Science.gov

Sample records for additional control group

  1. Smog control fuel additives

    SciTech Connect

    Lundby, W.

    1993-06-29

    A method is described of controlling, reducing or eliminating, ozone and related smog resulting from photochemical reactions between ozone and automotive or industrial gases comprising the addition of iodine or compounds of iodine to hydrocarbon-base fuels prior to or during combustion in an amount of about 1 part iodine per 240 to 10,000,000 parts fuel, by weight, to be accomplished by: (a) the addition of these inhibitors during or after the refining or manufacturing process of liquid fuels; (b) the production of these inhibitors for addition into fuel tanks, such as automotive or industrial tanks; or (c) the addition of these inhibitors into combustion chambers of equipment utilizing solid fuels for the purpose of reducing ozone.

  2. MtsR is a dual regulator that controls virulence genes and metabolic functions in addition to metal homeostasis in the group A streptococcus.

    PubMed

    Toukoki, Chadia; Gold, Kathryn M; McIver, Kevin S; Eichenbaum, Zehava

    2010-05-01

    MtsR is a metal-dependent regulator in the group A streptococcus (GAS) that directly represses the transcription of genes involved in haem and metal uptake. While MtsR has been implicated in GAS virulence, the DNA recognition and full regulatory scope exerted by the protein are unknown. In this study we identified the shr promoter (P(shr)) and mapped MtsR binding to a 69 bp segment in P(shr) that overlaps the core promoter elements. A global transcriptional analysis demonstrated that MtsR modulates the expression of 64 genes in GAS, 44 of which were upregulated and 20 were downregulated in the mtsR mutant. MtsR controls genes with diverse functions including metal homeostasis, nucleic acid and amino acid metabolism, and protein fate. Importantly, the MtsR regulon includes mga, emm49 and ska, which are central for GAS pathogenesis. MtsR binding to the promoter region of both negatively and positively regulated genes demonstrates that it functions as a dual regulator. MtsR footprints are large (47-130 bp) and vary between target promoters. A 16 bp motif that consists of an interrupted palindrome is implicated in the DNA recognition by the metalloregulator. In conclusion, we report here that MtsR is a global regulator in GAS that shapes the expression of vital virulence factors and genes involved in metabolic functions and metal transport, and we discuss the implications for the GAS disease process.

  3. New ESP additive controls particulates

    SciTech Connect

    Durham, M.D.; Baldrey, K.E.; Bustard, C.J.; Martin, C.E.; Dharmarajan, N.N.

    1997-06-01

    This article reports that a conditioning agent enhanced precipitator performance after plant switched to low-sulfur coal. Firing low-sulfur coal at a power plant designed for medium- or high-sulfur coal will impact the downstream particulate control device. Since the performance of an electro-static precipitator (ESP) is a strong function of the sulfur content in the coal, switching to a low-sulfur coal will severely impact collection efficiency. Particle resistivity is the dominant parameter affecting the performance of an ESP. When the resistivity is too high, the ESP must be increased in size by a factor of two to three, resulting in proportionally increased capital and operating costs. Fly ash from low-sulfur coal is known to have a typical resistivity one or two orders of magnitude above that for ideal collection efficiency in a well-designed ESP. Therefore, when a utility burning a medium- or high-sulfur coal switches to a low-sulfur coal, the increase in particle resistivity resulting from the reduced SO{sub 3} concentration will lead to severe problems in the ESP. There have been many instances where utilities have switched from a high- to a low-sulfur coal, and the problems caused by the increased resistivity have had such a devastating effect on the performance of the ESP that emissions have increased by a factor of 10.

  4. Controlling multiple groups of robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hor, MawKae

    1992-11-01

    Coordinating multiple robots has attracted researchers' interests for many years. However, most of the problems being studied deal with multiple robots acted only within a single group. Coordinated robots are categorized into different groups when the coordination involves robots interchange or heterogeneous motion during the manipulation process. In such a case, coordination between robot groups has to be considered. This is required in certain types of coordinated manipulations such as passing an object, held by multiple robots, between groups of robots or rotating or rolling an object, held by multiple robots, continuously. In the former task, coordinations are made between two isotropic groups of robots whereas in the latter task, coordinations are made between non-isotropic groups of robots. This paper investigates problems related to the control and coordinating of multiple groups of robots. We analyze various kind of tasks of these types and propose a hierarchical control mechanism in achieving these coordinations. Scenarios and limitations for these tasks are presented and discussed. A hybrid force and position control principle is employed in both global and local planning and control. A hierarchical architecture is used to control different levels of the control and planning primitives. The primitives developed for controlling individual robot group can be adopted in this architecture. The primitives in one level offer services only to those in its neighboring levels and hides them from the details of actual service implementations hence reducing the system designing complexity.

  5. Additive Bilingualism, Schooling, and Special Education: A Minority Group Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landry, R.

    1987-01-01

    The effect of schooling on the acquisition of an additive type of bilingualism is examined, focusing on additive bilingualism's relation to the ethnolinguistic vitality of linguistic groups and contributions of individual networks of linguistic contacts. A special and regular education merger without domination by a single cultural perspective is…

  6. Control systems on Lie groups.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jurdjevic, V.; Sussmann, H. J.

    1972-01-01

    The controllability properties of systems which are described by an evolution equation in a Lie group are studied. The revelant Lie algebras induced by a right invariant system are singled out, and the basic properties of attainable sets are derived. The homogeneous case and the general case are studied, and results are interpreted in terms of controllability. Five examples are given.

  7. Addition Theorems, Formal Group Laws and Integrable Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchstaber, V. M.; Bunkova, E. Yu.

    2010-11-01

    We consider elliptic curves, given in the Weierstrass parametrization by the equation y2+μ1xy+μ3y = x3+μ2x2+μ4x+μ6. In Tate coordinates t = -x/y and s = -1/y, the geometric addition laws on this curves correspond to the general elliptic formal group law over the ring Z[μ1,μ2,μ3,μ4,μ6]. This formal group law is well-known in the number theory and cryptography. One can find this law in recent works on the theory of elliptic functions and algebraic topology. In the focus of our interest are questions, important from the point of view of Hirzebruch genera and the theory of integrable systems (see references).

  8. Laboratory tests of sludge-control additives

    SciTech Connect

    Tatnall, R.E.

    1996-07-01

    Laboratory {open_quotes}jar{close_quotes} tests compared eleven different fuel oil and diesel fuel sludge-control additives. Factors studied included (1) ability to disperse and prevent buildup of sludge deposits on surfaces, (2) ability to protect steel from corrosion, (3) ability to inhibit growth and proliferation of bacteria, and (4) ability to disperse water. Results varied greatly, and it was found that many commercial products do not do what they claim. It is concluded that fuel retailers should not believe manufacturers` claims for their additive products, but rather should test such products themselves to be sure that the benefits of treatment are real. A simplified form of the procedure used here is proposed as one way for dealers to do such testing.

  9. Alkenes as Chelating Groups in Diastereoselective Additions of Organometallics to Ketones

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Alkenes have been discovered to be chelating groups to Zn(II), enforcing highly stereoselective additions of organozincs to β,γ-unsaturated ketones. 1H NMR studies and DFT calculations provide support for this surprising chelation mode. The results expand the range of coordinating groups for chelation-controlled carbonyl additions from heteroatom Lewis bases to simple C–C double bonds, broadening the 60 year old paradigm. PMID:25328269

  10. EPRI Nuclear Power Group`s Instrumentation and Control Program

    SciTech Connect

    Machiels, A.J.

    1995-03-01

    EPRI`s Nuclear Power Group`s Instrumentation and Control Program is outlined. The topics discussed include an introduction, I and C obsolescence cost control initiative, and EPRI as a strategic partner. The cost control initiative included a multiyear effort to assist utilities in planning, implementing, and licensing digital instrumentation and control upgrades in nuclear power plants; the approach is intended to be pragmatic and flexible; and active utility participation is anticipated through tailored-collaboration-funded plant demonstrations.

  11. Matching with Multiple Control Groups with Adjustment for Group Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuart, Elizabeth A.; Rubin, Donald B.

    2008-01-01

    When estimating causal effects from observational data, it is desirable to approximate a randomized experiment as closely as possible. This goal can often be achieved by choosing a subsample from the original control group that matches the treatment group on the distribution of the observed covariates. However, sometimes the original control group…

  12. A Comparison of Group-Oriented Contingencies for Addition Fluency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Thomas J.; Duhon, Gary J.; Shutte, Greg; Rowland, Julie E.

    2016-01-01

    Math fact fluency is critical for understanding complex mathematics. Explicit timing interventions have shown promise for improving math fluency, and they may benefit from being paired with group-oriented contingencies. Further, investigations of independent and dependent group-oriented contingencies would help to identify their relative…

  13. Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smalheer, C. V.

    1973-01-01

    The chemistry of lubricant additives is discussed to show what the additives are chemically and what functions they perform in the lubrication of various kinds of equipment. Current theories regarding the mode of action of lubricant additives are presented. The additive groups discussed include the following: (1) detergents and dispersants, (2) corrosion inhibitors, (3) antioxidants, (4) viscosity index improvers, (5) pour point depressants, and (6) antifouling agents.

  14. Iron-control additives improve acidizing

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, M.; Dill, W. ); Besler, M. )

    1989-07-24

    Iron sulfide and sulfur precipitation in sour wells can be controlled with iron-sequestering agents and sulfide modifiers. Oil production has been routinely increased in sour wells where precipitation of iron sulfide and elemental sulfur has been brought under control. Production increases have been especially noteworthy on wells that had a history of rapid production decline after acid stimulation. Twenty-fold production increases have been recorded. Key to the production increase has been to increase permeability with: Iron chelating agents that control precipitation of iron sulfide. A sulfide modifier that reduces precipitation of solids in the presence of excessive amounts of hydrogen sulfide and prevents precipitation of elemental sulfur.

  15. 34 CFR 300.308 - Additional group members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES Evaluations, Eligibility Determinations, Individualized Education Programs, and Educational Placements Additional Procedures for Identifying Children with Specific Learning Disabilities... learning disability is a child with a disability as defined in § 300.8, must be made by the child's...

  16. 34 CFR 300.308 - Additional group members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES Evaluations, Eligibility Determinations, Individualized Education Programs, and Educational Placements Additional Procedures for Identifying Children with Specific Learning Disabilities... learning disability is a child with a disability as defined in § 300.8, must be made by the child's...

  17. 34 CFR 300.308 - Additional group members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES Evaluations, Eligibility Determinations, Individualized Education Programs, and Educational Placements Additional Procedures for Identifying Children with Specific Learning Disabilities... learning disability is a child with a disability as defined in § 300.8, must be made by the child's...

  18. 34 CFR 300.308 - Additional group members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES Evaluations, Eligibility Determinations, Individualized Education Programs, and Educational Placements Additional Procedures for Identifying Children with Specific Learning Disabilities... learning disability is a child with a disability as defined in § 300.8, must be made by the child's...

  19. 34 CFR 300.308 - Additional group members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES Evaluations, Eligibility Determinations, Individualized Education Programs, and Educational Placements Additional Procedures for Identifying Children with Specific Learning Disabilities... learning disability is a child with a disability as defined in § 300.8, must be made by the child's...

  20. CONTROL ROD ALLOY CONTAINING NOBLE METAL ADDITIONS

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, W.K.; Ray, W.E.

    1960-05-01

    Silver-base alloys suitable for use in the fabrication of control rods for neutronic reactors are given. The alloy consists of from 0.5 wt.% to about 1.5 wt.% of a noble metal of platinum, ruthenium, rhodium, osmium, or palladium, up to 10 wt.% of cadmium, from 2 to 20 wt.% indium, the balance being silver.

  1. Microstructural Control of Additively Manufactured Metallic Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, P. C.; Brice, D. A.; Samimi, P.; Ghamarian, I.; Fraser, H. L.

    2016-07-01

    In additively manufactured (AM) metallic materials, the fundamental interrelationships that exist between composition, processing, and microstructure govern these materials’ properties and potential improvements or reductions in performance. For example, by using AM, it is possible to achieve highly desirable microstructural features (e.g., highly refined precipitates) that could not otherwise be achieved by using conventional approaches. Simultaneously, opportunities exist to manage macro-level microstructural characteristics such as residual stress, porosity, and texture, the last of which might be desirable. To predictably realize optimal microstructures, it is necessary to establish a framework that integrates processing variables, alloy composition, and the resulting microstructure. Although such a framework is largely lacking for AM metallic materials, the basic scientific components of the framework exist in literature. This review considers these key components and presents them in a manner that highlights key interdependencies that would form an integrated framework to engineer microstructures using AM.

  2. Testing for Additivity at Select Mixture Groups of Interest Based on Statistical Equivalence Testing Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Stork, LeAnna M.; Gennings, Chris; Carchman, Richard; Carter, Jr., Walter H.; Pounds, Joel G.; Mumtaz, Moiz

    2006-12-01

    Several assumptions, defined and undefined, are used in the toxicity assessment of chemical mixtures. In scientific practice mixture components in the low-dose region, particularly subthreshold doses, are often assumed to behave additively (i.e., zero interaction) based on heuristic arguments. This assumption has important implications in the practice of risk assessment, but has not been experimentally tested. We have developed methodology to test for additivity in the sense of Berenbaum (Advances in Cancer Research, 1981), based on the statistical equivalence testing literature where the null hypothesis of interaction is rejected for the alternative hypothesis of additivity when data support the claim. The implication of this approach is that conclusions of additivity are made with a false positive rate controlled by the experimenter. The claim of additivity is based on prespecified additivity margins, which are chosen using expert biological judgment such that small deviations from additivity, which are not considered to be biologically important, are not statistically significant. This approach is in contrast to the usual hypothesis-testing framework that assumes additivity in the null hypothesis and rejects when there is significant evidence of interaction. In this scenario, failure to reject may be due to lack of statistical power making the claim of additivity problematic. The proposed method is illustrated in a mixture of five organophosphorus pesticides that were experimentally evaluated alone and at relevant mixing ratios. Motor activity was assessed in adult male rats following acute exposure. Four low-dose mixture groups were evaluated. Evidence of additivity is found in three of the four low-dose mixture groups.The proposed method tests for additivity of the whole mixture and does not take into account subset interactions (e.g., synergistic, antagonistic) that may have occurred and cancelled each other out.

  3. [Critical of the additive model of the randomized controlled trial].

    PubMed

    Boussageon, Rémy; Gueyffier, François; Bejan-Angoulvant, Theodora; Felden-Dominiak, Géraldine

    2008-01-01

    Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trials are currently the best way to demonstrate the clinical effectiveness of drugs. Its methodology relies on the method of difference (John Stuart Mill), through which the observed difference between two groups (drug vs placebo) can be attributed to the pharmacological effect of the drug being tested. However, this additive model can be questioned in the event of statistical interactions between the pharmacological and the placebo effects. Evidence in different domains has shown that the placebo effect can influence the effect of the active principle. This article evaluates the methodological, clinical and epistemological consequences of this phenomenon. Topics treated include extrapolating results, accounting for heterogeneous results, demonstrating the existence of several factors in the placebo effect, the necessity to take these factors into account for given symptoms or pathologies, as well as the problem of the "specific" effect.

  4. Selective Michael Reaction Controlled by Supersilyl Protecting Group.

    PubMed

    Izumiseki, Atsuto; Yamamoto, Hisashi

    2015-07-20

    Selective Michael reaction of organolithium reagents to supersilyl methacrylate is reported. The method was able to control a single and double Michael addition. The successful termination of the process using the supersilyl protecting group allows for the controlled, chemoselective, and diastereoselective Michael reaction.

  5. One of two rotodip feeders used to control addition of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    One of two rotodip feeders used to control addition of alum solution into the water - Division Avenue Pumping Station & Filtration Plant, West 45th Street and Division Avenue, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  6. 78. SAC control center aboveground addition partial first floor plan, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    78. SAC control center aboveground addition partial first floor plan, drawing number AW30-02-09, dated 15 October, 1962 - Offutt Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command Headquarters & Command Center, Headquarters Building, 901 SAC Boulevard, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  7. 78 FR 46851 - Controlled Group Regulation Examples

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-02

    ... controlled group rules should be applied in connection with the RIC ``asset diversification'' test. This...)(B) provides that, to qualify as a RIC, a taxpayer must meet an asset diversification test pursuant... the asset diversification test has been met, the proportion of any investment in the securities...

  8. Top-down control in contour grouping.

    PubMed

    Volberg, Gregor; Wutz, Andreas; Greenlee, Mark W

    2013-01-01

    Human observers tend to group oriented line segments into full contours if they follow the Gestalt rule of 'good continuation'. It is commonly assumed that contour grouping emerges automatically in early visual cortex. In contrast, recent work in animal models suggests that contour grouping requires learning and thus involves top-down control from higher brain structures. Here we explore mechanisms of top-down control in perceptual grouping by investigating synchronicity within EEG oscillations. Human participants saw two micro-Gabor arrays in a random order, with the task to indicate whether the first (S1) or the second stimulus (S2) contained a contour of collinearly aligned elements. Contour compared to non-contour S1 produced a larger posterior post-stimulus beta power (15-21 Hz). Contour S2 was associated with a pre-stimulus decrease in posterior alpha power (11-12 Hz) and in fronto-posterior theta (4-5 Hz) phase couplings, but not with a post-stimulus increase in beta power. The results indicate that subjects used prior knowledge from S1 processing for S2 contour grouping. Expanding previous work on theta oscillations, we propose that long-range theta synchrony shapes neural responses to perceptual groupings regulating lateral inhibition in early visual cortex.

  9. Control of pyrite addition in coal liquefaction process

    DOEpatents

    Schmid, Bruce K.; Junkin, James E.

    1982-12-21

    Pyrite addition to a coal liquefaction process (22, 26) is controlled (118) in inverse proportion to the calcium content of the feed coal to maximize the C.sub.5 --900.degree. F. (482.degree. C.) liquid yield per unit weight of pyrite added (110). The pyrite addition is controlled in this manner so as to minimize the amount of pyrite used and thus reduce pyrite contribution to the slurry pumping load and disposal problems connected with pyrite produced slag.

  10. Additivity of Feature-Based and Symmetry-Based Grouping Effects in Multiple Object Tracking

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chundi; Zhang, Xuemin; Li, Yongna; Lyu, Chuang

    2016-01-01

    Multiple object tracking (MOT) is an attentional process wherein people track several moving targets among several distractors. Symmetry, an important indicator of regularity, is a general spatial pattern observed in natural and artificial scenes. According to the “laws of perceptual organization” proposed by Gestalt psychologists, regularity is a principle of perceptual grouping, such as similarity and closure. A great deal of research reported that feature-based similarity grouping (e.g., grouping based on color, size, or shape) among targets in MOT tasks can improve tracking performance. However, no additive feature-based grouping effects have been reported where the tracking objects had two or more features. “Additive effect” refers to a greater grouping effect produced by grouping based on multiple cues instead of one cue. Can spatial symmetry produce a similar grouping effect similar to that of feature similarity in MOT tasks? Are the grouping effects based on symmetry and feature similarity additive? This study includes four experiments to address these questions. The results of Experiments 1 and 2 demonstrated the automatic symmetry-based grouping effects. More importantly, an additive grouping effect of symmetry and feature similarity was observed in Experiments 3 and 4. Our findings indicate that symmetry can produce an enhanced grouping effect in MOT and facilitate the grouping effect based on color or shape similarity. The “where” and “what” pathways might have played an important role in the additive grouping effect. PMID:27199875

  11. Additivity of Feature-Based and Symmetry-Based Grouping Effects in Multiple Object Tracking.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chundi; Zhang, Xuemin; Li, Yongna; Lyu, Chuang

    2016-01-01

    Multiple object tracking (MOT) is an attentional process wherein people track several moving targets among several distractors. Symmetry, an important indicator of regularity, is a general spatial pattern observed in natural and artificial scenes. According to the "laws of perceptual organization" proposed by Gestalt psychologists, regularity is a principle of perceptual grouping, such as similarity and closure. A great deal of research reported that feature-based similarity grouping (e.g., grouping based on color, size, or shape) among targets in MOT tasks can improve tracking performance. However, no additive feature-based grouping effects have been reported where the tracking objects had two or more features. "Additive effect" refers to a greater grouping effect produced by grouping based on multiple cues instead of one cue. Can spatial symmetry produce a similar grouping effect similar to that of feature similarity in MOT tasks? Are the grouping effects based on symmetry and feature similarity additive? This study includes four experiments to address these questions. The results of Experiments 1 and 2 demonstrated the automatic symmetry-based grouping effects. More importantly, an additive grouping effect of symmetry and feature similarity was observed in Experiments 3 and 4. Our findings indicate that symmetry can produce an enhanced grouping effect in MOT and facilitate the grouping effect based on color or shape similarity. The "where" and "what" pathways might have played an important role in the additive grouping effect.

  12. Pain control: mastery through group experience.

    PubMed

    Herman, E; Baptiste, S

    1981-02-01

    This paper describes a group program which is part of the therapeutic management of out-patients with chronic pain at the multidisciplinary Pain Clinic in Hamilton, Ontario (McMaster Division, Chedoke-McMaster Hospital). The programme seeks to assist chronic pain sufferers in developing more adaptive coping styles. Groups of 12--14 patients meet for 9 weeks, 3 h/week, under the co-leadership of a physiotherapist and an occupational therapist with backgrounds in psychology and psychiatry. Seventy-five patients with diverse aetiologies of chronic pain have completed these "pain control classes". Outcome was assessed on the basis of several parameters. Results indicate a considerable reduction in depression, pain perception and analgesic intake. Conversely, employment figures increased from 20 to 48% after completion of the program. 21% were considered failures. Significant variables differentiating successes from failures were sex, marital status, work incentive, employment and absence of litigation or Workmen's Compensation claims.

  13. Ultrafast amplifier additive timing jitter characterization and control.

    PubMed

    Casanova, Alexis; D'Acremont, Quentin; Santarelli, Giorgio; Dilhaire, Stefan; Courjaud, Antoine

    2016-03-01

    We report on the characterization and long-term compensation of additive timing jitter introduced by a femtosecond ytterbium regenerative amplifier with a 100 kHz repetition rate. A balanced optical cross-correlation technique is used to generate a jitter error signal. This approach is well suited to characterize the additive timing jitter of Yb amplifiers seeded by narrow spectrum Yb oscillators. The balanced optical cross-correlator is in a noncollinear configuration allowing a background free coindence detection. This setup enables the measurement of additive timing jitter from the amplifier, with a noise floor of 300 as integrated from 10 Hz to 10 kHz. The measured additive timing jitter level is about 5 fs, integrated from 0.1 Hz to 10 kHz. The amplifier timing drift characterization and control are performed for more than an hour. PMID:26974074

  14. Additives and method for controlling clathrate hydrates in fluid systems

    DOEpatents

    Sloan, E.D. Jr.; Christiansen, R.L.; Lederhos, J.P.; Long, J.P.; Panchalingam, V.; Du, Y.; Sum, A.K.W.

    1997-06-17

    Discussed is a process for preventing clathrate hydrate masses from detrimentally impeding the possible flow of a fluid susceptible to clathrate hydrate formation. The process is particularly useful in the natural gas and petroleum production, transportation and processing industry where gas hydrate formation can cause serious problems. Additives preferably contain one or more five member, six member and/or seven member cyclic chemical groupings. Additives include polymers having lactam rings. Additives can also contain polyelectrolytes that are believed to improve conformance of polymer additives through steric hindrance and/or charge repulsion. Also, polymers having an amide on which a C{sub 1}-C{sub 4} group is attached to the nitrogen and/or the carbonyl carbon of the amide may be used alone, or in combination with ring-containing polymers for enhanced effectiveness. Polymers having at least some repeating units representative of polymerizing at least one of an oxazoline, an N-substituted acrylamide and an N-vinyl alkyl amide are preferred.

  15. Additives and method for controlling clathrate hydrates in fluid systems

    DOEpatents

    Sloan, Jr., Earle Dendy; Christiansen, Richard Lee; Lederhos, Joseph P.; Long, Jin Ping; Panchalingam, Vaithilingam; Du, Yahe; Sum, Amadeu Kun Wan

    1997-01-01

    Discussed is a process for preventing clathrate hydrate masses from detrimentally impeding the possible flow of a fluid susceptible to clathrate hydrate formation. The process is particularly useful in the natural gas and petroleum production, transportation and processing industry where gas hydrate formation can cause serious problems. Additives preferably contain one or more five member, six member and/or seven member cyclic chemical groupings. Additives include polymers having lactam rings. Additives can also contain polyelectrolytes that are believed to improve conformance of polymer additives through steric hinderance and/or charge repulsion. Also, polymers having an amide on which a C.sub.1 -C.sub.4 group is attached to the nitrogen and/or the carbonyl carbon of the amide may be used alone, or in combination with ring-containing polymers for enhanced effectiveness. Polymers having at least some repeating units representative of polymerizing at least one of an oxazoline, an N-substituted acrylamide and an N-vinyl alkyl amide are preferred.

  16. Emission control devices, fuel additive, and fuel composition changes.

    PubMed Central

    Piver, W T

    1977-01-01

    Emission control devices are installed to meet the exhaust standards of the Clean Air Act for carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons, and it is necessary to know, from a public health point of view, how exhaust emissions may be affected by changes in fuel additives and fuel composition. Since these topics are concerned with developing technologies, the available literature on exhaust emission characteristics and the limited information on health effects, is reviewed. PMID:71235

  17. Command control group behaviors. Objective 1: A methodology for and identification of command control group behaviors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reaser, J. M.; Stewart, S.; Tiede, R. V.

    1984-08-01

    This report provides the results of the first year's research of a three-year effort to identify the individual and multi-individual non-procedural skills exhibited by battalion command control group members and the commander/staff as a whole. In this project a model of command control group behavior was applied to identify and quantify four general categories of behavior. A methodology was developed for use at the Combined Arms Tactical Training Simulator (CATTS) at Ft. Leavenworth, Kansas. Extensive recordings were made of battalion commanders and their staffs as they underwent training at the facility fighting a highly realistic computer-assisted war game. The methodology was effective in distinguishing between groups in three of the four areas. Preliminary results show that both procedural and nonprocedural, individual, and team behaviors contribute to overall team performance.

  18. External and Turbomachinery Flow Control Working Group

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahmadi, G.; Alstrom, B.; Colonius, T.; Dannenhoffer, J.; Glauser, M.; Helenbrook, B.; Higuchi, H.; Hodson, H.; Jha, R.; Kabiri, P.; LaGraff, J.; Low,K.; McKeon, B.; Morrison, J.; Obcid, S.; Orbaker, A.; Samimy, M.; Schmit, R.; Seifert, A.; Seume, J.; Shahabi, A.; Shea, P.; Ukeiley, L.; Wallace, R.

    2010-01-01

    Broad Flow Control Issues: a) Understanding flow physics. b) Specific control objective(s). c) Actuation. d) Sensors. e) Integrated active flow control system. f) Development of design tools (CFD, reduced order models, controller design, understanding and utilizing instabilities and other mechanisms, e.g., streamwise vorticity).

  19. Striving for group agency: threat to personal control increases the attractiveness of agentic groups

    PubMed Central

    Stollberg, Janine; Fritsche, Immo; Bäcker, Anna

    2015-01-01

    When their sense of personal control is threatened people try to restore perceived control through the social self. We propose that it is the perceived agency of ingroups that provides the self with a sense of control. In three experiments, we for the first time tested the hypothesis that threat to personal control increases the attractiveness of being part or joining those groups that are perceived as coherent entities engaging in coordinated group goal pursuit (agentic groups) but not of those groups whose agency is perceived to be low. Consistent with this hypothesis we found in Study 1 (N = 93) that threat to personal control increased ingroup identification only with task groups, but not with less agentic types of ingroups that were made salient simultaneously. Furthermore, personal control threat increased a sense of collective control and support within the task group, mediated through task-group identification (indirect effects). Turning to groups people are not (yet) part of, Study 2 (N = 47) showed that personal control threat increased relative attractiveness ratings of small groups as possible future ingroups only when the relative agency of small groups was perceived to be high. Perceived group homogeneity or social power did not moderate the effect. Study 3 (N = 78) replicated the moderating role of perceived group agency for attractiveness ratings of entitative groups, whereas perceived group status did not moderate the effect. These findings extend previous research on group-based control, showing that perceived agency accounts for group-based responses to threatened control. PMID:26074832

  20. Annual report of the Summit Members' Working Group on Controlled Thermonuclear Fusion (Fusin Working Group (FWG))

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    1987-04-01

    The Summit Members' Working Group on Controlled Thermonuclear Fusion (Fusion Working Group (FWG)) was established in 1983 in response to the Declaration of the Heads of State and Government at the Versailles Economic Summit meeting of 1982, and in response to the subsequent report of the Working Group in Technology, Growth and Employment (TGE) as endorsed at the Williamsburg Summit meeting, 1983. This document contains the complete written record of each of the three FWG meetings which include the minutes, lists of attendees, agendas, statements, and summary conclusions as well as the full reports of the Technical Working Party. In addition, there is a pertinent exchange of correspondence between FWG members on the role of the Technical Working Party and a requested background paper on the modalities associated with a possible future ETR project.

  1. Addition of lysophospholipids with large head groups to cells inhibits Shiga toxin binding.

    PubMed

    Ailte, Ieva; Lingelem, Anne Berit Dyve; Kavaliauskiene, Simona; Bergan, Jonas; Kvalvaag, Audun Sverre; Myrann, Anne-Grethe; Skotland, Tore; Sandvig, Kirsten

    2016-01-01

    Shiga toxin (Stx), an AB5 toxin, binds specifically to the neutral glycosphingolipid Gb3 at the cell surface before being transported into cells. We here demonstrate that addition of conical lysophospholipids (LPLs) with large head groups inhibit Stx binding to cells whereas LPLs with small head groups do not. Lysophosphatidylinositol (LPI 18:0), the most efficient LPL with the largest head group, was selected for in-depth investigations to study how the binding of Stx is regulated. We show that the inhibition of Stx binding by LPI is reversible and possibly regulated by cholesterol since addition of methyl-β-cyclodextrin (mβCD) reversed the ability of LPI to inhibit binding. LPI-induced inhibition of Stx binding is independent of signalling and membrane turnover as it occurs in fixed cells as well as after depletion of cellular ATP. Furthermore, data obtained with fluorescent membrane dyes suggest that LPI treatment has a direct effect on plasma membrane lipid packing with shift towards a liquid disordered phase in the outer leaflet, while lysophosphoethanolamine (LPE), which has a small head group, does not. In conclusion, our data show that cellular treatment with conical LPLs with large head groups changes intrinsic properties of the plasma membrane and modulates Stx binding to Gb3. PMID:27458147

  2. Addition of lysophospholipids with large head groups to cells inhibits Shiga toxin binding

    PubMed Central

    Ailte, Ieva; Lingelem, Anne Berit Dyve; Kavaliauskiene, Simona; Bergan, Jonas; Kvalvaag, Audun Sverre; Myrann, Anne-Grethe; Skotland, Tore; Sandvig, Kirsten

    2016-01-01

    Shiga toxin (Stx), an AB5 toxin, binds specifically to the neutral glycosphingolipid Gb3 at the cell surface before being transported into cells. We here demonstrate that addition of conical lysophospholipids (LPLs) with large head groups inhibit Stx binding to cells whereas LPLs with small head groups do not. Lysophosphatidylinositol (LPI 18:0), the most efficient LPL with the largest head group, was selected for in-depth investigations to study how the binding of Stx is regulated. We show that the inhibition of Stx binding by LPI is reversible and possibly regulated by cholesterol since addition of methyl-β-cyclodextrin (mβCD) reversed the ability of LPI to inhibit binding. LPI-induced inhibition of Stx binding is independent of signalling and membrane turnover as it occurs in fixed cells as well as after depletion of cellular ATP. Furthermore, data obtained with fluorescent membrane dyes suggest that LPI treatment has a direct effect on plasma membrane lipid packing with shift towards a liquid disordered phase in the outer leaflet, while lysophosphoethanolamine (LPE), which has a small head group, does not. In conclusion, our data show that cellular treatment with conical LPLs with large head groups changes intrinsic properties of the plasma membrane and modulates Stx binding to Gb3. PMID:27458147

  3. A microfluidic abacus channel for controlling the addition of droplets.

    PubMed

    Um, Eujin; Park, Je-Kyun

    2009-01-21

    This paper reports the first use of the abacus-groove structure to handle droplets in a wide microchannel, with no external forces integrated to the system other than the pumps. Microfluidic abacus channels are demonstrated for the sequential addition of droplets at the desired location. A control channel which is analogous to biasing in electronics can also be used to precisely determine the number of added droplets, when all other experimental conditions are fixed including the size of the droplets and the frequency of droplet-generation. The device allows programmable and autonomous operations of complex two-phase microfluidics as well as new applications for the method of analysis and computations in lab-on-a-chip devices.

  4. Control of Microthrix parvicella by aluminium salts addition.

    PubMed

    Durban, N; Juzan, L; Krier, J; Gillot, S

    2016-01-01

    Aluminium and iron chloride were added to a biological nutrient removal pilot plant (1,500 population equivalent) treating urban wastewater to investigate the control of Microthrix parvicella bulking and foaming by metallic salts. Monitoring plant performance over two 6-month periods showed a slight impact on the removal efficiencies. Addition of metallic salts (Me; aluminium or aluminium + iron) at a concentration of 41 mmol Me(kg MLSS·d) (MLSS: mixed liquor suspended solids) over 70 days allowed a stabilization of the diluted sludge volume index (DSVI), whereas higher dosages (94 mmol Me(kg MLSS·d) over 35 days or 137 mmol Me(kg MLSS·d) over 14 days induced a significant improvement of the settling conditions. Microscopic observations showed a compaction of biological aggregates with an embedding of filamentous bacteria into the flocs that is not specific to M. parvicella as bacteria from phylum Chloroflexi are embedded too. The quantitative polymerase chain reaction targeting M. parvicella further indicated a possible growth limitation in addition to the flocculation impact at the high dosages of metallic salts investigated. DSVI appeared to be correlated with the relative abundance of M. parvicella.

  5. Control of Microthrix parvicella by aluminium salts addition.

    PubMed

    Durban, N; Juzan, L; Krier, J; Gillot, S

    2016-01-01

    Aluminium and iron chloride were added to a biological nutrient removal pilot plant (1,500 population equivalent) treating urban wastewater to investigate the control of Microthrix parvicella bulking and foaming by metallic salts. Monitoring plant performance over two 6-month periods showed a slight impact on the removal efficiencies. Addition of metallic salts (Me; aluminium or aluminium + iron) at a concentration of 41 mmol Me(kg MLSS·d) (MLSS: mixed liquor suspended solids) over 70 days allowed a stabilization of the diluted sludge volume index (DSVI), whereas higher dosages (94 mmol Me(kg MLSS·d) over 35 days or 137 mmol Me(kg MLSS·d) over 14 days induced a significant improvement of the settling conditions. Microscopic observations showed a compaction of biological aggregates with an embedding of filamentous bacteria into the flocs that is not specific to M. parvicella as bacteria from phylum Chloroflexi are embedded too. The quantitative polymerase chain reaction targeting M. parvicella further indicated a possible growth limitation in addition to the flocculation impact at the high dosages of metallic salts investigated. DSVI appeared to be correlated with the relative abundance of M. parvicella. PMID:26819398

  6. Method for controlling a laser additive process using intrinsic illumination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tait, Robert; Cai, Guoshuang; Azer, Magdi; Chen, Xiaobin; Liu, Yong; Harding, Kevin

    2015-05-01

    One form of additive manufacturing is to use a laser to generate a melt pool from powdered metal that is sprayed from a nozzle. The laser net-shape machining system builds the part a layer at a time by following a predetermined path. However, because the path may need to take many turns, maintaining a constant melt pool may not be easy. A straight section may require one speed and power while a sharp bend would over melt the metal at the same settings. This paper describes a process monitoring method that uses the intrinsic IR radiation from the melt pool along with a process model configured to establish target values for the parameters associated with the manufacture or repair. This model is based upon known properties of the metal being used as well as the properties of the laser beam. An adaptive control technique is then employed to control process parameters of the machining system based upon the real-time weld pool measurement. Since the system uses the heat radiant from the melt pool, other previously deposited metal does not confuse the system as only the melted material is seen by the camera.

  7. Highly Diastereoselective Chelation-controlled Additions to α-Silyloxy Ketones

    PubMed Central

    Stanton, Gretchen R.; Koz, Gamze

    2011-01-01

    The polar Felkin-Anh, Cornforth, and Cram-chelation models predict that the addition of organometallic reagents to silyl–protected α–hydroxy ketones proceeds via a non-chelation pathway to give anti-diol addition products. This prediction has held true for the vast majority of additions reported in the literature and few methods for chelation-controlled additions of organometallic reagents to silyl–protected α–hydroxy ketones have been introduced. Herein, we present a general and highly diastereoselective method for the addition of dialkylzincs and (E)-di-, (E)-tri- and (Z)-disubstituted vinylzinc reagents to α-silyloxy ketones using alkyl zinc halide Lewis acids, RZnX, to give chelation-controlled products (dr ≥18:1). The compatibility of organozinc reagents with other functional groups makes this method potentially very useful in complex molecule synthesis. PMID:21534530

  8. Anopheles punctulatus group: evolution, distribution, and control.

    PubMed

    Beebe, Nigel W; Russell, Tanya; Burkot, Thomas R; Cooper, Robert D

    2015-01-01

    The major malaria vectors of the Southwest Pacific belong to a group of closely related mosquitoes known as the Anopheles punctulatus group. The group comprises 13 co-occurring species that either are isomorphic or carry overlapping morphological features, and today several species remain informally named. The advent of species-diagnostic molecular tools in the 1990s permitted a new raft of studies into the newly differentiated mosquitoes of this group, and these have revealed five species as the region's primary malaria vectors: An. farauti, An. hinesorum, An. farauti 4, An. koliensis, and An. punctulatus. Species' distributions are now well established across Papua New Guinea, northern Australia, and the Solomon Archipelago, but little has been documented thus far in eastern Indonesia. As each species reveals significant differences in distribution and biology, the relative paucity of knowledge of their biology or ecology in relation to malaria transmission is brought into clearer focus. Only three of the species have undergone some form of spatial or population genetics analyses, and this has revealed striking differences in their genetic signatures throughout the region. This review compiles and dissects the key findings for this important mosquito group and points to where future research should focus to maximize the output of field studies in developing relevant knowledge on these malaria vectors.

  9. Cooperation, control, and concession in meerkat groups.

    PubMed

    Clutton-Brock, T H; Brotherton, P N; Russell, A F; O'Riain, M J; Gaynor, D; Kansky, R; Griffin, A; Manser, M; Sharpe, L; McIlrath, G M; Small, T; Moss, A; Monfort, S

    2001-01-19

    "Limited control" models of reproductive skew in cooperative societies suggest that the frequency of breeding by subordinates is determined by the outcome of power struggles with dominants. In contrast, "optimal skew" models suggest that dominants have full control of subordinate reproduction and allow subordinates to breed only when this serves to retain subordinates' assistance with rearing dominants' own litters. The results of our 7-year field study of cooperative meerkats, Suricata suricatta, support the predictions of limited control models and provide no indication that dominant females grant reproductive concessions to subordinates to retain their assistance with future breeding attempts.

  10. Cooperation, control, and concession in meerkat groups.

    PubMed

    Clutton-Brock, T H; Brotherton, P N; Russell, A F; O'Riain, M J; Gaynor, D; Kansky, R; Griffin, A; Manser, M; Sharpe, L; McIlrath, G M; Small, T; Moss, A; Monfort, S

    2001-01-19

    "Limited control" models of reproductive skew in cooperative societies suggest that the frequency of breeding by subordinates is determined by the outcome of power struggles with dominants. In contrast, "optimal skew" models suggest that dominants have full control of subordinate reproduction and allow subordinates to breed only when this serves to retain subordinates' assistance with rearing dominants' own litters. The results of our 7-year field study of cooperative meerkats, Suricata suricatta, support the predictions of limited control models and provide no indication that dominant females grant reproductive concessions to subordinates to retain their assistance with future breeding attempts. PMID:11161200

  11. Catalytic enantioselective 1,6-conjugate additions of propargyl and allyl groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Fanke; Li, Xiben; Torker, Sebastian; Shi, Ying; Shen, Xiao; Hoveyda, Amir H.

    2016-09-01

    Conjugate (or 1,4-) additions of carbanionic species to α,β-unsaturated carbonyl compounds are vital to research in organic and medicinal chemistry, and there are several chiral catalysts that facilitate the catalytic enantioselective additions of nucleophiles to enoates. Nonetheless, catalytic enantioselective 1,6-conjugate additions are uncommon, and ones that incorporate readily functionalizable moieties, such as propargyl or allyl groups, into acyclic α,β,γ,δ-doubly unsaturated acceptors are unknown. Chemical transformations that could generate a new bond at the C6 position of a dienoate are particularly desirable because the resulting products could then be subjected to further modifications. However, such reactions, especially when dienoates contain two equally substituted olefins, are scarce and are confined to reactions promoted by a phosphine-copper catalyst (with an alkyl Grignard reagent, dialkylzinc or trialkylaluminium compounds), a diene-iridium catalyst (with arylboroxines), or a bisphosphine-cobalt catalyst (with monosilyl-acetylenes). 1,6-Conjugate additions are otherwise limited to substrates where there is full substitution at the C4 position. It is unclear why certain catalysts favour bond formation at C6, and—although there are a small number of catalytic enantioselective conjugate allyl additions—related 1,6-additions and processes involving a propargyl unit are non-existent. Here we show that an easily accessible organocopper catalyst can promote 1,6-conjugate additions of propargyl and 2-boryl-substituted allyl groups to acyclic dienoates with high selectivity. A commercially available allenyl-boron compound or a monosubstituted allene may be used. Products can be obtained in up to 83 per cent yield, >98:2 diastereomeric ratio (for allyl additions) and 99:1 enantiomeric ratio. We elucidate the mechanistic details, including the origins of high site selectivity (1,6- versus 1,4-) and enantioselectivity as a function of the catalyst

  12. Side Group Addition to the PAH Coronene by UV Photolysis in Cosmic Ice Analogs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernstein, Max P.; Elsila, Jamie E.; Dworkin, Jason P.; Sandford, Scott A.; Allamandola, Louis J.; Zare, Richard N.; DeVincenzi, D. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Ultraviolet photolysis of various ice mixtures at low temperature and pressure caused the addition of amino (-NH2), methyl (-CH3), methoxy (-OCH3), and cyano (-CN) functional groups to the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) coronene (C22H12). The implications of these results for interstellar and meteoritic chemistry are discussed. Previously only simple PAH photo-oxidation had been reported. This work represents the first experimental evidence that ice photochemistry may have contributed to aromatics bearing carbon and nitrogen containing side groups that are detected in primitive meteorites and interplanetary dust particles. Furthermore, these results suggest a wider range of modified PAHs should be expected in interstellar lees and materials predating solar system formation.

  13. Additional follow-up telephone counselling and initial smoking relapse: a longitudinal, controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Lei; He, Yao; Jiang, Bin; Zuo, Fang; Liu, Qinghui; Zhang, Li; Zhou, Changxi

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Smoking cessation services can help smokers to quit; however, many smoking relapse cases occur over time. Initial relapse prevention should play an important role in achieving the goal of long-term smoking cessation. Several studies have focused on the effect of extended telephone support in relapse prevention, but the conclusions remain conflicting. Design and setting From October 2008 to August 2013, a longitudinal, controlled study was performed in a large general hospital of Beijing. Participants The smokers who sought treatment at our smoking cessation clinic were non-randomised and divided into 2 groups: face-to-face individual counselling group (FC group), and face-to-face individual counselling plus telephone follow-up counselling group (FCF group). No pharmacotherapy was offered. Outcomes The timing of initial smoking relapse was compared between FC and FCF groups. Predictors of initial relapse were investigated during the first 180 days, using the Cox proportional hazards model. Results Of 547 eligible male smokers who volunteered to participate, 457 participants (117 in FC group and 340 in FCF group) achieved at least 24 h abstinence. The majority of the lapse episodes occurred during the first 2 weeks after the quit date. Smokers who did not receive the follow-up telephone counselling (FC group) tended to relapse to smoking earlier than those smokers who received the additional follow-up telephone counselling (FCF group), and the log-rank test was statistically significant (p=0.003). A Cox regression model showed that, in the FCF group, being married, and having a lower Fagerström test score, normal body mass index and doctor-diagnosed tobacco-related chronic diseases, were significantly independent protective predictors of smoking relapse. Conclusions Within the limitations of this study, it can be concluded that additional follow-up telephone counselling might be an effective strategy in preventing relapse. Further research is still

  14. Control group response variability in short-term toxicity tests

    SciTech Connect

    Gast, L.C.; Shimp, C.; Wang, Q.; Shukla, R.; Fulk, F.

    1995-12-31

    The US EPA`s National Reference Toxicant Database (NRTDB) has afforded an excellent opportunity to examine and document variability in responses within control groups (i.e. zero concentration of the toxicant.) The NRTDB has compiled acute and chronic reference toxicant test results for eight species and currently contains results for 32 laboratories and generally eight to ten tests for a species within each laboratory. The Ceriodaphnia dubia Survival and Reproduction test and the Pimephales promelas (fathead minnow) Survival and Growth test are the most frequently represented chronic tests with 331 and 144 sets of test data, respectively. For this presentation, Ceriodaphnia dubia reproduction data, expressed as total numbers of young in the test period, and fathead minnow survival and growth data were analyzed using a variance components model. The information regarding the control population is useful in examining the sources of inter and intralaboratory variability of chronic testing. In addition, this control population response variability information will be valuable for characterizing what can be termed as ``practically equivalent responses`` between a control and an effluent. The preliminary analysis indicates considerable between-test variability; however, this variability is not consistent across laboratories. Results of further exploration on this issue will be presented.

  15. ProPhenol-Catalyzed Asymmetric Additions by Spontaneously Assembled Dinuclear Main Group Metal Complexes

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Conspectus The development of catalytic enantioselective transformations has been the focus of many research groups over the past half century and is of paramount importance to the pharmaceutical and agrochemical industries. Since the award of the Nobel Prize in 2001, the field of enantioselective transition metal catalysis has soared to new heights, with the development of more efficient catalysts and new catalytic transformations at increasing frequency. Furthermore, catalytic reactions that allow higher levels of redox- and step-economy are being developed. Thus, alternatives to asymmetric alkene dihydroxylation and the enantioselective reduction of α,β-unsaturated ketones can invoke more strategic C–C bond forming reactions, such as asymmetric aldol reactions of an aldehyde with α-hydroxyketone donors or enantioselective alkynylation of an aldehyde, respectively. To facilitate catalytic enantioselective addition reactions, including the aforementioned aldol and alkynylation reactions, our lab has developed the ProPhenol ligand. In this Account, we describe the development and application of the ProPhenol ligand for asymmetric additions of both carbon- and heteroatom-based nucleophiles to various electrophiles. The ProPhenol ligand spontaneously forms chiral dinuclear metal complexes when treated with an alkyl metal reagent, such as Et2Zn or Bu2Mg. The resulting complex contains both a Lewis acidic site to activate an electrophile and a Brønsted basic site to deprotonate a pronucleophile. Initially, our research focused on the use of Zn-ProPhenol complexes to facilitate the direct aldol reaction. Fine tuning of the reaction through ligand modification and the use of additives enabled the direct aldol reaction to proceed in high yields and stereoselectivities with a broad range of donor substrates, including acetophenones, methyl ynones, methyl vinyl ketone, acetone, α-hydroxy carbonyl compounds, and glycine Schiff bases. Additionally, an analogous

  16. Counterintuitive mechanisms of the addition of hydrogen and simple olefins to heavy group 13 alkene analogues.

    PubMed

    Caputo, Christine A; Koivistoinen, Juha; Moilanen, Jani; Boynton, Jessica N; Tuononen, Heikki M; Power, Philip P

    2013-02-01

    The mechanism of the reaction of olefins and hydrogen with dimetallenes ArMMAr (Ar = aromatic group; M = Al or Ga) was studied by density functional theory calculations and experimental methods. The digallenes, for which the most experimental data are available, are extensively dissociated to gallanediyl monomers, :GaAr, in hydrocarbon solution, but the calculations and experimental data showed also that they react with simple olefins, such as ethylene, as intact ArGaGaAr dimers via stepwise [2 + 2 + 2] cycloadditions due to their considerably lower activation barriers vis-à-vis the gallanediyl monomers, :GaAr. This pathway was preferred over the [2 + 2] cycloaddition of olefin to monomeric :GaAr to form a gallacyclopropane ring with subsequent dimerization to yield the 1,2-digallacyclobutane intermediate and, subsequently, the 1,4-digallacyclohexane product. The calculations showed also that the addition of H(2) to digallene proceeds by a different mechanism involving the initial addition of one equivalent of H(2) to form a 1,2-dihydride intermediate. This reacts with a second equivalent of H(2) to give two ArGaH(2) fragments which recombine to give the observed product with terminal and bridging H-atoms, Ar(H)Ga(μ-H)(2)Ga(H)Ar. The computations agree with the experimental observation that the :GaAr(iPr(8)) (Ar(iPr(8)) = C(6)H-2,6-(C(6)H(3)-2,4,6-(i)Pr(3))(2)-3,5-(i)Pr(2)), which does not associate even in the solid state, does not react with ethylene or hydrogen. Calculations on the reaction of propene with ArAlAlAr show that, in contrast to the digallenes, addition involves an open-shell transition state consistent with the higher singlet diradical character of dialuminenes.

  17. Direct laser additive fabrication system with image feedback control

    DOEpatents

    Griffith, Michelle L.; Hofmeister, William H.; Knorovsky, Gerald A.; MacCallum, Danny O.; Schlienger, M. Eric; Smugeresky, John E.

    2002-01-01

    A closed-loop, feedback-controlled direct laser fabrication system is disclosed. The feedback refers to the actual growth conditions obtained by real-time analysis of thermal radiation images. The resulting system can fabricate components with severalfold improvement in dimensional tolerances and surface finish.

  18. 78 FR 63459 - GPS Satellite Simulator Control Working Group Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Air Force GPS Satellite Simulator Control Working Group Meeting AGENCY: Department of the Air Force. ACTION..., that the GPS Directorate will host a GPS Satellite Simulator Control Working Group (SSCWG) meeting on...

  19. 78 FR 67132 - GPS Satellite Simulator Control Working Group Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Department of the Air Force GPS Satellite Simulator Control Working Group Meeting AGENCY: Space and Missile..., that the GPS Directorate will host a GPS Satellite Simulator Control Working Group (SSCWG) meeting on...

  20. 77 FR 70421 - GPS Satellite Simulator Control Working Group Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Department of the Air Force GPS Satellite Simulator Control Working Group Meeting AGENCY: Space and Missile..., that the GPS Directorate will host a GPS Satellite Simulator Control Working Group (SSCWG) meeting...

  1. Addition of Dexamethasone and Buprenorphine to Bupivacaine Sciatic Nerve Block: A Randomized, Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    YaDeau, Jacques T.; Paroli, Leonardo; Fields, Kara G.; Kahn, Richard L.; LaSala, Vincent R.; Jules-Elysee, Kethy M.; Kim, David H.; Haskins, Stephen C.; Hedden, Jacob; Goon, Amanda; Roberts, Matthew M.; Levine, David S.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives Sciatic nerve block provides analgesia after foot and ankle surgery, but block duration may be insufficient. We hypothesized that perineural dexamethasone and buprenorphine would reduce pain scores at 24 hours. Methods Ninety patients received ultrasound-guided sciatic (25 mL 0.25% bupivacaine) and adductor canal (10 mL 0.25% bupivacaine) blockade, with random assignment into 3 groups (30 patients per group): control blocks + intravenous dexamethasone (4 mg) (control); control blocks + intravenous buprenorphine (150 mcg) + intravenous dexamethasone (intravenous buprenorphine); nerve blocks containing buprenorphine + dexamethasone (perineural). Patients received mepivacaine neuraxial anesthesia and postoperative oxycodone / acetaminophen, meloxicam, pregabalin, and ondansetron. Patients and assessors were blinded to group assignment. The primary outcome was pain with movement at 24 hours. Results There was no difference in pain with movement at 24 hours (median score 0). However, the perineural group had longer block duration vs control (45.6 vs 30.0 hr). Perineural patients had lower scores for “worst pain” vs control (median 0 vs 2). Both intravenous buprenorphine and perineural groups were less likely to use opioids on the day after surgery, vs control (28.6%, 28.6%, 60.7%, respectively). Nausea after intravenous buprenorphine (but not perineural buprenorphine) was severe, frequent, and bothersome. Conclusions Pain scores were very low at 24 hours after surgery in the context of multimodal analgesia and were not improved by additives. However, perineural buprenorphine and dexamethasone prolonged block duration, reduced the worst pain experienced, and reduced opioid use. Intravenous buprenorphine caused troubling nausea and vomiting. Future research is needed to confirm and extend these observations. PMID:25974277

  2. Porosity Measurements and Analysis for Metal Additive Manufacturing Process Control.

    PubMed

    Slotwinski, John A; Garboczi, Edward J; Hebenstreit, Keith M

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing techniques can produce complex, high-value metal parts, with potential applications as critical metal components such as those found in aerospace engines and as customized biomedical implants. Material porosity in these parts is undesirable for aerospace parts - since porosity could lead to premature failure - and desirable for some biomedical implants - since surface-breaking pores allows for better integration with biological tissue. Changes in a part's porosity during an additive manufacturing build may also be an indication of an undesired change in the build process. Here, we present efforts to develop an ultrasonic sensor for monitoring changes in the porosity in metal parts during fabrication on a metal powder bed fusion system. The development of well-characterized reference samples, measurements of the porosity of these samples with multiple techniques, and correlation of ultrasonic measurements with the degree of porosity are presented. A proposed sensor design, measurement strategy, and future experimental plans on a metal powder bed fusion system are also presented.

  3. Porosity Measurements and Analysis for Metal Additive Manufacturing Process Control.

    PubMed

    Slotwinski, John A; Garboczi, Edward J; Hebenstreit, Keith M

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing techniques can produce complex, high-value metal parts, with potential applications as critical metal components such as those found in aerospace engines and as customized biomedical implants. Material porosity in these parts is undesirable for aerospace parts - since porosity could lead to premature failure - and desirable for some biomedical implants - since surface-breaking pores allows for better integration with biological tissue. Changes in a part's porosity during an additive manufacturing build may also be an indication of an undesired change in the build process. Here, we present efforts to develop an ultrasonic sensor for monitoring changes in the porosity in metal parts during fabrication on a metal powder bed fusion system. The development of well-characterized reference samples, measurements of the porosity of these samples with multiple techniques, and correlation of ultrasonic measurements with the degree of porosity are presented. A proposed sensor design, measurement strategy, and future experimental plans on a metal powder bed fusion system are also presented. PMID:26601041

  4. Porosity Measurements and Analysis for Metal Additive Manufacturing Process Control

    PubMed Central

    Slotwinski, John A; Garboczi, Edward J; Hebenstreit, Keith M

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing techniques can produce complex, high-value metal parts, with potential applications as critical metal components such as those found in aerospace engines and as customized biomedical implants. Material porosity in these parts is undesirable for aerospace parts - since porosity could lead to premature failure - and desirable for some biomedical implants - since surface-breaking pores allows for better integration with biological tissue. Changes in a part’s porosity during an additive manufacturing build may also be an indication of an undesired change in the build process. Here, we present efforts to develop an ultrasonic sensor for monitoring changes in the porosity in metal parts during fabrication on a metal powder bed fusion system. The development of well-characterized reference samples, measurements of the porosity of these samples with multiple techniques, and correlation of ultrasonic measurements with the degree of porosity are presented. A proposed sensor design, measurement strategy, and future experimental plans on a metal powder bed fusion system are also presented. PMID:26601041

  5. 29 CFR 4001.3 - Trades or businesses under common control; controlled groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... CORPORATION GENERAL TERMINOLOGY § 4001.3 Trades or businesses under common control; controlled groups. For... control with such person. (2) Persons are under common control if they are members of a “controlled group... 29 Labor 9 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Trades or businesses under common control;...

  6. 29 CFR 4001.3 - Trades or businesses under common control; controlled groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... CORPORATION GENERAL TERMINOLOGY § 4001.3 Trades or businesses under common control; controlled groups. For... control with such person. (2) Persons are under common control if they are members of a “controlled group... 29 Labor 9 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Trades or businesses under common control;...

  7. 29 CFR 4001.3 - Trades or businesses under common control; controlled groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... CORPORATION GENERAL TERMINOLOGY § 4001.3 Trades or businesses under common control; controlled groups. For... control with such person. (2) Persons are under common control if they are members of a “controlled group... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Trades or businesses under common control;...

  8. 29 CFR 4001.3 - Trades or businesses under common control; controlled groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... CORPORATION GENERAL TERMINOLOGY § 4001.3 Trades or businesses under common control; controlled groups. For... control with such person. (2) Persons are under common control if they are members of a “controlled group... 29 Labor 9 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Trades or businesses under common control;...

  9. 29 CFR 4001.3 - Trades or businesses under common control; controlled groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... CORPORATION GENERAL TERMINOLOGY § 4001.3 Trades or businesses under common control; controlled groups. For... control with such person. (2) Persons are under common control if they are members of a “controlled group... 29 Labor 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Trades or businesses under common control;...

  10. Part height control of laser metal additive manufacturing process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Yu-Herng

    Laser Metal Deposition (LMD) has been used to not only make but also repair damaged parts in a layer-by-layer fashion. Parts made in this manner may produce less waste than those made through conventional machining processes. However, a common issue of LMD involves controlling the deposition's layer thickness. Accuracy is important, and as it increases, both the time required to produce the part and the material wasted during the material removal process (e.g., milling, lathe) decrease. The deposition rate is affected by multiple parameters, such as the powder feed rate, laser input power, axis feed rate, material type, and part design, the values of each of which may change during the LMD process. Using a mathematical model to build a generic equation that predicts the deposition's layer thickness is difficult due to these complex parameters. In this thesis, we propose a simple method that utilizes a single device. This device uses a pyrometer to monitor the current build height, thereby allowing the layer thickness to be controlled during the LMD process. This method also helps the LMD system to build parts even with complex parameters and to increase material efficiency.

  11. Regiodivergent Addition of Phenols to Allylic Oxides: Control of 1,2 and 1,4-Additions for Cyclitol Synthesis**

    PubMed Central

    Moschitto, Matthew J.; Vaccarello, David N.; Lewis, Chad A.

    2015-01-01

    Control of 1,2- and 1,4-addition of substituted phenols to allylic oxides is achieved by intercepting palladium π-allyl complexes. The interconversion of palladium complexes results in the total synthesis of MK7607, cyathiformine B type, streptol, and a new cyclitol. PMID:25533617

  12. 26 CFR 1.382-8 - Controlled groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 CFR part 1 revised as of April 1, 1999, a reference to §§ 1.1502-91, 1.1502-92, 1.1502-93, and... 26 Internal Revenue 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Controlled groups. 1.382-8 Section 1.382-8...) INCOME TAXES Insolvency Reorganizations § 1.382-8 Controlled groups. (a) Introduction. This...

  13. Review and evaluation of literature on testing of chemical additives for scale control in geothermal fluids. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Crane, C.H.; Kenkeremath, D.C.

    1981-01-01

    A selected group of reported tests of chemical additives in actual geothermal fluids are reviewed and evaluated to summarize the status of chemical scale-control testing and identify information and testing needs. The task distinguishes between scale control in the cooling system of a flash plant and elsewhere in the utilization system due to the essentially different operating environments involved. Additives for non-cooling geothermal fluids are discussed by scale type: silica, carbonate, and sulfide.

  14. Fault-tolerant control of electric vehicles with in-wheel motors using actuator-grouping sliding mode controllers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Boyuan; Du, Haiping; Li, Weihua

    2016-05-01

    Although electric vehicles with in-wheel motors have been regarded as one of the promising vehicle architectures in recent years, the probability of in-wheel motor fault is still a crucial issue due to the system complexity and large number of control actuators. In this study, a modified sliding mode control (SMC) is applied to achieve fault-tolerant control of electric vehicles with four-wheel-independent-steering (4WIS) and four-wheel-independent-driving (4WID). Unlike in traditional SMC, in this approach the steering geometry is re-arranged according to the location of faulty wheels in the modified SMC. Three SMC control laws for longitudinal velocity control, lateral velocity control and yaw rate control are designed based on specific vehicle motion scenarios. In addition the actuator-grouping SMC method is proposed so that driving actuators are grouped and each group of actuators can be used to achieve the specific control target, which avoids the strong coupling effect between each control target. Simulation results prove that the proposed modified SMC can achieve good vehicle dynamics control performance in normal driving and large steering angle turning scenarios. In addition, the proposed actuator-grouping SMC can solve the coupling effect of different control targets and the control performance is improved.

  15. 60. Shock isolator at center, pneumatic control group panel at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    60. Shock isolator at center, pneumatic control group panel at left, power distribution box at right, all at right of entrance to lcc. - Ellsworth Air Force Base, Delta Flight, Launch Control Facility, County Road CS23A, North of Exit 127, Interior, Jackson County, SD

  16. Polymers bearing groups derived from n-substituted lactams and their use as lubricating oil additives

    SciTech Connect

    Brulet, D.; Chauvel, B.; Pocheville, R.

    1980-09-16

    Novel lubricating oil polymer additives are obtained by the following: (1) by preparing, by anionic polymerization, a living diene polymer of mn of between about 20,000 and 300,000; (2) by functionalizing the said polymer by means of an nsubstituted lactam of the type of n-alkylcaprolactam, nbinylcaprolactam, and particularly of the type of nalkylpyrrolidione and n-vinylpyrrolidone; and (3) by hydrogenating the said functionalized polymer. A variant method of preparing the said polymers comprises subjecting the living polymer to a metalation operation before functionalization; the hydrogenation operation is carried out before metalation or after functionalization. The said polymers may be used as additives which improve the viscosity index and the dispersing power of lubricating oils. The amount of additive added is between about 0.1 and 10 percent by weight.

  17. From Victim to Taking Control: Support Group for Bullied Schoolchildren.

    PubMed

    Kvarme, Lisbeth Gravdal; Aabø, Liv Sandnes; Sæteren, Berit

    2016-04-01

    School bullying is a serious problem affecting the victims in their daily lives at school. The aim of this study was to investigate whether support groups were able to help the victims of bullying to overcome their victim status and to explore what it means to be a member of a support group. An exploratory qualitative design, with individual and focus group interviews, was used. The sample consisted of 19 schoolchildren, aged 12-13 years, 3 of whom were victimized. Six individual interviews and three focus group interviews were conducted. Findings show that support groups contribute to the cessation of bullying and improvements remain 3 months later. The support groups experience feeling important and helping others. It is important for the school nurse and teachers to follow up with victimized children, in collaboration with their parents, to help the victim to no longer be a victim and to take control. PMID:26072469

  18. Additional Validity Evidence and Across-Group Equivalency of the "HOPE Teacher Rating Scale"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Scott J.; Gentry, Marcia

    2013-01-01

    The "HOPE Scale" was developed to identify academic and social components of giftedness and talent in elementary-aged students with particular attention to students from low-income and/or culturally diverse families. Based on previous findings, additional research was conducted on revisions made to the "HOPE Scale". Items were added, and 71…

  19. Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotube Functionalization by Radical Addition Using Hydroxymethylene Groups.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Jiménez, Rubén; Alonso-Núñez, Gabriel; Paraguay-Delgado, Francisco; Espinoza-Gómez, Heriberto; Vélez-López, Ernesto; Rogel-Hernández, Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    Synthetic methodology and characterization of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) function- alized with hydroxymethylene groups are reported. The MWCNTs were synthesized by the spray pyrolysis technique using toluene as carbon source and ferrocene as catalyst. Hydroxymethylation of MWCNTs was carried out by methanol using benzoyl peroxide (BPO) at different quantities (300 to 900 mg); the optimum BPO quantity was 300 mg. The resulting materials were characterized by FT-IR, Raman Spectroscopy, Thermal Gravimetric Analysis (TGA) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). The presence of the hydroxymethylene group on the MWCNTs surface was demonstrated by FT-IR, Raman Spectroscopy, TGA, EDS, TEM and Mass Spectrometry. The func- tionalized MWCNTs were not damaged by this methodology. PMID:27398563

  20. Lipschitz control of geodesics in the Heisenberg group.

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, Robert Dan

    2010-12-01

    Monge first posed his (L{sup 1}) optimal mass transfer problem: to find a mapping of one distribution into another, minimizing total distance of transporting mass, in 1781. It remained unsolved in R{sup n} until the late 1990's. This result has since been extended to Riemannian manifolds. In both cases, optimal mass transfer relies upon a key lemma providing a Lipschitz control on the directions of geodesics. We will discuss the Lipschitz control of geodesics in the (subRiemannian) Heisenberg group. This provides an important step towards a potential theoretic proof of Monge's problem in the Heisenberg group.

  1. Three Additional Candidates for the Group of Very Wide Binary Asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warner, Brian D.

    2016-10-01

    The very wide binary asteroids (VWBA) are a subgroup of binary asteroids that exhibit very long primary periods and, mostly, short secondary periods that are similar to those of the primary of "normal" small binary asteroids. It is unlikely that confirming mutual events will be seen by photometric observations, mostly because the orbital periods of the assumed satellites will be on the order of days. This paper introduces three additional candidates for this subgroup: (215442) 2002 MQ3, 2009 EC, and 2016 BU13. All three are considered to be among the more convincing examples that such systems exist.

  2. Morphological control in polymer solar cells using low-boiling-point solvent additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahadevapuram, Rakesh C.

    In the global search for clean, renewable energy sources, organic photovoltaics (OPVs) have recently been given much attention. Popular modern-day OPVs are made from solution-processible, carbon-based polymers (e.g. the model poly(3-hexylthiophene) that are intimately blended with fullerene derivatives (e.g. [6,6]-phenyl-C71-butyric acid methyl ester) to form what is known as the dispersed bulk-heterojunction (BHJ). This BHJ architecture has produced some of the most efficient OPVs to date, with reports closing in on 10% power conversion efficiency. To push efficiencies further into double digits, many groups have identified the BHJ nanomorphology---that is, the phase separations and grain sizes within the polymer: fullerene composite---as a key aspect in need of control and improvement. As a result, many methods, including thermal annealing, slow-drying (solvent) annealing, vapor annealing, and solvent additives, have been developed and studied to promote BHJ self-organization. Processing organic photovoltaic (OPV) blend solutions with high-boiling-point solvent additives has recently been used for morphological control in BHJ OPV cells. Here we show that even low-boiling-point solvents can be effective additives. When P3HT:PCBM OPV cells were processed with a low-boiling-point solvent tetrahydrafuran as an additive in parent solvent o-dichlorobenzene, charge extraction increased leading to fill factors as high as 69.5%, without low work-function cathodes, electrode buffer layers or thermal treatment. This was attributed to PCBM demixing from P3HT domains and better vertical phase separation, as indicated by photoluminescence lifetimes, hole mobilities, and shunt leakage currents. Dependence on solvent parameters and applicability beyond P3HT system was also investigated.

  3. Summary of beam quality diagnostics and control working group

    SciTech Connect

    Lewellen, John; Piot, Philippe; /Northern Illinois U. /Fermilab

    2006-09-01

    The working group on beam quality, diagnostics, and control at the 12th Advanced Accelerator Concepts Workshop held a series of meetings during the Workshop. The generation of bright charged-particle beams (in particular electron and positron beams), along with state-of-the-art beam diagnostics and synchronization were discussed.

