent entities engaging in coordinated group goal pursuit (agentic groups) but not of those groups whose agency is perceived to be low. Consistent with this hypothesis we found in Study 1 (N = 93) that threat to personal control increased ingroup identification only with task groups, but not with less agentic types of ingroups that were made salient simultaneously. Furthermore, personal control threat increased a sense of collective control and support within the task group, mediated through task-group identification (indirect effects). Turning to groups people are not (yet) part of, Study 2 (N = 47) showed that personal control threat increased relative attractiveness ratings of small groups as possible future ingroups only when the relative agency of small groups was perceived to be high. Perceived group homogeneity or social power did not moderate the effect. Study 3 (N = 78) replicated the moderating role of perceived group agency for attractiveness ratings of entitative groups, whereas perceived group status did not moderate the effect. These findings extend previous research on group-based control, showing that perceived agency accounts for group-based responses to threatened control. PMID:26074832

  7. External and Turbomachinery Flow Control Working Group

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahmadi, G.; Alstrom, B.; Colonius, T.; Dannenhoffer, J.; Glauser, M.; Helenbrook, B.; Higuchi, H.; Hodson, H.; Jha, R.; Kabiri, P.; LaGraff, J.; Low,K.; McKeon, B.; Morrison, J.; Obcid, S.; Orbaker, A.; Samimy, M.; Schmit, R.; Seifert, A.; Seume, J.; Shahabi, A.; Shea, P.; Ukeiley, L.; Wallace, R.

    2010-01-01

    Broad Flow Control Issues: a) Understanding flow physics. b) Specific control objective(s). c) Actuation. d) Sensors. e) Integrated active flow control system. f) Development of design tools (CFD, reduced order models, controller design, understanding and utilizing instabilities and other mechanisms, e.g., streamwise vorticity).

  8. Characterization of a normal control group: are they healthy?

    PubMed

    Aine, C J; Sanfratello, L; Adair, J C; Knoefel, J E; Qualls, C; Lundy, S L; Caprihan, A; Stone, D; Stephen, J M

    2014-01-01

    We examined the health of a control group (18-81years) in our aging study, which is similar to control groups used in other neuroimaging studies. The current study was motivated by our previous results showing that one third of the elder control group had moderate to severe white matter hyperintensities and/or cortical volume loss which correlated with poor performance on memory tasks. Therefore, we predicted that cardiovascular risk factors (e.g., hypertension, high cholesterol) within the control group would account for significant variance on working memory task performance. Fifty-five participants completed 4 verbal and spatial working memory tasks, neuropsychological exams, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), and blood tests to assess vascular risk. In addition to using a repeated measures ANOVA design, a cluster analysis was applied to the vascular risk measures as a data reduction step to characterize relationships between conjoint risk factors. The cluster groupings were used to predict working memory performance. The results show that higher levels of systolic blood pressure were associated with: 1) poor spatial working memory accuracy; and 2) lower fractional anisotropy (FA) values in multiple brain regions. In contrast, higher levels of total cholesterol corresponded with increased accuracy in verbal working memory. An association between lower FA values and higher cholesterol levels were identified in different brain regions from those associated with systolic blood pressure. The conjoint risk analysis revealed that Risk Cluster Group 3 (the group with the greatest number of risk factors) displayed: 1) the poorest performance on the spatial working memory tasks; 2) the longest reaction times across both spatial and verbal memory tasks; and 3) the lowest FA values across widespread brain regions. Our results confirm that a considerable range of vascular risk factors are present in a typical control group, even in younger individuals, which have robust

  9. Cytochrome c oxidase: evolution of control via nuclear subunit addition.

    PubMed

    Pierron, Denis; Wildman, Derek E; Hüttemann, Maik; Markondapatnaikuni, Gopi Chand; Aras, Siddhesh; Grossman, Lawrence I

    2012-04-01

    According to theory, present eukaryotic cells originated from a beneficial association between two free-living cells. Due to this endosymbiotic event the pre-eukaryotic cell gained access to oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS), which produces more than 15 times as much ATP as glycolysis. Because cellular ATP needs fluctuate and OXPHOS both requires and produces entities that can be toxic for eukaryotic cells such as ROS or NADH, we propose that the success of endosymbiosis has largely depended on the regulation of endosymbiont OXPHOS. Several studies have presented cytochrome c oxidase as a key regulator of OXPHOS; for example, COX is the only complex of mammalian OXPHOS with known tissue-specific isoforms of nuclear encoded subunits. We here discuss current knowledge about the origin of nuclear encoded subunits and the appearance of different isozymes promoted by tissue and cellular environments such as hypoxia. We also review evidence for recent selective pressure acting on COX among vertebrates, particularly in primate lineages, and discuss the unique pattern of co-evolution between the nuclear and mitochondrial genomes. Finally, even though the addition of nuclear encoded subunits was a major event in eukaryotic COX evolution, this does not lead to emergence of a more efficient COX, as might be expected from an anthropocentric point of view, for the "higher" organism possessing large brains and muscles. The main function of these subunits appears to be "only" to control the activity of the mitochondrial subunits. We propose that this control function is an as yet under appreciated key point of evolution. Moreover, the importance of regulating energy supply may have caused the addition of subunits encoded by the nucleus in a process comparable to a "domestication scenario" such that the host tends to control more and more tightly the ancestral activity of COX performed by the mtDNA encoded subunits. PMID:21802404

  10. Addition of lysophospholipids with large head groups to cells inhibits Shiga toxin binding

    PubMed Central

    Ailte, Ieva; Lingelem, Anne Berit Dyve; Kavaliauskiene, Simona; Bergan, Jonas; Kvalvaag, Audun Sverre; Myrann, Anne-Grethe; Skotland, Tore; Sandvig, Kirsten

    2016-01-01

    Shiga toxin (Stx), an AB5 toxin, binds specifically to the neutral glycosphingolipid Gb3 at the cell surface before being transported into cells. We here demonstrate that addition of conical lysophospholipids (LPLs) with large head groups inhibit Stx binding to cells whereas LPLs with small head groups do not. Lysophosphatidylinositol (LPI 18:0), the most efficient LPL with the largest head group, was selected for in-depth investigations to study how the binding of Stx is regulated. We show that the inhibition of Stx binding by LPI is reversible and possibly regulated by cholesterol since addition of methyl-β-cyclodextrin (mβCD) reversed the ability of LPI to inhibit binding. LPI-induced inhibition of Stx binding is independent of signalling and membrane turnover as it occurs in fixed cells as well as after depletion of cellular ATP. Furthermore, data obtained with fluorescent membrane dyes suggest that LPI treatment has a direct effect on plasma membrane lipid packing with shift towards a liquid disordered phase in the outer leaflet, while lysophosphoethanolamine (LPE), which has a small head group, does not. In conclusion, our data show that cellular treatment with conical LPLs with large head groups changes intrinsic properties of the plasma membrane and modulates Stx binding to Gb3. PMID:27458147

  11. Addition of lysophospholipids with large head groups to cells inhibits Shiga toxin binding.

    PubMed

    Ailte, Ieva; Lingelem, Anne Berit Dyve; Kavaliauskiene, Simona; Bergan, Jonas; Kvalvaag, Audun Sverre; Myrann, Anne-Grethe; Skotland, Tore; Sandvig, Kirsten

    2016-01-01

    Shiga toxin (Stx), an AB5 toxin, binds specifically to the neutral glycosphingolipid Gb3 at the cell surface before being transported into cells. We here demonstrate that addition of conical lysophospholipids (LPLs) with large head groups inhibit Stx binding to cells whereas LPLs with small head groups do not. Lysophosphatidylinositol (LPI 18:0), the most efficient LPL with the largest head group, was selected for in-depth investigations to study how the binding of Stx is regulated. We show that the inhibition of Stx binding by LPI is reversible and possibly regulated by cholesterol since addition of methyl-β-cyclodextrin (mβCD) reversed the ability of LPI to inhibit binding. LPI-induced inhibition of Stx binding is independent of signalling and membrane turnover as it occurs in fixed cells as well as after depletion of cellular ATP. Furthermore, data obtained with fluorescent membrane dyes suggest that LPI treatment has a direct effect on plasma membrane lipid packing with shift towards a liquid disordered phase in the outer leaflet, while lysophosphoethanolamine (LPE), which has a small head group, does not. In conclusion, our data show that cellular treatment with conical LPLs with large head groups changes intrinsic properties of the plasma membrane and modulates Stx binding to Gb3. PMID:27458147

  12. Dynamics and controls working group summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oglevie, R. E.

    1984-01-01

    The technology status of the dynamics and controls discipline as it applies to energy storage wheel systems was evaluated. No problems were identified for which an adequate solution could not be proposed. Design issues that influence control were addressed. The dynamics and control aspects associated with the energy storage system concept and its various constituent parts, and the control tasks attendant to large, manned spacecraft are discussed.

  13. Characterization and Control of Powder Properties for Additive Manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strondl, A.; Lyckfeldt, O.; Brodin, H.; Ackelid, U.

    2015-03-01

    Powder characterization and handling in powder metallurgy are important issues and the required powder properties will vary between different component manufacturing processes. By understanding and controlling these, the final material properties for different applications can be improved and become more reliable. In this study, the metal powders used in additive manufacturing (AM) in terms of electron beam melting and selective laser melting have been investigated regarding particle size and shape using dynamic image analysis. In parallel, powder flow characteristics have been evaluated with a powder rheometer. Correlations within the results have been found between particle shape and powder flow characteristics that could explain certain effects of the powder processing in the AM processes. The impact, however, in the processing performance as well as in ultimate material properties was found to be limited.

  14. Control of Microthrix parvicella by aluminium salts addition.

    PubMed

    Durban, N; Juzan, L; Krier, J; Gillot, S

    2016-01-01

    Aluminium and iron chloride were added to a biological nutrient removal pilot plant (1,500 population equivalent) treating urban wastewater to investigate the control of Microthrix parvicella bulking and foaming by metallic salts. Monitoring plant performance over two 6-month periods showed a slight impact on the removal efficiencies. Addition of metallic salts (Me; aluminium or aluminium + iron) at a concentration of 41 mmol Me(kg MLSS·d) (MLSS: mixed liquor suspended solids) over 70 days allowed a stabilization of the diluted sludge volume index (DSVI), whereas higher dosages (94 mmol Me(kg MLSS·d) over 35 days or 137 mmol Me(kg MLSS·d) over 14 days induced a significant improvement of the settling conditions. Microscopic observations showed a compaction of biological aggregates with an embedding of filamentous bacteria into the flocs that is not specific to M. parvicella as bacteria from phylum Chloroflexi are embedded too. The quantitative polymerase chain reaction targeting M. parvicella further indicated a possible growth limitation in addition to the flocculation impact at the high dosages of metallic salts investigated. DSVI appeared to be correlated with the relative abundance of M. parvicella. PMID:26819398

  15. Method for controlling a laser additive process using intrinsic illumination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tait, Robert; Cai, Guoshuang; Azer, Magdi; Chen, Xiaobin; Liu, Yong; Harding, Kevin

    2015-05-01

    One form of additive manufacturing is to use a laser to generate a melt pool from powdered metal that is sprayed from a nozzle. The laser net-shape machining system builds the part a layer at a time by following a predetermined path. However, because the path may need to take many turns, maintaining a constant melt pool may not be easy. A straight section may require one speed and power while a sharp bend would over melt the metal at the same settings. This paper describes a process monitoring method that uses the intrinsic IR radiation from the melt pool along with a process model configured to establish target values for the parameters associated with the manufacture or repair. This model is based upon known properties of the metal being used as well as the properties of the laser beam. An adaptive control technique is then employed to control process parameters of the machining system based upon the real-time weld pool measurement. Since the system uses the heat radiant from the melt pool, other previously deposited metal does not confuse the system as only the melted material is seen by the camera.

  16. Highly Diastereoselective Chelation-controlled Additions to α-Silyloxy Ketones

    PubMed Central

    Stanton, Gretchen R.; Koz, Gamze

    2011-01-01

    The polar Felkin-Anh, Cornforth, and Cram-chelation models predict that the addition of organometallic reagents to silyl–protected α–hydroxy ketones proceeds via a non-chelation pathway to give anti-diol addition products. This prediction has held true for the vast majority of additions reported in the literature and few methods for chelation-controlled additions of organometallic reagents to silyl–protected α–hydroxy ketones have been introduced. Herein, we present a general and highly diastereoselective method for the addition of dialkylzincs and (E)-di-, (E)-tri- and (Z)-disubstituted vinylzinc reagents to α-silyloxy ketones using alkyl zinc halide Lewis acids, RZnX, to give chelation-controlled products (dr ≥18:1). The compatibility of organozinc reagents with other functional groups makes this method potentially very useful in complex molecule synthesis. PMID:21534530

  17. Anopheles punctulatus group: evolution, distribution, and control.

    PubMed

    Beebe, Nigel W; Russell, Tanya; Burkot, Thomas R; Cooper, Robert D

    2015-01-01

    The major malaria vectors of the Southwest Pacific belong to a group of closely related mosquitoes known as the Anopheles punctulatus group. The group comprises 13 co-occurring species that either are isomorphic or carry overlapping morphological features, and today several species remain informally named. The advent of species-diagnostic molecular tools in the 1990s permitted a new raft of studies into the newly differentiated mosquitoes of this group, and these have revealed five species as the region's primary malaria vectors: An. farauti, An. hinesorum, An. farauti 4, An. koliensis, and An. punctulatus. Species' distributions are now well established across Papua New Guinea, northern Australia, and the Solomon Archipelago, but little has been documented thus far in eastern Indonesia. As each species reveals significant differences in distribution and biology, the relative paucity of knowledge of their biology or ecology in relation to malaria transmission is brought into clearer focus. Only three of the species have undergone some form of spatial or population genetics analyses, and this has revealed striking differences in their genetic signatures throughout the region. This review compiles and dissects the key findings for this important mosquito group and points to where future research should focus to maximize the output of field studies in developing relevant knowledge on these malaria vectors. PMID:25341094

  18. Cooperation, control, and concession in meerkat groups.

    PubMed

    Clutton-Brock, T H; Brotherton, P N; Russell, A F; O'Riain, M J; Gaynor, D; Kansky, R; Griffin, A; Manser, M; Sharpe, L; McIlrath, G M; Small, T; Moss, A; Monfort, S

    2001-01-19

    "Limited control" models of reproductive skew in cooperative societies suggest that the frequency of breeding by subordinates is determined by the outcome of power struggles with dominants. In contrast, "optimal skew" models suggest that dominants have full control of subordinate reproduction and allow subordinates to breed only when this serves to retain subordinates' assistance with rearing dominants' own litters. The results of our 7-year field study of cooperative meerkats, Suricata suricatta, support the predictions of limited control models and provide no indication that dominant females grant reproductive concessions to subordinates to retain their assistance with future breeding attempts. PMID:11161200

  19. Tosvinyl and besvinyl as protecting groups of imides, azinones, nucleosides, sultams, and lactams. Catalytic conjugate additions to tosylacetylene.

    PubMed

    Petit, Elena; Bosch, Lluís; Font, Joan; Mola, Laura; Costa, Anna M; Vilarrasa, Jaume

    2014-09-19

    The use of the 2-(4-methylphenylsulfonyl)ethenyl (tosvinyl, Tsv) group for the protection of the NH group of a series of imides, azinones (including AZT), inosines, and cyclic sulfonamides has been examined. The Tsv-protected derivatives are obtained in excellent yields by conjugate addition to tosylacetylene (ethynyl p-tolyl sulfone). The stereochemistry of the double bond can be controlled at will: with only 1 mol % of Et3N or with catalytic amounts of NaH, the Z stereoisomers are generated almost exclusively, while the E isomers are obtained using a stoichiometric amount of DMAP. Analogous phenylsulfonylvinyl-protected groups (with the besvinyl or Bsv group instead of Tsv) are obtained stereospecifically by reaction with (Z)- or (E)-bis(phenylsulfonyl)ethene. For lactams and oxazolidinones, this last method is much better. The Tsv and Bsv groups are stable in the presence of non-nucleophilic bases and to acids. They can be removed highly effectively via a conjugate addition-elimination mechanism using pyrrolidine or sodium dodecanethiolate as nucleophiles. PMID:25162376

  20. Side Group Addition to the PAH Coronene by UV Photolysis in Cosmic Ice Analogs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernstein, Max P.; Elsila, Jamie E.; Dworkin, Jason P.; Sandford, Scott A.; Allamandola, Louis J.; Zare, Richard N.; DeVincenzi, D. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Ultraviolet photolysis of various ice mixtures at low temperature and pressure caused the addition of amino (-NH2), methyl (-CH3), methoxy (-OCH3), and cyano (-CN) functional groups to the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) coronene (C22H12). The implications of these results for interstellar and meteoritic chemistry are discussed. Previously only simple PAH photo-oxidation had been reported. This work represents the first experimental evidence that ice photochemistry may have contributed to aromatics bearing carbon and nitrogen containing side groups that are detected in primitive meteorites and interplanetary dust particles. Furthermore, these results suggest a wider range of modified PAHs should be expected in interstellar lees and materials predating solar system formation.

  1. Telemetry, Tracking, and Control Working Group report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, Richard; Rogers, L. Joseph

    1986-01-01

    After assessing the design implications and the criteria to be used in technology selection, the technical problems that face the telemetry, tracking, and control (TTC) area were defined. For each of the problems identified, recommendations were made for needed technology developments. These recommendations are listed and ranked according to priority.

  2. 78 FR 36541 - Public Interface Control Working Group (ICWG) Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-18

    ... Department of the Air Force Public Interface Control Working Group (ICWG) Meeting ACTION: Public ICWG... be hosting a Public Interface Control Working Group (ICWG) meeting for the Navstar GPS public signals... Control System (OCX) to User Support Community Interfaces (ICD-GPS-870). Dates and times can be...

  3. Additional follow-up telephone counselling and initial smoking relapse: a longitudinal, controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Lei; He, Yao; Jiang, Bin; Zuo, Fang; Liu, Qinghui; Zhang, Li; Zhou, Changxi

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Smoking cessation services can help smokers to quit; however, many smoking relapse cases occur over time. Initial relapse prevention should play an important role in achieving the goal of long-term smoking cessation. Several studies have focused on the effect of extended telephone support in relapse prevention, but the conclusions remain conflicting. Design and setting From October 2008 to August 2013, a longitudinal, controlled study was performed in a large general hospital of Beijing. Participants The smokers who sought treatment at our smoking cessation clinic were non-randomised and divided into 2 groups: face-to-face individual counselling group (FC group), and face-to-face individual counselling plus telephone follow-up counselling group (FCF group). No pharmacotherapy was offered. Outcomes The timing of initial smoking relapse was compared between FC and FCF groups. Predictors of initial relapse were investigated during the first 180 days, using the Cox proportional hazards model. Results Of 547 eligible male smokers who volunteered to participate, 457 participants (117 in FC group and 340 in FCF group) achieved at least 24 h abstinence. The majority of the lapse episodes occurred during the first 2 weeks after the quit date. Smokers who did not receive the follow-up telephone counselling (FC group) tended to relapse to smoking earlier than those smokers who received the additional follow-up telephone counselling (FCF group), and the log-rank test was statistically significant (p=0.003). A Cox regression model showed that, in the FCF group, being married, and having a lower Fagerström test score, normal body mass index and doctor-diagnosed tobacco-related chronic diseases, were significantly independent protective predictors of smoking relapse. Conclusions Within the limitations of this study, it can be concluded that additional follow-up telephone counselling might be an effective strategy in preventing relapse. Further research is still

  4. 29 CFR 4001.3 - Trades or businesses under common control; controlled groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... control with such person. (2) Persons are under common control if they are members of a “controlled group... 29 Labor 9 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Trades or businesses under common control; controlled... CORPORATION GENERAL TERMINOLOGY § 4001.3 Trades or businesses under common control; controlled groups....

  5. 29 CFR 4001.3 - Trades or businesses under common control; controlled groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... control with such person. (2) Persons are under common control if they are members of a “controlled group... 29 Labor 9 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Trades or businesses under common control; controlled... CORPORATION GENERAL TERMINOLOGY § 4001.3 Trades or businesses under common control; controlled groups....

  6. 29 CFR 4001.3 - Trades or businesses under common control; controlled groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... control with such person. (2) Persons are under common control if they are members of a “controlled group... 29 Labor 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Trades or businesses under common control; controlled... CORPORATION GENERAL TERMINOLOGY § 4001.3 Trades or businesses under common control; controlled groups....

  7. ProPhenol-Catalyzed Asymmetric Additions by Spontaneously Assembled Dinuclear Main Group Metal Complexes

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Conspectus The development of catalytic enantioselective transformations has been the focus of many research groups over the past half century and is of paramount importance to the pharmaceutical and agrochemical industries. Since the award of the Nobel Prize in 2001, the field of enantioselective transition metal catalysis has soared to new heights, with the development of more efficient catalysts and new catalytic transformations at increasing frequency. Furthermore, catalytic reactions that allow higher levels of redox- and step-economy are being developed. Thus, alternatives to asymmetric alkene dihydroxylation and the enantioselective reduction of α,β-unsaturated ketones can invoke more strategic C–C bond forming reactions, such as asymmetric aldol reactions of an aldehyde with α-hydroxyketone donors or enantioselective alkynylation of an aldehyde, respectively. To facilitate catalytic enantioselective addition reactions, including the aforementioned aldol and alkynylation reactions, our lab has developed the ProPhenol ligand. In this Account, we describe the development and application of the ProPhenol ligand for asymmetric additions of both carbon- and heteroatom-based nucleophiles to various electrophiles. The ProPhenol ligand spontaneously forms chiral dinuclear metal complexes when treated with an alkyl metal reagent, such as Et2Zn or Bu2Mg. The resulting complex contains both a Lewis acidic site to activate an electrophile and a Brønsted basic site to deprotonate a pronucleophile. Initially, our research focused on the use of Zn-ProPhenol complexes to facilitate the direct aldol reaction. Fine tuning of the reaction through ligand modification and the use of additives enabled the direct aldol reaction to proceed in high yields and stereoselectivities with a broad range of donor substrates, including acetophenones, methyl ynones, methyl vinyl ketone, acetone, α-hydroxy carbonyl compounds, and glycine Schiff bases. Additionally, an analogous

  8. Bath additives for the treatment of childhood eczema (BATHE): protocol for multicentre parallel group randomised trial

    PubMed Central

    Santer, Miriam; Rumsby, Kate; Ridd, Matthew J; Francis, Nick A; Stuart, Beth; Chorozoglou, Maria; Wood, Wendy; Roberts, Amanda; Thomas, Kim S; Williams, Hywel C; Little, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Bath emollients are widely prescribed for childhood eczema, yet evidence of their benefits over direct application of emollients is lacking. Objectives To determine the clinical and cost-effectiveness of adding bath emollient to the standard management of eczema in children Methods and analysis Design: Pragmatic open 2-armed parallel group randomised controlled trial. Setting: General practitioner (GP) practices in England and Wales. Participants: Children aged over 12 months and less than 12 years with eczema, excluding inactive or very mild eczema (5 or less on Nottingham Eczema Severity Scale). Interventions: Children will be randomised to either bath emollients plus standard eczema care or standard eczema care only. Outcome measures: Primary outcome is long-term eczema severity, measured by the Patient-Oriented Eczema Measure (POEM) repeated weekly for 16 weeks. Secondary outcomes include: number of eczema exacerbations resulting in healthcare consultations over 1 year; eczema severity over 1 year; disease-specific and generic quality of life; medication use and healthcare resource use; cost-effectiveness. Aiming to detect a mean difference between groups of 2.0 (SD 7.0) in weekly POEM scores over 16 weeks (significance 0.05, power 0.9), allowing for 20% loss to follow-up, gives a total sample size of 423 children. We will use repeated measures analysis of covariance, or a mixed model, to analyse weekly POEM scores. We will control for possible confounders, including baseline eczema severity and child's age. Cost-effectiveness analysis will be carried out from a National Health Service (NHS) perspective. Ethics and dissemination This protocol was approved by Newcastle and North Tyneside 1 NRES committee 14/NE/0098. Follow-up will be completed in 2017. Findings will be disseminated to participants and carers, the public, dermatology and primary care journals, guideline developers and decision-makers. Trial registration number ISRCTN

  9. 78 FR 68779 - Controlled Group Regulation Examples; Hearing Cancellation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-15

    ... public hearing that appeared in the Federal Register on August 2, 2013 (78 FR 46851) announced that a... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 RIN 1545-BK96 Controlled Group Regulation Examples; Hearing... that propose revisions to examples that illustrate the controlled group rules related to...

  10. 26 CFR 1.267(f)-1 - Controlled groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... contained in the 26 CFR part 1 edition revised as of April 1, 1995). ... 26 Internal Revenue 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Controlled groups. 1.267(f)-1 Section 1.267(f)-1...) INCOME TAXES Items Not Deductible § 1.267(f)-1 Controlled groups. (a) In general—(1) Purpose....

  11. 26 CFR 1.267(f)-1 - Controlled groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... contained in the 26 CFR part 1 edition revised as of April 1, 1995). ... 26 Internal Revenue 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Controlled groups. 1.267(f)-1 Section 1.267(f)-1...) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Items Not Deductible § 1.267(f)-1 Controlled groups. (a) In general—(1)...

  12. 77 FR 70421 - GPS Satellite Simulator Control Working Group Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Department of the Air Force GPS Satellite Simulator Control Working Group Meeting AGENCY: Space and Missile..., that the GPS Directorate will host a GPS Satellite Simulator Control Working Group (SSCWG) meeting...

  13. 78 FR 63459 - GPS Satellite Simulator Control Working Group Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Air Force GPS Satellite Simulator Control Working Group Meeting AGENCY: Department of the Air Force. ACTION..., that the GPS Directorate will host a GPS Satellite Simulator Control Working Group (SSCWG) meeting on...

  14. 78 FR 67132 - GPS Satellite Simulator Control Working Group Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Department of the Air Force GPS Satellite Simulator Control Working Group Meeting AGENCY: Space and Missile..., that the GPS Directorate will host a GPS Satellite Simulator Control Working Group (SSCWG) meeting on...

  15. Child Cancer Control. Report on a Working Group.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Health Organization, Copenhagen (Denmark). Regional Office for Europe.

    This World Health Organization (WHO) report on the proceedings of a Working Group on Child Cancer Control was prepared by the WHO Regional Office for Europe. The working group met in Prague in April 1977 and was comprised of representatives from 14 European countries. Its task was to review existing methods of child cancer control, the efficacy of…

  16. Microstructure-controllable Laser Additive Manufacturing Process for Metal Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Wei-Chin; Chuang, Chuan-Sheng; Lin, Ching-Chih; Wu, Chih-Hsien; Lin, De-Yau; Liu, Sung-Ho; Tseng, Wen-Peng; Horng, Ji-Bin

    Controlling the cooling rate of alloy during solidification is the most commonly used method for varying the material microstructure. However, the cooling rate of selective laser melting (SLM) production is constrained by the optimal parameter settings for a dense product. This study proposes a method for forming metal products via the SLM process with electromagnetic vibrations. The electromagnetic vibrations change the solidification process for a given set of SLM parameters, allowing the microstructure to be varied via magnetic flux density. This proposed method can be used for creating microstructure-controllable bio-implant products with complex shapes.

  17. Fluid loss control additives for oil well cementing compositions

    SciTech Connect

    Crema, S.C.; Kucera, C.H.; Konrad, G.; Hartmann, H.

    1993-07-20

    A cementing composition is described useful in cementing oil, gas and water wells comprising: (a) water; (b) hydraulic cement; and (c) a fluid loss additive in an amount effective to reduce fluid loss, to below 100 cc/30 min said fluid loss additive comprised of a blend of (i) a copolymer of acrylamide and vinyl imidazole, in a weight percent ratio of from about 95:5 to 5:95, acryamide to vinyl imidazole said copolymer having a molecular weight range of from about 10,000 to 3,000,000, and (ii) a copolymer of vinyl pyrrolidone and sodium salt of sulfonate in a weight percent ratio of 80:20 to 20:80; the ratio of copolymer (i) to copolymer (ii) being in the range of 20:80 to 80:20.

  18. Direct laser additive fabrication system with image feedback control

    DOEpatents

    Griffith, Michelle L.; Hofmeister, William H.; Knorovsky, Gerald A.; MacCallum, Danny O.; Schlienger, M. Eric; Smugeresky, John E.

    2002-01-01

    A closed-loop, feedback-controlled direct laser fabrication system is disclosed. The feedback refers to the actual growth conditions obtained by real-time analysis of thermal radiation images. The resulting system can fabricate components with severalfold improvement in dimensional tolerances and surface finish.

  19. Fouling control in seawater by on-line acid addition

    SciTech Connect

    Salvago, G.; Taccani, G.; Polimeni, R.; Fumagalli, G.; Picenoni, D.

    1996-11-01

    An experimental plant was set up containing once-through test lines supplied with seawater. The pH level of the seawater was maintained at 6.3 by the acids addition. Heat exchange monitoring equipment and channels exposing different metal specimens were installed on each of the lines. Observation by microscope and EDS analyses were carried out both on the specimen surfaces and on the cross section of the fouling after fracturing in liquid N{sub 2}. The results obtained show that: fouling must not be confused with its effects or simply with its biological components; acidifying seawater can prevent the resistance to heat exchange from increasing without impeding its biological activity. Observation by microscope of the fouling cross sections showed that in untreated seawater the foulings on stainless steel were composed of a continuous compact layer, covered by disorderly clusters. These compact layers were found to contain high quantities of corrosion products of the metals. Elements typical of corrosion products of ferrous materials (Fe, Mn) were also found on Pt, copper alloys and plastic materials. The addition of HCl or H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} to the seawater, to bring it to pH 6.3, reduces the amount of fouling adhering to the surfaces, prevents the development of the continuous layer containing iron and prevents significant increases in heat exchange resistance. The addition of CO{sub 2} can encourage the development of incoherent fibrous material with high Si content and low Fe content which is of little impediment to heat exchange. The addition of lactic acid can encourage both the abnormal development of biomass and the formation of several, separate, layers on stainless steel surfaces.

  20. Experimental determination of group flux control coefficients in metabolic networks

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, T.W.; Shimizu, Hiroshi; Stephanopoulos, G.

    1998-04-20

    Grouping of reactions around key metabolite branch points can facilitate the study of metabolic control of complex metabolic networks. This top-down Metabolic Control Analysis is exemplified through the introduction of group control coefficients whose magnitudes provide a measure of the relative impact of each reaction group on the overall network flux, as well as on the overall network stability, following enzymatic amplification. In this article, the authors demonstrate the application of previously developed theory to the determination of group flux control coefficients. Experimental data for the changes in metabolic fluxes obtained in response to the introduction of six different environmental perturbations are used to determine the group flux control coefficients for three reaction groups formed around the phosphoenolpyruvate/pyruvate branch point. The consistency of the obtained group flux control coefficient estimates is systematically analyzed to ensure that all necessary conditions are satisfied. The magnitudes of the determined control coefficients suggest that the control of lysine production flux in Corynebacterium glutamicum cells at a growth base state resides within the lysine biosynthetic pathway that begins with the PEP/PYR carboxylation anaplorotic pathway.

  1. Roles of additives and surface control in slurry atomization

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, S.C.

    1990-07-10

    Airblast atomization of micronized coal water slurry is carried out using twin-fluid jet atomizers of various distributor designs. Drop size and size distribution are measured using the laser diffraction technique. We found that the atomized drop sizes of micronized coal water slurries substantially decrease as the atomizing air pressure exceeds a threshold value. We also found that the atomized drop size, represented by the mass median diameter (MMD) can be described by the wave mechanism-based models in terms of three non-dimensional groups, namely, slurry-to-air mass ratio, the Weber number, and the Ohnesorge number. 11 refs.

  2. Porosity Measurements and Analysis for Metal Additive Manufacturing Process Control

    PubMed Central

    Slotwinski, John A; Garboczi, Edward J; Hebenstreit, Keith M

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing techniques can produce complex, high-value metal parts, with potential applications as critical metal components such as those found in aerospace engines and as customized biomedical implants. Material porosity in these parts is undesirable for aerospace parts - since porosity could lead to premature failure - and desirable for some biomedical implants - since surface-breaking pores allows for better integration with biological tissue. Changes in a part’s porosity during an additive manufacturing build may also be an indication of an undesired change in the build process. Here, we present efforts to develop an ultrasonic sensor for monitoring changes in the porosity in metal parts during fabrication on a metal powder bed fusion system. The development of well-characterized reference samples, measurements of the porosity of these samples with multiple techniques, and correlation of ultrasonic measurements with the degree of porosity are presented. A proposed sensor design, measurement strategy, and future experimental plans on a metal powder bed fusion system are also presented. PMID:26601041

  3. Porosity Measurements and Analysis for Metal Additive Manufacturing Process Control.

    PubMed

    Slotwinski, John A; Garboczi, Edward J; Hebenstreit, Keith M

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing techniques can produce complex, high-value metal parts, with potential applications as critical metal components such as those found in aerospace engines and as customized biomedical implants. Material porosity in these parts is undesirable for aerospace parts - since porosity could lead to premature failure - and desirable for some biomedical implants - since surface-breaking pores allows for better integration with biological tissue. Changes in a part's porosity during an additive manufacturing build may also be an indication of an undesired change in the build process. Here, we present efforts to develop an ultrasonic sensor for monitoring changes in the porosity in metal parts during fabrication on a metal powder bed fusion system. The development of well-characterized reference samples, measurements of the porosity of these samples with multiple techniques, and correlation of ultrasonic measurements with the degree of porosity are presented. A proposed sensor design, measurement strategy, and future experimental plans on a metal powder bed fusion system are also presented. PMID:26601041

  4. Part height control of laser metal additive manufacturing process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Yu-Herng

    Laser Metal Deposition (LMD) has been used to not only make but also repair damaged parts in a layer-by-layer fashion. Parts made in this manner may produce less waste than those made through conventional machining processes. However, a common issue of LMD involves controlling the deposition's layer thickness. Accuracy is important, and as it increases, both the time required to produce the part and the material wasted during the material removal process (e.g., milling, lathe) decrease. The deposition rate is affected by multiple parameters, such as the powder feed rate, laser input power, axis feed rate, material type, and part design, the values of each of which may change during the LMD process. Using a mathematical model to build a generic equation that predicts the deposition's layer thickness is difficult due to these complex parameters. In this thesis, we propose a simple method that utilizes a single device. This device uses a pyrometer to monitor the current build height, thereby allowing the layer thickness to be controlled during the LMD process. This method also helps the LMD system to build parts even with complex parameters and to increase material efficiency.

  5. Condensate kicks pose additional problems for deep well control

    SciTech Connect

    Szczepanski, R.; Edmonds, B.; Yerlett, T.K.; Brown, N.P.; Hamilton, T.A.P.

    1996-06-17

    Modeling condensate and gas kicks in a deep North Sea well helps drillers understand what to expect after prompt kick detection in a straight-forward kick circulation program with competent choke handling. Concerns have been raised in the industry that as a condensate kick is taken and subsequently circulated out of the well, unexpected surface indications may be present. Blowouts, resulting from uncontrolled kicks, could be particularly hazardous for condensate fields as these are often high-pressure, high-temperature operations. A deeper understanding of the differences, and similarities, between gas and condensate kicks has resulted from an investigation by Infochem Computer Services Ltd., funded by the UK Health and Safety Executive (HSE). This study has led to an assessment of the practical significance of any differences for the personnel involved in well control.

  6. Roles of additives and surface control in slurry atomization

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, S.C.

    1992-01-01

    This project studies the rheology and airblast atomization of micronized coal slurries. Its major objectives are (1) to promote further understanding of the mechanisms and the roles of additives in airblast atomization of coal water slurry (CWS), and (2) to investigate the impacts of coal particle surface properties and interparticle forces on CWS rheology. We have found that the flow behavior index (n) of a suspension (or slurry) is determined by the relative importance of the interparticle van der Waals attraction and the interparticle electrostatic repulsion. The interparticle attraction, measured by the Hamaker constant scaled to the thermal energy at 25[degrees]C (A/kT), causes particle aggregation, which breaks down at high shear rates, and thus leads to slurry pseudoplastic behavior (n< 1). At a constant particle volume fraction and surface charge density (qualitatively measured by the zeta potential in deionized water), n decreases linearly as A/kT increases. The relative viscosity of the pseudoplastic suspension with respect to that of the suspending liquid is found to be independent of particle density and correlate well with the particle Peclet number which equals the particle diffusional relaxation time multiplied by shear rate. Specifically, the relative viscosities of the pseudoplastic glycerol/water coal slurry and the ethylene glycol/glycerol sand slurry, at same volume fractions as well as similar particle size distributions and liquid viscosities, as functions of the particle Peclet number fall along the same line.

  7. Regiodivergent Addition of Phenols to Allylic Oxides: Control of 1,2 and 1,4-Additions for Cyclitol Synthesis**

    PubMed Central

    Moschitto, Matthew J.; Vaccarello, David N.; Lewis, Chad A.

    2015-01-01

    Control of 1,2- and 1,4-addition of substituted phenols to allylic oxides is achieved by intercepting palladium π-allyl complexes. The interconversion of palladium complexes results in the total synthesis of MK7607, cyathiformine B type, streptol, and a new cyclitol. PMID:25533617

  8. A concatenated coded modulation scheme for error control (addition 2)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Shu

    1988-01-01

    A concatenated coded modulation scheme for error control in data communications is described. The scheme is achieved by concatenating a Reed-Solomon outer code and a bandwidth efficient block inner code for M-ary PSK modulation. Error performance of the scheme is analyzed for an AWGN channel. It is shown that extremely high reliability can be attained by using a simple M-ary PSK modulation inner code and a relatively powerful Reed-Solomon outer code. Furthermore, if an inner code of high effective rate is used, the bandwidth expansion required by the scheme due to coding will be greatly reduced. The proposed scheme is particularly effective for high-speed satellite communications for large file transfer where high reliability is required. This paper also presents a simple method for constructing block codes for M-ary PSK modulation. Some short M-ary PSK codes with good minimum squared Euclidean distance are constructed. These codes have trellis structure and hence can be decoded with a soft-decision Viterbi decoding algorithm. Furthermore, some of these codes are phase invariant under multiples of 45 deg rotation.

  9. Review and evaluation of literature on testing of chemical additives for scale control in geothermal fluids. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Crane, C.H.; Kenkeremath, D.C.

    1981-01-01

    A selected group of reported tests of chemical additives in actual geothermal fluids are reviewed and evaluated to summarize the status of chemical scale-control testing and identify information and testing needs. The task distinguishes between scale control in the cooling system of a flash plant and elsewhere in the utilization system due to the essentially different operating environments involved. Additives for non-cooling geothermal fluids are discussed by scale type: silica, carbonate, and sulfide.

  10. Fault-tolerant control of electric vehicles with in-wheel motors using actuator-grouping sliding mode controllers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Boyuan; Du, Haiping; Li, Weihua

    2016-05-01

    Although electric vehicles with in-wheel motors have been regarded as one of the promising vehicle architectures in recent years, the probability of in-wheel motor fault is still a crucial issue due to the system complexity and large number of control actuators. In this study, a modified sliding mode control (SMC) is applied to achieve fault-tolerant control of electric vehicles with four-wheel-independent-steering (4WIS) and four-wheel-independent-driving (4WID). Unlike in traditional SMC, in this approach the steering geometry is re-arranged according to the location of faulty wheels in the modified SMC. Three SMC control laws for longitudinal velocity control, lateral velocity control and yaw rate control are designed based on specific vehicle motion scenarios. In addition the actuator-grouping SMC method is proposed so that driving actuators are grouped and each group of actuators can be used to achieve the specific control target, which avoids the strong coupling effect between each control target. Simulation results prove that the proposed modified SMC can achieve good vehicle dynamics control performance in normal driving and large steering angle turning scenarios. In addition, the proposed actuator-grouping SMC can solve the coupling effect of different control targets and the control performance is improved.

  11. 60. Shock isolator at center, pneumatic control group panel at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    60. Shock isolator at center, pneumatic control group panel at left, power distribution box at right, all at right of entrance to lcc. - Ellsworth Air Force Base, Delta Flight, Launch Control Facility, County Road CS23A, North of Exit 127, Interior, Jackson County, SD

  12. 29 CFR 4001.3 - Trades or businesses under common control; controlled groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Trades or businesses under common control; controlled groups. 4001.3 Section 4001.3 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) PENSION BENEFIT GUARANTY CORPORATION GENERAL TERMINOLOGY § 4001.3 Trades or businesses under common control; controlled groups. For purposes of title IV of ERISA: (a)(1)...

  13. 29 CFR 4001.3 - Trades or businesses under common control; controlled groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Trades or businesses under common control; controlled groups. 4001.3 Section 4001.3 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) PENSION BENEFIT GUARANTY CORPORATION GENERAL TERMINOLOGY § 4001.3 Trades or businesses under common control; controlled groups. For purposes of title IV of ERISA: (a)(1)...

  14. From Victim to Taking Control: Support Group for Bullied Schoolchildren.

    PubMed

    Kvarme, Lisbeth Gravdal; Aabø, Liv Sandnes; Sæteren, Berit

    2016-04-01

    School bullying is a serious problem affecting the victims in their daily lives at school. The aim of this study was to investigate whether support groups were able to help the victims of bullying to overcome their victim status and to explore what it means to be a member of a support group. An exploratory qualitative design, with individual and focus group interviews, was used. The sample consisted of 19 schoolchildren, aged 12-13 years, 3 of whom were victimized. Six individual interviews and three focus group interviews were conducted. Findings show that support groups contribute to the cessation of bullying and improvements remain 3 months later. The support groups experience feeling important and helping others. It is important for the school nurse and teachers to follow up with victimized children, in collaboration with their parents, to help the victim to no longer be a victim and to take control. PMID:26072469

  15. Multiple small RNAs act additively to integrate sensory information and control quorum sensing in Vibrio harveyi

    PubMed Central

    Tu, Kimberly C.; Bassler, Bonnie L.

    2007-01-01

    Quorum sensing is a cell–cell communication mechanism that bacteria use to collectively regulate gene expression and, at a higher level, to coordinate group behavior. In the bioluminescent marine bacterium Vibrio harveyi, sensory information from three independent quorum-sensing systems converges on the shared response regulator LuxO. When LuxO is phosphorylated, it activates the expression of a putative repressor that destabilizes the mRNA encoding the master quorum-sensing transcriptional regulator LuxR. In the closely related species Vibrio cholerae, this repressor was revealed to be the RNA chaperone Hfq together with four small regulatory RNAs (sRNAs) called Qrr1–4 (quorum regulatory RNA). Here, we identify five Qrr sRNAs that control quorum sensing in V. harveyi. Mutational analysis reveals that only four of the five Qrrs are required for destabilization of the luxR mRNA. Surprisingly, unlike in V. cholerae where the sRNAs act redundantly, in V. harveyi, the Qrr sRNAs function additively to control quorum sensing. This latter mechanism produces a gradient of LuxR that, in turn, enables differential regulation of quorum-sensing target genes. Other regulators appear to be involved in control of V. harveyi qrr expression, allowing the integration of additional sensory information into the regulation of quorum-sensing gene expression. PMID:17234887

  16. Additional Validity Evidence and Across-Group Equivalency of the "HOPE Teacher Rating Scale"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Scott J.; Gentry, Marcia

    2013-01-01

    The "HOPE Scale" was developed to identify academic and social components of giftedness and talent in elementary-aged students with particular attention to students from low-income and/or culturally diverse families. Based on previous findings, additional research was conducted on revisions made to the "HOPE Scale". Items were added, and 71…

  17. Geometric Attitude Controls And Estimations On The Special Orthogonal Group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Tse-Huai

    This dissertation is concerned with spacecraft attitude control and estimation problems from the point of view of geometric mechanics. The controllers and observers are built on the special orthogonal group without any parameterizations, where the attitude dynamics is treated in a global and unique manner. The dissertation is composed of three parts. A leader-follower attitude formation control scheme is reported such that the leader spacecraft control its absolute attitude with respect to the inertial reference frame and the follower spacecraft control relative attitude with respect to other spacecraft in the formation. The unique feature is that both the absolute attitude and the relative attitude control systems are developed directly in terms of the line-of-sight observations, where attitude determination and estimation processes are not required. Second, an angular velocity observer is developed such that the estimated angular velocity is guaranteed to converge to the true angular velocity asymptotically from almost all initial estimates. Then, the presented observer is integrated with a proportional-derivative attitude tracking controller to show a separation type property for attitude tracking in the absence of angular velocity measurements. A hybrid observer for the attitude dynamics of a rigid body is proposed to guarantee global asymptotic stability. By designing a set of attitude error functions, attitude estimates are expelled from undesired equilibria to achieve global asymptotic stability. To guarantee that the estimated attitudes evolve on the special orthogonal group, a numerical algorithm based on the Lie group method is presented.

  18. Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotube Functionalization by Radical Addition Using Hydroxymethylene Groups.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Jiménez, Rubén; Alonso-Núñez, Gabriel; Paraguay-Delgado, Francisco; Espinoza-Gómez, Heriberto; Vélez-López, Ernesto; Rogel-Hernández, Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    Synthetic methodology and characterization of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) function- alized with hydroxymethylene groups are reported. The MWCNTs were synthesized by the spray pyrolysis technique using toluene as carbon source and ferrocene as catalyst. Hydroxymethylation of MWCNTs was carried out by methanol using benzoyl peroxide (BPO) at different quantities (300 to 900 mg); the optimum BPO quantity was 300 mg. The resulting materials were characterized by FT-IR, Raman Spectroscopy, Thermal Gravimetric Analysis (TGA) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). The presence of the hydroxymethylene group on the MWCNTs surface was demonstrated by FT-IR, Raman Spectroscopy, TGA, EDS, TEM and Mass Spectrometry. The func- tionalized MWCNTs were not damaged by this methodology. PMID:27398563

  19. Influence of group composition of sulfonic acids on properties of sulfonate additives

    SciTech Connect

    Katrenko, T.I.; Bessonova, R.N.; Kuznetsova, M.G.; Potolovskii, L.A.

    1983-05-01

    Three types of sulfonic acids are formed in sulfonation of petroleum oils-- oil-soluble, oil-insoluble, and water-soluble. This study investigates the influence of the different acids on neutral calcium sulfonates. Samples are recovered from As-14 oil. Oil-insoluble synthesis failed. Water-soluble acid did synthesize with a mix of oil- and water-soluble sulfonates. Neutral calcium sulfonates synthesized from oil-soluble had good properties, from oil-insoluble, bad properties. Oil-insoluble sulfonate also has an inverse effect on cleanup, and it interferes with carbonation. These findings will help with improvements in the sulfonate additive manufacturing process.

  20. 76 FR 31543 - Controlled Groups; Deferral of Losses; Hearing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-01

    ... Register on Thursday, April 21, 2011 (76 FR 22336). Persons who wish to present oral comments at the... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 RIN 1545-BI92 Controlled Groups; Deferral of Losses; Hearing AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice of public hearing on proposed rulemaking....

  1. FYI: Services to Poor Families; Controlling Infectious Diseases; Parent Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Children Today, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Discusses services and resources available for families, parents, and child care providers. Describes a National Resource Center for Children in Poverty; a guide for controlling infectious diseases among young children in day care; a directory of parent support groups; and reports of a link between household pesticides and childhood leukemia. (BB)

  2. 76 FR 30052 - Controlled Groups; Deferral of Losses; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-24

    ... published in the Federal Register on Thursday, April 21, 2011 (76 FR 22336). The proposed regulations... rulemaking which is the subject of FR Doc. 2011-9606 is corrected as follows: On page 22336, in the preamble... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 RIN 1545-BI92 Controlled Groups; Deferral of Losses;...

  3. Summary of beam quality diagnostics and control working group

    SciTech Connect

    Lewellen, John; Piot, Philippe; /Northern Illinois U. /Fermilab

    2006-09-01

    The working group on beam quality, diagnostics, and control at the 12th Advanced Accelerator Concepts Workshop held a series of meetings during the Workshop. The generation of bright charged-particle beams (in particular electron and positron beams), along with state-of-the-art beam diagnostics and synchronization were discussed.

  4. Marathon Group: Changes in Perceived Locus of Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foulds, Melvin L.; And Others

    1974-01-01

    Fifteen college students participated in a 24-hour marathon group and responded to the Internal-External Scale immediately before and after the experience. The results disclosed significant positive change at the .001 level in perceived locus of internal-external control of reinforcement expectancies in the direction of increased internality.…

  5. Separating the effects of shelter from additional cage enhancements for group-housed BALB/cJ mice.

    PubMed

    Swetter, Brentt J; Karpiak, Christie P; Cannon, J Timothy

    2011-05-20

    Enrichment studies with rodents have demonstrated that cage enhancements can improve animal welfare and performance on common behavioral measures, but few studies have compared more than one type of enrichment or controlled for confounds, and some have revealed undesirable effects including increased aggression. We compared effects on male (n=51) and female (n=52) BALB/cJ mice of three common additions to a standard home cage: shelter, shelter+running wheel, and shelter+novel objects. Mice in all conditions lived in standard sized cages with 3-4 mice per cage. Males evidenced significant condition effects. Shelter increased longevity and maintained low levels of aggression. Adding a running wheel increased aggression over shelter alone, changed behavior in the elevated plus (EP) and open field (OF), and maintained the improved longevity seen in all shelter conditions. Novel objects impacted behavioral measures compared to the standard condition. An Igloo shelter without running wheel creates a very different home cage environment than the same shelter with the running wheel attached. Shelter, with positive impact on animal welfare, minimal effects on some common behavioral measures, and some positive effects on test variance, warrants consideration for routine inclusion with group-housed BALB/cJ males. PMID:21457758

  6. Pragmatic randomised controlled trial of group psychoeducation versus group support in the maintenance of bipolar disorder

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Non-didactically delivered curriculum based group psychoeducation has been shown to be more effective than both group support in a specialist mood disorder centre in Spain (with effects lasting up to five years), and treatment as usual in Australia. It is unclear whether the specific content and form of group psychoeducation is effective or the chance to meet and work collaboratively with other peers. The main objective of this trial is to determine whether curriculum based group psychoeducation is more clinically and cost effective than unstructured peer group support. Methods/design Single blind two centre cluster randomised controlled trial of 21 sessions group psychoeducation versus 21 sessions group peer support in adults with bipolar 1 or 2 disorder, not in current episode but relapsed in the previous two years. Individual randomisation is to either group at each site. The groups are carefully matched for the number and type of therapists, length and frequency of the interventions and overall aim of the groups but differ in content and style of delivery. The primary outcome is time to next bipolar episode with measures of the therapeutic process, barriers and drivers to the effective delivery of the interventions and economic analysis. Follow up is for 96 weeks after randomisation. Discussion The trial has features of both an efficacy and an effectiveness trial design. For generalisability in England it is set in routine public mental health practice with a high degree of expert patient involvement. Trial Registration ISRCTN62761948 Funding National Institute for Health Research, England. PMID:21777426

  7. Additive opportunistic capture explains group hunting benefits in African wild dogs

    PubMed Central

    Hubel, Tatjana Y.; Myatt, Julia P.; Jordan, Neil R.; Dewhirst, Oliver P.; McNutt, J. Weldon; Wilson, Alan M.

    2016-01-01

    African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) are described as highly collaborative endurance pursuit hunters based on observations derived primarily from the grass plains of East Africa. However, the remaining population of this endangered species mainly occupies mixed woodland savannah where hunting strategies appear to differ from those previously described. We used high-resolution GPS and inertial technology to record fine-scale movement of all members of a single pack of six adult African wild dogs in northern Botswana. The dogs used multiple short-distance hunting attempts with a low individual kill rate (15.5%), but high group feeding rate due to the sharing of prey. Use of high-level cooperative chase strategies (coordination and collaboration) was not recorded. In the mixed woodland habitats typical of their current range, simultaneous, opportunistic, short-distance chasing by dogs pursuing multiple prey (rather than long collaborative pursuits of single prey by multiple individuals) could be the key to their relative success in these habitats. PMID:27023355

  8. Additive opportunistic capture explains group hunting benefits in African wild dogs.

    PubMed

    Hubel, Tatjana Y; Myatt, Julia P; Jordan, Neil R; Dewhirst, Oliver P; McNutt, J Weldon; Wilson, Alan M

    2016-01-01

    African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) are described as highly collaborative endurance pursuit hunters based on observations derived primarily from the grass plains of East Africa. However, the remaining population of this endangered species mainly occupies mixed woodland savannah where hunting strategies appear to differ from those previously described. We used high-resolution GPS and inertial technology to record fine-scale movement of all members of a single pack of six adult African wild dogs in northern Botswana. The dogs used multiple short-distance hunting attempts with a low individual kill rate (15.5%), but high group feeding rate due to the sharing of prey. Use of high-level cooperative chase strategies (coordination and collaboration) was not recorded. In the mixed woodland habitats typical of their current range, simultaneous, opportunistic, short-distance chasing by dogs pursuing multiple prey (rather than long collaborative pursuits of single prey by multiple individuals) could be the key to their relative success in these habitats. PMID:27023355

  9. Anaerobic Activation of p-Cymene in Denitrifying Betaproteobacteria: Methyl Group Hydroxylation versus Addition to Fumarate

    PubMed Central

    Strijkstra, Annemieke; Trautwein, Kathleen; Jarling, René; Wöhlbrand, Lars; Dörries, Marvin; Reinhardt, Richard; Drozdowska, Marta; Golding, Bernard T.; Wilkes, Heinz

    2014-01-01

    The betaproteobacteria “Aromatoleum aromaticum” pCyN1 and “Thauera” sp. strain pCyN2 anaerobically degrade the plant-derived aromatic hydrocarbon p-cymene (4-isopropyltoluene) under nitrate-reducing conditions. Metabolite analysis of p-cymene-adapted “A. aromaticum” pCyN1 cells demonstrated the specific formation of 4-isopropylbenzyl alcohol and 4-isopropylbenzaldehyde, whereas with “Thauera” sp. pCyN2, exclusively 4-isopropylbenzylsuccinate and tentatively identified (4-isopropylphenyl)itaconate were observed. 4-Isopropylbenzoate in contrast was detected with both strains. Proteogenomic investigation of p-cymene- versus succinate-adapted cells of the two strains revealed distinct protein profiles agreeing with the different metabolites formed from p-cymene. “A. aromaticum” pCyN1 specifically produced (i) a putative p-cymene dehydrogenase (CmdABC) expected to hydroxylate the benzylic methyl group of p-cymene, (ii) two dehydrogenases putatively oxidizing 4-isopropylbenzyl alcohol (Iod) and 4-isopropylbenzaldehyde (Iad), and (iii) the putative 4-isopropylbenzoate-coenzyme A (CoA) ligase (Ibl). The p-cymene-specific protein profile of “Thauera” sp. pCyN2, on the other hand, encompassed proteins homologous to subunits of toluene-activating benzylsuccinate synthase (termed [4-isopropylbenzyl]succinate synthase IbsABCDEF; identified subunits, IbsAE) and protein homologs of the benzylsuccinate β-oxidation (Bbs) pathway (termed BisABCDEFGH; all identified except for BisEF). This study reveals that two related denitrifying bacteria employ fundamentally different peripheral degradation routes for one and the same substrate, p-cymene, with the two pathways apparently converging at the level of 4-isopropylbenzoyl-CoA. PMID:25261521

  10. Cost and performance of Group 2 boiler NOx controls

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, S.; Maibodi, M.; Srivastava, R.

    1997-12-31

    This paper presents the results of a study conducted to assist EPA in developing the Phase II NO{sub x} rule under Title IV of the Clean Air Act Amendment of 1990 (the Act). The specific purpose of this study was to assess the performance and capital and total levelized costs of NO{sub x} controls pertinent to Group 2 boilers. Group 2 boilers are all coal-fired boilers that are not dry-bottom wall-fired and tangentially fired and include cell burner-fired, cyclone-fired, wet-bottom, vertically fired, stoker-fired, and fluidized-bed boilers.

  11. PTS performance by flight- and control-group macaques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Washburn, D. A.; Rumbaugh, D. M.; Richardson, W. K.; Gulledge, J. P.; Shlyk, G. G.; Vasilieva, O. N.

    2000-01-01

    A total of 25 young monkeys (Macaca mulatta) were trained with the Psychomotor Test System, a package of software tasks and computer hardware developed for spaceflight research with nonhuman primates. Two flight monkeys and two control monkeys were selected from this pool and performed a psychomotor task before and after the Bion 11 flight or a ground-control period. Monkeys from both groups showed significant disruption in performance after the 14-day flight or simulation (plus one anesthetized day of biopsies and other tests), and this disruption appeared to be magnified for the flight animal.

  12. 26 CFR 1.382-8 - Controlled groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 CFR part 1 revised as of April 1, 1999, a reference to §§ 1.1502-91, 1.1502-92, 1.1502-93, and... beginning before May 30, 2006, see § 1.382-8 as contained in 26 CFR part 1 in effect on April 1, 2006. ... 26 Internal Revenue 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Controlled groups. 1.382-8 Section...

  13. 26 CFR 1.382-8 - Controlled groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 CFR part 1 revised as of April 1, 1999, a reference to §§ 1.1502-91, 1.1502-92, 1.1502-93, and... beginning before May 30, 2006, see § 1.382-8 as contained in 26 CFR part 1 in effect on April 1, 2006. ... 26 Internal Revenue 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Controlled groups. 1.382-8 Section...

  14. Estimation of the Heat Capacities of Organic Liquids as a Function of Temperature using Group Additivity. I. Hydrocarbon Compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Růžička, Vlastimil; Domalski, Eugene S.

    1993-05-01

    A second-order group additivity method has been developed for the estimation of the heat capacity of liquid hydrocarbons as a function of temperature in the range from the melting temperature to the normal boiling temperature. The temperature dependence of group contributions and structural corrections has been represented by a polynomial expression. The adjustable parameters in the polynomials have been calculated using a weighted least squares minimization procedure. Recommended heat capacities from a large compilation of critically evaluated data that contains over 1300 organic liquids served as a database both for the development and testing of the method.

  15. Controlled teleportation with the control of two groups of agents via entanglement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Xiao-Ling; Liu, Man; Yang, Chui-Ping

    2015-03-01

    We present a way for implementing controlled teleportation of an arbitrary unknown pure state of a qutrit with the control of two groups of agents via entanglement. In our proposal, the sender can successfully teleport the qutrit state to a distant receiver with the help of all agents. However, if one agent in each group does not cooperate, the receiver cannot gain any information (including amplitude information or phase information or both) about the qutrit state to be teleported. Since a qubit is a special case of a qutrit when the state lies in a fixed two-dimensional subspace of the qutrit, the present proposal can be also applied in the implementation of controlled teleportation of an arbitrary unknown pure state of a qubit with many control agents in two groups. We note that our proposal is the first one to use two groups of agents to achieve controlled teleportation.

  16. Estimation of the Heat Capacities of Organic Liquids as a Function of Temperature Using Group Additivity. An Amendment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zábranský, Milan; Růžička, Vlastimil

    2004-12-01

    An amendment to a second-order group additivity method for the estimation of the heat capacity of pure organic liquids as a function of temperature in the range from the melting temperature to the normal boiling temperature is reported. The temperature dependence of various group contributions and structural corrections is represented by a series of second order polynomial expressions. The group contribution parameters have been developed from an extended database of more than 1800 recommended heat capacity values. The present method should be more versatile and more accurate than the previous one [Růžička and Domalski, J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 22, 597, 619 (1993)] due to the use of a larger database and an improved procedure for parameter calculation.

  17. Proper use of sludge-control additives in residential heating oil systems

    SciTech Connect

    Tatnall, R.E.

    1995-04-01

    Discussed are various aspects of heating oil `sludge`: How it forms, typical problems it causes, how sludge-control additives work, what should be expected of them, and what happens in a contaminated system when such additives are used. Test results from laboratory and field experiments demonstrate that performance of commercially available additives varies greatly. The concept of `end-of-the-line` treatment is described and compared with bulk fuel treatment. A procedure is described whereby a retailer can test additives himself, and thus determine just what those additives will or will not do for his business. Finally, the economics of an effective treatment program are outlined.