  4. FYI: Services to Poor Families; Controlling Infectious Diseases; Parent Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Children Today, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Discusses services and resources available for families, parents, and child care providers. Describes a National Resource Center for Children in Poverty; a guide for controlling infectious diseases among young children in day care; a directory of parent support groups; and reports of a link between household pesticides and childhood leukemia. (BB)

  5. 78 FR 36541 - Public Interface Control Working Group (ICWG) Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-18

    ... be hosting a Public Interface Control Working Group (ICWG) meeting for the Navstar GPS public signals... Segment L5 Interfaces), IS-GPS-800 (User Segment L1C Interface), and the Next Generation Operational... signals-in-space documents with respect to the six issues outlined below, and (2) to collect...

  6. Marathon Group: Changes in Perceived Locus of Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foulds, Melvin L.; And Others

    1974-01-01

    Fifteen college students participated in a 24-hour marathon group and responded to the Internal-External Scale immediately before and after the experience. The results disclosed significant positive change at the .001 level in perceived locus of internal-external control of reinforcement expectancies in the direction of increased internality.…

  7. Heat tolerant fungi and applied research: Addition to the previously treated group of strictly thermotolerant species.

    PubMed

    Mouchacca, Jean

    2007-12-01

    Heat tolerant fungi are organisms that may perform bioconversion processes and produce industrially important metabolites. They may either be obligate thermophiles or simple thermotolerants. The present document is the continuation of a critical note on thermotolerant fungi erroneously reported in the literature as possessing thermophilic attributes. Fifty strictly thermotolerant taxa are here considered. Some of their binomials have only recently been introduced in the scientific literature. The reported thermotolerant species are grouped according to broad taxonomic categories. The nomenclature of zygomycetous taxa and anamorphic fungi is straightforward, as usually only one binomial is available or only one state is produced in culture respectively. For Ascomycetes regularly producing in culture a conidial state, the name of the sexual state (teleomorph) should be used to designate the organism even when a binomial is available for the anamorph; this prevents the practice of interchangeably using the name of either states of the same fungus. When ascomycetous taxa produce the anamorph regularly and the teleomorph only under specific cultural conditions, the name of the anamorph could be preferentially selected. The goal is to introduce uniformity in name citations of fungi, particularly in the literature of applied research. Each species is reported under its taxonomically correct name, either the original binomial or the latest combined binomial after generic transfer(s). Known synonyms are also specified. Maximum efforts were undertaken to trace updated information on the taxonomic position of these fifty strict thermotolerant species. For each, information on the type material, morphological features distinguishing it from related members of the genus (and when necessary a generic taxonomic assessment) and, finally, salient ecological features including heat tolerance levels are given. For some information on their biotechnological use is also provided

  8. Pragmatic randomised controlled trial of group psychoeducation versus group support in the maintenance of bipolar disorder

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Non-didactically delivered curriculum based group psychoeducation has been shown to be more effective than both group support in a specialist mood disorder centre in Spain (with effects lasting up to five years), and treatment as usual in Australia. It is unclear whether the specific content and form of group psychoeducation is effective or the chance to meet and work collaboratively with other peers. The main objective of this trial is to determine whether curriculum based group psychoeducation is more clinically and cost effective than unstructured peer group support. Methods/design Single blind two centre cluster randomised controlled trial of 21 sessions group psychoeducation versus 21 sessions group peer support in adults with bipolar 1 or 2 disorder, not in current episode but relapsed in the previous two years. Individual randomisation is to either group at each site. The groups are carefully matched for the number and type of therapists, length and frequency of the interventions and overall aim of the groups but differ in content and style of delivery. The primary outcome is time to next bipolar episode with measures of the therapeutic process, barriers and drivers to the effective delivery of the interventions and economic analysis. Follow up is for 96 weeks after randomisation. Discussion The trial has features of both an efficacy and an effectiveness trial design. For generalisability in England it is set in routine public mental health practice with a high degree of expert patient involvement. Trial Registration ISRCTN62761948 Funding National Institute for Health Research, England. PMID:21777426

  9. Additive opportunistic capture explains group hunting benefits in African wild dogs.

    PubMed

    Hubel, Tatjana Y; Myatt, Julia P; Jordan, Neil R; Dewhirst, Oliver P; McNutt, J Weldon; Wilson, Alan M

    2016-03-29

    African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) are described as highly collaborative endurance pursuit hunters based on observations derived primarily from the grass plains of East Africa. However, the remaining population of this endangered species mainly occupies mixed woodland savannah where hunting strategies appear to differ from those previously described. We used high-resolution GPS and inertial technology to record fine-scale movement of all members of a single pack of six adult African wild dogs in northern Botswana. The dogs used multiple short-distance hunting attempts with a low individual kill rate (15.5%), but high group feeding rate due to the sharing of prey. Use of high-level cooperative chase strategies (coordination and collaboration) was not recorded. In the mixed woodland habitats typical of their current range, simultaneous, opportunistic, short-distance chasing by dogs pursuing multiple prey (rather than long collaborative pursuits of single prey by multiple individuals) could be the key to their relative success in these habitats.

  10. Additive opportunistic capture explains group hunting benefits in African wild dogs.

    PubMed

    Hubel, Tatjana Y; Myatt, Julia P; Jordan, Neil R; Dewhirst, Oliver P; McNutt, J Weldon; Wilson, Alan M

    2016-01-01

    African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) are described as highly collaborative endurance pursuit hunters based on observations derived primarily from the grass plains of East Africa. However, the remaining population of this endangered species mainly occupies mixed woodland savannah where hunting strategies appear to differ from those previously described. We used high-resolution GPS and inertial technology to record fine-scale movement of all members of a single pack of six adult African wild dogs in northern Botswana. The dogs used multiple short-distance hunting attempts with a low individual kill rate (15.5%), but high group feeding rate due to the sharing of prey. Use of high-level cooperative chase strategies (coordination and collaboration) was not recorded. In the mixed woodland habitats typical of their current range, simultaneous, opportunistic, short-distance chasing by dogs pursuing multiple prey (rather than long collaborative pursuits of single prey by multiple individuals) could be the key to their relative success in these habitats. PMID:27023355

  11. Addition of ethylene or hydrogen to a main-group metal cluster under mild conditions.

    PubMed

    Vasko, Petra; Wang, Shuai; Tuononen, Heikki M; Power, Philip P

    2015-03-16

    Reaction of the tin cluster Sn8(Ar(Me6))4(Ar(Me6)=C6H2-2,6-(C6H3-2,4,6-Me3)2) with excess ethylene or dihydrogen at 25 °C/1 atmosphere yielded two new clusters that incorporated ethylene or hydrogen. The reaction with ethylene yielded Sn4(Ar(Me6))4(C2H2)5 that contained five ethylene moieties bridging four aryl substituted tin atoms and one tin-tin bond. Reaction with H2 produced a cyclic tin species of formula (Sn(H)Ar(Me6))4, which could also be synthesized by the reaction of {(Ar(Me6))Sn(μ-Cl)}2 with DIBAL-H. These reactions represent the first instances of direct reactions of isolable main-group clusters with ethylene or hydrogen under mild conditions. The products were characterized in the solid state by X-ray diffraction and IR spectroscopy and in solution by multinuclear NMR and UV/Vis spectroscopies. Density functional theory calculations were performed to explain the reactivity of the cluster.

  12. Additive opportunistic capture explains group hunting benefits in African wild dogs

    PubMed Central

    Hubel, Tatjana Y.; Myatt, Julia P.; Jordan, Neil R.; Dewhirst, Oliver P.; McNutt, J. Weldon; Wilson, Alan M.

    2016-01-01

    African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) are described as highly collaborative endurance pursuit hunters based on observations derived primarily from the grass plains of East Africa. However, the remaining population of this endangered species mainly occupies mixed woodland savannah where hunting strategies appear to differ from those previously described. We used high-resolution GPS and inertial technology to record fine-scale movement of all members of a single pack of six adult African wild dogs in northern Botswana. The dogs used multiple short-distance hunting attempts with a low individual kill rate (15.5%), but high group feeding rate due to the sharing of prey. Use of high-level cooperative chase strategies (coordination and collaboration) was not recorded. In the mixed woodland habitats typical of their current range, simultaneous, opportunistic, short-distance chasing by dogs pursuing multiple prey (rather than long collaborative pursuits of single prey by multiple individuals) could be the key to their relative success in these habitats. PMID:27023355

  13. Anaerobic Activation of p-Cymene in Denitrifying Betaproteobacteria: Methyl Group Hydroxylation versus Addition to Fumarate

    PubMed Central

    Strijkstra, Annemieke; Trautwein, Kathleen; Jarling, René; Wöhlbrand, Lars; Dörries, Marvin; Reinhardt, Richard; Drozdowska, Marta; Golding, Bernard T.; Wilkes, Heinz

    2014-01-01

    The betaproteobacteria “Aromatoleum aromaticum” pCyN1 and “Thauera” sp. strain pCyN2 anaerobically degrade the plant-derived aromatic hydrocarbon p-cymene (4-isopropyltoluene) under nitrate-reducing conditions. Metabolite analysis of p-cymene-adapted “A. aromaticum” pCyN1 cells demonstrated the specific formation of 4-isopropylbenzyl alcohol and 4-isopropylbenzaldehyde, whereas with “Thauera” sp. pCyN2, exclusively 4-isopropylbenzylsuccinate and tentatively identified (4-isopropylphenyl)itaconate were observed. 4-Isopropylbenzoate in contrast was detected with both strains. Proteogenomic investigation of p-cymene- versus succinate-adapted cells of the two strains revealed distinct protein profiles agreeing with the different metabolites formed from p-cymene. “A. aromaticum” pCyN1 specifically produced (i) a putative p-cymene dehydrogenase (CmdABC) expected to hydroxylate the benzylic methyl group of p-cymene, (ii) two dehydrogenases putatively oxidizing 4-isopropylbenzyl alcohol (Iod) and 4-isopropylbenzaldehyde (Iad), and (iii) the putative 4-isopropylbenzoate-coenzyme A (CoA) ligase (Ibl). The p-cymene-specific protein profile of “Thauera” sp. pCyN2, on the other hand, encompassed proteins homologous to subunits of toluene-activating benzylsuccinate synthase (termed [4-isopropylbenzyl]succinate synthase IbsABCDEF; identified subunits, IbsAE) and protein homologs of the benzylsuccinate β-oxidation (Bbs) pathway (termed BisABCDEFGH; all identified except for BisEF). This study reveals that two related denitrifying bacteria employ fundamentally different peripheral degradation routes for one and the same substrate, p-cymene, with the two pathways apparently converging at the level of 4-isopropylbenzoyl-CoA. PMID:25261521

  14. Cost and performance of Group 2 boiler NOx controls

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, S.; Maibodi, M.; Srivastava, R.

    1997-12-31

    This paper presents the results of a study conducted to assist EPA in developing the Phase II NO{sub x} rule under Title IV of the Clean Air Act Amendment of 1990 (the Act). The specific purpose of this study was to assess the performance and capital and total levelized costs of NO{sub x} controls pertinent to Group 2 boilers. Group 2 boilers are all coal-fired boilers that are not dry-bottom wall-fired and tangentially fired and include cell burner-fired, cyclone-fired, wet-bottom, vertically fired, stoker-fired, and fluidized-bed boilers.

  15. Synthesis of Heterocycles Through Classical Ugi and Passerini Reactions Followed by Secondary Transformations Involving One or Two Additional Functional Groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banfi, Luca; Basso, Andrea; Riva, Renata

    The combination of classical isocyanide-based multicomponent reactions (Ugi and Passerini) with a variety of post-condensation transformations, which take advantage of suitably positioned additional functional groups, allows the straightforward synthesis, often in 1-2 synthetic steps, of many diverse nitrogen-containing heterocycles. This review will cover all the applications of this strategy reported to date (September 2009).

  16. Enhancing First-Grade Students' Addition-Fact Fluency Using Classwide Cover, Copy, and Compare, a Sprint, and Group Rewards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poncy, Brian C.; Skinner, Christopher H.

    2011-01-01

    The authors used a multiple-probe, across-tasks design to evaluate the effects of a classwide, multicomponent intervention on first-grade students' addition-fact fluency. Intervention components included "cover, copy, and compare," a 2-min math sprint, and a weekly group reward. Results showed that classwide digits correct per minute averages…

  17. PTS performance by flight- and control-group macaques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Washburn, D. A.; Rumbaugh, D. M.; Richardson, W. K.; Gulledge, J. P.; Shlyk, G. G.; Vasilieva, O. N.

    2000-01-01

    A total of 25 young monkeys (Macaca mulatta) were trained with the Psychomotor Test System, a package of software tasks and computer hardware developed for spaceflight research with nonhuman primates. Two flight monkeys and two control monkeys were selected from this pool and performed a psychomotor task before and after the Bion 11 flight or a ground-control period. Monkeys from both groups showed significant disruption in performance after the 14-day flight or simulation (plus one anesthetized day of biopsies and other tests), and this disruption appeared to be magnified for the flight animal.

  18. 26 CFR 1.382-8 - Controlled groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 CFR part 1 revised as of April 1, 1999, a reference to §§ 1.1502-91, 1.1502-92, 1.1502-93, and... beginning before May 30, 2006, see § 1.382-8 as contained in 26 CFR part 1 in effect on April 1, 2006. ... provides rules to adjust the value of a loss corporation that is a member of a controlled group...

  19. Animated sulfonated or sulformethylated lignins as cement fluid loss control additives

    SciTech Connect

    Schilling, P.

    1991-05-07

    This patent describes a method of cementing a zone in a well penetrating a subterranean formation comprising injecting down the well and positioning in the zone to be cemented a hydraulic aqueous cement slurry composition. It comprises: a hydraulic cement, and the following expressed as parts by weight per 100 parts of the hydraulic cement, water from about 25 to 105 parts, and a fluid loss control additive comprising from about 0.5 to 2.5 parts of a compound selected from the group consisting of a sulfonated lignin and a sulfomethylated lignin, wherein the lignin has been aminated by reacting it with between about 2-5 moles of a polyamine and 2-5 moles of an aldehyde per 1,000g of the lignin, and 0.1 to 1.5 parts of a compound selected from the group consisting of sodium carbonate, sodium metasilicate, sodium phosphate, sodium sulfite and sodium naphthalene sulfonate and a combination thereof.

  20. Carboxylic Acids as A Traceless Activation Group for Conjugate Additions: A Three-Step Synthesis of (±)-Pregabalin

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The direct application of carboxylic acids as a traceless activation group for radical Michael additions has been accomplished via visible light-mediated photoredox catalysis. Photon-induced oxidation of a broad series of carboxylic acids, including hydrocarbon-substituted, α-oxy, and α-amino acids, provides a versatile CO2-extrusion platform to generate Michael donors without the requirement for organometallic activation or propagation. A diverse array of Michael acceptors is amenable to this new conjugate addition strategy. An application of this technology to a three-step synthesis of the medicinal agent pregabalin (commercialized by Pfizer under the trade name Lyrica) is also presented. PMID:25032785

  1. Controlled teleportation with the control of two groups of agents via entanglement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Xiao-Ling; Liu, Man; Yang, Chui-Ping

    2015-03-01

    We present a way for implementing controlled teleportation of an arbitrary unknown pure state of a qutrit with the control of two groups of agents via entanglement. In our proposal, the sender can successfully teleport the qutrit state to a distant receiver with the help of all agents. However, if one agent in each group does not cooperate, the receiver cannot gain any information (including amplitude information or phase information or both) about the qutrit state to be teleported. Since a qubit is a special case of a qutrit when the state lies in a fixed two-dimensional subspace of the qutrit, the present proposal can be also applied in the implementation of controlled teleportation of an arbitrary unknown pure state of a qubit with many control agents in two groups. We note that our proposal is the first one to use two groups of agents to achieve controlled teleportation.

  2. Proper use of sludge-control additives in residential heating oil systems

    SciTech Connect

    Tatnall, R.E.

    1995-04-01

    Discussed are various aspects of heating oil `sludge`: How it forms, typical problems it causes, how sludge-control additives work, what should be expected of them, and what happens in a contaminated system when such additives are used. Test results from laboratory and field experiments demonstrate that performance of commercially available additives varies greatly. The concept of `end-of-the-line` treatment is described and compared with bulk fuel treatment. A procedure is described whereby a retailer can test additives himself, and thus determine just what those additives will or will not do for his business. Finally, the economics of an effective treatment program are outlined.

  3. Postural control in response to a perturbation: role of vision and additional support.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, Vennila; Vennila, Krishnan; Aruin, Alexander S

    2011-07-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the availability of vision and additional support on anticipatory (APA) and compensatory (CPA) postural adjustments and their interaction. Eight healthy adults were exposed to external perturbations induced at the shoulder level while standing with and without holding onto a walker in full vision and while blindfolded. Electrical activity of the trunk and leg muscles and center of pressure (COPAP) displacement were recorded and quantified within the time intervals typical of APA and CPA. The results showed that with full vision, there was no difference in both APA and CPA in standing with and without holding onto a walker. With subjects holding onto a walker, CPA in standing blindfolded were comparable to CPA in full vision; this was seen in changes in the electrical activity of most of the muscles at the individual muscle, joint, and the muscle group levels as well as in COPAP displacement. The findings suggest that (1) in conditions where vision is available, vision overrules simultaneously available proprioceptive information from the support, (2) while in conditions where vision is not available, proprioceptive information from the support or support itself could be substituted for vision. It is possible to suggest that using a non-stabilizing support could be a valuable strategy to improve postural control when visual information is not available or compromised.

  4. The additional value of a night splint to eccentric exercises in chronic midportion Achilles tendinopathy: a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    de Vos, R J; Weir, A; Visser, R J A; de Winter, ThC; Tol, J L

    2007-01-01

    Aim To assess whether the use of a night splint is of added benefit on functional outcome in treating chronic midportion Achilles tendinopathy. Methods This was a single‐blind, prospective, single centre, randomised controlled trial set in the Sports Medical Department, The Hague Medical Centre, The Netherlands. Inclusion criteria were: age 18–70 years, active participation in sports, and tendon pain localised at 2–7 cm from distal insertion. Exclusion criteria were: insertional disorders, partial or complete ruptures, or systemic illness. 70 tendons were included and randomised into one of two treatment groups: eccentric exercises with a night splint (night splint group, n = 36) or eccentric exercises only (eccentric group, n = 34). Interventions Both groups completed a 12‐week heavy‐load eccentric training programme. One group received a night splint in addition to eccentric exercises. At baseline and follow‐up at 12 weeks, patient satisfaction, Victorian Institute of Sport Assessment–Achilles questionnaire (VISA‐A) score and reported compliance were recorded by a single‐blind trained researcher who was blinded to the treatment. Results After 12 weeks, patient satisfaction in the eccentric group was 63% compared with 48% in the night splint group. The VISA‐A score significantly improved in both groups; in the eccentric group from 50.1 to 68.8 (p = 0.001) and in the night splint group from 49.4 to 67.0 (p<0.001). There was no significant difference between the two groups in VISA‐A score (p = 0.815) and patient satisfaction (p = 0.261). Conclusion A night splint is not beneficial in addition to eccentric exercises in the treatment of chronic midportion Achilles tendinopathy. PMID:17178774

  5. A Helical Polyphenylacetylene Having Amino Alcohol Moieties Without Chiral Side Groups as a Chiral Ligand for the Asymmetric Addition of Diethylzinc to Benzaldehyde.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lijia; Long, Qing; Aoki, Toshiki; Zhang, Geng; Kaneko, Takashi; Teraguchi, Masahiro; Zhang, Chunhong; Wang, Yudan

    2015-08-01

    One-handed helical polyphenylacetylenes having achiral amino alcohol moieties, but no chiral side groups, were synthesized by the helix-sense-selective copolymerization of an achiral phenylacetylene having an amino alcohol side group with a phenylacetylene having two hydroxyl groups. Since the resulting helical copolymers were successfully utilized as chiral ligands for the enantioselective alkylation of benzaldehyde with diethylzinc, we can conclude that the main-chain chirality based on the one-handed helical conformation is useful for the chiral catalysis of an asymmetric reaction for the first time. The enantioselectivities of the reaction were controlled by the optical purities of the helical polymer ligands. In addition, the polymer ligands could be easily recovered by precipitation after the reaction.

  6. Polarity Control in Group-III Nitrides beyond Pragmatism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohn, Stefan; Stolyarchuk, Natalia; Markurt, Toni; Kirste, Ronny; Hoffmann, Marc P.; Collazo, Ramón; Courville, Aimeric; Di Felice, Rosa; Sitar, Zlatko; Vennéguès, Philippe; Albrecht, Martin

    2016-05-01

    Controlling the polarity of polar semiconductors on nonpolar substrates offers a wealth of device concepts in the form of heteropolar junctions. A key to realize such structures is an appropriate buffer-layer design that, in the past, has been developed by empiricism. GaN or ZnO on sapphire are prominent examples for that. Understanding the basic processes that mediate polarity, however, is still an unsolved problem. In this work, we study the structure of buffer layers for group-III nitrides on sapphire by transmission electron microscopy as an example. We show that it is the conversion of the sapphire surface into a rhombohedral aluminum-oxynitride layer that converts the initial N-polar surface to Al polarity. With the various AlxOyNz phases of the pseudobinary Al2O3 -AlN system and their tolerance against intrinsic defects, typical for oxides, a smooth transition between the octahedrally coordinated Al in the sapphire and the tetrahedrally coordinated Al in AlN becomes feasible. Based on these results, we discuss the consequences for achieving either polarity and shed light on widely applied concepts in the field of group-III nitrides like nitridation and low-temperature buffer layers.

  7. Group cognitive behavioural therapy and group recreational activity for adults with autism spectrum disorders: A preliminary randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Plenty, Stephanie; Bejerot, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    Although adults with autism spectrum disorder are an increasingly identified patient population, few treatment options are available. This preliminary randomized controlled open trial with a parallel design developed two group interventions for adults with autism spectrum disorders and intelligence within the normal range: cognitive behavioural therapy and recreational activity. Both interventions comprised 36 weekly 3-h sessions led by two therapists in groups of 6–8 patients. A total of 68 psychiatric patients with autism spectrum disorders participated in the study. Outcome measures were Quality of Life Inventory, Sense of Coherence Scale, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and an exploratory analysis on measures of psychiatric health. Participants in both treatment conditions reported an increased quality of life at post-treatment (d = 0.39, p < 0.001), with no difference between interventions. No amelioration of psychiatric symptoms was observed. The dropout rate was lower with cognitive behavioural therapy than with recreational activity, and participants in cognitive behavioural therapy rated themselves as more generally improved, as well as more improved regarding expression of needs and understanding of difficulties. Both interventions appear to be promising treatment options for adults with autism spectrum disorder. The interventions’ similar efficacy may be due to the common elements, structure and group setting. Cognitive behavioural therapy may be additionally beneficial in terms of increasing specific skills and minimizing dropout. PMID:24089423

  8. Group cognitive behavioural therapy and group recreational activity for adults with autism spectrum disorders: a preliminary randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Hesselmark, Eva; Plenty, Stephanie; Bejerot, Susanne

    2014-08-01

    Although adults with autism spectrum disorder are an increasingly identified patient population, few treatment options are available. This preliminary randomized controlled open trial with a parallel design developed two group interventions for adults with autism spectrum disorders and intelligence within the normal range: cognitive behavioural therapy and recreational activity. Both interventions comprised 36 weekly 3-h sessions led by two therapists in groups of 6-8 patients. A total of 68 psychiatric patients with autism spectrum disorders participated in the study. Outcome measures were Quality of Life Inventory, Sense of Coherence Scale, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and an exploratory analysis on measures of psychiatric health. Participants in both treatment conditions reported an increased quality of life at post-treatment (d = 0.39, p < 0.001), with no difference between interventions. No amelioration of psychiatric symptoms was observed. The dropout rate was lower with cognitive behavioural therapy than with recreational activity, and participants in cognitive behavioural therapy rated themselves as more generally improved, as well as more improved regarding expression of needs and understanding of difficulties. Both interventions appear to be promising treatment options for adults with autism spectrum disorder. The interventions' similar efficacy may be due to the common elements, structure and group setting. Cognitive behavioural therapy may be additionally beneficial in terms of increasing specific skills and minimizing dropout.

  9. Antagonistic control of a dual-input mammalian gene switch by food additives.

    PubMed

    Xie, Mingqi; Ye, Haifeng; Hamri, Ghislaine Charpin-El; Fussenegger, Martin

    2014-08-01

    Synthetic biology has significantly advanced the design of mammalian trigger-inducible transgene-control devices that are able to programme complex cellular behaviour. Fruit-based benzoate derivatives licensed as food additives, such as flavours (e.g. vanillate) and preservatives (e.g. benzoate), are a particularly attractive class of trigger compounds for orthogonal mammalian transgene control devices because of their innocuousness, physiological compatibility and simple oral administration. Capitalizing on the genetic componentry of the soil bacterium Comamonas testosteroni, which has evolved to catabolize a variety of aromatic compounds, we have designed different mammalian gene expression systems that could be induced and repressed by the food additives benzoate and vanillate. When implanting designer cells engineered for gene switch-driven expression of the human placental secreted alkaline phosphatase (SEAP) into mice, blood SEAP levels of treated animals directly correlated with a benzoate-enriched drinking programme. Additionally, the benzoate-/vanillate-responsive device was compatible with other transgene control systems and could be assembled into higher-order control networks providing expression dynamics reminiscent of a lap-timing stopwatch. Designer gene switches using licensed food additives as trigger compounds to achieve antagonistic dual-input expression profiles and provide novel control topologies and regulation dynamics may advance future gene- and cell-based therapies.

  10. Antagonistic control of a dual-input mammalian gene switch by food additives

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Mingqi; Ye, Haifeng; Hamri, Ghislaine Charpin-El; Fussenegger, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Synthetic biology has significantly advanced the design of mammalian trigger-inducible transgene-control devices that are able to programme complex cellular behaviour. Fruit-based benzoate derivatives licensed as food additives, such as flavours (e.g. vanillate) and preservatives (e.g. benzoate), are a particularly attractive class of trigger compounds for orthogonal mammalian transgene control devices because of their innocuousness, physiological compatibility and simple oral administration. Capitalizing on the genetic componentry of the soil bacterium Comamonas testosteroni, which has evolved to catabolize a variety of aromatic compounds, we have designed different mammalian gene expression systems that could be induced and repressed by the food additives benzoate and vanillate. When implanting designer cells engineered for gene switch-driven expression of the human placental secreted alkaline phosphatase (SEAP) into mice, blood SEAP levels of treated animals directly correlated with a benzoate-enriched drinking programme. Additionally, the benzoate-/vanillate-responsive device was compatible with other transgene control systems and could be assembled into higher-order control networks providing expression dynamics reminiscent of a lap-timing stopwatch. Designer gene switches using licensed food additives as trigger compounds to achieve antagonistic dual-input expression profiles and provide novel control topologies and regulation dynamics may advance future gene- and cell-based therapies. PMID:25030908

  11. A quantum chemical study of the mechanisms of olefin addition to group 9 transition metal dioxo compounds.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Issahaku; Tia, Richard; Adei, Evans

    2016-01-01

    triplet PES than on the singlet PES for the formation of similar analogues. There are fewer competitive reaction pathways on the triplet surface than on the singlet PES. Also, cycloadditions that seem impossible on the singlet PES seem possible on the doublet and or triplet PESs, this is the case typically for the Rh and Co complexes, illustrating the importance of multiple spin states in organometallic reactions.Graphical AbstractTable of Contents Synopsis: A study of the mechanism of ethylene addition to MO2(CH2)(CH3)(M=Co,Rh,Ir) shows the reactions of the Co complex have lower activation barriers for the preferred [3+2] and [2+2] addition pathways and fewer side reactions than those of Rh and Ir. Reactions are more feasible and selective on the triplet PES than on the singlet PES. These illustrate the importance of multiple spin states in organometallic reactions and shows catalyst activity and selectivity decreases down the group.

  12. Control of terahertz emission in photoconductive antennas through an additional optical continuous wave.

    PubMed

    Bockelt, A; Palací, J; Vidal, B

    2013-08-15

    The manipulation of the operating conditions of photoconductive antennas by means of an additional continuous wave (CW) is reported. It is used to control a fiber-based terahertz (THz) time-domain-spectroscopy system at telecom wavelengths. The injection of an optical CW into the transmitter allows the control of the THz amplitude without causing major degradation to the system performance. This, for instance, can be exploited to perform modulation of the THz signal. PMID:24104665

  13. Torsional Control of Stereoselectivities in Electrophilic Additions and Cycloadditions to Alkenes

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hao; Houk, K. N.

    2013-01-01

    Torsional effects control the π-facial stereoselectivities of a variety of synthetically important organic reactions. This review surveys theoretical calculations that have led to the understanding of the influence of the torsional effects on several types of stereoselective organic reactions, especially electrophilic additions and cycloadditions to alkenes. PMID:24409340

  14. Control of dynamical localization by an additional quantum degree of freedom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riedel, K.; Törmä, P.; Savichev, V.; Schleich, W. P.

    1999-01-01

    We identify a parameter that controls the localization length in a driven quantum system. This parameter results from an additional quantum degree of freedom. The center-of-mass motion of a two-level ion stored in a Paul trap and interacting with a standing-wave laser field exhibits this phenomenon. We also discuss the influence of spontaneous emission.

  15. 74. SAC control center addition sect 9top three floors, first ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    74. SAC control center addition sect 9-top three floors, first floor plan, drawing number AS-BLT.AW30-02-03, dated May, 1958 - Offutt Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command Headquarters & Command Center, Headquarters Building, 901 SAC Boulevard, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  16. 40 CFR 52.1163 - Additional control measures for East Boston.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Additional control measures for East Boston. 52.1163 Section 52.1163 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... spaces at Logan Airport and increased parking charges at remaining spaces; (5) Construction of...

  17. Chill water additive controls transfer of Salmonella and Campylobacter by improved chlorine efficacy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In earlier work, we showed that a proprietary additive (T-128) maintains chlorine activity in the presence of organic material such as broiler parts. T-128 improves the efficacy of chlorine to control transfer of Campylobacter and Salmonella from inoculated wings to un-inoculated wings during immer...

  18. The Use of Nominal Group Technique to Determine Additional Support Needs for a Group of Victorian TAFE Managers and Senior Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Anthony

    2013-01-01

    The nominal group technique (NGT) is a structured process to gather information from a group. The technique was first described in 1975 and has since become a widely-used standard to facilitate working groups. The NGT is effective for generating large numbers of creative new ideas and for group priority setting. This paper describes the process of…

  19. Standard versus prosocial online support groups for distressed breast cancer survivors: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The Internet can increase access to psychosocial care for breast cancer survivors through online support groups. This study will test a novel prosocial online group that emphasizes both opportunities for getting and giving help. Based on the helper therapy principle, it is hypothesized that the addition of structured helping opportunities and coaching on how to help others online will increase the psychological benefits of a standard online group. Methods/Design A two-armed randomized controlled trial with pretest and posttest. Non-metastatic breast cancer survivors with elevated psychological distress will be randomized to either a standard facilitated online group or to a prosocial facilitated online group, which combines online exchanges of support with structured helping opportunities (blogging, breast cancer outreach) and coaching on how best to give support to others. Validated and reliable measures will be administered to women approximately one month before and after the interventions. Self-esteem, positive affect, and sense of belonging will be tested as potential mediators of the primary outcomes of depressive/anxious symptoms and sense of purpose in life. Discussion This study will test an innovative approach to maximizing the psychological benefits of cancer online support groups. The theory-based prosocial online support group intervention model is sustainable, because it can be implemented by private non-profit or other organizations, such as cancer centers, which mostly offer face-to-face support groups with limited patient reach. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01396174 PMID:21867502

  20. The Addition of A Pregnenolone Pendant Group Enhances the Anticancer Properties of Titanocene Dichloride in a MCF-7 Xenograft Model

    PubMed Central

    Ramos, Gladiany; Loperena, Yaliz; Ortiz, Giovanni; Reyes, Fiorella; Szeto, Ada; Vera, Jose; Velez, Javier; Morales, Jessica; Morrero, Deborah; Castillo, Linnette; Dharmawardhane, Surangani; Melendez, Enrique; Washington, A. Valance

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aim Titanocene dichloride held great promise as a chemotherapeutic compound in preclinical studies. However, subsequent clinical trials revealed hepatoxicity and nephrotoxicity, which limited its use in clinical applications. Therefore, we used steroid pendant groups to improve the targeting of titanocene in the MCF-7 breast cancer cell line, and demonstrated a 10-fold lower effective dose compared to titanocene in in vitro assays. The aim of the present study was to test the efficacy of a titanocene functionalized with pregnenolone (Ti-Preg) in an in vivo breast cancer model. Materials and Methods Xenografts from the MCF7 breast cancer cell line were implanted into athymic nu/nu mice to evaluate the potential of Ti-Preg as an anti-breast cancer agent. Results Ti-Preg demonstrated a significant inhibition of MCF-7 tumor growth when compared to vehicle and to titanocene controls. Conclusion Our findings demonstrate the potential of steroid pendent groups for targeting chemotherapeutics to steroid hormone-dependent cancer. PMID:24692689

  1. A Simple and Inexpensive Device for Slow, Controlled Addition of a Solution to a Reaction Mixture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osvath, Peter

    1995-07-01

    A number of reactions require the slow and controlled addition of a solution containing one reagent to another. Attempting to control the flow rate over a number of hours using a conventional constant pressure addition funnel is a frustrating exercise; commercially available constant volume addition funnels are expensive and must be adjusted by trial and error each time a reaction is carried out. The use of an (expensive) peristaltic pump or syringe pump overcomes these problems but can introduce other complications. We have recently had occasion to carry out the synthesis of thioether macrocycles and cages requiring the slow and controlled addition of DMF solutions of (offensively odoriferous) thiols or (air-sensitive) thiolates to a reactant solution under nitrogen(1), Although the use of a syringe pump was called for, there are obvious difficulties associated with purging the solution and assembling such an apparatus under nitrogen, and we report a simple and inexpensive solution. A Male Luer Lock tip (recovered from a broken syringe) was sweated onto the flattened tip of a pressure-equalizing addition funnel and a syringe needle was attached. Judicious selection of needle length, bore size, and reactant volume can be used to control the addition time simply and reproducibly. With a 250-mL funnel, the flow rate changes by <25% from the beginning to the end of the addition. (In fact, a reduction in the rate of addition may even be advantageous as the reaction proceeds, the reagent in the receiving flask is consumed, its concentration drops, and the rate of reaction will decrease). A piece of fine Teflon tubing of appropriate length attached to the needle can be used to reduce the flow rate even further, but this is only necessary for very slow rates of addition. For example, the time of addition of 200 mL, of an ethanolic solution could be varied from approximately 5 minutes (150mm/17 gauge) to approximately 5 h (200mm/22 gauge), and once the addition time for a

  2. Control of Asymmetry in the Radical Addition Approach to Chiral Amine Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Friestad, Gregory K.

    2014-01-01

    The state-of-the-science in asymmetric free radical additions to imino compounds is presented, beginning with an overview of methods involving stereocontrol by various chiral auxiliary approaches. Chiral N-acylhydrazones are discussed with respect to their use as radical acceptors for Mn-mediated intermolecular additions, from design to scope surveys to applications to biologically active targets. A variety of aldehydes and ketones serve as viable precursors for the chiral hydrazones, and a variety of alkyl iodides may be employed as radical precursors, as discussed in a critical review of the functional group compatibility of the reaction. Applications to amino acid and alkaloid synthesis are presented to illustrate the synthetic potential of these versatile stereocontrolled carbon–carbon bond construction reactions. Asymmetric catalysis is discussed, from seminal work on the stereocontrol of radical addition to imino compounds by non-covalent interactions with stoichiometric amounts of catalysts, to more recent examples demonstrating catalyst turnover. PMID:24085561

  3. Improving hypertension control among excessive alcohol drinkers: a randomised controlled trial in France. The WALPA Group.

    PubMed Central

    Lang, T; Nicaud, V; Darné, B; Rueff, B

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To improve blood pressure control among hypertensive ( > 140/90 mmHg) excessive alcohol drinkers. DESIGN--Fourteen worksite physicians were randomised onto an intervention group and a control group. The intervention was based on training the worksite physicians and follow up of those hypertensive subjects defined as excessive drinkers. Follow up was based on self monitoring of alcohol consumption by the subject, in view of the results of their gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT) activity determination. SETTING--Fourteen workplaces in France - mainly in the industrial sector. SUBJECTS--Altogether 15 301 subjects were screened by the 14 physicians: 129 of these were included in the study. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--This was the difference between the initial systolic blood pressure (SBP) and the SBP one year later (delta BP). Secondary criteria were the difference between the initial and final diastolic blood pressure (delta DBP) and delta BP at two years; antihypertensive treatment; state alcohol consumption (delta AC); delta GGT; and body mass index (delta BMI). RESULTS--The decrease in SBP levels was significantly larger in the intervention group than in the control group: at one year, delta SBP values were -11.9 (15.6) mmHg and -4.6 (13.8) respectively (p < 0.05). This benefit was still observed after two years of follow up (-13.8 (17.4) mmHg v -7.5 (14.2) mmHg (p < 0.05)). No difference was observed in DBP. The percentage of treated subjects did not differ between groups. At one year, delta AC was larger in the intervention group (-2.8 (5.2) U/d) than in the control group (-1.6 (3.4) (p < 0.1)). delta GGT and delta BMI did not differ between the two groups. A weak positive correlation was observed between delta AC and delta SBP (r = 0.16). CONCLUSION--An intervention aimed at the hypertensive excessive drinkers in a working population was found to be effective in reducing SBP on a long term basis (two years). The mechanisms of reduction in alcohol

  4. Field Testing of a Wet FGD Additive for Enhanced Mercury Control - Pilot-Scale Test Results

    SciTech Connect

    Gary M. Blythe

    2006-03-01

    This Topical Report summarizes progress on Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-04NT42309, ''Field Testing of a Wet FGD Additive.'' The objective of the project is to demonstrate the use of a flue gas desulfurization (FGD) additive, Degussa Corporation's TMT-15, to prevent the reemissions of elemental mercury (Hg{sup 0}) in flue gas exiting wet FGD systems on coal-fired boilers. Furthermore, the project intends to demonstrate that the additive can be used to precipitate most of the mercury (Hg) removed in the wet FGD system as a fine TMT salt that can be separated from the FGD liquor and bulk solid byproducts for separate disposal. The project will conduct pilot and full-scale tests of the TMT-15 additive in wet FGD absorbers. The tests are intended to determine required additive dosage requirements to prevent Hg{sup 0} reemissions and to separate mercury from the normal FGD byproducts for three coal types: Texas lignite/Power River Basin (PRB) coal blend, high-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal, and low-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal. The project team consists of URS Group, Inc., EPRI, TXU Generation Company LP, Southern Company, and Degussa Corporation. TXU Generation has provided the Texas lignite/PRB co-fired test site for pilot FGD tests, Monticello Steam Electric Station Unit 3. Southern Company is providing the low-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal host site for wet scrubbing tests, as well as the pilot and full-scale jet bubbling reactor (JBR) FGD systems to be tested. A third utility, to be named later, will provide the high-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal full-scale FGD test site. Degussa Corporation is providing the TMT-15 additive and technical support to the test program. The project is being conducted in six tasks. Of the six project tasks, Task 1 involves project planning and Task 6 involves management and reporting. The other four tasks involve field testing on FGD systems, either at pilot or full scale. The four tasks include: Task 2 - Pilot Additive Testing in

  5. Controlling a toxic shock of pentachlorophenol (PCP) to anaerobic digestion using activated carbon addition.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Yeyuan; De Araujo, Cecilia; Sze, Chun Chau; Stuckey, David C

    2015-04-01

    Several powdered and granular activated carbons (PACs and GACs) were tested for adsorption of pentachlorophenol (PCP) in bench-scale anaerobic digestion reactors to control the toxicity of PCP to acetoclastic methanogenesis. Results showed that the adsorption capacities of PAC were reduced by 21-54%, depending on the PAC addition time, in the presence of the methanogenic sludge compared to the controls without sludge. As a preventive measure, PAC at a low dose of 20% (mass ratio to the VSS) added 24 h prior to, or simultaneously with, the addition of PCP could completely eliminate the toxic effects of PCP. At the same dose, PAC also enabled methanogenesis to recover immediately after the sludge had been exposed to PCP for 24h. GAC was not effective in enabling the recovery of methanogenesis due to its slow adsorption kinetics; however, at a dose of 80% it could partially ameliorate the toxic shock of PCP. PMID:25665874

  6. Hierarchical tailoring of strut architecture to control permeability of additive manufactured titanium implants.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Z; Jones, D; Yue, S; Lee, P D; Jones, J R; Sutcliffe, C J; Jones, E

    2013-10-01

    Porous titanium implants are a common choice for bone augmentation. Implants for spinal fusion and repair of non-union fractures must encourage blood flow after implantation so that there is sufficient cell migration, nutrient and growth factor transport to stimulate bone ingrowth. Additive manufacturing techniques allow a large number of pore network designs. This study investigates how the design factors offered by selective laser melting technique can be used to alter the implant architecture on multiple length scales to control and even tailor the flow. Permeability is a convenient parameter that characterises flow, correlating to structure openness (interconnectivity and pore window size), tortuosity and hence flow shear rates. Using experimentally validated computational simulations, we demonstrate how additive manufacturing can be used to tailor implant properties by controlling surface roughness at a microstructual level (microns), and by altering the strut ordering and density at a mesoscopic level (millimetre). PMID:23910314

  7. Low-boiling-point solvent additives can also enable morphological control in polymer solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Mahadevapuram, Rakesh C.; Carr, John A.; Chen, Yuqing; Bose, Sayantan; Nalwa, Kanwar S.; Petrich, Jacob W.; Chaudhary, Sumit

    2013-11-02

    Processing organic photovoltaic (OPV) blend solutions with high-boiling-point solvent additives has recently been used for morphological control in bulk-heterojunction OPV cells. Here we show that even low-boiling-point solvents can be effective additives. When P3HT:PCBM OPV cells were processed with a low-boiling-point solvent tetrahydrafuran as an additive in parent solvent o-dichlorobenzene, charge extraction increased leading to fill factors as high as 69.5%, without low work-function cathodes, electrode buffer layers or thermal treatment. This was attributed to PCBM demixing from P3HT domains and better vertical phase separation, as indicated by photoluminescence lifetimes, hole mobilities, and shunt leakage currents. Dependence on solvent parameters and applicability beyond P3HT system was also investigated. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. From Victim to Taking Control: Support Group for Bullied Schoolchildren

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kvarme, Lisbeth Gravdal; Aabø, Liv Sandnes; Saeteren, Berit

    2016-01-01

    School bullying is a serious problem affecting the victims in their daily lives at school. The aim of this study was to investigate whether support groups were able to help the victims of bullying to overcome their victim status and to explore what it means to be a member of a support group. An exploratory qualitative design, with individual and…

  9. Terminal groups control self-assembly of amphiphilic block copolymers in solution.

    PubMed

    Grzelakowski, M; Kita-Tokarczyk, K

    2016-03-28

    The terminal groups of amphiphilic block copolymers are shown to control macromolecular self-assembly in aqueous solutions, in the micellar/lamellar region of the phase diagram. At the same concentration and using the same self-assembly conditions, dramatic differences are observed in polymer hydration and the resulting nano-/microstructure for two series of polymers with identical block chemistry and hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (HLB). This suggests a strong contribution from end groups to the hydration as the initial step of the self-assembly process, and could be conveniently used to guide the particle morphology and size. Additionally, for polymers with those head groups which drive vesicular structures, differences in membrane organization affect their physical properties, such as permeability. PMID:26948963

  10. Sodium Bicarbonate Prevents Contrast-Induced Nephropathy in Addition to Theophylline: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Huber, Wolfgang; Huber, Toni; Baum, Stephan; Franzen, Michael; Schmidt, Christian; Stadlbauer, Thomas; Beitz, Analena; Schmid, Roland M; Schmid, Sebastian

    2016-05-01

    In this study, we investigated whether hydration with sodium bicarbonate is superior to hydration with saline in addition to theophylline (both groups) in the prophylaxis of contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN). It was a prospective, randomized, double-blinded study in a university hospital on 2 general intensive care units (63% of investigations) and normal wards.After approval of the local ethics committee and informed consent 152 patients with screening serum creatinine ≥1.1 mg/dL and/or at least 1 additional risk factor for CIN undergoing intravascular contrast media (CM) exposure were randomized to receive a total of 9 mL/kg bicarbonate 154 mmol/L (group B; n = 74) or saline 0.9% (group S; n = 78) hydration within 7 h in addition to intravenous application of 200 mg theophylline. Serum creatinine was determined immediately before, 24 and 48 h after CM exposure. As primary endpoint we investigated the incidence of CIN (increase of serum creatinine ≥0.5 mg/dL and/or ≥25% within 48 h of CM).Both groups were comparable regarding baseline characteristics. Incidence of CIN was significantly less frequent with bicarbonate compared to sodium hydration (1/74 [1.4%] vs 7/78 [9.0%]; P = 0.035). Time course of serum creatinine was more favorable in group B with decreases in serum creatinine after 24 h (-0.084 mg/dL [95% confidence interval: -0.035 to -0.133 mg/dL]; P = 0.008) and 48 h (-0.093 mg/dL (-0.025 to -0.161 mg/dL); P = 0.007) compared to baseline which were not observed in group S.In patients at increased risk of CIN receiving prophylactic theophylline, hydration with sodium bicarbonate reduces contrast-induced renal impairment compared to hydration with saline. PMID:27227933

  11. Addition of lidocaine injection immediately before physiotherapy for frozen shoulder: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Wei-Chun; Wang, Tao-Liang; Lin, Yi-Jia; Hsieh, Lin-Fen; Tsai, Chun-Mei; Huang, Kuang-Hui

    2015-01-01

    The intraarticular injection of lidocaine immediately before a physiotherapy session may relieve pain during the stretching and mobilization of the affected joint in patients with a frozen shoulder, thus enhancing the treatment effect. To compare the effects of intraarticular injection of lidocaine plus physiotherapy to that of physiotherapy alone in the treatment of a frozen shoulder, a prospective randomized controlled trial was conducted in the rehabilitation department of a private teaching hospital. Patients with a frozen shoulder were randomized into the physiotherapy group or the lidocaine injection plus physiotherapy (INJPT) group. The subjects in the INJPT group underwent injection of 3 ml of 1% lidocaine into the affected shoulder 10 to 20 minutes before each physiotherapy session. In each group, the treatment lasted 3 months. The primary outcome measures were the active and passive range of motion of the affected shoulder. The secondary outcome measures were the results of the Shoulder Disability Questionnaire, the Shoulder Pain and Disability Index, and the 36-item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36). The outcome measures were evaluated before treatment and 1, 2, 3, 4, and 6 months after the start of treatment. The group comparisons showed significantly greater improvement in the INJPT group, mainly in active and passive shoulder range of motion in flexion and external rotation and improvements in pain and disability (P < 0.05); however, no significant group difference was seen in the SF-36 results. The intraarticular injection of lidocaine immediately before a physiotherapy session might be superior to physiotherapy alone in the treatment of a frozen shoulder. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01817348.

  12. Terminal groups control self-assembly of amphiphilic block copolymers in solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grzelakowski, M.; Kita-Tokarczyk, K.

    2016-03-01

    The terminal groups of amphiphilic block copolymers are shown to control macromolecular self-assembly in aqueous solutions, in the micellar/lamellar region of the phase diagram. At the same concentration and using the same self-assembly conditions, dramatic differences are observed in polymer hydration and the resulting nano-/microstructure for two series of polymers with identical block chemistry and hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (HLB). This suggests a strong contribution from end groups to the hydration as the initial step of the self-assembly process, and could be conveniently used to guide the particle morphology and size. Additionally, for polymers with those head groups which drive vesicular structures, differences in membrane organization affect their physical properties, such as permeability.The terminal groups of amphiphilic block copolymers are shown to control macromolecular self-assembly in aqueous solutions, in the micellar/lamellar region of the phase diagram. At the same concentration and using the same self-assembly conditions, dramatic differences are observed in polymer hydration and the resulting nano-/microstructure for two series of polymers with identical block chemistry and hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (HLB). This suggests a strong contribution from end groups to the hydration as the initial step of the self-assembly process, and could be conveniently used to guide the particle morphology and size. Additionally, for polymers with those head groups which drive vesicular structures, differences in membrane organization affect their physical properties, such as permeability. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Fig. S1: Particle diameters for hydrated NH2-ABA-NH2 polymers with different degrees of functionalization; Fig. S2: TEM characterization of compound micelles from BA-OH polymer after extrusion; Fig. S3: Cryo-TEM and stopped flow characterization of lipid vesicles; Fig. S4 and S5: NMR spectra for ABA and BA polymers

  13. Peptide Dimethylation: Fragmentation Control via Distancing the Dimethylamino Group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McShane, Adam J.; Shen, Yuanyuan; Castillo, Mary Joan; Yao, Xudong

    2014-10-01

    Direct reductive methylation of peptides is a common method for quantitative proteomics. It is an active derivatization technique; with participation of the dimethylamino group, the derivatized peptides preferentially release intense a1 ions. The advantageous generation of a1 ions for quantitative proteomic profiling, however, is not desirable for targeted proteomic quantitation using multiple reaction monitoring mass spectrometry; this mass spectrometric method prefers the derivatizing group to stay with the intact peptide ions and multiple fragments as passive mass tags. This work investigated collisional fragmentation of peptides whose amine groups were derivatized with five linear ω-dimethylamino acids, from 2-(dimethylamino)-acetic acid to 6-(dimethylamino)-hexanoic acid. Tandem mass spectra of the derivatized tryptic peptides revealed different preferential breakdown pathways. Together with energy resolved mass spectrometry, it was found that shutting down the active participation of the terminal dimethylamino group in fragmentation of derivatized peptides is possible. However, it took a separation of five methylene groups between the terminal dimethylamino group and the amide formed upon peptide derivatization. For the first time, the gas-phase fragmentation of peptides derivatized with linear ω-dimethylamino acids of systematically increasing alkyl chain lengths is reported.

  14. Field Testing of a Wet FGD Additive for Enhanced Mercury Control

    SciTech Connect

    Gary Blythe; MariJon Owens

    2007-12-31

    This document is the final report for DOE-NETL Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-04NT42309, 'Field Testing of a Wet FGD Additive'. The objective of the project has been to demonstrate the use of two flue gas desulfurization (FGD) additives, Evonik Degussa Corporation's TMT-15 and Nalco Company's Nalco 8034, to prevent the re-emission of elemental mercury (Hg{sup 0}) in flue gas exiting wet FGD systems on coal-fired boilers. Furthermore, the project was intended to demonstrate whether such additives can be used to precipitate most of the mercury (Hg) removed in the wet FGD system as a fine salt that can be separated from the FGD liquor and bulk solid byproducts for separate disposal. The project involved pilot- and full-scale tests of the additives in wet FGD absorbers. The tests were intended to determine required additive dosages to prevent Hg{sup 0} re-emissions and to separate mercury from the normal FGD byproducts for three coal types: Texas lignite/Powder River Basin (PRB) coal blend, high-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal, and low-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal. The project team consists of URS Group, Inc., EPRI, Luminant Power (was TXU Generation Company LP), Southern Company, IPL (an AES company), Evonik Degussa Corporation and the Nalco Company. Luminant Power provided the Texas lignite/PRB co-fired test site for pilot FGD tests and project cost sharing. Southern Company provided the low-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal host site for wet scrubbing tests, the pilot- and full-scale jet bubbling reactor (JBR) FGD systems tested, and project cost sharing. IPL provided the high-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal full-scale FGD test site and cost sharing. Evonik Degussa Corporation provided the TMT-15 additive, and the Nalco Company provided the Nalco 8034 additive. Both companies also supplied technical support to the test program as in-kind cost sharing. The project was conducted in six tasks. Of the six tasks, Task 1 involved project planning and Task 6 involved

  15. The Additive Impact of Group and Individual Publicly Displayed Feedback: Examining Individual Response Patterns and Response Generalization in a Safe-Driving Occupational Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ludwig, Timothy D.; Geller, E. Scott; Clarke, Steven W.

    2010-01-01

    Additive effects of publicly posting individual feedback following group goal-setting and feedback were evaluated. The turn-signal use of pizza deliverers was studied in a multiple baseline design across two pizza stores. After baseline observations, pizza deliverers voted on a group turn-signal goal and then received 4 weeks of group feedback on…

  16. Probiotics in addition to antibiotics for the treatment of acute tonsillitis: a randomized, placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Gilbey, P; Livshits, L; Sharabi-Nov, A; Avraham, Y; Miron, D

    2015-05-01

    Probiotics are live microorganisms which, when administered in adequate amounts, confer a health benefit on the host. The probiotic Streptococcus salivarius has been shown to be effective in reducing the frequency of recurrent pharyngeal infections in children and adult populations. However, probiotics have not yet been evaluated in the treatment of acute pharyngotonsillitis in adults. We aimed to examine whether the addition of S. salivarius probiotics to the routine therapy of acute pharyngotonsillitis in adult patients may shorten disease duration and reduce symptom severity. This study was a prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded study comparing treatment with probiotics to placebo in addition to antibiotics in patients who were hospitalized with severe pharyngotonsillitis. Laboratory results, pain levels, body temperature, and daily volume of fluids consumed were recorded for both groups. Sixty participants were recruited, 30 for each group. No statistically significant differences between the two groups were observed regarding any of the major clinical and laboratory parameters examined. Supplement probiotic treatment with S. salivarius in patients with acute pharyngotonsillitis treated with penicillin is ineffective in relation to the parameters examined in this study and we cannot, therefore, recommend the use of S. salivarius during active pharyngotonsillar infection treated with penicillin.

  17. Compliance and control characteristics of an additive manufactured-flexure stage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, ChaBum; Tarbutton, Joshua A.

    2015-04-01

    This paper presents a compliance and positioning control characteristics of additive manufactured-nanopositioning system consisted of the flexure mechanism and voice coil motor (VCM). The double compound notch type flexure stage was designed to utilize the elastic deformation of two symmetrical four-bar mechanisms to provide a millimeter-level working range. Additive manufacturing (AM) process, stereolithography, was used to fabricate the flexure stage. The AM stage was inspected by using 3D X-ray computerized tomography scanner: air-voids and shape irregularity. The compliance, open-loop resonance peak, and damping ratio of the AM stage were measured 0.317 mm/N, 80 Hz, and 0.19, respectively. The AM stage was proportional-integral-derivative positioning feedback-controlled and the capacitive type sensor was used to measure the displacement. As a result, the AM flexure mechanism was successfully 25 nm positioning controlled within 500 μm range. The resonance peak was found approximately at 280 Hz in closed-loop. This research showed that the AM flexure mechanism and the VCM can provide millimeter range with high precision and can be a good alternative to an expensive metal-based flexure mechanism and piezoelectric transducer.

  18. Compliance and control characteristics of an additive manufactured-flexure stage

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, ChaBum; Tarbutton, Joshua A.

    2015-04-15

    This paper presents a compliance and positioning control characteristics of additive manufactured-nanopositioning system consisted of the flexure mechanism and voice coil motor (VCM). The double compound notch type flexure stage was designed to utilize the elastic deformation of two symmetrical four-bar mechanisms to provide a millimeter-level working range. Additive manufacturing (AM) process, stereolithography, was used to fabricate the flexure stage. The AM stage was inspected by using 3D X-ray computerized tomography scanner: air-voids and shape irregularity. The compliance, open-loop resonance peak, and damping ratio of the AM stage were measured 0.317 mm/N, 80 Hz, and 0.19, respectively. The AM stage was proportional-integral-derivative positioning feedback-controlled and the capacitive type sensor was used to measure the displacement. As a result, the AM flexure mechanism was successfully 25 nm positioning controlled within 500 μm range. The resonance peak was found approximately at 280 Hz in closed-loop. This research showed that the AM flexure mechanism and the VCM can provide millimeter range with high precision and can be a good alternative to an expensive metal-based flexure mechanism and piezoelectric transducer.

  19. Compliance and control characteristics of an additive manufactured-flexure stage.

    PubMed

    Lee, ChaBum; Tarbutton, Joshua A

    2015-04-01

    This paper presents a compliance and positioning control characteristics of additive manufactured-nanopositioning system consisted of the flexure mechanism and voice coil motor (VCM). The double compound notch type flexure stage was designed to utilize the elastic deformation of two symmetrical four-bar mechanisms to provide a millimeter-level working range. Additive manufacturing (AM) process, stereolithography, was used to fabricate the flexure stage. The AM stage was inspected by using 3D X-ray computerized tomography scanner: air-voids and shape irregularity. The compliance, open-loop resonance peak, and damping ratio of the AM stage were measured 0.317 mm/N, 80 Hz, and 0.19, respectively. The AM stage was proportional-integral-derivative positioning feedback-controlled and the capacitive type sensor was used to measure the displacement. As a result, the AM flexure mechanism was successfully 25 nm positioning controlled within 500 μm range. The resonance peak was found approximately at 280 Hz in closed-loop. This research showed that the AM flexure mechanism and the VCM can provide millimeter range with high precision and can be a good alternative to an expensive metal-based flexure mechanism and piezoelectric transducer. PMID:25933897

  20. Systematic review of clinical trials of cervical manipulation: control group procedures and pain outcomes

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Objective To characterize the types of control procedures used in controlled clinical trials of cervical spine manipulation and to evaluate the outcomes obtained by subjects in control groups so as to improve the quality of future clinical trials Methods A search of relevant clinical trials was performed in PubMed 1966-May 2010 with the following key words: "Chiropractic"[Mesh] OR "Manipulation, Spinal"[Mesh]) AND "Clinical Trial "[Publication Type]. Reference lists from these trials were searched for any additional trials. The reference lists of two prior studies, one review and one original study were also searched. Accepted reports were then rated for quality by 2 reviewers using the PEDro scale. Studies achieving a score of >50% were included for data extraction and analysis. Intra-group change scores on pain outcomes were obtained. For determining clinically important outcomes, a threshold of 20% improvement was used where continuous data were available; otherwise, an effect size of 0.30 was employed Results The PubMed search yielded 753 citations of which 13 were selected. Eight (8) other studies were identified by reviewing two systematic reviews and through reference searches. All studies scored >50% on the PEDro scale. There were 9 multi-session studies and 12 single-session studies. The most commonly used control procedure was "manual contact/no thrust". Four (4) studies used a placebo-control (patient blinded). For two of these studies with VAS data, the average change reported was 4.5 mm. For the other control procedures, variable results were obtained. No clinically important changes were reported in 57% of the paired comparisons, while, in 43% of these, changes which would be considered clinically important were obtained in the control groups. Only 15% of trials reported on post-intervention group registration. Conclusions Most control procedures in cervical manipulation trials result in small clinical changes, although larger changes are observed in

  1. Multiplicative noise effects on electroconvection in controlling additive noise by a magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huh, Jong-Hoon

    2015-12-01

    We report multiplicative noise-induced threshold shift of electroconvection (EC) in the presence of a magnetic field H . Controlling the thermal fluctuation (i.e., additive noise) of the rodlike molecules of nematic liquid crystals by H , the EC threshold is examined at various noise levels [characterized by their intensity and cutoff frequency (fc) ]. For a sufficiently strong H (i.e., ignorable additive noise), a modified noise sensitivity characterizing the shift problem is in good agreement with experimental results for colored as well as white noise (fc→∞ ) ; until now, there was a large deviation for (sufficiently) colored noises. The present study shows that H provides us with ideal conditions for studying the corresponding Carr-Helfrich theory considering pure multiplicative noise.

  2. Note: vibration reduction control of an atomic force microscope using an additional cantilever.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chulsoo; Jung, Jongkyu; Park, Kyihwan

    2011-11-01

    Since an atomic force microscope is used to measure sub-nanometer level precision, it is sensitive to external vibration. If the vibration can be measured by using an additional sensor, we can obtain the vibration-free signal by subtracting the vibration signal from the signal containing the vibration. To achieve a highly effective vibration rejection ratio, it is important to decide where to locate the additional sensor. This is because the vibration measured at the sensing position should have the same phase as that of the vibration in the signal. Vibration reduction control using this electrical sensing method is verified through time domain analysis and topology images of a standard grid sample.

  3. Consensus definitions and application guidelines for control groups in cerebrospinal fluid biomarker studies in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Teunissen, Charlotte; Menge, Til; Altintas, Ayse; Álvarez-Cermeño, José C; Bertolotto, Antonio; Berven, Frode S; Brundin, Lou; Comabella, Manuel; Degn, Matilde; Deisenhammer, Florian; Fazekas, Franz; Franciotta, Diego; Frederiksen, Jette L; Galimberti, Daniela; Gnanapavan, Sharmilee; Hegen, Harald; Hemmer, Bernhard; Hintzen, Rogier; Hughes, Steve; Iacobaeus, Ellen; Kroksveen, Ann C; Kuhle, Jens; Richert, John; Tumani, Hayrettin; Villar, Luisa M; Drulovic, Jelena; Dujmovic, Irena; Khalil, Michael; Bartos, Ales

    2013-11-01

    The choice of appropriate control group(s) is critical in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarker research in multiple sclerosis (MS). There is a lack of definitions and nomenclature of different control groups and a rationalized application of different control groups. We here propose consensus definitions and nomenclature for the following groups: healthy controls (HCs), spinal anesthesia subjects (SASs), inflammatory neurological disease controls (INDCs), peripheral inflammatory neurological disease controls (PINDCs), non-inflammatory neurological controls (NINDCs), symptomatic controls (SCs). Furthermore, we discuss the application of these control groups in specific study designs, such as for diagnostic biomarker studies, prognostic biomarker studies and therapeutic response studies. Application of these uniform definitions will lead to better comparability of biomarker studies and optimal use of available resources. This will lead to improved quality of CSF biomarker research in MS and related disorders.

  4. One-year postoperative knee pain in patients with semi-extended tibial nailing versus control group.

    PubMed

    Rothberg, David L; Daubs, Gregory M; Horwitz, Daniel S; Kubiak, Erik N

    2013-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether patients with a tibia fracture who were treated with an intramedullary nail using a semi-extended, extra-articular, parapatellar approach had anterior knee pain at a higher than acceptable incidence compared with control patients. Eighteen patients with OTA type 42 A-C tibia fractures nailed using this approach were compared with an uninjured control group (n = 22). Lysholm Knee Score questionnaires were given to all participants and compared between groups. Fracture patients completed the LKS at 6 months and 1 year postoperatively. Additional data collected included age, sex, mechanism of injury, OTA classification, Gustilo/Anderson and Tscherne classification, nail-apex distance, complications, weight-bearing status, additional fixation needed, and postoperative procedures. Mean age and demographics were similar between the fracture and control group: 42.9 vs 47.9 years, respectively, (P=.36) and 11 vs 9 men, respectively (P=.11). Lysholm Knee Scores among the subgroups (age, sex, medial vs lateral parapatellar approach, soft-tissue status, and nail-apex distance) showed no statistically significant differences (P>05 for all comparisons). Mean nail-apex distance was -16.3 mm. Mean LKS score 1-year postoperatively was 87.3 (range, 59-100) in the fracture group and 89.7 (range, 23-100) in the control group (P=.69). At 1-year postoperatively, patients in the fracture group did not have increased anterior knee pain compared with the control group.

  5. 26 CFR 1.267(f)-1 - Controlled groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... matching and acceleration rules of § 1.1502-13 (c) and (d), the definitions and operating rules of § 1.1502... not apply under this section. See § 1.1502-13(e)(3). (3) Other law. The rules of this section apply in addition to other applicable law (including nonstatutory authorities). For example, to the extent a loss...

  6. 26 CFR 1.267(f)-1 - Controlled groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... matching and acceleration rules of § 1.1502-13 (c) and (d), the definitions and operating rules of § 1.1502... not apply under this section. See § 1.1502-13(e)(3). (3) Other law. The rules of this section apply in addition to other applicable law (including nonstatutory authorities). For example, to the extent a loss...

  7. 26 CFR 1.267(f)-1 - Controlled groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... matching and acceleration rules of § 1.1502-13 (c) and (d), the definitions and operating rules of § 1.1502... not apply under this section. See § 1.1502-13(e)(3). (3) Other law. The rules of this section apply in addition to other applicable law (including nonstatutory authorities). For example, to the extent a loss...

  8. Analysis And Control Of Copper Plating Bath Additives And By-Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newton, Beverly; Kaiser, Edward

    2003-09-01

    New copper plating bath chemisties are being developed to meet the emerging need of plating copper into submicron features on semiconductor wafers. These chemistries are designed to provide a fast, efficient, fill for even the most challenging wafer terrain. It has been found that maintaining the concentration of the additives in these plating baths at certain levels is critical to the performance of the bath. Plating technology for semiconductor applications requires rigid bath control and disciplined methodology. Establishing correlations between what is found in the plated film and bath chemistry control parameters is fundamental in producing interconnects that are consistent and reliable. To establish these correlations, it is important to have a clear understanding of the chemical composition of the bath. It is theorized that the "suppressor" bath components help moderate the deposition rate of the copper fill and the "leveler" additives improve the topology of the copper overfill. Too much or too little of these components in the bath can be detrimental to the quality of the copper deposition and may result in "fill failure" leading to a higher than necessary scrap rate for the wafers. Indirect bath measurements, such as Cyclic Voltammetric Stripping (CVS), tell an incomplete story as these techniques only measures the combined effect of the additives and by-products on the plating quality. High Performance Liquid (HPLC) and Ion Chromatography are analytical techniques which provide important information on the concentration, chemical balance and trend measurement of major constituents such as additives, brighteners, boosters, stabilizers, carriers, levelers, inhibitors, accelerators, transition metals, metal complexes and contaminants in the plating bath. This information provides for improved device quality, reduced scrap rate and reduced costs of bath maintenance. This, however, is not the end of the story. In addition to additives, copper plating baths

  9. Formulation and bioavailability of controlled release salbutamol sulphate tablets using natural additives.

    PubMed

    Nouh, A T; Abd El-Gawad, A H; Guda, T K

    2010-04-01

    Salbutamol sulphate granules and physical mixtures were prepared using mastic with various natural additives. The prepared granules and physical mixtures were examined using IR and DSC. The obtained results indicate that there is no interaction between salbutamol sulphate and the formulation ingredients used. The physical properties and release behavior of the formulated tablets prepared from granules and physical mixtures were evaluated and showed good physical properties. The rate of drug release from tablets prepared from granules was found to be lower than that prepared from physical mixtures at fixed mastic concentration and the same additive. The rate of drug release decreased with increased mastic concentration in formulated tablets. Pectin and sodium alginate allowed the best controlled release rate of the drug. On the basis of the results obtained from the controlled release studies, selected sulbutamol formulations were subjected to an in vivo comparison with commercial sulbutamol tablets. The pharmacokinetic parameters AUC(0-24), C(max), and T(max) of sulbutamol from the selected formulation were determined after administration of a single oral dose of 8 mg and compared statistically using an ANOVA test. There was no significant difference in the AUC(0-24). On the other hand, there was a significant difference in the C(max) and T(max) between the commercial and the formulated tablets. These results demonstrate that the formulated tablets extended the time of the drug effect.

  10. Low fluid leakoff cementing compositions and filtration control additive for cement

    SciTech Connect

    Forrest, G.T.

    1993-07-20

    A cementing composition is described, for cementing oil or gas wells penetrating subterranean formations, capable of forming a fluid slurry when mixed with water comprising: dry hydraulic cement; and a filtration control additive of from about 0.2 to 5.0 percent by weight, based upon dry hydraulic cement, of finely ground peanut hulls, wherein 10 percent or more of the finely ground peanut hulls is in the particle size range of less than 20 standard sieve mesh and greater than 500 standard sieve mesh. In a process for cementing a casing in an oil or gas well penetrating a subterranean formation wherein a cement slurry, formed by mixing water and hydraulic cement, is pumped down the well to flow upwardly between the casing and the subterranean formation, the improvement is described comprising: utilizing as a filtration control additive of from about 0.2 to 5.0 percent by weight, based upon dry hydraulic cement, of finely ground peanut hulls, and utilizing finely ground peanut hulls wherein 10 percent or more of the finely ground peanut hulls is in the particle size range of less than 20 standard sieve mesh and greater than 500 standard sieve mesh.