  18. Group additive values for the gas-phase standard enthalpy of formation, entropy and heat capacity of oxygenates.

    PubMed

    Paraskevas, Paschalis D; Sabbe, Maarten K; Reyniers, Marie-Françoise; Papayannakos, Nikos; Marin, Guy B

    2013-11-25

    A complete and consistent set of 60 Benson group additive values (GAVs) for oxygenate molecules and 97 GAVs for oxygenate radicals is provided, which allow to describe their standard enthalpies of formation, entropies and heat capacities. Approximately half of the GAVs for oxygenate molecules and the majority of the GAVs for oxygenate radicals have not been reported before. The values are derived from an extensive and accurate database of thermochemical data obtained by ab initio calculations at the CBS-QB3 level of theory for 202 molecules and 248 radicals. These compounds include saturated and unsaturated, α- and β-branched, mono- and bifunctional oxygenates. Internal rotations were accounted for by using one-dimensional hindered rotor corrections. The accuracy of the database was further improved by adding bond additive corrections to the CBS-QB3 standard enthalpies of formation. Furthermore, 14 corrections for non-nearest-neighbor interactions (NNI) were introduced for molecules and 12 for radicals. The validity of the constructed group additive model was established by comparing the predicted values with both ab initio calculated values and experimental data for oxygenates and oxygenate radicals. The group additive method predicts standard enthalpies of formation, entropies, and heat capacities with chemical accuracy, respectively, within 4 kJ mol(-1) and 4 J mol(-1) K(-1) for both ab initio calculated and experimental values. As an alternative, the hydrogen bond increment (HBI) method developed by Lay et al. (T. H. Lay, J. W. Bozzelli, A. M. Dean, E. R. Ritter, J. Phys. Chem.- 1995, 99, 14514) was used to introduce 77 new HBI structures and to calculate their thermodynamic parameters (Δ(f)H°, S°, C(p)°). The GAVs reported in this work can be reliably used for the prediction of thermochemical data for large oxygenate compounds, combining rapid prediction with wide-ranging application. PMID:24123572

  19. The additional value of a night splint to eccentric exercises in chronic midportion Achilles tendinopathy: a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    de Vos, R J; Weir, A; Visser, R J A; de Winter, ThC; Tol, J L

    2007-01-01

    Aim To assess whether the use of a night splint is of added benefit on functional outcome in treating chronic midportion Achilles tendinopathy. Methods This was a single‐blind, prospective, single centre, randomised controlled trial set in the Sports Medical Department, The Hague Medical Centre, The Netherlands. Inclusion criteria were: age 18–70 years, active participation in sports, and tendon pain localised at 2–7 cm from distal insertion. Exclusion criteria were: insertional disorders, partial or complete ruptures, or systemic illness. 70 tendons were included and randomised into one of two treatment groups: eccentric exercises with a night splint (night splint group, n = 36) or eccentric exercises only (eccentric group, n = 34). Interventions Both groups completed a 12‐week heavy‐load eccentric training programme. One group received a night splint in addition to eccentric exercises. At baseline and follow‐up at 12 weeks, patient satisfaction, Victorian Institute of Sport Assessment–Achilles questionnaire (VISA‐A) score and reported compliance were recorded by a single‐blind trained researcher who was blinded to the treatment. Results After 12 weeks, patient satisfaction in the eccentric group was 63% compared with 48% in the night splint group. The VISA‐A score significantly improved in both groups; in the eccentric group from 50.1 to 68.8 (p = 0.001) and in the night splint group from 49.4 to 67.0 (p<0.001). There was no significant difference between the two groups in VISA‐A score (p = 0.815) and patient satisfaction (p = 0.261). Conclusion A night splint is not beneficial in addition to eccentric exercises in the treatment of chronic midportion Achilles tendinopathy. PMID:17178774

  20. Structure-property relationships in addition polyimides. 1: Resins from four-ring aromatic diamines containing carbonyl and methylene groups

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delvigs, Peter; Klopotek, David L.; Cavano, Paul J.

    1994-01-01

    In an effort to improve the processing characteristics of addition-type polyimide resins the use of flexibilized four-ring aromatic diamine moieties was investigated. A series of 12 diamines containing carbonyl and methylene, as well as oxo and thio bridging groups, was synthesized. The diamines were polymerized with the dimethyl ester of 3.3', 4.4' - benzophenonetetracarboxylic acid (BTDE), using the monomethyl ester of nadic acid (NE) as an end-cap. The effect of diamine structure on the solubility and rheological properties during cure was determined. This paper also describes the effect of diamine structure and formulated molecular weight on the glass transition temperature and thermo-oxidative stability at elevated temperatures after various post-cure regimes. The results indicate that polyimides from some of the diamines containing methylene connecting groups have potential as matrix resins for long-term applications at temperatures up to 300 C.

  1. First principles based group additive values for the gas phase standard entropy and heat capacity of hydrocarbons and hydrocarbon radicals.

    PubMed

    Sabbe, Maarten K; De Vleeschouwer, Freija; Reyniers, Marie-Françoise; Waroquier, Michel; Marin, Guy B

    2008-11-27

    In this work a complete and consistent set of 95 Benson group additive values (GAVs) for standard entropies S(o) and heat capacities C(p)(o) of hydrocarbons and hydrocarbon radicals is presented. These GAVs include 46 groups, among which 25 radical groups, which, to the best of our knowledge, have not been reported before. The GAVs have been determined from a set of B3LYP/6-311G(d,p) ideal gas statistical thermodynamics values for 265 species, consistently with previously reported GAVs for standard enthalpies of formation. One-dimensional hindered rotor corrections for all internal rotations are included. The computational methodology has been compared to experimental entropies (298 K) for 39 species, with a mean absolute deviation (MAD) between experiment and calculation of 1.2 J mol(-1) K(-1), and to 46 experimental heat capacities (298 K) with a resulting MAD = 1.8 J mol(-1) K(-1). The constructed database allowed evaluation of corrections on S(o) and C(p)(o) for non-nearest-neighbor effects, which have not been determined previously. The group additive model predicts the S(o) and C(p)(o) within approximately 5 J mol(-1) K(-1) of the ab initio values for 11 of the 14 molecules of the test set, corresponding to an acceptable maximal deviation of a factor of 1.6 on the equilibrium coefficient. The obtained GAVs can be applied for the prediction of S(o) and C(p)(o) for a wide range of hydrocarbons and hydrocarbon radicals. The constructed database also allowed determination of a large set of hydrogen bond increments, which can be useful for the prediction of radical thermochemistry. PMID:18980365

  2. Selectivity in the Addition Reactions of Organometallic Reagents to Aziridine-2-carboxaldehydes: The Effects of Protecting Groups and Substitution Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Kulshrestha, Aman; Schomaker, Jennifer M.; Holmes, Daniel; Staples, Richard J.; Jackson, James E.; Borhan, Babak

    2014-01-01

    Good to excellent stereo-selectivity has been found in the addition reactions of Grignard and organo-zinc reagents to N-protected aziridine-2-carboxaldehydes. Specifically, high syn selectivity was obtained with benzyl-protected cis, tert-butyloxycar-bonyl-protected trans, and tosyl-pro-tected 2,3-disubstituted aziridine-2-car-boxaldehydes. Furthermore, rate and selectivity effects of ring substituents, temperature, solvent, and Lewis acid and base modifiers were studied. The diastereomeric preference of addition is dominated by the substrate aziri-dines’ substitution pattern and especially the electronic character and conformational preferences of the nitrogen protecting groups. To help rationalize the observed stereochemical outcomes, conformational and electronic structural analyses of a series of model systems representing the various substitution patterns have been explored by density functional calculations at the B3LYP/6–31G* level of theory with the SM8 solvation model to account for solvent effects. PMID:21928447

  3. 26 CFR 1.414(b)-1 - Controlled group of corporations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Controlled group of corporations. 1.414(b)-1...(b)-1 Controlled group of corporations. (a) Defintion of controlled group of corporations. For purposes of this section, the term “controlled group of corporations” has the same meaning as is...

  4. 26 CFR 1.414(b)-1 - Controlled group of corporations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Controlled group of corporations. 1.414(b)-1... Controlled group of corporations. (a) Defintion of controlled group of corporations. For purposes of this section, the term “controlled group of corporations” has the same meaning as is assigned to the term...

  5. 26 CFR 1.414(b)-1 - Controlled group of corporations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Controlled group of corporations. 1.414(b)-1...(b)-1 Controlled group of corporations. (a) Defintion of controlled group of corporations. For purposes of this section, the term “controlled group of corporations” has the same meaning as is...

  6. 26 CFR 1.414(b)-1 - Controlled group of corporations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Controlled group of corporations. 1.414(b)-1...(b)-1 Controlled group of corporations. (a) Defintion of controlled group of corporations. For purposes of this section, the term “controlled group of corporations” has the same meaning as is...

  7. Polarity Control in Group-III Nitrides beyond Pragmatism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohn, Stefan; Stolyarchuk, Natalia; Markurt, Toni; Kirste, Ronny; Hoffmann, Marc P.; Collazo, Ramón; Courville, Aimeric; Di Felice, Rosa; Sitar, Zlatko; Vennéguès, Philippe; Albrecht, Martin

    2016-05-01

    Controlling the polarity of polar semiconductors on nonpolar substrates offers a wealth of device concepts in the form of heteropolar junctions. A key to realize such structures is an appropriate buffer-layer design that, in the past, has been developed by empiricism. GaN or ZnO on sapphire are prominent examples for that. Understanding the basic processes that mediate polarity, however, is still an unsolved problem. In this work, we study the structure of buffer layers for group-III nitrides on sapphire by transmission electron microscopy as an example. We show that it is the conversion of the sapphire surface into a rhombohedral aluminum-oxynitride layer that converts the initial N-polar surface to Al polarity. With the various AlxOyNz phases of the pseudobinary Al2O3 -AlN system and their tolerance against intrinsic defects, typical for oxides, a smooth transition between the octahedrally coordinated Al in the sapphire and the tetrahedrally coordinated Al in AlN becomes feasible. Based on these results, we discuss the consequences for achieving either polarity and shed light on widely applied concepts in the field of group-III nitrides like nitridation and low-temperature buffer layers.

  8. Group cognitive behavioural therapy and group recreational activity for adults with autism spectrum disorders: A preliminary randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Plenty, Stephanie; Bejerot, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    Although adults with autism spectrum disorder are an increasingly identified patient population, few treatment options are available. This preliminary randomized controlled open trial with a parallel design developed two group interventions for adults with autism spectrum disorders and intelligence within the normal range: cognitive behavioural therapy and recreational activity. Both interventions comprised 36 weekly 3-h sessions led by two therapists in groups of 6–8 patients. A total of 68 psychiatric patients with autism spectrum disorders participated in the study. Outcome measures were Quality of Life Inventory, Sense of Coherence Scale, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and an exploratory analysis on measures of psychiatric health. Participants in both treatment conditions reported an increased quality of life at post-treatment (d = 0.39, p < 0.001), with no difference between interventions. No amelioration of psychiatric symptoms was observed. The dropout rate was lower with cognitive behavioural therapy than with recreational activity, and participants in cognitive behavioural therapy rated themselves as more generally improved, as well as more improved regarding expression of needs and understanding of difficulties. Both interventions appear to be promising treatment options for adults with autism spectrum disorder. The interventions’ similar efficacy may be due to the common elements, structure and group setting. Cognitive behavioural therapy may be additionally beneficial in terms of increasing specific skills and minimizing dropout. PMID:24089423

  9. Oxidative addition of group 13 and 14 metal halides and Alkyls to Ga(DDP) (DDP = bulky bisimidinate).

    PubMed

    Kempter, Andreas; Gemel, Christian; Fischer, Roland A

    2008-08-18

    The oxidative addition of a variety of group 13 and group 14 halides and alkyls R aMX to the mono valent group 13 bis-imidinate Ga(DDP) (DDP = 2-{(2,6-diisopropyl-phenyl)amino}-4-{(2,6-diisopropylphenyl)imino}-2-pentene) is reported. Accordingly, the insertion of Ga(DDP) into the Ga-Me bond of GaMe 3 yield in the complexes [{(DDP)GaMe}GaMe 2] ( 1) and [{(DDP)GaMe} 2GaMe] ( 2), respectively, which show a temperature-dependent equilibrium between 1 at higher temperatures and 2 at lower temperatures. In the case of GaCl 3, the only isolable product is [{(DDP)GaCl} 2GaCl] ( 3). The related reaction of SnMe 2Cl 2 with Ga(DDP) yields the compound [Me 2Sn{ClGa(DDP)} 2] ( 4), whereas SnMe 4 behaves inert. In the case of SiCl 4, only the monoinsertion product [Cl 3Si{ClGa(DDP)}] ( 5) was observed. Finally, [(CH 3) 3C{ClGa(DDP)}] ( 6) is synthesized by insertion of Ga(DDP) into the C-Cl bond of ClC(CH 3) 3. All new compounds were fully characterized by elemental analysis, NMR-spectroscopy, and single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. PMID:18630902

  10. Mental health problems in adolescents with cochlear implants: peer problems persist after controlling for additional handicaps

    PubMed Central

    Huber, Maria; Burger, Thorsten; Illg, Angelika; Kunze, Silke; Giourgas, Alexandros; Braun, Ludwig; Kröger, Stefanie; Nickisch, Andreas; Rasp, Gerhard; Becker, Andreas; Keilmann, Annerose

    2015-01-01

    The aims of the present multi-center study were to investigate the extent of mental health problems in adolescents with a hearing loss and cochlear implants (CIs) in comparison to normal hearing (NH) peers and to investigate possible relations between the extent of mental health problems of young CI users and hearing variables, such as age at implantation, or functional gain of CI. The survey included 140 adolescents with CI (mean age = 14.7, SD = 1.5 years) and 140 NH adolescents (mean age = 14.8, SD = 1.4 years), their parents and teachers. Participants were matched by age, gender and social background. Within the CI group, 35 adolescents were identified as “risk cases” due to possible and manifest additional handicaps, and 11 adolescents were non-classifiable. Mental health problems were assessed with the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) in the versions “Self,” “Parent,” and “Teacher.” The CI group showed significantly more “Peer Problems” than the NH group. When the CI group was split into a “risk-group” (35 “risk cases” and 11 non-classifiable persons) and a “non-risk group” (n = 94), increased peer problems were perceived in both CI subgroups by adolescents themselves. However, no further differences between the CI non-risk group and the NH group were observed in any rater. The CI risk-group showed significantly more hyperactivity compared to the NH group and more hyperactivity and conduct problems compared to the CI non-risk group. Cluster analyses confirmed that there were significantly more adolescents with high problems in the CI risk-group compared to the CI non-risk group and the NH group. Adolescents with CI, who were able to understand speech in noise had significantly less difficulties compared to constricted CI users. Parents, teachers, and clinicians should be aware that CI users with additionally special needs may have mental health problems. However, peer problems were also experienced by CI

  11. Antagonistic control of a dual-input mammalian gene switch by food additives

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Mingqi; Ye, Haifeng; Hamri, Ghislaine Charpin-El; Fussenegger, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Synthetic biology has significantly advanced the design of mammalian trigger-inducible transgene-control devices that are able to programme complex cellular behaviour. Fruit-based benzoate derivatives licensed as food additives, such as flavours (e.g. vanillate) and preservatives (e.g. benzoate), are a particularly attractive class of trigger compounds for orthogonal mammalian transgene control devices because of their innocuousness, physiological compatibility and simple oral administration. Capitalizing on the genetic componentry of the soil bacterium Comamonas testosteroni, which has evolved to catabolize a variety of aromatic compounds, we have designed different mammalian gene expression systems that could be induced and repressed by the food additives benzoate and vanillate. When implanting designer cells engineered for gene switch-driven expression of the human placental secreted alkaline phosphatase (SEAP) into mice, blood SEAP levels of treated animals directly correlated with a benzoate-enriched drinking programme. Additionally, the benzoate-/vanillate-responsive device was compatible with other transgene control systems and could be assembled into higher-order control networks providing expression dynamics reminiscent of a lap-timing stopwatch. Designer gene switches using licensed food additives as trigger compounds to achieve antagonistic dual-input expression profiles and provide novel control topologies and regulation dynamics may advance future gene- and cell-based therapies. PMID:25030908

  12. Control of terahertz emission in photoconductive antennas through an additional optical continuous wave.

    PubMed

    Bockelt, A; Palací, J; Vidal, B

    2013-08-15

    The manipulation of the operating conditions of photoconductive antennas by means of an additional continuous wave (CW) is reported. It is used to control a fiber-based terahertz (THz) time-domain-spectroscopy system at telecom wavelengths. The injection of an optical CW into the transmitter allows the control of the THz amplitude without causing major degradation to the system performance. This, for instance, can be exploited to perform modulation of the THz signal. PMID:24104665

  13. 40 CFR 52.1163 - Additional control measures for East Boston.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Boston. 52.1163 Section 52.1163 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Additional control measures for East Boston. (a) On or before December 31, 1975, the Governor, the Mayor of the City of Boston, the Chairman of the Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority, the Chairman...

  14. 40 CFR 52.1163 - Additional control measures for East Boston.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Boston. 52.1163 Section 52.1163 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Additional control measures for East Boston. (a) On or before December 31, 1975, the Governor, the Mayor of the City of Boston, the Chairman of the Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority, the Chairman...

  15. 40 CFR 52.1163 - Additional control measures for East Boston.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Boston. 52.1163 Section 52.1163 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Additional control measures for East Boston. (a) On or before December 31, 1975, the Governor, the Mayor of the City of Boston, the Chairman of the Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority, the Chairman...

  16. 40 CFR 52.1163 - Additional control measures for East Boston.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Boston. 52.1163 Section 52.1163 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Additional control measures for East Boston. (a) On or before December 31, 1975, the Governor, the Mayor of the City of Boston, the Chairman of the Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority, the Chairman...

  17. Chill water additive controls transfer of Salmonella and Campylobacter by improved chlorine efficacy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In earlier work, we showed that a proprietary additive (T-128) maintains chlorine activity in the presence of organic material such as broiler parts. T-128 improves the efficacy of chlorine to control transfer of Campylobacter and Salmonella from inoculated wings to un-inoculated wings during immer...

  18. The addition of upper cervical manipulative therapy in the treatment of patients with fibromyalgia: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Moustafa, Ibrahim M; Diab, Aliaa A

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the immediate and long-term effects of a one-year multimodal program, with the addition of upper cervical manipulative therapy, on fibromyalgia management outcomes in addition to three-dimensional (3D) postural measures. This randomized clinical trial with one-year follow-up was completed at the research laboratory of our university. A total of 120 (52 female) patients with fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) and definite C1-2 joint dysfunction were randomly assigned to the control or an experimental group. Both groups received a multimodal program; additionally, the experimental group received upper cervical manipulative therapy. Primary outcomes were the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ), whereas secondary outcomes included Pain Catastrophizing Scale (PCS), algometric score, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and 3D postural measures. Measures were assessed at three time intervals: baseline, 12 weeks, and 1 year after the 12-week follow-up. The general linear model with repeated measures indicated a significant group × time effect in favor of the experimental group on the measures of 3D postural parameters (P < .0005), FIQ (P < .0005), PCS (P < .0005), algometric score (F = P < .0005), PSQI (P < .0005), BAI (P < .0005), and BDI (P < .0005). The addition of the upper cervical manipulative therapy to a multimodal program is beneficial in treating patients with FMS. PMID:25782585

  19. Seed colour loci, homoeology and linkage groups of the C genome chromosomes revealed in Brassica rapa–B. oleracea monosomic alien addition lines

    PubMed Central

    Heneen, Waheeb K.; Geleta, Mulatu; Brismar, Kerstin; Xiong, Zhiyong; Pires, J. Chris; Hasterok, Robert; Stoute, Andrew I.; Scott, Roderick J.; King, Graham J.; Kurup, Smita

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims Brassica rapa and B. oleracea are the progenitors of oilseed rape B. napus. The addition of each chromosome of B. oleracea to the chromosome complement of B. rapa results in a series of monosomic alien addition lines (MAALs). Analysis of MAALs determines which B. oleracea chromosomes carry genes controlling specific phenotypic traits, such as seed colour. Yellow-seeded oilseed rape is a desirable breeding goal both for food and livestock feed end-uses that relate to oil, protein and fibre contents. The aims of this study included developing a missing MAAL to complement an available series, for studies on seed colour control, chromosome homoeology and assignment of linkage groups to B. oleracea chromosomes. Methods A new batch of B. rapa–B. oleracea aneuploids was produced to generate the missing MAAL. Seed colour and other plant morphological features relevant to differentiation of MAALs were recorded. For chromosome characterization, Snow's carmine, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) were used. Key Results The final MAAL was developed. Morphological traits that differentiated the MAALs comprised cotyledon number, leaf morphology, flower colour and seed colour. Seed colour was controlled by major genes on two B. oleracea chromosomes and minor genes on five other chromosomes of this species. Homoeologous pairing was largely between chromosomes with similar centromeric positions. FISH, GISH and a parallel microsatellite marker analysis defined the chromosomes in terms of their linkage groups. Conclusions A complete set of MAALs is now available for genetic, genomic, evolutionary and breeding perspectives. Defining chromosomes that carry specific genes, physical localization of DNA markers and access to established genetic linkage maps contribute to the integration of these approaches, manifested in the confirmed correspondence of linkage groups with specific chromosomes. Applications include marker

  20. The Use of Nominal Group Technique to Determine Additional Support Needs for a Group of Victorian TAFE Managers and Senior Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Anthony

    2013-01-01

    The nominal group technique (NGT) is a structured process to gather information from a group. The technique was first described in 1975 and has since become a widely-used standard to facilitate working groups. The NGT is effective for generating large numbers of creative new ideas and for group priority setting. This paper describes the process of…

  1. A Modest Proposal for Control of Prejudice and Group Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lester, David

    1971-01-01

    Notes that much human activity is monotonous, arduous, or degrading and that most low-caste groups eventually revolt. Suggests that humans use chimpanzees as a permanent minority group that will serve simultaneously as laborers and scapegoats. (MB)

  2. The Addition of A Pregnenolone Pendant Group Enhances the Anticancer Properties of Titanocene Dichloride in a MCF-7 Xenograft Model

    PubMed Central

    Ramos, Gladiany; Loperena, Yaliz; Ortiz, Giovanni; Reyes, Fiorella; Szeto, Ada; Vera, Jose; Velez, Javier; Morales, Jessica; Morrero, Deborah; Castillo, Linnette; Dharmawardhane, Surangani; Melendez, Enrique; Washington, A. Valance

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aim Titanocene dichloride held great promise as a chemotherapeutic compound in preclinical studies. However, subsequent clinical trials revealed hepatoxicity and nephrotoxicity, which limited its use in clinical applications. Therefore, we used steroid pendant groups to improve the targeting of titanocene in the MCF-7 breast cancer cell line, and demonstrated a 10-fold lower effective dose compared to titanocene in in vitro assays. The aim of the present study was to test the efficacy of a titanocene functionalized with pregnenolone (Ti-Preg) in an in vivo breast cancer model. Materials and Methods Xenografts from the MCF7 breast cancer cell line were implanted into athymic nu/nu mice to evaluate the potential of Ti-Preg as an anti-breast cancer agent. Results Ti-Preg demonstrated a significant inhibition of MCF-7 tumor growth when compared to vehicle and to titanocene controls. Conclusion Our findings demonstrate the potential of steroid pendent groups for targeting chemotherapeutics to steroid hormone-dependent cancer. PMID:24692689

  3. Modular Skeletal Evolution in Sticklebacks Is Controlled by Additive and Clustered Quantitative Trait Loci

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Craig T.; Glazer, Andrew M.; Summers, Brian R.; Blackman, Benjamin K.; Norman, Andrew R.; Shapiro, Michael D.; Cole, Bonnie L.; Peichel, Catherine L.; Schluter, Dolph; Kingsley, David M.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the genetic architecture of evolutionary change remains a long-standing goal in biology. In vertebrates, skeletal evolution has contributed greatly to adaptation in body form and function in response to changing ecological variables like diet and predation. Here we use genome-wide linkage mapping in threespine stickleback fish to investigate the genetic architecture of evolved changes in many armor and trophic traits. We identify >100 quantitative trait loci (QTL) controlling the pattern of serially repeating skeletal elements, including gill rakers, teeth, branchial bones, jaws, median fin spines, and vertebrae. We use this large collection of QTL to address long-standing questions about the anatomical specificity, genetic dominance, and genomic clustering of loci controlling skeletal differences in evolving populations. We find that most QTL (76%) that influence serially repeating skeletal elements have anatomically regional effects. In addition, most QTL (71%) have at least partially additive effects, regardless of whether the QTL controls evolved loss or gain of skeletal elements. Finally, many QTL with high LOD scores cluster on chromosomes 4, 20, and 21. These results identify a modular system that can control highly specific aspects of skeletal form. Because of the general additivity and genomic clustering of major QTL, concerted changes in both protective armor and trophic traits may occur when sticklebacks inherit either marine or freshwater alleles at linked or possible “supergene” regions of the stickleback genome. Further study of these regions will help identify the molecular basis of both modular and coordinated changes in the vertebrate skeleton. PMID:24652999

  4. Modular skeletal evolution in sticklebacks is controlled by additive and clustered quantitative trait Loci.

    PubMed

    Miller, Craig T; Glazer, Andrew M; Summers, Brian R; Blackman, Benjamin K; Norman, Andrew R; Shapiro, Michael D; Cole, Bonnie L; Peichel, Catherine L; Schluter, Dolph; Kingsley, David M

    2014-05-01

    Understanding the genetic architecture of evolutionary change remains a long-standing goal in biology. In vertebrates, skeletal evolution has contributed greatly to adaptation in body form and function in response to changing ecological variables like diet and predation. Here we use genome-wide linkage mapping in threespine stickleback fish to investigate the genetic architecture of evolved changes in many armor and trophic traits. We identify >100 quantitative trait loci (QTL) controlling the pattern of serially repeating skeletal elements, including gill rakers, teeth, branchial bones, jaws, median fin spines, and vertebrae. We use this large collection of QTL to address long-standing questions about the anatomical specificity, genetic dominance, and genomic clustering of loci controlling skeletal differences in evolving populations. We find that most QTL (76%) that influence serially repeating skeletal elements have anatomically regional effects. In addition, most QTL (71%) have at least partially additive effects, regardless of whether the QTL controls evolved loss or gain of skeletal elements. Finally, many QTL with high LOD scores cluster on chromosomes 4, 20, and 21. These results identify a modular system that can control highly specific aspects of skeletal form. Because of the general additivity and genomic clustering of major QTL, concerted changes in both protective armor and trophic traits may occur when sticklebacks inherit either marine or freshwater alleles at linked or possible "supergene" regions of the stickleback genome. Further study of these regions will help identify the molecular basis of both modular and coordinated changes in the vertebrate skeleton. PMID:24652999

  5. Control of asymmetry in the radical addition approach to chiral amine synthesis.

    PubMed

    Friestad, Gregory K

    2014-01-01

    The state-of-the-science in asymmetric free radical additions to imino compounds is presented, beginning with an overview of methods involving stereocontrol by various chiral auxiliary approaches. Chiral N-acylhydrazones are discussed with respect to their use as radical acceptors for Mn-mediated intermolecular additions, from design to scope surveys to applications to biologically active targets. A variety of aldehydes and ketones serve as viable precursors for the chiral hydrazones, and a variety of alkyl iodides may be employed as radical precursors, as discussed in a critical review of the functional group compatibility of the reaction. Applications to amino acid and alkaloid synthesis are presented to illustrate the synthetic potential of these versatile stereocontrolled carbon-carbon bond construction reactions. Asymmetric catalysis is discussed, from seminal work on the stereocontrol of radical addition to imino compounds by non-covalent interactions with stoichiometric amounts of catalysts, to more recent examples demonstrating catalyst turnover. PMID:24085561

  6. Control of Asymmetry in the Radical Addition Approach to Chiral Amine Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Friestad, Gregory K.

    2014-01-01

    The state-of-the-science in asymmetric free radical additions to imino compounds is presented, beginning with an overview of methods involving stereocontrol by various chiral auxiliary approaches. Chiral N-acylhydrazones are discussed with respect to their use as radical acceptors for Mn-mediated intermolecular additions, from design to scope surveys to applications to biologically active targets. A variety of aldehydes and ketones serve as viable precursors for the chiral hydrazones, and a variety of alkyl iodides may be employed as radical precursors, as discussed in a critical review of the functional group compatibility of the reaction. Applications to amino acid and alkaloid synthesis are presented to illustrate the synthetic potential of these versatile stereocontrolled carbon–carbon bond construction reactions. Asymmetric catalysis is discussed, from seminal work on the stereocontrol of radical addition to imino compounds by non-covalent interactions with stoichiometric amounts of catalysts, to more recent examples demonstrating catalyst turnover. PMID:24085561

  7. A Simple and Inexpensive Device for Slow, Controlled Addition of a Solution to a Reaction Mixture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osvath, Peter

    1995-07-01

    A number of reactions require the slow and controlled addition of a solution containing one reagent to another. Attempting to control the flow rate over a number of hours using a conventional constant pressure addition funnel is a frustrating exercise; commercially available constant volume addition funnels are expensive and must be adjusted by trial and error each time a reaction is carried out. The use of an (expensive) peristaltic pump or syringe pump overcomes these problems but can introduce other complications. We have recently had occasion to carry out the synthesis of thioether macrocycles and cages requiring the slow and controlled addition of DMF solutions of (offensively odoriferous) thiols or (air-sensitive) thiolates to a reactant solution under nitrogen(1), Although the use of a syringe pump was called for, there are obvious difficulties associated with purging the solution and assembling such an apparatus under nitrogen, and we report a simple and inexpensive solution. A Male Luer Lock tip (recovered from a broken syringe) was sweated onto the flattened tip of a pressure-equalizing addition funnel and a syringe needle was attached. Judicious selection of needle length, bore size, and reactant volume can be used to control the addition time simply and reproducibly. With a 250-mL funnel, the flow rate changes by <25% from the beginning to the end of the addition. (In fact, a reduction in the rate of addition may even be advantageous as the reaction proceeds, the reagent in the receiving flask is consumed, its concentration drops, and the rate of reaction will decrease). A piece of fine Teflon tubing of appropriate length attached to the needle can be used to reduce the flow rate even further, but this is only necessary for very slow rates of addition. For example, the time of addition of 200 mL, of an ethanolic solution could be varied from approximately 5 minutes (150mm/17 gauge) to approximately 5 h (200mm/22 gauge), and once the addition time for a

  8. Addition of home-based cognitive retraining to treatment as usual in first episode schizophrenia patients: A randomized controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Hegde, Shantala; Rao, Shobini L.; Raguram, Ahalya; Gangadhar, Bangalore N.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: We examined the effectiveness of a 2-month-long home-based cognitive retraining program together with treatment as usual (TAU; psychoeducation and drug therapy) on neuropsychological functions, psychopathology, and global functioning in patients with first episode schizophrenia (FES) as well as on psychological health and perception of level of family distress in their caregivers. Materials and Methods: Forty-five FES patients were randomly assigned to either treatment group receiving home-based cognitive retraining along with TAU (n=22) or to control group receiving TAU alone (n=23). Patients and caregivers received psychoeducation. Patients and one of their caregivers were assessed for the above parameters at baseline, post-assessment (2 months) and at 6-months follow-up assessment. Results: Of the 45 patients recruited, 12 in the treatment group and 11 in the control group completed post-intervention and follow-up assessments. Addition of home-based cognitive retraining along with TAU led to significant improvement in neuropsychological functions of divided attention, concept formation and set-shifting ability, and planning. Effect sizes were large, although the sample size was small. Conclusions: Home-based cognitive retraining program has shown promise. However, further studies examining this program on a larger cohort with rigorous design involving independent raters are suggested. PMID:22556432

  9. Field Testing of a Wet FGD Additive for Enhanced Mercury Control - Pilot-Scale Test Results

    SciTech Connect

    Gary M. Blythe

    2006-03-01

    This Topical Report summarizes progress on Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-04NT42309, ''Field Testing of a Wet FGD Additive.'' The objective of the project is to demonstrate the use of a flue gas desulfurization (FGD) additive, Degussa Corporation's TMT-15, to prevent the reemissions of elemental mercury (Hg{sup 0}) in flue gas exiting wet FGD systems on coal-fired boilers. Furthermore, the project intends to demonstrate that the additive can be used to precipitate most of the mercury (Hg) removed in the wet FGD system as a fine TMT salt that can be separated from the FGD liquor and bulk solid byproducts for separate disposal. The project will conduct pilot and full-scale tests of the TMT-15 additive in wet FGD absorbers. The tests are intended to determine required additive dosage requirements to prevent Hg{sup 0} reemissions and to separate mercury from the normal FGD byproducts for three coal types: Texas lignite/Power River Basin (PRB) coal blend, high-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal, and low-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal. The project team consists of URS Group, Inc., EPRI, TXU Generation Company LP, Southern Company, and Degussa Corporation. TXU Generation has provided the Texas lignite/PRB co-fired test site for pilot FGD tests, Monticello Steam Electric Station Unit 3. Southern Company is providing the low-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal host site for wet scrubbing tests, as well as the pilot and full-scale jet bubbling reactor (JBR) FGD systems to be tested. A third utility, to be named later, will provide the high-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal full-scale FGD test site. Degussa Corporation is providing the TMT-15 additive and technical support to the test program. The project is being conducted in six tasks. Of the six project tasks, Task 1 involves project planning and Task 6 involves management and reporting. The other four tasks involve field testing on FGD systems, either at pilot or full scale. The four tasks include: Task 2 - Pilot Additive Testing in

  10. Terminal groups control self-assembly of amphiphilic block copolymers in solution.

    PubMed

    Grzelakowski, M; Kita-Tokarczyk, K

    2016-03-28

    The terminal groups of amphiphilic block copolymers are shown to control macromolecular self-assembly in aqueous solutions, in the micellar/lamellar region of the phase diagram. At the same concentration and using the same self-assembly conditions, dramatic differences are observed in polymer hydration and the resulting nano-/microstructure for two series of polymers with identical block chemistry and hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (HLB). This suggests a strong contribution from end groups to the hydration as the initial step of the self-assembly process, and could be conveniently used to guide the particle morphology and size. Additionally, for polymers with those head groups which drive vesicular structures, differences in membrane organization affect their physical properties, such as permeability. PMID:26948963

  11. Hierarchical tailoring of strut architecture to control permeability of additive manufactured titanium implants.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Z; Jones, D; Yue, S; Lee, P D; Jones, J R; Sutcliffe, C J; Jones, E

    2013-10-01

    Porous titanium implants are a common choice for bone augmentation. Implants for spinal fusion and repair of non-union fractures must encourage blood flow after implantation so that there is sufficient cell migration, nutrient and growth factor transport to stimulate bone ingrowth. Additive manufacturing techniques allow a large number of pore network designs. This study investigates how the design factors offered by selective laser melting technique can be used to alter the implant architecture on multiple length scales to control and even tailor the flow. Permeability is a convenient parameter that characterises flow, correlating to structure openness (interconnectivity and pore window size), tortuosity and hence flow shear rates. Using experimentally validated computational simulations, we demonstrate how additive manufacturing can be used to tailor implant properties by controlling surface roughness at a microstructual level (microns), and by altering the strut ordering and density at a mesoscopic level (millimetre). PMID:23910314

  12. Controlling a toxic shock of pentachlorophenol (PCP) to anaerobic digestion using activated carbon addition.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Yeyuan; De Araujo, Cecilia; Sze, Chun Chau; Stuckey, David C

    2015-04-01

    Several powdered and granular activated carbons (PACs and GACs) were tested for adsorption of pentachlorophenol (PCP) in bench-scale anaerobic digestion reactors to control the toxicity of PCP to acetoclastic methanogenesis. Results showed that the adsorption capacities of PAC were reduced by 21-54%, depending on the PAC addition time, in the presence of the methanogenic sludge compared to the controls without sludge. As a preventive measure, PAC at a low dose of 20% (mass ratio to the VSS) added 24 h prior to, or simultaneously with, the addition of PCP could completely eliminate the toxic effects of PCP. At the same dose, PAC also enabled methanogenesis to recover immediately after the sludge had been exposed to PCP for 24h. GAC was not effective in enabling the recovery of methanogenesis due to its slow adsorption kinetics; however, at a dose of 80% it could partially ameliorate the toxic shock of PCP. PMID:25665874

  13. Terminal groups control self-assembly of amphiphilic block copolymers in solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grzelakowski, M.; Kita-Tokarczyk, K.

    2016-03-01

    The terminal groups of amphiphilic block copolymers are shown to control macromolecular self-assembly in aqueous solutions, in the micellar/lamellar region of the phase diagram. At the same concentration and using the same self-assembly conditions, dramatic differences are observed in polymer hydration and the resulting nano-/microstructure for two series of polymers with identical block chemistry and hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (HLB). This suggests a strong contribution from end groups to the hydration as the initial step of the self-assembly process, and could be conveniently used to guide the particle morphology and size. Additionally, for polymers with those head groups which drive vesicular structures, differences in membrane organization affect their physical properties, such as permeability.The terminal groups of amphiphilic block copolymers are shown to control macromolecular self-assembly in aqueous solutions, in the micellar/lamellar region of the phase diagram. At the same concentration and using the same self-assembly conditions, dramatic differences are observed in polymer hydration and the resulting nano-/microstructure for two series of polymers with identical block chemistry and hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (HLB). This suggests a strong contribution from end groups to the hydration as the initial step of the self-assembly process, and could be conveniently used to guide the particle morphology and size. Additionally, for polymers with those head groups which drive vesicular structures, differences in membrane organization affect their physical properties, such as permeability. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Fig. S1: Particle diameters for hydrated NH2-ABA-NH2 polymers with different degrees of functionalization; Fig. S2: TEM characterization of compound micelles from BA-OH polymer after extrusion; Fig. S3: Cryo-TEM and stopped flow characterization of lipid vesicles; Fig. S4 and S5: NMR spectra for ABA and BA polymers

  14. From Victim to Taking Control: Support Group for Bullied Schoolchildren

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kvarme, Lisbeth Gravdal; Aabø, Liv Sandnes; Saeteren, Berit

    2016-01-01

    School bullying is a serious problem affecting the victims in their daily lives at school. The aim of this study was to investigate whether support groups were able to help the victims of bullying to overcome their victim status and to explore what it means to be a member of a support group. An exploratory qualitative design, with individual and…

  15. Low-boiling-point solvent additives can also enable morphological control in polymer solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Mahadevapuram, Rakesh C.; Carr, John A.; Chen, Yuqing; Bose, Sayantan; Nalwa, Kanwar S.; Petrich, Jacob W.; Chaudhary, Sumit

    2013-11-02

    Processing organic photovoltaic (OPV) blend solutions with high-boiling-point solvent additives has recently been used for morphological control in bulk-heterojunction OPV cells. Here we show that even low-boiling-point solvents can be effective additives. When P3HT:PCBM OPV cells were processed with a low-boiling-point solvent tetrahydrafuran as an additive in parent solvent o-dichlorobenzene, charge extraction increased leading to fill factors as high as 69.5%, without low work-function cathodes, electrode buffer layers or thermal treatment. This was attributed to PCBM demixing from P3HT domains and better vertical phase separation, as indicated by photoluminescence lifetimes, hole mobilities, and shunt leakage currents. Dependence on solvent parameters and applicability beyond P3HT system was also investigated. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. How to control the scaling of CaCO3: a "fingerprinting technique" to classify additives.

    PubMed

    Verch, Andreas; Gebauer, Denis; Antonietti, Markus; Cölfen, Helmut

    2011-10-01

    A titration set-up coupling ion selective electrodes with pH adjustment was used to analyze the effects of additives present during precipitation of calcium carbonate. Besides industrially well-established antiscalants (sodium triphosphate, citrate, polyacrylate and poly(aspartic acid)), also functional polymers being active in morphosynthesis (polystyrene sulfonate and poly(styrene-alt-maleic acid)) were analyzed. Interestingly each additive acts in its specific way, suggesting the notation "fingerprinting" for a complex interplay of up to five "solution modes" of influencing CaCO(3) precipitation and crystallisation. The results provide new insights into the modes of additive controlled crystallisation, and in the long run, the insights may facilitate the design of precipitation systems that yield complex and tailor-made crystals. PMID:21860865

  17. Sodium Bicarbonate Prevents Contrast-Induced Nephropathy in Addition to Theophylline: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Huber, Wolfgang; Huber, Toni; Baum, Stephan; Franzen, Michael; Schmidt, Christian; Stadlbauer, Thomas; Beitz, Analena; Schmid, Roland M; Schmid, Sebastian

    2016-05-01

    In this study, we investigated whether hydration with sodium bicarbonate is superior to hydration with saline in addition to theophylline (both groups) in the prophylaxis of contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN). It was a prospective, randomized, double-blinded study in a university hospital on 2 general intensive care units (63% of investigations) and normal wards.After approval of the local ethics committee and informed consent 152 patients with screening serum creatinine ≥1.1 mg/dL and/or at least 1 additional risk factor for CIN undergoing intravascular contrast media (CM) exposure were randomized to receive a total of 9 mL/kg bicarbonate 154 mmol/L (group B; n = 74) or saline 0.9% (group S; n = 78) hydration within 7 h in addition to intravenous application of 200 mg theophylline. Serum creatinine was determined immediately before, 24 and 48 h after CM exposure. As primary endpoint we investigated the incidence of CIN (increase of serum creatinine ≥0.5 mg/dL and/or ≥25% within 48 h of CM).Both groups were comparable regarding baseline characteristics. Incidence of CIN was significantly less frequent with bicarbonate compared to sodium hydration (1/74 [1.4%] vs 7/78 [9.0%]; P = 0.035). Time course of serum creatinine was more favorable in group B with decreases in serum creatinine after 24 h (-0.084 mg/dL [95% confidence interval: -0.035 to -0.133 mg/dL]; P = 0.008) and 48 h (-0.093 mg/dL (-0.025 to -0.161 mg/dL); P = 0.007) compared to baseline which were not observed in group S.In patients at increased risk of CIN receiving prophylactic theophylline, hydration with sodium bicarbonate reduces contrast-induced renal impairment compared to hydration with saline. PMID:27227933

  18. Addition of Lidocaine Injection Immediately before Physiotherapy for Frozen Shoulder: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Wei-Chun; Wang, Tao-Liang; Lin, Yi-Jia; Hsieh, Lin-Fen; Tsai, Chun-Mei; Huang, Kuang-Hui

    2015-01-01

    The intraarticular injection of lidocaine immediately before a physiotherapy session may relieve pain during the stretching and mobilization of the affected joint in patients with a frozen shoulder, thus enhancing the treatment effect. To compare the effects of intraarticular injection of lidocaine plus physiotherapy to that of physiotherapy alone in the treatment of a frozen shoulder, a prospective randomized controlled trial was conducted in the rehabilitation department of a private teaching hospital. Patients with a frozen shoulder were randomized into the physiotherapy group or the lidocaine injection plus physiotherapy (INJPT) group. The subjects in the INJPT group underwent injection of 3 ml of 1% lidocaine into the affected shoulder 10 to 20 minutes before each physiotherapy session. In each group, the treatment lasted 3 months. The primary outcome measures were the active and passive range of motion of the affected shoulder. The secondary outcome measures were the results of the Shoulder Disability Questionnaire, the Shoulder Pain and Disability Index, and the 36-item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36). The outcome measures were evaluated before treatment and 1, 2, 3, 4, and 6 months after the start of treatment. The group comparisons showed significantly greater improvement in the INJPT group, mainly in active and passive shoulder range of motion in flexion and external rotation and improvements in pain and disability (P < 0.05); however, no significant group difference was seen in the SF-36 results. The intraarticular injection of lidocaine immediately before a physiotherapy session might be superior to physiotherapy alone in the treatment of a frozen shoulder. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01817348 PMID:25714415

  19. The Additive Impact of Group and Individual Publicly Displayed Feedback: Examining Individual Response Patterns and Response Generalization in a Safe-Driving Occupational Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ludwig, Timothy D.; Geller, E. Scott; Clarke, Steven W.

    2010-01-01

    Additive effects of publicly posting individual feedback following group goal-setting and feedback were evaluated. The turn-signal use of pizza deliverers was studied in a multiple baseline design across two pizza stores. After baseline observations, pizza deliverers voted on a group turn-signal goal and then received 4 weeks of group feedback on…

  20. 76 FR 19907 - Clarification of Controlled Group Qualification Rules

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-11

    ... group qualification rules under Sec. 1.1563-1 was published in the Federal Register (REG-135005-07; 74 FR 49829). The NPRM proposed to amend Sec. 1.1563-1 to clarify that a corporation described...

  1. Peptide Dimethylation: Fragmentation Control via Distancing the Dimethylamino Group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McShane, Adam J.; Shen, Yuanyuan; Castillo, Mary Joan; Yao, Xudong

    2014-10-01

    Direct reductive methylation of peptides is a common method for quantitative proteomics. It is an active derivatization technique; with participation of the dimethylamino group, the derivatized peptides preferentially release intense a1 ions. The advantageous generation of a1 ions for quantitative proteomic profiling, however, is not desirable for targeted proteomic quantitation using multiple reaction monitoring mass spectrometry; this mass spectrometric method prefers the derivatizing group to stay with the intact peptide ions and multiple fragments as passive mass tags. This work investigated collisional fragmentation of peptides whose amine groups were derivatized with five linear ω-dimethylamino acids, from 2-(dimethylamino)-acetic acid to 6-(dimethylamino)-hexanoic acid. Tandem mass spectra of the derivatized tryptic peptides revealed different preferential breakdown pathways. Together with energy resolved mass spectrometry, it was found that shutting down the active participation of the terminal dimethylamino group in fragmentation of derivatized peptides is possible. However, it took a separation of five methylene groups between the terminal dimethylamino group and the amide formed upon peptide derivatization. For the first time, the gas-phase fragmentation of peptides derivatized with linear ω-dimethylamino acids of systematically increasing alkyl chain lengths is reported.

  2. Peptide Dimethylation: Fragmentation Control via Distancing the Dimethylamino Group

    PubMed Central

    McShane, Adam J.; Shen, Yuanyuan; Castillo, Mary Joan; Yao, Xudong

    2014-01-01

    Direct reductive methylation of peptides is a common method for quantitative proteomics. It is an active derivatization technique; with participation of the dimethylamino group, the derivatized peptides preferentially release intense a1 ions. The advantageous generation of a1 ions for quantitative proteomic profiling, however, is not desirable for targeted proteomic quantitation using multiple reaction monitoring mass spectrometry; this mass spectrometric method prefers the derivatizing group to stay with the intact peptide ions and multiple fragments as passive mass tags. This work investigated collisional fragmentation of peptides whose amine groups were derivatized with five linear ω-dimethylamino acids, from 2-(dimethylamino)-acetic acid to 6-(dimethylamino)-hexanoic acid. Tandem mass spectra of the derivatized tryptic peptides revealed different preferential breakdown pathways. Together with energy resolved mass spectrometry, it was found that shutting down the active participation of the terminal dimethylamino group in fragmentation of derivatized peptides is possible. However, it took a separation of five methylene groups between the terminal dimethylamino group and the amide formed upon peptide derivatization. For the first time, the gas-phase fragmentation of peptides derivatized with linear ω-dimethylamino acids of systematically increasing alkyl chain lengths is reported. PMID:25091822

  3. Field Testing of a Wet FGD Additive for Enhanced Mercury Control

    SciTech Connect

    Gary Blythe; MariJon Owens

    2007-12-31

    This document is the final report for DOE-NETL Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-04NT42309, 'Field Testing of a Wet FGD Additive'. The objective of the project has been to demonstrate the use of two flue gas desulfurization (FGD) additives, Evonik Degussa Corporation's TMT-15 and Nalco Company's Nalco 8034, to prevent the re-emission of elemental mercury (Hg{sup 0}) in flue gas exiting wet FGD systems on coal-fired boilers. Furthermore, the project was intended to demonstrate whether such additives can be used to precipitate most of the mercury (Hg) removed in the wet FGD system as a fine salt that can be separated from the FGD liquor and bulk solid byproducts for separate disposal. The project involved pilot- and full-scale tests of the additives in wet FGD absorbers. The tests were intended to determine required additive dosages to prevent Hg{sup 0} re-emissions and to separate mercury from the normal FGD byproducts for three coal types: Texas lignite/Powder River Basin (PRB) coal blend, high-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal, and low-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal. The project team consists of URS Group, Inc., EPRI, Luminant Power (was TXU Generation Company LP), Southern Company, IPL (an AES company), Evonik Degussa Corporation and the Nalco Company. Luminant Power provided the Texas lignite/PRB co-fired test site for pilot FGD tests and project cost sharing. Southern Company provided the low-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal host site for wet scrubbing tests, the pilot- and full-scale jet bubbling reactor (JBR) FGD systems tested, and project cost sharing. IPL provided the high-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal full-scale FGD test site and cost sharing. Evonik Degussa Corporation provided the TMT-15 additive, and the Nalco Company provided the Nalco 8034 additive. Both companies also supplied technical support to the test program as in-kind cost sharing. The project was conducted in six tasks. Of the six tasks, Task 1 involved project planning and Task 6 involved

  4. Compliance and control characteristics of an additive manufactured-flexure stage

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, ChaBum; Tarbutton, Joshua A.

    2015-04-15

    This paper presents a compliance and positioning control characteristics of additive manufactured-nanopositioning system consisted of the flexure mechanism and voice coil motor (VCM). The double compound notch type flexure stage was designed to utilize the elastic deformation of two symmetrical four-bar mechanisms to provide a millimeter-level working range. Additive manufacturing (AM) process, stereolithography, was used to fabricate the flexure stage. The AM stage was inspected by using 3D X-ray computerized tomography scanner: air-voids and shape irregularity. The compliance, open-loop resonance peak, and damping ratio of the AM stage were measured 0.317 mm/N, 80 Hz, and 0.19, respectively. The AM stage was proportional-integral-derivative positioning feedback-controlled and the capacitive type sensor was used to measure the displacement. As a result, the AM flexure mechanism was successfully 25 nm positioning controlled within 500 μm range. The resonance peak was found approximately at 280 Hz in closed-loop. This research showed that the AM flexure mechanism and the VCM can provide millimeter range with high precision and can be a good alternative to an expensive metal-based flexure mechanism and piezoelectric transducer.

  5. Compliance and control characteristics of an additive manufactured-flexure stage.

    PubMed

    Lee, ChaBum; Tarbutton, Joshua A

    2015-04-01

    This paper presents a compliance and positioning control characteristics of additive manufactured-nanopositioning system consisted of the flexure mechanism and voice coil motor (VCM). The double compound notch type flexure stage was designed to utilize the elastic deformation of two symmetrical four-bar mechanisms to provide a millimeter-level working range. Additive manufacturing (AM) process, stereolithography, was used to fabricate the flexure stage. The AM stage was inspected by using 3D X-ray computerized tomography scanner: air-voids and shape irregularity. The compliance, open-loop resonance peak, and damping ratio of the AM stage were measured 0.317 mm/N, 80 Hz, and 0.19, respectively. The AM stage was proportional-integral-derivative positioning feedback-controlled and the capacitive type sensor was used to measure the displacement. As a result, the AM flexure mechanism was successfully 25 nm positioning controlled within 500 μm range. The resonance peak was found approximately at 280 Hz in closed-loop. This research showed that the AM flexure mechanism and the VCM can provide millimeter range with high precision and can be a good alternative to an expensive metal-based flexure mechanism and piezoelectric transducer. PMID:25933897

  6. Compliance and control characteristics of an additive manufactured-flexure stage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, ChaBum; Tarbutton, Joshua A.

    2015-04-01

    This paper presents a compliance and positioning control characteristics of additive manufactured-nanopositioning system consisted of the flexure mechanism and voice coil motor (VCM). The double compound notch type flexure stage was designed to utilize the elastic deformation of two symmetrical four-bar mechanisms to provide a millimeter-level working range. Additive manufacturing (AM) process, stereolithography, was used to fabricate the flexure stage. The AM stage was inspected by using 3D X-ray computerized tomography scanner: air-voids and shape irregularity. The compliance, open-loop resonance peak, and damping ratio of the AM stage were measured 0.317 mm/N, 80 Hz, and 0.19, respectively. The AM stage was proportional-integral-derivative positioning feedback-controlled and the capacitive type sensor was used to measure the displacement. As a result, the AM flexure mechanism was successfully 25 nm positioning controlled within 500 μm range. The resonance peak was found approximately at 280 Hz in closed-loop. This research showed that the AM flexure mechanism and the VCM can provide millimeter range with high precision and can be a good alternative to an expensive metal-based flexure mechanism and piezoelectric transducer.

  7. Designing a Control for a Behavioral Group Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Safer, Debra L.; Hugo, Emily M.

    2005-01-01

    To evaluate whether the specific techniques of a newly developed behavioral therapy exceed the effects of its common factors (e.g. therapeutic alliance), an ideal comparison control must omit the unique ingredients of the active treatment while possessing the common factors in equal measure. Reviews of the controlled-trial psychotherapy research literature show that such systematic matching is not a common practice. Addressing this gap between theory and practice, we delineate seven steps for designing a credible control for a recently developed behavioral therapy adapted for Binge Eating Disorder—Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT). Our detailed description of matching the common factors to the extent possible and specifically measuring these offers a useful research design template for investigators of controlled behavioral treatment trials. PMID:16823465

  8. Multiplicative noise effects on electroconvection in controlling additive noise by a magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huh, Jong-Hoon

    2015-12-01

    We report multiplicative noise-induced threshold shift of electroconvection (EC) in the presence of a magnetic field H . Controlling the thermal fluctuation (i.e., additive noise) of the rodlike molecules of nematic liquid crystals by H , the EC threshold is examined at various noise levels [characterized by their intensity and cutoff frequency (fc) ]. For a sufficiently strong H (i.e., ignorable additive noise), a modified noise sensitivity characterizing the shift problem is in good agreement with experimental results for colored as well as white noise (fc→∞ ) ; until now, there was a large deviation for (sufficiently) colored noises. The present study shows that H provides us with ideal conditions for studying the corresponding Carr-Helfrich theory considering pure multiplicative noise.

  9. Multiplicative noise effects on electroconvection in controlling additive noise by a magnetic field.

    PubMed

    Huh, Jong-Hoon

    2015-12-01

    We report multiplicative noise-induced threshold shift of electroconvection (EC) in the presence of a magnetic field H. Controlling the thermal fluctuation (i.e., additive noise) of the rodlike molecules of nematic liquid crystals by H, the EC threshold is examined at various noise levels [characterized by their intensity and cutoff frequency (f(c))]. For a sufficiently strong H (i.e., ignorable additive noise), a modified noise sensitivity characterizing the shift problem is in good agreement with experimental results for colored as well as white noise (f(c)→∞); until now, there was a large deviation for (sufficiently) colored noises. The present study shows that H provides us with ideal conditions for studying the corresponding Carr-Helfrich theory considering pure multiplicative noise. PMID:26764708

  10. Group cognitive-behavioral therapy and group interpersonal psychotherapy for the nonpurging bulimic individual: a controlled comparison.

    PubMed

    Wilfley, D E; Agras, W S; Telch, C F; Rossiter, E M; Schneider, J A; Cole, A G; Sifford, L A; Raeburn, S D

    1993-04-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of group cognitive-behavioral treatment (CBT) and group interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) for binge eating. Fifty-six women with nonpurging bulimia were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 groups: CBT, IPT, or a wait-list control (WL). Treatment was administered in small groups that met for 16 weekly sessions. At posttreatment, both group CBT and group IPT treatment conditions showed significant improvement in reducing binge eating, whereas the WL condition did not. Binge eating remained significantly below baseline levels for both treatment conditions at 6-month and 1-year follow-ups. These data support the central role of both eating behavior and interpersonal factors in the understanding and treatment of bulimia. PMID:8473584

  11. Additional Analgesia for Central Venous Catheter Insertion: A Placebo Controlled Randomized Trial of Dexmedetomidine and Fentanyl

    PubMed Central

    Samantaray, Aloka; Hanumantha Rao, Mangu; Sahu, Chitta Ranjan

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to show that a single preprocedural dose of either dexmedetomidine or fentanyl reduces procedural pain and discomfort and provides clinically acceptable sedation. In this prospective, double-blind study, sixty patients scheduled for elective surgery and requiring planned central venous catheter insertion were randomized to receive dexmedetomidine (1 μg/kg), fentanyl (1 μg/kg), or 0.9% normal saline intravenously over ten minutes followed by local anesthetic field infiltration before attempting central venous catheterization. The primary outcome measures are assessment and analysis of pain, discomfort, and sedation level before, during, and after the central venous catheter insertion at five time points. The median (IQR) pain score is worst for normal saline group at local anaesthetic injection [6 (4–6.7)] which was significantly attenuated by addition of fentanyl [3 (2–4)] and dexmedetomidine [4 (3–5)] in the immediate postprocedural period (P = 0.001). However, the procedure related discomfort was significantly lower in dexmedetomidine group compared to fentanyl group in the first 10 min of procedure after local anaesthetic Injection (P = 0.001). Fentanyl is more analgesically efficient for central venous catheter insertion along with local anaesthetic injection. However, dexmedetomidine has the potential to be superior to fentanyl and placebo in terms of providing comfort to the patients during the procedure. PMID:27200187

  12. Additional Analgesia for Central Venous Catheter Insertion: A Placebo Controlled Randomized Trial of Dexmedetomidine and Fentanyl.

    PubMed

    Samantaray, Aloka; Hanumantha Rao, Mangu; Sahu, Chitta Ranjan

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to show that a single preprocedural dose of either dexmedetomidine or fentanyl reduces procedural pain and discomfort and provides clinically acceptable sedation. In this prospective, double-blind study, sixty patients scheduled for elective surgery and requiring planned central venous catheter insertion were randomized to receive dexmedetomidine (1 μg/kg), fentanyl (1 μg/kg), or 0.9% normal saline intravenously over ten minutes followed by local anesthetic field infiltration before attempting central venous catheterization. The primary outcome measures are assessment and analysis of pain, discomfort, and sedation level before, during, and after the central venous catheter insertion at five time points. The median (IQR) pain score is worst for normal saline group at local anaesthetic injection [6 (4-6.7)] which was significantly attenuated by addition of fentanyl [3 (2-4)] and dexmedetomidine [4 (3-5)] in the immediate postprocedural period (P = 0.001). However, the procedure related discomfort was significantly lower in dexmedetomidine group compared to fentanyl group in the first 10 min of procedure after local anaesthetic Injection (P = 0.001). Fentanyl is more analgesically efficient for central venous catheter insertion along with local anaesthetic injection. However, dexmedetomidine has the potential to be superior to fentanyl and placebo in terms of providing comfort to the patients during the procedure. PMID:27200187

  13. Design and tuning of standard additive model based fuzzy PID controllers for multivariable process systems.

    PubMed

    Harinath, Eranda; Mann, George K I

    2008-06-01

    This paper describes a design and two-level tuning method for fuzzy proportional-integral derivative (FPID) controllers for a multivariable process where the fuzzy inference uses the inference of standard additive model. The proposed method can be used for any n x n multi-input-multi-output process and guarantees closed-loop stability. In the two-level tuning scheme, the tuning follows two steps: low-level tuning followed by high-level tuning. The low-level tuning adjusts apparent linear gains, whereas the high-level tuning changes the nonlinearity in the normalized fuzzy output. In this paper, two types of FPID configurations are considered, and their performances are evaluated by using a real-time multizone temperature control problem having a 3 x 3 process system. PMID:18558531

  14. Using epidemiology to regulate food additives: saccharin case-control studies.

    PubMed

    Cordle, F; Miller, S A

    1984-01-01

    The increasing use of nonnutritive sweeteners and the widely publicized 1969 ban on cyclamate led to additional investigations in rodents of the carcinogenic potential of saccharin. Preliminary results of a long-term feeding study indicated formation of bladder tumors in rodents, and collective experimental evidence has demonstrated that high doses of the synthetic sweetener saccharin can cause bladder cancer in rodents. Based on the results of that and other rodent studies indicating an increased risk of bladder cancer associated with saccharin, the Commissioner of the Food and Drug Administration announced the agency's intention to propose a ban on saccharin. This intention was made known in April 1977 under the Delaney Clause of the Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act. The clause essentially states that no additive shall be deemed safe if it is found to induce cancer in man or animals, or if it is found, after tests appropriate for the evaluation of the safety of food additives, to induce cancer in man or animals. Also in 1977, a group of epidemiologists began to assess the available epidemiologic information to determine the potential human risk. This report describes the assessment of several human epidemiologic studies available then and the results of more recent epidemiologic studies. PMID:6431484

  15. Studies on the effects of essential-oil-based feed additives on performance, ileal nutrient digestibility, and selected bacterial groups in the gastrointestinal tract of piglets.