  11. Sedimentological and Stratigraphic Controls on Natural Fracture Distribution in Wajid Group, SW Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benaafi, Mohammed; Hariri, Mustafa; Abdullatif, Osman; Makkawi, Mohammed; Korvin, Gabor

    2016-04-01

    The Cambro-Permian Wajid Group, SW Saudi Arabia, is the main groundwater aquifer in Wadi Al-Dawasir and Najran areas. In addition, it has a reservoir potentiality for oil and natural gas in Rub' Al-Khali Basin. Wajid Group divided into four formations, ascending Dibsiyah, Sanamah, Khussyayan and Juwayl. They are mainly sandstone and exposed in an area extend from Wadi Al-Dawasir southward to Najran city and deposited within fluvial, shallow marine and glacial environments. This study aims to investigate the sedimentological and stratigraphic controls on the distribution of natural fractures within Wajid Group outcrops. A scanline sampling method was used to study the natural fracture network within Wajid Group outcrops, where the natural fractures were measured and characterized in 12 locations. Four regional natural fracture sets were observed with mean strikes of 050o, 075o, 345o, and 320o. Seven lithofacies characterized the Wajid Group at these locations and include fine-grained sandstone, coarse to pebbly sandstone, cross-bedded sandstone, massive sandstone, bioturbated sandstone, conglomerate sandstone, and conglomerate lithofacies. We found that the fine-grained and small scale cross-bedded sandstones lithofacies are characterized by high fracture intensity. In contrast, the coarse-grained sandstone and conglomerate lithofacies have low fracture intensity. Therefore, the relative fracture intensity and spacing of natural fractures within Wajid Group in the subsurface can be predicted by using the lithofacies and their depositional environments. In terms of stratigraphy, we found that the bed thickness and the stratigraphic architecture are the main controls on fractures intensity. The outcomes of this study can help to understand and predict the natural fracture distribution within the subsurface fractured sandstone hosting groundwater and hydrocarbon in Wajid and Rub' Al-Khali Basins. Hence, the finding of this study might help to explore and develop the

  12. Polar Addition to C=C Group: Why Is Anti-Markovnikov Hydroboration-Oxidation of Alkenes Not "Anti-"?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ilich, Predrag-Peter; Rickertsen, Lucas S.; Becker, Erienne

    2006-01-01

    For 137 years Markovnikov's rule has been extensively used in organic chemical education and research to describe the regioselectivity in electrophilic addition reactions to alkenes and alkynes. When the structures of the final reaction products are used as reference, the rule requests that certain polar addition reactions be termed…

  13. Simultaneous interpreters vs. professional multilingual controls: Group differences in cognitive control as well as brain structure and function.

    PubMed

    Becker, Maxi; Schubert, Torsten; Strobach, Tilo; Gallinat, Jürgen; Kühn, Simone

    2016-07-01

    There is a vast amount of literature indicating that multiple language expertise leads to positive transfer effects onto other non-language cognitive domains possibly due to enhanced cognitive control. However, there is hardly any evidence about underlying mechanisms on how complex behavior like simultaneous interpreting benefits cognitive functioning in other non-language domains. Therefore, we investigated whether simultaneous interpreters (SIs) exhibit cognitive benefits in tasks measuring aspects of cognitive control compared to a professional multilingual control group. We furthermore investigated in how far potential cognitive benefits are related to brain structure (using voxel-based morphometry) and function (using regions-of-interest-based functional connectivity and graph-analytical measures on low-frequency BOLD signals in resting-state brain data). Concerning cognitive control, the results reveal that SIs exhibit less mixing costs in a task switching paradigm and a dual-task advantage compared to professional multilingual controls. In addition, SIs show more gray matter volume in the left frontal pole (BA 10) compared to controls. Graph theoretical analyses revealed that this region exhibits higher network values for global efficiency and degree and is functionally more strongly connected to the left inferior frontal gyrus and middle temporal gyrus in SIs compared to controls. Thus, the data provide evidence that SIs possess cognitive benefits in tasks measuring cognitive control. It is discussed in how far the central role of the left frontal pole and its stronger functional connectivity to the left inferior frontal gyrus represents a correlate of the neural mechanisms for the observed behavioral effects. PMID:27085505

  14. Proteasome and thiol involvement in quality control of glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor addition.

    PubMed Central

    Wilbourn, B; Nesbeth, D N; Wainwright, L J; Field, M C

    1998-01-01

    Improperly processed secretory proteins are degraded by a hydrolytic system that is associated with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and appears to involve re-export of lumenal proteins into the cytoplasm for ultimate degradation by the proteasome. The chimaeric protein hGHDAF28, which contains a crippled glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) C-terminal signal peptide, is degraded by a pathway highly similar to that for other ER-retained proteins and is characterized by formation of disulphide-linked aggregates, failure to reach the Golgi complex and intracellular degradation with a half life of approximately 2 h. Here we show that N-acetyl-leucinal-leucinal-norleucinal, MG-132 and lactacystin, all inhibitors of the proteasome, protect hGHDAF28; hGHDAF28 is still proteolytically cleaved in the presence of lactacystin or MG-132, by the removal of approximately 2 kDa, but the truncated fragment is not processed further. We demonstrate that the ubiquitination system accelerates ER-degradation of hGHDAF28, but is not essential to the process. Overall, these findings indicate that GPI quality control is mediated by the cytoplasmic proteasome. We also show that the presence of a cysteine residue in the GPI signal of hGHDAF28 is required for retention and degradation, as mutation of this residue to serine results in secretion of the fusion protein, implicating thiol-mediated retention as a mechanism for quality control of some GPI signals. Removal of the cysteine also prevents inclusion of hGHDAF28 in disulphide-linked aggregates, indicating that aggregate formation is an additional retention mechanism for this class of protein. Therefore our data suggest that an unpaired terminal cysteine is the retention motif of the hGHDAF28 GPI-processing signal and that additional information may be required for efficient engagement of ER quality control systems by the majority of GPI signals which lack cysteine residues. PMID:9576858

  15. Can Vitamin D Supplementation in Addition to Asthma Controllers Improve Clinical Outcomes in Patients With Asthma?

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Jian; Liu, Dan; Liu, Chun-Tao

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Effects of vitamin D on acute exacerbation, lung function, and fraction of exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) in patients with asthma are controversial. We aim to further evaluate the roles of vitamin D supplementation in addition to asthma controllers in asthmatics. From 1946 to July 2015, we searched the PubMed, Embase, Medline, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and ISI Web of Science using “Vitamin D,” “Vit D,” or “VitD” and “asthma,” and manually reviewed the references listed in the identified articles. Randomized controlled trials which reported rate of asthma exacerbations and adverse events, forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1, % of predicted value), FeNO, asthma control test (ACT), and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels were eligible. We conducted the heterogeneities test and sensitivity analysis of the enrolled studies, and random-effects or fixed-effects model was applied to calculate risk ratio (RR) and mean difference for dichotomous and continuous data, respectively. Cochrane systematic review software Review Manager (RevMan) was used to test the hypothesis by Mann–Whitney U test, which were displayed in Forest plots. Seven trials with a total of 903 patients with asthma were pooled in our final studies. Except for asthma exacerbations (I2 = 81%, χ2 = 10.28, P = 0.006), we did not find statistical heterogeneity in outcome measures. The pooled RR of asthma exacerbation was 0.66 (95% confidence interval: 0.32–1.37), but without significant difference (z = 1.12, P = 0.26), neither was in FEV1 (z = 0.30, P = 0.77), FeNO (z = 0.28, P = 0.78), or ACT (z = 0.92, P = 0.36), although serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D was significantly increased (z = 6.16, P < 0.001). Vitamin D supplementation in addition to asthma controllers cannot decrease asthma exacerbation and FeNO, nor improve lung function and asthma symptoms, although it can be safely applied to increase serum 25

  16. Analytical optimal controls for the state constrained addition and removal of cryoprotective agents

    PubMed Central

    Chicone, Carmen C.; Critser, John K.

    2014-01-01

    Cryobiology is a field with enormous scientific, financial and even cultural impact. Successful cryopreservation of cells and tissues depends on the equilibration of these materials with high concentrations of permeating chemicals (CPAs) such as glycerol or 1,2 propylene glycol. Because cells and tissues are exposed to highly anisosmotic conditions, the resulting gradients cause large volume fluctuations that have been shown to damage cells and tissues. On the other hand, there is evidence that toxicity to these high levels of chemicals is time dependent, and therefore it is ideal to minimize exposure time as well. Because solute and solvent flux is governed by a system of ordinary differential equations, CPA addition and removal from cells is an ideal context for the application of optimal control theory. Recently, we presented a mathematical synthesis of the optimal controls for the ODE system commonly used in cryobiology in the absence of state constraints and showed that controls defined by this synthesis were optimal. Here we define the appropriate model, analytically extend the previous theory to one encompassing state constraints, and as an example apply this to the critical and clinically important cell type of human oocytes, where current methodologies are either difficult to implement or have very limited success rates. We show that an enormous increase in equilibration efficiency can be achieved under the new protocols when compared to classic protocols, potentially allowing a greatly increased survival rate for human oocytes, and pointing to a direction for the cryopreservation of many other cell types. PMID:22527943

  17. A tuneable switch for controlling environmental degradation of bioplastics: addition of isothiazolinone to polyhydroxyalkanoates.

    PubMed

    Woolnough, Catherine Anne; Yee, Lachlan Hartley; Charlton, Timothy Stuart; Foster, Leslie John Ray

    2013-01-01

    Controlling the environmental degradation of polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) and polyhydroxyvalerate (P(HB-co-HV)) bioplastics would expand the range of their potential applications. Combining PHB and P(HB-co-HV) films with the anti-fouling agent 4,5-dichloro-2-n-octyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one (DCOI, <10% w/w) restricted microbial colonisation in soil, but did not significantly affect melting temperature or the tensile strength of films. DCOI films showed reduced biofouling and postponed the onset of weight loss by up to 100 days, a 10-fold increase compared to unmodified films where the microbial coverage was significant. In addition, the rate of PHA-DCOI weight loss, post-onset, reduced by about 150%; in contrast a recorded weight loss of only 0.05% per day for P(HB-co-HV) with a 10% DCOI loading was observed. This is in stark contrast to the unmodified PHB film, where a recorded weight loss of only 0.75% per day was made. The 'switch' that initiates film weight loss, and its subsequent reduced rate, depended on the DCOI loading to control biofouling. The control of biofouling and environmental degradation for these DCOI modified bioplastics increases their potential use in biodegradable applications.

  18. A tuneable switch for controlling environmental degradation of bioplastics: addition of isothiazolinone to polyhydroxyalkanoates.

    PubMed

    Woolnough, Catherine Anne; Yee, Lachlan Hartley; Charlton, Timothy Stuart; Foster, Leslie John Ray

    2013-01-01

    Controlling the environmental degradation of polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) and polyhydroxyvalerate (P(HB-co-HV)) bioplastics would expand the range of their potential applications. Combining PHB and P(HB-co-HV) films with the anti-fouling agent 4,5-dichloro-2-n-octyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one (DCOI, <10% w/w) restricted microbial colonisation in soil, but did not significantly affect melting temperature or the tensile strength of films. DCOI films showed reduced biofouling and postponed the onset of weight loss by up to 100 days, a 10-fold increase compared to unmodified films where the microbial coverage was significant. In addition, the rate of PHA-DCOI weight loss, post-onset, reduced by about 150%; in contrast a recorded weight loss of only 0.05% per day for P(HB-co-HV) with a 10% DCOI loading was observed. This is in stark contrast to the unmodified PHB film, where a recorded weight loss of only 0.75% per day was made. The 'switch' that initiates film weight loss, and its subsequent reduced rate, depended on the DCOI loading to control biofouling. The control of biofouling and environmental degradation for these DCOI modified bioplastics increases their potential use in biodegradable applications. PMID:24146779

  19. A Tuneable Switch for Controlling Environmental Degradation of Bioplastics: Addition of Isothiazolinone to Polyhydroxyalkanoates

    PubMed Central

    Woolnough, Catherine Anne; Yee, Lachlan Hartley; Charlton, Timothy Stuart; Foster, Leslie John Ray

    2013-01-01

    Controlling the environmental degradation of polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) and polyhydroxyvalerate (P(HB-co-HV)) bioplastics would expand the range of their potential applications. Combining PHB and P(HB-co-HV) films with the anti-fouling agent 4,5-dichloro-2-n-octyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one (DCOI, <10% w/w) restricted microbial colonisation in soil, but did not significantly affect melting temperature or the tensile strength of films. DCOI films showed reduced biofouling and postponed the onset of weight loss by up to 100 days, a 10-fold increase compared to unmodified films where the microbial coverage was significant. In addition, the rate of PHA-DCOI weight loss, post-onset, reduced by about 150%; in contrast a recorded weight loss of only 0.05% per day for P(HB-co-HV) with a 10% DCOI loading was observed. This is in stark contrast to the unmodified PHB film, where a recorded weight loss of only 0.75% per day was made. The ‘switch’ that initiates film weight loss, and its subsequent reduced rate, depended on the DCOI loading to control biofouling. The control of biofouling and environmental degradation for these DCOI modified bioplastics increases their potential use in biodegradable applications. PMID:24146779

  20. Spin-Orbit Twisted Spin Waves: Group Velocity Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez, F.; Baboux, F.; Ullrich, C. A.; D'Amico, I.; Vignale, G.; Karczewski, G.; Wojtowicz, T.

    2016-09-01

    We present a theoretical and experimental study of the interplay between spin-orbit coupling (SOC), Coulomb interaction, and motion of conduction electrons in a magnetized two-dimensional electron gas. Via a transformation of the many-body Hamiltonian we introduce the concept of spin-orbit twisted spin waves, whose energy dispersions and damping rates are obtained by a simple wave-vector shift of the spin waves without SOC. These theoretical predictions are validated by Raman scattering measurements. With optical gating of the density, we vary the strength of the SOC to alter the group velocity of the spin wave. The findings presented here differ from that of spin systems subject to the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction. Our results pave the way for novel applications in spin-wave routing devices and for the realization of lenses for spin waves.

  1. Comparing Treatment and Control Groups on Multiple Outcomes: Robust Procedures for Testing a Directional Alternative Hypothesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lix, Lisa M.; Deering, Kathleen N.; Fouladi, Rachel T.; Manivong, Phongsack

    2009-01-01

    This study considers the problem of testing the difference between treatment and control groups on m [greater than or equal to] 2 measures when it is assumed a priori that the treatment group will perform better than the control group on all measures. Two procedures are investigated that do not rest on the assumptions of covariance homogeneity or…

  2. Weight change among people randomized to minimal intervention control groups in weight loss trials

    PubMed Central

    Johns, David J.; Hartmann‐Boyce, Jamie; Jebb, Susan A.; Aveyard, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Objective Evidence on the effectiveness of behavioral weight management programs often comes from uncontrolled program evaluations. These frequently make the assumption that, without intervention, people will gain weight. The aim of this study was to use data from minimal intervention control groups in randomized controlled trials to examine the evidence for this assumption and the effect of frequency of weighing on weight change. Methods Data were extracted from minimal intervention control arms in a systematic review of multicomponent behavioral weight management programs. Two reviewers classified control arms into three categories based on intensity of minimal intervention and calculated 12‐month mean weight change using baseline observation carried forward. Meta‐regression was conducted in STATA v12. Results Thirty studies met the inclusion criteria, twenty‐nine of which had usable data, representing 5,963 participants allocated to control arms. Control arms were categorized according to intensity, as offering leaflets only, a single session of advice, or more than one session of advice from someone without specialist skills in supporting weight loss. Mean weight change at 12 months across all categories was −0.8 kg (95% CI −1.1 to −0.4). In an unadjusted model, increasing intensity by moving up a category was associated with an additional weight loss of −0.53 kg (95% CI −0.96 to −0.09). Also in an unadjusted model, each additional weigh‐in was associated with a weight change of −0.42 kg (95% CI −0.81 to −0.03). However, when both variables were placed in the same model, neither intervention category nor number of weigh‐ins was associated with weight change. Conclusions Uncontrolled evaluations of weight loss programs should assume that, in the absence of intervention, their population would weigh up to a kilogram on average less than baseline at the end of the first year of follow‐up. PMID:27028279

  3. Solvation free energy of the peptide group: its model dependence and implications for the additive-transfer free-energy model of protein stability.

    PubMed

    Tomar, Dheeraj S; Asthagiri, D; Weber, Valéry

    2013-09-17

    The group-additive decomposition of the unfolding free energy of a protein in an osmolyte solution relative to that in water poses a fundamental paradox: whereas the decomposition describes the experimental results rather well, theory suggests that a group-additive decomposition of free energies is, in general, not valid. In a step toward resolving this paradox, here we study the peptide-group transfer free energy. We calculate the vacuum-to-solvent (solvation) free energies of (Gly)n and cyclic diglycine (cGG) and analyze the data according to experimental protocol. The solvation free energies of (Gly)n are linear in n, suggesting group additivity. However, the slope interpreted as the free energy of a peptide unit differs from that for cGG scaled by a factor of half, emphasizing the context dependence of solvation. However, the water-to-osmolyte transfer free energies of the peptide unit are relatively independent of the peptide model, as observed experimentally. To understand these observations, a way to assess the contribution to the solvation free energy of solvent-mediated correlation between distinct groups is developed. We show that linearity of solvation free energy with n is a consequence of uniformity of the correlation contributions, with apparent group-additive behavior in the water-to-osmolyte transfer arising due to their cancellation. Implications for inferring molecular mechanisms of solvent effects on protein stability on the basis of the group-additive transfer model are suggested.

  4. Predicting Participation in Group Parenting Education in an Australian Sample: The Role of Attitudes, Norms, and Control Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Katherine M.; Wellington, Larne

    2009-01-01

    We examined the theory of planned behavior (TPB) in predicting intentions to participate in group parenting education. One hundred and seventy-six parents (138 mothers and 38 fathers) with a child under 12 years completed TPB items assessing attitude, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control (PBC), and two additional social influence…

  5. Stereo- and Temporally Controlled Coordination Polymerization Triggered by Alternating Addition of a Lewis Acid and Base.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bo; Cui, Dongmei; Tang, Tao

    2016-09-19

    Significant progress has been made with regard to temporally controlled radical and ring-opening polymerizations, for example, by means of chemical reagents, light, and voltage, whereas quantitative switch coordination polymerization is still challenging. Herein, we report the temporally and stereocontrolled 3,4-polymerization of isoprene through allosterically regulating the active metal center by alternating addition of Lewis basic pyridine to "poison" the Lewis acidic active metal species through acid-base interactions and Lewis acidic Al(i) Bu3 to release the original active species through pyridine abstraction. This process is quick, quantitative, and can be repeated multiple times while maintaining high 3,4-selectivity. Moreover, this strategy is also effective for the switch copolymerization of isoprene and styrene with dual 3,4- and syndiotactic selectivity. Tuning the switch cycles and intervals enables the isolation of various copolymers with different distributions of 3,4-polyisoprene and syndiotactic polystyrene sequences. PMID:27539866

  6. Bingel-Hirsch addition on endohedral metallofullerenes: kinetic versus thermodynamic control.

    PubMed

    Alegret, Núria; Rodríguez-Fortea, Antonio; Poblet, Josep M

    2013-04-15

    An extensive theoretical study of the Bingel-Hirsch addition of bromomalonate on scandium nitride endohedral fullerenes has been carried out. The prototypical and highly symmetrical Sc3N@I(h)-C80, with a structure that satisfies the isolated pentagon rule (IPR), and the non-IPR Sc3N@D3(6140)-C68 fullerene show analogous reaction paths despite the distinct topology of the carbon networks and different rotation freedom of the internal nitride cluster. For the two metallofullerenes, our results predict that the reaction takes place under kinetic control yielding open-cage fulleroids on [6,6] bonds, which is in good agreement with experimental data. The theoretical studies also show that predicting the reactivity of endohedral metallofullerenes is not straightforward and often an accurate analysis of the potential energy surface is required.

  7. Catalytic enantioselective addition of organoboron reagents to fluoroketones controlled by electrostatic interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Kyunga; Silverio, Daniel L.; Torker, Sebastian; Robbins, Daniel W.; Haeffner, Fredrik; van der Mei, Farid W.; Hoveyda, Amir H.

    2016-08-01

    Organofluorine compounds are central to modern chemistry, and broadly applicable transformations that generate them efficiently and enantioselectively are in much demand. Here we introduce efficient catalytic methods for the addition of allyl and allenyl organoboron reagents to fluorine-substituted ketones. These reactions are facilitated by readily and inexpensively available catalysts and deliver versatile and otherwise difficult-to-access tertiary homoallylic alcohols in up to 98% yield and >99:1 enantiomeric ratio. Utility is highlighted by a concise enantioselective approach to the synthesis of the antiparasitic drug fluralaner (Bravecto, presently sold as the racemate). Different forms of ammonium–organofluorine interactions play a key role in the control of enantioselectivity. The greater understanding of various non-bonding interactions afforded by these studies should facilitate the future development of transformations that involve fluoroorganic entities.

  8. Catalytic enantioselective addition of organoboron reagents to fluoroketones controlled by electrostatic interactions.

    PubMed

    Lee, KyungA; Silverio, Daniel L; Torker, Sebastian; Robbins, Daniel W; Haeffner, Fredrik; van der Mei, Farid W; Hoveyda, Amir H

    2016-08-01

    Organofluorine compounds are central to modern chemistry, and broadly applicable transformations that generate them efficiently and enantioselectively are in much demand. Here we introduce efficient catalytic methods for the addition of allyl and allenyl organoboron reagents to fluorine-substituted ketones. These reactions are facilitated by readily and inexpensively available catalysts and deliver versatile and otherwise difficult-to-access tertiary homoallylic alcohols in up to 98% yield and >99:1 enantiomeric ratio. Utility is highlighted by a concise enantioselective approach to the synthesis of the antiparasitic drug fluralaner (Bravecto, presently sold as the racemate). Different forms of ammonium-organofluorine interactions play a key role in the control of enantioselectivity. The greater understanding of various non-bonding interactions afforded by these studies should facilitate the future development of transformations that involve fluoroorganic entities.

  9. Controlling the corrosion and cathodic activation of magnesium via microalloying additions of Ge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, R. L.; Hurley, M. F.; Kvryan, A.; Williams, G.; Scully, J. R.; Birbilis, N.

    2016-06-01

    The evolution of corrosion morphology and kinetics for magnesium (Mg) have been demonstrated to be influenced by cathodic activation, which implies that the rate of the cathodic partial reaction is enhanced as a result of anodic dissolution. This phenomenon was recently demonstrated to be moderated by the use of arsenic (As) alloying as a poison for the cathodic reaction, leading to significantly improved corrosion resistance. The pursuit of alternatives to toxic As is important as a means to imparting a technologically safe and effective corrosion control method for Mg (and its alloys). In this work, Mg was microalloyed with germanium (Ge), with the aim of improving corrosion resistance by retarding cathodic activation. Based on a combined analysis herein, we report that Ge is potent in supressing the cathodic hydrogen evolution reaction (reduction of water) upon Mg, improving corrosion resistance. With the addition of Ge, cathodic activation of Mg subject to cyclic polarisation was also hindered, with beneficial implications for future Mg electrodes.

  10. Catalytic enantioselective addition of organoboron reagents to fluoroketones controlled by electrostatic interactions.

    PubMed

    Lee, KyungA; Silverio, Daniel L; Torker, Sebastian; Robbins, Daniel W; Haeffner, Fredrik; van der Mei, Farid W; Hoveyda, Amir H

    2016-08-01

    Organofluorine compounds are central to modern chemistry, and broadly applicable transformations that generate them efficiently and enantioselectively are in much demand. Here we introduce efficient catalytic methods for the addition of allyl and allenyl organoboron reagents to fluorine-substituted ketones. These reactions are facilitated by readily and inexpensively available catalysts and deliver versatile and otherwise difficult-to-access tertiary homoallylic alcohols in up to 98% yield and >99:1 enantiomeric ratio. Utility is highlighted by a concise enantioselective approach to the synthesis of the antiparasitic drug fluralaner (Bravecto, presently sold as the racemate). Different forms of ammonium-organofluorine interactions play a key role in the control of enantioselectivity. The greater understanding of various non-bonding interactions afforded by these studies should facilitate the future development of transformations that involve fluoroorganic entities. PMID:27442282

  11. Catalytic enantioselective addition of organoboron reagents to fluoroketones controlled by electrostatic interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Kyunga; Silverio, Daniel L.; Torker, Sebastian; Robbins, Daniel W.; Haeffner, Fredrik; van der Mei, Farid W.; Hoveyda, Amir H.

    2016-08-01

    Organofluorine compounds are central to modern chemistry, and broadly applicable transformations that generate them efficiently and enantioselectively are in much demand. Here we introduce efficient catalytic methods for the addition of allyl and allenyl organoboron reagents to fluorine-substituted ketones. These reactions are facilitated by readily and inexpensively available catalysts and deliver versatile and otherwise difficult-to-access tertiary homoallylic alcohols in up to 98% yield and >99:1 enantiomeric ratio. Utility is highlighted by a concise enantioselective approach to the synthesis of the antiparasitic drug fluralaner (Bravecto, presently sold as the racemate). Different forms of ammonium-organofluorine interactions play a key role in the control of enantioselectivity. The greater understanding of various non-bonding interactions afforded by these studies should facilitate the future development of transformations that involve fluoroorganic entities.

  12. Quality control of laser- and powder bed-based Additive Manufacturing (AM) technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berumen, Sebastian; Bechmann, Florian; Lindner, Stefan; Kruth, Jean-Pierre; Craeghs, Tom

    The quality of metal components manufactured by laser- and powder bed-based additive manufacturing technologies has continuously been improved over the last years. However, to establish this production technology in industries with very high quality standards the accessibility of prevalent quality management methods to all steps of the process chain needs still to be enhanced. This publication describes which tools are and will be available to fulfil those requirements from the perspective of a laser machine manufacturer. Generally five aspects of the part building process are covered by separate Quality Management (QM) modules: the powder quality, the temperature management, the process gas atmosphere, the melt pool behaviour and the documentation module. This paper sets the focus on melt pool analysis and control.

  13. Enhancing a cancer prevention and control curriculum through interactive group discussions.

    PubMed

    Forsythe, L P; Gadalla, S M; Hamilton, J G; Heckman-Stoddard, B M; Kent, E E; Lai, G Y; Lin, S W; Luhn, P; Faupel-Badger, J M

    2012-06-01

    The Principles and Practice of Cancer Prevention and Control course (Principles course) is offered annually by the National Cancer Institute Cancer Prevention Fellowship Program. This 4-week postgraduate course covers the spectrum of cancer prevention and control research (e.g., epidemiology, laboratory, clinical, social, and behavioral sciences) and is open to attendees from medical, academic, government, and related institutions across the world. In this report, we describe a new addition to the Principles course syllabus, which was exclusively a lecture-based format for over 20 years. In 2011, cancer prevention fellows and staff designed and implemented small group discussion sessions as part of the curriculum. The goals of these sessions were to foster an interactive environment, discuss concepts presented during the Principles course, exchange ideas, and enhance networking among the course participants and provide a teaching and leadership opportunity to current cancer prevention fellows. Overall, both the participants and facilitators who returned the evaluation forms (n=61/87 and 8/10, respectively) reported a high satisfaction with the experience for providing both an opportunity to explore course concepts in a greater detail and to network with colleagues. Participants (93%) and facilitators (100%) stated that they would like to see this component remain a part of the Principles course curriculum, and both groups provided recommendations for the 2012 program. The design, implementation, and evaluation of this initial discussion group component of the Principles course are described herein. The findings in this report will not only inform future discussion group sessions in the Principles course but may also be useful to others planning to incorporate group learning into large primarily lecture-based courses.

  14. Stereoselective synthesis of tricyclic compounds by intramolecular palladium-catalyzed addition of aryl iodides to carbonyl groups.

    PubMed

    Saadi, Jakub; Bentz, Christoph; Redies, Kai; Lentz, Dieter; Zimmer, Reinhold; Reissig, Hans-Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    Starting from γ-ketoesters with an o-iodobenzyl group we studied a palladium-catalyzed cyclization process that stereoselectively led to bi- and tricyclic compounds in moderate to excellent yields. Four X-ray crystal structure analyses unequivocally defined the structure of crucial cyclization products. The relative configuration of the precursor compounds is essentially transferred to that of the products and the formed hydroxy group in the newly generated cyclohexane ring is consistently in trans-arrangement with respect to the methoxycarbonyl group. A transition-state model is proposed to explain the observed stereochemical outcome. This palladium-catalyzed Barbier-type reaction requires a reduction of palladium(II) back to palladium(0) which is apparently achieved by the present triethylamine. PMID:27559374

  15. Stereoselective synthesis of tricyclic compounds by intramolecular palladium-catalyzed addition of aryl iodides to carbonyl groups

    PubMed Central

    Saadi, Jakub; Bentz, Christoph; Redies, Kai; Lentz, Dieter; Zimmer, Reinhold

    2016-01-01

    Summary Starting from γ-ketoesters with an o-iodobenzyl group we studied a palladium-catalyzed cyclization process that stereoselectively led to bi- and tricyclic compounds in moderate to excellent yields. Four X-ray crystal structure analyses unequivocally defined the structure of crucial cyclization products. The relative configuration of the precursor compounds is essentially transferred to that of the products and the formed hydroxy group in the newly generated cyclohexane ring is consistently in trans-arrangement with respect to the methoxycarbonyl group. A transition-state model is proposed to explain the observed stereochemical outcome. This palladium-catalyzed Barbier-type reaction requires a reduction of palladium(II) back to palladium(0) which is apparently achieved by the present triethylamine. PMID:27559374

  16. Group Cognitive Behavioural Therapy and Group Recreational Activity for Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Preliminary Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hesselmark, Eva; Plenty, Stephanie; Bejerot, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    Although adults with autism spectrum disorder are an increasingly identified patient population, few treatment options are available. This "preliminary" randomized controlled open trial with a parallel design developed two group interventions for adults with autism spectrum disorders and intelligence within the normal range: cognitive…

  17. Additional Saturday rehabilitation improves functional independence and quality of life and reduces length of stay: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Many inpatients receive little or no rehabilitation on weekends. Our aim was to determine what effect providing additional Saturday rehabilitation during inpatient rehabilitation had on functional independence, quality of life and length of stay compared to 5 days per week of rehabilitation. Methods This was a multicenter, single-blind (assessors) randomized controlled trial with concealed allocation and 12-month follow-up conducted in two publically funded metropolitan inpatient rehabilitation facilities in Melbourne, Australia. Patients were eligible if they were adults (aged ≥18 years) admitted for rehabilitation for any orthopedic, neurological or other disabling conditions excluding those admitted for slow stream rehabilitation/geriatric evaluation and management. Participants were randomly allocated to usual care Monday to Friday rehabilitation (control) or to Monday to Saturday rehabilitation (intervention). The additional Saturday rehabilitation comprised physiotherapy and occupational therapy. The primary outcomes were functional independence (functional independence measure (FIM); measured on an 18 to 126 point scale), health-related quality of life (EQ-5D utility index; measured on a 0 to 1 scale, and EQ-5D visual analog scale; measured on a 0 to 100 scale), and patient length of stay. Outcome measures were assessed on admission, discharge (primary endpoint), and at 6 and 12 months post discharge. Results We randomly assigned 996 adults (mean (SD) age 74 (13) years) to Monday to Saturday rehabilitation (n = 496) or usual care Monday to Friday rehabilitation (n = 500). Relative to admission scores, intervention group participants had higher functional independence (mean difference (MD) 2.3, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.5 to 4.1, P = 0.01) and health-related quality of life (MD 0.04, 95% CI 0.01 to 0.07, P = 0.009) on discharge and may have had a shorter length of stay by 2 days (95% CI 0 to 4, P = 0.1) when compared to

  18. The CERN antiproton source: Controls aspects of the additional collector ring and fast sampling devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chohan, V.

    1990-08-01

    The upgrade of the CERN antiproton source, meant to gain an order of magnitude in antiproton flux, required the construction of an additional ring to complement the existing antiproton accumulator (AA) and an entire rebuild of the target zone. The AA also needed major modifications to handle the increased flux and perform purely as an accumulator, preceded by collection in the collector ring (AC). The upgrade, known as the ACOL (antiproton collector) project, was approved under strict time and budgetary constraints and the existing AA control system, based on the Proton Synchrotron (PS) Divisional norms of CAMAC and Norsk-Data computers, had to be extended in the light of this. The limited (9 months) installation period for the whole upgrade meant that substantial preparatory and planning activities had to be carried out during the normal running of the AA. Advantage was taken of the upgrade to improve and consolidate the AA. Some aspects of the control system related to this upgrade are discussed together with the integration of new applications and instrumentation. The overall machine installation and running-in was carried out within the defined milestones and the project has now achieved the physics design goals.

  19. Group Lidcombe Program Treatment for Early Stuttering: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnott, Simone; Onslow, Mark; O'Brian, Sue; Packman, Ann; Jones, Mark; Block, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This study adds to the Lidcombe Program evidence base by comparing individual and group treatment of preschoolers who stutter. Method: A randomized controlled trial of 54 preschoolers was designed to establish whether group delivery outcomes were not inferior to the individual model. The group arm used a rolling group model, in which a…

  20. Carcinogenicity evaluation: comparison of tumor data from dual control groups in the CD-1 mouse.

    PubMed

    Baldrick, Paul; Reeve, Lesley

    2007-06-01

    Current regulatory thinking allows for the use of single control groups for rodent carcinogenicity testing although there has been a trend until recently to use dual control groups. To date, virtually nothing has been published on whether a shift from dual to single control groups will affect the identification of tumorigenic risk potential in these studies. A recent evaluation of dual control carcinogenicity data in the rat (Baldrick, Toxicol Pathol 2005, 33: 283-291) showed that although no major differences in tumor incidences between the control groups were found, some interstudy variation occurred and in cases were a notable difference was seen, the use of 2 control groups, as well as robust, contemporary background data, allowed an easier interpretation of findings in drug-treated groups. In this paper, the results of 10 mouse carcinogenicity studies, performed between 1991 and 2004, with 2 control groups, are presented. As in the rat, interstudy variation was seen and in some cases, the use of dual control groups assisted in the tumor risk assessment. Thus, the continued use of 2 control groups can have a vital role in mouse carcinogenicity studies. The paper also presents an update on survival, on the range and extent of background spontaneous neoplasms and comments on genetic drift in this commonly used mouse strain.

  1. Safety Evaluation Report related to Hydrogen Control Owners Group assessment of Mark 3 containments

    SciTech Connect

    Li, C.Y.; Kudrick, J.A.

    1990-10-01

    Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations (10 CFR), Section 50.44 Standards for Combustible Gas Control System in Light-Water-Cooled Power Reactors,'' requires that systems be provided to control hydrogen concentration in the containment atmosphere following an accident to ensure that containment integrity is maintained. The purpose of this report is to provide regulatory guidance to licensees with Mark III containments with regard to demonstrating compliance with 10 CFR 50.44, Section (c)(3)(vi) and (c)(3)(vii). In this report, the staff provides its evaluation of the generic methodology proposed by the Hydrogen Control Owners Group. This generic methodology is documented in Topical Report HGN-112-NP, Generic Hydrogen Control Information for BWR/6 Mark III Containments.'' In addition, the staff has recommended that the vulnerability to interruption of power to the hydrogen igniters be evaluated further on a plant-specific basis as part of the individual plant examination of the plants with Mark III containments. 10 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Whole-lake nitrate addition for control of methylmercury in mercury-contaminated Onondaga Lake, NY.

    PubMed

    Matthews, David A; Babcock, David B; Nolan, John G; Prestigiacomo, Anthony R; Effler, Steven W; Driscoll, Charles T; Todorova, Svetoslava G; Kuhr, Kenneth M

    2013-08-01

    Methylmercury (MeHg) strongly bioaccumulates in aquatic food webs resulting in exposure to humans and wildlife through consumption of fish. Production of MeHg is promoted by anaerobic conditions and the supply of inorganic Hg (Hg(2+)), sulfate (SO4(2-)), and labile organic carbon. The anaerobic sediments of stratified lakes are particularly active zones for methylation of Hg(2+) and can be an important source of MeHg to the water column during summer anoxia and fall turnover. Nitrate (NO3(-)) addition has recently been proposed as a novel approach for the control of MeHg accumulation in the hypolimnia of Hg-contaminated lakes. In 2011, a whole-lake NO3(-) addition pilot test was conducted in Hg-contaminated Onondaga Lake, NY with the objective of limiting release of MeHg from the pelagic sediments to the hypolimnion through maintenance of NO3(-)-N concentrations >1mgN/L. A liquid calcium-nitrate solution was added to the hypolimnion as a neutrally buoyant plume approximately three times per week during the summer stratification interval. Maximum hypolimnetic concentrations of MeHg and soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) decreased 94% and 95% from 2009 levels, suggesting increased sorption to Fe and Mn oxyhydroxides in surficial sediments as the regulating mechanism. Increased MeHg concentrations in the upper waters during fall turnover, which had been a generally recurring pattern, did not occur in 2011, resulting in decreased exposure of aquatic organisms to MeHg. Over the 1992-2011 interval, the hypolimnetic NO3(-) supply explained 85% and 95% of the interannual variations in hypolimnetic accumulations of SRP and MeHg, respectively.

  3. Analysis of Time to Event Outcomes in Randomized Controlled Trials by Generalized Additive Models

    PubMed Central

    Argyropoulos, Christos; Unruh, Mark L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Randomized Controlled Trials almost invariably utilize the hazard ratio calculated with a Cox proportional hazard model as a treatment efficacy measure. Despite the widespread adoption of HRs, these provide a limited understanding of the treatment effect and may even provide a biased estimate when the assumption of proportional hazards in the Cox model is not verified by the trial data. Additional treatment effect measures on the survival probability or the time scale may be used to supplement HRs but a framework for the simultaneous generation of these measures is lacking. Methods By splitting follow-up time at the nodes of a Gauss Lobatto numerical quadrature rule, techniques for Poisson Generalized Additive Models (PGAM) can be adopted for flexible hazard modeling. Straightforward simulation post-estimation transforms PGAM estimates for the log hazard into estimates of the survival function. These in turn were used to calculate relative and absolute risks or even differences in restricted mean survival time between treatment arms. We illustrate our approach with extensive simulations and in two trials: IPASS (in which the proportionality of hazards was violated) and HEMO a long duration study conducted under evolving standards of care on a heterogeneous patient population. Findings PGAM can generate estimates of the survival function and the hazard ratio that are essentially identical to those obtained by Kaplan Meier curve analysis and the Cox model. PGAMs can simultaneously provide multiple measures of treatment efficacy after a single data pass. Furthermore, supported unadjusted (overall treatment effect) but also subgroup and adjusted analyses, while incorporating multiple time scales and accounting for non-proportional hazards in survival data. Conclusions By augmenting the HR conventionally reported, PGAMs have the potential to support the inferential goals of multiple stakeholders involved in the evaluation and appraisal of clinical trial

  4. [Decomposition of hemoglobin UV absorption spectrum into absorption spectra of prosthetic group and apoprotein by means of an additive model].

    PubMed

    Lavrinenko, I A; Vashanov, G A; Artyukhov, V G

    2015-01-01

    The decomposition pathways of hemoglobin UV absorption spectrum into the absorption spectra of the protein and non-protein components are proposed and substantiated by means of an additive model. We have established that the heme component has an absorption band with a maximum at λ(max) = 269.2 nm (ε = 97163) and the apoprotein component has an absorption band with a maximum at λ(max) = 278.4 nm (ε = 48669) for the wavelength range from 240.0 to 320.0 nm. An integral relative proportion of absorption for the heme fraction (78.8%) and apoprotein (21.2%) in the investigating wavelength range is defined.

  5. Additional borehole geophysical logging at Waste Area Grouping 1 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-07-01

    This technical memorandum describes the borehole geophysical logging performed at selected coreholes at Waste Area Grouping 1 between March and November 1991 in support of the remedial investigation. The primary objectives of the borehole geophysical logging program were to (1) identify fractured bedrock zones and identify those fractured bedrock zones participating in active groundwater flow, (2) correlate the fractured intervals with the regional stratigraphy described, and (3) further characterize local bedrock geology and hydrogeology and gain insight about the bedrock aquifer flow system. A secondary objective was to provide stratigraphic correlations with existing logs for coreholes CH001 through CH005. Fractured bedrock zones and active or open fractures were identified in all coreholes logged. The fracture identification and analysis process was intended to distinguish between open or active fractures participating in active groundwater flow and closed or inactive fractures that are partially or completely filled (such as with calcite mineralization) and do not support groundwater circulation. Most of the fractures identified are bedding plane. Fracture occurrence varies with the different units of the Chickamauga Group; the greatest density of fractures and active fractures occurs in the upper 150 ft of stratum cored. Fractures actively contributing to groundwater flow were also identified, and direction of fluid movement within fractures was identified for those coreholes with flowmeter data.

  6. Information without Implementation: A Practical Example for Developing a Best Practice Education Control Group

    PubMed Central

    Balderson, Benjamin H.; McCurry, Susan M.; Vitiello, Michael V.; Shortreed, Susan M.; Rybarczyk, Bruce D.; Keefe, Francis J.; Von Korff, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This paper considers methodology for developing an education only control group and proposes a simple approach to designing rigorous and well-accepted control groups. This approach is demonstrated in a large randomized trial. The Lifestyles trial (n=367) compared three group interventions: 1) cognitive-behavioral treatment (CBT) for osteoarthritis pain, 2) CBT for osteoarthritis pain and insomnia, and 3) education only control (EOC). EOC emulated the interventions excluding hypothesized treatment components and controlling for non-specific treatment effects. Results showed this approach resulted in a control group that was highly credible and acceptable to patients. This approach can be an effective and practical guide for developing high quality control groups in trials of behavioral interventions. PMID:26485203

  7. Additive Effect of Qidan Dihuang Grain, a Traditional Chinese Medicine, and Angiotensin Receptor Blockers on Albuminuria Levels in Patients with Diabetic Nephropathy: A Randomized, Parallel-Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Xiang, Lei; Jiang, Pingping; Zhou, Lin; Sun, Xiaomin; Bi, Jianlu; Cui, Lijuan; Nie, Xiaoli; Luo, Ren; Liu, Yanyan

    2016-01-01

    Albuminuria is characteristic of early-stage diabetic nephropathy (DN). The conventional treatments with angiotensin receptor blockers (ARB) are unable to prevent the development of albuminuria in normotensive individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Purpose. The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of ARB combined with a Chinese formula Qidan Dihuang grain (QDDHG) in improving albuminuria and Traditional Chinese Medicine Symptom (TCMS) scores in normotensive individuals with T2DM. Methods. Eligible patients were randomized to the treatment group and the control group. Results. Compared with baseline (week 0), both treatment and control groups markedly improved the 24-hour albuminuria, total proteinuria (TPU), and urinary albumin to creatinine ratio (A/C) at 4, 8, and 12 weeks. Between treatment and the control group, the levels of albuminuria in the treatment group were significantly lower than in the control group at 8 and 12 weeks (p < 0.05). In addition, treatment group markedly decreased the scores of TCMS after treatment. Conclusion. This trial suggests that QDDHG combined with ARB administration decreases the levels of albuminuria and the scores for TCMS in normotensive individuals with T2DM. PMID:27375762

  8. Controlling the corrosion and cathodic activation of magnesium via microalloying additions of Ge

    PubMed Central

    Liu, R. L.; Hurley, M. F.; Kvryan, A.; Williams, G.; Scully, J. R.; Birbilis, N.

    2016-01-01

    The evolution of corrosion morphology and kinetics for magnesium (Mg) have been demonstrated to be influenced by cathodic activation, which implies that the rate of the cathodic partial reaction is enhanced as a result of anodic dissolution. This phenomenon was recently demonstrated to be moderated by the use of arsenic (As) alloying as a poison for the cathodic reaction, leading to significantly improved corrosion resistance. The pursuit of alternatives to toxic As is important as a means to imparting a technologically safe and effective corrosion control method for Mg (and its alloys). In this work, Mg was microalloyed with germanium (Ge), with the aim of improving corrosion resistance by retarding cathodic activation. Based on a combined analysis herein, we report that Ge is potent in supressing the cathodic hydrogen evolution reaction (reduction of water) upon Mg, improving corrosion resistance. With the addition of Ge, cathodic activation of Mg subject to cyclic polarisation was also hindered, with beneficial implications for future Mg electrodes. PMID:27350286

  9. Ring Walking/Oxidative Addition Reactions for the Controlled Synthesis of Conjugated Polymers

    SciTech Connect

    Bazan, Guillermo C

    2012-04-03

    Power conversion efficiencies of plastic solar cells depend strongly on the molecular weight characteristics of the semiconducting polymers used for their fabrication. The synthesis of these materials typically relies on transition metal mediated catalytic reactions. In many instances, the ideal structures cannot be attained because of deficiencies in these reactions, particularly when it comes to being able to achieve high number average molecular weights and narrow molecular weight distributions. Another important conjugated polymer structure of interest is one in which a single functional group is attached at the end group of the chain. Such systems would be ideal for modifying surface properties at interfaces and for labeling biomolecular probes used in fluorescent biosensors. To respond to the challenges above, our efforts have centered on the design of homogenous transition metal complexes that are easy to prepare and effective in carrying out living, or quasi-living, condensative chain polymerization reactions. The key mechanistic challenge for the success of this reaction is to force the insertion of one monomer unit at a time via a process that involves migration of the transition metal-containing fragment to one terminus of the polymer chain. Chain growth characteristics are therefore favored when the metal does not dissociate from the newly formed reductive elimination product. We have proposed that dissociation is disfavored by the formation of a -complex, in which the metal can sample various locations of the electronically delocalized framework, a process that we term ring-walking , and find the functionality where oxidative addition takes place. Success has been achieved in the nickel-mediated cross coupling reaction of Grignard reagents with aromatic halides by using bromo[1,2-bis(diphenylphosphino)ethane]phenylnickel. This reagent can yield poly(thiophene)s (one of the most widely used type of polymer in plastic solar cells) with excellent

  10. The Use of Additives to Control the Morphology of Thin Films Synthesized Using Aerosol Assisted Chemical Vapour Deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaye, Karl; Turner, David; McKenna, David; Cackett, Adam; Hyett, Geoffrey

    This paper identifies and discusses the use of additives to control the morphology of nanoscale crystalline zinc oxide films, grown using AACVD, principally from a solution of zinc acetate in methanol. We will discuss the use of both positively charged additives such as tetramethylammonium bromide and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide as well as negatively charged additives like sodium dodecylsulphate. Additives such as these, combined with other experimental parameters such as deposition time, have allowed us to control the size of the particles (from 100 to 400 nm in diameter), their orientation, and the regularity of their shape, from rough edged plates to well defined hexagons. We will show that the additives can be used to control morphology consistently over a temperature range of 250-400 °C, and that this technique can be applied generally to a number of additives and solvents.

  11. A Serious Videogame as an Additional Therapy Tool for Training Emotional Regulation and Impulsivity Control in Severe Gambling Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Tárrega, Salomé; Castro-Carreras, Laia; Fernández-Aranda, Fernando; Granero, Roser; Giner-Bartolomé, Cristina; Aymamí, Neus; Gómez-Peña, Mónica; Santamaría, Juan J.; Forcano, Laura; Steward, Trevor; Menchón, José M.; Jiménez-Murcia, Susana

    2015-01-01

    Background: Gambling disorder (GD) is characterized by a significant lack of self-control and is associated with impulsivity-related personality traits. It is also linked to deficits in emotional regulation and frequently co-occurs with anxiety and depression symptoms. There is also evidence that emotional dysregulation may play a mediatory role between GD and psychopathological symptomatology. Few studies have reported the outcomes of psychological interventions that specifically address these underlying processes. Objectives: To assess the utility of the Playmancer platform, a serious video game, as an additional therapy tool in a CBT intervention for GD, and to estimate pre-post changes in measures of impulsivity, anger expression and psychopathological symptomatology. Method: The sample comprised a single group of 16 male treatment-seeking individuals with severe GD diagnosis. Therapy intervention consisted of 16 group weekly CBT sessions and, concurrently, 10 additional weekly sessions of a serious video game. Pre-post treatment scores on South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS), Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11), I7 Impulsiveness Questionnaire (I7), State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory 2 (STAXI-2), Symptom Checklist-Revised (SCL-90-R), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI-S-T), and Novelty Seeking from the Temperament and Character Inventory-Revised (TCI-R) were compared. Results: After the intervention, significant changes were observed in several measures of impulsivity, anger expression and other psychopathological symptoms. Dropout and relapse rates during treatment were similar to those described in the literature for CBT. Conclusion: Complementing CBT interventions for GD with a specific therapy approach like a serious video game might be helpful in addressing certain underlying factors which are usually difficult to change, including impulsivity and anger expression. PMID:26617550

  12. 29 CFR 4043.29 - Change in contributing sponsor or controlled group.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... solely in a reorganization involving a mere change in identity, form, or place of organization, however... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Change in contributing sponsor or controlled group. 4043.29... Events § 4043.29 Change in contributing sponsor or controlled group. (a) Reportable event. A...

  13. Thermochemical Properties Enthalpy, Entropy, and Heat Capacity of C1-C4 Fluorinated Hydrocarbons: Fluorocarbon Group Additivity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Heng; Castillo, Álvaro; Bozzelli, Joseph W

    2015-07-23

    Enthalpies of formation for 14 C2–C4 fluorinated hydrocarbons were calculated with nine popular ab initio and density functional theory methods: B3LYP, CBS-QB3, CBS-APNO, M06, M06-2X, ωB97X, G4, G4(MP2)-6X, and W1U via several series of isodesmic reactions. The recommended ideal gas phase ΔHf298° (kcal mol(–1)) values calculated in this study are the following: −65.4 for CH3CH2F; −70.2 for CH3CH2CH2F; −75.3 for CH3CHFCH3; −75.2 for CH3CH2CH2CH2F; −80.3 for CH3CHFCH2CH3; −108.1 for CH2F2; −120.9 for CH3CHF2; −125.8 for CH3CH2CHF2; −133.3 for CH3CF2CH3; −166.7 for CHF3; −180.5 for CH3CF3; −185.5 for CH3CH2CF3; −223.2 for CF4; and −85.8 for (CH3)3CF. Entropies (S298° in cal mol(–1) K(–1)) were estimated using B3LYP/6-31+G(d,p) computed frequencies and geometries. Rotational barriers were determined and hindered internal rotational contributions for S298°, and Cp(T) were calculated using the rigid rotor harmonic oscillator approximation, with direct integration over energy levels of the intramolecular rotation potential energy curve. Thermochemical properties for the fluorinated carbon groups C/C/F/H2, C/C2/F/H, C/C/F2/H, C/C2/F2, and C/C/F3 were derived from the above target fluorocarbons. Previously published enthalpies and groups for 1,2-difluoroethane, 1,1,2-trifluoroethane, 1,1,2,2-tetrafluoroethane, 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane, 1,1,1,2,2-pentafluoroethane, 2-fluoro-2-methylpropane that were previously determined via work reaction schemes are revised using updated reference species values. Standard deviations are compared for the calculation methods.

  14. The quality of control groups in non-randomized studies published in Journal of Hand Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Shepard P.; Malay, Sunitha; Chung, Kevin C.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate control group selection in non-randomized studies published in the Journal of Hand Surgery American (JHS). Methods We reviewed all papers published in JHS in 2013 to identify studies that used non-randomized control groups. Data collected included type of study design and control group characteristics. We then appraised studies to determine if authors discussed confounding and selection bias and how they controlled for confounding. Results Thirty-seven non-randomized studies were published in JHS in 2013. The source of control was either the same institution as the study group, a different institution, a database, or not provided in the manuscript. Twenty-nine (78%) studies statistically compared key characteristics between control and study group. Confounding was controlled with matching, exclusion criteria, or regression analysis. Twenty-two (59%) papers explicitly discussed the threat of confounding and 18(49%) identified sources of selection bias. Conclusions In our review of non-randomized studies published in JHS, papers had well-defined controls that were similar to the study group, allowing for reasonable comparisons. However, we identified substantial confounding and bias that were not addressed as explicit limitations, which might lead the reader to overestimate the scientific validity of the data. Clinical relevance Incorporating a brief discussion of control group selection in scientific manuscripts should help readers interpret the study more appropriately. Authors, reviewers, and editors should strive to address this component of clinical importance. PMID:25447000

  15. Mechanism for gene control by a natural allosteric group I ribozyme.

    PubMed

    Chen, Andy G Y; Sudarsan, Narasimhan; Breaker, Ronald R

    2011-11-01

    An allosteric ribozyme consisting of a metabolite-sensing riboswitch and a group I self-splicing ribozyme was recently found in the pathogenic bacterium Clostridium difficile. The riboswitch senses the bacterial second messenger c-di-GMP, thereby controlling 5'-splice site choice by the downstream ribozyme. The proximity of this allosteric ribozyme to the open reading frame (ORF) for CD3246 suggests that coenzyme-mediated regulation of splicing controls expression of this putative virulence gene. In the presence of c-di-GMP, the allosteric ribozyme in the CD3246 precursor transcript generates a spliced transcript that retains the riboswitch aptamer. In the absence of c-di-GMP, the ribozyme mediates an alternative GTP attack that results in a truncated transcript (alternative GTP-attack product). Using reporter assays in Escherichia coli, we investigated the difference in gene expression between the spliced product and the alternative GTP-attack product. We provide evidence that CD3246 gene expression is activated if allosteric ribozyme splicing creates a ribosome binding site (RBS) for translation from a UUG start codon. In addition, biochemical and genetic analyses reveal that the riboswitch may further control CD3246 expression by revealing or occluding this newly formed RBS. Therefore, this architecture provides the riboswitch with a mechanism for extended regulation after splicing has occurred or as a backup mechanism for suppression of translation in the event of misregulated splicing.

  16. Early treatment revisions by addition or switch for type 2 diabetes: impact on glycemic control, diabetic complications, and healthcare costs

    PubMed Central

    Schwab, Phil; Saundankar, Vishal; Bouchard, Jonathan; Wintfeld, Neil; Suehs, Brandon; Moretz, Chad; Allen, Elsie; DeLuzio, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Background The study examined the prevalence of early treatment revisions after glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) ≥9.0% (75 mmol/mol) and estimated the impact of early treatment revisions on glycemic control, diabetic complications, and costs. Research design and methods A retrospective cohort study of administrative claims data of plan members with type 2 diabetes and HbA1c ≥9.0% (75 mmol/mol) was completed. Treatment revision was identified as treatment addition or switch. Glycemic control was measured as HbA1c during 6–12 months following the first qualifying HbA1c ≥9.0% (75 mmol/mol) laboratory result. Complications severity (via Diabetes Complication Severity Index (DCSI)) and costs were measured after 12, 24, and 36 months. Unadjusted comparisons and multivariable models were used to examine the relationship between early treatment revision (within 90 days of HbA1c) and outcomes after controlling for potentially confounding factors measured during a 12-month baseline period. Results 8463 participants were included with a mean baseline HbA1c of 10.2% (75 mmol/mol). Early treatment revision was associated with greater reduction in HbA1c at 6–12 months (−2.10% vs −1.87%; p<0.001). No significant relationship was observed between early treatment revision and DCSI at 12, 24, or 36 months (p=0.931, p=0.332, and p=0.418). Total costs, medical costs, and pharmacy costs at 12, 24, or 36 months were greater for the early treatment revision group compared with the delayed treatment revision group (all p<0.05). Conclusions The findings suggest that in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, treatment revision within 90 days of finding an HbA1c ≥9.0% is associated with a greater level of near-term glycemic control and higher cost. The impact on end points such as diabetic complications may not be realized over relatively short time frames. PMID:26925237

  17. Time optimal control of an additional food provided predator-prey system with applications to pest management and biological conservation.

    PubMed

    Srinivasu, P D N; Prasad, B S R V

    2010-04-01

    Use of additional food has been widely recognized by experimental scientists as one of the important tools for biological control such as species conservation and pest management. The quality and quantity of additional food supplied to the predators is known to play a vital role in the controllability of the system. The present study is continuation of a previous work that highlights the importance of quality and quantity of the additional food in the dynamics of a predator-prey system in the context of biological control. In this article the controllability of the predator-prey system is analyzed by considering inverse of quality of the additional food as the control variable. Control strategies are offered to steer the system from a given initial state to a required terminal state in a minimum time by formulating Mayer problem of optimal control. It is observed that an optimal strategy is a combination of bang-bang controls and could involve multiple switches. Properties of optimal paths are derived using necessary conditions for Mayer problem. In the light of the results evolved in this work it is possible to eradicate the prey from the eco-system in the minimum time by providing the predator with high quality additional food, which is relevant in the pest management. In the perspective of biological conservation this study highlights the possibilities to drive the state to an admissible interior equilibrium (irrespective of its stability nature) of the system in a minimum time.

  18. Phosphazene additives

    DOEpatents

    Harrup, Mason K; Rollins, Harry W

    2013-11-26

    An additive comprising a phosphazene compound that has at least two reactive functional groups and at least one capping functional group bonded to phosphorus atoms of the phosphazene compound. One of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with cellulose and the other of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with a resin, such as an amine resin of a polycarboxylic acid resin. The at least one capping functional group is selected from the group consisting of a short chain ether group, an alkoxy group, or an aryloxy group. Also disclosed are an additive-resin admixture, a method of treating a wood product, and a wood product.

  19. Steric Effects Compete with Aryne Distortion to Control Regioselectivities of Nucleophilic Additions to 3-Silylarynes

    PubMed Central

    Bronner, Sarah M.; Mackey, Joel L.

    2012-01-01

    We report an experimental and computational study of 3-silylarynes. The addition of nucleophiles yield ortho-substituted products as a result of aryne distortion, but meta-substituted products form predominately when the nucleophile is large. Computations correctly predict the preferred site of attack observed in both nucleophilic addition and cycloaddition experiments. Nucleophilic additions to 3-t-butylbenzyne, which is not significantly distorted, give meta-substituted products. PMID:22876797

  20. A feasibility study regarding the addition of a fifth control to a rotorcraft in-flight simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, Simon; Andrisani, Dominick, II

    1992-01-01

    The addition of a large movable horizontal tail surface to the control system of a rotorcraft in-flight simulator being developed from a Sikorsky UH-60A Black Hawk Helicopter is evaluated. The capabilities of the control surface as a trim control and as an active control are explored. The helicopter dynamics are modeled using the Generic Helicopter simulation program developed by Sikorsky Aircraft. The effect of the horizontal tail on the helicopter trim envelope is examined by plotting trim maps of the aircraft attitude and controls as a function of the flight speed and horizontal tail incidence. The control power of the tail surface relative to that of the other controls is examined by comparing control derivatives extracted from the simulation program over the flight speed envelope. The horizontal tail's contribution as an active control is evaluated using an explicit model following control synthesis involving a linear model of the helicopter in steady, level flight at a flight speed of eighty knots. The horizontal tail is found to provide additional control flexibility in the longitudinal axis. As a trim control, it provides effective control of the trim pitch attitude at mid to high forward speeds. As an active control, the horizontal tail provides useful pitching moment generating capabilities at mid to high forward speeds.

  1. Addition of surfactants in ozonated water cleaning for the suppression of functional group formation and particle adhesion on the SiO2 surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jahyun; Im, Kyungtaek; Lim, Sangwoo

    2011-04-01

    Various kinds of surfactants were added to a cleaning solution and deionized (DI) water, and their effect on the suppression of organic function group formation and particle adhesion to a SiO2 surface was analyzed using multi-internal reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The results implied that attached organic functional groups are affected by the chemical structure of a surfactant in DI water. Furthermore, the addition of anionic glycolic acid ethoxylate 4-tert-butylphenyl ether (GAE4E) is the most effective in terms of preventing organic group attachment and particle adhesion to the SiO2 surface, whether it was added to the cleaning solution or post-cleaning rinse water, with or without polystyrene latex particles. Moreover, it was possible to completely prevent particle adhesion to the SiO2 surface with the proper addition of GAE4E in DIO3 solution.

  2. A Multifaceted Directing Group Switching Ynones as Michael Donors in Chemo-, Enantio-, and γ-Selective 1,4-Conjugate Additions with Nitroolefins.

    PubMed

    Liu, Weiwei; Zou, Liwei; Fu, Binbin; Wang, Xinran; Wang, Ke; Sun, Zhongwen; Peng, Fangzhi; Wang, Wei; Shao, Zhihui

    2016-09-16

    α,β-Unsaturated ynones have historically been used as Michael acceptors in conjugate addition reactions. Herein, we have demonstrated for the first time that ynones can be harnessed as Michael donors for use in catalytic asymmetric conjugate addition reactions by strategically introducing a CO2t-Bu group as a multitasking directing group. Furthermore, this concept has enabled designer ynones as versatile synthetic equivalents of both α' anions of ynones and γ monoanions of 1,3-diketones, which are synthetically valued but difficult to generate. The first catalytic enantioselective conjugate addition of ynones as Michael donors has been realized in good yields with high enantioselectivities. A unified approach to regiospecifically and chemo- and enantioselectively access hitherto elusive γ-Michael adducts of 1,3-diketones has been achieved in a divergent manner. The strategy described here by exploring new reactivity and creating new reagents holds great potential applications in other still unsolved transformations. PMID:27571411

  3. A Multifaceted Directing Group Switching Ynones as Michael Donors in Chemo-, Enantio-, and γ-Selective 1,4-Conjugate Additions with Nitroolefins.

    PubMed

    Liu, Weiwei; Zou, Liwei; Fu, Binbin; Wang, Xinran; Wang, Ke; Sun, Zhongwen; Peng, Fangzhi; Wang, Wei; Shao, Zhihui

    2016-09-16

    α,β-Unsaturated ynones have historically been used as Michael acceptors in conjugate addition reactions. Herein, we have demonstrated for the first time that ynones can be harnessed as Michael donors for use in catalytic asymmetric conjugate addition reactions by strategically introducing a CO2t-Bu group as a multitasking directing group. Furthermore, this concept has enabled designer ynones as versatile synthetic equivalents of both α' anions of ynones and γ monoanions of 1,3-diketones, which are synthetically valued but difficult to generate. The first catalytic enantioselective conjugate addition of ynones as Michael donors has been realized in good yields with high enantioselectivities. A unified approach to regiospecifically and chemo- and enantioselectively access hitherto elusive γ-Michael adducts of 1,3-diketones has been achieved in a divergent manner. The strategy described here by exploring new reactivity and creating new reagents holds great potential applications in other still unsolved transformations.

  4. Traditional microscopy instruction versus process-oriented virtual microscopy instruction: a naturalistic experiment with control group

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Virtual microscopy is being introduced in medical education as an approach for learning how to interpret information in microscopic specimens. It is, however, far from evident how to incorporate its use into existing teaching practice. The aim of the study was to explore the consequences of introducing virtual microscopy tasks into an undergraduate pathology course in an attempt to render the instruction more process-oriented. The research questions were: 1) How is virtual microscopy perceived by students? 2) Does work on virtual microscopy tasks contribute to improvement in performance in microscopic pathology in comparison with attending assistant-led demonstrations only? Method During a one-week period, an experimental group completed three sets of virtual microscopy homework assignments in addition to attending demonstrations. A control group attended the demonstrations only. Performance in microscopic pathology was measured by a pre-test and a post-test. Student perceptions of regular instruction and virtual microscopy were collected one month later by administering the Inventory of Intrinsic Motivation and open-ended questions. Results The students voiced an appreciation for virtual microscopy for the purposes of the course and for self-study. As for learning gains, the results indicated that learning was speeded up in a subgroup of students consisting of conscientious high achievers. Conclusions The enriched instruction model may be suited as such for elective courses following the basic course. However, the instructional model needs further development to be suited for basic courses. PMID:21489203

  5. Running a weight control group: experiences of a psychologist and a general practitioner

    PubMed Central

    Coupar, Alan M.; Kennedy, Tom

    1980-01-01

    A weight control group is described, led jointly by a general practitioner and a clinical psychologist. Approaches employed included dietary advice, behavioural advice, and group support. Of the original 16 members (including one group leader), seven dropped out at an early stage and the reasons for this are discussed. All members were re-weighed at intervals up to 18 months after the beginning of the six-month intensive period. They were also interviewed by a psychological research worker a year after the start of the group. The results suggest that a combined dietetic and psychological approach to weight control is of value. PMID:7373577

  6. Summary report of working group 5: Beam and radiation generation, monitoring, and control

    SciTech Connect

    Church, Mike; Kim, Ki-Yong; /Maryland U.

    2010-01-01

    This paper summarizes the activities and presentations of Working Group 5 of the Advanced Accelerator Concepts Workshop held at Annapolis, Maryland in June 2010. Working Group 5 touched on a broad range of topics in the fields of beam and radiation generation and their monitoring and control. These topics were not comprehensively covered in this Workshop, but rather the Working Group concentrated on specific new developments and recent investigations. The Working Group divided its sessions into four broad categories: cathodes and electron guns, radiation generation, beam diagnostics, and beam control and dynamics. This summary is divided into the same structure.

  7. Ligand- and base-free Pd(II)-catalyzed controlled switching between oxidative Heck and conjugate addition reactions.

    PubMed

    Walker, Sarah E; Boehnke, Julian; Glen, Pauline E; Levey, Steven; Patrick, Lisa; Jordan-Hore, James A; Lee, Ai-Lan

    2013-04-19

    A simple change of solvent allows controlled and efficient switching between oxidative Heck and conjugate addition reactions on cyclic Michael acceptor substrates, catalyzed by a cationic Pd(II) catalyst system. Both reactions are ligand- and base-free and tolerant of air and moisture, and the controlled switching sheds light on some of the factors which favor one reaction over the other.

  8. 78 FR 74218 - Imposition of Additional Sanctions on Syria Under the Chemical and Biological Weapons Control and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-10

    ... Imposition of Additional Sanctions on Syria Under the Chemical and Biological Weapons Control and Warfare... chemical weapons in violation of international law or lethal chemical weapons against its own nationals... the Chemical and Biological Weapons Control and Warfare Elimination Act of 1991, 22 U.S.C. 5604(a)...

  9. Experiences of being a control group: lessons from a UK-based randomized controlled trial of group singing as a health promotion initiative for older people.

    PubMed

    Skingley, Ann; Bungay, Hilary; Clift, Stephen; Warden, June

    2014-12-01

    Existing randomized controlled trials within the health field suggest that the concept of randomization is not always well understood and that feelings of disappointment may occur when participants are not placed in their preferred arm. This may affect a study's rigour and ethical integrity if not addressed. We aimed to test whether these issues apply to a healthy volunteer sample within a health promotion trial of singing for older people. Written comments from control group participants at two points during the trial were analysed, together with individual semi-structured interviews with a small sample (n = 11) of this group. We found that motivation to participate in the trial was largely due to the appeal of singing and disappointment resulted from allocation to the control group. Understanding of randomization was generally good and feelings of disappointment lessened over time and with a post-research opportunity to sing. Findings suggest that measures should be put in place to minimize the potential negative impacts of randomized controlled trials in health promotion research.

  10. Surface developmental dyslexia is as prevalent as phonological dyslexia when appropriate control groups are employed.