    PubMed

    Maenner, K; Vahjen, W; Simon, O

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effects of 2 different phytogenic products on performance, ileal nutrient digestibility, and composition of the intestinal microbiota. The 2 phytogenic products contained different essential oil mixtures (EOM) characterized by either menthol (Mentha arvensis; EOM-M) or cinnamon aldehyde (Cinnamomum aromaticum; EOM-C) as main constituents. Three treatments consisted of control diet without EOM addition and diets supplemented with EOM-M or EOM-C. Reproducibility of the effects was examined in 4 trials with a total of 300 male castrated and female piglets weaned at 25 d of age. The number of pens per treatment in trials I through III were 7, 9, and 9, respectively, for research station conditions, and 10 in trial IV for simulated farm conditions. In research station conditions, the experimental unit consisted of flat deck pens with 2 piglets per pen, whereas it consisted of floor pens with straw bedding with 5 piglets per pen in farm conditions. The feed additives had no effect on feed intake or BW gain. Improvements (P < 0.05) in G:F were observed for EOM-M supplemented diets in 2 of 4 trials as well as for the combined data of all trials. These improvements were associated with greater (P<0.05) apparent ileal digestibility of CP and of most AA. The effect of EOM-C on these response criteria was intermediate between control and EOM-M. Real-time PCR analysis of the gastrointestinal contents for 7 bacterial groups (Lactobacillus spp., Enterococcus spp., Clostridium coccoides and Clostridium leptum cluster, Escherichia spp., and Escherichia coli toxin estII) indicated no effect of treatments on the gastrointestinal microbiota. It was concluded that EOM-M consistently improved feed efficiency in weaned piglets, and it was associated with improved ileal protein and AA digestibility. In general, however, the effectiveness of EOM as feed additives differs considerably depending on the constituents. PMID:21357448

  16. Simultaneous interpreters vs. professional multilingual controls: Group differences in cognitive control as well as brain structure and function.

    PubMed

    Becker, Maxi; Schubert, Torsten; Strobach, Tilo; Gallinat, Jürgen; Kühn, Simone

    2016-07-01

    There is a vast amount of literature indicating that multiple language expertise leads to positive transfer effects onto other non-language cognitive domains possibly due to enhanced cognitive control. However, there is hardly any evidence about underlying mechanisms on how complex behavior like simultaneous interpreting benefits cognitive functioning in other non-language domains. Therefore, we investigated whether simultaneous interpreters (SIs) exhibit cognitive benefits in tasks measuring aspects of cognitive control compared to a professional multilingual control group. We furthermore investigated in how far potential cognitive benefits are related to brain structure (using voxel-based morphometry) and function (using regions-of-interest-based functional connectivity and graph-analytical measures on low-frequency BOLD signals in resting-state brain data). Concerning cognitive control, the results reveal that SIs exhibit less mixing costs in a task switching paradigm and a dual-task advantage compared to professional multilingual controls. In addition, SIs show more gray matter volume in the left frontal pole (BA 10) compared to controls. Graph theoretical analyses revealed that this region exhibits higher network values for global efficiency and degree and is functionally more strongly connected to the left inferior frontal gyrus and middle temporal gyrus in SIs compared to controls. Thus, the data provide evidence that SIs possess cognitive benefits in tasks measuring cognitive control. It is discussed in how far the central role of the left frontal pole and its stronger functional connectivity to the left inferior frontal gyrus represents a correlate of the neural mechanisms for the observed behavioral effects. PMID:27085505

  17. Formulation and bioavailability of controlled release salbutamol sulphate tablets using natural additives.

    PubMed

    Nouh, A T; Abd El-Gawad, A H; Guda, T K

    2010-04-01

    Salbutamol sulphate granules and physical mixtures were prepared using mastic with various natural additives. The prepared granules and physical mixtures were examined using IR and DSC. The obtained results indicate that there is no interaction between salbutamol sulphate and the formulation ingredients used. The physical properties and release behavior of the formulated tablets prepared from granules and physical mixtures were evaluated and showed good physical properties. The rate of drug release from tablets prepared from granules was found to be lower than that prepared from physical mixtures at fixed mastic concentration and the same additive. The rate of drug release decreased with increased mastic concentration in formulated tablets. Pectin and sodium alginate allowed the best controlled release rate of the drug. On the basis of the results obtained from the controlled release studies, selected sulbutamol formulations were subjected to an in vivo comparison with commercial sulbutamol tablets. The pharmacokinetic parameters AUC(0-24), C(max), and T(max) of sulbutamol from the selected formulation were determined after administration of a single oral dose of 8 mg and compared statistically using an ANOVA test. There was no significant difference in the AUC(0-24). On the other hand, there was a significant difference in the C(max) and T(max) between the commercial and the formulated tablets. These results demonstrate that the formulated tablets extended the time of the drug effect. PMID:22491165

  18. Low fluid leakoff cementing compositions and filtration control additive for cement

    SciTech Connect

    Forrest, G.T.

    1993-07-20

    A cementing composition is described, for cementing oil or gas wells penetrating subterranean formations, capable of forming a fluid slurry when mixed with water comprising: dry hydraulic cement; and a filtration control additive of from about 0.2 to 5.0 percent by weight, based upon dry hydraulic cement, of finely ground peanut hulls, wherein 10 percent or more of the finely ground peanut hulls is in the particle size range of less than 20 standard sieve mesh and greater than 500 standard sieve mesh. In a process for cementing a casing in an oil or gas well penetrating a subterranean formation wherein a cement slurry, formed by mixing water and hydraulic cement, is pumped down the well to flow upwardly between the casing and the subterranean formation, the improvement is described comprising: utilizing as a filtration control additive of from about 0.2 to 5.0 percent by weight, based upon dry hydraulic cement, of finely ground peanut hulls, and utilizing finely ground peanut hulls wherein 10 percent or more of the finely ground peanut hulls is in the particle size range of less than 20 standard sieve mesh and greater than 500 standard sieve mesh.

  19. Polar Addition to C=C Group: Why Is Anti-Markovnikov Hydroboration-Oxidation of Alkenes Not "Anti-"?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ilich, Predrag-Peter; Rickertsen, Lucas S.; Becker, Erienne

    2006-01-01

    For 137 years Markovnikov's rule has been extensively used in organic chemical education and research to describe the regioselectivity in electrophilic addition reactions to alkenes and alkynes. When the structures of the final reaction products are used as reference, the rule requests that certain polar addition reactions be termed…

  20. Predicting Participation in Group Parenting Education in an Australian Sample: The Role of Attitudes, Norms, and Control Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Katherine M.; Wellington, Larne

    2009-01-01

    We examined the theory of planned behavior (TPB) in predicting intentions to participate in group parenting education. One hundred and seventy-six parents (138 mothers and 38 fathers) with a child under 12 years completed TPB items assessing attitude, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control (PBC), and two additional social influence…

  1. A Tuneable Switch for Controlling Environmental Degradation of Bioplastics: Addition of Isothiazolinone to Polyhydroxyalkanoates

    PubMed Central

    Woolnough, Catherine Anne; Yee, Lachlan Hartley; Charlton, Timothy Stuart; Foster, Leslie John Ray

    2013-01-01

    Controlling the environmental degradation of polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) and polyhydroxyvalerate (P(HB-co-HV)) bioplastics would expand the range of their potential applications. Combining PHB and P(HB-co-HV) films with the anti-fouling agent 4,5-dichloro-2-n-octyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one (DCOI, <10% w/w) restricted microbial colonisation in soil, but did not significantly affect melting temperature or the tensile strength of films. DCOI films showed reduced biofouling and postponed the onset of weight loss by up to 100 days, a 10-fold increase compared to unmodified films where the microbial coverage was significant. In addition, the rate of PHA-DCOI weight loss, post-onset, reduced by about 150%; in contrast a recorded weight loss of only 0.05% per day for P(HB-co-HV) with a 10% DCOI loading was observed. This is in stark contrast to the unmodified PHB film, where a recorded weight loss of only 0.75% per day was made. The ‘switch’ that initiates film weight loss, and its subsequent reduced rate, depended on the DCOI loading to control biofouling. The control of biofouling and environmental degradation for these DCOI modified bioplastics increases their potential use in biodegradable applications. PMID:24146779

  2. The food additive vanillic acid controls transgene expression in mammalian cells and mice

    PubMed Central

    Gitzinger, Marc; Kemmer, Christian; Fluri, David A.; Daoud El-Baba, Marie; Weber, Wilfried; Fussenegger, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Trigger-inducible transcription-control devices that reversibly fine-tune transgene expression in response to molecular cues have significantly advanced the rational reprogramming of mammalian cells. When designed for use in future gene- and cell-based therapies the trigger molecules have to be carefully chosen in order to provide maximum specificity, minimal side-effects and optimal pharmacokinetics in a mammalian organism. Capitalizing on control components that enable Caulobacter crescentus to metabolize vanillic acid originating from lignin degradation that occurs in its oligotrophic freshwater habitat, we have designed synthetic devices that specifically adjust transgene expression in mammalian cells when exposed to vanillic acid. Even in mice transgene expression was robust, precise and tunable in response to vanillic acid. As a licensed food additive that is regularly consumed by humans via flavoured convenience food and specific fresh vegetable and fruits, vanillic acid can be considered as a safe trigger molecule that could be used for diet-controlled transgene expression in future gene- and cell-based therapies. PMID:22187155

  3. Analytical optimal controls for the state constrained addition and removal of cryoprotective agents

    PubMed Central

    Chicone, Carmen C.; Critser, John K.

    2014-01-01

    Cryobiology is a field with enormous scientific, financial and even cultural impact. Successful cryopreservation of cells and tissues depends on the equilibration of these materials with high concentrations of permeating chemicals (CPAs) such as glycerol or 1,2 propylene glycol. Because cells and tissues are exposed to highly anisosmotic conditions, the resulting gradients cause large volume fluctuations that have been shown to damage cells and tissues. On the other hand, there is evidence that toxicity to these high levels of chemicals is time dependent, and therefore it is ideal to minimize exposure time as well. Because solute and solvent flux is governed by a system of ordinary differential equations, CPA addition and removal from cells is an ideal context for the application of optimal control theory. Recently, we presented a mathematical synthesis of the optimal controls for the ODE system commonly used in cryobiology in the absence of state constraints and showed that controls defined by this synthesis were optimal. Here we define the appropriate model, analytically extend the previous theory to one encompassing state constraints, and as an example apply this to the critical and clinically important cell type of human oocytes, where current methodologies are either difficult to implement or have very limited success rates. We show that an enormous increase in equilibration efficiency can be achieved under the new protocols when compared to classic protocols, potentially allowing a greatly increased survival rate for human oocytes, and pointing to a direction for the cryopreservation of many other cell types. PMID:22527943

  4. Weight change among people randomized to minimal intervention control groups in weight loss trials

    PubMed Central

    Johns, David J.; Hartmann‐Boyce, Jamie; Jebb, Susan A.; Aveyard, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Objective Evidence on the effectiveness of behavioral weight management programs often comes from uncontrolled program evaluations. These frequently make the assumption that, without intervention, people will gain weight. The aim of this study was to use data from minimal intervention control groups in randomized controlled trials to examine the evidence for this assumption and the effect of frequency of weighing on weight change. Methods Data were extracted from minimal intervention control arms in a systematic review of multicomponent behavioral weight management programs. Two reviewers classified control arms into three categories based on intensity of minimal intervention and calculated 12‐month mean weight change using baseline observation carried forward. Meta‐regression was conducted in STATA v12. Results Thirty studies met the inclusion criteria, twenty‐nine of which had usable data, representing 5,963 participants allocated to control arms. Control arms were categorized according to intensity, as offering leaflets only, a single session of advice, or more than one session of advice from someone without specialist skills in supporting weight loss. Mean weight change at 12 months across all categories was −0.8 kg (95% CI −1.1 to −0.4). In an unadjusted model, increasing intensity by moving up a category was associated with an additional weight loss of −0.53 kg (95% CI −0.96 to −0.09). Also in an unadjusted model, each additional weigh‐in was associated with a weight change of −0.42 kg (95% CI −0.81 to −0.03). However, when both variables were placed in the same model, neither intervention category nor number of weigh‐ins was associated with weight change. Conclusions Uncontrolled evaluations of weight loss programs should assume that, in the absence of intervention, their population would weigh up to a kilogram on average less than baseline at the end of the first year of follow‐up. PMID:27028279

  5. Enhancing a cancer prevention and control curriculum through interactive group discussions.

    PubMed

    Forsythe, L P; Gadalla, S M; Hamilton, J G; Heckman-Stoddard, B M; Kent, E E; Lai, G Y; Lin, S W; Luhn, P; Faupel-Badger, J M

    2012-06-01

    The Principles and Practice of Cancer Prevention and Control course (Principles course) is offered annually by the National Cancer Institute Cancer Prevention Fellowship Program. This 4-week postgraduate course covers the spectrum of cancer prevention and control research (e.g., epidemiology, laboratory, clinical, social, and behavioral sciences) and is open to attendees from medical, academic, government, and related institutions across the world. In this report, we describe a new addition to the Principles course syllabus, which was exclusively a lecture-based format for over 20 years. In 2011, cancer prevention fellows and staff designed and implemented small group discussion sessions as part of the curriculum. The goals of these sessions were to foster an interactive environment, discuss concepts presented during the Principles course, exchange ideas, and enhance networking among the course participants and provide a teaching and leadership opportunity to current cancer prevention fellows. Overall, both the participants and facilitators who returned the evaluation forms (n=61/87 and 8/10, respectively) reported a high satisfaction with the experience for providing both an opportunity to explore course concepts in a greater detail and to network with colleagues. Participants (93%) and facilitators (100%) stated that they would like to see this component remain a part of the Principles course curriculum, and both groups provided recommendations for the 2012 program. The design, implementation, and evaluation of this initial discussion group component of the Principles course are described herein. The findings in this report will not only inform future discussion group sessions in the Principles course but may also be useful to others planning to incorporate group learning into large primarily lecture-based courses. PMID:22661264

  6. Group Lidcombe Program Treatment for Early Stuttering: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnott, Simone; Onslow, Mark; O'Brian, Sue; Packman, Ann; Jones, Mark; Block, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This study adds to the Lidcombe Program evidence base by comparing individual and group treatment of preschoolers who stutter. Method: A randomized controlled trial of 54 preschoolers was designed to establish whether group delivery outcomes were not inferior to the individual model. The group arm used a rolling group model, in which a…

  7. Control of nuclear activities by substrate-selective and protein-group SUMOylation.

    PubMed

    Jentsch, Stefan; Psakhye, Ivan

    2013-01-01

    Reversible modification of proteins by SUMO (small ubiquitin-like modifier) affects a large number of cellular processes. In striking contrast to the related ubiquitin pathway, only a few enzymes participate in the SUMO system, although this pathway has numerous substrates as well. Emerging evidence suggests that SUMOylation frequently targets entire groups of physically interacting proteins rather than individual proteins. Protein-group SUMOylation appears to be triggered by recruitment of SUMO ligases to preassembled protein complexes. Because SUMOylation typically affects groups of proteins that bear SUMO-interaction motifs (SIMs), protein-group SUMOylation may foster physical interactions between proteins through multiple SUMO-SIM interactions. Individual SUMO modifications may act redundantly or additively, yet they may mediate dedicated functions as well. In this review, we focus on the unorthodox principles of this pathway and give examples for SUMO-controlled nuclear activities. We propose that collective SUMOylation is typical for nuclear assemblies and argue that SUMO serves as a distinguishing mark for functionally engaged protein fractions. PMID:24016193

  8. Group Cognitive Behavioural Therapy and Group Recreational Activity for Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Preliminary Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hesselmark, Eva; Plenty, Stephanie; Bejerot, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    Although adults with autism spectrum disorder are an increasingly identified patient population, few treatment options are available. This "preliminary" randomized controlled open trial with a parallel design developed two group interventions for adults with autism spectrum disorders and intelligence within the normal range: cognitive…

  9. Stereoselective synthesis of tricyclic compounds by intramolecular palladium-catalyzed addition of aryl iodides to carbonyl groups.

    PubMed

    Saadi, Jakub; Bentz, Christoph; Redies, Kai; Lentz, Dieter; Zimmer, Reinhold; Reissig, Hans-Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    Starting from γ-ketoesters with an o-iodobenzyl group we studied a palladium-catalyzed cyclization process that stereoselectively led to bi- and tricyclic compounds in moderate to excellent yields. Four X-ray crystal structure analyses unequivocally defined the structure of crucial cyclization products. The relative configuration of the precursor compounds is essentially transferred to that of the products and the formed hydroxy group in the newly generated cyclohexane ring is consistently in trans-arrangement with respect to the methoxycarbonyl group. A transition-state model is proposed to explain the observed stereochemical outcome. This palladium-catalyzed Barbier-type reaction requires a reduction of palladium(II) back to palladium(0) which is apparently achieved by the present triethylamine. PMID:27559374

  10. Stereoselective synthesis of tricyclic compounds by intramolecular palladium-catalyzed addition of aryl iodides to carbonyl groups

    PubMed Central

    Saadi, Jakub; Bentz, Christoph; Redies, Kai; Lentz, Dieter; Zimmer, Reinhold

    2016-01-01

    Summary Starting from γ-ketoesters with an o-iodobenzyl group we studied a palladium-catalyzed cyclization process that stereoselectively led to bi- and tricyclic compounds in moderate to excellent yields. Four X-ray crystal structure analyses unequivocally defined the structure of crucial cyclization products. The relative configuration of the precursor compounds is essentially transferred to that of the products and the formed hydroxy group in the newly generated cyclohexane ring is consistently in trans-arrangement with respect to the methoxycarbonyl group. A transition-state model is proposed to explain the observed stereochemical outcome. This palladium-catalyzed Barbier-type reaction requires a reduction of palladium(II) back to palladium(0) which is apparently achieved by the present triethylamine. PMID:27559374

  11. Additional Saturday rehabilitation improves functional independence and quality of life and reduces length of stay: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Many inpatients receive little or no rehabilitation on weekends. Our aim was to determine what effect providing additional Saturday rehabilitation during inpatient rehabilitation had on functional independence, quality of life and length of stay compared to 5 days per week of rehabilitation. Methods This was a multicenter, single-blind (assessors) randomized controlled trial with concealed allocation and 12-month follow-up conducted in two publically funded metropolitan inpatient rehabilitation facilities in Melbourne, Australia. Patients were eligible if they were adults (aged ≥18 years) admitted for rehabilitation for any orthopedic, neurological or other disabling conditions excluding those admitted for slow stream rehabilitation/geriatric evaluation and management. Participants were randomly allocated to usual care Monday to Friday rehabilitation (control) or to Monday to Saturday rehabilitation (intervention). The additional Saturday rehabilitation comprised physiotherapy and occupational therapy. The primary outcomes were functional independence (functional independence measure (FIM); measured on an 18 to 126 point scale), health-related quality of life (EQ-5D utility index; measured on a 0 to 1 scale, and EQ-5D visual analog scale; measured on a 0 to 100 scale), and patient length of stay. Outcome measures were assessed on admission, discharge (primary endpoint), and at 6 and 12 months post discharge. Results We randomly assigned 996 adults (mean (SD) age 74 (13) years) to Monday to Saturday rehabilitation (n = 496) or usual care Monday to Friday rehabilitation (n = 500). Relative to admission scores, intervention group participants had higher functional independence (mean difference (MD) 2.3, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.5 to 4.1, P = 0.01) and health-related quality of life (MD 0.04, 95% CI 0.01 to 0.07, P = 0.009) on discharge and may have had a shorter length of stay by 2 days (95% CI 0 to 4, P = 0.1) when compared to

  12. Silica nanoparticle addition to control the calcium-leaching in cement-based materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaitero, J. J.; Sáez de Ibarra, Y.; Erkizia, E.; Campillo, I.

    2006-05-01

    The calcium leaching of the cement hydrated matrix is of vital importance for constructions like water containers, dams, bridges, etc which have to be in contact with water during their lifetime. The aim of this work is the study of the reduction of such a negative phenomenon by the addition of silica nanoparticles. Several characterisation techniques such as 29Si MAS NMR, X-ray diffraction, mercury intrusion porosimetry and EDX-microanalysis have been used to evaluate the effect of the nanoparticles in the cement matrix nanostructure and in their impact on the evolution of the Ca leaching throughout time. Subsequent analysis of the results indicates that silica nanoparticles can reduce the Ca-leaching both decreasing the amount of portlandite in the matrix and controlling the degradation rate of the C-S-H gel.

  13. Additive controlled synthesis of gold nanorods (GNRs) for two-photon luminescence imaging of cancer cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Jing; Yong, Ken-Tye; Roy, Indrajit; Hu, Rui; Ding, Hong; Zhao, Lingling; Swihart, Mark T.; He, Guang S.; Cui, Yiping; Prasad, Paras N.

    2010-07-01

    Gold nanorods (GNRs) with a longitudinal surface plasmon resonance peak that is tunable from 600 to 1100 nm have been fabricated in a cetyl trimethylammoniumbromide (CTAB) micellar medium using hydrochloric acid and silver nitrate as additives to control their shape and size. By manipulating the concentrations of silver nitrate and hydrochloric acid, the aspect ratio of the GNRs was reliably and reproducibly tuned from 2.5 to 8. The GNRs were first coated with polyelectrolyte multilayers and then bioconjugated to transferrin (Tf) to target pancreatic cancer cells. Two-photon imaging excited from the bioconjugated GNRs demonstrated receptor-mediated uptake of the bioconjugates into Panc-1 cells, overexpressing the transferrin receptor (TfR). The bioconjugated GNR formulation exhibited very low toxicity, suggesting that it is biocompatible and potentially suitable for targeted two-photon bioimaging.

  14. Controlling the corrosion and cathodic activation of magnesium via microalloying additions of Ge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, R. L.; Hurley, M. F.; Kvryan, A.; Williams, G.; Scully, J. R.; Birbilis, N.

    2016-06-01

    The evolution of corrosion morphology and kinetics for magnesium (Mg) have been demonstrated to be influenced by cathodic activation, which implies that the rate of the cathodic partial reaction is enhanced as a result of anodic dissolution. This phenomenon was recently demonstrated to be moderated by the use of arsenic (As) alloying as a poison for the cathodic reaction, leading to significantly improved corrosion resistance. The pursuit of alternatives to toxic As is important as a means to imparting a technologically safe and effective corrosion control method for Mg (and its alloys). In this work, Mg was microalloyed with germanium (Ge), with the aim of improving corrosion resistance by retarding cathodic activation. Based on a combined analysis herein, we report that Ge is potent in supressing the cathodic hydrogen evolution reaction (reduction of water) upon Mg, improving corrosion resistance. With the addition of Ge, cathodic activation of Mg subject to cyclic polarisation was also hindered, with beneficial implications for future Mg electrodes.

  15. Quality control of laser- and powder bed-based Additive Manufacturing (AM) technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berumen, Sebastian; Bechmann, Florian; Lindner, Stefan; Kruth, Jean-Pierre; Craeghs, Tom

    The quality of metal components manufactured by laser- and powder bed-based additive manufacturing technologies has continuously been improved over the last years. However, to establish this production technology in industries with very high quality standards the accessibility of prevalent quality management methods to all steps of the process chain needs still to be enhanced. This publication describes which tools are and will be available to fulfil those requirements from the perspective of a laser machine manufacturer. Generally five aspects of the part building process are covered by separate Quality Management (QM) modules: the powder quality, the temperature management, the process gas atmosphere, the melt pool behaviour and the documentation module. This paper sets the focus on melt pool analysis and control.

  16. Catalytic enantioselective addition of organoboron reagents to fluoroketones controlled by electrostatic interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Kyunga; Silverio, Daniel L.; Torker, Sebastian; Robbins, Daniel W.; Haeffner, Fredrik; van der Mei, Farid W.; Hoveyda, Amir H.

    2016-08-01

    Organofluorine compounds are central to modern chemistry, and broadly applicable transformations that generate them efficiently and enantioselectively are in much demand. Here we introduce efficient catalytic methods for the addition of allyl and allenyl organoboron reagents to fluorine-substituted ketones. These reactions are facilitated by readily and inexpensively available catalysts and deliver versatile and otherwise difficult-to-access tertiary homoallylic alcohols in up to 98% yield and >99:1 enantiomeric ratio. Utility is highlighted by a concise enantioselective approach to the synthesis of the antiparasitic drug fluralaner (Bravecto, presently sold as the racemate). Different forms of ammonium–organofluorine interactions play a key role in the control of enantioselectivity. The greater understanding of various non-bonding interactions afforded by these studies should facilitate the future development of transformations that involve fluoroorganic entities.

  17. Stereo- and Temporally Controlled Coordination Polymerization Triggered by Alternating Addition of a Lewis Acid and Base.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bo; Cui, Dongmei; Tang, Tao

    2016-09-19

    Significant progress has been made with regard to temporally controlled radical and ring-opening polymerizations, for example, by means of chemical reagents, light, and voltage, whereas quantitative switch coordination polymerization is still challenging. Herein, we report the temporally and stereocontrolled 3,4-polymerization of isoprene through allosterically regulating the active metal center by alternating addition of Lewis basic pyridine to "poison" the Lewis acidic active metal species through acid-base interactions and Lewis acidic Al(i) Bu3 to release the original active species through pyridine abstraction. This process is quick, quantitative, and can be repeated multiple times while maintaining high 3,4-selectivity. Moreover, this strategy is also effective for the switch copolymerization of isoprene and styrene with dual 3,4- and syndiotactic selectivity. Tuning the switch cycles and intervals enables the isolation of various copolymers with different distributions of 3,4-polyisoprene and syndiotactic polystyrene sequences. PMID:27539866

  18. Catalytic enantioselective addition of organoboron reagents to fluoroketones controlled by electrostatic interactions.

    PubMed

    Lee, KyungA; Silverio, Daniel L; Torker, Sebastian; Robbins, Daniel W; Haeffner, Fredrik; van der Mei, Farid W; Hoveyda, Amir H

    2016-08-01

    Organofluorine compounds are central to modern chemistry, and broadly applicable transformations that generate them efficiently and enantioselectively are in much demand. Here we introduce efficient catalytic methods for the addition of allyl and allenyl organoboron reagents to fluorine-substituted ketones. These reactions are facilitated by readily and inexpensively available catalysts and deliver versatile and otherwise difficult-to-access tertiary homoallylic alcohols in up to 98% yield and >99:1 enantiomeric ratio. Utility is highlighted by a concise enantioselective approach to the synthesis of the antiparasitic drug fluralaner (Bravecto, presently sold as the racemate). Different forms of ammonium-organofluorine interactions play a key role in the control of enantioselectivity. The greater understanding of various non-bonding interactions afforded by these studies should facilitate the future development of transformations that involve fluoroorganic entities. PMID:27442282

  19. Growth control of nonionic reverse micelles by surfactant and solvent molecular architecture and water addition.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, Lok Kumar; Shrestha, Rekha Goswami; Aramaki, Kenji

    2011-06-01

    This paper describes a facile route to the shape, size, and structure control of reversed micelles by surfactant and solvent molecular architecture and water addition. Nonionic reverse micellar size is found to increase with increase in hydrophilic headgroup size of surfactant, whose scheme is understood in terms of decrease in the critical packing parameter (cpp). On the other hand, an opposite trend is observed with increase in lipophilicity of the surfactant. This is caused by the repulsive excluded volume interactions, which increases with the volume of lipophilic moiety of surfactant; as a result, the micelle interface tends to become more curved and micelles shrink. Solvent molecular structure has played a crucial role; increasing hydrocarbon chain length of alkanes favored one dimensional micellar growth. We note that long chain oil has a poor penetration tendency to lipophilic tail of surfactant and decreases the cpp. Solvent polarity is also crucial; globular micelles are formed in short chain oil cyclohexane. We note that decreasing chain length of oil mimic the decrease in the headgroup size of surfactant; rod-to-sphere type transition in the micellar structure. Addition of trace water favors micellar growth; maximum dimension and micellar cross section increases with increase in water concentration. The sizes of the water incorporated reverse micelles (or w/o microemulsion) are much bigger than the empty micelles. Micellar structure was confirmed by small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and supported by rheology. PMID:21770115

  20. The CERN antiproton source: Controls aspects of the additional collector ring and fast sampling devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chohan, V.

    1990-08-01

    The upgrade of the CERN antiproton source, meant to gain an order of magnitude in antiproton flux, required the construction of an additional ring to complement the existing antiproton accumulator (AA) and an entire rebuild of the target zone. The AA also needed major modifications to handle the increased flux and perform purely as an accumulator, preceded by collection in the collector ring (AC). The upgrade, known as the ACOL (antiproton collector) project, was approved under strict time and budgetary constraints and the existing AA control system, based on the Proton Synchrotron (PS) Divisional norms of CAMAC and Norsk-Data computers, had to be extended in the light of this. The limited (9 months) installation period for the whole upgrade meant that substantial preparatory and planning activities had to be carried out during the normal running of the AA. Advantage was taken of the upgrade to improve and consolidate the AA. Some aspects of the control system related to this upgrade are discussed together with the integration of new applications and instrumentation. The overall machine installation and running-in was carried out within the defined milestones and the project has now achieved the physics design goals.

  1. Cytological and Molecular Characterization of Homoeologous Group-1 Chromosomes in Hybrid Derivatives of a Durum Disomic Alien Addition Line

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) is a devastating disease of durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L., 2n = 4x = 28; AABB). To incorporate FHB resistance from diploid wheatgrass (Lophopyrum elongatum (Host) Á. Löve, 2n = 2x = 14; EE) we produced earlier a stable alien disomic addition line, DGE-1, incorporating...

  2. Safety Evaluation Report related to Hydrogen Control Owners Group assessment of Mark 3 containments

    SciTech Connect

    Li, C.Y.; Kudrick, J.A.

    1990-10-01

    Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations (10 CFR), Section 50.44 Standards for Combustible Gas Control System in Light-Water-Cooled Power Reactors,'' requires that systems be provided to control hydrogen concentration in the containment atmosphere following an accident to ensure that containment integrity is maintained. The purpose of this report is to provide regulatory guidance to licensees with Mark III containments with regard to demonstrating compliance with 10 CFR 50.44, Section (c)(3)(vi) and (c)(3)(vii). In this report, the staff provides its evaluation of the generic methodology proposed by the Hydrogen Control Owners Group. This generic methodology is documented in Topical Report HGN-112-NP, Generic Hydrogen Control Information for BWR/6 Mark III Containments.'' In addition, the staff has recommended that the vulnerability to interruption of power to the hydrogen igniters be evaluated further on a plant-specific basis as part of the individual plant examination of the plants with Mark III containments. 10 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Randomised Controlled Feasibility Trial of an Evidence-Informed Behavioural Intervention for Obese Adults with Additional Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Sniehotta, Falko F.; Dombrowski, Stephan U.; Avenell, Alison; Johnston, Marie; McDonald, Suzanne; Murchie, Peter; Ramsay, Craig R.; Robertson, Kim; Araujo-Soares, Vera

    2011-01-01

    Background Interventions for dietary and physical activity changes in obese adults may be less effective for participants with additional obesity-related risk factors and co-morbidities than for otherwise healthy individuals. This study aimed to test the feasibility and acceptability of the recruitment, allocation, measurement, retention and intervention procedures of a randomised controlled trial of an intervention to improve physical activity and dietary practices amongst obese adults with additional obesity related risk factors. Method Pilot single centre open-labelled outcome assessor-blinded randomised controlled trial of obese (Body Mass Index (BMI)≥30 kg/m2) adults (age≥18 y) with obesity related co-morbidities such as type 2 diabetes, impaired glucose tolerance or hypertension. Participants were randomly allocated to a manual-based group intervention or a leaflet control condition in accordance to a 2∶1 allocation ratio. Primary outcome was acceptability and feasibility of trial procedures, secondary outcomes included measures of body composition, physical activity, food intake and psychological process measures. Results Out of 806 potentially eligible individuals identified through list searches in two primary care general medical practices N = 81 participants (63% female; mean-age = 56.56(11.44); mean-BMI = 36.73(6.06)) with 2.35(1.47) co-morbidities were randomised. Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation (SIMD) was the only significant predictor of providing consent to take part in the study (higher chances of consent for invitees with lower levels of deprivation). Participant flowcharts, qualitative and quantitative feedback suggested good acceptance and feasibility of intervention procedures but 34.6% of randomised participants were lost to follow-up due to overly high measurement burden and sub-optimal retention procedures. Participants in the intervention group showed positive trends for most psychological, behavioural and body

  4. Additive Effect of Qidan Dihuang Grain, a Traditional Chinese Medicine, and Angiotensin Receptor Blockers on Albuminuria Levels in Patients with Diabetic Nephropathy: A Randomized, Parallel-Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Xiang, Lei; Jiang, Pingping; Zhou, Lin; Sun, Xiaomin; Bi, Jianlu; Cui, Lijuan; Nie, Xiaoli; Luo, Ren; Liu, Yanyan

    2016-01-01

    Albuminuria is characteristic of early-stage diabetic nephropathy (DN). The conventional treatments with angiotensin receptor blockers (ARB) are unable to prevent the development of albuminuria in normotensive individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Purpose. The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of ARB combined with a Chinese formula Qidan Dihuang grain (QDDHG) in improving albuminuria and Traditional Chinese Medicine Symptom (TCMS) scores in normotensive individuals with T2DM. Methods. Eligible patients were randomized to the treatment group and the control group. Results. Compared with baseline (week 0), both treatment and control groups markedly improved the 24-hour albuminuria, total proteinuria (TPU), and urinary albumin to creatinine ratio (A/C) at 4, 8, and 12 weeks. Between treatment and the control group, the levels of albuminuria in the treatment group were significantly lower than in the control group at 8 and 12 weeks (p < 0.05). In addition, treatment group markedly decreased the scores of TCMS after treatment. Conclusion. This trial suggests that QDDHG combined with ARB administration decreases the levels of albuminuria and the scores for TCMS in normotensive individuals with T2DM. PMID:27375762

  5. Information without Implementation: A Practical Example for Developing a Best Practice Education Control Group.

    PubMed

    Balderson, Benjamin H; McCurry, Susan M; Vitiello, Michael V; Shortreed, Susan M; Rybarczyk, Bruce D; Keefe, Francis J; Korff, Michael Von

    2016-01-01

    This article considers methodology for developing an education-only control group and proposes a simple approach to designing rigorous and well-accepted control groups. This approach is demonstrated in a large randomized trial. The Lifestyles trial (n = 367) compared three group interventions: (a) cognitive-behavioral treatment (CBT) for osteoarthritis pain, (b) CBT for osteoarthritis pain and insomnia, and (c) education-only control (EOC). EOC emulated the interventions excluding hypothesized treatment components and controlling for nonspecific treatment effects. Results showed this approach resulted in a control group that was highly credible and acceptable to patients. This approach can be an effective and practical guide for developing high-quality control groups in trials of behavioral interventions. PMID:26485203

  6. Information without Implementation: A Practical Example for Developing a Best Practice Education Control Group

    PubMed Central

    Balderson, Benjamin H.; McCurry, Susan M.; Vitiello, Michael V.; Shortreed, Susan M.; Rybarczyk, Bruce D.; Keefe, Francis J.; Von Korff, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This paper considers methodology for developing an education only control group and proposes a simple approach to designing rigorous and well-accepted control groups. This approach is demonstrated in a large randomized trial. The Lifestyles trial (n=367) compared three group interventions: 1) cognitive-behavioral treatment (CBT) for osteoarthritis pain, 2) CBT for osteoarthritis pain and insomnia, and 3) education only control (EOC). EOC emulated the interventions excluding hypothesized treatment components and controlling for non-specific treatment effects. Results showed this approach resulted in a control group that was highly credible and acceptable to patients. This approach can be an effective and practical guide for developing high quality control groups in trials of behavioral interventions. PMID:26485203

  7. Control Group Design: Enhancing Rigor in Research of Mind-Body Therapies for Depression

    PubMed Central

    Kinser, Patricia Anne; Robins, Jo Lynne

    2013-01-01

    Although a growing body of research suggests that mind-body therapies may be appropriate to integrate into the treatment of depression, studies consistently lack methodological sophistication particularly in the area of control groups. In order to better understand the relationship between control group selection and methodological rigor, we provide a brief review of the literature on control group design in yoga and tai chi studies for depression, and we discuss challenges we have faced in the design of control groups for our recent clinical trials of these mind-body complementary therapies for women with depression. To address the multiple challenges of research about mind-body therapies, we suggest that researchers should consider 4 key questions: whether the study design matches the research question; whether the control group addresses performance, expectation, and detection bias; whether the control group is ethical, feasible, and attractive; and whether the control group is designed to adequately control for nonspecific intervention effects. Based on these questions, we provide specific recommendations about control group design with the goal of minimizing bias and maximizing validity in future research. PMID:23662111

  8. Analysis of Time to Event Outcomes in Randomized Controlled Trials by Generalized Additive Models

    PubMed Central

    Argyropoulos, Christos; Unruh, Mark L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Randomized Controlled Trials almost invariably utilize the hazard ratio calculated with a Cox proportional hazard model as a treatment efficacy measure. Despite the widespread adoption of HRs, these provide a limited understanding of the treatment effect and may even provide a biased estimate when the assumption of proportional hazards in the Cox model is not verified by the trial data. Additional treatment effect measures on the survival probability or the time scale may be used to supplement HRs but a framework for the simultaneous generation of these measures is lacking. Methods By splitting follow-up time at the nodes of a Gauss Lobatto numerical quadrature rule, techniques for Poisson Generalized Additive Models (PGAM) can be adopted for flexible hazard modeling. Straightforward simulation post-estimation transforms PGAM estimates for the log hazard into estimates of the survival function. These in turn were used to calculate relative and absolute risks or even differences in restricted mean survival time between treatment arms. We illustrate our approach with extensive simulations and in two trials: IPASS (in which the proportionality of hazards was violated) and HEMO a long duration study conducted under evolving standards of care on a heterogeneous patient population. Findings PGAM can generate estimates of the survival function and the hazard ratio that are essentially identical to those obtained by Kaplan Meier curve analysis and the Cox model. PGAMs can simultaneously provide multiple measures of treatment efficacy after a single data pass. Furthermore, supported unadjusted (overall treatment effect) but also subgroup and adjusted analyses, while incorporating multiple time scales and accounting for non-proportional hazards in survival data. Conclusions By augmenting the HR conventionally reported, PGAMs have the potential to support the inferential goals of multiple stakeholders involved in the evaluation and appraisal of clinical trial

  9. Whole-lake nitrate addition for control of methylmercury in mercury-contaminated Onondaga Lake, NY.

    PubMed

    Matthews, David A; Babcock, David B; Nolan, John G; Prestigiacomo, Anthony R; Effler, Steven W; Driscoll, Charles T; Todorova, Svetoslava G; Kuhr, Kenneth M

    2013-08-01

    Methylmercury (MeHg) strongly bioaccumulates in aquatic food webs resulting in exposure to humans and wildlife through consumption of fish. Production of MeHg is promoted by anaerobic conditions and the supply of inorganic Hg (Hg(2+)), sulfate (SO4(2-)), and labile organic carbon. The anaerobic sediments of stratified lakes are particularly active zones for methylation of Hg(2+) and can be an important source of MeHg to the water column during summer anoxia and fall turnover. Nitrate (NO3(-)) addition has recently been proposed as a novel approach for the control of MeHg accumulation in the hypolimnia of Hg-contaminated lakes. In 2011, a whole-lake NO3(-) addition pilot test was conducted in Hg-contaminated Onondaga Lake, NY with the objective of limiting release of MeHg from the pelagic sediments to the hypolimnion through maintenance of NO3(-)-N concentrations >1mgN/L. A liquid calcium-nitrate solution was added to the hypolimnion as a neutrally buoyant plume approximately three times per week during the summer stratification interval. Maximum hypolimnetic concentrations of MeHg and soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) decreased 94% and 95% from 2009 levels, suggesting increased sorption to Fe and Mn oxyhydroxides in surficial sediments as the regulating mechanism. Increased MeHg concentrations in the upper waters during fall turnover, which had been a generally recurring pattern, did not occur in 2011, resulting in decreased exposure of aquatic organisms to MeHg. Over the 1992-2011 interval, the hypolimnetic NO3(-) supply explained 85% and 95% of the interannual variations in hypolimnetic accumulations of SRP and MeHg, respectively. PMID:23683521

  10. 29 CFR 4043.29 - Change in contributing sponsor or controlled group.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Q, to Company R, which is not a member of Company Q's controlled group. There will be no change in the structure of Company Q's controlled group. On the effective date of the sale, Company R will... and Company R enter into the binding contract, the change in the contributing sponsor has not...

  11. 26 CFR 1.414(b)-1 - Controlled group of corporations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Controlled group of corporations. 1.414(b)-1 Section 1.414(b)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Pension, Profit-Sharing, Stock Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.414(b)-1 Controlled group of corporations....

  12. 29 CFR 4043.29 - Change in contributing sponsor or controlled group.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... solely in a reorganization involving a mere change in identity, form, or place of organization, however... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Change in contributing sponsor or controlled group. 4043.29... Events § 4043.29 Change in contributing sponsor or controlled group. (a) Reportable event. A...

  13. Control Patterns in Dyadic Systems: Marital Group Psychotherapy as Change Agent.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarrick, Anne K.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Examined changes in response control patterns exhibited by five married couples who participated in two brief psychotherapy groups. Used the Ericson-Rogers Relational Coding System to score the control direction of interactions between group members. Found individual flexibility increased for each of these relationships over the course of group…

  14. Additional Evidence that Juvenile Oyster Disease Is Caused by a Member of the Roseobacter Group and Colonization of Nonaffected Animals by Stappia stellulata-Like Strains†

    PubMed Central

    Boettcher, Katherine J.; Barber, Bruce J.; Singer, John T.

    2000-01-01

    Juvenile oyster disease (JOD) causes significant annual mortalities of hatchery-produced Eastern oysters, Crassostrea virginica, cultured in the Northeast. We have reported that a novel species of the α-proteobacteria Roseobacter group (designated CVSP) was numerically dominant in JOD-affected animals sampled during the 1997 epizootic on the Damariscotta River, Maine. In this study we report the isolation of CVSP bacteria from JOD-affected oysters during three separate epizootics in 1998. These bacteria were not detected in nonaffected oysters at the enzootic site, nor in animals raised at a JOD-free site. Animals raised at the JOD enzootic site that were unaffected by JOD were stably and persistently colonized by Stappia stellulata-like strains. These isolates (designated M1) inhibited the growth of CVSP bacteria in a disk-diffusion assay and thus may have prevented colonization of these animals by CVSP bacteria in situ. Laboratory-maintained C. virginica injected with CVSP bacteria experienced statistically significant elevated mortalities compared to controls, and CVSP bacteria were recovered from these animals during the mortality events. Together, these results provide additional evidence that CVSP bacteria are the etiological agent of JOD. Further, there are no other descriptions of specific marine α-proteobacteria that have been successfully cultivated from a defined animal host. Thus, this system presents an opportunity to investigate both bacterial and host factors involved in the establishment of such associations and the role of the invertebrate host in the ecology of these marine α-proteobacteria. PMID:10966410

  15. Controlling the corrosion and cathodic activation of magnesium via microalloying additions of Ge

    PubMed Central

    Liu, R. L.; Hurley, M. F.; Kvryan, A.; Williams, G.; Scully, J. R.; Birbilis, N.

    2016-01-01

    The evolution of corrosion morphology and kinetics for magnesium (Mg) have been demonstrated to be influenced by cathodic activation, which implies that the rate of the cathodic partial reaction is enhanced as a result of anodic dissolution. This phenomenon was recently demonstrated to be moderated by the use of arsenic (As) alloying as a poison for the cathodic reaction, leading to significantly improved corrosion resistance. The pursuit of alternatives to toxic As is important as a means to imparting a technologically safe and effective corrosion control method for Mg (and its alloys). In this work, Mg was microalloyed with germanium (Ge), with the aim of improving corrosion resistance by retarding cathodic activation. Based on a combined analysis herein, we report that Ge is potent in supressing the cathodic hydrogen evolution reaction (reduction of water) upon Mg, improving corrosion resistance. With the addition of Ge, cathodic activation of Mg subject to cyclic polarisation was also hindered, with beneficial implications for future Mg electrodes. PMID:27350286

  16. Controlling the corrosion and cathodic activation of magnesium via microalloying additions of Ge.

    PubMed

    Liu, R L; Hurley, M F; Kvryan, A; Williams, G; Scully, J R; Birbilis, N

    2016-01-01

    The evolution of corrosion morphology and kinetics for magnesium (Mg) have been demonstrated to be influenced by cathodic activation, which implies that the rate of the cathodic partial reaction is enhanced as a result of anodic dissolution. This phenomenon was recently demonstrated to be moderated by the use of arsenic (As) alloying as a poison for the cathodic reaction, leading to significantly improved corrosion resistance. The pursuit of alternatives to toxic As is important as a means to imparting a technologically safe and effective corrosion control method for Mg (and its alloys). In this work, Mg was microalloyed with germanium (Ge), with the aim of improving corrosion resistance by retarding cathodic activation. Based on a combined analysis herein, we report that Ge is potent in supressing the cathodic hydrogen evolution reaction (reduction of water) upon Mg, improving corrosion resistance. With the addition of Ge, cathodic activation of Mg subject to cyclic polarisation was also hindered, with beneficial implications for future Mg electrodes. PMID:27350286

  17. Ring Walking/Oxidative Addition Reactions for the Controlled Synthesis of Conjugated Polymers

    SciTech Connect

    Bazan, Guillermo C

    2012-04-03

    Power conversion efficiencies of plastic solar cells depend strongly on the molecular weight characteristics of the semiconducting polymers used for their fabrication. The synthesis of these materials typically relies on transition metal mediated catalytic reactions. In many instances, the ideal structures cannot be attained because of deficiencies in these reactions, particularly when it comes to being able to achieve high number average molecular weights and narrow molecular weight distributions. Another important conjugated polymer structure of interest is one in which a single functional group is attached at the end group of the chain. Such systems would be ideal for modifying surface properties at interfaces and for labeling biomolecular probes used in fluorescent biosensors. To respond to the challenges above, our efforts have centered on the design of homogenous transition metal complexes that are easy to prepare and effective in carrying out living, or quasi-living, condensative chain polymerization reactions. The key mechanistic challenge for the success of this reaction is to force the insertion of one monomer unit at a time via a process that involves migration of the transition metal-containing fragment to one terminus of the polymer chain. Chain growth characteristics are therefore favored when the metal does not dissociate from the newly formed reductive elimination product. We have proposed that dissociation is disfavored by the formation of a -complex, in which the metal can sample various locations of the electronically delocalized framework, a process that we term ring-walking , and find the functionality where oxidative addition takes place. Success has been achieved in the nickel-mediated cross coupling reaction of Grignard reagents with aromatic halides by using bromo[1,2-bis(diphenylphosphino)ethane]phenylnickel. This reagent can yield poly(thiophene)s (one of the most widely used type of polymer in plastic solar cells) with excellent

  18. The quality of control groups in non-randomized studies published in Journal of Hand Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Shepard P.; Malay, Sunitha; Chung, Kevin C.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate control group selection in non-randomized studies published in the Journal of Hand Surgery American (JHS). Methods We reviewed all papers published in JHS in 2013 to identify studies that used non-randomized control groups. Data collected included type of study design and control group characteristics. We then appraised studies to determine if authors discussed confounding and selection bias and how they controlled for confounding. Results Thirty-seven non-randomized studies were published in JHS in 2013. The source of control was either the same institution as the study group, a different institution, a database, or not provided in the manuscript. Twenty-nine (78%) studies statistically compared key characteristics between control and study group. Confounding was controlled with matching, exclusion criteria, or regression analysis. Twenty-two (59%) papers explicitly discussed the threat of confounding and 18(49%) identified sources of selection bias. Conclusions In our review of non-randomized studies published in JHS, papers had well-defined controls that were similar to the study group, allowing for reasonable comparisons. However, we identified substantial confounding and bias that were not addressed as explicit limitations, which might lead the reader to overestimate the scientific validity of the data. Clinical relevance Incorporating a brief discussion of control group selection in scientific manuscripts should help readers interpret the study more appropriately. Authors, reviewers, and editors should strive to address this component of clinical importance. PMID:25447000

  19. A Serious Videogame as an Additional Therapy Tool for Training Emotional Regulation and Impulsivity Control in Severe Gambling Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Tárrega, Salomé; Castro-Carreras, Laia; Fernández-Aranda, Fernando; Granero, Roser; Giner-Bartolomé, Cristina; Aymamí, Neus; Gómez-Peña, Mónica; Santamaría, Juan J.; Forcano, Laura; Steward, Trevor; Menchón, José M.; Jiménez-Murcia, Susana

    2015-01-01

    Background: Gambling disorder (GD) is characterized by a significant lack of self-control and is associated with impulsivity-related personality traits. It is also linked to deficits in emotional regulation and frequently co-occurs with anxiety and depression symptoms. There is also evidence that emotional dysregulation may play a mediatory role between GD and psychopathological symptomatology. Few studies have reported the outcomes of psychological interventions that specifically address these underlying processes. Objectives: To assess the utility of the Playmancer platform, a serious video game, as an additional therapy tool in a CBT intervention for GD, and to estimate pre-post changes in measures of impulsivity, anger expression and psychopathological symptomatology. Method: The sample comprised a single group of 16 male treatment-seeking individuals with severe GD diagnosis. Therapy intervention consisted of 16 group weekly CBT sessions and, concurrently, 10 additional weekly sessions of a serious video game. Pre-post treatment scores on South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS), Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11), I7 Impulsiveness Questionnaire (I7), State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory 2 (STAXI-2), Symptom Checklist-Revised (SCL-90-R), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI-S-T), and Novelty Seeking from the Temperament and Character Inventory-Revised (TCI-R) were compared. Results: After the intervention, significant changes were observed in several measures of impulsivity, anger expression and other psychopathological symptoms. Dropout and relapse rates during treatment were similar to those described in the literature for CBT. Conclusion: Complementing CBT interventions for GD with a specific therapy approach like a serious video game might be helpful in addressing certain underlying factors which are usually difficult to change, including impulsivity and anger expression. PMID:26617550

  20. Thermochemical Properties Enthalpy, Entropy, and Heat Capacity of C1-C4 Fluorinated Hydrocarbons: Fluorocarbon Group Additivity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Heng; Castillo, Álvaro; Bozzelli, Joseph W

    2015-07-23

    Enthalpies of formation for 14 C2–C4 fluorinated hydrocarbons were calculated with nine popular ab initio and density functional theory methods: B3LYP, CBS-QB3, CBS-APNO, M06, M06-2X, ωB97X, G4, G4(MP2)-6X, and W1U via several series of isodesmic reactions. The recommended ideal gas phase ΔHf298° (kcal mol(–1)) values calculated in this study are the following: −65.4 for CH3CH2F; −70.2 for CH3CH2CH2F; −75.3 for CH3CHFCH3; −75.2 for CH3CH2CH2CH2F; −80.3 for CH3CHFCH2CH3; −108.1 for CH2F2; −120.9 for CH3CHF2; −125.8 for CH3CH2CHF2; −133.3 for CH3CF2CH3; −166.7 for CHF3; −180.5 for CH3CF3; −185.5 for CH3CH2CF3; −223.2 for CF4; and −85.8 for (CH3)3CF. Entropies (S298° in cal mol(–1) K(–1)) were estimated using B3LYP/6-31+G(d,p) computed frequencies and geometries. Rotational barriers were determined and hindered internal rotational contributions for S298°, and Cp(T) were calculated using the rigid rotor harmonic oscillator approximation, with direct integration over energy levels of the intramolecular rotation potential energy curve. Thermochemical properties for the fluorinated carbon groups C/C/F/H2, C/C2/F/H, C/C/F2/H, C/C2/F2, and C/C/F3 were derived from the above target fluorocarbons. Previously published enthalpies and groups for 1,2-difluoroethane, 1,1,2-trifluoroethane, 1,1,2,2-tetrafluoroethane, 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane, 1,1,1,2,2-pentafluoroethane, 2-fluoro-2-methylpropane that were previously determined via work reaction schemes are revised using updated reference species values. Standard deviations are compared for the calculation methods. PMID:26066097

  1. Phosphazene additives

    SciTech Connect

    Harrup, Mason K; Rollins, Harry W

    2013-11-26

    An additive comprising a phosphazene compound that has at least two reactive functional groups and at least one capping functional group bonded to phosphorus atoms of the phosphazene compound. One of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with cellulose and the other of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with a resin, such as an amine resin of a polycarboxylic acid resin. The at least one capping functional group is selected from the group consisting of a short chain ether group, an alkoxy group, or an aryloxy group. Also disclosed are an additive-resin admixture, a method of treating a wood product, and a wood product.

  2. A single blind randomized control trial on support groups for Chinese persons with mild dementia

    PubMed Central

    Young, Daniel KW; Kwok, Timothy CY; Ng, Petrus YN

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Persons with mild dementia experience multiple losses and manifest depressive symptoms. This research study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of a support group led by a social worker for Chinese persons with mild dementia. Research methods Participants were randomly assigned to either a ten-session support group or a control group. Standardized assessment tools were used for data collection at pretreatment and post-treatment periods by a research assistant who was kept blind to the group assignment of the participants. Upon completion of the study, 20 treatment group participants and 16 control group participants completed all assessments. Results At baseline, the treatment and control groups did not show any significant difference on all demographic variables, as well as on all baseline measures; over one-half (59%) of all the participants reported having depression, as assessed by a Chinese Geriatric Depression Scale score ≥8. After completing the support group, the depressive mood of the treatment group participants reduced from 8.83 (standard deviation =2.48) to 7.35 (standard deviation =2.18), which was significant (Wilcoxon signed-rank test; P=0.017, P<0.05), while the control group’s participants did not show any significant change. Conclusion This present study supports the efficacy and effectiveness of the support group for persons with mild dementia in Chinese society. In particular, this present study shows that a support group can reduce depressive symptoms for participants. PMID:25587218

  3. From Pan-Reactive KV7 Channel Opener to Subtype Selective Opener/Inhibitor by Addition of a Methyl Group

    PubMed Central

    Blom, Sigrid Marie; Rottländer, Mario; Kehler, Jan; Bundgaard, Christoffer; Schmitt, Nicole; Jensen, Henrik Sindal

    2014-01-01

    The voltage-gated potassium channels of the KV7 family (KV7.1–5) play important roles in controlling neuronal excitability and are therefore attractive targets for treatment of CNS disorders linked to hyperexcitability. One of the main challenges in developing KV7 channel active drugs has been to identify compounds capable of discriminating between the neuronally expressed subtypes (KV7.2–5), aiding the identification of the subunit composition of KV7 currents in various tissues, and possessing better therapeutic potential for particular indications. By taking advantage of the structure-activity relationship of acrylamide KV7 channel openers and the effects of these compounds on mutant KV7 channels, we have designed and synthesized a novel KV7 channel modulator with a unique profile. The compound, named SMB-1, is an inhibitor of KV7.2 and an activator of KV7.4. SMB-1 inhibits KV7.2 by reducing the current amplitude and increasing the time constant for the slow component of the activation kinetics. The activation of KV7.4 is seen as an increase in the current amplitude and a slowing of the deactivation kinetics. Experiments studying mutant channels with a compromised binding site for the KV7.2–5 opener retigabine indicate that SMB-1 binds within the same pocket as retigabine for both inhibition of KV7.2 and activation of KV7.4. SMB-1 may serve as a valuable tool for KV7 channel research and may be used as a template for further design of better subtype selective KV7 channel modulators. A compound with this profile could hold novel therapeutic potential such as the treatment of both positive and cognitive symptoms in schizophrenia. PMID:24956197

  4. 46 CFR Appendix F to Subpart C of... - Optional Rider for Additional NVOCC Financial Responsibility for Group Bonds [Optional Rider to...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Optional Rider for Additional NVOCC Financial Responsibility for Group Bonds F Appendix F to Subpart C of Part 515 Shipping FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION REGULATIONS AFFECTING OCEAN SHIPPING IN FOREIGN COMMERCE LICENSING, FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY REQUIREMENTS, AND GENERAL DUTIES FOR OCEAN...

  5. A feasibility study regarding the addition of a fifth control to a rotorcraft in-flight simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, Simon; Andrisani, Dominick, II

    1992-01-01

    The addition of a large movable horizontal tail surface to the control system of a rotorcraft in-flight simulator being developed from a Sikorsky UH-60A Black Hawk Helicopter is evaluated. The capabilities of the control surface as a trim control and as an active control are explored. The helicopter dynamics are modeled using the Generic Helicopter simulation program developed by Sikorsky Aircraft. The effect of the horizontal tail on the helicopter trim envelope is examined by plotting trim maps of the aircraft attitude and controls as a function of the flight speed and horizontal tail incidence. The control power of the tail surface relative to that of the other controls is examined by comparing control derivatives extracted from the simulation program over the flight speed envelope. The horizontal tail's contribution as an active control is evaluated using an explicit model following control synthesis involving a linear model of the helicopter in steady, level flight at a flight speed of eighty knots. The horizontal tail is found to provide additional control flexibility in the longitudinal axis. As a trim control, it provides effective control of the trim pitch attitude at mid to high forward speeds. As an active control, the horizontal tail provides useful pitching moment generating capabilities at mid to high forward speeds.

  6. 75 FR 19983 - National Center for Injury Prevention and Control Initial Review Group

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-16

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Center for Injury Prevention and Control Initial Review Group In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), announces the following...

  7. Addition of surfactants in ozonated water cleaning for the suppression of functional group formation and particle adhesion on the SiO2 surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jahyun; Im, Kyungtaek; Lim, Sangwoo

    2011-04-01

    Various kinds of surfactants were added to a cleaning solution and deionized (DI) water, and their effect on the suppression of organic function group formation and particle adhesion to a SiO2 surface was analyzed using multi-internal reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The results implied that attached organic functional groups are affected by the chemical structure of a surfactant in DI water. Furthermore, the addition of anionic glycolic acid ethoxylate 4-tert-butylphenyl ether (GAE4E) is the most effective in terms of preventing organic group attachment and particle adhesion to the SiO2 surface, whether it was added to the cleaning solution or post-cleaning rinse water, with or without polystyrene latex particles. Moreover, it was possible to completely prevent particle adhesion to the SiO2 surface with the proper addition of GAE4E in DIO3 solution.

  8. Traditional microscopy instruction versus process-oriented virtual microscopy instruction: a naturalistic experiment with control group

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Virtual microscopy is being introduced in medical education as an approach for learning how to interpret information in microscopic specimens. It is, however, far from evident how to incorporate its use into existing teaching practice. The aim of the study was to explore the consequences of introducing virtual microscopy tasks into an undergraduate pathology course in an attempt to render the instruction more process-oriented. The research questions were: 1) How is virtual microscopy perceived by students? 2) Does work on virtual microscopy tasks contribute to improvement in performance in microscopic pathology in comparison with attending assistant-led demonstrations only? Method During a one-week period, an experimental group completed three sets of virtual microscopy homework assignments in addition to attending demonstrations. A control group attended the demonstrations only. Performance in microscopic pathology was measured by a pre-test and a post-test. Student perceptions of regular instruction and virtual microscopy were collected one month later by administering the Inventory of Intrinsic Motivation and open-ended questions. Results The students voiced an appreciation for virtual microscopy for the purposes of the course and for self-study. As for learning gains, the results indicated that learning was speeded up in a subgroup of students consisting of conscientious high achievers. Conclusions The enriched instruction model may be suited as such for elective courses following the basic course. However, the instructional model needs further development to be suited for basic courses. PMID:21489203

  9. 40 CFR 82.18 - Availability of production in addition to baseline production allowances for class II controlled...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ....20 in order to produce with the additional production allowances. (2) Trade from a Party—Information... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Availability of production in addition to baseline production allowances for class II controlled substances. 82.18 Section 82.18...

  10. Summary Report of Working Group 5: Beam and Radiation Generation, Monitoring, and Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Church, Mike; Kim, Kiyong

    2010-11-01

    This paper summarizes the activities and presentations of Working Group 5 of the Advanced Accelerator Concepts Workshop held at Annapolis, Maryland in June 2010. Working Group 5 touched on a broad range of topics in the fields of beam and radiation generation and their monitoring and control. These topics were not comprehensively covered in this Workshop, but rather the Working Group concentrated on specific new developments and recent investigations. The Working Group divided its sessions into four broad categories: cathodes and electron guns, radiation generation, beam diagnostics, and beam control and dynamics. This summary is divided into the same structure.

  11. Summary report of working group 5: Beam and radiation generation, monitoring, and control

    SciTech Connect

    Church, Mike; Kim, Ki-Yong; /Maryland U.

    2010-01-01

    This paper summarizes the activities and presentations of Working Group 5 of the Advanced Accelerator Concepts Workshop held at Annapolis, Maryland in June 2010. Working Group 5 touched on a broad range of topics in the fields of beam and radiation generation and their monitoring and control. These topics were not comprehensively covered in this Workshop, but rather the Working Group concentrated on specific new developments and recent investigations. The Working Group divided its sessions into four broad categories: cathodes and electron guns, radiation generation, beam diagnostics, and beam control and dynamics. This summary is divided into the same structure.