    PubMed

    Wybrow, Dean P; Hanley, J Richard

    2015-01-01

    Previous investigations of the incidence of developmental surface and phonological dyslexia using reading-age-matched control groups have identified many more phonological dyslexics (poor nonword reading relative to irregular-word reading) than surface dyslexics (poor irregular-word reading relative to nonword reading). However, because the measures that have been used to estimate reading age include irregular-word reading ability, they appear inappropriate for assessing the incidence of surface dyslexia. The current study used a novel method for generating control groups whose reading ability was matched to that of the dyslexic sample. The incidence of surface dyslexia was assessed by comparing dyslexic performance with that of a control group who were matched with the dyslexics on a test of nonword reading. The incidence of phonological dyslexia was assessed with reference to a control group who were matched with the dyslexics at irregular-word reading. These control groups led to the identification of an approximately equal number of children with surface and phonological dyslexia. It appeared that selecting control participants who were matched with dyslexics for reading age led to the recruitment of individuals with relatively high nonword reading scores relative to their irregular-word reading scores compared with other types of control group. The theoretical implications of these findings are discussed.

  11. Establishment of a series of alien monosomic addition lines of Japanese bunching onion (Allium fistulosum L.) with extra chromosomes from shallot (A. cepa L. aggregatum group).

    PubMed

    Shigyo, M; Tashiro, Y; Isshiki, S; Miyazaki, S

    1996-12-01

    Forty one plants of alien monosomic addition lines of Allium fistulosum L. with extra chromosomes from A. cepa L. Aggregatum group (FF + nA) were produced through the second backcross of amphidiploids between these two species to A. fistulosum. Identification of the extra chromosomes in the 16 plants by elaborate karyotype analyses indicate that a complete series (eight different types) of the alien monosomic addition lines was established in Allium for the first time in this study. Chromosomal locations of malate dehydrogenase (MDH) gene, triosephosphate isomerase (TPI) gene and 5S rDNA of A. cepa Aggregatum group were determined using the series; The gene locus Mdh-1 was located on 4A, Tpi-1 on 3A and a 5S rDNA locus on 7A. Our previous and present studies using the alien monosomic addition lines revealed 11 genetic markers (isozyme and 5S rDNA) assigned to all eight chromosomes of A. cepa Aggregatum group, and these markers reconfirmed the completion of the series. Extra chromosomes of 25 other plants were examined by means of simple analyses of the chromosome markers and karyotypes. Of the total 41 plants, frequencies of the alien monosomic addition lines with extra chromosomes 1A to 8A were as follows: 1A, 5 plants; 2A, 3; 3A, 5; 4A, 9; 5A, 4; 6A, 2; 7A, 11; and 8A, 2.

  12. Establishment of a series of alien monosomic addition lines of Japanese bunching onion (Allium fistulosum L.) with extra chromosomes from shallot (A. cepa L. aggregatum group).

    PubMed

    Shigyo, M; Tashiro, Y; Isshiki, S; Miyazaki, S

    1996-12-01

    Forty one plants of alien monosomic addition lines of Allium fistulosum L. with extra chromosomes from A. cepa L. Aggregatum group (FF + nA) were produced through the second backcross of amphidiploids between these two species to A. fistulosum. Identification of the extra chromosomes in the 16 plants by elaborate karyotype analyses indicate that a complete series (eight different types) of the alien monosomic addition lines was established in Allium for the first time in this study. Chromosomal locations of malate dehydrogenase (MDH) gene, triosephosphate isomerase (TPI) gene and 5S rDNA of A. cepa Aggregatum group were determined using the series; The gene locus Mdh-1 was located on 4A, Tpi-1 on 3A and a 5S rDNA locus on 7A. Our previous and present studies using the alien monosomic addition lines revealed 11 genetic markers (isozyme and 5S rDNA) assigned to all eight chromosomes of A. cepa Aggregatum group, and these markers reconfirmed the completion of the series. Extra chromosomes of 25 other plants were examined by means of simple analyses of the chromosome markers and karyotypes. Of the total 41 plants, frequencies of the alien monosomic addition lines with extra chromosomes 1A to 8A were as follows: 1A, 5 plants; 2A, 3; 3A, 5; 4A, 9; 5A, 4; 6A, 2; 7A, 11; and 8A, 2. PMID:9080683

  13. Control of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in contaminated alfalfa silage: Effects of silage additives.

    PubMed

    Ogunade, I M; Kim, D H; Jiang, Y; Weinberg, Z G; Jeong, K C; Adesogan, A T

    2016-06-01

    This study was conducted to examine if adding microbial inoculants or propionic acid to alfalfa silages contaminated with Escherichia coli O157:H7 would inhibit the growth of the pathogen during or after ensiling. Alfalfa forage was harvested at the early bloom stage, wilted to a dry matter concentration of 54%, chopped to 19-mm lengths, and ensiled after treatment with one of the following: (1) distilled water (control); (2) 1×10(5) cfu/g of E. coli O157:H7 (EC); (3) EC and 1×10(6) cfu/g of Lactobacillus plantarum (EC+LP); (4) EC and 1×10(6) cfu/g of Lactobacillus buchneri (EC+LB); and (5) EC and 2.2g/kg of propionic acid (EC+PA). Each treatment was ensiled in quadruplicate in laboratory silos for 0, 3, 7, 16, and 100d and analyzed for EC counts, pH, and organic acids. In addition, samples from d 100 were analyzed for chemical composition, ammonia-N, counts of yeasts and molds, and aerobic stability. Escherichia coli O157:H7 was detected in all silages until d 7, but by d 16 it was not detected in those treated with EC+LB and EC+LP, though it was still detected in EC and EC+PA silages. However, by d 100, the pathogen was not detected in any silage. The rate of pH decrease to 5.0 was fastest for the EC+LP silage (7d), followed by the EC+LB silage (16d). Nevertheless, all silages had attained a pH of or less than 5.0 by d 100. The rapid decrease in pH in EC+LP and EC+LB silages was observed due to higher lactate and acetate concentrations, respectively, relative to the other silages during the early fermentation phase (d 3-16). Propionic acid was only detected in the EC+PA silage. Yeast counts were lowest in EC+LB and EC+PA silages. Subsamples of all d-100 silages were reinoculated with 1×10(5) cfu/g of EC immediately after silo opening. When the pathogen was subsequently enumerated after 168h of aerobic exposure, it was not detected in silages treated with EC+PA, EC+LB, or EC+LP, which all had pH values less than 5.0. Whereas the EC silage had a pH value of 5

  14. Control of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in contaminated alfalfa silage: Effects of silage additives.

    PubMed

    Ogunade, I M; Kim, D H; Jiang, Y; Weinberg, Z G; Jeong, K C; Adesogan, A T

    2016-06-01

    This study was conducted to examine if adding microbial inoculants or propionic acid to alfalfa silages contaminated with Escherichia coli O157:H7 would inhibit the growth of the pathogen during or after ensiling. Alfalfa forage was harvested at the early bloom stage, wilted to a dry matter concentration of 54%, chopped to 19-mm lengths, and ensiled after treatment with one of the following: (1) distilled water (control); (2) 1×10(5) cfu/g of E. coli O157:H7 (EC); (3) EC and 1×10(6) cfu/g of Lactobacillus plantarum (EC+LP); (4) EC and 1×10(6) cfu/g of Lactobacillus buchneri (EC+LB); and (5) EC and 2.2g/kg of propionic acid (EC+PA). Each treatment was ensiled in quadruplicate in laboratory silos for 0, 3, 7, 16, and 100d and analyzed for EC counts, pH, and organic acids. In addition, samples from d 100 were analyzed for chemical composition, ammonia-N, counts of yeasts and molds, and aerobic stability. Escherichia coli O157:H7 was detected in all silages until d 7, but by d 16 it was not detected in those treated with EC+LB and EC+LP, though it was still detected in EC and EC+PA silages. However, by d 100, the pathogen was not detected in any silage. The rate of pH decrease to 5.0 was fastest for the EC+LP silage (7d), followed by the EC+LB silage (16d). Nevertheless, all silages had attained a pH of or less than 5.0 by d 100. The rapid decrease in pH in EC+LP and EC+LB silages was observed due to higher lactate and acetate concentrations, respectively, relative to the other silages during the early fermentation phase (d 3-16). Propionic acid was only detected in the EC+PA silage. Yeast counts were lowest in EC+LB and EC+PA silages. Subsamples of all d-100 silages were reinoculated with 1×10(5) cfu/g of EC immediately after silo opening. When the pathogen was subsequently enumerated after 168h of aerobic exposure, it was not detected in silages treated with EC+PA, EC+LB, or EC+LP, which all had pH values less than 5.0. Whereas the EC silage had a pH value of 5

  15. Efficacy and nontarget effects of Larvadex as a feed additive for controlling house flies in caged-layer poultry manure.

    PubMed

    Axtell, R C; Edwards, T D

    1983-12-01

    The insect growth regulator N-cyclopropyl-1,3,5-triazine-2,4,6 triamine (Larvadex, CGA 72662, cyromazine) was provided as a feed additive (.3% Premix per ton of feed) to caged laying hens under field conditions in high rise, wide span and narrow poultry houses. The chemical effectively controlled house flies (Musca domestica) and soldier flies (Hermetia illucens). The feed additive had no adverse effect on the populations of manure-inhabiting mites (Macrochelidae and Uropodidae) and histerid beetles (Carcínops pumulio), which prey on fly eggs and larvae. Satisfactory fly control was demonstrated by use of the additive 50% of the time when the interval without the additive in the feed was 4 days but not when the interval was 7 days. Use of a fly monitoring program to time the use of the feed additive is advocated.

  16. Food groups and the risk of colorectal cancer: results from a Jordanian case-control study.

    PubMed

    Abu Mweis, Suhad S; Tayyem, Reema F; Shehadah, Ihab; Bawadi, Hiba A; Agraib, Lana M; Bani-Hani, Kamal E; Al-Jaberi, Tareq; Al-Nusairr, Majed

    2015-07-01

    The role of diet in colorectal cancer (CRC) in Jordan has not been studied previously. This study aimed at examining the association between food groups (including grains, fruits, vegetables, milk, and meat and legumes) and CRC risk in Jordan. We compared intakes of the different food groups among CRC patients (n=167) and matched controls (n=240) by age, sex, occupation, and marital status. A validated food frequency questionnaire was used to collect dietary data. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the association of quartiles of intakes of the different food groups with CRC risk. In addition, the association of selected food items with CRC risk was examined. Odds ratios (ORs) for the fourth versus the first quartile of intake were 2.92 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.40-6.08] for grains, 1.66 (95% CI: 0.81-3.40) for vegetables, 0.55 (95% CI: 0.26-1.16) for fruits, 0.96 (95% CI: 0.46-1.97) for milk, and 1.43 (95% CI: 0.68-2.98) for meat and legumes. In a comparison of the highest with the lowest weekly frequency of consumption, there was a direct association between the risk of CRC and the frequency of consumption of chicken (OR=2.52, 95% CI: 1.33-4.77). An increase in risk was observed with increased consumption of white bread (OR=3.13, 95% CI: 1.18-9.25), whereas consumption of whole bread was associated with a decreased risk for CRC (OR=0.32, 95% CI: 0.12-0.84). Our results support a role of diet in CRC. Direct associations were found for grains, white bread, and chicken, whereas an inverse relation was reported for whole bread.

  17. Effectiveness of iron-based fuel additives for diesel soot control

    SciTech Connect

    Zeller, H.W.; Westphal, T.E.

    1992-01-01

    The U.S. Bureau of Mines evaluated the effects of two iron-based fuel additives on diesel particulate matter (DPM) emissions. The 5.6-L, six-cylinder test engine is typical of engines used in underground mines. One additive, ferrous picrate, did not measurably affect exhaust emissions. This report is mainly about a ferrocene-based additive that reduced DPM between 4 and 45 pct, depending on engine operating conditions. The report concludes that the DPM reductions were caused by the catalytic oxidation properties of a ferric oxide coating that developed inside the engine's combustion chamber. The ferric oxide coating also decreased gas-phase hydrocarbons and O[sub 2], but it increased CO[sub 2] and NO[sub x]. The increase in NO[sub x], of about 12 pct, is considered the only adverse effect of the ferrocene-based fuel additive. The results suggest that the effectiveness of ferrocene was partially offset by increased sulfates because of the high-sulfur fuel used. Recommendations for continuing fuel additive research are presented.

  18. Is telephone counselling a useful addition to physician advice and nicotine replacement therapy in helping patients to stop smoking? A randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Reid, R D; Pipe, A; Dafoe, W A

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The authors evaluated the incremental efficacy of telephone counselling by a nurse in addition to physician advice and nicotine replacement therapy in helping patients to stop smoking. METHODS: The trial was conducted at the University of Ottawa Heart Institute. A total of 396 volunteers who smoked 15 or more cigarettes daily were randomly assigned to either of 2 groups: usual care (control group) and usual care plus telephone counselling (intervention group); the groups were stratified by sex and degree of nicotine dependence. Usual care involved the receipt of physician advice on 3 occasions, self-help materials and 12 weeks of nicotine replacement therapy. Telephone counselling was provided by a nurse at 2, 6 and 13 weeks after the target quit date. Point-prevalent quit rates were determined at 52 weeks after the target quit date. RESULTS: The point-prevalent quit rates at 52 weeks did not differ significantly between the control and intervention groups (24.1% v. 23.4% respectively). The quit rates did not differ significantly at the secondary measurement points of 4, 12 and 26 weeks. INTERPRETATION: Brief physician assistance, along with nicotine replacement therapy, can help well-motivated smokers to quit. Three additional sessions of telephone counselling by a nurse were ineffective in increasing quit rates. This form of assistance may be useful in the absence of physician advice or when self-selected by patients. PMID:10373999

  19. High-dose inhaled corticosteroids or addition of theophylline in patients with poorly controlled asthma?

    PubMed

    Celis, Pilar; Rada, Gabriel

    2015-08-19

    There are several management strategies for patients with poorly controlled asthma despite usual treatment. Increasing doses of inhaled corticosteroids or adding theophylline are among the therapeutic alternatives. However, the latter is associated with important adverse effects. Searching in Epistemonikos database, which is maintained by screening 30 databases, we identified only one systematic review including four pertinent randomized controlled trials. We combined the evidence using meta-analysis and generated a summary of findings following the GRADE approach. We concluded it is not clear whether theophylline or high-dose inhaled corticosteroids constitute a better alternative for symptomatic control or reduction in exacerbations in poorly controlled asthmatic patients because the certainty of the evidence is very low.

  20. LONG-TERM DEMONSTRATION OF SORBENT ENHANCEMENT ADDITIVE TECHNOLOGY FOR MERCURY CONTROL

    SciTech Connect

    Jason D. Laumb; Dennis L. Laudal; Grant E. Dunham; John P. Kay; Christopher L. Martin; Jeffrey S. Thompson; Nicholas B. Lentz; Alexander Azenkeng; Kevin C. Galbreath; Lucinda L. Hamre

    2011-05-27

    Long-term demonstration tests of advanced sorbent enhancement additive (SEA) technologies have been completed at five coal-fired power plants. The targeted removal rate was 90% from baseline conditions at all five stations. The plants included Hawthorn Unit 5, Mill Creek Unit 4, San Miguel Unit 1, Centralia Unit 2, and Hoot Lake Unit 2. The materials tested included powdered activated carbon, treated carbon, scrubber additives, and SEAs. In only one case (San Miguel) was >90% removal not attainable. The reemission of mercury from the scrubber at this facility prevented >90% capture.

  1. Collective action control by goals and plans: applying a self-regulation perspective to group performance.

    PubMed

    Wieber, Frank; Thürmer, J Lukas; Gollwitzer, Peter M

    2012-01-01

    In celebration of the 125th anniversary of The American Journal of Psychology, this article discusses a seminal publication by Marjorie Shaw (1932) on small group performance in the rational solution of complex problems. We then propose an approach for the effective regulation of group goal striving based on the collective action control perspective. From this perspective, group performance might be hindered by a collective intention-behavior gap: Groups fail to act on their intentions despite being strongly committed to the collective goal, knowing what the necessary actions are, and being capable of performing them. To reduce this gap, we suggest specific if-then plans (implementation intentions) in which groups specify when, where, and how to act toward their collective goal as an easily applicable self-regulation strategy to automate collective action control. Studies in which implementation intentions improved group performance in hidden profile, escalation of commitment, and cooperation task paradigms are reported and discussed.

  2. A Comparison of Hypnotic Induction, Task Motivation, and a "Cold Start" Control Group on Hypnotizability.

    PubMed

    Krystek, Stephen; Kumar, V K

    2016-10-01

    Groups of participants (N = 164) were randomly assigned to three conditions: Group 1 received a trance induction, Group 2 received task-motivational instructions, and Group 3-"cold start" control-was simply told, "We will begin the hypnosis procedure now." All participants received the Creative Imagination Scale suggestions and then completed the Creative Imagination Scale and Inventory Scale of Hypnotic Depth. The three conditions did not differ significantly either on the Creative Imagination Scale or in reported hypnotic depth. These results are consistent with prior studies which show that trance induction and task-motivational yield similar results, but they are inconsistent inasmuch as the trance induction and task-motivational groups did not differ from the control group. These results, however, are predictable from socio-cognitive perspectives that the context of hypnosis itself can elicit hypnotic behaviors. PMID:27586049

  3. Social Support Groups in the Maintenance of Glycemic Control after Community-Based Intervention.

    PubMed

    Ing, Claire Townsend; Zhang, Guangxing; Dillard, Adrienne; Yoshimura, Sheryl R; Hughes, Claire; Palakiko, Donna-Marie; Kehauoha, Bridget Puni; Sinclair, Ka'imi A; Kaholokula, Joseph Keawe'aimoku

    2016-01-01

    Native Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders (NH/PI; e.g., Samoan and Chuukese) have higher type 2 diabetes prevalence compared to other groups in Hawai'i. Partners in Care (PIC), a culturally tailored, community-based, diabetes self-management education intervention (DSME), is effective at improving participants' glycemic control and self-care behaviors. Maintenance of improvements is challenging. Diabetes-related social support groups (SSG) are a promising maintenance component for DSME. This study examined the effects of a diabetes-specific SSG component relative to a control group, after the receipt of the 3-month PIC intervention, which was delivered to 47 adult NH/PI with type 2 diabetes. Participants were then randomized to either a 3-month, 6-session SSG or a control group. Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), blood pressure, triglycerides, cholesterol, and diabetes self-management knowledge and behaviors were assessed at baseline, 3 months, and 6 months. Results indicated significant improvements in HbA1c, diabetes-related self-management knowledge, and behaviors from baseline to 3-month assessment. However, no differences between the SSG and control group from 3-month to 6-month assessment suggest that all participants were able to maintain initial improvements. The SSG group had a significant decrease in systolic blood pressure from 3-month to 6-month assessment while the control group did not. Study limitations and future directions are discussed. PMID:27563680

  4. Social Support Groups in the Maintenance of Glycemic Control after Community-Based Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Guangxing; Hughes, Claire; Kehauoha, Bridget Puni; Sinclair, Ka‘imi A.

    2016-01-01

    Native Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders (NH/PI; e.g., Samoan and Chuukese) have higher type 2 diabetes prevalence compared to other groups in Hawai‘i. Partners in Care (PIC), a culturally tailored, community-based, diabetes self-management education intervention (DSME), is effective at improving participants' glycemic control and self-care behaviors. Maintenance of improvements is challenging. Diabetes-related social support groups (SSG) are a promising maintenance component for DSME. This study examined the effects of a diabetes-specific SSG component relative to a control group, after the receipt of the 3-month PIC intervention, which was delivered to 47 adult NH/PI with type 2 diabetes. Participants were then randomized to either a 3-month, 6-session SSG or a control group. Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), blood pressure, triglycerides, cholesterol, and diabetes self-management knowledge and behaviors were assessed at baseline, 3 months, and 6 months. Results indicated significant improvements in HbA1c, diabetes-related self-management knowledge, and behaviors from baseline to 3-month assessment. However, no differences between the SSG and control group from 3-month to 6-month assessment suggest that all participants were able to maintain initial improvements. The SSG group had a significant decrease in systolic blood pressure from 3-month to 6-month assessment while the control group did not. Study limitations and future directions are discussed. PMID:27563680

  5. Carcinogenicity evaluation: comparison of tumor data from dual control groups in the Sprague-Dawley rat.

    PubMed

    Baldrick, Paul

    2005-01-01

    Following recent clarification in Europe that a single control group is now acceptable for rodent carcinogenicity studies, the use of dual controls may be reduced or disappear. To date, virtually nothing has been published on whether this latter situation has improved the identification of tumorigenic risk potential in these studies. In this paper, the results of 13 rat carcinogenicity studies, performed between 1991 and 2002, with 2 control groups, are presented. Although no major differences in tumor incidences between these dual control groups were found, some interstudy variation occurred. In cases where a notable difference was seen, the use of 2 control groups, as well as robust, contemporary background data, allowed an easier interpretation of findings in drug-treated groups. Thus, the continued use of dual control groups has a vital role in the assessment of tumoriogenic risk. The paper also presents an update on survival, on the range and extent of background spontaneous neoplasms, and comments on genetic drift in this commonly used rat strain.

  6. Summary report on beam and radiation generation, monitoring and control (working group 6).

    SciTech Connect

    Power, J. G.; Gordon, D. F.; High Energy Physics; Naval Research Lab.

    2009-01-01

    The discussions of the working group on beam and radiation generation, monitoring, and control (working group 6) at the 2008 advanced accelerator concepts workshop are summarized. The discussions concerned electron injectors, phase space manipulation, beam diagnostics, pulse train generation, intense beam physics, and radiation generation.

  7. A Controlled Evaluation of Reminiscence and Current Topics Discussion Groups in a Nursing Home Context.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rattenbury, Christine; Stones, M. J.

    1989-01-01

    Compared psychological well-being of elderly nursing home residents who participated in reminiscence and current topics group discussions with control group of residents. Rated participants' happiness/depression, activity, mood, and functional levels before and after intervention. Intervention had significant effect only on happiness/depression…

  8. Terminological Control of "Anonymous Groups" for Catalogues of Audiovisual Television Documents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caldera-Serrano, Jorge

    2006-01-01

    This article discusses the exceptional nature of the description of moving images for television archives, deriving from their audiovisual nature, and of the specifications in the queries of journalists as users of the Document Information System. It is suggested that there is a need to control completely "Anonymous Groups"--groups without any…

  9. Nurture Groups: A Large-Scale, Controlled Study of Effects on Development and Academic Attainment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Sue; MacKay, Tommy; Kearney, Maura

    2009-01-01

    Nurture groups have contributed to inclusive practices in primary schools in the UK for some time now and have frequently been the subject of articles in this journal. This large-scale, controlled study of nurture groups across 32 schools in the City of Glasgow provides further evidence for their effectiveness in addressing the emotional…

  10. Doing Anger Differently: Two Controlled Trials of Percussion Group Psychotherapy for Adolescent Reactive Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Currie, Michael; Startup, Mike

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluates efficacy and effectiveness of "Doing Anger Differently" (DAD), a group treatment for reactively aggressive 12-15 year old males. DAD uses percussion exercises to aid treatment. Study 1 compared a ten-week treatment with a waitlist control at pre, post and 6 month (treatment group only) follow-up. Study 2 replicated Study 1,…

  11. Mountain gorilla tug-of-war: Silverbacks have limited control over reproduction in multimale groups

    PubMed Central

    Bradley, Brenda J.; Robbins, Martha M.; Williamson, Elizabeth A.; Steklis, H. Dieter; Steklis, Netzin Gerald; Eckhardt, Nadin; Boesch, Christophe; Vigilant, Linda

    2005-01-01

    To determine who fathers the offspring in wild mountain gorilla groups containing more than one adult male silverback, we genotyped nearly one-fourth (n = 92) of the mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei beringei) living in the Virunga Volcanoes region of Africa. Paternity analysis of 48 offspring born into four groups between 1985 and 1999 revealed that, although all infants were sired by within-group males, the socially dominant silverback did not always monopolize reproduction within his group. Instead, the second-ranking male sired an average of 15% of group offspring. This result, in combination with previous findings that second-ranking males fare best by not leaving the group but by staying and waiting to assume dominance even if no reproduction is possible while waiting, is not consistent with expectations from a reproductive skew model in which the silverback concedes controllable reproduction to the second-ranking male. Instead, the data suggest a “tug-of-war” scenario in which neither the dominant nor the second-ranking male has full control over his relative reproductive share. The two top-ranked males were typically unrelated and this, in combination with the mixed paternity of group offspring, means that multimale gorilla groups do not approximate family groups. Instead, as long-term assemblages of related and unrelated individuals, gorilla groups are similar to chimpanzee groups and so offer interesting possibilities for kin-biased interactions among individuals. PMID:15964984

  12. Developmentally controlled telomere addition in wild-type and mutant paramecia.

    PubMed Central

    Forney, J D; Blackburn, E H

    1988-01-01

    We analyzed sites of macronuclear telomere addition at a single genetic locus in Paramecium tetraurelia. We showed that in homozygous wild-type cells, differential genomic processing during macronuclear development resulted in the A surface antigen gene being located 8, 13, or 26 kilobases upstream from a macronuclear telomere. We describe variable rearrangements that occurred at the telomere 8 kilobases from the A gene. A mutant (d48) that forms a telomere near the 5' end of the A gene was also analyzed. This mutant was shown to create simple terminal deletions; telomeric repeats were added directly to the truncated wild-type A gene sequence. In both the mutant and wild-type cells, the telomeric sequences (a mixture of C4A2 and C3A3 repeats) were added to various sequences within a specific 200- to 500-base-pair region rather than to a single site. No similarities were found in the primary sequences surrounding the telomere addition sites. The mutation in d48 changed the region of telomere addition at the A gene locus; this is the first example in ciliates of a mutation that affects the site of telomere addition. Images PMID:3336360

  13. Group additivity values for estimating the enthalpy of formation of organic compounds: an update and reappraisal. 2. C, H, N, O, S, and halogens.

    PubMed

    Holmes, John L; Aubry, Christiane

    2012-07-01

    This study extends a previous publication on group additivity values (GAVs) for the elements C, H, and O, to include the elements nitrogen, sulfur, and the halogens. The present state and utility of the Benson additivity schemes for estimating the enthalpy of formation (Δ(f)H(0)) of organic compounds are again described, extending them to include more elements. Old and new GAVs for a wide variety of compounds are provided and are revised where necessary. When new terms are proposed, or old ones are significantly altered, the rationale for so doing is presented. GAV derived ring strain values for benzene and pyridine indicate that the aromatic stabilization of each is essentially the same. As before, the thermochemical consequences of replacing one functional group by another are also shown, thus permitting quick shortcuts to the estimation of new Δ(f)H(0) values.

  14. Taxonomy of the hyper-diverse ant genus Tetramorium Mayr in the Malagasy region (Hymenoptera, Formicidae, Myrmicinae) – first record of the T. setigerum species group and additions to the Malagasy species groups with an updated illustrated identification key

    PubMed Central

    Hita Garcia, Francisco; Fisher, Brian L.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract In this study we provide an update to the taxonomy of the ant genus Tetramorium Mayr in Madagascar. We report the first record of the Tetramorium setigerum species group in Madagascar and describe the only Malagasy representative as Tetramorium cavernicola sp. n., which is known only from a cave in Ankarana. In addition, we provide an overview of the 19 proposed Malagasy species groups, and discuss their zoogeography and relationships to other groups and larger lineages within the hyper-diverse genus Tetramorium. At present, we recognise a highly unique Malagasy Tetramorium fauna with 113 species endemic to the island of Madagascar out of a total of 125 translating into an endemism rate of 93%. We hypothesise that this fauna is based on one or a few colonisation events from the Afrotropical region, with subsequent adaptive radiation in Madagascar. Furthermore, we present an updated and illustrated identification key to the Tetramorium species groups in the Malagasy region. PMID:26257564

  15. Teaching self-control to small groups of dually diagnosed adults.

    PubMed

    Dixon, M R; Holcomb, S

    2000-01-01

    The present study examined the use of a progressive delay procedure to teach self-control to two groups of dually diagnosed adults. When given a choice between an immediate smaller reinforcer and a larger delayed reinforcer, both groups chose the smaller reinforcer during baseline. During treatment, progressive increases in work requirements for gaining access to a larger reinforcer resulted in both groups selecting larger delayed reinforcers. The results are discussed with respect to increasing cooperative work behavior and self-control. PMID:11214034

  16. Direct and Nondirect Marathon Group Therapy and Internal---External Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilmann, Peter R.

    1974-01-01

    Investigates whether direct and nondirect therapist techniques within a 23-hour marathon format would differentially induce client shifts in locus of control. The no-treatment control group experienced a significant shift toward externality, while the marathon subjects did not fluctuate significantly from pretherapy to posttherapy. (Author)

  17. Controlled laboratory challenge demonstrates substantial additive genetic variation in resistance to Streptococcus iniae in Nile tilapia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Streptococcus iniae is an etiologic agent of streptococcal disease in tilapia and is one of several Streptococcus spp. that negatively impact worldwide tilapia production. Methods for the prevention and control of S. iniae include vaccines, management strategies, and antibiotics. An alternative and ...

  18. PCB bioavailability control in Lumbriculus variegatus through different modes of activated carbon addition to sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Xueli Sun; Upal Ghosh

    2007-07-01

    PCB bioavailability to a freshwater oligochaete (Lumbriculus variegatus) was studied using sediments from a PCB-impacted river that was treated with different modes of granular activated carbon (GAC) addition. The GAC used was bituminous coal-based type TOP. For sediment treated with 2.6% GAC and mixed for 2 min prior to L. variegatus addition, the reduction in total PCB biouptake was 70% for 75-300 {mu}m size carbon, and 92% for the 45-180 {mu}m size carbon. For the case where the GAC was placed as a thin layer on top of the sediments without mixing, the reduction in total PCB uptake was 70%. PCB biouptake kinetics study using treated and untreated sediment showed that the maximum PCB uptake in tissue was achieved at 28 days and decreased after that time. Although the absolute uptake of PCB changed over time, the percent reduction in total PCB uptake upon GAC amendment remained constant after the first few days. Our results indicated that PCB bioavailability was reduced upon the addition and little or no mixing of GAC into sediments. PCB aqueous equilibrium concentration and desorption rates were greatly reduced after GAC amendment, indicating reductions in the two primary mechanisms of PCB bioavailability in sediments: chemical activity and chemical accessibility. 29 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Additive manufacturing of scaffolds with dexamethasone controlled release for enhanced bone regeneration.

    PubMed

    Costa, Pedro F; Puga, Ana M; Díaz-Gomez, Luis; Concheiro, Angel; Busch, Dirk H; Alvarez-Lorenzo, Carmen

    2015-12-30

    The adoption of additive manufacturing in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine (TERM) strategies greatly relies on the development of novel 3D printable materials with advanced properties. In this work we have developed a material for bone TERM applications with tunable bioerosion rate and dexamethasone release profile which can be further employed in fused deposition modelling (the most common and accessible 3D printing technology in the market). The developed material consisted of a blend of poly-ϵ-caprolactone (PCL) and poloxamine (Tetronic®) and was processed into a ready-to-use filament form by means of a simplified melt-based methodology, therefore eliminating the utilization of solvents. 3D scaffolds composed of various blend formulations were additively manufactured and analyzed revealing blend ratio-specific degradation rates and dexamethasone release profiles. Furthermore, in vitro culture studies revealed a similar blend ratio-specific trend concerning the osteoinductive activity of the fabricated scaffolds when these were seeded and cultured with human mesenchymal stem cells. The developed material enables to specifically address different regenerative requirements found in various tissue defects. The versatility of such strategy is further increased by the ability of additive manufacturing to accurately fabricate implants matching any given defect geometry.

  20. Does addition of `mud-pack and hot pool treatment' to patient education make a difference in fibromyalgia patients? A randomized controlled single blind study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bağdatlı, Ali Osman; Donmez, Arif; Eröksüz, Rıza; Bahadır, Güler; Turan, Mustafa; Erdoğan, Nergis

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this randomized controlled single-blind study is to explore whether addition of mud-pack and hot pool treatments to patient education make a significant difference in short and mild term outcomes of the patients with fibromyalgia. Seventy women with fibromyalgia syndrome were randomly assigned to either balneotherapy with mud-pack and hot pool treatments (35) or control (35) groups. After randomization, five patients from balneotherapy group and five patients from control group were dropped out from the study with different excuses. All patients had 6-h patient education programme about fibromyalgia syndrome and were given a home exercise programme. The patients in balneotherapy group had heated pool treatment at 38 °C for 20 min a day, and mud-pack treatment afterwards on back region at 45 °C. Balneotherapy was applied on weekdays for 2 weeks. All patients continued to take their medical treatment. An investigator who was blinded to the intervention assessed all the patients before and after the treatment, at the first and the third months of follow-up. Outcome measures were FIQ, BDI and both patient's and physician's global assessments. Balneotherapy group was significantly better than control group at after the treatment and at the end of the first month follow-up assessments in terms of patient's and physician's global assessment, total FIQ score, and pain intensity, fatigue, non-refreshed awaking, stiffness, anxiety and depression subscales of FIQ. No significant difference was found between the groups in terms of BDI scores. It is concluded that patient education combined with 2 weeks balneotherapy application has more beneficial effects in patients with fibromyalgia syndrome as compared to patient education alone.

  1. Does addition of 'mud-pack and hot pool treatment' to patient education make a difference in fibromyalgia patients? A randomized controlled single blind study.

    PubMed

    Bağdatlı, Ali Osman; Donmez, Arif; Eröksüz, Rıza; Bahadır, Güler; Turan, Mustafa; Erdoğan, Nergis

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this randomized controlled single-blind study is to explore whether addition of mud-pack and hot pool treatments to patient education make a significant difference in short and mild term outcomes of the patients with fibromyalgia. Seventy women with fibromyalgia syndrome were randomly assigned to either balneotherapy with mud-pack and hot pool treatments (35) or control (35) groups. After randomization, five patients from balneotherapy group and five patients from control group were dropped out from the study with different excuses. All patients had 6-h patient education programme about fibromyalgia syndrome and were given a home exercise programme. The patients in balneotherapy group had heated pool treatment at 38 °C for 20 min a day, and mud-pack treatment afterwards on back region at 45 °C. Balneotherapy was applied on weekdays for 2 weeks. All patients continued to take their medical treatment. An investigator who was blinded to the intervention assessed all the patients before and after the treatment, at the first and the third months of follow-up. Outcome measures were FIQ, BDI and both patient's and physician's global assessments. Balneotherapy group was significantly better than control group at after the treatment and at the end of the first month follow-up assessments in terms of patient's and physician's global assessment, total FIQ score, and pain intensity, fatigue, non-refreshed awaking, stiffness, anxiety and depression subscales of FIQ. No significant difference was found between the groups in terms of BDI scores. It is concluded that patient education combined with 2 weeks balneotherapy application has more beneficial effects in patients with fibromyalgia syndrome as compared to patient education alone. PMID:25917265

  2. Addition of Somatostatin After Successful Endoscopic Variceal Ligation Does not Prevent Early Rebleeding in Comparison to Placebo: A Double Blind Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Ashish; Jha, Sanjeev K.; Mittal, Vibhu V.; Sharma, Praveen; Sharma, Barjesh C.; Sarin, Shiv K.

    2015-01-01

    Background Efficacy of endoscopic sclerotherapy in controlling acute variceal bleeding is significantly improved when vasoactive drug is added. Endoscopic variceal ligation (EVL) is superior to sclerotherapy. Whether efficacy of EVL will also improve with addition of somatostatin is not known. We compared EVL plus somatostatin versus EVL plus placebo in control of acute variceal bleeding. Methods Consecutive cirrhotic patients with acute esophageal variceal bleeding were enrolled. After emergency EVL, patients were randomized to receive either somatostatin (250 mcg/hr) or placebo infusion. Primary endpoint was treatment failure within 5 days. Treatment failure was defined as fresh hematemesis ≥2 h after start of therapy, or a 3 gm drop in Hb, or death. Results 61 patients were enrolled (EVL plus somatostatin group, n = 31 and EVL plus placebo group, n = 30). The baseline characteristics were similar. Within the initial 5-day period, the frequency of treatment failure was similar in both the groups (EVL plus somatostatin group 8/31 [26%] versus EVL plus placebo group 7/30 [23%]; P = 1.000). The mortality was also similar in the two groups (3/31 [10%] vs. 3/30 [10%]; P = 1.000). Baseline HVPG ≥19 mm Hg and active bleeding at index endoscopy were independent predictors of treatment failure. Conclusions Addition of somatostatin infusion to EVL therapy does not offer any advantage in control of acute variceal bleeding or reducing mortality. The reason for this may be its failure to maintain sustained reduction in portal pressure for five days. Active bleeding at index endoscopy and high baseline HVPG should help choose early alternative treatment options. Trial registered with ClincalTrials.gov vide NCT01267669. PMID:26628838

  3. Tribotronic control of friction in oil-based lubricants with ionic liquid additives.

    PubMed

    Cooper, P K; Li, H; Rutland, M W; Webber, G B; Atkin, R

    2016-08-24

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) reveals that tribotronic control of friction using an external potential applied to a gold surface is possible for ionic liquid (IL) concentrations as low as 5 mol% in hexadecane. The IL used is trihexyl(tetradecyl)phosphonium bis(2,4,4-trimethylpentyl)phosphinate, in which both the cation and anion have surfactant-like structures, and is miscible with hexadecane in all proportions. For IL concentrations less than 5 mol% friction does not vary with applied potential, but for 5 mol% and above changing the potential changes the composition of the IL boundary layer from cation-enriched (negative potentials) to anion-enriched (positive potentials). As the lubricities of the cation-rich and anion-rich boundary layers differ, this enables active control of friction in oil-based lubricants. PMID:27511143

  4. Mosquitocidal vaccines: a neglected addition to malaria and dengue control strategies.

    PubMed

    Billingsley, Peter F; Foy, Brian; Rasgon, Jason L

    2008-09-01

    The transmission of vector-borne diseases is dependent upon the ability of the vector to survive for longer than the period of development of the pathogen within the vector. One means of reducing mosquito lifespan, and thereby reducing their capacity to transmit diseases, is to target mosquitoes with vaccines. Here, the principle behind mosquitocidal vaccines is described, their potential impact in malaria and dengue control is modeled and the current research that could make these vaccines a reality is reviewed. Mosquito genome data, combined with modern molecular techniques, can be exploited to overcome the limited advances in this field. Given the large potential benefit to vector-borne disease control, research into the development of mosquitocidal vaccines deserves a high profile. PMID:18678529

  5. Does an additional structured information program during the intensive care unit stay reduce anxiety in ICU patients?: a multicenter randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Communication and information in order to reduce anxiety in the intensive care unit (ICU) has been described as area needing improvement. Therefore, the aim of this trial was to evaluate whether a structured information program that intensifies information given in standard care process reduces anxiety in ICU patients. Methods Multicenter, two-armed, non-blinded, parallel-group randomized controlled trial in hospitals in the cities of Marburg, Halle, and Stuttgart (Germany). The trial was performed in cardiac surgery, general surgery, and internal medicine ICUs. Two-hundred and eleven elective and non-elective ICU patients were enrolled in the study (intervention group, n = 104; control group, n = 107). The experimental intervention comprised a single episode of structured oral information that was given in addition to standard care and covered two main parts: (1) A more standardized part about predefined ICU specific aspects – mainly procedural, sensory and coping information, and (2) an individualized part about fears and questions of the patient. The control group received a non-specific episodic conversation of similar length additional to standard care. Both conversations took place at the beginning of the ICU stay and lasted 10–15 minutes. Study nurses administered both interventions. The primary outcome ICU-related anxiety (CINT-Score, 0–100 pts., higher scores indicate higher anxiety) was assessed after admission to a regular ward. Results The primary outcome could be measured in 82 intervention group participants and 90 control group participants resulting in mean values of 20.4 (SD 14.4) compared to 20.8 (SD 14.7) and a mean difference of −0.2 (CI 95% -4.5 to 4.1). Conclusions A structured information intervention additional to standard care during ICU stay had no demonstrated additional benefit compared to an unspecific communication of similar duration. Reduction of anxiety in ICU patients will probably require more continuous

  6. Evidence for additive polygenic control of pupation height in Drosophila ananassae.

    PubMed

    Singh, B N; Pandey, M B

    1993-01-01

    In order to study the mode of inheritance of pupation height in Drosophila ananassae, two mass culture stocks derived from ecogeographically different localities in India, were used to make a complete set of 16 crosses, which include parentals, F1, backcrosses, and F2. Pupation height defined as the distance a larva pupates over the surface of culture medium was scored in all 16 crosses. The two parental lines showed significant difference in pupation height. The F1 larvae in both reciprocal crosses had intermediate pupation height and there was no difference between two reciprocal crosses as well as between F1 and mid parent value. However, there was greater variance in the F2 generation. These findings provide evidence that the inheritance of pupation height fits a classical additive polygenic model and suggested that there is substantial amount of additive genetic variation in natural populations of D. ananassae. Furthermore, the analysis of reciprocal backcrosses shows significant maternal effect. Progeny with low pupating mothers showed lower pupation height than those with low pupating fathers and progeny with high pupating mothers had higher pupation height than those with high pupating fathers. Since the maternal effect was found only in backcrosses but not in the F1, it is suggested that this maternal effect on pupation height follows the pattern of inheritance of a transient maternal effect.

  7. From lab to industrial: PZT nanoparticles synthesis and process control for application in additive manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Hsien-Lin

    Lead Zirconate Titanate (PZT) nanoparticles hold many promising current and future applications, such as PZT ink for 3-D printing or seeds for PZT thick films. One common method is hydrothermal growth, in which temperature, duration time, or mineralizer concentrations are optimized to produce PZT nanoparticles with desired morphology, controlled size and size distribution. A modified hydrothermal process is used to fabricate PZT nanoparticles. The novelty is to employ a high ramping rate (e.g., 20 deg C/min) to generate abrupt supersaturation so as to promote burst nucleation of PZT nanoparticles as well as a fast cooling rate (e.g., 5 deg C/min) with a controlled termination of crystal growth. As a result, PZT nanoparticles with a size distribution ranging from 200 nm to 800 nm are obtained with cubic morphology and good crystallinity. The identification of nanoparticles is confirmed through use of X-ray diffractometer (XRD). XRD patterns are used to compare sample variations in their microstructures such as lattice parameter. A cubic morphology and particle size are also examined via SEM images. The hydrothermal process is further modified with excess lead (from 20% wt. to 80% wt.) to significantly reduce amorphous phase and agglomeration of the PZT nanoparticles. With a modified process, the particle size still remains within the 200 nm to 800 nm. Also, the crystal structures (microstructure) of the samples show little variations. Finally, a semi-continuous hydrothermal manufacturing process was developed to substantially reduce the fabrication time and maintained the same high quality as the nanoparticles prepared in an earlier stage. In this semi-continuous process, a furnace is maintained at the process temperature (200 deg C), whereas autoclaves containing PZT sol are placed in and out of the furnace to control the ramp-up and cooling rates. This setup eliminates an extremely time-consuming step of cooling down the furnace, thus saving tremendous amount of

  8. Formalin treatments pass new tests. Additional notes on the control of ecto-parasitic protozoa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    1940-01-01

    After the completion of the eхреriments reported recently, in which the efficacy of formalin in controlling infections of Gostia mecatrix was demonstrated, the author was afforded an opportunity to test the value of formalin solutions in combatting established mixed infections of (Gyrodactylus, Tricbodina, Cyclochaeta) and a stalked protozoan on rainbow trout fingerlings. This opportunity was provided through the courtesy and cooperation of Clarence F. Pautzke, Chief Biologist for the Washington State Game Department, and Lee Walters, Superintendent of the Washington State Hatchery at Seward Park, Seattle.

  9. Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors and the ischemic heart: Additional benefits beyond glycemic control.

    PubMed

    Chattipakorn, Nipon; Apaijai, Nattayaporn; Chattipakorn, Siriporn C

    2016-01-01

    Obese-insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) have become global health problems, and they are both associated with a higher risk of ischemic heart disease. Although reperfusion therapy is the treatment to increase blood supply to the ischemic myocardium, this intervention potentially causes cardiac tissue damage and instigates arrhythmias, processes known as reperfusion injury. Dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4) inhibitors are glycemic control drugs commonly used in T2DM patients. Growing evidence from basic and clinical studies demonstrates that a DPP-4 inhibitor could exert cardioprotection and improve left ventricular function by reducing oxidative stress, apoptosis, and increasing reperfusion injury salvage kinase (RISK) activity. However, recent reports also showed potentially adverse cardiac events due to the use of a DPP-4 inhibitor. To investigate this disparity, future large clinical trials are essential in verifying whether DPP-4 inhibitors are beneficial beyond their glycemic control particularly for the ischemic heart in obese-insulin resistant subjects and T2DM patients.

  10. Analysis of postural control and muscular performance in young and elderly women in different age groups

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, Matheus M.; Reis, Júlia G.; Carvalho, Regiane L.; Tanaka, Erika H.; Hyppolito, Miguel A.; Abreu, Daniela C. C.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: muscle strength and power are two factors affecting balance. The impact of muscle strength and power on postural control has not been fully explored among different age strata over sixty. OBJECTIVES: the aim of the present study was to assess the muscle strength and power of elderly women in different age groups and determine their correlation with postural control. METHOD: eighty women were divided into four groups: the young 18-30 age group (n=20); the 60-64 age group (n=20); the 65-69 age group (n=20); and the 70-74 age group (n=20). The participants underwent maximum strength (one repetition maximum or 1-RM) and muscle power tests to assess the knee extensor and flexor muscles at 40%, 70%, and 90% 1-RM intensity. The time required by participants to recover their balance after disturbing their base of support was also assessed. RESULTS: the elderly women in the 60-64, 65-69, and 70-74 age groups exhibited similar muscle strength, power, and postural control (p>0.05); however, these values were lower than those of the young group (p<0.05) as expected. There was a correlation between muscle strength and power and the postural control performance (p<0.05). CONCLUSION: despite the age difference, elderly women aged 60 to 74 years exhibited similar abilities to generate strength and power with their lower limbs, and this ability could be one factor that explains the similar postural control shown by these women. PMID:25651132

  11. 77 FR 29307 - Control of Alcohol and Drug Use: Addition of Post-Accident Toxicological Testing for Non...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-17

    ... substances under the Controlled Substances Act (CSA), Title II of the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention... substances by safety- sensitive employees, may be too narrow to cover the use of prescription and OTC drugs... additional costs to employers would be minimal and indirect, such as the cost of responding to an......

  12. Summary of Previous Chamber or Controlled Anthrax Studies and Recommendations for Possible Additional Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Piepel, Gregory F.; Amidan, Brett G.; Morrow, Jayne B.

    2010-12-29

    This report and an associated Excel file(a) summarizes the investigations and results of previous chamber and controlled studies(b) to characterize the performance of methods for collecting, storing and/or transporting, extracting, and analyzing samples from surfaces contaminated by Bacillus anthracis (BA) or related simulants. This report and the Excel are the joint work of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) for the Department of Homeland Security, Science and Technology Directorate. The report was originally released as PNNL-SA-69338, Rev. 0 in November 2009 with limited distribution, but was subsequently cleared for release with unlimited distribution in this Rev. 1. Only minor changes were made to Rev. 0 to yield Rev. 1. A more substantial update (including summarizing data from other studies and more condensed summary tables of data) is underway

  13. Powder Layer Preparation Using Vibration-controlled Capillary Steel Nozzles for Additive Manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stichel, Thomas; Laumer, Tobias; Baumüller, Tobias; Amend, Philipp; Roth, Stephan

    In this report, the dry delivery of polyamide 12 powders by vibrating capillary steel nozzles is investigated and discussed regarding its potential for powder layer preparation in Laser Beam Melting. Therefore, a setup including a steel nozzle assembled on a piezoelectric actuator is presented, which enables the precise control over very small powder quantities by vibration excitation. An analysis reveals that the mass flow through the nozzle can be adjusted by the vibration modes in a certain range depending on the nozzle's specifications, whereas the vibration modes themselves show a complicated behaviour. Using a positioning system in combination with the vibrating nozzle, single-layer patterns consisting of polyamide 12 are produced and characterized regarding surface homogeneity and selectivity using a laser stripe sensor.

  14. Immediate postoperative radiotherapy in residual nonfunctioning pituitary adenoma: Beneficial effect on local control without additional negative impact on pituitary function and life expectancy

    SciTech Connect

    Bergh, Alfons C.M. van den . E-mail: a.c.m.van.den.bergh@rt.umcg.nl; Berg, Gerrit van den; Schoorl, Michiel A.; Sluiter, Wim J.; Vliet, Anton M. van der; Hoving, Eelco W.; Szabo, Ben G.; Langendijk, Johannes A.; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H.R.; Dullaart, Robin P.F.

    2007-03-01

    Purpose: To demonstrate the benefit of immediate postoperative radiotherapy in residual nonfunctioning pituitary adenoma (NFA) in perspective to the need for hormonal substitution and life expectancy. Methods and Materials: Retrospective cohort analysis of 122 patients, operated for NFA between 1979 and 1998. Recurrence was defined as regrowth on computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging. The occurrence of hormonal deficiencies was defined as the starting date of hormonal substitution therapy. Results: Seventy-six patients had residual NFA after surgery and received immediate postoperative radiotherapy (Group 1); three patients developed a recurrence, resulting in a 95% local control rate at 10 years. Twenty-eight patients had residual NFA after surgery, but were followed by a wait-and-see policy (Group 2). Sixteen developed a recurrence, resulting in a local control rate of 49% at 5 years and 22% at 10 years (p < 0.001 compared with Group 1). There were no differences between Group 1 and 2 regarding the need for substitution with thyroid hormone, glucocorticoids, and sex hormones before first surgery, directly after surgery and at end of follow-up. There were no differences in hormone substitution free survival between Group 1 and Group 2 during the study period after first surgery. Life expectancy was similar in Group 1 and 2, and their median life expectancy did not differ from median life expectancy in the general population. Conclusions: Immediate postoperative radiotherapy provides a marked improvement of local control among patients with residual NFA compared with surgery alone, without an additional deleterious effect on pituitary function and life expectancy.

  15. Foreword: Additive Manufacturing: Interrelationships of Fabrication, Constitutive Relationships Targeting Performance, and Feedback to Process Control

    DOE PAGES

    Carpenter, John S.; Beese, Allison M.; Bourell, David L.; Hamilton, Reginald F.; Mishra, Rajiv; Sears, James

    2015-06-26

    Additive manufacturing (AM) offers distinct advantages over conventional manufacturing processes including the capability to both build and repair complex part shapes; to integrate and consolidate parts and thus overcome joining concerns; and to locally tailor material compositions as well as properties. Moreover, a variety of fields such as aerospace, military, automotive, and biomedical are employing this manufacturing technique as a way to decrease costs, increase manufacturing agility, and explore novel geometry/functionalities. In order to increase acceptance of AM as a viable processing method, pathways for qualifying both the material and the process need to be developed and, perhaps, standardized. Thismore » symposium was designed to serve as a venue for the international AM community—including government, academia, and industry—to define the fundamental interrelationships between feedstock, processing, microstructure, shape, mechanical behavior/materials properties, and function/performance. Eventually, insight into the connections between processing, microstructure, property, and performance will be achieved through experimental observations, theoretical advances, and computational modeling of physical processes. Finally, once this insight matures, AM will be able to move from the realm of making parts to making qualified materials that are certified for use with minimal need for post-fabrication characterization.« less

  16. Foreword: Additive Manufacturing: Interrelationships of Fabrication, Constitutive Relationships Targeting Performance, and Feedback to Process Control

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, John S.; Beese, Allison M.; Bourell, David L.; Hamilton, Reginald F.; Mishra, Rajiv; Sears, James

    2015-06-26

    Additive manufacturing (AM) offers distinct advantages over conventional manufacturing processes including the capability to both build and repair complex part shapes; to integrate and consolidate parts and thus overcome joining concerns; and to locally tailor material compositions as well as properties. Moreover, a variety of fields such as aerospace, military, automotive, and biomedical are employing this manufacturing technique as a way to decrease costs, increase manufacturing agility, and explore novel geometry/functionalities. In order to increase acceptance of AM as a viable processing method, pathways for qualifying both the material and the process need to be developed and, perhaps, standardized. This symposium was designed to serve as a venue for the international AM community—including government, academia, and industry—to define the fundamental interrelationships between feedstock, processing, microstructure, shape, mechanical behavior/materials properties, and function/performance. Eventually, insight into the connections between processing, microstructure, property, and performance will be achieved through experimental observations, theoretical advances, and computational modeling of physical processes. Finally, once this insight matures, AM will be able to move from the realm of making parts to making qualified materials that are certified for use with minimal need for post-fabrication characterization.

  17. Seagrass metabolism across a productivity gradient using the eddy covariance, Eulerian control volume, and biomass addition techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, Matthew H.; Berg, Peter; Falter, James L.

    2015-05-01

    The net ecosystem metabolism of the seagrass Thalassia testudinum was studied across a nutrient and productivity gradient in Florida Bay, Florida, using the Eulerian control volume, eddy covariance, and biomass addition techniques. In situ oxygen fluxes were determined by a triangular Eulerian control volume with sides 250 m long and by eddy covariance instrumentation at its center. The biomass addition technique evaluated the aboveground seagrass productivity through the net biomass added. The spatial and temporal resolutions, accuracies, and applicability of each method were compared. The eddy covariance technique better resolved the short-term flux rates and the productivity gradient across the bay, which was consistent with the long-term measurements from the biomass addition technique. The net primary production rates from the biomass addition technique, which were expected to show greater autotrophy due to the exclusion of sediment metabolism and belowground production, were 71, 53, and 30 mmol carbon m-2 d-1 at 3 sites across the bay. The net ecosystem metabolism was 35, 25, and 11 mmol oxygen m-2 d-1 from the eddy covariance technique and 10, -103, and 14 mmol oxygen m-2 d-1 from the Eulerian control volume across the same sites, respectively. The low-flow conditions in the shallow bays allowed for periodic stratification and long residence times within the Eulerian control volume that likely reduced its precision. Overall, the eddy covariance technique had the highest temporal resolution while producing accurate long-term flux rates that surpassed the capabilities of the biomass addition and Eulerian control volume techniques in these shallow coastal bays.

  18. Different Effect of the Additional Electron-Withdrawing Cyano Group in Different Conjugation Bridge: The Adjusted Molecular Energy Levels and Largely Improved Photovoltaic Performance.

    PubMed

    Li, Huiyang; Fang, Manman; Hou, Yingqin; Tang, Runli; Yang, Yizhou; Zhong, Cheng; Li, Qianqian; Li, Zhen

    2016-05-18

    Four organic sensitizers (LI-68-LI-71) bearing various conjugated bridges were designed and synthesized, in which the only difference between LI-68 and LI-69 (or LI-70 and LI-71) was the absence/presence of the CN group as the auxiliary electron acceptor. Interestingly, compared to the reference dye of LI-68, LI-69 bearing the additional CN group exhibited the bad performance with the decreased Jsc and Voc values. However, once one thiophene moiety near the anchor group was replaced by pyrrole with the electron-rich property, the resultant LI-71 exhibited a photoelectric conversion efficiency increase by about 3 folds from 2.75% (LI-69) to 7.95% (LI-71), displaying the synergistic effect of the two moieties (CN and pyrrole). Computational analysis disclosed that pyrrole as the auxiliary electron donor (D') in the conjugated bridge can compensate for the lower negative charge in the electron acceptor, which was caused by the CN group as the electron trap, leading to the more efficient electron injection and better photovoltaic performance.

  19. Glutathione-S-transferase (GST) polymorphism among ethnic groups in Singapore with report of additional alleles at loci 1 and 2.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharyya, S P; Saha, N; Wee, K P

    1989-04-01

    Glutathione S-transferases (GST; E.C.2.5.1.18) were phenotyped by starch gel electrophoresis in post-mortem liver samples from 683 unrelated subjects of both sexes. 305 were Chinese, 185 Indians, 147 Malays and 46 from other racial groups of South-East Asia. GST1 and GST2 were found to be polymorphic in these populations. Additional alleles (GST1*3 and GST2*O) were observed at low frequency in all the ethnic groups. The frequency of GST1*1 was lower and that of GST1*2 was higher in Indians and Malays as compared to Chinese. GST1*0 and GST1*3 frequencies were similar in all these ethnic groups. The gene frequencies of the alleles of the GST2 locus varied significantly in the population studied. GST2*0 frequency was significantly higher in Indians than in Chinese and Malays, while the lowest frequency of GST2*1 was found in the Indians. GST2*2 frequency was higher in the Malays than in Chinese and Indians. GST1 and GST2 phenotype distributions were in agreement with Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in all the ethnic groups studied. Sex made no significant difference in the phenotype distribution.

  20. Influence of additional load on the moments of the agonist and antagonist muscle groups at the knee joint during closed chain exercise.

    PubMed

    Rao, Guillaume; Amarantini, David; Berton, Eric

    2009-06-01

    The present study investigated the influence of additional loads on the knee net joint moment, flexor and extensor muscle group moments, and cocontraction index during a closed chain exercise. Loads of 8, 28, or 48 kg (i.e., respectively, 11.1+/-1.5%, 38.8+/-5.3%, and 66.4+/-9.0% of body mass) were added to subjects during dynamic half squats. The flexor and extensor muscular moments and the amount of cocontraction were estimated at the knee joint using an EMG-and-optimization model that includes kinematics, ground reaction, and EMG measurements as inputs. In general, our results showed a significant influence of the Load factor on the net knee joint moment, the extensor muscular moment, and the flexor muscle group moment (all Anova p<.05). Hence we confirmed an increase in muscle moments with increasing load and moreover, we also showed an original "more than proportional" evolution of the flexor and extensor muscle group moments relative to the knee net joint moment. An influence of the Phase (i.e., descent vs. ascent) factor was also seen, revealing different activation strategies from the central nervous system depending on the mode of contraction of the agonist muscle group. The results of the present work could find applications in clinical fields, especially for rehabilitation protocols.

  1. Different Effect of the Additional Electron-Withdrawing Cyano Group in Different Conjugation Bridge: The Adjusted Molecular Energy Levels and Largely Improved Photovoltaic Performance.

    PubMed

    Li, Huiyang; Fang, Manman; Hou, Yingqin; Tang, Runli; Yang, Yizhou; Zhong, Cheng; Li, Qianqian; Li, Zhen

    2016-05-18

    Four organic sensitizers (LI-68-LI-71) bearing various conjugated bridges were designed and synthesized, in which the only difference between LI-68 and LI-69 (or LI-70 and LI-71) was the absence/presence of the CN group as the auxiliary electron acceptor. Interestingly, compared to the reference dye of LI-68, LI-69 bearing the additional CN group exhibited the bad performance with the decreased Jsc and Voc values. However, once one thiophene moiety near the anchor group was replaced by pyrrole with the electron-rich property, the resultant LI-71 exhibited a photoelectric conversion efficiency increase by about 3 folds from 2.75% (LI-69) to 7.95% (LI-71), displaying the synergistic effect of the two moieties (CN and pyrrole). Computational analysis disclosed that pyrrole as the auxiliary electron donor (D') in the conjugated bridge can compensate for the lower negative charge in the electron acceptor, which was caused by the CN group as the electron trap, leading to the more efficient electron injection and better photovoltaic performance. PMID:27101840

  2. Mass transport in low Tg azo-polymers: Effect on the surface relief grating induction and stability of additional side chain groups able to generate physical interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luca, Alina Raicu; Moleavin, Ioana-Andreea; Hurduc, Nicolae; Hamel, Matthieu; Rocha, Licinio

    2014-01-01

    The nanostructuration ability of low glass transition temperature (Tg) azo-polysiloxanes films is investigated at working temperatures close or higher than the film Tg. The behavior of materials incorporating additional side chain nitrobenzene or naphthalene groups and as a result presenting different Tg is compared in terms of the surface modulation dynamics and stability of the induced topographic modifications. This comparison is carried out under light exposure and in dark environment. We demonstrate the ability to optically generate surface modulations on these materials even at operating temperatures corresponding to the film Tg. Along with a modification of the opto-mechanic properties correlated with the materials chemical structure, a collapse of the surface structures occurring with different dynamics in materials of similar Tg is highlighted. These observations suggest the existence of an additional mechanism rather than a purely thermal redistribution of the polymer chains in the films.

  3. Controlling Phase Separation of Interpenetrating Polymer Networks by Addition of Block Copolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rohde, Brian; Krishnamoorti, Ramanan; Robertson, Megan

    2015-03-01

    Interpenetrating polymer networks (IPNs) offer a unique way to produce mechanically superior thermoset blends relative to the neat components. In this study, IPNs were prepared consisting of polydicyclopentadiene (polyDCPD), contributing high fracture toughness, and an epoxy resin (the diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A cured with nadic methyl anhydride), contributing high tensile strength and modulus. In the absence of compatibilization, the simultaneous curing of the networks leads to a macroscopically phase separated blend that exhibits poor mechanical behavior. To control phase separation and drive the system towards more mechanically robust nanostructured IPNs, block copolymers were designed to compatibilize this system, where one block possesses affinity to polyDCPD (polynorbornene in this study) and the other block possesses affinity to DGEBA (poly(ɛ-caprolactone) in this study). The influence of the block copolymer composition on the degree of phase separation and interfacial adhesion in the IPN was studied using a combination of small-angle scattering and imaging techniques. The resultant mechanical properties were explored and structure-property relationships were developed in this blend system.

  4. Controlling Phase Separation of Tough Interpenetrating Polymer Networks via Addition of Amphiphilic Block Copolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rohde, Brian; Krishnamoorti, Ramanan; Robertson, Megan

    Interpenetrating polymer networks (IPNs) offer a unique way to combine the mechanical properties of two thermoset systems. Often used to create a material that possesses both high toughness and tensile properties, here we use polydicyclopentadiene, cured via ring opening metathesis polymerization, to contribute high toughness and diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A cured via anhydride chemistry to contribute high tensile strength and modulus. As the uncompatibilized system reacts in the presence of one another, mesoscopic phase separation occurs and dictates the overall efficacy of combining mechanical properties. To control phase separation and drive the system towards more mechanically robust nanostructed IPNs, amphiphilic block copolymers of polybutadiene- b-polyethylene oxide, where one block possesses strong affinity to polyDCPD and the other the DGEBA, were added to the system. Here we present a systematic study of the influence of block copolymer composition in the overall blend on degree of phase separation and morphology using a combination of small-angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques. The resultant mechanical properties are then explored in an effort to link mechanical properties to blend morphology.

  5. Socioeconomic characteristics and health outcomes in Sami speaking municipalities and a control group in northern Norway

    PubMed Central

    Norum, Jan; Nieder, Carsten

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The Sami people constitute an ethnic minority in northern Norway. The objectives of this study were to compare municipalities with a majority of Sami in the population and a control group with regard to socioeconomic factors and health outcome. Methods Original data from Statistics Norway and Directorate of health on socioeconomic factors (education, unemployment, disability, poverty) and health outcomes [total mortality, cancer specific mortality, cardiovascular disease (CVD) specific mortality] were imported from the “Health Atlas” at the Northern Norway Regional Health Authority (NNRHA) trust. The 8 municipalities in the administration area of the Sami language law (Sami-majority group – 18,868 inhabitants) was compared with a control group consisting of 11 municipalities where the Sami constitute a small minority in the population (18,931 inhabitants). Most data were from 2005 and 2008. Results There was no significant difference in socioeconomic factors. Overall, cancer- and CVD-specific mortality rates were similar in both groups. The life expectancy was significantly longer among women in the Sami-majority area (81.3 vs. 79.5 years, p=0.035) and males (74.5 vs. 72.0 years, p=0.037). Conclusion Socioeconomic factors and cause-specific mortality rate were similar in the Sami-majority group and the control group. Residents of both sexes in Sami-majority areas enjoyed longer life expectancy. PMID:22901291

  6. Precise control of polymer coated nanopores by nanoparticle additives: Insights from computational modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eskandari Nasrabad, Afshin; Jasnow, David; Zilman, Anton; Coalson, Rob D.

    2016-08-01

    Polymer-nanoparticle composites are a promising new class of materials for creation of controllable nano-patterned surfaces and nanopores. We use coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations augmented with analytical theory to study the structural transitions of surface grafted polymer layers (brushes) induced by infiltration of nanoparticles that are attracted to the polymers in the layer. We systematically compare two different polymer brush geometries: one where the polymer chains are grafted to a planar surface and the other where the chains are grafted to the inside of a cylindrical nanochannel. We perform a comprehensive study of the effects of the material parameters such as the polymer chain length, chain grafting density, nanoparticle size, strength of attraction between nanoparticles and polymer monomers, and, in the case of the cylindrically grafted brush, the radius of the cylinder. We find a very general behavioral motif for all geometries and parameter values: the height of the polymer brush is non-monotonic in the nanoparticle concentration in solution. As the nanoparticle concentration increases, the brush height first decreases and after passing through a minimum value begins to increase, resulting in the swelling of the nanoparticle infused brush. These morphological features may be useful for devising tunable "smart" nano-devices whose effective dimensions can be reversibly and precisely adjusted by changing the nanoparticle concentration in solution. The results of approximate Self-Consistent Field Theory (SCFT) calculations, applicable in the regime of strong brush stretching, are compared to the simulation results. The SCFT calculations are found to be qualitatively, even semi-quantitatively, accurate when applied within their intended regime of validity, and provide a useful and efficient tool for modeling such materials.

  7. Control over hygroscopic growth of saline aqueous aerosol using Pluronic polymer additives.

    PubMed

    Haddrell, Allen E; Hargreaves, Graham; Davies, James F; Reid, Jonathan P

    2013-02-25

    difference in diameter is RH dependent, and may be much greater at higher humidities. These findings suggest that the addition of μM concentrations of larger Pluronic polymers to nebulizer formulations may greatly reduce the size of aerosols produced. PMID:23333755

  8. A randomised placebo-controlled trial examining the effect on hand supination after the addition of a suprascapular nerve block to infraclavicular brachial plexus blockade.

    PubMed

    Flohr-Madsen, S; Ytrebø, L M; Valen, K; Wilsgaard, T; Klaastad, Ø

    2016-08-01

    Some surgeons believe that infraclavicular brachial plexus blocks tends to result in supination of the hand/forearm, which may make surgical access to the dorsum of the hand more difficult. We hypothesised that this supination may be reduced by the addition of a suprascapular nerve block. In a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled study, our primary outcome measure was the amount of supination (as assessed by wrist angulation) 30 min after infraclavicular brachial plexus block, with (suprascapular group) or without (control group) a supplementary suprascapular block. All blocks were ultrasound-guided. The secondary outcome measure was an assessment by the surgeon of the intra-operative position of the hand. Considering only patients with successful nerve blocks, mean (SD) wrist angulation was lower (33 (27) vs. 61 (44) degrees; p = 0.018) and assessment of the hand position was better (11/11 vs. 6/11 rated as 'good'; p = 0.04) in the suprascapular group. The addition of a suprascapular nerve block to an infraclavicular brachial plexus block can provide a better hand/forearm position for dorsal hand surgery. PMID:27396247

  9. Empowering Parents of Obese Children (EPOC): A randomized controlled trial on additional long-term weight effects of parent training.

    PubMed

    Warschburger, Petra; Kroeller, Katja; Haerting, Johannes; Unverzagt, Susanne; van Egmond-Fröhlich, Andreas

    2016-08-01

    Although inpatient lifestyle treatment for obese children and adolescents can be highly effective in the short term, long-term results are unconvincing. One possible explanation might be that the treatment takes place far from parents' homes, limiting the possibility to incorporate the parents, who play a major role in establishing and maintaining a healthy lifestyle in childhood and adolescence. The main goal was to develop a brief behaviorally oriented parent training program that enhances 'obesity-specific' parenting skills in order to prevent relapse. We hypothesized that the inclusion of additional parent training would lead to an improved long-term weight course of obese children. Parents of obese children (n = 686; 7-13 years old) either participated in complementary cognitive-behavioral group sessions (n = 336) or received written information only (n = 350) during the inpatient stay. Children of both groups attended multidisciplinary inpatient rehabilitation. BMI-SDS as a primary outcome was evaluated at baseline, post-intervention and at 6- and 12-month follow-up. Intention-to-treat (ITT) as well as per-protocol analyses (PPA) were performed. A significant within-group decrease of 0.24 (95% CI 0.18 to 0.30) BMI-SDS points from the beginning of the inpatient stay through the first year was found, but no group difference at the one-year follow-up (mean difference 0.02; 95% CI -0.04 to 0.07). We also observed an increase in quality of life scores, intake of healthy food and exercise for both groups, without differences between groups (ITT and PPA). Thus, while the inpatient treatment proved highly effective, additional parent training did not lead to better results in long-term weight maintenance or to better psychosocial well-being compared to written psycho-educational material. Further research should focus on subgroups to answer the question of differential treatment effects.