  12. Cognitive profile of patients with rotated drawing at copy or recall: a controlled group study.

    PubMed

    Molteni, Federica; Traficante, Debora; Ferri, Francesca; Isella, Valeria

    2014-03-01

    When copying or recalling a figure from memory, some patient with dementia or focal brain lesions may rotate the drawing through ±90° or 180°. We have tried to clarify the nature of this phenomenon by investigating the cognitive profile of 22 patients who rotated the copy of the Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure and 27 who rotated (only) the recall, and two control groups of cases with the same neuropsychiatric diagnoses, but no misorientation deficit. Brain MRI and FDG-PET images were also analysed. Predictor of rotation at the copy versus rotation at the recall was visuospatial impairment as measured by the copy of the Rey Figure; predictors of rotation at the copy versus no rotation were, again, visuospatial deficits, in addition to an abnormal performance at the task of selective attention. No specific profile of cognitive impairment distinguished patients with and without rotation at the recall. Disproportionate temporo-parieto-occipital atrophy or hypometabolism were evident in cases with misorientation of the copy, while predominant frontal abnormalities were found in cases of rotated recall. Based on these findings, rotated drawing at the copy is interpreted as a dorsal visual stream deficit, whose occurrence is more probable when attentional control is impaired. Rotation at recall seems to have a distinct, more anterior, neural substrate, but its dysexecutive nature has yet to be demonstrated. PMID:24509088

  13. A Comparison of Hypnotic Induction, Task Motivation, and a "Cold Start" Control Group on Hypnotizability.

    PubMed

    Krystek, Stephen; Kumar, V K

    2016-10-01

    Groups of participants (N = 164) were randomly assigned to three conditions: Group 1 received a trance induction, Group 2 received task-motivational instructions, and Group 3-"cold start" control-was simply told, "We will begin the hypnosis procedure now." All participants received the Creative Imagination Scale suggestions and then completed the Creative Imagination Scale and Inventory Scale of Hypnotic Depth. The three conditions did not differ significantly either on the Creative Imagination Scale or in reported hypnotic depth. These results are consistent with prior studies which show that trance induction and task-motivational yield similar results, but they are inconsistent inasmuch as the trance induction and task-motivational groups did not differ from the control group. These results, however, are predictable from socio-cognitive perspectives that the context of hypnosis itself can elicit hypnotic behaviors. PMID:27586049

  14. Social Support Groups in the Maintenance of Glycemic Control after Community-Based Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Guangxing; Hughes, Claire; Kehauoha, Bridget Puni; Sinclair, Ka‘imi A.

    2016-01-01

    Native Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders (NH/PI; e.g., Samoan and Chuukese) have higher type 2 diabetes prevalence compared to other groups in Hawai‘i. Partners in Care (PIC), a culturally tailored, community-based, diabetes self-management education intervention (DSME), is effective at improving participants' glycemic control and self-care behaviors. Maintenance of improvements is challenging. Diabetes-related social support groups (SSG) are a promising maintenance component for DSME. This study examined the effects of a diabetes-specific SSG component relative to a control group, after the receipt of the 3-month PIC intervention, which was delivered to 47 adult NH/PI with type 2 diabetes. Participants were then randomized to either a 3-month, 6-session SSG or a control group. Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), blood pressure, triglycerides, cholesterol, and diabetes self-management knowledge and behaviors were assessed at baseline, 3 months, and 6 months. Results indicated significant improvements in HbA1c, diabetes-related self-management knowledge, and behaviors from baseline to 3-month assessment. However, no differences between the SSG and control group from 3-month to 6-month assessment suggest that all participants were able to maintain initial improvements. The SSG group had a significant decrease in systolic blood pressure from 3-month to 6-month assessment while the control group did not. Study limitations and future directions are discussed. PMID:27563680

  15. Social Support Groups in the Maintenance of Glycemic Control after Community-Based Intervention.

    PubMed

    Ing, Claire Townsend; Zhang, Guangxing; Dillard, Adrienne; Yoshimura, Sheryl R; Hughes, Claire; Palakiko, Donna-Marie; Kehauoha, Bridget Puni; Sinclair, Ka'imi A; Kaholokula, Joseph Keawe'aimoku

    2016-01-01

    Native Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders (NH/PI; e.g., Samoan and Chuukese) have higher type 2 diabetes prevalence compared to other groups in Hawai'i. Partners in Care (PIC), a culturally tailored, community-based, diabetes self-management education intervention (DSME), is effective at improving participants' glycemic control and self-care behaviors. Maintenance of improvements is challenging. Diabetes-related social support groups (SSG) are a promising maintenance component for DSME. This study examined the effects of a diabetes-specific SSG component relative to a control group, after the receipt of the 3-month PIC intervention, which was delivered to 47 adult NH/PI with type 2 diabetes. Participants were then randomized to either a 3-month, 6-session SSG or a control group. Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), blood pressure, triglycerides, cholesterol, and diabetes self-management knowledge and behaviors were assessed at baseline, 3 months, and 6 months. Results indicated significant improvements in HbA1c, diabetes-related self-management knowledge, and behaviors from baseline to 3-month assessment. However, no differences between the SSG and control group from 3-month to 6-month assessment suggest that all participants were able to maintain initial improvements. The SSG group had a significant decrease in systolic blood pressure from 3-month to 6-month assessment while the control group did not. Study limitations and future directions are discussed. PMID:27563680

  16. Control of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in contaminated alfalfa silage: Effects of silage additives.

    PubMed

    Ogunade, I M; Kim, D H; Jiang, Y; Weinberg, Z G; Jeong, K C; Adesogan, A T

    2016-06-01

    This study was conducted to examine if adding microbial inoculants or propionic acid to alfalfa silages contaminated with Escherichia coli O157:H7 would inhibit the growth of the pathogen during or after ensiling. Alfalfa forage was harvested at the early bloom stage, wilted to a dry matter concentration of 54%, chopped to 19-mm lengths, and ensiled after treatment with one of the following: (1) distilled water (control); (2) 1×10(5) cfu/g of E. coli O157:H7 (EC); (3) EC and 1×10(6) cfu/g of Lactobacillus plantarum (EC+LP); (4) EC and 1×10(6) cfu/g of Lactobacillus buchneri (EC+LB); and (5) EC and 2.2g/kg of propionic acid (EC+PA). Each treatment was ensiled in quadruplicate in laboratory silos for 0, 3, 7, 16, and 100d and analyzed for EC counts, pH, and organic acids. In addition, samples from d 100 were analyzed for chemical composition, ammonia-N, counts of yeasts and molds, and aerobic stability. Escherichia coli O157:H7 was detected in all silages until d 7, but by d 16 it was not detected in those treated with EC+LB and EC+LP, though it was still detected in EC and EC+PA silages. However, by d 100, the pathogen was not detected in any silage. The rate of pH decrease to 5.0 was fastest for the EC+LP silage (7d), followed by the EC+LB silage (16d). Nevertheless, all silages had attained a pH of or less than 5.0 by d 100. The rapid decrease in pH in EC+LP and EC+LB silages was observed due to higher lactate and acetate concentrations, respectively, relative to the other silages during the early fermentation phase (d 3-16). Propionic acid was only detected in the EC+PA silage. Yeast counts were lowest in EC+LB and EC+PA silages. Subsamples of all d-100 silages were reinoculated with 1×10(5) cfu/g of EC immediately after silo opening. When the pathogen was subsequently enumerated after 168h of aerobic exposure, it was not detected in silages treated with EC+PA, EC+LB, or EC+LP, which all had pH values less than 5.0. Whereas the EC silage had a pH value of 5

  17. Mountain gorilla tug-of-war: Silverbacks have limited control over reproduction in multimale groups

    PubMed Central

    Bradley, Brenda J.; Robbins, Martha M.; Williamson, Elizabeth A.; Steklis, H. Dieter; Steklis, Netzin Gerald; Eckhardt, Nadin; Boesch, Christophe; Vigilant, Linda

    2005-01-01

    To determine who fathers the offspring in wild mountain gorilla groups containing more than one adult male silverback, we genotyped nearly one-fourth (n = 92) of the mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei beringei) living in the Virunga Volcanoes region of Africa. Paternity analysis of 48 offspring born into four groups between 1985 and 1999 revealed that, although all infants were sired by within-group males, the socially dominant silverback did not always monopolize reproduction within his group. Instead, the second-ranking male sired an average of 15% of group offspring. This result, in combination with previous findings that second-ranking males fare best by not leaving the group but by staying and waiting to assume dominance even if no reproduction is possible while waiting, is not consistent with expectations from a reproductive skew model in which the silverback concedes controllable reproduction to the second-ranking male. Instead, the data suggest a “tug-of-war” scenario in which neither the dominant nor the second-ranking male has full control over his relative reproductive share. The two top-ranked males were typically unrelated and this, in combination with the mixed paternity of group offspring, means that multimale gorilla groups do not approximate family groups. Instead, as long-term assemblages of related and unrelated individuals, gorilla groups are similar to chimpanzee groups and so offer interesting possibilities for kin-biased interactions among individuals. PMID:15964984

  18. Summary report on beam and radiation generation, monitoring and control (working group 6).

    SciTech Connect

    Power, J. G.; Gordon, D. F.; High Energy Physics; Naval Research Lab.

    2009-01-01

    The discussions of the working group on beam and radiation generation, monitoring, and control (working group 6) at the 2008 advanced accelerator concepts workshop are summarized. The discussions concerned electron injectors, phase space manipulation, beam diagnostics, pulse train generation, intense beam physics, and radiation generation.

  19. Nurture Groups: A Large-Scale, Controlled Study of Effects on Development and Academic Attainment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Sue; MacKay, Tommy; Kearney, Maura

    2009-01-01

    Nurture groups have contributed to inclusive practices in primary schools in the UK for some time now and have frequently been the subject of articles in this journal. This large-scale, controlled study of nurture groups across 32 schools in the City of Glasgow provides further evidence for their effectiveness in addressing the emotional…

  20. Terminological Control of "Anonymous Groups" for Catalogues of Audiovisual Television Documents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caldera-Serrano, Jorge

    2006-01-01

    This article discusses the exceptional nature of the description of moving images for television archives, deriving from their audiovisual nature, and of the specifications in the queries of journalists as users of the Document Information System. It is suggested that there is a need to control completely "Anonymous Groups"--groups without any…

  1. Doing Anger Differently: Two Controlled Trials of Percussion Group Psychotherapy for Adolescent Reactive Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Currie, Michael; Startup, Mike

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluates efficacy and effectiveness of "Doing Anger Differently" (DAD), a group treatment for reactively aggressive 12-15 year old males. DAD uses percussion exercises to aid treatment. Study 1 compared a ten-week treatment with a waitlist control at pre, post and 6 month (treatment group only) follow-up. Study 2 replicated Study 1,…

  2. A Controlled Evaluation of Reminiscence and Current Topics Discussion Groups in a Nursing Home Context.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rattenbury, Christine; Stones, M. J.

    1989-01-01

    Compared psychological well-being of elderly nursing home residents who participated in reminiscence and current topics group discussions with control group of residents. Rated participants' happiness/depression, activity, mood, and functional levels before and after intervention. Intervention had significant effect only on happiness/depression…

  3. Addition of Titanium Oxide Inclusions into Liquid Steel to Control Nonmetallic Inclusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiviö, Miia; Holappa, Lauri

    2012-04-01

    Titanium oxide inclusions in steel are well known to inhibit grain growth and act as nucleation sites for acicular ferrite because of absorbing manganese from the surrounding steel resulting in a manganese depleted zone around the inclusion. In this article, the inclusions resulting from TiO2 additions to low-alloyed C-Mn-Cr steel were studied. Different types of TiO2 containing materials were added to liquid steel before or during casting to get small titanium-oxide-rich inclusions in steel. The main goals were to find out what happens to TiO2 in liquid steel after addition and during cooling and to study further what type of inclusions are formed in the steel as a result of the TiO2 addition. Based on the thermodynamic calculations and the results of scanning electron microscope (SEM)-energy dispersive spectroscope (EDS) and SEM-electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) analysis, TiO2 is first reduced to Ti3O5 in liquid steel at high temperatures and then to Ti2O3 during cooling at around 1573 K (1300 °C). Both reactions liberate oxygen, which reacts with Ti, Mn, and Al forming complex Ti2O3-rich inclusions. The results also show that TiO2 additions result in more TiOx + MnO inclusions compared with experiments with Ti addition and that the absolute amount of manganese present in the inclusions is much higher in experiments with TiO2 addition than in experiments with Ti additions.

  4. LONG-TERM DEMONSTRATION OF SORBENT ENHANCEMENT ADDITIVE TECHNOLOGY FOR MERCURY CONTROL

    SciTech Connect

    Jason D. Laumb; Dennis L. Laudal; Grant E. Dunham; John P. Kay; Christopher L. Martin; Jeffrey S. Thompson; Nicholas B. Lentz; Alexander Azenkeng; Kevin C. Galbreath; Lucinda L. Hamre

    2011-05-27

    Long-term demonstration tests of advanced sorbent enhancement additive (SEA) technologies have been completed at five coal-fired power plants. The targeted removal rate was 90% from baseline conditions at all five stations. The plants included Hawthorn Unit 5, Mill Creek Unit 4, San Miguel Unit 1, Centralia Unit 2, and Hoot Lake Unit 2. The materials tested included powdered activated carbon, treated carbon, scrubber additives, and SEAs. In only one case (San Miguel) was >90% removal not attainable. The reemission of mercury from the scrubber at this facility prevented >90% capture.

  5. Taxonomy of the hyper-diverse ant genus Tetramorium Mayr in the Malagasy region (Hymenoptera, Formicidae, Myrmicinae) – first record of the T. setigerum species group and additions to the Malagasy species groups with an updated illustrated identification key

    PubMed Central

    Hita Garcia, Francisco; Fisher, Brian L.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract In this study we provide an update to the taxonomy of the ant genus Tetramorium Mayr in Madagascar. We report the first record of the Tetramorium setigerum species group in Madagascar and describe the only Malagasy representative as Tetramorium cavernicola sp. n., which is known only from a cave in Ankarana. In addition, we provide an overview of the 19 proposed Malagasy species groups, and discuss their zoogeography and relationships to other groups and larger lineages within the hyper-diverse genus Tetramorium. At present, we recognise a highly unique Malagasy Tetramorium fauna with 113 species endemic to the island of Madagascar out of a total of 125 translating into an endemism rate of 93%. We hypothesise that this fauna is based on one or a few colonisation events from the Afrotropical region, with subsequent adaptive radiation in Madagascar. Furthermore, we present an updated and illustrated identification key to the Tetramorium species groups in the Malagasy region. PMID:26257564

  6. Does addition of `mud-pack and hot pool treatment' to patient education make a difference in fibromyalgia patients? A randomized controlled single blind study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bağdatlı, Ali Osman; Donmez, Arif; Eröksüz, Rıza; Bahadır, Güler; Turan, Mustafa; Erdoğan, Nergis

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this randomized controlled single-blind study is to explore whether addition of mud-pack and hot pool treatments to patient education make a significant difference in short and mild term outcomes of the patients with fibromyalgia. Seventy women with fibromyalgia syndrome were randomly assigned to either balneotherapy with mud-pack and hot pool treatments (35) or control (35) groups. After randomization, five patients from balneotherapy group and five patients from control group were dropped out from the study with different excuses. All patients had 6-h patient education programme about fibromyalgia syndrome and were given a home exercise programme. The patients in balneotherapy group had heated pool treatment at 38 °C for 20 min a day, and mud-pack treatment afterwards on back region at 45 °C. Balneotherapy was applied on weekdays for 2 weeks. All patients continued to take their medical treatment. An investigator who was blinded to the intervention assessed all the patients before and after the treatment, at the first and the third months of follow-up. Outcome measures were FIQ, BDI and both patient's and physician's global assessments. Balneotherapy group was significantly better than control group at after the treatment and at the end of the first month follow-up assessments in terms of patient's and physician's global assessment, total FIQ score, and pain intensity, fatigue, non-refreshed awaking, stiffness, anxiety and depression subscales of FIQ. No significant difference was found between the groups in terms of BDI scores. It is concluded that patient education combined with 2 weeks balneotherapy application has more beneficial effects in patients with fibromyalgia syndrome as compared to patient education alone.

  7. Teaching self-control to small groups of dually diagnosed adults.

    PubMed

    Dixon, M R; Holcomb, S

    2000-01-01

    The present study examined the use of a progressive delay procedure to teach self-control to two groups of dually diagnosed adults. When given a choice between an immediate smaller reinforcer and a larger delayed reinforcer, both groups chose the smaller reinforcer during baseline. During treatment, progressive increases in work requirements for gaining access to a larger reinforcer resulted in both groups selecting larger delayed reinforcers. The results are discussed with respect to increasing cooperative work behavior and self-control. PMID:11214034

  8. 76 FR 8353 - Positioning Systems Directorate Will Be Hosting an Interface Control Working Group (ICWG) Meeting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-14

    ... Department of the Air Force Positioning Systems Directorate Will Be Hosting an Interface Control Working... document ICD-GPS-870. ACTION: Meeting Notice. SUMMARY: This notice informs the public that the Global Positioning Systems Directorate will be hosting an Interface Control Working Group (ICWG) meeting for...

  9. Direct and Nondirect Marathon Group Therapy and Internal---External Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilmann, Peter R.

    1974-01-01

    Investigates whether direct and nondirect therapist techniques within a 23-hour marathon format would differentially induce client shifts in locus of control. The no-treatment control group experienced a significant shift toward externality, while the marathon subjects did not fluctuate significantly from pretherapy to posttherapy. (Author)

  10. Group mindfulness-based intervention for distressing voices: A pragmatic randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Chadwick, Paul; Strauss, Clara; Jones, Anna-Marie; Kingdon, David; Ellett, Lyn; Dannahy, Laura; Hayward, Mark

    2016-08-01

    Group Person-Based Cognitive Therapy (PBCT) integrates cognitive therapy and mindfulness to target distinct sources of distress in psychosis. The present study presents data from the first randomised controlled trial investigating group PBCT in people distressed by hearing voices. One-hundred and eight participants were randomised to receive either group PBCT and Treatment As Usual (TAU) or TAU only. While there was no significant effect on the primary outcome, a measure of general psychological distress, results showed significant between-group post-intervention benefits in voice-related distress, perceived controllability of voices and recovery. Participants in the PBCT group reported significantly lower post-treatment levels of depression, with this effect maintained at six-month follow-up. Findings suggest PBCT delivered over 12weeks effectively impacts key dimensions of the voice hearing experience, supports meaningful behaviour change, and has lasting effects on mood. PMID:27146475

  11. Metal-ceramic microstructures in the Fe-Mn-O system -- Morphology control by impurity addition

    SciTech Connect

    Subramanian, R.; Uestuendag, E.; Sass, S.L.; Dieckmann, R.

    1995-10-01

    The influence of the addition of impurities and changes in the oxygen partial pressure on the formation of metal-ceramic microstructures by partial reduction of ternary or higher ceramic oxides was experimentally investigated in the model system Fe-Mn-O at constant temperature and total pressure. Electron microscopy studies were performed for microstructural characterization, phase identification and chemical analysis. It was observed that the addition of dopants such as BaO, CaO, MgO, SrO, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} or ZrO{sub 2} to the initial, polycrystalline oxide solid solution (Fe{sub 1{minus}x}Mn{sub x}){sub 1{minus}{Delta}}O strongly influences the location and rate of metal precipitation during reduction. Experimental observations are discussed based on solubility limits and the segregation of dopants.

  12. Controlled laboratory challenge demonstrates substantial additive genetic variation in resistance to Streptococcus iniae in Nile tilapia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Streptococcus iniae is an etiologic agent of streptococcal disease in tilapia and is one of several Streptococcus spp. that negatively impact worldwide tilapia production. Methods for the prevention and control of S. iniae include vaccines, management strategies, and antibiotics. An alternative and ...

  13. PCB bioavailability control in Lumbriculus variegatus through different modes of activated carbon addition to sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Xueli Sun; Upal Ghosh

    2007-07-01

    PCB bioavailability to a freshwater oligochaete (Lumbriculus variegatus) was studied using sediments from a PCB-impacted river that was treated with different modes of granular activated carbon (GAC) addition. The GAC used was bituminous coal-based type TOP. For sediment treated with 2.6% GAC and mixed for 2 min prior to L. variegatus addition, the reduction in total PCB biouptake was 70% for 75-300 {mu}m size carbon, and 92% for the 45-180 {mu}m size carbon. For the case where the GAC was placed as a thin layer on top of the sediments without mixing, the reduction in total PCB uptake was 70%. PCB biouptake kinetics study using treated and untreated sediment showed that the maximum PCB uptake in tissue was achieved at 28 days and decreased after that time. Although the absolute uptake of PCB changed over time, the percent reduction in total PCB uptake upon GAC amendment remained constant after the first few days. Our results indicated that PCB bioavailability was reduced upon the addition and little or no mixing of GAC into sediments. PCB aqueous equilibrium concentration and desorption rates were greatly reduced after GAC amendment, indicating reductions in the two primary mechanisms of PCB bioavailability in sediments: chemical activity and chemical accessibility. 29 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Additive manufacturing of scaffolds with dexamethasone controlled release for enhanced bone regeneration.

    PubMed

    Costa, Pedro F; Puga, Ana M; Díaz-Gomez, Luis; Concheiro, Angel; Busch, Dirk H; Alvarez-Lorenzo, Carmen

    2015-12-30

    The adoption of additive manufacturing in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine (TERM) strategies greatly relies on the development of novel 3D printable materials with advanced properties. In this work we have developed a material for bone TERM applications with tunable bioerosion rate and dexamethasone release profile which can be further employed in fused deposition modelling (the most common and accessible 3D printing technology in the market). The developed material consisted of a blend of poly-ϵ-caprolactone (PCL) and poloxamine (Tetronic®) and was processed into a ready-to-use filament form by means of a simplified melt-based methodology, therefore eliminating the utilization of solvents. 3D scaffolds composed of various blend formulations were additively manufactured and analyzed revealing blend ratio-specific degradation rates and dexamethasone release profiles. Furthermore, in vitro culture studies revealed a similar blend ratio-specific trend concerning the osteoinductive activity of the fabricated scaffolds when these were seeded and cultured with human mesenchymal stem cells. The developed material enables to specifically address different regenerative requirements found in various tissue defects. The versatility of such strategy is further increased by the ability of additive manufacturing to accurately fabricate implants matching any given defect geometry. PMID:26520408

  15. Carbon monoxide exposures from propane-powered floor burnishers following addition of emissions controls

    SciTech Connect

    Demer, F.R.

    1998-11-01

    Previous published work by this author suggests that propane-powered floor burnisher use represents a potentially serious health hazard from carbon monoxide exposures, particularly for susceptible individuals. This earlier study was repeated using burnishers retrofitted with emission controls consisting of self-aspirating catalytic mufflers and computerized air/fuel monitors and alarms. Real-time carbon monoxide detectors with data-logging capabilities were placed on the burnishers in the breathing zones of operators during burnisher use. Carbon monoxide levels were recorded every 30 seconds. Ventilation and physical characteristics of the spaces of burnisher use were characterized, as were burnisher maintenance practices. Thirteen burnishing events were monitored under conditions comparable to previously published monitoring. All carbon monoxide exposures were well below even the most conservative recommended limits from the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists. Potential failures of the emission controls were also identified and included air filter blockage, spark plug malfunction, and faulty alarm function design.

  16. Analysis of postural control and muscular performance in young and elderly women in different age groups

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, Matheus M.; Reis, Júlia G.; Carvalho, Regiane L.; Tanaka, Erika H.; Hyppolito, Miguel A.; Abreu, Daniela C. C.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: muscle strength and power are two factors affecting balance. The impact of muscle strength and power on postural control has not been fully explored among different age strata over sixty. OBJECTIVES: the aim of the present study was to assess the muscle strength and power of elderly women in different age groups and determine their correlation with postural control. METHOD: eighty women were divided into four groups: the young 18-30 age group (n=20); the 60-64 age group (n=20); the 65-69 age group (n=20); and the 70-74 age group (n=20). The participants underwent maximum strength (one repetition maximum or 1-RM) and muscle power tests to assess the knee extensor and flexor muscles at 40%, 70%, and 90% 1-RM intensity. The time required by participants to recover their balance after disturbing their base of support was also assessed. RESULTS: the elderly women in the 60-64, 65-69, and 70-74 age groups exhibited similar muscle strength, power, and postural control (p>0.05); however, these values were lower than those of the young group (p<0.05) as expected. There was a correlation between muscle strength and power and the postural control performance (p<0.05). CONCLUSION: despite the age difference, elderly women aged 60 to 74 years exhibited similar abilities to generate strength and power with their lower limbs, and this ability could be one factor that explains the similar postural control shown by these women. PMID:25651132

  17. Effectiveness of interactive discussion group in suicide risk assessment among general nurses in Taiwan: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chia-Yi; Lin, Yi-Yin; Yeh, Mei Chang; Huang, Lian-Hua; Chen, Shaw-Ji; Liao, Shih-Cheng; Lee, Ming-Been

    2014-11-01

    The evidence of suicide prevention training for nurses is scarce. Strategies to enhance general nurses' ability in suicide risk assessment are critical to develop effective training programs in general medical settings. This study was aimed to examine the effectiveness of an interactive discussion group in a suicide prevention training program for general nurses. In this randomized study with two groups of pre-post study design, the sample was recruited from the Medical, Surgical, and Emergency/Intensive Care Sectors of a 2000-bed general hospital via stratified randomization. Among the 111 nurses, 57 participants randomly assigned to the control group received a two-hour baseline suicide gatekeeper lecture, and 54 participants assigning to the experimental group received an additional five-hour group discussion about suicide risk assessment skills. Using a case vignette, the nurses discussed and assessed suicide risk factors specified in a 10-item Chinese SAD PERSONS Scale during a group discussion intervention. The findings revealed that the nurses achieved significant and consistent improvements of risk identification and assessment after the intervention without influencing their mental health status for assessing suicide risks. The result suggested an effective approach of interactive group discussion for facilitating critical thinking and learning suicide risk assessment skills among general nurses. PMID:24768204

  18. Immediate postoperative radiotherapy in residual nonfunctioning pituitary adenoma: Beneficial effect on local control without additional negative impact on pituitary function and life expectancy

    SciTech Connect

    Bergh, Alfons C.M. van den . E-mail: a.c.m.van.den.bergh@rt.umcg.nl; Berg, Gerrit van den; Schoorl, Michiel A.; Sluiter, Wim J.; Vliet, Anton M. van der; Hoving, Eelco W.; Szabo, Ben G.; Langendijk, Johannes A.; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H.R.; Dullaart, Robin P.F.

    2007-03-01

    Purpose: To demonstrate the benefit of immediate postoperative radiotherapy in residual nonfunctioning pituitary adenoma (NFA) in perspective to the need for hormonal substitution and life expectancy. Methods and Materials: Retrospective cohort analysis of 122 patients, operated for NFA between 1979 and 1998. Recurrence was defined as regrowth on computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging. The occurrence of hormonal deficiencies was defined as the starting date of hormonal substitution therapy. Results: Seventy-six patients had residual NFA after surgery and received immediate postoperative radiotherapy (Group 1); three patients developed a recurrence, resulting in a 95% local control rate at 10 years. Twenty-eight patients had residual NFA after surgery, but were followed by a wait-and-see policy (Group 2). Sixteen developed a recurrence, resulting in a local control rate of 49% at 5 years and 22% at 10 years (p < 0.001 compared with Group 1). There were no differences between Group 1 and 2 regarding the need for substitution with thyroid hormone, glucocorticoids, and sex hormones before first surgery, directly after surgery and at end of follow-up. There were no differences in hormone substitution free survival between Group 1 and Group 2 during the study period after first surgery. Life expectancy was similar in Group 1 and 2, and their median life expectancy did not differ from median life expectancy in the general population. Conclusions: Immediate postoperative radiotherapy provides a marked improvement of local control among patients with residual NFA compared with surgery alone, without an additional deleterious effect on pituitary function and life expectancy.

  19. Nucleophile-catalyzed additions to activated triple bonds. Protection of lactams, imides, and nucleosides with MocVinyl and related groups.

    PubMed

    Mola, Laura; Font, Joan; Bosch, Lluís; Caner, Joaquim; Costa, Anna M; Etxebarría-Jardí, Gorka; Pineda, Oriol; de Vicente, David; Vilarrasa, Jaume

    2013-06-21

    Additions of lactams, imides, (S)-4-benzyl-1,3-oxazolidin-2-one, 2-pyridone, pyrimidine-2,4-diones (AZT derivatives), or inosines to the electron-deficient triple bonds of methyl propynoate, tert-butyl propynoate, 3-butyn-2-one, N-propynoylmorpholine, or N-methoxy-N-methylpropynamide in the presence of many potential catalysts were examined. DABCO and, second, DMAP appeared to be the best (highest reaction rates and E/Z ratios), while RuCl3, RuClCp*(PPh3)2, AuCl, AuCl(PPh3), CuI, and Cu2(OTf)2 were incapable of catalyzing such additions. The groups incorporated (for example, the 2-(methoxycarbonyl)ethenyl group that we name MocVinyl) serve as protecting groups for the above-mentioned heterocyclic CONH or CONHCO moieties. Deprotections were accomplished via exchange with good nucleophiles: the 1-dodecanethiolate anion turned out to be the most general and efficient reagent, but in some particular cases other nucleophiles also worked (e.g., MocVinyl-inosines can be cleaved with succinimide anion). Some structural and mechanistic details have been accounted for with the help of DFT and MP2 calculations. PMID:23713491

  20. From lab to industrial: PZT nanoparticles synthesis and process control for application in additive manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Hsien-Lin

    Lead Zirconate Titanate (PZT) nanoparticles hold many promising current and future applications, such as PZT ink for 3-D printing or seeds for PZT thick films. One common method is hydrothermal growth, in which temperature, duration time, or mineralizer concentrations are optimized to produce PZT nanoparticles with desired morphology, controlled size and size distribution. A modified hydrothermal process is used to fabricate PZT nanoparticles. The novelty is to employ a high ramping rate (e.g., 20 deg C/min) to generate abrupt supersaturation so as to promote burst nucleation of PZT nanoparticles as well as a fast cooling rate (e.g., 5 deg C/min) with a controlled termination of crystal growth. As a result, PZT nanoparticles with a size distribution ranging from 200 nm to 800 nm are obtained with cubic morphology and good crystallinity. The identification of nanoparticles is confirmed through use of X-ray diffractometer (XRD). XRD patterns are used to compare sample variations in their microstructures such as lattice parameter. A cubic morphology and particle size are also examined via SEM images. The hydrothermal process is further modified with excess lead (from 20% wt. to 80% wt.) to significantly reduce amorphous phase and agglomeration of the PZT nanoparticles. With a modified process, the particle size still remains within the 200 nm to 800 nm. Also, the crystal structures (microstructure) of the samples show little variations. Finally, a semi-continuous hydrothermal manufacturing process was developed to substantially reduce the fabrication time and maintained the same high quality as the nanoparticles prepared in an earlier stage. In this semi-continuous process, a furnace is maintained at the process temperature (200 deg C), whereas autoclaves containing PZT sol are placed in and out of the furnace to control the ramp-up and cooling rates. This setup eliminates an extremely time-consuming step of cooling down the furnace, thus saving tremendous amount of

  1. Formalin treatments pass new tests. Additional notes on the control of ecto-parasitic protozoa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    1940-01-01

    After the completion of the eхреriments reported recently, in which the efficacy of formalin in controlling infections of Gostia mecatrix was demonstrated, the author was afforded an opportunity to test the value of formalin solutions in combatting established mixed infections of (Gyrodactylus, Tricbodina, Cyclochaeta) and a stalked protozoan on rainbow trout fingerlings. This opportunity was provided through the courtesy and cooperation of Clarence F. Pautzke, Chief Biologist for the Washington State Game Department, and Lee Walters, Superintendent of the Washington State Hatchery at Seward Park, Seattle.

  2. Sensor (group feature) selection with controlled redundancy in a connectionist framework.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Rudrasis; Lin, Chin-Teng; Pal, Nikhil R

    2014-09-01

    For many applications, to reduce the processing time and the cost of decision making, we need to reduce the number of sensors, where each sensor produces a set of features. This sensor selection problem is a generalized feature selection problem. Here, we first present a sensor (group-feature) selection scheme based on Multi-Layered Perceptron Networks. This scheme sometimes selects redundant groups of features. So, we propose a selection scheme which can control the level of redundancy between the selected groups. The idea is general and can be used with any learning scheme. We have demonstrated the effectiveness of our scheme on several data sets. In this context, we define different measures of sensor dependency (dependency between groups of features). We have also presented an alternative learning scheme which is more effective than our old scheme. The proposed scheme is also adapted to radial basis function (RBS) network. The advantages of our scheme are threefold. It looks at all the groups together and hence can exploit nonlinear interaction between groups, if any. Our scheme can simultaneously select useful groups as well as learn the underlying system. The level of redundancy among groups can also be controlled. PMID:25081429

  3. Control strategies against Campylobacter at the poultry production level: biosecurity measures, feed additives and vaccination.

    PubMed

    Meunier, M; Guyard-Nicodème, M; Dory, D; Chemaly, M

    2016-05-01

    Campylobacteriosis is the most prevalent bacterial foodborne gastroenteritis affecting humans in the European Union, and ranks second in the United States only behind salmonellosis. In Europe, there are about nine million cases of campylobacteriosis every year, making the disease a major public health issue. Human cases are mainly caused by the zoonotic pathogen Campylobacter jejuni. The main source of contamination is handling or consumption of poultry meat. Poultry constitutes the main reservoir of Campylobacter, substantial quantities of which are found in the intestines following rapid, intense colonization. Reducing Campylobacter levels in the poultry chain would decrease the incidence of human campylobacteriosis. As primary production is a crucial step in Campylobacter poultry contamination, controlling the infection at this level could impact the following links along the food chain (slaughter, retail and consumption). This review describes the control strategies implemented during the past few decades in primary poultry production, including the most recent studies. In fact, the implementation of biosecurity and hygiene measures is described, as well as the immune strategy with passive immunization and vaccination trials and the nutritional strategy with the administration of organic and fatty acids, essential oil and plant-derived compound, probiotics, bacteriocins and bacteriophages. PMID:26541243

  4. 40 CFR 82.18 - Availability of production in addition to baseline production allowances for class II controlled...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Availability of production in addition to baseline production allowances for class II controlled substances. 82.18 Section 82.18 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) PROTECTION OF STRATOSPHERIC OZONE Production and...

  5. 40 CFR 82.18 - Availability of production in addition to baseline production allowances for class II controlled...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Availability of production in addition to baseline production allowances for class II controlled substances. 82.18 Section 82.18 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) PROTECTION OF STRATOSPHERIC OZONE Production and...

  6. 78 FR 74218 - Imposition of Additional Sanctions on Syria Under the Chemical and Biological Weapons Control and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-10

    ... Imposition of Additional Sanctions on Syria Under the Chemical and Biological Weapons Control and Warfare.... ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: On August 2, 2013, a determination was made that the Government of Syria used... Notice 8460. That determination resulted in sanctions against the Government of Syria. Section 307(b)...

  7. Group housing for lactating sows with electronically controlled crates: 1. Reproductive traits, body condition, and feed intake.

    PubMed

    Bohnenkamp, A-L; Traulsen, I; Meyer, C; Müller, K; Krieter, J

    2013-07-01

    The aim was to compare a group housing system (GROUP) and a conventional single housing (SINGLE) for lactating sows with regard to the performance of sows and piglets. Data of 132 cross-breed sows were collected in 11 batches with 6 sows in GROUP and SINGLE in each batch. The GROUP had single pens (4.7 m(2)) with electronically controlled crates and a shared running area (13 m(2)). The sows in GROUP were retained in the crates 3 d prepartum until 1 d postpartum. Piglets were able to leave the single pens on d 5 postpartum. Recorded traits per litter included the number of piglets born alive and weaned, piglet losses, and individual BW at birth and weaning. In addition, body condition and back fat thickness before and after lactation (26 d) and the daily feed intake of the sows were measured. Gilts and sows were analyzed separately. The reproductive traits did not differ significantly (P > 0.05) between the farrowing systems with exception of the weaning weights (GROUP = 7.6 ± 0.12 kg vs. SINGLE = 8.1 ± 0.12 kg; P < 0.05). Group housed and SINGLE sows had 14.4 ± 0.47 and 14.6 ± 0.45 piglets born alive, respectively. In both housing systems, sows weaned 11.4 piglets (SEM = 0.14 and 0.13 for GROUP and SINGLE), respectively. Most piglet losses (72%) occurred during the first 3 d postpartum. At this point in time, piglets in GROUP and SINGLE were housed in single pens. In the single pens, GROUP sows could leave the farrowing crate whereas SINGLE sows were fixed in crates during the whole lactation. In total, piglet losses were not significantly different during lactation between GROUP and SINGLE treatments (2.2 ± 0.05 and 2.4 ± 0.05 piglets per litter, respectively). Sows housed in GROUP had a significantly lower (P < 0.05) BCS (2.2 ± 0.05) after lactation compared with SINGLE sows (BCS = 2.4 ± 0.05). This development could not be verified using the back fat thickness value at weaning (GROUP = 14.4 ± 0.25 mm vs. SINGLE = 14.6 ± 0.23 mm). Daily feed intake was

  8. Different Effect of the Additional Electron-Withdrawing Cyano Group in Different Conjugation Bridge: The Adjusted Molecular Energy Levels and Largely Improved Photovoltaic Performance.

    PubMed

    Li, Huiyang; Fang, Manman; Hou, Yingqin; Tang, Runli; Yang, Yizhou; Zhong, Cheng; Li, Qianqian; Li, Zhen

    2016-05-18

    Four organic sensitizers (LI-68-LI-71) bearing various conjugated bridges were designed and synthesized, in which the only difference between LI-68 and LI-69 (or LI-70 and LI-71) was the absence/presence of the CN group as the auxiliary electron acceptor. Interestingly, compared to the reference dye of LI-68, LI-69 bearing the additional CN group exhibited the bad performance with the decreased Jsc and Voc values. However, once one thiophene moiety near the anchor group was replaced by pyrrole with the electron-rich property, the resultant LI-71 exhibited a photoelectric conversion efficiency increase by about 3 folds from 2.75% (LI-69) to 7.95% (LI-71), displaying the synergistic effect of the two moieties (CN and pyrrole). Computational analysis disclosed that pyrrole as the auxiliary electron donor (D') in the conjugated bridge can compensate for the lower negative charge in the electron acceptor, which was caused by the CN group as the electron trap, leading to the more efficient electron injection and better photovoltaic performance. PMID:27101840

  9. Glutathione-S-transferase (GST) polymorphism among ethnic groups in Singapore with report of additional alleles at loci 1 and 2.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharyya, S P; Saha, N; Wee, K P

    1989-04-01

    Glutathione S-transferases (GST; E.C.2.5.1.18) were phenotyped by starch gel electrophoresis in post-mortem liver samples from 683 unrelated subjects of both sexes. 305 were Chinese, 185 Indians, 147 Malays and 46 from other racial groups of South-East Asia. GST1 and GST2 were found to be polymorphic in these populations. Additional alleles (GST1*3 and GST2*O) were observed at low frequency in all the ethnic groups. The frequency of GST1*1 was lower and that of GST1*2 was higher in Indians and Malays as compared to Chinese. GST1*0 and GST1*3 frequencies were similar in all these ethnic groups. The gene frequencies of the alleles of the GST2 locus varied significantly in the population studied. GST2*0 frequency was significantly higher in Indians than in Chinese and Malays, while the lowest frequency of GST2*1 was found in the Indians. GST2*2 frequency was higher in the Malays than in Chinese and Indians. GST1 and GST2 phenotype distributions were in agreement with Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in all the ethnic groups studied. Sex made no significant difference in the phenotype distribution. PMID:2487053

  10. The role of an aromatic group in remote chiral induction during conjugate addition of α-sulfonylallylic carbanions to ethyl crotonate

    PubMed Central

    Levinger, Shlomo; Nair, Ranjeet

    2008-01-01

    Summary The impact of a remote aromatic nucleus on the stereochemical outcome of the conjugate addition of α-sulfonylallylic carbanions to an α,β-unsaturated ester was investigated. α-Regioselectivity coupled with anti-diastereoselectivity is accompanied by a prominent preference for relative configuration 3 over 4. The 9-anthryl moiety has shown itself greatly superior over all other groups in this bias. A lithium ion–aromatic π interaction has been postulated as decisive for the remote transmission of chirality. PMID:18941617

  11. Powder Layer Preparation Using Vibration-controlled Capillary Steel Nozzles for Additive Manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stichel, Thomas; Laumer, Tobias; Baumüller, Tobias; Amend, Philipp; Roth, Stephan

    In this report, the dry delivery of polyamide 12 powders by vibrating capillary steel nozzles is investigated and discussed regarding its potential for powder layer preparation in Laser Beam Melting. Therefore, a setup including a steel nozzle assembled on a piezoelectric actuator is presented, which enables the precise control over very small powder quantities by vibration excitation. An analysis reveals that the mass flow through the nozzle can be adjusted by the vibration modes in a certain range depending on the nozzle's specifications, whereas the vibration modes themselves show a complicated behaviour. Using a positioning system in combination with the vibrating nozzle, single-layer patterns consisting of polyamide 12 are produced and characterized regarding surface homogeneity and selectivity using a laser stripe sensor.

  12. Summary of Previous Chamber or Controlled Anthrax Studies and Recommendations for Possible Additional Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Piepel, Gregory F.; Amidan, Brett G.; Morrow, Jayne B.

    2010-12-29

    This report and an associated Excel file(a) summarizes the investigations and results of previous chamber and controlled studies(b) to characterize the performance of methods for collecting, storing and/or transporting, extracting, and analyzing samples from surfaces contaminated by Bacillus anthracis (BA) or related simulants. This report and the Excel are the joint work of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) for the Department of Homeland Security, Science and Technology Directorate. The report was originally released as PNNL-SA-69338, Rev. 0 in November 2009 with limited distribution, but was subsequently cleared for release with unlimited distribution in this Rev. 1. Only minor changes were made to Rev. 0 to yield Rev. 1. A more substantial update (including summarizing data from other studies and more condensed summary tables of data) is underway

  13. The effect of additional design parameters on the LQR based design of a control/structural system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bainum, Peter M.; Xu, Jianke

    1990-01-01

    A multiobjective cost function that includes a form of the standard LQR regulator cost and its partial variation with respect to the additional design parameters is presented in connection with the design of an orbiting control/structural system. Simple models of uniform solid and tubular beams are demonstrated with two typical additional payload masses, i.e., symmetrically distributed and asymmetrically distributed, with respect to the center of the beam. By regarding the transient response of pitch angle and free-free beam deformations in the orbital plane, the optimal outer diameter of the beam and all feedback control can be determined by numerical analysis with this multicriterial approach. It is concluded that the multicriteria design approach should give better results from both the structural designer's and the control designer's standpoints.

  14. Very low dose naltrexone addition in opioid detoxification: a randomized, controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Mannelli, Paolo; Patkar, Ashwin A.; Peindl, Kathi; Gorelick, David A.; Wu, Li-Tzy; Gottheil, Edward

    2008-01-01

    Although current treatments for opioid detoxification are not always effective, medical detoxification remains a required step before long-term interventions. The use of opioid antagonist medications to improve detoxification has produced inconsistent results. Very low dose naltrexone (VLNTX) was recently found to reduce opioid tolerance and dependence in animal and clinical studies. We decided to evaluate safety and efficacy of VLNTX adjunct to methadone in reducing withdrawal during detoxification. In a multi-center, double-blind, randomized study at community treatment programs, where most detoxifications are performed, 174 opioid-dependent subjects received NTX 0.125 mg, 0.250 mg or placebo daily for 6 days, together with methadone in tapering doses. VLNTX-treated individuals reported attenuated withdrawal symptoms [F = 7.24 (2,170); P = 0.001] and reduced craving [F = 3.73 (2,107); P = 0.03]. Treatment effects were more pronounced at discharge and were not accompanied by a significantly higher retention rate. There were no group differences in use of adjuvant medications and no treatment-related adverse events. Further studies should explore the use of VLNTX, combined with full and partial opioid agonist medications, in detoxification and long-term treatment of opioid dependence. PMID:18715283

  15. Socioeconomic characteristics and health outcomes in Sami speaking municipalities and a control group in northern Norway

    PubMed Central

    Norum, Jan; Nieder, Carsten

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The Sami people constitute an ethnic minority in northern Norway. The objectives of this study were to compare municipalities with a majority of Sami in the population and a control group with regard to socioeconomic factors and health outcome. Methods Original data from Statistics Norway and Directorate of health on socioeconomic factors (education, unemployment, disability, poverty) and health outcomes [total mortality, cancer specific mortality, cardiovascular disease (CVD) specific mortality] were imported from the “Health Atlas” at the Northern Norway Regional Health Authority (NNRHA) trust. The 8 municipalities in the administration area of the Sami language law (Sami-majority group – 18,868 inhabitants) was compared with a control group consisting of 11 municipalities where the Sami constitute a small minority in the population (18,931 inhabitants). Most data were from 2005 and 2008. Results There was no significant difference in socioeconomic factors. Overall, cancer- and CVD-specific mortality rates were similar in both groups. The life expectancy was significantly longer among women in the Sami-majority area (81.3 vs. 79.5 years, p=0.035) and males (74.5 vs. 72.0 years, p=0.037). Conclusion Socioeconomic factors and cause-specific mortality rate were similar in the Sami-majority group and the control group. Residents of both sexes in Sami-majority areas enjoyed longer life expectancy. PMID:22901291

  16. Foreword: Additive Manufacturing: Interrelationships of Fabrication, Constitutive Relationships Targeting Performance, and Feedback to Process Control

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Carpenter, John S.; Beese, Allison M.; Bourell, David L.; Hamilton, Reginald F.; Mishra, Rajiv; Sears, James

    2015-06-26

    Additive manufacturing (AM) offers distinct advantages over conventional manufacturing processes including the capability to both build and repair complex part shapes; to integrate and consolidate parts and thus overcome joining concerns; and to locally tailor material compositions as well as properties. Moreover, a variety of fields such as aerospace, military, automotive, and biomedical are employing this manufacturing technique as a way to decrease costs, increase manufacturing agility, and explore novel geometry/functionalities. In order to increase acceptance of AM as a viable processing method, pathways for qualifying both the material and the process need to be developed and, perhaps, standardized. Thismore » symposium was designed to serve as a venue for the international AM community—including government, academia, and industry—to define the fundamental interrelationships between feedstock, processing, microstructure, shape, mechanical behavior/materials properties, and function/performance. Eventually, insight into the connections between processing, microstructure, property, and performance will be achieved through experimental observations, theoretical advances, and computational modeling of physical processes. Finally, once this insight matures, AM will be able to move from the realm of making parts to making qualified materials that are certified for use with minimal need for post-fabrication characterization.« less

  17. Roles of additives and surface control in slurry atomization. Final project report

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, S.C.

    1992-12-31

    This project studies the rheology and airblast atomization of micronized coal slurries. Its major objectives are (1) to promote further understanding of the mechanisms and the roles of additives in airblast atomization of coal water slurry (CWS), and (2) to investigate the impacts of coal particle surface properties and interparticle forces on CWS rheology. We have found that the flow behavior index (n) of a suspension (or slurry) is determined by the relative importance of the interparticle van der Waals attraction and the interparticle electrostatic repulsion. The interparticle attraction, measured by the Hamaker constant scaled to the thermal energy at 25{degrees}C (A/kT), causes particle aggregation, which breaks down at high shear rates, and thus leads to slurry pseudoplastic behavior (n< 1). At a constant particle volume fraction and surface charge density (qualitatively measured by the zeta potential in deionized water), n decreases linearly as A/kT increases. The relative viscosity of the pseudoplastic suspension with respect to that of the suspending liquid is found to be independent of particle density and correlate well with the particle Peclet number which equals the particle diffusional relaxation time multiplied by shear rate. Specifically, the relative viscosities of the pseudoplastic glycerol/water coal slurry and the ethylene glycol/glycerol sand slurry, at same volume fractions as well as similar particle size distributions and liquid viscosities, as functions of the particle Peclet number fall along the same line.

  18. Foreword: Additive Manufacturing: Interrelationships of Fabrication, Constitutive Relationships Targeting Performance, and Feedback to Process Control

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, John S.; Beese, Allison M.; Bourell, David L.; Hamilton, Reginald F.; Mishra, Rajiv; Sears, James

    2015-06-26

    Additive manufacturing (AM) offers distinct advantages over conventional manufacturing processes including the capability to both build and repair complex part shapes; to integrate and consolidate parts and thus overcome joining concerns; and to locally tailor material compositions as well as properties. Moreover, a variety of fields such as aerospace, military, automotive, and biomedical are employing this manufacturing technique as a way to decrease costs, increase manufacturing agility, and explore novel geometry/functionalities. In order to increase acceptance of AM as a viable processing method, pathways for qualifying both the material and the process need to be developed and, perhaps, standardized. This symposium was designed to serve as a venue for the international AM community—including government, academia, and industry—to define the fundamental interrelationships between feedstock, processing, microstructure, shape, mechanical behavior/materials properties, and function/performance. Eventually, insight into the connections between processing, microstructure, property, and performance will be achieved through experimental observations, theoretical advances, and computational modeling of physical processes. Finally, once this insight matures, AM will be able to move from the realm of making parts to making qualified materials that are certified for use with minimal need for post-fabrication characterization.

  19. A randomised placebo-controlled trial examining the effect on hand supination after the addition of a suprascapular nerve block to infraclavicular brachial plexus blockade.

    PubMed

    Flohr-Madsen, S; Ytrebø, L M; Valen, K; Wilsgaard, T; Klaastad, Ø

    2016-08-01

    Some surgeons believe that infraclavicular brachial plexus blocks tends to result in supination of the hand/forearm, which may make surgical access to the dorsum of the hand more difficult. We hypothesised that this supination may be reduced by the addition of a suprascapular nerve block. In a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled study, our primary outcome measure was the amount of supination (as assessed by wrist angulation) 30 min after infraclavicular brachial plexus block, with (suprascapular group) or without (control group) a supplementary suprascapular block. All blocks were ultrasound-guided. The secondary outcome measure was an assessment by the surgeon of the intra-operative position of the hand. Considering only patients with successful nerve blocks, mean (SD) wrist angulation was lower (33 (27) vs. 61 (44) degrees; p = 0.018) and assessment of the hand position was better (11/11 vs. 6/11 rated as 'good'; p = 0.04) in the suprascapular group. The addition of a suprascapular nerve block to an infraclavicular brachial plexus block can provide a better hand/forearm position for dorsal hand surgery. PMID:27396247

  20. Controlling Phase Separation of Tough Interpenetrating Polymer Networks via Addition of Amphiphilic Block Copolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rohde, Brian; Krishnamoorti, Ramanan; Robertson, Megan

    Interpenetrating polymer networks (IPNs) offer a unique way to combine the mechanical properties of two thermoset systems. Often used to create a material that possesses both high toughness and tensile properties, here we use polydicyclopentadiene, cured via ring opening metathesis polymerization, to contribute high toughness and diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A cured via anhydride chemistry to contribute high tensile strength and modulus. As the uncompatibilized system reacts in the presence of one another, mesoscopic phase separation occurs and dictates the overall efficacy of combining mechanical properties. To control phase separation and drive the system towards more mechanically robust nanostructed IPNs, amphiphilic block copolymers of polybutadiene- b-polyethylene oxide, where one block possesses strong affinity to polyDCPD and the other the DGEBA, were added to the system. Here we present a systematic study of the influence of block copolymer composition in the overall blend on degree of phase separation and morphology using a combination of small-angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques. The resultant mechanical properties are then explored in an effort to link mechanical properties to blend morphology.

  1. Controlling Phase Separation of Interpenetrating Polymer Networks by Addition of Block Copolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rohde, Brian; Krishnamoorti, Ramanan; Robertson, Megan

    2015-03-01

    Interpenetrating polymer networks (IPNs) offer a unique way to produce mechanically superior thermoset blends relative to the neat components. In this study, IPNs were prepared consisting of polydicyclopentadiene (polyDCPD), contributing high fracture toughness, and an epoxy resin (the diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A cured with nadic methyl anhydride), contributing high tensile strength and modulus. In the absence of compatibilization, the simultaneous curing of the networks leads to a macroscopically phase separated blend that exhibits poor mechanical behavior. To control phase separation and drive the system towards more mechanically robust nanostructured IPNs, block copolymers were designed to compatibilize this system, where one block possesses affinity to polyDCPD (polynorbornene in this study) and the other block possesses affinity to DGEBA (poly(ɛ-caprolactone) in this study). The influence of the block copolymer composition on the degree of phase separation and interfacial adhesion in the IPN was studied using a combination of small-angle scattering and imaging techniques. The resultant mechanical properties were explored and structure-property relationships were developed in this blend system.

  2. Short term modulation of trunk neuromuscular responses following spinal manipulation: a control group study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Low back pain (LBP) is one of the most frequent musculoskeletal conditions in industrialized countries and its economic impact is important. Spinal manipulation therapy (SMT) is believed to be a valid approach in the treatment of both acute and chronic LBP. It has also been shown that SMT can modulate the electromyographic (EMG) activity of the paraspinal muscle. The purpose of this study was to investigate, in a group of patients with low back pain, the persistence of changes observed in trunk neuromuscular responses after a spinal manipulation (SMT). Methods Sixty adult participants with LBP performed a block of 5 flexion-extension movements. Participants in the experimental group (n=30) received lumbar SMT whereas participants in the control group (n=30) were positioned similarly for the treatment but did not receive SMT. Blocks of flexion-extension movements were repeated immediately after the manipulation as well as 5 and 30 minutes after SMT (or control position). EMG activity of paraspinal muscles was recorded at L2 and L5 level and kinematic data were collected to evaluate the lumbo-pelvic kinematics. Pain intensity was noted after each block. Normalized EMG, pain intensity and lumbo-pelvic kinematics were compared across experimental conditions. Results Participants from the control group showed a significant increase in EMG activity during the last block (30 min) of flexion-extension trials in both flexion and full-flexion phases at L2. Increase in VAS scores was also observed in the last 2 blocks (5 min and 30 min) in the control group. No significant group x time interaction was seen at L5. No significant difference was observed in the lumbo-pelvic kinematics. Conclusion Changes in trunk neuromuscular control following HVLA spinal manipulation may reduce sensitization or muscle fatigue effects related to repetitive movement. Future studies should investigate short term changes in neuromuscular components, tissue properties and clinical

  3. Precise control of polymer coated nanopores by nanoparticle additives: Insights from computational modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eskandari Nasrabad, Afshin; Jasnow, David; Zilman, Anton; Coalson, Rob D.

    2016-08-01

    Polymer-nanoparticle composites are a promising new class of materials for creation of controllable nano-patterned surfaces and nanopores. We use coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations augmented with analytical theory to study the structural transitions of surface grafted polymer layers (brushes) induced by infiltration of nanoparticles that are attracted to the polymers in the layer. We systematically compare two different polymer brush geometries: one where the polymer chains are grafted to a planar surface and the other where the chains are grafted to the inside of a cylindrical nanochannel. We perform a comprehensive study of the effects of the material parameters such as the polymer chain length, chain grafting density, nanoparticle size, strength of attraction between nanoparticles and polymer monomers, and, in the case of the cylindrically grafted brush, the radius of the cylinder. We find a very general behavioral motif for all geometries and parameter values: the height of the polymer brush is non-monotonic in the nanoparticle concentration in solution. As the nanoparticle concentration increases, the brush height first decreases and after passing through a minimum value begins to increase, resulting in the swelling of the nanoparticle infused brush. These morphological features may be useful for devising tunable "smart" nano-devices whose effective dimensions can be reversibly and precisely adjusted by changing the nanoparticle concentration in solution. The results of approximate Self-Consistent Field Theory (SCFT) calculations, applicable in the regime of strong brush stretching, are compared to the simulation results. The SCFT calculations are found to be qualitatively, even semi-quantitatively, accurate when applied within their intended regime of validity, and provide a useful and efficient tool for modeling such materials.

  4. Cell-specific CO2 fixation rates of two distinct groups of plastidic protists in the Atlantic Ocean remain unchanged after nutrient addition.

    PubMed

    Grob, Carolina; Jardillier, Ludwig; Hartmann, Manuela; Ostrowski, Martin; Zubkov, Mikhail V; Scanlan, David J

    2015-04-01

    To assess the role of open-ocean ecosystems in global CO2 fixation, we investigated how picophytoplankton, which dominate primary production, responded to episodic increases in nutrient availability. Previous experiments have shown nitrogen alone, or in combination with phosphorus or iron, to be the proximate limiting nutrient(s) for total phytoplankton grown over several days. Much less is known about how nutrient upshift affects picophytoplankton CO2 fixation over the duration of the light period. To address this issue, we performed a series of small volume (8-60 ml) - short term (10-11 h) nutrient addition experiments in different regions of the Atlantic Ocean using NH4 Cl, FeCl3 , K medium, dust and nutrient-rich water from 300 m depth. We found no significant nutrient stimulation of group-specific CO2 fixation rates of two taxonomically and size-distinct groups of plastidic protists. The above was true regardless of the region sampled or nutrient added, suggesting that this is a generic phenomenon. Our findings show that at least in the short term (i.e. daylight period), nutrient availability does not limit CO2 fixation by the smallest plastidic protists, while their taxonomic composition does not determine their response to nutrient addition. PMID:25345650

  5. A multigene phylogeny of the fly superfamily Asiloidea (Insecta): Taxon sampling and additional genes reveal the sister-group to all higher flies (Cyclorrhapha).

    PubMed

    Trautwein, Michelle D; Wiegmann, Brian M; Yeates, David K

    2010-09-01

    Asiloidea are a group of 9 lower brachyceran fly families, considered to be the closest relative to the large Metazoan radiation Eremoneura (Cyclorrhapha+Empidoidea). The evidence for asiloid monophyly is limited, and few characters define the relationships between the families of Asiloidea and Eremoneura. Additionally, enigmatic genera, Hilarimorpha and Apystomyia, retain morphological characters of both asiloids and higher flies. We use the nuclear protein-coding gene CAD and 28S rDNA to test the monophyly of Asiloidea and to resolve its relationship to Eremoneura. We explore the effects of taxon sampling on support values and topological stability, the resolving power of additional genes, and hypothesis testing using four-cluster likelihood mapping. We find that: (1) the 'asiloid' genus Apystomyia is sister to Cyclorrhapha, (2) the remaining asiloids are monophyletic at the exclusion of the family Bombyliidae, and (3) our best estimate of relationships places the asiloid flies excluding Bombyliidae as the sister-group to Eremoneura, though high support is lacking. PMID:20399874

  6. Brief report: Peer group influences and adolescent internalizing problems as mediated by effortful control.

    PubMed

    Dyson, Rachel; Robertson, Gail C; Wong, Maria M

    2015-06-01

    Internalizing problems in adolescence encompass behaviors directed inward at the self (Colman, Wadsworth, Croudace, & Jones, 2007). Several predictors have been linked to internalizing problems including antisocial and prosocial peers (Cartwright, 2007; Chung, 2010). Effortful control, a component of self-regulation, is one factor that could mediate the relationship between peer behaviors and individual outcomes. This study assessed the relationship between peer behaviors, effortful control, and adolescent internalizing problems. Participants were 151 middle school adolescents (M = 12.16 years old) who completed self-report questionnaires regarding behaviors of their peers, perceptions of effortful control, and experiences of internalizing problems. Structural equation modeling (SEM) yielded a significant negative relationship between antisocial peers and effortful control, and a significant positive relationship between prosocial peers and effortful control. In addition, effortful control significantly mediated the relationship between prosocial peers and internalizing problems, but not for antisocial peers. Implications for interventions related to adolescent health were discussed. PMID:25863002

  7. Quantifying Additive Interactions of the Osmolyte Proline with Individual Functional Groups of Proteins: Comparisons with Urea and Glycine Betaine, Interpretation of m-Values

    PubMed Central

    Diehl, Roger C.; Guinn, Emily J.; Capp, Michael W.; Tsodikov, Oleg V.; Record, M. Thomas

    2013-01-01

    To quantify interactions of the osmolyte L-proline with protein functional groups and predict its effects on protein processes, we use vapor pressure osmometry to determine chemical potential derivatives dµ2/dm3 = µ23 quantifying preferential interactions of proline (component 3) with 21 solutes (component 2) selected to display different combinations of aliphatic or aromatic C, amide, carboxylate, phosphate or hydroxyl O, and/or amide or cationic N surface. Solubility data yield µ23 values for 4 less-soluble solutes. Values of µ23 are dissected using an ASA-based analysis to test the hypothesis of additivity and obtain α-values (proline interaction potentials) for these eight surface types and three inorganic ions. Values of µ23 predicted from these α-values agree with experiment, demonstrating additivity. Molecular interpretation of α-values using the solute partitioning model yields partition coefficients (Kp) quantifying the local accumulation or exclusion of proline in the hydration water of each functional group. Interactions of proline with native protein surface and effects of proline on protein unfolding are predicted from α-values and ASA information and compared with experimental data, with results for glycine betaine and urea, and with predictions from transfer free energy analysis. We conclude that proline stabilizes proteins because of its unfavorable interactions with (exclusion from) amide oxygens and aliphatic hydrocarbon surface exposed in unfolding, and that proline is an effective in vivo osmolyte because of the osmolality increase resulting from its unfavorable interactions with anionic (carboxylate and phosphate) and amide oxygens and aliphatic hydrocarbon groups on the surface of cytoplasmic proteins and nucleic acids. PMID:23909383

  8. 29 CFR 4043.29 - Change in contributing sponsor or controlled group.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Change in contributing sponsor or controlled group. 4043.29 Section 4043.29 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) PENSION BENEFIT GUARANTY CORPORATION PLAN TERMINATIONS REPORTABLE EVENTS AND CERTAIN OTHER NOTIFICATION REQUIREMENTS Post-Event Notice of Reportable Events § 4043.29 Change...

  9. The Counterfactual Self-Estimation of Program Participants: Impact Assessment without Control Groups or Pretests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mueller, Christoph Emanuel; Gaus, Hansjoerg; Rech, Joerg

    2014-01-01

    This article proposes an innovative approach to estimating the counterfactual without the necessity of generating information from either a control group or a before-measure. Building on the idea that program participants are capable of estimating the hypothetical state they would be in had they not participated, the basics of the Roy-Rubin model…

  10. 77 FR 18686 - Apportionment of Tax Items Among the Members of a Controlled Group of Corporations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-28

    ... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 Apportionment of Tax Items Among the Members of a Controlled Group... 1561(a) tax-benefit items. * * * * * (c) Accumulated earnings credit. The component members of a...), then, for purposes of subtitle A of the Internal Revenue Code, the amount of any tax-benefit...

  11. Quasi-Experiments in Schools: The Case for Historical Cohort Control Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walser, Tamara M.

    2014-01-01

    There is increased emphasis on using experimental and quasi-experimental methods to evaluate educational programs; however, educational evaluators and school leaders are often faced with challenges when implementing such designs in educational settings. Use of a historical cohort control group design provides a viable option for conducting…

  12. What to Do when Data Are Missing in Group Randomized Controlled Trials. NCEE 2009-0049

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puma, Michael J.; Olsen, Robert B.; Bell, Stephen H.; Price, Cristofer

    2009-01-01

    This NCEE Technical Methods report examines how to address the problem of missing data in the analysis of data in Randomized Controlled Trials (RCTs) of educational interventions, with a particular focus on the common educational situation in which groups of students such as entire classrooms or schools are randomized. Missing outcome data are a…

  13. 29 CFR 4043.29 - Change in contributing sponsor or controlled group.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... TERMINATIONS REPORTABLE EVENTS AND CERTAIN OTHER NOTIFICATION REQUIREMENTS Post-Event Notice of Reportable Events § 4043.29 Change in contributing sponsor or controlled group. (a) Reportable event. A reportable event occurs for a plan when there is a transaction that results, or will result, in one or more...

  14. Effects of Structure of Marathon Group Therapy and Locus of Control on Therapeutic Outcome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilmann, Peter R.; Howell, Robert J.

    1974-01-01

    This study compared the outcome of external and internal scorers on the locus of control scale and considered the association between internal-external orientation and direct and nondirect marathon group therapy. The findings suggest that internals are better therapeutic risks than externals, regardless of a direct or nondirect therapist…

  15. How good are the internal controls in your group practice? Ten questions to contemplate.

    PubMed

    Grant, Barbara J; Foley, Lori A

    2002-01-01

    Internal controls are the methods and procedures used by any business to prevent or detect errors, safeguard assets (especially cash) from being misappropriated, and encourage staff adherence to prescribed managerial policies. Internal controls in a medical practice differ depending on the size and complexity of the practice. The key, however, is that they prevent or detect errors and efforts to circumvent the established policies and procedures of the organization. How good are the internal controls in your group practice? This article identifies ten questions you should use to evaluate your risk of asset misappropriation. PMID:12122813

  16. Learning in the tutorial group: a balance between individual freedom and institutional control.

    PubMed

    McAllister, Anita; Aanstoot, Janna; Hammarström, Inger Lundeborg; Samuelsson, Christina; Johannesson, Eva; Sandström, Karin; Berglind, Ulrika

    2014-01-01

    The study investigates factors in problem-based learning tutorial groups which promote or inhibit learning. The informants were tutors and students from speech-language pathology and physiotherapy programmes. Semi-structured focus-group interviews and individual interviews were used. Results revealed three themes: Responsibility. Time and Support. Under responsibility, the delicate balance between individual and institutional responsibility and control was shown. Time included short and long-term perspectives on learning. Under support, supporting documents, activities and personnel resources were mentioned. In summary, an increased control by the program and tutors decreases student's motivation to assume responsibility for learning. Support in tutorial groups needs to adapt to student progression and to be well aligned to tutorial work to have the intended effect. A lifelong learning perspective may help students develop a meta-awareness regarding learning that could make tutorial work more meaningful. PMID:23848371

  17. Field Testing of a Wet FGD Additive for Enhanced Mercury Control - Task 3 Full-scale Test Results

    SciTech Connect

    Gary Blythe

    2007-05-01

    This Topical Report summarizes progress on Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-04NT42309, 'Field Testing of a Wet FGD Additive'. The objective of the project is to demonstrate the use of a flue gas desulfurization (FGD) additive, Degussa Corporation's TMT-15, to prevent the reemission of elemental mercury (Hg{sup 0}) in flue gas exiting wet FGD systems on coal-fired boilers. Furthermore, the project intends to demonstrate whether the additive can be used to precipitate most of the mercury (Hg) removed in the wet FGD system as a fine TMT salt that can be separated from the FGD liquor and bulk solid byproducts for separate disposal. The project is conducting pilot- and full-scale tests of the TMT-15 additive in wet FGD absorbers. The tests are intended to determine required additive dosages to prevent Hg{sup 0} reemissions and to separate mercury from the normal FGD byproducts for three coal types: Texas lignite/Power River Basin (PRB) coal blend, high-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal, and low-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal. The project team consists of URS Group, Inc., EPRI, TXU Generation Company LP, Southern Company, and Degussa Corporation. TXU Generation has provided the Texas lignite/PRB cofired test site for pilot FGD tests, Monticello Steam Electric Station Unit 3. Southern Company is providing the low-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal host site for wet scrubbing tests, as well as the pilot- and full-scale jet bubbling reactor (JBR) FGD systems to be tested. IPL, an AES company, provided the high-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal full-scale FGD test site and cost sharing. Degussa Corporation is providing the TMT-15 additive and technical support to the test program as cost sharing. The project is being conducted in six tasks. Of the six project tasks, Task 1 involves project planning and Task 6 involves management and reporting. The other four tasks involve field testing on FGD systems, either at pilot or full scale. The four tasks include: Task 2 - Pilot Additive Testing

  18. Tooth Size in Patients with Mild, Moderate and Severe Hypodontia and a Control Group

    PubMed Central

    Khalaf, Khaled

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To compare tooth size between subjects with mild, moderate and severe hypodontia and a control group. Material and Methods: The study comprised 120 patients with hypodontia divided into three groups of 40 mild (≤2 teeth congenitally missing), 40 moderate (3-5 teeth congenitally missing) and 40 severe (≥6 teeth congenitally missing) hypodontia; and 40 age and sex matched controls. Tooth size was recorded by measuring the mesiodistal and buccolingual dimensions of all fully erupted teeth on study models using digital callipers and compared between all hypodontia and control groups using Two-way ANOVA and Post Hoc Tests of subgroup comparison. Results: Two-way ANOVA revealed patients with hypodontia had significantly smaller mesiodistal and buccolingual tooth dimensions compared with controls (p<0.05). Furthermore patients with more severe hypodontia demonstrated significantly smaller tooth dimensions than those in the mild and moderate hypodontia subgroups (p<0.05). The most affected tooth in terms of tooth size reduction was the maxillary lateral incisor and the least affected tooth was the mandibular first molar. Conclusion: Patients with hypodontia have smaller tooth dimensions than control. Tooth size appears to be affected by the degree of hypodontia, with severe hypodontia having a greater effect on tooth size reduction. The findings of this study may contribute to understanding the aetiology of hypodontia and aid the multidisciplinary management of this complex condition. PMID:27583048

  19. Simultaneous control of acid gases and PAHs using a spray dryer combined with a fabric filter using different additives.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhen Shu; Wey, Ming Yen; Lin, Chiou Liang

    2002-04-26

    The purpose of this research was to simultaneously evaluate the removal efficiency of acid gases and PAHs from the flue gas emitted by a laboratory incinerator. This flue gas contained dust, acid gases, organics and heavy metals. A spray dryer combined with a fabric filter was used as the air pollution control device (APCD) in this study. The operating conditions investigated included different feedstock additives (polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and NaCl) and spray dryer additives (SiO2, CaCl2 and NaHCO3). The removal efficiency for SO2 could be enhanced by adding inorganic additives, such as SiO2, CaCl2 and NaHCO3. The presence of PVC in the incinerator feedstock also increased the removal efficiency of SO2in the spray dryer. The improved removal of PAHs could be attributed to the addition of feedstock additives (PVC and NaCl) and spray dryer additives (SiO2, CaCl2 and NaHCO3). PMID:11900910

  20. Decision Making and Finite-Time Motion Control for a Group of Robots.

    PubMed

    Lu, Qiang; Liu, Shirong; Xie, Xiaogao; Wang, Jian

    2013-04-01

    This paper deals with the problem of odor source localization by designing and analyzing a decision-control system (DCS) for a group of robots. In the decision level, concentration magnitude information and wind information detected by robots are used to predict a probable position of the odor source. Specifically, the idea of particle swarm optimization is introduced to give a probable position of the odor source in terms of concentration magnitude information. Moreover, an observation model of the position of the odor source is built according to wind information, and a Kalman filter is used to estimate the position of the odor source, which is combined with the position obtained by using concentration magnitude information in order to make a decision on the position of the odor source. In the control level, two types of the finite-time motion control algorithms are designed; one is a finite-time parallel motion control algorithm, while the other is a finite-time circular motion control algorithm. Precisely, a nonlinear finite-time consensus algorithm is first proposed, and a Lyapunov approach is used to analyze the finite-time convergence of the proposed consensus algorithm. Then, on the basis of the proposed finite-time consensus algorithm, a finite-time parallel motion control algorithm, which can control the group of robots to trace the plume and move toward the probable position of odor source, is derived. Next, a finite-time circular motion control algorithm, which can enable the robot group to circle the probable position of the odor source in order to search for odor clues, is also developed. Finally, the performance capabilities of the proposed DCS are illustrated through the problem of odor source localization. PMID:23033435

  1. Application of photoremovable protecting group for controlled release of plant growth regulators by sunlight.

    PubMed

    Atta, Sanghamitra; Ikbal, Mohammed; Kumar, Ashutosh; Pradeep Singh, N D

    2012-06-01

    We report a novel technique for controlled release of plant growth regulators (PGRs) by sunlight using photoremovable protecting group (PRPG) as a delivery device. In the present work, carboxyl-containing PGRs of the auxin group [indoleacetic acid (IAA) and naphthoxyacetic acid (NOAA)] were chemically caged using PRPGs of coumarin derivatives. Photophysical studies showed that caged PGRs exhibited good fluorescence properties. Irradiation of caged PGRs by sunlight in both aqueous ethanol and soil media resulted in controlled release of PGRs. The results of the bioactivity experiments indicated that caged PGRs showed better enhancement in the root and shoot length growth of Cicer arietinum compared to PGRs after 10days of sunlight exposure. Our results indicated that use of PRPG as a delivery device for controlled release of PGRs by sunlight in soil holds great interest for field application since it can overcome the rapid loss of PGRs in environmental conditions. PMID:22513094

  2. Factorial validity of the multidimensional health locus of control scales for three American ethnic groups.

    PubMed

    Malcarne, Vanessa L; Fernandez, Senaida; Flores, Lise

    2005-09-01

    This study examined the psychometric properties (specifically, the factorial invariance) of the Multidimensional Health Locus of Control scales in a multicultural sample of college students. The original 18-item MHLC was administered, along with measures of ethnicity-related variables, to 1845 college students from three ethnic groups (Caucasian Americans, Filipino Americans and Latino Americans). Confirmatory factor analysis failed to confirm a three-factor structure for any of the three groups. Subsequent exploratory principal components analysis supported a cross-ethnic-group three-factor structure that had reduced numbers of items loading adequately on each factor. Shortened scales were created, and internal consistency reliability for each scale was acceptable for each ethnic group. Filipino Americans scored higher on all three scales. Regression analyses predicting MHLC scales from demographic and sociocultural variables revealed few predictive relationships. PMID:16033787

  3. Controlling surface functionality through generation of thiol groups in a self-assembled monolayer.

    SciTech Connect

    Lud, S. Q.; Neppl, S.; Richter, G.; Bruno, P.; Gruen, D. M.; Jordan, R.; Feulner, P.; Stutzmann, M.; Garrido, J. A.; Materials Science Division; Technische Univ. Munchen

    2010-01-01

    A lithographic method to generate reactive thiol groups on functionalized synthetic diamond for biosensor and molecular electronic applications is developed. We demonstrate that ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) thin films covalently functionalized with surface-generated thiol groups allow controlled thiol-disulfide exchange surface hybridization processes. The generation of the thiol functional head groups was obtained by irradiating phenylsulfonic acid (PSA) monolayers on UNCD surfaces. The conversion of the functional headgroup of the self-assembled monolayer was verified by using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS), and fluorescence microscopy. Our findings indicate the selective generation of reactive thiol surface groups. Furthermore, we demonstrate the grafting of yeast cytochrome c to the thiol-modified diamond surface and the electron transfer between protein and electrode.

  4. Elusive transmetalation intermediate in copper-catalyzed conjugate additions: direct NMR detection of an ethyl group attached to a binuclear phosphoramidite copper complex.

    PubMed

    von Rekowski, Felicitas; Koch, Carina; Gschwind, Ruth M

    2014-08-13

    Copper-catalyzed asymmetric conjugate addition reactions are a very powerful and widely applied method for enantioselective carbon-carbon bond formation. However, structural and mechanistic insight into these famous reactions has been very limited so far. In this article, the first direct experimental detection of transmetalation intermediates in copper-catalyzed reactions is presented. Special combinations of (1)H,(31)P HMBC spectra allow for the identification of complexes with chemical bonds between the alkyl groups and the copper complexes. For the structural characterization of these transmetalation intermediates, a special approach is applied, in which samples using enantiopure ligands are compared with samples using enantiomeric mixtures of ligands. It is experimentally proven, for the first time, that the dimeric copper complex structure is retained upon transmetalation, providing an intermediate with mixed trigonal/tetrahedral coordination on the copper atoms. In addition, monomeric intermediates with one ligand, but no intermediates with two ligands, are detected. These experimental results, in combination with the well-known optimal ligand-to-copper ratio of 2:1 in synthetic applications, allow us to propose that a binuclear transmetalation intermediate is the reactive species in copper-catalyzed asymmetric conjugate addition reactions. This first direct experimental insight into the structure of the transmetalation intermediate is expected to support the mechanistic and theoretical understanding of this important class of reactions and to enable their further synthetic development. In addition, the special NMR approach presented here for the identification and characterization of intermediates below the detection limit of (1)H NMR spectra can be applied also to other classes of catalyses. PMID:25072403

  5. Secondary electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry: breath study on a control group.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Lozano, P; Zingaro, L; Finiguerra, A; Cristoni, S

    2011-03-01

    A series of fatty acids among other compounds have recently been detected in breath in real time by secondary electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (SESI-MS) (Martínez-Lozano P and Fernández de la Mora J 2008 Anal. Chem. 80 8210). Our main aim in this work was to (1) quantify their abundance in breath calibrating the system with standard vapors and (2) extend the study to a control group for several days, both under fasting conditions and after sucrose intake. For the quantitative study, we fed our system with controlled amounts (∼140-1440 ppt) of fatty acid vapors (i.e. propanoic, butanoic, pentanoic and hexanoic acids). As a result, we found sensitivities ranging between 1 and 2.2 cps/ppt. Estimated concentrations of these particular acids in the breath of a fasting subject were in the order of 100 ppt. These values were in reasonable agreement with those expected from reported typical plasma concentrations and Henry constants. A second set of experiments on three fasting individuals before and after ingesting 15 g of sucrose showed that the concentration of propionic and butanoic acids increased rapidly in breath for two subjects. This response was attributed to bacterial activity in mouth and pharynx. In contrast, a third subject showed no response to the administration of sucrose. In addition, we performed a survey among six fasting subjects comparing nasal and mouth exhalations during 11 days, 4 months apart. The signal intensity was comparable for mouth and nose breath. This observation, in conjunction with the quantitative study, suggests that these compounds are mostly systemic when measured under fasting conditions. We finally used the NIST MS search algorithm to evaluate the possibility of recognizing a breathing subject based on his/her breath signature. The global recognition score was 63% (41 out of 65), while the probability by chance alone was 6 × 10(-17). This indicates that (i) there are statistically recognizable differences in

  6. Group hypnosis vs. relaxation for smoking cessation in adults: a cluster-randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite the popularity of hypnotherapy for smoking cessation, the efficacy of this method is unclear. We aimed to investigate the efficacy of a single-session of group hypnotherapy for smoking cessation compared to relaxation in Swiss adult smokers. Methods This was a cluster-randomised, parallel-group, controlled trial. A single session of hypnosis or relaxation for smoking cessation was delivered to groups of smokers (median size = 11). Participants were 223 smokers consuming ≥ 5 cigarettes per day, willing to quit and not using cessation aids (47.1% females, M = 37.5 years [SD = 11.8], 86.1% Swiss). Nicotine withdrawal, smoking abstinence self-efficacy, and adverse reactions were assessed at a 2-week follow-up. The main outcome, self-reported 30-day point prevalence of smoking abstinence, was assessed at a 6-month follow up. Abstinence was validated through salivary analysis. Secondary outcomes included number of cigarettes smoked per day, smoking abstinence self-efficacy, and nicotine withdrawal. Results At the 6-month follow up, 14.7% in the hypnosis group and 17.8% in the relaxation group were abstinent. The intervention had no effect on smoking status (p = .73) or on the number of cigarettes smoked per day (p = .56). Smoking abstinence self-efficacy did not differ between the interventions (p = .14) at the 2-week follow-up, but non-smokers in the hypnosis group experienced reduced withdrawal (p = .02). Both interventions produced few adverse reactions (p = .81). Conclusions A single session of group hypnotherapy does not appear to be more effective for smoking cessation than a group relaxation session. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN72839675. PMID:24365274

  7. Comparison of group motor control training versus individual training for people suffering from back pain.

    PubMed

    Streicher, Heike; Mätzold, Franz; Hamilton, Christine; Wagner, Petra

    2014-07-01

    This study investigated the effects of "motor-control training" (MCT) using the model of deficits in the activation of transversus abdominis (TrA) in people with recurrent back pain. The purpose of this investigation was to establish whether MCT - implemented within a new group intervention (experimental group) - is able to produce results similar to those of a conventional intervention applied individually (control group) to people suffering from back pain. Using the form of an experimental pre-post-test design, the study consisted of an experimental group (N = 18, mean age M = 45.2; SD = 18.4; 9 ♂, 9 ♀) and a comparison group (N = 13; age = 56.6; SD = 18.5; 6 ♂, 7 ♀). The training covered a period of six weeks, with two training sessions per week. The amount of training was the same in both groups. Aside from the same extent of training, the participants in the experimental group completed training content in the group interventions identical to that completed by the comparison group in the individual treatments. To clarify: The difference between the two groups was that the participants in the individual-therapy control group received individual feedback on their exercise performance and correction notes from the instructor. This degree of individual attention was not given within the group therapy. The selective activation of the M. transversus abdominis (TrA) was the main focus of the intervention, with the intent of improving its stabilising corset function, especially within the lumbar region, via increased tension of the thoracolumbar fascia. To record the progress of both groups, the anterolateral abdominal muscle recruitment of the M. transversus abdominis (TrA) was measured as a main influencing factor for anterolateral stabilisation of the spine. For measurements of muscle recruitment, rehabilitative ultrasound imaging (M-Turbo™ SonoSite(®) Erlangen in B-Mode) according to Whittaker (2007) was used. Furthermore, the relationship between pain

  8. Individual vs. Group-Based Incentives for Weight Loss: A Randomized, Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Kullgren, Jeffrey T.; Troxel, Andrea B.; Loewenstein, George; Asch, David A.; Norton, Laurie A.; Wesby, Lisa; Tao, Yuanyuan; Zhu, Jingsan; Volpp, Kevin G.

    2014-01-01

    Background There are limited data on the effectiveness of employer-sponsored financial incentives for employee weight loss. Objective To test the effectiveness of two financial incentive designs for promoting weight loss among obese employees. Design Randomized controlled trial. Allocation sequence was generated dynamically at the time of request of treatment assignment. Participants were unblinded to assignment; investigators were blinded to assignment until collection of primary outcome data. Setting Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia Participants 105 employees with a body mass index between 30 and 40 kg/m2 Interventions 24 weeks of monthly weigh-ins (control)(n=35); individual incentive, designed as $100 per person per month for meeting or exceeding target weight loss (individual arm)(n=35); group incentive, designed as $500 per month split between any participant within groups of 5 who met or exceeded their target weight loss (group arm)(n=35). Measurements Weight loss after 24 weeks (primary outcome); weight loss after 36 weeks, changes in behavioral mediators of weight loss (secondary outcomes). Results Group incentive participants lost more weight than individual arm participants (between-group difference in weight loss favoring group = mean 9.7 pounds, 95% CI 4.4 to 14.9; P < 0.001). Twelve weeks after incentives ended and adjusting for 3-group comparisons, group arm participants maintained greater weight loss than control arm participants (between-group difference in weight loss = mean 6.5 pounds, 95% CI 1.2 to 11.7; P = 0.016) but not more than individual arm participants (difference = 5.9 pounds, 95% CI, 0.8 to 11.0; P = 0.024). Limitations Single employer, short follow-up Conclusions A group-based financial incentive was more effective than an individual incentive and monthly weigh-ins at promoting weight loss among obese employees at 24 weeks. Primary Funding Source National Institute on Aging Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT

  9. Preparation and chromatographic evaluation of zwitterionic stationary phases with controllable ratio of positively and negatively charged groups.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Xiao-Dong; Hao, Yan-Hong; Peng, Xi-Tian; Yuan, Bi-Feng; Shi, Zhi-Guo; Feng, Yu-Qi

    2015-08-15

    The present study described the preparation and application of zwitterionic stationary phases (ACS) with controllable ratio of positively charged tertiary amine groups and negatively charged carboxyl groups. Various parameters, including water content, pH values and ionic strength of the mobile phase, were investigated to study the chromatographic characteristics of ACS columns. The prepared ACS columns demonstrated a mix-mode retention mechanism composed of surface adsorption, partitioning and electrostatic interactions. The elemental analysis of different batches of the ACS phases demonstrated good reproducibility of the preparation strategy. Additionally, various categories of compounds, including nucleosides, water-soluble vitamins, benzoic acid derivatives and basic compounds were successively employed to evaluate the separation selectivity of the prepared ACS stationary phases. These ACS phases exhibited entirely different selectivity and retention behavior from each other for various polar analytes, demonstrating the excellent application potential in the analysis of polar compounds in HILIC. PMID:25966373

  10. Is There a Relation between ABO Blood Groups and Clinical Outcome in Patients with Pemphigoid? A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Bakhtiari, Sedigheh; Toosi, Parviz; Azimi, Somayyeh; Esmaili, Nafiseh; Montazami, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Background. Relationship between blood groups and dermatologic diseases remains controversial and was not yet fully elucidated nor explained clearly. The aim of this study was to examine if any relation exists between different types of pemphigoid diseases and ABO blood group. Methods. In this case-control study, 159 pemphigoid patients and 152 healthy matched-controls were evaluated. All blood group (including Rh status) data for the study was obtained from the hospital medical records. Statistical comparisons were completed with chi-square test and logistic regression. Results. Blood group “O” was found in 32.9% of patients and 38.2% of control group. Blood group “A” was found among 30.8% of patients and 34.2% of control group, while group “B” was reported in 27.4% of cases and 21.1% of controls and “AB” was identified among 8.9% of patients and 6.6% of control group. 84.9% of patients were Rh positive, while in the control group 86.2% of patients were Rh positive. No significant differences were found regarding ABO blood groups (P = 0.46) or Rh (P = 0.76) between pemphigoid patients and control group. Also, older females had the higher risk of developing bullous pemphigoid. Conclusion. We found no relationship between ABO blood groups and pemphigoid disease. PMID:27437000

  11. Closing plenary summary of working group 4 instrumentation and controls for ERL2011

    SciTech Connect

    Gassner, D.; Obina, T.

    2011-10-16

    Working group 4 was charged with presentations and discussions on instrumentation and controls with regards to Energy Recovery Linacs (ERL). There were 4 sessions spanning 3.5 hours in which 7 talks were delivered, the first being an invited plenary presentation. The time allotted for each talk was limited to 20-25 minutes in order to allow 5-10 minutes for discussion. Most of the talks were held in joint session with working group 5 (Unwanted Beam Loss). This format was effective for the purpose of this workshop. A final series of discussion sessions were also held with working group 5. Summary of the working group 4 activities, presented in the closing plenary session. We had a plenary presentation on operational performance, experience, and future plans at the existing ERL injector prototype at Cornell. This included instrumentation data, controls system configurations, as well as description of future needs. This was followed by four talks from KEK and RIKEN/SPring-8 that described electron beam instrumentation already in use or under development that can be applied to ERL facilities. The final talks described the ERLs under construction at KEK and BNL. The format of having joint sessions with working group 5 was beneficial as there were a significant number of common topics and concerns with regards to the causes of beam loss, instrumentation hardware, and techniques used to measure and analyze beam loss.

  12. Group Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy and Group Interpersonal Psychotherapy for the Nonpurging Bulimic Individual: A Controlled Comparison.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilfrey, Denise E.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Evaluated effectiveness of group cognitive-behavioral treatment (CBT) and group interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) for binge eating among 56 women with nonpurging bulimia. At posttreatment, both CBT and IPT conditions showed significant improvement in reducing binge eating, compared to waiting-list condition. Binge eating remained significantly…

  13. Clinical characteristics of patients with motor disability due to conversion disorder: a prospective control group study

    PubMed Central

    Binzer, M.; Andersen, P.; Kullgren, G.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—Previous studies have suggested associations between conversion and many different clinical characteristics. This study investigates these findings in a prospective design including a control group.
METHODS—Thirty consecutive patients with a recent onset of motor disability due to a conversion disorder were compared with a control group of patients with corresponding motor symptoms due to a definite organic lesion. Both groups had a similar duration of symptoms and a comparable age and sex profile and were assessed on a prospective basis. Background information about previous somatic and psychiatric disease was collected and all patients were assessed by means of a structured clinical interview linked to the diagnostic system DSM III-R, the Hamilton rating depression scale, and a special life events inventory.
RESULTS—The conversion group had a higher degree of psychopathology with 33% of the patients fulfilling the criteria for psychiatric syndromes according to DSM-III-R axis I, whereas 50% had axis II personality disorders compared with 10% and 17% respectively in the control group. Conversion patients also had significantly higher scores according to the Hamilton rating depression scale. Although patients with known neurological disease were not included in the conversion group, a concomitant somatic disorder was found in 33% of the patients and 50% complained of benign pain. The educational background in conversion patients was poor with only 13% having dropped out of high school compared with 67% in the control group. Self reported global assessment of functioning according to the axis V on DSM IV was significantly lower in conversion patients, who also registered significantly more negative life events before the onset of symptoms than controls. Logistic regression analysis showed that low education, presence of a personality disorder, and high Hamilton depression score were significantly associated with conversion disorder

  14. Teaching Emotional Intelligence: A Control Group Study of a Brief Educational Intervention for Emergency Medicine Residents

    PubMed Central

    Gorgas, Diane L.; Greenberger, Sarah; Bahner, David P.; Way, David P.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Emotional Intelligence (EI) is defined as an ability to perceive another’s emotional state combined with an ability to modify one’s own. Physicians with this ability are at a distinct advantage, both in fostering teams and in making sound decisions. Studies have shown that higher physician EI’s are associated with lower incidence of burn-out, longer careers, more positive patient-physician interactions, increased empathy, and improved communication skills. We explored the potential for EI to be learned as a skill (as opposed to being an innate ability) through a brief educational intervention with emergency medicine (EM) residents. Methods This study was conducted at a large urban EM residency program. Residents were randomized to either EI intervention or control groups. The intervention was a two-hour session focused on improving the skill of social perspective taking (SPT), a skill related to social awareness. Due to time limitations, we used a 10-item sample of the Hay 360 Emotional Competence Inventory to measure EI at three time points for the training group: before (pre) and after (post) training, and at six-months post training (follow up); and at two time points for the control group: pre- and follow up. The preliminary analysis was a four-way analysis of variance with one repeated measure: Group x Gender x Program Year over Time. We also completed post-hoc tests. Results Thirty-three EM residents participated in the study (33 of 36, 92%), 19 in the EI intervention group and 14 in the control group. We found a significant interaction effect between Group and Time (p≤0.05). Post-hoc tests revealed a significant increase in EI scores from Time 1 to 3 for the EI intervention group (62.6% to 74.2%), but no statistical change was observed for the controls (66.8% to 66.1%, p=0.77). We observed no main effects involving gender or level of training. Conclusion Our brief EI training showed a delayed but statistically significant positive impact

  15. Mechanisms Controlling Carbon Turnover from Diverse Microbial Groups in Temperate and Tropical Forest Soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Throckmorton, H.; Dane, L.; Bird, J. A.; Firestone, M. K.; Horwath, W. R.

    2010-12-01

    Microorganisms represent an important intermediate along the pathway of plant litter decomposition to the formation of soil organic matter (SOM); yet little is known of the fate and stability of microbial C in soils and the importance of microbial biochemistry as a factor influencing SOM dynamics. This research investigates mechanisms controlling microbial C stabilization in a temperate forest in the Sierra Nevada of California (CA) and a tropical forest in Puerto Rico (PR). Biochemically diverse microbial groups (fungi, actinomycetes, bacteria gram (+), and bacteria gram (-)) were isolated from both sites, grown in the laboratory with C13 media, killed, and nonliving residues were added back to soils as a reciprocal transplant of microbial groups. The native microbial community in CA is dominated by fungi and in PR is dominated by bacteria, which provides an opportunity to asses the metabolic response of distinct microbial communities to the diverse microbial additions. CA and PR soils were sampled five times over a 3 and 2 year period, respectively. In CA there was no significant difference in the mean residence time (MRT) of diverse C13 microbial treatments; whereas in PR there were significant differences, whereby temperate fungi, temperate Gram (+) bacteria, and tropical actinomycetes exhibited a significantly longer MRT as compared with tropical fungi and temperate Gram (-). These results suggest that a bacterial dominated microbial community discriminates more amongst diverse substrates than a fungal-dominated community. MRT for labeled-C in CA was 5.21 ± 1.11 years, and in PR was 2.22 ± 0.45. Despite substantial differences in MRT between sites, physical fractionation of soils into light (LF), aggregated-occluded (OF), and mineral-associated (MF) fractions provided evidence that accelerated decomposition in PR (presumably due to climate) operated primarily on labeled-C unassociated with the mineral matrix (LF); labeled-C occluded within aggregates (OF) or

  16. The Take Control Course: Conceptual Rationale for the Development of a Transdiagnostic Group for Common Mental Health Problems

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Lydia; Mansell, Warren; McEvoy, Phil

    2016-01-01

    Background: Increasingly, research supports the utility of a transdiagnostic understanding of psychopathology. However, there is no consensus regarding the theoretical approach that best explains this. Transdiagnostic interventions can offer service delivery advantages; this is explored in the current review, focusing on group modalities and primary care settings. Objective: This review seeks to explore whether a Perceptual Control Theory (PCT) explanation of psychopathology across disorders is a valid one. Further, this review illustrates the process of developing a novel transdiagnostic intervention (Take Control Course; TCC) from a PCT theory of functioning. Method: Narrative review. Results and Conclusions: Considerable evidence supports key tenets of PCT. Further, PCT offers a novel perspective regarding the mechanisms by which a number of familiar techniques, such as exposure and awareness, are effective. However, additional research is required to directly test the relative contribution of some PCT mechanisms predicted to underlie psychopathology. Directions for future research are considered. PMID:26903907

  17. Empowering Parents of Obese Children (EPOC): A randomized controlled trial on additional long-term weight effects of parent training.

    PubMed

    Warschburger, Petra; Kroeller, Katja; Haerting, Johannes; Unverzagt, Susanne; van Egmond-Fröhlich, Andreas

    2016-08-01

    Although inpatient lifestyle treatment for obese children and adolescents can be highly effective in the short term, long-term results are unconvincing. One possible explanation might be that the treatment takes place far from parents' homes, limiting the possibility to incorporate the parents, who play a major role in establishing and maintaining a healthy lifestyle in childhood and adolescence. The main goal was to develop a brief behaviorally oriented parent training program that enhances 'obesity-specific' parenting skills in order to prevent relapse. We hypothesized that the inclusion of additional parent training would lead to an improved long-term weight course of obese children. Parents of obese children (n = 686; 7-13 years old) either participated in complementary cognitive-behavioral group sessions (n = 336) or received written information only (n = 350) during the inpatient stay. Children of both groups attended multidisciplinary inpatient rehabilitation. BMI-SDS as a primary outcome was evaluated at baseline, post-intervention and at 6- and 12-month follow-up. Intention-to-treat (ITT) as well as per-protocol analyses (PPA) were performed. A significant within-group decrease of 0.24 (95% CI 0.18 to 0.30) BMI-SDS points from the beginning of the inpatient stay through the first year was found, but no group difference at the one-year follow-up (mean difference 0.02; 95% CI -0.04 to 0.07). We also observed an increase in quality of life scores, intake of healthy food and exercise for both groups, without differences between groups (ITT and PPA). Thus, while the inpatient treatment proved highly effective, additional parent training did not lead to better results in long-term weight maintenance or to better psychosocial well-being compared to written psycho-educational material. Further research should focus on subgroups to answer the question of differential treatment effects. PMID:27074374

  18. A controlled trial of the SibworkS group program for siblings of children with special needs.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Rachel M; Ejova, Anastasia; Giallo, Rebecca; Strohm, Kate; Lillie, Meredith; Fuss, Belinda

    2015-01-01

    Siblings of children with a disability are an at risk group for emotional and behavioral problems. This study evaluated an intervention to promote the emotional and behavioral functioning of siblings of children with disabilities and chronic health conditions. SibworkS is a six-week manual-based, cognitive-behavioral group support program focussed on strengthening siblings' perceived social support, self-esteem, problem-solving skills, adaptive coping behaviors and positive sibling relationships. Fifty-six children aged 7-12 were allocated to either the SibworkS program (n=30) or waitlist control (n=26) in alternating sequence. The primary outcome was siblings' emotional and behavioral functioning. Additional outcomes were self-esteem, perceived social support, the sibling relationship and coping behaviors. Siblings were followed-up immediately after the intervention and at 3-months. Siblings participating in the SibworkS intervention were reported to have fewer emotional and behavioral difficulties than siblings in the control group immediately following the intervention and at the 3-month follow-up. Participation in SibworkS was associated with fewer emotional and behavioral difficulties for siblings. Implications for practice and future research include recommendations for improving program participation. PMID:26151440

  19. Can Jurors Recognize Missing Control Groups, Confounds, and Experimenter Bias in Psychological Science?

    PubMed Central

    McAuliff, Bradley D.; Kovera, Margaret Bull; Nunez, Gabriel

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the ability of jury-eligible community members (N = 248) to detect internal validity threats in psychological science presented during a trial. Participants read a case summary in which an expert testified about a study that varied in internal validity (valid, missing control group, confound, and experimenter bias) and ecological validity (high, low). Ratings of expert evidence quality and expert credibility were higher for the valid versus missing control group versions only. Internal validity did not influence verdict or ratings of plaintiff credibility and no differences emerged as a function of ecological validity. Expert evidence quality, expert credibility, and plaintiff credibility were positively correlated with verdict. Implications for the scientific reasoning literature and for trials containing psychological science are discussed. PMID:18587635

  20. The Assessment of Addition of Either Intravenous Paracetamol or Diclofenac Suppositories to Patient-Controlled Morphine Analgesia for Postgastrectomy Pain Control

    PubMed Central

    Bameshki, Alireza; Peivandi Yazdi, Arash; Sheybani, Shima; Rezaei Boroujerdi, Hengameh; Taghavi Gilani, Mehryar

    2015-01-01

    Background: Major surgical procedures, such as gastrectomy, result in extensive postoperative pain, which can lead to increased morbidity, discomfort and dissatisfaction among the patients. Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of adding diclofenac suppositories or intravenous paracetamol, on morphine consumption and on the quality of postgastrectomy pain control. Patients and Methods: This randomized double blinded clinical trial was carried out in 90 patients with gastric cancer, who were candidates for gastrectomy, which were divided into three similar groups. The patients were transferred to an intensive care unit after the operation and received patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) with morphine, morphine PCA plus intravenous paracetamol 1 g, every 6 hours, and morphine PCA plus diclofenac suppositories, 100 mg every 8 hours. The patients were evaluated for up to 24 hours after the operation for the severity of pain, alertness, and opioid complications. Results: There was no significant difference in pain scores among the three groups (P values, after extubation, at 2, 4, 6, 12, 18 and 24 hours were 0.72, 0.19, 0.21, 0.66, 0.54, 0.56, and 0.25, respectively), although morphine consumption was greater in the morphine group, compared with the other two groups (21.4 ± 7.7 mg in morphine group vs. 14.3 ± 5.8 mg in morphine-paracetamol group and 14.3 ± 3.9 in morphine-diclofenac group; P = 0.001). In morphine group, during the first 24 hours, the patients had lower levels of consciousness (P values, after extubation, at 2, 4, 6, 12, 18 and 24 hour were 0.6, 0.95, 0.28, 0.005, 0.027, 0.022 and 0.004 respectively), even though the incidence of complications was similar among the three groups. Conclusions: In this study, intravenous paracetamol or diclofenac suppositories, administered for postgastrectomy pain control, decreased morphine consumption by almost 32% and also improved alertness. Nevertheless, the amount of opioids did not affect

  1. Validation Methods for Fault-Tolerant avionics and control systems, working group meeting 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The proceedings of the first working group meeting on validation methods for fault tolerant computer design are presented. The state of the art in fault tolerant computer validation was examined in order to provide a framework for future discussions concerning research issues for the validation of fault tolerant avionics and flight control systems. The development of positions concerning critical aspects of the validation process are given.

  2. Social integration of robots into groups of cockroaches to control self-organized choices.

    PubMed

    Halloy, J; Sempo, G; Caprari, G; Rivault, C; Asadpour, M; Tâche, F; Saïd, I; Durier, V; Canonge, S; Amé, J M; Detrain, C; Correll, N; Martinoli, A; Mondada, F; Siegwart, R; Deneubourg, J L

    2007-11-16

    Collective behavior based on self-organization has been shown in group-living animals from insects to vertebrates. These findings have stimulated engineers to investigate approaches for the coordination of autonomous multirobot systems based on self-organization. In this experimental study, we show collective decision-making by mixed groups of cockroaches and socially integrated autonomous robots, leading to shared shelter selection. Individuals, natural or artificial, are perceived as equivalent, and the collective decision emerges from nonlinear feedbacks based on local interactions. Even when in the minority, robots can modulate the collective decision-making process and produce a global pattern not observed in their absence. These results demonstrate the possibility of using intelligent autonomous devices to study and control self-organized behavioral patterns in group-living animals. PMID:18006751

  3. P300 EVENT RELATED POTENTIAL IN NORMAL HEALTHY CONTROLS OF DIFFERENT AGE GROUPS

    PubMed Central

    Shukla, R.; Trivedi, J.K.; Singh, R.; Singh, Y.; Chakravorty, P.

    2000-01-01

    P300 event related potential was recorded in 115 healthy controls with a mean age of35.9±14.81 years and a male : female ratio of 72 : 43. There was significant difference in the P300 latency in < 40 years as compared to ≥ 40 years group (p< 0.001). There was no significant difference between males and females. There was a strong positive correlation between age and P300 latency (p< 0.001). The regression equation for P300 latency was Y=287.9+1.492x with an SEE of 20.2 (where Y is the P300 latency in ms, x is the age in years, SEE is the standard error of estimate). There was a negative correlation between age and P300 amplitude which was significant in ≥ 40 years age group while in > 40 years age group it was not significant. PMID:21407977

  4. A randomized controlled trial of group Stepping Stones Triple P: a mixed-disability trial.

    PubMed

    Roux, Gemma; Sofronoff, Kate; Sanders, Matthew

    2013-09-01

    Stepping Stones Triple P (SSTP) is a parenting program designed for families of a child with a disability. The current study involved a randomized controlled trial of Group Stepping Stones Triple P (GSSTP) for a mixed-disability group. Participants were 52 families of children diagnosed with an Autism Spectrum Disorder, Down syndrome, Cerebral Palsy, or an intellectual disability. The results demonstrated significant improvements in parent-reported child behavior, parenting styles, parental satisfaction, and conflict about parenting. Results among participants were similar despite children's differing impairments. The intervention effect was maintained at 6-month follow-up. The results indicate that GSSTP is a promising intervention for a mixed-disability group. Limitations of the study, along with areas for future research, are also discussed. PMID:24033239

  5. Ultrafast optical control of group delay of narrow-band terahertz waves

    PubMed Central

    Miyamaru, Fumiaki; Morita, Hiroki; Nishiyama, Yohei; Nishida, Tsubasa; Nakanishi, Toshihiro; Kitano, Masao; Takeda, Mitsuo W.

    2014-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate control over the group delay of narrow-band (quasi continuous wave) terahertz (THz) pulses with constant amplitude based on optical switching of a metasurface characteristic. The near-field coupling between resonant modes of a complementary split ring resonator pair and a rectangular slit show an electromagnetically induced transparency-like (EIT-like) spectral shape in the reflection spectrum of a metasurface. This coupling induces group delay of a narrow-band THz pulse around the resonant frequency of the EIT-like spectrum. By irradiating the metasurface with an optical excitation pulse, the metasurface becomes mirror-like and thus the incident narrow-band THz pulse is reflected without a delay. Remarkably, if we select the appropriate excitation power, only the group delay of the narrow-band THz pulse can be switched while the amplitude is maintained before and after optical excitation. PMID:24614514

  6. Field Testing of a Wet FGD Additive for Enhanced Mercury Control - Task 5 Full-Scale Test Results

    SciTech Connect

    Gary Blythe; MariJon Owens

    2007-12-01

    This Topical Report summarizes progress on Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-04NT42309, 'Field Testing of a Wet FGD Additive'. The objective of the project is to demonstrate the use of two flue gas desulfurization (FGD) additives, Evonik Degussa Corporation's TMT-15 and Nalco Company's Nalco 8034, to prevent the re-emission of elemental mercury (Hg{sup 0}) in flue gas exiting wet FGD systems on coal-fired boilers. Furthermore, the project intends to demonstrate whether the additive can be used to precipitate most of the mercury (Hg) removed in the wet FGD system as a fine salt that can be separated from the FGD liquor and bulk solid byproducts for separate disposal. The project is conducting pilot- and full-scale tests of the additives in wet FGD absorbers. The tests are intended to determine required additive dosages to prevent Hg{sup 0} re-emissions and to separate mercury from the normal FGD byproducts for three coal types: Texas lignite/Powder River Basin (PRB) coal blend, high-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal, and low-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal. The project team consists of URS Group, Inc., EPRI, Luminant Power (was TXU Generation Company LP), Southern Company, IPL (an AES company), Evonik Degussa Corporation and the Nalco Company. Luminant Power has provided the Texas lignite/PRB co-fired test site for pilot FGD tests and cost sharing. Southern Company has provided the low-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal host site for wet scrubbing tests, as well as the pilot- and full-scale jet bubbling reactor (JBR) FGD systems tested. IPL provided the high-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal full-scale FGD test site and cost sharing. Evonik Degussa Corporation is providing the TMT-15 additive, and the Nalco Company is providing the Nalco 8034 additive. Both companies are also supplying technical support to the test program as in-kind cost sharing. The project is being conducted in six tasks. Of the six project tasks, Task 1 involves project planning and Task 6 involves management

  7. Control of oxo-group functionalization and reduction of the uranyl ion.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Polly L; Pécharman, Anne-Frédérique; Lord, Rianne M; Jones, Guy M; Hollis, Emmalina; Nichol, Gary S; Maron, Laurent; Fang, Jian; Davin, Thomas; Love, Jason B

    2015-04-01

    Uranyl complexes of a large, compartmental N8-macrocycle adopt a rigid, "Pacman" geometry that stabilizes the U(V) oxidation state and promotes chemistry at a single uranyl oxo-group. We present here new and straightforward routes to singly reduced and oxo-silylated uranyl Pacman complexes and propose mechanisms that account for the product formation, and the byproduct distributions that are formed using alternative reagents. Uranyl(VI) Pacman complexes in which one oxo-group is functionalized by a single metal cation are activated toward single-electron reduction. As such, the addition of a second equivalent of a Lewis acidic metal complex such as MgN″2 (N″ = N(SiMe3)2) forms a uranyl(V) complex in which both oxo-groups are Mg functionalized as a result of Mg-N bond homolysis. In contrast, reactions with the less Lewis acidic complex [Zn(N″)Cl] favor the formation of weaker U-O-Zn dative interactions, leading to reductive silylation of the uranyl oxo-group in preference to metalation. Spectroscopic, crystallographic, and computational analysis of these reactions and of oxo-metalated products isolated by other routes have allowed us to propose mechanisms that account for pathways to metalation or silylation of the exo-oxo-group. PMID:25799215

  8. The effects of amine/nitro/hydroxyl groups on the benzene rings of redox additives on the electrochemical performance of carbon-based supercapacitors.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xuan; Wang, Qian; Chen, Xiang Ying; Zhang, Zhong Jie

    2016-04-21

    In this work, a series of porous carbon materials with hierarchical porosities have been synthesized via a template carbonization method, in which cheap CaCO3 serves as a template and glucose as a carbon precursor. During the carbonization process, CO2 produced by the decomposition of the CaCO3 template can act as an internal activating agent, significantly improving microporosity and mesoporosity. All the carbon materials obtained by regulating the ratio of glucose to CaCO3 exhibit the amorphous features with a low graphitization degree. Among them, the carbon-1 : 2 sample shows a high BET surface area of up to 818.5 m(2) g(-1) and a large total pore volume of 1.78 cm(3) g(-1) as well as a specific capacitance of 107.0 F g(-1) at 1 A g(-1). In addition, a series of hydroquinone (HQ), p-aminophenol (PAP) and p-nitrophenol (PNP) as novel redox additives that can produce pseudo-capacitances have been added into the KOH electrolyte for promoting the total capacitive performances via redox reactions at the electrode-electrolyte interface. As expected, a 2.5-fold increase in the galvanostatic capacitance of 240.0 F g(-1) in the HQ-0.5 electrolyte occurs, compared with the conventional KOH electrolyte. Similarly, the PAP-0.5 electrolyte and the PNP-0.5 electrolyte also show a high specific capacitance of 184.0 F g(-1) at 2 A g(-1) (156.6 F g(-1) at 3 A g(-1)) and 153.0 F g(-1) at 3 A g(-1), respectively. Additionally, the three kinds of electrolytes exhibit excellent cyclic stability. The remarkable improvement of supercapacitors is attributed to the quick reversible Faradaic reactions of amine and hydroxyl groups adhering to the phenyl rings, which largely accelerates electron migration and brings additional pseudocapacitive contribution for carbon-based supercapacitors. PMID:27030290

  9. 75 FR 34458 - National Center for Injury Prevention and Control/Initial Review Group, (NCIPC/IRG)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Center for Injury Prevention and Control/Initial Review Group, (NCIPC/IRG) Correction: This notice was published in the Federal Register on... Control and Prevention (CDC), announces the following meeting of the aforementioned review group: Time...

  10. Comparison of the Mindfulness Skills, Metacognitive Beliefs and Perceived Stress in Hypertension Patients and Control Group.

    PubMed

    Haji-Mirsaeidi, Zohreh; Kazemi-Zahrani, Hamid; Sadeghi, Masoumeh

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the skills of mindfulness, metacognitive beliefs and perceived stress in hypertension patients and control group. The study was a causal-comparative one. The population included all patients with high blood pressure who were admitted in Isfahan Cardiovascular Research Institute in 2014, 90 of which were selected by purposive sampling. Research instruments include: Kentucky's mindfulness skills (Baer, Smith, & Allen, 2004), metacognitive beliefs questionnaire (Welles, 1997) and questionnaire perceived stress (Cohen & Kamarck, 1983). Of all the questionnaires returned, 80 were fully completed and therefore analyzed. Data were analyzed using a t-test and multivariate analysis of variance. Results showed that there is a difference between mindfulness skills and beliefs of people with hypertension and control group. Moreover, the results showed that there isn't any meaningful difference between the perceived stress in patients with hypertension and control group. It can be said that mindfulness skills, metacognitive beliefs and perceived stress can help us to understand the psychological issues of patients with high blood pressure better. PMID:27530578

  11. Impact of solvent additive on exciton dissociation in P3HT : EP-PDI blend film via controlling morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xiao-Yu; Xu, Wei-Long; Zheng, Fei; Liu, Jian-Qiang; Hao, Xiao-Tao

    2016-06-01

    Suitable solvent additives provide an effective means to control the morphology of polymer blend films. In this work, we systematically investigate the impact of the solvent additive chloronaphthalene (CN) on the morphology of P3HT : EP-PDI blends. The optimum volume fraction of solvent additive CN was found to be 0.5 vol% by atom force microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. UV–visible absorption spectroscopy and grazing incidence x-ray diffraction indicate that the crystallinity of both the P3HT and EP-PDI domains significantly decreased in the blends with 0.5 vol% CN. Grazing incidence small-angle x-ray scattering results show that the size of the small EP-PDI aggregation decreases from 44–22 nm with the addition of CN. Time-resolved photoluminescence measurement reveals that the decreased EP-PDI domains give rise to increased donor–acceptor interfacial areas, which not only facilitate the exciton dissociation, but suppresses the formation of the EP-PDI intermolecular state.

  12. Stability of ZnO quantum dots tuned by controlled addition of ethylene glycol during their growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmermann, Lizandra M.; Baldissera, Paulo V.; Bechtold, Ivan H.

    2016-07-01

    ZnO quantum dots were prepared via a sol–gel route from zinc acetate and sodium hydroxide. The influence of ethylene glycol addition during the first stages of reaction (1–5 min) as a stabilizer, as well as the influence of its concentration in 2-propanol were investigated. The optimization led to particles with enough stability and homogeneity around 3.7 nm of diameter to allow for quantum confinement effect. Spectroscopic UV–vis absorption measurements allowed to explore the underlying mechanism of nucleation and growth and to have the control of it. The emission of the ZnO nanoparticles was explored under experimental perturbations with addition of small amounts of water to investigate the interplay between surface defects and the excitonic effect. The results suggest that the water interferes directly on the defects first and later on the excitonic recombination. Their morphology was determined with transmission electron microscopy.

  13. The influence of deposit control additives on nitrogen oxides emissions from spark ignition engines (case study: Tehran).

    PubMed

    Bidhendi, Gholamreza Nabi; Zand, Ali Daryabeigi; Tabrizi, Alireza Mikaeili; Pezeshk, Hamid; Baghvand, Akbar

    2007-04-15

    In the present research, the influence of a deposit control additive on NOx emissions from two types of gasoline engine vehicles i.e., Peykan (base on Hillman) and Pride (South Korea Kia motors) was studied. Exhaust NOx emissions were measured in to stages, before decarbonization process and after that. Statistical analysis was conducted on the measurement results. Results showed that NOx emissions from Peykans increased 0.28% and NOx emissions from Pride automobiles decreased 6.18% on average, due to the elimination of engine deposits. The observed variations were not statistically and practically significant. The results indicated that making use of detergent additives is not an effective way to reduce the exhaust NOx emissions from gasoline engine vehicles. PMID:19069943

  14. Effect of kaolin addition on the performance of controlled low-strength material using industrial waste incineration bottom ash.

    PubMed

    Naganathan, Sivakumar; Razak, Hashim Abdul; Hamid, Siti Nadzriah Abdul

    2010-09-01

    Incineration of industrial waste produces large quantities of bottom ash which are normally sent to secured landfill, but is not a sustainable solution. Use of bottom ash in engineering applications will contribute to sustainability and generate revenue. One way of using the industrial waste incineration bottom ash is in controlled low-strength material (CLSM). Use of bottom ash in CLSM has problems related to bleeding and excessive strength development and so an additive has to be used to control bleeding and strength development. The main objective of this research is to study the effect of kaolin addition on the performance of CLSM made using industrial waste incineration bottom ash. CLSM mixes were made with bottom ash, cement, and refined kaolin. Various tests were performed on the CLSM in fresh and hardened states including compressive strength, water absorption, California bearing ratio (CBR) and the tests for concentration of leachable substances on the bleed and leachate. The compressive strength of CLSM tested ranged from 0.11 to 9.86 MPa. CBR values ranged from 6 to 46, and water absorption values from 12 to 36%. It was shown that the addition of kaolin delayed the initial setting time of CLSM mixtures, reduced bleeding, lowered the compressive strength, and increased the values of water absorption, sorption, and initial surface absorption. The CLSM tested did not have corrosivity. It was shown that the hardened CLSM was non hazardous, and the addition of kaolin increased the concentration of heavy metals and salts in the bleed and leachate. PMID:20852000

  15. Photoremovable protecting groups as controlled-release device for sex pheromone.

    PubMed

    Atta, Sanghamitra; Ikbal, Mohammed; Boda, Nishitha; Gauri, Samiran S; Singh, N D Pradeep

    2013-02-01

    Photoremovable protecting groups (PRPGs) were demonstrated as a delivery device for controlled release of pheromone under both UV light (≥350 nm) and direct sunlight irradiation. In the present work, (Z)-11-hexadecen-1-ol (sex pheromone of Chilo infuscatellus Snellen) was chemically caged by four different photoremovable protecting groups (7-hydroxy-4-hydroxymethylcoumarin, 1-pyrenemethanol, 9-anthracenemethanol and 2-(hydroxymethyl)anthraquinone) individually. Photophysical studies showed that the caged pheromone with coumarin, pyrene and anthracene derivatives exhibited strong fluorescence. Controlled release of (Z)-11-hexadecen-1-ol was achieved by irradiating the caged compounds in aqueous ethanol both under UV and sunlight. Further, to mimic the environmental conditions, controlled release of (Z)-11-hexadecen-1-ol was also studied in soil medium under direct sunlight. Thermogravimetric analysis showed that caging of (Z)-11-hexadecen-1-ol by PRPGs significantly reduced its volatility. Bioassay experiments indicated that PRPGs are harmless to soil bacteria (Azotobacter sp. and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and in vitro cytotoxicity studies on eukaryotic L929 cells showed that PRPGs are also non-toxic. Field bioassays were performed using caged pheromone against maize stalk borer (Chilo partellus) and the results showed that the caged alcohol is effective in a number of moths catches instead of free alcohol in a blend for a longer period of time. Our studies indicated that use of PRPGs as delivery device for controlled release of pheromone by sunlight holds great interest for field applications. PMID:23108352

  16. The vast thin plane of M31 corotating dwarfs: an additional fossil signature of the M31 merger and of its considerable impact in the whole Local Group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammer, François; Yang, Yanbin; Fouquet, Sylvain; Pawlowski, Marcel S.; Kroupa, Pavel; Puech, Mathieu; Flores, Hector; Wang, Jianling

    2013-06-01

    The recent discovery by Ibata et al. of a vast thin disc of satellites (VTDS) around M31 offers a new challenge for the understanding of the Local Group properties. This comes in addition to the unexpected proximity of the Magellanic Clouds (MCs) to the Milky Way (MW), and to another vast polar structure (VPOS), which is almost perpendicular to our Galaxy disc. We find that the VTDS plane is coinciding with several stellar, tidally induced streams in the outskirts of M31, and, that its velocity distribution is consistent with that of the giant stream (GS). This is suggestive of a common physical mechanism, likely linked to merger tidal interactions, knowing that a similar argument may apply to the VPOS at the MW location. Furthermore, the VTDS is pointing towards the MW, being almost perpendicular to the MW disc, as the VPOS is. We compare these properties to the modelling of M31 as an ancient, gas-rich major merger, which has been successfully used to predict the M31 substructures and the GS origin. We find that without fine tuning, the induced tidal tails are lying in the VTDS plane, providing a single and common origin for many stellar streams and for the vast stellar structures surrounding both the MW and M31. The model also reproduces quite accurately positions and velocities of the VTDS spheroidal dwarfs. Our conjecture leads to a novel interpretation of the Local Group past history, as a gigantic tidal tail due to the M31 ancient merger is expected to send material towards the MW, including the MCs. Such a link between M31 and the MW is expected to be quite exceptional, though it may be in qualitative agreement with the reported rareness of MW-MCs systems in nearby galaxies.

  17. Molecular and biochemical identification of alien chromosome additions in shallot (Allium cepa L. Aggregatum group) carrying extra chromosome(s) of bunching onion (A. fistulosum L.).

    PubMed

    Yaguchi, Shigenori; Hang, Tran Thi Minh; Tsukazaki, Hikaru; Hoa, Vu Quynh; Masuzaki, Shin-ichi; Wako, Tadayuki; Masamura, Noriya; Onodera, Shuichi; Shiomi, Norio; Yamauchi, Naoki; Shigyo, Masayoshi

    2009-02-01

    To develop the bunching onion (Allium fistulosum L.; genomes, FF) chromosome-specific genetic markers for identifying extra chromosomes, eight shallot (A. cepa L. Aggregatum group; genomes, AA)--A. fistulosum monosomic addition plants (AA+nF) and 62 shallot--A. fistulosum single-alien deletion plants (AAF-nF) were analyzed by 23 different chromosome-specific genetic markers of shallot. The eight monosomic addition plants consisted of one AA+2F, two AA+6F, and five AA+8F. Of the 62 single-alien deletion plants, 60 could be identified as six different single-alien deletion lines (AAF-1F, -3F, -4F, -6F, -7F, and -8F) out of the eight possible types. Several single-alien deletion lines were classified on the basis of leaf and bulb characteristics. AAF-8F had the largest number of expanded leaves of five deletion plants. AAF-7F grew most vigorously, as expressed by its long leaf blade and biggest bulb size. AAF-4F had very small bulbs. AAF-7F and AAF-8F had different bulbs from those of shallot as well as other types of single-alien deletion lines in skin and outer scale color. Regarding the sugar content of the bulb tissues, the single-alien deletion lines showed higher fructan content than shallot. Moreover, shallot could not produce fructan with degree of polymerization (DP) 12 or higher, although the single-alien deletion lines showed DP 20 or higher. The content of S-alk(en)yl-L-cysteine sulfoxide (ACSO) in the single-alien deletion lines was significantly lower than that in shallot. These results indicated that chromosomes from A. fistulosum might carry anonymous factors to increase the highly polymerized fructan production and inhibit the synthesis of ACSO in shallot bulbs. Accordingly, alien chromosomes from A. fistulosum in shallot would contribute to modify the quality of shallot bulbs. PMID:19420800

  18. F-18 simulation with Simulation Group Lead Martha Evans at the controls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Simulation Group Leader Martha Evans is seen here at the controls of the F-18 aircraft simulator at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Simulators offer a safe and economical alternative to actual flights to gather data, as well as being excellent facilities for pilot practice and training. The highly modified F-18 airplane flew 383 flights over a nine year period and demonstrated concepts that greatly increase fighter maneuverability. Among concepts proven in the aircraft is the use of paddles to direct jet engine exhaust in cases of extreme altitudes where conventional control surfaces lose effectiveness. Another concept, developed by NASA Langley Research Center, is a deployable wing-like surface installed on the nose of the aircraft for increased right and left (yaw) control on nose-high flight angles.