  10. Short term modulation of trunk neuromuscular responses following spinal manipulation: a control group study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Low back pain (LBP) is one of the most frequent musculoskeletal conditions in industrialized countries and its economic impact is important. Spinal manipulation therapy (SMT) is believed to be a valid approach in the treatment of both acute and chronic LBP. It has also been shown that SMT can modulate the electromyographic (EMG) activity of the paraspinal muscle. The purpose of this study was to investigate, in a group of patients with low back pain, the persistence of changes observed in trunk neuromuscular responses after a spinal manipulation (SMT). Methods Sixty adult participants with LBP performed a block of 5 flexion-extension movements. Participants in the experimental group (n=30) received lumbar SMT whereas participants in the control group (n=30) were positioned similarly for the treatment but did not receive SMT. Blocks of flexion-extension movements were repeated immediately after the manipulation as well as 5 and 30 minutes after SMT (or control position). EMG activity of paraspinal muscles was recorded at L2 and L5 level and kinematic data were collected to evaluate the lumbo-pelvic kinematics. Pain intensity was noted after each block. Normalized EMG, pain intensity and lumbo-pelvic kinematics were compared across experimental conditions. Results Participants from the control group showed a significant increase in EMG activity during the last block (30 min) of flexion-extension trials in both flexion and full-flexion phases at L2. Increase in VAS scores was also observed in the last 2 blocks (5 min and 30 min) in the control group. No significant group x time interaction was seen at L5. No significant difference was observed in the lumbo-pelvic kinematics. Conclusion Changes in trunk neuromuscular control following HVLA spinal manipulation may reduce sensitization or muscle fatigue effects related to repetitive movement. Future studies should investigate short term changes in neuromuscular components, tissue properties and clinical

  11. Cell-specific CO2 fixation rates of two distinct groups of plastidic protists in the Atlantic Ocean remain unchanged after nutrient addition.

    PubMed

    Grob, Carolina; Jardillier, Ludwig; Hartmann, Manuela; Ostrowski, Martin; Zubkov, Mikhail V; Scanlan, David J

    2015-04-01

    To assess the role of open-ocean ecosystems in global CO2 fixation, we investigated how picophytoplankton, which dominate primary production, responded to episodic increases in nutrient availability. Previous experiments have shown nitrogen alone, or in combination with phosphorus or iron, to be the proximate limiting nutrient(s) for total phytoplankton grown over several days. Much less is known about how nutrient upshift affects picophytoplankton CO2 fixation over the duration of the light period. To address this issue, we performed a series of small volume (8-60 ml) - short term (10-11 h) nutrient addition experiments in different regions of the Atlantic Ocean using NH4 Cl, FeCl3 , K medium, dust and nutrient-rich water from 300 m depth. We found no significant nutrient stimulation of group-specific CO2 fixation rates of two taxonomically and size-distinct groups of plastidic protists. The above was true regardless of the region sampled or nutrient added, suggesting that this is a generic phenomenon. Our findings show that at least in the short term (i.e. daylight period), nutrient availability does not limit CO2 fixation by the smallest plastidic protists, while their taxonomic composition does not determine their response to nutrient addition. PMID:25345650

  12. Cell-specific CO2 fixation rates of two distinct groups of plastidic protists in the Atlantic Ocean remain unchanged after nutrient addition.

    PubMed

    Grob, Carolina; Jardillier, Ludwig; Hartmann, Manuela; Ostrowski, Martin; Zubkov, Mikhail V; Scanlan, David J

    2015-04-01

    To assess the role of open-ocean ecosystems in global CO2 fixation, we investigated how picophytoplankton, which dominate primary production, responded to episodic increases in nutrient availability. Previous experiments have shown nitrogen alone, or in combination with phosphorus or iron, to be the proximate limiting nutrient(s) for total phytoplankton grown over several days. Much less is known about how nutrient upshift affects picophytoplankton CO2 fixation over the duration of the light period. To address this issue, we performed a series of small volume (8-60 ml) - short term (10-11 h) nutrient addition experiments in different regions of the Atlantic Ocean using NH4 Cl, FeCl3 , K medium, dust and nutrient-rich water from 300 m depth. We found no significant nutrient stimulation of group-specific CO2 fixation rates of two taxonomically and size-distinct groups of plastidic protists. The above was true regardless of the region sampled or nutrient added, suggesting that this is a generic phenomenon. Our findings show that at least in the short term (i.e. daylight period), nutrient availability does not limit CO2 fixation by the smallest plastidic protists, while their taxonomic composition does not determine their response to nutrient addition.

  13. Field Testing of a Wet FGD Additive for Enhanced Mercury Control - Task 3 Full-scale Test Results

    SciTech Connect

    Gary Blythe

    2007-05-01

    This Topical Report summarizes progress on Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-04NT42309, 'Field Testing of a Wet FGD Additive'. The objective of the project is to demonstrate the use of a flue gas desulfurization (FGD) additive, Degussa Corporation's TMT-15, to prevent the reemission of elemental mercury (Hg{sup 0}) in flue gas exiting wet FGD systems on coal-fired boilers. Furthermore, the project intends to demonstrate whether the additive can be used to precipitate most of the mercury (Hg) removed in the wet FGD system as a fine TMT salt that can be separated from the FGD liquor and bulk solid byproducts for separate disposal. The project is conducting pilot- and full-scale tests of the TMT-15 additive in wet FGD absorbers. The tests are intended to determine required additive dosages to prevent Hg{sup 0} reemissions and to separate mercury from the normal FGD byproducts for three coal types: Texas lignite/Power River Basin (PRB) coal blend, high-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal, and low-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal. The project team consists of URS Group, Inc., EPRI, TXU Generation Company LP, Southern Company, and Degussa Corporation. TXU Generation has provided the Texas lignite/PRB cofired test site for pilot FGD tests, Monticello Steam Electric Station Unit 3. Southern Company is providing the low-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal host site for wet scrubbing tests, as well as the pilot- and full-scale jet bubbling reactor (JBR) FGD systems to be tested. IPL, an AES company, provided the high-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal full-scale FGD test site and cost sharing. Degussa Corporation is providing the TMT-15 additive and technical support to the test program as cost sharing. The project is being conducted in six tasks. Of the six project tasks, Task 1 involves project planning and Task 6 involves management and reporting. The other four tasks involve field testing on FGD systems, either at pilot or full scale. The four tasks include: Task 2 - Pilot Additive Testing

  14. Production and characterization of alien chromosome additions in shallot (Allium cepa L. Aggregatum group) carrying extra chromosome(s) of Japanese bunching onion (A. fistulosum L.).

    PubMed

    Hang, Tran Thi Minh; Shigyo, Masayoshi; Yamauchi, Naoki; Tashiro, Yosuke

    2004-10-01

    First and second backcrosses of amphidiploid hybrids (2n = 4x = 32, genomes AAFF) between shallot (Allium cepa Aggregatum group) and A. fistulosum were conducted to produce A. cepa - A. fistulosum alien addition lines. When shallot (A. cepa Aggregatum group) was used as a pollinator, the amphidiploids and allotriploids set germinable BC(1) and BC(2) seeds, respectively. The 237 BC(1) plants mainly consisted of 170 allotriploids (2n = 3x = 24, AAF) and 42 hypo-allotriploids possessing 23 chromosomes, i.e., single-alien deletions (2n = 3x-1 = 23, AAF-nF). The single-alien deletions in the BC(1) progeny showed dwarfing characteristics and were discriminated from the allotriploids (2n = 24) and hyper-allotriploids (2n = 25) by means of flow cytometric analysis. The chromosome numbers of 46 BC(2) seedlings varied from 16 to 24. Eight monosomic additions (2n = 2x+1 = 17, AA+nF) and 20 single-alien deletions were found in these BC(2) seedlings. Consequently, six kinds of A. cepa - A. fistulosum alien chromosome additions possessing different chromosome numbers (2n = 17, 18, 20, 21, 22, 23) were recognized in the BC(1) and BC(2) populations. A total of 79 aneuploids, including 62 single-alien deletions, were analyzed by a chromosome 6F-specific isozyme marker (Got-2) in order to recognize its existence in their chromosome complements. This analysis revealed that two out of 62 single-alien deletions did not possess 6F. One (AAF-6F) out of the possible eight single-alien deletions could be identified at first. The present study is a first step toward the development of a useful tool, such as a complete set of eight different single-alien deletions, for the rapid chromosomal assignment of genes and genetic markers in A. fistulosum.

  15. Production and characterization of alien chromosome additions in shallot (Allium cepa L. Aggregatum group) carrying extra chromosome(s) of Japanese bunching onion (A. fistulosum L.).

    PubMed

    Hang, Tran Thi Minh; Shigyo, Masayoshi; Yamauchi, Naoki; Tashiro, Yosuke

    2004-10-01

    First and second backcrosses of amphidiploid hybrids (2n = 4x = 32, genomes AAFF) between shallot (Allium cepa Aggregatum group) and A. fistulosum were conducted to produce A. cepa - A. fistulosum alien addition lines. When shallot (A. cepa Aggregatum group) was used as a pollinator, the amphidiploids and allotriploids set germinable BC(1) and BC(2) seeds, respectively. The 237 BC(1) plants mainly consisted of 170 allotriploids (2n = 3x = 24, AAF) and 42 hypo-allotriploids possessing 23 chromosomes, i.e., single-alien deletions (2n = 3x-1 = 23, AAF-nF). The single-alien deletions in the BC(1) progeny showed dwarfing characteristics and were discriminated from the allotriploids (2n = 24) and hyper-allotriploids (2n = 25) by means of flow cytometric analysis. The chromosome numbers of 46 BC(2) seedlings varied from 16 to 24. Eight monosomic additions (2n = 2x+1 = 17, AA+nF) and 20 single-alien deletions were found in these BC(2) seedlings. Consequently, six kinds of A. cepa - A. fistulosum alien chromosome additions possessing different chromosome numbers (2n = 17, 18, 20, 21, 22, 23) were recognized in the BC(1) and BC(2) populations. A total of 79 aneuploids, including 62 single-alien deletions, were analyzed by a chromosome 6F-specific isozyme marker (Got-2) in order to recognize its existence in their chromosome complements. This analysis revealed that two out of 62 single-alien deletions did not possess 6F. One (AAF-6F) out of the possible eight single-alien deletions could be identified at first. The present study is a first step toward the development of a useful tool, such as a complete set of eight different single-alien deletions, for the rapid chromosomal assignment of genes and genetic markers in A. fistulosum. PMID:15599056

  16. Male mice housed in groups engage in frequent fighting and show a lower response to additional bone loading than females or individually housed males that do not fight.

    PubMed

    Meakin, Lee B; Sugiyama, Toshihiro; Galea, Gabriel L; Browne, William J; Lanyon, Lance E; Price, Joanna S

    2013-05-01

    Experiments to investigate bone's physiological adaptation to mechanical loading frequently employ models that apply dynamic loads to bones in vivo and assess the changes in mass and architecture that result. It is axiomatic that bones will only show an adaptive response if the applied artificial loading environment differs in a significant way from that to which the bones have been habituated by normal functional loading. It is generally assumed that this normal loading is similar between experimental groups. In the study reported here we found that this was not always the case. Male and female 17-week-old C57BL/6 mice were housed in groups of six, and a single episode (40 cycles) of non-invasive axial loading, engendering 2,200 με on the medial surface of the proximal tibiae in sample mice, was applied to right tibiae on alternate days for two weeks. This engendered an adaptive increase in bone mass in females, but not males. Observation revealed the main difference in behaviour between males and females was that males were involved in fights 1.3 times per hour, whereas the females never fought. We therefore housed all mice individually. In females, there was a similar significant osteogenic response to loading in cortical and trabecular bone of both grouped and individual mice. In contrast, in males, adaptive increases in the loaded compared with non-loaded control bones was only apparent in animals housed individually. Our interpretation of these findings is that the frequent vigorous fighting that occurs between young adult males housed in groups could be sufficient to engender peak strains and strain rates that equal or exceed the stimulus derived from artificial loading. This indicates the importance of ensuring that physical activity is consistent between groups. Reducing the background level of the naturally engendered strain environment allows adaptive responses to artificial loading to be demonstrated at lower loads.

  17. Cement cake properties in static filtration--On the role of fluid loss control additives on the cake porosity

    SciTech Connect

    Desbrieres, J. )

    1993-11-01

    The mechanism of the action of fluid loss control additives in cementing oilwell operations is principally the reduction of permeability of the cement filter cake. From filtration equations physical characteristics as porosity of the cement filter cake were investigated and compared with experimental data. A good correlation is observed when no adsorption is involved. The smallest pore diameter for obtaining an efficient control of fluid loss is shown to be of the same order of magnitude as the gyration radius of used macromolecular chains.

  18. Detection of interleukin-2 in addition to interferon-gamma discriminates active tuberculosis patients, latently infected individuals, and controls.

    PubMed

    Biselli, R; Mariotti, S; Sargentini, V; Sauzullo, I; Lastilla, M; Mengoni, F; Vanini, V; Girardi, E; Goletti, D; D' Amelio, R; Nisini, R

    2010-08-01

    Effective control of tuberculosis (TB) includes discrimination of subjects with active TB from individuals with latent TB infection (LTBI). As distinct interferon (IFN)-gamma and interleukin (IL)-2 profiles of antigen-specific T-cells have been associated with different clinical stages and antigen loads in several viral and bacterial diseases, we analysed these cytokines in TB using a modified QuantiFERON-TB Gold In Tube test. Detection of IL-2 in addition to IFN-gamma distinguishes not only Mycobacterium tuberculosis-infected subjects from healthy controls, but also individuals with LTBI from active TB patients. This may help to improve diagnostic tests for TB.

  19. The Counterfactual Self-Estimation of Program Participants: Impact Assessment without Control Groups or Pretests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mueller, Christoph Emanuel; Gaus, Hansjoerg; Rech, Joerg

    2014-01-01

    This article proposes an innovative approach to estimating the counterfactual without the necessity of generating information from either a control group or a before-measure. Building on the idea that program participants are capable of estimating the hypothetical state they would be in had they not participated, the basics of the Roy-Rubin model…

  20. Quasi-Experiments in Schools: The Case for Historical Cohort Control Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walser, Tamara M.

    2014-01-01

    There is increased emphasis on using experimental and quasi-experimental methods to evaluate educational programs; however, educational evaluators and school leaders are often faced with challenges when implementing such designs in educational settings. Use of a historical cohort control group design provides a viable option for conducting…

  1. Models of Continuous Growth and Their Implications for the Analysis of Nonequivalent Control Group Designs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blumberg, Carol Joyce; Porter, Andrew C.

    Analysis strategies are discussed for the nonequivalent control group design when three models of continuous natural growth are known. For Model I type natural growth it was shown that the fan spread hypothesis always holds, and Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA), Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) of Residualized Gain Scores, and ANOVA of Standardized…

  2. Summary report of working group 5 : beam generation, monitoring, and control.;

    SciTech Connect

    Lewellen, J. W.; Piot, P.; Accelerator Systems Division; Northern Illinois Univ.

    2006-01-01

    The working group on beam quality, diagnostics, and control at the 12th Advanced Accelerator Concepts Workshop held a series of meetings during the Workshop. The generation of bright charged-particle beams (in particular electron and positron beams), along with state-of-the-art beam diagnostics and synchronization were discussed.

  3. Synonymy of strains of Center for Disease Control group DF-1 with species of Capnocytophaga.

    PubMed

    Williams, B L; Hollis, D; Holdeman, L V

    1979-10-01

    Of eight strains of Center for Disease Control group DF-1 examined, seven had 62 to 87% deoxyribonucleic acid homology with the neotype strain of Capnocytophaga ochracea and one had 72% deoxyribonucleic acid homology with the type strain of C. gingivalis. Deoxyribonucleic acid homology of four strains of Bacteroides ochraceus with the neotype strain of C. ochrecea was 76 to 86%.

  4. What to Do when Data Are Missing in Group Randomized Controlled Trials. NCEE 2009-0049

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puma, Michael J.; Olsen, Robert B.; Bell, Stephen H.; Price, Cristofer

    2009-01-01

    This NCEE Technical Methods report examines how to address the problem of missing data in the analysis of data in Randomized Controlled Trials (RCTs) of educational interventions, with a particular focus on the common educational situation in which groups of students such as entire classrooms or schools are randomized. Missing outcome data are a…

  5. Analyzing Data from a Pretest-Posttest Control Group Design: The Importance of Statistical Assumptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zientek, Linda; Nimon, Kim; Hammack-Brown, Bryn

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Among the gold standards in human resource development (HRD) research are studies that test theoretically developed hypotheses and use experimental designs. A somewhat typical experimental design would involve collecting pretest and posttest data on individuals assigned to a control or experimental group. Data from such a design that…

  6. Effects of Structure of Marathon Group Therapy and Locus of Control on Therapeutic Outcome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilmann, Peter R.; Howell, Robert J.

    1974-01-01

    This study compared the outcome of external and internal scorers on the locus of control scale and considered the association between internal-external orientation and direct and nondirect marathon group therapy. The findings suggest that internals are better therapeutic risks than externals, regardless of a direct or nondirect therapist…

  7. Learning in the tutorial group: a balance between individual freedom and institutional control.

    PubMed

    McAllister, Anita; Aanstoot, Janna; Hammarström, Inger Lundeborg; Samuelsson, Christina; Johannesson, Eva; Sandström, Karin; Berglind, Ulrika

    2014-01-01

    The study investigates factors in problem-based learning tutorial groups which promote or inhibit learning. The informants were tutors and students from speech-language pathology and physiotherapy programmes. Semi-structured focus-group interviews and individual interviews were used. Results revealed three themes: Responsibility. Time and Support. Under responsibility, the delicate balance between individual and institutional responsibility and control was shown. Time included short and long-term perspectives on learning. Under support, supporting documents, activities and personnel resources were mentioned. In summary, an increased control by the program and tutors decreases student's motivation to assume responsibility for learning. Support in tutorial groups needs to adapt to student progression and to be well aligned to tutorial work to have the intended effect. A lifelong learning perspective may help students develop a meta-awareness regarding learning that could make tutorial work more meaningful. PMID:23848371

  8. Learning in the tutorial group: a balance between individual freedom and institutional control.

    PubMed

    McAllister, Anita; Aanstoot, Janna; Hammarström, Inger Lundeborg; Samuelsson, Christina; Johannesson, Eva; Sandström, Karin; Berglind, Ulrika

    2014-01-01

    The study investigates factors in problem-based learning tutorial groups which promote or inhibit learning. The informants were tutors and students from speech-language pathology and physiotherapy programmes. Semi-structured focus-group interviews and individual interviews were used. Results revealed three themes: Responsibility. Time and Support. Under responsibility, the delicate balance between individual and institutional responsibility and control was shown. Time included short and long-term perspectives on learning. Under support, supporting documents, activities and personnel resources were mentioned. In summary, an increased control by the program and tutors decreases student's motivation to assume responsibility for learning. Support in tutorial groups needs to adapt to student progression and to be well aligned to tutorial work to have the intended effect. A lifelong learning perspective may help students develop a meta-awareness regarding learning that could make tutorial work more meaningful.

  9. Self-concept in intensive care nurses and control group women.

    PubMed

    Mlinar, Suzana; Tusak, Matej; Karpljuk, Damir

    2009-05-01

    Our self-concept is how we see ourselves in our minds. The goal of this research was to discover any significant differences in the dimensions of self-concept between clinical nurses employed in an intensive care unit in Slovenia and Slovenian women from the general population, who represented the control group. The research included 603 women aged 20-40 years (mean 29.94; standard deviation +/-6.0) who had a high-school education. To determine the differences between the groups statistically we used one-way analysis of variance. The results revealed that clinical nurses had a more positive self-concept than members of the control group. Self-concept is very important in nursing because it is closely connected to the existing value system of individuals and their behaviour. Self-concept gives nurses a sense of how they use their abilities and how they perform in relation to patients.

  10. Tooth Size in Patients with Mild, Moderate and Severe Hypodontia and a Control Group

    PubMed Central

    Khalaf, Khaled

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To compare tooth size between subjects with mild, moderate and severe hypodontia and a control group. Material and Methods: The study comprised 120 patients with hypodontia divided into three groups of 40 mild (≤2 teeth congenitally missing), 40 moderate (3-5 teeth congenitally missing) and 40 severe (≥6 teeth congenitally missing) hypodontia; and 40 age and sex matched controls. Tooth size was recorded by measuring the mesiodistal and buccolingual dimensions of all fully erupted teeth on study models using digital callipers and compared between all hypodontia and control groups using Two-way ANOVA and Post Hoc Tests of subgroup comparison. Results: Two-way ANOVA revealed patients with hypodontia had significantly smaller mesiodistal and buccolingual tooth dimensions compared with controls (p<0.05). Furthermore patients with more severe hypodontia demonstrated significantly smaller tooth dimensions than those in the mild and moderate hypodontia subgroups (p<0.05). The most affected tooth in terms of tooth size reduction was the maxillary lateral incisor and the least affected tooth was the mandibular first molar. Conclusion: Patients with hypodontia have smaller tooth dimensions than control. Tooth size appears to be affected by the degree of hypodontia, with severe hypodontia having a greater effect on tooth size reduction. The findings of this study may contribute to understanding the aetiology of hypodontia and aid the multidisciplinary management of this complex condition. PMID:27583048

  11. Decision Making and Finite-Time Motion Control for a Group of Robots.

    PubMed

    Lu, Qiang; Liu, Shirong; Xie, Xiaogao; Wang, Jian

    2013-04-01

    This paper deals with the problem of odor source localization by designing and analyzing a decision-control system (DCS) for a group of robots. In the decision level, concentration magnitude information and wind information detected by robots are used to predict a probable position of the odor source. Specifically, the idea of particle swarm optimization is introduced to give a probable position of the odor source in terms of concentration magnitude information. Moreover, an observation model of the position of the odor source is built according to wind information, and a Kalman filter is used to estimate the position of the odor source, which is combined with the position obtained by using concentration magnitude information in order to make a decision on the position of the odor source. In the control level, two types of the finite-time motion control algorithms are designed; one is a finite-time parallel motion control algorithm, while the other is a finite-time circular motion control algorithm. Precisely, a nonlinear finite-time consensus algorithm is first proposed, and a Lyapunov approach is used to analyze the finite-time convergence of the proposed consensus algorithm. Then, on the basis of the proposed finite-time consensus algorithm, a finite-time parallel motion control algorithm, which can control the group of robots to trace the plume and move toward the probable position of odor source, is derived. Next, a finite-time circular motion control algorithm, which can enable the robot group to circle the probable position of the odor source in order to search for odor clues, is also developed. Finally, the performance capabilities of the proposed DCS are illustrated through the problem of odor source localization. PMID:23033435

  12. Application of photoremovable protecting group for controlled release of plant growth regulators by sunlight.

    PubMed

    Atta, Sanghamitra; Ikbal, Mohammed; Kumar, Ashutosh; Pradeep Singh, N D

    2012-06-01

    We report a novel technique for controlled release of plant growth regulators (PGRs) by sunlight using photoremovable protecting group (PRPG) as a delivery device. In the present work, carboxyl-containing PGRs of the auxin group [indoleacetic acid (IAA) and naphthoxyacetic acid (NOAA)] were chemically caged using PRPGs of coumarin derivatives. Photophysical studies showed that caged PGRs exhibited good fluorescence properties. Irradiation of caged PGRs by sunlight in both aqueous ethanol and soil media resulted in controlled release of PGRs. The results of the bioactivity experiments indicated that caged PGRs showed better enhancement in the root and shoot length growth of Cicer arietinum compared to PGRs after 10days of sunlight exposure. Our results indicated that use of PRPG as a delivery device for controlled release of PGRs by sunlight in soil holds great interest for field application since it can overcome the rapid loss of PGRs in environmental conditions.

  13. Application of photoremovable protecting group for controlled release of plant growth regulators by sunlight.

    PubMed

    Atta, Sanghamitra; Ikbal, Mohammed; Kumar, Ashutosh; Pradeep Singh, N D

    2012-06-01

    We report a novel technique for controlled release of plant growth regulators (PGRs) by sunlight using photoremovable protecting group (PRPG) as a delivery device. In the present work, carboxyl-containing PGRs of the auxin group [indoleacetic acid (IAA) and naphthoxyacetic acid (NOAA)] were chemically caged using PRPGs of coumarin derivatives. Photophysical studies showed that caged PGRs exhibited good fluorescence properties. Irradiation of caged PGRs by sunlight in both aqueous ethanol and soil media resulted in controlled release of PGRs. The results of the bioactivity experiments indicated that caged PGRs showed better enhancement in the root and shoot length growth of Cicer arietinum compared to PGRs after 10days of sunlight exposure. Our results indicated that use of PRPG as a delivery device for controlled release of PGRs by sunlight in soil holds great interest for field application since it can overcome the rapid loss of PGRs in environmental conditions. PMID:22513094

  14. Effect of kaolin addition on the performance of controlled low-strength material using industrial waste incineration bottom ash.

    PubMed

    Naganathan, Sivakumar; Razak, Hashim Abdul; Hamid, Siti Nadzriah Abdul

    2010-09-01

    Incineration of industrial waste produces large quantities of bottom ash which are normally sent to secured landfill, but is not a sustainable solution. Use of bottom ash in engineering applications will contribute to sustainability and generate revenue. One way of using the industrial waste incineration bottom ash is in controlled low-strength material (CLSM). Use of bottom ash in CLSM has problems related to bleeding and excessive strength development and so an additive has to be used to control bleeding and strength development. The main objective of this research is to study the effect of kaolin addition on the performance of CLSM made using industrial waste incineration bottom ash. CLSM mixes were made with bottom ash, cement, and refined kaolin. Various tests were performed on the CLSM in fresh and hardened states including compressive strength, water absorption, California bearing ratio (CBR) and the tests for concentration of leachable substances on the bleed and leachate. The compressive strength of CLSM tested ranged from 0.11 to 9.86 MPa. CBR values ranged from 6 to 46, and water absorption values from 12 to 36%. It was shown that the addition of kaolin delayed the initial setting time of CLSM mixtures, reduced bleeding, lowered the compressive strength, and increased the values of water absorption, sorption, and initial surface absorption. The CLSM tested did not have corrosivity. It was shown that the hardened CLSM was non hazardous, and the addition of kaolin increased the concentration of heavy metals and salts in the bleed and leachate.

  15. HFSE-REE fractionation in two groups of Sulu eclogites: protolith or process control?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Y.; Yang, H.; Shau, Y.; Yu, S.

    2008-12-01

    Significant HFSE-REE fractionation occurs in subduction zone. However, our understanding on the causes is mainly built upon compositions of arc lavas, which represent the end products of subduction zone processes. Additional constraints are derived from comparing compositions of eclogites and their protoliths. However, the focus has been on eclogites of an oceanic affinity. Here, we show distinct HFSE-REE fractionation patterns from two groups of eclogites of a continental affinity from the Sulu ultra-high pressure metamorphic terrane, China. Having high iron (16.7-20.9%) and TiO2 (3-4%) with low MgO (6.03-7.01%) contents, the high-Fe-Ti eclogites are enriched in Ti but depleted in Nb-Ta-Zr-Hf. Although their low SiO2 contents (38.2-42.8%) are attributed to metamorphic modification, the decoupling between Ti and other HFSE can be modeled as inheriting from gabbroic protoliths crystallized from melts compositionally similar to the subunits 4 and 6 eclogites in the CCSD core. Similarly, the compositions of a subgroup of the Sulu high- Al eclogites characterized by Nb-Ta-Zr-Hf depletion also largely reflect protolith control for the resemblance to the Talkeetna arc gabbronorites. However, another subgroup of the Sulu high-Al eclogites shows unusual HFSE enrichment with Ti/Eu, Zr/Sm, and Nb/La ratios over two times of the chondritic values. Their major oxide and HREE contents are comparable to that of the Talkeetna gabbronorites (~9% MgO). Therefore, the HFSE enrichment is attributed to interacting with high-pressure fluids. The occurrence of interstitial zircon and cluster of small rutile grains (<50 um) in garnet and omphacite along the periphery of annealed fractures is also consistent with HFSE precipitation from the fluids. The role of high-pressure fluids is strengthened by the occurrence of zoisite in the Nb-Ta-Zr-Hf depleted but LILE-LREE enriched high-Al eclogites. Evidently, the HFSE-REE fractionation in subducted continental lithosphere could be protolith

  16. Secondary electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry: breath study on a control group.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Lozano, P; Zingaro, L; Finiguerra, A; Cristoni, S

    2011-03-01

    A series of fatty acids among other compounds have recently been detected in breath in real time by secondary electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (SESI-MS) (Martínez-Lozano P and Fernández de la Mora J 2008 Anal. Chem. 80 8210). Our main aim in this work was to (1) quantify their abundance in breath calibrating the system with standard vapors and (2) extend the study to a control group for several days, both under fasting conditions and after sucrose intake. For the quantitative study, we fed our system with controlled amounts (∼140-1440 ppt) of fatty acid vapors (i.e. propanoic, butanoic, pentanoic and hexanoic acids). As a result, we found sensitivities ranging between 1 and 2.2 cps/ppt. Estimated concentrations of these particular acids in the breath of a fasting subject were in the order of 100 ppt. These values were in reasonable agreement with those expected from reported typical plasma concentrations and Henry constants. A second set of experiments on three fasting individuals before and after ingesting 15 g of sucrose showed that the concentration of propionic and butanoic acids increased rapidly in breath for two subjects. This response was attributed to bacterial activity in mouth and pharynx. In contrast, a third subject showed no response to the administration of sucrose. In addition, we performed a survey among six fasting subjects comparing nasal and mouth exhalations during 11 days, 4 months apart. The signal intensity was comparable for mouth and nose breath. This observation, in conjunction with the quantitative study, suggests that these compounds are mostly systemic when measured under fasting conditions. We finally used the NIST MS search algorithm to evaluate the possibility of recognizing a breathing subject based on his/her breath signature. The global recognition score was 63% (41 out of 65), while the probability by chance alone was 6 × 10(-17). This indicates that (i) there are statistically recognizable differences in

  17. Controlling surface functionality through generation of thiol groups in a self-assembled monolayer.

    SciTech Connect

    Lud, S. Q.; Neppl, S.; Richter, G.; Bruno, P.; Gruen, D. M.; Jordan, R.; Feulner, P.; Stutzmann, M.; Garrido, J. A.; Materials Science Division; Technische Univ. Munchen

    2010-01-01

    A lithographic method to generate reactive thiol groups on functionalized synthetic diamond for biosensor and molecular electronic applications is developed. We demonstrate that ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) thin films covalently functionalized with surface-generated thiol groups allow controlled thiol-disulfide exchange surface hybridization processes. The generation of the thiol functional head groups was obtained by irradiating phenylsulfonic acid (PSA) monolayers on UNCD surfaces. The conversion of the functional headgroup of the self-assembled monolayer was verified by using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS), and fluorescence microscopy. Our findings indicate the selective generation of reactive thiol surface groups. Furthermore, we demonstrate the grafting of yeast cytochrome c to the thiol-modified diamond surface and the electron transfer between protein and electrode.

  18. Comparison of Value System among a Group of Military Prisoners with Controls in Tehran

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Objective Religious values were investigated in a group of Iranian Revolutionary Guards in Tehran. Methods The sample consisted of official duty troops and conscripts who were in prison due to a crime. One hundred thirty seven individuals cooperated with us in the project (37 Official personnel and 100 conscripts). The instruments used included a demographic questionnaire containing personal data and the Allport, Vernon and Lindzey's Study of Values Test. Most statistical methods used descriptive statistical methods such as frequency, mean, tables and t-test. Results The results showed that religious value was lower in the criminal group than the control group (p<.001). Discussion This study showed lower religious value scores in the criminals group, suggesting the possibility that lower religious value increases the probability of committing crimes. PMID:22952535

  19. Group hypnosis vs. relaxation for smoking cessation in adults: a cluster-randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite the popularity of hypnotherapy for smoking cessation, the efficacy of this method is unclear. We aimed to investigate the efficacy of a single-session of group hypnotherapy for smoking cessation compared to relaxation in Swiss adult smokers. Methods This was a cluster-randomised, parallel-group, controlled trial. A single session of hypnosis or relaxation for smoking cessation was delivered to groups of smokers (median size = 11). Participants were 223 smokers consuming ≥ 5 cigarettes per day, willing to quit and not using cessation aids (47.1% females, M = 37.5 years [SD = 11.8], 86.1% Swiss). Nicotine withdrawal, smoking abstinence self-efficacy, and adverse reactions were assessed at a 2-week follow-up. The main outcome, self-reported 30-day point prevalence of smoking abstinence, was assessed at a 6-month follow up. Abstinence was validated through salivary analysis. Secondary outcomes included number of cigarettes smoked per day, smoking abstinence self-efficacy, and nicotine withdrawal. Results At the 6-month follow up, 14.7% in the hypnosis group and 17.8% in the relaxation group were abstinent. The intervention had no effect on smoking status (p = .73) or on the number of cigarettes smoked per day (p = .56). Smoking abstinence self-efficacy did not differ between the interventions (p = .14) at the 2-week follow-up, but non-smokers in the hypnosis group experienced reduced withdrawal (p = .02). Both interventions produced few adverse reactions (p = .81). Conclusions A single session of group hypnotherapy does not appear to be more effective for smoking cessation than a group relaxation session. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN72839675. PMID:24365274

  20. Group Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy and Group Interpersonal Psychotherapy for the Nonpurging Bulimic Individual: A Controlled Comparison.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilfrey, Denise E.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Evaluated effectiveness of group cognitive-behavioral treatment (CBT) and group interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) for binge eating among 56 women with nonpurging bulimia. At posttreatment, both CBT and IPT conditions showed significant improvement in reducing binge eating, compared to waiting-list condition. Binge eating remained significantly…

  1. A common control group - optimising the experiment design to maximise sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Bate, Simon; Karp, Natasha A

    2014-01-01

    Methods for choosing an appropriate sample size in animal experiments have received much attention in the statistical and biological literature. Due to ethical constraints the number of animals used is always reduced where possible. However, as the number of animals decreases so the risk of obtaining inconclusive results increases. By using a more efficient experimental design we can, for a given number of animals, reduce this risk. In this paper two popular cases are considered, where planned comparisons are made to compare treatments back to control and when researchers plan to make all pairwise comparisons. By using theoretical and empirical techniques we show that for studies where all pairwise comparisons are made the traditional balanced design, as suggested in the literature, maximises sensitivity. For studies that involve planned comparisons of the treatment groups back to the control group, which are inherently more sensitive due to the reduced multiple testing burden, the sensitivity is maximised by increasing the number of animals in the control group while decreasing the number in the treated groups. PMID:25504147

  2. Closing plenary summary of working group 4 instrumentation and controls for ERL2011

    SciTech Connect

    Gassner, D.; Obina, T.

    2011-10-16

    Working group 4 was charged with presentations and discussions on instrumentation and controls with regards to Energy Recovery Linacs (ERL). There were 4 sessions spanning 3.5 hours in which 7 talks were delivered, the first being an invited plenary presentation. The time allotted for each talk was limited to 20-25 minutes in order to allow 5-10 minutes for discussion. Most of the talks were held in joint session with working group 5 (Unwanted Beam Loss). This format was effective for the purpose of this workshop. A final series of discussion sessions were also held with working group 5. Summary of the working group 4 activities, presented in the closing plenary session. We had a plenary presentation on operational performance, experience, and future plans at the existing ERL injector prototype at Cornell. This included instrumentation data, controls system configurations, as well as description of future needs. This was followed by four talks from KEK and RIKEN/SPring-8 that described electron beam instrumentation already in use or under development that can be applied to ERL facilities. The final talks described the ERLs under construction at KEK and BNL. The format of having joint sessions with working group 5 was beneficial as there were a significant number of common topics and concerns with regards to the causes of beam loss, instrumentation hardware, and techniques used to measure and analyze beam loss.

  3. The Buried in Treasures Workshop: waitlist control trial of facilitated support groups for hoarding.

    PubMed

    Frost, Randy O; Ruby, Dylan; Shuer, Lee J

    2012-11-01

    Hoarding is a serious form of psychopathology that has been associated with significant health and safety concerns, as well as the source of social and economic burden (Tolin, Frost, Steketee, & Fitch, 2008; Tolin, Frost, Steketee, Gray, & Fitch, 2008). Recent developments in the treatment of hoarding have met with some success for both individual and group treatments. Nevertheless, the cost and limited accessibility of these treatments leave many hoarding sufferers without options for help. One alternative is support groups that require relatively few resources. Frost, Pekareva-Kochergina, and Maxner (2011) reported significant declines in hoarding symptoms following a non-professionally run 13-week support group (The Buried in Treasures [BIT] Workshop). The BIT Workshop is a highly structured and short term support group. The present study extended these findings by reporting on the results of a waitlist control trial of the BIT Workshop. Significant declines in all hoarding symptom measures were observed compared to a waitlist control. The treatment response rate for the BIT Workshop was similar to that obtained by previous individual and group treatment studies, despite its shorter length and lack of a trained therapist. The BIT Workshop may be an effective adjunct to cognitive behavior therapy for hoarding disorder, or an alternative when cognitive behavior therapy is inaccessible.

  4. Preparation and chromatographic evaluation of zwitterionic stationary phases with controllable ratio of positively and negatively charged groups.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Xiao-Dong; Hao, Yan-Hong; Peng, Xi-Tian; Yuan, Bi-Feng; Shi, Zhi-Guo; Feng, Yu-Qi

    2015-08-15

    The present study described the preparation and application of zwitterionic stationary phases (ACS) with controllable ratio of positively charged tertiary amine groups and negatively charged carboxyl groups. Various parameters, including water content, pH values and ionic strength of the mobile phase, were investigated to study the chromatographic characteristics of ACS columns. The prepared ACS columns demonstrated a mix-mode retention mechanism composed of surface adsorption, partitioning and electrostatic interactions. The elemental analysis of different batches of the ACS phases demonstrated good reproducibility of the preparation strategy. Additionally, various categories of compounds, including nucleosides, water-soluble vitamins, benzoic acid derivatives and basic compounds were successively employed to evaluate the separation selectivity of the prepared ACS stationary phases. These ACS phases exhibited entirely different selectivity and retention behavior from each other for various polar analytes, demonstrating the excellent application potential in the analysis of polar compounds in HILIC. PMID:25966373

  5. Mechanisms Controlling Carbon Turnover from Diverse Microbial Groups in Temperate and Tropical Forest Soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Throckmorton, H.; Dane, L.; Bird, J. A.; Firestone, M. K.; Horwath, W. R.

    2010-12-01

    Microorganisms represent an important intermediate along the pathway of plant litter decomposition to the formation of soil organic matter (SOM); yet little is known of the fate and stability of microbial C in soils and the importance of microbial biochemistry as a factor influencing SOM dynamics. This research investigates mechanisms controlling microbial C stabilization in a temperate forest in the Sierra Nevada of California (CA) and a tropical forest in Puerto Rico (PR). Biochemically diverse microbial groups (fungi, actinomycetes, bacteria gram (+), and bacteria gram (-)) were isolated from both sites, grown in the laboratory with C13 media, killed, and nonliving residues were added back to soils as a reciprocal transplant of microbial groups. The native microbial community in CA is dominated by fungi and in PR is dominated by bacteria, which provides an opportunity to asses the metabolic response of distinct microbial communities to the diverse microbial additions. CA and PR soils were sampled five times over a 3 and 2 year period, respectively. In CA there was no significant difference in the mean residence time (MRT) of diverse C13 microbial treatments; whereas in PR there were significant differences, whereby temperate fungi, temperate Gram (+) bacteria, and tropical actinomycetes exhibited a significantly longer MRT as compared with tropical fungi and temperate Gram (-). These results suggest that a bacterial dominated microbial community discriminates more amongst diverse substrates than a fungal-dominated community. MRT for labeled-C in CA was 5.21 ± 1.11 years, and in PR was 2.22 ± 0.45. Despite substantial differences in MRT between sites, physical fractionation of soils into light (LF), aggregated-occluded (OF), and mineral-associated (MF) fractions provided evidence that accelerated decomposition in PR (presumably due to climate) operated primarily on labeled-C unassociated with the mineral matrix (LF); labeled-C occluded within aggregates (OF) or

  6. Self-control of feedback during motor learning: accounting for the absolute amount of feedback using a yoked group with self-control over feedback.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Steve; Pfeiffer, Jacob; Patterson, Jae Todd

    2011-01-01

    A traditional control group yoked to a group that self-controls their reception of feedback receives feedback in the same relative and absolute manner. This traditional control group typically does not learn the task as well as the self-control group. Although the groups are matched for the amount of feedback they receive, the information is provided on trials in which the individual may not request feedback if he or she were provided the opportunity. Similarly, individuals may not receive feedback on trials for which it would be a beneficial learning experience. Subsequently, the mismatch between the provision of feedback and the potential learning opportunity leads to a decrement in retention. The present study was designed to examine motor learning for a yoked group with the same absolute amount of feedback, but who could self-control when they received feedback. Increased mental processing of error detection and correction was expected for the participants in the yoked self-control group because of their choice to employ a limited resource in the form of a decreasing amount of feedback opportunities. Participants in the yoked with self-control group committed fewer errors than the self-control group in retention and the traditional yoked group in both the retention and time transfer blocks. The results suggest that the yoked with self-control group was able to produce efficient learning effects and can be a viable control group for further motor learning studies. PMID:21347953

  7. Teaching Emotional Intelligence: A Control Group Study of a Brief Educational Intervention for Emergency Medicine Residents

    PubMed Central

    Gorgas, Diane L.; Greenberger, Sarah; Bahner, David P.; Way, David P.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Emotional Intelligence (EI) is defined as an ability to perceive another’s emotional state combined with an ability to modify one’s own. Physicians with this ability are at a distinct advantage, both in fostering teams and in making sound decisions. Studies have shown that higher physician EI’s are associated with lower incidence of burn-out, longer careers, more positive patient-physician interactions, increased empathy, and improved communication skills. We explored the potential for EI to be learned as a skill (as opposed to being an innate ability) through a brief educational intervention with emergency medicine (EM) residents. Methods This study was conducted at a large urban EM residency program. Residents were randomized to either EI intervention or control groups. The intervention was a two-hour session focused on improving the skill of social perspective taking (SPT), a skill related to social awareness. Due to time limitations, we used a 10-item sample of the Hay 360 Emotional Competence Inventory to measure EI at three time points for the training group: before (pre) and after (post) training, and at six-months post training (follow up); and at two time points for the control group: pre- and follow up. The preliminary analysis was a four-way analysis of variance with one repeated measure: Group x Gender x Program Year over Time. We also completed post-hoc tests. Results Thirty-three EM residents participated in the study (33 of 36, 92%), 19 in the EI intervention group and 14 in the control group. We found a significant interaction effect between Group and Time (p≤0.05). Post-hoc tests revealed a significant increase in EI scores from Time 1 to 3 for the EI intervention group (62.6% to 74.2%), but no statistical change was observed for the controls (66.8% to 66.1%, p=0.77). We observed no main effects involving gender or level of training. Conclusion Our brief EI training showed a delayed but statistically significant positive impact

  8. Is There a Relation between ABO Blood Groups and Clinical Outcome in Patients with Pemphigoid? A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Bakhtiari, Sedigheh; Toosi, Parviz; Azimi, Somayyeh; Esmaili, Nafiseh; Montazami, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Background. Relationship between blood groups and dermatologic diseases remains controversial and was not yet fully elucidated nor explained clearly. The aim of this study was to examine if any relation exists between different types of pemphigoid diseases and ABO blood group. Methods. In this case-control study, 159 pemphigoid patients and 152 healthy matched-controls were evaluated. All blood group (including Rh status) data for the study was obtained from the hospital medical records. Statistical comparisons were completed with chi-square test and logistic regression. Results. Blood group “O” was found in 32.9% of patients and 38.2% of control group. Blood group “A” was found among 30.8% of patients and 34.2% of control group, while group “B” was reported in 27.4% of cases and 21.1% of controls and “AB” was identified among 8.9% of patients and 6.6% of control group. 84.9% of patients were Rh positive, while in the control group 86.2% of patients were Rh positive. No significant differences were found regarding ABO blood groups (P = 0.46) or Rh (P = 0.76) between pemphigoid patients and control group. Also, older females had the higher risk of developing bullous pemphigoid. Conclusion. We found no relationship between ABO blood groups and pemphigoid disease. PMID:27437000

  9. Empowering Parents of Obese Children (EPOC): A randomized controlled trial on additional long-term weight effects of parent training.

    PubMed

    Warschburger, Petra; Kroeller, Katja; Haerting, Johannes; Unverzagt, Susanne; van Egmond-Fröhlich, Andreas

    2016-08-01

    Although inpatient lifestyle treatment for obese children and adolescents can be highly effective in the short term, long-term results are unconvincing. One possible explanation might be that the treatment takes place far from parents' homes, limiting the possibility to incorporate the parents, who play a major role in establishing and maintaining a healthy lifestyle in childhood and adolescence. The main goal was to develop a brief behaviorally oriented parent training program that enhances 'obesity-specific' parenting skills in order to prevent relapse. We hypothesized that the inclusion of additional parent training would lead to an improved long-term weight course of obese children. Parents of obese children (n = 686; 7-13 years old) either participated in complementary cognitive-behavioral group sessions (n = 336) or received written information only (n = 350) during the inpatient stay. Children of both groups attended multidisciplinary inpatient rehabilitation. BMI-SDS as a primary outcome was evaluated at baseline, post-intervention and at 6- and 12-month follow-up. Intention-to-treat (ITT) as well as per-protocol analyses (PPA) were performed. A significant within-group decrease of 0.24 (95% CI 0.18 to 0.30) BMI-SDS points from the beginning of the inpatient stay through the first year was found, but no group difference at the one-year follow-up (mean difference 0.02; 95% CI -0.04 to 0.07). We also observed an increase in quality of life scores, intake of healthy food and exercise for both groups, without differences between groups (ITT and PPA). Thus, while the inpatient treatment proved highly effective, additional parent training did not lead to better results in long-term weight maintenance or to better psychosocial well-being compared to written psycho-educational material. Further research should focus on subgroups to answer the question of differential treatment effects. PMID:27074374

  10. The Take Control Course: Conceptual Rationale for the Development of a Transdiagnostic Group for Common Mental Health Problems

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Lydia; Mansell, Warren; McEvoy, Phil

    2016-01-01

    Background: Increasingly, research supports the utility of a transdiagnostic understanding of psychopathology. However, there is no consensus regarding the theoretical approach that best explains this. Transdiagnostic interventions can offer service delivery advantages; this is explored in the current review, focusing on group modalities and primary care settings. Objective: This review seeks to explore whether a Perceptual Control Theory (PCT) explanation of psychopathology across disorders is a valid one. Further, this review illustrates the process of developing a novel transdiagnostic intervention (Take Control Course; TCC) from a PCT theory of functioning. Method: Narrative review. Results and Conclusions: Considerable evidence supports key tenets of PCT. Further, PCT offers a novel perspective regarding the mechanisms by which a number of familiar techniques, such as exposure and awareness, are effective. However, additional research is required to directly test the relative contribution of some PCT mechanisms predicted to underlie psychopathology. Directions for future research are considered. PMID:26903907

  11. Field Testing of a Wet FGD Additive for Enhanced Mercury Control - Task 5 Full-Scale Test Results

    SciTech Connect

    Gary Blythe; MariJon Owens

    2007-12-01

    This Topical Report summarizes progress on Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-04NT42309, 'Field Testing of a Wet FGD Additive'. The objective of the project is to demonstrate the use of two flue gas desulfurization (FGD) additives, Evonik Degussa Corporation's TMT-15 and Nalco Company's Nalco 8034, to prevent the re-emission of elemental mercury (Hg{sup 0}) in flue gas exiting wet FGD systems on coal-fired boilers. Furthermore, the project intends to demonstrate whether the additive can be used to precipitate most of the mercury (Hg) removed in the wet FGD system as a fine salt that can be separated from the FGD liquor and bulk solid byproducts for separate disposal. The project is conducting pilot- and full-scale tests of the additives in wet FGD absorbers. The tests are intended to determine required additive dosages to prevent Hg{sup 0} re-emissions and to separate mercury from the normal FGD byproducts for three coal types: Texas lignite/Powder River Basin (PRB) coal blend, high-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal, and low-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal. The project team consists of URS Group, Inc., EPRI, Luminant Power (was TXU Generation Company LP), Southern Company, IPL (an AES company), Evonik Degussa Corporation and the Nalco Company. Luminant Power has provided the Texas lignite/PRB co-fired test site for pilot FGD tests and cost sharing. Southern Company has provided the low-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal host site for wet scrubbing tests, as well as the pilot- and full-scale jet bubbling reactor (JBR) FGD systems tested. IPL provided the high-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal full-scale FGD test site and cost sharing. Evonik Degussa Corporation is providing the TMT-15 additive, and the Nalco Company is providing the Nalco 8034 additive. Both companies are also supplying technical support to the test program as in-kind cost sharing. The project is being conducted in six tasks. Of the six project tasks, Task 1 involves project planning and Task 6 involves management

  12. Can Jurors Recognize Missing Control Groups, Confounds, and Experimenter Bias in Psychological Science?

    PubMed Central

    McAuliff, Bradley D.; Kovera, Margaret Bull; Nunez, Gabriel

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the ability of jury-eligible community members (N = 248) to detect internal validity threats in psychological science presented during a trial. Participants read a case summary in which an expert testified about a study that varied in internal validity (valid, missing control group, confound, and experimenter bias) and ecological validity (high, low). Ratings of expert evidence quality and expert credibility were higher for the valid versus missing control group versions only. Internal validity did not influence verdict or ratings of plaintiff credibility and no differences emerged as a function of ecological validity. Expert evidence quality, expert credibility, and plaintiff credibility were positively correlated with verdict. Implications for the scientific reasoning literature and for trials containing psychological science are discussed. PMID:18587635

  13. Can jurors recognize missing control groups, confounds, and experimenter bias in psychological science?

    PubMed

    McAuliff, Bradley D; Kovera, Margaret Bull; Nunez, Gabriel

    2009-06-01

    This study examined the ability of jury-eligible community members (N = 248) to detect internal validity threats in psychological science presented during a trial. Participants read a case summary in which an expert testified about a study that varied in internal validity (valid, missing control group, confound, and experimenter bias) and ecological validity (high, low). Ratings of expert evidence quality and expert credibility were higher for the valid versus missing control group versions only. Internal validity did not influence verdict or ratings of plaintiff credibility and no differences emerged as a function of ecological validity. Expert evidence quality, expert credibility, and plaintiff credibility were positively correlated with verdict. Implications for the scientific reasoning literature and for trials containing psychological science are discussed.

  14. The influence of deposit control additives on nitrogen oxides emissions from spark ignition engines (case study: Tehran).

    PubMed

    Bidhendi, Gholamreza Nabi; Zand, Ali Daryabeigi; Tabrizi, Alireza Mikaeili; Pezeshk, Hamid; Baghvand, Akbar

    2007-04-15

    In the present research, the influence of a deposit control additive on NOx emissions from two types of gasoline engine vehicles i.e., Peykan (base on Hillman) and Pride (South Korea Kia motors) was studied. Exhaust NOx emissions were measured in to stages, before decarbonization process and after that. Statistical analysis was conducted on the measurement results. Results showed that NOx emissions from Peykans increased 0.28% and NOx emissions from Pride automobiles decreased 6.18% on average, due to the elimination of engine deposits. The observed variations were not statistically and practically significant. The results indicated that making use of detergent additives is not an effective way to reduce the exhaust NOx emissions from gasoline engine vehicles. PMID:19069943

  15. Stability of ZnO quantum dots tuned by controlled addition of ethylene glycol during their growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmermann, Lizandra M.; Baldissera, Paulo V.; Bechtold, Ivan H.

    2016-07-01

    ZnO quantum dots were prepared via a sol–gel route from zinc acetate and sodium hydroxide. The influence of ethylene glycol addition during the first stages of reaction (1–5 min) as a stabilizer, as well as the influence of its concentration in 2-propanol were investigated. The optimization led to particles with enough stability and homogeneity around 3.7 nm of diameter to allow for quantum confinement effect. Spectroscopic UV–vis absorption measurements allowed to explore the underlying mechanism of nucleation and growth and to have the control of it. The emission of the ZnO nanoparticles was explored under experimental perturbations with addition of small amounts of water to investigate the interplay between surface defects and the excitonic effect. The results suggest that the water interferes directly on the defects first and later on the excitonic recombination. Their morphology was determined with transmission electron microscopy.

  16. Stability of ZnO quantum dots tuned by controlled addition of ethylene glycol during their growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmermann, Lizandra M.; Baldissera, Paulo V.; Bechtold, Ivan H.

    2016-07-01

    ZnO quantum dots were prepared via a sol-gel route from zinc acetate and sodium hydroxide. The influence of ethylene glycol addition during the first stages of reaction (1-5 min) as a stabilizer, as well as the influence of its concentration in 2-propanol were investigated. The optimization led to particles with enough stability and homogeneity around 3.7 nm of diameter to allow for quantum confinement effect. Spectroscopic UV-vis absorption measurements allowed to explore the underlying mechanism of nucleation and growth and to have the control of it. The emission of the ZnO nanoparticles was explored under experimental perturbations with addition of small amounts of water to investigate the interplay between surface defects and the excitonic effect. The results suggest that the water interferes directly on the defects first and later on the excitonic recombination. Their morphology was determined with transmission electron microscopy.

  17. Development of a New Hypersonic Shock Tunnel Facility to Investigate Electromagnetic Energy Addition for Flow Control and Basic Supersonic Combustion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toro, P. G. P.; Minucci, M. A. S.; Chanes, J. B.; Pereira, A. L.; Nagamatsu, H. T.

    2006-05-01

    A new 0.6-m. diameter Hypersonic Shock Tunnel is been designed, fabricated and will be installed at the Laboratory of Aerothermodynamics and Hypersonics IEAv-CTA, Brazil. The brand new hypersonic facility, designated as T3, is primarily intended to be used as an important tool in the investigation of supersonic combustion management and of electromagnetic energy addition for flow control. The design of the runnel enables relatively long test times, 2-10 milliseconds, suitable for basic supersonic combustion and energy addition by laser experiments. Free stream Mach numbers ranging from 6 to 25 can be produced and stagnation pressures and temperatures of 200 atm. and 5,500 K, respectively, can be generated. Shadowgraph and schlieren optical techniques will be used for flow visualization and the new facility is expected to be commissioned by the end of 2006.

  18. Validation Methods for Fault-Tolerant avionics and control systems, working group meeting 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The proceedings of the first working group meeting on validation methods for fault tolerant computer design are presented. The state of the art in fault tolerant computer validation was examined in order to provide a framework for future discussions concerning research issues for the validation of fault tolerant avionics and flight control systems. The development of positions concerning critical aspects of the validation process are given.

  19. A randomized controlled trial of group Stepping Stones Triple P: a mixed-disability trial.

    PubMed

    Roux, Gemma; Sofronoff, Kate; Sanders, Matthew

    2013-09-01

    Stepping Stones Triple P (SSTP) is a parenting program designed for families of a child with a disability. The current study involved a randomized controlled trial of Group Stepping Stones Triple P (GSSTP) for a mixed-disability group. Participants were 52 families of children diagnosed with an Autism Spectrum Disorder, Down syndrome, Cerebral Palsy, or an intellectual disability. The results demonstrated significant improvements in parent-reported child behavior, parenting styles, parental satisfaction, and conflict about parenting. Results among participants were similar despite children's differing impairments. The intervention effect was maintained at 6-month follow-up. The results indicate that GSSTP is a promising intervention for a mixed-disability group. Limitations of the study, along with areas for future research, are also discussed.

  20. Ultrafast optical control of group delay of narrow-band terahertz waves

    PubMed Central

    Miyamaru, Fumiaki; Morita, Hiroki; Nishiyama, Yohei; Nishida, Tsubasa; Nakanishi, Toshihiro; Kitano, Masao; Takeda, Mitsuo W.

    2014-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate control over the group delay of narrow-band (quasi continuous wave) terahertz (THz) pulses with constant amplitude based on optical switching of a metasurface characteristic. The near-field coupling between resonant modes of a complementary split ring resonator pair and a rectangular slit show an electromagnetically induced transparency-like (EIT-like) spectral shape in the reflection spectrum of a metasurface. This coupling induces group delay of a narrow-band THz pulse around the resonant frequency of the EIT-like spectrum. By irradiating the metasurface with an optical excitation pulse, the metasurface becomes mirror-like and thus the incident narrow-band THz pulse is reflected without a delay. Remarkably, if we select the appropriate excitation power, only the group delay of the narrow-band THz pulse can be switched while the amplitude is maintained before and after optical excitation. PMID:24614514

  1. A randomized controlled trial of group Stepping Stones Triple P: a mixed-disability trial.

    PubMed

    Roux, Gemma; Sofronoff, Kate; Sanders, Matthew

    2013-09-01

    Stepping Stones Triple P (SSTP) is a parenting program designed for families of a child with a disability. The current study involved a randomized controlled trial of Group Stepping Stones Triple P (GSSTP) for a mixed-disability group. Participants were 52 families of children diagnosed with an Autism Spectrum Disorder, Down syndrome, Cerebral Palsy, or an intellectual disability. The results demonstrated significant improvements in parent-reported child behavior, parenting styles, parental satisfaction, and conflict about parenting. Results among participants were similar despite children's differing impairments. The intervention effect was maintained at 6-month follow-up. The results indicate that GSSTP is a promising intervention for a mixed-disability group. Limitations of the study, along with areas for future research, are also discussed. PMID:24033239

  2. A controlled trial of the SibworkS group program for siblings of children with special needs.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Rachel M; Ejova, Anastasia; Giallo, Rebecca; Strohm, Kate; Lillie, Meredith; Fuss, Belinda

    2015-01-01

    Siblings of children with a disability are an at risk group for emotional and behavioral problems. This study evaluated an intervention to promote the emotional and behavioral functioning of siblings of children with disabilities and chronic health conditions. SibworkS is a six-week manual-based, cognitive-behavioral group support program focussed on strengthening siblings' perceived social support, self-esteem, problem-solving skills, adaptive coping behaviors and positive sibling relationships. Fifty-six children aged 7-12 were allocated to either the SibworkS program (n=30) or waitlist control (n=26) in alternating sequence. The primary outcome was siblings' emotional and behavioral functioning. Additional outcomes were self-esteem, perceived social support, the sibling relationship and coping behaviors. Siblings were followed-up immediately after the intervention and at 3-months. Siblings participating in the SibworkS intervention were reported to have fewer emotional and behavioral difficulties than siblings in the control group immediately following the intervention and at the 3-month follow-up. Participation in SibworkS was associated with fewer emotional and behavioral difficulties for siblings. Implications for practice and future research include recommendations for improving program participation. PMID:26151440

  3. Control of blood glucose in a group of diabetic scuba divers.

    PubMed

    Edge, C J; Grieve, A P; Gibbons, N; O'Sullivan, F; Bryson, P

    1997-09-01

    A preliminary study to examine the hypothesis that the ability of well-controlled (defined as no hypoglycemic episodes within the last 12 mo., HbAlc < 9.0%, and none of the long-term complications of diabetes type I) diabetic scuba divers to control their serum glucose and dive without becoming hypoglycemic during a simulated dive to 27 meters of seawater in controlled environment is impaired. An open, controlled, crossover study compared blood glucose levels, hematocrits, and hematologic cell counts in a group of eight type I diabetic scuba divers to those from eight age- and sex-matched, normoglycemic control scuba divers. Each diver did one simulated dive and one control exercise on the surface on 2 consecutive days. The simulated dive was done to depth of 375 kPa in a hyperbaric chamber, the control exercise was done at ambient pressure. The order of the dive and the control exercise was randomized. No statistically significant differences were observed between serum glucose levels in the diabetic divers measured during the simulated dive to 375 kPa vs. the serum glucose levels in the diabetic divers measured during the control exercise at the same time points. All divers with type I diabetes remained free of symptoms and signs of hypoglycemia throughout the course of the trial, and no diabetic subject had a serum glucose less than 4 mmol/liter before the end of the trial. As the sample size was small, larger studies including subject with type II diabetes will be necessary to extend these results to the diabetic diving population at large. The authors conclude that, contrary to advice issued by most diving agencies to scuba divers, it may be safe to allow well-controlled subjects with type I diabetes with no long-term complications to undertake scuba diving, and that high partial pressures of oxygen do not seem to lower serum glucose levels significantly in the diabetic diver during the dive.

  4. Control of oxo-group functionalization and reduction of the uranyl ion.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Polly L; Pécharman, Anne-Frédérique; Lord, Rianne M; Jones, Guy M; Hollis, Emmalina; Nichol, Gary S; Maron, Laurent; Fang, Jian; Davin, Thomas; Love, Jason B

    2015-04-01

    Uranyl complexes of a large, compartmental N8-macrocycle adopt a rigid, "Pacman" geometry that stabilizes the U(V) oxidation state and promotes chemistry at a single uranyl oxo-group. We present here new and straightforward routes to singly reduced and oxo-silylated uranyl Pacman complexes and propose mechanisms that account for the product formation, and the byproduct distributions that are formed using alternative reagents. Uranyl(VI) Pacman complexes in which one oxo-group is functionalized by a single metal cation are activated toward single-electron reduction. As such, the addition of a second equivalent of a Lewis acidic metal complex such as MgN″2 (N″ = N(SiMe3)2) forms a uranyl(V) complex in which both oxo-groups are Mg functionalized as a result of Mg-N bond homolysis. In contrast, reactions with the less Lewis acidic complex [Zn(N″)Cl] favor the formation of weaker U-O-Zn dative interactions, leading to reductive silylation of the uranyl oxo-group in preference to metalation. Spectroscopic, crystallographic, and computational analysis of these reactions and of oxo-metalated products isolated by other routes have allowed us to propose mechanisms that account for pathways to metalation or silylation of the exo-oxo-group.

  5. Effect of kaolin addition on the performance of controlled low-strength material using industrial waste incineration bottom ash.

    PubMed

    Naganathan, Sivakumar; Razak, Hashim Abdul; Hamid, Siti Nadzriah Abdul

    2010-09-01

    Incineration of industrial waste produces large quantities of bottom ash which are normally sent to secured landfill, but is not a sustainable solution. Use of bottom ash in engineering applications will contribute to sustainability and generate revenue. One way of using the industrial waste incineration bottom ash is in controlled low-strength material (CLSM). Use of bottom ash in CLSM has problems related to bleeding and excessive strength development and so an additive has to be used to control bleeding and strength development. The main objective of this research is to study the effect of kaolin addition on the performance of CLSM made using industrial waste incineration bottom ash. CLSM mixes were made with bottom ash, cement, and refined kaolin. Various tests were performed on the CLSM in fresh and hardened states including compressive strength, water absorption, California bearing ratio (CBR) and the tests for concentration of leachable substances on the bleed and leachate. The compressive strength of CLSM tested ranged from 0.11 to 9.86 MPa. CBR values ranged from 6 to 46, and water absorption values from 12 to 36%. It was shown that the addition of kaolin delayed the initial setting time of CLSM mixtures, reduced bleeding, lowered the compressive strength, and increased the values of water absorption, sorption, and initial surface absorption. The CLSM tested did not have corrosivity. It was shown that the hardened CLSM was non hazardous, and the addition of kaolin increased the concentration of heavy metals and salts in the bleed and leachate. PMID:20852000

  6. Comparison of the Mindfulness Skills, Metacognitive Beliefs and Perceived Stress in Hypertension Patients and Control Group.

    PubMed

    Haji-Mirsaeidi, Zohreh; Kazemi-Zahrani, Hamid; Sadeghi, Masoumeh

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the skills of mindfulness, metacognitive beliefs and perceived stress in hypertension patients and control group. The study was a causal-comparative one. The population included all patients with high blood pressure who were admitted in Isfahan Cardiovascular Research Institute in 2014, 90 of which were selected by purposive sampling. Research instruments include: Kentucky's mindfulness skills (Baer, Smith, & Allen, 2004), metacognitive beliefs questionnaire (Welles, 1997) and questionnaire perceived stress (Cohen & Kamarck, 1983). Of all the questionnaires returned, 80 were fully completed and therefore analyzed. Data were analyzed using a t-test and multivariate analysis of variance. Results showed that there is a difference between mindfulness skills and beliefs of people with hypertension and control group. Moreover, the results showed that there isn't any meaningful difference between the perceived stress in patients with hypertension and control group. It can be said that mindfulness skills, metacognitive beliefs and perceived stress can help us to understand the psychological issues of patients with high blood pressure better. PMID:27530578

  7. Generation of "virtual" control groups for single arm prostate cancer adjuvant trials.

    PubMed

    Jia, Zhenyu; Lilly, Michael B; Koziol, James A; Chen, Xin; Xia, Xiao-Qin; Wang, Yipeng; Skarecky, Douglas; Sutton, Manuel; Sawyers, Anne; Ruckle, Herbert; Carpenter, Philip M; Wang-Rodriguez, Jessica; Jiang, Jun; Deng, Mingsen; Pan, Cong; Zhu, Jian-Guo; McLaren, Christine E; Gurley, Michael J; Lee, Chung; McClelland, Michael; Ahlering, Thomas; Kattan, Michael W; Mercola, Dan

    2014-01-01

    It is difficult to construct a control group for trials of adjuvant therapy (Rx) of prostate cancer after radical prostatectomy (RP) due to ethical issues and patient acceptance. We utilized 8 curve-fitting models to estimate the time to 60%, 65%, … 95% chance of progression free survival (PFS) based on the data derived from Kattan post-RP nomogram. The 8 models were systematically applied to a training set of 153 post-RP cases without adjuvant Rx to develop 8 subsets of cases (reference case sets) whose observed PFS times were most accurately predicted by each model. To prepare a virtual control group for a single-arm adjuvant Rx trial, we first select the optimal model for the trial cases based on the minimum weighted Euclidean distance between the trial case set and the reference case set in terms of clinical features, and then compare the virtual PFS times calculated by the optimum model with the observed PFSs of the trial cases by the logrank test. The method was validated using an independent dataset of 155 post-RP patients without adjuvant Rx. We then applied the method to patients on a Phase II trial of adjuvant chemo-hormonal Rx post RP, which indicated that the adjuvant Rx is highly effective in prolonging PFS after RP in patients at high risk for prostate cancer recurrence. The method can accurately generate control groups for single-arm, post-RP adjuvant Rx trials for prostate cancer, facilitating development of new therapeutic strategies.