  19. Selection for increased desiccation resistance in Drosophila melanogaster: Additive genetic control and correlated responses for other stresses

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffmann, A.A.; Parsons, P.A. )

    1989-08-01

    Previously we found that Drosophila melanogaster lines selected for increased desiccation resistance have lowered metabolic rate and behavioral activity levels, and show correlated responses for resistance to starvation and a toxic ethanol level. These results were consistent with a prediction that increased resistance to many environmental stresses may be genetically correlated because of a reduction in metabolic energy expenditure. Here we present experiments on the genetic basis of the selection response and extend the study of correlated responses to other stresses. The response to selection was not sex-specific and involved X-linked and autosomal genes acting additively. Activity differences contributed little to differences in desiccation resistance between selected and control lines. Selected lines had lower metabolic rates than controls in darkness when activity was inhibited. Adults from selected lines showed increased resistance to a heat shock, {sup 60}Co-gamma-radiation, and acute ethanol and acetic acid stress. The desiccation, ethanol and starvation resistance of isofemale lines set up from the F2s of a cross between one of the selected and one of the control lines were correlated. Selected and control lines did not differ in ether-extractable lipid content or in resistance to acetone, ether or a cold shock.

  20. Chloride ion addition for controlling shapes and properties of silver nanorods capped by polyvinyl alcohol synthesized using polyol method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Junaidi, Yunus, Muhammad; Triyana, Kuwat; Harsojo, Suharyadi, Edi

    2016-04-01

    We report our investigation on the effect of chloride ions on controlling the shapes and properties of silver nanorods (AgNRs) synthesized using a polyol method. In this study, we used polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) as a capping agent and sodium chloride (NaCl) as a salt precursor and performed at the oil bath temperature of 140°C. The chloride ions originating from the NaCl serve to control the growth of the silver nanorods. Furthermore, the synthesized silver nanorods were characterized using SEM and XRD. The results showed that besides being able to control the growth of AgCl atoms, the chloride ions were also able to control the growth of multi-twinned-particles into the single crystalline of silver nanorods by micrometer-length. At an appropriate concentration of NaCl, the diameter of silver nanorods decreased significantly compared to that of without chloride ion addition. This technique may be useful since a particular diameter of silver nanorods affects a particular application in the future.

  1. Paleoenvironmental Controls on Early Cementation of Organic-Rich Shales in the Eagle Ford Group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruse, K.; Tice, M. M.

    2013-12-01

    Early carbonate cements have the potential to alter fracture toughness, and carbonate can be either promoted or inhibited by microbial processes in different redox zones. It is therefore possible that basin redox evolution could indirectly control early diagenesis and modify reservoir properties of corresponding shale units. The goals of this study are to analyze geochemical characteristics of the Late Cretaceous Eagle Ford Group in McMullen County, Texas in order to test the hypotheses that (1) the redox state of the water column controlled carbonate cement abundance and (2) carbonate cement lowered organic matter content by volumetric dilution. An X-ray analytical microscope was used to map elemental compositions of fresh core samples spanning the Eagle Ford Group. Resultant maps were used to characterize carbonate cements and to estimate the redox state of the overlying water column during deposition as proxied by the relative abundances of the trace metals Mo, V, Cr, and Zn. Preliminary results indicate that cementation occurred early relative to compaction. Ti-Kα1-normalized Mo Kα1 and Ca Kα1 fluorescence intensities are positively correlated throughout the unit, suggesting that carbonate cementation was promoted by basin euxinia. Total organic carbon is negatively correlated with (Ca Kα1)/(Ti Kα1) fluorescence ratio in the upper Eagle Ford Group, consistent with volumetric dilution of sedimentary organic matter by diagenetic cementation prior to compaction. In contrast, there is no significant correlation between total organic carbon and carbonate content in the more organic-rich lower Eagle Ford Group, suggesting that variations in organic matter production, preservation, or dilution by siliciclastic input were also important in controlling final organic content.

  2. Curvature analysis of femoral shaft in total knee arthroplasty patient and control group.

    PubMed

    Lim, Ki Seon; Oh, Wang Kyun; Shin, Ji Yun; Cho, Byung Ki; Lee, Tae Soo

    2013-01-01

    For some patients with joint illnesses such as rheumarthritis or varus deformity, the total knee arthroplasty (TKA) procedures are performed. However, when inserting metal cutting guide for the procedures, due to the femoral shaft bowing, complications such as the cortex of the femoral shaft damages or secondary fractures can be caused. If the central coordinate value of the femoral shaft is known, the metal cutting guide could be inserted into the anatomical center, so such complications can be prevented. In this study, CT images of femoral shafts of 10 individuals in the experiment group who are in need of receiving the total knee arthroplasty procedures and those of 10 individuals in the control group without illness in the femoral shaft have been utilized to locate the 3-dimensional coordinate values. Then, Matlab was utilized to identify the central coordinate value in order to obtain a graph reflecting the anatomical shapes as well as to acquire the 3-dimensional curvature values by section. As a result, the average curvature range of femoral shafts of the experiment group was determined to be 631.2 mm whereas the average curvature range of femoral shafts of the control group was determined to be 1430.4 mm. The statistical significant of the measured results was verified through ANOVA analysis. Based on these results, it was verified that the level of curvature of the femoral shaft of the experiment group was higher. If the anatomical central points are located and analyzed using this methodology, it would be helpful in performing orthopedic operations such as the total knee arthroplasty. PMID:24110202

  3. On-line spectroscopic studies of group IV alkoxides and their interactions with organic additives during the sol-gel process

    SciTech Connect

    Wettling, D.; Truchet, S.; Guilment, J.; Poncelet, O.

    1996-12-31

    The potential of vibrational spectroscopy for the study of group 4 alkoxides M(OR){sub 4} has been demonstrated in several papers, but only a few of these papers have presented results from online measurements. The monitoring of different reactions such as the stabilization of the alkoxides with organic additives, the exchange processes between different metal alkoxides (R exchange or M exchange) and the hydrolysis process can be of great importance for the development of new synthetic routes leading to materials which are easier to process. NIR spectroscopy is a very versatile technique but lacks specificity while IR and Raman give more interpretive results but are not always easy during processing. The authors used both techniques along with chemometric tools to extract relevant information on their processes. The 2D correlation allowed benefits from the specificity of IR and Raman to develop robust NIR methods which are able to be used on line to monitor the different steps of the sol-gel process.

  4. Effects of silver and group II fluoride solid lubricant additions to plasma-sprayed chromium carbide coatings for foil gas bearings to 650 C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagner, R. C.; Sliney, Harold E.

    1986-01-01

    A new self-lubricating coating composition of nickel aluminide-bonded chromium carbide formulated with silver and Group II fluorides was developed in a research program on high temperature solid lubricants. One of the proposed applications for this new coating composition is as a wide temperature spectrum solid lubricant for complaint foil gas bearings. Friction and wear properties were obtained using a foil gas bearing start-stop apparatus at temperatures from 25 to 650 C. The journals were Inconel 748. Some were coated with the plasma sprayed experimental coating, others with unmodified nickel aluminide/chromium carbide as a baseline for comparison. The additional components were provided to assist in achieving low friction over the temperature range of interest. Uncoated, preoxidized Inconel X-750 foil bearings were operated against these surfaces. The foils were subjected to repeated start/stop cycles under a 14-kPa (2-Psi) bearing unit loading. Sliding contact occurred during lift-off and coastdown at surface velocities less than 6 m/s (3000 rPm). Testing continued until 9000 start/stop cycles were accumulated or until a rise in starting torque indicated the journal/bearing had failed. Comparison in coating performance as well as discussions of their properties and methods of application are given.

  5. Development of risk-based nanomaterial groups for occupational exposure control

    PubMed Central

    Kuempel, E. D.; Castranova, V.; Geraci, C. L.; Schulte, P. A.

    2015-01-01

    Given the almost limitless variety of nanomaterials, it will be virtually impossible to assess the possible occupational health hazard of each nanomaterial individually. The development of science-based hazard and risk categories for nanomaterials is needed for decision-making about exposure control practices in the workplace. A possible strategy would be to select representative (benchmark) materials from various mode of action (MOA) classes, evaluate the hazard and develop risk estimates, and then apply a systematic comparison of new nanomaterials with the benchmark materials in the same MOA class. Poorly soluble particles are used here as an example to illustrate quantitative risk assessment methods for possible benchmark particles and occupational exposure control groups, given mode of action and relative toxicity. Linking such benchmark particles to specific exposure control bands would facilitate the translation of health hazard and quantitative risk information to the development of effective exposure control practices in the workplace. A key challenge is obtaining sufficient dose–response data, based on standard testing, to systematically evaluate the nanomaterials’ physical–chemical factors influencing their biological activity. Categorization processes involve both science-based analyses and default assumptions in the absence of substance-specific information. Utilizing data and information from related materials may facilitate initial determinations of exposure control systems for nanomaterials. PMID:26504427

  6. An effective group psychoeducational intervention for improving compliance with vaginal dilation: A randomized controlled trial

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffries, Sherryl A.; Robinson, John W. . E-mail: johnrobi@cancerboard.ab.ca; Craighead, Peter S.; Keats, Melanie R.

    2006-06-01

    Purpose: Although vaginal dilation is often recommended to minimize or prevent vaginal scarring after pelvic radiotherapy, compliance with this recommendation has historically been very low. Therefore, effective intervention strategies are needed to enhance compliance with vaginal dilation after radiotherapy for gynecologic cancer. Methods and Materials: This study was a randomized controlled clinical trial of a psychoeducational intervention specifically designed to increase compliance with vaginal dilation. The information-motivation-behavioral skills model of enhancing compliance with behavioral change was the basis for the intervention design. Forty-two sexually active women, 21 to 65 years of age, diagnosed with Stages Ic-III cervical or endometrial cancer, who received pelvic radiotherapy, were randomized to either the experimental psychoeducational group or the information-only control group. Assessment via questionnaire occurred before treatment and at 6-week, 6-month, 12-month, 18-month, and 24-month follow-up. Assessment via interview also occurred at 6-month, 12-month, 18-month, and 24-month follow-up. Results: The psychoeducational intervention was successful in increasing compliance with vaginal dilation. Conclusions: This study is the first randomized controlled study to demonstrate the effectiveness of an intervention in increasing compliance with the use of vaginal dilators.

  7. ABO Blood Group, Helicobacter pylori Seropositivity, and Risk of Pancreatic Cancer: A Case–Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Herbert; Lu, Lingeng; Kidd, Mark S.

    2010-01-01

    Carriage of a non–O ABO blood group and colonization by Helicobacter pylori are thought to be risk factors for pancreatic cancer. We examined these associations in a population-based case–control study of 373 case patients and 690 control subjects frequency matched on sex and age. Control subjects were selected by random-digit dialing. Seropositivity for H pylori and its virulence protein CagA was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Increased risk of pancreatic cancer was associated with non–O blood group (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 1.37, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.02 to 1.83, P = .034) and CagA-negative H pylori seropositivity (OR = 1.68, 95% CI = 1.07 to 2.66, P = .025), but no association was observed for CagA seropositivity (OR = 0.77, 95% CI = 0.52 to 1.16). An association between pancreatic cancer risk and CagA-negative H pylori seropositivity was found among individuals with non–O blood type but not among those with O blood type (OR = 2.78, 95% CI = 1.49 to 5.20, P = .0014; OR = 1.28, 95% CI = 0.62 to 2.64, P = .51, respectively). This study demonstrates an association between pancreatic cancer and H pylori colonization, particularly for individuals with non–O blood types. PMID:20181960

  8. Tweeting links to Cochrane Schizophrenia Group reviews: a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Adams, C E; Bodart, A Y M; Sampson, S; Zhao, S; Montgomery, A A

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess the effects of using health social media on web activity. Design Individually randomised controlled parallel group superiority trial. Setting Twitter and Weibo. Participants 170 Cochrane Schizophrenia Group full reviews with an abstract and plain language summary web page. Interventions Three randomly ordered slightly different 140 character or less messages, each containing a short URL to the freely accessible summary page sent on specific times on one single day. This was compared with no messaging. Outcome The primary outcome was web page visits at 1 week. Secondary outcomes were other metrics of web activity at 1 week. Results 85 reviews were randomised to each of the intervention and control arms. Google Analytics allowed 100% follow-up within 1 week of completion. Intervention and control reviews received a total of 1162 and 449 visits, respectively (IRR 2.7, 95% CI 2.2 to 3.3). Fewer intervention reviews had single page only visits (16% vs 31%, OR 0.41, 0.19 to 0.88) and users spent more time viewing intervention reviews (geometric mean 76 vs 31 s, ratio 2.5, 1.3 to 4.6). Other secondary metrics of web activity all showed strong evidence in favour of the intervention. Conclusions Tweeting in this limited area of healthcare increases ‘product placement’ of evidence with the potential for that to influence care. Trial registration number ISRCTN84658943. PMID:26956164

  9. Thermochemical Properties and Bond Dissociation Energies for Fluorinated Methanol, CH3-xFxOH, and Fluorinated Methyl Hydroperoxides, CH3-xFxOOH: Group Additivity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Heng; Bozzelli, Joseph W

    2016-09-01

    Oxygenated fluorocarbons are routinely found in sampling of environmental soils and waters as a result of the widespread use of fluoro and chlorofluoro carbons as heat transfer fluids, inert materials, polymers, fire retardants and solvents; the influence of these chemicals on the environment is a growing concern. The thermochemical properties of these species are needed for understanding their stability and reactions in the environment and in thermal process. Structures and thermochemical properties on the mono- to trifluoromethanol, CH3-xFxOH, and fluoromethyl hydroperoxide, CH3-xFxOOH (1 ≤ x ≤ 3), are determined by CBS-QB3, CBS-APNO, and G4 calculations. Entropy, S°298, and heat capacities, Cp(T)'s (300 ≤ T/K ≤ 1500) from vibration, translation, and external rotation contributions are calculated on the basis of the vibration frequencies and structures obtained from the B3LYP/6-31+G(d,p) density functional method. Potential barriers for the internal rotations are also calculated from this method and used to calculate hindered rotor contributions to S°298 and Cp(T)'s using direct integration over energy levels of the internal rotational potentials. Standard enthalpies of formation, ΔfH°298 (units in kcal mol(-1)) are CH2FOOH (-83.7), CHF2OOH (-138.1), CF3OOH (-193.6), CH2FOO(•) (-44.9), CHF2OO(•) (-99.6), CF3OO(•) (-153.8), CH2FOH (-101.9), CHF2OH (-161.6), CF3OH (-218.1), CH2FO(•) (-49.1), CHF2O(•) (-97.8), CF3O(•) (-150.5), CH2F(•) (-7.6), CHF2(•) (-58.8), and CF3(•) (-112.6). Bond dissociation energies for the R-OOH, RO-OH, ROO-H, R-OO(•), RO-O(•), R-OH, RO-H, R-O(•), and R-H bonds are determined and compared with methyl hydroperoxide to observe the trends from added fluoro substitutions. Enthalpy of formation for the fluoro-hydrocarbon oxygen groups C/F/H2/O, C/F2/H/O, C/F3/O, are derived from the above fluorinated methanol and fluorinated hydroperoxide species for use in Benson's Group Additivity. It was determined that

  10. Chemical additive to enhance antimicrobial efficacy of chlorine and control cross-contamination during immersion chill of broiler carcasses.

    PubMed

    Schambach, B T; Berrang, M E; Harrison, M A; Meinersmann, R J

    2014-09-01

    Immersion chilling of broiler carcasses can be a site for cross-contamination between the occasional highly contaminated carcass and those that are co-chilled. Chlorine is often used as an antimicrobial but can be overcome by organic material. A proprietary chlorine stabilizer (T-128) based on phosphoric acid-propylene glycol was tested as a chill tank additive in experiments simulating commercial broiler chilling. In bench-scale experiments, 0.5% T-128 was compared with plain water (control), 50 ppm of chlorine, and the combination of 0.5% T-128 with 50 ppm of chlorine to control transfer of Salmonella and Campylobacter from inoculated wing drummettes to co-chilled uninoculated drummettes. Both chlorine and T-128 lessened cross-contamination with Salmonella (P < 0.05); T-128 and T-128 with chlorine were significantly more effective (P < 0.05) than the control or plain chlorine for control of Campylobacter. T-128 treatments were noted to have a pH of less than 4.0; an additional experiment demonstrated that the antimicrobial effect of T-128 was not due merely to a lower pH. In commercial broiler chilling, a pH close to 6.0 is preferred to maximize chlorine effectiveness, while maintaining water-holding capacity of the meat. In a set of pilot-scale experiments with T-128, a near-ideal pH of 6.3 was achieved by using tap water instead of the distilled water used in bench-scale experiments. Pilot-scale chill tanks were used to compare the combination of 0.5% T-128 and 50 ppm of chlorine with 50 ppm of plain chlorine for control of cross-contamination between whole carcasses inoculated with Salmonella and Campylobacter and co-chilled uninoculated carcasses. The T-128 treatment resulted in significantly less crosscontamination by either direct contact or water transfer with both organisms compared with plain chlorine treatment. T-128 may have use in commercial broiler processing to enhance the effectiveness of chlorine in processing water. PMID:25198851

  11. The use of control groups in music therapy research: a content analysis of articles in the Journal of Music Therapy.

    PubMed

    Jones, Jennifer D

    2006-01-01

    The use of a control group is fundamental to experimental research design, though the use with clinical populations must be carefully considered. The purpose of this research was to examine the use of control groups in research with clinical and nonclinical populations published in Journal of Musical Therapy from 1964 through 2004. Criteria for inclusion were music or music therapy as an independent variable applied to one or more groups and at least one control group that did not receive a music treatment. Control groups were qualified as alternative treatment, placebo, no contact, and treatment as usual. Of the 692 articles, 94 met these criteria, 62 clinical and 32 nonclinical, representing 13.5% of the publications. Results indicated that research with clinical populations involved a mean of 38.1 subjects typically divided into two groups, an experimental and a control group. The pretest-posttest design was the most common (55%) as was a treatment as usual control group (45%). These design methods maximized the impact of the experimental music treatment on outcome. Experimental music groups significantly improved over control groups in the vast majority of studies identified. Undoubtedly, the foundation for evidence-based clinical practice is firm. PMID:17348759

  12. Restricted random labeling: testing for between-group interaction after controlling for joint population and within-group spatial structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kronenfeld, Barry J.; Leslie, Timothy F.

    2015-01-01

    Statistical measures of spatial interaction between multiple types of entities are commonly assessed against a null model of either toroidal shift (TS), which controls for spatial structure of individual subpopulations, or random labeling (RL), which controls for spatial structure of the joint population. Neither null model controls for both types of spatial structure simultaneously, although this may sometimes be desirable when more than two subpopulations are present. To address this, we propose a flexible framework for specifying null models that we refer to as restricted random labeling (rRL). Under rRL, a specified subset of individuals is restricted and other individuals are randomly relabeled. Within this framework, two specific null models are proposed for pairwise analysis within populations consisting of three or more subpopulations, to simultaneously control for spatial structure in the joint population and one or the other of the two subpopulations being analyzed. Formulas are presented for calculating expected nearest neighbor counts and co-location quotients within the proposed framework. Differences between TS, RL and rRL are illustrated by application to six types of generating processes in a simulation study, and to empirical datasets of tree species in a forest and crime locations in an urban setting. These examples show that rRL null models are typically stricter than either TS or RL, which often detect "interactions" that are an expected consequence either of the joint population pattern or of individual subpopulation patterns.

  13. Chloride ion addition for controlling shapes and properties of silver nanorods capped by polyvinyl alcohol synthesized by polyol method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Junaidi, Triyana, Kuwat; Harsojo, Suharyadi, Edi

    2016-04-01

    We report our investigation on the effect of chloride ions oncontrolling the shapes and properties of silver nanorods(AgNRs) synthesized using a polyol method. In this study, we used polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) as a capping agent and sodium chloride (NaCl) as asalt precursor and performed at the oilbath temperature of 140 °C. The chloride ions originating from the NaCl serve to control the growth of the silver nanorods. Furthermore, the synthesized silver nanorodswere characterized using UV-VIS, XRD, SEM and TEM. The results showed that besides being able to control the growth of AgCl atoms, the chloride ions were also able to control the growth of multi-twinned-particles into the single crystalline silver nanorods by micrometer-length. At an appropriate concentration of NaCl, the diameter of silver nanorodsdecreased significantly compared to that of without chloride ion addition. This technique may be useful since a particular diameter of silver nanorods affects a particular application in the future.

  14. The Effectiveness of Group Cognitive Behavioral Therapy in Treating Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder in Women with Multiple Sclerosis (MS): A randomized double-blind controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Sayyah, Mehdi; Bagheri, Parisa; Karimi, Negar; Ghasemzadeh, Azizreza

    2016-01-01

    Background Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is one of the most prevalent psychiatric disorders and can cause problems for individuals in all aspects of life, including social and personal dimensions. Objective To study the effect of group cognitive-behavioral therapy on the reduction of OCD symptoms in female participants with multiple sclerosis (MS). Methods This double-blind randomized control trial was conducted from May 2012 to December 2014. The participants included 75 patients with MS who suffered from OCD and were referred to the Loghman Hakim and Imam Khomeini hospitals in Tehran, Iran. Thirty participants had been diagnosed through Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Symptoms (Y-BOCS). The participants were randomly divided into an experimental group (n=15) and a control group (n=15). Eleven sessions of cognitive-behavioral therapy were provided for the experimental group. Patients in the control group continued with their normal living. Hypotheses were tested using an analysis of covariance (ANCOVA). Results A significant reduction was found in the experimental group’s obsessive-compulsive symptoms after cognitive-behavioral therapy (p<0.001). In addition, mean scores for participants in the experimental group were significantly lower than for those in the control group (p=0.000). Conclusion It can be inferred that cognitive-behavioral therapy could considerably reduce OCD symptoms in women with MS. The application of this method by therapists, especially Iranian clinicians, is recommended. PMID:27279999

  15. Group behavioral activation for patients with severe obesity and binge eating disorder: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Alfonsson, Sven; Parling, Thomas; Ghaderi, Ata

    2015-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess whether behavioral activation (BA) is an efficacious treatment for decreasing eating disorder symptoms in patients with obesity and binge eating disorder (BED). Ninety-six patients with severe obesity and BED were randomized to either 10 sessions of group BA or wait-list control. The study was conducted at an obesity clinic in a regular hospital setting. The treatment improved some aspects of disordered eating and had a positive effect on depressive symptoms but there was no significant difference between the groups regarding binge eating and most other symptoms. Improved mood but lack of effect on binge eating suggests that dysfunctional eating (including BED) is maintained by other mechanisms than low activation and negative mood. However, future studies need to investigate whether effects of BA on binge eating might emerge later than at post-assessment, as in interpersonal psychotherapy for bulimia nervosa. PMID:25268019

  16. Mitochondrial DNA control region analysis of three ethnic groups in the Republic of Macedonia.

    PubMed

    Jankova-Ajanovska, Renata; Zimmermann, Bettina; Huber, Gabriela; Röck, Alexander W; Bodner, Martin; Jakovski, Zlatko; Janeska, Biljana; Duma, Aleksej; Parson, Walther

    2014-11-01

    A total of 444 individuals representing three ethnic groups (Albanians, Turks and Romanies) in the Republic of Macedonia were sequenced in the mitochondrial control region. The mtDNA haplogroup composition differed between the three groups. Our results showed relatively high frequencies of haplogroup H12 in Albanians (8.8%) and less in Turks (3.3%), while haplogroups M5a1 and H7a1a were dominant in Romanies (13.7% and 10.3%, respectively) but rare in the former two. This highlights the importance of regional sampling for forensic mtDNA databasing purposes. These population data will be available on EMPOP under accession numbers EMP00644 (Albanians), EMP00645 (Romanies) and EMP00646 (Turks). PMID:25051224

  17. Mitochondrial DNA control region analysis of three ethnic groups in the Republic of Macedonia

    PubMed Central

    Jankova-Ajanovska, Renata; Zimmermann, Bettina; Huber, Gabriela; Röck, Alexander W.; Bodner, Martin; Jakovski, Zlatko; Janeska, Biljana; Duma, Aleksej; Parson, Walther

    2014-01-01

    A total of 444 individuals representing three ethnic groups (Albanians, Turks and Romanies) in the Republic of Macedonia were sequenced in the mitochondrial control region. The mtDNA haplogroup composition differed between the three groups. Our results showed relatively high frequencies of haplogroup H12 in Albanians (8.8%) and less in Turks (3.3%), while haplogroups M5a1 and H7a1a were dominant in Romanies (13.7% and 10.3%, respectively) but rare in the former two. This highlights the importance of regional sampling for forensic mtDNA databasing purposes. These population data will be available on EMPOP under accession numbers EMP00644 (Albanians), EMP00645 (Romanies) and EMP00646 (Turks). PMID:25051224

  18. Generation of "virtual" control groups for single arm prostate cancer adjuvant trials.

    PubMed

    Jia, Zhenyu; Lilly, Michael B; Koziol, James A; Chen, Xin; Xia, Xiao-Qin; Wang, Yipeng; Skarecky, Douglas; Sutton, Manuel; Sawyers, Anne; Ruckle, Herbert; Carpenter, Philip M; Wang-Rodriguez, Jessica; Jiang, Jun; Deng, Mingsen; Pan, Cong; Zhu, Jian-Guo; McLaren, Christine E; Gurley, Michael J; Lee, Chung; McClelland, Michael; Ahlering, Thomas; Kattan, Michael W; Mercola, Dan

    2014-01-01

    It is difficult to construct a control group for trials of adjuvant therapy (Rx) of prostate cancer after radical prostatectomy (RP) due to ethical issues and patient acceptance. We utilized 8 curve-fitting models to estimate the time to 60%, 65%, … 95% chance of progression free survival (PFS) based on the data derived from Kattan post-RP nomogram. The 8 models were systematically applied to a training set of 153 post-RP cases without adjuvant Rx to develop 8 subsets of cases (reference case sets) whose observed PFS times were most accurately predicted by each model. To prepare a virtual control group for a single-arm adjuvant Rx trial, we first select the optimal model for the trial cases based on the minimum weighted Euclidean distance between the trial case set and the reference case set in terms of clinical features, and then compare the virtual PFS times calculated by the optimum model with the observed PFSs of the trial cases by the logrank test. The method was validated using an independent dataset of 155 post-RP patients without adjuvant Rx. We then applied the method to patients on a Phase II trial of adjuvant chemo-hormonal Rx post RP, which indicated that the adjuvant Rx is highly effective in prolonging PFS after RP in patients at high risk for prostate cancer recurrence. The method can accurately generate control groups for single-arm, post-RP adjuvant Rx trials for prostate cancer, facilitating development of new therapeutic strategies. PMID:24465467

  19. ‘Putting Life in Years’ (PLINY) telephone friendship groups research study: pilot randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Loneliness in older people is associated with poor health-related quality of life (HRQoL). We undertook a parallel-group randomised controlled trial to evaluate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of telephone befriending for the maintenance of HRQoL in older people. An internal pilot tested the feasibility of the trial and intervention. Methods Participants aged >74 years, with good cognitive function, living independently in one UK city were recruited through general practices and other sources, then randomised to: (1) 6 weeks of short one-to-one telephone calls, followed by 12 weeks of group telephone calls with up to six participants, led by a trained volunteer facilitator; or (2) a control group. The main trial required the recruitment of 248 participants in a 1-year accrual window, of whom 124 were to receive telephone befriending. The pilot specified three success criteria which had to be met in order to progress the main trial to completion: recruitment of 68 participants in 95 days; retention of 80% participants at 6 months; successful delivery of telephone befriending by local franchise of national charity. The primary clinical outcome was the Short Form (36) Health Instrument (SF-36) Mental Health (MH) dimension score collected by telephone 6 months following randomisation. Results We informed 9,579 older people about the study. Seventy consenting participants were randomised to the pilot in 95 days, with 56 (80%) providing valid primary outcome data (26 intervention, 30 control). Twenty-four participants randomly allocated to the research arm actually received telephone befriending due to poor recruitment and retention of volunteer facilitators. The trial was closed early as a result. The mean 6-month SF-36 MH scores were 78 (SD 18) and 71 (SD 21) for the intervention and control groups, respectively (mean difference, 7; 95% CI, -3 to 16). Conclusions Recruitment and retention of participants to a definitive trial with a

  20. Inappropriate statistical method in a parallel-group randomized controlled trial results in unsubstantiated conclusions.

    PubMed

    Dimova, Rositsa B; Allison, David B

    2016-01-01

    The conclusions of Cassani et al. in the January 2015 issue of Nutrition Journal (doi: 10.1186/1475-2891-14-5 ) cannot be substantiated by the analysis reported nor by the data themselves. The authors ascribed the observed decrease in inflammatory markers to the components of flaxseed and based their conclusions on within-group comparisons made between the final and the baseline measurements separately in each arm of the randomized controlled trial. However, this is an improper approach and the conclusions of the paper are invalid. A correct analysis of the data shows no such effects. PMID:27265269

  1. Polyfluorene Electrolytes Interfacial Layer for Efficient Polymer Solar Cells: Controllably Interfacial Dipoles by Regulation of Polar Groups.

    PubMed

    Liu, Huimin; Hu, Lin; Wu, Feiyan; Chen, Lie; Chen, Yiwang

    2016-04-20

    The polar groups in the conjugated polyelectrolytes (CPEs) can create the favorable dipoles at the electrode/active layer interface, which is critical for the CPEs to minimize the interfacial energy barrier in polymer solar cells (PSCs). Herein, a series of CPEs based on poly [(9,9-bis(3'-(N,N-dimethylamino)propyl)-2,7-fluorene)-co-2,7-(9,9-dioctylfluorene)] derivates (PFNs) (PFN30, PFN50, PFN70, and PFN100) with different mole ratio of polar groups (-N(C2H5)2) were designed and synthesized to investigate the effect of the numbers of polar groups on the interfacial dipoles. Controllably interfacial dipoles could be readily achieved by only tuning the numbers of -N(C2H5)2 in PFNs, as revealed by the work function of the PFNs modified ITO gradually reduced as the loadings of the -N(C2H5)2 increased. In addition, increasing the numbers of -N(C2H5)2 in PFNs were also favorable for developing the smooth and homogeneous morphology of the active layer. As a result, the content of the polar amine in the PFNs exerted great influence on the performance of polymer solar cells. Increasing the numbers of the pendent -N(C2H5)2 could effectively improve the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of the devices. Among these PFNs, PFN100 with the highest content of -N(C2H5)2 polar groups delivered the device with the best PCE of 3.27%. It indicates tailoring the content of the polar groups in the CPEs interlayer is a facial and promising approach for interfacial engineering to developing high performance PSCs. PMID:27028166

  2. Critical Point Facility (CPE) Group in the Spacelab Payload Operations Control Center (SL POCC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The primary payload for Space Shuttle Mission STS-42, launched January 22, 1992, was the International Microgravity Laboratory-1 (IML-1), a pressurized manned Spacelab module. The goal of IML-1 was to explore in depth the complex effects of weightlessness of living organisms and materials processing. Around-the-clock research was performed on the human nervous system's adaptation to low gravity and effects of microgravity on other life forms such as shrimp eggs, lentil seedlings, fruit fly eggs, and bacteria. Materials processing experiments were also conducted, including crystal growth from a variety of substances such as enzymes, mercury iodide, and a virus. The Huntsville Operations Support Center (HOSC) Spacelab Payload Operations Control Center (SL POCC) at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) was the air/ground communication channel used between the astronauts and ground control teams during the Spacelab missions. Featured is the Critical Point Facility (CPE) group in the SL POCC during STS-42, IML-1 mission.

  3. Severe sepsis in women with group B Streptococcus in pregnancy: an exploratory UK national case–control study

    PubMed Central

    Kalin, Asli; Acosta, Colleen; Kurinczuk, Jennifer J; Brocklehurst, Peter; Knight, Marian

    2015-01-01

    Objective To estimate the incidence of severe maternal sepsis due to group B Streptococcus (GBS) in the UK, and to investigate the associated outcomes for mother and infant. Design National case–control study. Setting All UK consultant-led maternity units. Participants 30 women with confirmed or suspected severe GBS sepsis, and 757 control women. Main outcome measures Disease incidence, additional maternal morbidity, critical care admission, length of stay, infant infection, mortality. Results The incidences of confirmed and presumed severe maternal GBS sepsis were 1.00 and 2.75 per 100 000 maternities, respectively, giving an overall incidence of 3.75 per 100 000. Compared with controls, severe GBS sepsis was associated with higher odds of additional maternal morbidity (OR 12.35, 95% CI 3.96 to 35.0), requiring level 2 (OR 39.3, 95% CI 16.0 to 99.3) or level 3 (OR 182, 95% CI 21.0 to 8701) care and longer hospital stay (median stay in cases and controls was 7 days (range 3–29 days) and 2 days (range 0–16 days), respectively, p<0.001). None of the women died. Severe maternal GBS sepsis was associated with higher odds of infant sepsis (OR 32.7, 95% CI 8.99 to 119.0); 79% of infants, however, did not develop sepsis. There were no associated stillbirths or neonatal deaths. Conclusions Severe maternal GBS sepsis is a rare occurrence in the UK. It is associated with adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes. PMID:26450426

  4. Stochastic sampled-data control for synchronization of complex dynamical networks with control packet loss and additive time-varying delays.

    PubMed

    Rakkiyappan, R; Sakthivel, N; Cao, Jinde

    2015-06-01

    This study examines the exponential synchronization of complex dynamical networks with control packet loss and additive time-varying delays. Additionally, sampled-data controller with time-varying sampling period is considered and is assumed to switch between m different values in a random way with given probability. Then, a novel Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional (LKF) with triple integral terms is constructed and by using Jensen's inequality and reciprocally convex approach, sufficient conditions under which the dynamical network is exponentially mean-square stable are derived. When applying Jensen's inequality to partition double integral terms in the derivation of linear matrix inequality (LMI) conditions, a new kind of linear combination of positive functions weighted by the inverses of squared convex parameters appears. In order to handle such a combination, an effective method is introduced by extending the lower bound lemma. To design the sampled-data controller, the synchronization error system is represented as a switched system. Based on the derived LMI conditions and average dwell-time method, sufficient conditions for the synchronization of switched error system are derived in terms of LMIs. Finally, numerical example is employed to show the effectiveness of the proposed methods. PMID:25797504

  5. Dynamic Key Management Schemes for Secure Group Access Control Using Hierarchical Clustering in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsaur, Woei-Jiunn; Pai, Haw-Tyng

    2008-11-01

    The applications of group computing and communication motivate the requirement to provide group access control in mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs). The operation in MANETs' groups performs a decentralized manner and accommodated membership dynamically. Moreover, due to lack of centralized control, MANETs' groups are inherently insecure and vulnerable to attacks from both within and outside the groups. Such features make access control more challenging in MANETs. Recently, several researchers have proposed group access control mechanisms in MANETs based on a variety of threshold signatures. However, these mechanisms cannot actually satisfy MANETs' dynamic environments. This is because the threshold-based mechanisms cannot be achieved when the number of members is not up to the threshold value. Hence, by combining the efficient elliptic curve cryptosystem, self-certified public key cryptosystem and secure filter technique, we construct dynamic key management schemes based on hierarchical clustering for securing group access control in MANETs. Specifically, the proposed schemes can constantly accomplish secure group access control only by renewing the secure filters of few cluster heads, when a cluster head joins or leaves a cross-cluster. In such a new way, we can find that the proposed group access control scheme can be very effective for securing practical applications in MANETs.

  6. SIV DNA vaccine trial in macaques: post-challenge necropsy in vaccine and control groups.

    PubMed

    Lu, S; Manson, K; Wyand, M; Robinson, H L

    1997-06-01

    In this study we describe the histopathologic findings from nine macaques in a simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) DNA vaccine trial evaluating the ability of a 5-plasmid DNA vaccine to protect against an uncloned SIVmac251 challenge (Lu et al., J. Virol. 1996, 70, 3978-3991). Three vaccinated and one control macaque developed disease and were euthanized in the first year following challenge. The other four vaccinated and one control macaque remained clinically normal and were euthanized at the end of the trial (60 weeks post-challenge). The necropsy data revealed that both diseased and clinically normal macaques had developed typical SIV-related lymphoid changes, inflammatory disorders and opportunistic infections. All animals had variable degrees of follicular and/or paracortical lymphoid hyperplasia suggesting immune activation. All but one vaccinated macaque and both control macaques had SIV-associated opportunistic infections. Within the small groups of animals, the ability to contain opportunistic infections was superior, and the overall lymphoid changes less severe, in the macaques that had received vaccine DNAs by three routes of inoculation (intravenous, intramuscular and gene gun) than in those that had received control DNAs or vaccine DNAs by gene gun only. In the future it will be important to further test how the route and method of DNA inoculation impact the efficacy of immunodeficiency virus vaccines. PMID:9234548

  7. Group sequential control of overall toxicity incidents in clinical trials - non-Bayesian and Bayesian approaches.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jihnhee; Hutson, Alan D; Siddiqui, Adnan H; Kedron, Mary A

    2016-02-01

    In some small clinical trials, toxicity is not a primary endpoint; however, it often has dire effects on patients' quality of life and is even life-threatening. For such clinical trials, rigorous control of the overall incidence of adverse events is desirable, while simultaneously collecting safety information. In this article, we propose group sequential toxicity monitoring strategies to control overall toxicity incidents below a certain level as opposed to performing hypothesis testing, which can be incorporated into an existing study design based on the primary endpoint. We consider two sequential methods: a non-Bayesian approach in which stopping rules are obtained based on the 'future' probability of an excessive toxicity rate; and a Bayesian adaptation modifying the proposed non-Bayesian approach, which can use the information obtained at interim analyses. Through an extensive Monte Carlo study, we show that the Bayesian approach often provides better control of the overall toxicity rate than the non-Bayesian approach. We also investigate adequate toxicity estimation after the studies. We demonstrate the applicability of our proposed methods in controlling the symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage rate for treating acute ischemic stroke patients. PMID:22407172

  8. Investigation of SO2, HCl and NOx, control from waste incinerators using a novel additive in a pilot scale reactor.

    PubMed

    Williams, P T; Nimmo, W; Patsias, A; Hall, W

    2006-05-01

    A pilot scale experimental investigation of the use of a novel additive, calcium magnesium acetate, for the simultaneous control of SO2, HCl and NOx has been carried out. The pilot scale reactor simulated the furnace and flue gas conditions of a typical large scale waste incinerator and was a vertical 4m high reactor operated at 80 kW. The calcium magnesium acetate was added as a wet spray to the reactor at temperatures above 750 degrees C. The influence of the calcium magnesium acetate dose rate was investigated on the simultaneous removal of SO2, HCl and NOx. Maximum reductions were achieved at a Ca/S ratio (or Ca/Cl ratio) of 2.5 and were, 70% for SO2, 45% for HCl and 18% for NOx for each of the pollutant gases respectively. PMID:16749624

  9. Reducing Aggressive Behavior in Boys with a Social Cognitive Group Treatment: Results of a Randomized, Controlled Trial.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Manen, Teun G.; Prins, Pier J.M.; Emmelkamp, Paul M.G.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of a social cognitive intervention program for Dutch aggressive boys and to compare it with a social skills training and a waitlist control group. Method: A randomized, controlled treatment outcome study with 97 aggressive boys (aged 9-13 years) was presented. An 11 session group treatment, a social…

  10. Weight change in control group participants in behavioural weight loss interventions: a systematic review and meta-regression study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Unanticipated control group improvements have been observed in intervention trials targeting various health behaviours. This phenomenon has not been studied in the context of behavioural weight loss intervention trials. The purpose of this study is to conduct a systematic review and meta-regression of behavioural weight loss interventions to quantify control group weight change, and relate the size of this effect to specific trial and sample characteristics. Methods Database searches identified reports of intervention trials meeting the inclusion criteria. Data on control group weight change and possible explanatory factors were abstracted and analysed descriptively and quantitatively. Results 85 trials were reviewed and 72 were included in the meta-regression. While there was no change in control group weight, control groups receiving usual care lost 1 kg more than control groups that received no intervention, beyond measurement. Conclusions There are several possible explanations why control group changes occur in intervention trials targeting other behaviours, but not for weight loss. Control group participation may prevent weight gain, although more research is needed to confirm this hypothesis. PMID:22873682

  11. Alcohol Habits in Patients with Long-Term Musculoskeletal Pain: Comparison with a Matched Control Group from the General Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thelin Bronner, Kerstin Birgitta; Wennberg, Peter; Kallmen, Hakan; Schult, Marie-Louise Birgitta

    2012-01-01

    This prospective study aimed to describe alcohol habits in patients with chronic pain compared with those in a matched control group from the general Swedish population. In total, 100 consecutive patients enrolled were matched against 100 individuals in a control group on the basis of age and sex. Alcohol habits were measured using the Alcohol Use…

  12. On the controllers of prime ideals of group algebras of Abelian torsion-free groups of finite rank over a field of positive characteristic

    SciTech Connect

    Tushev, A V

    2006-10-31

    In the present paper certain methods are developed that enable one to study the properties of the controller of a prime faithful ideal I of the group algebra kA of an Abelian torsion-free group A of finite rank over a field k. The main idea is that the quotient ring kA/I by the given ideal I can be embedded as an integral domain k[A] into some field F and the group A becomes a subgroup of the multiplicative group of the field F. This allows one to apply certain results of field theory, such as Kummer's theory and the properties of the multiplicative groups of fields, to the study of the integral domain k[A]. In turn, the properties of the integral domain k[A]{approx_equal}kA/I depend essentially on the properties of the ideal I. In particular, by using these methods, an independent proof of the new version of Brookes's theorem on the controllers of prime ideals of the group algebra kA of an Abelian torsion-free group A of finite rank is obtained in the case where the field k has positive characteristic.

  13. Addition of hydrogen peroxide for the simultaneous control of bromate and odor during advanced drinking water treatment using ozone.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yongjing; Yu, Jianwei; Zhang, Dong; Yang, Min

    2014-03-01

    Complete removal of the characteristic septic/swampy odor from Huangpu River source water could only be achieved under an ozone dose as high as 4.0 mg/L in an ozone-biological activated carbon (O3-BAC) process, which would lead to the production of high concentrations of carcinogenic bromate due to the high bromide content. This study investigated the possibility of simultaneous control of bromate and the septic/swampy odor by adding H2O2 prior to the O3-BAC process for the treatment of Huangpu River water. H2O2 addition could reduce the bromate concentration effectively at an H2O2/O3 (g/g) ratio of 0.5 or higher. At the same time, the septic/swampy odor removal was enhanced by the addition of H2O2, although optimization of the H2O2/O3 ratio was required for each ozone dose. At an ozone dose of 2.0 mg/L, the odor was removed completely at an H2O2/O3 ratio of 0.5. The results indicated that H2O2 application at a suitable dose could enhance the removal of the septic/swampy odor while suppressing the formation of bromate during ozonation of Huangpu River source water. PMID:25079267

  14. From the N-Heterocyclic Carbene-Catalyzed Conjugate Addition of Alcohols to the Controlled Polymerization of (Meth)acrylates.

    PubMed

    Ottou, Winnie Nzahou; Bourichon, Damien; Vignolle, Joan; Wirotius, Anne-Laure; Robert, Fredéric; Landais, Yannick; Sotiropoulos, Jean-Marc; Miqueu, Karinne; Taton, Daniel

    2015-06-22

    Among various N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHCs) tested, only 1,3-bis(tert-butyl)imidazol-2-ylidene (NHC(tBu) ) proved to selectively promote the catalytic conjugate addition of alcohols onto (meth)acrylate substrates. This rather rare example of NHC-catalyzed 1,4-addition of alcohols was investigated as a simple means to trigger the polymerization of both methyl methacrylate and methyl acrylate (MMA and MA, respectively). Well-defined α-alkoxy poly(methyl (meth)acrylate) (PM(M)A) chains, the molar masses of which could be controlled by the initial [(meth)acrylate]0/[ROH]0 molar ratio, were ultimately obtained in N,N-dimethylformamide at 25 °C. A hydroxyl-terminated poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO-OH) macro-initiator was also employed to directly access PEO-b-PMMA amphiphilic block copolymers. Investigations into the reaction mechanism by DFT calculations revealed the occurrence of two competitive concerted pathways, involving either the activation of the alcohol or that of the monomer by NHC(tBu) . PMID:26013759

  15. Controlling crystallization process and thermal stability of a binary Cu-Zr bulk metallic glass via minor element addition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, S. T.; Wang, Q.; Liu, T. T.; Liu, J. J.

    2015-09-01

    In this paper, the effect of minor element addition on the initial structural evolution during crystallization in a simple binary Cu-Zr bulk metallic glass (BMG) forming liquid has been investigated by using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Despite no changes in the completely crystallized products, the remarkable opposite impacts on the supercooled liquid region (SLR) and crystallization reaction rate constant Kcr are observed as a result of minor selective additions of an affine element, i.e., Sn and an immiscible element, i.e., Nb into the Cu-Zr BMG alloy, respectively. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that the primary devitrification pathway and crystalline phases are simultaneously modified, which leads to significant changes in kinetics of atomic rearrangement and thus thermal stability of this material. Such a finding offers a promising way to control the type of primary crystalline phases of BMG-forming metallic supercooled liquids to synthesize novel BMGs or BMG matrix composites for structural or functional applications.

  16. Experimental investigations of the swirling flow in the conical diffuser using flow-feedback control technique with additional energy source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tǎnasǎ, C.; Bosioc, A. I.; Susan-Resiga, R. F.; Muntean, S.

    2012-11-01

    The previous experimental and numerical investigations of decelerated swirling flows in conical diffusers have demonstrated that water injection along to the axis mitigates the pressure fluctuations associated to the precessing vortex rope [1]. However, for swirling flows similar to Francis turbines operated at partial discharge, the water jet becomes effective when the jet discharge is larger than 10% from the turbine discharge, leading to large volumetric losses when the jet is supplied from upstream the runner. As a result, it was introduced a new approach for supplying the jet by using a fraction of the discharge collected downstream the conical diffuser [2]. This is called flow-feedback control technique (FFCT) and it was investigated experimentally in order to assess its capability [3]. The FFCT approach not requires additional energy to supply the jet. Consequently, the turbine efficiency is not diminished due to the volumetric losses injected even if around 10% of the main flow is used. However, the equivalent amplitude of the pressure pulsations associated to the vortex rope decreases with 30% if 10% jet discharge is applied [3]. Using 12% water jet discharge from upstream then the equivalent amplitude of the pressure pulsations is mitigated with 70% according to Bosioc et al. [4]. In our case, an extra 2% jet discharge is required in order to obtain similar results with FFCT. This extra discharge is provided using an additional energy source. Therefore, the paper presents experimental investigation performed with FFCT with additional energy source. The experimental results obtained with this technique are compared against FFCT and the swirling flow with vortex rope, respectively.

  17. Incorporating family therapy into asthma group intervention: a randomized waitlist-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Ng, S M; Li, Albert M; Lou, Vivian W Q; Tso, Ivy F; Wan, Pauline Y P; Chan, Dorothy F Y

    2008-03-01

    Asthma psychoeducational programs have been found to be effective in terms of symptom-related outcome. They are mostly illness-focused, and pay minimal attention to systemic/familial factors. This study evaluated a novel asthma psychoeducation program that adopted a parallel group design and incorporated family therapy. A randomized waitlist-controlled crossover clinical trial design was adopted. Children with stable asthma and their parents were recruited from a pediatric chest clinic. Outcome measures included, for the patients: exhaled nitric oxide (eNO), spirometry, and adjustment to asthma; and for the parents: perceived efficacy in asthma management, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale anxiety subscale, Body Mind Spirit Well-being Inventory emotion subscale, and Short Form 12 health-related quality of life scale. Forty-six patients participated in the study. Attrition rates were 13.0% and 26.0% for the active and control groups, respectively. Repeated-measures ANOVA revealed a significant decrease in airway inflammation, as indicated by eNO levels, and an increase in patient's adjustment to asthma and parents' perceived efficacy in asthma management. Serial trend analysis revealed that most psychosocial measures continued to progress steadily after intervention. Significant improvements in both symptom-related measures and mental health and relationship measures were observed. The findings supported the value of incorporating family therapy into asthma psychoeducation programs. PMID:18411833

  18. Pathological gamblers and a non-psychiatric control group taking gender differences into account.

    PubMed

    Echeburúa, Enrique; González-Ortega, Itxaso; de Corral, Paz; Polo-López, Rocío

    2013-01-01

    The current study aimed to identify personality traits, emotional states and adjustment variables in a sample of pathological gamblers as compared to a non-gambling control group taking gender differences into account. The sample for this study consisted of 206 subjects (103 pathological gamblers and 103 non-psychiatric subjects from the general population matched for age and gender). Pathological gamblers had a lower educational level and a family history of alcohol abuse higher than non-gamblers. In turn, female gamblers were affected by unemployment and a lower socioeconomic status more often than female non-gamblers. Pathological gamblers were more anxious and impulsive and suffered from a poorer self-esteem than non-gamblers. Likewise, pathological gamblers had a greater history of other Axis I psychiatric disorders and were more often affected by anxiety and depression symptoms and showed a more problematic adjustment to everyday life than non-gamblers. Alcohol abuse was not higher in pathological gamblers than in non-gamblers, but, when gender was taken into account, male gamblers were more affected by alcohol abuse than male non-gamblers. Importantly 68.6% of female gamblers versus 9.8% of control group women reported being victims of intimate partner violence. These findings can be used to specifically inform prevention and intervention efforts. PMID:23866213

  19. Kinesio Taping Does Not Provide Additional Benefits in Patients With Chronic Low Back Pain Who Receive Exercise and Manual Therapy: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Added, Marco Aurélio Nemitalla; Costa, Leonardo Oliveira Pena; de Freitas, Diego Galace; Fukuda, Thiago Yukio; Monteiro, Renan Lima; Salomão, Evelyn Cassia; de Medeiros, Flávia Cordeiro; Costa, Lucíola da Cunha Menezes

    2016-07-01

    Study Design Randomized controlled trial. Background Many clinical practice guidelines endorse both manual therapy and exercise as effective treatment options for patients with low back pain. To optimize the effects of the treatments recommended by the guidelines, a new intervention known as Kinesio Taping is being widely used in these patients. Objectives To determine the effectiveness of Kinesio Taping in patients with chronic nonspecific low back pain when added to a physical therapy program consisting of exercise and manual therapy. Methods One hundred forty-eight patients with chronic nonspecific low back pain were randomly allocated to receive 10 (twice weekly) sessions of physical therapy, consisting of exercise and manual therapy, or the same treatment with the addition of Kinesio Taping applied to the lower back. The primary outcomes were pain intensity and disability (5 weeks after randomization) and the secondary outcomes were pain intensity, disability (3 months and 6 months after randomization), global perceived effect, and satisfaction with care (5 weeks after treatment). Data were collected by a blinded assessor. Results No between-group differences were observed in the primary outcomes of pain intensity (mean difference, -0.01 points; 95% confidence interval [CI]: -0.88, 0.85) or disability (mean difference, 1.14 points; 95% CI: -0.85, 3.13) at 5 weeks' follow-up. In addition, no between-group differences were observed for any of the other outcomes evaluated, except for disability 6 months after randomization (mean difference, 2.01 points; 95% CI: 0.03, 4.00) in favor of the control group. Conclusion Patients who received a physical therapy program consisting of exercise and manual therapy did not get additional benefit from the use of Kinesio Taping. Level of Evidence Therapy, level 1b. Prospectively registered May 28, 2013 at www.ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01866332). J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2016;46(7):506-513. Epub 6 Jun 2016. doi:10.2519/jospt.2016

  20. A possible effect of methylphenidate on state anxiety: A single dose, placebo controlled, crossover study in a control group.

    PubMed

    Segev, Aviv; Gvirts, Hila Zahava; Strouse, Kevin; Mayseless, Naama; Gelbard, Hagar; Lewis, Yael Doreen; Barnea, Yael; Feffer, Kfir; Shamay-Tsoory, Simone G; Bloch, Yuval

    2016-07-30

    Methylphenidate affects state-anxiety in ADHD patients. The current study examines the effect of Methylphenidate on state-anxiety in healthy subjects. In a cross-over, randomized, controlled, double-blind study, 36 healthy subjects received either Methylphenidate or placebo. As a group, no change in state-anxiety was detected with Methylphenidate. However, participants reporting higher anxiety levels experienced a significant and specific state-anxiety reduction following Methylphenidate. Moreover, a strong negative correlation was found between the initial-level of anxiety and net-change in state-anxiety. These changes were unrelated to self-perceived attention levels. Our results point to the state-dependent effects of Methylphenidate on anxiety. PMID:27183109

  1. A Randomized Controlled Trial of Ecological Momentary Intervention Plus Brief Group Therapy for Generalized Anxiety Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Newman, Michelle G.; Przeworski, Amy; Consoli, Andrés J.; Taylor, C. Barr

    2015-01-01

    Momentary intervention has been proposed as a cost-effective, generalizable, and ecologically valid method to increase the efficiency of face-to-face cognitive– behavioral therapy (CBT). The purpose of the current pilot study was to evaluate the efficacy of a six-session palmtop computer-assisted Group CBT for generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) (CAGT6) in comparison with a six-session Group CBT for GAD without the computer (CBGT6) and typical (12 session) Group CBT for GAD (CBGT12) in a randomized controlled trial. Thirty-four individuals with a primary diagnosis of GAD were randomized to one of the three conditions and completed measures of GAD and anxiety before therapy, after therapy, and at 6-, and 12-month follow-ups. Results indicated that CAGT6 was superior to CBGT6 at posttreatment, but not significantly different from CBGT12. At 6- and 12-month follow-ups, CAGT6 was neither significantly different from CBGT6, nor from CBGT12. Percentages of individuals achieving reliable change on two of the three GAD measures favored CAGT6 over CBGT6 at posttreatment, suggesting promise for the added value of the mobile technology. PMID:24059730

  2. Improving Parental Stress Levels Among Mothers Living with HIV: A Randomized Control Group Intervention Study

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Erica R.; Davies, Susan L.; Aban, Inmaculada; Mugavero, Michael J.; Shrestha, Sadeep

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Limited knowledge exists regarding parenting efficacy interventions for mothers living with HIV (MLH). This study evaluated the impact of a supportive group intervention on lowering parenting stress among MLH. Eighty MLH were randomized to a parenting (N=34) or health focused (control) (N=46) group intervention. Pre- and post-intervention stress levels were assessed using the Parental Stress Index-Short Form (PSI/SF). Differences in PSI/SF scores were examined using ANOVA, and predictors of PSI/SF scores were evaluated using multivariable linear regression. Findings indicate that both groups experienced significant decreases in parenting stress from baseline to post-intervention (p=0.0001), with no significant differences between interventions. At baseline, 41% of participants were identified as highly stressed and 30% as clinically stressed, with PSI/SF scores above the 85th and 90th percentile, respectively. Amongst the highly stressed subpopulation, significant improvements in PSI/SF scores for Parental Distress PSI/SF (p=0.039), Difficult Child PSI/SF (p=0.048), and total PSI/SF (p=0.036) were seen, with greater improvements in the parenting intervention. Among the clinically stressed subpopulation, significant improvements in total post-intervention PSI/SF scores were seen (p=0.049), with greater improvements in the parenting intervention. Results indicate that screening for high levels of stress should be considered in clinical practice to effectively implement stress-reducing interventions among MLH. PMID:25734870

  3. Effects of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) on non-specific chronic back pain: a randomized controlled trial with additional exploration of the underlying mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Non-specific chronic back pain (CBP) is often accompanied by psychological trauma, but treatment for this associated condition is often insufficient. Nevertheless, despite the common co-occurrence of pain and psychological trauma, a specific trauma-focused approach for treating CBP has been neglected to date. Accordingly, eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR), originally developed as a treatment approach for posttraumatic stress disorders, is a promising approach for treating CBP in patients who have experienced psychological trauma. Thus, the aim of this study is to determine whether a standardized, short-term EMDR intervention added to treatment as usual (TAU) reduces pain intensity in CBP patients with psychological trauma vs. TAU alone. Methods/design The study will recruit 40 non-specific CBP patients who have experienced psychological trauma. After a baseline assessment, the patients will be randomized to either an intervention group (n = 20) or a control group (n = 20). Individuals in the EMDR group will receive ten 90-minute sessions of EMDR fortnightly in addition to TAU. The control group will receive TAU alone. The post-treatment assessments will take place two weeks after the last EMDR session and six months later. The primary outcome will be the change in the intensity of CBP within the last four weeks (numeric rating scale 0–10) from the pre-treatment assessment to the post-treatment assessment two weeks after the completion of treatment. In addition, the patients will undergo a thorough assessment of the change in the experience of pain, disability, trauma-associated distress, mental co-morbidities, resilience, and quality of life to explore distinct treatment effects. To explore the mechanisms of action that are involved, changes in pain perception and pain processing (quantitative sensory testing, conditioned pain modulation) will also be assessed. The statistical analysis of the primary outcome will be performed

  4. Randomized Controlled Pilot Trial of a Novel Dissonance-Based Group Treatment for Eating Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Stice, Eric; Rohde, Paul; Butryn, Meghan; Menke, Katharine S.; Marti, C. Nathan

    2015-01-01

    Objective Conduct a pilot trial of a new dissonance-based group eating disorder treatment designed to be a cost-effective front-line transdiagnostic treatment that could be more widely disseminated than extant individual or family treatments that are more expensive and difficult to deliver. Method Young women with a DSM-5 eating disorder (N = 72) were randomized to an 8-week dissonance-based Body Acceptance Therapy group treatment or a usual care control condition, completing diagnostic interviews and questionnaires at pre, post, and 2-month follow-up. Results Intent-to-treat analyses revealed that intervention participants showed greater reductions in outcomes than usual care controls in a multivariate multilevel model (χ2[6] = 34.1, p < .001), producing large effects for thin-ideal internalization (d = 0.79), body dissatisfaction (d = 1.14), and blinded interview-assessed eating disorder symptoms (d = .95), and medium effects for dissonance regarding perpetuating the thin ideal (d = .65) and negative affect (d = .55). Midway through this pilot we refined engagement procedures, which was associated with increased effect sizes (e.g., the d for eating disorder symptoms increased from .51 to 2.30). Conclusions This new group treatment produced large reductions in eating disorder symptoms, which is encouraging because it requires about 1/20th the therapist time necessary for extant individual and family treatments, and has the potential to provide a cost-effective and efficacious approach to reaching the majority of individuals with eating disorders who do not presently received treatment. PMID:25577189

  5. Improving Quality of Life in Men With Prostate Cancer: A Randomized Controlled Trial of Group Education Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Lepore, Stephen J.; Helgeson, Vicki S.; Eton, David T.; Schulz, Richard

    2008-01-01

    Men who were recently treated for prostate cancer (N = 250) were randomly assigned to a control group, a group education intervention (GE), or a group education-plus-discussion intervention (GED). Both GE and GED increased prostate cancer knowledge. In the year postintervention, men in the GED condition were less bothered by sexual problems than men in the control condition, and they were more likely to remain steadily employed (93.0%) than men in the GE (75.6%) or control (72.5%) conditions. Among noncollege graduates, GED and GE resulted in better physical functioning than the control condition, and GED resulted in more positive health behaviors than the control or GE condition. Among college graduates, controls were comparable with the GE and GED groups in physical functioning and positive health behaviors. PMID:14570527

  6. Mindfulness training improves attentional task performance in incarcerated youth: a group randomized controlled intervention trial

    PubMed Central

    Leonard, Noelle R.; Jha, Amishi P.; Casarjian, Bethany; Goolsarran, Merissa; Garcia, Cristina; Cleland, Charles M.; Gwadz, Marya V.; Massey, Zohar

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the impact of cognitive behavioral therapy and mindfulness training (CBT/MT) on attentional task performance in incarcerated adolescents. Attention is a cognitive system necessary for managing cognitive demands and regulating emotions. Yet persistent and intensive demands, such as those experienced during high-stress intervals like incarceration and the events leading to incarceration, may deplete attention resulting in cognitive failures, emotional disturbances, and impulsive behavior. We hypothesized that CBT/MT may mitigate these deleterious effects of high stress and protect against degradation in attention over the high-stress interval of incarceration. Using a quasi-experimental, group randomized controlled trial design, we randomly assigned dormitories of incarcerated youth, ages 16–18, to a CBT/MT intervention (youth n = 147) or an active control intervention (youth n = 117). Both arms received approximately 750 min of intervention in a small-group setting over a 3–5 week period. Youth in the CBT/MT arm also logged the amount of out-of-session time spent practicing MT exercises. The Attention Network Test was used to index attentional task performance at baseline and 4 months post-baseline. Overall, task performance degraded over time in all participants. The magnitude of performance degradation was significantly less in the CBT/MT vs. control arm. Further, within the CBT/MT arm, performance degraded over time in those with no outside-of-class practice time, but remained stable over time in those who practiced mindfulness exercises outside of the session meetings. Thus, these findings suggest that sufficient CBT/MT practice may protect against functional attentional impairments associated with high-stress intervals. PMID:24265621

  7. Chlamydia, mycoplasmas, ureaplasmas, and yeasts in the lower genital tract of females. Comparison between a group attending a venereal disease clinic and a control group.