  8. Comparison of serum levels of copper and zinc among multiple sclerosis patients and control group

    PubMed Central

    Sedighi, Behnaz; Ebrahimi, Hossein Ali; Haghdoost, Ali Akbar

    2013-01-01

    Background There have been several studies done on the role of metals in the occurrence of multiple sclerosis (MS) disease, but their roles have not been confirmed yet. Because of the lack of information on this issue, this study compared the serum level of copper and zinc in MS patients with their levels in a control group. Methods This was an analytical, cross-sectional study conducted in Kerman (a medium size city), Iran. We assessed the serum level of copper and zinc in 58 MS patients and 39 healthy individuals, who were selected from the relatives of cases and matched for age and sex. Results The average serum level of Copper in cases and controls were 93.7 and 88.9 ml/dl, respectively. The corresponding numbers for Zinc were 36.7 and 40.9 ml/dl, respectively. There was no significant difference between the two groups (copper: P = 0.459; zinc: P = 0.249). Conclusion The groups were matched for age, sex, and family. However, we did not find a considerable difference between the level of these metals in MS patients and controls. PMID:24250921

  9. Use of Antimicrobial Food Additives as Potential Dipping Solutions to Control Pseudomonas spp. Contamination in the Frankfurters and Ham

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Mi-Hwa; Park, Beom-Young; Choi, Kyoung-Hee

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of sodium diacetate and sodium lactate solutions for reducing the cell count of Pseudomonas spp. in frankfurters and hams. A mixture of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (NCCP10338, NCCP10250, and NCCP11229), and Pseudomonas fluorescens (KACC10323 and KACC10326) was inoculated on cooked frankfurters and ham. The inoculated samples were immersed into control (sterile distilled water), sodium diacetate (5 and 10%), sodium lactate (5 and 10%), 5% sodium diacetate + 5% sodium lactate, and 10% sodium diacetate + 10% sodium lactate for 0-10 min. Inoculated frankfurters and ham were also immersed into acidified (pH 3.0) solutions such as acidified sodium diacetate (5 and 10%), and acidified sodium lactate (5 and 10%) in addition to control (acidified distilled water) for 0-10 min. Total aerobic plate counts for Pseudomonas spp. were enumerated on Cetrimide agar. Significant reductions (ca. 2 Log CFU/g) in Pseudomonas spp. cells on frankfurters and ham were observed only for a combination treatment of 10% sodium lactate + 10% sodium diacetate. When the solutions were acidified to pH 3.0, the total reductions of Pseudomonas spp. were 1.5-4.0 Log CFU/g. The order of reduction amounts of Pseudomonas spp. cell counts was 10% sodium lactate > 5% sodium lactate ≥ 10% sodium diacetate > 5% sodium diacetate > control for frankfurters, and 10% sodium lactate > 5% sodium lactate > 10% sodium diacetate > 5% sodium diacetate > control for ham. The results suggest that using acidified food additive antimicrobials, as dipping solutions, should be useful in reducing Pseudomonas spp. on frankfurters and ham. PMID:26761492

  10. 75 FR 34458 - National Center for Injury Prevention and Control/Initial Review Group, (NCIPC/IRG)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Center for Injury Prevention and Control/Initial Review Group, (NCIPC/IRG) Correction: This notice was published in the Federal Register on... Control and Prevention (CDC), announces the following meeting of the aforementioned review group: Time...

  11. Chloride ion addition for controlling shapes and properties of silver nanorods capped by polyvinyl alcohol synthesized using polyol method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Junaidi, Yunus, Muhammad; Triyana, Kuwat; Harsojo, Suharyadi, Edi

    2016-04-01

    We report our investigation on the effect of chloride ions on controlling the shapes and properties of silver nanorods (AgNRs) synthesized using a polyol method. In this study, we used polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) as a capping agent and sodium chloride (NaCl) as a salt precursor and performed at the oil bath temperature of 140°C. The chloride ions originating from the NaCl serve to control the growth of the silver nanorods. Furthermore, the synthesized silver nanorods were characterized using SEM and XRD. The results showed that besides being able to control the growth of AgCl atoms, the chloride ions were also able to control the growth of multi-twinned-particles into the single crystalline of silver nanorods by micrometer-length. At an appropriate concentration of NaCl, the diameter of silver nanorods decreased significantly compared to that of without chloride ion addition. This technique may be useful since a particular diameter of silver nanorods affects a particular application in the future.

  12. Marrow grafts between phenotypically DLA-identical and haploidentical unrelated dogs: additional antigens controlling engraftment are not detected by cell-mediated lympholysis

    SciTech Connect

    Deeg, H.J.; Storb, R.; Raff, R.F.; Weiden, P.L.; DeRose, S.; Thomas, E.D.

    1982-01-01

    Bone marrow transplants with low marrow cell doses (less than or equal to4 X 10/sup 8/ cells/kg) from unrelated donors were carried out in 16 dogs conditioned with 9 Gy (900 rad) of total body irradiation. No immunosuppression was given after grafting. Eleven donor-recipient pairs were phenotypically identical (group 1) for the known antigens of the canine major histocompatibility complex (DLA) and in five the donor was homozygous and the recipient heterozygous for DLA (group 2), as determined by serological histocompatibility typing and mixed leukocyte cultures including homozygous cell typing. In addition, lymphocytes from donors and recipients in group 1 were mutually nonreactive in cell-mediated lympholysis; lymphocytes from recipients in group 2 were not cytotoxic against donor cells. Eight dogs rejected their grafts and eight showed sustained engraftment; of these, four died from graft-versus-host disease. The incidence of rejection was higher than in DLA-identical littermates but lower than in DLA-nonidentical unrelated or littermate dogs. These results indicate that antigens different from the recognized alleles at DLA are involved in the control of engraftment. These antigens most likely represent the expression of unrecognized differences within DLA or are coded for by a locus different from but linked to DLA-A, B, C or D; they are not recognized in the cell-mediated lympholysis assay.

  13. Controls upon hydrocarbon reservoir evolution within the Rotliegende group: A fully integrated regional study

    SciTech Connect

    Howell, J.A.; Becker, A.; Turner, P.; Searl, A. ); Edwards, H.E.; Williams, G. )

    1993-09-01

    The collection of a large database, in conjunction with new understandings of sedimentology and structural controls upon diagenesis, has enabled the detailed mapping of the factors that control the distribution of hydrocarbon reservoirs within the Rotliegende Group of the United Kingdom southern North Sea. The results of this regional study incorporate detail previously confined to field scale studies. High resolution sedimentological and stratigraphic studies (4 km of core) have resulted in a twelve-fold subdivision of the Rotliegende Group based upon the recognition of climatically driven depositional cycles. These illustrate a progressive basin expansion controlled by the distribution of buried lower Paleozoic granites and post-Vanscan topography. This model incorporated with mapping of facies distribution has been used to document the distribution of potential reservoir rocks. Detailed diagenetic work has documented the distribution of all the principal mineral phases within the basin. Integration with structural studies has revealed the role of the fractures for introducing fluids to, and compartmentalizing reservoirs has led to significant understanding of the source and transport mechanism for the pore-occluding diagenetic phases. Regionally, an understanding of burial and inversion events has demonstrated that the distribution of clays, particularly permeability destroying illite, is controlled by both burial depth and source of reactants. Combination of sedimentological and diagenetic aspects has enabled the production predictive maps for the area. This, combined with the structural work, has highlighted the importance of timing of hydrocarbon migration in relation to reservoir structuration, particularly in areas away from the main Sole Pit source kitchen.

  14. Association between ABO blood/rhesus grouping and hepatitis B and C: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Pourhassan, Abolfazl

    2014-06-01

    During past decades, a connection between hepatitis and the host ABO/Rh blood groups has been always under dispute, with no appropriately designed study yet. This study aimed to investigate possible association between ABO blood/Rh groups with both hepatitis B and C. In this case-control setting, 200 healthy individuals (controls), 200 patients with chronic Hepatitis-B infection (HB) and 200 patients with chronic Hepatitis-C infection (HC) were recruited from 2010 to 2013 in Tabriz Sina Hospital. ABO blood and Rh grouping was performed and the results were compared between the case and control groups. Both pair of the control and HB groups and the control and HC groups were matched for their subjects' age and sex. In the control group, 178 subjects (89%) were Rh+ and 22 subjects (11%) were Rh-. In the HB group, there were 180 Rh+ (90%) and 20 Rh- (10%) patients. In the HC group there were 168 Rh+ (84%) and 32 Rh-negative (16%) patients. Both pair of the control and HB groups (p = 0.74), as well as the control and HC groups (p = 0.14) were comparable for the status of Rh. In the control group there were 84 (42%), 32 (16%), 66 (33%) and 18 (9%) subjects with A, B, O and AB blood groups, respectively. The corresponding figures were 84 (42%), 34 (17%), 58 (29%) and 24 (12%) for the HB patients; and 80 (40%), 29 (14.5%), 85 (42.5%) and 6 (3%) for the HC patients. Comparing between the control and HB groups showed no significant difference in terms of the frequency of ABO blood groups (p = 0.70). However, with comparing the control and HC groups, the rate of O blood group was significantly higher in the HC group and concomitantly, the rate of AB blood group was significantly higher in the control group (p = 0.04). Although, there is not a significant association between ABO blood groups and HB, this association is significant between certain ABO blood groups and HC.

  15. Molecular and biochemical identification of alien chromosome additions in shallot (Allium cepa L. Aggregatum group) carrying extra chromosome(s) of bunching onion (A. fistulosum L.).

    PubMed

    Yaguchi, Shigenori; Hang, Tran Thi Minh; Tsukazaki, Hikaru; Hoa, Vu Quynh; Masuzaki, Shin-ichi; Wako, Tadayuki; Masamura, Noriya; Onodera, Shuichi; Shiomi, Norio; Yamauchi, Naoki; Shigyo, Masayoshi

    2009-02-01

    To develop the bunching onion (Allium fistulosum L.; genomes, FF) chromosome-specific genetic markers for identifying extra chromosomes, eight shallot (A. cepa L. Aggregatum group; genomes, AA)--A. fistulosum monosomic addition plants (AA+nF) and 62 shallot--A. fistulosum single-alien deletion plants (AAF-nF) were analyzed by 23 different chromosome-specific genetic markers of shallot. The eight monosomic addition plants consisted of one AA+2F, two AA+6F, and five AA+8F. Of the 62 single-alien deletion plants, 60 could be identified as six different single-alien deletion lines (AAF-1F, -3F, -4F, -6F, -7F, and -8F) out of the eight possible types. Several single-alien deletion lines were classified on the basis of leaf and bulb characteristics. AAF-8F had the largest number of expanded leaves of five deletion plants. AAF-7F grew most vigorously, as expressed by its long leaf blade and biggest bulb size. AAF-4F had very small bulbs. AAF-7F and AAF-8F had different bulbs from those of shallot as well as other types of single-alien deletion lines in skin and outer scale color. Regarding the sugar content of the bulb tissues, the single-alien deletion lines showed higher fructan content than shallot. Moreover, shallot could not produce fructan with degree of polymerization (DP) 12 or higher, although the single-alien deletion lines showed DP 20 or higher. The content of S-alk(en)yl-L-cysteine sulfoxide (ACSO) in the single-alien deletion lines was significantly lower than that in shallot. These results indicated that chromosomes from A. fistulosum might carry anonymous factors to increase the highly polymerized fructan production and inhibit the synthesis of ACSO in shallot bulbs. Accordingly, alien chromosomes from A. fistulosum in shallot would contribute to modify the quality of shallot bulbs.

  16. Molecular and biochemical identification of alien chromosome additions in shallot (Allium cepa L. Aggregatum group) carrying extra chromosome(s) of bunching onion (A. fistulosum L.).

    PubMed

    Yaguchi, Shigenori; Hang, Tran Thi Minh; Tsukazaki, Hikaru; Hoa, Vu Quynh; Masuzaki, Shin-ichi; Wako, Tadayuki; Masamura, Noriya; Onodera, Shuichi; Shiomi, Norio; Yamauchi, Naoki; Shigyo, Masayoshi

    2009-02-01

    To develop the bunching onion (Allium fistulosum L.; genomes, FF) chromosome-specific genetic markers for identifying extra chromosomes, eight shallot (A. cepa L. Aggregatum group; genomes, AA)--A. fistulosum monosomic addition plants (AA+nF) and 62 shallot--A. fistulosum single-alien deletion plants (AAF-nF) were analyzed by 23 different chromosome-specific genetic markers of shallot. The eight monosomic addition plants consisted of one AA+2F, two AA+6F, and five AA+8F. Of the 62 single-alien deletion plants, 60 could be identified as six different single-alien deletion lines (AAF-1F, -3F, -4F, -6F, -7F, and -8F) out of the eight possible types. Several single-alien deletion lines were classified on the basis of leaf and bulb characteristics. AAF-8F had the largest number of expanded leaves of five deletion plants. AAF-7F grew most vigorously, as expressed by its long leaf blade and biggest bulb size. AAF-4F had very small bulbs. AAF-7F and AAF-8F had different bulbs from those of shallot as well as other types of single-alien deletion lines in skin and outer scale color. Regarding the sugar content of the bulb tissues, the single-alien deletion lines showed higher fructan content than shallot. Moreover, shallot could not produce fructan with degree of polymerization (DP) 12 or higher, although the single-alien deletion lines showed DP 20 or higher. The content of S-alk(en)yl-L-cysteine sulfoxide (ACSO) in the single-alien deletion lines was significantly lower than that in shallot. These results indicated that chromosomes from A. fistulosum might carry anonymous factors to increase the highly polymerized fructan production and inhibit the synthesis of ACSO in shallot bulbs. Accordingly, alien chromosomes from A. fistulosum in shallot would contribute to modify the quality of shallot bulbs. PMID:19420800

  17. Control of Group Velocity via Spontaneous Generated Coherence and Kerr Nonlinearity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazrat, Ali; Iftikhar, Ahmad; Ziauddin

    2014-09-01

    A four-level N-type atomic medium is considered to study the effect of spontaneous generated coherence (SGC) and Kerr nonlinearity on light pulse propagation. A light pulse is propagating inside the medium where each atom follows four-level N-type atom-field configuration of rubidium (85Rb) atom. The atom-field interaction leads to electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) process. The atom-field interaction is accompanied by normal dispersion and in the presence of SGC and Kerr nonlinearity the dispersion property of the proposed atomic medium is modified, which leads to enhancement of positive group index of the medium. The enhancement of positive group index then leads to slow group velocity inside the medium. A more slow group velocity is also investigated by incorporated the collective effect of SGC and Kerr nonlinearity. The control of group velocity inside a four-level N-type atomic medium via collective effect of SGC and Kerr nonlinearity is the major part of this work.

  18. Effects of group prenatal care on psychosocial risk in pregnancy: Results from a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Ickovics, Jeannette R.; Reed, Elizabeth; Magriples, Urania; Westdahl, Claire; Rising, Sharon Schindler; Kershaw, Trace S.

    2012-01-01

    Few interventions have succeeded in reducing psychosocial risk among pregnant women. The objective of this study was to determine whether an integrated group prenatal care intervention already shown to improve perinatal and sexual risk outcomes can also improve psychosocial outcomes compared to standard individual care. This randomised controlled trial included pregnant women ages 14–25 from two public hospitals (N = 1047) who were randomly assigned to standard individual care, group prenatal care or integrated group prenatal care intervention (CenteringPregnancy Plus, CP+). Timing and content of visits followed obstetrical guidelines, from 18-week gestation through birth. Each 2-h group prenatal care session included physical assessment, education/skills building and support via facilitated discussion. Using intention-to-treat models, there were no significant differences in psychosocial function; yet, women in the top tertile of psychosocial stress at study entry did benefit from integrated group care. High-stress women randomly assigned to CP+ reported significantly increased self-esteem, decreased stress and social conflict in the third trimester of pregnancy; social conflict and depression were significantly lower 1-year postpartum (all p-values <0.02). CP+ improved psychosocial outcomes for high-stress women. This ‘bundled’ intervention has promise for improving psychosocial outcomes, especially for young pregnant women who are traditionally more vulnerable and underserved. PMID:21318932

  19. Multiple regression analyses in artificial-grammar learning: the importance of control groups.

    PubMed

    Lotz, Anja; Kinder, Annette; Lachnit, Harald

    2009-03-01

    In artificial-grammar learning, it is crucial to ensure that above-chance performance in the test stage is due to learning in the training stage but not due to judgemental biases. Here we argue that multiple regression analysis can be successfully combined with the use of control groups to assess whether participants were able to transfer knowledge acquired during training when making judgements about test stimuli. We compared the regression weights of judgements in a transfer condition (training and test strings were constructed by the same grammar but with different letters) with those in a control condition. Predictors were identical in both conditions-judgements of control participants were treated as if they were based on knowledge gained in a standard training stage. The results of this experiment as well as reanalyses of a former study support the usefulness of our approach.

  20. Cooperative enclosing control for multiple moving targets by a group of agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Y. J.; Li, R.; Teo, K. L.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the enclosing control problem of second-order multi-agent systems is considered, where the targets can be either stationary or moving. The objective is to achieve an equidistant circular formation for a group of agents to enclose a team of targets. In order to do so, we first introduce a formal definition explaining certain basic properties of the exploring relation between the agents and the targets. We then construct the estimator of the centre of the targets, which is used to build the control protocol to achieve equidistant circular enclosing. Using a Lyapunov function and Lasalle's Invariance Principle, the convergency of the estimator and control protocol are, respectively, established. We then construct a smooth function to approximate the discontinuous term in the estimator. Finally, the simulations for stationary targets and moving targets are given to verify the validity of the results obtained.

  1. From "we" to "me": Group identification enhances perceived personal control with consequences for health and well-being.

    PubMed

    Greenaway, Katharine H; Haslam, S Alexander; Cruwys, Tegan; Branscombe, Nyla R; Ysseldyk, Renate; Heldreth, Courtney

    2015-07-01

    There is growing recognition that identification with social groups can protect and enhance health and well-being, thereby constituting a kind of "social cure." The present research explores the role of control as a novel mediator of the relationship between shared group identity and well-being. Five studies provide evidence for this process. Group identification predicted significantly greater perceived personal control across 47 countries (Study 1), and in groups that had experienced success and failure (Study 2). The relationship was observed longitudinally (Study 3) and experimentally (Study 4). Manipulated group identification also buffered a loss of personal control (Study 5). Across the studies, perceived personal control mediated social cure effects in political, academic, community, and national groups. The findings reveal that the personal benefits of social groups come not only from their ability to make people feel good, but also from their ability to make people feel capable and in control of their lives.

  2. Optimal Control of Shock Tube Flow via Water Addition with Application to Ignition Overpressure Mitigation in Launch Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moshman, Nathan

    2009-11-01

    Ignition Overpressure (IOP) in launch vehicles occurs at the start of ignition when a steep rise in pressure propagates outward from the rocket nozzle. It is crucial to minimize the overpressure so as to decrease risk of damage to the rocket body. Currently, CFD studies exist on this situation but there are no optimization studies of the water addition as a means to suppress the IOP. The proposed dissertation will use a numerical method to compute an approximate solution for an optimal control problem constrained by the one-dimensional Euler PDEs of fluid dynamics as well as volume fraction conservation. A model for inter-phase transport of mass momentum and energy and fluid interface quantities will be given. The control will be water addition from external nozzles. The adjoint system of equations will be derived and discretized. Necessary optimal conditions will be derived. An SQP method will solve an optimal situation. Predictions will be validated against shock tube experiments at the NPS rocket lab.

  3. Effects of silver and group II fluoride solid lubricant additions to plasma-sprayed chromium carbide coatings for foil gas bearings to 650 C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagner, R. C.; Sliney, Harold E.

    1986-01-01

    A new self-lubricating coating composition of nickel aluminide-bonded chromium carbide formulated with silver and Group II fluorides was developed in a research program on high temperature solid lubricants. One of the proposed applications for this new coating composition is as a wide temperature spectrum solid lubricant for complaint foil gas bearings. Friction and wear properties were obtained using a foil gas bearing start-stop apparatus at temperatures from 25 to 650 C. The journals were Inconel 748. Some were coated with the plasma sprayed experimental coating, others with unmodified nickel aluminide/chromium carbide as a baseline for comparison. The additional components were provided to assist in achieving low friction over the temperature range of interest. Uncoated, preoxidized Inconel X-750 foil bearings were operated against these surfaces. The foils were subjected to repeated start/stop cycles under a 14-kPa (2-Psi) bearing unit loading. Sliding contact occurred during lift-off and coastdown at surface velocities less than 6 m/s (3000 rPm). Testing continued until 9000 start/stop cycles were accumulated or until a rise in starting torque indicated the journal/bearing had failed. Comparison in coating performance as well as discussions of their properties and methods of application are given.

  4. Effects of silver and Group II fluorides addition to plasma sprayed chromium carbide high temperature solid lubricant for foil gas bearings to 650/sup 0/C

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, R.C.; Sliney, H.E.

    1985-01-01

    A new self-lubricating coating composition of nickel aluminide-bonded chromium carbide fromulated with silver and Group II fluorides was developed. One of the proposed applications for this new coating composition is as a wide temperature spectrum solid lubricant for compliant foil gas bearings. Friction and wear properties were obtained using a foil gas bearing start/stop apparatus at temperatures from 25 to 650/sup 0/C. The journals were Inconel 718. Some were coated with the plasma sprayed experimental coating, others with unmodified nickel aluminide/chromium carbide as a baseline for comparison. The additional components were provided to assist in achieving low friction over the temperature range of interest. Uncoated, preoxidized inconel X-750 foil bearing were operated against these surfaces. The foils were subjected to repeated start/stop cycles under a 14-kPa (2-psi) bearing unit loading. Sliding contact occurred during lift-off and coastdown at surface velocities less than 6 m/s (3000 rpm). Testing continued until 9000 start/stop cycles were accumulated or until a rise in starting torque indicated the journal/bearing had failed. Comparison in coating performance as well as discussions of their properties and methods of application are given.

  5. Group critical incident stress debriefing with emergency services personnel: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Tuckey, Michelle R; Scott, Jill E

    2014-01-01

    Although single-session individual debriefing is contraindicated, the efficacy of group psychological debriefing remains unresolved. We conducted the first randomized controlled trial of critical incident stress debriefing (CISD) with emergency workers (67 volunteer fire-fighters) following shared exposure to an occupational potentially traumatic event (PTE). The goals of group CISD are to prevent post-traumatic stress and promote return to normal functioning following a PTE. To assess both goals we measured four outcomes, before and after the intervention: post-traumatic stress, psychological distress, quality of life, and alcohol use. Fire brigades were randomly assigned to one of three treatment conditions: (1) CISD, (2) Screening (i.e., no-treatment), or (3) stress management Education. Controlling for pre-intervention scores, CISD was associated with significantly less alcohol use post-intervention relative to Screening, and significantly greater post-intervention quality of life relative to Education. There were no significant effects on post-traumatic stress or psychological distress. Overall, CISD may benefit broader functioning following exposure to work-related PTEs. Future research should focus on individual, group, and organizational factors and processes that can promote recovery from operational stressors. Ultimately, an occupational health (rather than victim-based) approach will provide the best framework for understanding and combating potential threats to the health and well-being of workers at high risk for PTE exposure. PMID:23799773

  6. Chemical additive to enhance antimicrobial efficacy of chlorine and control cross-contamination during immersion chill of broiler carcasses.

    PubMed

    Schambach, B T; Berrang, M E; Harrison, M A; Meinersmann, R J

    2014-09-01

    Immersion chilling of broiler carcasses can be a site for cross-contamination between the occasional highly contaminated carcass and those that are co-chilled. Chlorine is often used as an antimicrobial but can be overcome by organic material. A proprietary chlorine stabilizer (T-128) based on phosphoric acid-propylene glycol was tested as a chill tank additive in experiments simulating commercial broiler chilling. In bench-scale experiments, 0.5% T-128 was compared with plain water (control), 50 ppm of chlorine, and the combination of 0.5% T-128 with 50 ppm of chlorine to control transfer of Salmonella and Campylobacter from inoculated wing drummettes to co-chilled uninoculated drummettes. Both chlorine and T-128 lessened cross-contamination with Salmonella (P < 0.05); T-128 and T-128 with chlorine were significantly more effective (P < 0.05) than the control or plain chlorine for control of Campylobacter. T-128 treatments were noted to have a pH of less than 4.0; an additional experiment demonstrated that the antimicrobial effect of T-128 was not due merely to a lower pH. In commercial broiler chilling, a pH close to 6.0 is preferred to maximize chlorine effectiveness, while maintaining water-holding capacity of the meat. In a set of pilot-scale experiments with T-128, a near-ideal pH of 6.3 was achieved by using tap water instead of the distilled water used in bench-scale experiments. Pilot-scale chill tanks were used to compare the combination of 0.5% T-128 and 50 ppm of chlorine with 50 ppm of plain chlorine for control of cross-contamination between whole carcasses inoculated with Salmonella and Campylobacter and co-chilled uninoculated carcasses. The T-128 treatment resulted in significantly less crosscontamination by either direct contact or water transfer with both organisms compared with plain chlorine treatment. T-128 may have use in commercial broiler processing to enhance the effectiveness of chlorine in processing water. PMID:25198851

  7. Chemical additive to enhance antimicrobial efficacy of chlorine and control cross-contamination during immersion chill of broiler carcasses.

    PubMed

    Schambach, B T; Berrang, M E; Harrison, M A; Meinersmann, R J

    2014-09-01

    Immersion chilling of broiler carcasses can be a site for cross-contamination between the occasional highly contaminated carcass and those that are co-chilled. Chlorine is often used as an antimicrobial but can be overcome by organic material. A proprietary chlorine stabilizer (T-128) based on phosphoric acid-propylene glycol was tested as a chill tank additive in experiments simulating commercial broiler chilling. In bench-scale experiments, 0.5% T-128 was compared with plain water (control), 50 ppm of chlorine, and the combination of 0.5% T-128 with 50 ppm of chlorine to control transfer of Salmonella and Campylobacter from inoculated wing drummettes to co-chilled uninoculated drummettes. Both chlorine and T-128 lessened cross-contamination with Salmonella (P < 0.05); T-128 and T-128 with chlorine were significantly more effective (P < 0.05) than the control or plain chlorine for control of Campylobacter. T-128 treatments were noted to have a pH of less than 4.0; an additional experiment demonstrated that the antimicrobial effect of T-128 was not due merely to a lower pH. In commercial broiler chilling, a pH close to 6.0 is preferred to maximize chlorine effectiveness, while maintaining water-holding capacity of the meat. In a set of pilot-scale experiments with T-128, a near-ideal pH of 6.3 was achieved by using tap water instead of the distilled water used in bench-scale experiments. Pilot-scale chill tanks were used to compare the combination of 0.5% T-128 and 50 ppm of chlorine with 50 ppm of plain chlorine for control of cross-contamination between whole carcasses inoculated with Salmonella and Campylobacter and co-chilled uninoculated carcasses. The T-128 treatment resulted in significantly less crosscontamination by either direct contact or water transfer with both organisms compared with plain chlorine treatment. T-128 may have use in commercial broiler processing to enhance the effectiveness of chlorine in processing water.

  8. Restricted random labeling: testing for between-group interaction after controlling for joint population and within-group spatial structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kronenfeld, Barry J.; Leslie, Timothy F.

    2015-01-01

    Statistical measures of spatial interaction between multiple types of entities are commonly assessed against a null model of either toroidal shift (TS), which controls for spatial structure of individual subpopulations, or random labeling (RL), which controls for spatial structure of the joint population. Neither null model controls for both types of spatial structure simultaneously, although this may sometimes be desirable when more than two subpopulations are present. To address this, we propose a flexible framework for specifying null models that we refer to as restricted random labeling (rRL). Under rRL, a specified subset of individuals is restricted and other individuals are randomly relabeled. Within this framework, two specific null models are proposed for pairwise analysis within populations consisting of three or more subpopulations, to simultaneously control for spatial structure in the joint population and one or the other of the two subpopulations being analyzed. Formulas are presented for calculating expected nearest neighbor counts and co-location quotients within the proposed framework. Differences between TS, RL and rRL are illustrated by application to six types of generating processes in a simulation study, and to empirical datasets of tree species in a forest and crime locations in an urban setting. These examples show that rRL null models are typically stricter than either TS or RL, which often detect "interactions" that are an expected consequence either of the joint population pattern or of individual subpopulation patterns.

  9. Comparison of athletes with life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias with two groups of healthy athletes and a group of normal control subjects.

    PubMed

    Jordaens, L; Missault, L; Pelleman, G; Duprez, D; De Backer, G; Clement, D L

    1994-12-01

    Sudden cardiac death in well-trained athletes is most often superimposed on the presence of structural heart disease. However, some athletes die suddenly in the absence of overt heart disease. To improve identification of athletes at high risk for ventricular tachycardia (VT), ventricular repolarization, the signal-averaged electrocardiogram (ECG), and the echocardiogram from 13 male athletes with symptomatic VT and without evidence of manifest cardiac disease were compared with data obtained in 3 matched control groups (15 apparently healthy professional road cyclists, 10 professional basketball players, and 15 normal control subjects without any sports activity). All patients had apparently normal QRS duration on the routine ECG, and none were taking antiarrhythmic drugs. Echocardiography and signal-averaged electrocardiography were useful in distinguishing the group of athletes with tachyarrhythmias from the group of normal nonsporting controls, but not from both groups of normal athletes. The QT interval (V4) and the QT interval corrected with the cubic root were shorter for the nonsporting controls. Three parameters for QT dispersion showed significant differences (p < 0.003) between athletes with disease and all other groups. It is concluded that although significant differences were detected between normal subjects and the 3 groups of athletes by routine ECG, the signal-averaged ECG, and echocardiography, only an increased QT dispersion from the 12-lead ECG was helpful in distinguishing athletes with VT from other athletes.

  10. Pilot study on the additive effects of berberine and oral type 2 diabetes agents for patients with suboptimal glycemic control

    PubMed Central

    Di Pierro, Francesco; Villanova, Nicola; Agostini, Federica; Marzocchi, Rebecca; Soverini, Valentina; Marchesini, Giulio

    2012-01-01

    Background Suboptimal glycemic control is a common situation in diabetes, regardless of the wide range of drugs available to reach glycemic targets. Basic research in diabetes is endeavoring to identify new actives working as insulin savers, use of which could delay the introduction of injectable insulin or reduce the insulin dose needed. Commonly available as a nutraceutical, berberine is a potential candidate. Methods and results Because its low oral bioavailability can be overcome by P-glycoprotein inhibitors like herbal polyphenols, we have tested the nutraceutical combination of Berberis aristata extract and Silybum marianum extract (Berberol®) in type 2 diabetes in terms of its additive effect when combined with a conventional oral regimen for patients with suboptimal glycemic control. After 90 days of treatment, the nutraceutical association had a positive effect on glycemic and lipid parameters, significantly reducing glycosylated hemoglobin, basal insulin, homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance, total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglycerides. A relevant effect was also observed in terms of liver function by measuring aspartate transaminase and alanine transaminase. The product had a good safety profile, with distinctive gastrointestinal side effects likely due to its acarbose-like action. Conclusion Although further studies should be carried out to confirm our data, Berberol could be considered a good candidate as an adjunctive treatment option in diabetes, especially in patients with suboptimal glycemic control. PMID:22924000

  11. Chloride ion addition for controlling shapes and properties of silver nanorods capped by polyvinyl alcohol synthesized by polyol method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Junaidi, Triyana, Kuwat; Harsojo, Suharyadi, Edi

    2016-04-01

    We report our investigation on the effect of chloride ions oncontrolling the shapes and properties of silver nanorods(AgNRs) synthesized using a polyol method. In this study, we used polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) as a capping agent and sodium chloride (NaCl) as asalt precursor and performed at the oilbath temperature of 140 °C. The chloride ions originating from the NaCl serve to control the growth of the silver nanorods. Furthermore, the synthesized silver nanorodswere characterized using UV-VIS, XRD, SEM and TEM. The results showed that besides being able to control the growth of AgCl atoms, the chloride ions were also able to control the growth of multi-twinned-particles into the single crystalline silver nanorods by micrometer-length. At an appropriate concentration of NaCl, the diameter of silver nanorodsdecreased significantly compared to that of without chloride ion addition. This technique may be useful since a particular diameter of silver nanorods affects a particular application in the future.

  12. A dynamic in vitro lipolysis model. I. Controlling the rate of lipolysis by continuous addition of calcium.

    PubMed

    Zangenberg, N H; Müllertz, A; Kristensen, H G; Hovgaard, L

    2001-09-01

    Lipolysis by pancreatic lipase was investigated with the aim to establish an in vitro lipolysis model, which can be used to investigate the dissolution of poorly soluble lipophilic drug substances at controlled hydrolysis rates. The effects of three experimental parameters -- the concentrations of bile salts and Ca(2+) and the lipase activity -- were investigated. The effect on the rate of hydrolysis of emulsified soybean oil was investigated in experiments in a pH-stat at pH 6.5 and 37 degrees C. The free fatty acids produced by the hydrolysis were titrated at pH 6.5. It was shown that all three investigated parameters influence the initial rate of hydrolysis, whereas only the lipase activity and the concentration of Ca(2+) affect the subsequent stages. It was also shown that the rate of lipolysis can be controlled by the rate of adding Ca(2+). Thus, it is possible to design an in vitro model using readily available and inexpensive materials in which the hydrolysis rate can be controlled by the continuous addition of Ca(2+).

  13. Tweeting links to Cochrane Schizophrenia Group reviews: a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Adams, C E; Bodart, A Y M; Sampson, S; Zhao, S; Montgomery, A A

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess the effects of using health social media on web activity. Design Individually randomised controlled parallel group superiority trial. Setting Twitter and Weibo. Participants 170 Cochrane Schizophrenia Group full reviews with an abstract and plain language summary web page. Interventions Three randomly ordered slightly different 140 character or less messages, each containing a short URL to the freely accessible summary page sent on specific times on one single day. This was compared with no messaging. Outcome The primary outcome was web page visits at 1 week. Secondary outcomes were other metrics of web activity at 1 week. Results 85 reviews were randomised to each of the intervention and control arms. Google Analytics allowed 100% follow-up within 1 week of completion. Intervention and control reviews received a total of 1162 and 449 visits, respectively (IRR 2.7, 95% CI 2.2 to 3.3). Fewer intervention reviews had single page only visits (16% vs 31%, OR 0.41, 0.19 to 0.88) and users spent more time viewing intervention reviews (geometric mean 76 vs 31 s, ratio 2.5, 1.3 to 4.6). Other secondary metrics of web activity all showed strong evidence in favour of the intervention. Conclusions Tweeting in this limited area of healthcare increases ‘product placement’ of evidence with the potential for that to influence care. Trial registration number ISRCTN84658943. PMID:26956164

  14. ABO Blood Group, Helicobacter pylori Seropositivity, and Risk of Pancreatic Cancer: A Case–Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Herbert; Lu, Lingeng; Kidd, Mark S.

    2010-01-01

    Carriage of a non–O ABO blood group and colonization by Helicobacter pylori are thought to be risk factors for pancreatic cancer. We examined these associations in a population-based case–control study of 373 case patients and 690 control subjects frequency matched on sex and age. Control subjects were selected by random-digit dialing. Seropositivity for H pylori and its virulence protein CagA was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Increased risk of pancreatic cancer was associated with non–O blood group (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 1.37, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.02 to 1.83, P = .034) and CagA-negative H pylori seropositivity (OR = 1.68, 95% CI = 1.07 to 2.66, P = .025), but no association was observed for CagA seropositivity (OR = 0.77, 95% CI = 0.52 to 1.16). An association between pancreatic cancer risk and CagA-negative H pylori seropositivity was found among individuals with non–O blood type but not among those with O blood type (OR = 2.78, 95% CI = 1.49 to 5.20, P = .0014; OR = 1.28, 95% CI = 0.62 to 2.64, P = .51, respectively). This study demonstrates an association between pancreatic cancer and H pylori colonization, particularly for individuals with non–O blood types. PMID:20181960

  15. An effective group psychoeducational intervention for improving compliance with vaginal dilation: A randomized controlled trial

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffries, Sherryl A.; Robinson, John W. . E-mail: johnrobi@cancerboard.ab.ca; Craighead, Peter S.; Keats, Melanie R.

    2006-06-01

    Purpose: Although vaginal dilation is often recommended to minimize or prevent vaginal scarring after pelvic radiotherapy, compliance with this recommendation has historically been very low. Therefore, effective intervention strategies are needed to enhance compliance with vaginal dilation after radiotherapy for gynecologic cancer. Methods and Materials: This study was a randomized controlled clinical trial of a psychoeducational intervention specifically designed to increase compliance with vaginal dilation. The information-motivation-behavioral skills model of enhancing compliance with behavioral change was the basis for the intervention design. Forty-two sexually active women, 21 to 65 years of age, diagnosed with Stages Ic-III cervical or endometrial cancer, who received pelvic radiotherapy, were randomized to either the experimental psychoeducational group or the information-only control group. Assessment via questionnaire occurred before treatment and at 6-week, 6-month, 12-month, 18-month, and 24-month follow-up. Assessment via interview also occurred at 6-month, 12-month, 18-month, and 24-month follow-up. Results: The psychoeducational intervention was successful in increasing compliance with vaginal dilation. Conclusions: This study is the first randomized controlled study to demonstrate the effectiveness of an intervention in increasing compliance with the use of vaginal dilators.

  16. Thermochemical Properties and Bond Dissociation Energies for Fluorinated Methanol, CH3-xFxOH, and Fluorinated Methyl Hydroperoxides, CH3-xFxOOH: Group Additivity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Heng; Bozzelli, Joseph W

    2016-09-01

    Oxygenated fluorocarbons are routinely found in sampling of environmental soils and waters as a result of the widespread use of fluoro and chlorofluoro carbons as heat transfer fluids, inert materials, polymers, fire retardants and solvents; the influence of these chemicals on the environment is a growing concern. The thermochemical properties of these species are needed for understanding their stability and reactions in the environment and in thermal process. Structures and thermochemical properties on the mono- to trifluoromethanol, CH3-xFxOH, and fluoromethyl hydroperoxide, CH3-xFxOOH (1 ≤ x ≤ 3), are determined by CBS-QB3, CBS-APNO, and G4 calculations. Entropy, S°298, and heat capacities, Cp(T)'s (300 ≤ T/K ≤ 1500) from vibration, translation, and external rotation contributions are calculated on the basis of the vibration frequencies and structures obtained from the B3LYP/6-31+G(d,p) density functional method. Potential barriers for the internal rotations are also calculated from this method and used to calculate hindered rotor contributions to S°298 and Cp(T)'s using direct integration over energy levels of the internal rotational potentials. Standard enthalpies of formation, ΔfH°298 (units in kcal mol(-1)) are CH2FOOH (-83.7), CHF2OOH (-138.1), CF3OOH (-193.6), CH2FOO(•) (-44.9), CHF2OO(•) (-99.6), CF3OO(•) (-153.8), CH2FOH (-101.9), CHF2OH (-161.6), CF3OH (-218.1), CH2FO(•) (-49.1), CHF2O(•) (-97.8), CF3O(•) (-150.5), CH2F(•) (-7.6), CHF2(•) (-58.8), and CF3(•) (-112.6). Bond dissociation energies for the R-OOH, RO-OH, ROO-H, R-OO(•), RO-O(•), R-OH, RO-H, R-O(•), and R-H bonds are determined and compared with methyl hydroperoxide to observe the trends from added fluoro substitutions. Enthalpy of formation for the fluoro-hydrocarbon oxygen groups C/F/H2/O, C/F2/H/O, C/F3/O, are derived from the above fluorinated methanol and fluorinated hydroperoxide species for use in Benson's Group Additivity. It was determined that

  17. Voltage-controlled group velocity of edge magnetoplasmon in the quantum Hall regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamata, H.; Ota, T.; Muraki, K.; Fujisawa, T.

    2010-02-01

    We investigate the group velocity of edge magnetoplasmons (EMPs) in the quantum Hall regime by means of time-of-flight measurement. The EMPs are injected from an Ohmic contact by applying a voltage pulse, and detected at a quantum point contact by applying another voltage pulse to its gate. We find that the group velocity of the EMPs traveling along the edge channel defined by a metallic gate electrode strongly depends on the voltage applied to the gate. The observed variation of the velocity can be understood to reflect the degree of screening caused by the metallic gate, which damps the in-plane electric field and, hence, reduces the velocity. The degree of screening can be controlled by changing the distance between the gate and the edge channel with the gate voltage.

  18. Mitochondrial DNA control region analysis of three ethnic groups in the Republic of Macedonia.

    PubMed

    Jankova-Ajanovska, Renata; Zimmermann, Bettina; Huber, Gabriela; Röck, Alexander W; Bodner, Martin; Jakovski, Zlatko; Janeska, Biljana; Duma, Aleksej; Parson, Walther

    2014-11-01

    A total of 444 individuals representing three ethnic groups (Albanians, Turks and Romanies) in the Republic of Macedonia were sequenced in the mitochondrial control region. The mtDNA haplogroup composition differed between the three groups. Our results showed relatively high frequencies of haplogroup H12 in Albanians (8.8%) and less in Turks (3.3%), while haplogroups M5a1 and H7a1a were dominant in Romanies (13.7% and 10.3%, respectively) but rare in the former two. This highlights the importance of regional sampling for forensic mtDNA databasing purposes. These population data will be available on EMPOP under accession numbers EMP00644 (Albanians), EMP00645 (Romanies) and EMP00646 (Turks).

  19. Nitric oxide sensing in plants is mediated by proteolytic control of group VII ERF transcription factors.

    PubMed

    Gibbs, Daniel J; Md Isa, Nurulhikma; Movahedi, Mahsa; Lozano-Juste, Jorge; Mendiondo, Guillermina M; Berckhan, Sophie; Marín-de la Rosa, Nora; Vicente Conde, Jorge; Sousa Correia, Cristina; Pearce, Simon P; Bassel, George W; Hamali, Bulut; Talloji, Prabhavathi; Tomé, Daniel F A; Coego, Alberto; Beynon, Jim; Alabadí, David; Bachmair, Andreas; León, José; Gray, Julie E; Theodoulou, Frederica L; Holdsworth, Michael J

    2014-02-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is an important signaling compound in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. In plants, NO regulates critical developmental transitions and stress responses. Here, we identify a mechanism for NO sensing that coordinates responses throughout development based on targeted degradation of plant-specific transcriptional regulators, the group VII ethylene response factors (ERFs). We show that the N-end rule pathway of targeted proteolysis targets these proteins for destruction in the presence of NO, and we establish them as critical regulators of diverse NO-regulated processes, including seed germination, stomatal closure, and hypocotyl elongation. Furthermore, we define the molecular mechanism for NO control of germination and crosstalk with abscisic acid (ABA) signaling through ERF-regulated expression of ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE5 (ABI5). Our work demonstrates how NO sensing is integrated across multiple physiological processes by direct modulation of transcription factor stability and identifies group VII ERFs as central hubs for the perception of gaseous signals in plants.

  20. Mitochondrial DNA control region analysis of three ethnic groups in the Republic of Macedonia

    PubMed Central

    Jankova-Ajanovska, Renata; Zimmermann, Bettina; Huber, Gabriela; Röck, Alexander W.; Bodner, Martin; Jakovski, Zlatko; Janeska, Biljana; Duma, Aleksej; Parson, Walther

    2014-01-01

    A total of 444 individuals representing three ethnic groups (Albanians, Turks and Romanies) in the Republic of Macedonia were sequenced in the mitochondrial control region. The mtDNA haplogroup composition differed between the three groups. Our results showed relatively high frequencies of haplogroup H12 in Albanians (8.8%) and less in Turks (3.3%), while haplogroups M5a1 and H7a1a were dominant in Romanies (13.7% and 10.3%, respectively) but rare in the former two. This highlights the importance of regional sampling for forensic mtDNA databasing purposes. These population data will be available on EMPOP under accession numbers EMP00644 (Albanians), EMP00645 (Romanies) and EMP00646 (Turks). PMID:25051224

  1. Control of the intermolecular photodimerization of anthracene derivatives by hydrogen bonding of urea groups in dilute solution.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Hisato; Nishimura, Yoshinobu; Arai, Tatsuo

    2016-08-01

    The photodimerization reaction of anthracene derivatives was performed by capitalizing on intermolecular hydrogen bonds. Anthracene derivatives that can control the dimerization reaction depending on the substitution site were designed by using two anthryl moieties and one urea group, referred to as N,N'-dianthracen-n-ylurea, nDAU (n = 1, 2 and 9), which are symmetrically substituted by 1-anthryl, 2-anthryl and 9-anthryl groups, respectively. We investigated the excimer emission and photodimerization reaction of these anthracene-urea derivatives using absorption, emission, and (1)H NMR spectroscopy along with fluorescence decay measurements. All derivatives showed a concentration dependence of their fluorescence spectra and multiple fluorescence lifetime components even at 10(-6) M. Significantly, 9DAU resulted in an intermolecular photodimerization reaction. These differences in photoreactivity of nDAU may depend on variations in the overlap of the intermolecularly associated anthracene rings of nDAU by hydrogen bonding between intermolecular urea moieties. Furthermore, the dimerization quantum yield of 9DAU was reduced by the addition of tetrabutylammonium acetate (TBAAc). Consequently, we revealed that the substitution site and the addition of TBAAc affected the dimerization reaction of anthracene-urea derivatives. PMID:27444124

  2. The use of control groups in music therapy research: a content analysis of articles in the Journal of Music Therapy.

    PubMed

    Jones, Jennifer D

    2006-01-01

    The use of a control group is fundamental to experimental research design, though the use with clinical populations must be carefully considered. The purpose of this research was to examine the use of control groups in research with clinical and nonclinical populations published in Journal of Musical Therapy from 1964 through 2004. Criteria for inclusion were music or music therapy as an independent variable applied to one or more groups and at least one control group that did not receive a music treatment. Control groups were qualified as alternative treatment, placebo, no contact, and treatment as usual. Of the 692 articles, 94 met these criteria, 62 clinical and 32 nonclinical, representing 13.5% of the publications. Results indicated that research with clinical populations involved a mean of 38.1 subjects typically divided into two groups, an experimental and a control group. The pretest-posttest design was the most common (55%) as was a treatment as usual control group (45%). These design methods maximized the impact of the experimental music treatment on outcome. Experimental music groups significantly improved over control groups in the vast majority of studies identified. Undoubtedly, the foundation for evidence-based clinical practice is firm.

  3. Critical Point Facility (CPE) Group in the Spacelab Payload Operations Control Center (SL POCC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The primary payload for Space Shuttle Mission STS-42, launched January 22, 1992, was the International Microgravity Laboratory-1 (IML-1), a pressurized manned Spacelab module. The goal of IML-1 was to explore in depth the complex effects of weightlessness of living organisms and materials processing. Around-the-clock research was performed on the human nervous system's adaptation to low gravity and effects of microgravity on other life forms such as shrimp eggs, lentil seedlings, fruit fly eggs, and bacteria. Materials processing experiments were also conducted, including crystal growth from a variety of substances such as enzymes, mercury iodide, and a virus. The Huntsville Operations Support Center (HOSC) Spacelab Payload Operations Control Center (SL POCC) at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) was the air/ground communication channel used between the astronauts and ground control teams during the Spacelab missions. Featured is the Critical Point Facility (CPE) group in the SL POCC during STS-42, IML-1 mission.

  4. Controlling the drying and film formation processes of polymer solution droplets with addition of small amount of surfactants.

    PubMed

    Kajiya, Tadashi; Kobayashi, Wataru; Okuzono, Tohru; Doi, Masao

    2009-11-26

    We studied how the addition of surfactants alters the drying and film formation processes of polymer solution droplets with contact lines strongly fixed by bank structures. We found that even if the amount of surfactant is quite small, it drastically changes the final profile of the polymer film from a ringlike profile to a flat profile. This property is observed commonly, irrespective of the polymer concentration, droplet volume, and type of solvent. We conjecture that the inhomogeneous distribution of the surfactant caused by the outward capillary flow induces the Marangoni flow directed toward the center of the droplet, which suppresses the outward flow. The present phenomenon implies an effective method for controlling the profile of the polymer film in inkjet printing technologies.

  5. The Effectiveness of Group Cognitive Behavioral Therapy in Treating Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder in Women with Multiple Sclerosis (MS): A randomized double-blind controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Sayyah, Mehdi; Bagheri, Parisa; Karimi, Negar; Ghasemzadeh, Azizreza

    2016-01-01

    Background Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is one of the most prevalent psychiatric disorders and can cause problems for individuals in all aspects of life, including social and personal dimensions. Objective To study the effect of group cognitive-behavioral therapy on the reduction of OCD symptoms in female participants with multiple sclerosis (MS). Methods This double-blind randomized control trial was conducted from May 2012 to December 2014. The participants included 75 patients with MS who suffered from OCD and were referred to the Loghman Hakim and Imam Khomeini hospitals in Tehran, Iran. Thirty participants had been diagnosed through Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Symptoms (Y-BOCS). The participants were randomly divided into an experimental group (n=15) and a control group (n=15). Eleven sessions of cognitive-behavioral therapy were provided for the experimental group. Patients in the control group continued with their normal living. Hypotheses were tested using an analysis of covariance (ANCOVA). Results A significant reduction was found in the experimental group’s obsessive-compulsive symptoms after cognitive-behavioral therapy (p<0.001). In addition, mean scores for participants in the experimental group were significantly lower than for those in the control group (p=0.000). Conclusion It can be inferred that cognitive-behavioral therapy could considerably reduce OCD symptoms in women with MS. The application of this method by therapists, especially Iranian clinicians, is recommended. PMID:27279999

  6. Severe sepsis in women with group B Streptococcus in pregnancy: an exploratory UK national case–control study

    PubMed Central

    Kalin, Asli; Acosta, Colleen; Kurinczuk, Jennifer J; Brocklehurst, Peter; Knight, Marian

    2015-01-01

    Objective To estimate the incidence of severe maternal sepsis due to group B Streptococcus (GBS) in the UK, and to investigate the associated outcomes for mother and infant. Design National case–control study. Setting All UK consultant-led maternity units. Participants 30 women with confirmed or suspected severe GBS sepsis, and 757 control women. Main outcome measures Disease incidence, additional maternal morbidity, critical care admission, length of stay, infant infection, mortality. Results The incidences of confirmed and presumed severe maternal GBS sepsis were 1.00 and 2.75 per 100 000 maternities, respectively, giving an overall incidence of 3.75 per 100 000. Compared with controls, severe GBS sepsis was associated with higher odds of additional maternal morbidity (OR 12.35, 95% CI 3.96 to 35.0), requiring level 2 (OR 39.3, 95% CI 16.0 to 99.3) or level 3 (OR 182, 95% CI 21.0 to 8701) care and longer hospital stay (median stay in cases and controls was 7 days (range 3–29 days) and 2 days (range 0–16 days), respectively, p<0.001). None of the women died. Severe maternal GBS sepsis was associated with higher odds of infant sepsis (OR 32.7, 95% CI 8.99 to 119.0); 79% of infants, however, did not develop sepsis. There were no associated stillbirths or neonatal deaths. Conclusions Severe maternal GBS sepsis is a rare occurrence in the UK. It is associated with adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes. PMID:26450426

  7. No evidence of a control group response in exercise randomised controlled trials in people with schizophrenia: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Stubbs, Brendon; Rosenbaum, Simon; Ward, Philip B; Barreto Schuch, Felipe; Vancampfort, Davy

    2015-10-30

    Increased control group responses (CGR) make it more difficult to establish the effectiveness of interventions to improve symptoms in schizophrenia. We conducted a meta-analysis of CGR within randomised control trials (RCTs) comparing exercise and a control condition in people with schizophrenia. We found no evidence of a CGR for total, positive or negative symptoms. Control group responses do not negatively impact exercise RCTs that have clearly demonstrated substantial beneficial effects of exercise in this population.

  8. The Pervasive Problem With Placebos in Psychology: Why Active Control Groups Are Not Sufficient to Rule Out Placebo Effects.

    PubMed

    Boot, Walter R; Simons, Daniel J; Stothart, Cary; Stutts, Cassie

    2013-07-01

    To draw causal conclusions about the efficacy of a psychological intervention, researchers must compare the treatment condition with a control group that accounts for improvements caused by factors other than the treatment. Using an active control helps to control for the possibility that improvement by the experimental group resulted from a placebo effect. Although active control groups are superior to "no-contact" controls, only when the active control group has the same expectation of improvement as the experimental group can we attribute differential improvements to the potency of the treatment. Despite the need to match expectations between treatment and control groups, almost no psychological interventions do so. This failure to control for expectations is not a minor omission-it is a fundamental design flaw that potentially undermines any causal inference. We illustrate these principles with a detailed example from the video-game-training literature showing how the use of an active control group does not eliminate expectation differences. The problem permeates other interventions as well, including those targeting mental health, cognition, and educational achievement. Fortunately, measuring expectations and adopting alternative experimental designs makes it possible to control for placebo effects, thereby increasing confidence in the causal efficacy of psychological interventions.

  9. Group sequential control of overall toxicity incidents in clinical trials - non-Bayesian and Bayesian approaches.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jihnhee; Hutson, Alan D; Siddiqui, Adnan H; Kedron, Mary A

    2016-02-01

    In some small clinical trials, toxicity is not a primary endpoint; however, it often has dire effects on patients' quality of life and is even life-threatening. For such clinical trials, rigorous control of the overall incidence of adverse events is desirable, while simultaneously collecting safety information. In this article, we propose group sequential toxicity monitoring strategies to control overall toxicity incidents below a certain level as opposed to performing hypothesis testing, which can be incorporated into an existing study design based on the primary endpoint. We consider two sequential methods: a non-Bayesian approach in which stopping rules are obtained based on the 'future' probability of an excessive toxicity rate; and a Bayesian adaptation modifying the proposed non-Bayesian approach, which can use the information obtained at interim analyses. Through an extensive Monte Carlo study, we show that the Bayesian approach often provides better control of the overall toxicity rate than the non-Bayesian approach. We also investigate adequate toxicity estimation after the studies. We demonstrate the applicability of our proposed methods in controlling the symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage rate for treating acute ischemic stroke patients.

  10. Polyfluorene Electrolytes Interfacial Layer for Efficient Polymer Solar Cells: Controllably Interfacial Dipoles by Regulation of Polar Groups.

    PubMed

    Liu, Huimin; Hu, Lin; Wu, Feiyan; Chen, Lie; Chen, Yiwang

    2016-04-20

    The polar groups in the conjugated polyelectrolytes (CPEs) can create the favorable dipoles at the electrode/active layer interface, which is critical for the CPEs to minimize the interfacial energy barrier in polymer solar cells (PSCs). Herein, a series of CPEs based on poly [(9,9-bis(3'-(N,N-dimethylamino)propyl)-2,7-fluorene)-co-2,7-(9,9-dioctylfluorene)] derivates (PFNs) (PFN30, PFN50, PFN70, and PFN100) with different mole ratio of polar groups (-N(C2H5)2) were designed and synthesized to investigate the effect of the numbers of polar groups on the interfacial dipoles. Controllably interfacial dipoles could be readily achieved by only tuning the numbers of -N(C2H5)2 in PFNs, as revealed by the work function of the PFNs modified ITO gradually reduced as the loadings of the -N(C2H5)2 increased. In addition, increasing the numbers of -N(C2H5)2 in PFNs were also favorable for developing the smooth and homogeneous morphology of the active layer. As a result, the content of the polar amine in the PFNs exerted great influence on the performance of polymer solar cells. Increasing the numbers of the pendent -N(C2H5)2 could effectively improve the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of the devices. Among these PFNs, PFN100 with the highest content of -N(C2H5)2 polar groups delivered the device with the best PCE of 3.27%. It indicates tailoring the content of the polar groups in the CPEs interlayer is a facial and promising approach for interfacial engineering to developing high performance PSCs.

  11. Experimental investigations of the swirling flow in the conical diffuser using flow-feedback control technique with additional energy source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tǎnasǎ, C.; Bosioc, A. I.; Susan-Resiga, R. F.; Muntean, S.

    2012-11-01

    The previous experimental and numerical investigations of decelerated swirling flows in conical diffusers have demonstrated that water injection along to the axis mitigates the pressure fluctuations associated to the precessing vortex rope [1]. However, for swirling flows similar to Francis turbines operated at partial discharge, the water jet becomes effective when the jet discharge is larger than 10% from the turbine discharge, leading to large volumetric losses when the jet is supplied from upstream the runner. As a result, it was introduced a new approach for supplying the jet by using a fraction of the discharge collected downstream the conical diffuser [2]. This is called flow-feedback control technique (FFCT) and it was investigated experimentally in order to assess its capability [3]. The FFCT approach not requires additional energy to supply the jet. Consequently, the turbine efficiency is not diminished due to the volumetric losses injected even if around 10% of the main flow is used. However, the equivalent amplitude of the pressure pulsations associated to the vortex rope decreases with 30% if 10% jet discharge is applied [3]. Using 12% water jet discharge from upstream then the equivalent amplitude of the pressure pulsations is mitigated with 70% according to Bosioc et al. [4]. In our case, an extra 2% jet discharge is required in order to obtain similar results with FFCT. This extra discharge is provided using an additional energy source. Therefore, the paper presents experimental investigation performed with FFCT with additional energy source. The experimental results obtained with this technique are compared against FFCT and the swirling flow with vortex rope, respectively.

  12. Combining Traceless Directing Groups with Hybridization Control of Radical Reactivity: From Skipped Enynes to Defect-Free Hexagonal Frameworks.

    PubMed

    Pati, Kamalkishore; Dos Passos Gomes, Gabriel; Alabugin, Igor V

    2016-09-12

    This work discloses the first general solution for converting oligoalkynes into polyaromatic polycyclic systems free of pentagonal defects. The efficiency and selectivity of this cascade originate from the combination of the Bu3 Sn-mediated TDG (traceless directing group) cascade transformations of skipped alkynes where the reactivity of the key radical precursor is tempered by hybridization effects. This approach ensures that the final structure consists of only six-membered rings. Practical implementation of this strategy is readily accomplished by incorporation of a suitably-substituted alkene as a final unit in the domino transformation. This strategy opens a new avenue for the controlled preparation of polyaromatic ribbons. The resulting ester functionality can be used for an additional Friedel-Crafts ring closure which effectively anneals two extra cycles with distinct electronic features to the extended aromatic system formed by the radical cascade. PMID:27534837

  13. A possible effect of methylphenidate on state anxiety: A single dose, placebo controlled, crossover study in a control group.

    PubMed

    Segev, Aviv; Gvirts, Hila Zahava; Strouse, Kevin; Mayseless, Naama; Gelbard, Hagar; Lewis, Yael Doreen; Barnea, Yael; Feffer, Kfir; Shamay-Tsoory, Simone G; Bloch, Yuval

    2016-07-30

    Methylphenidate affects state-anxiety in ADHD patients. The current study examines the effect of Methylphenidate on state-anxiety in healthy subjects. In a cross-over, randomized, controlled, double-blind study, 36 healthy subjects received either Methylphenidate or placebo. As a group, no change in state-anxiety was detected with Methylphenidate. However, participants reporting higher anxiety levels experienced a significant and specific state-anxiety reduction following Methylphenidate. Moreover, a strong negative correlation was found between the initial-level of anxiety and net-change in state-anxiety. These changes were unrelated to self-perceived attention levels. Our results point to the state-dependent effects of Methylphenidate on anxiety. PMID:27183109

  14. A possible effect of methylphenidate on state anxiety: A single dose, placebo controlled, crossover study in a control group.

    PubMed

    Segev, Aviv; Gvirts, Hila Zahava; Strouse, Kevin; Mayseless, Naama; Gelbard, Hagar; Lewis, Yael Doreen; Barnea, Yael; Feffer, Kfir; Shamay-Tsoory, Simone G; Bloch, Yuval

    2016-07-30

    Methylphenidate affects state-anxiety in ADHD patients. The current study examines the effect of Methylphenidate on state-anxiety in healthy subjects. In a cross-over, randomized, controlled, double-blind study, 36 healthy subjects received either Methylphenidate or placebo. As a group, no change in state-anxiety was detected with Methylphenidate. However, participants reporting higher anxiety levels experienced a significant and specific state-anxiety reduction following Methylphenidate. Moreover, a strong negative correlation was found between the initial-level of anxiety and net-change in state-anxiety. These changes were unrelated to self-perceived attention levels. Our results point to the state-dependent effects of Methylphenidate on anxiety.

  15. Pathological gamblers and a non-psychiatric control group taking gender differences into account.

    PubMed

    Echeburúa, Enrique; González-Ortega, Itxaso; de Corral, Paz; Polo-López, Rocío

    2013-01-01

    The current study aimed to identify personality traits, emotional states and adjustment variables in a sample of pathological gamblers as compared to a non-gambling control group taking gender differences into account. The sample for this study consisted of 206 subjects (103 pathological gamblers and 103 non-psychiatric subjects from the general population matched for age and gender). Pathological gamblers had a lower educational level and a family history of alcohol abuse higher than non-gamblers. In turn, female gamblers were affected by unemployment and a lower socioeconomic status more often than female non-gamblers. Pathological gamblers were more anxious and impulsive and suffered from a poorer self-esteem than non-gamblers. Likewise, pathological gamblers had a greater history of other Axis I psychiatric disorders and were more often affected by anxiety and depression symptoms and showed a more problematic adjustment to everyday life than non-gamblers. Alcohol abuse was not higher in pathological gamblers than in non-gamblers, but, when gender was taken into account, male gamblers were more affected by alcohol abuse than male non-gamblers. Importantly 68.6% of female gamblers versus 9.8% of control group women reported being victims of intimate partner violence. These findings can be used to specifically inform prevention and intervention efforts.

  16. Doing Anger Differently: two controlled trials of percussion group psychotherapy for adolescent reactive aggression.

    PubMed

    Currie, Michael; Startup, Mike

    2012-08-01

    This study evaluates efficacy and effectiveness of 'Doing Anger Differently' (DAD), a group treatment for reactively aggressive 12-15 year old males. DAD uses percussion exercises to aid treatment. Study 1 compared a ten-week treatment with a waitlist control at pre, post and 6 month (treatment group only) follow-up. Study 2 replicated Study 1, but also followed up controls at 6 months. In study 1 (N = 54) the treatment resulted in lowered trait anger (Cohen's d = -1.3), aggression-reports (d = -1.0) and depression (d = -0.6), and increased self-esteem (d = 0.6), all maintained at six months. In study 2 (N = 65), aggression-reports fell to one fifth of pre-treatment levels at nine months follow-up (d = -1.2), with lowered trait anger (d = -0.4) and anger expression (d = -0.3) post-treatment.

  17. Incorporating family therapy into asthma group intervention: a randomized waitlist-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Ng, S M; Li, Albert M; Lou, Vivian W Q; Tso, Ivy F; Wan, Pauline Y P; Chan, Dorothy F Y

    2008-03-01

    Asthma psychoeducational programs have been found to be effective in terms of symptom-related outcome. They are mostly illness-focused, and pay minimal attention to systemic/familial factors. This study evaluated a novel asthma psychoeducation program that adopted a parallel group design and incorporated family therapy. A randomized waitlist-controlled crossover clinical trial design was adopted. Children with stable asthma and their parents were recruited from a pediatric chest clinic. Outcome measures included, for the patients: exhaled nitric oxide (eNO), spirometry, and adjustment to asthma; and for the parents: perceived efficacy in asthma management, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale anxiety subscale, Body Mind Spirit Well-being Inventory emotion subscale, and Short Form 12 health-related quality of life scale. Forty-six patients participated in the study. Attrition rates were 13.0% and 26.0% for the active and control groups, respectively. Repeated-measures ANOVA revealed a significant decrease in airway inflammation, as indicated by eNO levels, and an increase in patient's adjustment to asthma and parents' perceived efficacy in asthma management. Serial trend analysis revealed that most psychosocial measures continued to progress steadily after intervention. Significant improvements in both symptom-related measures and mental health and relationship measures were observed. The findings supported the value of incorporating family therapy into asthma psychoeducation programs.

  18. Doing Anger Differently: two controlled trials of percussion group psychotherapy for adolescent reactive aggression.

    PubMed

    Currie, Michael; Startup, Mike

    2012-08-01

    This study evaluates efficacy and effectiveness of 'Doing Anger Differently' (DAD), a group treatment for reactively aggressive 12-15 year old males. DAD uses percussion exercises to aid treatment. Study 1 compared a ten-week treatment with a waitlist control at pre, post and 6 month (treatment group only) follow-up. Study 2 replicated Study 1, but also followed up controls at 6 months. In study 1 (N = 54) the treatment resulted in lowered trait anger (Cohen's d = -1.3), aggression-reports (d = -1.0) and depression (d = -0.6), and increased self-esteem (d = 0.6), all maintained at six months. In study 2 (N = 65), aggression-reports fell to one fifth of pre-treatment levels at nine months follow-up (d = -1.2), with lowered trait anger (d = -0.4) and anger expression (d = -0.3) post-treatment. PMID:22245455

  19. Dynamic Key Management Schemes for Secure Group Access Control Using Hierarchical Clustering in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsaur, Woei-Jiunn; Pai, Haw-Tyng

    2008-11-01

    The applications of group computing and communication motivate the requirement to provide group access control in mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs). The operation in MANETs' groups performs a decentralized manner and accommodated membership dynamically. Moreover, due to lack of centralized control, MANETs' groups are inherently insecure and vulnerable to attacks from both within and outside the groups. Such features make access control more challenging in MANETs. Recently, several researchers have proposed group access control mechanisms in MANETs based on a variety of threshold signatures. However, these mechanisms cannot actually satisfy MANETs' dynamic environments. This is because the threshold-based mechanisms cannot be achieved when the number of members is not up to the threshold value. Hence, by combining the efficient elliptic curve cryptosystem, self-certified public key cryptosystem and secure filter technique, we construct dynamic key management schemes based on hierarchical clustering for securing group access control in MANETs. Specifically, the proposed schemes can constantly accomplish secure group access control only by renewing the secure filters of few cluster heads, when a cluster head joins or leaves a cross-cluster. In such a new way, we can find that the proposed group access control scheme can be very effective for securing practical applications in MANETs.

  20. Screening for type 2 diabetes and population mortality over 10 years (ADDITION-Cambridge): a cluster-randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Simmons, Rebecca K; Echouffo-Tcheugui, Justin B; Sharp, Stephen J; Sargeant, Lincoln A; Williams, Kate M; Prevost, A Toby; Kinmonth, Ann Louise; Wareham, Nicholas J; Griffin, Simon J

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background The increasing prevalence of type 2 diabetes poses a major public health challenge. Population-based screening and early treatment for type 2 diabetes could reduce this growing burden. However, uncertainty persists around the benefits of screening for type 2 diabetes. We assessed the effect of a population-based stepwise screening programme on mortality. Methods In a pragmatic parallel group, cluster-randomised trial, 33 general practices in eastern England were randomly assigned by the method of minimisation in an unbalanced design to: screening followed by intensive multifactorial treatment for people diagnosed with diabetes (n=15); screening plus routine care of diabetes according to national guidelines (n=13); and a no-screening control group (n=5). The study population consisted of 20 184 individuals aged 40–69 years (mean 58 years), at high risk of prevalent undiagnosed diabetes, on the basis of a previously validated risk score. In screening practices, individuals were invited to a stepwise programme including random capillary blood glucose and glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) tests, a fasting capillary blood glucose test, and a confirmatory oral glucose tolerance test. The primary outcome was all-cause mortality. All participants were flagged for mortality surveillance by the England and Wales Office of National Statistics. Analysis was by intention-to-screen and compared all-cause mortality rates between screening and control groups. This study is registered, number ISRCTN86769081. Findings Of 16 047 high-risk individuals in screening practices, 15 089 (94%) were invited for screening during 2001–06, 11 737 (73%) attended, and 466 (3%) were diagnosed with diabetes. 4137 control individuals were followed up. During 184 057 person-years of follow up (median duration 9·6 years [IQR 8·9–9·9]), there were 1532 deaths in the screening practices and 377 in control practices (mortality hazard ratio [HR] 1·06, 95% CI 0·90–1·25

  1. On the controllers of prime ideals of group algebras of Abelian torsion-free groups of finite rank over a field of positive characteristic

    SciTech Connect

    Tushev, A V

    2006-10-31

    In the present paper certain methods are developed that enable one to study the properties of the controller of a prime faithful ideal I of the group algebra kA of an Abelian torsion-free group A of finite rank over a field k. The main idea is that the quotient ring kA/I by the given ideal I can be embedded as an integral domain k[A] into some field F and the group A becomes a subgroup of the multiplicative group of the field F. This allows one to apply certain results of field theory, such as Kummer's theory and the properties of the multiplicative groups of fields, to the study of the integral domain k[A]. In turn, the properties of the integral domain k[A]{approx_equal}kA/I depend essentially on the properties of the ideal I. In particular, by using these methods, an independent proof of the new version of Brookes's theorem on the controllers of prime ideals of the group algebra kA of an Abelian torsion-free group A of finite rank is obtained in the case where the field k has positive characteristic.

  2. Experience with multiple control groups in a large population-based case-control study on genetic and environmental risk factors.

    PubMed

    Pomp, E R; Van Stralen, K J; Le Cessie, S; Vandenbroucke, J P; Rosendaal, F R; Doggen, C J M

    2010-07-01

    We discuss the analytic and practical considerations in a large case-control study that had two control groups; the first control group consisting of partners of patients and the second obtained by random digit dialling (RDD). As an example of the evaluation of a general lifestyle factor, we present body mass index (BMI). Both control groups had lower BMIs than the patients. The distribution in the partner controls was closer to that of the patients, likely due to similar lifestyles. A statistical approach was used to pool the results of both analyses, wherein partners were analyzed with a matched analysis, while RDDs were analyzed without matching. Even with a matched analysis, the odds ratio with partner controls remained closer to unity than with RDD controls, which is probably due to unmeasured confounders in the comparison with the random controls as well as intermediary factors. However, when studying injuries as a risk factor, the odds ratio remained higher with partner control subjects than with RRD control subjects, even after taking the matching into account. Finally we used factor V Leiden as an example of a genetic risk factor. The frequencies of factor V Leiden were identical in both control groups, indicating that for the analyses of this genetic risk factor the two control groups could be combined in a single unmatched analysis. In conclusion, the effect measures with the two control groups were in the same direction, and of the same order of magnitude. Moreover, it was not always the same control group that produced the higher or lower estimates, and a matched analysis did not remedy the differences. Our experience with the intricacies of dealing with two control groups may be useful to others when thinking about an optimal research design or the best statistical approach.

  3. Reducing Aggressive Behavior in Boys with a Social Cognitive Group Treatment: Results of a Randomized, Controlled Trial.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Manen, Teun G.; Prins, Pier J.M.; Emmelkamp, Paul M.G.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of a social cognitive intervention program for Dutch aggressive boys and to compare it with a social skills training and a waitlist control group. Method: A randomized, controlled treatment outcome study with 97 aggressive boys (aged 9-13 years) was presented. An 11 session group treatment, a social…

  4. Alcohol Habits in Patients with Long-Term Musculoskeletal Pain: Comparison with a Matched Control Group from the General Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thelin Bronner, Kerstin Birgitta; Wennberg, Peter; Kallmen, Hakan; Schult, Marie-Louise Birgitta

    2012-01-01

    This prospective study aimed to describe alcohol habits in patients with chronic pain compared with those in a matched control group from the general Swedish population. In total, 100 consecutive patients enrolled were matched against 100 individuals in a control group on the basis of age and sex. Alcohol habits were measured using the Alcohol Use…

  5. Goal-directed and transfer-cue-elicited drug-seeking are dissociated by pharmacotherapy: evidence for independent additive controllers.

    PubMed

    Hogarth, Lee

    2012-07-01

    According to contemporary learning theory, drug-seeking behavior reflects the summation of 2 dissociable controllers. Whereas goal-directed drug-seeking is determined by the expected current incentive value of the drug, stimulus-elicited drug-seeking is determined by the expected probability of the drug independently of its current incentive value, and these 2 controllers contribute additively to observed drug-seeking. One applied prediction of this model is that smoking cessation pharmacotherapies selectively attenuate tonic but not cue-elicited craving because they downgrade the expected incentive value of the drug but leave expected probability intact. To test this, the current study examined whether nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) nasal spray would modify goal-directed tobacco choice in a human outcome devaluation procedure, but leave cue-elicited tobacco choice in a Pavlovian to instrumental transfer (PIT) procedure intact. Smokers (N= 96) first underwent concurrent choice training in which 2 responses earned tobacco or chocolate points, respectively. Participants then ingested either NRT nasal spray (1 mg) or chocolate (147 g) to devalue 1 outcome. Concurrent choice was then tested again in extinction to measure goal-directed control of choice, and in a PIT test to measure the extent to which tobacco and chocolate stimuli enhanced choice of the same outcome. It was found that NRT modified tobacco choice in the extinction test but not the extent to which the tobacco stimulus enhanced choice of the tobacco outcome in the PIT test. This dissociation suggests that the propensity to engage in drug-seeking is determined independently by the expected value and probability of the drug, and that pharmacotherapy has partial efficacy because it selectively effects expected drug value.

  6. Goal-directed and transfer-cue-elicited drug-seeking are dissociated by pharmacotherapy: evidence for independent additive controllers.

    PubMed

    Hogarth, Lee

    2012-07-01

    According to contemporary learning theory, drug-seeking behavior reflects the summation of 2 dissociable controllers. Whereas goal-directed drug-seeking is determined by the expected current incentive value of the drug, stimulus-elicited drug-seeking is determined by the expected probability of the drug independently of its current incentive value, and these 2 controllers contribute additively to observed drug-seeking. One applied prediction of this model is that smoking cessation pharmacotherapies selectively attenuate tonic but not cue-elicited craving because they downgrade the expected incentive value of the drug but leave expected probability intact. To test this, the current study examined whether nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) nasal spray would modify goal-directed tobacco choice in a human outcome devaluation procedure, but leave cue-elicited tobacco choice in a Pavlovian to instrumental transfer (PIT) procedure intact. Smokers (N= 96) first underwent concurrent choice training in which 2 responses earned tobacco or chocolate points, respectively. Participants then ingested either NRT nasal spray (1 mg) or chocolate (147 g) to devalue 1 outcome. Concurrent choice was then tested again in extinction to measure goal-directed control of choice, and in a PIT test to measure the extent to which tobacco and chocolate stimuli enhanced choice of the same outcome. It was found that NRT modified tobacco choice in the extinction test but not the extent to which the tobacco stimulus enhanced choice of the tobacco outcome in the PIT test. This dissociation suggests that the propensity to engage in drug-seeking is determined independently by the expected value and probability of the drug, and that pharmacotherapy has partial efficacy because it selectively effects expected drug value. PMID:22823420

  7. Effect of Education through Support ­Group on Early Symptoms of Menopause: a Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Sehhatie Shafaie, Fahimeh; Mirghafourvand, Mozhgan; Jafari, Maryam

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Menopause is one of the most important crises in the life of women. The control of menopause symptoms is a main challenge in providing care to this population. So, the aim of present study was to investigate the effect of education through support ­group on early symptoms of menopause. Methods: In this randomized controlled clinical trial 124 postmenopausal women who had a health records in Valiasr participatory health center of Eslamshahr city were participated. These women were allocated by block randomization method into support group (62 women) and control group (62 women).Women in support group was assigned into 6 groups. Three 60-minutes educational sessions were conducted in 3 sequential weekly sessions. Early menopausal symptoms were measured before and 4 weeks after the intervention by using Greene scale (score ranged from 0 to 63). Data analysis was performed by ANCOVA statistical test. Results: There were no statistical differences between two groups in demographic characteristics and the total score of the Greene scale before intervention. The mean score of the Greene scale in support group was statistically less than control group 4 weeks after intervention. The number of hot flashes in the support group was significantly lower than control group, 4 weeks after intervention.Conclusion: Education through support group was effective in reducing the early symptoms of menopause. Thus, this educational method can be used as an appropriate strategy for enhancing women’ health and their dealing with annoying symptoms of menopause. PMID:25709980

  8. Improving Parental Stress Levels Among Mothers Living with HIV: A Randomized Control Group Intervention Study

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Erica R.; Davies, Susan L.; Aban, Inmaculada; Mugavero, Michael J.; Shrestha, Sadeep

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Limited knowledge exists regarding parenting efficacy interventions for mothers living with HIV (MLH). This study evaluated the impact of a supportive group intervention on lowering parenting stress among MLH. Eighty MLH were randomized to a parenting (N=34) or health focused (control) (N=46) group intervention. Pre- and post-intervention stress levels were assessed using the Parental Stress Index-Short Form (PSI/SF). Differences in PSI/SF scores were examined using ANOVA, and predictors of PSI/SF scores were evaluated using multivariable linear regression. Findings indicate that both groups experienced significant decreases in parenting stress from baseline to post-intervention (p=0.0001), with no significant differences between interventions. At baseline, 41% of participants were identified as highly stressed and 30% as clinically stressed, with PSI/SF scores above the 85th and 90th percentile, respectively. Amongst the highly stressed subpopulation, significant improvements in PSI/SF scores for Parental Distress PSI/SF (p=0.039), Difficult Child PSI/SF (p=0.048), and total PSI/SF (p=0.036) were seen, with greater improvements in the parenting intervention. Among the clinically stressed subpopulation, significant improvements in total post-intervention PSI/SF scores were seen (p=0.049), with greater improvements in the parenting intervention. Results indicate that screening for high levels of stress should be considered in clinical practice to effectively implement stress-reducing interventions among MLH. PMID:25734870

  9. The ADDITION-Cambridge trial protocol: a cluster – randomised controlled trial of screening for type 2 diabetes and intensive treatment for screen-detected patients

    PubMed Central

    Echouffo-Tcheugui, Justin B; Simmons, Rebecca K; Williams, Kate M; Barling, Roslyn S; Prevost, A Toby; Kinmonth, Ann Louise; Wareham, Nicholas J; Griffin, Simon J

    2009-01-01

    Background The increasing prevalence of type 2 diabetes poses a major public health challenge. Population-based screening and early treatment for type 2 diabetes could reduce this growing burden. However, the benefits of such a strategy remain uncertain. Methods and design The ADDITION-Cambridge study aims to evaluate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of (i) a stepwise screening strategy for type 2 diabetes; and (ii) intensive multifactorial treatment for people with screen-detected diabetes in primary care. 63 practices in the East Anglia region participated. Three undertook the pilot study, 33 were allocated to three groups: no screening (control), screening followed by intensive treatment (IT) and screening plus routine care (RC) in an unbalanced (1:3:3) randomisation. The remaining 27 practices were randomly allocated to IT and RC. A risk score incorporating routine practice data was used to identify people aged 40–69 years at high-risk of undiagnosed diabetes. In the screening practices, high-risk individuals were invited to take part in a stepwise screening programme. In the IT group, diabetes treatment is optimised through guidelines, target-led multifactorial treatment, audit, feedback, and academic detailing for practice teams, alongside provision of educational materials for newly diagnosed participants. Primary endpoints are modelled cardiovascular risk at one year, and cardiovascular mortality and morbidity at five years after diagnosis of diabetes. Secondary endpoints include all-cause mortality, development of renal and visual impairment, peripheral neuropathy, health service costs, self-reported quality of life, functional status and health utility. Impact of the screening programme at the population level is also assessed through measures of mortality, cardiovascular morbidity, health status and health service use among high-risk individuals. Discussion ADDITION-Cambridge is conducted in a defined high-risk group accessible through primary

  10. Kinesio Taping Does Not Provide Additional Benefits in Patients With Chronic Low Back Pain Who Receive Exercise and Manual Therapy: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Added, Marco Aurélio Nemitalla; Costa, Leonardo Oliveira Pena; de Freitas, Diego Galace; Fukuda, Thiago Yukio; Monteiro, Renan Lima; Salomão, Evelyn Cassia; de Medeiros, Flávia Cordeiro; Costa, Lucíola da Cunha Menezes

    2016-07-01

    Study Design Randomized controlled trial. Background Many clinical practice guidelines endorse both manual therapy and exercise as effective treatment options for patients with low back pain. To optimize the effects of the treatments recommended by the guidelines, a new intervention known as Kinesio Taping is being widely used in these patients. Objectives To determine the effectiveness of Kinesio Taping in patients with chronic nonspecific low back pain when added to a physical therapy program consisting of exercise and manual therapy. Methods One hundred forty-eight patients with chronic nonspecific low back pain were randomly allocated to receive 10 (twice weekly) sessions of physical therapy, consisting of exercise and manual therapy, or the same treatment with the addition of Kinesio Taping applied to the lower back. The primary outcomes were pain intensity and disability (5 weeks after randomization) and the secondary outcomes were pain intensity, disability (3 months and 6 months after randomization), global perceived effect, and satisfaction with care (5 weeks after treatment). Data were collected by a blinded assessor. Results No between-group differences were observed in the primary outcomes of pain intensity (mean difference, -0.01 points; 95% confidence interval [CI]: -0.88, 0.85) or disability (mean difference, 1.14 points; 95% CI: -0.85, 3.13) at 5 weeks' follow-up. In addition, no between-group differences were observed for any of the other outcomes evaluated, except for disability 6 months after randomization (mean difference, 2.01 points; 95% CI: 0.03, 4.00) in favor of the control group. Conclusion Patients who received a physical therapy program consisting of exercise and manual therapy did not get additional benefit from the use of Kinesio Taping. Level of Evidence Therapy, level 1b. Prospectively registered May 28, 2013 at www.ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01866332). J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2016;46(7):506-513. Epub 6 Jun 2016. doi:10.2519/jospt.2016.6590.

  11. Kinesio Taping Does Not Provide Additional Benefits in Patients With Chronic Low Back Pain Who Receive Exercise and Manual Therapy: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Added, Marco Aurélio Nemitalla; Costa, Leonardo Oliveira Pena; de Freitas, Diego Galace; Fukuda, Thiago Yukio; Monteiro, Renan Lima; Salomão, Evelyn Cassia; de Medeiros, Flávia Cordeiro; Costa, Lucíola da Cunha Menezes

    2016-07-01

    Study Design Randomized controlled trial. Background Many clinical practice guidelines endorse both manual therapy and exercise as effective treatment options for patients with low back pain. To optimize the effects of the treatments recommended by the guidelines, a new intervention known as Kinesio Taping is being widely used in these patients. Objectives To determine the effectiveness of Kinesio Taping in patients with chronic nonspecific low back pain when added to a physical therapy program consisting of exercise and manual therapy. Methods One hundred forty-eight patients with chronic nonspecific low back pain were randomly allocated to receive 10 (twice weekly) sessions of physical therapy, consisting of exercise and manual therapy, or the same treatment with the addition of Kinesio Taping applied to the lower back. The primary outcomes were pain intensity and disability (5 weeks after randomization) and the secondary outcomes were pain intensity, disability (3 months and 6 months after randomization), global perceived effect, and satisfaction with care (5 weeks after treatment). Data were collected by a blinded assessor. Results No between-group differences were observed in the primary outcomes of pain intensity (mean difference, -0.01 points; 95% confidence interval [CI]: -0.88, 0.85) or disability (mean difference, 1.14 points; 95% CI: -0.85, 3.13) at 5 weeks' follow-up. In addition, no between-group differences were observed for any of the other outcomes evaluated, except for disability 6 months after randomization (mean difference, 2.01 points; 95% CI: 0.03, 4.00) in favor of the control group. Conclusion Patients who received a physical therapy program consisting of exercise and manual therapy did not get additional benefit from the use of Kinesio Taping. Level of Evidence Therapy, level 1b. Prospectively registered May 28, 2013 at www.ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01866332). J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2016;46(7):506-513. Epub 6 Jun 2016. doi:10.2519/jospt.2016

  12. Exploration and classification of chromatographic fingerprints as additional tool for identification and quality control of several Artemisia species.

    PubMed

    Alaerts, Goedele; Pieters, Sigrid; Logie, Hans; Van Erps, Jürgen; Merino-Arévalo, Maria; Dejaegher, Bieke; Smeyers-Verbeke, Johanna; Vander Heyden, Yvan

    2014-07-01

    The World Health Organization accepts chromatographic fingerprints as a tool for identification and quality control of herbal medicines. This is the first study in which the distinction, identification and quality control of four different Artemisia species, i.e. Artemisia vulgaris, A. absinthium, A. annua and A. capillaris samples, is performed based on the evaluation of entire chromatographic fingerprint profiles developed with identical experimental conditions. High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) with Diode Array Detection (DAD) was used to develop the fingerprints. Application of factorial designs leads to methanol/water (80:20 (v/v)) as the best extraction solvent for the pulverised plant material and to a shaking bath for 30 min as extraction method. Further, so-called screening, optimisation and fine-tuning phases were performed during fingerprint development. Most information about the different Artemisia species, i.e. the highest number of separated peaks in the fingerprint, was acquired on four coupled Chromolith columns (100 mm × 4.6 mm I.D.). Trifluoroacetic acid 0.05% (v/v) was used as mobile-phase additive in a stepwise linear methanol/water gradient, i.e. 5, 34, 41, 72 and 95% (v/v) methanol at 0, 9, 30, 44 and 51 min, where the last mobile phase composition was kept isocratic till 60 min. One detection wavelength was selected to perform data analysis. The lowest similarity between the fingerprints of the four species was present at 214 nm. The HPLC/DAD method was applied on 199 herbal samples of the four Artemisia species, resulting in 357 fingerprints. The within- and between-day variation of the entire method, as well as the quality control fingerprints obtained during routine analysis, were found acceptable. The distinction of these Artemisia species was evaluated based on the entire chromatographic profiles, developed by a shared method, and visualised in score plots by means of the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) exploratory data

  13. White matter structural integrity differs between people with schizophrenia and healthy groups as a function of cognitive control.

    PubMed

    Schaeffer, David J; Rodrigue, Amanda L; Burton, Courtney R; Pierce, Jordan E; Unsworth, Nash; Clementz, Brett A; McDowell, Jennifer E

    2015-12-01

    A behavioral hallmark of schizophrenia is poor cognitive control. Recent evidence suggests that problems with cognitive control in schizophrenia are related to disconnectivity along major white matter fibers. Although deficits of cognitive control are common in schizophrenia, a proportion of otherwise healthy subjects show poor cognitive control performance. The present study sought to address this potential confound by comparing white matter integrity between a group with schizophrenia and otherwise healthy individuals with either high or low levels of cognitive control (based on working memory span performance). Diffusion tensor imaging was used to evaluate white matter integrity in 24 participants with schizophrenia, 24 healthy participants with high cognitive control (HCC), and 25 healthy participants with low cognitive control (LCC). To test for differences in fractional anisotropy (FA) across major white matter fiber tracts, a voxelwise region of interest analysis was conducted in standardized brain space. In a separate analysis, regions of interest were manually drawn in native brain space to isolate superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF), a tract implicated in cognitive control performance. The voxelwise analysis demonstrated widespread lower FA in the schizophrenia group compared to the HCC group. With a high degree of concordance, the manual ROI analysis revealed lower FA in the schizophrenia group compared to the HCC group. Taken together, these results provide evidence to suggest that structural differences identified between healthy groups and schizophrenia may not be entirely specific to the disease process and can vary as a function of cognitive control capacity in the comparison group.

  14. Effects of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) on non-specific chronic back pain: a randomized controlled trial with additional exploration of the underlying mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Non-specific chronic back pain (CBP) is often accompanied by psychological trauma, but treatment for this associated condition is often insufficient. Nevertheless, despite the common co-occurrence of pain and psychological trauma, a specific trauma-focused approach for treating CBP has been neglected to date. Accordingly, eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR), originally developed as a treatment approach for posttraumatic stress disorders, is a promising approach for treating CBP in patients who have experienced psychological trauma. Thus, the aim of this study is to determine whether a standardized, short-term EMDR intervention added to treatment as usual (TAU) reduces pain intensity in CBP patients with psychological trauma vs. TAU alone. Methods/design The study will recruit 40 non-specific CBP patients who have experienced psychological trauma. After a baseline assessment, the patients will be randomized to either an intervention group (n = 20) or a control group (n = 20). Individuals in the EMDR group will receive ten 90-minute sessions of EMDR fortnightly in addition to TAU. The control group will receive TAU alone. The post-treatment assessments will take place two weeks after the last EMDR session and six months later. The primary outcome will be the change in the intensity of CBP within the last four weeks (numeric rating scale 0–10) from the pre-treatment assessment to the post-treatment assessment two weeks after the completion of treatment. In addition, the patients will undergo a thorough assessment of the change in the experience of pain, disability, trauma-associated distress, mental co-morbidities, resilience, and quality of life to explore distinct treatment effects. To explore the mechanisms of action that are involved, changes in pain perception and pain processing (quantitative sensory testing, conditioned pain modulation) will also be assessed. The statistical analysis of the primary outcome will be performed

  15. Elevator Group Supervisory Control System Using Genetic Network Programming with Macro Nodes and Reinforcement Learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Jin; Yu, Lu; Mabu, Shingo; Hirasawa, Kotaro; Hu, Jinglu; Markon, Sandor

    Elevator Group Supervisory Control System (EGSCS) is a very large scale stochastic dynamic optimization problem. Due to its vast state space, significant uncertainty and numerous resource constraints such as finite car capacities and registered hall/car calls, it is hard to manage EGSCS using conventional control methods. Recently, many solutions for EGSCS using Artificial Intelligence (AI) technologies have been reported. Genetic Network Programming (GNP), which is proposed as a new evolutionary computation method several years ago, is also proved to be efficient when applied to EGSCS problem. In this paper, we propose an extended algorithm for EGSCS by introducing Reinforcement Learning (RL) into GNP framework, and an improvement of the EGSCS' performances is expected since the efficiency of GNP with RL has been clarified in some other studies like tile-world problem. Simulation tests using traffic flows in a typical office building have been made, and the results show an actual improvement of the EGSCS' performances comparing to the algorithms using original GNP and conventional control methods. Furthermore, as a further study, an importance weight optimization algorithm is employed based on GNP with RL and its efficiency is also verified with the better performances.

  16. Improving Quality of Life in Men With Prostate Cancer: A Randomized Controlled Trial of Group Education Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Lepore, Stephen J.; Helgeson, Vicki S.; Eton, David T.; Schulz, Richard

    2008-01-01

    Men who were recently treated for prostate cancer (N = 250) were randomly assigned to a control group, a group education intervention (GE), or a group education-plus-discussion intervention (GED). Both GE and GED increased prostate cancer knowledge. In the year postintervention, men in the GED condition were less bothered by sexual problems than men in the control condition, and they were more likely to remain steadily employed (93.0%) than men in the GE (75.6%) or control (72.5%) conditions. Among noncollege graduates, GED and GE resulted in better physical functioning than the control condition, and GED resulted in more positive health behaviors than the control or GE condition. Among college graduates, controls were comparable with the GE and GED groups in physical functioning and positive health behaviors. PMID:14570527

  17. Control of hydrogen sulfide production in oil fields by managing microbial communities through nitrate or nitrite addition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubert, Casey R. J.

    Nitrate or nitrite injection into oil reservoirs during water flooding has the potential to control biological souring, the production of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) by sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). Souring control is essential because sulfide is toxic, sulfide precipitates can plug reservoir formations, souring lowers crude oil value, and SRB induce corrosion. Nitrate and nitrite can stimulate heterotrophic nitrate- or nitrite-reducing bacteria (hNRB) and nitrate- or nitrite-reducing, sulfide oxidizing bacteria (NRSOB). Nitrite also inhibits SRB activity by blocking the sulfate reduction pathway. Continuous up-flow packed-bed bioreactors were inoculated with produced water from the Coleville oil field to establish sulfide-producing biofilms similar to those found in sour reservoirs. Nitrate or nitrite addition to bioreactors indicated that the dose required for hNRB or NR-SOB to control souring depended on the concentration of oil organics. Either mechanism mediates the net removal of oil organics (lactate) with nitrate or nitrite, with lower doses of nitrate required due to its greater oxidative power. Microbial community analysis by reverse sample genome probing (RSGP) revealed that NR-SOB mediated sulfide removal at low nitrate or nitrite concentrations when lactate was still available to SRB and the redox potential was low. At high nitrate doses hNRB oxidized lactate directly, produced nitrite and maintained a high redox potential, thus excluding SRB activity. Facultatively chemolithotrophic Campylobacter sp. strains were isolated from the bioreactors and incorporated into RSGP analyses, revealing their dominance in both NR-SOB- and hNRB-containing communities. The metabolic flexibility of these strains may confer a competitive advantage over obligate chemolithotrophs like Thiomicrospira sp. strain CVO or hNRB that do not have NR-SOB activity like newly isolated Thauera sp. and Rhodobacter sp. strains. A single high dose of nitrite resulted in immediate

  18. Neural Correlates of Task Cost for Stance Control with an Additional Motor Task: Phase-Locked Electroencephalogram Responses

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Ing-Shiou; Huang, Cheng-Ya

    2016-01-01

    With appropriate reallocation of central resources, the ability to maintain an erect posture is not necessarily degraded by a concurrent motor task. This study investigated the neural control of a particular postural-suprapostural procedure involving brain mechanisms to solve crosstalk between posture and motor subtasks. Participants completed a single posture task and a dual-task while concurrently conducting force-matching and maintaining a tilted stabilometer stance at a target angle. Stabilometer movements and event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded. The added force-matching task increased the irregularity of postural response rather than the size of postural response prior to force-matching. In addition, the added force-matching task during stabilometer stance led to marked topographic ERP modulation, with greater P2 positivity in the frontal and sensorimotor-parietal areas of the N1-P2 transitional phase and in the sensorimotor-parietal area of the late P2 phase. The time-frequency distribution of the ERP primary principal component revealed that the dual-task condition manifested more pronounced delta (1–4 Hz) and beta (13–35 Hz) synchronizations but suppressed theta activity (4–8 Hz) before force-matching. The dual-task condition also manifested coherent fronto-parietal delta activity in the P2 period. In addition to a decrease in postural regularity, this study reveals spatio-temporal and temporal-spectral reorganizations of ERPs in the fronto-sensorimotor-parietal network due to the added suprapostural motor task. For a particular set of postural-suprapostural task, the behavior and neural data suggest a facilitatory role of autonomous postural response and central resource expansion with increasing interregional interactions for task-shift and planning the motor-suprapostural task. PMID:27010634

  19. Engineering of an MBR supernatant fouling layer by fine particles addition: a possible way to control cake compressibility.

    PubMed

    Teychene, Benoît; Guigui, Christelle; Cabassud, Corinne

    2011-02-01

    For membrane bioreactors (MBR) applied to wastewater treatment membrane fouling is still the prevalent issue. The main limiting phenomena related to fouling is a sudden jump of the transmembrane pressure (TMP) often attributed to the collapse of the fouling layer. Among existing techniques to avoid or to delay this collapse, the addition of active particles membrane fouling reducers (polymer, resins, powdered activated carbon (PAC), zeolithe...) showed promising results. Thus the main objective of this work is to determine if fouling can be reduced by inclusion of inert particles (500 nm and inert compared to other fouling reducers) and which is the impact on filtration performances of the structuring of the fouling. Those particles were chosen for their different surface properties and their capability to form well structured layer. Results, obtained at constant pressure in dead end mode, show that the presence of particles changes foulant deposition and induces non-compressible fouling (in the range of 0.5-1 bar) and higher rejection values compared to filtration done on supernatant alone. Indeed dead end filtration tests show that whatever interactions between biofluid and particles, the addition of particles leads to better filtration performances (in terms of rejection, and fouling layer compressibility). Moreover results confirm the important role played by macromolecular compounds, during supernatant filtration, creating highly compressible and reversible fouling. In conclusion, this study done at lab-scale suggests the potential benefit to engineer fouling structure to control or to delay the collapse of the fouling layer. Finally this study offers the opportunities to enlarge the choice of membrane fouling reducers by taking into consideration their ability to form more consistent fouling (i.e. rigid, structured fouling). PMID:21232780

  20. Short-chain fatty acids and L-lactate as feed additives to control Campylobacter jejuni infections in broilers.

    PubMed

    Van Deun, Kim; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Van Immerseel, Filip; Ducatelle, Richard; Pasmans, Frank

    2008-08-01

    The usefulness of butyrate, acetate, propionate and l-lactate for the control of Campylobacter jejuni infections in broilers was assessed. For this purpose, the effect of these acids on the growth of C. jejuni in broth and intestinal mucous was determined, as well as their influence on the invasiveness of C. jejuni in intestinal epithelial cells. From these in vitro obtained results, one acid was retained for use as a feed additive in an in vivo trial. Butyrate was the most successful of the short-chain fatty acids, with 12.5 mM being bactericidal for C. jejuni at pH 6.0. Propionate and acetate had a bacteriostatic effect at 50 mM. None of the short-chain fatty acids had a bactericidal effect at pH 7.5 at a maximum concentration of 50 mM. Mucous increased the minimum bactericidal concentration of butyrate, but not the bacteriostatic concentrations of propionate or acetate. When C. jejuni was incubated in growth subinhibitory concentrations of butyrate, acetate or propionate or 25 mM L-lactate, no alteration in the invasive capabilities of C. jejuni in Caco-2 cells was observed. The addition of butyrate-coated micro-beads to the feed was unsuccessful to reduce C. jejuni caecal colonization in a seeder model using 2-week-old broilers. In conclusion, despite the marked bactericidal effect of butyrate towards C. jejuni in vitro, butyrate-coated micro-beads do not protect broilers from caecal colonization with C. jejuni in the applied test conditions. This might be partially ascribed to the protective effect of mucous and the rapid absorption of butyrate by the enterocytes. PMID:18622853

  1. Covalently-controlled properties by design in group IV graphane analogues.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Shishi; Arguilla, Maxx Q; Cultrara, Nicholas D; Goldberger, Joshua E

    2015-01-20

    CONSPECTUS: The isolation of graphene has sparked a renaissance in the study of two-dimensional materials. This led to the discovery of new and unique phenomena such as extremely high carrier mobility, thermal conductivity, and mechanical strength not observed in the parent 3D structure. While the emergence of these phenomena has spurred widespread interest in graphene, the paradox between the high-mobility Fermi-Dirac electronic structure and the need for a sizable band gap has challenged its application in traditional semiconductor devices. While graphene is a fascinating and promising material, the limitation of its electronic structure has inspired researchers to explore other 2D materials beyond graphene. In this Account, we summarize our recent work on a new family of two-dimensional materials based on sp(3)-hybridized group IV elements. Ligand-terminated Si, Ge, and Sn graphane analogues are an emerging and unique class of two-dimensional materials that offer the potential to tailor the structure, stability, and properties. Compared with bulk Si and Ge, a direct and larger band gap is apparent in group IV graphane analogues depending on the surface ligand. These materials can be synthesized in gram-scale quantities and in thin films via the topotactic deintercalation of layered Zintl phase precursors. Few layers and single layers can be isolated via manual exfoliation and deintercalation of epitaxially grown Zintl phases on Si/Ge substrates. The presence of a fourth bond on the surface of the layers allows various surface ligand termination with different organic functional groups achieved via conventional soft chemical routes. In these single-atom thick materials, the electronic structure can be systematically controlled by varying the identities of the main group elements and by attaching different surface terminating ligands. In contrast to transition metal dichalcogenides, the weaker interlayer interaction allows the direct band gap single layer

  2. [Whooping cough in Spain. Current epidemiology, prevention and control strategies. Recommendations by the Pertussis Working Group].

    PubMed

    Campins, Magda; Moreno-Pérez, David; Gil-de Miguel, Angel; González-Romo, Fernando; Moraga-Llop, Fernando A; Arístegui-Fernández, Javier; Goncé-Mellgren, Anna; Bayas, José M; Salleras-Sanmartí, Lluís

    2013-04-01

    A large increase of pertussis incidence has been observed in recent years in countries with high vaccination coverage. Outbreaks of pertussis are increasingly being reported. The age presentation has a bipolar distribution: infants younger 6months that have not initiated or completed a vaccination schedule, and adolescents and adults, due to the lost of natural or vaccine immunity over time. These epidemiological changes justify the need to adopt new vaccination strategies in order to protect young infants and to reduce pertussis incidence in all age groups. Adolescents and adults immunization must be a priority. In the first group, strategy is easy to implement, and with a very low additional cost (to replace dT vaccine by dTap one). Adult vaccination may be more difficult to implement; dT vaccine decennial booster should be replaced by dTap. The immunization of household contacts of newborn infants (cocooning) is the strategy that has a most important impact on infant pertussis. Recently, pregnant women vaccination (after 20weeks of gestation) has been recommended in some countries as the most effective way to protect the newborn.

  3. Reproductive and economic impact following controlled introduction of cattle persistently infected with bovine viral diarrhea virus into a naive group of heifers.

    PubMed

    Rodning, S P; Givens, M D; Marley, M S D; Zhang, Y; Riddell, K P; Galik, P K; Hathcock, T L; Gard, J A; Prevatt, J W; Owsley, W F

    2012-10-15

    The reproductive impact following controlled introduction of animals persistently infected (PI) with bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) was evaluated in BVDV-naive heifers. Heifers were randomly allocated into two groups: an unexposed control herd (n = 34) and a herd exposed to five persistently infected (PI) animals for 7 mo, beginning 50 days before the breeding season (n = 34). Initiation of the BVDV-challenge was timed to mimic either direct contact with PI calves born in the previous calving season or accidental introduction of PI herd additions prior to the breeding season. The PI animals represented BVDV Types 1a (n = 3), 1b (n = 1) and 2 (n = 1). Two BVDV-free, seropositive bulls were used in each group for 78 days breeding seasons. In both groups, 33 of 34 heifers became pregnant, with similar distribution of fetal ages. Two heifers in each group aborted (etiology undetermined). In addition, one calf was born dead and one calf died 3 days post-partum in the BVDV-exposed group. One calf in the unexposed group died 4 mo post-partum. No calves, including the stillborn calf and the two calves that died prior to weaning, were persistently infected with BVDV. In summary, introduction of PI cattle to a group of BVDV-naive heifers 50 days prior to the breeding season did not negatively impact reproductive performance. To the contrary, the active immunity that developed following field exposure to BVDV provided effective reproductive and fetal protection during the breeding season and subsequent gestations, despite continuous exposure to PI animals until approximately midgestation. Although BVDV can have potentially devastating reproductive effects, timing of infection is a critical determinant in the outcome of a BVDV infection. A controlled breeding season with introduction of herd additions at less critical reproductive time points can mitigate the negative reproductive health consequences of BVDV.

  4. Electroencephalographic coherence in Alzheimer's disease: comparisons with a control group and population norms.

    PubMed

    Knott, V; Mohr, E; Mahoney, C; Ilivitsky, V

    2000-01-01

    Previous research from independent laboratories has shown reduced electroencephalographic coherence in patients diagnosed with dementia of the Alzheimer type (DAT). This study added to this work by comparing interhemispheric and intrahemispheric coherence in nonmedicated DAT patients (n = 35) with that of a normal control group (n = 30), as well as with a data bank of population norms. Raw and Z-score transformed values showed reduced coherence, interhemispherically (in delta, theta, alpha, and beta bands) and intrahemispherically (delta and theta bands) in DAT patients with both comparison procedures. Discriminant analysis correctly classified 73% to 75% of patients. The results are discussed in relation to earlier research, "trait" versus "state" factors, the cholinergic system, and cognitive processes in dementia.

  5. Effects of a Psychoeducational Group on Mood and Glycemic Control in Adults with Diabetes and Visual Impairments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trozzolino, Linda; Thompson, Pamela S.; Tansman, Mara S.; Azen, Stanley P.

    2003-01-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of a 12-week psychoeducational group therapy program in improving mood and glycemic control in 48 adults with diabetes and visual impairments. Participants made statistically significant gains in glycemic control. There was a significant positive relationship between control and improvement in depression, but…

  6. 75 FR 7284 - National Center for Injury Prevention and Control/Initial Review Group, (NCIPC/IRG)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-18

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Center for Injury Prevention and Control/Initial Review Group, (NCIPC/IRG) In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), announces...

  7. 75 FR 34459 - National Center for Injury Prevention and Control/Initial Review Group, (NCIPC/IRG)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Center for Injury Prevention and Control/Initial Review Group, (NCIPC/IRG) Correction: This notice was published in the Federal Register on... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), announces the following meeting of the...

  8. 75 FR 34459 - National Center for Injury Prevention and Control/Initial Review Group, (NCIPC/IRG)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Center for Injury Prevention and Control/Initial Review Group, (NCIPC/IRG) Correction: This notice was published in the Federal Register on... Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), announces the following meeting of the aforementioned review...

  9. Reduced stress and inflammatory responsiveness in experienced meditators compared to a matched healthy control group.

    PubMed

    Rosenkranz, Melissa A; Lutz, Antoine; Perlman, David M; Bachhuber, David R W; Schuyler, Brianna S; MacCoon, Donal G; Davidson, Richard J

    2016-06-01

    Psychological stress is a major contributor to symptom exacerbation across many chronic inflammatory conditions and can acutely provoke increases in inflammation in healthy individuals. With the rise in rates of inflammation-related medical conditions, evidence for behavioral approaches that reduce stress reactivity is of value. Here, we compare 31 experienced meditators, with an average of approximately 9000 lifetime hours of meditation practice (M age=51years) to an age- and sex-matched control group (n=37; M age=48years) on measures of stress- and inflammatory responsivity, and measures of psychological health. The Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) was used to induce psychological stress and a neurogenic inflammatory response was produced using topical application of capsaicin cream to forearm skin. Size of the capsaicin-induced flare response and increase in salivary cortisol and alpha amylase were used to quantify the magnitude of inflammatory and stress responses, respectively. Results show that experienced meditators have lower TSST-evoked cortisol (62.62±2.52 vs. 70.38±2.33; p<.05) and perceived stress (4.18±.41 vs. 5.56±.30; p<.01), as well as a smaller neurogenic inflammatory response (81.55±4.6 vs. 96.76±4.26; p<.05), compared to the control group. Moreover, experienced meditators reported higher levels of psychological factors associated with wellbeing and resilience. These results suggest that the long-term practice of meditation may reduce stress reactivity and could be of therapeutic benefit in chronic inflammatory conditions characterized by neurogenic inflammation. PMID:26970711

  10. Dietary patterns, food groups and myocardial infarction: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Lockheart, Michael S K; Steffen, Lyn M; Rebnord, Hege Møklebust; Fimreite, Ragnhild Lekven; Ringstad, Jetmund; Thelle, Dag S; Pedersen, Jan I; Jacobs, David R

    2007-08-01

    Certain dietary patterns may be related to the risk of CVD. We hypothesised that a plant-centred dietary pattern would be associated with a reduced risk of first myocardial infarction (MI). A case-control study of Norwegian men and postmenopausal women (age 45-75 years) was performed. A FFQ was administered, generally within 3 d after incident MI (n 106 cases). Controls (n 105) were frequency matched on sex, age and geographic location. On the FFQ, 190 items were categorised into thirty-five food groups and an a priori healthy diet pattern score was created. We estimated OR using logistic regression with adjustment for energy intake, family history of heart disease, marital status, current smoking, education and age. Among food groups, the risk of MI was significantly higher per SD of butter and margarine (OR 1.66 (95 % CI 1.12, 2.46)), and lower per SD of tomatoes (OR 0.53 (95 % CI 0.35, 0.79)), high-fat fish (OR 0.57 (95 % CI 0.38, 0.86)), wine (OR 0.58 (95 % CI 0.41, 0.83)), salad (OR 0.59 (95 % CI 0.40, 0.87)), whole grain breakfast cereals (OR 0.64 (95 % CI 0.45, 0.90)), cruciferous vegetables (OR 0.66 (95 % CI 0.47, 0.93)) and non-hydrogenated vegetable oil (OR 0.68 (95 % CI 0.49, 0.95)). An abundance of cases were found to have a low a priori healthy diet pattern score. A dietary pattern emphasising nutrient-rich plant foods and high-fat fish and low in trans fatty acids was associated with decreased risk of MI among Norwegians.

  11. Single-Amino Acid Modifications Reveal Additional Controls on the Proton Pathway of [FeFe]-Hydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Cornish, Adam J; Ginovska, Bojana; Thelen, Adam; da Silva, Julio C S; Soares, Thereza A; Raugei, Simone; Dupuis, Michel; Shaw, Wendy J; Hegg, Eric L

    2016-06-01

    The proton pathway of [FeFe]-hydrogenase is essential for enzymatic H2 production and oxidation and is composed of four residues and a water molecule. A computational analysis of this pathway in the [FeFe]-hydrogenase from Clostridium pasteurianum revealed that the solvent-exposed residue of the pathway (Glu282) forms hydrogen bonds to two residues outside of the pathway (Arg286 and Ser320), implying that these residues could function in regulating proton transfer. In this study, we show that substituting Arg286 with leucine eliminates hydrogen bonding with Glu282 and results in an ∼3-fold enhancement of H2 production activity when methyl viologen is used as an electron donor, suggesting that Arg286 may help control the rate of proton delivery. In contrast, substitution of Ser320 with alanine reduces the rate ∼5-fold, implying that it either acts as a member of the pathway or influences Glu282 to permit proton transfer. Interestingly, quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics and molecular dynamics calculations indicate that Ser320 does not play a structural role or indirectly influence the barrier for proton movement at the entrance of the channel. Rather, it may act as an additional proton acceptor for the pathway or serve in a regulatory role. While further studies are needed to elucidate the role of Ser320, collectively these data provide insights into the complex proton transport process. PMID:27186945

  12. Epigenome changes in active and inactive Polycomb-group-controlled regions

    PubMed Central

    Breiling, Achim; O'Neill, Laura P; D'Eliseo, Donatella; Turner, Bryan M; Orlando, Valerio

    2004-01-01

    The Polycomb group (PcG) of proteins conveys epigenetic inheritance of repressed transcriptional states. In Drosophila, the Polycomb repressive complex 1 (PRC1) maintains the silent state by inhibiting the transcription machinery and chromatin remodelling at core promoters. Using immunoprecipitation of in vivo formaldehyde-fixed chromatin in phenotypically diverse cultured cell lines, we have mapped PRC1 components, the histone methyl transferase (HMT) Enhancer of zeste (E(z)) and histone H3 modifications in active and inactive PcG-controlled regions. We show that PRC1 components are present in both cases, but at different levels. In particular, active target promoters are nearly devoid of E(z) and Polycomb. Moreover, repressed regions are trimethylated at lysines 9 and 27, suggesting that these histone modifications represent a mark for inactive PcG-controlled regions. These PcG-specific repressive marks are maintained by the action of the E(z) HMT, an enzyme that has an important role not only in establishing but also in maintaining PcG repression. PMID:15448640

  13. Schistosomiasis Sustained Control Program in Ethnic Groups Around Ninefescha (Eastern Senegal).

    PubMed

    N'Diaye, Monique; Dioukhane, Elhadji M; Ndao, Babacar; Diedhiou, Kemo; Diawara, Lamine; Talla, Idrissa; Vernet, Charlotte; Bessin, François; Barbier, Dominique; Dewavrin, Patrick; Klotz, Francis; Georges, Pierre

    2016-09-01

    Schistosomiasis is the second most significant parasitic disease in children in several African countries. For this purpose, the "Programme National de Lutte contre les Bilharzioses" (PNLB) was developed in partnership with the World Health Organization (WHO) to control this disease in Senegal. However, geographic isolation of Bedik ethnic groups challenged implementation of the key elements of the schistosomiasis program in eastern Senegal, and therefore, a hospital was established in Ninefescha to improve access to health care as well as laboratory support for this population. The program we have implemented from 2008 in partnership with the PNLB/WHO involved campaigns to 1) evaluate schistosomiasis prevalence in children of 53 villages around Ninefescha hospital, 2) perform a mass drug administration following the protocol established by the PNLB in school-aged children, 3) monitor annual prevalence, 4) implement health education campaigns, and 5) oversee the building of latrines. This campaign led to a drop in schistosomiasis prevalence but highlighted that sustainable schistosomiasis control by praziquantel treatment, awareness of the use of latrines, and inhabitants' voluntary commitment to the program are crucial to improve Schistosoma elimination. Moreover, this study revealed that preschool-aged children, for whom praziquantel was not recommended until 2014 in Senegal, constituted a significant reservoir for the parasite. PMID:27430549

  14. Phase II Study of the Addition of Bevacizumab to Standard Chemoradiation for Loco-regionally Advanced Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma: Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) Trial 0615

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Nancy Y.; Zhang, Ed; Pfister, David. G.; Kim, John; Garden, Adam. S.; Mechalakos, James; Hu, Kenneth; Le, Quynh T.; Colevas, A. Dimitrios; Glisson, Bonnie S.; Chan, Anthony T.C.; Ang, K. Kian

    2016-01-01

    Purpose We sought to improve the outcomes for loco-regionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) by testing the feasibility/safety of adding bevacizumab to chemoradiation. Patients/Methods Eligible patients with ≥T2b and/or positive node(s) were prescribed 3 cycles of bevacizumab (15 mg/kg) and cisplatin (100 mg/m2) both given on days 1, 22, and 43 of radiation (70 Gy) using IMRT delivered over 33 days on a daily basis, Monday through Friday. This is followed by 3 cycles of bevacizumab (15 mg/kg), cisplatin (80 mg/m2) both were given on days 64, 85, and 106 and fluorouracil (1000 mg/m2/d) on days 64–67, 85–88, 106–109 after radiation. The primary endpoint was to evaluate the safety of the addition of bevacizumab to chemoradiation, specifically looking at treatment-related Grade 4 hemorrhage and/or any Grade 5 adverse event in the first year. Toxicity during and after treatment were collected along with tumor control endpoints. The analysis was done per protocol. This protocol has completed its target accrual. Results There were a total of 46 patients enrolled in this study of whom 44 patients were eligible for analysis. No grade 3–4 hemorrhage or grade 5 adverse events were observed; 9 patients (20.5%) experienced grade 1–2 hemorrhage. Grade 4 adverse events were experienced by the following numbers of patients: leukopenia NOS – 6; lymphopenia – 5; neutrophil count – 5; pharyngolaryngeal pain – 2; hemoglobin – 1; infection with grade 3–4 neutrophils (blood) – 1; infection with grade 3–4 neutrophils [skin (cellulitis)] – 1; tinnitus – 1; thrombosis – 1; radiation mucositis – 1. The most common grade 3 adverse events were radiation mucositis – 33; dysphagia – 25; and mucositis/stomatitis (clinical exam) (pharynx) – 15. Two patients experienced late grade 3 xerostomia. Other late grade 3 adverse events were: dysphagia – 5; hearing impaired – 3; neuralgia NOS – 2; constitutional symptoms (other) – 1; dehydration

  15. Group Music Intervention Reduces Aggression and Improves Self-esteem in Children with Highly Aggressive Behavior: A Pilot Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Myeong Soo; Lee, Jung-Sook

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the effects of group music intervention on aggression and self-esteem in children with highly aggressive behavior. Forty-eight children were allocated to either a music intervention group or an untreated control group. The music intervention group received 50 min of music intervention twice weekly for 15 consecutive weeks. The outcome measures were Child Behavior Checklist Aggression Problems Scale (Parents), Child Aggression Assessment Inventory (Teachers) and Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale. After 15 weeks, the music intervention group showed significant reduction of aggression and improvement of self-esteem compared with the control group. All outcome measures were significantly lower in the music intervention group than prior to treatment, while there was no change in the control group. These findings suggest that music can reduce aggressive behavior and improve self-esteem in children with highly aggressive behavior. Music intervention is an easily accessible therapy for children and as such may be an effective intervention for aggressive behavior. Further more, objective and replicable measures are required from a randomized controlled trial with a larger sample size and active comparable control. PMID:18955314

  16. Differentiation of African Components of Ancestry to Stratify Groups in a Case–Control Study of a Brazilian Urban Population

    PubMed Central

    Hirata, Mario H.; Luchessi, Andre D.; Genvigir, Fabiana D.V.; Cerda, Alvaro; Rodrigues, Alice C.; Willrich, Maria A.V.; Arazi, Simone S.; Dorea, Egidio L.; Bernik, Marcia M.S.; Faludi, Andre A.; Bertolami, Marcelo C.; Santos, Carla; Carracedo, Ángel; Salas, Antonio; Freire, Ana; Lareu, Maria Victoria; Phillips, Christopher; Porras-Hurtado, Liliana; Fondevila, Manuel; Hirata, Rosario D.C.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Balancing the subject composition of case and control groups to create homogenous ancestries between each group is essential for medical association studies. Methods: We explored the applicability of single-tube 34-plex ancestry informative markers (AIM) single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) to estimate the African Component of Ancestry (ACA) to design a future case–control association study of a Brazilian urban sample. Results: One hundred eighty individuals (107 case group; 73 control group) self-described as white, brown-intermediate or black were selected. The proportions of the relative contribution of a variable number of ancestral population components were similar between case and control groups. Moreover, the case and control groups demonstrated similar distributions for ACA <0.25 and >0.50 categories. Notably a high number of outlier values (23 samples) were observed among individuals with ACA <0.25. These individuals presented a high probability of Native American and East Asian ancestral components; however, no individuals originally giving these self-described ancestries were observed in this study. Conclusions: The strategy proposed for the assessment of ancestry and adjustment of case and control groups for an association study is an important step for the proper construction of the study, particularly when subjects are taken from a complex urban population. This can be achieved using a straight forward multiplexed AIM-SNPs assay of highly discriminatory ancestry markers. PMID:22288895

  17. Control of Cr6+ emissions from gas metal arc welding using a silica precursor as a shielding gas additive.

    PubMed

    Topham, Nathan; Wang, Jun; Kalivoda, Mark; Huang, Joyce; Yu, Kuei-Min; Hsu, Yu-Mei; Wu, Chang-Yu; Oh, Sewon; Cho, Kuk; Paulson, Kathleen

    2012-03-01

    Hexavalent chromium (Cr(6+)) emitted from welding poses serious health risks to workers exposed to welding fumes. In this study, tetramethylsilane (TMS) was added to shielding gas to control hazardous air pollutants produced during stainless steel welding. The silica precursor acted as an oxidation inhibitor when it decomposed in the high-temperature welding arc, limiting Cr(6+) formation. Additionally, a film of amorphous SiO(2) was deposited on fume particles to insulate them from oxidation. Experiments were conducted following the American Welding Society (AWS) method for fume generation and sampling in an AWS fume hood. The results showed that total shielding gas flow rate impacted the effectiveness of the TMS process. Increasing shielding gas flow rate led to increased reductions in Cr(6+) concentration when TMS was used. When 4.2% of a 30-lpm shielding gas flow was used as TMS carrier gas, Cr(6+) concentration in gas metal arc welding (GMAW) fumes was reduced to below the 2006 Occupational Safety and Health Administration standard (5 μg m(-3)) and the efficiency was >90%. The process also increased fume particle size from a mode size of 20 nm under baseline conditions to 180-300 nm when TMS was added in all shielding gas flow rates tested. SiO(2) particles formed in the process scavenged nanosized fume particles through intercoagulation. Transmission electron microscopy imagery provided visual evidence of an amorphous film of SiO(2) on some fume particles along with the presence of amorphous SiO(2) agglomerates. These results demonstrate the ability of vapor phase silica precursors to increase welding fume particle size and minimize chromium oxidation, thereby preventing the formation of hexavalent chromium. PMID:22104317

  18. Control of Cr6+ emissions from gas metal arc welding using a silica precursor as a shielding gas additive.

    PubMed

    Topham, Nathan; Wang, Jun; Kalivoda, Mark; Huang, Joyce; Yu, Kuei-Min; Hsu, Yu-Mei; Wu, Chang-Yu; Oh, Sewon; Cho, Kuk; Paulson, Kathleen

    2012-03-01

    Hexavalent chromium (Cr(6+)) emitted from welding poses serious health risks to workers exposed to welding fumes. In this study, tetramethylsilane (TMS) was added to shielding gas to control hazardous air pollutants produced during stainless steel welding. The silica precursor acted as an oxidation inhibitor when it decomposed in the high-temperature welding arc, limiting Cr(6+) formation. Additionally, a film of amorphous SiO(2) was deposited on fume particles to insulate them from oxidation. Experiments were conducted following the American Welding Society (AWS) method for fume generation and sampling in an AWS fume hood. The results showed that total shielding gas flow rate impacted the effectiveness of the TMS process. Increasing shielding gas flow rate led to increased reductions in Cr(6+) concentration when TMS was used. When 4.2% of a 30-lpm shielding gas flow was used as TMS carrier gas, Cr(6+) concentration in gas metal arc welding (GMAW) fumes was reduced to below the 2006 Occupational Safety and Health Administration standard (5 μg m(-3)) and the efficiency was >90%. The process also increased fume particle size from a mode size of 20 nm under baseline conditions to 180-300 nm when TMS was added in all shielding gas flow rates tested. SiO(2) particles formed in the process scavenged nanosized fume particles through intercoagulation. Transmission electron microscopy imagery provided visual evidence of an amorphous film of SiO(2) on some fume particles along with the presence of amorphous SiO(2) agglomerates. These results demonstrate the ability of vapor phase silica precursors to increase welding fume particle size and minimize chromium oxidation, thereby preventing the formation of hexavalent chromium.

  19. Poultry egg components as cereal bait additives for enhancing rodenticide based control success and trap index of house rat, Rattus rattus

    PubMed Central

    Singla, Neena; Kanwar, Deepia

    2014-01-01

    Objective To compare the acceptance and efficacy of cereal bait containing different concentrations of poultry egg components in laboratory and poultry farms to control house rat, Rattus rattus (R. rattus). Methods Acceptance of cereal bait containing different concentrations (2%, 5% and 10%) of poultry egg components such as egg shell powder (ESP), egg albumin (EA) and crushed egg shell as bait additives were studied after exposing them to different groups of rats in bi-choice with bait without additive. Behaviour of rats towards cereal bait containing 2% concentration of different egg components was recorded in no-choice conditions through Food Scale Consumption Monitor. In poultry farm predominantly infested with R. rattus, acceptance and efficacy of 2% zinc phosphide bait containing 2% EA and ESP was evaluated. Trap success of single rat traps containing chapatti pieces smeared with 2% EA and 2% ESP was also evaluated in poultry farm. Results In bi-choice tests, significantly (P<0.05) higher preference was observed for baits containing 2% and 5% ESP and all the three concentrations of EA compared to plain bait by female rats and that of baits containing 5% and 10% EA by male rats. In no-choice test, non-significantly higher consumption, number of bouts made and time spent towards bait containing 2% EA was found by rats of both sexes. In poultry farm, acceptance and efficacy of 2% zinc phosphide bait containing 2% EA and ESP was significantly (P<0.05) more than 2% zinc phosphide bait without additive. No significant difference was, however, found in trap success of single rat traps containing chapatti pieces smeared with 2% concentration of EA and ESP placed in the poultry farm. Conclusions Present data support the use of 2% egg albumin and egg shell powder in cereal bait to enhance acceptance and efficacy of 2% zinc phosphide bait against R. rattus. This may further help in checking the spread of rodent borne diseases to animals and humans. PMID:25183108

  20. Under-represented students' engagement in secondary science learning: A non-equivalent control group design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vann-Hamilton, Joy J.

    Problem. A significant segment of the U.S. population, under-represented students, is under-engaged or disengaged in secondary science education. International and national assessments and various research studies illuminate the problem and/or the disparity between students' aspirations in science and the means they have to achieve them. To improve engagement and address inequities among these students, more contemporary and/or inclusive pedagogy is recommended. More specifically, multicultural science education has been suggested as a potential strategy for increased equity so that all learners have access to and are readily engaged in quality science education. While multicultural science education emphasizes the integration of students' backgrounds and experiences with science learning , multimedia has been suggested as a way to integrate the fundamentals of multicultural education into learning for increased engagement. In addition, individual characteristics such as race, sex, academic track and grades were considered. Therefore, this study examined the impact of multicultural science education, multimedia, and individual characteristics on under-represented students' engagement in secondary science. Method. The Under-represented Students Engagement in Science Survey (USESS), an adaptation of the High School Survey of Student Engagement, was used with 76 high-school participants. The USESS was used to collect pretest and posttest data concerning their types and levels of student engagement. Levels of engagement were measured with Strongly Agree ranked as 5, down to Strongly Disagree ranked at 1. Participants provided this feedback prior to and after having interacted with either the multicultural or the non-multicultural version of the multimedia science curriculum. Descriptive statistics for the study's participants and the survey items, as well as Cronbach's alpha coefficient for internal consistency reliability with respect to the survey subscales, were

  1. Under-represented students' engagement in secondary science learning: A non-equivalent control group design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vann-Hamilton, Joy J.

    Problem. A significant segment of the U.S. population, under-represented students, is under-engaged or disengaged in secondary science education. International and national assessments and various research studies illuminate the problem and/or the disparity between students' aspirations in science and the means they have to achieve them. To improve engagement and address inequities among these students, more contemporary and/or inclusive pedagogy is recommended. More specifically, multicultural science education has been suggested as a potential strategy for increased equity so that all learners have access to and are readily engaged in quality science education. While multicultural science education emphasizes the integration of students' backgrounds and experiences with science learning , multimedia has been suggested as a way to integrate the fundamentals of multicultural education into learning for increased engagement. In addition, individual characteristics such as race, sex, academic track and grades were considered. Therefore, this study examined the impact of multicultural science education, multimedia, and individual characteristics on under-represented students' engagement in secondary science. Method. The Under-represented Students Engagement in Science Survey (USESS), an adaptation of the High School Survey of Student Engagement, was used with 76 high-school participants. The USESS was used to collect pretest and posttest data concerning their types and levels of student engagement. Levels of engagement were measured with Strongly Agree ranked as 5, down to Strongly Disagree ranked at 1. Participants provided this feedback prior to and after having interacted with either the multicultural or the non-multicultural version of the multimedia science curriculum. Descriptive statistics for the study's participants and the survey items, as well as Cronbach's alpha coefficient for internal consistency reliability with respect to the survey subscales, were

  2. Evaluation of strategies for the control of canola and lupin seedling diseases caused by Rhizoctonia anastomosis groups

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several methods with potential for the management of Rhizoctonia diseases of canola and lupin including several methods with potential for the management of Rhizoctonia plant resistance, fungicide seed treatment and biological control using binucleate Rhizoctonia anastomosis groups (AGs) were evalua...

  3. The Trier Social Stress Test for Groups (TSST-G): A new research tool for controlled simultaneous social stress exposure in a group format.

    PubMed

    von Dawans, Bernadette; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Heinrichs, Markus

    2011-05-01

    Psychological stress is an ubiquitous challenge across human cultures affecting mental and physical health. Recent evidence indicates that performance tasks combining elements of socio-evaluative threat and uncontrollability elicit reliable stress responses. The Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) is the most frequently used psychological protocol in stress research; however, to date it has only been available in a single-subject version. In particular, there is an increasing need in several emerging research fields such as stress research or social neurosciences for a standardized research tool to expose relatively large groups of subjects to controlled simultaneous stress. In search of a laboratory stressor that allows simultaneous stress exposure in a group format, we exposed a total of 25 healthy male participants to the Trier Social Stress Test for Groups (TSST-G; public speaking and mental arithmetic tasks in front of a panel of two evaluators in groups of six participants) and a specific control condition. Results showed that the TSST-G induced significant increases in cortisol, heart rate, and psychological stress responses. The TSST-G provides a novel, effective, and economical protocol for experimental paradigms requiring simultaneous stress induction in multiple participants.

  4. Role of quantity of additional food to predators as a control in predator-prey systems with relevance to pest management and biological conservation.

    PubMed

    Srinivasu, P D N; Prasad, B S R V

    2011-10-01

    Necessity to understand the role of additional food as a tool in biological control programs is being increasingly felt, particularly due to its eco-friendly nature. A thorough mathematical analysis in this direction revealed the vital role of quality and quantity of the additional food in the controllability of the predator-prey systems. In this article controllability of the additional food--provided predator-prey system is studied from perspectives of pest eradication and biological conservation. Time optimal paths have been constructed to drive the state of the system to a desired terminal state by choosing quantity of the additional food as control variable. The theory developed in this article has been illustrated by solving problems related to pest eradication and biological conservation.

  5. Comparison of the frequency of psychiatric disorders among patients with chronic low back pain and control group

    PubMed Central

    Farajirad, Elnaz; Tohidi, Hadi; Farajirad, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Background: Low back pain (LBP) is one of the most common complaints of patients referred to the clinics. Studies indicated that psychosocial factors have great impact on the patients’ complaints and disability. The aim of this study was to evaluate a broad range of psychiatric disorders in patients with chronic LBP (CLBP) and compare them with those of the control group. Patients and Methods: We applied Symptom Checklist 90-R to compare 50 CLBP patients in the case group with 100 participants without it in the control group. The questionnaire measured somatization, obsessive-compulsive disorder, depression, anxiety, phobic anxiety, hostility, interpersonal sensitivity, paranoid ideation, and psychoticism. Results: Average “global severity index” was 1.10 in the case and 0.5 in the control group. Average “positive symptom total” was 45.26 in the case and 27.41 in the control group. Average “positive symptom distress index” was 2.50 in the case and 1.50 in the control group. Average scores for all test dimensions were significantly different between the two groups (P = 0.00). Conclusions: All dimensions were significantly more common in CLBP patients. Therefore, early diagnosis and treatment of these disorders may improve the outcome of CLBP. PMID:27366258

  6. Psychosocial risk factors which may differentiate between women with Functional Voice Disorder, Organic Voice Disorder and a Control group.

    PubMed

    Baker, Janet; Ben-Tovim, David; Butcher, Andrew; Esterman, Adrian; McLaughlin, Kristin

    2013-12-01

    This study aimed to explore psychosocial factors contributing to the development of functional voice disorders (FVD) and those differentiating between organic voice disorders (OVD) and a non-voice-disordered control group. A case-control study was undertaken of 194 women aged 18-80 years diagnosed with FVD (n = 73), OVD (n = 55), and controls (n = 66). FVD women were allocated into psychogenic voice disorder (PVD) (n = 37) and muscle tension voice disorder (MTVD) (n = 36) for sub-group analysis. Dependent variables included biographical and voice assessment data, the number and severity of life events and difficulties and conflict over speaking out (COSO) situations derived from the Life Events and Difficulties Schedule (LEDS), and psychological traits including emotional expressiveness scales. Four psychosocial components differentiated between the FVD and control group accounting for 84.9% of the variance: severe events, moderate events, severe COSO, and mild COSO difficulties. Severe events, severe and mild COSO difficulties differentiated between FVD and OVD groups, accounting for 80.5% of the variance. Moderate events differentiated between PVD and MTVD sub-groups, accounting for 58.9% of the variance. Psychological traits did not differentiate between groups. Stressful life events and COSO situations best differentiated FVD from OVD and control groups. More refined aetiological studies are needed to differentiate between PVD and MTVD.

  7. A Controlled Comparison of Cognitive Therapy and Self-Help Support Groups in the Treatment of Irritable Bowel Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Payne, Annette; Blanchard, Edward B.

    1995-01-01

    Patients with irritable bowel syndrome (n=34) were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatment conditions for 8 weeks: individualized cognitive treatment, support group, or control. Results indicated significantly greater reductions in gastrointestinal symptoms and amelioration of depression and anxiety for the cognitive therapy group, and these results…

  8. 76 FR 56873 - American Railroad Group Transportation Services, LLC d/b/a ARG Trans-Continuance in Control...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-14

    ... Surface Transportation Board American Railroad Group Transportation Services, LLC d/b/a ARG Trans--Continuance in Control Exemption--Coos Bay Railroad Operating Company, LLC d/b/a Coos Bay Rail Link American Railroad Group Transportation Services, LLC d/b/a ARG Trans (ARG Trans), a noncarrier, has filed a...

  9. 75 FR 3901 - Announcement of IS-GPS-200E Interface Control Working Group (ICWG) Teleconference Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-25

    ... Department of the Air Force Announcement of IS-GPS-200E Interface Control Working Group (ICWG) Teleconference... Working Group (ICWG) teleconference meeting for the document IS-GPS-200E (NAVSTAR GPS Space Segment...=9364 . Please send all CRM comments to Vimal Gopal by 5 February 2010. DATES: 12 February 2010:...

  10. Impulsivity-focused group intervention to reduce binge eating episodes in patients with binge eating disorder: study protocol of the randomised controlled IMPULS trial

    PubMed Central

    Schag, Kathrin; Leehr, Elisabeth J; Martus, Peter; Bethge, Wolfgang; Becker, Sandra; Zipfel, Stephan; Giel, Katrin E

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The core symptom of binge eating disorder (BED) is recurrent binge eating that is accompanied by a sense of loss of control. BED is frequently associated with obesity, one of the main public health challenges today. Experimental studies deliver evidence that general trait impulsivity and disorder-specific food-related impulsivity constitute risk factors for BED. Cognitive-behavioural treatment (CBT) is deemed to be the most effective intervention concerning BED. We developed a group intervention based on CBT and especially focusing on impulsivity. We hypothesise that such an impulsivity-focused group intervention is able to increase control over impulsive eating behaviour, that is, reduce binge eating episodes, further eating pathology and impulsivity. Body weight might also be influenced in the long term. Methods and analysis The present randomised controlled trial investigates the feasibility, acceptance and efficacy of this impulsivity-focused group intervention in patients with BED. We compare 39 patients with BED in the experimental group to 39 patients with BED in the control group at three appointments: before and after the group intervention and in a 3-month follow-up. Patients with BED in the experimental group receive 8 weekly sessions of the impulsivity-focused group intervention with 5-6 patients per group. Patients with BED in the control group receive no group intervention. The primary outcome is the binge eating frequency over the past 4 weeks. Secondary outcomes comprise further eating pathology, general impulsivity and food-related impulsivity assessed by eye tracking methodology, and body weight. Additionally, we assess binge eating and other impulsive behaviour weekly in process analyses during the time period of the group intervention. Ethics and dissemination This study has been approved by the ethics committee of the medical faculty of Eberhard Karls University Tübingen and the University Hospital Tübingen. Data are monitored

  11. Effectiveness of group body psychotherapy for negative symptoms of schizophrenia: multicentre randomised controlled trial†

    PubMed Central

    Priebe, S.; Savill, M.; Wykes, T.; Bentall, R. P.; Reininghaus, U.; Lauber, C.; Bremner, S.; Eldridge, S.; Röhricht, F.

    2016-01-01

    Background Negative symptoms of schizophrenia have a severe impact on functional outcomes and treatment options are limited. Arts therapies are currently recommended but more evidence is required. Aims To assess body psychotherapy as a treatment for negative symptoms compared with an active control (trial registration: ISRCTN84216587). Method Schizophrenia out-patients were randomised into a 20-session body psychotherapy or Pilates group. The primary outcome was negative symptoms at end of treatment. Secondary outcomes included psychopathology, functional, social and treatment satisfaction outcomes at treatment end and 6-months later. Results In total, 275 participants were randomised. The adjusted difference in negative symptoms was 0.03 (95% CI −1.11 to 1.17), indicating no benefit from body psychotherapy. Small improvements in expressive deficits and movement disorder symptoms were detected in favour of body psychotherapy. No other outcomes were significantly different. Conclusions Body psychotherapy does not have a clinically relevant beneficial effect in the treatment of patients with negative symptoms of schizophrenia. PMID:27151073

  12. [Superficial mycoses: comparative study between type 2 diabetic patients and a non-diabetic control group].

    PubMed

    García-Humbría, Leila; Richard-Yegres, Nicole; Pérez-Blanco, Maigualida; Yegres, Francisco; Mendoza, Mireya; Acosta, Arnaldo; Hernández, Rosaura; Zárraga, Eluz

    2005-03-01

    Superficial mycoses are considered to affect more frequently patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM-2), specially onychomycosis and Tinea pedis. The purpose of this study was to compare the dermatophytoses, candidiasis and Pitiriasis versicolor frequency between 40 patients with DM-2 and 40 healthy persons of either sex, 40 years old or more. Clinical, metabolic, mycologic and inmunologic studies against Candida albicans, were carried out. Both diabetics 75% (30/40) and controls 65% (26/40) presented a high frequency of superficial mycoses (no significant difference p = 0.329). Pitiriasis versicolor was not detected in diabetic patients. They presented Tinea unguium, concomitant with Tinea pedis, with a higher frequency. The predominant dermatophyte was Trichophyton rubrum 18/23 (78%) in diabetics and 8/16 (50%) in non diabetics. Candida was isolated as commensal from oral mucous: 23/40 (58%) in diabetics and 21/40 (52%) in non diabetics (serotipo A was the more frequent), and from onychomycosis: 11/40 (28%) in diabetics and 12/40 (30%) in non diabetics. The immunological response was the same in both groups: celular 100%, humoral 20%. No statistical correlation among superficial mycoses, blood glucose level, glycosylated hemoglobin values or the time suffering the disease was observed. The high susceptibility to dermatophytes and Candida sp. infection showed to be associated with age and no with the diabetic type 2 condition in those patients.