    PubMed

    Møller, B R; Sparre Jørgensen, A; From, E; Stenderup, A

    1985-01-01

    162 women were investigated. Group I consisted of 85 women, who were partners to men with non-gonococcal urethritis (NGU) or presented macroscopic signs of cervicitis; patients who had harbored Neisseria gonorrhoeae were excluded from the study. Group II was a control group of 77 women without any complaints from the urogenital tract and with normal findings at pelvic examination. All the women were tested for infection with Chlamydia trachomatis, Mycoplasma hominis, Ureaplasma urealyticum, and Candida albicans. In group I, chlamydiae and mycoplasmas were recovered in 44% and 36%, respectively, the corresponding figures for the control group (group II) being 5% and 19%. The difference is highly significant. No such difference between the two groups was found for ureaplasmas. Sixteen percent of the patients in group I were positive for C. albicans; 12% were positive in group II. Fifty per cent of asymptomatic NGU-partners were chlamydia-positive, and about one-third of patients with either dysuria or vaginal discharge harbored the organism. No difference in the isolation frequency of mycoplasmas was observed between asymptomatic partners to male NGU carriers and women with increased vaginal discharge, whereas the organism was isolated more frequently from patients with dysuria. Fifty-nine per cent of patients with cervicitis were chlamydia-positive, compared with 30% of patients with normal cervical appearance and normal vaginal discharge. Samples obtained from the cervix were more often positive than samples from the urethra. In conclusion, if samples can be taken from only one of the two sites in patients with lower genital tract infection, the cervix is the optimal sampling site. PMID:3885669

  8. Elevator Group Supervisory Control System Using Genetic Network Programming with Macro Nodes and Reinforcement Learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Jin; Yu, Lu; Mabu, Shingo; Hirasawa, Kotaro; Hu, Jinglu; Markon, Sandor

    Elevator Group Supervisory Control System (EGSCS) is a very large scale stochastic dynamic optimization problem. Due to its vast state space, significant uncertainty and numerous resource constraints such as finite car capacities and registered hall/car calls, it is hard to manage EGSCS using conventional control methods. Recently, many solutions for EGSCS using Artificial Intelligence (AI) technologies have been reported. Genetic Network Programming (GNP), which is proposed as a new evolutionary computation method several years ago, is also proved to be efficient when applied to EGSCS problem. In this paper, we propose an extended algorithm for EGSCS by introducing Reinforcement Learning (RL) into GNP framework, and an improvement of the EGSCS' performances is expected since the efficiency of GNP with RL has been clarified in some other studies like tile-world problem. Simulation tests using traffic flows in a typical office building have been made, and the results show an actual improvement of the EGSCS' performances comparing to the algorithms using original GNP and conventional control methods. Furthermore, as a further study, an importance weight optimization algorithm is employed based on GNP with RL and its efficiency is also verified with the better performances.

  9. Control of hydrogen sulfide production in oil fields by managing microbial communities through nitrate or nitrite addition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubert, Casey R. J.

    Nitrate or nitrite injection into oil reservoirs during water flooding has the potential to control biological souring, the production of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) by sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). Souring control is essential because sulfide is toxic, sulfide precipitates can plug reservoir formations, souring lowers crude oil value, and SRB induce corrosion. Nitrate and nitrite can stimulate heterotrophic nitrate- or nitrite-reducing bacteria (hNRB) and nitrate- or nitrite-reducing, sulfide oxidizing bacteria (NRSOB). Nitrite also inhibits SRB activity by blocking the sulfate reduction pathway. Continuous up-flow packed-bed bioreactors were inoculated with produced water from the Coleville oil field to establish sulfide-producing biofilms similar to those found in sour reservoirs. Nitrate or nitrite addition to bioreactors indicated that the dose required for hNRB or NR-SOB to control souring depended on the concentration of oil organics. Either mechanism mediates the net removal of oil organics (lactate) with nitrate or nitrite, with lower doses of nitrate required due to its greater oxidative power. Microbial community analysis by reverse sample genome probing (RSGP) revealed that NR-SOB mediated sulfide removal at low nitrate or nitrite concentrations when lactate was still available to SRB and the redox potential was low. At high nitrate doses hNRB oxidized lactate directly, produced nitrite and maintained a high redox potential, thus excluding SRB activity. Facultatively chemolithotrophic Campylobacter sp. strains were isolated from the bioreactors and incorporated into RSGP analyses, revealing their dominance in both NR-SOB- and hNRB-containing communities. The metabolic flexibility of these strains may confer a competitive advantage over obligate chemolithotrophs like Thiomicrospira sp. strain CVO or hNRB that do not have NR-SOB activity like newly isolated Thauera sp. and Rhodobacter sp. strains. A single high dose of nitrite resulted in immediate

  10. [Whooping cough in Spain. Current epidemiology, prevention and control strategies. Recommendations by the Pertussis Working Group].

    PubMed

    Campins, Magda; Moreno-Pérez, David; Gil-de Miguel, Angel; González-Romo, Fernando; Moraga-Llop, Fernando A; Arístegui-Fernández, Javier; Goncé-Mellgren, Anna; Bayas, José M; Salleras-Sanmartí, Lluís

    2013-04-01

    A large increase of pertussis incidence has been observed in recent years in countries with high vaccination coverage. Outbreaks of pertussis are increasingly being reported. The age presentation has a bipolar distribution: infants younger 6months that have not initiated or completed a vaccination schedule, and adolescents and adults, due to the lost of natural or vaccine immunity over time. These epidemiological changes justify the need to adopt new vaccination strategies in order to protect young infants and to reduce pertussis incidence in all age groups. Adolescents and adults immunization must be a priority. In the first group, strategy is easy to implement, and with a very low additional cost (to replace dT vaccine by dTap one). Adult vaccination may be more difficult to implement; dT vaccine decennial booster should be replaced by dTap. The immunization of household contacts of newborn infants (cocooning) is the strategy that has a most important impact on infant pertussis. Recently, pregnant women vaccination (after 20weeks of gestation) has been recommended in some countries as the most effective way to protect the newborn. PMID:23411362

  11. 75 FR 34459 - National Center for Injury Prevention and Control/Initial Review Group, (NCIPC/IRG)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Center for Injury Prevention and Control/Initial Review Group, (NCIPC/IRG) Correction: This notice was published in the Federal Register on... Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), announces the following meeting of the aforementioned review...

  12. 75 FR 7281 - National Center for Injury Prevention and Control/Initial Review Group, (NCIPC/IRG)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-18

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Center for Injury Prevention and Control/Initial Review Group, (NCIPC/IRG) In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), announces...

  13. 75 FR 5089 - National Center for Injury Prevention and Control/Initial Review Group, (NCIPC/IRG)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Center for Injury Prevention and Control/Initial Review Group, (NCIPC/IRG) In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), announces...

  14. 75 FR 7284 - National Center for Injury Prevention and Control/Initial Review Group, (NCIPC/IRG)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-18

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Center for Injury Prevention and Control/Initial Review Group, (NCIPC/IRG) In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), announces...

  15. 75 FR 34458 - National Center for Injury Prevention and Control/Initial Review Group, (NCIPC/IRG)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Center for Injury Prevention and Control/Initial Review Group, (NCIPC/IRG) Correction: This notice was published in the Federal Register on... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), announces the following meeting of the...

  16. Effects of a Psychoeducational Group on Mood and Glycemic Control in Adults with Diabetes and Visual Impairments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trozzolino, Linda; Thompson, Pamela S.; Tansman, Mara S.; Azen, Stanley P.

    2003-01-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of a 12-week psychoeducational group therapy program in improving mood and glycemic control in 48 adults with diabetes and visual impairments. Participants made statistically significant gains in glycemic control. There was a significant positive relationship between control and improvement in depression, but…

  17. Engineering of an MBR supernatant fouling layer by fine particles addition: a possible way to control cake compressibility.

    PubMed

    Teychene, Benoît; Guigui, Christelle; Cabassud, Corinne

    2011-02-01

    For membrane bioreactors (MBR) applied to wastewater treatment membrane fouling is still the prevalent issue. The main limiting phenomena related to fouling is a sudden jump of the transmembrane pressure (TMP) often attributed to the collapse of the fouling layer. Among existing techniques to avoid or to delay this collapse, the addition of active particles membrane fouling reducers (polymer, resins, powdered activated carbon (PAC), zeolithe...) showed promising results. Thus the main objective of this work is to determine if fouling can be reduced by inclusion of inert particles (500 nm and inert compared to other fouling reducers) and which is the impact on filtration performances of the structuring of the fouling. Those particles were chosen for their different surface properties and their capability to form well structured layer. Results, obtained at constant pressure in dead end mode, show that the presence of particles changes foulant deposition and induces non-compressible fouling (in the range of 0.5-1 bar) and higher rejection values compared to filtration done on supernatant alone. Indeed dead end filtration tests show that whatever interactions between biofluid and particles, the addition of particles leads to better filtration performances (in terms of rejection, and fouling layer compressibility). Moreover results confirm the important role played by macromolecular compounds, during supernatant filtration, creating highly compressible and reversible fouling. In conclusion, this study done at lab-scale suggests the potential benefit to engineer fouling structure to control or to delay the collapse of the fouling layer. Finally this study offers the opportunities to enlarge the choice of membrane fouling reducers by taking into consideration their ability to form more consistent fouling (i.e. rigid, structured fouling). PMID:21232780

  18. Neural Correlates of Task Cost for Stance Control with an Additional Motor Task: Phase-Locked Electroencephalogram Responses

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Ing-Shiou; Huang, Cheng-Ya

    2016-01-01

    With appropriate reallocation of central resources, the ability to maintain an erect posture is not necessarily degraded by a concurrent motor task. This study investigated the neural control of a particular postural-suprapostural procedure involving brain mechanisms to solve crosstalk between posture and motor subtasks. Participants completed a single posture task and a dual-task while concurrently conducting force-matching and maintaining a tilted stabilometer stance at a target angle. Stabilometer movements and event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded. The added force-matching task increased the irregularity of postural response rather than the size of postural response prior to force-matching. In addition, the added force-matching task during stabilometer stance led to marked topographic ERP modulation, with greater P2 positivity in the frontal and sensorimotor-parietal areas of the N1-P2 transitional phase and in the sensorimotor-parietal area of the late P2 phase. The time-frequency distribution of the ERP primary principal component revealed that the dual-task condition manifested more pronounced delta (1–4 Hz) and beta (13–35 Hz) synchronizations but suppressed theta activity (4–8 Hz) before force-matching. The dual-task condition also manifested coherent fronto-parietal delta activity in the P2 period. In addition to a decrease in postural regularity, this study reveals spatio-temporal and temporal-spectral reorganizations of ERPs in the fronto-sensorimotor-parietal network due to the added suprapostural motor task. For a particular set of postural-suprapostural task, the behavior and neural data suggest a facilitatory role of autonomous postural response and central resource expansion with increasing interregional interactions for task-shift and planning the motor-suprapostural task. PMID:27010634

  19. Neural Correlates of Task Cost for Stance Control with an Additional Motor Task: Phase-Locked Electroencephalogram Responses.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Ing-Shiou; Huang, Cheng-Ya

    2016-01-01

    With appropriate reallocation of central resources, the ability to maintain an erect posture is not necessarily degraded by a concurrent motor task. This study investigated the neural control of a particular postural-suprapostural procedure involving brain mechanisms to solve crosstalk between posture and motor subtasks. Participants completed a single posture task and a dual-task while concurrently conducting force-matching and maintaining a tilted stabilometer stance at a target angle. Stabilometer movements and event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded. The added force-matching task increased the irregularity of postural response rather than the size of postural response prior to force-matching. In addition, the added force-matching task during stabilometer stance led to marked topographic ERP modulation, with greater P2 positivity in the frontal and sensorimotor-parietal areas of the N1-P2 transitional phase and in the sensorimotor-parietal area of the late P2 phase. The time-frequency distribution of the ERP primary principal component revealed that the dual-task condition manifested more pronounced delta (1-4 Hz) and beta (13-35 Hz) synchronizations but suppressed theta activity (4-8 Hz) before force-matching. The dual-task condition also manifested coherent fronto-parietal delta activity in the P2 period. In addition to a decrease in postural regularity, this study reveals spatio-temporal and temporal-spectral reorganizations of ERPs in the fronto-sensorimotor-parietal network due to the added suprapostural motor task. For a particular set of postural-suprapostural task, the behavior and neural data suggest a facilitatory role of autonomous postural response and central resource expansion with increasing interregional interactions for task-shift and planning the motor-suprapostural task. PMID:27010634

  20. Nurse-Led Programs to Facilitate Enrollment to Children's Oncology Group Cancer Control Trials.

    PubMed

    Haugen, Maureen; Kelly, Katherine Patterson; Leonard, Marcia; Mills, Denise; Sung, Lillian; Mowbray, Catriona; Landier, Wendy

    2016-09-01

    The progress made over the past 50 years in disease-directed clinical trials has significantly increased cure rates for children and adolescents with cancer. The Children's Oncology Group (COG) is now conducting more studies that emphasize improving quality of life for young people with cancer. These types of clinical trials are classified as cancer control (CCL) studies by the National Cancer Institute and require different resources and approaches to facilitate adequate accrual and implementation at COG institutions. Several COG institutions that had previously experienced problems with low accruals to CCL trials have successfully implemented local nursing leadership for these types of studies. Successful models of nurses as institutional leaders and "champions" of CCL trials are described. PMID:26611754

  1. Using photolabile protecting groups for the controlled release of bioactive volatiles.

    PubMed

    Herrmann, Andreas

    2012-03-01

    To develop their biological activity, bioactive volatile compounds, such as pheromones or fragrances, have to evaporate from surfaces. Because these surfaces are usually exposed to natural daylight, the preparation of non-volatile precursors using photoremovable protecting groups is an ideal tool to control the release of caged volatile molecules from various surfaces by light-induced covalent bond cleavage. Many photoreactions occur under mild environmental conditions and are highly selective. To break covalent bonds under typical application conditions, the photoreaction has to proceed at ambient daylight, to tolerate the presence of oxygen and to run in polar media (e.g. in water). The amount of volatiles generated from photochemical delivery systems depends on the light intensity to which the systems are exposed. Both photoisomerisations and photofragmentations have successfully been investigated for the slow release of caged pheromones and fragrances from their corresponding precursors. PMID:22005713

  2. Electroencephalographic coherence in Alzheimer's disease: comparisons with a control group and population norms.

    PubMed

    Knott, V; Mohr, E; Mahoney, C; Ilivitsky, V

    2000-01-01

    Previous research from independent laboratories has shown reduced electroencephalographic coherence in patients diagnosed with dementia of the Alzheimer type (DAT). This study added to this work by comparing interhemispheric and intrahemispheric coherence in nonmedicated DAT patients (n = 35) with that of a normal control group (n = 30), as well as with a data bank of population norms. Raw and Z-score transformed values showed reduced coherence, interhemispherically (in delta, theta, alpha, and beta bands) and intrahemispherically (delta and theta bands) in DAT patients with both comparison procedures. Discriminant analysis correctly classified 73% to 75% of patients. The results are discussed in relation to earlier research, "trait" versus "state" factors, the cholinergic system, and cognitive processes in dementia. PMID:10753001

  3. Reduced stress and inflammatory responsiveness in experienced meditators compared to a matched healthy control group.

    PubMed

    Rosenkranz, Melissa A; Lutz, Antoine; Perlman, David M; Bachhuber, David R W; Schuyler, Brianna S; MacCoon, Donal G; Davidson, Richard J

    2016-06-01

    Psychological stress is a major contributor to symptom exacerbation across many chronic inflammatory conditions and can acutely provoke increases in inflammation in healthy individuals. With the rise in rates of inflammation-related medical conditions, evidence for behavioral approaches that reduce stress reactivity is of value. Here, we compare 31 experienced meditators, with an average of approximately 9000 lifetime hours of meditation practice (M age=51years) to an age- and sex-matched control group (n=37; M age=48years) on measures of stress- and inflammatory responsivity, and measures of psychological health. The Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) was used to induce psychological stress and a neurogenic inflammatory response was produced using topical application of capsaicin cream to forearm skin. Size of the capsaicin-induced flare response and increase in salivary cortisol and alpha amylase were used to quantify the magnitude of inflammatory and stress responses, respectively. Results show that experienced meditators have lower TSST-evoked cortisol (62.62±2.52 vs. 70.38±2.33; p<.05) and perceived stress (4.18±.41 vs. 5.56±.30; p<.01), as well as a smaller neurogenic inflammatory response (81.55±4.6 vs. 96.76±4.26; p<.05), compared to the control group. Moreover, experienced meditators reported higher levels of psychological factors associated with wellbeing and resilience. These results suggest that the long-term practice of meditation may reduce stress reactivity and could be of therapeutic benefit in chronic inflammatory conditions characterized by neurogenic inflammation. PMID:26970711

  4. Dietary patterns, food groups and myocardial infarction: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Lockheart, Michael S K; Steffen, Lyn M; Rebnord, Hege Møklebust; Fimreite, Ragnhild Lekven; Ringstad, Jetmund; Thelle, Dag S; Pedersen, Jan I; Jacobs, David R

    2007-08-01

    Certain dietary patterns may be related to the risk of CVD. We hypothesised that a plant-centred dietary pattern would be associated with a reduced risk of first myocardial infarction (MI). A case-control study of Norwegian men and postmenopausal women (age 45-75 years) was performed. A FFQ was administered, generally within 3 d after incident MI (n 106 cases). Controls (n 105) were frequency matched on sex, age and geographic location. On the FFQ, 190 items were categorised into thirty-five food groups and an a priori healthy diet pattern score was created. We estimated OR using logistic regression with adjustment for energy intake, family history of heart disease, marital status, current smoking, education and age. Among food groups, the risk of MI was significantly higher per SD of butter and margarine (OR 1.66 (95 % CI 1.12, 2.46)), and lower per SD of tomatoes (OR 0.53 (95 % CI 0.35, 0.79)), high-fat fish (OR 0.57 (95 % CI 0.38, 0.86)), wine (OR 0.58 (95 % CI 0.41, 0.83)), salad (OR 0.59 (95 % CI 0.40, 0.87)), whole grain breakfast cereals (OR 0.64 (95 % CI 0.45, 0.90)), cruciferous vegetables (OR 0.66 (95 % CI 0.47, 0.93)) and non-hydrogenated vegetable oil (OR 0.68 (95 % CI 0.49, 0.95)). An abundance of cases were found to have a low a priori healthy diet pattern score. A dietary pattern emphasising nutrient-rich plant foods and high-fat fish and low in trans fatty acids was associated with decreased risk of MI among Norwegians. PMID:17391555

  5. A randomized controlled trial of a tailored group smoking cessation intervention for HIV-infected smokers

    PubMed Central

    Moadel, Alyson B.; Bernstein, Steven L.; Mermelstein, Robin J.; Arnsten, Julia H.; Dolce, Eileen H.; Shuter, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    Background More than half of persons living with HIV (PLWH) in the US smoke cigarettes, and tobacco use is responsible for considerable morbidity and mortality in this group. Little is known about the efficacy of tobacco treatment strategies in PLWH. Design Randomized controlled trial comparing Positively Smoke Free (PSF), an intensive group therapy intervention targeting HIV-infected smokers, to standard care. Methods A cohort of 145 PLWH smokers, recruited from an HIV-care center in the Bronx, New York, were randomized 1:1 into the PSF program or standard care. All were offered a 3-month supply of nicotine replacement therapy. PSF is an eight session program tailored to address the needs and concerns of HIV-infected smokers. Sessions were co-facilitated by a graduate student and an HIV-infected peer. The primary outcome was biochemically-confirmed, seven-day point-prevalence abstinence at three months. Results In the intention to treat analysis, PSF condition subjects had nearly double the quit rate of controls (19.2% vs 9.7%, P=0.11). In the complete case, as-treated analysis, assignment to PSF was associated with increased odds of quitting (ORadj 3.55, 95% CI: 1.04– 12.0). Latino ethnicity and lower loneliness score were predictive of abstinence. Subjects in the PSF condition exhibited significant decreases in daily cigarette consumption and significant increases in self-efficacy and in motivation to quit. Attendance of ≥7 sessions was associated with higher quit rates. Conclusions These findings suggest a positive effect of PSF on cessation rates in PLWH smokers. Loneliness and self-efficacy are influential factors in the smoking behaviors of PLWH. PMID:22732470

  6. Single-Amino Acid Modifications Reveal Additional Controls on the Proton Pathway of [FeFe]-Hydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Cornish, Adam J; Ginovska, Bojana; Thelen, Adam; da Silva, Julio C S; Soares, Thereza A; Raugei, Simone; Dupuis, Michel; Shaw, Wendy J; Hegg, Eric L

    2016-06-01

    The proton pathway of [FeFe]-hydrogenase is essential for enzymatic H2 production and oxidation and is composed of four residues and a water molecule. A computational analysis of this pathway in the [FeFe]-hydrogenase from Clostridium pasteurianum revealed that the solvent-exposed residue of the pathway (Glu282) forms hydrogen bonds to two residues outside of the pathway (Arg286 and Ser320), implying that these residues could function in regulating proton transfer. In this study, we show that substituting Arg286 with leucine eliminates hydrogen bonding with Glu282 and results in an ∼3-fold enhancement of H2 production activity when methyl viologen is used as an electron donor, suggesting that Arg286 may help control the rate of proton delivery. In contrast, substitution of Ser320 with alanine reduces the rate ∼5-fold, implying that it either acts as a member of the pathway or influences Glu282 to permit proton transfer. Interestingly, quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics and molecular dynamics calculations indicate that Ser320 does not play a structural role or indirectly influence the barrier for proton movement at the entrance of the channel. Rather, it may act as an additional proton acceptor for the pathway or serve in a regulatory role. While further studies are needed to elucidate the role of Ser320, collectively these data provide insights into the complex proton transport process. PMID:27186945

  7. Schistosomiasis Sustained Control Program in Ethnic Groups Around Ninefescha (Eastern Senegal).

    PubMed

    N'Diaye, Monique; Dioukhane, Elhadji M; Ndao, Babacar; Diedhiou, Kemo; Diawara, Lamine; Talla, Idrissa; Vernet, Charlotte; Bessin, François; Barbier, Dominique; Dewavrin, Patrick; Klotz, Francis; Georges, Pierre

    2016-09-01

    Schistosomiasis is the second most significant parasitic disease in children in several African countries. For this purpose, the "Programme National de Lutte contre les Bilharzioses" (PNLB) was developed in partnership with the World Health Organization (WHO) to control this disease in Senegal. However, geographic isolation of Bedik ethnic groups challenged implementation of the key elements of the schistosomiasis program in eastern Senegal, and therefore, a hospital was established in Ninefescha to improve access to health care as well as laboratory support for this population. The program we have implemented from 2008 in partnership with the PNLB/WHO involved campaigns to 1) evaluate schistosomiasis prevalence in children of 53 villages around Ninefescha hospital, 2) perform a mass drug administration following the protocol established by the PNLB in school-aged children, 3) monitor annual prevalence, 4) implement health education campaigns, and 5) oversee the building of latrines. This campaign led to a drop in schistosomiasis prevalence but highlighted that sustainable schistosomiasis control by praziquantel treatment, awareness of the use of latrines, and inhabitants' voluntary commitment to the program are crucial to improve Schistosoma elimination. Moreover, this study revealed that preschool-aged children, for whom praziquantel was not recommended until 2014 in Senegal, constituted a significant reservoir for the parasite. PMID:27430549

  8. Group Music Intervention Reduces Aggression and Improves Self-esteem in Children with Highly Aggressive Behavior: A Pilot Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Myeong Soo; Lee, Jung-Sook

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the effects of group music intervention on aggression and self-esteem in children with highly aggressive behavior. Forty-eight children were allocated to either a music intervention group or an untreated control group. The music intervention group received 50 min of music intervention twice weekly for 15 consecutive weeks. The outcome measures were Child Behavior Checklist Aggression Problems Scale (Parents), Child Aggression Assessment Inventory (Teachers) and Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale. After 15 weeks, the music intervention group showed significant reduction of aggression and improvement of self-esteem compared with the control group. All outcome measures were significantly lower in the music intervention group than prior to treatment, while there was no change in the control group. These findings suggest that music can reduce aggressive behavior and improve self-esteem in children with highly aggressive behavior. Music intervention is an easily accessible therapy for children and as such may be an effective intervention for aggressive behavior. Further more, objective and replicable measures are required from a randomized controlled trial with a larger sample size and active comparable control. PMID:18955314

  9. Group Music Intervention Reduces Aggression and Improves Self-esteem in Children with Highly Aggressive Behavior: A Pilot Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Choi, Ae-Na; Lee, Myeong Soo; Lee, Jung-Sook

    2010-06-01

    We investigated the effects of group music intervention on aggression and self-esteem in children with highly aggressive behavior. Forty-eight children were allocated to either a music intervention group or an untreated control group. The music intervention group received 50 min of music intervention twice weekly for 15 consecutive weeks. The outcome measures were Child Behavior Checklist Aggression Problems Scale (Parents), Child Aggression Assessment Inventory (Teachers) and Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale. After 15 weeks, the music intervention group showed significant reduction of aggression and improvement of self-esteem compared with the control group. All outcome measures were significantly lower in the music intervention group than prior to treatment, while there was no change in the control group. These findings suggest that music can reduce aggressive behavior and improve self-esteem in children with highly aggressive behavior. Music intervention is an easily accessible therapy for children and as such may be an effective intervention for aggressive behavior. Further more, objective and replicable measures are required from a randomized controlled trial with a larger sample size and active comparable control. PMID:18955314

  10. Phase II Study of the Addition of Bevacizumab to Standard Chemoradiation for Loco-regionally Advanced Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma: Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) Trial 0615

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Nancy Y.; Zhang, Ed; Pfister, David. G.; Kim, John; Garden, Adam. S.; Mechalakos, James; Hu, Kenneth; Le, Quynh T.; Colevas, A. Dimitrios; Glisson, Bonnie S.; Chan, Anthony T.C.; Ang, K. Kian

    2016-01-01

    Purpose We sought to improve the outcomes for loco-regionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) by testing the feasibility/safety of adding bevacizumab to chemoradiation. Patients/Methods Eligible patients with ≥T2b and/or positive node(s) were prescribed 3 cycles of bevacizumab (15 mg/kg) and cisplatin (100 mg/m2) both given on days 1, 22, and 43 of radiation (70 Gy) using IMRT delivered over 33 days on a daily basis, Monday through Friday. This is followed by 3 cycles of bevacizumab (15 mg/kg), cisplatin (80 mg/m2) both were given on days 64, 85, and 106 and fluorouracil (1000 mg/m2/d) on days 64–67, 85–88, 106–109 after radiation. The primary endpoint was to evaluate the safety of the addition of bevacizumab to chemoradiation, specifically looking at treatment-related Grade 4 hemorrhage and/or any Grade 5 adverse event in the first year. Toxicity during and after treatment were collected along with tumor control endpoints. The analysis was done per protocol. This protocol has completed its target accrual. Results There were a total of 46 patients enrolled in this study of whom 44 patients were eligible for analysis. No grade 3–4 hemorrhage or grade 5 adverse events were observed; 9 patients (20.5%) experienced grade 1–2 hemorrhage. Grade 4 adverse events were experienced by the following numbers of patients: leukopenia NOS – 6; lymphopenia – 5; neutrophil count – 5; pharyngolaryngeal pain – 2; hemoglobin – 1; infection with grade 3–4 neutrophils (blood) – 1; infection with grade 3–4 neutrophils [skin (cellulitis)] – 1; tinnitus – 1; thrombosis – 1; radiation mucositis – 1. The most common grade 3 adverse events were radiation mucositis – 33; dysphagia – 25; and mucositis/stomatitis (clinical exam) (pharynx) – 15. Two patients experienced late grade 3 xerostomia. Other late grade 3 adverse events were: dysphagia – 5; hearing impaired – 3; neuralgia NOS – 2; constitutional symptoms (other) – 1; dehydration

  11. The effect of adding group-based counselling to individual lifestyle counselling on changes in dietary intake. The Inter99 study – a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Toft, Ulla; Kristoffersen, Lis; Ladelund, Steen; Ovesen, Lars; Lau, Cathrine; Pisinger, Charlotta; Smith, Lisa von Huth; Borch-Johnsen, Knut; Jørgensen, Torben

    2008-01-01

    Background Few studies have investigated the specific effect of single intervention components in randomized controlled trials. The purpose was to investigate the effect of adding group-based diet and exercise counselling to individual life-style counselling on long-term changes in dietary habits. Methods The study was a randomized controlled intervention study. From a general Danish population, aged 30 to 60 years (n = 61,301), two random sample were drawn (group A, n = 11,708; group B, n = 1,308). Subjects were invited for a health screening program. Participation rate was 52.5%. All participants received individual life-style counselling. Individuals at high risk of ischemic heart disease in group A were furthermore offered group-based life-style counselling. The intervention was repeated for high-risk individuals after one and three years. At five-year follow-up all participants were invited for a health examination. High risk individuals were included in this study (n = 2 356) and changes in dietary intake were analyzed using multilevel linear regression analyses. Results At one-year follow-up group A had significantly increased the unsaturated/saturated fat ratio compared to group B and in men a significantly greater decrease in saturated fat intake was found in group A compared to group B (net change: -1.13 E%; P = 0.003). No differences were found between group A and B at three-year follow-up. At five-year follow-up group A had significantly increased the unsaturated/saturated fat ratio (net change: 0.09; P = 0.01) and the fish intake compared to group B (net change: 5.4 g/day; P = 0.05). Further, in men a non-significant tendency of a greater decrease was found at five year follow-up in group A compared to group B (net change: -0.68 E%; P = 0.10). The intake of fibre and vegetables increased in both groups, however, no significant difference was found between the groups. No differences between groups were found for saturated fat intake in women. Conclusion

  12. Evaluation of strategies for the control of canola and lupin seedling diseases caused by Rhizoctonia anastomosis groups

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several methods with potential for the management of Rhizoctonia diseases of canola and lupin including several methods with potential for the management of Rhizoctonia plant resistance, fungicide seed treatment and biological control using binucleate Rhizoctonia anastomosis groups (AGs) were evalua...

  13. Poultry egg components as cereal bait additives for enhancing rodenticide based control success and trap index of house rat, Rattus rattus

    PubMed Central

    Singla, Neena; Kanwar, Deepia

    2014-01-01

    Objective To compare the acceptance and efficacy of cereal bait containing different concentrations of poultry egg components in laboratory and poultry farms to control house rat, Rattus rattus (R. rattus). Methods Acceptance of cereal bait containing different concentrations (2%, 5% and 10%) of poultry egg components such as egg shell powder (ESP), egg albumin (EA) and crushed egg shell as bait additives were studied after exposing them to different groups of rats in bi-choice with bait without additive. Behaviour of rats towards cereal bait containing 2% concentration of different egg components was recorded in no-choice conditions through Food Scale Consumption Monitor. In poultry farm predominantly infested with R. rattus, acceptance and efficacy of 2% zinc phosphide bait containing 2% EA and ESP was evaluated. Trap success of single rat traps containing chapatti pieces smeared with 2% EA and 2% ESP was also evaluated in poultry farm. Results In bi-choice tests, significantly (P<0.05) higher preference was observed for baits containing 2% and 5% ESP and all the three concentrations of EA compared to plain bait by female rats and that of baits containing 5% and 10% EA by male rats. In no-choice test, non-significantly higher consumption, number of bouts made and time spent towards bait containing 2% EA was found by rats of both sexes. In poultry farm, acceptance and efficacy of 2% zinc phosphide bait containing 2% EA and ESP was significantly (P<0.05) more than 2% zinc phosphide bait without additive. No significant difference was, however, found in trap success of single rat traps containing chapatti pieces smeared with 2% concentration of EA and ESP placed in the poultry farm. Conclusions Present data support the use of 2% egg albumin and egg shell powder in cereal bait to enhance acceptance and efficacy of 2% zinc phosphide bait against R. rattus. This may further help in checking the spread of rodent borne diseases to animals and humans. PMID:25183108

  14. Control of Cr6+ emissions from gas metal arc welding using a silica precursor as a shielding gas additive.

    PubMed

    Topham, Nathan; Wang, Jun; Kalivoda, Mark; Huang, Joyce; Yu, Kuei-Min; Hsu, Yu-Mei; Wu, Chang-Yu; Oh, Sewon; Cho, Kuk; Paulson, Kathleen

    2012-03-01

    Hexavalent chromium (Cr(6+)) emitted from welding poses serious health risks to workers exposed to welding fumes. In this study, tetramethylsilane (TMS) was added to shielding gas to control hazardous air pollutants produced during stainless steel welding. The silica precursor acted as an oxidation inhibitor when it decomposed in the high-temperature welding arc, limiting Cr(6+) formation. Additionally, a film of amorphous SiO(2) was deposited on fume particles to insulate them from oxidation. Experiments were conducted following the American Welding Society (AWS) method for fume generation and sampling in an AWS fume hood. The results showed that total shielding gas flow rate impacted the effectiveness of the TMS process. Increasing shielding gas flow rate led to increased reductions in Cr(6+) concentration when TMS was used. When 4.2% of a 30-lpm shielding gas flow was used as TMS carrier gas, Cr(6+) concentration in gas metal arc welding (GMAW) fumes was reduced to below the 2006 Occupational Safety and Health Administration standard (5 μg m(-3)) and the efficiency was >90%. The process also increased fume particle size from a mode size of 20 nm under baseline conditions to 180-300 nm when TMS was added in all shielding gas flow rates tested. SiO(2) particles formed in the process scavenged nanosized fume particles through intercoagulation. Transmission electron microscopy imagery provided visual evidence of an amorphous film of SiO(2) on some fume particles along with the presence of amorphous SiO(2) agglomerates. These results demonstrate the ability of vapor phase silica precursors to increase welding fume particle size and minimize chromium oxidation, thereby preventing the formation of hexavalent chromium. PMID:22104317

  15. Under-represented students' engagement in secondary science learning: A non-equivalent control group design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vann-Hamilton, Joy J.

    Problem. A significant segment of the U.S. population, under-represented students, is under-engaged or disengaged in secondary science education. International and national assessments and various research studies illuminate the problem and/or the disparity between students' aspirations in science and the means they have to achieve them. To improve engagement and address inequities among these students, more contemporary and/or inclusive pedagogy is recommended. More specifically, multicultural science education has been suggested as a potential strategy for increased equity so that all learners have access to and are readily engaged in quality science education. While multicultural science education emphasizes the integration of students' backgrounds and experiences with science learning , multimedia has been suggested as a way to integrate the fundamentals of multicultural education into learning for increased engagement. In addition, individual characteristics such as race, sex, academic track and grades were considered. Therefore, this study examined the impact of multicultural science education, multimedia, and individual characteristics on under-represented students' engagement in secondary science. Method. The Under-represented Students Engagement in Science Survey (USESS), an adaptation of the High School Survey of Student Engagement, was used with 76 high-school participants. The USESS was used to collect pretest and posttest data concerning their types and levels of student engagement. Levels of engagement were measured with Strongly Agree ranked as 5, down to Strongly Disagree ranked at 1. Participants provided this feedback prior to and after having interacted with either the multicultural or the non-multicultural version of the multimedia science curriculum. Descriptive statistics for the study's participants and the survey items, as well as Cronbach's alpha coefficient for internal consistency reliability with respect to the survey subscales, were

  16. Under-represented students' engagement in secondary science learning: A non-equivalent control group design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vann-Hamilton, Joy J.

    Problem. A significant segment of the U.S. population, under-represented students, is under-engaged or disengaged in secondary science education. International and national assessments and various research studies illuminate the problem and/or the disparity between students' aspirations in science and the means they have to achieve them. To improve engagement and address inequities among these students, more contemporary and/or inclusive pedagogy is recommended. More specifically, multicultural science education has been suggested as a potential strategy for increased equity so that all learners have access to and are readily engaged in quality science education. While multicultural science education emphasizes the integration of students' backgrounds and experiences with science learning , multimedia has been suggested as a way to integrate the fundamentals of multicultural education into learning for increased engagement. In addition, individual characteristics such as race, sex, academic track and grades were considered. Therefore, this study examined the impact of multicultural science education, multimedia, and individual characteristics on under-represented students' engagement in secondary science. Method. The Under-represented Students Engagement in Science Survey (USESS), an adaptation of the High School Survey of Student Engagement, was used with 76 high-school participants. The USESS was used to collect pretest and posttest data concerning their types and levels of student engagement. Levels of engagement were measured with Strongly Agree ranked as 5, down to Strongly Disagree ranked at 1. Participants provided this feedback prior to and after having interacted with either the multicultural or the non-multicultural version of the multimedia science curriculum. Descriptive statistics for the study's participants and the survey items, as well as Cronbach's alpha coefficient for internal consistency reliability with respect to the survey subscales, were

  17. Impulsivity-focused group intervention to reduce binge eating episodes in patients with binge eating disorder: study protocol of the randomised controlled IMPULS trial

    PubMed Central

    Schag, Kathrin; Leehr, Elisabeth J; Martus, Peter; Bethge, Wolfgang; Becker, Sandra; Zipfel, Stephan; Giel, Katrin E

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The core symptom of binge eating disorder (BED) is recurrent binge eating that is accompanied by a sense of loss of control. BED is frequently associated with obesity, one of the main public health challenges today. Experimental studies deliver evidence that general trait impulsivity and disorder-specific food-related impulsivity constitute risk factors for BED. Cognitive-behavioural treatment (CBT) is deemed to be the most effective intervention concerning BED. We developed a group intervention based on CBT and especially focusing on impulsivity. We hypothesise that such an impulsivity-focused group intervention is able to increase control over impulsive eating behaviour, that is, reduce binge eating episodes, further eating pathology and impulsivity. Body weight might also be influenced in the long term. Methods and analysis The present randomised controlled trial investigates the feasibility, acceptance and efficacy of this impulsivity-focused group intervention in patients with BED. We compare 39 patients with BED in the experimental group to 39 patients with BED in the control group at three appointments: before and after the group intervention and in a 3-month follow-up. Patients with BED in the experimental group receive 8 weekly sessions of the impulsivity-focused group intervention with 5-6 patients per group. Patients with BED in the control group receive no group intervention. The primary outcome is the binge eating frequency over the past 4 weeks. Secondary outcomes comprise further eating pathology, general impulsivity and food-related impulsivity assessed by eye tracking methodology, and body weight. Additionally, we assess binge eating and other impulsive behaviour weekly in process analyses during the time period of the group intervention. Ethics and dissemination This study has been approved by the ethics committee of the medical faculty of Eberhard Karls University Tübingen and the University Hospital Tübingen. Data are monitored

  18. Comparison of the frequency of psychiatric disorders among patients with chronic low back pain and control group

    PubMed Central

    Farajirad, Elnaz; Tohidi, Hadi; Farajirad, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Background: Low back pain (LBP) is one of the most common complaints of patients referred to the clinics. Studies indicated that psychosocial factors have great impact on the patients’ complaints and disability. The aim of this study was to evaluate a broad range of psychiatric disorders in patients with chronic LBP (CLBP) and compare them with those of the control group. Patients and Methods: We applied Symptom Checklist 90-R to compare 50 CLBP patients in the case group with 100 participants without it in the control group. The questionnaire measured somatization, obsessive-compulsive disorder, depression, anxiety, phobic anxiety, hostility, interpersonal sensitivity, paranoid ideation, and psychoticism. Results: Average “global severity index” was 1.10 in the case and 0.5 in the control group. Average “positive symptom total” was 45.26 in the case and 27.41 in the control group. Average “positive symptom distress index” was 2.50 in the case and 1.50 in the control group. Average scores for all test dimensions were significantly different between the two groups (P = 0.00). Conclusions: All dimensions were significantly more common in CLBP patients. Therefore, early diagnosis and treatment of these disorders may improve the outcome of CLBP. PMID:27366258

  19. 75 FR 3901 - Announcement of IS-GPS-200E Interface Control Working Group (ICWG) Teleconference Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-25

    ... Department of the Air Force Announcement of IS-GPS-200E Interface Control Working Group (ICWG) Teleconference... Working Group (ICWG) teleconference meeting for the document IS-GPS-200E (NAVSTAR GPS Space Segment...=9364 . Please send all CRM comments to Vimal Gopal by 5 February 2010. DATES: 12 February 2010:...

  20. Polycomb group gene BMI1 controls invasion of medulloblastoma cells and inhibits BMP-regulated cell adhesion

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Medulloblastoma is the most common intracranial childhood malignancy and a genetically heterogeneous disease. Despite recent advances, current therapeutic approaches are still associated with high morbidity and mortality. Recent molecular profiling has suggested the stratification of medulloblastoma from one single disease into four distinct subgroups namely: WNT Group (best prognosis), SHH Group (intermediate prognosis), Group 3 (worst prognosis) and Group 4 (intermediate prognosis). BMI1 is a Polycomb group repressor complex gene overexpressed across medulloblastoma subgroups but most significantly in Group 4 tumours. Bone morphogenetic proteins are morphogens belonging to TGF-β superfamily of growth factors, known to inhibit medulloblastoma cell proliferation and induce apoptosis. Results Here we demonstrate that human medulloblastoma of Group 4 characterised by the greatest overexpression of BMI1, also display deregulation of cell adhesion molecules. We show that BMI1 controls intraparenchymal invasion in a novel xenograft model of human MB of Group 4, while in vitro assays highlight that cell adhesion and motility are controlled by BMI1 in a BMP dependent manner. Conclusions BMI1 controls MB cell migration and invasion through repression of the BMP pathway, raising the possibility that BMI1 could be used as a biomarker to identify groups of patients who may benefit from a treatment with BMP agonists. PMID:24460684

  1. Food groups and laryngeal cancer risk: a case-control study from Italy and Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Bosetti, Cristina; La Vecchia, Carlo; Talamini, Renato; Negri, Eva; Levi, Fabio; Dal Maso, Luigino; Franceschi, Silvia

    2002-07-20

    Besides tobacco and alcohol, diet has been thought to be associated with laryngeal cancer risk. We thus analyzed the role of various food groups, as well as specific seasoning fats, in a case-control study conducted in Northern Italy and the Swiss Canton of Vaud from 1992 to 2000. Our study included 527 incident, histologically confirmed cases and 1,297 frequency-matched controls, selected among patients admitted to the same hospitals as cases for acute, nonneoplastic conditions, unrelated to smoking, alcohol consumption and long-term modifications of diet. The subjects' usual diet was investigated through a validated food frequency questionnaire, including 78 foods and beverages. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using unconditional multiple logistic regression models. After adjustment for major confounding factors, a significant trend of increasing risk was observed for eggs (OR = 1.7 for the highest compared to the lowest quintile), red meat (OR = 3.1), processed meat (OR = 1.7), fish (OR = 1.6) and sugars (OR = 1.6). Significant inverse associations were observed for pulses (OR = 0.7), raw vegetables (OR = 0.2), cooked vegetables (OR = 0.3), citrus fruit (OR = 0.6) and other fruit (OR = 0.5). In regard to seasoning fats, a significant reduction of cancer risk was observed for olive oil (OR = 0.4) and specific seed oils (OR = 0.6), while mixed seed oils were directly associated with laryngeal cancer risk (OR = 2.2). Our study suggests that increasing vegetables and fruit, decreasing meat consumption and perhaps substituting olive oil or specific seed oils for other types of seasoning lipids might help reduce laryngeal cancer risk. PMID:12115553

  2. Japanese Wolves are Genetically Divided into Two Groups Based on an 8-Nucleotide Insertion/Deletion within the mtDNA Control Region.

    PubMed

    Ishiguro, Naotaka; Inoshima, Yasuo; Yanai, Tokuma; Sasaki, Motoki; Matsui, Akira; Kikuchi, Hiroki; Maruyama, Masashi; Hongo, Hitomi; Vostretsov, Yuri E; Gasilin, Viatcheslav; Kosintsev, Pavel A; Quanjia, Chen; Chunxue, Wang

    2016-02-01

    The mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region (198- to 598-bp) of four ancient Canis specimens (two Canis mandibles, a cranium, and a first phalanx) was examined, and each specimen was genetically identified as Japanese wolf. Two unique nucleotide substitutions, the 78-C insertion and the 482-G deletion, both of which are specific for Japanese wolf, were observed in each sample. Based on the mtDNA sequences analyzed, these four specimens and 10 additional Japanese wolf samples could be classified into two groups- Group A (10 samples) and Group B (4 samples)-which contain or lack an 8-bp insertion/deletion (indel), respectively. Interestingly, three dogs (Akita-b, Kishu 25, and S-husky 102) that each contained Japanese wolf-specific features were also classified into Group A or B based on the 8-bp indel. To determine the origin or ancestor of the Japanese wolf, mtDNA control regions of ancient continental Canis specimens were examined; 84 specimens were from Russia, and 29 were from China. However, none of these 113 specimens contained Japanese wolf-specific sequences. Moreover, none of 426 Japanese modern hunting dogs examined contained these Japanese wolf-specific mtDNA sequences. The mtDNA control region sequences of Groups A and B appeared to be unique to grey wolf and dog populations. PMID:26853868

  3. Pyridine Group-Assisted Addition of Diazo-Compounds to Imines in the 3-CC Reaction of 2-Aminopyridines, Aldehydes, and Diazo-Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Gulevich, Anton V.; Helan, Victoria; Wink, Donald J.

    2013-01-01

    A novel three-component (3-CC) coupling reaction of 2-aminoazines, aromatic aldehydes and diazo-compounds producing polyfunctional β-amino-α-diazo-compounds has been developed. The reaction features an unprecedented heterocycle-assisted addition of a diazo-compound to an imine. The obtained diazoesters were efficiently converted into valuable heterocycles, as well as to β-amino acid derivatives. PMID:23373731

  4. Ongoing quality control in digital radiography: Report of AAPM Imaging Physics Committee Task Group 151

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, A. Kyle Geiser, William; Heintz, Philip; Goldman, Lee; Jerjian, Khachig; Martin, Melissa; Peck, Donald; Pfeiffer, Douglas; Ranger, Nicole; Yorkston, John

    2015-11-15

    Quality control (QC) in medical imaging is an ongoing process and not just a series of infrequent evaluations of medical imaging equipment. The QC process involves designing and implementing a QC program, collecting and analyzing data, investigating results that are outside the acceptance levels for the QC program, and taking corrective action to bring these results back to an acceptable level. The QC process involves key personnel in the imaging department, including the radiologist, radiologic technologist, and the qualified medical physicist (QMP). The QMP performs detailed equipment evaluations and helps with oversight of the QC program, the radiologic technologist is responsible for the day-to-day operation of the QC program. The continued need for ongoing QC in digital radiography has been highlighted in the scientific literature. The charge of this task group was to recommend consistency tests designed to be performed by a medical physicist or a radiologic technologist under the direction of a medical physicist to identify problems with an imaging system that need further evaluation by a medical physicist, including a fault tree to define actions that need to be taken when certain fault conditions are identified. The focus of this final report is the ongoing QC process, including rejected image analysis, exposure analysis, and artifact identification. These QC tasks are vital for the optimal operation of a department performing digital radiography.

  5. Effectiveness of group body psychotherapy for negative symptoms of schizophrenia: multicentre randomised controlled trial†

    PubMed Central

    Priebe, S.; Savill, M.; Wykes, T.; Bentall, R. P.; Reininghaus, U.; Lauber, C.; Bremner, S.; Eldridge, S.; Röhricht, F.

    2016-01-01

    Background Negative symptoms of schizophrenia have a severe impact on functional outcomes and treatment options are limited. Arts therapies are currently recommended but more evidence is required. Aims To assess body psychotherapy as a treatment for negative symptoms compared with an active control (trial registration: ISRCTN84216587). Method Schizophrenia out-patients were randomised into a 20-session body psychotherapy or Pilates group. The primary outcome was negative symptoms at end of treatment. Secondary outcomes included psychopathology, functional, social and treatment satisfaction outcomes at treatment end and 6-months later. Results In total, 275 participants were randomised. The adjusted difference in negative symptoms was 0.03 (95% CI −1.11 to 1.17), indicating no benefit from body psychotherapy. Small improvements in expressive deficits and movement disorder symptoms were detected in favour of body psychotherapy. No other outcomes were significantly different. Conclusions Body psychotherapy does not have a clinically relevant beneficial effect in the treatment of patients with negative symptoms of schizophrenia. PMID:27151073

  6. Ongoing quality control in digital radiography: Report of AAPM Imaging Physics Committee Task Group 151.

    PubMed

    Jones, A Kyle; Heintz, Philip; Geiser, William; Goldman, Lee; Jerjian, Khachig; Martin, Melissa; Peck, Donald; Pfeiffer, Douglas; Ranger, Nicole; Yorkston, John

    2015-11-01

    Quality control (QC) in medical imaging is an ongoing process and not just a series of infrequent evaluations of medical imaging equipment. The QC process involves designing and implementing a QC program, collecting and analyzing data, investigating results that are outside the acceptance levels for the QC program, and taking corrective action to bring these results back to an acceptable level. The QC process involves key personnel in the imaging department, including the radiologist, radiologic technologist, and the qualified medical physicist (QMP). The QMP performs detailed equipment evaluations and helps with oversight of the QC program, the radiologic technologist is responsible for the day-to-day operation of the QC program. The continued need for ongoing QC in digital radiography has been highlighted in the scientific literature. The charge of this task group was to recommend consistency tests designed to be performed by a medical physicist or a radiologic technologist under the direction of a medical physicist to identify problems with an imaging system that need further evaluation by a medical physicist, including a fault tree to define actions that need to be taken when certain fault conditions are identified. The focus of this final report is the ongoing QC process, including rejected image analysis, exposure analysis, and artifact identification. These QC tasks are vital for the optimal operation of a department performing digital radiography. PMID:26520756

  7. Tandem chirped quasi-phase-matching grating optical parametric amplifier design for simultaneous group delay and gain control.

    PubMed

    Charbonneau-Lefort, M; Fejer, M M; Afeyan, Bedros

    2005-03-15

    We present a broadband optical parametric amplifier design using tapered gain and tandem chirped quasi-phase-matching gratings to obtain flat gain and group-delay spectra suitable for applications such as ultrashort-pulse amplification and fiber-optic communication systems. Although a tapered-gain amplifier consisting of a single chirped grating can provide constant gain over a wide frequency range, it cannot be used to control the group delay across the spectrum. We propose controlling both the gain and the group delay profiles using a two-stage amplifier configuration, in which the idler of the first is used as the input signal of the second. PMID:15792000

  8. 75 FR 34459 - National Center for Injury Prevention and Control/Initial Review Group, (NCIPC/IRG)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Center for Injury Prevention and Control/Initial Review Group, (NCIPC/IRG) Correction: This notice was published in the Federal Register on February 18, 2010, Volume 75, Number 32,...

  9. Understanding the association between maltreatment history and adolescent risk behavior by examining popularity motivations and peer group control.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Wendy E; Wolfe, David A

    2009-10-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine how peer group processes of pressure and control and individual motivations for popularity would add to, and moderate the relationship between, childhood maltreatment and risky behavior in adolescence. A total of 1558 youth (804 girls) from three high schools in Ontario, Canada (M age = 15.02 years, SD = .86) reported on their alcohol use, delinquent behavior, childhood experiences of physical and emotional maltreatment and neglect, peer group processes involving control and individual popularity motivations. Regression analyses showed that, beyond the significant contributions of childhood maltreatment, peer group control predicted risky alcohol use and delinquent behavior. Peer group control and popularity motivations exacerbated the negative effect of physical maltreatment on delinquent behavior. Boys' experiences of peer group control were more strongly linked to alcohol use and delinquent behavior than girls'. These results suggest that there is a significant window of opportunity during adolescence where the peer group context can exacerbate or buffer childhood experiences. PMID:19669904

  10. Identity development as a buffer of adolescent risk behaviors in the context of peer group pressure and control.

    PubMed

    Dumas, Tara M; Ellis, Wendy E; Wolfe, David A

    2012-08-01

    We examined identity development as a moderator of the relation between peer group pressure and control and adolescents' engagement in risk behaviors. Participants (n=1070; M(age)=15.45 years) completed a self-report measure of identity exploration, the degree to which they have explored a variety of self-relevant values, beliefs and goals, and identity commitment, the degree to which they have secured a personal identity. Participants further reported on their frequency of risk behaviors (substance use and general deviancy) and experienced peer group pressure and control. Results confirmed that identity commitment was a buffer of substance use and identity exploration was a buffer of general deviancy in more pressuring peer groups. In more controlling peer groups, teens with greater identity commitment engaged in less risk behavior than teens with low-identity commitment. Thus, identity development may be a suitable target to deter negative effects of peer pressure in high-risk adolescents. PMID:22265669

  11. A study protocol of a randomised controlled trial incorporating a health economic analysis to investigate if additional allied health services for rehabilitation reduce length of stay without compromising patient outcomes

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Reducing patient length of stay is a high priority for health service providers. Preliminary information suggests additional Saturday rehabilitation services could reduce the time a patient stays in hospital by three days. This large trial will examine if providing additional physiotherapy and occupational therapy services on a Saturday reduces health care costs, and improves the health of hospital inpatients receiving rehabilitation compared to the usual Monday to Friday service. We will also investigate the cost effectiveness and patient outcomes of such a service. Methods/Design A randomised controlled trial will evaluate the effect of providing additional physiotherapy and occupational therapy for rehabilitation. Seven hundred and twelve patients receiving inpatient rehabilitation at two metropolitan sites will be randomly allocated to the intervention group or control group. The control group will receive usual care physiotherapy and occupational therapy from Monday to Friday while the intervention group will receive the same amount of rehabilitation as the control group Monday to Friday plus a full physiotherapy and occupational therapy service on Saturday. The primary outcomes will be patient length of stay, quality of life (EuroQol questionnaire), the Functional Independence Measure (FIM), and health utilization and cost data. Secondary outcomes will assess clinical outcomes relevant to the goals of therapy: the 10 metre walk test, the timed up and go test, the Personal Care Participation Assessment and Resource Tool (PC PART), and the modified motor assessment scale. Blinded assessors will assess outcomes at admission and discharge, and follow up data on quality of life, function and health care costs will be collected at 6 and 12 months after discharge. Between group differences will be analysed with analysis of covariance using baseline measures as the covariate. A health economic analysis will be carried out alongside the randomised

  12. Epigenetic control of group V phospholipase A2 expression in human malignant cells.

    PubMed

    Menschikowski, Mario; Hagelgans, Albert; Nacke, Brit; Jandeck, Carsten; Mareninova, Olga A; Asatryan, Liana; Siegert, Gabriele

    2016-06-01

    Secreted phospholipases A2 (sPLA2) are suggested to play an important role in inflammation and tumorigenesis. Different mechanisms of epigenetic regulation are involved in the control of group IIA, III and X sPLA2s expression in cancer cells, but group V sPLA2 (GV-PLA2) in this respect has not been studied. Here, we demonstrate the role of epigenetic mechanisms in regulation of GV-PLA2 expression in different cell lines originating from leukaemia and solid cancers. In blood leukocytes from leukaemic patients, levels of GV-PLA2 transcripts were significantly lower in comparison to those from healthy individuals. Similarly, in DU-145 and PC-3 prostate and CAL-51 and MCF-7 mammary cancer cell lines, levels of GV-PLA2 transcripts were significantly lower in relation to those found in normal epithelial cells of prostate or mammary. By sequencing and methylation-specific high-resolution melting (MS-HRM) analyses of bisulphite-modified DNA, distinct CpG sites in the GV-PLA2 promoter region were identified that were differentially methylated in cancer cells in comparison to normal epithelial and endothelial cells. Spearman rank order analysis revealed a significant negative correlation between the methylation degree and the cellular expression of GV-PLA2 (r = -0.697; p = 0.01). The effects of demethylating agent (5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine) and histone deacetylase inhibitor (trichostatin A) on GV-PLA2 transcription in the analysed cells confirmed the importance of DNA methylation and histone modification in the regulation of the GV-PLA2 gene expression in leukaemic, prostate and mammary cancer cell lines. The exposure of tumour cells to human recombinant GV-PLA2 resulted in a reduced colony forming activity of MCF-7, HepG2 and PC-3 cells, but not of DU-145 cells suggesting a cell-type-dependent effect of GV-PLA2 on cell growth. In conclusion, our results suggest that epigenetic mechanisms such as DNA methylation and histone modification play an important role in

  13. [Hospital pharmacist has a rule for best practice use and French hospital activity tariffs. Example of a pharmaceutical quality control for drugs reimbursed in addition of DRGs].

    PubMed

    Hedoux, S; Dode, X; Pivot, C; Couray-Targe, S; Aulagner, G

    2012-07-01

    The best practice contract has given a new objective to the hospital pharmacists for the reimbursement in addition to Diagnosis Related Groups' (DRGs) tariffs. We built our pharmaceutical quality control for the administration traceability follow-up regarding the DRGs and the cost of care, for two reasons: the nominal drugs dispensation in link with the prescription made by pharmacist and the important expenditure of these drugs. Our organization depends on the development level of the informatized drugs circuit and minimizes the risk of financial shortfalls or wrong benefits, possible causes of economic penalties for our hospital. On the basis of this follow-up, we highlighted our activity and identified problems of management and drugs circuit organization. The quality of the administration traceability impacts directly on the quality of the medical records and the reimbursements of the expensive drugs. A better knowledge of prescription software is also required for a better quality and security of the medical data used in the medical informatic systems. The drugs management and the personal treatment in and between the care units need to be improved too. We have to continue and improve our organization with the future financial model for ATU drugs and the FIDES project. The health personnel awareness and the development of best informatic tools are also required. PMID:22818260

  14. Testing the Efficacy of OurSpace, a Brief, Group Dynamics-Based Physical Activity Intervention: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Chalin, Patrice; Thompson, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    Background Emerging technologies (ie, mobile phones, Internet) may be effective tools for promoting physical activity (PA). However, few interventions have provided effective means to enhance social support through these platforms. Face-to-face programs that use group dynamics-based principles of behavior change have been shown to be highly effective in enhancing social support through promoting group cohesion and PA, but to date, no studies have examined their effects in Web-based programs. Objective The aim was to explore proof of concept and test the efficacy of a brief, online group dynamics-based intervention on PA in a controlled experiment. We expected that the impact of the intervention on PA would be moderated by perceptions of cohesion and the partner’s degree of presence in the online media. Methods Participants (n=135) were randomized into same-sex dyads and randomly assigned to one of four experimental conditions: standard social support (standard), group dynamics-based–high presence, group dynamics-based–low presence, or individual control. Participants performed two sets of planking exercises (pre-post). Between sets, participants in partnered conditions interacted with a virtual partner using either a standard social support app or a group dynamics-based app (group dynamics-based–low presence and group dynamics-based–high presence), the latter of which they participated in a series of online team-building exercises. Individual participants were given an equivalent rest period between sets. To increase presence during the second set, participants in the group dynamics-based–high presence group saw a live video stream of their partner exercising. Perceptions of cohesion were measured using a modified PA Group Environment Questionnaire. Physical activity was calculated as the time persisted during set 2 after controlling for persistence in set 1. Results Perceptions of cohesion were higher in the group dynamics-based–low presence (overall

  15. Child Effortful Control, Teacher-Student Relationships, and Achievement in Academically At-Risk Children: Additive and Interactive Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liew, Jeffrey; Chen, Qi; Hughes, Jan N.

    2010-01-01

    The joint contributions of child effortful control (using inhibitory control and task accuracy as behavioral indices) and positive teacher-student relationships at first grade on reading and mathematics achievement at second grade were examined in 761 children who were predominantly from low-income and ethnic minority backgrounds and assessed to…

  16. Cancer Control Research Training for Native Researchers: A Model for Development of Additional Native Researcher Training Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Thomas M.; Dunn, Esther; Tom-Orme, Lillian; Joe, Jennie

    2005-01-01

    Several social and biological scientists who have Native status are engaged in productive research careers, but the encouragement that has been offered to Native students to formulate career goals devoted to cancer etiology or cancer control in Native peoples has had limited success. Hence, the Native Researchers' Cancer Control Training Program…

  17. Integrated Autopilot/Autothrottle Based on a Total Energy Control Concept: Design and Evaluation of Additional Autopilot Modes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bruce, Kevin R.