  13. Ongoing quality control in digital radiography: Report of AAPM Imaging Physics Committee Task Group 151.

    PubMed

    Jones, A Kyle; Heintz, Philip; Geiser, William; Goldman, Lee; Jerjian, Khachig; Martin, Melissa; Peck, Donald; Pfeiffer, Douglas; Ranger, Nicole; Yorkston, John

    2015-11-01

    Quality control (QC) in medical imaging is an ongoing process and not just a series of infrequent evaluations of medical imaging equipment. The QC process involves designing and implementing a QC program, collecting and analyzing data, investigating results that are outside the acceptance levels for the QC program, and taking corrective action to bring these results back to an acceptable level. The QC process involves key personnel in the imaging department, including the radiologist, radiologic technologist, and the qualified medical physicist (QMP). The QMP performs detailed equipment evaluations and helps with oversight of the QC program, the radiologic technologist is responsible for the day-to-day operation of the QC program. The continued need for ongoing QC in digital radiography has been highlighted in the scientific literature. The charge of this task group was to recommend consistency tests designed to be performed by a medical physicist or a radiologic technologist under the direction of a medical physicist to identify problems with an imaging system that need further evaluation by a medical physicist, including a fault tree to define actions that need to be taken when certain fault conditions are identified. The focus of this final report is the ongoing QC process, including rejected image analysis, exposure analysis, and artifact identification. These QC tasks are vital for the optimal operation of a department performing digital radiography. PMID:26520756

  14. Ongoing quality control in digital radiography: Report of AAPM Imaging Physics Committee Task Group 151.

    PubMed

    Jones, A Kyle; Heintz, Philip; Geiser, William; Goldman, Lee; Jerjian, Khachig; Martin, Melissa; Peck, Donald; Pfeiffer, Douglas; Ranger, Nicole; Yorkston, John

    2015-11-01

    Quality control (QC) in medical imaging is an ongoing process and not just a series of infrequent evaluations of medical imaging equipment. The QC process involves designing and implementing a QC program, collecting and analyzing data, investigating results that are outside the acceptance levels for the QC program, and taking corrective action to bring these results back to an acceptable level. The QC process involves key personnel in the imaging department, including the radiologist, radiologic technologist, and the qualified medical physicist (QMP). The QMP performs detailed equipment evaluations and helps with oversight of the QC program, the radiologic technologist is responsible for the day-to-day operation of the QC program. The continued need for ongoing QC in digital radiography has been highlighted in the scientific literature. The charge of this task group was to recommend consistency tests designed to be performed by a medical physicist or a radiologic technologist under the direction of a medical physicist to identify problems with an imaging system that need further evaluation by a medical physicist, including a fault tree to define actions that need to be taken when certain fault conditions are identified. The focus of this final report is the ongoing QC process, including rejected image analysis, exposure analysis, and artifact identification. These QC tasks are vital for the optimal operation of a department performing digital radiography.

  15. Ongoing quality control in digital radiography: Report of AAPM Imaging Physics Committee Task Group 151

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, A. Kyle Geiser, William; Heintz, Philip; Goldman, Lee; Jerjian, Khachig; Martin, Melissa; Peck, Donald; Pfeiffer, Douglas; Ranger, Nicole; Yorkston, John

    2015-11-15

    Quality control (QC) in medical imaging is an ongoing process and not just a series of infrequent evaluations of medical imaging equipment. The QC process involves designing and implementing a QC program, collecting and analyzing data, investigating results that are outside the acceptance levels for the QC program, and taking corrective action to bring these results back to an acceptable level. The QC process involves key personnel in the imaging department, including the radiologist, radiologic technologist, and the qualified medical physicist (QMP). The QMP performs detailed equipment evaluations and helps with oversight of the QC program, the radiologic technologist is responsible for the day-to-day operation of the QC program. The continued need for ongoing QC in digital radiography has been highlighted in the scientific literature. The charge of this task group was to recommend consistency tests designed to be performed by a medical physicist or a radiologic technologist under the direction of a medical physicist to identify problems with an imaging system that need further evaluation by a medical physicist, including a fault tree to define actions that need to be taken when certain fault conditions are identified. The focus of this final report is the ongoing QC process, including rejected image analysis, exposure analysis, and artifact identification. These QC tasks are vital for the optimal operation of a department performing digital radiography.

  16. Tandem chirped quasi-phase-matching grating optical parametric amplifier design for simultaneous group delay and gain control.

    PubMed

    Charbonneau-Lefort, M; Fejer, M M; Afeyan, Bedros

    2005-03-15

    We present a broadband optical parametric amplifier design using tapered gain and tandem chirped quasi-phase-matching gratings to obtain flat gain and group-delay spectra suitable for applications such as ultrashort-pulse amplification and fiber-optic communication systems. Although a tapered-gain amplifier consisting of a single chirped grating can provide constant gain over a wide frequency range, it cannot be used to control the group delay across the spectrum. We propose controlling both the gain and the group delay profiles using a two-stage amplifier configuration, in which the idler of the first is used as the input signal of the second. PMID:15792000

  17. The Effects of Rational-Emotive Education Groups on Self-Concept and Locus of Control among Learning Disabled Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Omizo, Michael M.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Sixty learning disabled children (8-11 years old) were randomly assigned to experimental and control conditions; the experimental group leaders were trained in REE (Rational-Emotive Education.) The REE intervention appeared to be beneficial in both enhancing self-concept and encouraging an internal locus of control orientation in LD students.…

  18. Japanese Wolves are Genetically Divided into Two Groups Based on an 8-Nucleotide Insertion/Deletion within the mtDNA Control Region.

    PubMed

    Ishiguro, Naotaka; Inoshima, Yasuo; Yanai, Tokuma; Sasaki, Motoki; Matsui, Akira; Kikuchi, Hiroki; Maruyama, Masashi; Hongo, Hitomi; Vostretsov, Yuri E; Gasilin, Viatcheslav; Kosintsev, Pavel A; Quanjia, Chen; Chunxue, Wang

    2016-02-01

    The mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region (198- to 598-bp) of four ancient Canis specimens (two Canis mandibles, a cranium, and a first phalanx) was examined, and each specimen was genetically identified as Japanese wolf. Two unique nucleotide substitutions, the 78-C insertion and the 482-G deletion, both of which are specific for Japanese wolf, were observed in each sample. Based on the mtDNA sequences analyzed, these four specimens and 10 additional Japanese wolf samples could be classified into two groups- Group A (10 samples) and Group B (4 samples)-which contain or lack an 8-bp insertion/deletion (indel), respectively. Interestingly, three dogs (Akita-b, Kishu 25, and S-husky 102) that each contained Japanese wolf-specific features were also classified into Group A or B based on the 8-bp indel. To determine the origin or ancestor of the Japanese wolf, mtDNA control regions of ancient continental Canis specimens were examined; 84 specimens were from Russia, and 29 were from China. However, none of these 113 specimens contained Japanese wolf-specific sequences. Moreover, none of 426 Japanese modern hunting dogs examined contained these Japanese wolf-specific mtDNA sequences. The mtDNA control region sequences of Groups A and B appeared to be unique to grey wolf and dog populations. PMID:26853868

  19. Japanese Wolves are Genetically Divided into Two Groups Based on an 8-Nucleotide Insertion/Deletion within the mtDNA Control Region.

    PubMed

    Ishiguro, Naotaka; Inoshima, Yasuo; Yanai, Tokuma; Sasaki, Motoki; Matsui, Akira; Kikuchi, Hiroki; Maruyama, Masashi; Hongo, Hitomi; Vostretsov, Yuri E; Gasilin, Viatcheslav; Kosintsev, Pavel A; Quanjia, Chen; Chunxue, Wang

    2016-02-01

    The mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region (198- to 598-bp) of four ancient Canis specimens (two Canis mandibles, a cranium, and a first phalanx) was examined, and each specimen was genetically identified as Japanese wolf. Two unique nucleotide substitutions, the 78-C insertion and the 482-G deletion, both of which are specific for Japanese wolf, were observed in each sample. Based on the mtDNA sequences analyzed, these four specimens and 10 additional Japanese wolf samples could be classified into two groups- Group A (10 samples) and Group B (4 samples)-which contain or lack an 8-bp insertion/deletion (indel), respectively. Interestingly, three dogs (Akita-b, Kishu 25, and S-husky 102) that each contained Japanese wolf-specific features were also classified into Group A or B based on the 8-bp indel. To determine the origin or ancestor of the Japanese wolf, mtDNA control regions of ancient continental Canis specimens were examined; 84 specimens were from Russia, and 29 were from China. However, none of these 113 specimens contained Japanese wolf-specific sequences. Moreover, none of 426 Japanese modern hunting dogs examined contained these Japanese wolf-specific mtDNA sequences. The mtDNA control region sequences of Groups A and B appeared to be unique to grey wolf and dog populations.

  20. WMS-III Logical Memory performance after a two-week delay in temporal lobe epilepsy and control groups.

    PubMed

    Bell, Brian D

    2006-11-01

    Conventional memory assessment may fail to identify memory dysfunction that is characterized by intact recall for a relatively brief period but rapid forgetting thereafter. This study assessed immediate memory and retention after 30-minute and two-week delays in a control group (n = 25) and a group of individuals with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE, n = 25). For raw free recall, thematic unit, and recognition memory scores from the Wechsler Memory Scale-3rd ed. (WMS-III) Logical Memory (LM) subtest, there were no group x trial interactions and the TLE group performed significantly worse than the controls on all trials. At the individual level, none of the patients (0%) demonstrated isolated free recall impairment at the two-week delay when raw scores were analyzed, and one patient (4%) but also five controls (20%) did so when percent retention scores were examined. In summary, TLE patients did not demonstrate disproportionate forgetting over two weeks on a widely used story memory test.

  1. Does the addition of specific acupuncture to standard swallowing training improve outcomes in patients with dysphagia after stroke? a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Wenguang; Zheng, Chanjuan; Zhu, Suiqiang; Tang, Zhouping

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To assess the effect of adding acupuncture to standard swallowing training for patients with dysphagia after stroke. Design: Single-blind randomized controlled trial. Setting: Inpatient and outpatient clinics. Subjects: A total of 124 patients with dysphagia after stroke were randomly divided into two groups: acupuncture and control. Interventions: The acupuncture group received standard swallowing training and acupuncture treatment. In comparison, the control group only received standard swallowing training. Participants in both groups received six days of therapy per week for a four-week period. Main measures: The primary outcome measures included the Standardized Swallowing Assessment and the Dysphagia Outcome Severity Scale. The secondary outcome measures included the Modified Barthel Index and Swallowing-Related Quality of Life, which were assessed before and after the four-week therapy period. Results: A total of 120 dysphagic subjects completed the study (60 in acupuncture group and 60 in control group). Significant differences existed in the Standardized Swallowing Assessment, Dysphagia Outcome Severity Scale, Modified Barthel Index, and Swallowing-Related Quality of Life scores of each group after the treatment (P < 0.01). After the four-week treatment, the Standardized Swallowing Assessment (mean difference − 2.9; 95% confidence interval (CI) – 5.0 to − 0.81; P < 0.01), Dysphagia Outcome Severity Scale (mean difference 2.3; 95% CI 0.7 to 1.2; P < 0.01), Modified Barthel Index (mean difference 17.2; 95% CI 2.6 to 9.3; P < 0.05) and Swallowing-Related Quality of Life scores (mean difference 31.4; 95% CI 3.2 to 11.4; P < 0.01) showed more significant improvement in the acupuncture group than the control group. Conclusions: Acupuncture combined with the standard swallowing training may be beneficial for dysphagic patients after stroke. PMID:25819076

  2. Child Effortful Control, Teacher-Student Relationships, and Achievement in Academically At-Risk Children: Additive and Interactive Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liew, Jeffrey; Chen, Qi; Hughes, Jan N.

    2010-01-01

    The joint contributions of child effortful control (using inhibitory control and task accuracy as behavioral indices) and positive teacher-student relationships at first grade on reading and mathematics achievement at second grade were examined in 761 children who were predominantly from low-income and ethnic minority backgrounds and assessed to…

  3. Integrated Autopilot/Autothrottle Based on a Total Energy Control Concept: Design and Evaluation of Additional Autopilot Modes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bruce, Kevin R.

    1988-01-01

    An integrated autopilot/autothrottle system was designed using a total energy control design philosophy. This design ensures that the system can differentiate between maneuvers requiring a change in thrust to accomplish a net energy change, and those maneuvers which only require elevator control to redistribute energy. The system design, the development of the system, and a summary of simulation results are defined.

  4. Cancer Control Research Training for Native Researchers: A Model for Development of Additional Native Researcher Training Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Thomas M.; Dunn, Esther; Tom-Orme, Lillian; Joe, Jennie

    2005-01-01

    Several social and biological scientists who have Native status are engaged in productive research careers, but the encouragement that has been offered to Native students to formulate career goals devoted to cancer etiology or cancer control in Native peoples has had limited success. Hence, the Native Researchers' Cancer Control Training Program…

  5. The effectiveness of the McKenzie method in addition to first-line care for acute low back pain: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Low back pain is a highly prevalent and disabling condition worldwide. Clinical guidelines for the management of patients with acute low back pain recommend first-line treatment consisting of advice, reassurance and simple analgesics. Exercise is also commonly prescribed to these patients. The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the short-term effect of adding the McKenzie method to the first-line care of patients with acute low back pain. Methods A multi-centre randomized controlled trial with a 3-month follow-up was conducted between September 2005 and June 2008. Patients seeking care for acute non-specific low back pain from primary care medical practices were screened. Eligible participants were assigned to receive a treatment programme based on the McKenzie method and first-line care (advice, reassurance and time-contingent acetaminophen) or first-line care alone, for 3 weeks. Primary outcome measures included pain (0-10 Numeric Rating Scale) over the first seven days, pain at 1 week, pain at 3 weeks and global perceived effect (-5 to 5 scale) at 3 weeks. Treatment effects were estimated using linear mixed models. Results One hundred and forty-eight participants were randomized into study groups, of whom 138 (93%) completed the last follow-up. The addition of the McKenzie method to first-line care produced statistically significant but small reductions in pain when compared to first-line care alone: mean of -0.4 points (95% confidence interval, -0.8 to -0.1) at 1 week, -0.7 points (95% confidence interval, -1.2 to -0.1) at 3 weeks, and -0.3 points (95% confidence interval, -0.5 to -0.0) over the first 7 days. Patients receiving the McKenzie method did not show additional effects on global perceived effect, disability, function or on the risk of persistent symptoms. These patients sought less additional health care than those receiving only first-line care (P = 0.002). Conclusions When added to the currently recommended first-line care of acute

  6. [Hospital pharmacist has a rule for best practice use and French hospital activity tariffs. Example of a pharmaceutical quality control for drugs reimbursed in addition of DRGs].

    PubMed

    Hedoux, S; Dode, X; Pivot, C; Couray-Targe, S; Aulagner, G

    2012-07-01

    The best practice contract has given a new objective to the hospital pharmacists for the reimbursement in addition to Diagnosis Related Groups' (DRGs) tariffs. We built our pharmaceutical quality control for the administration traceability follow-up regarding the DRGs and the cost of care, for two reasons: the nominal drugs dispensation in link with the prescription made by pharmacist and the important expenditure of these drugs. Our organization depends on the development level of the informatized drugs circuit and minimizes the risk of financial shortfalls or wrong benefits, possible causes of economic penalties for our hospital. On the basis of this follow-up, we highlighted our activity and identified problems of management and drugs circuit organization. The quality of the administration traceability impacts directly on the quality of the medical records and the reimbursements of the expensive drugs. A better knowledge of prescription software is also required for a better quality and security of the medical data used in the medical informatic systems. The drugs management and the personal treatment in and between the care units need to be improved too. We have to continue and improve our organization with the future financial model for ATU drugs and the FIDES project. The health personnel awareness and the development of best informatic tools are also required. PMID:22818260

  7. Meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials on magnesium in addition to beta-blocker for prevention of postoperative atrial arrhythmias after coronary artery bypass grafting

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Atrial arrhythmia (AA) is the most common complication after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). Only beta-blockers and amiodarone have been convincingly shown to decrease its incidence. The effectiveness of magnesium on this complication is still controversial. This meta-analysis was performed to evaluate the effect of magnesium as a sole or adjuvant agent in addition to beta-blocker on suppressing postoperative AA after CABG. Methods We searched the PubMed, Medline, ISI Web of Knowledge, Cochrane library databases and online clinical trial database up to May 2012. We used random effects model when there was significant heterogeneity between trials and fixed effects model when heterogeneity was negligible. Results Five randomized controlled trials were identified, enrolling a total of 1251 patients. The combination of magnesium and beta-blocker did not significantly decrease the incidence of postoperative AA after CABG versus beta-blocker alone (odds ratio (OR) 1.12, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.86-1.47, P = 0.40). Magnesium in addition to beta-blocker did not significantly affect LOS (weighted mean difference −0.14 days of stay, 95% CI −0.58 to 0.29, P = 0.24) or the overall mortality (OR 0.59, 95% CI 0.08-4.56, P = 0.62). However the risk of postoperative adverse events was higher in the combination of magnesium and beta-blocker group than beta-blocker alone (OR 2.80, 95% CI 1.66-4.71, P = 0.0001). Conclusions This meta-analysis offers the more definitive evidence against the prophylactic administration of intravenous magnesium for prevention of AA after CABG when beta-blockers are routinely administered, and shows an association with more adverse events in those people who received magnesium. PMID:23343189

  8. A study protocol of a randomised controlled trial incorporating a health economic analysis to investigate if additional allied health services for rehabilitation reduce length of stay without compromising patient outcomes

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Reducing patient length of stay is a high priority for health service providers. Preliminary information suggests additional Saturday rehabilitation services could reduce the time a patient stays in hospital by three days. This large trial will examine if providing additional physiotherapy and occupational therapy services on a Saturday reduces health care costs, and improves the health of hospital inpatients receiving rehabilitation compared to the usual Monday to Friday service. We will also investigate the cost effectiveness and patient outcomes of such a service. Methods/Design A randomised controlled trial will evaluate the effect of providing additional physiotherapy and occupational therapy for rehabilitation. Seven hundred and twelve patients receiving inpatient rehabilitation at two metropolitan sites will be randomly allocated to the intervention group or control group. The control group will receive usual care physiotherapy and occupational therapy from Monday to Friday while the intervention group will receive the same amount of rehabilitation as the control group Monday to Friday plus a full physiotherapy and occupational therapy service on Saturday. The primary outcomes will be patient length of stay, quality of life (EuroQol questionnaire), the Functional Independence Measure (FIM), and health utilization and cost data. Secondary outcomes will assess clinical outcomes relevant to the goals of therapy: the 10 metre walk test, the timed up and go test, the Personal Care Participation Assessment and Resource Tool (PC PART), and the modified motor assessment scale. Blinded assessors will assess outcomes at admission and discharge, and follow up data on quality of life, function and health care costs will be collected at 6 and 12 months after discharge. Between group differences will be analysed with analysis of covariance using baseline measures as the covariate. A health economic analysis will be carried out alongside the randomised

  9. Testing the Efficacy of OurSpace, a Brief, Group Dynamics-Based Physical Activity Intervention: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Chalin, Patrice; Thompson, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    Background Emerging technologies (ie, mobile phones, Internet) may be effective tools for promoting physical activity (PA). However, few interventions have provided effective means to enhance social support through these platforms. Face-to-face programs that use group dynamics-based principles of behavior change have been shown to be highly effective in enhancing social support through promoting group cohesion and PA, but to date, no studies have examined their effects in Web-based programs. Objective The aim was to explore proof of concept and test the efficacy of a brief, online group dynamics-based intervention on PA in a controlled experiment. We expected that the impact of the intervention on PA would be moderated by perceptions of cohesion and the partner’s degree of presence in the online media. Methods Participants (n=135) were randomized into same-sex dyads and randomly assigned to one of four experimental conditions: standard social support (standard), group dynamics-based–high presence, group dynamics-based–low presence, or individual control. Participants performed two sets of planking exercises (pre-post). Between sets, participants in partnered conditions interacted with a virtual partner using either a standard social support app or a group dynamics-based app (group dynamics-based–low presence and group dynamics-based–high presence), the latter of which they participated in a series of online team-building exercises. Individual participants were given an equivalent rest period between sets. To increase presence during the second set, participants in the group dynamics-based–high presence group saw a live video stream of their partner exercising. Perceptions of cohesion were measured using a modified PA Group Environment Questionnaire. Physical activity was calculated as the time persisted during set 2 after controlling for persistence in set 1. Results Perceptions of cohesion were higher in the group dynamics-based–low presence (overall

  10. Saccharomyces cerevisiae Thg1 Uses 5′-Pyrophosphate Removal To Control Addition of Nucleotides to tRNAHis

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    In eukaryotes, the tRNAHis guanylyltransferase (Thg1) catalyzes 3′–5′ addition of a single guanosine residue to the −1 position (G–1) of tRNAHis, across from a highly conserved adenosine at position 73 (A73). After addition of G–1, Thg1 removes pyrophosphate from the tRNA 5′-end, generating 5′-monophosphorylated G–1-containing tRNA. The presence of the 5′-monophosphorylated G–1 residue is important for recognition of tRNAHis by its cognate histidyl-tRNA synthetase. In addition to the single-G–1 addition reaction, Thg1 polymerizes multiple G residues to the 5′-end of tRNAHis variants. For 3′–5′ polymerization, Thg1 uses the 3′-end of the tRNAHis acceptor stem as a template. The mechanism of reverse polymerization is presumed to involve nucleophilic attack of the 3′-OH from each incoming NTP on the intact 5′-triphosphate created by the preceding nucleotide addition. The potential exists for competition between 5′-pyrophosphate removal and 3′–5′ polymerase reactions that could define the outcome of Thg1-catalyzed addition, yet the interplay between these competing reactions has not been investigated for any Thg1 enzyme. Here we establish transient kinetic assays to characterize the pyrophosphate removal versus nucleotide addition activities of yeast Thg1 with a set of tRNAHis substrates in which the identity of the N–1:N73 base pair was varied to mimic various products of the N–1 addition reaction catalyzed by Thg1. We demonstrate that retention of the 5′-triphosphate is correlated with efficient 3′–5′ reverse polymerization. A kinetic partitioning mechanism that acts to prevent addition of nucleotides beyond the −1 position with wild-type tRNAHis is proposed. PMID:24548272

  11. 40 CFR 82.18 - Availability of production in addition to baseline production allowances for class II controlled...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... permitted under the Montreal Protocol or to receive from the person for the current control period some... production quantities: (A) The maximum production that the nation is allowed under the Protocol minus...

  12. Effects of silver and group 2 fluorides addition to plasma sprayed chromium carbide high temperature solid lubricant for foil gas bearing to 650 deg C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagner, R. C.; Sliney, H. E.

    1984-01-01

    A new self-lubricating coating composition of nickel aluminide-bonded chromium carbide formulated with silver and Group II fluorides was developed in a research program on high temperature solid lubricants. One of the proposed applications for this new coating composition is as a wide temperature spectrum solid lubricant for complaint foil gas bearings. Friction and wear properties were obtained using a foil gas bearing start/stop apparatus at temperatures from 25 to 650 C. The journals were Inconel 718. Some were coated with the plasma sprayed experimental coating, others with unmodified nickel aluminide/chromium carbide as a baseline for comparison. The addtitional components were provided to assist in achieving low friction over the temperature range of interest. Uncoated, preoxidized Inconel X-750 foil bearings were operated against these surfaces. The foils were subjected to repeated start/stop cycles under a 14-kPa (2-psi) bearing unit loading. Sliding contact occurred during lift-off and coastdown at surface velocities less than 6 m/s (3000 rpm). Testing continued until 9000 start/stop cycles were accumulated or until a rise in starting torque indicated the journal/bearing had failed. Comparison in coating performance as well as discussions of their properties and methods of application are given.

  13. Power management of actuator/sensor groups for the intelligent control of a flexible structure subject to spatiotemporally varying disturbances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potami, Raffaele; Demetriou, Michael A.

    2006-03-01

    The problem of actuator and sensor placement in a flexible plate is revisited within the context of an intelligent control scheme. Instead of considering individual actuators and sensors, we consider groups of actuators and sensors that have the same capacity to address specific modes. The placement optimization procedure chooses actuators and sensors within a given group so that can collectively address a specific range of modal frequencies. Integrated into the control scheme is the ability to select, over a time interval of fixed length, a given group that can best address spatiotemporally varying disturbances in which the spatial distribution of disturbances changes with time. For the numerical studies on a thin aluminum plate, clamped on all sides and employing piezoceramic patches as collocated actuators/sensors, we consider four groups of PZT actuators/sensors wherein each actuator in each group is designed to have a high level of modal controllability with respect to a given modal shape. Incorporated into the above optimization is the influence of each PZT on the plate's modal shapes. The intelligent control then provides the switching scheme in which, at a given time instance, only one of the four groups is active with the remaining three being kept dormant in order to reduce power consumption.

  14. Moderating Effect of Negative Peer Group Climate on the Relation Between Men's Locus of Control and Aggression Toward Intimate Partners.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Megan R; Lisco, Claire G; Parrott, Dominic J; Tharp, Andra T

    2016-03-01

    The present study sought to examine the interactive effects of an external locus of control and interaction in a negative peer group climate on men's perpetration of physical aggression and infliction of injury toward their female intimate partners. Participants were 206 heterosexual males recruited from the metro-Atlanta community who completed self-report measures of external locus of control, involvement in a negative peer group climate, and physical aggression and infliction of injury against intimate partners during the past 12 months. Negative peer group climate was conceptualized as a peer group that displays behavior which may instigate aggressive norms, attitudes, and behaviors. Results indicated that men with an external locus of control were more likely to perpetrate physical aggression toward and inflict injury on their intimate partners if they reported high, but not low, involvement in a negative peer group climate. These results extend current research suggesting external locus of control as a risk factor for intimate partner aggression by highlighting the impact of negative peer groups. Implications and future intervention research are discussed.

  15. [Introduction of additional thiol groups into glucoamylase in Aspergillus awamori and their effect on the thermal stability and catalytic activity of the enzyme].

    PubMed

    Surzhik, M A; Shmidt, A E; Glazunov, E A; Firsov, D L; Petukhov, M G

    2014-01-01

    Five mutant forms of glucoamylase (GA) from the filamentous fungus Aspergillus awamori with artificial disulfide bonds (4D-G137A\\A14C, 6D-A14C\\Y419C\\G137A, 10D-V13C\\G396C, 11D-V13C\\G396C\\A14C\\Y419C\\G137A, and 20D-G137A\\A246C\\A14C) were constructed using computer simulation and experimentally tested for thermostability. The introduction of two additional disulfide bonds between its first and thirteenth alpha-helices and that of the loop located close to a catalytic residue--E400--made it possible to assess the effects of disulfide bridges on protein thermostability. The mutant proteins with combined amino acid substitutions G137A\\A14C, V13C\\G396C\\A14C\\Y419C\\G137A, and G137A\\A246C\\A14C showed higher thermal stability as compared to the wild-type protein. At the same time, new disulfide bridges in the mutant A14C\\Y419C\\G137A and V13C\\G396C proteins led to the destabilization of their structure and the loss of thermal stability.

  16. Control of product selectivity using solid acids for the catalytic addition of phenol to hydroxy fatty acids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The acid catalyzed reactions of hydroxy fatty acids, such as ricinoleic and lesquerolic, in the presence of phenolics can lead to four products or product groups. These include simple dehydration to dienoic acids, cyclization to epoxides, Friedel-Crafts alkylations of the double bonds, or ether for...

  17. Effectiveness of foot and hand massage in postcesarean pain control in a group of Turkish pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Degirmen, Nuriye; Ozerdogan, Nebahat; Sayiner, Deniz; Kosgeroglu, Nedime; Ayranci, Unal

    2010-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the efficiency of foot and hand massage on reducing postoperative pain in patients who had cesarean operation. This pretest-posttest design study was planned as a randomized controlled experimental study. In the light of the results, it was reported that the reduction in pain intensity was significantly meaningful in both intervention groups when compared to the control group. It was also noted that vital findings were measured comparatively higher before the massage in the test groups, and they were found to be relatively lower in the measurements conducted right before and after the massage, which was considered to be statistically meaningful. Foot and hand massage proved useful as an effective nursing intervention in controlling postoperative pain. PMID:20643325

  18. Effects of Group-Based Exercise on Range of Motion, Muscle Strength, Functional Ability, and Pain During the Acute Phase After Total Knee Arthroplasty: A Controlled Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Hiyama, Yoshinori; Kamitani, Tsukasa; Wada, Osamu; Mizuno, Kiyonori; Yamada, Minoru

    2016-09-01

    Study Design Prospective observational study including a historical control group. Background The extent to which group-based exercise (G-EXE) improves knee range of motion (ROM), quadriceps strength, and gait ability is similar to that of individualized exercise (I-EXE) at 6 weeks and 8 months after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). However, the benefits of G-EXE for patients during the acute recovery phase after TKA remain unclear. Objective To determine the effects of G-EXE during the acute recovery phase after TKA on knee ROM, quadriceps strength, functional ability, and knee pain. Methods Two hundred thirty-one patients participated in G-EXE in addition to regular ambulation and activities-of-daily-living exercises twice daily during the hospital stay. Outcomes were compared to those of a retrospectively identified, historical control group (I-EXE group [n = 206]) that included patients who performed exercises identical to those performed by the G-EXE group. The outcomes included knee ROM, quadriceps strength, pain intensity, and timed up-and-go test score at 1 month before surgery and at discharge. Analyses were adjusted for age, body mass index, sex, length of hospital stay, and preoperative values. Results Changes in ROM of knee flexion and extension (P<.001) and quadriceps strength (P<.001) were significantly better in the G-EXE group than those in the I-EXE group at discharge. The pain intensity improved more in the G-EXE group than in the I-EXE group at discharge (P<.001). However, the changes in the timed up-and-go scores were not significantly different. Conclusion Patients performing G-EXE in addition to regular ambulation and activities-of-daily-living exercises demonstrated greater changes in knee ROM, quadriceps strength, and knee pain than those performing I-EXE in addition to regular ambulation and activities-of-daily-living exercises. The nonrandomized, asynchronous design decreases certainty of these findings. Level of Evidence Therapy, level 2b

  19. Amino group combined P/Ge and P/Sn Lewis pairs: synthesis and dipolar addition reactions to alkyne and aldehyde molecules.

    PubMed

    Yu, Ying; Li, Jiancheng; Liu, Weiping; Ye, Qingsong; Zhu, Hongping

    2016-04-14

    Amino group combined P/Ge-based frustrated Lewis pairs (FLPs) Ph2PN(R)GeCl3 (R = 2,6-iPr2C6H3 (1), 2,4,6-Me3C6H2 (2), and C6H11 (3)) and Ph2PN(2,6-iPr2C6H3)GeMe3 (4) as well as P/Sn-based FLP Ph2PN(2,6-iPr2C6H3)SnMe3 (5) were prepared and utilized for reactions with alkyne and aldehyde molecules. Compounds 1-3 each reacted with MeO2CC[triple bond, length as m-dash]CCO2Me to give zwitterionic cyclic vinyls [Ph2PN(R)GeCl3](MeO2CC[double bond, length as m-dash]CCO2Me) (6-8) and compound 1 reacted with HC[triple bond, length as m-dash]CCO2Me to give the similar compound [Ph2PN(2,4,6-Me3C6H2)GeCl3](HC[double bond, length as m-dash]CCO2Me) (9). Compound 4 reacted with RC[triple bond, length as m-dash]CCO2Me to afford acyclic vinyls 2,6-iPr2C6H3N[double bond, length as m-dash]P(Ph2)C(R)[double bond, length as m-dash]C(CO2Me)GeMe3 (R = CO2Me (10), H (11)) and 5 reacted with MeO2CC[triple bond, length as m-dash]CCO2Me to give 2,6-iPr2C6H3N[double bond, length as m-dash]P(Ph2)C(CO2Me)[double bond, length as m-dash]C(CO2Me)SnMe3 (12). The reactions of 1 with CH3CH2CHO and 1,4-(CHO)2C6H4 were also investigated and yielded novel zwitterionic OCPNGe five-heteroatom cycles [Ph2PN(2,6-iPr2C6H3)GeCl3][CH(CH2CH3)O] (13) and [Ph2PN(2,6-iPr2C6H3)GeCl3][p-(OCH)C6H4CHO][Cl3GeN(2,6-iPr2C6H3)PPh2] (14). Compounds 1-14 were characterized by NMR ((1)H, (13)C, and (31)P) and CHN elemental analysis, of which 1, 7, and 10-14 were further studied by X-ray crystallography. The reactions of 4 (or 5) with RC[triple bond, length as m-dash]CCO2Me to produce 10-12 present a novel way of obtaining the germyl (or stannyl) and iminophosphoranyl co-substituted vinyls.

  20. Amino group combined P/Ge and P/Sn Lewis pairs: synthesis and dipolar addition reactions to alkyne and aldehyde molecules.

    PubMed

    Yu, Ying; Li, Jiancheng; Liu, Weiping; Ye, Qingsong; Zhu, Hongping

    2016-04-14

    Amino group combined P/Ge-based frustrated Lewis pairs (FLPs) Ph2PN(R)GeCl3 (R = 2,6-iPr2C6H3 (1), 2,4,6-Me3C6H2 (2), and C6H11 (3)) and Ph2PN(2,6-iPr2C6H3)GeMe3 (4) as well as P/Sn-based FLP Ph2PN(2,6-iPr2C6H3)SnMe3 (5) were prepared and utilized for reactions with alkyne and aldehyde molecules. Compounds 1-3 each reacted with MeO2CC[triple bond, length as m-dash]CCO2Me to give zwitterionic cyclic vinyls [Ph2PN(R)GeCl3](MeO2CC[double bond, length as m-dash]CCO2Me) (6-8) and compound 1 reacted with HC[triple bond, length as m-dash]CCO2Me to give the similar compound [Ph2PN(2,4,6-Me3C6H2)GeCl3](HC[double bond, length as m-dash]CCO2Me) (9). Compound 4 reacted with RC[triple bond, length as m-dash]CCO2Me to afford acyclic vinyls 2,6-iPr2C6H3N[double bond, length as m-dash]P(Ph2)C(R)[double bond, length as m-dash]C(CO2Me)GeMe3 (R = CO2Me (10), H (11)) and 5 reacted with MeO2CC[triple bond, length as m-dash]CCO2Me to give 2,6-iPr2C6H3N[double bond, length as m-dash]P(Ph2)C(CO2Me)[double bond, length as m-dash]C(CO2Me)SnMe3 (12). The reactions of 1 with CH3CH2CHO and 1,4-(CHO)2C6H4 were also investigated and yielded novel zwitterionic OCPNGe five-heteroatom cycles [Ph2PN(2,6-iPr2C6H3)GeCl3][CH(CH2CH3)O] (13) and [Ph2PN(2,6-iPr2C6H3)GeCl3][p-(OCH)C6H4CHO][Cl3GeN(2,6-iPr2C6H3)PPh2] (14). Compounds 1-14 were characterized by NMR ((1)H, (13)C, and (31)P) and CHN elemental analysis, of which 1, 7, and 10-14 were further studied by X-ray crystallography. The reactions of 4 (or 5) with RC[triple bond, length as m-dash]CCO2Me to produce 10-12 present a novel way of obtaining the germyl (or stannyl) and iminophosphoranyl co-substituted vinyls. PMID:26658532

  1. Copper-Catalyzed Enantioselective Addition of Styrene-Derived Nucleophiles to Imines Enabled by Ligand-Controlled Chemoselective Hydrocupration.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yang; Perry, Ian B; Buchwald, Stephen L

    2016-08-10

    The copper-catalyzed intermolecular enantioselective addition of styrenes to imines has been achieved under mild conditions at ambient temperature. This process features the use of styrenes as latent carbanion equivalents via the intermediacy of catalytically generated benzylcopper derivatives, providing an effective means for accessing highly enantiomerically enriched amines bearing contiguous stereocenters. Mechanistic studies shed light on the origin of the preferential styrene hydrocupration in the presence of an imine with the Ph-BPE-derived copper catalyst. PMID:27454393

  2. 78 FR 14217 - Control of Alcohol and Drug Use: Addition of Post-Accident Toxicological Testing for Non...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-05

    ... certain non-controlled substances with potentially impairing side effects (77 FR 29307). As discussed in..., chlorpheniramine, bromenphiramine, and doxylamine'' (77 FR at 29308, emphasis added). As explained below, the... suspicion and post-accident testing, 50 FR 31508, August 2, 1985), and the Supreme Court upheld...

  3. 40 CFR 82.18 - Availability of production in addition to baseline production allowances for class II controlled...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... quantity of production that the nation is permitted under the Montreal Protocol or to receive from the... allowances, for a specified control period through trades with another Party to the Protocol as set forth in... that is also listed in Appendix C, Annex 1 of the Protocol as having ratified the Beijing...

  4. 40 CFR 82.18 - Availability of production in addition to baseline production allowances for class II controlled...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... quantity of production that the nation is permitted under the Montreal Protocol or to receive from the... allowances, for a specified control period through trades with another Party to the Protocol as set forth in... that is also listed in Appendix C, Annex 1 of the Protocol as having ratified the Beijing...

  5. 40 CFR 82.18 - Availability of production in addition to baseline production allowances for class II controlled...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... quantity of production that the nation is permitted under the Montreal Protocol or to receive from the... allowances, for a specified control period through trades with another Party to the Protocol as set forth in... that is also listed in Appendix C, Annex 1 of the Protocol as having ratified the Beijing...

  6. Controlled challenge experiment demonstrates substantial additive genetic variation in resistance of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) to Streptococcus iniae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Streptococcus iniae is an etiologic agent of streptococcal disease in tilapia and is one of several Streptococcus spp. that negatively impact worldwide tilapia production. Methods for the prevention and control of S. iniae include vaccines, management strategies, and antibiotics. A complimentary pre...

  7. Effects of drying control chemical additive on properties of Li 4Ti 5O 12 negative powders prepared by spray pyrolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ju, Seo Hee; Kang, Yun Chan

    High-density Li 4Ti 5O 12 powders comprising spherical particles are prepared by spray pyrolysis from a solution containing dimethylacetamide (drying control chemical additive) and citric acid and ethylene glycol (organic additives). The prepared powders have high discharge capacities and good cycle properties. The optimum concentration of dimethylacetamide is 0.5 M. The addition of dimethylacetamide to the polymeric spray solutions containing citric acid and ethylene glycol helps in the effective control of the morphology of the Li 4Ti 5O 12 powders. At a constant current density of 0.17 mA g -1, the initial discharge capacities of the powders obtained from the spray solution with and without the organic additives are 171 and 167 mAh g -1, respectively.

  8. Effectiveness of a psychological support program for relatives of people with mental disorders compared to a control group: a prandomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Polo-López, Rocío; Salaberría, Karmele; Echeburúa, Enrique

    2015-05-01

    Families of people affected by mental illness may suffer an adverse effect on well-being. In this study, the effectiveness of a cognitive-behavioral treatment designed for relatives of people with mental health problems was evaluated. The sample comprised 50 individuals: 30 in the experimental group, who completed assessment measures in pre-posttreatment and 6 months later, and 20 participants in the control group, who were assessed at baseline and 6 months later. In the experimental group, significant improvements in well-being were observed following the treatment and 6 months later, when compared to the control group, which did not demonstrate any significant changes in outcomes between the baseline and the second assessment 6 months later. This program has proven to be effective as a treatment for the relatives of people with mental disorders. Finally, several topics that may contribute to future research are discussed.

  9. The Daily Lives of People With HIV Infection: A Qualitative Study of the Control Group in an Expressive Writing Intervention.

    PubMed

    Metaweh, Maria; Ironson, Gail; Barroso, Julie

    2016-01-01

    Emotional disclosure is an expressive writing technique used in psychotherapy to process traumatic and stressful life experiences. While emotional disclosure interventions frequently use control groups, there are few qualitative analyses of these control groups. Our study's purpose was to analyze the control essays written by HIV-infected informants about their daily activities in an augmented written emotional disclosure intervention. Latent and manifest qualitative content analyses revealed prevalent contextual themes within the data. The emergent themes were socioeconomic status (SES), self-care, religiosity/spirituality, and social support. Emotional disclosure control subjects contributed substantial findings in terms of SES, self-care, resiliency, religiosity/spirituality, and social support and altruism. PMID:27426408

  10. Profile of women who request reversal of tubal sterilization: comparison with a randomly selected control group.

    PubMed Central

    Marcil-Gratton, N; Duchesne, C; St-Germain-Roy, S; Tulandi, T

    1988-01-01

    The characteristics of 96 women who requested reversal of tubal ligation at two fertility clinics in Montreal were compared with those of 403 randomly selected sterilized women in Quebec. The two groups were found to have a similar socioeconomic profile. In only two respects were the groups significantly different: the women who requested reversal generally had been sterilized at an earlier age and had more complex marital histories. PMID:3355950

  11. The group A streptococcal virR49 gene controls expression of four structural vir regulon genes.

    PubMed

    Podbielski, A; Flosdorff, A; Weber-Heynemann, J

    1995-01-01

    Within a genomic locus termed the vir regulon, virR genes of opacity factor-nonproducing (OF-) group A streptococci (GAS) are known to control the expression of the genes encoding M protein (emm) and C5a peptidase (scpA) and of virR itself. Within the corresponding genomic locus, opacity factor-producing (OF+) GAS harbor additional emm-related genes encoding immunoglobulin G- and immunoglobulin A-binding proteins (fcrA and enn, respectively). The virR gene region of the OF+ GAS M-type 49 strain CS101 was amplified by PCR, and 2,650 bp were directly sequenced. An open reading frame of 1,599 bp exhibited 76% overall homology to published virR sequences. By utilizing mRNA analysis, the 5' ends of two specific transcripts were mapped 370 and 174 bp upstream of the start codon of this open reading frame. The deduced sequences of the corresponding promoters and their locations differed from those of previously reported virR promoters. Transcripts from wild-type fcrA49, emm49, enn49, and scpA49 genes located downstream of virR49 were characterized as being monocistronic. The transcripts were quantified and mapped for their 5' ends. Subsequently, the virR49 gene was inactivated by specific insertion of a nonreplicative pSF152 vector containing recombinant virR49 sequences. The RNA from the resulting vir-mut strain did not contain transcripts of virR49, fcrA49, emm49, or enn49 and contained reduced amounts of the scpA49 transcript when compared with wild-type RNA. The mRNA control from the streptokinase gene was demonstrated not to be affected. When strain vir-mut was rotated in human blood, it was found to be fully sensitive to phagocytosis by human leukocytes. Thus, the present study provides evidence that virR genes in OF+ GAS could be involved in the control of up to five vir regulon genes, and their unaffected regulatory activity is associated with features postulated as crucial for GAS virulence.

  12. DVD training for depression identification and treatment in older adults: a two-group, randomized, wait-list control study.

    PubMed

    Lysack, Cathy; Leach, Carrie; Russo, Theresa; Paulson, Daniel; Lichtenberg, Peter A

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. To test the effectiveness of an educational intervention aimed at improving mental health knowledge and skills in occupational therapists working with older rehabilitation patients. METHOD. The DVD-format educational intervention was evaluated using a two-group randomized wait-list control design. Occupational therapists (n = 75) completed a 32-item knowledge questionnaire at three time points. Patient charts were reviewed (n = 960) at 3 months before and 3 and 6 months after DVD training to evaluate clinical practice change. RESULTS. A two-way analysis of variance showed knowledge scores increased significantly for both groups after DVD training. A significant Group × Time interaction and significant main effects for time and group were found. Chart review data also showed significant increases in desired clinical behaviors in both groups after training. The greatest single item of clinical practice change was use of a standardized depression screen. CONCLUSION. DVD-based training can significantly improve mental health practice. PMID:23968797

  13. Peer-based control in self-managing teams: linking rational and normative influence with individual and group performance.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Greg L; Courtright, Stephen H; Barrick, Murray R

    2012-03-01

    The authors use a multilevel framework to introduce peer-based control as a motivational state that emerges in self-managing teams. The authors specifically describe how peer-based rational control, which is defined as team members perceiving the distribution of economic rewards as dependent on input from teammates, extends and interacts with the more commonly studied normative control force of group cohesion to explain both individual and collective performance in teams. On the basis of data from 587 factory workers in 45 self-managing teams at 3 organizations, peer-based rational control corresponded with higher performance for both individuals and collective teams. Results further demonstrated that the rational and normative mechanism of peer-based control interacted to explain performance at both the individual and team levels. Increased peer-based rational control corresponded with higher individual and collective performance in teams with low cohesion, but the positive effects on performance were attenuated in cohesive teams.

  14. Peer-based control in self-managing teams: linking rational and normative influence with individual and group performance.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Greg L; Courtright, Stephen H; Barrick, Murray R

    2012-03-01

    The authors use a multilevel framework to introduce peer-based control as a motivational state that emerges in self-managing teams. The authors specifically describe how peer-based rational control, which is defined as team members perceiving the distribution of economic rewards as dependent on input from teammates, extends and interacts with the more commonly studied normative control force of group cohesion to explain both individual and collective performance in teams. On the basis of data from 587 factory workers in 45 self-managing teams at 3 organizations, peer-based rational control corresponded with higher performance for both individuals and collective teams. Results further demonstrated that the rational and normative mechanism of peer-based control interacted to explain performance at both the individual and team levels. Increased peer-based rational control corresponded with higher individual and collective performance in teams with low cohesion, but the positive effects on performance were attenuated in cohesive teams. PMID:21895352

  15. A control system formulation of the mechanism that controls the secretions of serum group hormone in humans during sleep

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, J. C.; Young, D. R.

    1975-01-01

    Plasma growth hormone concentrations during sleep were determined experimentally. An elevated level of plasma growth hormone was observed during the initial phase of sleep and remained elevated for approximately 3 hr before returning to the steady-state level. Moreover, subsequent to a prolonged interruption of sleep, of the order of 2-3 hr, an elevated level of plasma growth hormone was again observed during the initial phase of resumed sleep. A control system formulation of the mechanism that controls the secretions of serum growth hormone in humans was used to account for the growth hormone responses observed.

  16. Anger-Control Group Counseling for Women Recovering from Alcohol or Drug Addiction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez-Prendes, A. Antonio

    2008-01-01

    Two experimental conditions, a manualized cognitive-behavioral anger-control treatment incorporating empowerment strategies and a relapse-prevention treatment without the anger-control component, were compared to assess their impact on levels of trait anger and attributional styles of women recovering from alcohol and drug addiction. Participants…

  17. Additive effect of elcatonin to risedronate for chronic back pain and quality of life in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Hongo, Michio; Miyakoshi, Naohisa; Kasukawa, Yuji; Ishikawa, Yoshinori; Shimada, Yoichi

    2015-07-01

    Calcitonin has been reported to reduce acute and chronic back pain in osteoporotic patients. The additive effect of calcitonin with a bisphosphonate on chronic back pain remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of combining elcatonin (eel calcitonin) with risedronate for patients with chronic back pain. Forty-five postmenopausal women diagnosed as having osteoporosis with chronic back pain persisting for more than 3 months, after excluding women with fresh vertebral fractures within the last 6 months, were randomly allocated to a risedronate group (risedronate alone, n = 22) and a combined group (risedronate and elcatonin, n = 23). The study period was 6 months. Pain was evaluated with a visual analogue scale (VAS) and the Roland-Morris questionnaire (RDQ). Back extensor strength, bone mineral density, and quality of life on the SF-36 and the Japanese osteoporosis quality of life score were also evaluated. Significant improvements were found in the combined group for VAS at final follow-up compared with baseline and 3 months, mental health status on the SF-36, and JOQOL domains for back pain and general health. The JOQOL domain for back pain improved significantly, but no change was found in the VAS or other domains in the risedronate group. Bone mineral density increased significantly in the two groups, but no significant difference was found between the groups. Back extensor strength did not change in both groups. In conclusion, the use of elcatonin in addition to risedronate for more than 3 months reduced chronic back pain. The additional therapy of risedronate with elcatonin may be a useful and practical choice for the treatment of osteoporosis with chronic back pain persisting more than 3 months.

  18. Food additives

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Michael

    1974-01-01

    Food additives are discussed from the food technology point of view. The reasons for their use are summarized: (1) to protect food from chemical and microbiological attack; (2) to even out seasonal supplies; (3) to improve their eating quality; (4) to improve their nutritional value. The various types of food additives are considered, e.g. colours, flavours, emulsifiers, bread and flour additives, preservatives, and nutritional additives. The paper concludes with consideration of those circumstances in which the use of additives is (a) justified and (b) unjustified. PMID:4467857

  19. Personalised Normative Feedback for Preventing Alcohol Misuse in University Students: Solomon Three-Group Randomised Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Moreira, Maria T.; Oskrochi, Reza; Foxcroft, David R.

    2012-01-01

    Background Young people tend to over-estimate peer group drinking levels. Personalised normative feedback (PNF) aims to correct this misperception by providing information about personal drinking levels and patterns compared with norms in similar aged peer groups. PNF is intended to raise motivation for behaviour change and has been highlighted for alcohol misuse prevention by the British Government Behavioural Insight Team. The objective of the trial was to assess the effectiveness of PNF with college students for the prevention of alcohol misuse. Methodology Solomon three-group randomised controlled trial. 1751 students, from 22 British Universities, allocated to a PNF group, a normal control group, or a delayed measurement control group to allow assessment of any measurement effects. PNF was provided by email. Participants completed online questionnaires at baseline, 6- and 12-months (only 12-months for the delayed measurement controls). Drinking behaviour measures were (i) alcohol disorders; (ii) frequency; (iii) typical quantity, (iv) weekly consumption; (v) alcohol-related problems; (vi) perceived drinking norms; and (vii) positive alcohol expectancies. Analyses focused on high-risk drinkers, as well as all students, because of research evidence for the prevention paradox in student drinkers. Principal Findings Follow-up rates were low, with only 50% and 40% responding at 6- and 12-months, respectively, though comparable to similar European studies. We found no evidence for any systematic attrition bias. Overall, statistical analyses with the high risk sub-sample, and for all students, showed no significant effects of the intervention, at either time-point, in a completed case analysis and a multiple imputation analysis. Conclusions We found no evidence for the effectiveness of PNF for the prevention of alcohol misuse and alcohol-related problems in a UK student population. Registration Controlled-Trials.com ISRCTN30784467 PMID:22984466

  20. Graphene oxide as a high-performance fluid-loss-control additive in water-based drilling fluids.

    PubMed

    Kosynkin, Dmitry V; Ceriotti, Gabriel; Wilson, Kurt C; Lomeda, Jay R; Scorsone, Jason T; Patel, Arvind D; Friedheim, James E; Tour, James M

    2012-01-01

    Graphene oxide (GO) performs well as a filtration additive in water-based drilling fluids at concentrations as low as 0.2 % (w/w) by carbon content. Standard American Petroleum Institute (API) filtration tests were conducted on pH-adjusted, aqueous dispersions of GO and xanthan gum. It was found that a combination of large-flake GO and powdered GO in a 3:1 ratio performed best in the API tests, allowing an average fluid loss of 6.1 mL over 30 min and leaving a filter cake ~20 μm thick. In comparison, a standard suspension (~12 g/L) of clays and polymers used in the oil industry gave an average fluid loss of 7.2 mL and a filter cake ~280 μm thick. Scanning electron microscopy imaging revealed the extreme pliability of well-exfoliated GO, as the pressure due to filtration crumpled single GO sheets, forcing them to slide through pores with diameters much smaller than the flake's flattened size. GO solutions also exhibited greater shear thinning and higher temperature stability compared to clay-based fluid-loss additives, demonstrating potential for high-temperature well applications.

  1. Graphene oxide as a high-performance fluid-loss-control additive in water-based drilling fluids.

    PubMed

    Kosynkin, Dmitry V; Ceriotti, Gabriel; Wilson, Kurt C; Lomeda, Jay R; Scorsone, Jason T; Patel, Arvind D; Friedheim, James E; Tour, James M

    2012-01-01

    Graphene oxide (GO) performs well as a filtration additive in water-based drilling fluids at concentrations as low as 0.2 % (w/w) by carbon content. Standard American Petroleum Institute (API) filtration tests were conducted on pH-adjusted, aqueous dispersions of GO and xanthan gum. It was found that a combination of large-flake GO and powdered GO in a 3:1 ratio performed best in the API tests, allowing an average fluid loss of 6.1 mL over 30 min and leaving a filter cake ~20 μm thick. In comparison, a standard suspension (~12 g/L) of clays and polymers used in the oil industry gave an average fluid loss of 7.2 mL and a filter cake ~280 μm thick. Scanning electron microscopy imaging revealed the extreme pliability of well-exfoliated GO, as the pressure due to filtration crumpled single GO sheets, forcing them to slide through pores with diameters much smaller than the flake's flattened size. GO solutions also exhibited greater shear thinning and higher temperature stability compared to clay-based fluid-loss additives, demonstrating potential for high-temperature well applications. PMID:22136134

  2. A community-based approach to diabetes control in multiple cultural groups.

    PubMed

    Garvin, Cheza Collier; Cheadle, Allen; Chrisman, Noel; Chen, Roxana; Brunson, Emily

    2004-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is one of the most common, serious, and costly chronic diseases, and is a leading cause of death in the United States. Communities of color bear a disproportionate burden of diabetes risk, prevalence, complications, and mortality. REACH 2010 Seattle and King County provides socio-ecological interventions to reduce diabetes disparities among African-American, Cambodian, Chinese, Filipino, Korean, Latino/Hispanic, Vietnamese and soon Samoan, and Vietnamese groups. This paper reports evaluation results of REACH classes and support groups. Results from participant pre- and post-surveys demonstrated increases in self-reported physical activity and healthier eating, and increased self-efficacy in managing diabetes. Qualitative focus group results revealed participants' enthusiasm for classes tailored to their ethnic groups, and for intervention impact on management of their diabetes. Qualitative results confirmed survey findings that group participation resulted in significant changes in diet and physical activity. The results underscore the need for more widespread adoption of culturally competent diabetes education and support programs. PMID:15682776

  3. An Additional Approach to Model Current Followers and Amplifiers with Electronically Controllable Parameters from Commercially Available ICs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sotner, R.; Kartci, A.; Jerabek, J.; Herencsar, N.; Dostal, T.; Vrba, K.

    2012-12-01

    Several behavioral models of current active elements for experimental purposes are introduced in this paper. These models are based on commercially available devices. They are suitable for experimental tests of current- and mixed-mode filters, oscillators, and other circuits (employing current-mode active elements) frequently used in analog signal processing without necessity of onchip fabrication of proper active element. Several methods of electronic control of intrinsic resistance in the proposed behavioral models are discussed. All predictions and theoretical assumptions are supported by simulations and experiments. This contribution helps to find a cheaper and more effective way to preliminary laboratory tests without expensive on-chip fabrication of special active elements.

  4. Financial Quality Control of In-Patient Chemotherapy in Germany: Are Additional Payments Cost-Covering for Pharmaco-Oncological Expenses?

    PubMed Central

    Jacobs, Volker R.; Mallmann, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background Cost-covering in-patient care is increasingly important for hospital providers in Germany, especially with regard to expensive oncological pharmaceuticals. Additional payments (Zusatzentgelte; ZE) on top of flat rate diagnose-related group (DRG) reimbursement can be claimed by hospitals for in-patient use of selected medications. To verify cost coverage of in-patient chemotherapies, the costs of medication were compared to their revenues. Method From January to June 2010, a retrospective cost-revenue study was performed at a German obstetrics/gynecology university clinic. The hospital's pharmacy list of inpatient oncological therapies for breast and gynecological cancer was checked for accuracy and compared with the documented ZEs and the costs and revenues for each oncological application. Results N = 45 in-patient oncological therapies were identified in n = 18 patients, as well as n = 7 bisphosphonate applications; n = 11 ZEs were documented. Costs for oncological medication were € 33,752. The corresponding ZE revenues amounted to only € 13,980, resulting in a loss of € 19,772. All in-patient oncological therapies performed were not cost-covering. Data discrepancy, incorrect documentation and cost attribution, and process aborts were identified. Conclusions Routine financial quality control at the medicine-pharmacy administration interface is implemented, with monthly comparison of costs and revenues, as well as admission status. Non-cost-covering therapies for in-patients should be converted to out-patient therapies. Necessary adjustments of clinic processes are made according to these results, to avoid future losses. PMID:21673822

  5. The effectiveness of group positive psychotherapy on depression and happiness in breast cancer patients: A randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Dowlatabadi, Mohammad Mehdi; Ahmadi, Seyed Mojtaba; Sorbi, Mohammad Hossein; Beiki, Omid; Razavi, Tayebeh Khademeh; Bidaki, Reza

    2016-01-01

    Background Breast cancer is one of the most prevalent cancers in women in the world. It causes fear, despair, and takes a tremendous toll on psychological status. Objective To determine the effectiveness of group positive psychotherapy on the depression and happiness of breast cancer patients. Methods This randomized controlled trial was conducted with 42 breast cancer patients in The Oncology Center at Kermanshah, Iran in 2015. The Data were gathered before intervention and ten weeks afterwards. The data were collected using Beck’s Depression Inventory (BDI-II) and Oxford’s happiness Inventory (OHI). The data were analyzed by SPSS-16, Kolmogorov-Smirnov (K-S), chi-squared, and multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA). Results The results showed a significant reduction in the depression of the group on positive psychotherapy compared with the control group. Also the positive psychotherapy group experienced a significant increase in the patients’ happiness, while there was no significant increase in the control group. Conclusion The results of this research showed the effectiveness of positive psychotherapy on the reduction of mental pressure and the improvement of the mental status of breast cancer patients. This economical therapy can be used to increase patients’ psychological health. Clinical Trial Registration The trial was registered at the Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials (IRST) with the identification number IRCT2013101410063N4. Funding The authors received financial support for the research from Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences. PMID:27123227

  6. Combined targeting of high-mobility group box-1 and interleukin-8 to control micrometastasis potential in gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Chung, Hye Won; Jang, Sunphil; Kim, Hoguen; Lim, Jong-Baeck

    2015-10-01

    Micrometastasis is the major cause of treatment failure in gastric cancer (GC). Because epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is considered to develop prior to macroscopic metastasis, EMT-promoting factors may affect micrometastasis. This study aimed to evaluate the role of extracellular high-mobility group box-1 (HMGB1) in EMT and the treatment effect of combined targeting of HMGB1 and interleukin-8 (IL-8) at early-stage GC progression through interrupting EMT promotion. Extracellular HMGB1 was induced by human recombinant HMGB1 and pCMV-SPORT6-HMGB1 plasmid transfection. EMT activation was evaluated by immunoblotting, immunofluorescence and immunohistochemistry. Increased migration/invasion activities were evaluated by in vitro transwell migration/invasion assay using all histological types of human GC cell lines (N87, MKN28 SNU-1 and KATOIII), N87-xenograft BALB/c nude mice and human paired serum-tissue GC samples. HMGB1-induced soluble factors were measured by chemiluminescent immunoassay. Inhibition effects of tumor growth and EMT activation by combined targeting of HMGB1 and IL-8 were evaluated in N87-xenograft nude mice. Serum HMGB1 increases along the GC carcinogenesis and reaches maximum before macroscopic metastasis. Overexpressed extracellular HMGB1 promoted EMT activation and increased cell motility/invasiveness through ligation to receptor for advanced glycation end products. HMGB1-induced IL-8 overexpression contributed the HMGB1-induced EMT in GC in vitro and in vivo. Blocking HMGB1 caused significant reduction of tumor growth, and addition of human recombinant IL-8 rescues this antitumor effects. Our results imply the role of HMGB1 in EMT through IL-8 mediation, and a potential mechanism of GC micrometastasis. Our observations suggest combination strategy of HMGB1 and IL-8 as a promising diagnostic and therapeutic target to control GC micrometastasis. PMID:25821182

  7. Qualitative Inquiry into Church-Based Assets for HIV/AIDS Prevention and Control: A Forum Focus Group Discussion Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aja, Godwin N.; Modeste, Naomi N.; Montgomery, Susanne B.

    2012-01-01

    Assets church members believed they needed to engage in effective HIV/AIDS prevention and control activities. We used the three-step forum focus group discussion (FFGD) methodology to elicit responses from 32 church leaders and lay members, representing five denominations in Aba, Nigeria. Concrete resources, health expertise, finances,…

  8. Support and Control among "Friends" and "Special Friends": Peer Groups' Social Resources as Emotional and Moral Performances amidst Teenagers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korkiamaki, Riikka

    2011-01-01

    Children are often regarded as being supported and controlled by adults, rather than their peer groups. In contrast, drawing on research carried out in Finland, this article considers peers as a resource. Using mainly a 14-year-old's oral narratives, it is shown how the spatial and social context enables and inhibits children's mutual support and…

  9. Understanding the Association between Maltreatment History and Adolescent Risk Behavior by Examining Popularity Motivations and Peer Group Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Wendy E.; Wolfe, David A.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine how peer group processes of pressure and control and individual motivations for popularity would add to, and moderate the relationship between, childhood maltreatment and risky behavior in adolescence. A total of 1558 youth (804 girls) from three high schools in Ontario, Canada (M age = 15.02 years,…

  10. Summary report: Working Group 4 on 'Beam Monitoring, Conditioning, and Control at High Frequencies and Ultrafast Timescales'

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Todd I.

    1999-07-12

    Working Group 4 at the 8th Advanced Accelerator Concepts Workshop (ACC'98), held July 5-11, 1998 in Baltimore, Maryland hosted more than fifteen scheduled or impromptu talks (all punctuated with lively discussion) on the general topic of 'Beam Monitoring, Conditioning, and Control at High Frequencies and Ultrafast Timescales'. This report is a summary of these talks and discussions.

  11. Ohio Arms Control Study Group: Workshop I, June 24-26, 1976, The Ohio State University. Summary of Proceedings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Mershon Center.

    The booklet summarizes proceedings of a conference coordinated by the Ohio Arms Control Study Group (OACSG) on the topic of United States-USSR relations and the influence of nuclear weapons upon international behavior and strategic thought. The OACSG is composed of faculty members from Ohio colleges and universities who have a vocational or…

  12. Identity Development as a Buffer of Adolescent Risk Behaviors in the Context of Peer Group Pressure and Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dumas, Tara M.; Ellis, Wendy E.; Wolfe, David A.

    2012-01-01

    We examined identity development as a moderator of the relation between peer group pressure and control and adolescents' engagement in risk behaviors. Participants (n = 1070; M[subscript age] = 15.45 years) completed a self-report measure of "identity exploration", the degree to which they have explored a variety of self-relevant values, beliefs…

  13. 76 FR 8353 - Positioning Systems Directorate Will Be Hosting an Interface Control Working Group (ICWG) Meeting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-14

    ... Interfaces. This document captures the same interface as ICD-GPS-240 (Navstar GPS Control Segment to User...: 1745510. Address: SAIC Facility*, 300 N. Sepulveda Blvd, El Segundo, CA 90245, 2nd Floor,...

  14. Evaluation of a disease management program for COPD using propensity matched control group

    PubMed Central

    George, Pradeep Paul; Heng, Bee Hoon; Lim, Tow Keang; Abisheganaden, John; Ng, Alan Wei Keong; Lim, Fong Seng

    2016-01-01

    Background Disease management programs (DMPs) have proliferated recently as a means of improving the quality and efficiency of care for patients with chronic illness. These programs include education about disease, optimization of evidence-based medications, information and support from case managers, and institution of self-management principles. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in Singapore and worldwide. DMP aims to reduce mortality, hospitalizations, and average length of stay in such patients. This study assesses the outcomes of the DMP, comparing the propensity score matched DMP patients with controls. Methods DMP patients were compared with the controls, who were COPD patients fulfilling the DMP’s inclusion criteria but not included in the program. Control patients were identified from Operations Data Store (ODS) database. The outcomes of interest were average length of stay, number of days admitted to hospital per 100 person days, readmission, and mortality rates per person year. The risk of death and readmission was estimated using Cox, and competing risk regression respectively. Propensity score was estimated to identify the predictors of DMP enrolment. DMP patients and controls were matched on their propensity score. Results There were 170 matched DMP patients and control patients having 287 and 207 hospitalizations respectively. Program patient had lower mortality than the controls (0.12 vs. 0.27 per person year); cumulative 1-year survival was 91% among program patient and 76% among the control patients. Readmission, and hospital days per 100 person-days was higher for the program patients (0.36 vs. 0.17 per person year), and (2.19 vs. 1.88 per person year) respectively. Conclusions Participation in “DMP” was associated with lower all-cause mortality when compared to the controls. This survival gain in the program patients was paradoxically associated with an increase in readmission rate and

  15. Economic consequences of improved temperature forecasts: An experiment with the Florida citrus growers (an update of control group results)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Braen, C.

    1978-01-01

    The economic experiment, the results obtained to date and the work which still remains to be done are summarized. Specifically, the experiment design is described in detail as are the developed data collection methodology and procedures, sampling plan, data reduction techniques, cost and loss models, establishment of frost severity measures, data obtained from citrus growers, National Weather Service and Federal Crop Insurance Corp. Resulting protection costs and crop losses for the control group sample, extrapolation of results of control group to the Florida citrus industry and the method for normalization of these results to a normal or average frost season so that results may be compared with anticipated similar results from test group measurements are discussed.

  16. Including xpc® feed additive in the diet of inoculated broilers during grow-out helps control salmonella associated with their carcasses after processing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to test XPC® feed additive for control of Salmonella in poultry meat products. Day of hatch broiler chicks were gavaged with 106 cells of a nalidixic acid resistant marker strain of Salmonella Typhimurium and placed on clean pine shavings in 9 separate floor pens (25 ...

  17. Controlled Evaluation of Support Groups for Grandparent Caregivers of Children with Developmental Disabilities and Delays

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCallion, Philip; Janicki, Matthew P.; Kolomer, Stacey R.

    2004-01-01

    There have been growing reports of older women and men caring for their grandchildren and great grandchildren. Many of these grandparents are caring for children with developmental disabilities. To systematically examine the effectiveness of a support group intervention for such grandparents, we recruited 97 grandparents through three agencies in…

  18. Does Family Group Decision Making Affect Child Welfare Outcomes? Findings from a Randomized Control Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berzin, Stephanie Cosner; Cohen, Ed; Thomas, Karen; Dawson, William C.

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the evaluation of two family group decision-making programs administered under the California Title IV-E Waiver Demonstration Project. This is the only evaluation using random assignment to examine FGDM. Overall, results did not indicate more positive outcomes for children receiving the intervention, but did indicate that…

  19. Data-driven identification of group dynamics for motion prediction and control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A distributed model structure for representing groups of coupled dynamic agents is proposed, and the Least Squares method is used for fitting model parameters based on measured position data. The difference equation model embodies a minimalist approach, only incorporating factors essential to the mo...

  20. Control of olefin geometry in macrocyclic ring-closing metathesis using a removable silyl group.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yikai; Jimenez, Miguel; Hansen, Anders S; Raiber, Eun-Ang; Schreiber, Stuart L; Young, Damian W

    2011-06-22

    Introducing a silyl group at one of the internal olefin positions in diolefinic substrates results in E-selective olefin formation in macrocyclic ring-forming metathesis. The application of this method to a range of macrocyclic (E)-alkenylsiloxanes is described. Protodesilylation of alkenylsiloxane products yields novel Z-configured macrocycles.