    1988-01-01

    An integrated autopilot/autothrottle system was designed using a total energy control design philosophy. This design ensures that the system can differentiate between maneuvers requiring a change in thrust to accomplish a net energy change, and those maneuvers which only require elevator control to redistribute energy. The system design, the development of the system, and a summary of simulation results are defined.

  18. Nest of Origin Predicts Adult Neuron Addition Rates in the Vocal Control System of the Zebra Finch

    PubMed Central

    Hurley, Patrick; Pytte, Carolyn; Kirn, John R.

    2008-01-01

    Neurogenesis and neuronal replacement in adulthood represent dramatic forms of plasticity that might serve as a substrate for behavioral flexibility. In songbirds, neurons are continually replaced in HVC (used as a proper name), a pre-motor region necessary for the production of learned vocalizations. There are large individual differences in HVC neuron addition. Some of this variation is probably due to individual differences in adult experience; however, it is also possible that heritability or experience early in development constrains the levels of adult neuron addition. As a step toward addressing the latter two possibilities, we explored the extent to which nest of origin predicts rates of HVC neuron addition in adult male zebra finches. One month after injections of [3H]-thymidine to mark dividing cells, neuron addition in HVC was found to co-vary among birds that had been nest mates, even when they were housed in different cages as adults. We also tested whether nest mate co-variation might be due to shared adult auditory experience by measuring neuron addition in nest mate pairs after one member was deafened. There were significant differences in neuron addition between hearing and deaf birds but nest mate relationships persisted. These results suggest that variation in genotype and/or early pre- or postnatal experience can account for a large fraction of adult variation in rates of neuron addition. These results also suggest that a major constraint on neurogenesis and the capacity to adjust rates of neuron addition in response to adult auditory experience is established early in development. PMID:18431053

  19. Two Group A Streptococcal Peptide Pheromones Act through Opposing Rgg Regulators to Control Biofilm Development

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Jennifer C.; LaSarre, Breah; Jimenez, Juan C.; Aggarwal, Chaitanya; Federle, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes (Group A Streptococcus, GAS) is an important human commensal that occasionally causes localized infections and less frequently causes severe invasive disease with high mortality rates. How GAS regulates expression of factors used to colonize the host and avoid immune responses remains poorly understood. Intercellular communication is an important means by which bacteria coordinate gene expression to defend against host assaults and competing bacteria, yet no conserved cell-to-cell signaling system has been elucidated in GAS. Encoded within the GAS genome are four rgg-like genes, two of which (rgg2 and rgg3) have no previously described function. We tested the hypothesis that rgg2 or rgg3 rely on extracellular peptides to control target-gene regulation. We found that Rgg2 and Rgg3 together tightly regulate two linked genes encoding new peptide pheromones. Rgg2 activates transcription of and is required for full induction of the pheromone genes, while Rgg3 plays an antagonistic role and represses pheromone expression. The active pheromone signals, termed SHP2 and SHP3, are short and hydrophobic (DI[I/L]IIVGG), and, though highly similar in sequence, their ability to disrupt Rgg3-DNA complexes were observed to be different, indicating that specificity and differential activation of promoters are characteristics of the Rgg2/3 regulatory circuit. SHP-pheromone signaling requires an intact oligopeptide permease (opp) and a metalloprotease (eep), supporting the model that pro-peptides are secreted, processed to the mature form, and subsequently imported to the cytoplasm to interact directly with the Rgg receptors. At least one consequence of pheromone stimulation of the Rgg2/3 pathway is increased biogenesis of biofilms, which counteracts negative regulation of biofilms by RopB (Rgg1). These data provide the first demonstration that Rgg-dependent quorum sensing functions in GAS and substantiate the role that Rggs play as peptide receptors across the

  20. Group cognitive remediation therapy for chronic schizophrenia: A randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Tan, Shuping; Zou, Yizhuang; Wykes, Til; Reeder, Clare; Zhu, Xiaolin; Yang, Fude; Zhao, Yanli; Tan, Yunlong; Fan, Fengmei; Zhou, Dongfeng

    2016-07-28

    Individual-level cognitive remediation therapy (CRT) has been shown to be effective for cognitive improvement and social function amelioration. Here, we aimed to test the efficacy of group-based CRT in Chinese subjects with schizophrenia. One-hundred and four inpatients were randomly assigned to either 40 sessions of small-group CRT therapy or therapeutic contact-matched Musical and Dancing Therapy (MDT). Cognitive and social functioning, as well as clinical symptoms, were evaluated over the course of treatment. Specifically, cognitive function was evaluated using a battery of cognitive measurements, clinical symptoms were evaluated using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, and social function was evaluated using the Nurse's Observation Scale for Inpatient Evaluation-30. All patients were evaluated pre- and post-treatment. Forty-four individuals in the CRT group and 46 in the MDT group completed all of the planned treatments and analyses. Cognitive functions, especially cognitive flexibility and memory, showed significant improvement in the CRT group over the course of the study. The MDT group also showed improvement in several cognitive flexibility assessments, but the degree of improvement was significantly greater in the CRT group. Several social-function factors exhibited a significant improvement in the CRT group, but not in the MDT group. Cognitive function improvement correlated positively with social function without predicting social function change. We conclude that group-based CRT is an effective and promising therapy. PMID:26314508

  1. Intra-Articular Corticosteroids in Addition to Exercise for Reducing Pain Sensitivity in Knee Osteoarthritis: Exploratory Outcome from a Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Soriano-Maldonado, Alberto; Klokker, Louise; Bartholdy, Cecilie; Bandak, Elisabeth; Ellegaard, Karen; Bliddal, Henning; Henriksen, Marius

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess the effects of one intra-articular corticosteroid injection two weeks prior to an exercise-based intervention program for reducing pain sensitivity in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA). Design Randomized, masked, parallel, placebo-controlled trial involving 100 participants with clinical and radiographic knee OA that were randomized to one intra-articular injection on the knee with either 1 ml of 40 mg/ml methylprednisolone (corticosteroid) dissolved in 4 ml lidocaine (10 mg/ml) or 1 ml isotonic saline (placebo) mixed with 4 ml lidocaine (10 mg/ml). Two weeks after the injections all participants undertook a 12-week supervised exercise program. Main outcomes were changes from baseline in pressure-pain sensitivity (pressure-pain threshold [PPT] and temporal summation [TS]) assessed using cuff pressure algometry on the calf. These were exploratory outcomes from a randomized controlled trial. Results A total of 100 patients were randomized to receive either corticosteroid (n = 50) or placebo (n = 50); 45 and 44, respectively, completed the trial. Four participants had missing values for PPT and one for TS at baseline; thus modified intention-to-treat populations were analyzed. The mean group difference in changes from baseline at week 14 was 0.6 kPa (95% CI: -1.7 to 2.8; P = 0.626) for PPT and 384 mm×sec (95% CI: -2980 to 3750; P = 0.821) for TS. Conclusions These results suggest that adding intra-articular corticosteroid injection 2 weeks prior to an exercise program does not provide additional benefits compared to placebo in reducing pain sensitivity in patients with knee OA. Trial Registration EU clinical trials (EudraCT): 2012-002607-18 PMID:26871954

  2. Effects of silver and group 2 fluorides addition to plasma sprayed chromium carbide high temperature solid lubricant for foil gas bearing to 650 deg C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagner, R. C.; Sliney, H. E.

    1984-01-01

    A new self-lubricating coating composition of nickel aluminide-bonded chromium carbide formulated with silver and Group II fluorides was developed in a research program on high temperature solid lubricants. One of the proposed applications for this new coating composition is as a wide temperature spectrum solid lubricant for complaint foil gas bearings. Friction and wear properties were obtained using a foil gas bearing start/stop apparatus at temperatures from 25 to 650 C. The journals were Inconel 718. Some were coated with the plasma sprayed experimental coating, others with unmodified nickel aluminide/chromium carbide as a baseline for comparison. The addtitional components were provided to assist in achieving low friction over the temperature range of interest. Uncoated, preoxidized Inconel X-750 foil bearings were operated against these surfaces. The foils were subjected to repeated start/stop cycles under a 14-kPa (2-psi) bearing unit loading. Sliding contact occurred during lift-off and coastdown at surface velocities less than 6 m/s (3000 rpm). Testing continued until 9000 start/stop cycles were accumulated or until a rise in starting torque indicated the journal/bearing had failed. Comparison in coating performance as well as discussions of their properties and methods of application are given.

  3. Group consensus control for heterogeneous multi-agent systems with fixed and switching topologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Guoguang; Huang, Jun; Wang, Chunyan; Chen, Zhi; Peng, Zhaoxia

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, the group consensus problems of heterogeneous multi-agent systems with fixed and switching topologies are investigated. First, a class of distributed group consensus protocol is proposed for achieving the group consensus of heterogeneous multi-agent systems by using the neighbours' information. Then, some corresponding sufficient conditions are obtained to guarantee the achievement of group consensus. Rigorous proofs are given by using graph theory, matrix theory and Lyapunov theory. Finally, numerical simulations are also given to verify the theoretical analysis.

  4. Saccharomyces cerevisiae Thg1 Uses 5′-Pyrophosphate Removal To Control Addition of Nucleotides to tRNAHis

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    In eukaryotes, the tRNAHis guanylyltransferase (Thg1) catalyzes 3′–5′ addition of a single guanosine residue to the −1 position (G–1) of tRNAHis, across from a highly conserved adenosine at position 73 (A73). After addition of G–1, Thg1 removes pyrophosphate from the tRNA 5′-end, generating 5′-monophosphorylated G–1-containing tRNA. The presence of the 5′-monophosphorylated G–1 residue is important for recognition of tRNAHis by its cognate histidyl-tRNA synthetase. In addition to the single-G–1 addition reaction, Thg1 polymerizes multiple G residues to the 5′-end of tRNAHis variants. For 3′–5′ polymerization, Thg1 uses the 3′-end of the tRNAHis acceptor stem as a template. The mechanism of reverse polymerization is presumed to involve nucleophilic attack of the 3′-OH from each incoming NTP on the intact 5′-triphosphate created by the preceding nucleotide addition. The potential exists for competition between 5′-pyrophosphate removal and 3′–5′ polymerase reactions that could define the outcome of Thg1-catalyzed addition, yet the interplay between these competing reactions has not been investigated for any Thg1 enzyme. Here we establish transient kinetic assays to characterize the pyrophosphate removal versus nucleotide addition activities of yeast Thg1 with a set of tRNAHis substrates in which the identity of the N–1:N73 base pair was varied to mimic various products of the N–1 addition reaction catalyzed by Thg1. We demonstrate that retention of the 5′-triphosphate is correlated with efficient 3′–5′ reverse polymerization. A kinetic partitioning mechanism that acts to prevent addition of nucleotides beyond the −1 position with wild-type tRNAHis is proposed. PMID:24548272

  5. Design rules for rational control of polymer glass formation behavior and mechanical properties with small molecular additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mangalara, Jayachandra Hari; Simmons, David

    Small molecule additives have long been employed to tune polymers' glass formation, mechanical and transport properties. For example, plasticizers are commonly employed to suppress polymer Tg and soften the glassy state, while antiplasticizers, which stiffen the glassy state of a polymer while suppressing its Tg, are employed to enhance protein and tissue preservation in sugar glasses. Recent literature indicates that additives can have a wide range of possible effects, but all of these have not been clearly understood and well appreciated. Here we employ molecular dynamics simulations to establish design rules for the selection of small molecule additives with size, molecular stiffness, and interaction energy chosen to achieve targeted effects on polymer properties. We furthermore find that a given additive's effect on a polymer's Tg can be predicted from its Debye-Waller factor via a function previously found to describe nanoconfinement effects on the glass transition. These results emphasize the potential for a new generation of targeted molecular additives to contribute to more targeted rational design of polymers. We acknowledge the Keck Foundation and the Ohio Supercomputing Center for financial and computational support of this effort, respectively.

  6. Additional mutations in SRSF2, ASXL1 and/or RUNX1 identify a high-risk group of patients with KIT D816V(+) advanced systemic mastocytosis.

    PubMed

    Jawhar, M; Schwaab, J; Schnittger, S; Meggendorfer, M; Pfirrmann, M; Sotlar, K; Horny, H-P; Metzgeroth, G; Kluger, S; Naumann, N; Haferlach, C; Haferlach, T; Valent, P; Hofmann, W-K; Fabarius, A; Cross, N C P; Reiter, A

    2016-01-01

    Most patients with KIT D816V(+) advanced systemic mastocytosis (SM) are characterized by somatic mutations in additional genes. We sought to clarify the prognostic impact of such mutations. Genotype and clinical characteristics of 70 multi-mutated KIT D816V(+) advanced SM patients were included in univariate and multivariate analyses. The most frequently identified mutated genes were TET2 (n=33 of 70 patients), SRSF2 (n=30), ASXL1 (n=20), RUNX1 (n=16) and JAK2 (n=11). In univariate analysis, overall survival (OS) was adversely influenced by mutations in SRSF2 (P<0.0001), ASXL1 (P=0.002) and RUNX1 (P=0.03), but was not influenced by mutations in TET2 or JAK2. In multivariate analysis, SRSF2 and ASXL1 remained the most predictive adverse indicators concerning OS. Furthermore, we found that inferior OS and adverse clinical characteristics were significantly influenced by the number of mutated genes in the SRSF2/ASXL1/RUNX1 (S/A/R) panel (P<0.0001). In conclusion, the presence and number of mutated genes within the S/A/R panel are adversely associated with advanced disease and poor survival in KIT D816V(+) SM. On the basis of these findings, inclusion of molecular markers should be considered in upcoming prognostic scoring systems for patients with SM. PMID:26464169

  7. Evaluation of the ovarian reserve function in patients with metabolic syndrome in relation to healthy controls and different age groups

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the ovarian reserve function in female patients with metabolic syndrome (MetS). Methods This study evaluated 136 subjects, 67 with MetS and 69 controls. Subjects were divided into three age groups. Group I included 49 subjects aged 20–29 years, 22 with MetS and 27 controls; group II included 45 subjects aged 30–39 years, 22 with MetS and 23 controls; and group III included 42 subjects aged 40–49 years, 23 with MetS and 19 controls. Demographic characteristics, anthropometrics, blood biochemistry, and gonadotrophic hormones were compared as total ovarian volume and antral follicle count on ovarian transvaginal ultrasonography. Results Serum levels of FSH, LH, E2 and progesterone were similar in the MetS and control groups, while testosterone levels were significantly higher in MetS patients than controls, both in the overall population (p = 0.024) and in those aged 20–29 years (p = 0.018). Total ovarian volume was significantly lower in MetS patients than controls, in both the overall population (p = 0.003) and those aged 20–29 years (p = 0.018), while antral follicle counts were similar. Ovarian volume correlated positively with antral follicle count (AFC) (r = 0.37; p < 0.001) and negatively with age (r = 0.34; p < 0.001) and FSH concentration (r = 0.21; p = 0.013). AFC was negatively correlated with age (r = 0.36; p < 0.001). Conclusion Ovarian reserve function is significantly lower in MetS patients than in healthy control subjects, particularly in women aged 20–29 years. PMID:24955131

  8. 40 CFR 82.18 - Availability of production in addition to baseline production allowances for class II controlled...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... permitted under the Montreal Protocol or to receive from the person for the current control period some... production quantities: (A) The maximum production that the nation is allowed under the Protocol minus...

  9. Effectiveness of a Dissonance-Based Eating Disorder Prevention Program for Ethnic Groups in Two Randomized Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Stice, Eric; Marti, C. Nathan; Cheng, Zhen Hadassah

    2014-01-01

    Objective As young women from certain ethnic minority groups have reported less pursuit of the thin ideal and body dissatisfaction than European American young women we tested whether a dissonance-based prevention program designed to reduce thin-ideal internalization among women with body dissatisfaction is less effective for the former relative to the later groups. We also tested whether intervention effects are larger when participants from minority groups worked with a facilitator matched versus not matched on ethnicity. Method In Study 1, 426 female undergraduates (M age = 21.6, SD = 5.6) were randomized to clinician-led Body Project groups or an educational control group. In Study 2, 189 female undergraduates were randomized to peer-led Body Project groups or a waitlist control condition. Results Although there was some variation in risk factor scores across ethnic groups, ethnic minority participants did not demonstrate consistently higher or lower risk relative to European American participants. Intervention effects did not significantly differ for participants from minority groups versus European American participants in either trial. There was no evidence that effects were significantly larger when minority participants and facilitators were matched on ethnicity. Conclusions Results suggest that the Body Project is similarly effective for African American, Asian American, European American, and Hispanic female college students, and when participants and facilitators are matched or not on minority ethnicity status, implying that this prevention program can be broadly disseminated in this population. PMID:24655465

  10. Effects of Group-Based Exercise on Range of Motion, Muscle Strength, Functional Ability, and Pain During the Acute Phase After Total Knee Arthroplasty: A Controlled Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Hiyama, Yoshinori; Kamitani, Tsukasa; Wada, Osamu; Mizuno, Kiyonori; Yamada, Minoru

    2016-09-01

    Study Design Prospective observational study including a historical control group. Background The extent to which group-based exercise (G-EXE) improves knee range of motion (ROM), quadriceps strength, and gait ability is similar to that of individualized exercise (I-EXE) at 6 weeks and 8 months after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). However, the benefits of G-EXE for patients during the acute recovery phase after TKA remain unclear. Objective To determine the effects of G-EXE during the acute recovery phase after TKA on knee ROM, quadriceps strength, functional ability, and knee pain. Methods Two hundred thirty-one patients participated in G-EXE in addition to regular ambulation and activities-of-daily-living exercises twice daily during the hospital stay. Outcomes were compared to those of a retrospectively identified, historical control group (I-EXE group [n = 206]) that included patients who performed exercises identical to those performed by the G-EXE group. The outcomes included knee ROM, quadriceps strength, pain intensity, and timed up-and-go test score at 1 month before surgery and at discharge. Analyses were adjusted for age, body mass index, sex, length of hospital stay, and preoperative values. Results Changes in ROM of knee flexion and extension (P<.001) and quadriceps strength (P<.001) were significantly better in the G-EXE group than those in the I-EXE group at discharge. The pain intensity improved more in the G-EXE group than in the I-EXE group at discharge (P<.001). However, the changes in the timed up-and-go scores were not significantly different. Conclusion Patients performing G-EXE in addition to regular ambulation and activities-of-daily-living exercises demonstrated greater changes in knee ROM, quadriceps strength, and knee pain than those performing I-EXE in addition to regular ambulation and activities-of-daily-living exercises. The nonrandomized, asynchronous design decreases certainty of these findings. Level of Evidence Therapy, level 2b

  11. Internal Versus External Motivation in Referral of Primary Care Patients with Depression to an Internet Support Group: Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Houston, Thomas K; Fogel, Joshua; Lee, Royce; Ford, Daniel E

    2013-01-01

    Background Depressive disorders and symptoms affect more than one-third of primary care patients, many of whom do not receive or do not complete treatment. Internet-based social support from peers could sustain depression treatment engagement and adherence. We do not know whether primary care patients will accept referral to such websites nor do we know which methods of referral would be most effective. Objective We conducted a randomized clinical trial to determine whether (1) a simple generic referral card (control), (2) a patient-oriented brochure that provided examples of online postings and experience (internal motivation), or (3) a physician letter of recommendation (external motivation) would generate the greatest participation in a primary care Internet depression treatment support portal focused around an Internet support group (ISG). Methods We used 3 offline methods to identify potential participants who had not used an ISG in the past 6 months. Eligibility was determined in part by a brief structured psychiatric interview based on the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9). After consent and enrollment, participants were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 groups (control, internal motivation, or external motivation). We constructed a portal to connect primary care patients to both fact-based information and an established ISG (Psycho-Babble). The ISG allowed participants to view messages and then decide if they actually wished to register there. Participation in the portal and the ISG was assessed via automated activity tracking. Results Fifty participants were assigned to the 3 groups: a motivation-neutral control group (n=18), an internal motivation group (n=19), and an external motivation group (n=13). Of these participants, 31 (62%) visited the portal; 27 (54%) visited the ISG itself. The internal motivation group showed significantly greater participation than the control group on several measures. The external motivation group spent significantly less

  12. Control of product selectivity using solid acids for the catalytic addition of phenol to hydroxy fatty acids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The acid catalyzed reactions of hydroxy fatty acids, such as ricinoleic and lesquerolic, in the presence of phenolics can lead to four products or product groups. These include simple dehydration to dienoic acids, cyclization to epoxides, Friedel-Crafts alkylations of the double bonds, or ether for...

  13. Effectiveness of foot and hand massage in postcesarean pain control in a group of Turkish pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Degirmen, Nuriye; Ozerdogan, Nebahat; Sayiner, Deniz; Kosgeroglu, Nedime; Ayranci, Unal

    2010-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the efficiency of foot and hand massage on reducing postoperative pain in patients who had cesarean operation. This pretest-posttest design study was planned as a randomized controlled experimental study. In the light of the results, it was reported that the reduction in pain intensity was significantly meaningful in both intervention groups when compared to the control group. It was also noted that vital findings were measured comparatively higher before the massage in the test groups, and they were found to be relatively lower in the measurements conducted right before and after the massage, which was considered to be statistically meaningful. Foot and hand massage proved useful as an effective nursing intervention in controlling postoperative pain. PMID:20643325

  14. Dual-site phosphorylation of the control of virulence regulator impacts group a streptococcal global gene expression and pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Horstmann, Nicola; Saldaña, Miguel; Sahasrabhojane, Pranoti; Yao, Hui; Su, Xiaoping; Thompson, Erika; Koller, Antonius; Shelburne, Samuel A

    2014-05-01

    Phosphorylation relays are a major mechanism by which bacteria alter transcription in response to environmental signals, but understanding of the functional consequences of bacterial response regulator phosphorylation is limited. We sought to characterize how phosphorylation of the control of virulence regulator (CovR) protein from the major human pathogen group A Streptococcus (GAS) influences GAS global gene expression and pathogenesis. CovR mainly serves to repress GAS virulence factor-encoding genes and has been shown to homodimerize following phosphorylation on aspartate-53 (D53) in vitro. We discovered that CovR is phosphorylated in vivo and that such phosphorylation is partially heat-stable, suggesting additional phosphorylation at non-aspartate residues. Using mass spectroscopy along with targeted mutagenesis, we identified threonine-65 (T65) as an additional CovR phosphorylation site under control of the serine/threonine kinase (Stk). Phosphorylation on T65, as mimicked by the recombinant CovR T65E variant, abolished in vitro CovR D53 phosphorylation. Similarly, isoallelic GAS strains that were either unable to be phosphorylated at D53 (CovR-D53A) or had functional constitutive phosphorylation at T65 (CovR-T65E) had essentially an identical gene repression profile to each other and to a CovR-inactivated strain. However, the CovR-D53A and CovR-T65E isoallelic strains retained the ability to positively influence gene expression that was abolished in the CovR-inactivated strain. Consistent with these observations, the CovR-D53A and CovR-T65E strains were hypervirulent compared to the CovR-inactivated strain in a mouse model of invasive GAS disease. Surprisingly, an isoalleic strain unable to be phosphorylated at CovR T65 (CovR-T65A) was hypervirulent compared to the wild-type strain, as auto-regulation of covR gene expression resulted in lower covR gene transcript and CovR protein levels in the CovR-T65A strain. Taken together, these data establish that Cov

  15. Dual-Site Phosphorylation of the Control of Virulence Regulator Impacts Group A Streptococcal Global Gene Expression and Pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Horstmann, Nicola; Saldaña, Miguel; Sahasrabhojane, Pranoti; Yao, Hui; Su, Xiaoping; Thompson, Erika; Koller, Antonius; Shelburne, Samuel A.

    2014-01-01

    Phosphorylation relays are a major mechanism by which bacteria alter transcription in response to environmental signals, but understanding of the functional consequences of bacterial response regulator phosphorylation is limited. We sought to characterize how phosphorylation of the control of virulence regulator (CovR) protein from the major human pathogen group A Streptococcus (GAS) influences GAS global gene expression and pathogenesis. CovR mainly serves to repress GAS virulence factor-encoding genes and has been shown to homodimerize following phosphorylation on aspartate-53 (D53) in vitro. We discovered that CovR is phosphorylated in vivo and that such phosphorylation is partially heat-stable, suggesting additional phosphorylation at non-aspartate residues. Using mass spectroscopy along with targeted mutagenesis, we identified threonine-65 (T65) as an additional CovR phosphorylation site under control of the serine/threonine kinase (Stk). Phosphorylation on T65, as mimicked by the recombinant CovR T65E variant, abolished in vitro CovR D53 phosphorylation. Similarly, isoallelic GAS strains that were either unable to be phosphorylated at D53 (CovR-D53A) or had functional constitutive phosphorylation at T65 (CovR-T65E) had essentially an identical gene repression profile to each other and to a CovR-inactivated strain. However, the CovR-D53A and CovR-T65E isoallelic strains retained the ability to positively influence gene expression that was abolished in the CovR-inactivated strain. Consistent with these observations, the CovR-D53A and CovR-T65E strains were hypervirulent compared to the CovR-inactivated strain in a mouse model of invasive GAS disease. Surprisingly, an isoalleic strain unable to be phosphorylated at CovR T65 (CovR-T65A) was hypervirulent compared to the wild-type strain, as auto-regulation of covR gene expression resulted in lower covR gene transcript and CovR protein levels in the CovR-T65A strain. Taken together, these data establish that Cov

  16. Child Effortful Control, Teacher-student Relationships, and Achievement in Academically At-risk Children: Additive and Interactive Effects

    PubMed Central

    Liew, Jeffrey; Chen, Qi; Hughes, Jan N.

    2009-01-01

    The joint contributions of child effortful control (using inhibitory control and task accuracy as behavioral indices) and positive teacher-student relationships at first grade on reading and mathematics achievement at second grade were examined in 761 children who were predominantly from low-income and ethnic minority backgrounds and assessed to be academically at-risk at entry to first grade. Analyses accounted for clustering effects, covariates, baselines of effortful control measures, and prior levels of achievement. Even with such conservative statistical controls, interactive effects were found for task accuracy and positive teacher-student relationships on future achievement. Results suggest that task accuracy served as a protective factor so that children with high task accuracy performed well academically despite not having positive teacher-student relationships. Further, positive teacher-student relationships served as a compensatory factor so that children with low task accuracy performed just as well as those with high task accuracy if they were paired with a positive and supportive teacher. Importantly, results indicate that the influence of positive teacher-student relationships on future achievement was most pronounced for students with low effortful control on tasks that require fine motor skills, accuracy, and attention-related skills. Study results have implications for narrowing achievement disparities for academically at-risk children. PMID:20161421

  17. Efficacy of group psychotherapy for social anxiety disorder: A meta-analysis of randomized-controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Barkowski, Sarah; Schwartze, Dominique; Strauss, Bernhard; Burlingame, Gary M; Barth, Jürgen; Rosendahl, Jenny

    2016-04-01

    Group psychotherapy for social anxiety disorder (SAD) is an established treatment supported by findings from primary studies and earlier meta-analyses. However, a comprehensive summary of the recent evidence is still pending. This meta-analysis investigates the efficacy of group psychotherapy for adult patients with SAD. A literature search identified 36 randomized-controlled trials examining 2171 patients. Available studies used mainly cognitive-behavioral group therapies (CBGT); therefore, quantitative analyses were done for CBGT. Medium to large positive effects emerged for wait list-controlled trials for specific symptomatology: g=0.84, 95% CI [0.72; 0.97] and general psychopathology: g=0.62, 95% CI [0.36; 0.89]. Group psychotherapy was also superior to common factor control conditions in alleviating symptoms of SAD, but not in improving general psychopathology. No differences appeared for direct comparisons of group psychotherapy and individual psychotherapy or pharmacotherapy. Hence, group psychotherapy for SAD is an efficacious treatment, equivalent to other treatment formats. PMID:26953823

  18. The Daily Lives of People With HIV Infection: A Qualitative Study of the Control Group in an Expressive Writing Intervention.

    PubMed

    Metaweh, Maria; Ironson, Gail; Barroso, Julie

    2016-01-01

    Emotional disclosure is an expressive writing technique used in psychotherapy to process traumatic and stressful life experiences. While emotional disclosure interventions frequently use control groups, there are few qualitative analyses of these control groups. Our study's purpose was to analyze the control essays written by HIV-infected informants about their daily activities in an augmented written emotional disclosure intervention. Latent and manifest qualitative content analyses revealed prevalent contextual themes within the data. The emergent themes were socioeconomic status (SES), self-care, religiosity/spirituality, and social support. Emotional disclosure control subjects contributed substantial findings in terms of SES, self-care, resiliency, religiosity/spirituality, and social support and altruism. PMID:27426408

  19. Effects of drying control chemical additive on properties of Li 4Ti 5O 12 negative powders prepared by spray pyrolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ju, Seo Hee; Kang, Yun Chan

    High-density Li 4Ti 5O 12 powders comprising spherical particles are prepared by spray pyrolysis from a solution containing dimethylacetamide (drying control chemical additive) and citric acid and ethylene glycol (organic additives). The prepared powders have high discharge capacities and good cycle properties. The optimum concentration of dimethylacetamide is 0.5 M. The addition of dimethylacetamide to the polymeric spray solutions containing citric acid and ethylene glycol helps in the effective control of the morphology of the Li 4Ti 5O 12 powders. At a constant current density of 0.17 mA g -1, the initial discharge capacities of the powders obtained from the spray solution with and without the organic additives are 171 and 167 mAh g -1, respectively.

  20. 40 CFR 82.18 - Availability of production in addition to baseline production allowances for class II controlled...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... quantity of production that the nation is permitted under the Montreal Protocol or to receive from the... allowances, for a specified control period through trades with another Party to the Protocol as set forth in... that is also listed in Appendix C, Annex 1 of the Protocol as having ratified the Beijing...

  1. 78 FR 14217 - Control of Alcohol and Drug Use: Addition of Post-Accident Toxicological Testing for Non...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-05

    ... certain non-controlled substances with potentially impairing side effects (77 FR 29307). As discussed in..., chlorpheniramine, bromenphiramine, and doxylamine'' (77 FR at 29308, emphasis added). As explained below, the... suspicion and post-accident testing, 50 FR 31508, August 2, 1985), and the Supreme Court upheld...

  2. Controlled challenge experiment demonstrates substantial additive genetic variation in resistance of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) to Streptococcus iniae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Streptococcus iniae is an etiologic agent of streptococcal disease in tilapia and is one of several Streptococcus spp. that negatively impact worldwide tilapia production. Methods for the prevention and control of S. iniae include vaccines, management strategies, and antibiotics. A complimentary pre...

  3. Copper-Catalyzed Enantioselective Addition of Styrene-Derived Nucleophiles to Imines Enabled by Ligand-Controlled Chemoselective Hydrocupration.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yang; Perry, Ian B; Buchwald, Stephen L

    2016-08-10

    The copper-catalyzed intermolecular enantioselective addition of styrenes to imines has been achieved under mild conditions at ambient temperature. This process features the use of styrenes as latent carbanion equivalents via the intermediacy of catalytically generated benzylcopper derivatives, providing an effective means for accessing highly enantiomerically enriched amines bearing contiguous stereocenters. Mechanistic studies shed light on the origin of the preferential styrene hydrocupration in the presence of an imine with the Ph-BPE-derived copper catalyst. PMID:27454393

  4. Food additives

    MedlinePlus

    Food additives are substances that become part of a food product when they are added during the processing or making of that food. "Direct" food additives are often added during processing to: Add nutrients ...

  5. Training elementary aged peer behavior managers to control small group programmed mathematics1

    PubMed Central

    Greenwood, Charles R.; Sloane, Howard N.; Baskin, Arlene

    1974-01-01

    The effects of a training procedure and two maintenance contingencies on consequence-dispensing behavior were investigated. Four peer behavior managers were trained to supervise small groups of subjects (four to six per group) working in programmed math materials and were compared with a teacher skilled in the use of social and point reinforcement and response cost. Manager training was differentially effective in accelerating manager's rates of appropriate social and point dispensing. Having manager reinforcement contingent upon manager consequence-dispensing resulted in moderately higher rates of appropriate social and point dispensing for three of four subjects than did having manager reinforcement contingent upon group study behavior. Two managers exposed to the group performance contingency before the manager performance contingency increased inappropriate social and point-dispensing behaviors to pretraining baseline levels. Subsequent change to the manager performance contingency was effective in reducing the inappropriate dispensing behavior of only one of the two managers. PMID:16795460

  6. Personalised Normative Feedback for Preventing Alcohol Misuse in University Students: Solomon Three-Group Randomised Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Moreira, Maria T.; Oskrochi, Reza; Foxcroft, David R.

    2012-01-01

    Background Young people tend to over-estimate peer group drinking levels. Personalised normative feedback (PNF) aims to correct this misperception by providing information about personal drinking levels and patterns compared with norms in similar aged peer groups. PNF is intended to raise motivation for behaviour change and has been highlighted for alcohol misuse prevention by the British Government Behavioural Insight Team. The objective of the trial was to assess the effectiveness of PNF with college students for the prevention of alcohol misuse. Methodology Solomon three-group randomised controlled trial. 1751 students, from 22 British Universities, allocated to a PNF group, a normal control group, or a delayed measurement control group to allow assessment of any measurement effects. PNF was provided by email. Participants completed online questionnaires at baseline, 6- and 12-months (only 12-months for the delayed measurement controls). Drinking behaviour measures were (i) alcohol disorders; (ii) frequency; (iii) typical quantity, (iv) weekly consumption; (v) alcohol-related problems; (vi) perceived drinking norms; and (vii) positive alcohol expectancies. Analyses focused on high-risk drinkers, as well as all students, because of research evidence for the prevention paradox in student drinkers. Principal Findings Follow-up rates were low, with only 50% and 40% responding at 6- and 12-months, respectively, though comparable to similar European studies. We found no evidence for any systematic attrition bias. Overall, statistical analyses with the high risk sub-sample, and for all students, showed no significant effects of the intervention, at either time-point, in a completed case analysis and a multiple imputation analysis. Conclusions We found no evidence for the effectiveness of PNF for the prevention of alcohol misuse and alcohol-related problems in a UK student population. Registration Controlled-Trials.com ISRCTN30784467 PMID:22984466

  7. A controlled field trial of group versus individual cognitive-behavioural training for relapse prevention.

    PubMed

    Graham, K; Annis, H M; Brett, P J; Venesoen, P

    1996-08-01

    Results are presented of a randomized field trial comparing two aftercare regimes, namely individual versus group delivery of a structured relapse prevention approach. Two addictions treatment programs (one a 12-Step 26-day residential program, the other an evening group counselling program) implemented structured relapse prevention in either group or individual format as part of the first three months of aftercare. Process measures (e.g. attendance, client satisfaction) indicated that both group and individual formats were delivered very successfully at both sites. Follow-up rate at 12 months across both programs was 74%, and drinking and drug use at the 12-month follow-up was substantially less than use at entry into treatment. However, there were no significant differences in outcomes between individual and group delivery on any of the alcohol or drug use measures. Only one psychosocial outcome measure (social support from friends at 12-month follow-up) showed a significant difference for format and it favored the group format. These findings suggest some important directions for future research. PMID:8828241

  8. Anger-Control Group Counseling for Women Recovering from Alcohol or Drug Addiction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez-Prendes, A. Antonio

    2008-01-01

    Two experimental conditions, a manualized cognitive-behavioral anger-control treatment incorporating empowerment strategies and a relapse-prevention treatment without the anger-control component, were compared to assess their impact on levels of trait anger and attributional styles of women recovering from alcohol and drug addiction. Participants…

  9. Differential Deviance and Social Control Mechanisms among Two Groups of Yup'ik Eskimo.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Nella

    1993-01-01

    Compared crime rates of Alaska Native villages operating under Western social control with those of villages maintaining sovereign control (Yupi'it Nation villages). Hypothesized a link between degree of assimilation into Western culture and social disorganization. Rates for felonies and misdemeanors were lower in Nation villages, except for…

  10. The association between quality of life, depressive symptoms and glycemic control in a group of type 2 diabetes patients: comment on Papelbaum et al.

    PubMed

    Horvath, Zsuzsanna; de Lijster, Jasmijn; Kupper, Nina

    2011-07-01

    This comment on the article: "The association between quality of life, depressive symptoms and glycemic control in a group of type 2 diabetes patients" by Papelbaum et al. was aimed to provide some critical remarks concerning the focus of the results section which showed significant discrepancies compared to the introduction and the research question. In addition, we would like to exhort the authors for a more comprehensive approach and for a more complete and congruent description of their results, in order to avoid misunderstanding. PMID:21440947

  11. A control system formulation of the mechanism that controls the secretions of serum group hormone in humans during sleep

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, J. C.; Young, D. R.

    1975-01-01

    Plasma growth hormone concentrations during sleep were determined experimentally. An elevated level of plasma growth hormone was observed during the initial phase of sleep and remained elevated for approximately 3 hr before returning to the steady-state level. Moreover, subsequent to a prolonged interruption of sleep, of the order of 2-3 hr, an elevated level of plasma growth hormone was again observed during the initial phase of resumed sleep. A control system formulation of the mechanism that controls the secretions of serum growth hormone in humans was used to account for the growth hormone responses observed.

  12. Food additives

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Michael

    1974-01-01

    Food additives are discussed from the food technology point of view. The reasons for their use are summarized: (1) to protect food from chemical and microbiological attack; (2) to even out seasonal supplies; (3) to improve their eating quality; (4) to improve their nutritional value. The various types of food additives are considered, e.g. colours, flavours, emulsifiers, bread and flour additives, preservatives, and nutritional additives. The paper concludes with consideration of those circumstances in which the use of additives is (a) justified and (b) unjustified. PMID:4467857

  13. The effectiveness of group positive psychotherapy on depression and happiness in breast cancer patients: A randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Dowlatabadi, Mohammad Mehdi; Ahmadi, Seyed Mojtaba; Sorbi, Mohammad Hossein; Beiki, Omid; Razavi, Tayebeh Khademeh; Bidaki, Reza

    2016-01-01

    Background Breast cancer is one of the most prevalent cancers in women in the world. It causes fear, despair, and takes a tremendous toll on psychological status. Objective To determine the effectiveness of group positive psychotherapy on the depression and happiness of breast cancer patients. Methods This randomized controlled trial was conducted with 42 breast cancer patients in The Oncology Center at Kermanshah, Iran in 2015. The Data were gathered before intervention and ten weeks afterwards. The data were collected using Beck’s Depression Inventory (BDI-II) and Oxford’s happiness Inventory (OHI). The data were analyzed by SPSS-16, Kolmogorov-Smirnov (K-S), chi-squared, and multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA). Results The results showed a significant reduction in the depression of the group on positive psychotherapy compared with the control group. Also the positive psychotherapy group experienced a significant increase in the patients’ happiness, while there was no significant increase in the control group. Conclusion The results of this research showed the effectiveness of positive psychotherapy on the reduction of mental pressure and the improvement of the mental status of breast cancer patients. This economical therapy can be used to increase patients’ psychological health. Clinical Trial Registration The trial was registered at the Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials (IRST) with the identification number IRCT2013101410063N4. Funding The authors received financial support for the research from Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences. PMID:27123227

  14. Parental Academic Socialization: Effects of Home-Based Parental Involvement on Locus of Control across U.S. Ethnic Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suizzo, Marie-Anne; Soon, Kokyung

    2006-01-01

    This study investigates the relations between three academic socialisation processes and late adolescents' internal locus of control. A sample of 249 college students from four ethnic groups completed three measures. Three factors explained 46.44% of the variance in academic socialisation, and the following differences were found: emotional…

  15. 26 CFR 1.1563-1 - Definition of controlled group of corporations and component members and related concepts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... contained in 26 CFR part 1 in effect on April 1, 2009. Paragraph (a)(1)(ii) of this section applies to... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Definition of controlled group of corporations and component members and related concepts. 1.1563-1 Section 1.1563-1 Internal Revenue...

  16. 26 CFR 1.1563-1 - Definition of controlled group of corporations and component members and related concepts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... contained in 26 CFR part 1 in effect on April 1, 2009. ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Definition of controlled group of corporations and component members and related concepts. 1.1563-1 Section 1.1563-1 Internal Revenue...

  17. 26 CFR 1.1563-1 - Definition of controlled group of corporations and component members and related concepts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... contained in 26 CFR part 1 in effect on April 1, 2009. Paragraph (a)(1)(ii) of this section applies to... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Definition of controlled group of corporations and component members and related concepts. 1.1563-1 Section 1.1563-1 Internal Revenue...

  18. 26 CFR 1.1563-1 - Definition of controlled group of corporations and component members and related concepts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... contained in 26 CFR part 1 in effect on April 1, 2009. Paragraph (a)(1)(ii) of this section applies to... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Definition of controlled group of corporations and component members and related concepts. 1.1563-1 Section 1.1563-1 Internal Revenue...

  19. Understanding the Association between Maltreatment History and Adolescent Risk Behavior by Examining Popularity Motivations and Peer Group Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Wendy E.; Wolfe, David A.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine how peer group processes of pressure and control and individual motivations for popularity would add to, and moderate the relationship between, childhood maltreatment and risky behavior in adolescence. A total of 1558 youth (804 girls) from three high schools in Ontario, Canada (M age = 15.02 years,…

  20. Qualitative Inquiry into Church-Based Assets for HIV/AIDS Prevention and Control: A Forum Focus Group Discussion Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aja, Godwin N.; Modeste, Naomi N.; Montgomery, Susanne B.

    2012-01-01

    Assets church members believed they needed to engage in effective HIV/AIDS prevention and control activities. We used the three-step forum focus group discussion (FFGD) methodology to elicit responses from 32 church leaders and lay members, representing five denominations in Aba, Nigeria. Concrete resources, health expertise, finances,…

  1. Summary report: Working Group 4 on 'Beam Monitoring, Conditioning, and Control at High Frequencies and Ultrafast Timescales'

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Todd I.

    1999-07-12

    Working Group 4 at the 8th Advanced Accelerator Concepts Workshop (ACC'98), held July 5-11, 1998 in Baltimore, Maryland hosted more than fifteen scheduled or impromptu talks (all punctuated with lively discussion) on the general topic of 'Beam Monitoring, Conditioning, and Control at High Frequencies and Ultrafast Timescales'. This report is a summary of these talks and discussions.

  2. Support and Control among "Friends" and "Special Friends": Peer Groups' Social Resources as Emotional and Moral Performances amidst Teenagers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korkiamaki, Riikka

    2011-01-01

    Children are often regarded as being supported and controlled by adults, rather than their peer groups. In contrast, drawing on research carried out in Finland, this article considers peers as a resource. Using mainly a 14-year-old's oral narratives, it is shown how the spatial and social context enables and inhibits children's mutual support and…

  3. 76 FR 56873 - American Railroad Group Transportation Services, LLC d/b/a ARG Trans-Continuance in Control...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-14

    ... Surface Transportation Board American Railroad Group Transportation Services, LLC d/b/a ARG Trans--Continuance in Control Exemption--Coos Bay Railroad Operating Company, LLC d/b/a Coos Bay Rail Link American... Company, LLC d/b/a Coos Bay Rail Link (CBR), upon CBR's becoming a Class III rail carrier....

  4. Ohio Arms Control Study Group: Workshop I, June 24-26, 1976, The Ohio State University. Summary of Proceedings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Mershon Center.

    The booklet summarizes proceedings of a conference coordinated by the Ohio Arms Control Study Group (OACSG) on the topic of United States-USSR relations and the influence of nuclear weapons upon international behavior and strategic thought. The OACSG is composed of faculty members from Ohio colleges and universities who have a vocational or…

  5. Identity Development as a Buffer of Adolescent Risk Behaviors in the Context of Peer Group Pressure and Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dumas, Tara M.; Ellis, Wendy E.; Wolfe, David A.

    2012-01-01

    We examined identity development as a moderator of the relation between peer group pressure and control and adolescents' engagement in risk behaviors. Participants (n = 1070; M[subscript age] = 15.45 years) completed a self-report measure of "identity exploration", the degree to which they have explored a variety of self-relevant values, beliefs…

  6. Financial Quality Control of In-Patient Chemotherapy in Germany: Are Additional Payments Cost-Covering for Pharmaco-Oncological Expenses?

    PubMed Central

    Jacobs, Volker R.; Mallmann, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background Cost-covering in-patient care is increasingly important for hospital providers in Germany, especially with regard to expensive oncological pharmaceuticals. Additional payments (Zusatzentgelte; ZE) on top of flat rate diagnose-related group (DRG) reimbursement can be claimed by hospitals for in-patient use of selected medications. To verify cost coverage of in-patient chemotherapies, the costs of medication were compared to their revenues. Method From January to June 2010, a retrospective cost-revenue study was performed at a German obstetrics/gynecology university clinic. The hospital's pharmacy list of inpatient oncological therapies for breast and gynecological cancer was checked for accuracy and compared with the documented ZEs and the costs and revenues for each oncological application. Results N = 45 in-patient oncological therapies were identified in n = 18 patients, as well as n = 7 bisphosphonate applications; n = 11 ZEs were documented. Costs for oncological medication were € 33,752. The corresponding ZE revenues amounted to only € 13,980, resulting in a loss of € 19,772. All in-patient oncological therapies performed were not cost-covering. Data discrepancy, incorrect documentation and cost attribution, and process aborts were identified. Conclusions Routine financial quality control at the medicine-pharmacy administration interface is implemented, with monthly comparison of costs and revenues, as well as admission status. Non-cost-covering therapies for in-patients should be converted to out-patient therapies. Necessary adjustments of clinic processes are made according to these results, to avoid future losses. PMID:21673822

  7. A community-based approach to diabetes control in multiple cultural groups.

    PubMed

    Garvin, Cheza Collier; Cheadle, Allen; Chrisman, Noel; Chen, Roxana; Brunson, Emily

    2004-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is one of the most common, serious, and costly chronic diseases, and is a leading cause of death in the United States. Communities of color bear a disproportionate burden of diabetes risk, prevalence, complications, and mortality. REACH 2010 Seattle and King County provides socio-ecological interventions to reduce diabetes disparities among African-American, Cambodian, Chinese, Filipino, Korean, Latino/Hispanic, Vietnamese and soon Samoan, and Vietnamese groups. This paper reports evaluation results of REACH classes and support groups. Results from participant pre- and post-surveys demonstrated increases in self-reported physical activity and healthier eating, and increased self-efficacy in managing diabetes. Qualitative focus group results revealed participants' enthusiasm for classes tailored to their ethnic groups, and for intervention impact on management of their diabetes. Qualitative results confirmed survey findings that group participation resulted in significant changes in diet and physical activity. The results underscore the need for more widespread adoption of culturally competent diabetes education and support programs. PMID:15682776

  8. Graphene oxide as a high-performance fluid-loss-control additive in water-based drilling fluids.

    PubMed

    Kosynkin, Dmitry V; Ceriotti, Gabriel; Wilson, Kurt C; Lomeda, Jay R; Scorsone, Jason T; Patel, Arvind D; Friedheim, James E; Tour, James M

    2012-01-01

    Graphene oxide (GO) performs well as a filtration additive in water-based drilling fluids at concentrations as low as 0.2 % (w/w) by carbon content. Standard American Petroleum Institute (API) filtration tests were conducted on pH-adjusted, aqueous dispersions of GO and xanthan gum. It was found that a combination of large-flake GO and powdered GO in a 3:1 ratio performed best in the API tests, allowing an average fluid loss of 6.1 mL over 30 min and leaving a filter cake ~20 μm thick. In comparison, a standard suspension (~12 g/L) of clays and polymers used in the oil industry gave an average fluid loss of 7.2 mL and a filter cake ~280 μm thick. Scanning electron microscopy imaging revealed the extreme pliability of well-exfoliated GO, as the pressure due to filtration crumpled single GO sheets, forcing them to slide through pores with diameters much smaller than the flake's flattened size. GO solutions also exhibited greater shear thinning and higher temperature stability compared to clay-based fluid-loss additives, demonstrating potential for high-temperature well applications. PMID:22136134

  9. Economic consequences of improved temperature forecasts: An experiment with the Florida citrus growers (an update of control group results)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Braen, C.

    1978-01-01

    The economic experiment, the results obtained to date and the work which still remains to be done are summarized. Specifically, the experiment design is described in detail as are the developed data collection methodology and procedures, sampling plan, data reduction techniques, cost and loss models, establishment of frost severity measures, data obtained from citrus growers, National Weather Service and Federal Crop Insurance Corp. Resulting protection costs and crop losses for the control group sample, extrapolation of results of control group to the Florida citrus industry and the method for normalization of these results to a normal or average frost season so that results may be compared with anticipated similar results from test group measurements are discussed.

  10. An Additional Approach to Model Current Followers and Amplifiers with Electronically Controllable Parameters from Commercially Available ICs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sotner, R.; Kartci, A.; Jerabek, J.; Herencsar, N.; Dostal, T.; Vrba, K.

    2012-12-01

    Several behavioral models of current active elements for experimental purposes are introduced in this paper. These models are based on commercially available devices. They are suitable for experimental tests of current- and mixed-mode filters, oscillators, and other circuits (employing current-mode active elements) frequently used in analog signal processing without necessity of onchip fabrication of proper active element. Several methods of electronic control of intrinsic resistance in the proposed behavioral models are discussed. All predictions and theoretical assumptions are supported by simulations and experiments. This contribution helps to find a cheaper and more effective way to preliminary laboratory tests without expensive on-chip fabrication of special active elements.

  11. Outcome From a Randomized Controlled Trial of Group Therapy for Binge Eating Disorder: Comparing Dialectical Behavior Therapy Adapted for Binge Eating to an Active Comparison Group Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Safer, Debra L.; Robinson, Athena Hagler; Jo, Booil

    2011-01-01

    Dialectical Behavior Therapy for Binge Eating Disorder (DBT-BED) aims to reduce binge eating by improving adaptive emotion-regulation skills. Preliminary findings have been promising but have only compared DBT-BED to a wait-list. To control for the hypothesized specific effects of DBT-BED, the present study compared DBT-BED to an active comparison group therapy (ACGT). Men and women (n = 101) meeting DSM-IV BED research criteria were randomly assigned to 20 group sessions of DBT-BED (n = 50) or ACGT (n = 51). DBT-BED had a significantly lower dropout rate (4%) than ACGT (33.3%). Linear Mixed Models revealed that posttreatment binge abstinence and reductions in binge frequency were achieved more quickly for DBT-BED than for ACGT (posttreatment abstinence rate = 64% for DBT-BED vs. 36% for ACGT) though differences did not persist over the 3-, 6-, and 12-month follow-up assessments (e.g., 12-month follow-up abstinence rate = 64% for DBT-BED vs. 56% for ACGT). Secondary outcome measures revealed no sustained impact on emotion regulation. Although both DBT-BED and ACGT reduced binge eating, DBT-BED showed significantly fewer dropouts and greater initial efficacy (e.g., at posttreatment) than ACGT. The lack of differential findings over follow-up suggests that the hypothesized specific effects of DBT-BED do not show long-term impact beyond those attributable to nonspecific common therapeutic factors. PMID:20171332

  12. Multicomponent Interdisciplinary Group Intervention for Self-Management of Fibromyalgia: A Mixed-Methods Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Bourgault, Patricia; Lacasse, Anaïs; Marchand, Serge; Courtemanche-Harel, Roxanne; Charest, Jacques; Gaumond, Isabelle; Barcellos de Souza, Juliana; Choinière, Manon

    2015-01-01

    Background This study evaluated the efficacy of the PASSAGE Program, a structured multicomponent interdisciplinary group intervention for the self-management of FMS. Methods A mixed-methods randomized controlled trial (intervention (INT) vs. waitlist (WL)) was conducted with patients suffering from FMS. Data were collected at baseline (T0), at the end of the intervention (T1), and 3 months later (T2). The primary outcome was change in pain intensity (0-10). Secondary outcomes were fibromyalgia severity, pain interference, sleep quality, pain coping strategies, depression, health-related quality of life, patient global impression of change (PGIC), and perceived pain relief. Qualitative group interviews with a subset of patients were also conducted. Complete data from T0 to T2 were available for 43 patients. Results The intervention had a statistically significant impact on the three PGIC measures. At the end of the PASSAGE Program, the percentages of patients who perceived overall improvement in their pain levels, functioning and quality of life were significantly higher in the INT Group (73%, 55%, 77% respectively) than in the WL Group (8%, 12%, 20%). The same differences were observed 3 months post-intervention (Intervention group: 62%, 43%, 38% vs Waitlist Group: 13%, 13%, 9%). The proportion of patients who reported ≥50% pain relief was also significantly higher in the INT Group at the end of the intervention (36% vs 12%) and 3 months post-intervention (33% vs 4%). Results of the qualitative analysis were in line with the quantitative findings regarding the efficacy of the intervention. The improvement, however, was not reflected in the primary outcome and other secondary outcome measures. Conclusion The PASSAGE Program was effective in helping FMS patients gain a sense of control over their symptoms. We suggest including PGIC in future clinical trials on FMS as they appear to capture important aspects of the patients’ experience. Trial registration

  13. The ACTIVATE study: results from a group-randomized controlled trial comparing a traditional worksite health promotion program with an activated consumer program.

    PubMed

    Terry, Paul E; Fowles, Jinnet Briggs; Xi, Min; Harvey, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE. This study compares a traditional worksite-based health promotion program with an activated consumer program and a control program DESIGN. Group randomized controlled trial with 18-month intervention. SETTING. Two large Midwestern companies. SUBJECTS. Three hundred and twenty employees (51% response). INTERVENTION. The traditional health promotion intervention offered population-level campaigns on physical activity, nutrition, and stress management. The activated consumer intervention included population-level campaigns for evaluating health information, choosing a health benefits plan, and understanding the risks of not taking medications as prescribed. The personal development intervention (control group) offered information on hobbies. The interventions also offered individual-level coaching for high risk individuals in both active intervention groups. MEASURES. Health risk status, general health status, consumer activation, productivity, and the ability to evaluate health information. ANALYSIS. Multivariate analyses controlled for baseline differences among the study groups. RESULTS. At the population level, compared with baseline performance, the traditional health promotion intervention improved health risk status, consumer activation, and the ability to recognize reliable health websites. Compared with baseline performance, the activated consumer intervention improved consumer activation, productivity, and the ability to recognize reliable health websites. At the population level, however, only the activated consumer intervention improved any outcome more than the control group did; that outcome was consumer activation. At the individual level for high risk individuals, both traditional health coaching and activated consumer coaching positively affected health risk status and consumer activation. In addition, both coaching interventions improved participant ability to recognize a reliable health website. Consumer activation coaching also

  14. Evaluation of a disease management program for COPD using propensity matched control group

    PubMed Central

    George, Pradeep Paul; Heng, Bee Hoon; Lim, Tow Keang; Abisheganaden, John; Ng, Alan Wei Keong; Lim, Fong Seng

    2016-01-01

    Background Disease management programs (DMPs) have proliferated recently as a means of improving the quality and efficiency of care for patients with chronic illness. These programs include education about disease, optimization of evidence-based medications, information and support from case managers, and institution of self-management principles. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in Singapore and worldwide. DMP aims to reduce mortality, hospitalizations, and average length of stay in such patients. This study assesses the outcomes of the DMP, comparing the propensity score matched DMP patients with controls. Methods DMP patients were compared with the controls, who were COPD patients fulfilling the DMP’s inclusion criteria but not included in the program. Control patients were identified from Operations Data Store (ODS) database. The outcomes of interest were average length of stay, number of days admitted to hospital per 100 person days, readmission, and mortality rates per person year. The risk of death and readmission was estimated using Cox, and competing risk regression respectively. Propensity score was estimated to identify the predictors of DMP enrolment. DMP patients and controls were matched on their propensity score. Results There were 170 matched DMP patients and control patients having 287 and 207 hospitalizations respectively. Program patient had lower mortality than the controls (0.12 vs. 0.27 per person year); cumulative 1-year survival was 91% among program patient and 76% among the control patients. Readmission, and hospital days per 100 person-days was higher for the program patients (0.36 vs. 0.17 per person year), and (2.19 vs. 1.88 per person year) respectively. Conclusions Participation in “DMP” was associated with lower all-cause mortality when compared to the controls. This survival gain in the program patients was paradoxically associated with an increase in readmission rate and

  15. Including xpc® feed additive in the diet of inoculated broilers during grow-out helps control salmonella associated with their carcasses after processing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to test XPC® feed additive for control of Salmonella in poultry meat products. Day of hatch broiler chicks were gavaged with 106 cells of a nalidixic acid resistant marker strain of Salmonella Typhimurium and placed on clean pine shavings in 9 separate floor pens (25 ...

  16. Control of membrane fouling with the addition of a nanoporous zeolite membrane fouling reducer to the submerged hollow fiber membrane bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Park, Chul-Hwi; Park, Jun-Won; Han, Gee-Bong

    2016-10-14

    The membrane fouling control via the addition of nanoporous zeolite membrane fouling reducer (Z-MFR) to the submerged membrane bioreactor (MBR) was investigated. Using scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive X-ray (SEM/EDX) analysis techniques, the characteristics of fouling on a hollow fiber membrane surface were also analyzed. The addition of Z-MFR to the MBR led to the adsorption of foulants and the flocculation of mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSSs), which resulted in substantially enhancing the membrane filterability. The critical flux values obtained from the sewage mixed liquors of 3400 mg L(-1) at the effective dosage rate of 0.03 mg Z-MFR mg(-1) MLSS was 85 L m(-2) h(-1) (LMH), which was enhanced by 42%. The transmembrane pressure (TMP) variation under the operating conditions of 30 LMH with 3500 mg MLSS L(-1) showed that the addition of Z-MFR extended the time required to reach the critical flux of 0.32 bar by 2.6-fold longer than the control. Thus, due to the hybrid functions of adsorbing foulants and precipitating colloidal substances with the addition of Z-MFR, a decrease in the foulant amount and an improvement of sludge flocculation have been attained simultaneously. As a result, the membrane fouling control was achieved effectively with the addition of the Z-MFR. PMID:27399266

  17. Group Interventions were not Effective for Female Turkish Migrants with Recurrent Depression – Recommendations from a Randomized Controlled Study

    PubMed Central

    Renner, Walter; Berry, John W.

    2010-01-01

    We tested group interventions for women with a Turkish migration background living in Austria and suffering from recurrent depression. N = 66 participants were randomized to: (1) Self-Help Groups (SHG), (2) Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT) Groups, and (3) a Wait-List (WL) Control condition. Neither SHG nor CBT were superior to WL. On an individual basis, about one third of the participants showed significant improvements with respect to symptoms of depression. Younger women, women with a longer duration of stay in Austria and those who had encountered a higher number of traumatic experiences, showed increased improvement of depressive symptoms. The results suggest that individual treatment by ethnic, female psychotherapists should be preferred to group interventions. PMID:21976784

  18. Inverse transfer method using polymers with various functional groups for controllable graphene doping.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seong Kyu; Yang, Jae Won; Kim, Hyun Ho; Jo, Sae Byeok; Kang, Boseok; Bong, Hyojin; Lee, Hyo Chan; Lee, Geunsik; Kim, Kwang S; Cho, Kilwon

    2014-08-26

    The polymer-supported transfer of chemical vapor deposition (CVD)-grown graphene provides large-area and high-quality graphene on a target substrate; however, the polymer and organic solvent residues left by the transfer process hinder the application of CVD-grown graphene in electronic and photonic devices. Here, we describe an inverse transfer method (ITM) that permits the simultaneous transfer and doping of graphene without generating undesirable residues by using polymers with different functional groups. Unlike conventional wet transfer methods, the polymer supporting layer used in the ITM serves as a graphene doping layer placed at the interface between the graphene and the substrate. Polymers bearing functional groups can induce n-doping or p-doping into the graphene depending on the electron-donating or -withdrawing characteristics of functional groups. Theoretical models of dipole layer-induced graphene doping offered insights into the experimentally measured change in the work function and the Dirac point of the graphene. Finally, the electrical properties of pentacene field effect transistors prepared using graphene electrodes could be enhanced by employing the ITM to introduce a polymer layer that tuned the work function of graphene. The versatility of polymer functional groups suggests that the method developed here will provide valuable routes to the development of applications of CVD-grown graphene in organic electronic devices. PMID:25050634

  19. Data-driven identification of group dynamics for motion prediction and control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A distributed model structure for representing groups of coupled dynamic agents is proposed, and the Least Squares method is used for fitting model parameters based on measured position data. The difference equation model embodies a minimalist approach, only incorporating factors essential to the mo...

  20. Schooling and Social Control: Symbolic Violence and Hispanic Students' Attitudes toward Their Own Ethnic Group.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iadicola, Peter

    1981-01-01

    Differentiating and ranking (D/R) mechanisms (norm-referenced testing, grouping, competition, busing differences) within the school isolate the culturally foreign and define them as inferior to the culturally dominant. The D/R factors constitute a vehicle by which the school commits symbolic violence. (Author/CM)